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Sample records for octanda ochnaceae flowers

  1. Phenolic dimers and an indole alkaloid from Campylospermum flavum (Ochnaceae).

    PubMed

    Ndongo, Joseph Thierry; Shaaban, Mohamed; Mbing, Joséphine Ngo; Bikobo, Dominique Ngono; Atchadé, Alex de Théodore; Pegnyemb, Dieudonné Emmanuel; Laatsch, Hartmut

    2010-11-01

    From the leaves and stem bark of Campylospermum flavum (Ochnaceae), three compounds, namely 4‴-O-methylagathisflavone, flavumchalcone, and flavumindole have been isolated together with 10 known compounds, including three flavonoids, two biflavonoids, two alkaloids, two nitrile glucosides, and glucopyranosyl-β-sistosterol. The structures of these compounds and their relative configurations were established by 1D and 2D NMR experiments. The methanolic crude extracts of leaves and stem bark of C. flavum and compounds displayed a significant cytotoxicity towards Artemia salina larvae.

  2. Flowers, Beautiful Flowers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Arts: The Art Education Magazine for Teachers, 2005

    2005-01-01

    In the lesson described, the middle school students had been studying the artist Georgia O'Keeffe and the history of her work. Students enhanced their flower portraits by adding a matching border and connecting the lesson to other subject areas. Students dissected a flower and drew a small diagram of the flower and labeled the parts. This is an…

  3. Blob Flowers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canfield, Elaine

    2003-01-01

    Describes an art project called blob flowers in which fifth-grade students created pictures of flowers using watercolor and markers. Explains that the lesson incorporates ideas from art and science. Discusses in detail how the students created their flowers. (CMK)

  4. Flower Development

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Buylla, Elena R.; Benítez, Mariana; Corvera-Poiré, Adriana; Chaos Cador, Álvaro; de Folter, Stefan; Gamboa de Buen, Alicia; Garay-Arroyo, Adriana; García-Ponce, Berenice; Jaimes-Miranda, Fabiola; Pérez-Ruiz, Rigoberto V.; Piñeyro-Nelson, Alma; Sánchez-Corrales, Yara E.

    2010-01-01

    Flowers are the most complex structures of plants. Studies of Arabidopsis thaliana, which has typical eudicot flowers, have been fundamental in advancing the structural and molecular understanding of flower development. The main processes and stages of Arabidopsis flower development are summarized to provide a framework in which to interpret the detailed molecular genetic studies of genes assigned functions during flower development and is extended to recent genomics studies uncovering the key regulatory modules involved. Computational models have been used to study the concerted action and dynamics of the gene regulatory module that underlies patterning of the Arabidopsis inflorescence meristem and specification of the primordial cell types during early stages of flower development. This includes the gene combinations that specify sepal, petal, stamen and carpel identity, and genes that interact with them. As a dynamic gene regulatory network this module has been shown to converge to stable multigenic profiles that depend upon the overall network topology and are thus robust, which can explain the canalization of flower organ determination and the overall conservation of the basic flower plan among eudicots. Comparative and evolutionary approaches derived from Arabidopsis studies pave the way to studying the molecular basis of diverse floral morphologies. PMID:22303253

  5. Flowers & Weeds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura C.

    1996-01-01

    Describes the topics and teaching strategies employed in an Issues in Biology course. Discusses flowers, plant breeding, potatoes and tomatoes, the chocolate tree, weeds, Arabidopis, gene transfers, and plant genes/human genes. Contains 22 references. (JRH)

  6. Flowers in Their Variety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura C.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the diversity of flowers with regard to the flower paintings of Pierre-Joseph Redoute, books about flowers, and research in genetic studies. Discusses gardening flowers and flowering strategies and criticizes the fact that biology education has moved steadily away from plants. (KHR)

  7. Design a Hummingbird Flower.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Kim

    2002-01-01

    Presents an activity that engages students in designing and making an artificial flower adapted for pollination by hummingbirds. Students work in teams to design flowers that maximize the benefit from attracting hummingbirds. Examines characteristics of real flowers adapted to pollination by hummingbirds. (DLH)

  8. Stress-induced flowering

    PubMed Central

    Wada, Kaede C

    2010-01-01

    Many plant species can be induced to flower by responding to stress factors. The short-day plants Pharbitis nil and Perilla frutescens var. crispa flower under long days in response to the stress of poor nutrition or low-intensity light. Grafting experiments using two varieties of P. nil revealed that a transmissible flowering stimulus is involved in stress-induced flowering. The P. nil and P. frutescens plants that were induced to flower by stress reached anthesis, fruited and produced seeds. These seeds germinated, and the progeny of the stressed plants developed normally. Phenylalanine ammonialyase inhibitors inhibited this stress-induced flowering, and the inhibition was overcome by salicylic acid (SA), suggesting that there is an involvement of SA in stress-induced flowering. PnFT2, a P. nil ortholog of the flowering gene FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) of Arabidopsis thaliana, was expressed when the P. nil plants were induced to flower under poor-nutrition stress conditions, but expression of PnFT1, another ortholog of FT, was not induced, suggesting that PnFT2 is involved in stress-induced flowering. PMID:20505356

  9. Grass flower development.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Hiro-Yuki; Tanaka, Wakana; Toriba, Taiyo

    2014-01-01

    Grasses bear unique flowers lacking obvious petals and sepals in special inflorescence units, the florets and the spikelet. Despite this, grass floral organs such as stamens and lodicules (petal homologs) are specified by ABC homeotic genes encoding MADS domain transcription factors, suggesting that the ABC model of eudicot flower development is largely applicable to grass flowers. However, some modifications need to be made for the model to fit grasses well: for example, a YABBY gene plays an important role in carpel specification. In addition, a number of genes are involved in the development of the lateral organs that constitute the spikelet. In this review, we discuss recent progress in elucidating the genes required for flower and spikelet development in grasses, together with those involved in fate determination of the spikelet and flower meristems.

  10. Stars and Flowers, Flowers and Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minti, Hari

    2012-12-01

    The author, a graduated from the Bucharest University (1964), actually living and working in Israel, concerns his book to variable stars and flowers, two domains of his interest. The analogies includes double stars, eclipsing double stars, eclipses, Big Bang. The book contains 34 chapters, each of which concerns various relations between astronomy and other sciences and pseudosciences such as Psychology, Religion, Geology, Computers and Astrology (to which the author is not an adherent). A special part of the book is dedicated to archeoastronomy and ethnoastronomy, as well as to history of astronomy. Between the main points of interest of these parts: ancient sanctuaries in Sarmizegetusa (Dacia), Stone Henge(UK) and other. The last chapter of the book is dedicated to flowers. The book is richly illustrated. It is designed for a wide circle of readers.

  11. In vitro flowering of orchids.

    PubMed

    Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Kerbauy, Gilberto B; Zeng, Songjun; Chen, Zhilin; Duan, Jun

    2014-03-01

    Flowering is the most elusive and fascinating of all plant developmental processes. The ability to induce flowering in vitro in orchids would reduce the relatively long juvenile phase and provide deeper insight into the physiological, genetic and molecular aspects of flowering. This review synthesizes all available studies that have been conducted on in vitro flowering of orchids with the objective of providing valuable clues as to the mechanism(s) that is possibly taking place.

