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Sample records for octanda ochnaceae flowers

  1. Flowers, Beautiful Flowers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Arts: The Art Education Magazine for Teachers, 2005

    2005-01-01

    In the lesson described, the middle school students had been studying the artist Georgia O'Keeffe and the history of her work. Students enhanced their flower portraits by adding a matching border and connecting the lesson to other subject areas. Students dissected a flower and drew a small diagram of the flower and labeled the parts. This is an…

  2. Blob Flowers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canfield, Elaine

    2003-01-01

    Describes an art project called blob flowers in which fifth-grade students created pictures of flowers using watercolor and markers. Explains that the lesson incorporates ideas from art and science. Discusses in detail how the students created their flowers. (CMK)

  3. Flower Development

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Buylla, Elena R.; Benítez, Mariana; Corvera-Poiré, Adriana; Chaos Cador, Álvaro; de Folter, Stefan; Gamboa de Buen, Alicia; Garay-Arroyo, Adriana; García-Ponce, Berenice; Jaimes-Miranda, Fabiola; Pérez-Ruiz, Rigoberto V.; Piñeyro-Nelson, Alma; Sánchez-Corrales, Yara E.

    2010-01-01

    Flowers are the most complex structures of plants. Studies of Arabidopsis thaliana, which has typical eudicot flowers, have been fundamental in advancing the structural and molecular understanding of flower development. The main processes and stages of Arabidopsis flower development are summarized to provide a framework in which to interpret the detailed molecular genetic studies of genes assigned functions during flower development and is extended to recent genomics studies uncovering the key regulatory modules involved. Computational models have been used to study the concerted action and dynamics of the gene regulatory module that underlies patterning of the Arabidopsis inflorescence meristem and specification of the primordial cell types during early stages of flower development. This includes the gene combinations that specify sepal, petal, stamen and carpel identity, and genes that interact with them. As a dynamic gene regulatory network this module has been shown to converge to stable multigenic profiles that depend upon the overall network topology and are thus robust, which can explain the canalization of flower organ determination and the overall conservation of the basic flower plan among eudicots. Comparative and evolutionary approaches derived from Arabidopsis studies pave the way to studying the molecular basis of diverse floral morphologies. PMID:22303253

  4. Flower development.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Buylla, Elena R; Benítez, Mariana; Corvera-Poiré, Adriana; Chaos Cador, Alvaro; de Folter, Stefan; Gamboa de Buen, Alicia; Garay-Arroyo, Adriana; García-Ponce, Berenice; Jaimes-Miranda, Fabiola; Pérez-Ruiz, Rigoberto V; Piñeyro-Nelson, Alma; Sánchez-Corrales, Yara E

    2010-01-01

    Flowers are the most complex structures of plants. Studies of Arabidopsis thaliana, which has typical eudicot flowers, have been fundamental in advancing the structural and molecular understanding of flower development. The main processes and stages of Arabidopsis flower development are summarized to provide a framework in which to interpret the detailed molecular genetic studies of genes assigned functions during flower development and is extended to recent genomics studies uncovering the key regulatory modules involved. Computational models have been used to study the concerted action and dynamics of the gene regulatory module that underlies patterning of the Arabidopsis inflorescence meristem and specification of the primordial cell types during early stages of flower development. This includes the gene combinations that specify sepal, petal, stamen and carpel identity, and genes that interact with them. As a dynamic gene regulatory network this module has been shown to converge to stable multigenic profiles that depend upon the overall network topology and are thus robust, which can explain the canalization of flower organ determination and the overall conservation of the basic flower plan among eudicots. Comparative and evolutionary approaches derived from Arabidopsis studies pave the way to studying the molecular basis of diverse floral morphologies. PMID:22303253

  5. Flowers & Weeds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura C.

    1996-01-01

    Describes the topics and teaching strategies employed in an Issues in Biology course. Discusses flowers, plant breeding, potatoes and tomatoes, the chocolate tree, weeds, Arabidopis, gene transfers, and plant genes/human genes. Contains 22 references. (JRH)

  6. Flowers in Their Variety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura C.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the diversity of flowers with regard to the flower paintings of Pierre-Joseph Redoute, books about flowers, and research in genetic studies. Discusses gardening flowers and flowering strategies and criticizes the fact that biology education has moved steadily away from plants. (KHR)

  7. Design a Hummingbird Flower.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Kim

    2002-01-01

    Presents an activity that engages students in designing and making an artificial flower adapted for pollination by hummingbirds. Students work in teams to design flowers that maximize the benefit from attracting hummingbirds. Examines characteristics of real flowers adapted to pollination by hummingbirds. (DLH)

  8. Stress-induced flowering: the third category of flowering response.

    PubMed

    Takeno, Kiyotoshi

    2016-09-01

    The switch from vegetative growth to reproductive growth, i.e. flowering, is the critical event in a plant's life. Flowering is regulated either autonomously or by environmental factors; photoperiodic flowering, which is regulated by the duration of the day and night periods, and vernalization, which is regulated by low temperature, have been well studied. Additionally, it has become clear that stress also regulates flowering. Diverse stress factors can induce or accelerate flowering, or inhibit or delay it, in a wide range of plant species. This article focuses on the positive regulation of flowering via stress, i.e. the induction or acceleration of flowering in response to stress that is known as stress-induced flowering - a new category of flowering response. This review aims to clarify the concept of stress-induced flowering and to summarize the full range of characteristics of stress-induced flowering from a predominately physiological perspective. PMID:27382113

  9. Say it with flowers

    PubMed Central

    Falik, Omer; Hoffmann, Ishay; Novoplansky, Ariel

    2014-01-01

    The timing of reproduction is a critical determinant of fitness, especially in organisms inhabiting seasonal environments. Increasing evidence suggests that inter-plant communication plays important roles in plant functioning. Here, we tested the hypothesis that flowering coordination can involve communication between neighboring plants. We show that soil leachates from Brassica rapa plants growing under long-day conditions accelerated flowering and decreased allocation to vegetative organs in target plants growing under non-inductive short-day conditions. The results suggest that besides endogenous signaling and external abiotic cues, flowering timing may involve inter-plant communication, mediated by root exudates. The study of flowering communication is expected to illuminate neglected aspects of plant reproductive interactions and to provide novel opportunities for controlling the timing of plant reproduction in agricultural settings. PMID:24598343

  10. Stars and Flowers, Flowers and Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minti, Hari

    2012-12-01

    The author, a graduated from the Bucharest University (1964), actually living and working in Israel, concerns his book to variable stars and flowers, two domains of his interest. The analogies includes double stars, eclipsing double stars, eclipses, Big Bang. The book contains 34 chapters, each of which concerns various relations between astronomy and other sciences and pseudosciences such as Psychology, Religion, Geology, Computers and Astrology (to which the author is not an adherent). A special part of the book is dedicated to archeoastronomy and ethnoastronomy, as well as to history of astronomy. Between the main points of interest of these parts: ancient sanctuaries in Sarmizegetusa (Dacia), Stone Henge(UK) and other. The last chapter of the book is dedicated to flowers. The book is richly illustrated. It is designed for a wide circle of readers.

  11. Novel coloured flowers.

    PubMed

    Mol, J; Cornish, E; Mason, J; Koes, R

    1999-04-01

    The floricultural industry has focused its attention primarily on the development of novel coloured and longer living cut flowers. The basis for this was laid down some years ago through the isolation of 'blue' genes and ethylene biosynthesis genes. Recently, a novel 'blue' gene has been discovered and yellow pigments were produced in petunias by addition of a new branch to the phenylpropanoid pathway. More insight was obtained into the sequestration of anthocyanin pigments into storage vacuoles. Significant progress has been achieved in the commercialisation of genetically modified flower varieties.

  12. Flower scents from the Pacific.

    PubMed

    Joulain, Daniel

    2008-06-01

    For a long time, exotic scents from the islands of the South Pacific have universally been appreciated. Most frequently, fragrant flowers (e.g., frangipani, jasmine sambac, tiaré, pua kenikeni) are used locally for ornamental purposes such as flower garlands (leis). Despite their powerful and delightful fragrance, very few of these flowers have been commercially employed in this part of the world for perfume manufacturing. Creative perfumers are nevertheless strongly interested to better understand these fragrances and to use them, either genuine or artificially reconstituted. Analytical results on the fragrance of these flowers are reported, together with some economical considerations.

  13. Flowers that threaten Funza.

    PubMed

    Kendall, S

    1993-01-01

    Water shortages have resulted from agricultural development in a rural area outside Bogota, Colombia. These shortages have increased women's work load and caused problems in managing households because the water must be boiled before ingestion. In the community of Funza, women must obtain clean water in buckets at night from the main valve, which has insufficient water pressure and a slow stream. Some barrios collect water on a weekly basis. The local restaurant in town obtains water once a week from a tanker; the town is lucky to receive water three times a week. Men assume that women will take care of the problem. The mayor says that the piped water from Bogota will soon be connected and that each barrio will have its own valve. Women are concerned that the supply, even with new valves, will be limited and mixed with dirty lagoon water. Experts are saying that the water shortage and quality problems that began seven years ago will lead to rationing within three to six years. The flower companies, that came to the area 22 years age, are blamed for the water problems. People say that the flower companies have piped clean water from the area's supply in the San Patricia and that underground sources of water have been used up as well. The industry provides jobs and income, which have improved the standard of living, but there is little consideration given to the water supply. The community shifted water sources to the lagoon at a time when the water was being contaminated by sewage and pesticides and chemicals from the flower companies.

  14. Stop and Paint the Flowers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Shelley

    2002-01-01

    Describes an art lesson where students used watercolors to paint a flower bouquet arranged in a vase. Explains that the students viewed examples of flower bouquets by artists such as Vincent van Gogh and Odilon Redon. Discusses, in detail, the process of creating the artworks. (CMK)

  15. Chloroplast retrograde signal regulates flowering.

    PubMed

    Feng, Peiqiang; Guo, Hailong; Chi, Wei; Chai, Xin; Sun, Xuwu; Xu, Xiumei; Ma, Jinfang; Rochaix, Jean-David; Leister, Dario; Wang, Haiyang; Lu, Congming; Zhang, Lixin

    2016-09-20

    Light is a major environmental factor regulating flowering time, thus ensuring reproductive success of higher plants. In contrast to our detailed understanding of light quality and photoperiod mechanisms involved, the molecular basis underlying high light-promoted flowering remains elusive. Here we show that, in Arabidopsis, a chloroplast-derived signal is critical for high light-regulated flowering mediated by the FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC). We also demonstrate that PTM, a PHD transcription factor involved in chloroplast retrograde signaling, perceives such a signal and mediates transcriptional repression of FLC through recruitment of FVE, a component of the histone deacetylase complex. Thus, our data suggest that chloroplasts function as essential sensors of high light to regulate flowering and adaptive responses by triggering nuclear transcriptional changes at the chromatin level. PMID:27601637

  16. Say it with flowers: Flowering acceleration by root communication.

    PubMed

    Falik, Omer; Hoffmann, Ishay; Novoplansky, Ariel

    2014-01-01

    The timing of reproduction is a critical determinant of fitness, especially in organisms inhabiting seasonal environments. Increasing evidence suggests that inter-plant communication plays important roles in plant functioning. Here, we tested the hypothesis that flowering coordination can involve communication between neighboring plants. We show that soil leachates from Brassica rapa plants growing under long-day conditions accelerated flowering and decreased allocation to vegetative organs in target plants growing under non-inductive short-day conditions. The results suggest that besides endogenous signaling and external abiotic cues, flowering timing may involve inter-plant communication, mediated by root exudates. The study of flowering communication is expected to illuminate neglected aspects of plant reproductive interactions and to provide novel opportunities for controlling the timing of plant reproduction in agricultural settings.

  17. Say it with flowers: flowering acceleration by root communication.

    PubMed

    Falik, Omer; Hoffmann, Ishay; Novoplansky, Ariel

    2014-01-01

    The timing of reproduction is a critical determinant of fitness, especially in organisms inhabiting seasonal environments. Increasing evidence suggests that inter-plant communication plays important roles in plant functioning. Here, we tested the hypothesis that flowering coordination can involve communication between neighboring plants. We show that soil leachates from Brassica rapa plants growing under long-day conditions accelerated flowering and decreased allocation to vegetative organs in target plants growing under non-inductive short-day conditions. The results suggest that besides endogenous signaling and external abiotic cues, flowering timing may involve inter-plant communication, mediated by root exudates. The study of flowering communication is expected to illuminate neglected aspects of plant reproductive interactions and to provide novel opportunities for controlling the timing of plant reproduction in agricultural settings.

  18. Say it with flowers: Flowering acceleration by root communication.

    PubMed

    Falik, Omer; Hoffmann, Ishay; Novoplansky, Ariel

    2014-01-01

    The timing of reproduction is a critical determinant of fitness, especially in organisms inhabiting seasonal environments. Increasing evidence suggests that inter-plant communication plays important roles in plant functioning. Here, we tested the hypothesis that flowering coordination can involve communication between neighboring plants. We show that soil leachates from Brassica rapa plants growing under long-day conditions accelerated flowering and decreased allocation to vegetative organs in target plants growing under non-inductive short-day conditions. The results suggest that besides endogenous signaling and external abiotic cues, flowering timing may involve inter-plant communication, mediated by root exudates. The study of flowering communication is expected to illuminate neglected aspects of plant reproductive interactions and to provide novel opportunities for controlling the timing of plant reproduction in agricultural settings. PMID:25764422

  19. Say it with flowers: flowering acceleration by root communication.

    PubMed

    Falik, Omer; Hoffmann, Ishay; Novoplansky, Ariel

    2014-01-01

    The timing of reproduction is a critical determinant of fitness, especially in organisms inhabiting seasonal environments. Increasing evidence suggests that inter-plant communication plays important roles in plant functioning. Here, we tested the hypothesis that flowering coordination can involve communication between neighboring plants. We show that soil leachates from Brassica rapa plants growing under long-day conditions accelerated flowering and decreased allocation to vegetative organs in target plants growing under non-inductive short-day conditions. The results suggest that besides endogenous signaling and external abiotic cues, flowering timing may involve inter-plant communication, mediated by root exudates. The study of flowering communication is expected to illuminate neglected aspects of plant reproductive interactions and to provide novel opportunities for controlling the timing of plant reproduction in agricultural settings. PMID:24598343

  20. [Natural history of flowers and gravity].

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Masamichi; Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Nakamura, Teruko

    2004-06-01

    Many flowers have coevolved with their pollinator animals. Gravity has been one of selection pressure for the evolution of flowers. Gravity rules morphology and other features of flowers in many aspects. Pair matching between the flower and its specific pollinator is one of factors that determine the fitness of both sides. Evolution of flower morphology and its molecular basis are reviewed briefly. Anemophilous flowers are also under the influence of gravity. Shape and other features of entomophilous flowers have been highly diversed. Gravitropic response and its mechanism are summarized. Recent findings on gravitropism and phototropism of pistils and stamens are presented in this article.

  1. Nectarless flowers: ecological correlates and evolutionary stability.

    PubMed

    Thakar, Juilee D; Kunte, Krushnamegh; Chauhan, Anisha K; Watve, Aparna V; Watve, Milind G

    2003-08-01

    In animal-pollinated flowers, the pollinators cannot detect the presence of nectar before entering flowers, and therefore flowers may cheat by not producing nectar. An earlier model suggested that a mixed strategy of producing nectarful and nectarless flowers would be evolutionarily stable. Here we compare nectarless flowers as a cheating strategy with three competing hypotheses namely "visit-more-flowers", "cross-pollination enhancement" and "better contact". We collected field data on 28 species of plants to test some of the differential predictions of the hypotheses. Nectarless flowers were detected in 24 out of 28 plant species. Correlations of percent nectarless flowers with floral and ecological variables support the cheater flower hypothesis. We further model the cost-benefits of cheating and show that an evolutionary stable ratio of nectarless to nectarful flowers can be reached. The equilibrium ratio is mainly decided by factors associated with pollinator density and pollinator learning.

  2. Spirit Has Flower Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this image with its hazard-avoidance camera on sol 86 (March 31, 2004), after the rover's rock abrasion tool had brushed for three minutes on each of six locations on the rock named 'Mazatzal' to create a flower-shaped mosaic.

    The goal for this operation was to create a brushed area big enough for the miniature thermal emission spectrometer to capture within one of its pixels, which are 11 centimeters (4.3 inches) in diameter at the distance between the rock and the instrument. Because the rock abrasion tool creates individual brushed areas only about 5 centimeters (2 inches) in diameter, the team designed this six-location series of tool placements in order to brush 92 percent to 95 percent of the spectrometer's pixel size.

    This operation was only the second time the rock abrasion tool has created a brushing mosaic. The first time was a three-spot brushing on the rock called 'Humphrey.' The brush was originally designed to be used as an aide during full grinding operations, however it has been very effective in brushing the top layer off of dusty martian rocks to allow scientists a multi-depth look into the rocks on Mars.

  3. Recognition of flowers by pollinators.

    PubMed

    Chittka, Lars; Raine, Nigel E

    2006-08-01

    The flowers of angiosperm plants present us with a staggering diversity of signal designs, but how did this diversity evolve? Answering this question requires us to understand how pollinators analyze these signals with their visual and olfactory sense organs, and how the sensory systems work together with post-receptor neural wiring to produce a coherent percept of the world around them. Recent research on the dynamics with which bees store, manage and retrieve memories all have fundamental implications for how pollinators choose between flowers, and in turn for floral evolution. New findings regarding how attention, peak-shift phenomena, and speed-accuracy tradeoffs affect pollinator choice between flower species show that analyzing the evolutionary ecology of signal-receiver relationships can substantially benefit from knowledge about the neural mechanisms of visual and olfactory information processing.

  4. Synchronous Pulsed Flowering: Analysis of the Flowering Phenology in Juncus (Juncaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Michalski, Stefan G.; Durka, Walter

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims The timing of flowering within and among individuals is of fundamental biological importance because of its influence on total seed production and, ultimately, fitness. Traditional descriptive parameters of flowering phenology focus on onset and duration of flowering and on synchrony among individuals. These parameters do not adequately account for variability in flowering across the flowering duration at individual and population level. This study aims to analyse the flowering phenology of wind-pollinated Juncus species that has been described as temporally highly variable (‘pulsed flowering’). Additionally, an attempt is made to identify proximate environmental factors that may cue the flowering, and ultimate causes for the flowering patterns are discussed. Methods Flowering phenology was examined in populations of nine Juncus species by estimating flowering synchrony and by using the coefficient of variation (CV) to describe the temporal variation in flowering on individual and population levels. Phenologies were compared with null models to test which patterns deviate from random flowering. All parameters assessed were compared with each other and the performance of the parameters in response to randomization and varying synchrony was evaluated using a model population. Flowering patterns were correlated with temperature and humidity. Key Results Most flowering patterns of Juncus were best described as synchronous pulsed flowering, characterized as population-wide concerted flowering events separated by days with no or few open flowers. Flowering synchrony and variability differed from a random pattern in most cases. CV values in combination with a measure of synchrony differentiated among flowering patterns found. Synchrony varied among species and was independent from variability in flowering. Neither temperature nor humidity could be determined as potential cues for the flowering pulses. Conclusions The results indicate that selection

  5. Identification of successive flowering phases highlights a new genetic control of the flowering pattern in strawberry

    PubMed Central

    Perrotte, Justine; Guédon, Yann; Gaston, Amèlia; Denoyes, Béatrice

    2016-01-01

    The genetic control of the switch between seasonal and perpetual flowering has been deciphered in various perennial species. However, little is known about the genetic control of the dynamics of perpetual flowering, which changes abruptly at well-defined time instants during the growing season. Here, we characterize the perpetual flowering pattern and identify new genetic controls of this pattern in the cultivated strawberry. Twenty-one perpetual flowering strawberry genotypes were phenotyped at the macroscopic scale for their course of emergence of inflorescences and stolons during the growing season. A longitudinal analysis based on the segmentation of flowering rate profiles using multiple change-point models was conducted. The flowering pattern of perpetual flowering genotypes takes the form of three or four successive phases: an autumn-initiated flowering phase, a flowering pause, and a single stationary perpetual flowering phase or two perpetual flowering phases, the second one being more intense. The genetic control of flowering was analysed by quantitative trait locus mapping of flowering traits based on these flowering phases. We showed that the occurrence of a fourth phase of intense flowering is controlled by a newly identified locus, different from the locus FaPFRU, controlling the switch between seasonal and perpetual flowering behaviour. The role of this locus was validated by the analysis of data obtained previously during six consecutive years. PMID:27664957

  6. Spring Flowers: Harvest of a Sensitive Eye

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Eloise; Levin, Ted

    1978-01-01

    Defining and describing a number of spring flowers, this article includes illustrations and explanations that demonstrate "art and science are born of the same parents". The flowers discussed are skunk cabbage, bellwort, spring beauty, jack-in-the-pulpit, Solomon's seal, wild geranium, showy orchids, moccasin flower, bluets, apple, and Indian…

  7. Flowers and Landscape by Serendipity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pippin, Sandi

    2003-01-01

    Describes an art lesson in which students sketch drawings of flowers and use watercolor paper and other materials to paint a landscape. Explains that the students also learn about impressionism in this lesson. Discusses how the students prepare the paper and create their artwork. (CMK)

  8. Pyrethrum flowers and pyrethroid insecticides.

    PubMed Central

    Casida, J E

    1980-01-01

    The natural pyrethrins from the daisy-like flower, Tanacetum or Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium, are nonpersistent insecticides of low toxicity to mammals. Synthetic analogs or pyrethroids, evolved from the natural compounds by successive isosteric modifications, are more potent and stable and are the newest important class of crop protection chemicals. They retain many of the favorable properties of the pyrethrins. PMID:6993201

  9. Difference in flowering time can initiate speciation of nocturnally flowering species.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Tomotaka; Yasumoto, Akiko A; Nitta, Kozue; Hirota, Shun K; Yahara, Tetsukazu; Tachida, Hidenori

    2015-04-01

    Isolation mechanisms that prevent gene flow between populations prezygotically play important roles in achieving speciation. In flowering plants, the nighttime flowering system provides a mechanism for isolation from diurnally flowering species. Although this system has long been of interest in evolutionary biology, the evolutionary process leading to this system has yet to be elucidated because of the lack of good model species. However, the genetic mechanisms underlying the differences in flowering times and the traits that attract pollinators between a pair of diurnally and nocturnally flowering species have recently been identified in a few cases. This identification enables us to build a realistic model for theoretically studying the evolution of a nocturnally flowering species. In this study, based on previous experimental data, we assumed a model in which two loci control the flowering time and one locus determines a trait that attracts pollinators. Using this model, we evaluated the possibility of the evolution of a nocturnally flowering species from a diurnally flowering ancestor through simulations. We found that a newly emerging nighttime flowering flower exhibited a sufficiently high fitness, and the evolution of a nocturnally flowering species from a diurnally flowering species could be achieved when hybrid viability was intermediate to low, even in a completely sympatric situation. Our results suggest that the difference in flowering time can act as a magic trait that induces both natural selection and assortative mating and would play an important role in speciation between diurnally and nocturnally flowering species pairs. PMID:25665720

  10. Role of cytokinins in carnation flower senescence.

    PubMed

    Eisinger, W

    1977-04-01

    Stem and leaf tissues of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) plants appear to contain a natural antisenescence factor since removal of most of these tissues from cut carnation flowers hastened their senescence. However, kinetin (5-10 mug/ml) significantly delayed senescence of flowers with stem and leaf tissues removed. In addition, the life span of cut flowers with intact (30-cm) stems was increased with kinetin treatment. Peak ethylene production by presenescent flowers was reduced 55% or more with kinetin treatment and was delayed by 1 day. Kinetin-treated flowers were less responsive to applied ethylene (100 mul/l for 3 hours) than untreated flowers. Possible natural roles of cytokinins in carnation flower senescence are discussed.

  11. Daffodil flowers delay senescence in cut Iris flowers.

    PubMed

    van Doorn, Wouter G; Sinz, Andrea; Tomassen, Monic M

    2004-03-01

    Visible symptoms of tepal senescence in cut Iris x hollandica (cv. Blue Magic) flowers were delayed by placing one cut daffodil flower (Narcissus pseudonarcissus, cv. Carlton) in the same vase. Addition of mucilage, exuded by daffodil stems, to the vase water had the same effect as the flowering daffodil stem. The active compound in the mucilage was identified as narciclasine (using LC/MS, GC/MS, 1H and 13C-NMR, and comparison with an authentic sample of narciclasine). The delay of senescence, either by mucilage or purified narciclasine, was correlated with a delayed increase in protease activity, and with a considerable reduction of maximum protease activity. Narciclasine did not affect in vitro protease activity, but is known to inhibit protein synthesis at the ribosomal level. Its effects on senescence and protease activity were similar to those of cycloheximide (CHX), another inhibitor of protein synthesis, but the effective narciclasine concentration was about 100 times lower than that of CHX. It is concluded that the delay of Iris tepal senescence by daffodil stems is due to narciclasine in daffodil mucilage, which apparently inhibits the synthesis of proteins involved in senescence.

  12. Pistillate flowers experience more pollen limitation and less geitonogamy than perfect flowers in a gynomonoecious herb.

    PubMed

    Mamut, Jannathan; Xiong, Ying-Ze; Tan, Dun-Yan; Huang, Shuang-Quan

    2014-01-01

    Gynomonoecy, a sexual system in which plants have both pistillate (female) flowers and perfect (hermaphroditic) flowers, occurs in at least 15 families, but the differential reproductive strategies of the two flower morphs within one individual remain unclear. Racemes of Eremurus anisopterus (Xanthorrhoeaceae) have basal pistillate and distal perfect flowers. To compare sex allocation and reproductive success between the two flower morphs, we measured floral traits, pollinator preferences, and pollen movement in the field. Pollen limitation was more severe in pistillate flowers; bee pollinators preferred to visit perfect flowers, which were also capable of partial self-fertilization. Pollen-staining experiments indicated that perfect flowers received a higher proportion of intra-plant pollen (geitonogamy) than pistillate flowers. Plants with greater numbers of pistillate flowers received more outcross pollen. The differential reproductive success conformed with differential floral sex allocation, in which pistillate flowers produce fewer but larger ovules, resulting in outcrossed seeds. Our flower manipulations in these nectarless gynomonoecious plants demonstrated that perfect flowers promote seed quantity in that they are more attractive to pollinators, while pistillate flowers compensate for the loss of male function through better seed quality. These results are consistent with the outcrossing-benefit hypothesis for gynomonoecy.

  13. Effects of flowering phenology and synchrony on the reproductive success of a long-flowering shrub.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Javier; Traveset, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Flowering phenology and synchrony with biotic and abiotic resources are crucial traits determining the reproductive success in insect-pollinated plants. In seasonal climates, plants flowering for long periods should assure reproductive success when resources are more predictable. In this work, we evaluated the relationship between flowering phenology and synchrony and reproductive success in Hypericum balearicum, a shrub flowering all year round but mainly during spring and summer. We studied two contrasting localities (differing mostly in rainfall) during 3 years, and at different biological scales spanning from localities to individual flowers and fruits. We first monitored (monthly) flowering phenology and reproductive success (fruit and seed set) of plants, and assessed whether in the locality with higher rainfall plants had longer flowering phenology and synchrony and relatively higher reproductive success within or outside the flowering peak. Secondly, we censused pollinators on H. balearicum individuals and measured reproductive success along the flowering peak of each locality to test for an association between (i) richness and abundance of pollinators and (ii) fruit and seed set, and seed weight. We found that most flowers (∼90 %) and the highest fruit set (∼70 %) were produced during the flowering peak of each locality. Contrary to expectations, plants in the locality with lower rainfall showed more relaxed flowering phenology and synchrony and set more fruits outside the flowering peak. During the flowering peak of each locality, the reproductive success of early-flowering individuals depended on a combination of both pollinator richness and abundance and rainfall; by contrast, reproductive success of late-flowering individuals was most dependent on rainfall. Plant species flowering for long periods in seasonal climates, thus, appear to be ideal organisms to understand how flowering phenology and synchrony match with biotic and abiotic resources, and

  14. Effects of flowering phenology and synchrony on the reproductive success of a long-flowering shrub

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Javier; Traveset, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Flowering phenology and synchrony with biotic and abiotic resources are crucial traits determining the reproductive success in insect-pollinated plants. In seasonal climates, plants flowering for long periods should assure reproductive success when resources are more predictable. In this work, we evaluated the relationship between flowering phenology and synchrony and reproductive success in Hypericum balearicum, a shrub flowering all year round but mainly during spring and summer. We studied two contrasting localities (differing mostly in rainfall) during 3 years, and at different biological scales spanning from localities to individual flowers and fruits. We first monitored (monthly) flowering phenology and reproductive success (fruit and seed set) of plants, and assessed whether in the locality with higher rainfall plants had longer flowering phenology and synchrony and relatively higher reproductive success within or outside the flowering peak. Secondly, we censused pollinators on H. balearicum individuals and measured reproductive success along the flowering peak of each locality to test for an association between (i) richness and abundance of pollinators and (ii) fruit and seed set, and seed weight. We found that most flowers (∼90 %) and the highest fruit set (∼70 %) were produced during the flowering peak of each locality. Contrary to expectations, plants in the locality with lower rainfall showed more relaxed flowering phenology and synchrony and set more fruits outside the flowering peak. During the flowering peak of each locality, the reproductive success of early-flowering individuals depended on a combination of both pollinator richness and abundance and rainfall; by contrast, reproductive success of late-flowering individuals was most dependent on rainfall. Plant species flowering for long periods in seasonal climates, thus, appear to be ideal organisms to understand how flowering phenology and synchrony match with biotic and abiotic resources, and

  15. Early flower development in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed Central

    Smyth, D R; Bowman, J L; Meyerowitz, E M

    1990-01-01

    The early development of the flower of Arabidopsis thaliana is described from initiation until the opening of the bud. The morphogenesis, growth rate, and surface structure of floral organs were recorded in detail using scanning electron microscopy. Flower development has been divided into 12 stages using a series of landmark events. Stage 1 begins with the initiation of a floral buttress on the flank of the apical meristem. Stage 2 commences when the flower primordium becomes separate from the meristem. Sepal primordia then arise (stage 3) and grow to overlie the primordium (stage 4). Petal and stamen primordia appear next (stage 5) and are soon enclosed by the sepals (stage 6). During stage 6, petal primordia grow slowly, whereas stamen primordia enlarge more rapidly. Stage 7 begins when the medial stamens become stalked. These soon develop locules (stage 8). A long stage 9 then commences with the petal primordia becoming stalked. During this stage all organs lengthen rapidly. This includes the gynoecium, which commences growth as an open-ended tube during stage 6. When the petals reach the length of the lateral stamens, stage 10 begins. Stigmatic papillae appear soon after (stage 11), and the petals rapidly reach the height of the medial stamens (stage 12). This final stage ends when the 1-millimeter-long bud opens. Under our growing conditions 1.9 buds were initiated per day on average, and they took 13.25 days to progress through the 12 stages from initiation until opening. PMID:2152125

  16. Flower colour adaptation in a mimetic orchid

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Ethan; Anderson, Bruce; Johnson, Steven D.

    2012-01-01

    Although the tremendous variability in floral colour among angiosperms is often attributed to divergent selection by pollinators, it is usually difficult to preclude the possibility that floral colour shifts were driven by non-pollinator processes. Here, we examine the adaptive significance of flower colour in Disa ferruginea, a non-rewarding orchid that is thought to attract its butterfly pollinator by mimicking the flowers of sympatric nectar-producing species. Disa ferruginea has red flowers in the western part of its range and orange flowers in the eastern part—a colour shift that we hypothesized to be the outcome of selection for resemblance to different local nectar-producing plants. Using reciprocal translocations of red and orange phenotypes as well as arrays of artificial flowers, we found that the butterfly Aeropetes tulbaghia, the only pollinator of the orchid, preferred both the red phenotype and red artificial flowers in the west where its main nectar plant also has red flowers, and both the orange phenotype and orange artificial flowers in the east, where its main nectar plant has orange flowers. This phenotype by environment interaction demonstrates that the flower colour shift in D. ferruginea is adaptive and driven by local colour preference in its pollinator. PMID:22298842

  17. Flower colour adaptation in a mimetic orchid.

    PubMed

    Newman, Ethan; Anderson, Bruce; Johnson, Steven D

    2012-06-22

    Although the tremendous variability in floral colour among angiosperms is often attributed to divergent selection by pollinators, it is usually difficult to preclude the possibility that floral colour shifts were driven by non-pollinator processes. Here, we examine the adaptive significance of flower colour in Disa ferruginea, a non-rewarding orchid that is thought to attract its butterfly pollinator by mimicking the flowers of sympatric nectar-producing species. Disa ferruginea has red flowers in the western part of its range and orange flowers in the eastern part--a colour shift that we hypothesized to be the outcome of selection for resemblance to different local nectar-producing plants. Using reciprocal translocations of red and orange phenotypes as well as arrays of artificial flowers, we found that the butterfly Aeropetes tulbaghia, the only pollinator of the orchid, preferred both the red phenotype and red artificial flowers in the west where its main nectar plant also has red flowers, and both the orange phenotype and orange artificial flowers in the east, where its main nectar plant has orange flowers. This phenotype by environment interaction demonstrates that the flower colour shift in D. ferruginea is adaptive and driven by local colour preference in its pollinator.

  18. Flower size and longevity influence florivory in the large-flowered shrub Cistus ladanifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixido, Alberto L.; Méndez, Marcos; Valladares, Fernando

    2011-09-01

    Plants with larger and longer-lived flowers receive more pollinator visits and increase reproductive success, though may also suffer more from antagonistic interactions with animals. Florivores can reduce fruit and seed production, so selection on flower size, floral longevity and/or number of flowers may thus be determined by the relative effects of both pollinators and florivores. In this study flowers of Cistus ladanifer, a large-flowered Mediterranean shrub, were monitored to evaluate the effects of flower size, floral longevity and number of flowers on levels of florivory in four populations. Number of flowers was variable but did not differ among populations. Both flower size and floral longevity of C. ladanifer showed broad variation and significantly differed among populations. Overall, 7% of flowers suffered attack by florivores, which were mainly ants picking the stamens and beetles consuming petals and pollen. Within-populations, larger and longer-lived flowers tended to be affected by florivores more frequently. The low overall incidence of florivores and its lack of between-population variation suggest that florivory may not influence intraspecific variation of these floral traits. However, moderate florivory levels on the largest and longest-lived flowers open the possibility of exerting selection towards smaller and shorter-lived flowers in some of the populations studied.

  19. Flower, fruit phenology and flower traits in Cordia boissieri (Boraginaceae) from northeastern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Adriano, Cristian Adrian; Jurado, Enrique; Flores, Joel; González-Rodríguez, Humberto; Cuéllar-Rodríguez, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    We characterized variations in Cordia boissieri flowers and established if these variations occur between plants or between flowering events. Flowering and fruiting was measured for 256 plants. A GLM test was used to determine the relationship between flowering and fruit set processes and rainfall. We performed measurements of floral traits to detect variations within the population and between flowering events. The position of the anthers with respect to the ovary was determined in 1,500 flowers. Three out of four flowering events of >80% C. boissieri plants occurred after rainfall events. Only one flowering event occurred in a drought. Most plants flowered at least twice a year. The overlapping of flowering and fruiting only occurred after rainfall. Anthesis lasted three-to-five days, and there were two flower morphs. Half of the plants had longistylus and half had brevistylus flowers. Anacahuita flower in our study had 1-4 styles; 2-9 stamens; 6.5-41.5 mm long corolla; sepals from 4.5-29.5 mm in length; a total length from 15.5-59 mm; a corolla diameter from 10.5-77 mm. The nectar guide had a diameter from 5-30.5 mm; 4-9 lobes; and 5 distinguishable nectar guide colors. The highest variation of phenotypic expression was observed between plants. PMID:27231656

  20. Male flowers are better fathers than hermaphroditic flowers in andromonoecious Passiflora incarnata.

    PubMed

    Dai, Can; Galloway, Laura F

    2012-02-01

    • The diversity of plant breeding systems provides the opportunity to study a range of potential reproductive adaptations. Many mechanisms remain poorly understood, among them the evolution and maintenance of male flowers in andromonoecy. Here, we studied the role of morphologically male flowers ('male morph') in andromonoecious Passiflora incarnata. • We measured morphological differences between hermaphroditic and male morph flowers in P. incarnata and explored the fruiting and siring ability of both flower types. • Male morph flowers in P. incarnata were of similar size to hermaphroditic flowers, and there was little evidence of different resource allocation to the two flower types. Male morph flowers were less capable of producing fruit, even under ample pollen and resource conditions. By contrast, male morph flowers were more successful in siring seeds. On average, male morph flowers sired twice as many seeds as hermaphroditic flowers. This difference in male fitness was driven by higher pollen export from male morph flowers as a result of greater pollen production and less self-pollen deposition. • The production of male morph flowers in P. incarnata appears to be a flexible adaptive mechanism to enhance male fitness, which might be especially beneficial when plants face temporary resource shortages for nurturing additional fruits.

  1. Flower, fruit phenology and flower traits in Cordia boissieri (Boraginaceae) from northeastern Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Adriano, Cristian Adrian; Flores, Joel; González-Rodríguez, Humberto; Cuéllar-Rodríguez, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    We characterized variations in Cordia boissieri flowers and established if these variations occur between plants or between flowering events. Flowering and fruiting was measured for 256 plants. A GLM test was used to determine the relationship between flowering and fruit set processes and rainfall. We performed measurements of floral traits to detect variations within the population and between flowering events. The position of the anthers with respect to the ovary was determined in 1,500 flowers. Three out of four flowering events of >80% C. boissieri plants occurred after rainfall events. Only one flowering event occurred in a drought. Most plants flowered at least twice a year. The overlapping of flowering and fruiting only occurred after rainfall. Anthesis lasted three-to-five days, and there were two flower morphs. Half of the plants had longistylus and half had brevistylus flowers. Anacahuita flower in our study had 1–4 styles; 2–9 stamens; 6.5–41.5 mm long corolla; sepals from 4.5–29.5 mm in length; a total length from 15.5–59 mm; a corolla diameter from 10.5–77 mm. The nectar guide had a diameter from 5–30.5 mm; 4–9 lobes; and 5 distinguishable nectar guide colors. The highest variation of phenotypic expression was observed between plants. PMID:27231656

  2. Isolation of Flower-inducing and Flower-inhibitory Factors from Aphid Honeydew.

    PubMed

    Cleland, C F

    1974-12-01

    The aphid Dactynotus ambrosiae Thomas has been allowed to feed on vegetative or flowering plants of the short-day plant Xanthium strumarium L., and the honeydew which they produce is extracted and tested for an effect on flowering using the long-day plant Lemna gibba L., strain G3 for the bioassay. One zone of flower-inducing activity and at least two zones of flower-inhibitory activity are consistently obtained from the honeydew extracts. The levels of flower-inducing and flower-inhibitory activity are not demonstrably different in vegetative and flowering honeydew. The honeydew extracts are inactive on Xanthium but do give some flower induction with the short-day plant Lemna perpusilla Torr., strain 6746. The flower-inducing activity is clearly of plant origin and is present in the phloem since the same active material can be obtained from vegetative or flowering Xanthium by methanol extraction, and honeydew produced by aphids feeding on a chemically defined synthetic diet is completely without flower-inducing activity. This is the first report of successful flower induction in the long-day plant L. gibba G3 by some means other than long-day treatment.

  3. The breath of a flower

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    In this article I comment on our findings that floral carbon dioxide (CO2) can be used by Manduca sexta hawkmoths in a scale- and context-dependent fashion. We firstly found, in wind tunnel assays, that diffusing floral CO2 is used as long-distance cue (e.g., meters). Moths track CO2 plumes up-wind in the same manner they track floral odors. Nevertheless, CO2 did not appear to function as a local stimulus for flower probing, evidencing a scale-dependent role in nectar foraging. These results were further enriched by a second finding. In dual choice assays, where moths were offered two scented artificial flowers of which only one emitted above-ambient CO2-levels, female Manduca sexta chose to feed on the CO2 emitting flower only when host-plant volatiles were added to the background. We discuss this apparent measurement of oviposition obligations during foraging in the context of the life histories of both insect and plant species. These findings seem to pinpoint the usually artificial nature of compartmentalizing herbivory and pollination as different, isolated aspects of insect-plant interactions. Insects do not seem to have a defined response to a certain stimulus; instead, motor programs appear to be in response to composite arrangements of external stimuli and inner states. If animal-plant interactions have evolved under these premises, I believe it may prove beneficial to include a non-linear, integrative view of plant multi-signaling and life history aspects into the study of pollination biology. PMID:19513201

  4. North Dakota ''Flower Power'' project

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, J.; Aakre, P.; Derry, J.

    1982-05-01

    Flower Power Inc. was set up to study the long term effects of blends of sunflower oil and diesel fuel on engine components. Tests to date have indicated that farm diesel tractors can be operated on blends of up to 50% sunflower oil and diesel fuel but that its continued use would appear to cause premature engine problems. While the results of the tests are encouraging, use of sunflower oil as a fuel is not yet recommended. Continued long term testing is needed to evaluate the performance of sunflower oil-diesel blends.

  5. Shedding light on flower development

    PubMed Central

    Foreman, Julia; White, James N; Graham, Ian A; Halliday, Karen J

    2011-01-01

    Accurate development of the gynoecium, the female reproductive organ, is necessary to achieve efficient fertilization. In Arabidopsis, the correct patterning of the apical-basal axis of the gynoecium requires the establishment of a morphogenic gradient of auxin. This allows the production of specialized tissues, whose roles consist of attracting pollen, allowing pollen tube growth and protecting the ovules within the ovaries. Mutations in the bHLH transcription factor SPATULA (SPT) are known to impair the development of the apical tissues of the gynoecium. Here, we show that the spt phenotype is rescued by the removal of phytochrome B, and discuss how light signaling may control flower development. PMID:21364315

  6. Scent glands in legume flowers.

    PubMed

    Marinho, C R; Souza, C D; Barros, T C; Teixeira, S P

    2014-01-01

    Scent glands, or osmophores, are predominantly floral secretory structures that secrete volatile substances during anthesis, and therefore act in interactions with pollinators. The Leguminosae family, despite being the third largest angiosperm family, with a wide geographical distribution and diversity of habits, morphology and pollinators, has been ignored with respect to these glands. Thus, we localised and characterised the sites of fragrance production and release in flowers of legumes, in which scent plays an important role in pollination, and also tested whether there are relationships between the structure of the scent gland and the pollinator habit: diurnal or nocturnal. Flowers in pre-anthesis and anthesis of 12 legume species were collected and analysed using immersion in neutral red, olfactory tests and anatomical studies (light and scanning electron microscopy). The main production site of floral scent is the perianth, especially the petals. The scent glands are distributed in a restricted way in Caesalpinia pulcherrima, Anadenanthera peregrina, Inga edulis and Parkia pendula, constituting mesophilic osmophores, and in a diffuse way in Bauhinia rufa, Hymenaea courbaril, Erythrostemon gilliesii, Poincianella pluviosa, Pterodon pubescens, Platycyamus regnellii, Mucuna urens and Tipuana tipu. The glands are comprised of cells of the epidermis and mesophyll that secrete mainly terpenes, nitrogen compounds and phenols. Relationships between the presence of osmophores and type of anthesis (diurnal and nocturnal) and the pollinator were not found. Our data on scent glands in Leguminosae are original and detail the type of diffuse release, which has been very poorly studied. PMID:23574349

  7. Delayed flowering and global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, B. I.; Wolkovich, E. M.; Parmesan, C.

    2011-12-01

    Within general trends toward earlier spring, observed cases of species and ecosystems that have not advanced their phenology, or have even delayed it, appear paradoxical, especially when made in temperate regions experiencing significant warming. The typical interpretation of this pattern has been that non-responders are insensitive to relatively small levels of warming over the past 40 years, while species showing delays are often viewed as statistical noise or evidence for unknown confounding factors at play. However, plant physiology studies suggest that when winter chilling (vernalization) is required to initiate spring development, winter warming may retard spring events, masking expected advances caused by spring warming. Here, we analyzed long-term data on phenology and seasonal temperatures from 490 species on two continents and demonstrate that 1) apparent non-responders are indeed responding to warming, but their responses to winter and spring warming are opposite in sign, 2) observed trends in first flowering date depend strongly on the magnitude of a given species' response to autumn/winter versus spring warming, and 3) inclusion of these effects strongly improves hindcast predictions of long-term flowering trends. With a few notable exceptions, climate change research has focused on the overall mean trend towards phenological advance, minimizing discussion of apparently non-responding species. Our results illuminate an under-studied source of complexity in wild species responses and support the need for models incorporating diverse environmental cues in order to improve predictability of species responses to anthropogenic climate change.

  8. Postharvest: Cut flowers and potted plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the past fifty years, the cut flower market has changed dramatically, from a local market with growers located on city outskirts, to a global one; flowers and cut foliage sourced from throughout the world are sold as bunches or combined into arrangements and bouquets in the major target markets. ...

  9. Susceptibility of blackberry flowers to freezing temperatures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Injury of tight buds, open flowers and green fruit often occur in fruit crops during spring frost events. In this study, freezing tolerance of ‘Triple Crown’ blackberry flowers at different reproductive stages of development (tight bud to green drupe) was determined using two methods. One method i...

  10. Analysis of soybean flowering-time genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Control of soybean flowering time is important for geographic adaptation, and maximizing yield. RT-PCR analysis was performed using primers synthesized for a number of putative flowering-time genes based on homology of soybean EST and genomic sequences to Arabidopsis genes. RNA for cDNA synthesis ...

  11. Genetic control of flowering time in legumes

    PubMed Central

    Weller, James L.; Ortega, Raúl

    2015-01-01

    The timing of flowering, and in particular the degree to which it is responsive to the environment, is a key factor in the adaptation of a given species to various eco-geographic locations and agricultural practices. Flowering time variation has been documented in many crop legumes, and selection for specific variants has permitted significant expansion and improvement in cultivation, from prehistoric times to the present day. Recent advances in legume genomics have accelerated the process of gene identification and functional analysis, and opened up new prospects for a molecular understanding of flowering time adaptation in this important crop group. Within the legumes, two species have been prominent in flowering time studies; the vernalization-responsive long-day species pea (Pisum sativum) and the warm-season short-day plant soybean (Glycine max). Analysis of flowering in these species is now being complemented by reverse genetics capabilities in the model legumes Medicago truncatula and Lotus japonicus, and the emergence of genome-scale resources in a range of other legumes. This review will outline the insights gained from detailed forward genetic analysis of flowering time in pea and soybean, highlighting the importance of light perception, the circadian clock and the FT family of flowering integrators. It discusses the current state of knowledge on genetic mechanisms for photoperiod and vernalization response, and concludes with a broader discussion of flowering time adaptation across legumes generally. PMID:25914700

  12. Meta-analysis of phenotypic selection on flowering phenology suggests that early flowering plants are favoured.

    PubMed

    Munguía-Rosas, Miguel A; Ollerton, Jeff; Parra-Tabla, Victor; De-Nova, J Arturo

    2011-05-01

    Flowering times of plants are important life-history components and it has previously been hypothesized that flowering phenologies may be currently subject to natural selection or be selectively neutral. In this study we reviewed the evidence for phenotypic selection acting on flowering phenology using ordinary and phylogenetic meta-analysis. Phenotypic selection exists when a phenotypic trait co-varies with fitness; therefore, we looked for studies reporting an association between two components of flowering phenology (flowering time or flowering synchrony) with fitness. Data sets comprising 87 and 18 plant species were then used to assess the incidence and strength of phenotypic selection on flowering time and flowering synchrony, respectively. The influence of dependence on pollinators, the duration of the reproductive event, latitude and plant longevity as moderators of selection were also explored. Our results suggest that selection favours early flowering plants, but the strength of selection is influenced by latitude, with selection being stronger in temperate environments. However, there is no consistent pattern of selection on flowering synchrony. Our study demonstrates that phenotypic selection on flowering time is consistent and relatively strong, in contrast to previous hypotheses of selective neutrality, and has implications for the evolution of temperate floras under global climate change. PMID:21332621

  13. Chemical Compositionand Anti-acetyl cholinesterase Activity of Flower Essential Oils of Artemisiaannuaat Different Flowering Stage

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zhengwen; Wang, Bochu; Yang, Fumei; Sun, Qianyun; Yang, Zhannan; Zhu, Liancai

    2011-01-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils of flower at the pre-flowering, full-flowering and post-flowering stage of A. annua was analyzed by GC and GC/MS and sixty-two components were identified. The main compounds in the pre-flowering oil were β-myrcene (37.71%), 1, 8-cineole (16.11%) and camphor (14.97%). The full-flowering oil contained predominantly caryophyllene (19.4%), germacrene D (18.1%), camphor (15.84%), 1, 8-cineole (10.6%) and (Z)-β-farnesene (9.43%). The major constituents identified in the post-flowering oil were camphor (16.62%), caryophyllene (16.27%), β-caryophyllene oxide (15.84%), β-farnesene (9.05%) and (-)-spathulenol (7.21%). The variety of anti-AChE activity of flower oil of A. annua at three flowering stage might be a result of the variety of the content and interaction of those terpenoids with anti-AChE activity. The greatest acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity (IC50 = 0.13 ± 0.02 mg mL-1) was exhibited by the essential oil of flower of A. annua at post-flowering stage. PMID:24250353

  14. Flower development: initiation, differentiation, and diversification.

    PubMed

    Zik, Moriyah; Irish, Vivian F

    2003-01-01

    Flowering is one of the most intensively studied processes in plant development. Despite the wide diversity in floral forms, flowers have a simple stereotypical architecture. Flowers develop from florally determined meristems. These small populations of cells proliferate to form the floral organs, including the sterile outer organs, the sepals and petals, and the inner reproductive organs, the stamens and carpels. In the past decade, analyses of key flowering genes have been carried out primarily in Arabidopsis and have provided a foundation for understanding the underlying molecular genetic mechanisms controlling different aspects of floral development. Such studies have illuminated the transcriptional cascades responsible for the regulation of these key genes, as well as how these genes effect their functions. In turn, these studies have resulted in the refinement of the original ideas of how flowers develop and have indicated the gaps in our knowledge that need to be addressed.

  15. Mineral and metabolic profiles in tea leaves and flowers during flower development.

    PubMed

    Jia, Sisi; Wang, Yu; Hu, Jianhui; Ding, Zhaotang; Liang, Qing; Zhang, Yinfei; Wang, Hui

    2016-09-01

    Tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] is one of the most popular non-alcoholic beverage crops in the world, and the physiological processes and gene regulations involved in development in tea plants have been well characterized. However, relatively little is known about the metabolic changes combined with mineral distributions that occur during flower development. Here we detected the contents of 11 elements in tea leaves and flowers and found that, some of them, especially phosphorus, sulfur and copper, showed significant changes during tea flowering. We also detected 122 metabolites in tea leaves and flowers and found that, 72 of them showed significant differences between flowers and leaves, of which sugars, organic acids, and flavonoids dominated. The sugars, such as trehalose and galactose, all accumulated in tea flowers, and the organic acids, such as malic acid, citric acid and fumaric acid involved in TCA cycle. The flavonoids, like epicatechin, catechin gallate and epigallocatechin, were more abundant in leaves. Furthermore, we found that the contents of 33 metabolites changed during the development of flowers. Especially, citric acid, phenylalanine and most flavonoids decreased while fructose and galactose increased during flowering stages in flowers. We also analyzed the correlations between the ions and metabolites and found that, some mineral nutrients including phosphorus, sulfur, manganese and zinc had close relations to organic acids, flavonoids, sugars and several amino acids during flowering. We mapped the metabolic pathway according to the KEGG database. This work will serve as the foundation for a systems biology approach to the understanding of mineral metabolism.

  16. Flowering phenology in subalpine meadows: does climate variation influence community co-flowering patterns?

    PubMed

    Forrest, Jessica; Inouye, David W; Thomson, James D

    2010-02-01

    Climate change is expected to alter patterns of species co-occurrence, in both space and time. Species-specific shifts in reproductive phenology may alter the assemblages of plant species in flower at any given time during the growing season. Temporal overlap in the flowering periods (co-flowering) of animal-pollinated species may influence reproductive success if competitive or facilitative interactions between plant species affect pollinator services. We used a 33-year data set on flowering phenology in subalpine meadows in Colorado, USA, to determine whether interannual variation in snowmelt date, which marks the start of the growing season, affected co-flowering patterns. For two of four species considered, we found a significant relationship between snowmelt timing and composition of the assemblage of co-flowering plants. In years of early snowmelt, Lathyrus lanszwertii var. leucanthus (Fabaceae), the species we investigated in most detail, tended to overlap with earlier-flowering species and with fewer species overall. In particular, overlap with the flowering period of Lupinus polyphyllus var. prunophilus, with which Lathyrus leucanthus shares pollinators, was significantly reduced in early-snowmelt years. The observed association between timing of snowmelt and patterns of flowering overlap could not have been predicted simply by examining temporal trends in the dates of peak flowering of the dominant species in the community, as peak flowering dates have largely shifted in parallel with respect to snowmelt date. However, subtle interspecific differences in responsiveness of flowering time, duration, and intensity to interannual climate variation have likely contributed to the observed relationship. Although much of the year-to-year variation in flowering overlap remains unexplained by snowmelt date, our finding of a measurable signal of climate variation suggests that future climate change may lead to altered competitive environments for these wildflower

  17. Flower opening and closure: an update.

    PubMed

    van Doorn, Wouter G; Kamdee, Chanattika

    2014-11-01

    This review is an update of a 2003 review (Journal of Experimental Botany 54,1801-1812) by the same corresponding author. Many examples of flower opening have been recorded using time-lapse photography, showing its velocity and the required elongation growth. Ethylene regulates flower opening, together with at least gibberellins and auxin. Ethylene and gibberellic acid often promote and inhibit, respectively, the expression of DELLA genes and the stability of DELLA proteins. DELLA results in growth inhibition. Both hormones also inhibited and promoted, respectively, the expression of aquaporin genes required for cell elongation. Arabidopsis miRNA319a mutants exhibited narrow and short petals, whereby miRNA319a indirectly regulates auxin effects. Flower opening in roses was controlled by a NAC transcription factor, acting through miRNA164. The regulatory role of light and temperature, in interaction with the circadian clock, has been further elucidated. The end of the life span in many flowers is determined by floral closure. In some species pollination resulted in earlier closure of turgid flowers, compared with unpollinated flowers. It is hypothesized that this pollination-induced effect is only found in flowers in which closure is regulated by ethylene.

  18. Flower opening and closure: an update.

    PubMed

    van Doorn, Wouter G; Kamdee, Chanattika

    2014-11-01

    This review is an update of a 2003 review (Journal of Experimental Botany 54,1801-1812) by the same corresponding author. Many examples of flower opening have been recorded using time-lapse photography, showing its velocity and the required elongation growth. Ethylene regulates flower opening, together with at least gibberellins and auxin. Ethylene and gibberellic acid often promote and inhibit, respectively, the expression of DELLA genes and the stability of DELLA proteins. DELLA results in growth inhibition. Both hormones also inhibited and promoted, respectively, the expression of aquaporin genes required for cell elongation. Arabidopsis miRNA319a mutants exhibited narrow and short petals, whereby miRNA319a indirectly regulates auxin effects. Flower opening in roses was controlled by a NAC transcription factor, acting through miRNA164. The regulatory role of light and temperature, in interaction with the circadian clock, has been further elucidated. The end of the life span in many flowers is determined by floral closure. In some species pollination resulted in earlier closure of turgid flowers, compared with unpollinated flowers. It is hypothesized that this pollination-induced effect is only found in flowers in which closure is regulated by ethylene. PMID:25135521

  19. Photoperiodic flowering regulation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Golembeski, Greg S.; Kinmonth-Schultz, Hannah A.; Song, Young Hun; Imaizumi, Takato

    2015-01-01

    Photoperiod, or the duration of light in a given day, is a critical cue that flowering plants utilize to effectively assess seasonal information and coordinate their reproductive development in synchrony with the external environment. The use of the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, has greatly improved our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that determine how plants process and utilize photoperiodic information to coordinate a flowering response. This mechanism is typified by the transcriptional activation of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene by the transcription factor CONSTANS (CO) under inductive long-day conditions in Arabidopsis. FT protein then moves from the leaves to the shoot apex, where floral meristem development can be initiated. As a point of integration from a variety of environmental factors in the context of a larger system of regulatory pathways that affect flowering, the importance of photoreceptors and the circadian clock in CO regulation throughout the day has been a key feature of the photoperiodic flowering pathway. In addition to these established mechanisms, the recent discovery of a photosynthate derivative trehalose-6-phosphate as an activator of FT in leaves has interesting implications for the involvement of photosynthesis in the photoperiodic flowering response that were suggested from previous physiological experiments in flowering induction. PMID:25684830

  20. Ubiquitination in the control of photoperiodic flowering.

    PubMed

    Piñeiro, Manuel; Jarillo, José A

    2013-01-01

    Triggering flowering at the appropriate time is a key factor for the successful reproduction of plants. Daylength perception allows plants to synchronize flowering with seasonal changes, a process systematically analyzed in the model species Arabidopsis thaliana. Characterization of molecular components that participate in the photoperiodic control of floral induction has revealed that photoreceptors and the circadian oscillator interact in a complex manner to modulate the floral transition in response to daylength and in fact, photoperiodic flowering can be regarded as an output pathway of the circadian oscillator. Recent observations indicate that besides transcriptional regulation, the promotion of flowering in response to photoperiod appears to be also regulated by modulation of protein stability and degradation. Therefore, the ubiquitin/26S proteasome system for targeted protein degradation has emerged as a key element in photoperiodic flowering regulation. Different E3 ubiquitin ligases are involved in the proteolysis of a variety of photoperiod-regulated pathway components including photoreceptors, clock elements and flowering time proteins, all of which participate in the control of this developmental process. Given the large variety of plant ubiquitin ligase complexes, it is likely that new factors involved in mechanisms of protein-targeted degradation will soon be ascribed to various aspects of flowering time control.

  1. "Say it...near the flower shop": further evidence of the effect of flowers on mating.

    PubMed

    Guéguen, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    For millennia, flowers have been used to convey romance. In this study, 18-25-year-old women (N = 600) walking alone in a shopping mall were approached by an attractive 20-year-old male-confederate who solicited them for their phone number. The women were solicited as they were walking in the area of a flower shop, a cake shop, or a women's shoes shop. It was found that women agreed more favorably to the confederate's courtship solicitation when solicited in the area of the flower shop. Positive mood induced by exposure to flowers was used to explain these results.

  2. "Say it...near the flower shop": further evidence of the effect of flowers on mating.

    PubMed

    Guéguen, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    For millennia, flowers have been used to convey romance. In this study, 18-25-year-old women (N = 600) walking alone in a shopping mall were approached by an attractive 20-year-old male-confederate who solicited them for their phone number. The women were solicited as they were walking in the area of a flower shop, a cake shop, or a women's shoes shop. It was found that women agreed more favorably to the confederate's courtship solicitation when solicited in the area of the flower shop. Positive mood induced by exposure to flowers was used to explain these results. PMID:22930994

  3. The evolutionary root of flowering plants.

    PubMed

    Goremykin, Vadim V; Nikiforova, Svetlana V; Biggs, Patrick J; Zhong, Bojian; Delange, Peter; Martin, William; Woetzel, Stefan; Atherton, Robin A; McLenachan, Patricia A; Lockhart, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Correct rooting of the angiosperm radiation is both challenging and necessary for understanding the origins and evolution of physiological and phenotypic traits in flowering plants. The problem is known to be difficult due to the large genetic distance separating flowering plants from other seed plants and the sparse taxon sampling among basal angiosperms. Here, we provide further evidence for concern over substitution model misspecification in analyses of chloroplast DNA sequences. We show that support for Amborella as the sole representative of the most basal angiosperm lineage is founded on sequence site patterns poorly described by time-reversible substitution models. Improving the fit between sequence data and substitution model identifies Trithuria, Nymphaeaceae, and Amborella as surviving relatives of the most basal lineage of flowering plants. This finding indicates that aquatic and herbaceous species dominate the earliest extant lineage of flowering plants. [; ; ; ; ; .].

  4. The evolutionary root of flowering plants.

    PubMed

    Goremykin, Vadim V; Nikiforova, Svetlana V; Biggs, Patrick J; Zhong, Bojian; Delange, Peter; Martin, William; Woetzel, Stefan; Atherton, Robin A; McLenachan, Patricia A; Lockhart, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Correct rooting of the angiosperm radiation is both challenging and necessary for understanding the origins and evolution of physiological and phenotypic traits in flowering plants. The problem is known to be difficult due to the large genetic distance separating flowering plants from other seed plants and the sparse taxon sampling among basal angiosperms. Here, we provide further evidence for concern over substitution model misspecification in analyses of chloroplast DNA sequences. We show that support for Amborella as the sole representative of the most basal angiosperm lineage is founded on sequence site patterns poorly described by time-reversible substitution models. Improving the fit between sequence data and substitution model identifies Trithuria, Nymphaeaceae, and Amborella as surviving relatives of the most basal lineage of flowering plants. This finding indicates that aquatic and herbaceous species dominate the earliest extant lineage of flowering plants. [; ; ; ; ; .]. PMID:22851550

  5. Supercooling in Overwintering Azalea Flower Buds 1

    PubMed Central

    George, Milon F.; Burke, Michael J.; Weiser, Conrad J.

    1974-01-01

    Differential thermal analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy experiments on whole flower buds and excised floral primordia of azalea (Rhododendron kosterianum, Schneid.) proved that supercooling is the mode of freezing resistance (avoidance) of azalea flower primordia. Increase in the linewidth of nuclear magnetic resonance spectra for water upon thawing supports the view that injury to the primordia occurs at the moment of freezing. Nonliving primordia freeze at the same temperatures as living primordia, indicating that morphological features of primordial tissues are a key factor in freezing avoidance of dormant azalea flower primordia. Differential thermal analyses was used to study the relationship of cooling rate to the freezing points of floral primordia in whole flower buds. At a cooling rate of 8.5 C per hour, primordia in whole buds froze at about the same subfreezing temperatures as did excised primordia cooled at 37 C per hour. At more rapid cooling rates primordia in intact buds froze at higher temperatures. PMID:16658832

  6. Why Is a Flower Five-Petaled?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishiyama, Yutaka

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines why many flowers are five-petaled through the use of a five-petaled model that draws insights from the location of cell clusters at a shoot apex, rather than by way of the Fibonacci sequence or the golden ratio as in the past. The conclusion drawn is that flowers are most likely to be five-petaled, followed by six-petaled;…

  7. Synchrony in the phenology of a culturally iconic spring flower.

    PubMed

    Sparks, Tim H; Mizera, Tadeusz; Wójtowicz, Wanda; Tryjanowski, Piotr

    2012-03-01

    We examine the flowering phenology of the cultural iconic Spring Snowflake Leucojum vernum, a considerable tourist attraction, recorded from two sites in western Poland. Flowering dates at the two sites were closely correlated but about 6 days later at the more natural area. The end of flowering was associated with the start of canopy leafing. Early flowering was related to a longer flowering season which may benefit ecotourism under future climate warming.

  8. Synchrony in the phenology of a culturally iconic spring flower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, Tim H.; Mizera, Tadeusz; Wójtowicz, Wanda; Tryjanowski, Piotr

    2012-03-01

    We examine the flowering phenology of the cultural iconic Spring Snowflake Leucojum vernum, a considerable tourist attraction, recorded from two sites in western Poland. Flowering dates at the two sites were closely correlated but about 6 days later at the more natural area. The end of flowering was associated with the start of canopy leafing. Early flowering was related to a longer flowering season which may benefit ecotourism under future climate warming.

  9. Pollination Services of Mango Flower Pollinators

    PubMed Central

    Huda, A. Nurul; Salmah, M. R. Che; Hassan, A. Abu; Hamdan, A.; Razak, M. N. Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Measuring wild pollinator services in agricultural production is very important in the context of sustainable management. In this study, we estimated the contribution of native pollinators to mango fruit set production of two mango cultivars Mangifera indica (L). cv. ‘Sala’ and ‘Chok Anan’. Visitation rates of pollinators on mango flowers and number of pollen grains adhering to their bodies determined pollinator efficiency for reproductive success of the crop. Chok Anan failed to produce any fruit set in the absence of pollinators. In natural condition, we found that Sala produced 4.8% fruit set per hermaphrodite flower while Chok Anan produced 3.1% per flower. Hand pollination tremendously increased fruit set of naturally pollinated flower for Sala (>100%), but only 33% for Chok Anan. Pollinator contribution to mango fruit set was estimated at 53% of total fruit set production. Our results highlighted the importance of insect pollinations in mango production. Large size flies Eristalinus spp. and Chrysomya spp. were found to be effective pollen carriers and visited more mango flowers compared with other flower visitors. PMID:26246439

  10. Pollination Services of Mango Flower Pollinators.

    PubMed

    Huda, A Nurul; Salmah, M R Che; Hassan, A Abu; Hamdan, A; Razak, M N Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Measuring wild pollinator services in agricultural production is very important in the context of sustainable management. In this study, we estimated the contribution of native pollinators to mango fruit set production of two mango cultivars Mangifera indica (L). cv. 'Sala' and 'Chok Anan'. Visitation rates of pollinators on mango flowers and number of pollen grains adhering to their bodies determined pollinator efficiency for reproductive success of the crop. Chok Anan failed to produce any fruit set in the absence of pollinators. In natural condition, we found that Sala produced 4.8% fruit set per hermaphrodite flower while Chok Anan produced 3.1% per flower. Hand pollination tremendously increased fruit set of naturally pollinated flower for Sala (>100%), but only 33% for Chok Anan. Pollinator contribution to mango fruit set was estimated at 53% of total fruit set production. Our results highlighted the importance of insect pollinations in mango production. Large size flies Eristalinus spp. and Chrysomya spp. were found to be effective pollen carriers and visited more mango flowers compared with other flower visitors.

  11. Ring Beholds a Delicate Flower

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope finds a delicate flower in the Ring Nebula, as shown in this image. The outer shell of this planetary nebula looks surprisingly similar to the delicate petals of a camellia blossom. A planetary nebula is a shell of material ejected from a dying star. Located about 2,000 light years from Earth in the constellation Lyra, the Ring Nebula is also known as Messier Object 57 and NGC 6720. It is one of the best examples of a planetary nebula and a favorite target of amateur astronomers.

    The 'ring' is a thick cylinder of glowing gas and dust around the doomed star. As the star begins to run out of fuel, its core becomes smaller and hotter, boiling off its outer layers. The telescope's infrared array camera detected this material expelled from the withering star. Previous images of the Ring Nebula taken by visible-light telescopes usually showed just the inner glowing loop of gas around the star. The outer regions are especially prominent in this new image because Spitzer sees the infrared light from hydrogen molecules. The molecules emit infrared light because they have absorbed ultraviolet radiation from the star or have been heated by the wind from the star.

    Download the QuickTime movie for the animated version of this Ring Nebula image.

  12. Phytochrome, plant growth and flowering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, R. W.; Bagnall, D. J.

    1994-01-01

    Attempts to use artificially lit cabinets to grow plants identical to those growing in sunlight have provided compelling evidence of the importance of light quality for plant growth. Changing the balance of red (R) to far-red (FR) radiation, but with a fixed photosynthetic input can shift the phytochrome photoequilibrium in a plant and generate large differences in plant growth. With FR enrichment the plants elongate, and may produce more leaf area and dry matter. Similar morphogenic responses are also obtained when light quality is altered only briefly (15-30 min) at the end-of-the-day. Conversely, for plants grown in natural conditions the response of plant form to selective spectral filtering has again shown that red and far-red wavebands are important as found by Kasperbauer and coworkers. Also, where photosynthetic photon flux densities (PPFD) of sunlight have been held constant, the removal of far-red alone alters plant growth. With FR depletion plants grown in sunlight are small, more branched and darker green. Here we examine the implications for plant growth and flowering when the far-red composition of incident radiation in plant growth chambers is manipulated.

  13. Trees as huge flowers and flowers as oversized floral guides: the role of floral color change and retention of old flowers in Tibouchina pulchra.

    PubMed

    Brito, Vinícius L G; Weynans, Kevin; Sazima, Marlies; Lunau, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Floral color changes and retention of old flowers are frequently combined phenomena restricted to the floral guide or single flowers in few-flowered inflorescences. They are thought to increase the attractiveness over long distances and to direct nearby pollinators toward the rewarding flowers. In Tibouchina pulchra, a massively flowering tree, the whole flower changes its color during anthesis. On the first day, the flowers are white and on the next 3 days, they change to pink. This creates a new large-scale color pattern in which the white pre-changed flowers contrast against the pink post-changed ones over the entire tree. We describe the spectral characteristics of floral colors of T. pulchra and test bumblebees' response to this color pattern when viewed at different angles (simulating long and short distances). The results indicated the role of different color components in bumblebee attraction and the possible scenario in which this flower color pattern has evolved. We tested bumblebees' preference for simulated trees with 75% pink and 25% white flowers resembling the color patterns of T. pulchra, and trees with green leaves and pink flowers (control) in long-distance approach. We also compared an artificial setting with three pink flowers and one white flower (T. pulchra model) against four pink flowers with white floral guides (control) in short-distance approach. Bumblebees spontaneously preferred the simulated T. pulchra patterns in both approaches despite similar reward. Moreover, in short distances, pollinator visits to peripheral, non-rewarding flowers occurred only half as frequently in the simulated T. pulchra when compared to the control. Thefore, this exceptional floral color change and the retention of old flowers in T. pulchra favors the attraction of pollinators over long distances in a deception process while it honestly directs them toward the rewarding flowers at short distances possibly exploring their innate color preferences.

  14. Trees as huge flowers and flowers as oversized floral guides: the role of floral color change and retention of old flowers in Tibouchina pulchra

    PubMed Central

    Brito, Vinícius L. G.; Weynans, Kevin; Sazima, Marlies; Lunau, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Floral color changes and retention of old flowers are frequently combined phenomena restricted to the floral guide or single flowers in few-flowered inflorescences. They are thought to increase the attractiveness over long distances and to direct nearby pollinators toward the rewarding flowers. In Tibouchina pulchra, a massively flowering tree, the whole flower changes its color during anthesis. On the first day, the flowers are white and on the next 3 days, they change to pink. This creates a new large-scale color pattern in which the white pre-changed flowers contrast against the pink post-changed ones over the entire tree. We describe the spectral characteristics of floral colors of T. pulchra and test bumblebees’ response to this color pattern when viewed at different angles (simulating long and short distances). The results indicated the role of different color components in bumblebee attraction and the possible scenario in which this flower color pattern has evolved. We tested bumblebees’ preference for simulated trees with 75% pink and 25% white flowers resembling the color patterns of T. pulchra, and trees with green leaves and pink flowers (control) in long-distance approach. We also compared an artificial setting with three pink flowers and one white flower (T. pulchra model) against four pink flowers with white floral guides (control) in short-distance approach. Bumblebees spontaneously preferred the simulated T. pulchra patterns in both approaches despite similar reward. Moreover, in short distances, pollinator visits to peripheral, non-rewarding flowers occurred only half as frequently in the simulated T. pulchra when compared to the control. Thefore, this exceptional floral color change and the retention of old flowers in T. pulchra favors the attraction of pollinators over long distances in a deception process while it honestly directs them toward the rewarding flowers at short distances possibly exploring their innate color preferences. PMID

  15. Strawberry homologue of terminal flower1 integrates photoperiod and temperature signals to inhibit flowering.

    PubMed

    Rantanen, Marja; Kurokura, Takeshi; Jiang, Panpan; Mouhu, Katriina; Hytönen, Timo

    2015-04-01

    Photoperiod and temperature are major environmental signals affecting flowering in plants. Although molecular pathways mediating these signals have been well characterized in the annual model plant Arabidopsis, much less information is known in perennials. Many perennials including the woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca L.) are induced to flower in response to decreasing photoperiod and temperature in autumn and they flower following spring. We showed earlier that, in contrast with Arabidopsis, the photoperiodic induction of flowering in strawberry occurs in short days (SD) when the decrease in FvFT1 (flowering locus T) and FvSOC1 (suppressor of the overexpression of constans1) expression leads to lower mRNA levels of the floral repressor, FvTFL1 (terminal flower1). By using transgenic lines and gene expression analyses, we show evidence that the temperature-mediated changes in the FvTFL1 mRNA expression set critical temperature limits for the photoperiodic flowering in strawberry. At temperatures below 13 °C, low expression level of FvTFL1 in both SD and long days (LD) allows flower induction to occur independently of the photoperiod. Rising temperature gradually increases FvTFL1 mRNA levels under LD, and at temperatures above 13 °C, SD is required for the flower induction that depends on the deactivation of FvSOC1 and FvTFL1. However, an unknown transcriptional activator, which functions independently of FvSOC1, enhances the expression of FvTFL1 at 23 °C preventing photoperiodic flowering. We suggest that the observed effect of the photoperiod × temperature interaction on FvTFL1 mRNA expression may allow strawberry to induce flowers in correct time in different climates.

  16. A Stochastic Flowering Model Describing an Asynchronically Flowering Set of Trees

    PubMed Central

    NORMAND, F.; HABIB, R.; CHADŒUF, J.

    2002-01-01

    A general stochastic model is presented that simulates the time course of flowering of individual trees and populations, integrating the synchronization of flowering both between and within trees. Making some hypotheses, a simplified expression of the model, called the ‘shoot’ model, is proposed, in which the synchronization of flowering both between and within trees is characterized by specific parameters. Two derived models, the ‘tree’ model and the ‘population’ model, are presented. They neglect the asynchrony of flowering, respectively, within trees, and between and within trees. Models were fitted and tested using data on flowering of Psidium cattleianum observed at study sites at elevations of 200, 520 and 890 m in Réunion Island. The ‘shoot’ model fitted the data best and reproduced the strong irregularities in flowering shown by empirical data. The asynchrony of flowering in P. cattleianum was more pronounced within than between trees. Simulations showed that various flowering patterns can be reproduced by the ‘shoot’ model. The use of different levels of organization of the general model is discussed. PMID:12234153

  17. Cytotoxic and bioactive properties of different color tulip flowers and degradation kinetic of tulip flower anthocyanins.

    PubMed

    Sagdic, Osman; Ekici, Lutfiye; Ozturk, Ismet; Tekinay, Turgay; Polat, Busra; Tastemur, Bilge; Bayram, Okan; Senturk, Berna

    2013-08-01

    This study was conducted to determine the potential use of anthocyanin-based extracts (ABEs) of wasted tulip flowers as food/drug colorants. For this aim, wasted tulip flowers were samples and analyzed for their bioactive properties and cytotoxicity. Total phenolic contents of the extracts of the claret red (126.55 mg of gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g dry extract) and orange-red (113.76 mg GAE/g dry extract) flowers were the higher than those of the other tulip flowers. Total anthocyanin levels of the violet, orange-red, claret red and pink tulip flower extracts were determined as 265.04, 236.49, 839.08 and 404.45 mg pelargonidin 3-glucoside/kg dry extract, respectively and these levels were higher than those of the other flowers. The extracts were more effective for the inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Yersinia enterocolitica compared to other tested bacteria. Additionally, the cytotoxic effects of five different tulip flower extracts on human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cell line were investigated. The results showed that the orange red, pink and violet extracts had no cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 cell lines while yellow and claret red extracts appeared to be toxic for the cells. Overall, the extracts of tulip flowers with different colors possess remarkable bioactive and cytotoxic properties.

  18. First flowering dates and flowering periods of prairie plants at Woodworth, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Callow, J.M.; Kantrud, H.A.; Higgins, K.F.

    1992-01-01

    We recorded flowering events for 97 species of prairie plants for 2-6 years near Woodworth, ND. Earliest and latest flower initiation dates varied by year. Temperature seemed much more important than precipitation in influencing phenology of species that bloom from late March through May, but no strong climatic effect was evident for plants that bloom later in the growing season.

  19. Flower power: Tree flowering phenology as a settlement cue for migrating birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGrath, L.J.; van Riper, Charles; Fontaine, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    1. Neotropical migrant birds show a clear preference for stopover habitats with ample food supplies; yet, the proximate cues underlying these decisions remain unclear. 2. For insectivorous migrants, cues associated with vegetative phenology (e.g. flowering, leaf flush, and leaf loss) may reliably predict the availability of herbivorous arthropods. Here we examined whether migrants use the phenology of five tree species to choose stopover locations, and whether phenology accurately predicts food availability. 3. Using a combination of experimental and observational evidence, we show migrant populations closely track tree phenology, particularly the flowering phenology of honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa), and preferentially forage in trees with more flowers. Furthermore, the flowering phenology of honey mesquite reliably predicts overall arthropod abundance as well as the arthropods preferred by migrants for food. 4. Together, these results suggest that honey mesquite flowering phenology is an important cue used by migrants to assess food availability quickly and reliably, while in transit during spring migration. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  20. DAY NEUTRAL FLOWERING represses CONSTANS to prevent Arabidopsis flowering early in short days.

    PubMed

    Morris, Karl; Thornber, Sarah; Codrai, Lesley; Richardson, Christine; Craig, Adam; Sadanandom, Ari; Thomas, Brian; Jackson, Stephen

    2010-04-01

    The photoperiodic response in Arabidopsis thaliana requires the precise regulation of CONSTANS (CO) expression in relation to the light period during the day. In short days (SDs) levels of CO expression are normally low during the light period, and this results in delayed flowering compared with long days (LDs) when CO expression rises to high levels before the end of the light period. We identified a novel flowering time gene called DAY NEUTRAL FLOWERING (DNF) that acts in the same flowering pathway as CO. DNF is a membrane-bound E3 ligase that represses CO expression and plays an important role in maintaining low levels of CO expression in SDs. The effect of DNF on the rhythm of CO expression is essential for the photoperiodic response of Arabidopsis, enabling it to have a different flowering response in LDs and SDs.

  1. Kaempferol glycosides in the flowers of carnation and their contribution to the creamy white flower color.

    PubMed

    Iwashina, Tsukasa; Yamaguchi, Masa-atsu; Nakayama, Masayoshi; Onozaki, Takashi; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Kawanobu, Shuji; Onoe, Hiroshi; Okamura, Masachika

    2010-12-01

    Three flavonol glycosides were isolated from the flowers of carnation cultivars 'White Wink' and 'Honey Moon'. They were identified from their UV, MS, 1H and 13C NMR spectra as kaempferol 3-O-neohesperidoside, kaempferol 3-O-sophoroside and kaempferol 3-O-glucosyl-(1 --> 2)-[rhamnosyl-(1 --> 6)-glucoside]. Referring to previous reports, flavonols occurring in carnation flowers are characterized as kaempferol 3-O-glucosides with additional sugars binding at the 2 and/or 6-positions of the glucose. The kaempferol glycoside contents of a nearly pure white flower and some creamy white flower lines were compared. Although the major glycoside was different in each line, the total kaempferol contents of the creamy white lines were from 5.9 to 20.9 times higher than the pure white line. Thus, in carnations, kaempferol glycosides surely contribute to the creamy tone of white flowers. PMID:21299117

  2. Mineral and metabolic profiles in tea leaves and flowers during flower development.

    PubMed

    Jia, Sisi; Wang, Yu; Hu, Jianhui; Ding, Zhaotang; Liang, Qing; Zhang, Yinfei; Wang, Hui

    2016-09-01

    Tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] is one of the most popular non-alcoholic beverage crops in the world, and the physiological processes and gene regulations involved in development in tea plants have been well characterized. However, relatively little is known about the metabolic changes combined with mineral distributions that occur during flower development. Here we detected the contents of 11 elements in tea leaves and flowers and found that, some of them, especially phosphorus, sulfur and copper, showed significant changes during tea flowering. We also detected 122 metabolites in tea leaves and flowers and found that, 72 of them showed significant differences between flowers and leaves, of which sugars, organic acids, and flavonoids dominated. The sugars, such as trehalose and galactose, all accumulated in tea flowers, and the organic acids, such as malic acid, citric acid and fumaric acid involved in TCA cycle. The flavonoids, like epicatechin, catechin gallate and epigallocatechin, were more abundant in leaves. Furthermore, we found that the contents of 33 metabolites changed during the development of flowers. Especially, citric acid, phenylalanine and most flavonoids decreased while fructose and galactose increased during flowering stages in flowers. We also analyzed the correlations between the ions and metabolites and found that, some mineral nutrients including phosphorus, sulfur, manganese and zinc had close relations to organic acids, flavonoids, sugars and several amino acids during flowering. We mapped the metabolic pathway according to the KEGG database. This work will serve as the foundation for a systems biology approach to the understanding of mineral metabolism. PMID:27372442

  3. Flower Constellations as rigid objects in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortari, Daniele

    2006-08-01

    This paper summarizes the findings and the research status on Flower Constellations, a novel and revolutionary way to design satellite constellations that has been discovered and proposed at Texas A&M University. The theory of Flower Constellations is a natural consequence of the theory of compatible (or resonant) orbits. The most surprising aspect of the Flower Constellations is that the satellite distribution identifies the edges of rotating figures whose shapes are time invariant. The complex synchronized dynamics of the satellites preserves the shape of a space object. The whole Flower Constellation is an axial-symmetric rigid object in space that is spinning with prescribed angular velocity. The shape of this object can be deformed by playing with the Flower Constellation design parameters, and the object's axis of symmetry can be set to point to any inertial direction. In particular, when the axis of symmetry is aligned with the Earth's spin axis, the J2 linear-dominant effect is identical for all the orbits. In this case, the J2 effect deforms the object shape while preserving the axial-symmetry.

  4. Cut flowers: a potential pesticide hazard.

    PubMed

    Morse, D L; Baker, E L; Landrigan, P J

    1979-01-01

    Following reports of ten cases of possible organophosphate pesticide poisoning in florists exposed to pesticide residues on cut flowers, we conducted a prospective random-sample survey to determine residual pesticide levels on flowers imported into the United States via Miami, Florida. A sample of all flowers imported into Miami on three days in January 1977 showed that 18 (17.7 per cent) of 105 lots contained pesticide residue levels greater than 5 ppm, and that three lots had levels greater than 400 ppm. Azodrin (monocrotophos) was the most important contaminant with levels of 7.7--4,750 ppm detected in nine lots. We examined 20 quarantine workers in Miami and 12 commercial florists exposed to contaminated flowers. Occasional nonspecific symptoms compatible with possible organophosphate exposure were noted, but we found no abnormalities in plasma or red blood cell cholinesterase levels. This study documents a previously unrecognized potential source of occupational pesticide exposure and suggests that safety standards should be set for residue levels on cut flowers.

  5. Tiger cubs and little flowers.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    Short vignettes are related to show the conditions for girls and women in Morocco. Descriptions are given for child labor, literacy, the government's education campaign, youth group efforts to enhance family planning (FP) knowledge, the impact of FP outreach in rural areas, and unmarried mothers. In Morocco's cities, young boys can be seen hawking cigarettes and working in market stalls; in the countryside, boys herd goats or do other farm work. In rural areas girls are hidden by having them perform work around the house or on the farm primarily indoors. Women are supervised by women. 54% work as maids and 39% are apprentices in carpet factories. Parents prefer to have their daughters working and consider it protection from mischief as well as needed income. Only 60% of girls are enrolled in primary school vs. 80% of the boys. In rural areas, only 44% of girls are enrolled, and 20% stay to complete their primary education, while 76% of boys enroll and 63% complete primary school. Literacy of women has an effect on the ability to accurately take birth control pills. All ages of women gather at schools in the evening for lessons in reading and writing in a program supported by the King. Women are pleased with their success in just learning how to write their own names. Television advertisements promote sending children to school, as another part of the Ministry of Education's campaign to increase girl's educational status. There are still not enough schools; many schools are double shift, and communities are building their own schools. Youth clubs, which refer to boys as "tiger cubs" and girls as "little flowers," try to familiarize young people with some basic information about contraception. A traditional midwife relates some problems with girl's education: costs for clothing and supplies, worry about male teachers, and poor role models. In some remote areas, farm families do not send their children to school, because of the distance to schools and the need for

  6. Unique Crystallization of Fullerenes: Fullerene Flowers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungah; Park, Chibeom; Song, Intek; Lee, Minkyung; Kim, Hyungki; Choi, Hee Cheul

    2016-01-01

    Solution-phase crystallization of fullerene molecules strongly depends on the types of solvent and their ratios because solvent molecules are easily included in the crystal lattice and distort its structure. The C70 (solute)-mesitylene (solvent) system yields crystals with various morphologies and structures, such as cubes, tubes, and imperfect rods. Herein, using C60 and C70 dissolved in mesitylene, we present a novel way to grow unique flower-shaped crystals with six symmetric petals. The different solubility of C60 and C70 in mesitylene promotes nucleation of C70 with sixfold symmetry in the early stage, which is followed by co-crystallization of both C60 and C70 molecules, leading to lateral petal growth. Based on the growth mechanism, we obtained more complex fullerene crystals, such as multi-deck flowers and tube-flower complexes, by changing the sequence and parameters of crystallization. PMID:27561446

  7. Unique Crystallization of Fullerenes: Fullerene Flowers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungah; Park, Chibeom; Song, Intek; Lee, Minkyung; Kim, Hyungki; Choi, Hee Cheul

    2016-08-26

    Solution-phase crystallization of fullerene molecules strongly depends on the types of solvent and their ratios because solvent molecules are easily included in the crystal lattice and distort its structure. The C70 (solute)-mesitylene (solvent) system yields crystals with various morphologies and structures, such as cubes, tubes, and imperfect rods. Herein, using C60 and C70 dissolved in mesitylene, we present a novel way to grow unique flower-shaped crystals with six symmetric petals. The different solubility of C60 and C70 in mesitylene promotes nucleation of C70 with sixfold symmetry in the early stage, which is followed by co-crystallization of both C60 and C70 molecules, leading to lateral petal growth. Based on the growth mechanism, we obtained more complex fullerene crystals, such as multi-deck flowers and tube-flower complexes, by changing the sequence and parameters of crystallization.

  8. Unique Crystallization of Fullerenes: Fullerene Flowers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jungah; Park, Chibeom; Song, Intek; Lee, Minkyung; Kim, Hyungki; Choi, Hee Cheul

    2016-08-01

    Solution-phase crystallization of fullerene molecules strongly depends on the types of solvent and their ratios because solvent molecules are easily included in the crystal lattice and distort its structure. The C70 (solute)–mesitylene (solvent) system yields crystals with various morphologies and structures, such as cubes, tubes, and imperfect rods. Herein, using C60 and C70 dissolved in mesitylene, we present a novel way to grow unique flower-shaped crystals with six symmetric petals. The different solubility of C60 and C70 in mesitylene promotes nucleation of C70 with sixfold symmetry in the early stage, which is followed by co-crystallization of both C60 and C70 molecules, leading to lateral petal growth. Based on the growth mechanism, we obtained more complex fullerene crystals, such as multi-deck flowers and tube-flower complexes, by changing the sequence and parameters of crystallization.

  9. From retrograde signaling to flowering time.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changquan; Dehesh, Katayoon

    2015-01-01

    Plant's transition from vegetative to reproductive phase is balanced by intricate cascade of genes regulated by both endogenous and environmental inputs. Stress causes suppression of vegetative growth and acceleration of flowering as an emergency response for preservation of the species. Recently, we determined that expression levels of a transcription factor with 2 B-Box motifs, BBX19, is notably reduced in response to accumulation of high levels of Methylerythritol cyclodiphosphate (MEcPP), a plastidial produced isoprenoids intermediate that also functions as a stress-specific retrograde signaling metabolite. We now have identified BBX19 as a repressor of Flower locus T (FT) expression and the corresponding downstream genes, SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1 (SOC1), Leafy (LFY) and Fruitful (FUL), through competition with CONSTANS (CO). Collectively our finding identifies BBX19 as a link between the stress-specific retrograde signal MEcPP and regulation of flowering time by depleting the active CO pool required for transcription of FT.

  10. Orchid flowers tolerance to gamma-radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Olivia Kimiko

    2000-03-01

    Cut flowers are fresh goods that may be treated with fumigants such as methyl bromide to meet the needs of the quarantine requirements of importing countries. Irradiation is a non-chemical alternative to substitute the methyl bromide treatment of fresh products. In this research, different cut orchids were irradiated to examine their tolerance to gamma-rays. A 200 Gy dose did inhibit the Dendrobium palenopsis buds from opening, but did not cause visible damage to opened flowers. Doses of 800 and 1000 Gy were damaging because they provoked the flowers to drop from the stem. Cattleya irradiated with 750 Gy did not show any damage, and were therefore eligible for the radiation treatment. Cymbidium tolerated up to 300 Gy and above this dose dropped prematurely. On the other hand, Oncydium did not tolerate doses above 150 Gy.

  11. Unique Crystallization of Fullerenes: Fullerene Flowers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jungah; Park, Chibeom; Song, Intek; Lee, Minkyung; Kim, Hyungki; Choi, Hee Cheul

    2016-01-01

    Solution-phase crystallization of fullerene molecules strongly depends on the types of solvent and their ratios because solvent molecules are easily included in the crystal lattice and distort its structure. The C70 (solute)–mesitylene (solvent) system yields crystals with various morphologies and structures, such as cubes, tubes, and imperfect rods. Herein, using C60 and C70 dissolved in mesitylene, we present a novel way to grow unique flower-shaped crystals with six symmetric petals. The different solubility of C60 and C70 in mesitylene promotes nucleation of C70 with sixfold symmetry in the early stage, which is followed by co-crystallization of both C60 and C70 molecules, leading to lateral petal growth. Based on the growth mechanism, we obtained more complex fullerene crystals, such as multi-deck flowers and tube-flower complexes, by changing the sequence and parameters of crystallization. PMID:27561446

  12. Genetic engineering for cut-flower improvement.

    PubMed

    Zuker, A; Tzfira, T; Vainstein, A

    1998-01-01

    The application of modern biotechnological approaches to cut flowers has clearly become instrumental and rewarding for the floriculture industry. In recent years, several gene-transfer procedures have been developed for some of the major commercial cut flowers. Using Agrobactrium or microprojectile bombardment, several basic protocols are now available. However, despite the great progress and interest in gene transfer to these crops, their transformation is routine in only a limited number of laboratories, and its application is still considered to be an "art form". This review summarizes the reported gene-transfer procedures for the main cut-flower crops, with an emphasis on the unique factors of each method and the recent progress in introducing new traits of horticultural interest into these species.

  13. Flower Constancy, Insect Psychology, and Plant Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chittka, Lars; Thomson, James D.; Waser, Nickolas M.

    Individuals of some species of pollinating insects tend to restrict their visits to only a few of the available plant species, in the process bypassing valuable food sources. The question of why this flower constancy exists is a rich and important one with implications for the organization of natural communities of plants, floral evolution, and our understanding of the learning processes involved in finding food. Some scientists have assumed that flower constancy is adaptive per se. Others argued that constancy occurs because memory capacity for floral features in insects is limited, but attempts to identify the limitations often remained rather simplistic. We elucidate now different sensory and motor memories from natural foraging tasks are stored and retrieved, using concepts from modern learning science and visual search, and conclude that flower constancy is likely to have multiple causes. Possible constraints favoring constancy are interference sensitivity of short-term memory, and temporal limitations on retrieving information from long-term memory as rapidly as from short-term memory, but further empirical evidence is needed to substantiate these possibilities. In addition, retrieving memories may be slower and more prone to errors when there are several options than when an insect copes with only a single task. In addition to memory limitations, we also point out alternative explanations for flower constancy. We then consider the way in which floral parameters, such as interplant distances, nectar rewards, flower morphology, and floral color (as seen through bees' eyes) affect constancy. Finally, we discuss the implications of pollinator constancy for plant evolution. To date there is no evidence that flowers have diverged to favor constancy, although the appropriate tests may not have yet been conducted. However, there is good evidence against the notion that pollinator constancy is involved in speciation or maintenance of plant species integrity.

  14. SINGLE FLOWER TRUSS regulates the transition and maintenance of flowering in tomato.

    PubMed

    Molinero-Rosales, Nuria; Latorre, Antonio; Jamilena, Manuel; Lozano, Rafael

    2004-01-01

    The characterisation of the single flower truss ( sft) mutant phenotype of tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), as well as its genetic interactions with other mutations affecting FALSIFLORA ( FA) and SELF PRUNING ( SP) genes, has revealed that SFT is a key gene in the control of floral transition and floral meristem identity. The single sft mutation produces a late-flowering phenotype in both long-day and short-day conditions. In combination with fa, a mutation affecting the tomato gene orthologous to LFY, sft completely blocks the transition to flowering in this species. Thus, the phenotype of the sft fa double mutants indicates that SFT and FA participate in two parallel pathways that regulate the switch from vegetative to reproductive phase in tomato, and that both genes are indispensable for flowering. On the other hand, the replacement of flowers by vegetative shoots observed in the sft inflorescence suggests that SFT regulates flower meristem identity during inflorescence development of tomato. In addition to these two main functions, SFT is involved in the development of both flowers and sympodial shoots of tomato. First, the mutation produces a partial conversion of sepals into leaves in the first floral whorl, and a reduction in the number of floral organs, particularly carpels. Secondly, the sympodial development in the mutant plants is altered, which can be related to the interaction between SFT and SP, a gene controlling the number of nodes in sympodial shoots. In fact, we have found that the sft phenotype is epistatic to that of sp, and that the level of SP mRNA in the apical buds of sft around flowering is reduced. SFT can therefore co-ordinate the regulation of two simultaneous developmental processes in the tomato apical shoot, the promotion of flowering in one sympodial segment and the vegetative development of the next segment.

  15. Genotype of FLOWERING LOCUS T homologue contributes to flowering time differences in wild and cultivated roses.

    PubMed

    Otagaki, S; Ogawa, Y; Hibrand-Saint Oyant, L; Foucher, F; Kawamura, K; Horibe, T; Matsumoto, S

    2015-07-01

    Rose flowers have long delighted humans as ornamental plants. To improve the ornamental value of roses it is necessary to understand the regulatory mechanisms of flowering. We previously found that flowering time is controlled by three minor quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and a major QTL co-localised with RoFT. In this study, we isolated three RoFT alleles encoding completely identical amino acid sequences from the parents of a mapping population. Correlation analysis of the RoFT genotypes and flowering time phenotypes in the mapping population showed that the RoFT_f and RoFT_g alleles contribute to the early-flowering phenotype, while the RoFT_e allele contributes to the late-flowering phenotype. We developed two novel cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) markers based on the genomic sequences of the RoFT alleles and clearly showed that the relationship between RoFT genotype and flowering time was applicable to 12 of 13 cultivated roses grown at the Higashiyama Botanical Gardens, Japan. Allele-specific expression analysis using a reverse transcription CAPS assay suggested that these RoFT alleles are regulated differentially at the transcription level. Furthermore, transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants ectopically expressing the RoFT gene showed an early-flowering phenotype. Conversely, in roses, RoFT was continuously expressed after floral bud formation, and RoFT transcript accumulation reached its peak after that of the floral meristem identity gene RoAP1b. These data suggest that RoFT may be essential not only for floral transition but also for normal floral development and flowering in roses. PMID:25545704

  16. Refuges, flower strips, biodiversity and agronomic interest.

    PubMed

    Roy, Grégory; Wateau, Karine; Legrand, Mickaël; Oste, Sandrine

    2008-01-01

    Several arthropods are natural predators of pests, and they are able to reduce and control their population development. FREDON Nord Pas-de-Calais (Federation Regionate de Defense contre les Organismes Nuisibles = Regional Federation for Pest Control) has begun for a long time to form farmers to the recognition of beneficial arthropods and to show them their usefulness. These beneficial insects or arachnids are present everywhere, in orchards and even in fields which are areas relatively poor in biodiversity. Adults feed in the flower strips instead larvae and some adults feed on preys such as aphids or caterpillars. Most of the time, beneficial insects can regulate pest but sometimes, in agricultural area, they can't make it early enough and efficiently. Their action begin too late and there biodiversity and number are too low. It's possible to enhance their action by manipulating the ecological infrastructures, like sewing flower strips or installing refuges. Flower strips increase the density of natural enemies and make them be present earlier in the field in order to control pests. Refuges permit beneficial's to spend winter on the spot. So they're able to be active and to grow in number earlier. From 2004 to 2007, on the one hand, FREDON Nord Pas-de-Calais has developed a research program. Its purpose was to inventory practices and also tools and means available and to judge the advisability of using such or such beneficial refuge in orchards. On the second hand, it studied the impact in orchard of refuges on population of beneficial's and the difference there were between manufactured refuges and homemade refuges. Interesting prospects were obtained with some of them. Otherwise, since 2003, FREDON has studied flower strips influence on beneficial population and their impact on pest control. In cabbage fields, results of trials have shown that flower strips lead to a reduction of aphid number under acceptable economic level, up to 50 meters from flower strips

  17. DNA tests for strawberry: perpetual flowering - Bx215

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perpetual flowering strawberries have great economic value to the fresh market industry. Floral initiation in strawberry is largely determined by photoperiod, temperature, and genetics. Commercially grown strawberries are generally classified as remontant (repeated or perpetual flowering, day neutr...

  18. Mutation in TERMINAL FLOWER1 reverses the photoperiodic requirement for flowering in the wild strawberry Fragaria vesca.

    PubMed

    Koskela, Elli A; Mouhu, Katriina; Albani, Maria C; Kurokura, Takeshi; Rantanen, Marja; Sargent, Daniel J; Battey, Nicholas H; Coupland, George; Elomaa, Paula; Hytönen, Timo

    2012-07-01

    Photoperiodic flowering has been extensively studied in the annual short-day and long-day plants rice (Oryza sativa) and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), whereas less is known about the control of flowering in perennials. In the perennial wild strawberry, Fragaria vesca (Rosaceae), short-day and perpetual flowering long-day accessions occur. Genetic analyses showed that differences in their flowering responses are caused by a single gene, SEASONAL FLOWERING LOCUS, which may encode the F. vesca homolog of TERMINAL FLOWER1 (FvTFL1). We show through high-resolution mapping and transgenic approaches that FvTFL1 is the basis of this change in flowering behavior and demonstrate that FvTFL1 acts as a photoperiodically regulated repressor. In short-day F. vesca, long photoperiods activate FvTFL1 mRNA expression and short days suppress it, promoting flower induction. These seasonal cycles in FvTFL1 mRNA level confer seasonal cycling of vegetative and reproductive development. Mutations in FvTFL1 prevent long-day suppression of flowering, and the early flowering that then occurs under long days is dependent on the F. vesca homolog of FLOWERING LOCUS T. This photoperiodic response mechanism differs from those described in model annual plants. We suggest that this mechanism controls flowering within the perennial growth cycle in F. vesca and demonstrate that a change in a single gene reverses the photoperiodic requirements for flowering.

  19. Feasibility of Seed Production from Non-flowering Orchardgrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Non-flowering or sparse flowering orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) would greatly simplify management of intensive rotational grazing systems. Our objective was to quantify seed production on non-flowering orchardgrass clones selected in cold-winter climates, but grown for seed in mild-winter cl...

  20. Using a Mousy, Little Flower to Understand the Flamboyant Ones.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillis, Anna Maria

    1995-01-01

    Discusses major leaps in knowledge about the production of flowers that have come from studying genes that regulate the flowers of mouse ear cress (Arabidopsis thaliana). Examines the ABC model of flower morphogenesis, commonality of genes, evolution of angiosperms, and agricultural and horticultural potential. (LZ)

  1. The evolution of flowering strategies in US weedy rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Local adaptation in plants often involves changes in flowering time in response to day length and temperature differences. Many crop varieties have been selected for uniformity in flowering time. In contrast, variable flowering may be important for increased competitiveness in weed species invading ...

  2. Management of flowering rush in the Detroit Lakes, Minnesota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flowering rush (Butomus umbellatus) is an invasive aquatic plant introduced to North America from Eurasia in 1897. Flowering rush can grow either submersed or emergent from wet soil habitats to waters that are up to 5 m deep. Flowering rush was first observed in the Detroit Lake system in the 196...

  3. Genetic control of flowering and biomass in switchgrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early flowering can negatively affect biomass yield of switchgrass. In temperate regions of the USA, flowering occurs in switchgrass around the time of peak biomass yield (about 5 to 8 weeks prior to killing frost), effectively reducing the length of the growing season. The use of late-flowering swi...

  4. Flower biology and biologically-based integrated fire blight management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fire blight infection is generally initiated in flowers, and thus, research has been directed to the biology and microbial ecology of flowers as related to this disease. In addition to investigations involving apple and pear flowers, Manchurian crab apple (Malus manchurica), closely related to appl...

  5. Pollinator experience, neophobia and the evolution of flowering time

    PubMed Central

    Forrest, Jessica; Thomson, James D.

    2008-01-01

    Environmental changes, such as current climate warming, can exert directional selection on reproductive phenology. In plants, evolution of earlier flowering requires that the individuals bearing genes for early flowering successfully reproduce; for non-selfing, zoophilous species, this means that early flowering individuals must be visited by pollinators. In a laboratory experiment with artificial flowers, we presented captive bumble-bees (Bombus impatiens) with flower arrays representing stages in the phenological progression of a two-species plant community: Bees that had been foraging on flowers of one colour were confronted with increasing numbers of flowers of a second colour. Early flowering individuals of the second ‘species’ were significantly under-visited, because bees avoided unfamiliar flowers, particularly when these were rare. We incorporated these aspects of bee foraging behaviour (neophobia and positive frequency dependence) in a simulation model of flowering-time evolution for a plant population experiencing selection against late flowering. Unlike simple frequency dependence, a lag in pollinator visitation prevented the plant population from responding to selection and led to declines in population size. Pollinator behaviour thus has the potential to constrain evolutionary adjustments of flowering phenology. PMID:19129131

  6. Gamma and electron-beam irradiation of cut flowers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Olivia Kimiko

    2003-01-01

    Fresh cut flowers are commodities that require quarantine treatment for export/import. In the present work some cut flowers were irradiated in a gamma panoramic source and in an electron beam accelerator with doses up to 800 Gy, and the results for the radiation tolerance of the flowers are presented.

  7. Where Have All the Flowers Gone?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Janet M.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes an activity for secondary mathematics students using digital imaging on The Geometer's Sketchpad to model polar functions of flowers. The activity presented in the appendix engages students in learning and exploring the polar coordinate system while helping them analyze a real-world situation. By completing this activity,…

  8. Flowers and Children: Unearthing Differences, Nurturing Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolan, Noreen; Eichmann, Mary Ellen

    1996-01-01

    Argues that the Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is a useful tool to help teachers understand their students' differences and learning preferences. Describes the use of the MBTI at a Catholic elementary school and a related project to link the appreciation of differences to a field trip to a flower show. (MAB)

  9. Discovering Flowers in a New Light

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNall, Rebecca L.; Bell, Randy L.

    2004-01-01

    Children love observing seeds change as they germinate and grow into tall healthy plants, but how can teachers make investigating plants an exciting and immediate event? Microscopy might just be the answer. Although most students have seen flowers, not many have looked closely at their various structures or seen their colorful designs only…

  10. Headspace Volatiles of Scutellaria Baicalensis Georgi Flowers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Volatile constituents of Baikal skullcap (Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi) flowers were isolated by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and analyzed by GC and GC/MS. A total of 64 constituents was identified (constituting 57.1 – 89.9% of the total area), 13 of which were tentatively identified. beta...

  11. The oxygen supply to thermogenic flowers.

    PubMed

    Seymour, Roger S; Ito, Kikukatsu; Umekawa, Yui; Matthews, Philip D G; Pirintsos, Stergios Arg

    2015-04-01

    Thermogenic flowers produce heat by intense respiration, and the rates of O2 consumption (Ṁo2) in some species can exceed those of all other tissues of plants and most animals. By exposing intact flowers to a range of O2 pressures (Po2) and measuring Ṁo2, we demonstrate that the highest respiration rates exceed the capacity of the O2 diffusive pathway and become diffusion limited in atmospheric air. The male florets on the inflorescence of Arum concinnatum have the highest known mass-specific Ṁo2 and can be severely diffusion limited. Intact spadices of Japanese skunk cabbage Symplocarpus renifolius are diffusion limited in air only when Ṁo2 is maximal, but not at lower levels. True flowers of the sacred lotus Nelumbo nucifera and the appendix of Arum concinnatum are never diffusion limited in air. Ṁo2 - Po2 curves are evaluated quantitatively with the 'Regulation Index', a new tool to measure dependence of Ṁo2 on ambient Po2 , as well as the conventional 'Critical Po2 '. The study also includes measurements of Po2 within thermogenic tissues with O2-sensitive fibre optics, and reveals that the diffusion pathway is complicated and that O2 can be provided not only from the surface of the tissues but also from the pith of the flower's peduncle. PMID:25256124

  12. The oxygen supply to thermogenic flowers.

    PubMed

    Seymour, Roger S; Ito, Kikukatsu; Umekawa, Yui; Matthews, Philip D G; Pirintsos, Stergios Arg

    2015-04-01

    Thermogenic flowers produce heat by intense respiration, and the rates of O2 consumption (Ṁo2) in some species can exceed those of all other tissues of plants and most animals. By exposing intact flowers to a range of O2 pressures (Po2) and measuring Ṁo2, we demonstrate that the highest respiration rates exceed the capacity of the O2 diffusive pathway and become diffusion limited in atmospheric air. The male florets on the inflorescence of Arum concinnatum have the highest known mass-specific Ṁo2 and can be severely diffusion limited. Intact spadices of Japanese skunk cabbage Symplocarpus renifolius are diffusion limited in air only when Ṁo2 is maximal, but not at lower levels. True flowers of the sacred lotus Nelumbo nucifera and the appendix of Arum concinnatum are never diffusion limited in air. Ṁo2 - Po2 curves are evaluated quantitatively with the 'Regulation Index', a new tool to measure dependence of Ṁo2 on ambient Po2 , as well as the conventional 'Critical Po2 '. The study also includes measurements of Po2 within thermogenic tissues with O2-sensitive fibre optics, and reveals that the diffusion pathway is complicated and that O2 can be provided not only from the surface of the tissues but also from the pith of the flower's peduncle.

  13. Unisexual cucumber flowers, sex and sex differentiation.

    PubMed

    Bai, Shu-Nong; Xu, Zhi-Hong

    2013-01-01

    Sex is a universal phenomenon in the world of eukaryotes. Attempts have been made to understand regulatory mechanisms for plant sex determination by investigating unisexual flowers. The cucumber plant is one of the model systems for studying how sex determination is regulated by phytohormones. A systematic investigation of the development of unisexual cucumber flowers is summarized here, and it is suggested that the mechanism of the unisexual flower can help us to understand how the process leading to one type of gametogenesis is prevented. Based on these findings, we concluded that the unisexual cucumber flowers is not an issue of sex differentiation, but instead a mechanism for avoiding self-pollination. Sex differentiation is essentially the divergent point(s) leading to heterogametogenesis. On the basis of analyses of sex differentiation in unicellular organisms and animals as well as the core process of plant life cycle, a concept of "sexual reproduction cycle" is proposed for understanding the essential role of sex and a "progressive model" for future investigations of sex differentiation in plants.

  14. Identification of Mendel's white flower character

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have identified A, the factor determining anthocyanin pigmentation in pea that was used by Gregor Mendel 150 years ago in his study of inheritance. The A gene encodes a bHLH transcription factor. The white flowered mutant allele most likely used by Mendel is a simple G to A transition in a splice...

  15. Teaching Art with Art: Flowers in Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Guy

    1998-01-01

    Justifies examining still-life pictures of flowers to provide students with an opportunity to learn how one distinguishes between deeply artistic pictures full of emotion and pictures lacking this quality. Claims that students will develop their own artistic expression. Offers pictures by Diego Rivera, Watanabe Shiko, Consuelo Kanaga, and Rachel…

  16. The Genetic Architecture of Maize Flowering Time

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flowering time is the key trait controlling adaptation of plants to their local environment, and, in an outcrossing species like maize, it is a complex trait. Variation for this complex trait was dissected in maize using a novel set of 5000 recombinant inbred lines (maize Nested Association Mapping...

  17. Jasmonates in flower and seed development.

    PubMed

    Wasternack, Claus; Forner, Susanne; Strnad, Miroslav; Hause, Bettina

    2013-01-01

    Jasmonates are ubiquitously occurring lipid-derived signaling compounds active in plant development and plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Upon environmental stimuli jasmonates are formed and accumulate transiently. During flower and seed development, jasmonic acid (JA) and a remarkable number of different metabolites accumulate organ- and tissue specifically. The accumulation is accompanied with expression of jasmonate-inducible genes. Among these genes there are defense genes and developmentally regulated genes. The profile of jasmonate compounds in flowers and seeds covers active signaling molecules such as JA, its precursor 12-oxophytodienoic acid (OPDA) and amino acid conjugates such as JA-Ile, but also inactive signaling molecules occur such as 12-hydroxy-JA and its sulfated derivative. These latter compounds can occur at several orders of magnitude higher level than JA. Metabolic conversion of JA and JA-Ile to hydroxylated compounds seems to inactivate JA signaling, but also specific functions of jasmonates in flower and seed development were detected. In tomato OPDA is involved in embryo development. Occurrence of jasmonates, expression of JA-inducible genes and JA-dependent processes in flower and seed development will be discussed. PMID:22705387

  18. Hearts and flowers: Bryophyllum poisoning of cattle.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, R A; Dunster, P J

    1986-07-01

    Findings from natural cases and experiments with cattle emphasise that flowering plants are the most important form of Bryophyllum (Kalanchoe) spp in poisonings in Australia. The main life-threatening lesion is myocardial. The effects on the alimentary tract are less important than was believed previously. B. tubiflorum, B. daigremontianum x B. tubiflorum, B. pinnatum and B. proliferum caused 41 recorded poisoning incidents affecting 379 cattle in Queensland between 1960 and 1984. Poisoning occurred between May and October--the flowering season of these plants. Experimental B. tubiflorum poisoning and natural poisonings produced anorexia, depression, ruminal atony, diarrhoea, heart rate and rhythm abnormalities, dyspnoea and death. Increased plasma concentrations of urea, creatinine and glucose and decreased chloride were measured experimentally. Both natural and experimental cases had myocardial degeneration and necrosis with haemorrhages of the heart and alimentary tract. Cattle with severe dyspnoea had atelectasis and emphysema of the lungs. Some cattle had mild nephrosis. The median lethal doses of B. tubiflorum flowers, roots and leaf plus stem were 0.7, 2.3 and 5.0 g dry matter/kg liveweight respectively (7, 7 and 40 g wet weight/kg). Bufadienolides have been isolated recently from B. tubiflorum flowers and the syndrome is consistent with cardiac glycoside poisoning. PMID:3778371

  19. Grammar Schools: Brief Flowering of Social Mobility?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Grammar schools are increasingly remembered, especially by right-wing ideologues, as the agents of a "brief flowering" of post-war social mobility. This article presents statistical, documentary and interview evidence of secondary education in the eleven plus era, and finds nothing to justify the claim that selective schools produced a general…

  20. Flower colour and cytochromes P450.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Brugliera, Filippa

    2013-02-19

    Cytochromes P450 play important roles in biosynthesis of flavonoids and their coloured class of compounds, anthocyanins, both of which are major floral pigments. The number of hydroxyl groups on the B-ring of anthocyanidins (the chromophores and precursors of anthocyanins) impact the anthocyanin colour, the more the bluer. The hydroxylation pattern is determined by two cytochromes P450, flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H) and flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H) and thus they play a crucial role in the determination of flower colour. F3'H and F3'5'H mostly belong to CYP75B and CYP75A, respectively, except for the F3'5'Hs in Compositae that were derived from gene duplication of CYP75B and neofunctionalization. Roses and carnations lack blue/violet flower colours owing to the deficiency of F3'5'H and therefore lack the B-ring-trihydroxylated anthocyanins based upon delphinidin. Successful redirection of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway to delphinidin was achieved by expressing F3'5'H coding regions resulting in carnations and roses with novel blue hues that have been commercialized. Suppression of F3'5'H and F3'H in delphinidin-producing plants reduced the number of hydroxyl groups on the anthocyanidin B-ring resulting in the production of monohydroxylated anthocyanins based on pelargonidin with a shift in flower colour to orange/red. Pelargonidin biosynthesis is enhanced by additional expression of a dihydroflavonol 4-reductase that can use the monohydroxylated dihydrokaempferol (the pelargonidin precursor). Flavone synthase II (FNSII)-catalysing flavone biosynthesis from flavanones is also a P450 (CYP93B) and contributes to flower colour, because flavones act as co-pigments to anthocyanins and can cause blueing and darkening of colour. However, transgenic plants expression of a FNSII gene yielded paler flowers owing to a reduction of anthocyanins because flavanones are precursors of anthocyanins and flavones.

  1. Bilabiate Flowers: The Ultimate Response to Bees?

    PubMed Central

    Westerkamp, Christian; Claßen-Bockhoff, Regine

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Bilabiate flowers have evolved in many lineages of the angiosperms, thus representing a convincing example of parallel evolution. Similar to keel blossoms, they have obviously evolved in order to protect pollen against pollen-collecting bees. Although many examples are known, a comprehensive survey on floral diversity and functional constraints of bilabiate flowers is lacking. Here, the concept is widened and described as a general pattern. Methods The present paper is a conceptional review including personal observations of the authors. To form a survey on the diversity of bilabiate blossoms, a search was made for examples across the angiosperms and these were combined with personal observations collected during the last 25 years, coupled with knowledge from the literature. New functional terms are introduced that are independent of morphological and taxonomic associations. Key Results Bilabiate constructions occur in at least 38 angiosperm families. They are characterized by dorsiventral organization and dorsal pollen transfer. They are most often realised on the level of a single flower, but may also be present in an inflorescence or as part of a so-called ‘walk-around flower’. Interestingly, in functional terms all nototribic blossoms represent bilabiate constructions. The great majority of specialized bee-flowers can thus be included under bilabiate and keel blossoms. The syndrome introduced here, however, also paves the way for the inclusion of larger animals such as birds and bats. The most important evolutionary trends appear to be in the saving of pollen and the precision of its transfer. With special reference to the Lamiales, selected examples of bilabiate flowers are presented and their functional significance is discussed. Conclusions Bilabiate blossoms protect their pollen against pollen-collecting bees and at the same time render their pollination more precisely. The huge diversity of realised forms indicate the high selection

  2. Emission of volatile chemicals from flowering dogwood (cornus Florida L.) flowers.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Xiaofeng; Klingeman, William E; Hu, Jun; Chen, Feng

    2008-10-22

    Reproduction of flowering dogwood trees occurs via obligate out-crossing, and U.S. native bees have been suggested to be primary pollinators of this ecologically and economically important deciduous tree. Whether floral volatiles play a role in reproduction of the dogwood remains unclear. Objectives of this study were to identify principal volatile chemicals emitted from dogwood flowers and to assess a temporal volatile emission profile and volatile consistency across four cultivars. Inflorescences with intact bracts and 5 cm flower pedicel were removed from dogwood trees and subjected to headspace volatile collection. Six principal volatile compounds were detected from the flowers of the cultivar 'World's Fair' with 3-formylpyridine as the most abundant constituent. Subsequent headspace analyses performed using inflorescences without bracts or floral pedicels alone indicated that 3-formylpyridine, E-beta-ocimene, S-linalool, and ketoisophorone were mainly emitted from inflorescences. Experiments were also conducted to determine whether volatile emissions differed across time and between different cultivars of flowering dogwood. When volatile emission was analyzed for 48 h using 12 h light/dark cycles, the emission of several volatile compounds displayed diurnal patterns. Finally, whereas florets in inflorescences of four different dogwood cultivars emitted similar levels of the six principal floral volatile chemicals, 'Cherokee Brave' flowers alone yielded 4-methoxybenzaldehyde and germacrene-D. The implications of the findings of this study to dogwood breeding programs are discussed. PMID:18811168

  3. A transposon insertion in FLOWERING LOCUS T is associated with delayed flowering in Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xueming; Meng, Lin; Liu, Bo; Hu, Yunyan; Cheng, Feng; Liang, Jianli; Aarts, Mark G M; Wang, Xiaowu; Wu, Jian

    2015-12-01

    Long days and vernalization accelerate the transition from vegetative growth to reproductive growth in Brassica rapa. Bolting before plants reach the harvesting stage is a serious problem in B. rapa vegetable crop cultivation. The genetic dissection of flowering time is important for breeding of premature bolting-resistant B. rapa crops. Using a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population, we twice detected two major quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for flowering time in two different growing seasons that were located on chromosomes A02 and A07, respectively. We hypothesized that an orthologue of the Arabidopsis thaliana FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene, named as BrFT2, was the candidate gene underlying the QTL localized to A07. A transposon insertion in the second intron of BrFT2 was detected in one of the parental lines, which was predicted to generate a loss-of-function allele. Transcription analysis revealed that the BrFT2 transcript was not present in the parental line that harbored the mutated allele. RILs carrying only the mutated BrFT2 allele showed delayed flowering regardless of growing seasons when compared to RILs carrying the wild-type BrFT2 allele. These data suggest that BrFT2 is involved in flowering time regulation in controlling flowering time in B. rapa. PMID:26706072

  4. A transposon insertion in FLOWERING LOCUS T is associated with delayed flowering in Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xueming; Meng, Lin; Liu, Bo; Hu, Yunyan; Cheng, Feng; Liang, Jianli; Aarts, Mark G M; Wang, Xiaowu; Wu, Jian

    2015-12-01

    Long days and vernalization accelerate the transition from vegetative growth to reproductive growth in Brassica rapa. Bolting before plants reach the harvesting stage is a serious problem in B. rapa vegetable crop cultivation. The genetic dissection of flowering time is important for breeding of premature bolting-resistant B. rapa crops. Using a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population, we twice detected two major quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for flowering time in two different growing seasons that were located on chromosomes A02 and A07, respectively. We hypothesized that an orthologue of the Arabidopsis thaliana FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene, named as BrFT2, was the candidate gene underlying the QTL localized to A07. A transposon insertion in the second intron of BrFT2 was detected in one of the parental lines, which was predicted to generate a loss-of-function allele. Transcription analysis revealed that the BrFT2 transcript was not present in the parental line that harbored the mutated allele. RILs carrying only the mutated BrFT2 allele showed delayed flowering regardless of growing seasons when compared to RILs carrying the wild-type BrFT2 allele. These data suggest that BrFT2 is involved in flowering time regulation in controlling flowering time in B. rapa.

  5. [The heredity of flower colors and the discovery of flower color chimera in chrysanthemum species].

    PubMed

    Li, Mao-Teng; Yu, Long-Jiang; Wang, Li-Mei; Liu, Jian-Min; Lei, Cheng

    2005-11-01

    The reciprocal crosses of yellow colored chrysanthemum x red colored chrysanthemum and white colored chrysanthemum x red colored chrysanthemum were conducted in order to analyze the heredity of flower colors. The results revealed that the heredity of flower colors was very complicated, and mainly exhibited matroclinous characteristics when red colored materials was used as maternal parent but not in the combinations when the yellow or white colored materials were used as maternal parents. The incomplete dominance and mosaic dominance also existed in the heredity of chrysanthemum flower colors. The flower-color chimeras with two kinds of flower buds were discovered in the cross of 3501 x 3509, i.e. one side of the flower buds was completely in red color, which was same as the parental material of 3509, and another side was generally in yellow color with red spots on them. Cytological analysis showed that two sides were both with 36 chromosomes, indicating that the formation of chimera was not resulted from the changes of chromosome numbers, but from the destruction of pigment synthesis genes by the insert of transposable element.

  6. The Phenotypic and Genetic Underpinnings of Flower Size in Polemoniaceae.

    PubMed

    Landis, Jacob B; O'Toole, Rebecca D; Ventura, Kayla L; Gitzendanner, Matthew A; Oppenheimer, David G; Soltis, Douglas E; Soltis, Pamela S

    2015-01-01

    Corolla length is a labile flower feature and has strong implications for pollinator success. However, the phenotypic and genetic bases of corolla elongation are not well known, largely due to a lack of good candidate genes for potential genetic exploration and functional work. We investigate both the cellular phenotypic differences in corolla length, as well as the genetic control of this trait, in Saltugilia (Polemoniaceae). Taxa in this clade exhibit a large range of flower sizes and differ dramatically in pollinator guilds. Flowers of each species were collected from multiple individuals during four stages of flower development to ascertain if cell number or cell size is more important in determining flower size. In Saltugilia, increased flower size during development appears to be driven more by cell size than cell number. Differences in flower size between species are governed by both cell size and cell number, with the large-flowered S. splendens subsp. grantii having nearly twice as many cells as the small-flowered species. Fully mature flowers of all taxa contain jigsaw cells similar to cells seen in sepals and leaves; however, these cells are not typically found in the developing flowers of most species. The proportion of this cell type in mature flowers appears to have substantial implications, comprising 17-68% of the overall flower size. To identify candidate genes responsible for differences in cell area and cell type, transcriptomes were generated for two individuals of the species with the smallest (S. australis) and largest (S. splendens subsp. grantii) flowers across the same four developmental stages visualized with confocal microscopy. Analyses identified genes associated with cell wall formation that are up-regulated in the mature flower stage compared to mid-stage flowers (75% of mature size). This developmental change is associated with the origin of jigsaw cells in the corolla tube of mature flowers. Further comparisons between mature

  7. Effect of Ethylene on Flower Abscission: a Survey

    PubMed Central

    VAN DOORN, WOUTER G.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of ethylene on flower abscission was investigated in monocotyledons and eudicotyledons, in about 300 species from 50 families. In all species studied except Cymbidium, flower abscission was highly sensitive to ethylene. Flower fall was not consistent among the species in any family studied. It also showed no relationship with petal senescence or abscission, nor with petal colour changes or flower closure. Results suggest that flower abscission is generally mediated by endogenous ethylene, but that some exceptional ethylene‐insensitive abscission occurs in the Orchidaceae. PMID:12102524

  8. The Phenotypic and Genetic Underpinnings of Flower Size in Polemoniaceae

    PubMed Central

    Landis, Jacob B.; O'Toole, Rebecca D.; Ventura, Kayla L.; Gitzendanner, Matthew A.; Oppenheimer, David G.; Soltis, Douglas E.; Soltis, Pamela S.

    2016-01-01

    Corolla length is a labile flower feature and has strong implications for pollinator success. However, the phenotypic and genetic bases of corolla elongation are not well known, largely due to a lack of good candidate genes for potential genetic exploration and functional work. We investigate both the cellular phenotypic differences in corolla length, as well as the genetic control of this trait, in Saltugilia (Polemoniaceae). Taxa in this clade exhibit a large range of flower sizes and differ dramatically in pollinator guilds. Flowers of each species were collected from multiple individuals during four stages of flower development to ascertain if cell number or cell size is more important in determining flower size. In Saltugilia, increased flower size during development appears to be driven more by cell size than cell number. Differences in flower size between species are governed by both cell size and cell number, with the large-flowered S. splendens subsp. grantii having nearly twice as many cells as the small-flowered species. Fully mature flowers of all taxa contain jigsaw cells similar to cells seen in sepals and leaves; however, these cells are not typically found in the developing flowers of most species. The proportion of this cell type in mature flowers appears to have substantial implications, comprising 17–68% of the overall flower size. To identify candidate genes responsible for differences in cell area and cell type, transcriptomes were generated for two individuals of the species with the smallest (S. australis) and largest (S. splendens subsp. grantii) flowers across the same four developmental stages visualized with confocal microscopy. Analyses identified genes associated with cell wall formation that are up-regulated in the mature flower stage compared to mid-stage flowers (75% of mature size). This developmental change is associated with the origin of jigsaw cells in the corolla tube of mature flowers. Further comparisons between mature

  9. Models for forecasting the flowering of Cornicabra olive groves.

    PubMed

    Rojo, Jesús; Pérez-Badia, Rosa

    2015-11-01

    This study examined the impact of weather-related variables on flowering phenology in the Cornicabra olive tree and constructed models based on linear and Poisson regression to forecast the onset and length of the pre-flowering and flowering phenophases. Spain is the world's leading olive oil producer, and the Cornicabra variety is the second largest Spanish variety in terms of surface area. However, there has been little phenological research into this variety. Phenological observations were made over a 5-year period (2009-2013) at four sampling sites in the province of Toledo (central Spain). Results showed that the onset of the pre-flowering phase is governed largely by temperature, which displayed a positive correlation with the temperature in the start of dormancy (November) and a negative correlation during the months prior to budburst (January, February and March). A similar relationship was recorded for the onset of flowering. Other weather-related variables, including solar radiation and rainfall, also influenced the succession of olive flowering phenophases. Linear models proved the most suitable for forecasting the onset and length of the pre-flowering period and the onset of flowering. The onset and length of pre-flowering can be predicted up to 1 or 2 months prior to budburst, whilst the onset of flowering can be forecast up to 3 months beforehand. By contrast, a nonlinear model using Poisson regression was best suited to predict the length of the flowering period.

  10. Models for forecasting the flowering of Cornicabra olive groves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojo, Jesús; Pérez-Badia, Rosa

    2015-11-01

    This study examined the impact of weather-related variables on flowering phenology in the Cornicabra olive tree and constructed models based on linear and Poisson regression to forecast the onset and length of the pre-flowering and flowering phenophases. Spain is the world's leading olive oil producer, and the Cornicabra variety is the second largest Spanish variety in terms of surface area. However, there has been little phenological research into this variety. Phenological observations were made over a 5-year period (2009-2013) at four sampling sites in the province of Toledo (central Spain). Results showed that the onset of the pre-flowering phase is governed largely by temperature, which displayed a positive correlation with the temperature in the start of dormancy (November) and a negative correlation during the months prior to budburst (January, February and March). A similar relationship was recorded for the onset of flowering. Other weather-related variables, including solar radiation and rainfall, also influenced the succession of olive flowering phenophases. Linear models proved the most suitable for forecasting the onset and length of the pre-flowering period and the onset of flowering. The onset and length of pre-flowering can be predicted up to 1 or 2 months prior to budburst, whilst the onset of flowering can be forecast up to 3 months beforehand. By contrast, a nonlinear model using Poisson regression was best suited to predict the length of the flowering period.

  11. Large and abundant flowers increase indirect costs of corollas: a study of coflowering sympatric Mediterranean species of contrasting flower size.

    PubMed

    Teixido, Alberto L; Valladares, Fernando

    2013-09-01

    Large floral displays receive more pollinator visits but involve higher production and maintenance costs. This can result in indirect costs which may negatively affect functions like reproductive output. In this study, we explored the relationship between floral display and indirect costs in two pairs of coflowering sympatric Mediterranean Cistus of contrasting flower size. We hypothesized that: (1) corolla production entails direct costs in dry mass, N and P, (2) corollas entail significant indirect costs in terms of fruit set and seed production, (3) indirect costs increase with floral display, (4) indirect costs are greater in larger-flowered sympatric species, and (5) local climatic conditions influence indirect costs. We compared fruit set and seed production of petal-removed flowers and unmanipulated control flowers and evaluated the influence of mean flower number and mean flower size on relative fruit and seed gain of petal-removed and control flowers. Fruit set and seed production were significantly higher in petal-removed flowers in all the studied species. A positive relationship was found between relative fruit gain and mean individual flower size within species. In one pair of species, fruit gain was higher in the large-flowered species, as was the correlation between fruit gain and mean number of open flowers. In the other pair, the correlation between fruit gain and mean flower size was also higher in the large-flowered species. These results reveal that Mediterranean environments impose significant constraints on floral display, counteracting advantages of large flowers from the pollination point of view with increased indirect costs of such flowers.

  12. Microsporogenesis and flower development in Eucalyptus urophylla × E. tereticornis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; Kang, Xiangyang

    2015-03-01

    We compared microsporogenesis and flower development in Eucalyptus urophylla × E. tereticornis. In this study, although microsporogenesis and cytokinesis occurred simultaneously during meiosis of pollen mother cells, we observed a strong asynchronism in different anthers from a flower bud. The developmental period of microsporogenesis in anthers originated from the long thrum before the short thrum. Flower development was also asynchronous at different locations on a branch. The flower buds grew on the lower side of the branch and showed greater increases in diameter. In addition, we observed a relationship between microsporogenesis development and flower bud diameter growth. Generally, when the pachytene stage was first observed in a small single flower bud growing on top of a flowering branch, the remaining microsporogenesis stages (from diplotene to tetrad) in the whole branch occurred over the next 5-9 days. Thus, the start of microsporogenesis in E. urophylla × E. tereticornis could be determined, which may be applicable to future breeding studies. PMID:26069443

  13. Microsporogenesis and flower development in Eucalyptus urophylla × E. tereticornis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jun; Kang, Xiangyang

    2015-01-01

    We compared microsporogenesis and flower development in Eucalyptus urophylla × E. tereticornis. In this study, although microsporogenesis and cytokinesis occurred simultaneously during meiosis of pollen mother cells, we observed a strong asynchronism in different anthers from a flower bud. The developmental period of microsporogenesis in anthers originated from the long thrum before the short thrum. Flower development was also asynchronous at different locations on a branch. The flower buds grew on the lower side of the branch and showed greater increases in diameter. In addition, we observed a relationship between microsporogenesis development and flower bud diameter growth. Generally, when the pachytene stage was first observed in a small single flower bud growing on top of a flowering branch, the remaining microsporogenesis stages (from diplotene to tetrad) in the whole branch occurred over the next 5–9 days. Thus, the start of microsporogenesis in E. urophylla × E. tereticornis could be determined, which may be applicable to future breeding studies. PMID:26069443

  14. Developmental morphology of branching flowers in Nymphaea prolifera.

    PubMed

    Grob, Valentin; Moline, Philip; Pfeifer, Evelin; Novelo, Alejandro R; Rutishauser, Rolf

    2006-11-01

    Nymphaea and Nuphar (Nymphaeaceae) share an extra-axillary mode of floral inception in the shoot apical meristem (SAM). Some leaf sites along the ontogenetic spiral are occupied by floral primordia lacking a subtending bract. This pattern of flower initiation in leaf sites is repeated inside branching flowers of Nymphaea prolifera (Central and South America). Instead of fertile flowers this species usually produces sterile tuberiferous flowers that act as vegetative propagules. N. prolifera changes the meristem identity from reproductive to vegetative or vice versa repeatedly. Each branching flower first produces some perianth-like leaves, then it switches back to the vegetative meristem identity of the SAM with the formation of foliage leaves and another set of branching flowers. This process is repeated up to three times giving rise to more than 100 vegetative propagules. The developmental morphology of the branching flowers of N. prolifera is described using both microtome sections and scanning electron microscopy.

  15. Ants and ant scent reduce bumblebee pollination of artificial flowers.

    PubMed

    Cembrowski, Adam R; Tan, Marcus G; Thomson, James D; Frederickson, Megan E

    2014-01-01

    Ants on flowers can disrupt pollination by consuming rewards or harassing pollinators, but it is difficult to disentangle the effects of these exploitative and interference forms of competition on pollinator behavior. Using highly rewarding and quickly replenishing artificial flowers that simulate male or female function, we allowed bumblebees (Bombus impatiens) to forage (1) on flowers with or without ants (Myrmica rubra) and (2) on flowers with or without ant scent cues. Bumblebees transferred significantly more pollen analogue both to and from ant-free flowers, demonstrating that interference competition with ants is sufficient to modify pollinator foraging behavior. Bees also removed significantly less pollen analogue from ant-scented flowers than from controls, making this the first study to show that bees can use ant scent to avoid harassment at flowers. Ant effects on pollinator behavior, possibly in addition to their effects on pollen viability, may contribute to the evolution of floral traits minimizing ant visitation.

  16. Photosynthate partitioning during flowering in relation to senescence of spinach

    SciTech Connect

    Sklensky, D.; Davies, P.J. )

    1990-05-01

    Male spinach plants are frequently cited as a counter-example to the nutrient drain hypothesis. Photosynthate partitioning in both male and female plants was examined. Leaves just below the inflorescences in plants at various stages of flowering were labelled with {sup 14}CO{sub 2} and the photosynthate allowed to partition for three hours. The leaves, flowers and stems of the inflorescence, and the other above ground vegetative tissue were harvested. These parts were combusted in a sample oxidizer for the collection of the {sup 14}CO{sub 2}. Allocation to the male and female flowers at very early stages are similar. As the flowers develop further, male flowers receive more photosynthate than do female flowers in early fruit production. Thus it is possible that nutrient drain to the flowers in male spinach plants is sufficient to account for senescence.

  17. Ants and ant scent reduce bumblebee pollination of artificial flowers.

    PubMed

    Cembrowski, Adam R; Tan, Marcus G; Thomson, James D; Frederickson, Megan E

    2014-01-01

    Ants on flowers can disrupt pollination by consuming rewards or harassing pollinators, but it is difficult to disentangle the effects of these exploitative and interference forms of competition on pollinator behavior. Using highly rewarding and quickly replenishing artificial flowers that simulate male or female function, we allowed bumblebees (Bombus impatiens) to forage (1) on flowers with or without ants (Myrmica rubra) and (2) on flowers with or without ant scent cues. Bumblebees transferred significantly more pollen analogue both to and from ant-free flowers, demonstrating that interference competition with ants is sufficient to modify pollinator foraging behavior. Bees also removed significantly less pollen analogue from ant-scented flowers than from controls, making this the first study to show that bees can use ant scent to avoid harassment at flowers. Ant effects on pollinator behavior, possibly in addition to their effects on pollen viability, may contribute to the evolution of floral traits minimizing ant visitation. PMID:24334742

  18. Tropism in azalea and lily flowers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, M.; Tomita-Yokotani, K.; Nakamura, T.; Yamashita, M.

    Flowers have coevolved with pollinator animals. Some flowers have the up-down directional features in their form and orientation, which results the higher success of pollination under the influence of gravity. Azalea, Rhododendron pulchrum, flower responds against gravity, and orients the specific petal at its top. This petal with honey mark guides pollinator animals to nectary of the flower. Pistil and stamen bend upward by sensing gravity, and increase probability of their contact with pollinator. There was large sediment amyloplast found in sectioned tissue of style. In addition to this action of gravity, phototropic response was also observed at lesser degree, while the gravitational cue was removed by the 3D-clinorotation of the plant. In contrast to azalea, pistil of lily flower senses light in order to determine the direction of bending. Lily, Lilium cv. 'Casablanca', tepals open horizontally or slightly inclined downward. After its anthesis, pistil and stamen start to bend upward by light. Gravity induced no tropic response at all, evidenced by the experiment conducted under dark. Sediment amyloplast was not found in lily style. Phototropic response of pistil and stamen in lily was activated by blue light even at lower energy density. On the other hand, red light was not effective to induce the tropic response even with substantial energy density. This action spectrum of light agreed with those for the phototropism shown in coleoptile of monocotyledonous plants. Because the tropism of style was not hindered at removal of stigma, reception site for incident light is neither restricted to stigma nor its close vicinity, but distributes through style. The process of lily pistil elongation was analyzed in details to identify the site of its initiation and propagation of bending movement through the anthesis period. Elongation started at basal part of pistil and propagated towards its top after opening of perianth. Steep bending occurred at the basal zone of

  19. Pollinator-Mediated Selection on Flower Color, Flower Scent and Flower Morphology of Hemerocallis: Evidence from Genotyping Individual Pollen Grains On the Stigma

    PubMed Central

    Hirota, Shun K.; Nitta, Kozue; Suyama, Yoshihisa; Kawakubo, Nobumitsu; Yasumoto, Akiko A.; Yahara, Tetsukazu

    2013-01-01

    To trace the fate of individual pollen grains through pollination processes, we determined genotypes of single pollen grains deposited on Hemerocallis stigmas in an experimental mixed-species array. Hemerocallis fulva, pollinated by butterflies, has diurnal, reddish and unscented flowers, and H. citrina, pollinated by hawkmoths, has nocturnal, yellowish and sweet scent flowers. We observed pollinator visits to an experimental array of 24 H. fulva and 12 F2 hybrids between the two species (H. fulva and H. citrina) and collected stigmas after every trip bout of swallowtail butterflies or hawkmoths. We then measured selection by swallowtail butterflies or hawkmoths through male and female components of pollination success as determined by single pollen genotyping. As expected, swallowtail butterflies imposed selection on reddish color and weak scent: the number of outcross pollen grains acquired is a quadratic function of flower color with the maximum at reddish color, and the combined pollination success was maximal at weak scent (almost unrecognizable for human). This explains why H. fulva, with reddish flowers and no recognizable scent, is mainly pollinated by swallowtail butterflies. However, we found no evidence of hawkmoths-mediated selection on flower color or scent. Our findings do not support a hypothesis that yellow flower color and strong scent intensity, the distinctive floral characteristics of H. citrina, having evolved in adaptations to hawkmoths. We suggest that the key trait that triggers the evolution of nocturnal flowers is flowering time rather than flower color and scent. PMID:24376890

  20. Pollinator-mediated selection on flower color, flower scent and flower morphology of Hemerocallis: evidence from genotyping individual pollen grains on the stigma.

    PubMed

    Hirota, Shun K; Nitta, Kozue; Suyama, Yoshihisa; Kawakubo, Nobumitsu; Yasumoto, Akiko A; Yahara, Tetsukazu

    2013-01-01

    To trace the fate of individual pollen grains through pollination processes, we determined genotypes of single pollen grains deposited on Hemerocallis stigmas in an experimental mixed-species array. Hemerocallis fulva, pollinated by butterflies, has diurnal, reddish and unscented flowers, and H. citrina, pollinated by hawkmoths, has nocturnal, yellowish and sweet scent flowers. We observed pollinator visits to an experimental array of 24 H. fulva and 12 F2 hybrids between the two species (H. fulva and H. citrina) and collected stigmas after every trip bout of swallowtail butterflies or hawkmoths. We then measured selection by swallowtail butterflies or hawkmoths through male and female components of pollination success as determined by single pollen genotyping. As expected, swallowtail butterflies imposed selection on reddish color and weak scent: the number of outcross pollen grains acquired is a quadratic function of flower color with the maximum at reddish color, and the combined pollination success was maximal at weak scent (almost unrecognizable for human). This explains why H. fulva, with reddish flowers and no recognizable scent, is mainly pollinated by swallowtail butterflies. However, we found no evidence of hawkmoths-mediated selection on flower color or scent. Our findings do not support a hypothesis that yellow flower color and strong scent intensity, the distinctive floral characteristics of H. citrina, having evolved in adaptations to hawkmoths. We suggest that the key trait that triggers the evolution of nocturnal flowers is flowering time rather than flower color and scent. PMID:24376890

  1. Using daily temperature to predict phenology trends in spring flowers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin-Hee; Kim, Soo-Ock; Kim, Dae-Jun; Moon, Kyung Hwan; Yun, Jin I.