  12. Microlenses of smectic flowers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serra, Francesca; Gharbi, Mohamed-Amine; Liu, Iris B.; Luo, Yimin; Bade, Nathan D.; Kamien, Randall D.; Yang, Shu; Stebe, Kathleen J.

    2015-03-01

    The search for new and tunable optical components finds suitable candidates in liquid crystals, which have both reconfigurability and unique optical properties. Here we discuss smectic liquid crystals arranged in focal conic domains (FCDs), which can work as gradient-refractive index microlenses. We exploit this property to create an assembly of microlenses that resembles an insect compound eye. The system consists of a thin layer of smectics on a substrate patterned with microposts. The smectic film is pinned at the microposts, creating a curved interface that induces a hierarchical assembly of FCDs called the ''flower pattern'': each FCD resembles the petal of a flower around the micropost. The arrangement of FCDs, with the largest FCDs pinned at the top of the microposts and the smallest FCDs in the low-curvature regions far from the post, is mirrored into a hierarchy of focal lengths of the microlenses. This structure is reconfigurable by melting and cooling and it allows visualizing objects placed at different distances, hence it can be exploited for 3D image reconstruction. Similarly to the insect eyes, the flower pattern is sensitive to light polarization: the large FCDs, with the largest eccentricity, only work as microlenses for one direction of light polarization. We thank the MRSEC NSF Grant DMR11-20901.

  13. Chemical control of flowering time.

    PubMed

    Ionescu, Irina Alexandra; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Sánchez-Pérez, Raquel

    2016-12-10

    Flowering at the right time is of great importance; it secures seed production and therefore species survival and crop yield. In addition to the genetic network controlling flowering time, there are a number of much less studied metabolites and exogenously applied chemicals that may influence the transition to flowering as well as flower opening. Increased emphasis on research within this area has the potential to counteract the negative effects of global warming on flowering time, especially in perennial crop plants. Perennial crops have a requirement for winter chill, but winters become increasingly warm in temperate regions. This has dramatic effects on crop yield. Different strategies are therefore being developed to engineer flowering time to match local growing conditions. The majority of these efforts are within plant breeding, which benefits from a substantial amount of knowledge on the genetic aspects of flowering time regulation in annuals, but less so in perennials. An alternative to plant breeding approaches is to engineer flowering time chemically via the external application of flower-inducing compounds. This review discusses a variety of exogenously applied compounds used in fruit farming to date, as well as endogenous growth substances and metabolites that can influence flowering time of annuals and perennials.

  14. Occupational allergy caused by flowers.

    PubMed

    de Jong, N W; Vermeulen, A M; Gerth van Wijk, R; de Groot, H

    1998-02-01

    We describe 14 consecutive patients with complaints due to the handling of flowers. The symptoms varied from allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma to urticaria. Most patients had professions in the flower industry. Skin prick tests (SPT) were performed with home-made pollen extracts from 17 different flowers known to be the most commonly grown and sold in The Netherlands RAST against mugwort, chrysanthemum, and solidago was performed. The diagnosis of atopy against flowers was based on work-related symptoms due to the handling of flowers, positive SPT with flower extracts, and positive RAST. The concordance between SPT and case history was 74%, and that between SPT and RAST was 77% Extensive cross-sensitization was seen to pollen of several members of the Compositae family (e.g., Matricaria, chrysanthemum, solidago) and to pollen of the Amaryllidaceae family (Alstroemeria and Narcissus). Homemade flower extracts can be used to confirm IgE-mediated flower allergy. Mugwort can be used as a screening test for possible flower allergy. For most patients, the allergy led to a change of profession.

  15. Flower scents from the Pacific.

    PubMed

    Joulain, Daniel

    2008-06-01

    For a long time, exotic scents from the islands of the South Pacific have universally been appreciated. Most frequently, fragrant flowers (e.g., frangipani, jasmine sambac, tiaré, pua kenikeni) are used locally for ornamental purposes such as flower garlands (leis). Despite their powerful and delightful fragrance, very few of these flowers have been commercially employed in this part of the world for perfume manufacturing. Creative perfumers are nevertheless strongly interested to better understand these fragrances and to use them, either genuine or artificially reconstituted. Analytical results on the fragrance of these flowers are reported, together with some economical considerations.

  16. Flower senescence: some molecular aspects.

    PubMed

    Shahri, Waseem; Tahir, Inayatullah

    2014-02-01

    Some molecular aspects of flower senescence have been reviewed. The isolation, identification and characterization of different genes from various flowers (mainly from petals) associated with senescence have been discussed. The isolated genes were divided into different groups. A large proportion of genes have been found to be upregulated during flower senescence while some genes were also found to be downregulated indicating that there exists a complex interplay between the expression patterns of various genes. The genes involved in petal expansion are found to be upregulated during normal flower development from anthesis to open flower stage, but XTH (Xyloglucan endotransglucosylase hydrolase) is found to be involved in petal expansion as well as abscission. Cysteine proteases or the genes encoding cysteine proteases (assigned a central role in protein degradation) have been identified from various flower systems, but no cysteine protease has been identified from senescing Mirabilis jalapa flowers. In addition to proteases, the genes encoding ubiquitin (exhibiting proteasomal degradation by 26S proteasomes) have also been identified suggesting the two alternate pathways for protein degradation. Genes encoding specific nucleases have also been identified, but they displayed an early increase in transcript abundance before the senescence symptoms become evident and characterize the involvement of PCD during flower senescence. A range of transcription factors are described and their possible role in flower senescence has been discussed. A detailed description of genes involved in ethylene synthesis and the components involved in ethylene signaling have been presented.

  17. It's time to flower: the genetic control of flowering time.

    PubMed

    Putterill, Jo; Laurie, Rebecca; Macknight, Richard

    2004-04-01

    In plants, successful sexual reproduction and the ensuing development of seeds and fruits depend on flowering at the right time. This involves coordinating flowering with the appropriate season and with the developmental history of the plant. Genetic and molecular analysis in the small cruciform weed, Arabidopsis, has revealed distinct but linked pathways that are responsible for detecting the major seasonal cues of day length and cold temperature, as well as other local environmental and internal signals. The balance of signals from these pathways is integrated by a common set of genes to determine when flowering occurs. Excitingly, it has been discovered that many of these same genes regulate flowering in other plants, such as rice. This review focuses on recent advances in how three of the signalling pathways (the day-length, vernalisation and autonomous pathways) function to control flowering.

  18. Stop and Paint the Flowers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Shelley

    2002-01-01

    Describes an art lesson where students used watercolors to paint a flower bouquet arranged in a vase. Explains that the students viewed examples of flower bouquets by artists such as Vincent van Gogh and Odilon Redon. Discusses, in detail, the process of creating the artworks. (CMK)

  19. Chloroplast retrograde signal regulates flowering

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Peiqiang; Guo, Hailong; Chi, Wei; Chai, Xin; Sun, Xuwu; Xu, Xiumei; Ma, Jinfang; Rochaix, Jean-David; Leister, Dario; Wang, Haiyang; Lu, Congming; Zhang, Lixin

    2016-01-01

    Light is a major environmental factor regulating flowering time, thus ensuring reproductive success of higher plants. In contrast to our detailed understanding of light quality and photoperiod mechanisms involved, the molecular basis underlying high light-promoted flowering remains elusive. Here we show that, in Arabidopsis, a chloroplast-derived signal is critical for high light-regulated flowering mediated by the FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC). We also demonstrate that PTM, a PHD transcription factor involved in chloroplast retrograde signaling, perceives such a signal and mediates transcriptional repression of FLC through recruitment of FVE, a component of the histone deacetylase complex. Thus, our data suggest that chloroplasts function as essential sensors of high light to regulate flowering and adaptive responses by triggering nuclear transcriptional changes at the chromatin level. PMID:27601637

  20. Say it with flowers: Flowering acceleration by root communication.

    PubMed

    Falik, Omer; Hoffmann, Ishay; Novoplansky, Ariel

    2014-01-01

    The timing of reproduction is a critical determinant of fitness, especially in organisms inhabiting seasonal environments. Increasing evidence suggests that inter-plant communication plays important roles in plant functioning. Here, we tested the hypothesis that flowering coordination can involve communication between neighboring plants. We show that soil leachates from Brassica rapa plants growing under long-day conditions accelerated flowering and decreased allocation to vegetative organs in target plants growing under non-inductive short-day conditions. The results suggest that besides endogenous signaling and external abiotic cues, flowering timing may involve inter-plant communication, mediated by root exudates. The study of flowering communication is expected to illuminate neglected aspects of plant reproductive interactions and to provide novel opportunities for controlling the timing of plant reproduction in agricultural settings.

  1. Indexing Flower Patent Images using Domain Knowledge

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    approach is illustrated by using it to provide a solution to the problem of indexing images of flowers for searching a flower patents database by color...The flower region is isolated from the background by using an automatic iterative segmentation algorithm with domain knowledge driven feedback. The...color of the flower is defined by the color names present in the flower region and their relative proportions. The database can be queried by example

  2. Spirit Has Flower Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this image with its hazard-avoidance camera on sol 86 (March 31, 2004), after the rover's rock abrasion tool had brushed for three minutes on each of six locations on the rock named 'Mazatzal' to create a flower-shaped mosaic.

    The goal for this operation was to create a brushed area big enough for the miniature thermal emission spectrometer to capture within one of its pixels, which are 11 centimeters (4.3 inches) in diameter at the distance between the rock and the instrument. Because the rock abrasion tool creates individual brushed areas only about 5 centimeters (2 inches) in diameter, the team designed this six-location series of tool placements in order to brush 92 percent to 95 percent of the spectrometer's pixel size.

    This operation was only the second time the rock abrasion tool has created a brushing mosaic. The first time was a three-spot brushing on the rock called 'Humphrey.' The brush was originally designed to be used as an aide during full grinding operations, however it has been very effective in brushing the top layer off of dusty martian rocks to allow scientists a multi-depth look into the rocks on Mars.

  3. Flower diversity and angiosperm diversification.

    PubMed

    Soltis, Pamela S; Soltis, Douglas E

    2014-01-01

    The flower itself, which comprises most of the evolutionary innovations of flowering plants, bears special significance for understanding the origin and diversification of angiosperms. The sudden origin of angiosperms in the fossil record poses unanswered questions on both the origins of flowering plants and their rapid spread and diversification. Central to these questions is the role that the flower, and floral diversity, played. Recent clarifications of angiosperm phylogeny provide the foundation for investigating evolutionary transitions in floral features and the underlying genetic mechanisms of stasis and change. The general features of floral diversity can best be addressed by considering key patterns of variation: an undifferentiated versus a differentiated perianth; elaboration of perianth organs in size and color; merosity of the flower; and phyllotaxy of floral organs. Various models of gene expression now explain the regulation of floral organization and floral organ identity; the best understood are the ABC(E) model and its modifications, but other gene systems are important in specific clades and require further study. Furthermore, the propensity for gene and genome duplications in angiosperms provides abundant raw material for novel floral features--emphasizing the importance of understanding the conservation and diversification of gene lineages and functions in studies of macroevolution.

  4. Identification of successive flowering phases highlights a new genetic control of the flowering pattern in strawberry

    PubMed Central

    Perrotte, Justine; Guédon, Yann; Gaston, Amèlia; Denoyes, Béatrice

    2016-01-01

    The genetic control of the switch between seasonal and perpetual flowering has been deciphered in various perennial species. However, little is known about the genetic control of the dynamics of perpetual flowering, which changes abruptly at well-defined time instants during the growing season. Here, we characterize the perpetual flowering pattern and identify new genetic controls of this pattern in the cultivated strawberry. Twenty-one perpetual flowering strawberry genotypes were phenotyped at the macroscopic scale for their course of emergence of inflorescences and stolons during the growing season. A longitudinal analysis based on the segmentation of flowering rate profiles using multiple change-point models was conducted. The flowering pattern of perpetual flowering genotypes takes the form of three or four successive phases: an autumn-initiated flowering phase, a flowering pause, and a single stationary perpetual flowering phase or two perpetual flowering phases, the second one being more intense. The genetic control of flowering was analysed by quantitative trait locus mapping of flowering traits based on these flowering phases. We showed that the occurrence of a fourth phase of intense flowering is controlled by a newly identified locus, different from the locus FaPFRU, controlling the switch between seasonal and perpetual flowering behaviour. The role of this locus was validated by the analysis of data obtained previously during six consecutive years. PMID:27664957

  5. Identification of successive flowering phases highlights a new genetic control of the flowering pattern in strawberry.

    PubMed

    Perrotte, Justine; Guédon, Yann; Gaston, Amèlia; Denoyes, Béatrice

    2016-10-01

    The genetic control of the switch between seasonal and perpetual flowering has been deciphered in various perennial species. However, little is known about the genetic control of the dynamics of perpetual flowering, which changes abruptly at well-defined time instants during the growing season. Here, we characterize the perpetual flowering pattern and identify new genetic controls of this pattern in the cultivated strawberry. Twenty-one perpetual flowering strawberry genotypes were phenotyped at the macroscopic scale for their course of emergence of inflorescences and stolons during the growing season. A longitudinal analysis based on the segmentation of flowering rate profiles using multiple change-point models was conducted. The flowering pattern of perpetual flowering genotypes takes the form of three or four successive phases: an autumn-initiated flowering phase, a flowering pause, and a single stationary perpetual flowering phase or two perpetual flowering phases, the second one being more intense. The genetic control of flowering was analysed by quantitative trait locus mapping of flowering traits based on these flowering phases. We showed that the occurrence of a fourth phase of intense flowering is controlled by a newly identified locus, different from the locus FaPFRU, controlling the switch between seasonal and perpetual flowering behaviour. The role of this locus was validated by the analysis of data obtained previously during six consecutive years.