    2015-05-01

    The spring season in Korea features a dynamic landscape with a variety of flowers blooming sequentially one after another. This enables local governments to earn substantial sightseeing revenues by hosting festivals featuring spring flowers. Furthermore, beekeepers move from the southern tip of the Korean Peninsula all the way northward in a quest to secure spring flowers as nectar sources for a sustained period of time. However, areal differences in flowering dates of flower species are narrowing, which has economic consequences. Analysis of data on flowering dates of forsythia ( Forsythia koreana) and cherry blossom ( Prunus serrulata), two typical spring flower species, as observed for the past 60 years at six weather stations of the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) indicated that the difference between the flowering date of forsythia, the earliest blooming flower in spring, and cherry blossom, which flowers later than forsythia, was 14 days on average in the climatological normal year for the period 1951-1980, compared with 11 days for the period 1981-2010. In 2014, the gap narrowed further to 7 days, making it possible in some locations to see forsythias and cherry blossoms blooming at the same time. Synchronized flowering of these two flower species is due to acceleration of flowering due to an abnormally high spring temperature, and this was more pronounced in the later-blooming cherry blossom than forsythia. While cherry blossom flowering dates across the nation ranged from March 31 to April 19 (an areal difference of 20 days) for the 1951-1980 normal year, the difference ranged from March 29 to April 12 (an areal difference of 16 days) for the 1981-2010 normal year, and in 2014, the flowering dates spanned March 25 and March 30 (an areal difference of 6 days). In the case of forsythia, the gap was narrower than in cherry blossoms. Climate change in the Korean Peninsula, reflected by rapid temperature hikes in late spring in contrast to a slow

  2. Dormancy release and flowering time in Ziziphus jujuba Mill., a "direct flowering" fruit tree, has a facultative requirement for chilling.

    PubMed

    Meir, Michal; Ransbotyn, Vanessa; Raveh, Eran; Barak, Simon; Tel-Zur, Noemi; Zaccai, Michele

    2016-03-15

    In deciduous fruit trees, the effect of chilling on flowering has mostly been investigated in the "indirect flowering" group, characterized by a period of rest between flower bud formation and blooming. In the present study, we explored the effects of chilling and chilling deprivation on the flowering of Ziziphus jujuba, a temperate deciduous fruit tree belonging to the "direct flowering" group, in which flower bud differentiation, blooming and fruit development occur after dormancy release, during a single growing season. Dormancy release, vegetative growth and flowering time in Z. jujuba cv. Ben-Li were assessed following several treatments of chilling. Chilling treatments quantitatively decreased the timing of vegetative bud dormancy release, thereby accelerating flowering, but had no effect on the time from dormancy release to flowering. Trees grown at a constant temperature of 25°C, without chilling, broke dormancy and flowered, indicating the facultative character of chilling in this species. We measured the expression of Z. jujuba LFY and AP1 homologues (ZjLFY and ZjAP1). Chilling decreased ZjLFY expression in dormant vegetative buds but had no effect on ZjAP1expression, which reached peak expression before dormancy release and at anthesis. In conclusion, chilling is not obligatory for dormancy release of Z. jujuba cv. Ben-Li vegetative buds. However, the exposure to chilling during dormancy does accelerate vegetative bud dormancy release and flowering. PMID:26949231

  3. Testing hypotheses for excess flower production and low fruit-to-flower ratios in a pollinating seed-consuming mutualism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holland, J. Nathaniel; Bronstein, Judith L.; DeAngelis, Donald L.

    2004-01-01

    Pollinator attraction, pollen limitation, resource limitation, pollen donation and selective fruit abortion have all been proposed as processes explaining why hermaphroditic plants commonly produce many more flowers than mature fruit. We conducted a series of experiments in Arizona to investigate low fruit-to-flower ratios in senita cacti, which rely exclusively on pollinating seed-consumers. Selective abortion of fruit based on seed predators is of particular interest in this case because plants relying on pollinating seed-consumers are predicted to have such a mechanism to minimize seed loss. Pollinator attraction and pollen dispersal increased with flower number, but fruit set did not, refuting the hypothesis that excess flowers increase fruit set by attracting more pollinators. Fruit set of natural- and hand-pollinated flowers were not different, supporting the resource, rather than pollen, limitation hypothesis. Senita did abort fruit, but not selectively based on pollen quantity, pollen donors, or seed predators. Collectively, these results are consistent with sex allocation theory in that resource allocation to excess flower production can increase pollen dispersal and the male fitness function of flowers, but consequently results in reduced resources available for fruit set. Inconsistent with sex allocation theory, however, fruit production and the female fitness function of flowers may actually increase with flower production. This is because excess flower production lowers pollinator-to-flower ratios and results in fruit abortion, both of which limit the abundance and hence oviposition rates, of pre-dispersal seed predators.

  4. What flowers do we like? The influence of shape and color on the rating of flower beauty

    PubMed Central

    Flegr, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    There is no doubt that people find flowers beautiful. Surprisingly, we know very little about the actual properties which make flowers so appealing to humans. Although the evolutionary aesthetics provides some theories concerning generally preferred flower traits, empirical evidence is largely missing. In this study, we used an online survey in which residents of the Czech Republic (n = 2006) rated the perceived beauty of 52 flower stimuli of diverse shapes and colors. Colored flowers were preferred over their uncolored versions. When controlling for flower shape, we found an unequal preference for different flower colors, blue being the most and yellow the least preferred. In the overall assessment of beauty, shape was more important than color. Prototypical flowers, i.e., radially symmetrical flowers with low complexity, were rated as the most beautiful. We also found a positive effect of sharp flower contours and blue color on the overall rating of flower beauty. The results may serve as a basis for further studies in some areas of the people-plant interaction research. PMID:27330863

  5. What flowers do we like? The influence of shape and color on the rating of flower beauty.

    PubMed

    Hůla, Martin; Flegr, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    There is no doubt that people find flowers beautiful. Surprisingly, we know very little about the actual properties which make flowers so appealing to humans. Although the evolutionary aesthetics provides some theories concerning generally preferred flower traits, empirical evidence is largely missing. In this study, we used an online survey in which residents of the Czech Republic (n = 2006) rated the perceived beauty of 52 flower stimuli of diverse shapes and colors. Colored flowers were preferred over their uncolored versions. When controlling for flower shape, we found an unequal preference for different flower colors, blue being the most and yellow the least preferred. In the overall assessment of beauty, shape was more important than color. Prototypical flowers, i.e., radially symmetrical flowers with low complexity, were rated as the most beautiful. We also found a positive effect of sharp flower contours and blue color on the overall rating of flower beauty. The results may serve as a basis for further studies in some areas of the people-plant interaction research.

  6. What flowers do we like? The influence of shape and color on the rating of flower beauty.

    PubMed

    Hůla, Martin; Flegr, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    There is no doubt that people find flowers beautiful. Surprisingly, we know very little about the actual properties which make flowers so appealing to humans. Although the evolutionary aesthetics provides some theories concerning generally preferred flower traits, empirical evidence is largely missing. In this study, we used an online survey in which residents of the Czech Republic (n = 2006) rated the perceived beauty of 52 flower stimuli of diverse shapes and colors. Colored flowers were preferred over their uncolored versions. When controlling for flower shape, we found an unequal preference for different flower colors, blue being the most and yellow the least preferred. In the overall assessment of beauty, shape was more important than color. Prototypical flowers, i.e., radially symmetrical flowers with low complexity, were rated as the most beautiful. We also found a positive effect of sharp flower contours and blue color on the overall rating of flower beauty. The results may serve as a basis for further studies in some areas of the people-plant interaction research. PMID:27330863

  7. Changes of flowering phenology and flower size in rosaceous plants from a biodiversity hotspot in the past century

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Qin; Jia, Dong-Rui; Tian, Bin; Yang, Yong-Ping; Duan, Yuan-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Responses of plant traits to climate changes are complex, which could be mirrored by the investigations of herbarium specimens. By examining specimens of Rosa and Cotoneaster species collected since 1920s in Hengduan Mountains, we analyzed the changes of flowering phenology and flower size in the past century when climate changes were considered to be intensified. We found that flowering phenology of Rosa showed no significant change, but flowering phenology of Cotoneaster was delayed in recent years. Flower size of Rosa species showed a marginally significant decrease over the past century. The results suggested that responses of flowering time to global changes and pollinator mediated selection on floral traits might be more complex than what were expected. Our results indicated that future researches based on investigations of herbarium specimens should be carried out on multiple plant species with different flower structures and life histories to better understand the effects of climate changes on plant traits. PMID:27312838

  8. Changes of flowering phenology and flower size in rosaceous plants from a biodiversity hotspot in the past century.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qin; Jia, Dong-Rui; Tian, Bin; Yang, Yong-Ping; Duan, Yuan-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Responses of plant traits to climate changes are complex, which could be mirrored by the investigations of herbarium specimens. By examining specimens of Rosa and Cotoneaster species collected since 1920s in Hengduan Mountains, we analyzed the changes of flowering phenology and flower size in the past century when climate changes were considered to be intensified. We found that flowering phenology of Rosa showed no significant change, but flowering phenology of Cotoneaster was delayed in recent years. Flower size of Rosa species showed a marginally significant decrease over the past century. The results suggested that responses of flowering time to global changes and pollinator mediated selection on floral traits might be more complex than what were expected. Our results indicated that future researches based on investigations of herbarium specimens should be carried out on multiple plant species with different flower structures and life histories to better understand the effects of climate changes on plant traits. PMID:27312838

  9. Where have all the blue flowers gone: pollinator responses and selection on flower colour in New Zealand Wahlenbergia albomarginata.

    PubMed

    Campbell, D R; Bischoff, M; Lord, J M; Robertson, A W

    2012-02-01

    Although pollinators are thought to select on flower colour, few studies have experimentally decoupled effects of colour from correlated traits on pollinator visitation and pollen transfer. We combined selection analysis and phenotypic manipulations to measure the effect of petal colour on visitation and pollen export at two spatial scales in Wahlenbergia albomarginata. This species is representative of many New Zealand alpine herbs that have secondarily evolved white or pale flowers. The major pollinators, solitary bees, exerted phenotypic selection on flower size but not colour, quantified by bee vision. When presented with manipulated flowers, bees visited flowers painted blue to resemble a congener over white flowers in large, but not small, experimental arrays. Pollen export was higher for blue flowers in large arrays. Pollinator preference does not explain the pale colouration of W. albomarginata, as commonly hypothesized. Absence of bright blue could be driven instead by indirect selection of correlated characters.

  10. Epigenetic regulation of rice flowering and reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jinlei; Dong, Aiwu; Shen, Wen-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Current understanding of the epigenetic regulator roles in plant growth and development has largely derived from studies in the dicotyledonous model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Rice (Oryza sativa) is one of the most important food crops in the world and has more recently becoming a monocotyledonous model plant in functional genomics research. During the past few years, an increasing number of studies have reported the impact of DNA methylation, non-coding RNAs and histone modifications on transcription regulation, flowering time control, and reproduction in rice. Here, we review these studies to provide an updated complete view about chromatin modifiers characterized in rice and in particular on their roles in epigenetic regulation of flowering time, reproduction, and seed development. PMID:25674094

  11. Plants and colour: Flowers and pollination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Renee; Owens, Simon J.; Rørslett, Bjørn

    2011-03-01

    While there is a range of colours found in plants the predominant colour is green. Pigments in plants have several roles e.g. photosynthesis and signalling. If colour is to be used as a signal then it must stand out from green. However, one should be aware that there are also coloured compounds where we have not yet fully investigated the role of colour in their functions—they may have roles in, for example, defence or heat exchange. In this paper, we will describe the basic chemistry of the major pigments found in plants and especially floral pigments. We will then discuss their locations in parts of the flower (such as sepals, petals, pollen and nectar), the cells in which they are found and their sub-cellular locations. Floral pigments have a large role to play in pollination of flowers by animals. They can and are modified in many ways during the development of flowers in nature, for example, at emergence and post-pollination. There are a range of biochemical mechanisms of colour change both within flowers and in isolated pigments. Some of the factors influencing colour are temperature, co-pigments, pH, metals, sugars, anthocyanin stacking and cell shape. There is a renewed interest in analysing floral pigments and how they are modified partly because of advances in recombinant DNA technologies, but also because of pollinators and their significance to biodiversity and for evolutionary studies. There is continued strong interest from the horticultural industry for the introduction of new colours e.g. the blue rose and for the exploitation of natural dyes. Funding in this area may impact future research in a potentially beneficial way but it must not deflect us from science-based conservation.

  12. Sucrose accelerates flower opening and delays senescence through a hormonal effect in cut lily flowers.

    PubMed

    Arrom, Laia; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2012-06-01

    Sugars are generally used to extend the vase life of cut flowers. Such beneficial effects have been associated with an improvement of water relations and an increase in available energy for respiration by floral tissues. In this study we aimed at evaluating to what extent (i) endogenous levels of sugars in outer and inner tepals, androecium and gynoecium are altered during opening and senescence of lily flowers; (ii) sugar levels increase in various floral tissues after sucrose addition to the vase solution; and (iii) sucrose addition alters the hormonal balance of floral tissues. Results showed that endogenous glucose levels increased during flower opening and decreased during senescence in all floral organs, while sucrose levels increased in outer and inner tepals and the androecium during senescence. Sucrose treatment accelerated flower opening, and delayed senescence, but did not affect tepal abscission. Such effects appeared to be exerted through a specific increase in the endogenous levels of sucrose in the gynoecium and of glucose in all floral tissues. The hormonal balance was altered in the gynoecium as well as in other floral tissues. Aside from cytokinin and auxin increases in the gynoecium; cytokinins, gibberellins, abscisic acid and salicylic acid levels increased in the androecium, while abscisic acid decreased in outer tepals. It is concluded that sucrose addition to the vase solution exerts an effect on flower opening and senescence by, among other factors, altering the hormonal balance of several floral tissues.

  13. Is the flower fluorescence relevant in biocommunication?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iriel, Analía; Lagorio, María Gabriela

    2010-10-01

    Flower fluorescence has been previously proposed as a potential visual signal to attract pollinators. In this work, this point was addressed by quantitatively measuring the fluorescence quantum yield ( Φ f) for flowers of Bellis perennis (white, yellow, pink, and purple), Ornithogalum thyrsoides (petals and ovaries), Limonium sinuatum (white and yellow), Lampranthus productus (yellow), Petunia nyctaginiflora (white), Bougainvillea spectabilis (white and yellow), Antirrhinum majus (white and yellow), Eustoma grandiflorum (white and blue), Citrus aurantium (petals and stigma), and Portulaca grandiflora (yellow). The highest values were obtained for the ovaries of O. thyrsoides ( Φ f = 0.030) and for Citrus aurantium petals ( Φ f = 0.014) and stigma ( Φ f = 0.013). Emitted photons as fluorescence were compared with reflected photons. It was concluded that the fluorescence emission is negligible compared to the reflected light, even for the most fluorescent samples, and it may not be considered as an optical signal in biocommunication. The work was complemented with the calculation of quantum catches for each studied flower species to describe the visual sensitization of eye photoreceptors.

  14. The colorful language of Australian flowers.

    PubMed

    Burd, Martin; Stayton, C Tristan; Shrestha, Mani; Dyer, Adrian G

    2014-01-01

    The enormous increase in phylogenetic information in recent years has allowed many old questions to be reexamined from a macroevolutionary perspective. We have recently considered evolutionary convergence in floral colors within pollination syndromes, using bird-pollinated species in Australia. We combined quantitative measurements of floral reflectance spectra, models of avian color vision, and a phylogenetic tree of 234 Australian species to show that bird-pollinated flowers as a group do not have colors that are significantly different from the colors of insect-pollinated flowers. However, about half the bird-pollinated flowers have convergently evolved a narrow range of colors with dominant long-wavelength reflection far more often than would be expected by chance. These convergent colors would be seen as distinctly different from other floral colors in our sample when viewed by honeyeaters (family Meliphagidae), birds with a phylogenetically ancestral type of color vision and the dominant avian pollinators in Australia. Our analysis shows how qualitative ideas in natural history, like the concept of pollination syndromes, can be given more precise definition and rigorous statistical testing that takes into account phylogenetic information. PMID:25346795

  15. Control of flowering by ambient temperature.

    PubMed

    Capovilla, Giovanna; Schmid, Markus; Posé, David

    2015-01-01

    The timing of flowering is a crucial decision in the life cycle of plants since favourable conditions are needed to maximize reproductive success and, hence, the survival of the species. It is therefore not surprising that plants constantly monitor endogenous and environmental signals, such as day length (photoperiod) and temperature, to adjust the timing of the floral transition. Temperature in particular has been shown to have a tremendous effect on the timing of flowering: the effect of prolonged periods of cold, called the vernalization response, has been extensively studied and the underlying epigenetic mechanisms are reasonably well understood in Arabidopsis thaliana. In contrast, the effect of moderate changes in ambient growth temperature on the progression of flowering, the thermosensory pathway, is only starting to be understood on the molecular level. Several genes and molecular mechanisms underlying the thermosensory pathway have already been identified and characterized in detail. At a time when global temperature is rising due to climate change, this knowledge will be pivotal to ensure crop production in the future. PMID:25326628

  16. A perfect flower from the Jurassic of China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhong-Jian; Wang, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Flower, enclosed ovule and tetrasporangiate anther are three major characters distinguishing angiosperms from other seed plants. Morphologically, typical flowers are characterised by an organisation with gynoecium and androecium surrounded by corolla and calyx. Theoretically, flowers are derived from their counterparts in ancient ancestral gymnosperms. However, as for when, how and from which groups, there is no consensus among botanists yet. Although angiosperm-like pollen and angiosperms have been claimed in the Triassic and Jurassic, typical flowers with the aforesaid three key characters are still missing in the pre-Cretaceous age, making many interpretations of flower evolution tentative. Thus searching for flower in the pre-Cretaceous has been a tantalising task for palaeobotanists for a long time. Here, we report a typical flower, Euanthus panii gen. et sp. nov., from the Middle–Late Jurassic of Liaoning, China. Euanthus has sepals, petals, androecium with tetrasporangiate dithecate anthers and gynoecium with enclosed ovules, organised just like in perfect flowers of extant angiosperms. The discovery of Euanthus implies that typical angiosperm flowers have already been in place in the Jurassic, and provides a new insight unavailable otherwise for the evolution of flowers. PMID:27134345

  17. Lichens promote flowering Opuntia fragilis in west-central Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, J.P.; Bornar, C.R.; Harrington, C.A.

    2003-01-01

    Clumps of the cactus Opuntia fragilis growing in association with mats of the lichens Cladina mitis, Cladina rangiferina and a spikemoss, Selaginella rupestris, were discovered in an agricultural field in Pepin County, Wisconsin, that had been abandoned for over 50 y. The association appeared to be beneficial to the cactus, which flowered almost exclusively in the presence of lichens. Of 294 cactus clumps examined in 2001, 127 grew in the presence of lichen mats and, of these, 24 flowered, producing 91 flowers, while none of the cacti growing in the absence of lichens flowered. In 2002, 19 out of 265 cactus clumps flowered, all but one in the presence of lichens. All sizes of cacti in the presence of lichens flowered and the probability of flowering increased with cactus size. In addition, the cacti that flowered had cladodes that were on average 19% heavier than those of cacti that did not flower. The presence of lichens lowered summer soil temperatures 2a??4 C compared to soil temperatures in the absence of lichens. Cooler soil temperatures conserve soil moisture better, which may enhance flowering in these cacti.

  18. Quantitative genetic analysis of flowering time in tomato.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Gómez, José M; Alonso-Blanco, Carlos; Borja, Alicia; Anastasio, Germán; Angosto, Trinidad; Lozano, Rafael; Martínez-Zapater, José M

    2007-03-01

    Artificial selection of cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) has resulted in the generation of early-flowering, day-length-insensitive cultivars, despite its close relationship to other Solanum species that need more time and specific photoperiods to flower. To investigate the genetic mechanisms controlling flowering time in tomato and related species, we performed a quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis for flowering time in an F2 mapping population derived from S. lycopersicum and its late-flowering wild relative S. chmielewskii. Flowering time was scored as the number of days from sowing to the opening of the first flower (days to flowering), and as the number of leaves under the first inflorescence (leaf number). QTL analyses detected 2 QTLs affecting days to flowering, which explained 55.3% of the total phenotypic variance, and 6 QTLs for leaf number, accounting for 66.7% of the corresponding phenotypic variance. Four of the leaf number QTLs had not previously been detected for this trait in tomato. Colocation of some QTLs with flowering-time genes included in the genetic map suggests PHYB2, FALSIFLORA, and a tomato FLC-like sequence as candidate genes that might have been targets of selection during the domestication of tomato.

  19. Flower colour and cytochromes P450†

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Brugliera, Filippa

    2013-01-01

    Cytochromes P450 play important roles in biosynthesis of flavonoids and their coloured class of compounds, anthocyanins, both of which are major floral pigments. The number of hydroxyl groups on the B-ring of anthocyanidins (the chromophores and precursors of anthocyanins) impact the anthocyanin colour, the more the bluer. The hydroxylation pattern is determined by two cytochromes P450, flavonoid 3′-hydroxylase (F3′H) and flavonoid 3′,5′-hydroxylase (F3′5′H) and thus they play a crucial role in the determination of flower colour. F3′H and F3′5′H mostly belong to CYP75B and CYP75A, respectively, except for the F3′5′Hs in Compositae that were derived from gene duplication of CYP75B and neofunctionalization. Roses and carnations lack blue/violet flower colours owing to the deficiency of F3′5′H and therefore lack the B-ring-trihydroxylated anthocyanins based upon delphinidin. Successful redirection of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway to delphinidin was achieved by expressing F3′5′H coding regions resulting in carnations and roses with novel blue hues that have been commercialized. Suppression of F3′5′H and F3′H in delphinidin-producing plants reduced the number of hydroxyl groups on the anthocyanidin B-ring resulting in the production of monohydroxylated anthocyanins based on pelargonidin with a shift in flower colour to orange/red. Pelargonidin biosynthesis is enhanced by additional expression of a dihydroflavonol 4-reductase that can use the monohydroxylated dihydrokaempferol (the pelargonidin precursor). Flavone synthase II (FNSII)-catalysing flavone biosynthesis from flavanones is also a P450 (CYP93B) and contributes to flower colour, because flavones act as co-pigments to anthocyanins and can cause blueing and darkening of colour. However, transgenic plants expression of a FNSII gene yielded paler flowers owing to a reduction of anthocyanins because flavanones are precursors of anthocyanins and flavones. PMID:23297355

  20. ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE 4 negatively regulates flowering through directly promoting Arabidopsis FLOWERING LOCUS C transcription

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Kai; Chen, Qian; Wu, Yaorong; Liu, Ruijun; Zhang, Huawei; Wang, Shengfu; Tang, Sanyuan; Yang, Wenyu; Xie, Qi

    2016-01-01

    During the life cycle of a plant, one of the major biological processes is the transition from the vegetative to the reproductive stage. In Arabidopsis, flowering time is precisely controlled by extensive environmental and internal cues. Gibberellins (GAs) promote flowering, while abscisic acid (ABA) is considered as a flowering suppressor. However, the detailed mechanism through which ABA inhibits the floral transition is poorly understood. Here, we report that ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE 4 (ABI4), a key component in the ABA signalling pathway, negatively regulates floral transition by directly promoting FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) transcription. The abi4 mutant showed the early flowering phenotype whereas ABI4-overexpressing (OE-ABI4) plants had delayed floral transition. Consistently, quantitative reverse transcription–PCR (qRT–PCR) assay revealed that the FLC transcription level was down-regulated in abi4, but up-regulated in OE-ABI4. The change in FT level was consistent with the pattern of FLC expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-qPCR (ChIP-qPCR), electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), and tobacco transient expression analysis showed that ABI4 promotes FLC expression by directly binding to its promoter. Genetic analysis demonstrated that OE-ABI4::flc-3 could not alter the flc-3 phenotype. OE-FLC::abi4 showed a markedly delayed flowering phenotype, which mimicked OE-FLC::WT, and suggested that ABI4 acts upstream of FLC in the same genetic pathway. Taken together, these findings suggest that ABA inhibits the floral transition by activating FLC transcription through ABI4. PMID:26507894

  1. Flowering time modulation by a vacuolar SNARE via FLOWERING LOCUS C in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Ebine, Kazuo; Uemura, Tomohiro; Nakano, Akihiko; Ueda, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    The transition of plant growth from vegetative to reproductive phases is one of the most important and dramatic events during the plant life cycle. In Arabidopsis thaliana, flowering promotion involves at least four genetically defined regulatory pathways, including the photoperiod-dependent, vernalization-dependent, gibberellin-dependent, and autonomous promotion pathways. Among these regulatory pathways, the vernalization-dependent and autonomous pathways are integrated by the expression of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), a negative regulator of flowering; however, the upstream regulation of this locus has not been fully understood. The SYP22 gene encodes a vacuolar SNARE protein that acts in vacuolar and endocytic trafficking pathways. Loss of SYP22 function was reported to lead to late flowering in A. thaliana plants, but the mechanism has remained completely unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that the late flowering phenotype of syp22 was due to elevated expression of FLC caused by impairment of the autonomous pathway. In addition, we investigated the DOC1/BIG pathway, which is also suggested to regulate vacuolar/endosomal trafficking. We found that elevated levels of FLC transcripts accumulated in the doc1-1 mutant, and that syp22 phenotypes were exaggerated with a double syp22 doc1-1 mutation. We further demonstrated that the elevated expression of FLC was suppressed by ara6-1, a mutation in the gene encoding plant-unique Rab GTPase involved in endosomal trafficking. Our results indicated that vacuolar and/or endocytic trafficking is involved in the FLC regulation of flowering time in A. thaliana.

  2. Endogenous ethylene does not regulate opening of unstressed Iris flowers but strongly inhibits it in water-stressed flowers.

    PubMed

    Çelikel, Fisun G; van Doorn, Wouter G

    2012-09-15

    The floral buds of Iris flowers (Iris x hollandica) are enclosed by two sheath leaves. Flower opening depends on lifting the flower up to a position whereby the tepals can move laterally. This upward movement is carried out by elongation of the subtending pedicel and ovary. In the pedicels and ovaries of unstressed control flowers, the concentration of ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid) and the rate of ethylene production increased during d 0-1 of flower opening, and then decreased. Exposure to ≥200 nL L(-1) ethylene for 24 h at 20°C inhibited elongation of the pedicel+ovary, and inhibited flower opening. However, pulsing of unstressed flowers with solutions containing inhibitors of ethylene synthesis (AOA, AVG), or an inhibitor of ethylene action (STS), did not affect pedicel+ovary elongation or flower opening. When the flowers were dehydrated for 2 d at 20°C and 60% RH, they did not open when subsequently placed in water, and showed inhibited elongation in the pedicel+ovary. This dehydration treatment resulted in elevated pedicel+ovary ACC levels and in increased ethylene production. Treatment with STS prevented the increase in ACC levels and ethylene production, overcame the effect of dehydration on elongation of the pedicel+ovary, and resulted in full flower opening. It is concluded that flower opening in unstressed Iris flowers is not regulated by endogenous ethylene. An increase in endogenous ethylene above normal levels during stress, by contrast, strongly inhibited flower opening, due to its inhibitory effect on elongation of the pedicel+ovary.

  3. The role of COP1 in repression of photoperiodic flowering.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dongqing; Zhu, Danmeng; Deng, Xing Wang

    2016-01-01

    Plants use the circadian clock as a timekeeping mechanism to regulate photoperiodic flowering in response to the seasonal changes. CONSTITUTIVELY PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1 (COP1), initially identified as a central repressor of seedling photomorphogenesis, was recently shown to be involved in the regulation of light input to the circadian clock, modulating the circadian rhythm and flowering. COP1 encodes a RING-finger E3 ubiquitin ligase and works in concert with SUPPRESSOR of phyA-105 (SPA) proteins to repress photoperiodic flowering by regulating proteasome-mediated degradation of CONSTANS (CO), a central regulator of photoperiodic flowering. In addition, COP1 and EARLY FLOWERING 3 (ELF3) indirectly modulate CO expression via the degradation of GIGANTEA (GI). Here, we summarize the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying COP1's role in controlling of photoperiodic flowering. PMID:26949521

  4. More than colour attraction: behavioural functions of flower patterns

    PubMed Central

    Hempel de Ibarra, Natalie; Langridge, Keri V; Vorobyev, Misha

    2015-01-01

    Flower patterns are thought to influence foraging decisions of insect pollinators. However, the resolution of insect compound eyes is poor. Insects perceive flower patterns only from short distances when they initiate landings or search for reward on the flower. From further away flower displays jointly form larger-sized patterns within the visual scene that will guide the insect's flight. Chromatic and achromatic cues in such patterns may help insects to find, approach and learn rewarded locations in a flower patch, bringing them close enough to individual flowers. Flight trajectories and the spatial resolution of chromatic and achromatic vision in insects determine the effectiveness of floral displays, and both need to be considered in studies of plant–pollinator communication. PMID:27064650

  5. Transcriptomic Analysis of Flower Development in Wintersweet (Chimonanthus praecox)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Daofeng; Sui, Shunzhao; Ma, Jing; Li, Zhineng; Guo, Yulong; Luo, Dengpan; Yang, Jianfeng; Li, Mingyang

    2014-01-01

    Wintersweet (Chimonanthus praecox) is familiar as a garden plant and woody ornamental flower. On account of its unique flowering time and strong fragrance, it has a high ornamental and economic value. Despite a long history of human cultivation, our understanding of wintersweet genetics and molecular biology remains scant, reflecting a lack of basic genomic and transcriptomic data. In this study, we assembled three cDNA libraries, from three successive stages in flower development, designated as the flower bud with displayed petal, open flower and senescing flower stages. Using the Illumina RNA-Seq method, we obtained 21,412,928, 26,950,404, 24,912,954 qualified Illumina reads, respectively, for the three successive stages. The pooled reads from all three libraries were then assembled into 106,995 transcripts, 51,793 of which were annotated in the NCBI non-redundant protein database. Of these annotated sequences, 32,649 and 21,893 transcripts were assigned to gene ontology categories and clusters of orthologous groups, respectively. We could map 15,587 transcripts onto 312 pathways using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway database. Based on these transcriptomic data, we obtained a large number of candidate genes that were differentially expressed at the open flower and senescing flower stages. An analysis of differentially expressed genes involved in plant hormone signal transduction pathways indicated that although flower opening and senescence may be independent of the ethylene signaling pathway in wintersweet, salicylic acid may be involved in the regulation of flower senescence. We also succeeded in isolating key genes of floral scent biosynthesis and proposed a biosynthetic pathway for monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes in wintersweet flowers, based on the annotated sequences. This comprehensive transcriptomic analysis presents fundamental information on the genes and pathways which are involved in flower development in wintersweet. And our data

  6. Function of polar glycerolipids in flower development in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yuki

    2015-10-01

    The flower lipidome is an unexplored frontier of plant lipid research as compared with the major advances in photosynthetic or storage organs. However, ample evidence from recent molecular biological studies suggests that lipids play crucial roles in coordinating flower development rather than being an inert end product of metabolism. This review summarizes the current understanding of the function of glycerolipids in flower development in Arabidopsis thaliana.

  7. Effect of heat-treated noradrenaline on flowering in Lemna.

    PubMed

    Miyawaki, Tatsuya; Matsumoto, Shiomi; Takahashi, Wataru; Tanaka, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    In a previous study, heat-treated noradrenaline induced flowering of the short-day plant Lemna paucicostata Hegelmaier 151. In the present study, we found that heat-treated noradrenaline also had flower-inducing activity in short-day L. paucicostata strains 441 and 6746 and in long-day L. gibba strain G3. The flower-inducing activity in these plants was enhanced by water homogenates of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.). PMID:23832342

  8. Goethe and the ABC model of flower development.

    PubMed

    Coen, E

    2001-06-01

    About 10 years ago, the ABC model for the genetic control of flower development was proposed. This model was initially based on the analysis of mutant flowers but has subsequently been confirmed by molecular analysis. This paper describes the 200-year history behind this model, from the late 18th century when Goethe arrived at his idea of plant metamorphosis, to the genetic studies on flower mutants carried out on Arabidopsis and Antirrhinum in the late 20th century.

  9. FLOWER IPv4/IPv6 Network Flow Summarization software

    SciTech Connect

    Nickless, Bill; Curtis, Darren; Christy, Jason; Younkin, Chance; Mount, Jason; Richard Griswold, Joe Lenaeus

    2011-04-04

    FLOWER was written as a refactoring/reimplementation of the existing Flo software used by the Cooperative Protection Program (CPP) to provide network flow summaries for analysis by the Operational Analysis Center (OAC) and other US Department of Energy cyber security elements. FLOWER is designed and tested to operate at 10 gigabits/second, nearly 10 times faster than competing solutions. FLOWER output is optimized for importation into SQL databases for categorization and analysis. FLOWER is written in C++ using current best software engineering practices.

  10. Candidate Gene Association Mapping of Arabidopsis Flowering Time

    PubMed Central

    Ehrenreich, Ian M.; Hanzawa, Yoshie; Chou, Lucy; Roe, Judith L.; Kover, Paula X.; Purugganan, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    The pathways responsible for flowering time in Arabidopsis thaliana comprise one of the best characterized genetic networks in plants. We harness this extensive molecular genetic knowledge to identify potential flowering time quantitative trait genes (QTGs) through candidate gene association mapping using 51 flowering time loci. We genotyped common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at these genes in 275 A. thaliana accessions that were also phenotyped for flowering time and rosette leaf number in long and short days. Using structured association techniques, we find that haplotype-tagging SNPs in 27 flowering time genes show significant associations in various trait/environment combinations. After correction for multiple testing, between 2 and 10 genes remain significantly associated with flowering time, with CO arguably possessing the most promising associations. We also genotyped a subset of these flowering time gene SNPs in an independent recombinant inbred line population derived from the intercrossing of 19 accessions. Approximately one-third of significant polymorphisms that were associated with flowering time in the accessions and genotyped in the outbred population were replicated in both mapping populations, including SNPs at the CO, FLC, VIN3, PHYD, and GA1 loci, and coding region deletions at the FRI gene. We conservatively estimate that ∼4–14% of known flowering time genes may harbor common alleles that contribute to natural variation in this life history trait. PMID:19581446

  11. Functional homogenization of flower visitor communities with urbanization.

    PubMed

    Deguines, Nicolas; Julliard, Romain; de Flores, Mathieu; Fontaine, Colin

    2016-04-01

    Land-use intensification and resulting habitat loss are put forward as the main causes of flower visitor decline. However, the impact of urbanization, the prime driver of land-use intensification in Europe, is poorly studied. In particular, our understanding of whether and how it affects the composition and functioning of flower visitor assemblages is scant, yet required to cope with increasing urbanization worldwide. Here, we use a nation-wide dataset of plant-flower visitor (Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera) interactions sampled by citizen scientists following a standardized protocol to assess macroecological changes in richness and composition of flower visitor communities with urbanization. We measured the community composition by quantifying the relative occurrence of generalist and specialist flower visitors based on their specialisation on flowering plant families. We show that urbanization is associated with reduced flower visitor richness and a shift in community composition toward generalist insects, indicating a modification of the functional composition of communities. These results suggest that urbanization affects not only the richness of flower visitor assemblages but may also cause their large-scale functional homogenization. Future research should focus on designing measures to reconcile urban development with flower visitor conservation. PMID:27066219

  12. Functional homogenization of flower visitor communities with urbanization.

    PubMed

    Deguines, Nicolas; Julliard, Romain; de Flores, Mathieu; Fontaine, Colin

    2016-04-01

    Land-use intensification and resulting habitat loss are put forward as the main causes of flower visitor decline. However, the impact of urbanization, the prime driver of land-use intensification in Europe, is poorly studied. In particular, our understanding of whether and how it affects the composition and functioning of flower visitor assemblages is scant, yet required to cope with increasing urbanization worldwide. Here, we use a nation-wide dataset of plant-flower visitor (Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera) interactions sampled by citizen scientists following a standardized protocol to assess macroecological changes in richness and composition of flower visitor communities with urbanization. We measured the community composition by quantifying the relative occurrence of generalist and specialist flower visitors based on their specialisation on flowering plant families. We show that urbanization is associated with reduced flower visitor richness and a shift in community composition toward generalist insects, indicating a modification of the functional composition of communities. These results suggest that urbanization affects not only the richness of flower visitor assemblages but may also cause their large-scale functional homogenization. Future research should focus on designing measures to reconcile urban development with flower visitor conservation.

  13. Suboptimal Light Conditions Influence Source-Sink Metabolism during Flowering

    PubMed Central

    Christiaens, Annelies; De Keyser, Ellen; Pauwels, Els; De Riek, Jan; Gobin, Bruno; Van Labeke, Marie-Christine

    2016-01-01

    Reliance on carbohydrates during flower forcing was investigated in one early and one late flowering cultivar of azalea (Rhododendron simsii hybrids). Carbohydrate accumulation, invertase activity, and expression of a purported sucrose synthase gene (RsSUS) was monitored during flower forcing under suboptimal (natural) and optimal (supplemental light) light conditions, after a cold treatment (7°C + dark) to break flower bud dormancy. Post-production sucrose metabolism and flowering quality was also assessed. Glucose and fructose concentrations and invertase activity increased in petals during flowering, while sucrose decreased. In suboptimal light conditions RsSUS expression in leaves increased as compared to optimal light conditions, indicating that plants in suboptimal light conditions have a strong demand for carbohydrates. However, carbohydrates in leaves were markedly lower in suboptimal light conditions compared to optimal light conditions. This resulted in poor flowering of plants in suboptimal light conditions. Post-production flowering relied on the stored leaf carbon, which could be accumulated under optimal light conditions in the greenhouse. These results show that flower opening in azalea relies on carbohydrates imported from leaves and is source-limiting under suboptimal light conditions. PMID:26973689

  14. Pollinator effectiveness varies with experimental shifts in flowering time

    PubMed Central

    Rafferty, Nicole E.; Ives, Anthony R.

    2013-01-01

    The earlier flowering times exhibited by many plant species are a conspicuous sign of climate change. Altered phenologies have caused concern that species could suffer population declines if they flower at times when effective pollinators are unavailable. For two perennial wildflowers, Tradescantia ohiensis and Asclepias incarnata, we used an experimental approach to explore how changing phenology affects the taxonomic composition of the pollinator assemblage and the effectiveness of individual pollinator taxa. After finding in the previous year that fruit set varied with flowering time, we manipulated flowering onset in greenhouses, placed plants in the field over the span of five weeks, and measured pollinator effectiveness as the number of seeds produced after a single visit to a flower. The average effectiveness of pollinators and the expected rates of pollination success were lower for plants of both species flowering earlier than for plants flowering at historical times, suggesting there could be reproductive costs to earlier flowering. Whereas for A. incarnata, differences in average seed set among weeks were due primarily to changes in the composition of the pollinator assemblage, the differences for T. ohiensis were driven by the combined effects of compositional changes and increases over time in the effectiveness of some pollinator taxa. Both species face the possibility of temporal mismatch between the availability of the most effective pollinators and the onset of flowering, and changes in the effectiveness of individual pollinator taxa through time may add an unexpected element to the reproductive consequences of such mismatches. PMID:22690631

  15. Record-Breaking Early Flowering in the Eastern United States

    PubMed Central

    Ellwood, Elizabeth R.; Temple, Stanley A.; Primack, Richard B.; Davis, Charles C.

    2013-01-01

    Flowering times are well-documented indicators of the ecological effects of climate change and are linked to numerous ecosystem processes and trophic interactions. Dozens of studies have shown that flowering times for many spring-flowering plants have become earlier as a result of recent climate change, but it is uncertain if flowering times will continue to advance as temperatures rise. Here, we used long-term flowering records initiated by Henry David Thoreau in 1852 and Aldo Leopold in 1935 to investigate this question. Our analyses demonstrate that record-breaking spring temperatures in 2010 and 2012 in Massachusetts, USA, and 2012 in Wisconsin, USA, resulted in the earliest flowering times in recorded history for dozens of spring-flowering plants of the eastern United States. These dramatic advances in spring flowering were successfully predicted by historical relationships between flowering and spring temperature spanning up to 161 years of ecological change. These results demonstrate that numerous temperate plant species have yet to show obvious signs of physiological constraints on phenological advancement in the face of climate change. PMID:23342001

  16. Sepal phenolic profile during Helleborus niger flower development.

    PubMed

    Schmitzer, Valentina; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Stampar, Franci

    2013-11-01

    Morphological changes and phenolic patterns of developing hellebore sepals and the effects of pistil removal on these parameters were studied by comparing six flower stages of Helleborus niger. Color changes were evaluated colorimetrically, chlorophyll content was measured spectrophotometrically, and anthocyanins and flavonols were identified and quantified with HPLC-MS. Pistil removal not only altered the morphological development of hellebore flower resulting in smaller flower and significant color changes but also lead to several biochemical modifications. Five cyanidin glycosides have been identified from the group of anthocyanins in hellebore. Individual and total anthocyanin content increased from bud to subsequent developmental stages. Moreover, significantly higher content levels of individual and total anthocyanins have been measured in non-pollinated flower sepals compared to sepals of pollinated flowers. From the group of flavonols eight quercetin and kaempferol compounds have been quantified in hellebore sepals. Flavonol content significantly decreased during flower development with lowest levels recorded in sepals of non-pollinated and senescent pollinated hellebore flowers. Sepals of pollinated flowers contained highest levels of chlorophyll and significantly lower amounts of chlorophyll were measured in non-pollinated flowers and in sepals of senescent stage.

  17. Suboptimal Light Conditions Influence Source-Sink Metabolism during Flowering.

    PubMed

    Christiaens, Annelies; De Keyser, Ellen; Pauwels, Els; De Riek, Jan; Gobin, Bruno; Van Labeke, Marie-Christine

    2016-01-01

    Reliance on carbohydrates during flower forcing was investigated in one early and one late flowering cultivar of azalea (Rhododendron simsii hybrids). Carbohydrate accumulation, invertase activity, and expression of a purported sucrose synthase gene (RsSUS) was monitored during flower forcing under suboptimal (natural) and optimal (supplemental light) light conditions, after a cold treatment (7°C + dark) to break flower bud dormancy. Post-production sucrose metabolism and flowering quality was also assessed. Glucose and fructose concentrations and invertase activity increased in petals during flowering, while sucrose decreased. In suboptimal light conditions RsSUS expression in leaves increased as compared to optimal light conditions, indicating that plants in suboptimal light conditions have a strong demand for carbohydrates. However, carbohydrates in leaves were markedly lower in suboptimal light conditions compared to optimal light conditions. This resulted in poor flowering of plants in suboptimal light conditions. Post-production flowering relied on the stored leaf carbon, which could be accumulated under optimal light conditions in the greenhouse. These results show that flower opening in azalea relies on carbohydrates imported from leaves and is source-limiting under suboptimal light conditions. PMID:26973689

  18. Natural soil microbes alter flowering phenology and the intensity of selection on flowering time in a wild Arabidopsis relative.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Maggie R; Lundberg, Derek S; Coleman-Derr, Devin; Tringe, Susannah G; Dangl, Jeffery L; Mitchell-Olds, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    Plant phenology is known to depend on many different environmental variables, but soil microbial communities have rarely been acknowledged as possible drivers of flowering time. Here, we tested separately the effects of four naturally occurring soil microbiomes and their constituent soil chemistries on flowering phenology and reproductive fitness of Boechera stricta, a wild relative of Arabidopsis. Flowering time was sensitive to both microbes and the abiotic properties of different soils; varying soil microbiota also altered patterns of selection on flowering time. Thus, soil microbes potentially contribute to phenotypic plasticity of flowering time and to differential selection observed between habitats. We also describe a method to dissect the microbiome into single axes of variation that can help identify candidate organisms whose abundance in soil correlates with flowering time. This approach is broadly applicable to search for microbial community members that alter biological characteristics of interest.

  19. The strength of assortative mating for flowering date and its basis in individual variation in flowering schedule.

    PubMed

    Weis, A E; Nardone, E; Fox, G A

    2014-10-01

    Although it has been widely asserted that plants mate assortatively by flowering time, there is virtually no published information on the strength or causes of phenological assortment in natural populations. When strong, assortative mating can accelerate the evolution of plant reproductive phenology through its inflationary effect on genetic variance. We estimated potential assortative mating for flowering date in 31 old-field species in Ontario, Canada. For each species, we constructed a matrix of pairwise mating probabilities from the individual flowering schedules, that is the number of flower deployed on successive dates. The matrix was used to estimate the phenotypic correlation between mates, ρ, for flowering date. We also developed a measure of flowering synchrony within species, S, based upon the eigenstructure of the mating matrix. The mean correlation between pollen recipients and potential donors for flowering date was ρ=0.31 (range: 0.05-0.63). A strong potential for assortative mating was found among species with high variance in flowering date, flowering schedules of short duration and skew towards early flower deployment. Flowering synchrony, S, was negatively correlated with potential assortment (r= -0.49), but we go on to show that although low synchrony is a necessary condition for phenological assortative mating, it may not be sufficient to induce assortment for a given phenological trait. The potential correlation between mates showed no seasonal trend; thus, as climate change imposes selection on phenology through longer growing seasons, spring-flowering species are no more likely to experience an accelerated evolutionary response than summer species.

  20. How to colour a flower: on the optical principles of flower coloration.

    PubMed

    van der Kooi, Casper J; Elzenga, J Theo M; Staal, Marten; Stavenga, Doekele G

    2016-05-11

    The coloration of flowers is due to the wavelength-selective absorption by pigments of light backscattered by structures inside the petals. We investigated the optical properties of flowers using (micro)spectrophotometry and anatomical methods. To assess the contribution of different structures to the overall visual signal of flowers, we used an optical model, where a petal is considered as a stack of differently pigmented and structured layers and we interpreted the visual signals of the model petals with insect vision models. We show that the reflectance depends, in addition to the pigmentation, on the petal's thickness and the inhomogeneity of its interior. We find large between-species differences in floral pigments, pigment concentration and localization, as well as floral interior structure. The fractions of reflected and transmitted light are remarkably similar between the studied species, suggesting common selective pressures of pollinator visual systems. Our optical model highlights that pigment localization crucially determines the efficiency of pigmentary filtering and thereby the chromatic contrast and saturation of the visual signal. The strongest visual signal occurs with deposition of pigments only on the side of viewing. Our systematic approach and optical modelling open new perspectives on the virtues of flower colour. PMID:27170723

  1. Medicinal flowers. XXX. Eight new glycosides, everlastosides F-M, from the flowers of Helichrysum arenarium.

    PubMed

    Morikawa, Toshio; Wang, Li-Bo; Ninomiya, Kiyofumi; Nakamura, Seikou; Matsuda, Hisashi; Muraoka, Osamu; Wu, Li-Jun; Yoshikawa, Masayuki

    2009-08-01

    Eight new glycosides, everlastosides F (1), G (2), H (3), I (4), J (5), K (6), L (7), and M (8), were isolated from the methanolic extract of the flowers of Helichrysum arenarium. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence.

  2. Antioxidant activity of Filipendula hexapetala flowers.

    PubMed

    Maksimović, Zoran; Petrović, Silvana; Pavlović, Milica; Kovacević, Nada; Kukić, Jelena

    2007-04-01

    The antioxidant activity of the methanol extract of Filipendula hexapetala flowers was assessed by the assay for ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), the assay for DPPH free radical scavenging ability (DPPH) and the assay for the influence of lipid peroxidation in liposomes, induced by Fe(2+)/ascorbate system and measured by the TBA test (LP). The activity of the investigated extract in all test-systems was found to be significant. The principal constituent responsible for the observed effects was isolated and identified as spiraeoside. PMID:17337331

  3. Analgesic activity of Calotropis gigantea flower.

    PubMed

    Pathak, A K; Argal, A

    2007-01-01

    The alcoholic extract of the flowers of Calotropis gigantea was administered orally and explored for its analgesic activity in chemical and thermal models in mice. In acetic acid induced writhing test, an inhibition of 20.97% and 43.0% in the number of writhes was observed at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg, respectively. In the hot plate method the paw licking time was delayed. The analgesic effect was observed after 30 min of dose administration which reached its maximum after 90 min.

  4. Benjamin P. Flower (1962-2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hastings, David W.; Shevenell, Amelia E.; Kennett, James P.

    2012-10-01

    Benjamin P. Flower, a gifted paleoceanographer and marine geologist, supportive colleague, and dedicated educator at the University of South Florida (USF) College of Marine Science (CMS) passed away on 1 July 2012 from complications related to a rare genetic immune dysfunction, Common Variable Immunodeficiency. He was 49 years old. During his brief illness, Ben's love of life and boundless high spirits were an inspiration to his family, friends, and colleagues. He exhibited remarkable courage and kept his sense of humor in face of adversity. Ben's intellectualism and enduring love of science remained intact, even in his last hours.

  5. CONSTANS is a photoperiod regulated activator of flowering in sorghum

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Sorghum genotypes used for grain production in temperate regions are photoperiod insensitive and flower early avoiding adverse environments during the reproductive phase. In contrast, energy sorghum hybrids are highly photoperiod sensitive with extended vegetative phases in long days, resulting in enhanced biomass accumulation. SbPRR37 and SbGHD7 contribute to photoperiod sensitivity in sorghum by repressing expression of SbEHD1 and FT-like genes, thereby delaying flowering in long days with minimal influence in short days (PNAS_108:16469-16474, 2011; Plant Genome_in press, 2014). The GIGANTEA (GI)-CONSTANS (CO)-FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) pathway regulates flowering time in Arabidopsis and the grasses (J Exp Bot_62:2453-2463, 2011). In long day flowering plants, such as Arabidopsis and barley, CONSTANS activates FT expression and flowering in long days. In rice, a short day flowering plant, Hd1, the ortholog of CONSTANS, activates flowering in short days and represses flowering in long days. Results Quantitative trait loci (QTL) that modify flowering time in sorghum were identified by screening Recombinant Inbred Lines (RILs) derived from BTx642 and Tx7000 in long days, short days, and under field conditions. Analysis of the flowering time QTL on SBI-10 revealed that BTx642 encodes a recessive CONSTANS allele containing a His106Tyr substitution in B-box 2 known to inactivate CONSTANS in Arabidopsis thaliana. Genetic analysis characterized sorghum CONSTANS as a floral activator that promotes flowering by inducing the expression of EARLY HEADING DATE 1 (SbEHD1) and sorghum orthologs of the maize FT genes ZCN8 (SbCN8) and ZCN12 (SbCN12). The floral repressor PSEUDORESPONSE REGULATOR PROTEIN 37 (PRR37) inhibits sorghum CONSTANS activity and flowering in long days. Conclusion Sorghum CONSTANS is an activator of flowering that is repressed post-transcriptionally in long days by the floral inhibitor PRR37, contributing to photoperiod sensitive flowering in Sorghum

  6. Current trends and future directions in flower development research.

    PubMed

    Scutt, Charlie P; Vandenbussche, Michiel

    2014-11-01

    Flowers, the reproductive structures of the approximately 400 000 extant species of flowering plants, exist in a tremendous range of forms and sizes, mainly due to developmental differences involving the number, arrangement, size and form of the floral organs of which they consist. However, this tremendous diversity is underpinned by a surprisingly robust basic floral structure in which a central group of carpels forms on an axis of determinate growth, almost invariably surrounded by two successive zones containing stamens and perianth organs, respectively. Over the last 25 years, remarkable progress has been achieved in describing the molecular mechanisms that control almost all aspects of flower development, from the phase change that initiates flowering to the final production of fruits and seeds. However, this work has been performed almost exclusively in a small number of eudicot model species, chief among which is Arabidopsis thaliana. Studies of flower development must now be extended to a much wider phylogenetic range of flowering plants and, indeed, to their closest living relatives, the gymnosperms. Studies of further, more wide-ranging models should provide insights that, for various reasons, cannot be obtained by studying the major existing models alone. The use of further models should also help to explain how the first flowering plants evolved from an unknown, although presumably gymnosperm-like ancestor, and rapidly diversified to become the largest major plant group and to dominate the terrestrial flora. The benefits for society of a thorough understanding of flower development are self-evident, as human life depends to a large extent on flowering plants and on the fruits and seeds they produce. In this preface to the Special Issue, we introduce eleven articles on flower development, representing work in both established and further models, including gymnosperms. We also present some of our own views on current trends and future directions of the

  7. Warming Contracts Flowering Phenology in an Alpine Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabis, M. D.; Winkler, D. E.; Kueppers, L. M.

    2015-12-01

    In alpine ecosystems where temperature increases associated with anthropogenic climate change are likely to be amplified, the flowering phenology of plants may be particularly sensitive to changes in environmental signals. For example, earlier snowmelt and higher temperature have been found to be important factors driving plant emergence and onset of flowering. However, few studies have examined the interactive role of soil moisture in response to warming. Using infrared heating to actively warm plots crossed with manual watering over the growing season in a moist alpine meadow at Niwot Ridge, Colorado, our preliminary results indicate that community-level phenology (length of flowering time across all species) was contracted with heating but was unaffected by watering. At the species level, additional water extended the length of the flowering season by one week for almost half (43%) of species. Heating, which raised plant and surface soil temperatures (+1.5 C) advanced snowmelt by ~7.6 days days and reduced soil moisture by ~2%, advanced flowering phenology for 86% of species. The response of flowering phenology to combined heating and watering was predominantly a heating effect. However, watering did appear to mitigate advances in end of flowering for 22% of species. The length of flowering season, for some species, appears to be tied, in part, to moisture availability as alleviating ambient soil moisture stress delayed phenology in unheated plots. Therefore, we conclude that both temperature and moisture appear to be important factors driving flowering phenology in this alpine ecosystem. The relationship between flowering phenology and species- or community-level productivity is not well established, but heating advanced community peak productivity by 5.4 days, and also reduced peak productivity unless additional water was provided, indicating some consistency between drivers of productivity and drivers of flowering phenology.

  8. Current trends and future directions in flower development research

    PubMed Central

    Scutt, Charlie P.; Vandenbussche, Michiel

    2014-01-01

    Flowers, the reproductive structures of the approximately 400 000 extant species of flowering plants, exist in a tremendous range of forms and sizes, mainly due to developmental differences involving the number, arrangement, size and form of the floral organs of which they consist. However, this tremendous diversity is underpinned by a surprisingly robust basic floral structure in which a central group of carpels forms on an axis of determinate growth, almost invariably surrounded by two successive zones containing stamens and perianth organs, respectively. Over the last 25 years, remarkable progress has been achieved in describing the molecular mechanisms that control almost all aspects of flower development, from the phase change that initiates flowering to the final production of fruits and seeds. However, this work has been performed almost exclusively in a small number of eudicot model species, chief among which is Arabidopsis thaliana. Studies of flower development must now be extended to a much wider phylogenetic range of flowering plants and, indeed, to their closest living relatives, the gymnosperms. Studies of further, more wide-ranging models should provide insights that, for various reasons, cannot be obtained by studying the major existing models alone. The use of further models should also help to explain how the first flowering plants evolved from an unknown, although presumably gymnosperm-like ancestor, and rapidly diversified to become the largest major plant group and to dominate the terrestrial flora. The benefits for society of a thorough understanding of flower development are self-evident, as human life depends to a large extent on flowering plants and on the fruits and seeds they produce. In this preface to the Special Issue, we introduce eleven articles on flower development, representing work in both established and further models, including gymnosperms. We also present some of our own views on current trends and future directions of the

  9. Carbon relations of flowering in a semelparous clonal desert perennial

    SciTech Connect

    Tissue, D.T.; Nobel, P.S. )

    1990-02-01

    Agave deserti is a long-lived, semelparous perennial of the northwestern Sonoran Desert that flowers after {approx} 50-55 yr. Measurements of CO{sub 2} exchange over 24-h periods indicated that leaves of flowering rosettes had 24% more net CO{sub 2} uptake than leaves of adjacent nonflowering rosettes during the first month of inflorescence production. Net CO{sub 2} uptake for leaves of flowering rosettes was 32% less thereafter than for leaves of nonflowering rosettes, as senescing leaves of flowering rosettes exhibited dramatic reductions in nitrogen and chlorophyll contents. During the course of flowering, levels of total nonstructural carbohydrate (TNC) in the leaves of flowering rosettes dropped from 38 to 6% of the leaf dry mass, indicating substantial translocation of stored carbon to the inflorescence. TNC reserves of the rosette provided 70% of the carbon required to produce the 1.53 kg inflorescence, and CO{sub 2} uptake by the leaves and the inflorescence provided the remaining 30%. Rosettes must attain a minimum size (> 1,000 g dry mass) to initiate flowering, unless they are connected to a large flowering rosette. Small rosettes did not produce inflorescences when their rhizome connection to a large rosette was severed {approx} 4 wk before inflorescences emerged, suggesting that a chemical signal is transmitted through the rhizome that induces the small rosette to flower precociously. Small flowering rosettes could not complete formation of the inflorescence unless partially supported by carbon supplied by the connected large rosette. The contribution of the large rosette declined from 74% for a 0-30 g dry mass connected rosette to 35% for a 200-600 g rosette. For both small and large flowering rosettes, the translocation of substantial carbohydrate reserves from the leaves is essential for production of the inflorescence.

  10. Antioxidant activity of Rafflesia kerrii flower extract.

    PubMed

    Puttipan, Rinrampai; Okonogi, Siriporn

    2014-02-01

    Rafflesia kerrii has been used in Thai traditional remedies for treatment of several diseases. However, scientific data particularly on biological activities of this plant is very rare. The present study explores an antioxidant activity of R. kerrii flower (RKF). Extracting solvent and extraction procedure were found to play an important role on the activity of RKF extract. The extract obtained from water-ethanol system showed higher antioxidant activity than that from water-propylene glycol system. Fractionated extraction using different solvents revealed that methanol fractionated extract (RM) possessed the highest antioxidant activity with Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and inhibitory concentration of 50% inhibition (IC50) values of approximately 39 mM/mg and 3 μg/mL, respectively. Phytochemical assays demonstrated that RM contained extremely high quantity of phenolic content with gallic antioxidant equivalent (GAE) and quercetin equivalent (QE) values of approximately 312 mg/g and 16 mg/g, respectively. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV- VIS) and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) indicated that gallic acid was a major component. RM which was stored at 40°C, 75% RH for 4 months showed slightly significant change (p < 0.05) in phytochemical content and antioxidant activity with zero order degradation. The results of this study could be concluded that R. kerrii flower was a promising natural source of strong antioxidant compounds. PMID:24647154

  11. Gravitropism in cut flower stalks of snapdragon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philosoph-Hadas, S.; Friedman, H.; Meir, S.; Berkovitz-SimanTov, R.; Rosenberger, I.; Halevy, A. H.; Kaufman, P. B.; Balk, P.; Woltering, E. J.

    The negative gravitropic response of cut flower stalks is a complex multistep process that requires the participation of various cellular components acting in succession or in parallel. The process was particularly characterized in snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus L.) spikes with regard to (1) gravity stimulus perception associated with amyloplast reorientation; (2) stimulus transduction mediated through differential changes in the level, action and related genes of auxin and ethylene and their possible interaction; (3) stimulus response associated with differential growth leading to stalk curvature; (4) involvement of cytosolic calcium and actin cytoskeleton. Results show that the gravity-induced amyloplast reorientation, differential over-expression of two early auxin responsive genes and asymmetrical distribution of free IAA are early events in the bending process. These precede the asymmetrical ethylene production and differential stem growth, which was derived from initial shrinkage of the upper stem side and a subsequent elongation of the lower stem side. Results obtained with various calcium- and cytoskeleton-related agents indicate that cytosolic calcium and actin filaments may play essential roles in gravitropism-related processes of cut flower stalks. Therefore, modulators of these two physiological mediators may serve as means for controlling any undesired gravitropic bending.

  12. Antimutagenicity of some flowers grown in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Wongwattanasathien, O; Kangsadalampai, K; Tongyonk, L

    2010-04-01

    The mutagenicity of dichloromethane, methanol and water extracts of Antigonon leptopus Hook. & Arn., Curcuma sessilis Gage, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn., Ixora coccinea Linn., Millingtonia hortensis Linn., Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn., Plumeria obtusa Linn., Punica granatum Linn., Rhinacanthus nasutus ((Linn.) Kurz.) and Syzygium malaccense ((Linn.) Merr.& Perry) before and after nitrite treatment was firstly investigated in the Ames test. Their antimutagenicity against the product of the reaction mixture of 1-aminopyrene nitrite model in the absence of metabolic activation on Salmonella typhimurium TA 98 and TA 100 was evaluated. The results showed that none of the samples was mutagenic. Most nitrite-treated samples but dichloromethane extracts of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Plumeria obtusa, Syzygium malaccense, methanol extract of Syzygium malaccense and water extract of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis were mutagenic. The nitrite treated methanol extract of Nelumbo nucifera exhibited the highest mutagenicity on both strains. All dichloromethane extracts of flowers decreased the mutagenicity induced by the product of 1-aminopyrene nitrite model on both tester strains. Methanol extract of Curcuma sessilis and Punica granatum (15 mg/plate) showed the highest antimutagenic activity in TA 98 and TA 100, respectively. The protective effects of these flower extracts might be due to the presence of antimutagenic components that were supposed to be flavonoids.

  13. The expression level of Rosa Terminal Flower 1 (RTFL1) is related with recurrent flowering in roses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Na; Liu, Yun-Feng; Zhang, Yu-Man; Fang, Rong-Xiang; Liu, Qing-Lin

    2012-04-01

    We examined the relationship between the recurrent flowering character and the expression patterns of TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (TFL1) homologs in roses, using flower buds of Rosa multiflora, R. rugosa, R. chinensis, and six other rose species and nine rose cultivars. RTFL1 (Rosa TFL1) genes were amplified from rose genomic DNA using a combination of degenerate and gene-specific primers by thermal asymmetric interlaced-PCR and normal PCR, respectively. Their copy numbers in different species were determined by Southern blots. We used real-time PCR to analyze the expression patterns of RTFL1 genes at four developmental stages (pre-sprouting, young, mid-aged, and mature flower buds). Our results show that there are at least three RTFL1 homologs in roses; RTFL1a, RTFL1b, and RTFL1c. The sequences of the homologs were more similar among the same homolog in different species than among the different homologs in the same species. For RTFL1a, we detected two copies in R. multiflora, two copies in R. rugosa, and one copy in R. chinensis. For RTFL1c, we detected one copy in R. multiflora, two copies in R. rugosa, and three copies in R. chinensis. We detected only one copy of RTFL1b in R. chinensis. RTFL1c was expressed at high levels at all four flowering stages in R. multiflora and R. rugosa, which are non-recurrent flowering species, whereas it was barely detected in R. chinensis (a recurrent flowering species) at any stage. These results were further verified in six other non-recurrent flowering species and nine recurrent flowering cultivars. These results suggest that the recurrent flowering habit in roses results from lower expression of RTFL1c, which may be related to recurrent flowering character in roses.

  14. Role of FRIGIDA and FLOWERING LOCUS C in Determining Variation in Flowering Time of Arabidopsis1[w

    PubMed Central

    Shindo, Chikako; Aranzana, Maria Jose; Lister, Clare; Baxter, Catherine; Nicholls, Colin; Nordborg, Magnus; Dean, Caroline

    2005-01-01

    Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) accessions provide an excellent resource to dissect the molecular basis of adaptation. We have selected 192 Arabidopsis accessions collected to represent worldwide and local variation and analyzed two adaptively important traits, flowering time and vernalization response. There was huge variation in the flowering habit of the different accessions, with no simple relationship to latitude of collection site and considerable diversity occurring within local regions. We explored the contribution to this variation from the two genes FRIGIDA (FRI) and FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), previously shown to be important determinants in natural variation of flowering time. A correlation of FLC expression with flowering time and vernalization was observed, but it was not as strong as anticipated due to many late-flowering/vernalization-requiring accessions being associated with low FLC expression and early-flowering accessions with high FLC expression. Sequence analysis of FRI revealed which accessions were likely to carry functional alleles, and, from comparison of flowering time with allelic type, we estimate that approximately 70% of flowering time variation can be accounted for by allelic variation of FRI. The maintenance and propagation of 20 independent nonfunctional FRI haplotypes suggest that the loss-of-function mutations can confer a strong selective advantage. Accessions with a common FRI haplotype were, in some cases, associated with very different FLC levels and wide variation in flowering time, suggesting additional variation at FLC itself or other genes regulating FLC. These data reveal how useful these Arabidopsis accessions will be in dissecting the complex molecular variation that has led to the adaptive phenotypic variation in flowering time. PMID:15908596

  15. Spring Flowers--The Harvest of a Sensitive Eye

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Ted

    1977-01-01

    Twelve flowers are described in the order of their appearance in the spring. Drawings compliment the text. Flowers are the Hepatica, Bloodroot, Red Trillium, Wild Ginger, Marsh Marigold, Juneberry, Shadbush, Wild Iris, Clintonia, Starflower, Labrador Tea, Bunchberry, and Partridge Berry. (NQ)

  16. Transcriptomic and lipidomic profiles of glycerolipids during Arabidopsis flower development.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yuki; Teo, Norman Z W; Shui, Guanghou; Chua, Christine H L; Cheong, Wei-Fun; Parameswaran, Sriram; Koizumi, Ryota; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Wenk, Markus R; Ito, Toshiro

    2014-07-01

    Flower glycerolipids are the yet-to-be discovered frontier of the lipidome. Although ample evidence suggests important roles for glycerolipids in flower development, stage-specific lipid profiling in tiny Arabidopsis flowers is challenging. Here, we utilized a transgenic system to synchronize flower development in Arabidopsis. The transgenic plant PAP1::AP1-GR ap1-1 cal-5 showed synchronized flower development upon dexamethasone treatment, which enabled massive harvesting of floral samples of homogenous developmental stages for glycerolipid profiling. Glycerolipid profiling revealed a decrease in concentrations of phospholipids involved in signaling during the early development stages, such as phosphatidic acid and phosphatidylinositol, and a marked increase in concentrations of nonphosphorous galactolipids during the late stage. Moreover, in the midstage, phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate concentration was increased transiently, which suggests the stimulation of the phosphoinositide metabolism. Accompanying transcriptomic profiling of relevant glycerolipid metabolic genes revealed simultaneous induction of multiple phosphoinositide biosynthetic genes associated with the increased phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate concentration, with a high degree of differential expression patterns for genes encoding other glycerolipid-metabolic genes. The phosphatidic acid phosphatase mutant pah1 pah2 showed flower developmental defect, suggesting a role for phosphatidic acid in flower development. Our concurrent profiling of glycerolipids and relevant metabolic gene expression revealed distinct metabolic pathways stimulated at different stages of flower development in Arabidopsis.

  17. Optimization of lychee and longan flowering and fruiting in Hawaii.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new management method was developed for consistent flowering and fruiting of ‘Kaimana’ lychee at the Inconsistent or lack of flower and fruit production in germplasm accessions is a major obstacle in the evaluation, characterization and documentation of germplasm accessions and limits the genetic...

  18. Mapping loci controlling flowering time in Brassica oleracea.

    PubMed

    Camargo, L E; Osborn, T C

    1996-04-01

    The timing of the transition from vegetative to reproductive phase is a major determinant of the morphology and value of Brassica oleracea crops. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling flowering time in B. oleracea were mapped using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) loci and flowering data of F3 families derived from a cabbage by broccoli cross. Plants were grown in the field, and a total of 15 surveys were made throughout the experiment at 5-15 day intervals, in which plants were inspected for the presence of flower buds or open flowers. The flowering traits used for data analysis were the proportion of annual plants (PF) within each F3 family at the end of the experiment, and a flowering-time index (FT) that combined both qualitative (annual/biennial) and quantitative (days to flowering) information. Two QTLs on different linkage groups were found associated with both PF and FT and one additional QTL was found associated only with FT. When combined in a multi-locus model, all three QTLs explained 54.1% of the phenotypic variation in FT. Epistasis was found between two genomic regions associated with FT. Comparisons of map positions of QTLs in B. oleracea with those in B. napus and B. rapa provided no evidence for conservation of genomic regions associated with flowering time between these species.

  19. Susceptibility of blackberry flower parts to subfreezing temperatures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Injury of tight buds, open flowers and green fruit often occur in fruit crops in later winter to early spring frosts. In this study, freezing tolerance of ‘Triple Crown’ blackberry flowers at various maturity ranging from tight bud to green drupe stage was determined using two freezing methods. On...

  20. Tachinidae (Diptera) associated with flowering plants: estimating foral attractiveness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flowering plants in agricultural landscapes can provide ecological services, such as nectar-food for adult parasitic flies such as Tachinidae. Various cultivated, introduced/established and native potted plants-in-flower were used to bait interception traps along the wooded margins of fields planted...

  1. Inheritance of red foliage in flowering dogwood (Cornus florida L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flowering dogwood (Cornus florida L.) is an ornamental tree valued for its showy white, pink, or red spring bract display and red fall color. A ‘‘pseudo’’ F2 flowering dogwood population was recently developed from a honeybee mediated cross of ‘Cherokee Brave’ x ‘Appalachian Spring’. The foliage col...

  2. In vitro flowering and pollen viability of cucumber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flowers were produced on sterile cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants grown in vitro from seed or from micropropagated shoots from stem fragments. Highest numbers of flowers on plants from both sources were produced on hormone-free MS medium as well as with 6 µM of kinetin (MSK). Plants cultured on ...

  3. Shifts in flowering phenology reshape a subalpine plant community.

    PubMed

    CaraDonna, Paul J; Iler, Amy M; Inouye, David W

    2014-04-01

    Phenology--the timing of biological events--is highly sensitive to climate change. However, our general understanding of how phenology responds to climate change is based almost solely on incomplete assessments of phenology (such as first date of flowering) rather than on entire phenological distributions. Using a uniquely comprehensive 39-y flowering phenology dataset from the Colorado Rocky Mountains that contains more than 2 million flower counts, we reveal a diversity of species-level phenological shifts that bring into question the accuracy of previous estimates of long-term phenological change. For 60 species, we show that first, peak, and last flowering rarely shift uniformly and instead usually shift independently of one another, resulting in a diversity of phenological changes through time. Shifts in the timing of first flowering on average overestimate the magnitude of shifts in the timing of peak flowering, fail to predict shifts in the timing of last flowering, and underrepresent the number of species changing phenology in this plant community. Ultimately, this diversity of species-level phenological shifts contributes to altered coflowering patterns within the community, a redistribution of floral abundance across the season, and an expansion of the flowering season by more than I mo during the course of our study period. These results demonstrate the substantial reshaping of ecological communities that can be attributed to shifts in phenology.

  4. Shifts in flowering phenology reshape a subalpine plant community

    PubMed Central

    CaraDonna, Paul J.; Iler, Amy M.; Inouye, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Phenology—the timing of biological events—is highly sensitive to climate change. However, our general understanding of how phenology responds to climate change is based almost solely on incomplete assessments of phenology (such as first date of flowering) rather than on entire phenological distributions. Using a uniquely comprehensive 39-y flowering phenology dataset from the Colorado Rocky Mountains that contains more than 2 million flower counts, we reveal a diversity of species-level phenological shifts that bring into question the accuracy of previous estimates of long-term phenological change. For 60 species, we show that first, peak, and last flowering rarely shift uniformly and instead usually shift independently of one another, resulting in a diversity of phenological changes through time. Shifts in the timing of first flowering on average overestimate the magnitude of shifts in the timing of peak flowering, fail to predict shifts in the timing of last flowering, and underrepresent the number of species changing phenology in this plant community. Ultimately, this diversity of species-level phenological shifts contributes to altered coflowering patterns within the community, a redistribution of floral abundance across the season, and an expansion of the flowering season by more than I mo during the course of our study period. These results demonstrate the substantial reshaping of ecological communities that can be attributed to shifts in phenology. PMID:24639544

  5. Shifts in flowering phenology reshape a subalpine plant community.

    PubMed

    CaraDonna, Paul J; Iler, Amy M; Inouye, David W

    2014-04-01

    Phenology--the timing of biological events--is highly sensitive to climate change. However, our general understanding of how phenology responds to climate change is based almost solely on incomplete assessments of phenology (such as first date of flowering) rather than on entire phenological distributions. Using a uniquely comprehensive 39-y flowering phenology dataset from the Colorado Rocky Mountains that contains more than 2 million flower counts, we reveal a diversity of species-level phenological shifts that bring into question the accuracy of previous estimates of long-term phenological change. For 60 species, we show that first, peak, and last flowering rarely shift uniformly and instead usually shift independently of one another, resulting in a diversity of phenological changes through time. Shifts in the timing of first flowering on average overestimate the magnitude of shifts in the timing of peak flowering, fail to predict shifts in the timing of last flowering, and underrepresent the number of species changing phenology in this plant community. Ultimately, this diversity of species-level phenological shifts contributes to altered coflowering patterns within the community, a redistribution of floral abundance across the season, and an expansion of the flowering season by more than I mo during the course of our study period. These results demonstrate the substantial reshaping of ecological communities that can be attributed to shifts in phenology. PMID:24639544

  6. Genome-wide associations with flowering time in switchgrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Switchgrass is an emerging bioenergy crop and perennial grass native to North America. Improving biomass yields is critical for developing switchgrass into an economically viable crop. Flowering time has a major effect on biomass yields as delaying flowering time prolongs the period of vegetative gr...

  7. Irreversible commitment to flowering in two mango cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years, the state of Nayarit, Mexico has experienced variations in rainfall distribution and warmer temperatures during the autumn-winter season which have caused erratic flowering of mango. The early-flowering cultivars, such as ‘Ataulfo’, have been less affected than tardy ones such as ‘T...

  8. The Evergreen gene is essential for flower initiation in carnation.

    PubMed

    Scovel, G; Altshuler, T; Liu, Z; Vainstein, A

    2000-01-01

    One of the leading cut-flower crops in the world, the greenhouse carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus), has been subjected to intense breeding efforts for the past few hundred years. As an ornamental crop, flowering and flower architecture are major breeding targets that are constantly in demand. In an ongoing breeding program aimed at improving these characteristics, two mutants heterozygous for a mutation in a gene termed evergreen (e) were identified. In these mutants, spike-like clusters of bracteoles subtend each flower. Genetic analysis of the mutants confirmed the semidominant nature of this nuclear mutation and that the two original mutants were allelic at the evergreen locus. In homozygous mutant plants, a more severe phenotype was observed. Flower formation was completely blocked and spikelike clusters of bracteoles did not subtend any flowers. Morphological characterization of mutant plants revealed that vegetative growth and inflorescence structure are not affected by the mutant allele. In plants heterozygous for the evergreen mutation, fertility, petal and pistil length, calyx diameter, and stamen number were not affected. However, flowers from these heterozygous plants had a reduced number of petals, suggesting an intriguing link between evergreen and the double flower (d) gene that determines petal number in carnation. The control by evergreen of bracteole formation, floral meristem initiation, and petal number in carnation is discussed in comparison to the recessive leafy (lfy) and floricaula (flo) mutants of Arabidopsis and Antirrhinum, respectively.

  9. Spatiotemporal analysis of olive flowering using geostatistical techniques.

    PubMed

    Rojo, Jesús; Pérez-Badia, Rosa

    2015-02-01

    Analysis of flowering patterns in the olive (Olea europaea L.) are of considerable agricultural and ecological interest, and also provide valuable information for allergy-sufferers, enabling identification of the major sources of airborne pollen at any given moment by interpreting the aerobiological data recorded in pollen traps. The present spatiotemporal analysis of olive flowering in central Spain combined geostatistical techniques with the application of a Geographic Information Systems, and compared results for flowering intensity with airborne pollen records. The results were used to obtain continuous phenological maps which determined the pattern of the succession of the olive flowering. The results show also that, although the highest airborne olive-pollen counts were recorded during the greatest flowering intensity of the groves closest to the pollen trap, the counts recorded at the start of the pollen season were not linked to local olive groves, which had not yet begin to flower. To detect the remote sources of olive pollen several episodes of pollen recorded before the local flowering season were analysed using a HYSPLIT trajectory model and the findings showed that western, southern and southwestern winds transported pollen grains into the study area from earlier-flowering groves located outside the territory.

  10. Experimental evidence of pollination in marine flowers by invertebrate fauna

    PubMed Central

    van Tussenbroek, Brigitta I.; Villamil, Nora; Márquez-Guzmán, Judith; Wong, Ricardo; Monroy-Velázquez, L. Verónica; Solis-Weiss, Vivianne

    2016-01-01

    Pollen transport by water-flow (hydrophily) is a typical, and almost exclusive, adaptation of plants to life in the marine environment. It is thought that, unlike terrestrial environments, animals are not involved in pollination in the sea. The male flowers of the tropical marine angiosperm Thalassia testudinum open-up and release pollen in mucilage at night when invertebrate fauna is active. Here we present experimental evidence that, in the absence of water-flow, these invertebrates visit the flowers, carry and transfer mucilage mass with embedded pollen from the male flowers to the stigmas of the female flowers. Pollen tubes are formed on the stigmas, indicating that pollination is successful. Thus, T. testudinum has mixed abiotic–biotic pollination. We propose a zoobenthophilous pollination syndrome (pollen transfer in the benthic zone by invertebrate animals) which shares many characteristics with hydrophily, but flowers are expected to open-up during the night. PMID:27680661

  11. Genetics and genomics of flower initiation and development in roses

    PubMed Central

    Bendahmane, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Roses hold high symbolic value and great cultural importance in different societies throughout human history. They are widely used as garden ornamental plants, as cut flowers, and for the production of essential oils for the perfume and cosmetic industries. Domestication of roses has a long and complex history, and the rose species have been hybridized across vast geographic areas such as Europe, Asia, and the Middle East. The domestication processes selected several flower characters affecting floral quality, such as recurrent flowering, double flowers, petal colours, and fragrance. The molecular and genetic events that determine some of these flower characters cannot be studied using model species such as Arabidopsis thaliana, or at least only in a limited manner. In this review, we comment on the recent development of genetic, genomic, and transcriptomic tools for roses, and then focus on recent advances that have helped unravel the molecular mechanisms underlying several rose floral traits. PMID:23364936

  12. Cranberry flowering times and climate change in southern Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    Ellwood, Elizabeth R; Playfair, Susan R; Polgar, Caroline A; Primack, Richard B

    2014-09-01

    Plants in wild and agricultural settings are being affected by the warmer temperatures associated with climate change. Here we examine the degree to which the iconic New England cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon, is exhibiting signs of altered flowering phenology. Using contemporary records from commercial cranberry bogs in southeastern Massachusetts in the United States, we found that cranberry plants are responsive to temperature. Flowering is approximately 2 days earlier for each 1 °C increase in May temperature. We also investigated the relationship between cranberry flowering and flight dates of the bog copper, Lycaena epixanthe-a butterfly dependent upon cranberry plants in its larval stage. Cranberry flowering and bog copper emergence were found to be changing disproportionately over time, suggesting a potential ecological mismatch. The pattern of advanced cranberry flowering over time coupled with increased temperature has implications not only for the relationship between cranberry plants and their insect associates but also for agricultural crops in general and for the commercial cranberry industry.

  13. Time after time: flowering phenology and biotic interactions.

    PubMed

    Elzinga, Jelmer A; Atlan, Anne; Biere, Arjen; Gigord, Luc; Weis, Arthur E; Bernasconi, Giorgina

    2007-08-01

    The role of biotic interactions in shaping plant flowering phenology has long been controversial; plastic responses to the abiotic environment, limited precision of biological clocks and inconsistency of selection pressures have generally been emphasized to explain phenological variation. However, part of this variation is heritable and selection analyses show that biotic interactions can modulate selection on flowering phenology. Our review of the literature indicates that pollinators tend to favour peak or earlier flowering, whereas pre-dispersal seed predators tend to favour off-peak or later flowering. However, effects strongly vary among study systems. To understand such variation, future studies should address the impact of mutualist and antagonist dispersal ability, ecological specialization, and habitat and plant population characteristics. Here, we outline future directions to study how such interactions shape flowering phenology.

  14. Cranberry flowering times and climate change in southern Massachusetts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellwood, Elizabeth R.; Playfair, Susan R.; Polgar, Caroline A.; Primack, Richard B.

    2014-09-01

    Plants in wild and agricultural settings are being affected by the warmer temperatures associated with climate change. Here we examine the degree to which the iconic New England cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon, is exhibiting signs of altered flowering phenology. Using contemporary records from commercial cranberry bogs in southeastern Massachusetts in the United States, we found that cranberry plants are responsive to temperature. Flowering is approximately 2 days earlier for each 1 °C increase in May temperature. We also investigated the relationship between cranberry flowering and flight dates of the bog copper, Lycaena epixanthe—a butterfly dependent upon cranberry plants in its larval stage. Cranberry flowering and bog copper emergence were found to be changing disproportionately over time, suggesting a potential ecological mismatch. The pattern of advanced cranberry flowering over time coupled with increased temperature has implications not only for the relationship between cranberry plants and their insect associates but also for agricultural crops in general and for the commercial cranberry industry.

  15. Betaxanthins as pigments responsible for visible fluorescence in flowers.

    PubMed

    Gandía-Herrero, Fernando; Escribano, Josefa; García-Carmona, Francisco

    2005-11-01

    Betalains are water-soluble nitrogen-containing pigments present in flowers and fruits of plants of the order Caryophyllales, where they replace anthocyanins. This article describes how flowers containing yellow betaxanthins are fluorescent. Betaxanthins exhibit spectra with excitation maxima between 463 nm and 474 nm and emission maxima between 509 nm and 512 nm. Thus, betaxanthins are able to absorb blue light and emit green light. Relations between fluorescence and the structural properties of the pigments are discussed. For the first time, pictures of flowers naturally emitting light are presented. Yellow flowers of the ornamental plant Portulaca grandiflora were chosen as a model for the studies in fluorescence due to the existence of the white phenotype, which was used as a control. Studies were also performed in Lampranthus productus flowers, which contain dopaxanthin as a single pigment. The visible fluorescence of betaxanthins inside the petal cells was detected in a confocal microscope after laser excitation.

  16. Preservative solution for gamma irradiated chrysanthemum cut flowers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Olivia Kimiko; Del Mastro, Nelida Lucia; Wiendl, Frederico Maximiliano

    1995-09-01

    Yellow mini-chrysanthemums were irradiated in a Cobalt-60 Gammacell at the dose of 900 Gy (467 Gy/h) one day after harvest. Samples of 50 flowers, parcially opened buds were used to estimate the flower viability. Aluminum sulfate and 8-hydroxyquinoline sulfate were used as two preservative solutions aiming to protect the cut flowers. Our results indicated that the stem immersion in the preservative solutions before and after the irradiation treatment was an efficient procedure, stimulating the flowers development and maintaining the vase-life almost as long as the controls. The present work concludes that it would be possible to use preservative solutions to minimize the damaging effects of the ionizing radiation on chysanthemum cut flowers, maintaining at the same time the disinfestation action of radiation processing.

  17. Genetics and genomics of flower initiation and development in roses.

    PubMed

    Bendahmane, Mohammed; Dubois, Annick; Raymond, Olivier; Bris, Manuel Le

    2013-02-01

    Roses hold high symbolic value and great cultural importance in different societies throughout human history. They are widely used as garden ornamental plants, as cut flowers, and for the production of essential oils for the perfume and cosmetic industries. Domestication of roses has a long and complex history, and the rose species have been hybridized across vast geographic areas such as Europe, Asia, and the Middle East. The domestication processes selected several flower characters affecting floral quality, such as recurrent flowering, double flowers, petal colours, and fragrance. The molecular and genetic events that determine some of these flower characters cannot be studied using model species such as Arabidopsis thaliana, or at least only in a limited manner. In this review, we comment on the recent development of genetic, genomic, and transcriptomic tools for roses, and then focus on recent advances that have helped unravel the molecular mechanisms underlying several rose floral traits.

  18. [Comparative study on eight trace elements in twelve flower medicines].

    PubMed

    Niu, Ying-Feng; Han, Chun-Mei; Shao, Yun; Tao, Yan-Duo

    2009-07-01

    Eight trace elements such as Ca, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, K, Mg and Na in twelve kinds of flower medicines were determined by flame-atomic absorption spectrometry with air-acetylene flame. The flower medicines include Pueraria lobata Ohwi., Gomphrena globosa L., Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat., Prunus persica (L.) Batsch., Canna indica L., Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd P. spp, Rosa chinensis Jacq., Celosia cristata L., Sophora japonica L., Saussurea medusa Maxim. , Iris lactea var. chinensis (Fisch.) koidz. and Gentiana straminea Maxim.. All of the flowers were commonly used in Tibetan medicines. Three kinds of the flowers were bought in the market and the others were picked in Qinghai province. These flower medicines were selected, dried and powdered, 4.000 g was weighed accurately with analytical balance, and five portions were used for each kind of sample. The content of eight trace elements in these flower medicines was determined and the difference in the content was observed. The recovery rate obtained by the standard addition method was between 96.76% and 102.93%, and the RSD was between 1.13% and 3.46%, so the accuracy of the method was better and the precision of the method was good. The results of the experiment indicated that the contents of the eight trace elements were rich in the twelve kinds of flower medicines, and the content of three trace elements including K, Mg, Na were more than other trace elements in the twelve flower medicines. There were considerable differences in the content of the eight trace elements in different flower medicines and there were more trace elements in Saussure medusa Maxim., Iris lactea var. chinensis (Fisch.) koidz. Canna indica L. and Celosia cristata L. and less trace elements in Sophora japonica L. and Gentiana straminea Maxim.. The data of the experiment could provide an accurate and credible evidence for the reasonable medicinal use and deeper exploitation of these flower medicines. PMID:19798991

  19. Hormonal changes during flower development in floral tissues of Lilium.

    PubMed

    Arrom, L; Munné-Bosch, S

    2012-08-01

    Much effort has been focussed on better understanding the key signals that modulate floral senescence. Although ethylene is one of the most important regulators of floral senescence in several species, Lilium flowers show low sensitivity to ethylene; thus their senescence may be regulated by other hormones. In this study we have examined how (1) endogenous levels of hormones in various floral tissues (outer and inner tepals, androecium and gynoecium) vary throughout flower development, (2) endogenous levels of hormones in such tissues change in cut versus intact flowers at anthesis, and (3) spray applications of abscisic acid and pyrabactin alter flower longevity. Results show that floral tissues behave differently in their hormonal changes during flower development. Cytokinin and auxin levels mostly increased in tepals prior to anthesis and decreased later during senescence. In contrast, levels of abscisic acid increased during senescence, but only in outer tepals and the gynoecium, and during the latest stages. In addition, cut flowers at anthesis differed from intact flowers in the levels of abscisic acid and auxins in outer tepals, salicylic acid in inner tepals, cytokinins, gibberellins and jasmonic acid in the androecium, and abscisic acid and salicylic acid in the gynoecium, thus showing a clear differential response between floral tissues. Furthermore, spray applications of abscisic acid and pyrabactin in combination accelerated the latest stages of tepal senescence, yet only when flower senescence was delayed with Promalin. It is concluded that (1) floral tissues differentially respond in their endogenous variations of hormones during flower development, (2) cut flowers have drastic changes in the hormonal balance not only of outer and inner tepals but also of androecium and gynoecium, and (3) abscisic acid may accelerate the progression of tepal senescence in Lilium. PMID:22367063

  20. C(2)H(4) metabolism in morning glory flowers.

    PubMed

    Beyer, E M; Sundin, O

    1978-06-01

    Flowers of Ipomoea tricolor Cav. (cv. Heavenly Blue) were cut at various stages of development and evaluated for their ability to metabolize ethylene. Freshly cut buds or flowers were treated in glass containers for 8 hours with 6 mul/liter of highly purified (14)C(2)H(4). Following removal of dissolved (14)C(2)H(4), radioactivity was determined for the different flower tissues and trappd CO(2). (14)C(2)H(4) oxidation to (14)CO(2) and tissue incorporation occurred at very low to nondetectable levels 2 to 3 days prior to flower opening. About 1 day prior to full bloom, just at the time when mature buds become responsive to ethylene (Kende and Hanson, Plant Physiol 1976, 57: 523-527), there was a dramatic increase in the capacity of the buds to oxidize (14)C(2)H(4) to (14)CO(2). This activity continued to increase until the flower was fully opened reaching a peak activity of 2,500 dpm per three flowers per 8 hours. It then declined as the flower closed and rapidly senesced. A similar but smaller peak occurred in tissue incorporation and it was followed by a second peak during late flower senescence. This first peak in tissue incorporation and the dramatic peak in ethylene oxidation slightly preceded a large peak of natural ethylene production which accompanied flower senescence. The ethylene metabolism observed was clearly dependent on cellular metabolism and did not involve microorganisms since heat killing destroyed this activity and badly contaminated heat-killed flowers were unable to metabolize ethylene.

  1. Hormonal changes during flower development in floral tissues of Lilium.

    PubMed

    Arrom, L; Munné-Bosch, S

    2012-08-01

    Much effort has been focussed on better understanding the key signals that modulate floral senescence. Although ethylene is one of the most important regulators of floral senescence in several species, Lilium flowers show low sensitivity to ethylene; thus their senescence may be regulated by other hormones. In this study we have examined how (1) endogenous levels of hormones in various floral tissues (outer and inner tepals, androecium and gynoecium) vary throughout flower development, (2) endogenous levels of hormones in such tissues change in cut versus intact flowers at anthesis, and (3) spray applications of abscisic acid and pyrabactin alter flower longevity. Results show that floral tissues behave differently in their hormonal changes during flower development. Cytokinin and auxin levels mostly increased in tepals prior to anthesis and decreased later during senescence. In contrast, levels of abscisic acid increased during senescence, but only in outer tepals and the gynoecium, and during the latest stages. In addition, cut flowers at anthesis differed from intact flowers in the levels of abscisic acid and auxins in outer tepals, salicylic acid in inner tepals, cytokinins, gibberellins and jasmonic acid in the androecium, and abscisic acid and salicylic acid in the gynoecium, thus showing a clear differential response between floral tissues. Furthermore, spray applications of abscisic acid and pyrabactin in combination accelerated the latest stages of tepal senescence, yet only when flower senescence was delayed with Promalin. It is concluded that (1) floral tissues differentially respond in their endogenous variations of hormones during flower development, (2) cut flowers have drastic changes in the hormonal balance not only of outer and inner tepals but also of androecium and gynoecium, and (3) abscisic acid may accelerate the progression of tepal senescence in Lilium.

  2. Promoting flowering, lateral shoot outgrowth, leaf development, and flower abscission in tobacco plants overexpressing cotton FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT)-like gene GhFT1

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chao; Zhang, Yannan; Zhang, Kun; Guo, Danli; Cui, Baiming; Wang, Xiyin; Huang, Xianzhong

    2015-01-01

    FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) encodes a mobile signal protein, recognized as major component of florigen, which has a central position in regulating flowering, and also plays important roles in various physiological aspects. A mode is recently emerging for the balance of indeterminate and determinate growth, which is controlled by the ratio of FT-like and TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (TFL1)-like gene activities, and has a strong influence on the floral transition and plant architecture. Orthologs of GhFT1 was previously isolated and characterized from Gossypium hirsutum. We demonstrated that ectopic overexpression of GhFT1 in tobacco, other than promoting flowering, promoted lateral shoot outgrowth at the base, induced more axillary bud at the axillae of rosette leaves, altered leaf morphology, increased chlorophyll content, had higher rate of photosynthesis and caused flowers abscission. Analysis of gene expression suggested that flower identity genes were significantly upregulated in transgenic plants. Further analysis of tobacco FT paralogs indicated that NtFT4, acting as flower inducer, was upregulated, whereas NtFT2 and NtFT3 as flower inhibitors were upregulated in transgenic plants under long-day conditions, but downregulated under short-day conditions. Our data suggests that sufficient level of transgenic cotton FT might disturb the balance of the endogenous tobacco FT paralogs of inducers and repressors and resulted in altered phenotype in transgenic tobacco, emphasizing the expanding roles of FT in regulating shoot architecture by advancing determine growth. Manipulating the ratio for indeterminate and determinate growth factors throughout FT-like and TFL1-like gene activity holds promise to improve plant architecture and enhance crop yield. PMID:26136765

  3. Two novel aromatic glucosides, marylaurencinosides D and E, from the fresh flowers of Cymbidium Great Flower 'Marylaurencin'.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Kazuko; Okahuji, Mariko; Iseki, Kanako; Ito, Takuya; Asakawa, Yoshinori; Kawano, Sachiko; Hashimoto, Toshihiro

    2014-04-01

    Two novel aromatic glucosides, named marylaurencinosides D (1) and E (2), were isolated from the fresh flowers of Cymbidium Great Flower 'Marylaurencin'. In addition, eight known aromatic compounds (3-10) were isolated. These structures were determined on the basis of NMR experiments as well as chemical evidence.

  4. Modulation of Ambient Temperature-Dependent Flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana by Natural Variation of FLOWERING LOCUS M.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Ulrich; Posé, David; Pfeifer, Matthias; Gundlach, Heidrun; Hagmann, Jörg; Wang, Congmao; Weigel, Detlef; Mayer, Klaus F X; Schmid, Markus; Schwechheimer, Claus

    2015-10-01

    Plants integrate seasonal cues such as temperature and day length to optimally adjust their flowering time to the environment. Compared to the control of flowering before and after winter by the vernalization and day length pathways, mechanisms that delay or promote flowering during a transient cool or warm period, especially during spring, are less well understood. Due to global warming, understanding this ambient temperature pathway has gained increasing importance. In Arabidopsis thaliana, FLOWERING LOCUS M (FLM) is a critical flowering regulator of the ambient temperature pathway. FLM is alternatively spliced in a temperature-dependent manner and the two predominant splice variants, FLM-ß and FLM-δ, can repress and activate flowering in the genetic background of the A. thaliana reference accession Columbia-0. The relevance of this regulatory mechanism for the environmental adaptation across the entire range of the species is, however, unknown. Here, we identify insertion polymorphisms in the first intron of FLM as causative for accelerated flowering in many natural A. thaliana accessions, especially in cool (15°C) temperatures. We present evidence for a potential adaptive role of this structural variation and link it specifically to changes in the abundance of FLM-ß. Our results may allow predicting flowering in response to ambient temperatures in the Brassicaceae. PMID:26492483

  5. Conserving natural enemies with flowering plants: estimating floral attractiveness to parasitic Hymenoptera and attractions relationship to flower and plant morphology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flowering plants in agricultural landscapes can provide ecological services, such as nectar-food for adult parasitic Hymenoptera. Various native, introduced/established and cultivated potted plants-in-flower were used to bait interception traps along the wooded margins of fields planted seasonally w...

  6. Nonrandom Composition of Flower Colors in a Plant Community: Mutually Different Co-Flowering Natives and Disturbance by Aliens.

    PubMed

    Makino, Takashi T; Yokoyama, Jun

    2015-01-01

    When pollinators use flower color to locate food sources, a distinct color can serve as a reproductive barrier against co-flowering species. This anti-interference function of flower color may result in a community assembly of plant species displaying mutually different flower colors. However, such color dispersion is not ubiquitous, suggesting a variable selection across communities and existence of some opposing factors. We conducted a 30-week study in a plant community and measured the floral reflectances of 244 species. The reflectances were evaluated in insect color spaces (bees, swallowtails, and flies), and the dispersion was compared with random expectations. We found that co-existing colors were overdispersed for each analyzed pollinator type, and this overdispersion was statistically significant for bees. Furthermore, we showed that exclusion of 32 aliens from the analysis significantly increased the color dispersion of native flowers in every color space. This result indicated that aliens disturbed a native plant-pollinator network via similarly colored flowers. Our results demonstrate the masking effects of aliens in the detection of color dispersion of native flowers and that variations in pollinator vision yield different outcomes. Our results also support the hypothesis that co-flowering species are one of the drivers of color diversification and affect the community assembly.

  7. Nonrandom Composition of Flower Colors in a Plant Community: Mutually Different Co-Flowering Natives and Disturbance by Aliens

    PubMed Central

    Makino, Takashi T.; Yokoyama, Jun

    2015-01-01

    When pollinators use flower color to locate food sources, a distinct color can serve as a reproductive barrier against co-flowering species. This anti-interference function of flower color may result in a community assembly of plant species displaying mutually different flower colors. However, such color dispersion is not ubiquitous, suggesting a variable selection across communities and existence of some opposing factors. We conducted a 30-week study in a plant community and measured the floral reflectances of 244 species. The reflectances were evaluated in insect color spaces (bees, swallowtails, and flies), and the dispersion was compared with random expectations. We found that co-existing colors were overdispersed for each analyzed pollinator type, and this overdispersion was statistically significant for bees. Furthermore, we showed that exclusion of 32 aliens from the analysis significantly increased the color dispersion of native flowers in every color space. This result indicated that aliens disturbed a native plant–pollinator network via similarly colored flowers. Our results demonstrate the masking effects of aliens in the detection of color dispersion of native flowers and that variations in pollinator vision yield different outcomes. Our results also support the hypothesis that co-flowering species are one of the drivers of color diversification and affect the community assembly. PMID:26650121

  8. WRKY71 accelerates flowering via the direct activation of FLOWERING LOCUS T and LEAFY in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yanchong; Liu, Zhenhua; Wang, Long; Kim, Sang-Gyu; Seo, Pil J; Qiao, Meng; Wang, Nan; Li, Shuo; Cao, Xiaofeng; Park, Chung-Mo; Xiang, Fengning

    2016-01-01

    Flowering is crucial for achieving reproductive success. A large number of well-delineated factors affecting flowering are involved in complex genetic networks in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, the underlying part played by the WRKY transcription factors in this process is not yet clear. Here, we report that WRKY71 is able to accelerate flowering in Arabidopsis. An activation-tagged mutant WRKY71-1D and a constitutive over-expresser of WRKY71 both flowered earlier than the wild type (WT). In contrast, both the RNA interference-based multiple WRKY knock-out mutant (w71w8 + 28RNAi) and the dominant repression line (W71-SRDX) flowered later. Gene expression analysis showed that the transcript abundance of the flowering time integrator gene FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and the floral meristem identity genes LEAFY (LFY), APETALA1 (AP1) and FRUITFULL (FUL) were greater in WRKY71-1D than in the WT, but lower in w71w8 + 28RNAi and W71-SRDX. Further, WRKY71 was shown to bind to the W-boxes in the FT and LFY promoters in vitro and in vivo. The suggestion is that WRKY71 activity hastens flowering via the direct activation of FT and LFY.

  9. Modulation of Ambient Temperature-Dependent Flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana by Natural Variation of FLOWERING LOCUS M.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Ulrich; Posé, David; Pfeifer, Matthias; Gundlach, Heidrun; Hagmann, Jörg; Wang, Congmao; Weigel, Detlef; Mayer, Klaus F X; Schmid, Markus; Schwechheimer, Claus

    2015-10-01

    Plants integrate seasonal cues such as temperature and day length to optimally adjust their flowering time to the environment. Compared to the control of flowering before and after winter by the vernalization and day length pathways, mechanisms that delay or promote flowering during a transient cool or warm period, especially during spring, are less well understood. Due to global warming, understanding this ambient temperature pathway has gained increasing importance. In Arabidopsis thaliana, FLOWERING LOCUS M (FLM) is a critical flowering regulator of the ambient temperature pathway. FLM is alternatively spliced in a temperature-dependent manner and the two predominant splice variants, FLM-ß and FLM-δ, can repress and activate flowering in the genetic background of the A. thaliana reference accession Columbia-0. The relevance of this regulatory mechanism for the environmental adaptation across the entire range of the species is, however, unknown. Here, we identify insertion polymorphisms in the first intron of FLM as causative for accelerated flowering in many natural A. thaliana accessions, especially in cool (15°C) temperatures. We present evidence for a potential adaptive role of this structural variation and link it specifically to changes in the abundance of FLM-ß. Our results may allow predicting flowering in response to ambient temperatures in the Brassicaceae.

  10. Modulation of Ambient Temperature-Dependent Flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana by Natural Variation of FLOWERING LOCUS M

    PubMed Central

    Lutz, Ulrich; Posé, David; Pfeifer, Matthias; Gundlach, Heidrun; Hagmann, Jörg; Wang, Congmao; Weigel, Detlef; Mayer, Klaus F. X.; Schmid, Markus; Schwechheimer, Claus

    2015-01-01

    Plants integrate seasonal cues such as temperature and day length to optimally adjust their flowering time to the environment. Compared to the control of flowering before and after winter by the vernalization and day length pathways, mechanisms that delay or promote flowering during a transient cool or warm period, especially during spring, are less well understood. Due to global warming, understanding this ambient temperature pathway has gained increasing importance. In Arabidopsis thaliana, FLOWERING LOCUS M (FLM) is a critical flowering regulator of the ambient temperature pathway. FLM is alternatively spliced in a temperature-dependent manner and the two predominant splice variants, FLM-ß and FLM-δ, can repress and activate flowering in the genetic background of the A. thaliana reference accession Columbia-0. The relevance of this regulatory mechanism for the environmental adaptation across the entire range of the species is, however, unknown. Here, we identify insertion polymorphisms in the first intron of FLM as causative for accelerated flowering in many natural A. thaliana accessions, especially in cool (15°C) temperatures. We present evidence for a potential adaptive role of this structural variation and link it specifically to changes in the abundance of FLM-ß. Our results may allow predicting flowering in response to ambient temperatures in the Brassicaceae. PMID:26492483

  11. Flower vs. Leaf Feeding by Pieris brassicae: Glucosinolate-Rich Flower Tissues are Preferred and Sustain Higher Growth Rate

    PubMed Central

    Smallegange, R. C.; Blatt, S. E.; Harvey, J. A.; Agerbirk, N.; Dicke, M.

    2007-01-01

    Interactions between butterflies and caterpillars in the genus Pieris and plants in the family Brassicaceae are among the best explored in the field of insect–plant biology. However, we report here for the first time that Pieris brassicae, commonly assumed to be a typical folivore, actually prefers to feed on flowers of three Brassica nigra genotypes rather than on their leaves. First- and second-instar caterpillars were observed to feed primarily on leaves, whereas late second and early third instars migrated via the small leaves of the flower branches to the flower buds and flowers. Once flower feeding began, no further leaf feeding was observed. We investigated growth rates of caterpillars having access exclusively to either leaves of flowering plants or flowers. In addition, we analyzed glucosinolate concentrations in leaves and flowers. Late-second- and early-third-instar P. brassicae caterpillars moved upward into the inflorescences of B. nigra and fed on buds and flowers until the end of the final (fifth) instar, after which they entered into the wandering stage, leaving the plant in search of a pupation site. Flower feeding sustained a significantly higher growth rate than leaf feeding. Flowers contained levels of glucosinolates up to five times higher than those of leaves. Five glucosinolates were identified: the aliphatic sinigrin, the aromatic phenyethylglucosinolate, and three indole glucosinolates: glucobrassicin, 4-methoxyglucobrassicin, and 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin. Tissue type and genotype were the most important factors affecting levels of identified glucosinolates. Sinigrin was by far the most abundant compound in all three genotypes. Sinigrin, 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin, and phenylethylglucosinolate were present at significantly higher levels in flowers than in leaves. In response to caterpillar feeding, sinigrin levels in both leaves and flowers were significantly higher than in undamaged plants, whereas 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin leaf levels were

  12. The flowering gene SINGLE FLOWER TRUSS drives heterosis for yield in tomato.

    PubMed

    Krieger, Uri; Lippman, Zachary B; Zamir, Dani

    2010-05-01

    Intercrossing different varieties of plants frequently produces hybrid offspring with superior vigor and increased yields, in a poorly understood phenomenon known as heterosis. One classical unproven model for heterosis is overdominance, which posits in its simplest form that improved vigor can result from a single heterozygous gene. Here we report that heterozygosity for tomato loss-of-function alleles of SINGLE FLOWER TRUSS (SFT), which is the genetic originator of the flowering hormone florigen, increases yield by up to 60%. Yield overdominance from SFT heterozygosity is robust, occurring in distinct genetic backgrounds and environments. We show that several traits integrate pleiotropically to drive heterosis in a multiplicative manner, and these effects derive from a suppression of growth termination mediated by SELF PRUNING (SP), an antagonist of SFT. Our findings provide the first example of a single overdominant gene for yield and suggest that single heterozygous mutations may improve productivity in other agricultural organisms.

  13. Where have all the flowers gone? Are our woodland flowers disappearing?

    PubMed

    Kirby, K

    2001-08-01

    The owner of a wood in Norfolk once told me that he thought that the lily of the valley has declined over the last 20 years. In Wytham Woods near Oxford the dense bramble patches I studied in the 1970s didn't seem so thick ten years later. Were these slips of the memory or did Pete Seeger have a point with his 1961 song - Where have all the flowers gone? PMID:11509765

  14. Volatile Organic Compounds Emissions from Luculia pinceana Flower and Its Changes at Different Stages of Flower Development.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuying; Ma, Hong; Wan, Youming; Li, Taiqiang; Liu, Xiuxian; Sun, Zhenghai; Li, Zhenghong

    2016-01-01

    Luculia plants are famed ornamental plants with sweetly fragrant flowers, of which L. pinceana Hooker, found primarily in Yunnan Province, China, has the widest distribution. Solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) was employed to identify the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from different flower development stages of L. pinceana for the evaluation of floral volatile polymorphism. Peak areas were normalized as percentages and used to determine the relative amounts of the volatiles. The results showed that a total of 39 compounds were identified at four different stages of L. pinceana flower development, including 26 at the bud stage, 26 at the initial-flowering stage, 32 at the full-flowering stage, and 32 at the end-flowering stage. The most abundant compound was paeonol (51%-83%) followed by (E,E)-α-farnesene, cyclosativene, and δ-cadinene. All these volatile compounds create the unique fragrance of L. pinceana flower. Floral scent emission offered tendency of ascending first and descending in succession, meeting its peak level at the initial-flowering stage. The richest diversity of floral volatile was detected at the third and later periods of flower development. Principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that the composition and its relative content of floral scent differed throughout the whole flower development. The result has important implications for future floral fragrance breeding of Luculia. L. pinceana would be adequate for a beneficial houseplant and has a promising prospect for development as essential oil besides for a fragrant ornamental owing to the main compounds of floral scent with many medicinal properties. PMID:27110758

  15. Flowering and expression of flowering-related genes under long-day conditions with light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Hori, Yoshimi; Nishidate, Koji; Nishiyama, Manabu; Kanahama, Koki; Kanayama, Yoshinori

    2011-08-01

    The effects of light quality on flowering time were investigated in Gypsophila paniculata, which is a long-day cut flower, and with Arabidopsis under long-day conditions with light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Gypsophila paniculata plants were grown under natural daylight and flowering was controlled by long-day treatment with a weak LED light of a single color in the night. Flowering was promoted not by blue light, but by far-red light in G. paniculata, while flowering was promoted by both light colors in Arabidopsis. FT homologs of G. paniculata GpFT1 and GpFT2 were differentially expressed under long-day conditions with white light, suggesting that they play roles in flowering at different stages of reproductive development. GpFTs and FT gene expression was not induced by far-red light in G. paniculata or Arabidopsis. Instead, the expression of the SOC1 homolog of G. paniculata GpSOC1 and SOC1 was induced by far-red light in G. paniculata and Arabidopsis. Flowering was promoted by induction of FT and SOC1 expression with blue light in Arabidopsis, whereas GpFTs and GpSOC1 expression was low with blue light induction in G. paniculata. The relationship between flowering and the expression of FT and SOC1 in Arabidopsis was confirmed with ft and soc1 mutants. These results suggest that long-day conditions with far-red light promote flowering through SOC1 and its homologs, while the conditions with blue light do not promote flowering in G. paniculata, because of low expression of GpFTs and GpSOC1 in contrast to that in Arabidopsis.

  16. Flowering phenology, fruiting success and progressive deterioration of pollination in an early-flowering geophyte

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, James D.

    2010-01-01

    Spatio-temporal patterns of snowmelt and flowering times affect fruiting success in Erythronium grandiflorum Pursh (Liliaceae) in subalpine western Colorado, USA. From 1990 to 1995, I measured the consistency across years of snowmelt patterns and flowering times along a permanent transect. In most years since 1993, I have monitored fruit set in temporal cohorts (early- to late-flowering groups of plants) at one site. To assess ‘pollination limitation’, I have also conducted supplemental hand-pollination experiments at various times through the blooming season. The onset of blooming is determined by snowmelt, with the earliest years starting a month before the latest years owing to variation in winter snowpack accumulation. Fruit set is diminished or prevented entirely by killing frosts in some years, most frequently but not exclusively for the earlier cohorts. When frosts do not limit fruit set, pollination limitation is frequent, especially in the earlier cohorts. Pollination limitation is strongest for middle cohorts: it tends to be negated by frost in early cohorts and ameliorated by continuing emergence of bumble-bee queens in later cohorts. This lily appears to be poorly synchronized with its pollinators. Across the years of the study, pollination limitation appears to be increasing, perhaps because the synchronization is getting worse. PMID:20819812

  17. Delayed Flowering in Bamboo: Evidence from Fargesia qinlingensis in the Qinling Mountains of China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Franklin, Scott B; Lu, Zhijun; Rude, Brian J

    2016-01-01

    Gregarious flowering of bamboo species impacts ecosystem properties and conservation, but documentation of these periodic events is difficult. Here, we compare the characteristics of flowering sites and un-flowered patches of an arrow bamboo (Fargesia qinlingensis) in the Qinling Mountains, China, over a 5-year period (2003-2007) after a mast flowering event (2003). We examined flowering culm and seedling characteristics in relation to questions regarding the evolution of delayed flowering. Density of live culms decreased over the 5 years in both flowering sites and un-flowered patches. New shoots regenerated only in un-flowered patches. Chemical constituent allocation varied among culm parts (stems, branches, and leaves). Crude protein and extract ether in branches and leaves were less in flowering culms than in un-flowered culms. Seedling density was lower than expected based on floret counts, suggesting predation of seeds. Seedling density was significantly greater in flowering sites than in un-flowered patches and decreased over time. Seedlings performed better in flowering sites than in un-flowered patches based on their height, leaf number per seedling, and average leaf length, while fertilization on flowering sites had no significant effect on seedling growth, suggesting a saturation of resources. This study suggested that the characteristics of bamboos and bamboo stands were dramatically altered during this flowering event, enhancing seedling establishment and growth, and supporting mostly the habitat modification hypothesis of delayed reproduction. PMID:26909094

  18. [The changes in spectral features of the staple-food bamboos of giant panda after flowering].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xue-Hua; Wu, Yan

    2012-12-01

    Large-area flowering of the giant pandas' staple food is an important factor which can influence their survival. Therefore, it is necessary to predict the bamboo flowering. Foping Nature Reserve was taken as the study area. The research selected the giant pandas' staple-food bamboos Bashania fargesii, Fargesia qinlingensis and Fargesia dracocephala with different flowering situations (i. e., flowering, potential flowering, non-flowering with far distance) to measure the spectral reflectance of bamboo leaves. We studied the influence of bamboo flowering on the spectral features of three bamboo species through analyzing the original spectral reflectance and their red edge parameters. The results showed that (1) the flowering changed the spectra features of bamboo species. The spectral reflectance of B. fargesii shows a pattern: flowering bamboo < potential flowering bamboo < non-flowering bamboo with far distance, while F. qinlingensis and F. dracocephala show the different pattern: flowering bamboo > or = potential flowering bamboo > non-flowering bamboo with far distance. Among three bamboo species, F. dracocephala showed the greatest change, and then F. qinlingensis. (2) After bamboo flowering, the red edge of B. fargesii has no obvious shifting, while the other two bamboos have distinctive shifting towards the shorter waves. The study found that the original spectral feature and the red edge all changed under various flowering states, which can be used to provide the experimental basis and theoretic support for the future prediction of bamboo flowering through remote sensing.

  19. Delayed Flowering in Bamboo: Evidence from Fargesia qinlingensis in the Qinling Mountains of China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Franklin, Scott B.; Lu, Zhijun; Rude, Brian J.

    2016-01-01

    Gregarious flowering of bamboo species impacts ecosystem properties and conservation, but documentation of these periodic events is difficult. Here, we compare the characteristics of flowering sites and un-flowered patches of an arrow bamboo (Fargesia qinlingensis) in the Qinling Mountains, China, over a 5-year period (2003–2007) after a mast flowering event (2003). We examined flowering culm and seedling characteristics in relation to questions regarding the evolution of delayed flowering. Density of live culms decreased over the 5 years in both flowering sites and un-flowered patches. New shoots regenerated only in un-flowered patches. Chemical constituent allocation varied among culm parts (stems, branches, and leaves). Crude protein and extract ether in branches and leaves were less in flowering culms than in un-flowered culms. Seedling density was lower than expected based on floret counts, suggesting predation of seeds. Seedling density was significantly greater in flowering sites than in un-flowered patches and decreased over time. Seedlings performed better in flowering sites than in un-flowered patches based on their height, leaf number per seedling, and average leaf length, while fertilization on flowering sites had no significant effect on seedling growth, suggesting a saturation of resources. This study suggested that the characteristics of bamboos and bamboo stands were dramatically altered during this flowering event, enhancing seedling establishment and growth, and supporting mostly the habitat modification hypothesis of delayed reproduction. PMID:26909094

  20. Bees, birds and yellow flowers: pollinator-dependent convergent evolution of UV patterns.

    PubMed

    Papiorek, S; Junker, R R; Alves-Dos-Santos, I; Melo, G A R; Amaral-Neto, L P; Sazima, M; Wolowski, M; Freitas, L; Lunau, K

    2016-01-01

    Colour is one of the most obvious advertisements of flowers, and occurs in a huge diversity among the angiosperms. Flower colour is responsible for attraction from a distance, whereas contrasting colour patterns within flowers aid orientation of flower visitors after approaching the flowers. Due to the striking differences in colour vision systems and neural processing across animal taxa, flower colours evoke specific behavioural responses by different flower visitors. We tested whether and how yellow flowers differ in their spectral reflectance depending on the main pollinator. We focused on bees and birds and examined whether the presence or absence of the widespread UV reflectance pattern of yellow flowers predicts the main pollinator. Most bee-pollinated flowers displayed a pattern with UV-absorbing centres and UV-reflecting peripheries, whereas the majority of bird-pollinated flowers are entirely UV- absorbing. In choice experiments we found that bees did not show consistent preferences for any colour or pattern types. However, all tested bee species made their first antennal contact preferably at the UV-absorbing area of the artificial flower, irrespective of its spatial position within the flower. The appearance of UV patterns within flowers is the main difference in spectral reflectance between yellow bee- and bird-pollinated flowers, and affects the foraging behaviour of flower visitors. The results support the hypothesis that flower colours and the visual capabilities of their efficient pollinators are adapted to each other.

  1. [The changes in spectral features of the staple-food bamboos of giant panda after flowering].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xue-Hua; Wu, Yan

    2012-12-01

    Large-area flowering of the giant pandas' staple food is an important factor which can influence their survival. Therefore, it is necessary to predict the bamboo flowering. Foping Nature Reserve was taken as the study area. The research selected the giant pandas' staple-food bamboos Bashania fargesii, Fargesia qinlingensis and Fargesia dracocephala with different flowering situations (i. e., flowering, potential flowering, non-flowering with far distance) to measure the spectral reflectance of bamboo leaves. We studied the influence of bamboo flowering on the spectral features of three bamboo species through analyzing the original spectral reflectance and their red edge parameters. The results showed that (1) the flowering changed the spectra features of bamboo species. The spectral reflectance of B. fargesii shows a pattern: flowering bamboo < potential flowering bamboo < non-flowering bamboo with far distance, while F. qinlingensis and F. dracocephala show the different pattern: flowering bamboo > or = potential flowering bamboo > non-flowering bamboo with far distance. Among three bamboo species, F. dracocephala showed the greatest change, and then F. qinlingensis. (2) After bamboo flowering, the red edge of B. fargesii has no obvious shifting, while the other two bamboos have distinctive shifting towards the shorter waves. The study found that the original spectral feature and the red edge all changed under various flowering states, which can be used to provide the experimental basis and theoretic support for the future prediction of bamboo flowering through remote sensing. PMID:23427564

  2. Gibberellins promote flowering of arabidopsis by activating the LEAFY promoter

    PubMed Central

    Blazquez, MA; Green, R; Nilsson, O; Sussman, MR; Weigel, D

    1998-01-01

    The gibberellin class of plant hormones has been implicated in the control of flowering in several species. In Arabidopsis, severe reduction of endogenous gibberellins delays flowering in long days and prevents flowering in short days. We have investigated how the differential effects of gibberellins on flowering correlate with expression of LEAFY, a floral meristem identity gene. We have found that the failure of gibberellin-deficient ga1-3 mutants to flower in short days was paralleled by the absence of LEAFY promoter induction. A causal connection between these two events was confirmed by the ability of a constitutively expressed LEAFY transgene to restore flowering to ga1-3 mutants in short days. In contrast to short days, impairment of gibberellin biosynthesis caused merely a reduction of LEAFY expression when plants were grown in long days or with sucrose in the dark. As a first step toward identifying other small molecules that might regulate flowering, we have developed a rapid in vitro assay for LEAFY promoter activity. PMID:9596637

  3. Synthesis and microstructural control of flower-like cadmium germanate

    SciTech Connect

    Pei, L.Z. Yang, Y.; Pei, Y.Q.; Ran, S.L.

    2011-11-15

    Flower-like Cd{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}O{sub 6} have been synthesized using a facile hydrothermal process with ethylenediamine. The roles of hydrothermal conditions on the size and morphology of the flower-like Cd{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}O{sub 6} were investigated. The research results show that the obtained Cd{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}O{sub 6} presents a flower-like microstructures composed by radial nanorods with diameter of 50-100 nm and length of 0.5-2 {mu}m, respectively. The formation mechanism of the flower-like Cd{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}O{sub 6} is explained according to the ethylenediamine-assisted nucleation-'Ostwald ripening' process. - Highlights: {yields}Cd{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}O{sub 6} flower-like microstructures were synthesized using ethylenediamine. {yields}Cd{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}O{sub 6} flower-like microstructures can be controlled by growth conditions. {yields}Ethylenediamine induces the growth of the Cd{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}O{sub 6} flower-like microstructures.

  4. Spatial control of flowering by DELLA proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Galvão, Vinicius C; Horrer, Daniel; Küttner, Frank; Schmid, Markus

    2012-11-01

    The transition from vegetative to reproductive development is a central event in the plant life cycle. To time the induction of flowering correctly, plants integrate environmental and endogenous signals such as photoperiod, temperature and hormonal status. The hormone gibberellic acid (GA) has long been known to regulate flowering. However, the spatial contribution of GA signaling in flowering time control is poorly understood. Here we have analyzed the effect of tissue-specific misexpression of wild-type and GA-insensitive (dellaΔ17) DELLA proteins on the floral transition in Arabidopsis thaliana. We demonstrate that under long days, GA affects the floral transition by promoting the expression of flowering time integrator genes such as FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and TWIN SISTER OF FT (TSF) in leaves independently of CONSTANS (CO) and GIGANTEA (GI). In addition, GA signaling promotes flowering independently of photoperiod through the regulation of SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE (SPL) genes in both the leaves and at the shoot meristem. Our data suggest that GA regulates flowering by controlling the spatial expression of floral regulatory genes throughout the plant in a day-length-specific manner. PMID:22992955

  5. Oligogalacturonides induce flowers in tobacco thin cell layers

    SciTech Connect

    Marfa-Riera, V.; Gollin, D.; Mohnen, D.; Darvill, A.; Albersheim, P. )

    1989-04-01

    An optimized tobacco thin-cell-layer (TCL) bioassay was used to study the induction of flowers by plant oligosaccharins. Endopolygalacturonase (EPG)-released fragments of suspension-cultured sycamore cell walls induced flowers on TCLs grown on a medium containing 1.5 {mu}M IBA and 0.9 {mu}M kinetin. The EPG-released fragments were primarily composed of the polysaccharides rhamnogalacturonan I (RG-I), rhamnogalacturonan II (RG-II), and {alpha}-1,4-linked oligogalacturonides. The {alpha}-1,4-linked oligogalacturonides, subsequently purified from the EPG-released sycamore cell wall fragment mixture, induced flowers on TCLs. Purified RG-I and RG-II did not induce flowers. Oligosaccharide fragments, generated by partial acid hydrolysis of citrus pectin, were also capable of inducing flowers on the TCLs. The active components in the pectin fragment mixture were {alpha}-1,4-linked oligogalacturonides. Oligogalacturonides with a degree of polymerization (DP) of 8-16, at concentrations of {approx} 0.1 {mu}M, induced flowers, while oligogalacturonides with a DP 2-7, even at higher concentrations, did not. Oligogalacturonides have previously been shown to induce the synthesis of phytoalexins, protease inhibitors, lignin, and ethylene in other plant systems. Thus, the ability of {alpha}-1,4-linked oligogalacturonides to induce flower formation in the tobacco TCLs represents a new biological activity of these oligosaccharins.

  6. [Nutritional content, functional properties and conservation of edible flowers. Review].

    PubMed

    Lara-Cortés, Estrella; Osorio-Díaz, Perla; Jiménez-Aparicio, Antonio; Bautista-Bañios, Silvia

    2013-09-01

    The floriphagia that is the consumption of flowers as a food, is an old practice not widespread among consumers until some decades ago. Edible flowers contribute to increasing the appearance of food. They can provide biologically active substances including vitamin A, C, riboflavins, niacin, minerals such as calcium, phosphorous, iron and potassium that are eventually beneficial to consumers' health. This review includes some examples of edible flowers including roses, violets and nasturtium among others, uses and applications, sensorial characteristics and nutritional values that lead them to be considered as functional food: An important factor that affects the quality of edible flowers is the form in which they are preserved since it may affect their sensorial and nutritional characteristics. However, not all flowers can be eaten as food since there are some of them that can be toxic or even mortal. Finally, although the consumption of flowers is an ancient practice, there is little regulation in this regard. Of the review on edible flowers, it is concluded that there are still numerous aspects about them to evaluate such as nutritional and functional characteristics, conservation and regulation with the aim to extend its consumption.

  7. Colour cues facilitate learning flower refill schedules in wild hummingbirds.

    PubMed

    Samuels, Michael; Hurly, T Andrew; Healy, Susan D

    2014-11-01

    Free-living hummingbirds can learn the refill schedules of individual experimental flowers but little is known about what information they use to do this. Colour cues, in particular, may be important to hummingbirds when learning about rewarded flower properties. We investigated, therefore, whether colour cues facilitated the learning of flower refill schedules in wild, free-living rufous hummingbirds (Selasphorus rufus). In the Cued condition, we presented birds with an array of six flowers, three of one colour, each of which were refilled 10min after being emptied by the bird and three of a different colour, which were refilled 20min after being emptied. In the Uncued condition we presented birds with six flowers of the same colour, three of which were refilled after 10min and three of which were refilled after 20min as for the birds in the Cued condition. In the second part of the experiment, we moved the array 2m and changed the shape of the array. Across both phases, birds in the Cued condition learned to discriminate between 10 and 20-min flowers more quickly than did the birds in the Uncued condition. The Cued birds were also better at discriminating between the two distinct refill intervals. Colour cues can, therefore, facilitate learning the refill schedules of experimental flowers in these birds. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cognition in the wild.

  8. Flowering regulation by tissue specific functions of photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Endo, Motomu

    2008-01-01

    Flowering is one of the most important steps in a plant life cycle. Plants utilize light as an informational source to determine the timing of flowering. In Arabidopsis, phytochrome A (phyA), phyB and cryptochrome2 (cry2) are major photoreceptors that regulate flowering. These photoreceptors perceive light stimuli by leaves for the regulation of flowering. A leaf is an organ consisting of different tissues such as epidermis, mesophyll and vascular bundles. In the present study, we examined in which tissue the light signals are perceived and how those signals are integrated within a leaf to regulate flowering. For this purpose, we established transgenic Arabidopsis lines that expressed a phyB-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein or a cry2-GFP fusion protein in organ/tissue-specific manners. Consequently, phyB was shown to perceive light stimuli in mesophyll. By contrast, cry2 functioned only in vascular bundles. We further confirmed that both phyB-GFP and cry2-GFP regulated flowering by altering the expression of a key flowering gene, FT, in vascular bundles. In summary, perception sites for different spectra of light are spatially separated within a leaf and the signals are integrated through the inter-tissue communication. PMID:19704768

  9. CRYPTOCHROME2 in Vascular Bundles Regulates Flowering in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Endo, Motomu; Mochizuki, Nobuyoshi; Suzuki, Tomomi; Nagatani, Akira

    2007-01-01

    Plants make full use of light signals to determine the timing of flowering. In Arabidopsis thaliana, a blue/UV-A photoreceptor, CRYPTOCHROME 2 (cry2), and a red/far-red photoreceptor, PHYTOCHROME B (phyB), are two major photoreceptors that control flowering. The light stimuli for the regulation of flowering are perceived by leaves. We have recently shown that phyB expression in mesophyll but not in vascular bundles suppresses the expression of a key flowering regulator, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), in vascular bundles. In this study, we asked where in the leaf cry2 perceives light stimuli to regulate flowering. To answer this question, we established transgenic Arabidopsis lines in which the cry2–green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion was expressed under the control of organ/tissue-specific promoters in a cry2-deficient mutant background. Analysis of these lines revealed that expression of cry2-GFP in vascular bundles, but not in epidermis or mesophyll, rescued the late flowering phenotype. We further confirmed that cry2-GFP expressed in vascular bundles increased FT expression only in vascular bundles. Hence, in striking contrast with phyB, cry2 most likely regulates FT expression in a cell-autonomous manner. PMID:17259260

  10. Nitric oxide participates in plant flowering repression by ascorbate

    PubMed Central

    Senthil Kumar, Rajendran; Shen, Chin-Hui; Wu, Pei-Yin; Suresh Kumar, Subbiah; Hua, Moda Sang; Yeh, Kai-Wun

    2016-01-01

    In Oncidium, redox homeostasis involved in flowering is mainly due to ascorbic acid (AsA). Here, we discovered that Oncidium floral repression is caused by an increase in AsA-mediated NO levels, which is directed by the enzymatic activities of nitrate reductase (NaR) and nitrite reducatase (NiR). Through Solexa transcriptomic analysis of two libraries, ‘pseudobulb with inflorescent bud’ (PIB) and ‘pseudobulb with axillary bud’ (PAB), we identified differentially expressed genes related to NO metabolism. Subsequently, we showed a significant reduction of NaR enzymatic activities and NO levels during bolting and blooming stage, suggesting that NO controlled the phase transition and flowering process. Applying AsA to Oncidium PLB (protocorm-like bodies) significantly elevated the NO content and enzyme activities. Application of sodium nitroprusside (-NO donor) on Arabidopsis vtc1 mutant caused late flowering and expression level of flowering-associated genes (CO, FT and LFY) were reduced, suggesting NO signaling is vital for flowering repression. Conversely, the flowering time of noa1, an Arabidopsis NO-deficient mutant, was not altered after treatment with L-galacturonate, a precursor of AsA, suggesting AsA is required for NO-biosynthesis involved in the NO-mediated flowering-repression pathway. Altogether, Oncidium bolting is tightly regulated by AsA-mediated NO level and downregulation of transcriptional levels of NO metabolism genes. PMID:27731387

  11. Indigenous multiresistant bacteria from flowers in hospital and nonhospital environments.

    PubMed

    Kates, S G; McGinley, K J; Larson, E L; Leyden, J J

    1991-06-01

    The microbial flora of 60 vase water samples from cut flowers obtained from several environments, including a hospital, were examined in this study. Forty-one different bacterial species were identified, including 12 species of Pseudomonas. The mean total aerobic bacterial count per 500 ml of vase water was 4.5 x 10(8) organisms, and high levels of antibiotic resistance were found. To ascertain the origin of the bacteria found on the flowers as well as their growth patterns, natural cut flowers were compared with sterilized cut flowers in tap water over time. Although the density of organisms was similar, the flora in vase water of sterilized flowers consisted almost entirely of aerobic spore formers while mixed flora of gram-negative bacteria, staphylococci, aerobic spore formers, and fungi were isolated from natural flowers. Our results indicate that the multiply-resistant microbial flora found in vase water is indigenous to flowers, rather than originating from the environment in which they are placed, and that such water is a reservoir of large numbers of multiresistant organisms.

  12. Sublethal imidacloprid effects on honey bee flower choices when foraging.

    PubMed

    Karahan, Ahmed; Çakmak, Ibrahim; Hranitz, John M; Karaca, Ismail; Wells, Harrington

    2015-11-01

    Neonicotinoids, systemic neuro-active pesticides similar to nicotine, are widely used in agriculture and are being investigated for a role in honey bee colony losses. We examined one neonicotinoid pesticide, imidacloprid, for its effects on the foraging behavior of free-flying honey bees (Apis mellifera anatoliaca) visiting artificial blue and white flowers. Imidacloprid doses, ranging from 1/5 to 1/50 of the reported LD50, were fed to bees orally. The study consisted of three experimental parts performed sequentially without interruption. In Part 1, both flower colors contained a 4 μL 1 M sucrose solution reward. Part 2 offered bees 4 μL of 1.5 M sucrose solution in blue flowers and a 4 μL 0.5 M sucrose solution reward in white flowers. In Part 3 we reversed the sugar solution rewards, while keeping the flower color consistent. Each experiment began 30 min after administration of the pesticide. We recorded the percentage of experimental bees that returned to forage after treatment. We also recorded the visitation rate, number of flowers visited, and floral reward choices of the bees that foraged after treatment. The forager return rate declined linearly with increasing imidacloprid dose. The number of foraging trips by returning bees was also affected adversely. However, flower fidelity was not affected by imidacloprid dose. Foragers visited both blue and white flowers extensively in Part 1, and showed greater fidelity for the flower color offering the higher sugar solution reward in Parts 2 and 3. Although larger samples sizes are needed, our study suggests that imidacloprid may not affect the ability to select the higher nectar reward when rewards were reversed. We observed acute, mild effects on foraging by honey bees, so mild that storage of imidacloprid tainted-honey is very plausible and likely to be found in honey bee colonies. PMID:26415950

  13. Sublethal imidacloprid effects on honey bee flower choices when foraging.

    PubMed

    Karahan, Ahmed; Çakmak, Ibrahim; Hranitz, John M; Karaca, Ismail; Wells, Harrington

    2015-11-01

    Neonicotinoids, systemic neuro-active pesticides similar to nicotine, are widely used in agriculture and are being investigated for a role in honey bee colony losses. We examined one neonicotinoid pesticide, imidacloprid, for its effects on the foraging behavior of free-flying honey bees (Apis mellifera anatoliaca) visiting artificial blue and white flowers. Imidacloprid doses, ranging from 1/5 to 1/50 of the reported LD50, were fed to bees orally. The study consisted of three experimental parts performed sequentially without interruption. In Part 1, both flower colors contained a 4 μL 1 M sucrose solution reward. Part 2 offered bees 4 μL of 1.5 M sucrose solution in blue flowers and a 4 μL 0.5 M sucrose solution reward in white flowers. In Part 3 we reversed the sugar solution rewards, while keeping the flower color consistent. Each experiment began 30 min after administration of the pesticide. We recorded the percentage of experimental bees that returned to forage after treatment. We also recorded the visitation rate, number of flowers visited, and floral reward choices of the bees that foraged after treatment. The forager return rate declined linearly with increasing imidacloprid dose. The number of foraging trips by returning bees was also affected adversely. However, flower fidelity was not affected by imidacloprid dose. Foragers visited both blue and white flowers extensively in Part 1, and showed greater fidelity for the flower color offering the higher sugar solution reward in Parts 2 and 3. Although larger samples sizes are needed, our study suggests that imidacloprid may not affect the ability to select the higher nectar reward when rewards were reversed. We observed acute, mild effects on foraging by honey bees, so mild that storage of imidacloprid tainted-honey is very plausible and likely to be found in honey bee colonies.

  14. The impact of plant and flower age on mating patterns

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Diane L.; Avritt, Joy J.; Maliakal-Witt, Satya; Medeiros, Juliana S.; Shaner, Marieken G. M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Over a season, plant condition, amount of ongoing reproduction and biotic and abiotic environmental factors vary. As flowers age, flower condition and amount of pollen donated and received also vary. These internal and external changes are significant for fitness if they result in changes in reproduction and mating. Scope Literature from several fields was reviewed to provide a picture of the changes that occur in plants and flowers that can affect mating over a season. As flowers age, both the entire flower and individual floral whorls show changes in appearance and function. Over a season, changes in mating often appear as alteration in seed production vs. pollen donation. In several species, older, unpollinated flowers are more likely to self. If flowers are receiving pollen, staying open longer may increase the number of mates. In wild radish, for which there is considerable information on seed paternity, older flowers produce fewer seeds and appear to discriminate less among pollen donors. Pollen donor performance can also be linked to maternal plant age. Different pollinators and mates are available across the season. Also in wild radish, maternal plants appear to exert the most control over paternity when they are of intermediate age. Conclusions Although much is known about the characters of plants and flowers that can change over a season, there is less information on the effects of age on mating. Several studies document changes in self-pollination over time, but very few, other than those on wild radish, consider more subtle aspects of differential success of pollen donors over time. PMID:19875519

  15. Folivory versus florivory—adaptiveness of flower feeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandeili, Babak; Müller, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    The distribution of resources and defence is heterogeneous within plants. Specialist insects may prefer tissue with high concentrations of the plant’s characteristic defence compounds. Most herbivorous butterfly or sawfly larvae are considered to be folivores, so also the turnip sawfly Athalia rosae (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae), a specialist herbivore on Brassicaceae. We investigated which tissue larvae choose to feed upon and how they perform on flowers, young or old leaves of Sinapis alba. Furthermore, constitutive and inducible levels of glucosinolates and myrosinases were investigated and nutrients analysed. Larvae moved from leaves to flowers for feeding from the third larval instar on. Flowers were not actively chosen, but larvae moved upwards on the plant, regardless of how plants were orientated (upright or inverted). Flower-feeding larvae were heavier and developed faster than larvae feeding on young leaves, and adults laid more eggs. Old leaves as food source resulted in the lowest growth rates. Flowers contained three and ten times higher myrosinase activities than young and old leaves, respectively, whereas glucosinolate concentrations and nitrogen levels of flowers and young leaves were comparable. Glucosinolate concentrations of old leaves were very low. Changes in tissue chemistry caused by larval feeding were tissue specific. Defence levels did not change in flowers and old leaves after A. rosae feeding in contrast to young leaves. The high insect performance on flowers cannot be explained by differences in chemical defence. Instead, the lack of mechanical defence (trichomes) is probably responsible. Movement to the flowers and folivory is overall highly adaptive for this sawfly species.

  16. Photoperiodic induction of synchronous flowering near the Equator.

    PubMed

    Borchert, Rolf; Renner, Susanne S; Calle, Zoraida; Navarrete, Diego; Tye, Alan; Gautier, Laurent; Spichiger, Rodolphe; von Hildebrand, Patricio

    2005-02-10

    In tropical rainforests, 30-65% of tree species grow at densities of less than one individual per hectare. At these low population densities, successful cross-pollination relies on synchronous flowering. In rainforests with low climatic seasonality, photoperiodic control is the only reliable mechanism for inducing synchronous flowering. This poses a problem because there is no variation in day length at the Equator. Here we propose a new mechanism of photoperiodic timekeeping based on the perception of variation in sunrise or sunset time, which explains and predicts the annually repeated, staggered, synchronous and bimodal flowering of many tree species in Amazonian rainforests near the Equator.

  17. Synthesis of flower-like silver nanoarchitectures at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Hong Lijun; Li Qing; Lin Hua; Li Yuan

    2009-06-03

    Novel flower-like silver nanoarchitectures were synthesized via a facile and environmentally benign route in the presence of citric acid and ascorbic acid. The flower-like structures are composed of nano-petals of ca. 20 nm in thickness. The products were characterized with X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The growth mechanism of flower-like silver nanoarchitectures involves a film-fold process. Some crucial factors affect the nanocrchitectures growth, such as, pH, the concentration of citric acid, and the concentration of ascorbic acid, have also been discussed.

  18. Reproducing under a warming climate: long winter flowering and extended flower longevity in the only Mediterranean and maritime Primula.

    PubMed

    Aronne, G; Buonanno, M; De Micco, V

    2015-03-01

    Under the pressure of global warming, general expectations of species migration and evolution of adaptive traits should always be confirmed with species-specific studies. Within this framework, some species can be used as study systems to predict possible consequences of global warming also on other relatives. Unlike its mountain congeneric, Primula palinuri Petagn. has endured all the climatic fluctuations since the Pleistocene, while surviving on Mediterranean coastal cliffs. The aim of this work was to investigate the possible evolution of reproductive biological and ecological traits in P. palinuri adaptation to a warmer environment. Data showed that flowering starts in mid-winter; single flowers remain open for over a month, changing from pendulous to erect. The number of insects visiting flowers of P. palinuri increases during the flowering season, and pollination reduces flower longevity. Overall, the best pollen performances, in terms of viability and germinability, occur at winter temperatures, while pollinator activity prolongs flowering until spring. Moreover, extended longevity of single flowers optimises reproductive success. Both phenotypic plasticity and selective processes might have occurred in P. palinuri. However, we found that reproductive traits of the only Mediterranean Primula remain more associated with cold mountain habitats than warm coastal cliffs. Given the rapid trend of climate warming, migration and new adaptive processes in P. palinuri are unlikely. Response to past climate warming of P. palinuri provides useful indications for future scenarios in other Primula species.

  19. Phytochrome B in the Mesophyll Delays Flowering by Suppressing FLOWERING LOCUS T Expression in Arabidopsis Vascular Bundles

    PubMed Central

    Endo, Motomu; Nakamura, Satoshi; Araki, Takashi; Mochizuki, Nobuyoshi; Nagatani, Akira

    2005-01-01

    Light is one of the most important environmental factors that determine the timing of a plant's transition from the vegetative to reproductive, or flowering, phase. Not only daylength but also the spectrum of light greatly affect flowering. The shade of nearby vegetation reduces the ratio of red to far-red light and can trigger shade avoidance responses, including stem elongation and the acceleration of flowering. Phytochrome B (phyB) acts as a photoreceptor for this response. Physiological studies have suggested that leaves can perceive and respond to shade. However, little is known about the mechanisms involved in the processing of light signals within leaves. In this study, we used an enhancer-trap system to establish Arabidopsis thaliana transgenic lines that express phyB–green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein in tissue-specific manners. The analysis of these lines demonstrated that phyB-GFP in mesophyll cells affected flowering, whereas phyB-GFP in vascular bundles did not. Furthermore, mesophyll phyB-GFP suppressed the expression of a key flowering regulator, FLOWERING LOCUS T, in the vascular bundles of cotyledons. Hence, a novel intertissue signaling from mesophyll to vascular bundles is revealed as a critical step for the regulation of flowering by phyB. PMID:15965119

  20. 7 CFR 319.74-2 - Conditions governing the entry of cut flowers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Conditions governing the entry of cut flowers. 319.74... PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Cut Flowers § 319.74-2 Conditions governing the entry of cut flowers. (a) Inspection. All cut flowers imported into...

  1. 7 CFR 319.74-2 - Conditions governing the entry of cut flowers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Conditions governing the entry of cut flowers. 319.74... PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Cut Flowers § 319.74-2 Conditions governing the entry of cut flowers. (a) Inspection. All cut flowers imported into...

  2. 78 FR 25620 - Importation of Female Squash Flowers From Israel Into the Continental United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-02

    ... of Female Squash Flowers From Israel Into the Continental United States AGENCY: Animal and Plant... flowers from Israel into the continental United States. As a condition of entry, female squash flowers... at the production site and fruit fly trapping and monitoring. The female squash flowers would also...

  3. 7 CFR 319.74-2 - Conditions governing the entry of cut flowers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conditions governing the entry of cut flowers. 319.74... PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Cut Flowers § 319.74-2 Conditions governing the entry of cut flowers. (a) Inspection. All cut flowers imported into...

  4. 7 CFR 319.74-2 - Conditions governing the entry of cut flowers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conditions governing the entry of cut flowers. 319.74... PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Cut Flowers § 319.74-2 Conditions governing the entry of cut flowers. (a) Inspection. All cut flowers imported into...