  6. FLOBOTS: ROBOTIC FLOWERS FOR BEE BEHAVIOUR EXPERIMENTS

    PubMed Central

    Essenberg, Carla J.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of pollinator foraging behaviour often require artificial flowers that can refill themselves, allowing pollinators to forage for long periods of time under experimental conditions. Here I describe a design for inexpensive flowers that can refill themselves upon demand and that are easy enough to set up and clean that they can be used in arrays of 30 or more flowers. I also summarize of a variety of artificial flower designs developed by other researchers. PMID:25722755

  7. Spring Flowers: Harvest of a Sensitive Eye

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Eloise; Levin, Ted

    1978-01-01

    Defining and describing a number of spring flowers, this article includes illustrations and explanations that demonstrate "art and science are born of the same parents". The flowers discussed are skunk cabbage, bellwort, spring beauty, jack-in-the-pulpit, Solomon's seal, wild geranium, showy orchids, moccasin flower, bluets, apple, and Indian…

  8. Spectral indices for yellow canola flowers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reproductive growth, such as flowers, may contribute to a canopy-level signal yet there are not currently any indices that measure variation in flowering. This study was conducted to determine how flowers influence the overall canopy signal and what bands of light may be useful for estimating varia...

  9. Flowers and Landscape by Serendipity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pippin, Sandi

    2003-01-01

    Describes an art lesson in which students sketch drawings of flowers and use watercolor paper and other materials to paint a landscape. Explains that the students also learn about impressionism in this lesson. Discusses how the students prepare the paper and create their artwork. (CMK)

  10. Pyrethrum flowers and pyrethroid insecticides.

    PubMed Central

    Casida, J E

    1980-01-01

    The natural pyrethrins from the daisy-like flower, Tanacetum or Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium, are nonpersistent insecticides of low toxicity to mammals. Synthetic analogs or pyrethroids, evolved from the natural compounds by successive isosteric modifications, are more potent and stable and are the newest important class of crop protection chemicals. They retain many of the favorable properties of the pyrethrins. PMID:6993201

  11. Pistillate flowers experience more pollen limitation and less geitonogamy than perfect flowers in a gynomonoecious herb.

    PubMed

    Mamut, Jannathan; Xiong, Ying-Ze; Tan, Dun-Yan; Huang, Shuang-Quan

    2014-01-01

    Gynomonoecy, a sexual system in which plants have both pistillate (female) flowers and perfect (hermaphroditic) flowers, occurs in at least 15 families, but the differential reproductive strategies of the two flower morphs within one individual remain unclear. Racemes of Eremurus anisopterus (Xanthorrhoeaceae) have basal pistillate and distal perfect flowers. To compare sex allocation and reproductive success between the two flower morphs, we measured floral traits, pollinator preferences, and pollen movement in the field. Pollen limitation was more severe in pistillate flowers; bee pollinators preferred to visit perfect flowers, which were also capable of partial self-fertilization. Pollen-staining experiments indicated that perfect flowers received a higher proportion of intra-plant pollen (geitonogamy) than pistillate flowers. Plants with greater numbers of pistillate flowers received more outcross pollen. The differential reproductive success conformed with differential floral sex allocation, in which pistillate flowers produce fewer but larger ovules, resulting in outcrossed seeds. Our flower manipulations in these nectarless gynomonoecious plants demonstrated that perfect flowers promote seed quantity in that they are more attractive to pollinators, while pistillate flowers compensate for the loss of male function through better seed quality. These results are consistent with the outcrossing-benefit hypothesis for gynomonoecy.

  12. Effects of flowering phenology and synchrony on the reproductive success of a long-flowering shrub

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Javier; Traveset, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Flowering phenology and synchrony with biotic and abiotic resources are crucial traits determining the reproductive success in insect-pollinated plants. In seasonal climates, plants flowering for long periods should assure reproductive success when resources are more predictable. In this work, we evaluated the relationship between flowering phenology and synchrony and reproductive success in Hypericum balearicum, a shrub flowering all year round but mainly during spring and summer. We studied two contrasting localities (differing mostly in rainfall) during 3 years, and at different biological scales spanning from localities to individual flowers and fruits. We first monitored (monthly) flowering phenology and reproductive success (fruit and seed set) of plants, and assessed whether in the locality with higher rainfall plants had longer flowering phenology and synchrony and relatively higher reproductive success within or outside the flowering peak. Secondly, we censused pollinators on H. balearicum individuals and measured reproductive success along the flowering peak of each locality to test for an association between (i) richness and abundance of pollinators and (ii) fruit and seed set, and seed weight. We found that most flowers (∼90 %) and the highest fruit set (∼70 %) were produced during the flowering peak of each locality. Contrary to expectations, plants in the locality with lower rainfall showed more relaxed flowering phenology and synchrony and set more fruits outside the flowering peak. During the flowering peak of each locality, the reproductive success of early-flowering individuals depended on a combination of both pollinator richness and abundance and rainfall; by contrast, reproductive success of late-flowering individuals was most dependent on rainfall. Plant species flowering for long periods in seasonal climates, thus, appear to be ideal organisms to understand how flowering phenology and synchrony match with biotic and abiotic resources, and

  13. Effects of flowering phenology and synchrony on the reproductive success of a long-flowering shrub.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Javier; Traveset, Anna

    2016-02-02

    Flowering phenology and synchrony with biotic and abiotic resources are crucial traits determining the reproductive success in insect-pollinated plants. In seasonal climates, plants flowering for long periods should assure reproductive success when resources are more predictable. In this work, we evaluated the relationship between flowering phenology and synchrony and reproductive success in Hypericum balearicum, a shrub flowering all year round but mainly during spring and summer. We studied two contrasting localities (differing mostly in rainfall) during 3 years, and at different biological scales spanning from localities to individual flowers and fruits. We first monitored (monthly) flowering phenology and reproductive success (fruit and seed set) of plants, and assessed whether in the locality with higher rainfall plants had longer flowering phenology and synchrony and relatively higher reproductive success within or outside the flowering peak. Secondly, we censused pollinators on H. balearicum individuals and measured reproductive success along the flowering peak of each locality to test for an association between (i) richness and abundance of pollinators and (ii) fruit and seed set, and seed weight. We found that most flowers (∼90 %) and the highest fruit set (∼70 %) were produced during the flowering peak of each locality. Contrary to expectations, plants in the locality with lower rainfall showed more relaxed flowering phenology and synchrony and set more fruits outside the flowering peak. During the flowering peak of each locality, the reproductive success of early-flowering individuals depended on a combination of both pollinator richness and abundance and rainfall; by contrast, reproductive success of late-flowering individuals was most dependent on rainfall. Plant species flowering for long periods in seasonal climates, thus, appear to be ideal organisms to understand how flowering phenology and synchrony match with biotic and abiotic resources, and

  14. Flower colour adaptation in a mimetic orchid.

    PubMed

    Newman, Ethan; Anderson, Bruce; Johnson, Steven D

    2012-06-22

    Although the tremendous variability in floral colour among angiosperms is often attributed to divergent selection by pollinators, it is usually difficult to preclude the possibility that floral colour shifts were driven by non-pollinator processes. Here, we examine the adaptive significance of flower colour in Disa ferruginea, a non-rewarding orchid that is thought to attract its butterfly pollinator by mimicking the flowers of sympatric nectar-producing species. Disa ferruginea has red flowers in the western part of its range and orange flowers in the eastern part--a colour shift that we hypothesized to be the outcome of selection for resemblance to different local nectar-producing plants. Using reciprocal translocations of red and orange phenotypes as well as arrays of artificial flowers, we found that the butterfly Aeropetes tulbaghia, the only pollinator of the orchid, preferred both the red phenotype and red artificial flowers in the west where its main nectar plant also has red flowers, and both the orange phenotype and orange artificial flowers in the east, where its main nectar plant has orange flowers. This phenotype by environment interaction demonstrates that the flower colour shift in D. ferruginea is adaptive and driven by local colour preference in its pollinator.