  5. Anthocyanin-dependent anoxygenic photosynthesis in coloured flower petals?

    PubMed Central

    Lysenko, Vladimir; Varduny, Tatyana

    2013-01-01

    Chlorophylless flower petals are known to be composed of non-photosynthetic tissues. Here, we show that the light energy storage that can be photoacoustically measured in flower petals of Petunia hybrida is approximately 10-12%. We found that the supposed chlorophylless photosynthesis is an anoxygenic, anthocyanin-dependent process occurring in blue flower petals (ADAPFP), accompanied by non-respiratory light-dependent oxygen uptake and a 1.5-fold photoinduced increase in ATP levels. Using a simple, adhesive tape stripping technique, we have obtained a backside image of an intact flower petal epidermis, revealing sword-shaped ingrowths connecting the cell wall and vacuole, which is of interest for the further study of possible vacuole-related photosynthesis. Approaches to the interpretations of ADAPFP are discussed, and we conclude that these results are not impossible in terms of the known photochemistry of anthocyanins. PMID:24284801

  6. Flower Colour: How Bumblebees Handle Colours with Perceptually Changing Hues.

    PubMed

    Lunau, Klaus

    2016-03-21

    Colours are floral signals enabling bees to detect, inspect and discriminate flowers in a multitasking world. Behavioural tests now show that trained bumblebees find iridescent coloured targets more quickly and that weak iridescence does not corrupt target identification. PMID:27003883

  7. Antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of Acanthus ilicifolius flower

    PubMed Central

    Firdaus, Muhamad; Prihanto, Asep Awaludin; Nurdiani, Rahmi

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of the flower of Acanthus ilicifolius (A. ilicifolius). Methods Antioxidant activity was determined as antiradical efficiency with diphenyl picrylhydrazil (DPPH) method and cytotoxic assay was undertaken using brine shrimp lethal toxicity test. Results A. ilicifolius flower contained terpenoid, phenolic compounds, and alkaloid. The methanol extract of A. ilicifolius flower showed the highest antiradical efficiency (AE=1.41×10−3) against DPPH radicals and the highest cytotoxicity (LC50=22 µg/mL) against brine shrimp nauplii. Conclusions It is suggested that active compounds of A. ilicifolius flower solved in methanol play a role to inhibit free radical activity and kill Artemia salina nauplii. The substances can be considered as potential antioxidant and cytotoxic agents as well as imminent candidate for cancer therapy. PMID:23570011

  8. Let's Stop Teaching About Sex (of the Flowering Plants)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, John F.; Thelen, Leverne J

    1969-01-01

    Points out common misconceptions, especially the idea that pollination in flowering plants corresponds to fertilization in animals. Gives history of understanding of plant sexuality, then summarizes modern view. Suggests we teach accurately or not at all. (EB)

  9. Flower Colour: How Bumblebees Handle Colours with Perceptually Changing Hues.

    PubMed

    Lunau, Klaus

    2016-03-21

    Colours are floral signals enabling bees to detect, inspect and discriminate flowers in a multitasking world. Behavioural tests now show that trained bumblebees find iridescent coloured targets more quickly and that weak iridescence does not corrupt target identification.

  10. Bilateral flower symmetry--how, when and why?

    PubMed

    Hileman, Lena C

    2014-02-01

    Bilateral flower symmetry has evolved multiple times during flowering plant diversification, is associated with specialized pollination, and is hypothesized to have contributed to flowering plant species richness. The genes and genetic interactions that control bilateral symmetry are well understood in the model species Snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus). I review recent insights into the genetic control of symmetry in Snapdragon. I summarize how this foundational genetic work has been integrated with mathematical modeling approaches, which together provided new insights into the control of quantitative aspects of petal shape. Lastly, I review how evolutionary studies, stemming from knowledge of the genetic control of symmetry in Snapdragon flowers, have revealed extensive parallel recruitment of a similar genetic program during repeated evolution of bilateral symmetry. PMID:24507506

  11. Anthocyanin-dependent anoxygenic photosynthesis in coloured flower petals?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lysenko, Vladimir; Varduny, Tatyana

    2013-11-01

    Chlorophylless flower petals are known to be composed of non-photosynthetic tissues. Here, we show that the light energy storage that can be photoacoustically measured in flower petals of Petunia hybrida is approximately 10-12%. We found that the supposed chlorophylless photosynthesis is an anoxygenic, anthocyanin-dependent process occurring in blue flower petals (ADAPFP), accompanied by non-respiratory light-dependent oxygen uptake and a 1.5-fold photoinduced increase in ATP levels. Using a simple, adhesive tape stripping technique, we have obtained a backside image of an intact flower petal epidermis, revealing sword-shaped ingrowths connecting the cell wall and vacuole, which is of interest for the further study of possible vacuole-related photosynthesis. Approaches to the interpretations of ADAPFP are discussed, and we conclude that these results are not impossible in terms of the known photochemistry of anthocyanins.

  12. The Quest for Molecular Regulation Underlying Unisexual Flower Development.

    PubMed

    Sobral, Rómulo; Silva, Helena G; Morais-Cecílio, Leonor; Costa, Maria M R

    2016-01-01

    The understanding of the molecular mechanisms responsible for the making of a unisexual flower has been a long-standing quest in plant biology. Plants with male and female flowers can be divided mainly into two categories: dioecious and monoecious, and both sexual systems co-exist in nature in ca of 10% of the angiosperms. The establishment of male and female traits has been extensively described in a hermaphroditic flower and requires the interplay of networks, directly and indirectly related to the floral organ identity genes including hormonal regulators, transcription factors, microRNAs, and chromatin-modifying proteins. Recent transcriptomic studies have been uncovering the molecular processes underlying the establishment of unisexual flowers and there are many parallelisms between monoecious, dioecious, and hermaphroditic individuals. Here, we review the paper entitled "Comparative transcriptomic analysis of male and female flowers of monoecious Quercus suber" published in 2014 in the Frontiers of Plant Science (volume 5 |Article 599) and discussed it in the context of recent studies with other dioecious and monoecious plants that utilized high-throughput platforms to obtain transcriptomic profiles of male and female unisexual flowers. In some unisexual flowers, the developmental programs that control organ initiation fail and male or female organs do not form, whereas in other species, organ initiation and development occur but they abort or arrest during different species-specific stages of differentiation. Therefore, a direct comparison of the pathways responsible for the establishment of unisexual flowers in different species are likely to reveal conserved modules of gene regulatory hubs involved in stamen or carpel development, as well as differences that reflect the different stages of development in which male and/or female organ arrest or loss-of-function occurs. PMID:26925078

  13. Arabidopsis MSI1 functions in photoperiodic flowering time control

    PubMed Central

    Steinbach, Yvonne; Hennig, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Appropriate timing of flowering is crucial for crop yield and the reproductive success of plants. Flowering can be induced by a number of molecular pathways that respond to internal and external signals such as photoperiod, vernalization or light quality, ambient temperature and biotic as well as abiotic stresses. The key florigenic signal FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) is regulated by several flowering activators, such as CONSTANS (CO), and repressors, such as FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC). Chromatin modifications are essential for regulated gene expression, which often involves the well conserved MULTICOPY SUPRESSOR OF IRA 1 (MSI1)-like protein family. MSI1-like proteins are ubiquitous partners of various complexes, such as POLYCOMB REPRESSIVE COMPLEX2 or CHROMATIN ASSEMBLY FACTOR 1. In Arabidopsis, one of the functions of MSI1 is to control the switch to flowering. Arabidopsis MSI1 is needed for the correct expression of the floral integrator gene SUPPRESSOR OF CO 1 (SOC1). Here, we show that the histone-binding protein MSI1 acts in the photoperiod pathway to regulate normal expression of CO in long day (LD) photoperiods. Reduced expression of CO in msi1-mutants leads to failure of FT and SOC1 activation and to delayed flowering. MSI1 is needed for normal sensitivity of Arabidopsis to photoperiod, because msi1-mutants responded less than wild type to an intermittent LD treatment of plants grown in short days. Finally, genetic analysis demonstrated that MSI1 acts upstream of the CO-FT pathway to enable an efficient photoperiodic response and to induce flowering. PMID:24639681

  14. Chemical composition of the flower oil of Cinnamomum zeylanicum blume.

    PubMed

    Jayaprakasha, G K; Jagan Mohan Rao, L; Sakariah, K K

    2000-09-01

    The steam-distilled oil of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) flowers was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. It consists of 23% hydrocarbons and 74% oxygenated compounds. A total of 26 compounds constituting approximately 97% of the oil were characterized. (E)-Cinnamyl acetate (41.98%), trans-alpha-bergamotene (7.97%), and caryophyllene oxide (7.2%) are found to be major compounds. This is the first report on the chemical composition of the flower oil of Cinnamomum zeylanicum.

  15. High generalization in flower-visiting networks of social wasps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mello, Marco A. R.; Santos, Gilberto Marcos de Mendonça; Mechi, Maria Rita; Hermes, Marcel G.

    2011-01-01

    Flower-visiting interactions, such as nectarivory and pollination, are considered to form networks with higher interaction specialization than other plant-animal facultative mutualisms. However, subsets within each network sometimes are different from the complete system. Social wasps are one subset within flower-visiting networks; they use nectar as a secondary food of adults. Some of the visited plants depend on wasps for pollination, and many are further benefited through predation of herbivores captured to feed wasp larvae. Therefore, mutual dependence is lower in the wasp subset compared to complete pollination networks, so we expected wasp-flower networks to exhibit more generalistic interactions. Quantitative datasets were built by recording wasp visits to flowers in six Brazilian localities in four ecoregions, and comparisons were made with complete pollination networks from the literature (with different taxa included). Nestedness (NODF = 0.39 ± 0.06) was similar in wasp-flower and complete pollination networks (NODF = 0.32 ± 0.18). Interaction specialization in wasp-flower networks was lower (median H2' = 0.31 ± 0.09) than in complete pollination networks (median H2' = 0.55 ± 0.17). Modularity in wasp-flower networks (M = 0.36 ± 0.05) was also lower than in complete pollination networks (M = 0.47 ± 0.09); there were on average 5 ± 1 modules on each network formed by species of different genera. In summary, our findings confirm that wasps that feed on nectar interact with similar subsets of plants; therefore, wasp-flower networks are more generalistic than other pollination networks. Our results corroborate the hypothesis that, despite some universal properties found in facultative mutualisms, parts of a system differ from the complete system. Furthermore, mutual dependence influences interaction specialization, and so it is an important structuring factor of mutualistic networks.

  16. The Quest for Molecular Regulation Underlying Unisexual Flower Development

    PubMed Central

    Sobral, Rómulo; Silva, Helena G.; Morais-Cecílio, Leonor; Costa, Maria M. R.

    2016-01-01

    The understanding of the molecular mechanisms responsible for the making of a unisexual flower has been a long-standing quest in plant biology. Plants with male and female flowers can be divided mainly into two categories: dioecious and monoecious, and both sexual systems co-exist in nature in ca of 10% of the angiosperms. The establishment of male and female traits has been extensively described in a hermaphroditic flower and requires the interplay of networks, directly and indirectly related to the floral organ identity genes including hormonal regulators, transcription factors, microRNAs, and chromatin-modifying proteins. Recent transcriptomic studies have been uncovering the molecular processes underlying the establishment of unisexual flowers and there are many parallelisms between monoecious, dioecious, and hermaphroditic individuals. Here, we review the paper entitled “Comparative transcriptomic analysis of male and female flowers of monoecious Quercus suber” published in 2014 in the Frontiers of Plant Science (volume 5 |Article 599) and discussed it in the context of recent studies with other dioecious and monoecious plants that utilized high-throughput platforms to obtain transcriptomic profiles of male and female unisexual flowers. In some unisexual flowers, the developmental programs that control organ initiation fail and male or female organs do not form, whereas in other species, organ initiation and development occur but they abort or arrest during different species-specific stages of differentiation. Therefore, a direct comparison of the pathways responsible for the establishment of unisexual flowers in different species are likely to reveal conserved modules of gene regulatory hubs involved in stamen or carpel development, as well as differences that reflect the different stages of development in which male and/or female organ arrest or loss-of-function occurs. PMID:26925078

  17. Lower Acetylcholinesterase Activity among Children Living with Flower Plantation Workers

    PubMed Central

    Suarez-Lopez, Jose R.; Jacobs, David R.; Himes, John H.; Alexander, Bruce H.; Lazovich, DeAnn; Gunnar, Megan

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Children of workers exposed to pesticides are at risk of secondary pesticide exposure. We evaluated the potential for lower acetylcholinesterase activity in children cohabiting with fresh-cut flower plantation workers, which would be expected from organophosphate and carbamate insecticide exposure. Parental home surveys were performed and acetylcholinesterase activity was measured in 277 children aged 4–9 years in the study of Secondary Exposure to Pesticides among Infants, Children and Adolescents (ESPINA). Participants lived in a rural county in Ecuador with substantial flower plantation activity. RESULTS Mean acetylcholinesterase activity was 3.14 U/ml, standard deviation (SD): 0.49. It was lower by 0.09 U/ml (95% confidence interval (CI) −0.19, −0.001) in children of flower workers (57% of participants) than non-flower workers’ children, after adjustment for gender, age, height-for-age, hemoglobin concentration, income, pesticide use within household lot, pesticide use by contiguous neighbors, examination date and residence distance to nearest flower plantation. Using a 4 level polychotomous acetylcholinesterase activity dependent variable, flower worker cohabitation (vs. not) had odds ratio 3.39 (95% CI 1.19, 9.64) for being <15th percentile compared to the highest tertile. Children cohabitating for ≥5 years (vs. never) had OR of 4.11 (95% CI: 1.17, 14.38) of AChE activity within <15th percentile compared to the highest tertile. CONCLUSIONS Cohabitation with a flower worker was related to lower acetylcholinesterase activity in children. This supports the hypothesis that the amount of take-home pesticides from flower workers suffices to decrease acetylcholinesterase activity, with lower activity associated with longer exposure. PMID:22405996

  18. Flower bouquet variation in four species of Crocus ser. Verni.

    PubMed

    Carta, Angelino; Flamini, Guido; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Pistelli, Luisa; Peruzzi, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    Flowering plants employ a wide variety of signals, including scent, to attract pollinators. The aim of this work was to examine whether flower volatiles in four closely related Crocus species are linked to species divergence and to the current knowledge on their pollination syndromes. Fragrances of freshly opened flowers in Crocus etruscus, C. ilvensis, C. neglectus, and C. vernus, all belonging to ser. Verni, were analyzed using GC/MS. Results coincide with present knowledge about systematic relationships among taxa. The four species fall into two main fragrance types, based on similarities of their volatile compounds. In C. etruscus, C. ilvensis, and C. neglectus, oxygenated monoterpenes (lilac aldehyde B and A) are most abundant, while C. vernus has a fragrance rich in monoterpene hydrocarbons (α-pinene and limonene). Our results point towards outcrossing mating strategies for C. etruscus, C. ilvensis, and C. neglectus, whose volatile compounds are known as pollinator attractants. This is in line with their flower architecture, showing a style of variable height, often overtopping stamens. On the other hand, a self-pollination strategy was repeatedly suggested in the literature for C. vernus, marked by flowers with the style deeply inserted in the stamens and also by a completely different flower bouquet.

  19. Hydrocarbon footprints as a record of bumblebee flower visitation.

    PubMed

    Witjes, Sebastian; Eltz, Thomas

    2009-11-01

    Bumblebees leave traces of cuticular hydrocarbons on flowers they visit, with the amount deposited being positively related to the number of visits. We asked whether such footprint hydrocarbons are retained on flowers for sufficiently long periods of time so as to reflect bee visitation in pollination studies. In laboratory experiments, flower corollae (Primula veris, Digitalis grandiflora) visited by Bombus terrestris workers retained bee-derived nonacosenes (C(29)H(58)) in near-unchanged quantities for 24 hours, both at 15 and 25 degrees C. Additionally, synthetic (Z)-9-tricosene applied to flower corollae of the deadnettle Lamium maculatum was retained for 48 hours in an unchanged quantity. In a field survey, the amount of footprint alkenes on flowers of comfrey (Symphytum officinale) plants was positively correlated with the number of bumblebee visits that those plants had received during the day. Together, these data suggest that flowers retain a long-term quantitative record of bumblebee visitation. The analysis of petal extracts by gas chromatography could provide a cheap and reliable way of quantifying bumblebee visits in landscape scale studies of pollination. PMID:20013038

  20. Three-dimensional fluorescence characteristics of white chrysanthemum flowers.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yunchang; Li, Yang; Cai, Hongxin; Li, Jing; Miao, Juan; Fu, Dexue; Su, Kun

    2014-09-15

    White chrysanthemum flower is one of the most popular plants found everywhere in China and used as herbs. In the present work, three-dimensional fluorescence technique was used to discriminate species of white chrysanthemum flowers. Parameters affecting extraction efficiency were investigated. Under the optimal conditions, the three-dimensional fluorescence characteristics of three types of white chrysanthemum flowers were obtained. It was found that there were two main fluorescence peaks with remarkable difference in fluorescence intensity, one was corresponding to flavonoids and another was attributed to chlorophyll-like compounds. There were remarkable differences among the contours of the three white chrysanthemum flowers. Further studies showed that the fluorescence intensity ratios of chlorophyll-like compounds to flavonoids had a certain relationship with the species; those for Huai, Hang and Huangshan white chrysanthemum flowers were 6.9-7.4, 18.9-21.4 and 73.6-84.5, respectively. All of the results suggest that three-dimensional fluorescence spectra can be used for the discrimination of white chrysanthemum flowers with the advantages of low cost, ease for operation and intuition.

  1. Shielding Flowers Developing under Stress: Translating Theory to Field Application.

    PubMed

    Chayut, Noam; Sobol, Shiri; Nave, Nahum; Samach, Alon

    2014-01-01

    Developing reproductive organs within a flower are sensitive to environmental stress. A higher incidence of environmental stress during this stage of a crop plants' developmental cycle will lead to major breaches in food security. Clearly, we need to understand this sensitivity and try and overcome it, by agricultural practices and/or the breeding of more tolerant cultivars. Although passion fruit vines initiate flowers all year round, flower primordia abort during warm summers. This restricts the season of fruit production in regions with warm summers. Previously, using controlled chambers, stages in flower development that are sensitive to heat were identified. Based on genetic analysis and physiological experiments in controlled environments, gibberellin activity appeared to be a possible point of horticultural intervention. Here, we aimed to shield flowers of a commercial cultivar from end of summer conditions, thus allowing fruit production in new seasons. We conducted experiments over three years in different settings, and our findings consistently show that a single application of an inhibitor of gibberellin biosynthesis to vines in mid-August can cause precocious flowering of ~2-4 weeks, leading to earlier fruit production of ~1 month. In this case, knowledge obtained on phenology, environmental constraints and genetic variation, allowed us to reach a practical solution. PMID:27135506

  2. Shielding Flowers Developing under Stress: Translating Theory to Field Application

    PubMed Central

    Chayut, Noam; Sobol, Shiri; Nave, Nahum; Samach, Alon

    2014-01-01

    Developing reproductive organs within a flower are sensitive to environmental stress. A higher incidence of environmental stress during this stage of a crop plants’ developmental cycle will lead to major breaches in food security. Clearly, we need to understand this sensitivity and try and overcome it, by agricultural practices and/or the breeding of more tolerant cultivars. Although passion fruit vines initiate flowers all year round, flower primordia abort during warm summers. This restricts the season of fruit production in regions with warm summers. Previously, using controlled chambers, stages in flower development that are sensitive to heat were identified. Based on genetic analysis and physiological experiments in controlled environments, gibberellin activity appeared to be a possible point of horticultural intervention. Here, we aimed to shield flowers of a commercial cultivar from end of summer conditions, thus allowing fruit production in new seasons. We conducted experiments over three years in different settings, and our findings consistently show that a single application of an inhibitor of gibberellin biosynthesis to vines in mid-August can cause precocious flowering of ~2–4 weeks, leading to earlier fruit production of ~1 month. In this case, knowledge obtained on phenology, environmental constraints and genetic variation, allowed us to reach a practical solution. PMID:27135506

  3. Yellow flowers generated by expression of the aurone biosynthetic pathway.

    PubMed

    Ono, Eiichiro; Fukuchi-Mizutani, Masako; Nakamura, Noriko; Fukui, Yuko; Yonekura-Sakakibara, Keiko; Yamaguchi, Masaatsu; Nakayama, Toru; Tanaka, Takaharu; Kusumi, Takaaki; Tanaka, Yoshikazu

    2006-07-18

    Flower color is most often conferred by colored flavonoid pigments. Aurone flavonoids confer a bright yellow color on flowers such as snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus) and dahlia (Dahlia variabilis). A. majus aureusidin synthase (AmAS1) was identified as the key enzyme that catalyzes aurone biosynthesis from chalcones, but transgenic flowers overexpressing AmAS1 gene failed to produce aurones. Here, we report that chalcone 4'-O-glucosyltransferase (4'CGT) is essential for aurone biosynthesis and yellow coloration in vivo. Coexpression of the Am4'CGT and AmAS1 genes was sufficient for the accumulation of aureusidin 6-O-glucoside in transgenic flowers (Torenia hybrida). Furthermore, their coexpression combined with down-regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis by RNA interference (RNAi) resulted in yellow flowers. An Am4'CGT-GFP chimeric protein localized in the cytoplasm, whereas the AmAS1(N1-60)-RFP chimeric protein was localized to the vacuole. We therefore conclude that chalcones are 4'-O-glucosylated in the cytoplasm, their 4'-O-glucosides transported to the vacuole, and therein enzymatically converted to aurone 6-O-glucosides. This metabolic pathway is unique among the known examples of flavonoid, including anthocyanin biosynthesis because, for all other compounds, the carbon backbone is completed before transport to the vacuole. Our findings herein not only demonstrate the biochemical basis of aurone biosynthesis but also open the way to engineering yellow flowers for major ornamental species lacking this color variant. PMID:16832053

  4. Shielding Flowers Developing under Stress: Translating Theory to Field Application.

    PubMed

    Chayut, Noam; Sobol, Shiri; Nave, Nahum; Samach, Alon

    2014-07-11

    Developing reproductive organs within a flower are sensitive to environmental stress. A higher incidence of environmental stress during this stage of a crop plants' developmental cycle will lead to major breaches in food security. Clearly, we need to understand this sensitivity and try and overcome it, by agricultural practices and/or the breeding of more tolerant cultivars. Although passion fruit vines initiate flowers all year round, flower primordia abort during warm summers. This restricts the season of fruit production in regions with warm summers. Previously, using controlled chambers, stages in flower development that are sensitive to heat were identified. Based on genetic analysis and physiological experiments in controlled environments, gibberellin activity appeared to be a possible point of horticultural intervention. Here, we aimed to shield flowers of a commercial cultivar from end of summer conditions, thus allowing fruit production in new seasons. We conducted experiments over three years in different settings, and our findings consistently show that a single application of an inhibitor of gibberellin biosynthesis to vines in mid-August can cause precocious flowering of ~2-4 weeks, leading to earlier fruit production of ~1 month. In this case, knowledge obtained on phenology, environmental constraints and genetic variation, allowed us to reach a practical solution.

  5. BRR2a Affects Flowering Time via FLC Splicing.

    PubMed

    Mahrez, Walid; Shin, Juhyun; Muñoz-Viana, Rafael; Figueiredo, Duarte D; Trejo-Arellano, Minerva S; Exner, Vivien; Siretskiy, Alexey; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Köhler, Claudia; Hennig, Lars

    2016-04-01

    Several pathways control time to flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana through transcriptional and posttranscriptional gene regulation. In recent years, mRNA processing has gained interest as a critical regulator of flowering time control in plants. However, the molecular mechanisms linking RNA splicing to flowering time are not well understood. In a screen for Arabidopsis early flowering mutants we identified an allele of BRR2a. BRR2 proteins are components of the spliceosome and highly conserved in eukaryotes. Arabidopsis BRR2a is ubiquitously expressed in all analyzed tissues and involved in the processing of flowering time gene transcripts, most notably FLC. A missense mutation of threonine 895 in BRR2a caused defects in FLC splicing and greatly reduced FLC transcript levels. Reduced FLC expression increased transcription of FT and SOC1 leading to early flowering in both short and long days. Genome-wide experiments established that only a small set of introns was not correctly spliced in the brr2a mutant. Compared to control introns, retained introns were often shorter and GC-poor, had low H3K4me1 and CG methylation levels, and were often derived from genes with a high-H3K27me3-low-H3K36me3 signature. We propose that BRR2a is specifically needed for efficient splicing of a subset of introns characterized by a combination of factors including intron size, sequence and chromatin, and that FLC is most sensitive to splicing defects. PMID:27100965

  6. BRR2a Affects Flowering Time via FLC Splicing

    PubMed Central

    Mahrez, Walid; Shin, Juhyun; Exner, Vivien; Siretskiy, Alexey; Köhler, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Several pathways control time to flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana through transcriptional and posttranscriptional gene regulation. In recent years, mRNA processing has gained interest as a critical regulator of flowering time control in plants. However, the molecular mechanisms linking RNA splicing to flowering time are not well understood. In a screen for Arabidopsis early flowering mutants we identified an allele of BRR2a. BRR2 proteins are components of the spliceosome and highly conserved in eukaryotes. Arabidopsis BRR2a is ubiquitously expressed in all analyzed tissues and involved in the processing of flowering time gene transcripts, most notably FLC. A missense mutation of threonine 895 in BRR2a caused defects in FLC splicing and greatly reduced FLC transcript levels. Reduced FLC expression increased transcription of FT and SOC1 leading to early flowering in both short and long days. Genome-wide experiments established that only a small set of introns was not correctly spliced in the brr2a mutant. Compared to control introns, retained introns were often shorter and GC-poor, had low H3K4me1 and CG methylation levels, and were often derived from genes with a high-H3K27me3-low-H3K36me3 signature. We propose that BRR2a is specifically needed for efficient splicing of a subset of introns characterized by a combination of factors including intron size, sequence and chromatin, and that FLC is most sensitive to splicing defects. PMID:27100965

  7. Three-dimensional fluorescence characteristics of white chrysanthemum flowers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Yunchang; Li, Yang; Cai, Hongxin; Li, Jing; Miao, Juan; Fu, Dexue; Su, Kun

    2014-09-01

    White chrysanthemum flower is one of the most popular plants found everywhere in China and used as herbs. In the present work, three-dimensional fluorescence technique was used to discriminate species of white chrysanthemum flowers. Parameters affecting extraction efficiency were investigated. Under the optimal conditions, the three-dimensional fluorescence characteristics of three types of white chrysanthemum flowers were obtained. It was found that there were two main fluorescence peaks with remarkable difference in fluorescence intensity, one was corresponding to flavonoids and another was attributed to chlorophyll-like compounds. There were remarkable differences among the contours of the three white chrysanthemum flowers. Further studies showed that the fluorescence intensity ratios of chlorophyll-like compounds to flavonoids had a certain relationship with the species; those for Huai, Hang and Huangshan white chrysanthemum flowers were 6.9-7.4, 18.9-21.4 and 73.6-84.5, respectively. All of the results suggest that three-dimensional fluorescence spectra can be used for the discrimination of white chrysanthemum flowers with the advantages of low cost, ease for operation and intuition.

  8. Hydraulic conductance and the maintenance of water balance in flowers.

    PubMed

    Roddy, Adam B; Brodersen, Craig R; Dawson, Todd E

    2016-10-01

    Flowers face desiccating conditions, yet little is known about their ability to transport water. We quantified variability in floral hydraulic conductance (Kflower ) for 20 species from 10 families and related it to traits hypothesized to be associated with liquid and vapour phase water transport. Basal angiosperm flowers had trait values associated with higher water and carbon costs than monocot and eudicot flowers. Kflower was coordinated with water supply (vein length per area, VLA) and loss (minimum epidermal conductance, gmin ) traits among the magnoliids, but was insensitive to variation in these traits among the monocots and eudicots. Phylogenetic independent contrast (PIC) correlations revealed that few traits had undergone coordinated evolution. However, VLA and the desiccation time (Tdes ), the quotient of water content and gmin , had significant trait and PIC correlations. The near absence of stomata from monocot and eudicot flowers may have been critical in minimizing water loss rates among these clades. Early divergent, basal angiosperm flowers maintain higher Kflower because of traits associated with high rates water loss and water supply, while monocot and eudicot flowers employ a more conservative strategy of limiting water loss and may rely on stored water to maintain turgor and delay desiccation. PMID:27144996

  9. Phenolic antioxidants from Rosa soulieana flowers.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chunyan; Li, Fu; Zhang, Xiaolong; Wang, Lun; Zhou, Zhiqiong; Wang, Mingkui

    2013-01-01

    Rosa soulieana has been widely used in traditional medicine to treat cardiovascular disorders. In this study, antioxidant activity-guided fractionation and purification of the methanol extract from the flowers of R. soulieana has led to the isolation of nine phenolic antioxidants, which were identified as catechin (1), tiliroside (2), astragalin (3), isoquercitrin (4), nicotiflorin (5), eugenol 4-O-β-d-(6'-O-galloyl) glucoside (6), michehedyosides D (7), citrusin C (8) and strictinin (9), respectively. Among them, compounds 5-9 were reported from the genus Rosa for the first time. All the compounds were also assayed by in vitro ABTS [2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) diammonium salt] radical cation scavenging activity. Among these bioactive isolates (1-9), compounds 1, 6, 7 and 9 exhibited strong scavenging activity in ABTS (SC50 = 10.17, 7.38, 8.60, 4.72 μmol/L, respectively) compared with the positive control l-ascorbic acid (SC50 = 15.97 μmol/L).

  10. Flowers of Inula japonica Attenuate Inflammatory Responses

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jeon Hyeun; Park, Young Na; Li, Ying; Jin, Mei Hua; Lee, Jiean; Lee, Younju; Son, Jong Keun; Chang, Hyeun Wook

    2010-01-01

    Background The flowers of Inula japonica (Inulae Flos) have long been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory properties of Inulae Flos Extract (IFE). Methods The anti-inflammatory effects of IFE against nitric oxide (NO), PGE2, TNF-α, and IL-6 release, as well as NF-κB and MAP kinase activation were evaluated in RAW 264.7 cells. Results IFE inhibited the production of NO and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. In addition, IFE reduced the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α and IL-6. Furthermore, IFE inhibited the NF-κB activation induced by LPS, which was associated with the abrogation of IκB-α degradation and subsequent decreases in nuclear p65 and p50 levels. Moreover, the phosphorylation of ERK, JNK, and p38 MAP kinases in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells was suppressed by IFE in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion These results suggest that the anti-inflammation activities of IFE might be attributed to the inhibition of NO, iNOS and cytokine expression through the down-regulation of NF-κB activation via suppression of IκBα and MAP kinase phosphorylation in macrophages. PMID:21165243

  11. The genetics of mirror-image flowers.

    PubMed Central

    Jesson, Linley K; Barrett, Spencer C H

    2002-01-01

    Conspicuous asymmetries in forms that are polymorphic within a species can be genetically or environmentally determined. Here, we present a genetic analysis of the inheritance of dimorphic enantiostyly, a sexual polymorphism in which all flowers on a plant have styles that are consistently deflected either to the left or the right side of the floral axis. Using Heteranthera multiflora (Pontederiaceae), a short-lived herb, we conducted crosses within and between left- and right-styled plants and scored progeny ratios of the style morphs in F(1), F(2) and F(3) generations. Crosses conducted in the parental generation between morphs or right-styled plants resulted in right-styled progeny, whereas crosses between left-styled plants resulted in left-styled progeny. When putative heterozygous F(1) plants were selfed, the resulting F(2) segregation ratios were not significantly different from a 3 : 1 ratio for right- and left-styled plants. Crosses between left- and right-styled plants in the F(2) generation yielded F(3) progeny with either a 1 : 1 ratio of left- and right-styled plants or right-styled progeny. Our results are consistent with a model in which a single Mendelian locus with two alleles, with the right-styled allele (R) dominant to the left-styled allele (r), governs stylar deflection. The simple inheritance of dimorphic enantiostyly has implications for the evolution and maintenance of this unusual sexual polymorphism. PMID:12350272

  12. Transcriptomic analysis of Arabidopsis overexpressing flowering locus T driven by a meristem-specific promoter that induces early flowering

    PubMed Central

    Duplat-Bermúdez, L.; Ruiz-Medrano, R.; Landsman, D.; Mariño-Ramírez, L.; Xoconostle-Cázares, B.

    2016-01-01

    Here we analyzed in leaves the effect of FT overexpression driven by meristem-specific KNAT1 gene homolog of Arabidopsis thaliana (Lincoln et al., 1994; Long et al., 1996) on the transcriptomic response during plant development. Our results demonstrated that meristematic FT overexpression generates a phenotype with an early flowering independent of photoperiod when compared with wild type (WT) plants. Arabidopsis FT-overexpressor lines (AtFTOE) did not show significant differences compared with WT lines neither in leaf number nor in rosette diameter up to day 21, when AtFTOE flowered. After this period AtFTOE plants started flower production and no new rosette leaves were produced. Additionally, WT plants continued on vegetative stage up to day 40, producing 12–14 rosette leaves before flowering. Transcriptomic analysis of rosette leaves studied by sequencing Illumina RNA-seq allowed us to determine the differential expression in mature leaf rosette of 3652 genes, being 626 of them up-regulated and 3026 down-regulated. Overexpressed genes related with flowering showed up-regulated transcription factors such as MADS-box that are known as flowering markers in meristem and which overexpression has been related with meristem identity preservation and the transition from vegetative to floral stage. Genes related with sugar transport have shown a higher demand of monosaccharides derived from the hydrolysis of sucrose to glucose and probably fructose, which can also be influenced by reproductive stage of AtFTOE plants. PMID:27154816

  13. Cis-regulatory Changes at FLOWERING LOCUS T Mediate Natural Variation in Flowering Responses of Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Christopher; Balasubramanian, Sureshkumar; Warthmann, Norman; Michael, Todd P.; Lempe, Janne; Sureshkumar, Sridevi; Kobayashi, Yasushi; Maloof, Julin N.; Borevitz, Justin O.; Chory, Joanne; Weigel, Detlef

    2009-01-01

    Flowering time, a critical adaptive trait, is modulated by several environmental cues. These external signals converge on a small set of genes that in turn mediate the flowering response. Mutant analysis and subsequent molecular studies have revealed that one of these integrator genes, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), responds to photoperiod and temperature cues, two environmental parameters that greatly influence flowering time. As the central player in the transition to flowering, the protein coding sequence of FT and its function are highly conserved across species. Using QTL mapping with a new advanced intercross-recombinant inbred line (AI-RIL) population, we show that a QTL tightly linked to FT contributes to natural variation in the flowering response to the combined effects of photoperiod and ambient temperature. Using heterogeneous inbred families (HIF) and introgression lines, we fine map the QTL to a 6.7 kb fragment in the FT promoter. We confirm by quantitative complementation that FT has differential activity in the two parental strains. Further support for FT underlying the QTL comes from a new approach, quantitative knockdown with artificial microRNAs (amiRNAs). Consistent with the causal sequence polymorphism being in the promoter, we find that the QTL affects FT expression. Taken together, these results indicate that allelic variation at pathway integrator genes such as FT can underlie phenotypic variability and that this may be achieved through cis-regulatory changes. PMID:19652183

  14. Flower diversity and bee reproduction in an arid ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez, Diego P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diverse flower communities are more stable in floral resource production along the flowering season, but the question about how the diversity and stability of resources affect pollinator reproduction remains open. High plant diversity could favor short foraging trips, which in turn would enhance bee fitness. In addition to plant diversity, greater temporal stability of floral resources in diverse communities could favor pollinator fitness because such communities are likely to occupy the phenological space more broadly, increasing floral availability for pollinators throughout the season. In addition, this potential effect of flower diversity on bee reproduction could be stronger for generalist pollinators because they can use a broader floral spectrum. Based on above arguments we predicted that pollinator reproduction would be positively correlated to flower diversity, and to temporal stability in flower production, and that this relationship would be stronger for the most generalized pollinator species. Materials and Methods: Using structural equation models, we evaluated the effect of these variables and other ecological factors on three estimates of bee reproduction (average number of brood cells per nest per site, total number of brood cells per site, and total number of nests per site), and whether such effects were modulated by bee generalization on floral resources. Results: Contrary to our expectations, flower diversity had no effect on bee reproduction, stability in flower production had a weakly negative effect on one of the bee reproductive variables, and the strength of the fitness-diversity relationship was unrelated to bee generalization. In contrast, elevation had a negative effect on bee reproduction, despite the narrow elevation range encompassed by our sites. Discussion: Flower diversity did not affect the reproduction of the solitary bees studied here. This result could stem from the context dependence of the diversity

  15. Flower color-flower scent associations in polymorphic Hesperis matronalis (Brassicaceae).

    PubMed

    Majetic, Cassie J; Raguso, Robert A; Tonsor, Stephen J; Ashman, Tia-Lynn

    2007-03-01

    Floral scent emission rate and composition of purple and white flower color morphs of Hesperis matronalis (Brassicaceae) were determined for two populations and, for each, at two times of day using dynamic headspace collection and GC-MS. The floral volatile compounds identified for this species fell into two main categories, terpenoids and aromatics. Principal component analysis of 30 compounds demonstrated that both color morphs emitted more scent at dusk than at dawn. Color morphs varied in chemical composition of scent, but this differed between populations. The white morphs exhibited significant differences between populations, while the purple morphs did not. In the white morphs, one population contains color-scent associations that match expectations from classical pollination syndrome theory, where the flowers have aromatic scents, which are expected to maximize night-flying moth pollinator attraction; in the second population, white morphs were strongly associated with terpenoid compounds. The potential impact that pollinators, conserved biosynthetic pathways, and the genetics of small colonizing populations may have in determining population-specific associations between floral color and floral scent are discussed.

  16. Short-term effects of burn season on flowering phenology of savanna plants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pavlovic, N.B.; Leicht-Young, S. A.; Grundel, R.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the effect of season of burn on flowering phenology of groundlayer species, in the year following burns, in a mesic-sand Midwestern oak savanna. Burn treatments were fall, early-season, growing-season, late-season, and 1 or 5 years after a prior early-season wildfire. For these treatments, we compared the number of flowering stems and of flowers for species overall, for the 20 most prolifically flowering species, as well as for species grouped by flowering phenoperiods, and by growth form. Growing-season burn had a significant negative effect on number of flowering stems and total number of flowers. This effect occurred when either the burn occurred during the flowering season or during the season prior to the flowering phenoperiod. Tradescantia ohiensis showed expedited flowering and Phlox pilosa showed delayed flowering in response to early-season burning. Flowering of early shrubs was reduced by the previous fall and early-spring fires, while flowering of mid-season blooming shrubs was reduced by the early- and growing-season burns. Vaccinium and Gaylussacia, early-flowering shrubs, produced fewer flowers 1 year after than 5 years after an early-season burn. Arabis lyrata showed reduced flowering from the early-season burn. We also found four instances where the early-spring burn effect on flowering was more severe than the fall burn effect, suggesting that many frequent early-season burns may be deleterious to flowering and reproduction of some species. Burns occurring too frequently in the same season could negatively affect future flowering and reproduction of these plant species.

  17. Antioxidant constituents of Nymphaea caerulea flowers.

    PubMed

    Agnihotri, Vijai K; Elsohly, Hala N; Khan, Shabana I; Smillie, Troy J; Khan, Ikhlas A; Walker, Larry A

    2008-07-01

    As part of an ongoing search for antioxidants from medicinal plants, 20 constituents were isolated from the Nymphaea caerulea flowers, including two 2S,3S,4S-trihydroxypentanoic acid (1), and myricetin 3-O-(3''-O-acetyl)-alpha-L-rhamnoside (2), along with the known myricetin 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnoside (3), myricetin 3-O-beta-D-glucoside (4), quercetin 3-O-(3''-O-acetyl)-alpha-L-rhamnoside (5), quercetin 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnoside (6), quercetin 3-O-beta-D-glucoside (7), kaempferol 3-O-(3''-O-acetyl)-alpha-L-rhamnoside (8), kaempferol 3-O-beta-D-glucoside (9), naringenin (10), (S)-naringenin 5-O-beta-D-glucoside (11), isosalipurposide (12), beta-sitosterol (13), beta-sitosterol palmitate (14), 24-methylenecholesterol palmitate (15), 4alpha-methyl-5alpha-ergosta-7,24(28)-diene-3beta,4beta-diol (16), ethyl gallate (17), gallic acid (18), p-coumaric acid (19), and 4-methoxybenzoic acid (20). The structures were determined by spectroscopic means. Compounds were tested for antioxidant activity and nine compounds 2-7, 11, 12 and 18 were considered active with IC(50) of 1.16, 4.1, 0.75, 1.7, 1.0, 0.34, 11.0, 1.7 and 0.95 microg/ml, respectively, while 1 was marginally active (IC(50)>31.25 microg/ml). The most promising activity was found in the EtOAc fraction (IC(50) 0.2 microg/ml). This can be attributed to the synergistic effect of the compounds present in it. PMID:18534639

  18. Antioxidant constituents of Nymphaea caerulea flowers.

    PubMed

    Agnihotri, Vijai K; Elsohly, Hala N; Khan, Shabana I; Smillie, Troy J; Khan, Ikhlas A; Walker, Larry A

    2008-07-01

    As part of an ongoing search for antioxidants from medicinal plants, 20 constituents were isolated from the Nymphaea caerulea flowers, including two 2S,3S,4S-trihydroxypentanoic acid (1), and myricetin 3-O-(3''-O-acetyl)-alpha-L-rhamnoside (2), along with the known myricetin 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnoside (3), myricetin 3-O-beta-D-glucoside (4), quercetin 3-O-(3''-O-acetyl)-alpha-L-rhamnoside (5), quercetin 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnoside (6), quercetin 3-O-beta-D-glucoside (7), kaempferol 3-O-(3''-O-acetyl)-alpha-L-rhamnoside (8), kaempferol 3-O-beta-D-glucoside (9), naringenin (10), (S)-naringenin 5-O-beta-D-glucoside (11), isosalipurposide (12), beta-sitosterol (13), beta-sitosterol palmitate (14), 24-methylenecholesterol palmitate (15), 4alpha-methyl-5alpha-ergosta-7,24(28)-diene-3beta,4beta-diol (16), ethyl gallate (17), gallic acid (18), p-coumaric acid (19), and 4-methoxybenzoic acid (20). The structures were determined by spectroscopic means. Compounds were tested for antioxidant activity and nine compounds 2-7, 11, 12 and 18 were considered active with IC(50) of 1.16, 4.1, 0.75, 1.7, 1.0, 0.34, 11.0, 1.7 and 0.95 microg/ml, respectively, while 1 was marginally active (IC(50)>31.25 microg/ml). The most promising activity was found in the EtOAc fraction (IC(50) 0.2 microg/ml). This can be attributed to the synergistic effect of the compounds present in it.

  19. Attraction of pea moth Cydia nigricana to pea flower volatiles.

    PubMed

    Thöming, Gunda; Knudsen, Geir K

    2014-04-01

    The pea moth Cydia nigricana causes major crop losses in pea (Pisum sativum) production. We investigated attraction of C. nigricana females to synthetic pea flower volatiles in a wind tunnel and in the field. We performed electroantennogram analysis on 27 previously identified pea plant volatiles, which confirmed antennal responses to nine of the compounds identified in pea flowers. A dose-dependent response was found to eight of the compounds. Various blends of the nine pea flower volatiles eliciting antennal responses were subsequently studied in a wind tunnel. A four-compound blend comprising hexan-1-ol, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol, (Z)-β-ocimene and (E)-β-ocimene was equally attractive to mated C. nigricana females as the full pea flower mimic blend. We conducted wind-tunnel tests on different blends of these four pea flower compounds mixed with a headspace sample of non-flowering pea plants. By considering the effects of such green leaf background odour, we were able to identify (Z)- and (E)-β-ocimene as fundamental for host location by the pea moths, and hexan-1-ol and (E)-2-hexen-1-ol as being of secondary importance in that context. In the field, the two isomers of β-ocimene resulted in trap catches similar to those obtained with the full pea flower mimic and the four-compound blend, which clearly demonstrated the prime significance of the β-ocimenes as attractants of C. nigricana. The high level of the trap catches of female C. nigricana noted in this first field experiment gives a first indication of the potential use of such artificial kairomones in pea moth control.

  20. The causes of selection on flowering time through male fitness in a hermaphroditic annual plant.

    PubMed

    Austen, Emily J; Weis, Arthur E

    2016-01-01

    Flowering is a key life-history event whose timing almost certainly affects both male and female fitness, but tests of selection on flowering time through male fitness are few. Such selection may arise from direct effects of flowering time, and indirect effects through covariance between flowering time and the environment experienced during reproduction. To isolate these intrinsically correlated associations, we staggered planting dates of Brassica rapa families with known flowering times, creating populations in which age at flowering (i.e., flowering time genotype) and Julian date of flowering (i.e., flowering time environment) were positively, negatively, or uncorrelated. Genetic paternity analysis revealed that male fitness was not strongly influenced by seasonal environmental changes. Instead, when age and date were uncorrelated, selection through male fitness strongly favored young age at flowering. Strategic sampling offspring for paternity analysis rejected covariance between sire age at flowering and dam quality as the cause of this selection. Results instead suggest a negative association between age at flowering and pollen competitive ability. The manipulation also revealed that, at least in B. rapa, the often-observed correlation between flowering time and flowering duration is environmental, not genetic, in origin.

  1. The causes of selection on flowering time through male fitness in a hermaphroditic annual plant.

    PubMed

    Austen, Emily J; Weis, Arthur E

    2016-01-01

    Flowering is a key life-history event whose timing almost certainly affects both male and female fitness, but tests of selection on flowering time through male fitness are few. Such selection may arise from direct effects of flowering time, and indirect effects through covariance between flowering time and the environment experienced during reproduction. To isolate these intrinsically correlated associations, we staggered planting dates of Brassica rapa families with known flowering times, creating populations in which age at flowering (i.e., flowering time genotype) and Julian date of flowering (i.e., flowering time environment) were positively, negatively, or uncorrelated. Genetic paternity analysis revealed that male fitness was not strongly influenced by seasonal environmental changes. Instead, when age and date were uncorrelated, selection through male fitness strongly favored young age at flowering. Strategic sampling offspring for paternity analysis rejected covariance between sire age at flowering and dam quality as the cause of this selection. Results instead suggest a negative association between age at flowering and pollen competitive ability. The manipulation also revealed that, at least in B. rapa, the often-observed correlation between flowering time and flowering duration is environmental, not genetic, in origin. PMID:26596860

  2. Tree size and its relationship with flowering phenology and reproductive output in Wild Nutmeg trees.

    PubMed

    Otárola, Mauricio Fernández; Sazima, Marlies; Solferini, Vera N

    2013-09-01

    Reproductive strategies, sexual selection, and their relationship with the phenotype of individuals are topics widely studied in animals, but this information is less abundant for plants. Variability in flowering phenology among individuals has direct impact on their fitness, but how reproductive phenology is affected by the size of the individuals needs further study. We quantified the flowering intensity, length, and reproductive synchronization of two sympatric dioecious Wild Nutmeg tree species (Virola, Myristicaceae) in the Brazilian Atlantic forest, and analyzed its relationships with tree size. Two distinct strategies in flowering timing and intensity were found between species (annual versus biennial flowering), and among individuals in the annual flowering species (extended versus peak flowering). Only for the annual flowering species the reproductive output is related to tree size and large trees present proportionally higher flower coverage, and lower synchronization than smaller ones. Flowering is massive and highly synchronized in the biennial species. Sex ratios are not different from 1:1 in the two species, and in the two segregated reproductive subgroups in the biennial flowering species. The biennial flowering at individual level is a novelty among reproductive patterns in plants, separating the population in two reproductive subgroups. A proportional increase in the reproductive output with size exists only for the annual flowering species. A biennial flowering can allow resource storage favouring massive flowering for all the individuals diluting their relationship with size. PMID:24223288

  3. Volatile organic compound emissions from different stages of Cananga odorata flower development.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xiao-Wei; Hao, Chao-Yun; He, Shu-Zhen; Wu, Gang; Tan, Le-He; Xu, Fei; Hu, Rong-Suo

    2014-01-01

    Headspace-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) was used to identify the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of the different flower development stages of Cananga odorata for the evaluation of floral volatile polymorphism as a basis to determine the best time of harvest. Electronic nose results, coupled with discriminant factor analysis, suggested that emitted odors varied in different C. odorata flower development stages, including the bud, display-petal, initial-flowering, full-flowering, end-flowering, wilted-flower, and dried flower stages. The first two discriminant factors explained 97.52% of total system variance. Ninety-two compounds were detected over the flower life, and the mean Bray-Curtis similarity value was 52.45% among different flower development stages. A high level of volatile polymorphism was observed during flower development. The VOCs were largely grouped as hydrocarbons, esters, alcohols, aldehydes, phenols, acids, ketones, and ethers, and the main compound was β-caryophyllene (15.05%-33.30%). Other identified compounds were β-cubebene, D-germacrene, benzyl benzoate, and α-cubebene. Moreover, large numbers of VOCs were detected at intermediate times of flower development, and more hydrocarbons, esters, and alcohols were identified in the full-flowering stage. The full-flowering stage may be the most suitable period for C. odorata flower harvest. PMID:24979401

  4. Mechanisms and function of flower and inflorescence reversion.

    PubMed

    Tooke, Fiona; Ordidge, Matthew; Chiurugwi, Tinashe; Battey, Nick

    2005-10-01

    Flower and inflorescence reversion involve a switch from floral development back to vegetative development, thus rendering flowering a phase in an ongoing growth pattern rather than a terminal act of the meristem. Although it can be considered an unusual event, reversion raises questions about the nature and function of flowering. It is linked to environmental conditions and is most often a response to conditions opposite to those that induce flowering. Research on molecular genetic mechanisms underlying plant development over the last 15 years has pinpointed some of the key genes involved in the transition to flowering and flower development. Such investigations have also uncovered mutations which reduce floral maintenance or alter the balance between vegetative and floral features of the plant. How this information contributes to an understanding of floral reversion is assessed here. One issue that arises is whether floral commitment (defined as the ability to continue flowering when inductive conditions no longer exist) is a developmental switch affecting the whole plant or is a mechanism which assigns autonomy to individual meristems. A related question is whether floral or vegetative development is the underlying default pathway of the plant. This review begins by considering how studies of flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana have aided understanding of mechanisms of floral maintenance. Arabidopsis has not been found to revert to leaf production in any of the conditions or genetic backgrounds analysed to date. A clear-cut reversion to leaf production has, however, been described in Impatiens balsamina. It is proposed that a single gene controls whether Impatiens reverts or can maintain flowering when inductive conditions are removed, and it is inferred that this gene functions to control the synthesis or transport of a leaf-generated signal. But it is also argued that the susceptibility of Impatiens to reversion is a consequence of the meristem-based mechanisms

  5. Molecular characterization of mutations in white-flowered torenia plants

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Torenia (Torenia fournieri Lind.) is a model plant increasingly exploited in studies in various disciplines, including plant engineering, biochemistry, physiology, and ecology. Additionally, cultivars with different flower colors have been bred and made commercially available. Flower color in torenia is mainly attributed to the accumulation of anthocyanins, but the molecular mechanisms inducing flower color mutations in torenia have not been well elucidated. In this study, we therefore attempted to identify the cause of white coloration in torenia by comparing the white-flowered cultivar Crown White (CrW) with Crown Violet (CrV), a violet-flowered variety. Results In an expression analysis, no flavanone 3-hydroxylase (TfF3H) transcript accumulation was detected in CrW petals. Sequence analyses revealed that a novel long terminal repeat (LTR)-type retrotransposable element, designated as TORE1 (Torenia retrotransposon 1), is inserted into the 5′-upstream region of the TfF3H gene in CrW. A transient expression assay using torenia F3H promoters with or without TORE1 insertion showed that the TORE1 insertion substantially suppressed F3H promoter activity, suggesting that this insertion is responsible for the absence of F3H transcripts in white petals. Furthermore, a transformation experiment demonstrated that the introduction of a foreign gentian F3H cDNA, GtF3H, into CrW was able to recover pink-flower pigmentation, indicating that F3H deficiency is indeed the cause of the colorless flower phenotype in CrW. Detailed sequence analysis also identified deletion mutations in flavonoid 3′-hydroxylase (TfF3′H) and flavonoid 3′,5′- hydroxylase (TfF3′5′H) genes, but these were not directly responsible for white coloration in this cultivar. Conclusions Taken together, a novel retrotransposable element, TORE1, inserted into the F3H 5′-upstream region is the cause of deficient F3H transcripts in white-flowered torenia, thereby leading to reduced petal

  6. Sulphur-containing "perfumes" attract flower-visiting bats.

    PubMed

    von Helversen, O; Winkler, L; Bestmann, H J

    2000-02-01

    We tested the attractiveness of individual scent compounds of bat-pollinated flowers to their pollinators, small flower-visiting bats of the genus Glossophaga (Phyllostomidae). Twenty compounds belonging to four different chemical substance classes were tested, both in the laboratory and in the field. In the laboratory, the bats (Glossophaga soricina) approached odour sources spontaneously and without preceding experience. Without ever receiving any reward they preferred the scent of a sulphur-containing compound, dimethyl disulphide, to several other odour components emitted by bat-pollinated flowers, and to scentless controls. In the field, at La Selva station in the tropical lowland rain forest of Costa Rica, G. commissarisi were attracted by two sulphur-containing compounds, dimethyl disulphide and 2,4-dithiapentane, to visit artificial flowers filled with sugar water. Thus, in nectarivorous bats the sense of smell obviously plays an important role in searching for and localising food sources, and even single components of the scent bouquets of bat-pollinated flowers are attractive. The preference for sulphur-containing odours seems to be innate.

  7. Iridescent flowers? Contribution of surface structures to optical signaling.

    PubMed

    van der Kooi, Casper J; Wilts, Bodo D; Leertouwer, Hein L; Staal, Marten; Elzenga, J Theo M; Stavenga, Doekele G

    2014-07-01

    The color of natural objects depends on how they are structured and pigmented. In flowers, both the surface structure of the petals and the pigments they contain determine coloration. The aim of the present study was to assess the contribution of structural coloration, including iridescence, to overall floral coloration. We studied the reflection characteristics of flower petals of various plant species with an imaging scatterometer, which allows direct visualization of the angle dependence of the reflected light in the hemisphere above the petal. To separate the light reflected by the flower surface from the light backscattered by the components inside (e.g. the vacuoles), we also investigated surface casts. A survey among angiosperms revealed three different types of floral surface structure, each with distinct reflections. Petals with a smooth and very flat surface had mirror-like reflections and petal surfaces with cones yielded diffuse reflections. Petals with striations yielded diffraction patterns when single cells were illuminated. The iridescent signal, however, vanished when illumination similar to that found in natural conditions was applied. Pigmentary rather than structural coloration determines the optical appearance of flowers. Therefore, the hypothesized signaling by flowers with striated surfaces to attract potential pollinators presently seems untenable.

  8. Opening of Iris flowers is regulated by endogenous auxins.

    PubMed

    van Doorn, Wouter G; Dole, Isabelle; Celikel, Fisun G; Harkema, Harmannus

    2013-01-15

    Flower opening in Iris (Iris×hollandica) requires elongation of the pedicel and ovary. This moves the floral bud upwards, thereby allowing the tepals to move laterally. Flower opening is requires with elongation of the pedicel and ovary. In cv. Blue Magic, we investigated the possible role of hormones other than ethylene in pedicel and ovary elongation and flower opening. Exogenous salicylic acid (SA) and the cytokinins benzyladenine (N6-benzyladenine, BA) and zeatin did not affect opening. Jasmonic acid (JA) and abscisic acid (ABA) were slightly inhibitory, but an inhibitor of ABA synthesis (norflurazon) was without effect. Flower opening was promoted by gibberellic acid (GA(3)), but two inhibitors of gibberellin synthesis (4-hydroxy-5-isopropyl-2-methylphenyltrimethyl ammonium chloride-1-piperidine carboxylate, AMO-1618; ancymidol) did not change opening. The auxins indoleacetic acid (IAA) and naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) strongly promoted elongation and opening. An inhibitor of auxin transport (2,3,5-triodobenzoic acid, TIBA) and an inhibitor of auxin effects [α-(p-chlorophenoxy)-isobutyric acid; PCIB] inhibited elongation and opening. The data suggest that endogenous auxins are among the regulators of the pedicel and ovary elongation and thus of flower opening in Iris. PMID:23218543

  9. Iridescent flowers? Contribution of surface structures to optical signaling.

    PubMed

    van der Kooi, Casper J; Wilts, Bodo D; Leertouwer, Hein L; Staal, Marten; Elzenga, J Theo M; Stavenga, Doekele G

    2014-07-01

    The color of natural objects depends on how they are structured and pigmented. In flowers, both the surface structure of the petals and the pigments they contain determine coloration. The aim of the present study was to assess the contribution of structural coloration, including iridescence, to overall floral coloration. We studied the reflection characteristics of flower petals of various plant species with an imaging scatterometer, which allows direct visualization of the angle dependence of the reflected light in the hemisphere above the petal. To separate the light reflected by the flower surface from the light backscattered by the components inside (e.g. the vacuoles), we also investigated surface casts. A survey among angiosperms revealed three different types of floral surface structure, each with distinct reflections. Petals with a smooth and very flat surface had mirror-like reflections and petal surfaces with cones yielded diffuse reflections. Petals with striations yielded diffraction patterns when single cells were illuminated. The iridescent signal, however, vanished when illumination similar to that found in natural conditions was applied. Pigmentary rather than structural coloration determines the optical appearance of flowers. Therefore, the hypothesized signaling by flowers with striated surfaces to attract potential pollinators presently seems untenable. PMID:24713039

  10. Targeted misexpression of AGAMOUS in whorl 2 of Arabidopsis flowers.

    PubMed

    Jack, T; Sieburth, L; Meyerowitz, E

    1997-04-01

    In Arabidopsis, transcripts of the floral organ identity genes APETALA3, APETALA1, AGAMOUS, and PISTILLATA are expressed only in a subset of the floral organs. To test and extend present models for establishment of floral organ identity, we constructed a transgenic line that expresses the AGAMOUS gene under the control of the APETALA3 promotor (pAP3::AG). In wild-type flowers, AGAMOUS is expressed in the third and fourth floral whorls, whereas APETALA3 is expressed at high levels in whorls two and three. Under the control of the APETALA3 promotor, AGAMOUS is misexpressed in the second whorl of the flower. The organs in the second whorl of pAP3::AG flowers either fail to develop or develop as stamens. When pAP3::AG is crossed to the homeotic mutants apetala1, apetala3, pistilla, agamous and superman, novel floral phenotypes result. In pAP3::AG agamous-3 mutants, the flowers are indeterminate and consist of a repetition of sepals and stamens, rather that sepals and petals, as is observed in agamous single mutants; the indeterminacy demonstrates that AG is required in the fourth whorl to make a flower determinate. PMID:9161038

  11. Flowering Dynamics and Pollinator Visitation of Oilseed Echium (Echium plantagineum)

    PubMed Central

    Eberle, Carrie A.; Forcella, Frank; Gesch, Russ; Weyers, Sharon; Peterson, Dean; Eklund, James

    2014-01-01

    Echium (Echium plantagineum L.) is an alternative oilseed crop in summer-wet temperate regions that provides floral resources to pollinators. Its seed oil is rich in omega-3 fatty acids, such as stearidonic acid, which is desired highly by the cosmetic industry. Seeds were sown in field plots over three years in western Minnesota in spring (early-sown) or early summer (late-sown), and flower abundance, pollinator visitation, and seed yields were studied. Initial flowering commenced 41 to 55 d after sowing, and anthesis duration (first flowering to harvest) was 34 to 70 d. Late sowing dates delayed anthesis, but increased the intensity of visitation by pollinators. Cumulative flower densities ranged from 1 to 4.5 billion ha−1. Flowers attracted numerous honey bees (Apis mellifera L.), as many as 35 per minute of observation, which represented about 50% of all insect visitors. Early-sown echium produced seed yields up to 750 kg ha−1, which were 2–29 times higher than those of late-sown echium. Early sowing of echium in Minnesota provides abundant floral resources for pollinators for up to two months and simultaneously produces seed yields whose profits rival those of corn (Zea mays L.). PMID:25427071

  12. NO FLOWERING IN SHORT DAY (NFL) is a bHLH transcription factor that promotes flowering specifically under short-day conditions in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Nidhi; Xin, Ruijiao; Kim, Dong-Hwan; Sung, Sibum; Lange, Theo; Huq, Enamul

    2016-02-15

    Flowering in plants is a dynamic and synchronized process where various cues including age, day length, temperature and endogenous hormones fine-tune the timing of flowering for reproductive success. Arabidopsis thaliana is a facultative long day (LD) plant where LD photoperiod promotes flowering. Arabidopsis still flowers under short-day (SD) conditions, albeit much later than in LD conditions. Although factors regulating the inductive LD pathway have been extensively investigated, the non-inductive SD pathway is much less understood. Here, we identified a key basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor called NFL (NO FLOWERING IN SHORT DAY) that is essential to induce flowering specifically under SD conditions in Arabidopsis. nfl mutants do not flower under SD conditions, but flower similar to the wild type under LD conditions. The no-flowering phenotype in SD is rescued either by exogenous application of gibberellin (GA) or by introducing della quadruple mutants in the nfl background, suggesting that NFL acts upstream of GA to promote flowering. NFL is expressed at the meristematic regions and NFL is localized to the nucleus. Quantitative RT-PCR assays using apical tissues showed that GA biosynthetic genes are downregulated and the GA catabolic and receptor genes are upregulated in the nfl mutant compared with the wild type, consistent with the perturbation of the endogenous GA biosynthetic and catabolic intermediates in the mutant. Taken together, these data suggest that NFL is a key transcription factor necessary for promotion of flowering under non-inductive SD conditions through the GA signaling pathway.

  13. Cool night-time temperatures induce the expression of CONSTANS and FLOWERING LOCUS T to regulate flowering in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Kinmonth-Schultz, Hannah A; Tong, Xinran; Lee, Jae; Song, Young Hun; Ito, Shogo; Kim, Soo-Hyung; Imaizumi, Takato

    2016-07-01

    Day length and ambient temperature are major stimuli controlling flowering time. To understand flowering mechanisms in more natural conditions, we explored the effect of daily light and temperature changes on Arabidopsis thaliana. Seedlings were exposed to different day/night temperature and day-length treatments to assess expression changes in flowering genes. Cooler temperature treatments increased CONSTANS (CO) transcript levels at night. Night-time CO induction was diminished in flowering bhlh (fbh)-quadruple mutants. FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) transcript levels were reduced at dusk, but increased at the end of cooler nights. The dusk suppression, which was alleviated in short vegetative phase (svp) mutants, occurred particularly in younger seedlings, whereas the increase during the night continued over 2 wk. Cooler temperature treatments altered the levels of FLOWERING LOCUS M-β (FLM-β) and FLM-δ splice variants. FT levels correlated strongly with flowering time across treatments. Day/night temperature changes modulate photoperiodic flowering by changing FT accumulation patterns. Cooler night-time temperatures enhance FLOWERING BHLH (FBH)-dependent induction of CO and consequently increase CO protein. When plants are young, cooler temperatures suppress FT at dusk through SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE (SVP) function, perhaps to suppress precocious flowering. Our results suggest day length and diurnal temperature changes combine to modulate FT and flowering time.

  14. Bioactive steroidal saponins from Agave offoyana flowers.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Andy J; Calle, Juan M; Simonet, Ana M; Guerra, José O; Stochmal, Anna; Macías, Francisco A

    2013-11-01

    Bioguided studies of flowers of Agave offoyana allowed the isolation of five steroidal saponins never described previously, Magueyosides A-E (1-5), along with six known steroidal saponins (6-11). The structures of compounds were determined as (25R)-spirost-5-en-2α,3β-diol-12-one 3-O-{β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (1), (25R)-spirost-5-en-2α,3β-diol-12-one 3-O-{β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (2), (25R)-spirost-5-en-2α,3β,12β-triol 3-O-{β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (3), (25R)-5α-spirostan-2α,3β-diol-12-one 3-O-{β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (4), and (25R)-5α-spirostan-2α,3β-diol-9(11)-en-12-one 3-O-{β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (5), by comprehensive spectroscopic analysis, including one- and two-dimensional NMR techniques, mass spectrometry and chemical methods. The bioactivities of the isolated compounds on the standard target species Lactuca sativa were evaluated. A dose-dependent phytotoxicity and low dose stimulation were observed. PMID:23859261

  15. Bioactive steroidal saponins from Agave offoyana flowers.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Andy J; Calle, Juan M; Simonet, Ana M; Guerra, José O; Stochmal, Anna; Macías, Francisco A

    2013-11-01

    Bioguided studies of flowers of Agave offoyana allowed the isolation of five steroidal saponins never described previously, Magueyosides A-E (1-5), along with six known steroidal saponins (6-11). The structures of compounds were determined as (25R)-spirost-5-en-2α,3β-diol-12-one 3-O-{β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (1), (25R)-spirost-5-en-2α,3β-diol-12-one 3-O-{β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (2), (25R)-spirost-5-en-2α,3β,12β-triol 3-O-{β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (3), (25R)-5α-spirostan-2α,3β-diol-12-one 3-O-{β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (4), and (25R)-5α-spirostan-2α,3β-diol-9(11)-en-12-one 3-O-{β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (5), by comprehensive spectroscopic analysis, including one- and two-dimensional NMR techniques, mass spectrometry and chemical methods. The bioactivities of the isolated compounds on the standard target species Lactuca sativa were evaluated. A dose-dependent phytotoxicity and low dose stimulation were observed.

  16. Hawkmoths evaluate scenting flowers with the tip of their proboscis.

    PubMed

    Haverkamp, Alexander; Yon, Felipe; Keesey, Ian W; Mißbach, Christine; Koenig, Christopher; Hansson, Bill S; Baldwin, Ian T; Knaden, Markus; Kessler, Danny

    2016-01-01

    Pollination by insects is essential to many ecosystems. Previously, we have shown that floral scent is important to mediate pollen transfer between plants (Kessler et al., 2015). Yet, the mechanisms by which pollinators evaluate volatiles of single flowers remained unclear. Here, Nicotiana attenuata plants, in which floral volatiles have been genetically silenced and its hawkmoth pollinator, Manduca sexta, were used in semi-natural tent and wind-tunnel assays to explore the function of floral scent. We found that floral scent functions to increase the fitness of individual flowers not only by increasing detectability but also by enhancing the pollinator's foraging efforts. Combining proboscis choice tests with neurophysiological, anatomical and molecular analyses we show that this effect is governed by newly discovered olfactory neurons on the tip of the moth's proboscis. With the tip of their tongue, pollinators assess the advertisement of individual flowers, an ability essential for maintaining this important ecosystem service. PMID:27146894

  17. Lutein production from biomass: marigold flowers versus microalgae.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jian-Hao; Lee, Duu-Jong; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2015-05-01

    Microalgae have faster growth rates and more free lutein than marigold flowers, the current source of lutein. However, no commercial lutein production uses microalgae. This review compares lutein content, cultivation, harvesting, cell disruption, and extraction stages of lutein production using marigold flowers and those using microalgae as feedstock. The lutein production rate of microalgae is 3-6 times higher than that of marigold flowers. To produce 1 kg of pure lutein, marigolds need more land and water, but require less nutrients (N, P, K) and less energy than microalgae. Since lutein is tightly bound in microalgae and microalgae are small, cell disruption and subsequent extraction stages consume a considerable amount of energy. Research and development of affordable lutein production from microalgae are discussed.