  15. Flowers and Wild Megachilid Bees Share Microbes.

    PubMed

    McFrederick, Quinn S; Thomas, Jason M; Neff, John L; Vuong, Hoang Q; Russell, Kaleigh A; Hale, Amanda R; Mueller, Ulrich G

    2017-01-01

    Transmission pathways have fundamental influence on microbial symbiont persistence and evolution. For example, the core gut microbiome of honey bees is transmitted socially and via hive surfaces, but some non-core bacteria associated with honey bees are also found on flowers, and these bacteria may therefore be transmitted indirectly between bees via flowers. Here, we test whether multiple flower and wild megachilid bee species share microbes, which would suggest that flowers may act as hubs of microbial transmission. We sampled the microbiomes of flowers (either bagged to exclude bees or open to allow bee visitation), adults, and larvae of seven megachilid bee species and their pollen provisions. We found a Lactobacillus operational taxonomic unit (OTU) in all samples but in the highest relative and absolute abundances in adult and larval bee guts and pollen provisions. The presence of the same bacterial types in open and bagged flowers, pollen provisions, and bees supports the hypothesis that flowers act as hubs of transmission of these bacteria between bees. The presence of bee-associated bacteria in flowers that have not been visited by bees suggests that these bacteria may also be transmitted to flowers via plant surfaces, the air, or minute insect vectors such as thrips. Phylogenetic analyses of nearly full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the Lactobacillus OTU dominating in flower- and megachilid-associated microbiomes is monophyletic, and we propose the name Lactobacillus micheneri sp. nov. for this bacterium.

  16. Flower size and longevity influence florivory in the large-flowered shrub Cistus ladanifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixido, Alberto L.; Méndez, Marcos; Valladares, Fernando

    2011-09-01

    Plants with larger and longer-lived flowers receive more pollinator visits and increase reproductive success, though may also suffer more from antagonistic interactions with animals. Florivores can reduce fruit and seed production, so selection on flower size, floral longevity and/or number of flowers may thus be determined by the relative effects of both pollinators and florivores. In this study flowers of Cistus ladanifer, a large-flowered Mediterranean shrub, were monitored to evaluate the effects of flower size, floral longevity and number of flowers on levels of florivory in four populations. Number of flowers was variable but did not differ among populations. Both flower size and floral longevity of C. ladanifer showed broad variation and significantly differed among populations. Overall, 7% of flowers suffered attack by florivores, which were mainly ants picking the stamens and beetles consuming petals and pollen. Within-populations, larger and longer-lived flowers tended to be affected by florivores more frequently. The low overall incidence of florivores and its lack of between-population variation suggest that florivory may not influence intraspecific variation of these floral traits. However, moderate florivory levels on the largest and longest-lived flowers open the possibility of exerting selection towards smaller and shorter-lived flowers in some of the populations studied.

  17. Flower, fruit phenology and flower traits in Cordia boissieri (Boraginaceae) from northeastern Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Adriano, Cristian Adrian; Flores, Joel; González-Rodríguez, Humberto; Cuéllar-Rodríguez, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    We characterized variations in Cordia boissieri flowers and established if these variations occur between plants or between flowering events. Flowering and fruiting was measured for 256 plants. A GLM test was used to determine the relationship between flowering and fruit set processes and rainfall. We performed measurements of floral traits to detect variations within the population and between flowering events. The position of the anthers with respect to the ovary was determined in 1,500 flowers. Three out of four flowering events of >80% C. boissieri plants occurred after rainfall events. Only one flowering event occurred in a drought. Most plants flowered at least twice a year. The overlapping of flowering and fruiting only occurred after rainfall. Anthesis lasted three-to-five days, and there were two flower morphs. Half of the plants had longistylus and half had brevistylus flowers. Anacahuita flower in our study had 1–4 styles; 2–9 stamens; 6.5–41.5 mm long corolla; sepals from 4.5–29.5 mm in length; a total length from 15.5–59 mm; a corolla diameter from 10.5–77 mm. The nectar guide had a diameter from 5–30.5 mm; 4–9 lobes; and 5 distinguishable nectar guide colors. The highest variation of phenotypic expression was observed between plants. PMID:27231656

  18. Male flowers are better fathers than hermaphroditic flowers in andromonoecious Passiflora incarnata.

    PubMed

    Dai, Can; Galloway, Laura F

    2012-02-01

    • The diversity of plant breeding systems provides the opportunity to study a range of potential reproductive adaptations. Many mechanisms remain poorly understood, among them the evolution and maintenance of male flowers in andromonoecy. Here, we studied the role of morphologically male flowers ('male morph') in andromonoecious Passiflora incarnata. • We measured morphological differences between hermaphroditic and male morph flowers in P. incarnata and explored the fruiting and siring ability of both flower types. • Male morph flowers in P. incarnata were of similar size to hermaphroditic flowers, and there was little evidence of different resource allocation to the two flower types. Male morph flowers were less capable of producing fruit, even under ample pollen and resource conditions. By contrast, male morph flowers were more successful in siring seeds. On average, male morph flowers sired twice as many seeds as hermaphroditic flowers. This difference in male fitness was driven by higher pollen export from male morph flowers as a result of greater pollen production and less self-pollen deposition. • The production of male morph flowers in P. incarnata appears to be a flexible adaptive mechanism to enhance male fitness, which might be especially beneficial when plants face temporary resource shortages for nurturing additional fruits.

  19. My favourite flowering image: Maryland Mammoth tobacco.

    PubMed

    Amasino, Richard M

    2013-12-01

    Almost 100 years ago, the study of Maryland Mammoth tobacco by Garner and Allard was one in a long series of studies that have led to a better understanding of how plants "decide" when to flower. deciphering how plants "decide" when to flower. The extreme phenotype of Maryland Mammoth tobacco, in which a single recessive mutation changes a day-neutral to a strictly photoperiod-requiring plant, impressively illustrates the action of the photoperiodic pathway of flowering.

  20. [Pathways of flowering regulation in plants].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongping; Yang, Jing; Yang, Mingfeng

    2015-11-01

    Flowering, the floral transition from vegetative growth to reproductive growth, is induced by diverse endogenous and exogenous cues, such as photoperiod, temperature, hormones and age. Precise flowering time is critical to plant growth and evolution of species. The numerous renewal molecular and genetic results have revealed five flowering time pathways, including classical photoperiod pathway, vernalization pathway, autonomous pathway, gibberellins (GA) pathway and newly identified age pathway. These pathways take on relatively independent role, and involve extensive crosstalks and feedback loops. This review describes the complicated regulatory network of this floral transition to understand the molecular mechanism of flowering and provide references for further research in more plants.