  18. Circumnutation on the water surface: female flowers of Vallisneria

    PubMed Central

    Kosuge, Keiko; Iida, Satoko; Katou, Kiyoshi; Mimura, Tetsuro

    2013-01-01

    Circumnutation, the helical movement of growing organ tips, is ubiquitous in land plants. The mechanisms underlying circumnutation have been debated since Darwin's time. Experiments in space and mutant analyses have revealed that internal oscillatory (tropism-independent) movement and gravitropic response are involved in circumnutation. Female flower buds of tape grass (Vallisneria asiatica var. biwaensis) circumnutate on the water surface. Our observations and experiments with an artificial model indicated that gravitropism is barely involved in circumnutation. Instead, we show that helical intercalary growth at the base of peduncle plays the primary role in all movements in Vallisneria. This growth pattern produces torsional bud rotation, and gravity and buoyancy forces have a physical effect on the direction of peduncle elongation, resulting in bud circumnutation on the water surface. In contrast to other water-pollinated hydrophilous plants, circumnutation in Vallisneria enables female flowers to actively collect male flowers from a larger surface area of water. PMID:23355948

  19. Circumnutation on the water surface: female flowers of Vallisneria.

    PubMed

    Kosuge, Keiko; Iida, Satoko; Katou, Kiyoshi; Mimura, Tetsuro

    2013-01-01

    Circumnutation, the helical movement of growing organ tips, is ubiquitous in land plants. The mechanisms underlying circumnutation have been debated since Darwin's time. Experiments in space and mutant analyses have revealed that internal oscillatory (tropism-independent) movement and gravitropic response are involved in circumnutation. Female flower buds of tape grass (Vallisneria asiatica var. biwaensis) circumnutate on the water surface. Our observations and experiments with an artificial model indicated that gravitropism is barely involved in circumnutation. Instead, we show that helical intercalary growth at the base of peduncle plays the primary role in all movements in Vallisneria. This growth pattern produces torsional bud rotation, and gravity and buoyancy forces have a physical effect on the direction of peduncle elongation, resulting in bud circumnutation on the water surface. In contrast to other water-pollinated hydrophilous plants, circumnutation in Vallisneria enables female flowers to actively collect male flowers from a larger surface area of water. PMID:23355948

  20. Lutein production from biomass: marigold flowers versus microalgae.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jian-Hao; Lee, Duu-Jong; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2015-05-01

    Microalgae have faster growth rates and more free lutein than marigold flowers, the current source of lutein. However, no commercial lutein production uses microalgae. This review compares lutein content, cultivation, harvesting, cell disruption, and extraction stages of lutein production using marigold flowers and those using microalgae as feedstock. The lutein production rate of microalgae is 3-6 times higher than that of marigold flowers. To produce 1 kg of pure lutein, marigolds need more land and water, but require less nutrients (N, P, K) and less energy than microalgae. Since lutein is tightly bound in microalgae and microalgae are small, cell disruption and subsequent extraction stages consume a considerable amount of energy. Research and development of affordable lutein production from microalgae are discussed. PMID:25446782

  1. An asterid flower from neotropical mid-Tertiary amber.

    PubMed

    Poinar, George O; Struwe, Lena

    2016-01-01

    Fossils preserved in amber may provide significant palaeoevolutionary and biogeographical data regarding the evolution of life on Earth(1). Although amber is particularly noted for its detailed preservation of arthropods, the same degree of preservation can be found for vascular plant remains(2). Mid-Tertiary Dominican amber is a rich source for such fossils, and representatives of several angiosperm families have been described. However, no fossilized examples of the large asterid plant clade have yet been reported. Here we describe the first fossil neotropical flowers found in amber from a representative of the asterids. The asterids are one of the largest lineages of flowering plants, containing groups such as the sunflower, potato, coffee and mint families, totalling over 80,000 species(3). The new fossils are only known as flowers, more precisely corollas with stamens and styles. We here describe them as a new species, Strychnos electri sp. nov, in the plant family Loganiaceae (Gentianales). PMID:27249345

  2. Roles of jasmonate signalling in plant inflorescence and flower development.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zheng; Zhang, Dabing

    2015-10-01

    Development of inflorescences and flowers in plants is controlled by the combined action of environmental and genetic signals. Investigations reveal that the phytohormone jasmonate (JA) plays a critical function in plant reproduction such as male fertility, sex determination and seed maturation. Here, we review recent progress on JA synthesis, signalling, the interplay between JAs and other hormones, and regulatory network of JA in controlling the development of inflorescence, flower and the male organ. The conserved and diversified roles of JAs in meristem transition and specification of flower organ identity and number, and multiple regulatory networks of JAs in stamen development are highlighted. Further, this review provides perspectives on future research endeavors to elucidate mechanisms underlying JAs homeostasis and transport during plant reproductive development.

  3. The Antioxidants Changes in Ornamental Flowers during Development and Senescence

    PubMed Central

    Cavaiuolo, Marina; Cocetta, Giacomo; Ferrante, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The concentration of antioxidant compounds is constitutive and variable from species to species and is also variable considering the development of the plant tissue. In this review, we take into consideration the antioxidant changes and the physiological, biochemical and molecular factors that are able to modulate the accumulation of antioxidant compounds in ornamental flowers during the whole development process until the senescence. Many ornamental flowers are natural sources of very important bioactive compounds with benefit to the human health and their possible role as dietary components has been reported. The most part of antioxidants are flower pigments such as carotenoids and polyphenols, often present in higher concentration compared with the most common fruits and vegetables. The antioxidants content changes during development and during senescence many biochemical systems and molecular mechanisms are activated to counteract the increase of reactive oxygen species and free radicals. There is a tight correlation between antioxidants and senescence processes and this aspect is detailed and appropriately discussed. PMID:26784342

  4. Biological Activity of Dolichandrone serrulata Flowers and Their Active Components.

    PubMed

    Phanthong, Phanida; Phumal, Noppawan; Chancharunee, Sirirat; Mangmool, Supachoke; Anantachoke, Natthinee; Bunyapraphatsara, Nuntavan

    2015-08-01

    Dolichandrone serrulata (DC.) Seem flowers are widely used as vegetables in northern and eastern Thailand. Biological studies of the methanolic extract of these flowers have shown promising antioxidant activity. Biological-guided separation of D. serrulata flowers yielded six compounds, identified as hallerone, protocatechuic acid, rengyolone, cleroindicin B, ixoside, and isomaltose. This is the first report on hallerone, protocatechuic acid, rengyolone, cleroindicin B, and isomaltose in D. serrulata. Protocatechuic acid was the most potent scavenger of 2,2-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl and hydroxyl radicals with IC50 values of 25.6 +/- 0.6 and 29.6 +/- 0.4 microM, respectively. Hallerone and rengyolone showed moderate scavenging action on superoxide radicals and inhibited H202 induced reactive oxygen species production in HEK-293 cell. In addition, the other isolated compounds showed weak activity.

  5. Spatial and temporal transcriptome changes occurring during flower opening and senescence of the ephemeral hibiscus flower, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Trivellini, Alice; Cocetta, Giacomo; Hunter, Donald A.; Vernieri, Paolo; Ferrante, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Flowers are complex systems whose vegetative and sexual structures initiate and die in a synchronous manner. The rapidity of this process varies widely in flowers, with some lasting for months while others such as Hibiscus rosa-sinensis survive for only a day. The genetic regulation underlying these differences is unclear. To identify key genes and pathways that coordinate floral organ senescence of ephemeral flowers, we identified transcripts in H. rosa-sinensis floral organs by 454 sequencing. During development, 2053 transcripts increased and 2135 decreased significantly in abundance. The senescence of the flower was associated with increased abundance of many hydrolytic genes, including aspartic and cysteine proteases, vacuolar processing enzymes, and nucleases. Pathway analysis suggested that transcripts altering significantly in abundance were enriched in functions related to cell wall-, aquaporin-, light/circadian clock-, autophagy-, and calcium-related genes. Finding enrichment in light/circadian clock-related genes fits well with the observation that hibiscus floral development is highly synchronized with light and the hypothesis that ageing/senescence of the flower is orchestrated by a molecular clock. Further study of these genes will provide novel insight into how the molecular clock is able to regulate the timing of programmed cell death in tissues. PMID:27591432

  6. Insects on flowers: The unexpectedly high biodiversity of flower-visiting beetles in a tropical rainforest canopy.

    PubMed

    Wardhaugh, Carl W; Stork, Nigel E; Edwards, Will; Grimbacher, Peter S

    2013-01-01

    Insect biodiversity peaks in tropical rainforest environments where a large but as yet unknown proportion of species are found in the canopy. While there has been a proliferation of insect biodiversity research undertaken in the rainforest canopy, most studies focus solely on insects that inhabit the foliage. In a recent paper, we examined the distribution of canopy insects across five microhabitats (mature leaves, new leaves, flowers, fruit and suspended dead wood) in an Australian tropical rainforest, showing that the density (per dry weight gram of microhabitat) of insects on flowers were ten to ten thousand times higher than on the leaves. Flowers also supported a much higher number of species than expected based on their contribution to total forest biomass. Elsewhere we show that most of these beetle species were specialized to flowers with little overlap in species composition between different canopy microhabitats. Here we expand our discussion of the implications of our results with respect to specialization and the generation of insect biodiversity in the rainforest canopy. Lastly, we identify future directions for research into the biodiversity and specialization of flower-visitors in complex tropical rainforests.

  7. Giant Flowers of Southern Magnolia Are Hydrated by the Xylem1[OA

    PubMed Central

    Feild, Taylor S.; Chatelet, David S.; Brodribb, Tim J.

    2009-01-01

    Flowering depends upon long-distance transport to supply water for reproductive mechanisms to function. Previous physiological studies suggested that flowers operated uncoupled from stem xylem transport and received water primarily from the phloem. We demonstrate that the water balance of Southern magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora) flowers is regulated in a manner opposite from that of previously examined flowers. We show that flowers of Southern magnolia rely upon relatively efficient xylem hydraulic transport to support high water demand during anthesis. We measured rapid rates of perianth transpiration ranging from twice to 100 times greater than previous studies. We found that relatively efficient xylem pathways existed between the xylem and flower. Perianth hydraulic conductance and the amount of xylem to transpirational surface area ratios of flowers were both approximately one-third those measured for leafy shoots. Furthermore, we observed that perianth tissues underwent significant diurnal depressions in water status during transpiring conditions. Decreases in water potential observed between flowers and vegetative tissues were consistent with water moving from the stem xylem into the flower during anthesis. Xylem hydraulic coupling of flowers to the stem was supported by experiments showing that transpiring flowers were unaffected by bark girdling. With Southern magnolia being a member of a nearly basal evolutionary lineage, our results suggest that flower water balance represents an important functional dimension that influenced early flower evolution. PMID:19403730

  8. Nectar robbers pollinate flowers with sexual organs hidden within corollas in distylous Primula secundiflora (Primulaceae).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xing-Fu; Wan, Jin-Peng; Li, Qing-Jun

    2010-12-23

    Nectar robbers are thought rarely to pollinate flowers, especially those with sexual organs hidden within corollas. In this study, we examined whether robbers pollinate flowers of distylous Primula secundiflora. Distylous plants have two floral morphs. Pin flowers have long styles and short stamens, and thrum flowers have short styles and long stamens. Flowers of P. secundiflora were commonly robbed by bumble-bees, and robbing holes were always situated between high and low sexual organs for both floral morphs. We observed that pollen grains of pin flowers were removed while thrum flowers received fresh pollen grains immediately after flowers were robbed. We manipulated flowers so that only nectar robbers could visit them. This resulted in 98 per cent of thrum flowers and 6 per cent of pin flowers setting fruit, and seed number per thrum fruit was also significantly higher than per pin fruit. Our findings suggest that nectar robbers transfer pollen from pin flowers to thrum flowers effectively, and consequently increase male fitness of the pin morph and female fitness of the thrum morph. Such asymmetrical pollen flow caused by nectar robbers may act as an important selective agent in floral fitness and evolution of distyly.

  9. Fructan Hydrolysis Drives Petal Expansion in the Ephemeral Daylily Flower.

    PubMed

    Bieleski, R. L.

    1993-09-01

    Dry weight, water content, soluble carbohydrate content, and carbohydrate composition of daylily (Hemerocallis hybrid cv Cradle Song) flower petals were monitored in the 3 d leading up to full opening and in the first day of senescence. Timing of events was related to the time (hour 0) when flower expansion was 60% complete. Petal dry weight increased linearly from hour -62 (tight bud) to hour 10 (fully developed flower), then fell rapidly to hour 34 as senescence advanced. Increase in water content was proportional to dry weight increase from hour -62 to hour -14, but was more rapid as the bud cracked and the flower opened, giving an increase in fresh weight/dry weight ratio. Soluble carbohydrate was 50% of petal dry weight up to hour 10, then decreased during senescence to reach 4% by hour 34. Up until hour -14, fructan accounted for 80% of the soluble carbohydrate in the petals, whereas hexose accounted for only 2%. Fructan hydrolysis started just prior to bud crack at hour -14, reaching completion by hour 10 when no detectable fructan remained, and fructose plus glucose accounted for more than 80% of the total soluble carbohydrate. The proportion of sucrose remained constant throughout development. Osmolality of petal cell sap increased significantly during fructan hydrolysis, from 0.300 to 0.340 osmolal. Cycloheximide applied to excised buds between hour -38 and hour -14 halted both fructan hydrolysis and flower expansion. The findings suggest that onset of fructan hydrolysis, with the concomitant large increase in osmoticum, is an important event driving flower expansion in daylily. PMID:12231928

  10. Potent Induction of Arabidopsis thaliana Flowering by Elevated Growth Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramanian, Sureshkumar; Sureshkumar, Sridevi; Lempe, Janne; Weigel, Detlef

    2006-01-01

    The transition to flowering is an important event in the plant life cycle and is modulated by several environmental factors including photoperiod, light quality, vernalization, and growth temperature, as well as biotic and abiotic stresses. In contrast to light and vernalization, little is known about the pathways that mediate the responses to other environmental variables. A mild increase in growth temperature, from 23 °C to 27 °C, is equally efficient in inducing flowering of Arabidopsis plants grown in 8-h short days as is transfer to 16-h long days. There is extensive natural variation in this response, and we identify strains with contrasting thermal reaction norms. Exploiting this natural variation, we show that FLOWERING LOCUS C potently suppresses thermal induction, and that the closely related floral repressor FLOWERING LOCUS M is a major-effect quantitative trait locus modulating thermosensitivity. Thermal induction does not require the photoperiod effector CONSTANS, acts upstream of the floral integrator FLOWERING LOCUS T, and depends on the hormone gibberellin. Analysis of mutants defective in salicylic acid biosynthesis suggests that thermal induction is independent of previously identified stress-signaling pathways. Microarray analyses confirm that the genomic responses to floral induction by photoperiod and temperature differ. Furthermore, we report that gene products that participate in RNA splicing are specifically affected by thermal induction. Above a critical threshold, even small changes in temperature can act as cues for the induction of flowering. This response has a genetic basis that is distinct from the known genetic pathways of floral transition, and appears to correlate with changes in RNA processing. PMID:16839183

  11. Yellow flowers generated by expression of the aurone biosynthetic pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Eiichiro; Fukuchi-Mizutani, Masako; Nakamura, Noriko; Fukui, Yuko; Yonekura-Sakakibara, Keiko; Yamaguchi, Masaatsu; Nakayama, Toru; Tanaka, Takaharu; Kusumi, Takaaki; Tanaka, Yoshikazu

    2006-01-01

    Flower color is most often conferred by colored flavonoid pigments. Aurone flavonoids confer a bright yellow color on flowers such as snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus) and dahlia (Dahlia variabilis). A. majus aureusidin synthase (AmAS1) was identified as the key enzyme that catalyzes aurone biosynthesis from chalcones, but transgenic flowers overexpressing AmAS1 gene failed to produce aurones. Here, we report that chalcone 4′-O-glucosyltransferase (4′CGT) is essential for aurone biosynthesis and yellow coloration in vivo. Coexpression of the Am4′CGT and AmAS1 genes was sufficient for the accumulation of aureusidin 6-O-glucoside in transgenic flowers (Torenia hybrida). Furthermore, their coexpression combined with down-regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis by RNA interference (RNAi) resulted in yellow flowers. An Am4′CGT-GFP chimeric protein localized in the cytoplasm, whereas the AmAS1(N1-60)-RFP chimeric protein was localized to the vacuole. We therefore conclude that chalcones are 4′-O-glucosylated in the cytoplasm, their 4′-O-glucosides transported to the vacuole, and therein enzymatically converted to aurone 6-O-glucosides. This metabolic pathway is unique among the known examples of flavonoid, including anthocyanin biosynthesis because, for all other compounds, the carbon backbone is completed before transport to the vacuole. Our findings herein not only demonstrate the biochemical basis of aurone biosynthesis but also open the way to engineering yellow flowers for major ornamental species lacking this color variant. PMID:16832053

  12. Pollination triggers female gametophyte development in immature Nicotiana tabacum flowers

    PubMed Central

    Brito, Michael S.; Bertolino, Lígia T.; Cossalter, Viviane; Quiapim, Andréa C.; DePaoli, Henrique C.; Goldman, Gustavo H.; Teixeira, Simone P.; Goldman, Maria H. S.

    2015-01-01

    In Nicotiana tabacum, female gametophytes are not fully developed at anthesis, but flower buds pollinated 12 h before anthesis produce mature embryo sacs. We investigated several pollination-associated parameters in N. tabacum flower buds to determine the developmental timing of important events in preparation for successful fertilization. First, we performed hand pollinations in flowers from stages 4 to 11 to study at which developmental stage pollination would produce fruits. A Peroxtesmo test was performed to correlate peroxidase activity on the stigma surface, indicative of stigma receptivity, with fruit set. Pollen tube growth and female gametophyte development were microscopically analyzed in pistils of different developmental stages. Fruits were obtained only after pollinations of flower buds at late stage 7 and older; fruit weight and seed germination capacity increased as the developmental stage of the pollinated flower approached anthesis. Despite positive peroxidase activity and pollen tube growth, pistils at stages 5 and 6 were unable to produce fruits. At late stage 7, female gametophytes were undergoing first mitotic division. After 24 h, female gametophytes of unpollinated pistils were still in the end of the first division, whereas those of pollinated pistils showed egg cells. RT-qPCR assay showed that the expression of the NtEC1 gene, a marker of egg cell development, is considerably higher in pollinated late stage 7 ovaries compared with unpollinated ovaries. To test whether ethylene is the signal eliciting female gametophyte maturation, the expression of ACC synthase was examined in unpollinated and pollinated stage 6 and late stage 7 stigmas/styles. Pollination induced NtACS expression in stage 6 pistils, which are unable to produce fruits. Our results show that pollination is a stimulus capable of triggering female gametophyte development in immature tobacco flowers and suggests the existence of a yet undefined signal sensed by the pistil. PMID

  13. Dynamic Pulse-Driven Flowering Phenology in a Semiarid Shrubland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krell, N.; Papuga, S. A.; Kipnis, E. L.; Nelson, K.

    2014-12-01

    Elevated springtime temperature has been convincingly linked to an increasingly earlier onset of phenological activity. Studies highlighting this phenomenon have generally been conducted in ecosystems where energy is the primary limiting factor. Importantly, phenological studies in semiarid ecosystems where water is the major limiting factor are rare. In semiarid ecosystems, the timing of phenological activity is also highly sensitive to discrete moisture pulses from infrequent precipitation events. The objective of this study is to identify the triggers of flowering phenology in a semiarid creosotebush-dominated ecosystem. Creosotebush (Larrea tridentata) is a repeat-flowering evergreen shrub that is the dominant species in three of the North American deserts. We present results from six years of daily meteorological and phenological data collected within the Santa Rita Experimental Range in southern Arizona. Our site is equipped with an eddy covariance tower providing estimates of water and carbon fluxes and associated meteorological variables including precipitation and soil moisture at multiple depths. Additionally, three digital cameras distributed within the footprint of the eddy provide daily images of phenological activity. Our results highlight substantial interannual variability in flowering phenology, both in spring and summer flowering. We show that spring flowering activity tends to be associated with energy triggers (e.g. temperature, growing degree days), whereas summer flowering activity tends to be associated with moisture triggers (e.g. large precipitation events, deep soil moisture). Our study suggests that changes in frequency and duration of precipitation events will impact timing of phenological activity resulting in important consequences for vegetation dynamics and pollinator behavior.

  14. Biofabrication of nanogold from the flower extracts of Lantana camara.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Brajesh; Smita, Kumari; Cumbal, Luis

    2016-06-01

    The present investigation was done to explore the potential of Lantana camara (L. camara) flower in the fabrication of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The shape and size of AuNPs have been successfully controlled by introducing small amounts of L. camara flower extract. It produced spherical nanogold of average size 10.6 ± 2.9 nm without any aggregation and showed significant photocatalytic degradation activity of the methylene blue (>62%, 10 mg/L) in the presence of solar light. In addition, the experimental approach is inexpensive, rapid and eco-friendly for industrial scale production of nanoparticles. PMID:27256896

  15. Biofabrication of nanogold from the flower extracts of Lantana camara.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Brajesh; Smita, Kumari; Cumbal, Luis

    2016-06-01

    The present investigation was done to explore the potential of Lantana camara (L. camara) flower in the fabrication of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The shape and size of AuNPs have been successfully controlled by introducing small amounts of L. camara flower extract. It produced spherical nanogold of average size 10.6 ± 2.9 nm without any aggregation and showed significant photocatalytic degradation activity of the methylene blue (>62%, 10 mg/L) in the presence of solar light. In addition, the experimental approach is inexpensive, rapid and eco-friendly for industrial scale production of nanoparticles.

  16. Analysis of the thrips fauna (Thysanoptera) on flowers of herbs.

    PubMed

    Pobozniak, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Studies of Thysanoptera were realized at the Agricultural Experimental Station in Mydlniki near Cracow over the years 2003-2005. This research work covers the observations of the species composition of thrips and the periods of the occurrence of the particulars species of thrips and their numerousness. The thrips were collected from flowers of Valeriana officinalis L., Hypericum perforatum L. and Levisticum officinale Koch. Following thrips species dominated samples collected directly from plants: Frankliniella intonsa (Trybom), Thrips fuscipennis Haliday, Thrips tabaci Lindeman and Thrips major Uzel. The greatest number of thrips was noticed during flowering period on Valeriana officinalis L., and Hypericum perforatum L.

  17. Clonal Structure, Seed Set, and Self-Pollination Rate in Mass-Flowering Bamboo Species during Off-Year Flowering Events

    PubMed Central

    Mizuki, Inoue; Sato, Ayaka; Matsuo, Ayumi; Suyama, Yoshihisa; Suzuki, Jun-Ichirou; Makita, Akifumi

    2014-01-01

    Bamboos are typical examples of highly synchronized semelparous species. Their mass-flowering events occur at supra-annual intervals but they sometimes flower on a small scale in off-years. If some bamboo ramets (culms) of a genet flower and die in off-years, whereas other culms of the same genet do not flower synchronously, the genet can still survive blooming in an off-year and could participate in the next mass-flowering event. At genet level, the effect might be similar to that achieved by synchronously reproducing iteroparous plants. In addition, if multiple genets flower simultaneously in off-years, cross-pollination will be promoted. However, it is not known whether all the culms in a genet flower synchronously and whether multiple genets flower in off-years. We determined the clonal structure of three temperate dwarf bamboo species, i.e., Sasa senanensis, S. kurilensis, and S. palmata, at 24 off-year flowering sites and the surrounding areas in northern Japan using seven microsatellite markers. We also estimated seed set at seven of the sites and self-pollination rates at five sites to determine off-year reproductive success. Next, we investigated whether seed sets at the culm level were related to flowering area and/or number of flowering genets, using generalized linear mixed-effect models (GLMMs). Multiple genets flowered at 9/24 flowering sites. We found that 40/96 of the genets identified had some flowering culms. Non-flowering culms were present in 24/40 flowering genets. Seed set was in the range 2.2%–12.5% and the self-pollination rate was 96.3%. In the best GLMM, seed set increased with flowering area. Seeds were produced in off-years, but cross-pollination was rare in off-years. We suggest that some dwarf bamboos may exhibit iteroparity or imperfectly synchronized semelparity at the genet level, a characteristic similar to that of other reproductively synchronous plants. We also found synchronous flowering of a few genets even in off-years. PMID

  18. Spatial variation in the community of insects associated with the flowers of Pachycereus weberi (Caryophyllales: Cactaceae).

    PubMed

    Figueroa-Castro, Dulce María; Valverde, Pedro Luis; Vite, Fernando; Carrillo-Ruiz, Hortensia

    2014-08-01

    The positive relationship between productivity and species diversity is well-known. Insect communities associated with the flowers of Cactaceae species represent an interesting system to explore the productivity-diversity relationship because branches facing the equator receive more photosynthetically active radiation and have higher productivity. Thus, flowers with contrasting orientations within an individual, and even within a single branch, might differ in productivity. Therefore, higher abundance, species richness, and diversity are expected for the insect communities associated with south-facing flowers. This hypothesis was tested in Pachycereus weberi (J.M. Coulter) Backeberg (Cactaceae). Insects within flowers with contrasting orientations were collected and its abundance, richness, and diversity were estimated. We also asked if insects prefer big flowers. Thus, flower volume was estimated and regression analyses were conducted to test if there is a positive relationship between flower size and insect abundance. Flower orientation did not affect species richness. However, species abundance and diversity were different in flowers with contrasting orientations. In general, species abundance was higher in flowers facing southwards than in north-facing flowers. On the contrary, species diversity was higher in north-facing flowers. Abundance of Coleoptera was explained by flower volume in south-facing flowers. Contrary to our hypothesis, total diversity was greater in the less productive oriented flowers. Three possible explanations are discussed to explain the low diversity found in the highly productive, south-facing flowers. Our study provides evidence for the effects of productivity on the structure of insect communities at a very small-scale.

  19. Flower-visiting behavior of male bees is triggered by nectar-feeding insects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiura, Shinji; Abe, Tetsuto; Yamaura, Yuichi; Makino, Shun'ichi

    2007-08-01

    Bees are important pollinators for many flowering plants. Female bees are thought to be more effective pollinators than male bees because they carry much more pollen than males. Males of some solitary bee species are known to patrol near flowers that females visit. Because patrolling males visit flowers to mate or defend their territories, they may function as pollinators. However, the significance of patrolling males to pollination has not been studied. We studied males of a solitary bee, Heriades fulvohispidus (Megachilidae), patrolling near flowers and visiting flowers that attracted nectar-feeding insects, including conspecifics, on the Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands. To test the hypothesis that patrolling male bees may function as pollen vectors, we compared the frequency of visits by H. fulvohispidus to flowers of an endemic plant, Schima mertensiana (Theaceae); comparisons were made among flowers with a dead H. fulvohispidus, a dead beetle, a piece of plastic, and nothing (control flowers). Patrolling H. fulvohispidus more frequently visited flowers with a dead conspecific, a dead beetle, or a piece of plastic than the control flowers. Our experiment demonstrates that nectar-feeding insects (including conspecifics and other insects) enhance the flower-visiting frequency of patrolling H. fulvohispidus males on S. mertensiana flowers. Furthermore, we observed S. mertensiana pollen on patrolling males as well as females, suggesting that male bees may also function as pollen vectors.

  20. Determinants of pollinator activity and flower preference in the early spring blooming Crocus vernus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Totland, Ørjan; Matthews, Ingrid

    1998-04-01

    This study examines the effects of environmental factors on the pollination activity on Crocus vernus by Apis mellifera, and also whether bees discriminate among flowers on the basis of floral display size and colour. Flower density was much more important than temperature, humidity, and time of day and season in explaining variation in bee numbers, the total number of flowers visited, the number of flowers visited by individual bees and the total number of visits per flower (visitation rate) during 10 min observation periods. Although flower density positively influenced bee abundance and the number of flowers visited by individual bees, we found a negative relationship between flower density and visitation rates, suggesting that the pool of available pollinators was saturated at flower densities below maximum. Despite this, visitation rates were high. On average a flower received 3.42 visits during one hour; thus there seems to be little intraspecific competition for pollinators despite saturation of the pollinator pool. There was no significant difference between the size or colour of flowers that were visited, approached, or ignored by bees, and duration of visits was not related to floral display size or colour. Thus, on average A. mellifera did not appear to discriminate between flowers on the basis of floral display. Consequently, the data indicate that there is no pollinator mediated selection on floral display, driven by discriminating pollinators.

  1. Adaptation to climate through flowering phenology: a case study in Medicago truncatula.

    PubMed

    Burgarella, Concetta; Chantret, Nathalie; Gay, Laurène; Prosperi, Jean-Marie; Bonhomme, Maxime; Tiffin, Peter; Young, Nevin D; Ronfort, Joelle

    2016-07-01

    Local climatic conditions likely constitute an important selective pressure on genes underlying important fitness-related traits such as flowering time, and in many species, flowering phenology and climatic gradients strongly covary. To test whether climate shapes the genetic variation on flowering time genes and to identify candidate flowering genes involved in the adaptation to environmental heterogeneity, we used a large Medicago truncatula core collection to examine the association between nucleotide polymorphisms at 224 candidate genes and both climate variables and flowering phenotypes. Unlike genome-wide studies, candidate gene approaches are expected to enrich for the number of meaningful trait associations because they specifically target genes that are known to affect the trait of interest. We found that flowering time mediates adaptation to climatic conditions mainly by variation at genes located upstream in the flowering pathways, close to the environmental stimuli. Variables related to the annual precipitation regime reflected selective constraints on flowering time genes better than the other variables tested (temperature, altitude, latitude or longitude). By comparing phenotype and climate associations, we identified 12 flowering genes as the most promising candidates responsible for phenological adaptation to climate. Four of these genes were located in the known flowering time QTL region on chromosome 7. However, climate and flowering associations also highlighted largely distinct gene sets, suggesting different genetic architectures for adaptation to climate and flowering onset. PMID:27144929

  2. 15 CFR Appendix A to Subpart L of... - Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Coordinates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flower Garden Banks National Marine... Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922, Subpt. L, App. A Appendix A to Subpart L of Part 922—Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Coordinates This appendix contains a...

  3. 15 CFR Appendix A to Subpart L of... - Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Coordinates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flower Garden Banks National Marine... Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922, Subpt. L, App. A Appendix A to Subpart L of Part 922—Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Coordinates This appendix contains a...

  4. 78 FR 2957 - Availability of Seats for the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-15

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Availability of Seats for the Flower Garden Banks National... vacant seats on the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council: recreational fishing.... ADDRESSES: Application kits may be obtained from Jennifer Morgan, NOAA--Flower Garden Banks National...

  5. 15 CFR Appendix A to Subpart L of... - Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Coordinates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flower Garden Banks National Marine... Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922, Subpt. L, App. A Appendix A to Subpart L of Part 922—Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Coordinates This appendix contains a...

  6. 15 CFR Appendix A to Subpart L of... - Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Coordinates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flower Garden Banks National Marine... Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922, Subpt. L, App. A Appendix A to Subpart L of Part 922—Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Coordinates This appendix contains a...

  7. 75 FR 16074 - Availability of Conservation Seat for the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Availability of Conservation Seat for the Flower Garden... the following vacant seat on the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council... may be obtained from Jennifer Morgan, NOA- Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary, 4700...

  8. 15 CFR Appendix A to Subpart L of... - Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Coordinates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flower Garden Banks National Marine... Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922, Subpt. L, App. A Appendix A to Subpart L of Part 922—Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Coordinates This appendix contains a...

  9. Natural variation for flowering time, perennialism, and nutrient recycling in bioenergy crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have analyzed annual Brachypodium for flowering time and nitrogen content when grown under a nitrogen gradient. Flowering time is correlated to whole plant N content, likely due to greater leaf mass in later flowering accessions. We hope the easily transformable annuals can assist in gene charact...

  10. Implications of High Temperature and Elevated CO2 on Flowering Time in Plants.

    PubMed

    Jagadish, S V Krishna; Bahuguna, Rajeev N; Djanaguiraman, Maduraimuthu; Gamuyao, Rico; Prasad, P V Vara; Craufurd, Peter Q

    2016-01-01

    Flowering is a crucial determinant for plant reproductive success and seed-set. Increasing temperature and elevated carbon-dioxide (e[CO2]) are key climate change factors that could affect plant fitness and flowering related events. Addressing the effect of these environmental factors on flowering events such as time of day of anthesis (TOA) and flowering time (duration from germination till flowering) is critical to understand the adaptation of plants/crops to changing climate and is the major aim of this review. Increasing ambient temperature is the major climatic factor that advances flowering time in crops and other plants, with a modest effect of e[CO2].Integrated environmental stimuli such as photoperiod, temperature and e[CO2] regulating flowering time is discussed. The critical role of plant tissue temperature influencing TOA is highlighted and crop models need to substitute ambient air temperature with canopy or floral tissue temperature to improve predictions. A complex signaling network of flowering regulation with change in ambient temperature involving different transcription factors (PIF4, PIF5), flowering suppressors (HvODDSOC2, SVP, FLC) and autonomous pathway (FCA, FVE) genes, mainly from Arabidopsis, provides a promising avenue to improve our understanding of the dynamics of flowering time under changing climate. Elevated CO2 mediated changes in tissue sugar status and a direct [CO2]-driven regulatory pathway involving a key flowering gene, MOTHER OF FT AND TFL1 (MFT), are emerging evidence for the role of e[CO2] in flowering time regulation.

  11. Adaptation to climate through flowering phenology: a case study in Medicago truncatula.

    PubMed

    Burgarella, Concetta; Chantret, Nathalie; Gay, Laurène; Prosperi, Jean-Marie; Bonhomme, Maxime; Tiffin, Peter; Young, Nevin D; Ronfort, Joelle

    2016-07-01

    Local climatic conditions likely constitute an important selective pressure on genes underlying important fitness-related traits such as flowering time, and in many species, flowering phenology and climatic gradients strongly covary. To test whether climate shapes the genetic variation on flowering time genes and to identify candidate flowering genes involved in the adaptation to environmental heterogeneity, we used a large Medicago truncatula core collection to examine the association between nucleotide polymorphisms at 224 candidate genes and both climate variables and flowering phenotypes. Unlike genome-wide studies, candidate gene approaches are expected to enrich for the number of meaningful trait associations because they specifically target genes that are known to affect the trait of interest. We found that flowering time mediates adaptation to climatic conditions mainly by variation at genes located upstream in the flowering pathways, close to the environmental stimuli. Variables related to the annual precipitation regime reflected selective constraints on flowering time genes better than the other variables tested (temperature, altitude, latitude or longitude). By comparing phenotype and climate associations, we identified 12 flowering genes as the most promising candidates responsible for phenological adaptation to climate. Four of these genes were located in the known flowering time QTL region on chromosome 7. However, climate and flowering associations also highlighted largely distinct gene sets, suggesting different genetic architectures for adaptation to climate and flowering onset.

  12. Flowering phenological changes in relation to climate change in Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szabó, Barbara; Vincze, Enikő; Czúcz, Bálint

    2016-01-01

    The importance of long-term plant phenological time series is growing in monitoring of climate change impacts worldwide. To detect trends and assess possible influences of climate in Hungary, we studied flowering phenological records for six species (Convallaria majalis, Taraxacum officinale, Syringa vulgaris, Sambucus nigra, Robinia pseudoacacia, Tilia cordata) based on phenological observations from the Hungarian Meteorological Service recorded between 1952 and 2000. Altogether, four from the six examined plant species showed significant advancement in flowering onset with an average rate of 1.9-4.4 days per decade. We found that it was the mean temperature of the 2-3 months immediately preceding the mean flowering date, which most prominently influenced its timing. In addition, several species were affected by the late winter (January-March) values of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index. We also detected sporadic long-term effects for all species, where climatic variables from earlier months exerted influence with varying sign and little recognizable pattern: the temperature/NAO of the previous autumn (August-December) seems to influence Convallaria, and the temperature/precipitation of the previous spring (February-April) has some effect on Tilia flowering.

  13. The Flowering of the Suburbs: Common Land and Community Farming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donahue, Brian

    2000-01-01

    Land's Sake, a community farm in suburban Weston (Massachusetts), cares for most of the town's conservation land, grows organic fruits and flowers, harvests forest products, employs young people, and offers various outdoor environmental education programs. The community's engagement with the land led to the passing of a bond issue to preserve the…

  14. Genetic variation of flowering time and biomass in switchgrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The timing of phase change from juvenile (vegetative) to adult with reproductive competence is a key factor influencing biomass yield of switchgrass. A decline in biomass yield is typically observed in switchgrass immediately following completion of flowering. In temperate regions of the USA, if flo...

  15. Flowering dynamics and pollinator visitation of oilseed echium (Echium plantagineum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Echium (Echium plantagineum L.) is an alternative oilseed crop in summer-wet temperate regions that provides floral resources to pollinators. Its seed oil is rich in omega-3 fatty acids, such as stearidonic acid, which is desired highly by the cosmetic industry. We examined flowering dynamics, polli...

  16. Novel flowering time variation in the resynthesized polyploid Brassica napus.

    PubMed

    Schranz, M E; Osborn, T C

    2000-01-01

    Recent molecular data using resynthesized polyploids of Brassica napus established that genome changes can occur rapidly after polyploid formation. In this study we present data that de novo phenotypic variation for flowering time also occurs rapidly after polyploidization. Two initial polyploid plants were developed by reciprocal crosses of B. rapa and B. oleracea followed by chromosome doubling to establish two lineages, each of which was expected to be homozygous and homogeneous. Several sublineages of each lineage were advanced by self-pollination. The range in days to flower of the sixth generation plants was 39-75 and 43-64 for the two lineages. Analysis of seventh generation progeny indicated that the variation was heritable. Lines were selected and self-pollinated to the eighth generation and also testcrossed to a natural B. napus cultivar; the testcross plants were then self-pollinated. Differences in flowering time were also inherited in these advanced generations. Days to flower was significantly correlated with leaf number in each generation. The rapid evolution of new phenotypic variation, like that observed in this model system, may have contributed to the success and diversification of natural polyploid organisms.

  17. Plasticity versus Adaptation of Ambient-Temperature Flowering Response.

    PubMed

    Pajoro, Alice; Verhage, Leonie; Immink, Richard G H

    2016-01-01

    It is challenging to understand how plants adapt flowering time to novel environmental conditions, such as global warming, while maintaining plasticity in response to daily fluctuating temperatures. A recent study shows a role for transposons and highlights the need to investigate how these different responses evolved. PMID:26698930

  18. Flowering phenological changes in relation to climate change in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Szabó, Barbara; Vincze, Enikő; Czúcz, Bálint

    2016-09-01

    The importance of long-term plant phenological time series is growing in monitoring of climate change impacts worldwide. To detect trends and assess possible influences of climate in Hungary, we studied flowering phenological records for six species (Convallaria majalis, Taraxacum officinale, Syringa vulgaris, Sambucus nigra, Robinia pseudoacacia, Tilia cordata) based on phenological observations from the Hungarian Meteorological Service recorded between 1952 and 2000. Altogether, four from the six examined plant species showed significant advancement in flowering onset with an average rate of 1.9-4.4 days per decade. We found that it was the mean temperature of the 2-3 months immediately preceding the mean flowering date, which most prominently influenced its timing. In addition, several species were affected by the late winter (January-March) values of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index. We also detected sporadic long-term effects for all species, where climatic variables from earlier months exerted influence with varying sign and little recognizable pattern: the temperature/NAO of the previous autumn (August-December) seems to influence Convallaria, and the temperature/precipitation of the previous spring (February-April) has some effect on Tilia flowering. PMID:26768142

  19. New development with cultural management related to flowering

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Control of flowering is important in strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) production. Plants have evolved mechanisms to alter their growth and development in response to environmental signals. The transition from vegetative to reproductive development in strawberries is regulated by a number of ...

  20. Headspace Volatiles of Scutellaria californica A. Gray Flowers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Volatile constituents of California skullcap (Scutellaria californica A. Gray) flowers were isolated by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and analyzed by GC and GC/MS. A total of 52 constituents were identified (constituting 90.79% of the total area), 12 of which were tentatively identified. Cary...

  1. Flowering Tendencies in Strawberry Species in the USDA Collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Clonal Germplasm Repository (NCGR), Corvallis, Oregon, maintains a national genebank for strawberry, Fragaria L. This collection includes diverse species maintained in screenhouses. The plants are exposed to an annual temperature regime that allows flower...

  2. Fair Trade Flowers: Global Certification, Environmental Sustainability, and Labor Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raynolds, Laura T.

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes the organization of the fair trade flower industry, integration of Ecuadorian enterprises into these networks, and power of certification to address key environmental and social concerns on participating estates. Pursuing a social regulatory approach, I locate fair trade within the field of new institutions that establish and…

  3. 16. View of the flower garden from the steps descending ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. View of the flower garden from the steps descending from the Belvedere, illustrating the naturalistic setting of the upper levels of the terrace gardens. The view includes a tariki stoneware bench by Eric O'Leary (1992) at left, and a granite sandial pedestal (1890s) at right center. - Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park, 54 Elm Street, Woodstock, Windsor County, VT

  4. 56. View of the flower garden from the steps descending ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. View of the flower garden from the steps descending from the Belvedere, illustrating the naturalistic setting of the upper levels of the terrace gardens. The view includes a tariki stoneware bench by Eric O'Leary (1992) at left, and a granite sundial pedestal (1890s) at right center. - Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park, 54 Elm Street, Woodstock, Windsor County, VT

  5. Flowering phenological changes in relation to climate change in Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szabó, Barbara; Vincze, Enikő; Czúcz, Bálint

    2016-09-01

    The importance of long-term plant phenological time series is growing in monitoring of climate change impacts worldwide. To detect trends and assess possible influences of climate in Hungary, we studied flowering phenological records for six species ( Convallaria majalis, Taraxacum officinale, Syringa vulgaris, Sambucus nigra, Robinia pseudoacacia, Tilia cordata) based on phenological observations from the Hungarian Meteorological Service recorded between 1952 and 2000. Altogether, four from the six examined plant species showed significant advancement in flowering onset with an average rate of 1.9-4.4 days per decade. We found that it was the mean temperature of the 2-3 months immediately preceding the mean flowering date, which most prominently influenced its timing. In addition, several species were affected by the late winter (January-March) values of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index. We also detected sporadic long-term effects for all species, where climatic variables from earlier months exerted influence with varying sign and little recognizable pattern: the temperature/NAO of the previous autumn (August-December) seems to influence Convallaria, and the temperature/precipitation of the previous spring (February-April) has some effect on Tilia flowering.

  6. Widespread flower color convergence in Solanaceae via alternate biochemical pathways.

    PubMed

    Ng, Julienne; Smith, Stacey D

    2016-01-01

    Phenotypic convergence is rampant throughout the tree of life. While recent studies have made significant progress in ascertaining the proximate mechanisms underlying convergent phenotypes, less is known about the frequency and predictability with which convergent phenotypes arise via the same or multiple pathways at the macroevolutionary scale. We investigated the proximate causes and evolutionary patterns of red flower color in the tomato family, Solanaceae, using large-scale data mining and new sequence data to reconstruct a megaphylogeny of 1341 species. We then combined spectral and anatomical data to assess how many times red flowers have evolved, the relative contribution of different pathways to independent origins of red, and whether the underlying pathway is predicted by phylogenetic relatedness. We estimated at least 30 relatively recent origins of red flowers using anthocyanins, carotenoids, or a dual production of both pigments, with significant phylogenetic signal in the use of anthocyanins and dual production, indicating that closely related red-flowered species tend to employ the same mechanism for coloration. Our study is the first to test whether developmental pathways exhibit phylogenetic signal and implies that historical contingency strongly influences the evolution of new phenotypes.

  7. A soilless Verticillium wilt assay using an early flowering lettuce

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A soilless growth chamber assay was evaluated for rapid assessment of Verticillium wilt symptoms on lettuce. Seedlings of the early flowering plant introduction (PI) 251246 were inoculated in tubes with conidial suspensions of Verticillium spp. isolates from lettuce or cauliflower. PI 251246 devel...

  8. Creativity...The Flowering Tornado, Art by Ginny Ruffner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mark M.

    2003-01-01

    Presents background information on the artist Ginny Ruffner who was a "flameworker." Includes information on the exhibition entitled "Creativity: The Flowering Tornado, Art by Ginny Ruffner" and the accompanying art pop-up book. Provides photographs of some of her artwork. (CMK)

  9. Characterization of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium from wild flowers.

    PubMed

    Sánchez Valenzuela, Antonio; Benomar, Nabil; Abriouel, Hikmate; Pérez Pulido, Rubén; Martínez Cañamero, Magdalena; Gálvez, Antonio

    2012-05-01

    Wild flowers in the South of Spain were screened for Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium. Enterococci were frequently associated with prickypear and fieldpoppy flowers. Forty-six isolates, from 8 different flower species, were identified as E. faecalis (28 isolates) or E. faecium (18 isolates) and clustered in well-defined groups by ERIC-PCR fingerprinting. A high incidence of antibiotic resistance was detected among the E. faecalis isolates, especially to quinupristin/dalfopristin (75%), rifampicin (68%) and ciprofloxacin (57%), and to a lesser extent to levofloxacin (35.7%), erythromycin (28.5%), tetracycline (3.5%), chloramphenicol (3.5%) and streptomycin (3.5%). Similar results were observed for E. faecium isolates, except for a higher incidence of resistance to tetracycline (17%) and lower to erythromycin (11%) or quinupristin/dalfopristin (22%). Vancomycin or teicoplanin resistances were not detected. Most isolates (especially E. faecalis) were proteolytic and carried the gelatinase gene gelE. Genes encoding other potential virulence factors (ace, efaA (fs), ccf and cpd) were frequently detected. Cytolysin genes were mainly detected in a few haemolytic E. faecium isolates, three of which also carried the collagen adhesin acm gene. Hyaluronidase gene (hyl ( Efm )) was detected in two isolates. Many isolates produced bacteriocins and carried genes for enterocins A, B, and L50 mainly. The similarities found between enterococci from wild flowers and those from animal and food sources raise new questions about the puzzling lifestyle of these commensals and opportunistic pathogens.

  10. The use of flowering plants to attract Aedes albopictus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New approaches to vector surveillance and control are being evaluated at the Center for Medical, Agricultural, and Veterinary Entomology, Gainesville, Florida. One approach is to use flowering plants. Mosquitoes of both sexes are attracted to nectar producing plants. These plants generate mixture...

  11. Method for production of sorghum hybrids with selected flowering times

    DOEpatents

    Mullet, John E.; Rooney, William L.

    2016-08-30

    Methods and composition for the production of sorghum hybrids with selected and different flowering times are provided. In accordance with the invention, a substantially continual and high-yield harvest of sorghum is provided. Improved methods of seed production are also provided.

  12. Plasticity versus Adaptation of Ambient-Temperature Flowering Response.

    PubMed

    Pajoro, Alice; Verhage, Leonie; Immink, Richard G H

    2016-01-01

    It is challenging to understand how plants adapt flowering time to novel environmental conditions, such as global warming, while maintaining plasticity in response to daily fluctuating temperatures. A recent study shows a role for transposons and highlights the need to investigate how these different responses evolved.

  13. 77 FR 25060 - Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ... designated Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary (FGBNMS or sanctuary) on December 5, 1991 (56 FR... Garden Banks (56 FR 63634). Congress later added Stetson Bank in 1996 (Pub. L. 104-283). These three... published on December 5, 1991 (56 FR 63634). Those regulations became effective on January 18, 1994 (58...

  14. 55. View of the flower garden from the southwest. The ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    55. View of the flower garden from the southwest. The view includes annual and perennial beds, and the Italian marble fountain installed in 1899 by Charles A. Platt. - Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park, 54 Elm Street, Woodstock, Windsor County, VT

  15. 15. View of the flower garden from the southwest. The ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. View of the flower garden from the southwest. The view includes annual and perennial beds, and the Italian marble fountain installed in 1899 by Charles A. Platt. - Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park, 54 Elm Street, Woodstock, Windsor County, VT

  16. Effect of pretreatments on extraction of pigment from marigold flower.

    PubMed

    Sowbhagya, Halagur B; Sushma, S B; Rastogi, Navin K; Naidu, M Madhava

    2013-02-01

    Marigold flower (Tagetes erecta L) is one of the richest sources of xanthophylls. An enzymatic pretreatment method was developed for improved extraction of pigments from marigold flowers. Pretreatment with enzyme solution increased the diffusion coefficient from 1.56 x 10(-9) m(2)/s to 4.02 x 10(-9) m(2)/s and mass transfer coefficient from 0.14 h(-1) to 0.36 h(-1) coefficients. At the same time, dry yield, resin yield and pigment yield were also found to increase along with increased retention of colour. Sodium hydroxide or citric acid pretreatments increased the diffusion coefficient during drying, but resulted in lower dry yield due to loss of soluble compounds whereas, pigment yield was higher as compared to control. The enzyme treated and air dried sample, stored at 4 °C was found to be the most stable, as indicated by a low (0.0006 day(-1)) degradation constant. Pretreatment of marigold flowers with an aqueous enzyme solution (0.2%) results in improved resin, pigment yield and retention of pigment during storage. Pretreatment of marigold flowers with sodium hydroxide citric acid followed by hydraulic pressing resulted in a significant reduction of water and also indicated improved dry yield, resin yield and pigment yield as compared to control sample. PMID:24425896

  17. Flower of the Dragon: An Example of Applied Humanistic Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenhart, R. Wayne

    1977-01-01

    Focuses primarily upon the applications of the tools of humanistic psychology with Viet Nam era veterans. The Flower of the Dragon, a self-help project seeking to facilitate the growth of Viet Nam era veterans, is one example of a means by which humanistic psychology can build a stronger foundation for itself and for society at large. (Author)

  18. Arabidopsis cryptochrome 1 functions in nitrogen regulation of flowering.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Shu; Zhang, Zhong-Wei; Zheng, Chong; Zhao, Zhong-Yi; Wang, Yu; Feng, Ling-Yang; Niu, Guoqi; Wang, Chang-Quan; Wang, Jian-Hui; Feng, Hong; Xu, Fei; Bao, Fang; Hu, Yong; Cao, Ying; Ma, Ligeng; Wang, Haiyang; Kong, Dong-Dong; Xiao, Wei; Lin, Hong-Hui; He, Yikun

    2016-07-01

    The phenomenon of delayed flowering after the application of nitrogen (N) fertilizer has long been known in agriculture, but the detailed molecular basis for this phenomenon is largely unclear. Here we used a modified method of suppression-subtractive hybridization to identify two key factors involved in N-regulated flowering time control in Arabidopsis thaliana, namely ferredoxin-NADP(+)-oxidoreductase and the blue-light receptor cryptochrome 1 (CRY1). The expression of both genes is induced by low N levels, and their loss-of-function mutants are insensitive to altered N concentration. Low-N conditions increase both NADPH/NADP(+) and ATP/AMP ratios, which in turn affect adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity. Moreover, our results show that the AMPK activity and nuclear localization are rhythmic and inversely correlated with nuclear CRY1 protein abundance. Low-N conditions increase but high-N conditions decrease the expression of several key components of the central oscillator (e.g., CCA1, LHY, and TOC1) and the flowering output genes (e.g., GI and CO). Taken together, our results suggest that N signaling functions as a modulator of nuclear CRY1 protein abundance, as well as the input signal for the central circadian clock to interfere with the normal flowering process. PMID:27325772

  19. Identification of phenolic components of chrysanthemum flower (Chrysanthemum morifolium)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A standardized LC-DAD-ESI/MS method was used to detect 31 phenolic compounds in the extract of chrysanthemum flowers (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat) (Compositae), an important Chinese traditional medicine. Of these phenolic compounds, 7 caffeoylquinic acids (3-, 4, 5-mono-, 3,4-, 3,5-, 1,5-, and 4...

  20. Chemical Interruption of Flowering to Improve Harvested Peanut Maturity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is a botanically indeterminate plant where flowering, fruit initiation, and pod maturity occurs over an extended time period during the growing season. As a result, the maturity and size of individual peanut pods varies considerably at harvest. Immature kernels that meet...

  1. Attracting and maintaining Tachinidae with flowering plants: estimating attractiveness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flowering plants in agricultural landscapes can provide ecological services, such as nectar-food for adult parasitic flies such as Tachinidae. Of the 14 plant species tested only 4 captured significantly more Tachinidae than controls (Agastache hybrid, Ageratina aromatic, Aloysia virgata, and Daucus...

  2. Clouds and temperature drive dynamic changes in tropical flower production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pau, Stephanie; Wolkovich, Elizabeth M.; Cook, Benjamin I.; Nytch, Christopher J.; Regetz, James; Zimmerman, Jess K.; Joseph Wright, S.

    2013-09-01

    Tropical forests are incredibly dynamic, showing rapid and longer-term changes in growth, mortality and net primary productivity. Tropical species may be highly sensitive to temperature increases associated with climate change because of their narrow thermal tolerances. However, at the ecosystem scale the competing effects of temperature, light and precipitation on tropical forest productivity have been difficult to assess. Here we quantify cloudiness over the past several decades to investigate how clouds, together with temperature and precipitation, affect flower production in two contrasting tropical forests. Our results show that temperature, rather than clouds, is critically important to tropical forest flower production. Warmer temperatures increased flower production over seasonal, interannual and longer timescales, contrary to recent evidence that some tropical forests are already near their temperature threshold. Clouds were primarily important seasonally, and limited production in a seasonally dry forest but enhanced production in an ever-wet forest. A long-term increase in flower production at the seasonally dry forest is not driven by clouds and instead may be tied to increasing temperatures. These relationships show that tropical forest productivity, which is not widely thought to be controlled by temperature, is indeed sensitive to small temperature changes (1-4°C) across multiple timescales.

  3. Response of yellow flowering magnolia varieties to powdery mildew, 2015

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yellow flowering varieties of Magnolia spp. hybrids were planted in April 2008 in a field plot with Waynesboro loam soil at the Otis L. Floyd Nursery Research Center in McMinnville, TN. Severity of powdery mildew was determined on 14 Jul, 21 Aug and 15 Oct using a scale of 0-100% foliage affected. ...

  4. Trichomes control flower bud shape by linking together young petals.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jiafu; Walford, Sally-Anne; Dennis, Elizabeth S; Llewellyn, Danny

    2016-01-01

    Trichomes are widespread in plants and develop from surface cells on different tissues(1). They have many forms and functions, from defensive spines to physical barriers that trap layers of air to insulate against desiccation, but there is growing evidence that trichomes can also have developmental roles in regulating flower structure(2,3). We report here that the trichomes on petals of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., are essential for correct flower bud shape through a mechanical entanglement of the trichomes on adjacent petals that anchor the edges to counter the opposing force generated by asymmetric expansion of overlapping petals. Silencing a master regulator of petal trichomes, GhMYB-MIXTA-Like10 (GhMYBML10), by RNA interference (RNAi) suppressed petal trichome growth and resulted in flower buds forming into abnormal corkscrew shapes that exposed developing anthers and stigmas to desiccation damage. Artificially gluing petal edges together could partially restore correct bud shape and fertility. Such petal 'Velcro' is present in other Malvaceae and perhaps more broadly in other plant families, although it is not ubiquitous. This mechanism for physical association between separate organs to regulate flower shape and function is different from the usual organ shape control(4) exerted through cell-to-cell communication and differential cell expansion within floral tissues(5,6). PMID:27322517

  5. Associations with flowering time, latitude, and climate in switchgrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Switchgrass is a North American perennial grass and emerging bioenergy feedstock, and increasing biomass yields will improve the economic viability of switchgrass as a bioenergy crop. Flowering time is an important determinant of biomass yields in switchgrass because the majority of biomass accumula...

  6. Retail Flower Shop Salesperson and Floral Designer. Student's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This document consists of the student manual for a course in retail flower shop sales and floral design for use in vocational education courses in high schools in South Carolina. The guide consists of 22 learning modules that incorporate the subject matter needed by workers in these jobs. Each learning module consists of an introduction,…

  7. Changes in flowering phenology of woody plants in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Junhu

    2016-04-01

    Over the past several decades, abundant evidences proved that the first flowering date of plants in northern hemisphere became earlier in response to climate warming. However, the existing results about impact of climate change on flowering duration are controversial. In this study, we studied temporal trends in first flowering date (FFD), end of flowering date (EFD) and flowering duration (FD) of 94 woody plants from 1963 to 2014 at three stations (Harbin, Beijing and Xi'an) in North China. Meanwhile, we analyzed the relationship between length of flowering periods and temperature using two phenological models (including regression model and growing degree day model). At all stations, more than 90% of observed species showed earlier flowering over time from 1963 to 2014. The average trends in FFD were 1.33, 1.77 and 3.01 days decade-1 at Harbin, Beijing and Xi'an, respectively. During the same period, EFD also became earlier by a mean rate of 2.19, 1.39 and 2.00 days decade-1, respectively. Regarding FD, a significant shortening of FD was observed at Harbin (-0.86 days decade-1), but FD extended by 0.37 and 1.01 days decade-1 at Beijing and Xi'an, respectively. At interspecific level, the plant species with longer FD tend to have stronger trends of FD extension. Through regression analyses, we found more than 85% of time series revealed a significant negative relationship between FFD (or EFD) and preseason temperature. The regression model could simulate the interannual changes in FFD and EFD with the mean goodness of fit (R2) ranging from 0.38 to 0.67, but failed to simulate the FD accurately, as R2 ranging from 0.09 to 0.18. Regarding to FFD and EFD, the growing degree day model could improved R2 of simuation, but also could not simulate FD accurately. Therefore, we concluded that the FFD and EFD advanced notably in recent six decades as a result of climate warming, but the direction of FD changes depended on locations and the species involved. In addition, the

  8. The Overlooked Biodiversity of Flower-Visiting Invertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Wardhaugh, Carl W.; Stork, Nigel E.; Edwards, Will; Grimbacher, Peter S.

    2012-01-01

    Estimates suggest that perhaps 40% of all invertebrate species are found in tropical rainforest canopies. Extrapolations of total diversity and food web analyses have been based almost exclusively on species inhabiting the foliage, under the assumption that foliage samples are representative of the entire canopy. We examined the validity of this assumption by comparing the density of invertebrates and the species richness of beetles across three canopy microhabitats (mature leaves, new leaves and flowers) on a one hectare plot in an Australian tropical rainforest. Specifically, we tested two hypotheses: 1) canopy invertebrate density and species richness are directly proportional to the amount of resource available; and 2) canopy microhabitats represent discrete resources that are utilised by their own specialised invertebrate communities. We show that flowers in the canopy support invertebrate densities that are ten to ten thousand times greater than on the nearby foliage when expressed on a per-unit resource biomass basis. Furthermore, species-level analyses of the beetle fauna revealed that flowers support a unique and remarkably rich fauna compared to foliage, with very little species overlap between microhabitats. We reject the hypothesis that the insect fauna on mature foliage is representative of the greater canopy community even though mature foliage comprises a very large proportion of canopy plant biomass. Although the significance of the evolutionary relationship between flowers and insects is well known with respect to plant reproduction, less is known about the importance of flowers as resources for tropical insects. Consequently, we suggest that this constitutes a more important piece of the ‘diversity jigsaw puzzle’ than has been previously recognised and could alter our understanding of the evolution of plant-herbivore interactions and food web dynamics, and provide a better foundation for accurately estimating global species richness. PMID

  9. A functional role for the colleters of coffee flowers

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Juliana Lischka Sampaio; Carmello-Guerreiro, Sandra Maria; Mazzafera, Paulo

    2013-01-01

    Colleters are protuberances or trichomes that produce and release an exudate that overlays vegetative or reproductive buds. Colleters have a functional definition, as they are thought to protect young tissues against dehydration and pest attack. Decaffeinated coffee plants, named Decaffito®, have recently been obtained through chemical mutagenesis, and in addition to the absence of the alkaloid, the flowers of these plants open precociously. Decaffito mutants exhibit minimal production and secretion of the exudate by the colleters. We compared these mutants with normal coffee plants to infer the functional role of colleters and the secreted exudate covering flower buds. Decaffito mutants were obtained by sodium azide mutagenesis of Coffea arabica cv. Catuaí seeds. Wild-type plants were used as controls and are referred to as Catuaí. The flower colleters were analysed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy in addition to histochemical analysis. Histochemical analysis indicated the presence of heterogeneous exudate in the secretory cells of the colleters of both variants of coffee trees. Alkaloids were detected in Catuaí but not in Decaffito. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the secretory cells in the Catuaí colleters possessed the normal and common characteristics found in secretory structures. In the secretory cells of the Decaffito colleters, it was not possible to identify any organelles or even the nucleus, but the cells had a darkened central cytoplasm, indicating that the secretion is produced in low amounts but not released. Our results offer a proof of concept of colleters in coffee, strongly indicating that the exudate covering the flower parts works as an adhesive to keep the petals together and the flower closed, which in part helps to avoid dehydration. Additionally, the exudate itself helps to prevent water loss from the epidermal cells of the petals.

  10. The Role of Cryptochrome 2 in Flowering in Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    El-Din El-Assal, Salah; Alonso-Blanco, Carlos; Peeters, Anton J.M.; Wagemaker, Cornelis; Weller, James L.; Koornneef, Maarten

    2003-01-01

    We have investigated the genetic interactions between cry2 and the various flowering pathways in relation to the regulation of flowering by photoperiod and vernalization. For this, we combined three alleles of CRY2, the wild-type CRY2-Landsberg erecta (Ler), a cry2 loss-of-function null allele, and the gain-of-function CRY2-Cape Verde Islands (Cvi), with mutants representing the various photoreceptors and flowering pathways. The analysis of CRY2 alleles combined with photoreceptor mutants showed that CRY2-Cvi could compensate the loss of phyA and cry1, also indicating that cry2 does not require functional phyA or cry1. The analysis of mutants of the photoperiod pathway showed epistasis of co and gi to the CRY2 alleles, indicating that cry2 needs the product of CO and GI genes to promote flowering. All double mutants of this pathway showed a photoperiod response very much reduced compared with Ler. In contrast, mutations in the autonomous pathway genes were additive to the CRY2 alleles, partially overcoming the effects of CRY2-Cvi and restoring day length responsiveness. The three CRY2 alleles were day length sensitive when combined with FRI-Sf2 and/or FLC-Sf2 genes, which could be reverted when the delay of flowering caused by FRI-Sf2 and FLC-Sf2 alleles was removed by vernalization. In addition, we looked at the expression of FLC and CRY2 genes and showed that CRY2 is negatively regulated by FLC. These results indicate an interaction between the photoperiod and the FLC-dependent pathways upstream to the common downstream targets of both pathways, SOC1 and FT. PMID:14605222

  11. The overlooked biodiversity of flower-visiting invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Wardhaugh, Carl W; Stork, Nigel E; Edwards, Will; Grimbacher, Peter S

    2012-01-01

    Estimates suggest that perhaps 40% of all invertebrate species are found in tropical rainforest canopies. Extrapolations of total diversity and food web analyses have been based almost exclusively on species inhabiting the foliage, under the assumption that foliage samples are representative of the entire canopy. We examined the validity of this assumption by comparing the density of invertebrates and the species richness of beetles across three canopy microhabitats (mature leaves, new leaves and flowers) on a one hectare plot in an Australian tropical rainforest. Specifically, we tested two hypotheses: 1) canopy invertebrate density and species richness are directly proportional to the amount of resource available; and 2) canopy microhabitats represent discrete resources that are utilised by their own specialised invertebrate communities. We show that flowers in the canopy support invertebrate densities that are ten to ten thousand times greater than on the nearby foliage when expressed on a per-unit resource biomass basis. Furthermore, species-level analyses of the beetle fauna revealed that flowers support a unique and remarkably rich fauna compared to foliage, with very little species overlap between microhabitats. We reject the hypothesis that the insect fauna on mature foliage is representative of the greater canopy community even though mature foliage comprises a very large proportion of canopy plant biomass. Although the significance of the evolutionary relationship between flowers and insects is well known with respect to plant reproduction, less is known about the importance of flowers as resources for tropical insects. Consequently, we suggest that this constitutes a more important piece of the 'diversity jigsaw puzzle' than has been previously recognised and could alter our understanding of the evolution of plant-herbivore interactions and food web dynamics, and provide a better foundation for accurately estimating global species richness.

  12. Flower Morphology, Pollination Biology and Mating System of the Complex Flower of Vigna caracalla (Fabaceae: Papilionoideae)

    PubMed Central

    Etcheverry, Angela Virginia; Alemán, Maria Mercedes; Fleming, Trinidad Figueroa

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Vigna caracalla has the most complex flower among asymmetrical Papilionoideae. The objective of this study was to understand the relationships among floral characteristics, specialization, mating system and the role of floral visitors under different ecological contexts. Methods Five populations were studied in north-western Argentina, from 700 to 1570 m a.s.l. Anthesis, colour and odour patterns, stigmatic receptivity, visitors and pollination mechanism were examined and mating-system experiments were performed. Key Results The petals are highly modified and the keel shows 3·75–5·25 revolutions. The sense of asymmetry was always left-handed. Hand-crosses showed that V. caracalla is self-compatible, but depends on pollinators to set seeds. Hand-crossed fruits were more successful than hand-selfed ones, with the exception of the site at the highest elevation. Bombus morio (queens and workers), Centris bicolor, Eufriesea mariana and Xylocopa eximia trigger the pollination mechanism (a ‘brush type’). The greatest level of self-compatibility and autonomous self-pollination were found at the highest elevation, together with the lowest reproductive success and number of pollinators (B. morio workers only). Conclusions Self-fertilization may have evolved in the peripheral population at the highest site of V. caracalla because of the benefits of reproductive assurance under reduced pollinator diversity. PMID:18587133

  13. The Complexity of Background Clutter Affects Nectar Bat Use of Flower Odor and Shape Cues.

    PubMed

    Muchhala, Nathan; Serrano, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Given their small size and high metabolism, nectar bats need to be able to quickly locate flowers during foraging bouts. Chiropterophilous plants depend on these bats for their reproduction, thus they also benefit if their flowers can be easily located, and we would expect that floral traits such as odor and shape have evolved to maximize detection by bats. However, relatively little is known about the importance of different floral cues during foraging bouts. In the present study, we undertook a set of flight cage experiments with two species of nectar bats (Anoura caudifer and A. geoffroyi) and artificial flowers to compare the importance of shape and scent cues in locating flowers. In a training phase, a bat was presented an artificial flower with a given shape and scent, whose position was constantly shifted to prevent reliance on spatial memory. In the experimental phase, two flowers were presented, one with the training-flower scent and one with the training-flower shape. For each experimental repetition, we recorded which flower was located first, and then shifted flower positions. Additionally, experiments were repeated in a simple environment, without background clutter, or a complex environment, with a background of leaves and branches. Results demonstrate that bats visit either flower indiscriminately with simple backgrounds, with no significant difference in terms of whether they visit the training-flower odor or training-flower shape first. However, in a complex background olfaction was the most important cue; scented flowers were consistently located first. This suggests that for well-exposed flowers, without obstruction from clutter, vision and/or echolocation are sufficient in locating them. In more complex backgrounds, nectar bats depend more heavily on olfaction during foraging bouts.

  14. Southern Monarchs do not Develop Learned Preferences for Flowers With Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Marina Vasconcelos; Trigo, José Roberto; Rodrigues, Daniela

    2015-07-01

    Danaus butterflies sequester pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) from nectar and leaves of various plant species for defense and reproduction. We tested the hypothesis that the southern monarch butterfly Danaus erippus shows innate preferences for certain flower colors and has the capacity to develop learned preferences for artificial flowers presenting advantageous floral rewards such as PAs. We predicted that orange and yellow flowers would be innately preferred by southern monarchs. Another prediction is that flowers with both sucrose and PAs would be preferred over those having sucrose only, regardless of flower color. In nature, males of Danaus generally visit PA sources more often than females, so we expected that males of D. erippus would exhibit a stronger learned preference for PA sources than the females. In the innate preference tests, adults were offered artificial non-rewarding yellow, orange, blue, red, green, and violet flowers. Orange and yellow artificial flowers were most visited by southern monarchs, followed by blue and red ones. No individual visited either green or violet flowers. For assessing learned preferences for PA flowers over flowers with no PAs, southern monarchs were trained to associate orange flowers with sucrose plus the PA monocrotaline vs. yellow flowers with sucrose only; the opposite combination was used to train another set of butterflies. In the tests, empty flowers were offered to trained butterflies. Neither males nor females showed learned preferences for flower colors associated with PAs in the training set. Thus, southern monarchs resemble the sister species Danaus plexippus in their innate preferences for orange and yellow flowers. Southern monarchs, similarly to temperate monarchs, might not be as PA-demanding as are other danaine species. PMID:26139423

  15. Southern Monarchs do not Develop Learned Preferences for Flowers With Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Marina Vasconcelos; Trigo, José Roberto; Rodrigues, Daniela

    2015-07-01

    Danaus butterflies sequester pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) from nectar and leaves of various plant species for defense and reproduction. We tested the hypothesis that the southern monarch butterfly Danaus erippus shows innate preferences for certain flower colors and has the capacity to develop learned preferences for artificial flowers presenting advantageous floral rewards such as PAs. We predicted that orange and yellow flowers would be innately preferred by southern monarchs. Another prediction is that flowers with both sucrose and PAs would be preferred over those having sucrose only, regardless of flower color. In nature, males of Danaus generally visit PA sources more often than females, so we expected that males of D. erippus would exhibit a stronger learned preference for PA sources than the females. In the innate preference tests, adults were offered artificial non-rewarding yellow, orange, blue, red, green, and violet flowers. Orange and yellow artificial flowers were most visited by southern monarchs, followed by blue and red ones. No individual visited either green or violet flowers. For assessing learned preferences for PA flowers over flowers with no PAs, southern monarchs were trained to associate orange flowers with sucrose plus the PA monocrotaline vs. yellow flowers with sucrose only; the opposite combination was used to train another set of butterflies. In the tests, empty flowers were offered to trained butterflies. Neither males nor females showed learned preferences for flower colors associated with PAs in the training set. Thus, southern monarchs resemble the sister species Danaus plexippus in their innate preferences for orange and yellow flowers. Southern monarchs, similarly to temperate monarchs, might not be as PA-demanding as are other danaine species.

  16. The Complexity of Background Clutter Affects Nectar Bat Use of Flower Odor and Shape Cues

    PubMed Central

    Muchhala, Nathan; Serrano, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Given their small size and high metabolism, nectar bats need to be able to quickly locate flowers during foraging bouts. Chiropterophilous plants depend on these bats for their reproduction, thus they also benefit if their flowers can be easily located, and we would expect that floral traits such as odor and shape have evolved to maximize detection by bats. However, relatively little is known about the importance of different floral cues during foraging bouts. In the present study, we undertook a set of flight cage experiments with two species of nectar bats (Anoura caudifer and A. geoffroyi) and artificial flowers to compare the importance of shape and scent cues in locating flowers. In a training phase, a bat was presented an artificial flower with a given shape and scent, whose position was constantly shifted to prevent reliance on spatial memory. In the experimental phase, two flowers were presented, one with the training-flower scent and one with the training-flower shape. For each experimental repetition, we recorded which flower was located first, and then shifted flower positions. Additionally, experiments were repeated in a simple environment, without background clutter, or a complex environment, with a background of leaves and branches. Results demonstrate that bats visit either flower indiscriminately with simple backgrounds, with no significant difference in terms of whether they visit the training-flower odor or training-flower shape first. However, in a complex background olfaction was the most important cue; scented flowers were consistently located first. This suggests that for well-exposed flowers, without obstruction from clutter, vision and/or echolocation are sufficient in locating them. In more complex backgrounds, nectar bats depend more heavily on olfaction during foraging bouts. PMID:26445216

  17. The Complexity of Background Clutter Affects Nectar Bat Use of Flower Odor and Shape Cues.

    PubMed

    Muchhala, Nathan; Serrano, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Given their small size and high metabolism, nectar bats need to be able to quickly locate flowers during foraging bouts. Chiropterophilous plants depend on these bats for their reproduction, thus they also benefit if their flowers can be easily located, and we would expect that floral traits such as odor and shape have evolved to maximize detection by bats. However, relatively little is known about the importance of different floral cues during foraging bouts. In the present study, we undertook a set of flight cage experiments with two species of nectar bats (Anoura caudifer and A. geoffroyi) and artificial flowers to compare the importance of shape and scent cues in locating flowers. In a training phase, a bat was presented an artificial flower with a given shape and scent, whose position was constantly shifted to prevent reliance on spatial memory. In the experimental phase, two flowers were presented, one with the training-flower scent and one with the training-flower shape. For each experimental repetition, we recorded which flower was located first, and then shifted flower positions. Additionally, experiments were repeated in a simple environment, without background clutter, or a complex environment, with a background of leaves and branches. Results demonstrate that bats visit either flower indiscriminately with simple backgrounds, with no significant difference in terms of whether they visit the training-flower odor or training-flower shape first. However, in a complex background olfaction was the most important cue; scented flowers were consistently located first. This suggests that for well-exposed flowers, without obstruction from clutter, vision and/or echolocation are sufficient in locating them. In more complex backgrounds, nectar bats depend more heavily on olfaction during foraging bouts. PMID:26445216

  18. Repressed ethylene production in the gynoecium of long-lasting flowers of the carnation 'White Candle': role of the gynoecium in carnation flower senescence.