  1. North Dakota ''Flower Power'' project

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, J.; Aakre, P.; Derry, J.

    1982-05-01

    Flower Power Inc. was set up to study the long term effects of blends of sunflower oil and diesel fuel on engine components. Tests to date have indicated that farm diesel tractors can be operated on blends of up to 50% sunflower oil and diesel fuel but that its continued use would appear to cause premature engine problems. While the results of the tests are encouraging, use of sunflower oil as a fuel is not yet recommended. Continued long term testing is needed to evaluate the performance of sunflower oil-diesel blends.

  2. Estimation of pyrethrum flower number using digital imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flower number is a major determinant of pyrethrin yield in pyrethrum [Tanacetum cineariifolium (Trefi.) Sch. Bip.] production. Traditional estimates of flower numbers utilize physical harvesting of flowers which is time consuming and destructive. Physical harvest is complicated by constraints such...

  3. Fertilization Mechanisms in Flowering Plants

    PubMed Central

    Dresselhaus, Thomas; Sprunck, Stefanie; Wessel, Gary M.

    2016-01-01

    Compared to the animal kingdom, fertilization is particularly complex in flowering plants (angiosperms). Sperm cells of angiosperms have lost their motility and require transportation as a passive cargo by the pollen tube cell to the egg apparatus (egg cell and accessory synergid cells). Sperm cell release from the pollen tube occurs after intensive communication between the pollen tube cell and the receptive synergid, culminating in the lysis of both interaction partners. Following release of the two sperm cells they interact and fuse with two dimorphic female gametes (egg and central cell) forming the major seed components embryo and endosperm, respectively. This process is known as double fertilization. Here we review the current understanding of the processes of sperm cell reception, gamete interaction, their pre-fertilization activation and fusion as well as the mechanisms plants use to prevent the fusion of egg cells with multiple sperm cells. The role of Ca2+ is highlighted in these various processes and comparisons are drawn between fertilization mechanisms in flowering plants and other eukaryotes including mammals. PMID:26859271

  4. Fertilization Mechanisms in Flowering Plants.

    PubMed

    Dresselhaus, Thomas; Sprunck, Stefanie; Wessel, Gary M

    2016-02-08

    Compared with the animal kingdom, fertilization is particularly complex in flowering plants (angiosperms). Sperm cells of angiosperms have lost their motility and require transportation as a passive cargo by the pollen tube cell to the egg apparatus (egg cell and accessory synergid cells). Sperm cell release from the pollen tube occurs after intensive communication between the pollen tube cell and the receptive synergid, culminating in the lysis of both interaction partners. Following release of the two sperm cells, they interact and fuse with two dimorphic female gametes (the egg and the central cell) forming the major seed components embryo and endosperm, respectively. This process is known as double fertilization. Here, we review the current understanding of the processes of sperm cell reception, gamete interaction, their pre-fertilization activation and fusion, as well as the mechanisms plants use to prevent the fusion of egg cells with multiple sperm cells. The role of Ca(2+) is highlighted in these various processes and comparisons are drawn between fertilization mechanisms in flowering plants and other eukaryotes, including mammals.

  5. Sexual dimorphism in flowering plants.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Spencer C H; Hough, Josh

    2013-01-01

    Among dioecious flowering plants, females and males often differ in a range of morphological, physiological, and life-history traits. This is referred to as sexual dimorphism, and understanding why it occurs is a central question in evolutionary biology. Our review documents a range of sexually dimorphic traits in angiosperm species, discusses their ecological consequences, and details the genetic and evolutionary processes that drive divergence between female and male phenotypes. We consider why sexual dimorphism in plants is generally less well developed than in many animal groups, and also the importance of sexual and natural selection in contributing to differences between the sexes. Many sexually dimorphic characters, including both vegetative and flowering traits, are associated with differences in the costs of reproduction, which are usually greater in females, particularly in longer-lived species. These differences can influence the frequency and distribution of females and males across resource gradients and within heterogeneous environments, causing niche differences and the spatial segregation of the sexes. The interplay between sex-specific adaptation and the breakdown of between-sex genetic correlations allows for the independent evolution of female and male traits, and this is influenced in some species by the presence of sex chromosomes. We conclude by providing suggestions for future work on sexual dimorphism in plants, including investigations of the ecological and genetic basis of intraspecific variation, and genetic mapping and expression studies aimed at understanding the genetic architecture of sexually dimorphic trait variation.

  6. Postharvest: Cut flowers and potted plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the past fifty years, the cut flower market has changed dramatically, from a local market with growers located on city outskirts, to a global one; flowers and cut foliage sourced from throughout the world are sold as bunches or combined into arrangements and bouquets in the major target markets. ...

  7. Arabidopsis, the Rosetta stone of flowering time?

    PubMed

    Simpson, Gordon G; Dean, Caroline

    2002-04-12

    Multiple environmental and endogenous inputs regulate when plants flower. The molecular genetic dissection of flowering time control in Arabidopsis has identified an integrated network of pathways that quantitatively control the timing of this developmental switch. This framework provides the basis to understand the evolution of different reproductive strategies and how floral pathways interact through seasonal progression.

  8. Susceptibility of blackberry flowers to freezing temperatures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Injury of tight buds, open flowers and green fruit often occur in fruit crops during spring frost events. In this study, freezing tolerance of ‘Triple Crown’ blackberry flowers at different reproductive stages of development (tight bud to green drupe) was determined using two methods. One method i...

  9. Identification and characterization of flowering genes in kiwifruit: sequence conservation and role in kiwifruit flower development

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Flower development in kiwifruit (Actinidia spp.) is initiated in the first growing season, when undifferentiated primordia are established in latent shoot buds. These primordia can differentiate into flowers in the second growing season, after the winter dormancy period and upon accumulation of adequate winter chilling. Kiwifruit is an important horticultural crop, yet little is known about the molecular regulation of flower development. Results To study kiwifruit flower development, nine MADS-box genes were identified and functionally characterized. Protein sequence alignment, phenotypes obtained upon overexpression in Arabidopsis and expression patterns suggest that the identified genes are required for floral meristem and floral organ specification. Their role during budbreak and flower development was studied. A spontaneous kiwifruit mutant was utilized to correlate the extended expression domains of these flowering genes with abnormal floral development. Conclusions This study provides a description of flower development in kiwifruit at the molecular level. It has identified markers for flower development, and candidates for manipulation of kiwifruit growth, phase change and time of flowering. The expression in normal and aberrant flowers provided a model for kiwifruit flower development. PMID:21521532

  10. Meta-analysis of phenotypic selection on flowering phenology suggests that early flowering plants are favoured.

    PubMed

    Munguía-Rosas, Miguel A; Ollerton, Jeff; Parra-Tabla, Victor; De-Nova, J Arturo

    2011-05-01

    Flowering times of plants are important life-history components and it has previously been hypothesized that flowering phenologies may be currently subject to natural selection or be selectively neutral. In this study we reviewed the evidence for phenotypic selection acting on flowering phenology using ordinary and phylogenetic meta-analysis. Phenotypic selection exists when a phenotypic trait co-varies with fitness; therefore, we looked for studies reporting an association between two components of flowering phenology (flowering time or flowering synchrony) with fitness. Data sets comprising 87 and 18 plant species were then used to assess the incidence and strength of phenotypic selection on flowering time and flowering synchrony, respectively. The influence of dependence on pollinators, the duration of the reproductive event, latitude and plant longevity as moderators of selection were also explored. Our results suggest that selection favours early flowering plants, but the strength of selection is influenced by latitude, with selection being stronger in temperate environments. However, there is no consistent pattern of selection on flowering synchrony. Our study demonstrates that phenotypic selection on flowering time is consistent and relatively strong, in contrast to previous hypotheses of selective neutrality, and has implications for the evolution of temperate floras under global climate change.