    PubMed

    Nukui, Hideki; Kudo, Sakiko; Yamashita, Atsushi; Satoh, Shigeru

    2004-03-01

    Ethylene production and expression of ethylene biosynthetic genes was investigated in senescing flowers of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) cultivars 'White Candle (WC)' and 'Light Pink Barbara (LPB)', with long and short vase-lives, respectively. Ethylene production from the gynoecium and petals of senescing 'WC' flowers was below the limit of detection, in agreement with the repressed ethylene production from the whole flowers. However, exogenous ethylene treatment caused the accumulation of transcripts for DC-ACS1 and DC-ACO1 genes in both the gynoecium and petals, resulting in ethylene production from the flowers. Moreover, application of ABA or IAA, which are known to exhibit their action through the induction of ethylene synthesis in the gynoecium, to 'WC' flowers from their cut stem-end induced ethylene production and wilting in the flowers. These findings suggested that, in 'WC' flowers the mechanism of ethylene biosynthesis, i.e. the induction of expression of genes for ethylene biosynthesis and the action of resulting enzymes, was not defective, but that its function was repressed during natural senescence. Transcripts of DC-ACO1, DC-ACS3, and DC-ACS1 were present in the gynoecium of senescing 'LPB' flowers. In the gynoecium of senescing 'WC' flowers, however, the DC-ACO1 transcript was present, but the DC-ACS1 transcript was absent and the DC-ACS3 transcript was detected only in a small amount; the latter two were associated with the low rate of ethylene production in the gynoecium of 'WC' flowers. These findings indicated that the repressed ethylene production in 'WC' flowers during natural senescence is caused by the repressed ethylene production in the gynoecium, giving further support for the role of the gynoecium in regulating petal senescence in carnation flowers.

  19. The role of pollinators in maintaining variation in flower colour in the Rocky Mountain columbine, Aquilegia coerulea

    PubMed Central

    Thairu, Margaret W.; Brunet, Johanne

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Flower colour varies within and among populations of the Rocky Mountain columbine, Aquilegia coerulea, in conjunction with the abundance of its two major pollinators, hawkmoths and bumble-bees. This study seeks to understand whether the choice of flower colour by these major pollinators can help explain the variation in flower colour observed in A. coerulea populations. Methods Dual choice assays and experimental arrays of blue and white flowers were used to determine the preference of hawkmoths and bumble-bees for flower colour. A test was made to determine whether a differential preference for flower colour, with bumble-bees preferring blue and hawkmoths white flowers, could explain the variation in flower colour. Whether a single pollinator could maintain a flower colour polymorphism was examined by testing to see if preference for a flower colour varied between day and dusk for hawkmoths and whether bumble-bees preferred novel or rare flower colour morphs. Key Results Hawkmoths preferred blue flowers under both day and dusk light conditions. Naïve bumble-bees preferred blue flowers but quickly learned to forage randomly on the two colour morphs when similar rewards were presented in the flowers. Bees quickly learned to associate a flower colour with a pollen reward. Prior experience affected the choice of flower colour by bees, but they did not preferentially visit novel flower colours or rare or common colour morphs. Conclusions Differences in flower colour preference between the two major pollinators could not explain the variation in flower colour observed in A. coerulea. The preference of hawkmoths for flower colour did not change between day and dusk, and bumble-bees did not prefer a novel or a rare flower colour morph. The data therefore suggest that factors other than pollinators may be more likely to affect the flower colour variation observed in A. coerulea. PMID:25808657

  20. Can selection to escape nectar thieving force plants to portion nectar in many flowers?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettersson, Mats W.

    1999-02-01

    There are several hypotheses which try to explain why particular plants produce just the number of flowers that they do. These hypotheses include: compromises between the attraction of pollinators and avoiding self-pollination by geitonogamy; optimal nectar production as a result of diminishing gains of nectar production; opportunity for selective abortion; or different bet-hedging strategies. In this paper, I present a hypothesis which interferes with the others concerning flower numbers in plants: nectar thieving can apply a selection force in plants which result in a portioning of nectar in many flowers. Energy saved by reducing the quantity of nectar in each flower can be directed into greater flower numbers.

  1. Comparative Study of the Volatile Components of Fresh and Fermented Flowers of Alnus sieboldiana (Betulaceae).

    PubMed

    Ab Ghani, Nurunajah; Ismail, Nor Hadiani; Asakawa, Yoshinori

    2016-02-01

    Analysis of the volatile components present in the fresh male and female flowers and young leaves shows that 2-phenylethanol is the major component in all these three organs, which play a significant role in the strong resinous aromatic odor. The male flowers contained styrene as a second major compound. The level of styrene does not affect the male flowers odor concentration. The level of β-phenylethyl cinnamate and trans-methyl cinnamate in the fermented male flowers decreased as the fermentation time increased. This was due to the Penicillium enzymatic action on the fermented male flowers.

  2. Phenological mismatch with abiotic conditions implications for flowering in Arctic plants.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Helen C; Høye, Toke T; Schmidt, Niels Martin; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Forchhammer, Mads C

    2015-03-01

    Although many studies have examined the phenological mismatches between interacting organisms, few have addressed the potential for mismatches between phenology and seasonal weather conditions. In the Arctic, rapid phenological changes in many taxa are occurring in association with earlier snowmelt. The timing of snowmelt is jointly affected by the size of the late winter snowpack and the temperature during the spring thaw. Increased winter snowpack results in delayed snowmelt, whereas higher air temperatures and faster snowmelt advance the timing of snowmelt. Where interannual variation in snowpack is substantial, changes in the timing of snowmelt can be largely uncoupled from changes in air temperature. Using detailed, long-term data on the flowering phenology of four arctic plant species from Zackenberg, Greenland, we investigate whether there is a phenological component to the temperature conditions experienced prior to and during flowering. In particular, we assess the role of timing of flowering in determining pre-flowering exposure to freezing temperatures and to the temperatures-experienced prior to flowering. We then examine the implications of flowering phenology for flower abundance. Earlier snowmelt resulted in greater exposure to freezing conditions, suggesting an increased potential for a mismatch between the timing of flowering and seasonal weather conditions and an increased potential for negative consequences, such as freezing 'damage. We also found a parabolic relationship between the timing of flowering and the temperature experienced during flowering after taking interannual temperature effects into account. If timing of flowering advances to a cooler period of the growing season, this may moderate the effects of a general warming trend across years. Flower abundance was quadratically associated with the timing of flowering, such that both early and late flowering led to lower flower abundance than did intermediate flowering. Our results

  3. The Pea GIGAS Gene Is a FLOWERING LOCUS T Homolog Necessary for Graft-Transmissible Specification of Flowering but Not for Responsiveness to Photoperiod[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Hecht, Valérie; Laurie, Rebecca E.; Vander Schoor, Jacqueline K.; Ridge, Stephen; Knowles, Claire L.; Liew, Lim Chee; Sussmilch, Frances C.; Murfet, Ian C.; Macknight, Richard C.; Weller, James L.

    2011-01-01

    Garden pea (Pisum sativum) was prominent in early studies investigating the genetic control of flowering and the role of mobile flowering signals. In view of recent evidence that genes in the FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) family play an important role in generating mobile flowering signals, we isolated the FT gene family in pea and examined the regulation and function of its members. Comparison with Medicago truncatula and soybean (Glycine max) provides evidence of three ancient subclades (FTa, FTb, and FTc) likely to be common to most crop and model legumes. Pea FT genes show distinctly different expression patterns with respect to developmental timing, tissue specificity, and response to photoperiod and differ in their activity in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana, suggesting they may have different functions. We show that the pea FTa1 gene corresponds to the GIGAS locus, which is essential for flowering under long-day conditions and promotes flowering under short-day conditions but is not required for photoperiod responsiveness. Grafting, expression, and double mutant analyses show that GIGAS/FTa1 regulates a mobile flowering stimulus but also provide clear evidence for a second mobile flowering stimulus that is correlated with expression of FTb2 in leaf tissue. These results suggest that induction of flowering by photoperiod in pea results from interactions among several members of a diversified FT family. PMID:21282524

  4. Reproductive isolation between Zaluzianskya species: the influence of volatiles and flower orientation on hawkmoth foraging choices.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Diane R; Jürgens, Andreas; Johnson, Steven D

    2016-04-01

    Floral trait differences between related species may play a key role in reproductive isolation imposed by pollinators. Volatile emissions can influence pollinator choice, but how they act in combination with traits such as flower orientation is rarely studied. We compared flower-opening patterns, morphology, colour, orientation and volatile emissions for two closely related species of Zaluzianskya and their natural hybrids. Hawkmoth pollinators were tested for preference between flowers of the two species, and between flowers with manipulations of volatiles or orientation. Flowers of Z. natalensis and Z. microsiphon open at night and day, respectively, but they overlap during early evening, when hawkmoths showed a strong preference for Z. natalensis. The species have similar flower size and colour, but Z. natalensis emits more floral volatiles in the evening and presents flowers vertically face-up as opposed to horizontally in Z. microsiphon, whereas natural hybrids are intermediate. Adding methyl benzoate and linalool to flowers of Z. microsiphon did not increase hawkmoth attraction, but re-orientation of flowers to face vertically increased attraction when scent cues were present, whereas re-orientation of Z. natalensis flowers to face horizontally decreased attraction. This study highlights the importance of flower orientation in imposing reproductive isolation.

  5. Investigating the Association between Flowering Time and Defense in the Arabidopsis thaliana-Fusarium oxysporum Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Rebecca; Rusu, Anca; Stiller, Jiri; Powell, Jonathan; Manners, John M.; Kazan, Kemal

    2015-01-01

    Plants respond to pathogens either by investing more resources into immunity which is costly to development, or by accelerating reproductive processes such as flowering time to ensure reproduction occurs before the plant succumbs to disease. In this study we explored the link between flowering time and pathogen defense using the interaction between Arabidopsis thaliana and the root infecting fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum. We report that F. oxysporum infection accelerates flowering time and regulates transcription of a number of floral integrator genes, including FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and GIGANTEA (GI). Furthermore, we observed a positive correlation between late flowering and resistance to F. oxysporum in A. thaliana natural ecotypes. Late-flowering gi and autonomous pathway mutants also exhibited enhanced resistance to F. oxysporum, supporting the association between flowering time and defense. However, epistasis analysis showed that accelerating flowering time by deletion of FLC in fve-3 or fpa-7 mutants did not alter disease resistance, suggesting that the effect of autonomous pathway on disease resistance occurs independently from flowering time. Indeed, RNA-seq analyses suggest that fve-3 mediated resistance to F. oxysporum is most likely a result of altered defense-associated gene transcription. Together, our results indicate that the association between flowering time and pathogen defense is complex and can involve both pleiotropic and direct effects. PMID:26034991

  6. Selective Pressures Explain Differences in Flower Color among Gentiana lutea Populations.

    PubMed

    Sobral, Mar; Veiga, Tania; Domínguez, Paula; Guitián, Javier A; Guitián, Pablo; Guitián, José M

    2015-01-01

    Flower color variation among plant populations might reflect adaptation to local conditions such as the interacting animal community. In the northwest Iberian Peninsula, flower color of Gentiana lutea varies longitudinally among populations, ranging from orange to yellow. We explored whether flower color is locally adapted and the role of pollinators and seed predators as agents of selection by analyzing the influence of flower color on (i) pollinator visitation rate and (ii) escape from seed predation and (iii) by testing whether differences in pollinator communities correlate with flower color variation across populations. Finally, (iv) we investigated whether variation in selective pressures explains flower color variation among 12 G. lutea populations. Flower color influenced pollinator visits and differences in flower color among populations were related to variation in pollinator communities. Selective pressures on flower color vary among populations and explain part of flower color differences among populations of G. lutea. We conclude that flower color in G. lutea is locally adapted and that pollinators play a role in this adaptation.

  7. Selective Pressures Explain Differences in Flower Color among Gentiana lutea Populations

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez, Paula; Guitián, Javier A.; Guitián, Pablo; Guitián, José M.

    2015-01-01

    Flower color variation among plant populations might reflect adaptation to local conditions such as the interacting animal community. In the northwest Iberian Peninsula, flower color of Gentiana lutea varies longitudinally among populations, ranging from orange to yellow. We explored whether flower color is locally adapted and the role of pollinators and seed predators as agents of selection by analyzing the influence of flower color on (i) pollinator visitation rate and (ii) escape from seed predation and (iii) by testing whether differences in pollinator communities correlate with flower color variation across populations. Finally, (iv) we investigated whether variation in selective pressures explains flower color variation among 12 G. lutea populations. Flower color influenced pollinator visits and differences in flower color among populations were related to variation in pollinator communities. Selective pressures on flower color vary among populations and explain part of flower color differences among populations of G. lutea. We conclude that flower color in G. lutea is locally adapted and that pollinators play a role in this adaptation. PMID:26172378

  8. Trends in flower symmetry evolution revealed through phylogenetic and developmental genetic advances.

    PubMed

    Hileman, Lena C

    2014-08-01

    A striking aspect of flowering plant (angiosperm) diversity is variation in flower symmetry. From an ancestral form of radial symmetry (polysymmetry, actinomorphy), multiple evolutionary transitions have contributed to instances of non-radial forms, including bilateral symmetry (monosymmetry, zygomorphy) and asymmetry. Advances in flowering plant molecular phylogenetic research and studies of character evolution as well as detailed flower developmental genetic studies in a few model species (e.g. Antirrhinum majus, snapdragon) have provided a foundation for deep insights into flower symmetry evolution. From phylogenetic studies, we have a better understanding of where during flowering plant diversification transitions from radial to bilateral flower symmetry (and back to radial symmetry) have occurred. From developmental studies, we know that a genetic programme largely dependent on the functional action of the CYCLOIDEA gene is necessary for differentiation along the snapdragon dorsoventral flower axis. Bringing these two lines of inquiry together has provided surprising insights into both the parallel recruitment of a CYC-dependent developmental programme during independent transitions to bilateral flower symmetry, and the modifications to this programme in transitions back to radial flower symmetry, during flowering plant evolution.

  9. Involvement of ethylene in sex expression and female flower development in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus).

    PubMed

    Manzano, Susana; Martínez, Cecilia; García, Juan Manuel; Megías, Zoraida; Jamilena, Manuel

    2014-12-01

    Although it is known that ethylene has a masculinizing effect on watermelon, the specific role of this hormone in sex expression and flower development has not been analyzed in depth. By using different approaches the present work demonstrates that ethylene regulates differentially two sex-related developmental processes: sexual expression, i.e. the earliness and the number of female flowers per plant, and the development of individual floral buds. Ethylene production in the shoot apex as well as in male, female and bisexual flowers demonstrated that the female flower requires much more ethylene than the male one to develop, and that bisexual flowers result from a decrease in ethylene production in the female floral bud. The occurrence of bisexual flowers was found to be associated with elevated temperatures in the greenhouse, concomitantly with a reduction of ethylene production in the shoot apex. External treatments with ethephon and AVG, and the use of Cucurbita rootstocks with different ethylene production and sensitivity, confirmed that, as occurs in other cucurbit species, ethylene is required to arrest the development of stamens in the female flower. Nevertheless, in watermelon ethylene inhibits the transition from male to female flowering and reduces the number of pistillate flowers per plant, which runs contrary to findings in other cucurbit species. The use of Cucurbita rootstocks with elevated ethylene production delayed the production of female flowers but reduced the number of bisexual flowers, which is associated with a reduced fruit set and altered fruit shape.

  10. Trends in flower symmetry evolution revealed through phylogenetic and developmental genetic advances

    PubMed Central

    Hileman, Lena C.

    2014-01-01

    A striking aspect of flowering plant (angiosperm) diversity is variation in flower symmetry. From an ancestral form of radial symmetry (polysymmetry, actinomorphy), multiple evolutionary transitions have contributed to instances of non-radial forms, including bilateral symmetry (monosymmetry, zygomorphy) and asymmetry. Advances in flowering plant molecular phylogenetic research and studies of character evolution as well as detailed flower developmental genetic studies in a few model species (e.g. Antirrhinum majus, snapdragon) have provided a foundation for deep insights into flower symmetry evolution. From phylogenetic studies, we have a better understanding of where during flowering plant diversification transitions from radial to bilateral flower symmetry (and back to radial symmetry) have occurred. From developmental studies, we know that a genetic programme largely dependent on the functional action of the CYCLOIDEA gene is necessary for differentiation along the snapdragon dorsoventral flower axis. Bringing these two lines of inquiry together has provided surprising insights into both the parallel recruitment of a CYC-dependent developmental programme during independent transitions to bilateral flower symmetry, and the modifications to this programme in transitions back to radial flower symmetry, during flowering plant evolution. PMID:24958922

  11. Number of hummingbird visits determines flower mite abundance on hummingbird feeders.

    PubMed

    Márquez-Luna, Ubaldo; Vázquez González, María Magdalena; Castellanos, Ignacio; Ortiz-Pulido, Raúl

    2016-08-01

    Members of several genera of mites from the family Melicharidae (Mesostigmata) use hummingbirds as transport host to move from flower to flower, where they feed on pollen and nectar. The factors that influence hummingbird flower mite abundance on host plant flowers are not currently known. Here we tested whether hummingbird flower mite abundance on an artificial nectar source is determined by number of hummingbird visits, nectar energy content or species richness of visiting hummingbirds. We conducted experiments employing hummingbird feeders with sucrose solutions of low, medium, and high energy concentrations, placed in a xeric shrubland. In the first experiment, we recorded the number of visiting hummingbirds and the number of visiting hummingbird species, as well as the abundance of hummingbird flower mites on each feeder. Feeders with the highest sucrose concentration had the most hummingbird visits and the highest flower mite abundances; however, there was no significant effect of hummingbird species richness on mite abundance. In the second experiment, we recorded flower mite abundance on feeders after we standardized the number of hummingbird visits to them. Abundance of flower mites did not differ significantly between feeders when we controlled for hummingbird visits. Our results suggest that nectar energy concentration determines hummingbird visits, which in turn determines flower mite abundance in our feeders. Our results do not support the hypothesis that mites descend from hummingbird nostrils more on richer nectar sources; however, it does not preclude the possibility that flower mites select for nectar concentration at other spatial and temporal scales. PMID:27115500

  12. The flowering pattern of the perennial herb Lobularia maritima: an unusual case in the Mediterranean basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xavier Picó, F.; Retana, Javier

    2001-08-01

    In plant communities of the Mediterranean Basin most plant species reach their blooming peak in spring and have characteristically short flowering periods of two-three months. The perennial herb Lobularia maritima represents an exception to these characteristics, because it flowers for almost 10 months, and has its flowering peak in autumn. In this five-year study, we describe the flowering pattern of L. maritima at the population and community levels. Despite the unusually extended flowering period of L. maritima, the species showed characteristic low among-year variability in the length of the flowering period but large interannual variation in the distribution of flowers throughout the flowering period. The flowering pattern (unimodal or bimodal) of L. maritima individuals differed among the five years, suggesting that L. maritima plants are plastic enough to tailor their flowering to variable environmental conditions. We conclude that flowering phenology of L. maritima represents a very particular case in the plant community studied, and the influence of abiotic and biotic factors on the phenology of this species is discussed.

  13. Bumble-bee learning selects for both early and long flowering in food-deceptive plants

    PubMed Central

    Internicola, Antonina I.; Harder, Lawrence D.

    2012-01-01

    Most rewardless orchids engage in generalized food-deception, exhibiting floral traits typical of rewarding species and exploiting the instinctive foraging of pollinators. Generalized food-deceptive (GFD) orchids compete poorly with rewarding species for pollinator services, which may be overcome by flowering early in the growing season when relatively more pollinators are naive and fewer competing plant species are flowering, and/or flowering for extended periods to enhance the chance of pollinator visits. We tested these hypotheses by manipulating flowering time and duration in a natural population of Calypso bulbosa and quantifying pollinator visitation based on pollen removal. Both early and long flowering increased bumble-bee visitation compared with late and brief flowering, respectively. To identify the cause of reduced visitation during late flowering, we tested whether negative experience with C. bulbosa (avoidance learning) and positive experience with a rewarding species, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, (associative learning) by captive bumble-bees could reduce C. bulbosa's competitiveness. Avoidance learning explained the higher visitation of early- compared with late-flowering C. bulbosa. The resulting pollinator-mediated selection for early flowering may commonly affect GFD orchids, explaining their tendency to flower earlier than rewarding orchids. For dissimilar deceptive and rewarding sympatric species, associative learning may additionally favour early flowering by GFD species. PMID:22090384

  14. Explaining the effects of floral density on flower visitor species composition

    PubMed Central

    Essenberg, Carla J.

    2013-01-01

    Floral density often influences the species composition of flower visitors. This variation in visitor species composition could have significant effects on pollination success and plant fitness but is poorly understood, especially in the many pollination guilds dominated by non-territorial species. This paper presents a foraging model that explores how flower visitors with diverse traits should distribute themselves across resource patches differing in floral density. The model predicts that species with low flower search speeds and low flower handling costs compared to competitors will usually dominate dense flower patches. In addition, amongst flower visitors that have lower energy expenditure rates while handling flowers than while traveling, species maximizing energetic efficiency are typically associated with dense flower patches whereas those maximizing net rate of energy intake are associated with sparse patches. The model is able to predict some key aspects of a previously-observed effect of floral density on species composition of flower visitors to the yellowflower tarweed (Holocarpha virgata). By providing insights into how flower visitors’ traits shape the effects of floral density on the species composition of flower visitors, this study makes an important step towards understanding how pollinator diversity influences relationships between plant density and plant fitness. PMID:23448884

  15. Number of hummingbird visits determines flower mite abundance on hummingbird feeders.

    PubMed

    Márquez-Luna, Ubaldo; Vázquez González, María Magdalena; Castellanos, Ignacio; Ortiz-Pulido, Raúl

    2016-08-01

    Members of several genera of mites from the family Melicharidae (Mesostigmata) use hummingbirds as transport host to move from flower to flower, where they feed on pollen and nectar. The factors that influence hummingbird flower mite abundance on host plant flowers are not currently known. Here we tested whether hummingbird flower mite abundance on an artificial nectar source is determined by number of hummingbird visits, nectar energy content or species richness of visiting hummingbirds. We conducted experiments employing hummingbird feeders with sucrose solutions of low, medium, and high energy concentrations, placed in a xeric shrubland. In the first experiment, we recorded the number of visiting hummingbirds and the number of visiting hummingbird species, as well as the abundance of hummingbird flower mites on each feeder. Feeders with the highest sucrose concentration had the most hummingbird visits and the highest flower mite abundances; however, there was no significant effect of hummingbird species richness on mite abundance. In the second experiment, we recorded flower mite abundance on feeders after we standardized the number of hummingbird visits to them. Abundance of flower mites did not differ significantly between feeders when we controlled for hummingbird visits. Our results suggest that nectar energy concentration determines hummingbird visits, which in turn determines flower mite abundance in our feeders. Our results do not support the hypothesis that mites descend from hummingbird nostrils more on richer nectar sources; however, it does not preclude the possibility that flower mites select for nectar concentration at other spatial and temporal scales.

  16. Psidium guajava and Piper betle leaf extracts prolong vase life of cut carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) flowers.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M M; Ahmad, S H; Lgu, K S

    2012-01-01

    The effect of leaf extracts of Psidium guajava and Piper betle on prolonging vase life of cut carnation flowers was studied. "Carola" and "Pallas Orange" carnation flowers, at bud stage, were pulsed 24 hours with a floral preservative. Then, flowers were placed in a vase solution containing sprite and a "germicide" (leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle, 8-HQC, or a copper coin). Flowers treated with 8-HQC, copper coin, and leaf extracts had longer vase life, larger flower diameter, and higher rate of water uptake compared to control (tap water). The leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle showed highest antibacterial and antifungal activities compared to the other treatments. Both showed similar effects on flower quality as the synthetic germicide, 8-HQC. Therefore, these extracts are likely natural germicides to prolong vase life of cut flowers.

  17. Psidium guajava and Piper betle leaf extracts prolong vase life of cut carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) flowers.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M M; Ahmad, S H; Lgu, K S

    2012-01-01

    The effect of leaf extracts of Psidium guajava and Piper betle on prolonging vase life of cut carnation flowers was studied. "Carola" and "Pallas Orange" carnation flowers, at bud stage, were pulsed 24 hours with a floral preservative. Then, flowers were placed in a vase solution containing sprite and a "germicide" (leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle, 8-HQC, or a copper coin). Flowers treated with 8-HQC, copper coin, and leaf extracts had longer vase life, larger flower diameter, and higher rate of water uptake compared to control (tap water). The leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle showed highest antibacterial and antifungal activities compared to the other treatments. Both showed similar effects on flower quality as the synthetic germicide, 8-HQC. Therefore, these extracts are likely natural germicides to prolong vase life of cut flowers. PMID:22619568

  18. The Design of Flower Ecological Environment Monitoring System Based on ZigBee Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiaoqing; Xiang, Xinjian

    Ecological environment is the key point of improving the flower's quality and quantity. Due to China's flower production management at a lower level, there is no scientific method in real-time monitoring of the flower's ecological environment. In order to solve the problem such as high costs; poor monitoring point scalability, poor mobility and other issues in traditional flower basement's data acquisition system, this paper devises a wireless real-time system based on ZigBee technology for the monitoring of flower's ecological environment. By the analysis of ZigBee technology's characteristics, it focuses on the design of wireless gateway with S3C4510B; wireless sensor node control module AT89S51 and the communication module CC2430; analyses the Zigbee protocol stack network's formation and designs data acquisition and communication procedures. By monitoring every flower's ecological environment indicators in practice, this system can meet the needs of the real-time monitoring for flower's ecological environment.

  19. Psidium guajava and Piper betle Leaf Extracts Prolong Vase Life of Cut Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) Flowers

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, M. M.; Ahmad, S. H.; Lgu, K. S.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of leaf extracts of Psidium guajava and Piper betle on prolonging vase life of cut carnation flowers was studied. “Carola” and “Pallas Orange” carnation flowers, at bud stage, were pulsed 24 hours with a floral preservative. Then, flowers were placed in a vase solution containing sprite and a “germicide” (leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle, 8-HQC, or a copper coin). Flowers treated with 8-HQC, copper coin, and leaf extracts had longer vase life, larger flower diameter, and higher rate of water uptake compared to control (tap water). The leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle showed highest antibacterial and antifungal activities compared to the other treatments. Both showed similar effects on flower quality as the synthetic germicide, 8-HQC. Therefore, these extracts are likely natural germicides to prolong vase life of cut flowers. PMID:22619568

  20. Salicylic acid is involved in the regulation of starvation stress-induced flowering in Lemna paucicostata.

    PubMed

    Shimakawa, Aya; Shiraya, Takeshi; Ishizuka, Yuta; Wada, Kaede C; Mitsui, Toshiaki; Takeno, Kiyotoshi

    2012-07-01

    The short-day plant, Lemna paucicostata (synonym Lemna aequinoctialis), was induced to flower when cultured in tap water without any additional nutrition under non-inductive long-day conditions. Flowering occurred in all three of the tested strains, and strain 6746 was the most sensitive to the starvation stress conditions. For each strain, the stress-induced flowering response was weaker than that induced by short-day treatment, and the stress-induced flowering of strain 6746 was completely inhibited by aminooxyacetic acid and l-2-aminooxy-3-phenylpropionic acid, which are inhibitors of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase. Significantly higher amounts of endogenous salicylic acid (SA) were detected in the fronds that flowered under the poor-nutrition conditions than in the vegetative fronds cultured under nutrition conditions, and exogenously applied SA promoted the flowering response. The results indicate that endogenous SA plays a role in the regulation of stress-induced flowering.

  1. Zeatin modulates flower bud development and tocopherol levels in Cistus albidus (L.) plants as they age.

    PubMed

    Hernández, I; Miret, J A; Van Der Kelen, K; Rombaut, D; Van Breusegem, F; Munné-Bosch, S

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study we showed that Cistus albidus (L.) experiences an age-dependent decay in flower vigour correlated with a decline in trans-zeatin (tZ) levels. In the present study we aimed to establish a causal relationship between these two phenomena. Exogenous tZ applied to plants grown under semi-controlled conditions did not rescue flower vigour; however, it accelerated flower development, but only in younger individuals. Older plants showed lower tocopherol levels in flower buds, which were restored by exogenous tZ, suggesting that a loss of antioxidant defences may underlie the age-dependent decay in flower vigour. We conclude that declining tZ levels may not be directly responsible for the age-associated loss of floral vigour; that tZ modulates the speed of flower development as plants age; and that flower buds alter their sensitivity to tZ as plants age.

  2. All about Plant Pollination: Fruit, Flowers & Seeds. Plant Life for Children[TM]. Schlessinger Science Library. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    Flowers are not only pretty, they are also one of the key elements in the process of plant pollination and reproduction that goes from flowers to fruits to seeds! In All About Plant Pollination: Fruit, Flowers & Seeds, young scientists learn about the different parts of a flower through the use of microscopic photography and detailed diagrams. See…

  3. A Matter of Contrast: Yellow Flower Colour Constrains Style Length in Crocus species.

    PubMed

    Lunau, Klaus; Konzmann, Sabine; Bossems, Jessica; Harpke, Doerte

    2016-01-01

    Most flowers display distinct colour patterns comprising two different areas. The peripheral large-area component of floral colour patterns attracts flower visitors from some distance and the central small-area component guides flower visitors towards landing sites. Whereas the peripheral colour is largely variable among species, the central colour, produced mostly by anthers and pollen or pollen mimicking floral guides, is predominantly yellow and UV-absorbing. This holds also for yellow flowers that regularly display a UV bull's eye pattern. Here we show that yellow-flowering Crocus species are a noticeable exception, since yellow-flowering Crocus species-being entirely UV-absorbing-exhibit low colour contrast between yellow reproductive organs and yellow tepals. The elongated yellow or orange-yellow style of Crocus flowers is a stamen-mimicking structure promoting cross-pollination by facilitating flower visitors' contact with the apical stigma before the flower visitors are touching the anthers. Since Crocus species possess either yellow, violet or white tepals, the colour contrast between the stamen-mimicking style and the tepals varies among species. In this study comprising 106 Crocus species, it was tested whether the style length of Crocus flowers is dependent on the corolla colour. The results show that members of the genus Crocus with yellow tepals have evolved independently up to twelve times in the genus Crocus and that yellow-flowering Crocus species possess shorter styles as compared to violet- and white-flowering ones. The manipulation of flower visitors by anther-mimicking elongated styles in Crocus flowers is discussed.

  4. Flowering, die-back and recovery of a semelparous woody bamboo in the Atlantic Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montti, Lía; Campanello, Paula I.; Goldstein, Guillermo

    2011-07-01

    Chusquea ramosissima is a semelparous woody bamboo growing in the understory of the semideciduous Atlantic Forest that increases in abundance after disturbance and consequently has profound effects on vegetation dynamics. Flowering and death of C. ramosissima may open a window of opportunity leaving space vacant for the recruitment of tree seedlings. We describe the flowering pattern and seedling demography of this species at different spatio-temporal scales between the years 2001 and 2009, and evaluate if tree seedling abundance of canopy species increased after the flowering event. At a landscape scale, flowering sites were interspersed with sites that did not flower. At a local scale, the flowering extended over 5 years, with flowering and non-flowering culms intermingled, also in small patches (i.e., 4 m 2). Seeds germinated soon after flowering and die-back. Four successive seedling cohorts were studied. Mortality rate was high during the first 4 months after seedling emergence but several fast-growing seedlings were able to become established successfully. At the end of the study, 10%-20% of the initial number of bamboo seedlings in each cohort survived. Seedling abundance of tree canopy species was similar in flowering and non-flowering sites. C. ramosissima was able to re-colonize and perpetuate in sites it previously occupied. The coexistence of flowering and non-flowering culms at different spatio-temporal scales and clonal growth by rhizomes, together with the successful bamboo seedlings establishment, enhanced bamboo persistence in gaps and disturbed sites. Flowering and death of C. ramosissima did not facilitate seedling growth of canopy tree species.

  5. Cold Treatment Breaks Dormancy but Jeopardizes Flower Quality in Camellia japonica L.

    PubMed

    Berruti, Andrea; Christiaens, Annelies; Keyser, Ellen De; Labeke, Marie-Christine Van; Scariot, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Camellia japonica L. is an evergreen shrub whose cultivars are of great ornamental value. In autumn, after flower bud differentiation, dormancy is initiated. As in many other spring flowering woody ornamentals, winter low temperatures promote dormancy release of both flower and vegetative buds. However, warm spells during late autumn and winter can lead to unfulfilled chilling requirements leading to erratic and delayed flowering. We hypothesized that storing plants at no light and low temperature could favor dormancy breaking and lead to early and synchronized flowering in response to forcing conditions in C. japonica 'Nuccio's Pearl'. Plants with fully developed floral primordia were stored at dark, 7°C, and RH > 90% for up to 8 weeks. To monitor endodormancy release during the storage, we evaluated the content of abscisic acid (ABA) in flower buds and the expression profiles of five putative genes related to dormancy and cold acclimation metabolism in leaves and flower buds. In addition, the expression of four anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway genes was profiled in flower buds to assess the effect of the treatment on flower pigment biosynthesis. At 0, 4, 6, and 8 weeks of cold treatment, 10 plants were transferred to the greenhouse and forced to flower. Forced plant flower qualities and growth were observed. The ABA content and the expression profiles of two dormancy-related genes (CjARP and CjDEH) suggested that dormancy breaking occurred after 6-8 weeks of cold treatment. Overall, plants treated for 6-8 weeks showed earlier vegetative sprouting, enhanced, and homogeneous flowering with reduced forcing time. Prolonged cold treatments also reduced flower size and longevity, anthocyanin content, and pigment biosynthesis-related gene transcripts. In conclusion, the cold treatment had a promotive effect on dormancy breaking but caused severe drawbacks on flower quality. PMID:26617623

  6. Gloss, colour and grip: multifunctional epidermal cell shapes in bee- and bird-pollinated flowers.

    PubMed

    Papiorek, Sarah; Junker, Robert R; Lunau, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Flowers bear the function of filters supporting the attraction of pollinators as well as the deterrence of floral antagonists. The effect of epidermal cell shape on the visual display and tactile properties of flowers has been evaluated only recently. In this study we quantitatively measured epidermal cell shape, gloss and spectral reflectance of flowers pollinated by either bees or birds testing three hypotheses: The first two hypotheses imply that bee-pollinated flowers might benefit from rough surfaces on visually-active parts produced by conical epidermal cells, as they may enhance the colour signal of flowers as well as the grip on flowers for bees. In contrast, bird-pollinated flowers might benefit from flat surfaces produced by flat epidermal cells, by avoiding frequent visitation from non-pollinating bees due to a reduced colour signal, as birds do not rely on specific colour parameters while foraging. Moreover, flat petal surfaces in bird-pollinated flowers may hamper grip for bees that do not touch anthers and stigmas while consuming nectar and thus, are considered as nectar thieves. Beside this, the third hypothesis implies that those flower parts which are vulnerable to nectar robbing of bee- as well as bird-pollinated flowers benefit from flat epidermal cells, hampering grip for nectar robbing bees. Our comparative data show in fact that conical epidermal cells are restricted to visually-active parts of bee-pollinated flowers, whereas robbing-sensitive parts of bee-pollinated as well as the entire floral surface of bird-pollinated flowers possess on average flat epidermal cells. However, direct correlations between epidermal cell shape and colour parameters have not been found. Our results together with published experimental studies show that epidermal cell shape as a largely neglected flower trait might act as an important feature in pollinator attraction and avoidance of antagonists, and thus may contribute to the partitioning of flower-visitors.

  7. A Matter of Contrast: Yellow Flower Colour Constrains Style Length in Crocus species

    PubMed Central

    Lunau, Klaus; Konzmann, Sabine; Bossems, Jessica; Harpke, Doerte

    2016-01-01

    Most flowers display distinct colour patterns comprising two different areas. The peripheral large-area component of floral colour patterns attracts flower visitors from some distance and the central small-area component guides flower visitors towards landing sites. Whereas the peripheral colour is largely variable among species, the central colour, produced mostly by anthers and pollen or pollen mimicking floral guides, is predominantly yellow and UV-absorbing. This holds also for yellow flowers that regularly display a UV bull’s eye pattern. Here we show that yellow-flowering Crocus species are a noticeable exception, since yellow-flowering Crocus species–being entirely UV-absorbing–exhibit low colour contrast between yellow reproductive organs and yellow tepals. The elongated yellow or orange-yellow style of Crocus flowers is a stamen-mimicking structure promoting cross-pollination by facilitating flower visitors’ contact with the apical stigma before the flower visitors are touching the anthers. Since Crocus species possess either yellow, violet or white tepals, the colour contrast between the stamen-mimicking style and the tepals varies among species. In this study comprising 106 Crocus species, it was tested whether the style length of Crocus flowers is dependent on the corolla colour. The results show that members of the genus Crocus with yellow tepals have evolved independently up to twelve times in the genus Crocus and that yellow-flowering Crocus species possess shorter styles as compared to violet- and white-flowering ones. The manipulation of flower visitors by anther-mimicking elongated styles in Crocus flowers is discussed. PMID:27124278

  8. A Matter of Contrast: Yellow Flower Colour Constrains Style Length in Crocus species.

    PubMed

    Lunau, Klaus; Konzmann, Sabine; Bossems, Jessica; Harpke, Doerte

    2016-01-01

    Most flowers display distinct colour patterns comprising two different areas. The peripheral large-area component of floral colour patterns attracts flower visitors from some distance and the central small-area component guides flower visitors towards landing sites. Whereas the peripheral colour is largely variable among species, the central colour, produced mostly by anthers and pollen or pollen mimicking floral guides, is predominantly yellow and UV-absorbing. This holds also for yellow flowers that regularly display a UV bull's eye pattern. Here we show that yellow-flowering Crocus species are a noticeable exception, since yellow-flowering Crocus species-being entirely UV-absorbing-exhibit low colour contrast between yellow reproductive organs and yellow tepals. The elongated yellow or orange-yellow style of Crocus flowers is a stamen-mimicking structure promoting cross-pollination by facilitating flower visitors' contact with the apical stigma before the flower visitors are touching the anthers. Since Crocus species possess either yellow, violet or white tepals, the colour contrast between the stamen-mimicking style and the tepals varies among species. In this study comprising 106 Crocus species, it was tested whether the style length of Crocus flowers is dependent on the corolla colour. The results show that members of the genus Crocus with yellow tepals have evolved independently up to twelve times in the genus Crocus and that yellow-flowering Crocus species possess shorter styles as compared to violet- and white-flowering ones. The manipulation of flower visitors by anther-mimicking elongated styles in Crocus flowers is discussed. PMID:27124278

  9. Cold Treatment Breaks Dormancy but Jeopardizes Flower Quality in Camellia japonica L.

    PubMed Central

    Berruti, Andrea; Christiaens, Annelies; Keyser, Ellen De; Labeke, Marie-Christine Van; Scariot, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Camellia japonica L. is an evergreen shrub whose cultivars are of great ornamental value. In autumn, after flower bud differentiation, dormancy is initiated. As in many other spring flowering woody ornamentals, winter low temperatures promote dormancy release of both flower and vegetative buds. However, warm spells during late autumn and winter can lead to unfulfilled chilling requirements leading to erratic and delayed flowering. We hypothesized that storing plants at no light and low temperature could favor dormancy breaking and lead to early and synchronized flowering in response to forcing conditions in C. japonica ‘Nuccio’s Pearl’. Plants with fully developed floral primordia were stored at dark, 7°C, and RH > 90% for up to 8 weeks. To monitor endodormancy release during the storage, we evaluated the content of abscisic acid (ABA) in flower buds and the expression profiles of five putative genes related to dormancy and cold acclimation metabolism in leaves and flower buds. In addition, the expression of four anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway genes was profiled in flower buds to assess the effect of the treatment on flower pigment biosynthesis. At 0, 4, 6, and 8 weeks of cold treatment, 10 plants were transferred to the greenhouse and forced to flower. Forced plant flower qualities and growth were observed. The ABA content and the expression profiles of two dormancy-related genes (CjARP and CjDEH) suggested that dormancy breaking occurred after 6–8 weeks of cold treatment. Overall, plants treated for 6–8 weeks showed earlier vegetative sprouting, enhanced, and homogeneous flowering with reduced forcing time. Prolonged cold treatments also reduced flower size and longevity, anthocyanin content, and pigment biosynthesis-related gene transcripts. In conclusion, the cold treatment had a promotive effect on dormancy breaking but caused severe drawbacks on flower quality. PMID:26617623

  10. The temperature dependence of frost flower growth on laboratory sea ice and the effect of the flowers on infrared observations of the surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Seelye; Yu, Yanling; Drucker, Robert

    1996-05-01

    This paper describes a laboratory study of frost flower growth on young sea ice at different temperatures and the effect of these flowers on the surface temperature observed with an infrared radiometer. The flowers grew on sea ice which formed in a salt water tank at room temperatures of -20, -24, and -30°C, with an additional experiment at -16°C, where no flowers appeared. The growth habit and height of the observed crystals depended on the existence of a region of supersaturated vapor adjacent to the surface and on the range of temperatures in the surface boundary layer. The source of the surface brine from which the flowers grew was probably brine transport within the ice toward the cold upper surface driven by the thermomolecular pressure gradient. The evaporation of vapor from this liquid into the atmospheric boundary layer provided the supersaturated region adjacent to the ice surface. Two kinds of flowers were observed; at -20 and -24°C, dendritic crystals grew approximately between the -12 and -16°C isotherms, and, at -30°C, rod-like flowers appeared between -16 and -25°C. These limits correspond to earlier work on crystal growth from the vapor. In each case, the maximum flower height approximately equaled the height of the isotherm corresponding to the colder temperature limit for each crystal type, -16°C for the dendrites and -25°C for the rods. The effect of the flowers on the radiometer surface temperature was as follows: because the flowers protrude 10-20 mm above the surface into the boundary layer, the infrared temperature of the flower-covered ice was about 4-6°C colder than that of the same ice cleared of flowers. We also found that the insulating effect of the flowers caused the ice surface temperature beneath the flowers to be 1-2°C warmer than the surrounding bare ice. The importance of the flower growth is that infrared satellite observations of thin ice in winter will be colder than the actual surface temperature, which may account

  11. Regulation of volatile benzenoid biosynthesis in petunia flowers.

    PubMed

    Schuurink, Robert C; Haring, Michel A; Clark, David G

    2006-01-01

    The petunia flower has served as a model for the study of several physiological processes including floral development, self-incompatibility, anthocyanin biosynthesis and ethylene signalling during senescence. More recently, Petunia hybrida 'Mitchell' has been used to understand the complex regulation of volatile benzenoid biosynthesis, which occurs predominantly in flower petal tissues. Benzenoid biosynthesis is temporally and circadian controlled and is tightly down-regulated by ethylene during floral senescence. Using targeted transcriptomics and gene knockouts, both biosynthetic genes and a transcription factor regulating benzenoid synthesis have been recently discovered and characterized. It appears that benzenoid production is regulated predominantly by transcriptional control of the shikimate pathway, benzenoid biosynthesis genes and S-adenosyl-methionine cycle genes.

  12. Biosynthesis of floral scent 2-phenylethanol in rose flowers.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Hiroshi; Ohnishi, Toshiyuki; Watanabe, Naoharu

    2016-10-01

    Plants emit chemically diverse volatile compounds for attracting pollinators or putting up a chemical defense against herbivores. 2-Phenylethanol (2PE) is one of the abundantly emitted scent compounds in rose flowers. Feeding experiments with l-[(2)H8]phenylalanine into rose flowers and subsequent analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed the hypothetical biosynthetic intermediates to [(2)H8]-2PE, and the biochemical and genetic analyses elucidated the principal pathway to [(2)H8]-2PE. We recently found season-specific 2PE pathway producing [(2)H7]-2PE from l-[(2)H8]phenylalanine. This is a unique example where the dominant pathway to a specific compound changes with the seasons. This review focuses on the biosynthesis of floral volatiles and their regulation to adapt to the changes in the environment. PMID:27297332

  13. Xanthane sesquiterpenoids from the roots and flowers of Xanthium cavanillesii.

    PubMed

    Olivaro, Cristina; Rostan, Vanesa; Bandera, Daniela; Moyna, Guillermo; Vazquez, Alvaro

    2016-10-01

    The sesquiterpene lactones xanthanodiene, 4-epi-xanthanol, 4-epi-isoxanthanol, and 4-epi-xanthinin, as well as the xanthanolide derivative 4-oxo-bedfordia acid were isolated from the chloroform extracts of roots and flowers of Xanthium cavanillesii Schouw. The identities of these compounds were corroborated through comparison of their spectroscopic data, including IR, MS, and (1)H and (13)C NMR assignments, with literature reports. In addition, the structural characterization of 4-oxo-bedfordia acid was revisited and a comprehensive spectroscopic study of the compound is presented. This is to our knowledge the first phytochemical investigation of the roots of X. cavanillesii, and of flowers in the whole Xanthium genus.

  14. The link between flowering time and stress tolerance.

    PubMed

    Kazan, Kemal; Lyons, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionary success in plants is largely dependent on the successful transition from vegetative to reproductive growth. In the lifetime of a plant, flowering is not only an essential part of the reproductive process but also a critical developmental stage that can be vulnerable to environmental stresses. Exposure to stress during this period can cause substantial yield losses in seed-producing plants. However, it is becoming increasingly evident that altering flowering time is an evolutionary strategy adopted by plants to maximize the chances of reproduction under diverse stress conditions, ranging from pathogen infection to heat, salinity, and drought. Here, recent studies that have revealed new insights into how biotic and abiotic stress signals can be integrated into floral pathways are reviewed. A better understanding of how complex environmental variables affect plant phenology is important for future genetic manipulation of crops to increase productivity under the changing climate.

  15. Dark fixation of CO2 by flowers of cut roses.

    PubMed

    Schnabl, H; Mayer, I

    1976-01-01

    Complete flower heads of cut roses (cv. Baccara) were exposed to (14)CO2 for 1-4 h. The flower tissue was able to fix CO2 via PEP carboxylase (E.C. 4.1.1.31) in the dark; various TCA products were identified in petals, ovary and anthers, including malate, aspartate, citrate, serine/glycine, glutamate and asparagine. The concentrations of these labelled products were similar in the petals and anthers, but lower in the ovary. After removal of the petals the amounts of these components were reduced in the anthers to a relatively high extent (to 1/6), whereas the amounts in the ovary increased slightly. It is suggested that the petals are necessary for supplying the anthers with the described components.

  16. Ochnaflavone and ochnaflavone 7-O-methyl ether two antibacterial biflavonoids from Ochna pretoriensis (Ochnaceae).

    PubMed

    Makhafola, Tshepiso J; Samuel, Babatunde B; Elgorashi, Esameldin E; Eloff, Jacobus N

    2012-12-01

    The acetone extract of Ochna pretoriensis was evaluated for antibacterial activity using bioautography and serial microplate dilution methods against four nosocomial bacterial pathogens namely: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A bioassay-guided fractionation of the crude extract led to the isolation of two antibacterial biflavonoids, ochnaflavone and ochnaflavone 7-O-methyl ether. Gram-negative bacteria were more sensitive to the isolated compounds than the Gram-positive bacteria (MIC values: 31.3 microg/mL for P. aeruginosa and 62.5 microg/mL for S. aureus). In addition, the isolated compounds were assessed for their potential toxic effects in the MTT toxicity assay using monkey kidney vero cells and Ames genotoxicity test using Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98. LC50 values were 125.9 microg/mL for ochnaflavone and 162.0/microg/mL for ochnaflavone 7-O-methyl ether. The isolated compounds have selectivity index values ranging from 1.29 to 4.03. Selectivity index values higher than one indicate that test samples are less toxic to the host cells than to the pathogens. The biflavonoids did not have any mutagenic effects in the Salmonella/microsome assay without metabolic activation.

  17. Delay of iris flower senescence by cytokinins and jasmonates.

    PubMed

    van Doorn, Wouter G; Çelikel, Fisun G; Pak, Caroline; Harkema, Harmannus

    2013-05-01

    It is not known whether tepal senescence in Iris flowers is regulated by hormones. We applied hormones and hormone inhibitors to cut flowers and isolated tepals of Iris × hollandica cv. Blue Magic. Treatments with ethylene or ethylene antagonists indicated lack of ethylene involvement. Auxins or auxin inhibitors also did not change the time to senescence. Abscisic acid (ABA) hastened senescence, but an inhibitor of ABA synthesis (norflurazon) had no effect. Gibberellic acid (GA3 ) slightly delayed senescence in some experiments, but in other experiments it was without effect, and gibberellin inhibitors [ancymidol or 4-hydroxy-5-isopropyl-2-methylphenyltrimethyl ammonium chloride-1-piperidine carboxylate (AMO-1618)] were ineffective as well. Salicylic acid (SA) also had no effect. Ethylene, auxins, GA3 and SA affected flower opening, therefore did reach the flower cells. Jasmonates delayed senescence by about 2.0 days. Similarly, cytokinins delayed senescence by about 1.5-2.0 days. Antagonists of the phosphatidylinositol signal transduction pathway (lithium), calcium channels (niguldipine and verapamil), calmodulin action [fluphenazine, trifluoroperazine, phenoxybenzamide and N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphtalenesulfonamide hydrochloride (W-7)] or protein kinase activity [1-(5-isoquinolinesulfonyl)-2-methylpiperazine hydrochloride (H-7), N-[2-(methylamino)ethyl]-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide hydrochloride (H-8) and N-(2-aminoethyl)-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide dihydrochloride (H-9)] had no effect on senescence, indicating no role of a few common signal transduction pathways relating to hormone effects on senescence. The results indicate that tepal senescence in Iris cv. Blue Magic is not regulated by endogenous ethylene, auxin, gibberellins or SA. A role of ABA can at present not be excluded. The data suggest the hypothesis that cytokinins and jasmonates are among the natural regulators. PMID:22974423

  18. Inflorescence architecture: the transition from branches to flowers.

    PubMed

    Hake, Sarah

    2008-12-01

    The shapes of flowers and their organization into branching systems, called inflorescences, dictate much of plant diversity. Recent studies have identified key regulators in this diversity, revealing that the inflorescence architecture of Solanaceous species depends on sequential and temporal expression of the WUSCHEL-RELATED HOMEOBOX (WOX) gene EVERGREEN (EVG)/ COMPOUND INFLORESCENCE (S) and the UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) ortholog DOUBLE TOP (DOT)/ANANTHA (AN). PMID:19081048

  19. Regulation of flower development in Arabidopsis by SCF complexes.

    PubMed

    Ni, Weimin; Xie, Daoxin; Hobbie, Lawrence; Feng, Baomin; Zhao, Dazhong; Akkara, Joseph; Ma, Hong

    2004-04-01

    SCF complexes are the largest and best studied family of E3 ubiquitin protein ligases that facilitate the ubiquitylation of proteins targeted for degradation. The SCF core components Skp1, Cul1, and Rbx1 serve in multiple SCF complexes involving different substrate-specific F-box proteins that are involved in diverse processes including cell cycle and development. In Arabidopsis, mutations in the F-box gene UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) result in a number of defects in flower development. However, functions of the core components Cul1 and Rbx1 in flower development are poorly understood. In this study we analyzed floral phenotypes caused by altering function of Cul1 or Rbx1, as well as the effects of mutations in ASK1 and ASK2. Plants homozygous for a point mutation in the AtCUL1 gene showed reduced floral organ number and several defects in each of the four whorls. Similarly, plants with reduced AtRbx1 expression due to RNA interference also exhibited floral morphological defects. In addition, compared to the ask1 mutant, plants homozygous for ask1 and heterozygous for ask2 displayed enhanced reduction of B function, as well as other novel defects of flower development, including carpelloid sepals and an inhibition of petal development. Genetic analyses demonstrate that AGAMOUS (AG) is required for the novel phenotypes observed in the first and second whorls. Furthermore, the genetic interaction between UFO and AtCUL1 supports the idea that UFO regulates multiple aspects of flower development as a part of SCF complexes. These results suggest that SCF complexes regulate several aspects of floral development in Arabidopsis. PMID:15047903

  20. Regulation of flower development in Arabidopsis by SCF complexes.

    PubMed

    Ni, Weimin; Xie, Daoxin; Hobbie, Lawrence; Feng, Baomin; Zhao, Dazhong; Akkara, Joseph; Ma, Hong

    2004-04-01

    SCF complexes are the largest and best studied family of E3 ubiquitin protein ligases that facilitate the ubiquitylation of proteins targeted for degradation. The SCF core components Skp1, Cul1, and Rbx1 serve in multiple SCF complexes involving different substrate-specific F-box proteins that are involved in diverse processes including cell cycle and development. In Arabidopsis, mutations in the F-box gene UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) result in a number of defects in flower development. However, functions of the core components Cul1 and Rbx1 in flower development are poorly understood. In this study we analyzed floral phenotypes caused by altering function of Cul1 or Rbx1, as well as the effects of mutations in ASK1 and ASK2. Plants homozygous for a point mutation in the AtCUL1 gene showed reduced floral organ number and several defects in each of the four whorls. Similarly, plants with reduced AtRbx1 expression due to RNA interference also exhibited floral morphological defects. In addition, compared to the ask1 mutant, plants homozygous for ask1 and heterozygous for ask2 displayed enhanced reduction of B function, as well as other novel defects of flower development, including carpelloid sepals and an inhibition of petal development. Genetic analyses demonstrate that AGAMOUS (AG) is required for the novel phenotypes observed in the first and second whorls. Furthermore, the genetic interaction between UFO and AtCUL1 supports the idea that UFO regulates multiple aspects of flower development as a part of SCF complexes. These results suggest that SCF complexes regulate several aspects of floral development in Arabidopsis.

  1. Delay of iris flower senescence by cytokinins and jasmonates.

    PubMed

    van Doorn, Wouter G; Çelikel, Fisun G; Pak, Caroline; Harkema, Harmannus

    2013-05-01

    It is not known whether tepal senescence in Iris flowers is regulated by hormones. We applied hormones and hormone inhibitors to cut flowers and isolated tepals of Iris × hollandica cv. Blue Magic. Treatments with ethylene or ethylene antagonists indicated lack of ethylene involvement. Auxins or auxin inhibitors also did not change the time to senescence. Abscisic acid (ABA) hastened senescence, but an inhibitor of ABA synthesis (norflurazon) had no effect. Gibberellic acid (GA3 ) slightly delayed senescence in some experiments, but in other experiments it was without effect, and gibberellin inhibitors [ancymidol or 4-hydroxy-5-isopropyl-2-methylphenyltrimethyl ammonium chloride-1-piperidine carboxylate (AMO-1618)] were ineffective as well. Salicylic acid (SA) also had no effect. Ethylene, auxins, GA3 and SA affected flower opening, therefore did reach the flower cells. Jasmonates delayed senescence by about 2.0 days. Similarly, cytokinins delayed senescence by about 1.5-2.0 days. Antagonists of the phosphatidylinositol signal transduction pathway (lithium), calcium channels (niguldipine and verapamil), calmodulin action [fluphenazine, trifluoroperazine, phenoxybenzamide and N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphtalenesulfonamide hydrochloride (W-7)] or protein kinase activity [1-(5-isoquinolinesulfonyl)-2-methylpiperazine hydrochloride (H-7), N-[2-(methylamino)ethyl]-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide hydrochloride (H-8) and N-(2-aminoethyl)-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide dihydrochloride (H-9)] had no effect on senescence, indicating no role of a few common signal transduction pathways relating to hormone effects on senescence. The results indicate that tepal senescence in Iris cv. Blue Magic is not regulated by endogenous ethylene, auxin, gibberellins or SA. A role of ABA can at present not be excluded. The data suggest the hypothesis that cytokinins and jasmonates are among the natural regulators.

  2. Climatic Variability Leads to Later Seasonal Flowering of Floridian Plants

    PubMed Central

    Von Holle, Betsy; Wei, Yun; Nickerson, David

    2010-01-01

    Understanding species responses to global change will help predict shifts in species distributions as well as aid in conservation. Changes in the timing of seasonal activities of organisms over time may be the most responsive and easily observable indicator of environmental changes associated with global climate change. It is unknown how global climate change will affect species distributions and developmental events in subtropical ecosystems or if climate change will differentially favor nonnative species. Contrary to previously observed trends for earlier flowering onset of plant species with increasing spring temperatures from mid and higher latitudes, we document a trend for delayed seasonal flowering among plants in Florida. Additionally, there were few differences in reproductive responses by native and nonnative species to climatic changes. We argue that plants in Florida have different reproductive cues than those from more northern climates. With global change, minimum temperatures have become more variable within the temperate-subtropical zone that occurs across the peninsula and this variation is strongly associated with delayed flowering among Florida plants. Our data suggest that climate change varies by region and season and is not a simple case of species responding to consistently increasing temperatures across the region. Research on climate change impacts need to be extended outside of the heavily studied higher latitudes to include subtropical and tropical systems in order to properly understand the complexity of regional and seasonal differences of climate change on species responses. PMID:20657765

  3. Antioxidative caffeoylquinic acids and flavonoids from Hemerocallis fulva flowers.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yun-Lian; Lu, Chung-Kuang; Huang, Yeh-Jeng; Chen, Hong-Jhang

    2011-08-24

    Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in HepG2 was used to screen hepatocyte protective compounds from the flowers of Hemerocallis fulva. Three new polyphenols, n-butyl 4-trans-O-caffeoylquinate (1), kaempferol 3-O-{α-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1→6)[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1→2)]}-β-D-galactopyranoside (2), and chrysoeriol 7-O-[β-D-glucuronopyranosyl(1→2)(2-O-trans-feruloyl)-β-D-glucuronopyranoside (3), together with four caffeoylquinic acid derivatives (4-7), eight known flavones (8-15), one naphthalene glycoside, stelladerol (16), one tryptophan derivative (17), adenosine (18), and guanosine (19) were isolated from the bioactive fractions of the aqueous ethanol extract of H. fulva flowers. The structures of isolated compounds were characterized by means of spectroscopic data. Compounds 1-3 were described as first isolated natural products. Among the above-mentioned compounds, the caffeoylquinic acid derivatives are the major components with potent free radical scavenging activity in HepG2 cells and are for the first time isolated from H. fulva flowers. A convenient ultraperformance liquid chromatography (UPLC) method was also developed to simultaneously separate and identify caffeoylquinic acids and flavonoids promptly. PMID:21761841

  4. Selenium accumulation in flowers and its effects on pollination.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Colin F; Prins, Christine N; Freeman, John L; Gross, Amanda M; Hantzis, Laura J; Reynolds, Ray J B; Yang, Soo in; Covey, Paul A; Bañuelos, Gary S; Pickering, Ingrid J; Fakra, Sirine C; Marcus, Matthew A; Arathi, H S; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A H

    2011-11-01

    • Selenium (Se) hyperaccumulation has a profound effect on plant-arthropod interactions. Here, we investigated floral Se distribution and speciation in flowers and the effects of floral Se on pollen quality and plant-pollinator interactions. • Floral Se distribution and speciation were compared in Stanleya pinnata, an Se hyperaccumulator, and Brassica juncea, a comparable nonhyperaccumulator. Pollen germination was measured from plants grown with varying concentrations of Se and floral visitation was compared between plants with high and low Se. • Stanleya pinnata preferentially allocated Se to flowers, as nontoxic methyl-selenocysteine (MeSeCys). Brassica juncea had higher Se concentrations in leaves than flowers, and a lower fraction of MeSeCys. For B. juncea, high floral Se concentration impaired pollen germination; in S. pinnata Se had no effect on pollen germination. Floral visitors collected from Se-rich S. pinnata contained up to 270 μg g(-1), concentrations toxic to many herbivores. Indeed, floral visitors showed no visitation preference between high- and low-Se plants. Honey from seleniferous areas contained 0.4-1 μg Se g(-1), concentrations that could provide human health benefits. • This study is the first to shed light on the possible evolutionary cost, through decreased pollen germination in B. juncea, of Se accumulation and has implications for the management of seleniferous areas. PMID:21793829

  5. Hawkmoths evaluate scenting flowers with the tip of their proboscis

    PubMed Central

    Haverkamp, Alexander; Yon, Felipe; Keesey, Ian W; Mißbach, Christine; Koenig, Christopher; Hansson, Bill S; Baldwin, Ian T

    2016-01-01

    Pollination by insects is essential to many ecosystems. Previously, we have shown that floral scent is important to mediate pollen transfer between plants (Kessler et al., 2015). Yet, the mechanisms by which pollinators evaluate volatiles of single flowers remained unclear. Here, Nicotiana attenuata plants, in which floral volatiles have been genetically silenced and its hawkmoth pollinator, Manduca sexta, were used in semi-natural tent and wind-tunnel assays to explore the function of floral scent. We found that floral scent functions to increase the fitness of individual flowers not only by increasing detectability but also by enhancing the pollinator's foraging efforts. Combining proboscis choice tests with neurophysiological, anatomical and molecular analyses we show that this effect is governed by newly discovered olfactory neurons on the tip of the moth's proboscis. With the tip of their tongue, pollinators assess the advertisement of individual flowers, an ability essential for maintaining this important ecosystem service. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15039.001 PMID:27146894

  6. Antibacterial activity of Nymphaea nouchali (Burm. f) flower

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The present work aimed to find out the antibacterial activity of Nymphaea nouchali flower on human and plant pathogenic bacteria. Methods Antibacterial potency of methanol, acetone, ethyl acetate and petroleum spirit extracts of Nymphaea nouchali flower has been tested against four human pathogenic bacteria Bacillus subtilis (FO 3026) Escherichia coli (IFO 3007), Klebsiella pneumonia (ATTC 10031) and Sarcina lutea (IFO 3232) and one plant pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris (IAM 1671) by disc diffusion assay. Zone of inhibition produced by different extracts against the test bacteria was measured and compared with standard antibiotic disc. Results Methanol extract possessed better antibacterial activity against two pathogenic bacteria, B. subtilis (FO 3026) and S. lutea (IFO 3232) than commercial antibiotic nalidixic acid. Acetone extract showed moderate sensitivity whereas B. subtilis (FO 3026), S. lutea (IFO 3232) and X. campestris (IAM 1671) showed resistance to ethyl acetate and petroleum spirit extracts. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of various extracts were ranged between 128–2048 μgml-1. Conclusions Nymphaea nouchali flower could be a potential candidate for future development of novel broad spectrum antibacterial herbal formulation. PMID:24099586

  7. Spatial Distribution of Flower Color Induced by Interspecific Sexual Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Yuma; Takakura, Koh-ichi; Kawata, Masakado

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms shaping the spatiotemporal distribution of species has long been a central concern of ecology and evolutionary biology. Contemporary patterns of plant assemblies suggest that sexual interactions among species, i.e., reproductive interference, lead to the exclusive distributions of closely related species that share pollinators. However, the fitness consequences and the initial ecological/evolutionary responses to reproductive interference remain unclear in nature, since reproductive isolation or allopatric distribution has already been achieved in the natural community. In Japan, three species of blue-eyed grasses (Sisyrinchium) with incomplete reproductive isolation have recently colonized and occur sympatrically. Two of them are monomorphic with white flowers, whereas the other exhibits heritable color polymorphism (white and purple morphs). Here we investigated the effects of the presence of two monomorphic species on the distribution and reproductive success of color morphs. The frequency and reproductive success of white morphs decreased in area where monomorphic species were abundant, while those of purple morphs did not. The rate of hybridization between species was higher in white morphs than in the purple ones. Resource competition and habitat preference seemed not to contribute to the spatial distribution and reproductive success of two morphs. Our results supported that color-dependent reproductive interference determines the distribution of flower color polymorphism in a habitat, implying ecological sorting promoted by pollinator-mediated reproductive interference. Our study helps us to understand the evolution and spatial structure of flower color in a community. PMID:27723785

  8. Distribution of Two bioactive compounds in flowers of Trollius chinensis.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ming; An, Yan-Nan; Wang, Ru-Feng; Ding, Yi; Sun, Zhen-Xiao

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive procedure was established, which combined a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay for the simultaneous quantification of 2″-O-β-L-galactopyranosylorientin (OGA) and veratric acid and a gravimetric analysis for the determination of the mass fraction of the floral parts (calyx, corolla, stalk, stamens and pistils and ovary) of Trollius chinensis, to investigate the distribution and identify the enriched floral part(s) of these two compounds in the flowers. The calculated mean distributions of OGA in calyx, corolla, stamens and pistils, stalk and ovary were 83.62, 7.76, 4.35, 2.92 and 1.35%, respectively, whereas those of veratric acid in the corresponding floral parts were 46.41, 9.01, 18.41, 4.11 and 22.06%, respectively, indicating the uneven and noncorresponding distribution of these two compounds. This study extends the application of the HPLC assay and favors the production of OGA and veratric acid from the flowers of T. chinensis in addition to the benefits of breeding, cultivation and utilization of these flowers.

  9. Eucalypt MADS-Box Genes Expressed in Developing Flowers

    PubMed Central

    Southerton, Simon G.; Marshall, Heidi; Mouradov, Aidyn; Teasdale, Robert D.

    1998-01-01

    Three MADS-box genes were identified from a cDNA library derived from young flowers of Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden. The three egm genes are single-copy genes and are expressed almost exclusively in flowers. The egm1 and egm3 genes shared strongest homology with other plant MADS-box genes, which mediate between the floral meristem and the organ-identity genes. The egm3 gene was also expressed strongly in the receptacle or floral tube, which surrounds the carpels in the eucalypt flower and bears the sepals, petals, and numerous stamens. There appeared to be a group of genes in eucalypts with strong homology with the 3′ region of the egm1 gene. The egm2 gene was expressed in eucalypt petals and stamens and was most homologous to MADS-box genes, which belong to the globosa group of genes, which regulate organogenesis of the second and third floral whorls. The possible role of these three genes in eucalypt floral development is discussed. PMID:9765522

  10. ODORANT1 Regulates Fragrance Biosynthesis in Petunia FlowersW⃞

    PubMed Central

    Verdonk, Julian C.; Haring, Michel A.; van Tunen, Arjen J.; Schuurink, Robert C.

    2005-01-01

    Floral scent is important to plant reproduction because it attracts pollinators to the sexual organs. Therefore, volatile emission is usually tuned to the foraging activity of the pollinators. In Petunia hybrida, volatile benzenoids determine the floral aroma. Although the pathways for benzenoid biosynthesis have been characterized, the enzymes involved are less well understood. How production and emission are regulated is unknown. By targeted transcriptome analyses, we identified ODORANT1 (ODO1), a member of the R2R3-type MYB family, as a candidate for the regulation of volatile benzenoids in Petunia hybrida cv W115 (Mitchell) flowers. These flowers are only fragrant in the evening and at night. Transcript levels of ODO1 increased before the onset of volatile emission and decreased when volatile emission declined. Downregulation of ODO1 in transgenic P. hybrida Mitchell plants strongly reduced volatile benzenoid levels through decreased synthesis of precursors from the shikimate pathway. The transcript levels of several genes in this pathway were reduced by suppression of ODO1 expression. Moreover, ODO1 could activate the promoter of the 5-enol-pyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase gene. Flower pigmentation, which is furnished from the same shikimate precursors, was not influenced because color and scent biosynthesis occur at different developmental stages. Our studies identify ODO1 as a key regulator of floral scent biosynthesis. PMID:15805488

  11. Properties and applications of phytepsins from thistle flowers.

    PubMed

    Vairo Cavalli, Sandra; Lufrano, Daniela; Colombo, María Laura; Priolo, Nora

    2013-08-01

    Aqueous extracts of thistle flowers from the genus Cynara-Cardueae tribe Cass. (Cynareae Less.), Asteraceae Dumortier-are traditionally used in the Mediterranean region for production of artisanal cheeses. This is because of the presence of aspartic proteases (APs) with the ability to coagulate milk. Plant APs, collectively known as phytepsins (EC 3.4.23.40), are bilobed endopeptidases present in an ample variety of plant species with activity mainly at acidic pHs, and have two aspartic residues located on each side of a catalytic cleft that are responsible for catalysis. The cleavage of the scissile peptide-bond occurs primarily between residues with large hydrophobic side-chains. Even when aspartylendopeptidase activity in plants is normally present at relatively low levels overall, the flowers of several species of the Cardueae tribe possess APs with extremely high specific activities in certain tissues. For this reason, in the last two decades, APs present in thistle flowers have been the subject of intensive study. Present here is a compilation of work that summarizes the known chemical and biological properties of these proteases, as well as their biomedical and biotechnological applications.