  11. Petals' shape descriptor for blooming flowers recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Wooi-Nee; Tan, Yi-Fei; Koo, Ah-Choo; Lim, Yan-Peng

    2012-04-01

    This paper proposes a new descriptor to identify the petals' shape of a blooming flower based on the digital images captured in natural scene. The proposed descriptor can be used as one of features in computer aided flower recognition system beside the commonly used features such as number of petals and color. Experiments were conducted on the Malaysia flowers with same number of petals and with similar color across different species of flowers. 35 images from 7 species were used as the training set to set up the reference values of petals' shape descriptor and 7 new images were used as the testing set. The descriptor calculated from the testing set is then compared to the reference values from the training set to achieve the flowers recognition purpose. With the given set of data, complete success in full identification rate was obtained.

  12. Mineral and metabolic profiles in tea leaves and flowers during flower development.

    PubMed

    Jia, Sisi; Wang, Yu; Hu, Jianhui; Ding, Zhaotang; Liang, Qing; Zhang, Yinfei; Wang, Hui

    2016-09-01

    Tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] is one of the most popular non-alcoholic beverage crops in the world, and the physiological processes and gene regulations involved in development in tea plants have been well characterized. However, relatively little is known about the metabolic changes combined with mineral distributions that occur during flower development. Here we detected the contents of 11 elements in tea leaves and flowers and found that, some of them, especially phosphorus, sulfur and copper, showed significant changes during tea flowering. We also detected 122 metabolites in tea leaves and flowers and found that, 72 of them showed significant differences between flowers and leaves, of which sugars, organic acids, and flavonoids dominated. The sugars, such as trehalose and galactose, all accumulated in tea flowers, and the organic acids, such as malic acid, citric acid and fumaric acid involved in TCA cycle. The flavonoids, like epicatechin, catechin gallate and epigallocatechin, were more abundant in leaves. Furthermore, we found that the contents of 33 metabolites changed during the development of flowers. Especially, citric acid, phenylalanine and most flavonoids decreased while fructose and galactose increased during flowering stages in flowers. We also analyzed the correlations between the ions and metabolites and found that, some mineral nutrients including phosphorus, sulfur, manganese and zinc had close relations to organic acids, flavonoids, sugars and several amino acids during flowering. We mapped the metabolic pathway according to the KEGG database. This work will serve as the foundation for a systems biology approach to the understanding of mineral metabolism.

  13. Flowering phenology in subalpine meadows: does climate variation influence community co-flowering patterns?

    PubMed

    Forrest, Jessica; Inouye, David W; Thomson, James D

    2010-02-01

    Climate change is expected to alter patterns of species co-occurrence, in both space and time. Species-specific shifts in reproductive phenology may alter the assemblages of plant species in flower at any given time during the growing season. Temporal overlap in the flowering periods (co-flowering) of animal-pollinated species may influence reproductive success if competitive or facilitative interactions between plant species affect pollinator services. We used a 33-year data set on flowering phenology in subalpine meadows in Colorado, USA, to determine whether interannual variation in snowmelt date, which marks the start of the growing season, affected co-flowering patterns. For two of four species considered, we found a significant relationship between snowmelt timing and composition of the assemblage of co-flowering plants. In years of early snowmelt, Lathyrus lanszwertii var. leucanthus (Fabaceae), the species we investigated in most detail, tended to overlap with earlier-flowering species and with fewer species overall. In particular, overlap with the flowering period of Lupinus polyphyllus var. prunophilus, with which Lathyrus leucanthus shares pollinators, was significantly reduced in early-snowmelt years. The observed association between timing of snowmelt and patterns of flowering overlap could not have been predicted simply by examining temporal trends in the dates of peak flowering of the dominant species in the community, as peak flowering dates have largely shifted in parallel with respect to snowmelt date. However, subtle interspecific differences in responsiveness of flowering time, duration, and intensity to interannual climate variation have likely contributed to the observed relationship. Although much of the year-to-year variation in flowering overlap remains unexplained by snowmelt date, our finding of a measurable signal of climate variation suggests that future climate change may lead to altered competitive environments for these wildflower

  14. Flower opening and closure: an update.

    PubMed

    van Doorn, Wouter G; Kamdee, Chanattika

    2014-11-01

    This review is an update of a 2003 review (Journal of Experimental Botany 54,1801-1812) by the same corresponding author. Many examples of flower opening have been recorded using time-lapse photography, showing its velocity and the required elongation growth. Ethylene regulates flower opening, together with at least gibberellins and auxin. Ethylene and gibberellic acid often promote and inhibit, respectively, the expression of DELLA genes and the stability of DELLA proteins. DELLA results in growth inhibition. Both hormones also inhibited and promoted, respectively, the expression of aquaporin genes required for cell elongation. Arabidopsis miRNA319a mutants exhibited narrow and short petals, whereby miRNA319a indirectly regulates auxin effects. Flower opening in roses was controlled by a NAC transcription factor, acting through miRNA164. The regulatory role of light and temperature, in interaction with the circadian clock, has been further elucidated. The end of the life span in many flowers is determined by floral closure. In some species pollination resulted in earlier closure of turgid flowers, compared with unpollinated flowers. It is hypothesized that this pollination-induced effect is only found in flowers in which closure is regulated by ethylene.