  12. Recent progress of flower colour modification by biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Brugliera, Filippa; Chandler, Steve

    2009-12-15

    Genetically-modified, colour-altered varieties of the important cut-flower crop carnation have now been commercially available for nearly ten years. In this review we describe the manipulation of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway that has lead to the development of these varieties and how similar manipulations have been successfully applied to both pot plants and another cut-flower species, the rose. From this experience it is clear that down- and up-regulation of the flavonoid and anthocyanin pathway is both possible and predictable. The major commercial benefit of the application of this technology has so far been the development of novel flower colours through the development of transgenic varieties that produce, uniquely for the target species, anthocyanins derived from delphinidin. These anthocyanins are ubiquitous in nature, and occur in both ornamental plants and common food plants. Through the extensive regulatory approval processes that must occur for the commercialization of genetically modified organisms, we have accumulated considerable experimental and trial data to show the accumulation of delphinidin based anthocyanins in the transgenic plants poses no environmental or health risk.

  13. Nitrogen Recycling and Flowering Time in Perennial Bioenergy Crops

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Christopher; Amasino, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Perennials have a number of traits important for profitability and sustainability of a biofuel crop. Perennialism is generally defined as the ability to grow and reproduce in multiple years. In temperate climates, many perennial plants enter dormancy during winter and recycle nutrients, such as nitrogen, to below ground structures for the next growing season. Nitrogen is expensive to produce and application of nitrogen increases the potent greenhouse gas NOx. Perennial bioenergy crops have been evaluated for biomass yields with nitrogen fertilization, location, year, and genotype as variables. Flowering time and dormancy are closely related to the N recycling program. Substantial variation for flowering time and dormancy has been identified in the switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) species, which provides a source to identify the genetic components of N recycling, and for use in breeding programs. Some studies have addressed recycling specifically, but flowering time and developmental differences were largely ignored, complicating interpretation of the results. Future studies on recycling need to appreciate plant developmental stage to allow comparison between experiments. A perennial/annual model(s) and more environmentally controlled experiments would be useful to determine the genetic components of nitrogen recycling. Increasing biomass yield per unit of nitrogen by maximizing recycling might mean the difference for profitability of a biofuel crop and has the added benefit of minimizing negative environmental effects from agriculture. PMID:23626592

  14. Assessment of Quercus flowering trends in NW Spain.

    PubMed

    Jato, V; Rodríguez-Rajo, F J; Fernandez-González, M; Aira, M J

    2015-05-01

    This paper sought to chart airborne Quercus pollen counts over the last 20 years in the region of Galicia (NW Spain) with a view to detecting the possible influence of climate change on the Quercus airborne pollen season (APS). Pollen data from Ourense, Santiago de Compostela, Vigo and Lugo were used. The Quercus airborne pollen season was characterized in terms of the following parameters: pollen season start and end dates, peak pollen count, pollen season length and pollen index. Several methods, dates and threshold temperatures for determining the chill and heat requirements needed to trigger flowering were applied. A diverse APS onset timing sequence was observed for the four cities as Quercus flowers few days in advance in Vigo. The variations observed could be related to differences in the meteorological conditions or the thermal requirements needed for flowering. Thermal requirements differed depending on local climate conditions in the study cities: the lowest values for chilling accumulation were recorded in Vigo and the highest in Lugo, whereas the lowest heat accumulation was achieved in Vigo. Differences in APS trends between cities may reflect variations in weather-related trends. A significant trend towards rising Quercus pollen indices and higher maximum daily mean pollen counts was observed in Ourense, linked to the more marked temperature increase across southern Galicia. A non-uniform trend towards increased temperatures was noted over the study period, particularly in late summer and early autumn in all four study cities. Additionally, an increase in spring temperatures was observed in south-western Galicia.

  15. TERMINAL FLOWER1 is a breeding target for a novel everbearing trait and tailored flowering responses in cultivated strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.).

    PubMed

    Koskela, Elli Aurora; Sønsteby, Anita; Flachowsky, Henryk; Heide, Ola Mikal; Hanke, Magda-Viola; Elomaa, Paula; Hytönen, Timo

    2016-09-01

    The effects of daylength and temperature on flowering of the cultivated octoploid strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) have been studied extensively at the physiological level, but information on the molecular pathways controlling flowering in the species is scarce. The flowering pathway has been studied at the molecular level in the diploid short-day woodland strawberry (F. vesca L.), in which the FLOWERING LOCUS T1 (FvFT1)-SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS1 (FvSOC1)-TERMINAL FLOWER1 (FvTFL1) pathway is essential for the correct timing of flowering. In this work, we show by transgenic approach that the silencing of the floral repressor FaTFL1 in the octoploid short-day cultivar 'Elsanta' is sufficient to induce perpetual flowering under long days without direct changes in vegetative reproduction. We also demonstrate that although the genes FaFT1 and FaSOC1 show similar expression patterns in different cultivars, the regulation of FaTFL1 varies widely from cultivar to cultivar and is correlated with floral induction, indicating that the transcription of FaTFL1 occurs at least partially independently of the FaFT1-FaSOC1 module. Our results indicate that changing the expression patterns of FaTFL1 through biotechnological or conventional breeding approaches could result in strawberries with specific flowering and runnering characteristics including new types of everbearing cultivars. PMID:26940366

  16. TERMINAL FLOWER1 is a breeding target for a novel everbearing trait and tailored flowering responses in cultivated strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.).

    PubMed

    Koskela, Elli Aurora; Sønsteby, Anita; Flachowsky, Henryk; Heide, Ola Mikal; Hanke, Magda-Viola; Elomaa, Paula; Hytönen, Timo

    2016-09-01

    The effects of daylength and temperature on flowering of the cultivated octoploid strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) have been studied extensively at the physiological level, but information on the molecular pathways controlling flowering in the species is scarce. The flowering pathway has been studied at the molecular level in the diploid short-day woodland strawberry (F. vesca L.), in which the FLOWERING LOCUS T1 (FvFT1)-SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS1 (FvSOC1)-TERMINAL FLOWER1 (FvTFL1) pathway is essential for the correct timing of flowering. In this work, we show by transgenic approach that the silencing of the floral repressor FaTFL1 in the octoploid short-day cultivar 'Elsanta' is sufficient to induce perpetual flowering under long days without direct changes in vegetative reproduction. We also demonstrate that although the genes FaFT1 and FaSOC1 show similar expression patterns in different cultivars, the regulation of FaTFL1 varies widely from cultivar to cultivar and is correlated with floral induction, indicating that the transcription of FaTFL1 occurs at least partially independently of the FaFT1-FaSOC1 module. Our results indicate that changing the expression patterns of FaTFL1 through biotechnological or conventional breeding approaches could result in strawberries with specific flowering and runnering characteristics including new types of everbearing cultivars.

  17. A soybean quantitative trait locus that promotes flowering under long days is identified as FT5a, a FLOWERING LOCUS T ortholog

    PubMed Central

    Takeshima, Ryoma; Hayashi, Takafumi; Zhu, Jianghui; Zhao, Chen; Xu, Meilan; Yamaguchi, Naoya; Sayama, Takashi; Ishimoto, Masao; Kong, Lingping; Shi, Xinyi; Liu, Baohui; Tian, Zhixi; Yamada, Tetsuya; Kong, Fanjiang; Abe, Jun

    2016-01-01

    FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) is an important floral integrator whose functions are conserved across plant species. In soybean, two orthologs, FT2a and FT5a, play a major role in initiating flowering. Their expression in response to different photoperiods is controlled by allelic combinations at the maturity loci E1 to E4, generating variation in flowering time among cultivars. We determined the molecular basis of a quantitative trait locus (QTL) for flowering time in linkage group J (Chromosome 16). Fine-mapping delimited the QTL to a genomic region of 107kb that harbors FT5a. We detected 15 DNA polymorphisms between parents with the early-flowering (ef) and late-flowering (lf) alleles in the promoter region, an intron, and the 3′ untranslated region of FT5a, although the FT5a coding regions were identical. Transcript abundance of FT5a was higher in near-isogenic lines for ef than in those for lf, suggesting that different transcriptional activities or mRNA stability caused the flowering time difference. Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) calling from re-sequencing data for 439 cultivated and wild soybean accessions indicated that ef is a rare haplotype that is distinct from common haplotypes including lf. The ef allele at FT5a may play an adaptive role at latitudes where early flowering is desirable. PMID:27422993

  18. A soybean quantitative trait locus that promotes flowering under long days is identified as FT5a, a FLOWERING LOCUS T ortholog.

    PubMed

    Takeshima, Ryoma; Hayashi, Takafumi; Zhu, Jianghui; Zhao, Chen; Xu, Meilan; Yamaguchi, Naoya; Sayama, Takashi; Ishimoto, Masao; Kong, Lingping; Shi, Xinyi; Liu, Baohui; Tian, Zhixi; Yamada, Tetsuya; Kong, Fanjiang; Abe, Jun

    2016-09-01

    FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) is an important floral integrator whose functions are conserved across plant species. In soybean, two orthologs, FT2a and FT5a, play a major role in initiating flowering. Their expression in response to different photoperiods is controlled by allelic combinations at the maturity loci E1 to E4, generating variation in flowering time among cultivars. We determined the molecular basis of a quantitative trait locus (QTL) for flowering time in linkage group J (Chromosome 16). Fine-mapping delimited the QTL to a genomic region of 107kb that harbors FT5a We detected 15 DNA polymorphisms between parents with the early-flowering (ef) and late-flowering (lf) alleles in the promoter region, an intron, and the 3' untranslated region of FT5a, although the FT5a coding regions were identical. Transcript abundance of FT5a was higher in near-isogenic lines for ef than in those for lf, suggesting that different transcriptional activities or mRNA stability caused the flowering time difference. Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) calling from re-sequencing data for 439 cultivated and wild soybean accessions indicated that ef is a rare haplotype that is distinct from common haplotypes including lf The ef allele at FT5a may play an adaptive role at latitudes where early flowering is desirable. PMID:27422993

  19. Role of the gynoecium in natural senescence of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) flowers.

    PubMed

    Shibuya, K; Yoshioka, T; Hashiba, T; Satoh, S

    2000-12-01

    Although the role of the gynoecium in natural senescence of the carnation flower has long been suggested, it has remained a matter of dispute because petal senescence in the cut carnation flower was not delayed by the removal of gynoecium. In this study, the gynoecium was snapped off by hand, in contrast to previous investigations where removal was achieved by forceps or scissors. The removal of the gynoecium by hand prevented the onset of ethylene production and prolonged the vase life of the flower, demonstrating a decisive role of the gynoecium in controlling natural senescence of the carnation flower. Abscisic acid (ABA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), which induced ethylene production and accelerated petal senescence in carnation flowers, did not stimulate ethylene production in the flowers with gynoecia removed (-Gyn flowers). Application of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC), the ethylene precursor, induced substantial ethylene production and petal wilting in the flowers with gynoecia left intact, but was less effective at stimulating ethylene production in the -Gyn flowers and negligible petal in-rolling was observed. Exogenous ethylene induced autocatalytic production of the gas and petal wilting in the -Gyn flowers. These results indicated that ethylene generated in the gynoecium triggers the onset of ethylene production in the petals of carnation during natural senescence.

  20. Is 'peak N' key to understanding the timing of flowering in annual plants?

    PubMed

    Guilbaud, Camille S E; Dalchau, Neil; Purves, Drew W; Turnbull, Lindsay A

    2015-01-01

    Flowering time in annual plants has large fitness consequences and has been the focus of theoretical and empirical study. Previous theory has concluded that flowering time has evolved over evolutionary time to maximize fitness over a particular season length. We introduce a new model where flowering is cued by a growth-rate rule (peak nitrogen (N)). Flowering is therefore sensitive to physiological parameters and to current environmental conditions, including N availability and the presence of competitors. The model predicts that, when overall conditions are suitable for flowering, plants should never flower after 'peak N', the point during development when the whole-plant N uptake rate reaches its maximum. Our model further predicts correlations between flowering time and vegetative growth rates, and that the response to increased N depends heavily on how this extra N is made available. We compare our predictions to observations in the literature. We suggest that annual plants may have evolved to use growth-rate rules as part of the cue for flowering, allowing them to smoothly and optimally adjust their flowering time to a wide range of local conditions. If so, there are widespread implications for the study of the molecular biology behind flowering pathways.

  1. FT overexpression induces precocious flowering and normal reproductive development in Eucalyptus.

    PubMed

    Klocko, Amy L; Ma, Cathleen; Robertson, Sarah; Esfandiari, Elahe; Nilsson, Ove; Strauss, Steven H

    2016-02-01

    Eucalyptus trees are among the most important species for industrial forestry worldwide. However, as with most forest trees, flowering does not begin for one to several years after planting which can limit the rate of conventional and molecular breeding. To speed flowering, we transformed a Eucalyptus grandis × urophylla hybrid (SP7) with a variety of constructs that enable overexpression of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT). We found that FT expression led to very early flowering, with events showing floral buds within 1-5 months of transplanting to the glasshouse. The most rapid flowering was observed when the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter was used to drive the Arabidopsis thaliana FT gene (AtFT). Early flowering was also observed with AtFT overexpression from a 409S ubiquitin promoter and under heat induction conditions with Populus trichocarpa FT1 (PtFT1) under control of a heat-shock promoter. Early flowering trees grew robustly, but exhibited a highly branched phenotype compared to the strong apical dominance of nonflowering transgenic and control trees. AtFT-induced flowers were morphologically normal and produced viable pollen grains and viable self- and cross-pollinated seeds. Many self-seedlings inherited AtFT and flowered early. FT overexpression-induced flowering in Eucalyptus may be a valuable means for accelerating breeding and genetic studies as the transgene can be easily segregated away in progeny, restoring normal growth and form. PMID:26132805

  2. FRIGIDA-Independent Variation in Flowering Time of Natural Arabidopsis thaliana Accessions

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Jonathan D.; Borevitz, Justin O.; Uhlenhaut, N. Henriette; Ecker, Joseph R.; Chory, Joanne; Weigel, Detlef

    2005-01-01

    FRIGIDA (FRI) and FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) are two genes that, unless plants are vernalized, greatly delay flowering time in Arabidopsis thaliana. Natural loss-of-function mutations in FRI cause the early flowering growth habits of many A. thaliana accessions. To quantify the variation among wild accessions due to FRI, and to identify additional genetic loci in wild accessions that influence flowering time, we surveyed the flowering times of 145 accessions in long-day photoperiods, with and without a 30-day vernalization treatment, and genotyped them for two common natural lesions in FRI. FRI is disrupted in at least 84 of the accessions, accounting for only ∼40% of the flowering-time variation in long days. During efforts to dissect the causes for variation that are independent of known dysfunctional FRI alleles, we found new loss-of-function alleles in FLC, as well as late-flowering alleles that do not map to FRI or FLC. An FLC nonsense mutation was found in the early flowering Van-0 accession, which has otherwise functional FRI. In contrast, Lz-0 flowers late because of high levels of FLC expression, even though it has a deletion in FRI. Finally, eXtreme array mapping identified genomic regions linked to the vernalization-independent, late-flowering habit of Bur-0, which has an alternatively spliced FLC allele that behaves as a null allele. PMID:15911588

  3. Relative abundance of an invasive alien plant affects insect-flower interaction networks in Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stout, Jane C.; Casey, Leanne M.

    2014-02-01

    Invasive alien flowering plants may affect native plant pollinator interactions and have knock on impacts on populations of native plants and animals. The magnitude of these impacts, however, may be modified by the relative abundance of the invasive plant and the number of flowers it presents.We tested this by examining the structure of insect-flower interaction networks in six sites with increasing levels of invasion by Rhododendron ponticum in Ireland.Neither flower-visiting insect abundance, species richness nor diversity were related to R. ponticum flower abundance, but the composition of insect communities was. The total number of flowers in a site increased with the relative abundance of R. ponticum flowers but the number of co-flowering native plant species in these sites was low (<6), making interaction networks relatively small.As a result, changes in interaction network properties (connectance, interaction evenness and network level specialisation), which correlated with R. ponticum flower abundance, were a result of the small network size rather than due to changes in the resilience of networks.Overall, we conclude that the impacts of invasive alien plants on native plant-pollinator interactions are not only species specific, but site specific, according to the abundance of flowers produced by both the invasive and the native plants.

  4. Effects of elevated CO 2 on flowering phenology and nectar production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erhardt, Andreas; Rusterholz, Hans-Peter

    Effects of elevated CO 2 on flowering phenology and nectar production were studied in five important nectar plants of calcareous grasslands, i.e. Lotus corniculatus, Trifolium pratense, Betonica officinalis, Scabiosa columbaria and Centaurea jacea. Glasshouse experiments showed that flowering probability was significantly enhanced in C. jacea. B. officinalis flowered carlier and L. corniculatus produced more flowers under elevated CO 2. In contrast, the number of flowers decreased in T. pratense. The amount of nectar produced per flower was not affected in the investigated legumes ( T. pratense, L. corniculatus), but was significantly reduced in the other forbs. Elevated CO 2 did not significantly affect nectar sugar concentration and sugar composition. However, S. columbaria and C. jacea produced significantly less total sugar per flower under elevated CO 2. The nectar amino acid concentration remained unaffected in all investigated plant species whereas the total of amino acids produced per flower was significantly reduced in all non-legumes. In addition, the amino acid composition changed significantly in all investigated species except for C. jacea. The observed effects are unexpected and are a potential threat to flower visitors such as most butterflies which have no alternative food resources except nectar. Changes in nectar production due to elevated CO 2 could also generally have detrimental effects on the interactions of flowers and their pollinators.

  5. Pollinators, "mustard oil" volatiles, and fruit production in flowers of the dioecious tree Drypetes natalensis (Putranjivaceae).

    PubMed

    Johnson, Steven D; Griffiths, Megan E; Peter, Craig I; Lawes, Michael J

    2009-11-01

    The Putranjivaceae is an enigmatic family, notable for being the only lineage outside the Capparales to possess the glucosinolate biochemical pathway, which forms the basis of an induced chemical defense system against herbivores (the "mustard oil bomb"). We investigated the pollination biology and floral scent chemistry of Drypetes natalensis (Putranjivaceae), a dioecious subcanopy tree with flowers borne on the stem (cauliflory). Flowering male trees were more abundant than female ones and produced about 10-fold more flowers. Flowers of both sexes produce copious amounts of nectar on disc-like nectaries accessible to short-tongued insects. The main flower visitors observed were cetoniid beetles, bees, and vespid wasps. Pollen load analysis indicated that these insects exhibit a high degree of fidelity to D. natalensis flowers. Insects effectively transfer pollen from male to female plants resulting in about 31% of female flowers developing fruits with viable seeds. Cetoniid beetles showed significant orientation toward the scent of D. natalensis flowers in a Y-maze olfactometer. The scents of male and female flowers are similar in chemical composition and dominated by fatty acid derivatives and isothiocyanates from the glucosinolate pathway. The apparent constitutive emission of isothiocyanates raises interesting new questions about their functional role in flowers. PMID:21622327

  6. A small indel mutation in an anthocyanin transporter causes variegated colouration of peach flowers.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jun; Liao, Liao; Zhou, Hui; Gu, Chao; Wang, Lu; Han, Yuepeng

    2015-12-01

    The ornamental peach cultivar 'Hongbaihuatao (HBH)' can simultaneously bear pink, red, and variegated flowers on a single tree. Anthocyanin content in pink flowers is extremely low, being only 10% that of a red flower. Surprisingly, the expression of anthocyanin structural and potential regulatory genes in white flowers was not significantly lower than that in both pink and red flowers. However, proteomic analysis revealed a GST encoded by a gene-regulator involved in anthocyanin transport (Riant)-which is expressed in the red flower, but almost undetectable in the variegated flower. The Riant gene contains an insertion-deletion (indel) polymorphism in exon 3. In white flowers, the Riant gene is interrupted by a 2-bp insertion in the last exon, which causes a frameshift and a premature stop codon. In contrast, both pink and red flowers that arise from bud sports are heterozygous for the Riant locus, with one functional allele due to the 2-bp deletion or a novel 1-bp insertion. Southern blot analysis indicated that the Riant gene occurs in a single copy in the peach genome and it is not interrupted by a transposon. The function of the Riant gene was confirmed by its ectopic expression in the Arabidopsis tt19 mutant, where it complements the anthocyanin phenotype, but not the proanthocyanidin pigmentation in seed coat. Collectively,these results indicate that a small indel mutation in the Riant gene, which is not the result of a transposon insertion or excision, causes variegated colouration of peach flowers.

  7. Phytohormone and assimilate profiles in emasculated flowers of the black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) during development.

    PubMed

    Sun, Peng; Yuan, Cunquan; Dai, Li; Xi, Yang; Li, Yunfei; Hu, Ruiyang; Sun, Yuhan; Xu, Zhaohe; Li, Yun

    2013-09-01

    Emasculation and bagging of flowers, which are widely used in the controlled pollination of monoclinous plants, may induce premature senescence, flower abscission and low fruit set. To determine the mechanism responsible for these phenomena, levels of abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), ethylene, soluble sugars, reducing sugars and free amino acids in black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) flowers subjected to different treatments were quantified at different developmental stages. The phytohormones and assimilates were also quantified in untreated flowers to investigate the presence of discernible patterns. The levels of ethylene and ABA in emasculated and bagged (EB) flowers increased prematurely compared with those of untreated flowers, whereas the content of reducing sugars in EB flowers decreased compared with that of untreated flowers. These results indicated that the premature increase in ethylene and ABA synthesis, and the decrease in reducing sugars content, in EB flowers may cause flower abscission and result in low fruit set, which may be relevant for assimilate applications and future research on the regulation of controlled pollinations with exogenous phytohormones.

  8. Genome-Wide Comparative Analysis of Flowering-Related Genes in Arabidopsis, Wheat, and Barley

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Fred Y.; Hu, Zhiqiu; Yang, Rong-Cai

    2015-01-01

    Early flowering is an important trait influencing grain yield and quality in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in short-season cropping regions. However, due to large and complex genomes of these species, direct identification of flowering genes and their molecular characterization remain challenging. Here, we used a bioinformatic approach to predict flowering-related genes in wheat and barley from 190 known Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh.) flowering genes. We identified 900 and 275 putative orthologs in wheat and barley, respectively. The annotated flowering-related genes were clustered into 144 orthologous groups with one-to-one, one-to-many, many-to-one, and many-to-many orthology relationships. Our approach was further validated by domain and phylogenetic analyses of flowering-related proteins and comparative analysis of publicly available microarray data sets for in silico expression profiling of flowering-related genes in 13 different developmental stages of wheat and barley. These further analyses showed that orthologous gene pairs in three critical flowering gene families (PEBP, MADS, and BBX) exhibited similar expression patterns among 13 developmental stages in wheat and barley, suggesting similar functions among the orthologous genes with sequence and expression similarities. The predicted candidate flowering genes can be confirmed and incorporated into molecular breeding for early flowering wheat and barley in short-season cropping regions. PMID:26435710

  9. Phytohormone and assimilate profiles in emasculated flowers of the black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) during development.

    PubMed

    Sun, Peng; Yuan, Cunquan; Dai, Li; Xi, Yang; Li, Yunfei; Hu, Ruiyang; Sun, Yuhan; Xu, Zhaohe; Li, Yun

    2013-09-01

    Emasculation and bagging of flowers, which are widely used in the controlled pollination of monoclinous plants, may induce premature senescence, flower abscission and low fruit set. To determine the mechanism responsible for these phenomena, levels of abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), ethylene, soluble sugars, reducing sugars and free amino acids in black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) flowers subjected to different treatments were quantified at different developmental stages. The phytohormones and assimilates were also quantified in untreated flowers to investigate the presence of discernible patterns. The levels of ethylene and ABA in emasculated and bagged (EB) flowers increased prematurely compared with those of untreated flowers, whereas the content of reducing sugars in EB flowers decreased compared with that of untreated flowers. These results indicated that the premature increase in ethylene and ABA synthesis, and the decrease in reducing sugars content, in EB flowers may cause flower abscission and result in low fruit set, which may be relevant for assimilate applications and future research on the regulation of controlled pollinations with exogenous phytohormones. PMID:24013897

  10. Patterns of MADS-box gene expression mark flower-type development in Gerbera hybrida (Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Laitinen, Roosa AE; Broholm, Suvi; Albert, Victor A; Teeri, Teemu H; Elomaa, Paula

    2006-01-01

    Background The inflorescence of the cut-flower crop Gerbera hybrida (Asteraceae) consists of two principal flower types, ray and disc, which form a tightly packed head, or capitulum. Despite great interest in plant morphological evolution and the tractability of the gerbera system, very little is known regarding genetic mechanisms involved in flower type specification. Here, we provide comparative staging of ray and disc flower development and microarray screening for differentially expressed genes, accomplished via microdissection of hundreds of coordinately developing flower primordia. Results Using a 9K gerbera cDNA microarray we identified a number of genes with putative specificity to individual flower types. Intrestingly, several of these encode homologs of MADS-box transcription factors otherwise known to regulate flower organ development. From these and previously obtained data, we hypothesize the functions and protein-protein interactions of several gerbera MADS-box factors. Conclusion Our RNA expression results suggest that flower-type specific MADS protein complexes may play a central role in differential development of ray and disc flowers across the gerbera capitulum, and that some commonality is shared with known protein functions in floral organ determination. These findings support the intriguing conjecture that the gerbera flowering head is more than a mere floral analog at the level of gene regulation. PMID:16762082

  11. How Nectar-Feeding Bats Localize their Food: Echolocation Behavior of Leptonycteris yerbabuenae Approaching Cactus Flowers

    PubMed Central

    Koblitz, Jens C.; Fleming, Theodore H.; Medellín, Rodrigo A.; Kalko, Elisabeth K. V.; Schnitzler, Hans-Ulrich; Tschapka, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Nectar-feeding bats show morphological, physiological, and behavioral adaptations for feeding on nectar. How they find and localize flowers is still poorly understood. While scent cues alone allow no precise localization of a floral target, the spatial properties of flower echoes are very precise and could play a major role, particularly at close range. The aim of this study is to understand the role of echolocation for classification and localization of flowers. We compared the approach behavior of Leptonycteris yerbabuenae to flowers of a columnar cactus, Pachycereus pringlei, to that to an acrylic hollow hemisphere that is acoustically conspicuous to bats, but has different acoustic properties and, contrary to the cactus flower, present no scent. For recording the flight and echolocation behaviour we used two infrared video cameras under stroboscopic illumination synchronized with ultrasound recordings. During search flights all individuals identified both targets as a possible food source and initiated an approach flight; however, they visited only the cactus flower. In experiments with the acrylic hemisphere bats aborted the approach at ca. 40–50 cm. In the last instant before the flower visit the bats emitted a long terminal group of 10–20 calls. This is the first report of this behaviour for a nectar-feeding bat. Our findings suggest that L. yerbabuenae use echolocation for classification and localization of cactus flowers and that the echo-acoustic characteristics of the flower guide the bats directly to the flower opening. PMID:27684373

  12. HSP90 canonical content organizes a molecular scaffold mechanism to progress flowering.

    PubMed

    Margaritopoulou, Theoni; Kryovrysanaki, Nikoleta; Megkoula, Panagiota; Prassinos, Constantinos; Samakovli, Despoina; Milioni, Dimitra; Hatzopoulos, Polydefkis

    2016-07-01

    Highly interactive signaling processes constitute a set of parameters intertwining in a continuum mode to shape body formation and development. A sophisticated gene network is required to integrate environmental and endogenous cues in order to modulate flowering. However, the molecular mechanisms that coordinate the circuitries of flowering genes remain unclear. Here using complemented experimental approaches, we uncover the decisive and essential role of HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN 90 (HSP90) in restraining developmental noise to an acceptable limit. Localized depletion of HSP90 mRNAs in the shoot apex resulted in low penetrance of vegetative-to-reproductive phase transition and completely abolished flower formation. Extreme variation in expression of flowering genes was also observed in HSP90 mRNA-depleted transformed plants. Transient heat-shock treatments moderately increased HSP90 mRNA levels and rescued flower arrest. The offspring had a low, nevertheless noticeable failure to promote transition from vegetative into the reproductive phase and showed flower morphological heterogeneity. In floral tissues a moderate variation in HSP90 transcript levels and in the expression of flowering genes was detected. Key flowering proteins comprised clientele of the molecular chaperone demonstrating that the HSP90 is essential during vegetative-to-reproductive phase transition and flower development. Our results uncover that HSP90 consolidates a molecular scaffold able to arrange and organize flowering gene network and protein circuitry, and effectively counterbalance the extent to which developmental noise perturbs phenotypic traits. PMID:27121421

  13. Pistil starch reserves at anthesis correlate with final flower fate in avocado (Persea americana).

    PubMed

    Alcaraz, María Librada; Hormaza, José Ignacio; Rodrigo, Javier

    2013-01-01

    A common observation in different plant species is a massive abscission of flowers and fruitlets even after adequate pollination, but little is known as to the reason for this drop. Previous research has shown the importance of nutritive reserves accumulated in the flower on fertilization success and initial fruit development but direct evidence has been elusive. Avocado (Persea americana) is an extreme case of a species with a very low fruit to flower ratio. In this work, the implications of starch content in the avocado flower on the subsequent fruit set are explored. Firstly, starch content in individual ovaries was analysed from two populations of flowers with a different fruit set capacity showing that the flowers from the population that resulted in a higher percentage of fruit set contained significantly more starch. Secondly, in a different set of flowers, the style of each flower was excised one day after pollination, once the pollen tubes had reached the base of the style, and individually fixed for starch content analysis under the microscope once the fate of its corresponding ovary (that remained in the tree) was known. A high variability in starch content in the style was found among flowers, with some flowers having starch content up to 1,000 times higher than others, and the flowers that successfully developed into fruits presented significantly higher starch content in the style at anthesis than those that abscised. The relationship between starch content in the ovary and the capacity of set of the flower together with the correlation found between the starch content in the style and the fate of the ovary support the hypothesis that the carbohydrate reserves accumulated in the flower at anthesis are related to subsequent abscission or retention of the developing fruit. PMID:24167627

  14. Pistil Starch Reserves at Anthesis Correlate with Final Flower Fate in Avocado (Persea americana)

    PubMed Central

    Alcaraz, María Librada; Hormaza, José Ignacio; Rodrigo, Javier

    2013-01-01

    A common observation in different plant species is a massive abscission of flowers and fruitlets even after adequate pollination, but little is known as to the reason for this drop. Previous research has shown the importance of nutritive reserves accumulated in the flower on fertilization success and initial fruit development but direct evidence has been elusive. Avocado (Persea americana) is an extreme case of a species with a very low fruit to flower ratio. In this work, the implications of starch content in the avocado flower on the subsequent fruit set are explored. Firstly, starch content in individual ovaries was analysed from two populations of flowers with a different fruit set capacity showing that the flowers from the population that resulted in a higher percentage of fruit set contained significantly more starch. Secondly, in a different set of flowers, the style of each flower was excised one day after pollination, once the pollen tubes had reached the base of the style, and individually fixed for starch content analysis under the microscope once the fate of its corresponding ovary (that remained in the tree) was known. A high variability in starch content in the style was found among flowers, with some flowers having starch content up to 1,000 times higher than others, and the flowers that successfully developed into fruits presented significantly higher starch content in the style at anthesis than those that abscised. The relationship between starch content in the ovary and the capacity of set of the flower together with the correlation found between the starch content in the style and the fate of the ovary support the hypothesis that the carbohydrate reserves accumulated in the flower at anthesis are related to subsequent abscission or retention of the developing fruit. PMID:24167627

  15. Pistil starch reserves at anthesis correlate with final flower fate in avocado (Persea americana).

    PubMed

    Alcaraz, María Librada; Hormaza, José Ignacio; Rodrigo, Javier

    2013-01-01

    A common observation in different plant species is a massive abscission of flowers and fruitlets even after adequate pollination, but little is known as to the reason for this drop. Previous research has shown the importance of nutritive reserves accumulated in the flower on fertilization success and initial fruit development but direct evidence has been elusive. Avocado (Persea americana) is an extreme case of a species with a very low fruit to flower ratio. In this work, the implications of starch content in the avocado flower on the subsequent fruit set are explored. Firstly, starch content in individual ovaries was analysed from two populations of flowers with a different fruit set capacity showing that the flowers from the population that resulted in a higher percentage of fruit set contained significantly more starch. Secondly, in a different set of flowers, the style of each flower was excised one day after pollination, once the pollen tubes had reached the base of the style, and individually fixed for starch content analysis under the microscope once the fate of its corresponding ovary (that remained in the tree) was known. A high variability in starch content in the style was found among flowers, with some flowers having starch content up to 1,000 times higher than others, and the flowers that successfully developed into fruits presented significantly higher starch content in the style at anthesis than those that abscised. The relationship between starch content in the ovary and the capacity of set of the flower together with the correlation found between the starch content in the style and the fate of the ovary support the hypothesis that the carbohydrate reserves accumulated in the flower at anthesis are related to subsequent abscission or retention of the developing fruit.

  16. DAY NEUTRAL FLOWERING does not act through GIGANTEA and FKF1 to regulate CONSTANS expression and flowering time.

    PubMed

    Morris, Karl; Jackson, Stephen P

    2010-09-01

    The regulation of CONSTANS (CO) gene expression and protein levels is the critical factor in determining a plant's response to photoperiod, flowering is induced when high levels of CO protein are present in the light. The regulation of CO transcription is mediated in part by GIGANTEA (GI), FKF1 and the CYCLING DOF FACTORS (CDFs) and factors affecting the levels of these proteins will also affect CO expression. The DAY NEUTRAL FLOWERING (DNF) protein is an E3 ligase involved in repressing CO expression in the early part of the day. In this article we present evidence to support the argument that DNF is not acting through the GI/FKF1/CDF regulatory mechanism to repress CO expression, but that it acts on another transcriptional activator of CO.

  17. Post-Flowering Nitrate Uptake in Wheat Is Controlled by N Status at Flowering, with a Putative Major Role of Root Nitrate Transporter NRT2.1

    PubMed Central

    Taulemesse, François; Le Gouis, Jacques; Gouache, David; Gibon, Yves; Allard, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    In bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), the simultaneous improvement of both yield and grain protein is difficult because of the strong negative relationship between these two traits. However, some genotypes deviate positively from this relationship and this has been linked to their ability to take up nitrogen (N) during the post-flowering period, regardless of their N status at flowering. The physiological and genetic determinants of post-flowering N uptake relating to N satiety are poorly understood. This study uses semi-hydroponic culture of cv. Récital under controlled conditions to explore these controls. The first objective was to record the effects of contrasting N status at flowering on post-flowering nitrate (NO3-) uptake under non-limiting NO3- conditions, while following the expression of key genes involved in NO3- uptake and assimilation. We found that post-flowering NO3- uptake was strongly influenced by plant N status at flowering during the first 300–400 degree-days after flowering, overlapping with a probable regulation of nitrate uptake exerted by N demand for growth. The uptake of NO3- correlated well with the expression of the gene TaNRT2.1, coding for a root NO3- transporter, which seems to play a major role in post-flowering NO3- uptake. These results provide a useful knowledge base for future investigation of genetic variability in post-flowering N uptake and may lead to concomitant gains in both grain yield and grain protein in wheat. PMID:25798624

  18. Post-flowering nitrate uptake in wheat is controlled by N status at flowering, with a putative major role of root nitrate transporter NRT2.1.

    PubMed

    Taulemesse, François; Le Gouis, Jacques; Gouache, David; Gibon, Yves; Allard, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    In bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), the simultaneous improvement of both yield and grain protein is difficult because of the strong negative relationship between these two traits. However, some genotypes deviate positively from this relationship and this has been linked to their ability to take up nitrogen (N) during the post-flowering period, regardless of their N status at flowering. The physiological and genetic determinants of post-flowering N uptake relating to N satiety are poorly understood. This study uses semi-hydroponic culture of cv. Récital under controlled conditions to explore these controls. The first objective was to record the effects of contrasting N status at flowering on post-flowering nitrate (NO₃⁻) uptake under non-limiting NO₃⁻ conditions, while following the expression of key genes involved in NO₃⁻ uptake and assimilation. We found that post-flowering NO₃⁻ uptake was strongly influenced by plant N status at flowering during the first 300-400 degree-days after flowering, overlapping with a probable regulation of nitrate uptake exerted by N demand for growth. The uptake of NO₃⁻ correlated well with the expression of the gene TaNRT2.1, coding for a root NO₃⁻ transporter, which seems to play a major role in post-flowering NO₃⁻ uptake. These results provide a useful knowledge base for future investigation of genetic variability in post-flowering N uptake and may lead to concomitant gains in both grain yield and grain protein in wheat.

  19. Quantitative Determination of Alkaloids in Lotus Flower (Flower Buds of Nelumbo nucifera) and Their Melanogenesis Inhibitory Activity.

    PubMed

    Morikawa, Toshio; Kitagawa, Niichiro; Tanabe, Genzoh; Ninomiya, Kiyofumi; Okugawa, Shuhei; Motai, Chiaki; Kamei, Iyori; Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Lee, I-Jung; Muraoka, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    A quantitative analytical method for five aporphine alkaloids, nuciferine (1), nornuciferine (2), N-methylasimilobine (3), asimilobine (4), and pronuciferine (5), and five benzylisoquinoline alkaloids, armepavine (6), norarmepavine (7), N-methylcoclaurine (8), coclaurine (9), and norjuziphine (10), identified as the constituents responsible for the melanogenesis inhibitory activity of the extracts of lotus flowers (the flower buds of Nelumbo nucifera), has been developed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The optimum conditions for separation and detection of these 10 alkaloids were achieved on a πNAP column, a reversed-phase column with naphthylethyl group-bonded silica packing material, with CH₃CN-0.2% aqueous acetic acid as the mobile phase and using mass spectrometry equipped with a positive-mode electrospray ionization source. According to the protocol established, distributions of these 10 alkaloids in the petal, receptacle, and stamen parts, which were separated from the whole flower, were examined. As expected, excellent correlations were observed between the total alkaloid content and melanogenesis inhibitory activity. Among the active alkaloids, nornuciferine (2) was found to give a carbamate salt (2'') via formation of an unstable carbamic acid (2') by absorption of carbon dioxide from the air. PMID:27447599

  20. Vulnerability of the northern Mongolian steppe to climate change: insights from flower production and phenology.

    PubMed

    Liancourt, Pierre; Spence, Laura A; Boldgiv, Bazartseren; Lkhagva, Ariuntsetseg; Helliker, Brent R; Casper, Brenda B; Petraitis, Peter S

    2012-04-01

    The semiarid, northern Mongolian steppe, which still supports pastoral nomads who have used the steppe for millennia, has experienced an average 1.7 degrees C temperature rise over the past 40 years. Continuing climate change is likely to affect flowering phenology and flower numbers with potentially important consequences for plant community composition, ecosystem services, and herder livelihoods. Over the growing seasons of 2009 and 2010, we examined flowering responses to climate manipulation using open-top passive warming chambers (OTCs) at two locations on a south-facing slope: one on the moister, cooler lower slope and the other on the drier, warmer upper slope, where a watering treatment was added in a factorial design with warming. Canonical analysis of principal coordinates (CAP) revealed that OTCs reduced flower production and delayed peak flowering in graminoids as a whole but only affected forbs on the upper slope, where peak flowering was also delayed. OTCs affected flowering phenology in seven of eight species, which were examined individually, either by altering the time of peak flowering and/or the onset and/or cessation of flowering, as revealed by survival analysis. In 2010, which was the drier year, OTCs reduced flower production in two grasses but increased production in an annual forb found only on the upper slope. The particular effects of OTCs on phenology, and whether they caused an extension or contraction of the flowering season, differed among species, and often depended on year, or slope, or watering treatment; however, a relatively strong pattern emerged for 2010 when four species showed a contraction of the flowering season in OTCs. Watering increased flower production in two species in 2010, but slope location more often affected flowering phenology than did watering. Our results show the importance of taking landscape-scale variation into account in climate change studies and also contrasted with those of several studies set in cold

  1. Impacts of climate change on spring flower tourism in Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huanjiong

    2016-04-01

    The beauty of blooming flowers causes spring to be one of the most picturesque and pleasant seasons in which to travel. However, the blooming time of plant species are very sensitive to small changes in climate. Therefore, recent climate change may shift flowering time and, as a result, may affect timing of spring tourism for tourists. In order to prove this assumption, we gathered data of first flowering date and end of flowering date (1963-2014) for 49 common ornamental plants in Beijing, China. In addition, we used the number of messages (2010-2014) posted on Sina Weibo (one of the most popular microblogs sites in China, in use by well over 30% of internet users, with a market penetration similar to the United States' Twitter) to indicate the tourist numbers of five scenic spots in Beijing. These spots are most famous places for seeing spring flowers, including the Summer Palace, Yuyuantan Park, Beijing Botanical Garden, Jingshan Park, Dadu City Wall Relics Park. The results showed that the number of species in flower starts to increase in early spring and peaks in middle spring, and then begins to decrease from late spring. The date when the number of species in flower peaks can be defined as best date of spring flower tourism, because on this day people can see blooming flowers of most plant species. The best date of spring flower tourism varied from March 31 to May 1 among years with a mean of April 20. At above scenic spots characterized by the beauty of blooming flowers, tourist numbers also had a peak value during spring. Furthermore, peak time of tourist numbers derived from Weibo varied among different years and was related to best date of spring flower tour derived from phenological data. This suggests that the time of spring outing for tourists is remarkably attracted by flowering phenology. From 1963 to 2014, the best date of spring flower tour became earlier at a rate of 1.6 days decade-1, but the duration for spring flower tour (defined as width at

  2. Vulnerability of the northern Mongolian steppe to climate change: insights from flower production and phenology.

    PubMed

    Liancourt, Pierre; Spence, Laura A; Boldgiv, Bazartseren; Lkhagva, Ariuntsetseg; Helliker, Brent R; Casper, Brenda B; Petraitis, Peter S

    2012-04-01

    The semiarid, northern Mongolian steppe, which still supports pastoral nomads who have used the steppe for millennia, has experienced an average 1.7 degrees C temperature rise over the past 40 years. Continuing climate change is likely to affect flowering phenology and flower numbers with potentially important consequences for plant community composition, ecosystem services, and herder livelihoods. Over the growing seasons of 2009 and 2010, we examined flowering responses to climate manipulation using open-top passive warming chambers (OTCs) at two locations on a south-facing slope: one on the moister, cooler lower slope and the other on the drier, warmer upper slope, where a watering treatment was added in a factorial design with warming. Canonical analysis of principal coordinates (CAP) revealed that OTCs reduced flower production and delayed peak flowering in graminoids as a whole but only affected forbs on the upper slope, where peak flowering was also delayed. OTCs affected flowering phenology in seven of eight species, which were examined individually, either by altering the time of peak flowering and/or the onset and/or cessation of flowering, as revealed by survival analysis. In 2010, which was the drier year, OTCs reduced flower production in two grasses but increased production in an annual forb found only on the upper slope. The particular effects of OTCs on phenology, and whether they caused an extension or contraction of the flowering season, differed among species, and often depended on year, or slope, or watering treatment; however, a relatively strong pattern emerged for 2010 when four species showed a contraction of the flowering season in OTCs. Watering increased flower production in two species in 2010, but slope location more often affected flowering phenology than did watering. Our results show the importance of taking landscape-scale variation into account in climate change studies and also contrasted with those of several studies set in cold

  3. Resource partitioning among flower visitors and evolution of nectar concealment in multi-species communities.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Gironés, Miguel A; Santamaría, Luis

    2005-01-22

    The plant community within which flower evolution takes place has largely been ignored. We develop two models for the evolution of nectar concealment when flowers are visited by legitimate pollinators and flower parasites. When there is a single plant species, no level of nectar concealment is evolutionarily stable: any population can be invaded by mutants exhibiting a higher level of nectar concealment. However, the presence of a second flower species with exposed nectar and not subject to evolution breaks the runaway process. In the presence of open flowers, depending on the fitness function there may be an evolutionarily stable level of nectar concealment, or more complex evolutionary dynamics, with nectar concealment fluctuating within a bounded range. Concealment of nectar from flower parasites can evolve even if it implies decreasing the accessibility of nectar to legitimate pollinators.

  4. Co-ordination of Flower Development Through Epigenetic Regulation in Two Model Species: Rice and Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Siyi; Sun, Bo; Looi, Liang-Sheng; Xu, Yifeng; Gan, Eng-Seng; Huang, Jiangbo; Ito, Toshiro

    2015-05-01

    Angiosperms produce flowers for reproduction. Flower development is a multistep developmental process, beginning with the initiation of the floral meristems, followed by floral meristem identity specification and maintenance, organ primordia initiation, floral organ identity specification, floral stem cell termination and finally floral organ maturation. During flower development, each of a large number of genes is expressed in a spatiotemporally regulated manner. Underlying these molecular and phenotypic events are various genetic and epigenetic pathways, consisting of diverse transcription factors, chromatin-remodeling factors and signaling molecules. Over the past 30 years, genetic, biochemical and genomic assays have revealed the underlying genetic frameworks that control flower development. Here, we will review the transcriptional regulation of flower development in two model species: Arabidopsis thaliana and rice (Oryza sativa). We focus on epigenetic regulation that functions to co-ordinate transcription pathways in flower development.

  5. Survey of insect visitation of ornamental flowers in Southover Grange garden, Lewes, UK.

    PubMed

    Garbuzov, Mihail; Samuelson, Elizabeth E W; Ratnieks, Francis L W

    2015-10-01

    Ornamental flowers commonly grown in urban gardens and parks can be of value to flower-visiting insects. However, there is huge variation in the number of insects attracted among plant varieties. In this study, we quantified the insect attractiveness of 79 varieties in full bloom being grown in a public urban garden that is popular due to its beautiful flowers and other attractions. The results showed very clearly that most varieties (77%, n = 61) were either poorly attractive or completely unattractive to insect flower visitors. Several varieties (19%, n = 15) were moderately attractive, but very few (4%, n = 3) were highly attractive. Closer examination of Dahlia varieties showed that "open" flowered forms were approximately 20 times more attractive than "closed" flowered forms. These results strongly suggest that there is a great potential for making urban parks and gardens considerably more bee- and insect-friendly by selecting appropriate varieties.

  6. Phytochemical Content, Health Benefits, and Toxicology of Common Edible Flowers: A Review (2000-2015).

    PubMed

    Lu, Baiyi; Li, Maiquan; Yin, Ran

    2016-07-29

    Edible flowers contain numerous phytochemicals which contribute to their health benefits, and consumption of edible flowers has increased significantly in recent years. While many researchers have been conducted, no literature review of the health benefits of common edible flowers and their phytochemicals has been compiled. This review aimed to present the findings of research conducted from 2000 to 2015 on the species, traditional application, phytochemicals, health benefits, and the toxicology of common edible flowers. It was found in 15 species of common edible flowers that four flavonols, three flavones, four flavanols, three anthocyanins, three phenolic acids and their derivatives were common phytochemicals and they contributed to the health benefits such as anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-obesity, and neuroprotective effect. Toxicology studies have been conducted to evaluate the safety of common edible flowers and provide information on their dosages and usages. PMID:26462418

  7. Survey of insect visitation of ornamental flowers in Southover Grange garden, Lewes, UK.

    PubMed

    Garbuzov, Mihail; Samuelson, Elizabeth E W; Ratnieks, Francis L W

    2015-10-01

    Ornamental flowers commonly grown in urban gardens and parks can be of value to flower-visiting insects. However, there is huge variation in the number of insects attracted among plant varieties. In this study, we quantified the insect attractiveness of 79 varieties in full bloom being grown in a public urban garden that is popular due to its beautiful flowers and other attractions. The results showed very clearly that most varieties (77%, n = 61) were either poorly attractive or completely unattractive to insect flower visitors. Several varieties (19%, n = 15) were moderately attractive, but very few (4%, n = 3) were highly attractive. Closer examination of Dahlia varieties showed that "open" flowered forms were approximately 20 times more attractive than "closed" flowered forms. These results strongly suggest that there is a great potential for making urban parks and gardens considerably more bee- and insect-friendly by selecting appropriate varieties. PMID:25099879

  8. Kiwifruit Flower Odor Perception and Recognition by Honey Bees, Apis mellifera.

    PubMed

    Twidle, Andrew M; Mas, Flore; Harper, Aimee R; Horner, Rachael M; Welsh, Taylor J; Suckling, David M

    2015-06-17

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from male and female kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa 'Hayward') flowers were collected by dynamic headspace sampling. Honey bee (Apis mellifera) perception of the flower VOCs was tested using gas chromatography coupled to electroantennogram detection. Honey bees consistently responded to six compounds present in the headspace of female kiwifruit flowers and five compounds in the headspace of male flowers. Analysis of the floral volatiles by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and microscale chemical derivatization showed the compounds to be nonanal, 2-phenylethanol, 4-oxoisophorone, (3E,6E)-α-farnesene, (6Z,9Z)-heptadecadiene, and (8Z)-heptadecene. Bees were then trained via olfactory conditioning of the proboscis extension response (PER) to synthetic mixtures of these compounds using the ratios present in each flower type. Honey bees trained to the synthetic mixtures showed a high response to the natural floral extracts, indicating that these may be the key compounds for honey bee perception of kiwifruit flower odor.

  9. A new allele of flower color gene W1 encoding flavonoid 3'5'-hydroxylase is responsible for light purple flowers in wild soybean Glycine soja

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Glycine soja is a wild relative of soybean that has purple flowers. No flower color variant of Glycine soja has been found in the natural habitat. Results B09121, an accession with light purple flowers, was discovered in southern Japan. Genetic analysis revealed that the gene responsible for the light purple flowers was allelic to the W1 locus encoding flavonoid 3'5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H). The new allele was designated as w1-lp. The dominance relationship of the locus was W1 >w1-lp >w1. One F2 plant and four F3 plants with purple flowers were generated in the cross between B09121 and a Clark near-isogenic line with w1 allele. Flower petals of B09121 contained lower amounts of four major anthocyanins (malvidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside, petunidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside, delphinidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside and delphinidin 3-O-glucoside) common in purple flowers and contained small amounts of the 5'-unsubstituted versions of the above anthocyanins, peonidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside, cyanidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside and cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, suggesting that F3'5'H activity was reduced and flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase activity was increased. F3'5'H cDNAs were cloned from Clark and B09121 by RT-PCR. The cDNA of B09121 had a unique base substitution resulting in the substitution of valine with methionine at amino acid position 210. The base substitution was ascertained by dCAPS analysis. The polymorphism associated with the dCAPS markers co-segregated with flower color in the F2 population. F3 progeny test, and dCAPS and indel analyses suggested that the plants with purple flowers might be due to intragenic recombination and that the 65 bp insertion responsible for gene dysfunction might have been eliminated in such plants. Conclusions B09121 may be the first example of a flower color variant found in nature. The light purple flower was controlled by a new allele of the W1 locus encoding F3'5'H. The flower petals contained unique anthocyanins not found in soybean and G. soja. B09121 may be

  10. Genetic and physical mapping of flowering time loci in canola (Brassica napus L.).

    PubMed

    Raman, Harsh; Raman, Rosy; Eckermann, Paul; Coombes, Neil; Manoli, Sahana; Zou, Xiaoxiao; Edwards, David; Meng, Jinling; Prangnell, Roslyn; Stiller, Jiri; Batley, Jacqueline; Luckett, David; Wratten, Neil; Dennis, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    We identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying variation for flowering time in a doubled haploid (DH) population of vernalisation-responsive canola (Brassica napus L.) cultivars Skipton and Ag-Spectrum and aligned them with physical map positions of predicted flowering genes from the Brassica rapa genome. Significant genetic variation in flowering time and response to vernalisation were observed among the DH lines from Skipton/Ag-Spectrum. A molecular linkage map was generated comprising 674 simple sequence repeat, sequence-related amplified polymorphism, sequence characterised amplified region, Diversity Array Technology, and candidate gene based markers loci. QTL analysis indicated that flowering time is a complex trait and is controlled by at least 20 loci, localised on ten different chromosomes. These loci each accounted for between 2.4 and 28.6% of the total genotypic variation for first flowering and response to vernalisation. However, identification of consistent QTL was found to be dependant upon growing environments. We compared the locations of QTL with the physical positions of predicted flowering time genes located on the sequenced genome of B. rapa. Some QTL associated with flowering time on A02, A03, A07, and C06 may represent homologues of known flowering time genes in Arabidopsis; VERNALISATION INSENSITIVE 3, APETALA1, CAULIFLOWER, FLOWERING LOCUS C, FLOWERING LOCUS T, CURLY LEAF, SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE, GA3 OXIDASE, and LEAFY. Identification of the chromosomal location and effect of the genes influencing flowering time may hasten the development of canola varieties having an optimal time for flowering in target environments such as for low rainfall areas, via marker-assisted selection.

  11. Transcription Profiles Reveal Sugar and Hormone Signaling Pathways Mediating Flower Induction in Apple (Malus domestica Borkh.).

    PubMed

    Xing, Li-Bo; Zhang, Dong; Li, You-Mei; Shen, Ya-Wen; Zhao, Cai-Ping; Ma, Juan-Juan; An, Na; Han, Ming-Yu

    2015-10-01

    Flower induction in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) is regulated by complex gene networks that involve multiple signal pathways to ensure flower bud formation in the next year, but the molecular determinants of apple flower induction are still unknown. In this research, transcriptomic profiles from differentiating buds allowed us to identify genes potentially involved in signaling pathways that mediate the regulatory mechanisms of flower induction. A hypothetical model for this regulatory mechanism was obtained by analysis of the available transcriptomic data, suggesting that sugar-, hormone- and flowering-related genes, as well as those involved in cell-cycle induction, participated in the apple flower induction process. Sugar levels and metabolism-related gene expression profiles revealed that sucrose is the initiation signal in flower induction. Complex hormone regulatory networks involved in cytokinin (CK), abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid pathways also induce apple flower formation. CK plays a key role in the regulation of cell formation and differentiation, and in affecting flowering-related gene expression levels during these processes. Meanwhile, ABA levels and ABA-related gene expression levels gradually increased, as did those of sugar metabolism-related genes, in developing buds, indicating that ABA signals regulate apple flower induction by participating in the sugar-mediated flowering pathway. Furthermore, changes in sugar and starch deposition levels in buds can be affected by ABA content and the expression of the genes involved in the ABA signaling pathway. Thus, multiple pathways, which are mainly mediated by crosstalk between sugar and hormone signals, regulate the molecular network involved in bud growth and flower induction in apple trees. PMID:26412779

  12. Trade-Offs of Flowering and Maturity Synchronisation for Pineapple Quality.

    PubMed

    Fassinou Hotegni, V Nicodème; Lommen, Willemien J M; Agbossou, Euloge K; Struik, Paul C

    2015-01-01

    In the pineapple sector of Benin, poor fruit quality prevents pineapple producers to enter the European market. We investigated effects of common cultural practices, flowering and maturity synchronisation, (1) to quantify the trade-offs of flowering and maturity synchronisation for pineapple quality and the proportion of fruits exportable to European markets, and (2) to determine the effect of harvesting practice on quality attributes. Four on-farm experiments were conducted during three years using cultivars Sugarloaf and Smooth Cayenne. A split-split plot design was used in each experiment, with flowering induction practice as main factor (artificial or natural flowering induction), maturity induction practice as split factor (artificial or natural maturity induction) and harvesting practice as the split-split factor (farmers' harvest practice or individual fruit harvesting at optimum maturity). Artificial flowering induction gave fruits with lower infructescence weight, higher ratio crown: infructescence length, and a lower proportion of fruits exportable to European markets than natural flowering induction. The costs of the improvements by natural flowering induction were huge: the longer durations from planting to flowering induction and harvesting, the higher number of harvestings of the fruits increasing the labour cost and the lower proportion of plants producing fruits compared with crops from artificially flowering-induced plants. Artificial maturity induction decreased the total soluble solids concentration in the fruits compared with natural maturity induction thus decreasing the proportion of fruits exportable to European markets, at a benefit of only a slightly shorter time from flowering induction to harvesting. Harvesting individual fruits at optimum maturity gave fruits with higher total soluble solids in naturally maturity induced fruits compared with the farmers' harvest practice. Given the huge costs of natural flowering induction, options to

  13. Trade-Offs of Flowering and Maturity Synchronisation for Pineapple Quality

    PubMed Central

    Fassinou Hotegni, V. Nicodème; Lommen, Willemien J. M.; Agbossou, Euloge K.; Struik, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    In the pineapple sector of Benin, poor fruit quality prevents pineapple producers to enter the European market. We investigated effects of common cultural practices, flowering and maturity synchronisation, (1) to quantify the trade-offs of flowering and maturity synchronisation for pineapple quality and the proportion of fruits exportable to European markets, and (2) to determine the effect of harvesting practice on quality attributes. Four on-farm experiments were conducted during three years using cultivars Sugarloaf and Smooth Cayenne. A split-split plot design was used in each experiment, with flowering induction practice as main factor (artificial or natural flowering induction), maturity induction practice as split factor (artificial or natural maturity induction) and harvesting practice as the split-split factor (farmers’ harvest practice or individual fruit harvesting at optimum maturity). Artificial flowering induction gave fruits with lower infructescence weight, higher ratio crown: infructescence length, and a lower proportion of fruits exportable to European markets than natural flowering induction. The costs of the improvements by natural flowering induction were huge: the longer durations from planting to flowering induction and harvesting, the higher number of harvestings of the fruits increasing the labour cost and the lower proportion of plants producing fruits compared with crops from artificially flowering-induced plants. Artificial maturity induction decreased the total soluble solids concentration in the fruits compared with natural maturity induction thus decreasing the proportion of fruits exportable to European markets, at a benefit of only a slightly shorter time from flowering induction to harvesting. Harvesting individual fruits at optimum maturity gave fruits with higher total soluble solids in naturally maturity induced fruits compared with the farmers’ harvest practice. Given the huge costs of natural flowering induction, options

  14. Do pollinators influence the assembly of flower colours within plant communities?

    PubMed

    de Jager, Marinus L; Dreyer, Léanne L; Ellis, Allan G

    2011-06-01

    The co-occurrence of plant species within a community is influenced by local deterministic or neutral processes as well as historical regional processes. Floral trait distributions of co-flowering species that share pollinators may reflect the impact of pollinator preference and constancy on their assembly within local communities. While pollinator sharing may lead to increased visitation rates for species with similar flowers, the receipt of foreign pollen via interspecific pollinator movements can decrease seed set. We investigated the pattern of community flower colour assembly as perceived by native honeybee pollinators within 24 local assemblages of co-flowering Oxalis species within the Greater Cape Floristic Region, South Africa. To explore the influence of pollinators on trait assembly, we assessed the impact of colour similarity on pollinator choices and the cost of heterospecific pollen receipt. We show that flower colour is significantly clustered within Oxalis communities and that this is not due to historical constraint, as flower colour is evolutionarily labile within Oxalis and communities are randomly structured with respect to phylogeny. Pollinator observations reveal that the likelihood of pollinators switching between co-flowering species is low and increases with flower colour similarity. Interspecific hand pollination significantly reduced seed set in the four Oxalis species we investigated, and all were dependant on pollinators for reproduction. Together these results imply that flower colour similarity carries a potential fitness cost. However, pollinators were highly flower constant, and remained so despite the extreme similarity of flower colour as perceived by honeybees. This suggests that other floral traits facilitate discrimination between similarly coloured species, thereby likely resulting in a low incidence of interspecific pollen transfer (IPT). If colour similarity promotes pollinator attraction at the community level, the observed

  15. Stamen-derived bioactive gibberellin is essential for male flower development of Cucurbita maxima L.

    PubMed

    Pimenta Lange, Maria João; Knop, Nicole; Lange, Theo

    2012-04-01

    Gibberellin (GA) signalling during pumpkin male flower development is highly regulated, including biosynthetic, perception, and transduction pathways. GA 20-oxidases, 3-oxidases, and 2-oxidases catalyse the final part of GA synthesis. Additionally, 7-oxidase initiates this part of the pathway in some cucurbits including Cucurbita maxima L. (pumpkin). Expression patterns for these GA-oxidase-encoding genes were examined by competitive reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and endogenous GA levels were determined during pumpkin male flower development. In young flowers, GA20ox3 transcript levels are high in stamens, followed by high levels of the GA precursor GA(9). Later, just before flower opening, transcript levels for GA3ox3 and GA3ox4 increase in the hypanthium and stamens, respectively. In the stamen, following GA3ox4 expression, bioactive GA(4) levels rise dramatically. Accordingly, catabolic GA2ox2 and GA2ox3 transcript levels are low in developing flowers, and increase in mature flowers. Putative GA receptor GID1b and DELLA repressor GAIPb transcript levels do not change in developing flowers, but increase sharply in mature flowers. Emasculation arrests floral development completely and leads to abscission of premature flowers. Application of GA(4) (but not of its precursors GA(12)-aldehyde or GA(9)) restores normal growth of emasculated flowers. These results indicate that de novo GA(4) synthesis in the stamen is under control of GA20ox3 and GA3ox4 genes just before the rapid flower growth phase. Stamen-derived bioactive GA is essential and sufficient for male flower development, including the petal and the pedicel growth.

  16. Trade-Offs of Flowering and Maturity Synchronisation for Pineapple Quality.

    PubMed

    Fassinou Hotegni, V Nicodème; Lommen, Willemien J M; Agbossou, Euloge K; Struik, Paul C

    2015-01-01

    In the pineapple sector of Benin, poor fruit quality prevents pineapple producers to enter the European market. We investigated effects of common cultural practices, flowering and maturity synchronisation, (1) to quantify the trade-offs of flowering and maturity synchronisation for pineapple quality and the proportion of fruits exportable to European markets, and (2) to determine the effect of harvesting practice on quality attributes. Four on-farm experiments were conducted during three years using cultivars Sugarloaf and Smooth Cayenne. A split-split plot design was used in each experiment, with flowering induction practice as main factor (artificial or natural flowering induction), maturity induction practice as split factor (artificial or natural maturity induction) and harvesting practice as the split-split factor (farmers' harvest practice or individual fruit harvesting at optimum maturity). Artificial flowering induction gave fruits with lower infructescence weight, higher ratio crown: infructescence length, and a lower proportion of fruits exportable to European markets than natural flowering induction. The costs of the improvements by natural flowering induction were huge: the longer durations from planting to flowering induction and harvesting, the higher number of harvestings of the fruits increasing the labour cost and the lower proportion of plants producing fruits compared with crops from artificially flowering-induced plants. Artificial maturity induction decreased the total soluble solids concentration in the fruits compared with natural maturity induction thus decreasing the proportion of fruits exportable to European markets, at a benefit of only a slightly shorter time from flowering induction to harvesting. Harvesting individual fruits at optimum maturity gave fruits with higher total soluble solids in naturally maturity induced fruits compared with the farmers' harvest practice. Given the huge costs of natural flowering induction, options to

  17. Implications of High Temperature and Elevated CO2 on Flowering Time in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Jagadish, S. V. Krishna; Bahuguna, Rajeev N.; Djanaguiraman, Maduraimuthu; Gamuyao, Rico; Prasad, P. V. Vara; Craufurd, Peter Q.

    2016-01-01

    Flowering is a crucial determinant for plant reproductive success and seed-set. Increasing temperature and elevated carbon-dioxide (e[CO2]) are key climate change factors that could affect plant fitness and flowering related events. Addressing the effect of these environmental factors on flowering events such as time of day of anthesis (TOA) and flowering time (duration from germination till flowering) is critical to understand the adaptation of plants/crops to changing climate and is the major aim of this review. Increasing ambient temperature is the major climatic factor that advances flowering time in crops and other plants, with a modest effect of e[CO2].Integrated environmental stimuli such as photoperiod, temperature and e[CO2] regulating flowering time is discussed. The critical role of plant tissue temperature influencing TOA is highlighted and crop models need to substitute ambient air temperature with canopy or floral tissue temperature to improve predictions. A complex signaling network of flowering regulation with change in ambient temperature involving different transcription factors (PIF4, PIF5), flowering suppressors (HvODDSOC2, SVP, FLC) and autonomous pathway (FCA, FVE) genes, mainly from Arabidopsis, provides a promising avenue to improve our understanding of the dynamics of flowering time under changing climate. Elevated CO2 mediated changes in tissue sugar status and a direct [CO2]-driven regulatory pathway involving a key flowering gene, MOTHER OF FT AND TFL1 (MFT), are emerging evidence for the role of e[CO2] in flowering time regulation. PMID:27446143

  18. Transcription Profiles Reveal Sugar and Hormone Signaling Pathways Mediating Flower Induction in Apple (Malus domestica Borkh.).

    PubMed

    Xing, Li-Bo; Zhang, Dong; Li, You-Mei; Shen, Ya-Wen; Zhao, Cai-Ping; Ma, Juan-Juan; An, Na; Han, Ming-Yu

    2015-10-01

    Flower induction in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) is regulated by complex gene networks that involve multiple signal pathways to ensure flower bud formation in the next year, but the molecular determinants of apple flower induction are still unknown. In this research, transcriptomic profiles from differentiating buds allowed us to identify genes potentially involved in signaling pathways that mediate the regulatory mechanisms of flower induction. A hypothetical model for this regulatory mechanism was obtained by analysis of the available transcriptomic data, suggesting that sugar-, hormone- and flowering-related genes, as well as those involved in cell-cycle induction, participated in the apple flower induction process. Sugar levels and metabolism-related gene expression profiles revealed that sucrose is the initiation signal in flower induction. Complex hormone regulatory networks involved in cytokinin (CK), abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid pathways also induce apple flower formation. CK plays a key role in the regulation of cell formation and differentiation, and in affecting flowering-related gene expression levels during these processes. Meanwhile, ABA levels and ABA-related gene expression levels gradually increased, as did those of sugar metabolism-related genes, in developing buds, indicating that ABA signals regulate apple flower induction by participating in the sugar-mediated flowering pathway. Furthermore, changes in sugar and starch deposition levels in buds can be affected by ABA content and the expression of the genes involved in the ABA signaling pathway. Thus, multiple pathways, which are mainly mediated by crosstalk between sugar and hormone signals, regulate the molecular network involved in bud growth and flower induction in apple trees.

  19. The Genetic Architecture of Reproductive Isolation in Louisiana Irises: Flowering Phenology

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Noland H.; Bouck, Amy C.; Arnold, Michael L.

    2007-01-01

    Despite the potential importance of divergent reproductive phenologies as a barrier to gene flow, we know less about the genetics of this factor than we do about any other isolating barrier. Here, we report on the genetic architecture of divergent flowering phenologies that result in substantial reproductive isolation between the naturally hybridizing plant species Iris fulva and I. brevicaulis. I. fulva initiates and terminates flowering significantly earlier than I. brevicaulis. We examined line crosses of reciprocal F1 and backcross (BC1) hybrids and determined that flowering time was polygenic in nature. We further defined quantitative trait loci (QTL) that affect the initiation of flowering in each of these species. QTL analyses were performed separately for two different growing seasons in the greenhouse, as well as in two field plots where experimental plants were placed into nature. For BCIF hybrids (BC1 toward I. fulva), 14 of 17 detected QTL caused flowering to occur later in the season when I. brevicaulis alleles were present, while the remaining 3 caused flowering to occur earlier. In BCIB hybrids (BC1 toward I. brevicaulis), 11 of 15 detected QTL caused flowering to occur earlier in the season when introgressed I. fulva alleles were present, while the remaining 4 caused flowering to occur later. These ratios are consistent with expectations of selection (as opposed to drift) promoting flowering divergence in the evolutionary history of these species. Furthermore, epistatic interactions among the QTL also reflected the same trends, with the majority of epistatic effects causing later flowering than expected in BCIF hybrids and earlier flowering in BCIB hybrids. Overlapping QTL that influenced flowering time across all four habitat/treatment types were not detected, indicating that increasing the sample size of genotyped plants would likely increase the number of significant QTL found in this study. PMID:17237511

  20. Functional Characterization of Phalaenopsis aphrodite Flowering Genes PaFT1 and PaFD.

    PubMed

    Jang, Seonghoe; Choi, Sang-Chul; Li, Hsing-Yi; An, Gynheung; Schmelzer, Elmon

    2015-01-01

    We show that the key flowering regulators encoded by Phalaenopsis aphrodite FLOWERING LOCUS T1 (PaFT1) and PaFD share high sequence homologies to these from long-day flowering Arabidopsis and short-day flowering rice. Interestingly, PaFT1 is specifically up-regulated during flowering inductive cooling treatment but is not subjected to control by photoperiod in P. aphrodite. Phloem or shoot apex-specific expression of PaFT1 restores the late flowering of Arabidopsis ft mutants. Moreover, PaFT1 can suppress the delayed flowering caused by SHORT VEGATATIVE PHASE (SVP) overexpression as well as an active FRIGIDA (FRI) allele, indicating the functional conservation of flowering regulatory circuit in different plant species. PaFT1 promoter:GUS in Arabidopsis showed similar staining pattern to that of Arabidopsis FT in the leaves and guard cells but different in the shoot apex. A genomic clone or heat shock-inducible expression of PaFT1 is sufficient to the partial complementation of the ft mutants. Remarkably, ectopic PaFT1 expression also triggers precocious heading in rice. To further demonstrate the functional conservation of the flowering regulators, we show that PaFD, a bZIP transcription factor involved in flowering promotion, interacts with PaFT1, and PaFD partially complemented Arabidopsis fd mutants. Transgenic rice expressing PaFD also flowered early with increased expression of rice homologues of APETALA1 (AP1). Consistently, PaFT1 knock-down Phalaenopsis plants generated by virus-induced gene silencing exhibit delayed spiking. These studies suggest functional conservation of FT and FD genes, which may have evolved and integrated into distinct regulatory circuits in monopodial orchids, Arabidopsis and rice that promote flowering under their own inductive conditions. PMID:26317412