  15. Photoperiodic flowering regulation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Golembeski, Greg S.; Kinmonth-Schultz, Hannah A.; Song, Young Hun; Imaizumi, Takato

    2015-01-01

    Photoperiod, or the duration of light in a given day, is a critical cue that flowering plants utilize to effectively assess seasonal information and coordinate their reproductive development in synchrony with the external environment. The use of the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, has greatly improved our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that determine how plants process and utilize photoperiodic information to coordinate a flowering response. This mechanism is typified by the transcriptional activation of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene by the transcription factor CONSTANS (CO) under inductive long-day conditions in Arabidopsis. FT protein then moves from the leaves to the shoot apex, where floral meristem development can be initiated. As a point of integration from a variety of environmental factors in the context of a larger system of regulatory pathways that affect flowering, the importance of photoreceptors and the circadian clock in CO regulation throughout the day has been a key feature of the photoperiodic flowering pathway. In addition to these established mechanisms, the recent discovery of a photosynthate derivative trehalose-6-phosphate as an activator of FT in leaves has interesting implications for the involvement of photosynthesis in the photoperiodic flowering response that were suggested from previous physiological experiments in flowering induction. PMID:25684830

  16. A regulatory network for coordinated flower maturation.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Paul H; Ellis, Christine M; Ploense, Sara E; Wu, Miin-Feng; Yadav, Vandana; Tholl, Dorothea; Chételat, Aurore; Haupt, Ina; Kennerley, Brian J; Hodgens, Charles; Farmer, Edward E; Nagpal, Punita; Reed, Jason W

    2012-02-01

    For self-pollinating plants to reproduce, male and female organ development must be coordinated as flowers mature. The Arabidopsis transcription factors AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 6 (ARF6) and ARF8 regulate this complex process by promoting petal expansion, stamen filament elongation, anther dehiscence, and gynoecium maturation, thereby ensuring that pollen released from the anthers is deposited on the stigma of a receptive gynoecium. ARF6 and ARF8 induce jasmonate production, which in turn triggers expression of MYB21 and MYB24, encoding R2R3 MYB transcription factors that promote petal and stamen growth. To understand the dynamics of this flower maturation regulatory network, we have characterized morphological, chemical, and global gene expression phenotypes of arf, myb, and jasmonate pathway mutant flowers. We found that MYB21 and MYB24 promoted not only petal and stamen development but also gynoecium growth. As well as regulating reproductive competence, both the ARF and MYB factors promoted nectary development or function and volatile sesquiterpene production, which may attract insect pollinators and/or repel pathogens. Mutants lacking jasmonate synthesis or response had decreased MYB21 expression and stamen and petal growth at the stage when flowers normally open, but had increased MYB21 expression in petals of older flowers, resulting in renewed and persistent petal expansion at later stages. Both auxin response and jasmonate synthesis promoted positive feedbacks that may ensure rapid petal and stamen growth as flowers open. MYB21 also fed back negatively on expression of jasmonate biosynthesis pathway genes to decrease flower jasmonate level, which correlated with termination of growth after flowers have opened. These dynamic feedbacks may promote timely, coordinated, and transient growth of flower organs.

  17. Live confocal imaging of Arabidopsis flower buds.

    PubMed

    Prunet, Nathanaël; Jack, Thomas P; Meyerowitz, Elliot M

    2016-11-01

    Recent advances in confocal microscopy, coupled with the development of numerous fluorescent reporters, provide us with a powerful tool to study the development of plants. Live confocal imaging has been used extensively to further our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the formation of roots, shoots and leaves. However, it has not been widely applied to flowers, partly because of specific challenges associated with the imaging of flower buds. Here, we describe how to prepare and grow shoot apices of Arabidopsis in vitro, to perform both single-point and time-lapse imaging of live, developing flower buds with either an upright or an inverted confocal microscope.

  18. Recent advances of flowering locus T gene in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Xu, Feng; Rong, Xiaofeng; Huang, Xiaohua; Cheng, Shuiyuan

    2012-01-01

    Flowering Locus T (FT) can promote flowering in the plant photoperiod pathway and also facilitates vernalization flowering pathways and other ways to promote flowering. The expression of products of the FT gene is recognized as important parts of the flowering hormone and can induce flowering by long-distance transportation. In the present study, many FT-like genes were isolated, and the transgenic results show that FT gene can promote flowering in plants. This paper reviews the progress of the FT gene and its expression products to provide meaningful information for further studies of the functions of FT genes.

  19. "Say it...near the flower shop": further evidence of the effect of flowers on mating.

    PubMed

    Guéguen, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    For millennia, flowers have been used to convey romance. In this study, 18-25-year-old women (N = 600) walking alone in a shopping mall were approached by an attractive 20-year-old male-confederate who solicited them for their phone number. The women were solicited as they were walking in the area of a flower shop, a cake shop, or a women's shoes shop. It was found that women agreed more favorably to the confederate's courtship solicitation when solicited in the area of the flower shop. Positive mood induced by exposure to flowers was used to explain these results.

  20. Endothermy by flowers of Rhizanthes lowii (Rafflesiaceae).

    PubMed

    Patiño, S; Grace, J; Bänziger, H

    2000-08-01

    Rhizanthes lowii (Beccari) Harms (Rafflesia- ceae) is a parasitic plant that grows in the understory of the rainforest in South-East Asia. This plant does not have leaves, stems, or photosynthetic tissue and is characterised by the emission of a strong odour that attracts the natural pollinators, carrion flies. Flowers that volatilise odorous compounds and attract carrion flies, beetles and other insects are often thermogenic. Here we present evidence of both thermogenesis and thermoregulation in R. lowii from microclimate and tissue temperatures measured during different stages of flower development in R. lowii, in natural conditions in Brunei, Borneo. Endothermy was detected in young and mature buds as well as in blooming flowers and even in decaying tissues 3 or more days after blooming. Tissue temperatures were maintained at 7-9 K above air temperature, in both female and male flowers, at all stages of floral development.

  1. The evolutionary root of flowering plants.

    PubMed

    Goremykin, Vadim V; Nikiforova, Svetlana V; Biggs, Patrick J; Zhong, Bojian; Delange, Peter; Martin, William; Woetzel, Stefan; Atherton, Robin A; McLenachan, Patricia A; Lockhart, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Correct rooting of the angiosperm radiation is both challenging and necessary for understanding the origins and evolution of physiological and phenotypic traits in flowering plants. The problem is known to be difficult due to the large genetic distance separating flowering plants from other seed plants and the sparse taxon sampling among basal angiosperms. Here, we provide further evidence for concern over substitution model misspecification in analyses of chloroplast DNA sequences. We show that support for Amborella as the sole representative of the most basal angiosperm lineage is founded on sequence site patterns poorly described by time-reversible substitution models. Improving the fit between sequence data and substitution model identifies Trithuria, Nymphaeaceae, and Amborella as surviving relatives of the most basal lineage of flowering plants. This finding indicates that aquatic and herbaceous species dominate the earliest extant lineage of flowering plants. [; ; ; ; ; .].

  2. Why Is a Flower Five-Petaled?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishiyama, Yutaka

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines why many flowers are five-petaled through the use of a five-petaled model that draws insights from the location of cell clusters at a shoot apex, rather than by way of the Fibonacci sequence or the golden ratio as in the past. The conclusion drawn is that flowers are most likely to be five-petaled, followed by six-petaled;…

  3. Synchrony in the phenology of a culturally iconic spring flower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, Tim H.; Mizera, Tadeusz; Wójtowicz, Wanda; Tryjanowski, Piotr

    2012-03-01

    We examine the flowering phenology of the cultural iconic Spring Snowflake Leucojum vernum, a considerable tourist attraction, recorded from two sites in western Poland. Flowering dates at the two sites were closely correlated but about 6 days later at the more natural area. The end of flowering was associated with the start of canopy leafing. Early flowering was related to a longer flowering season which may benefit ecotourism under future climate warming.

  4. Pollination Services of Mango Flower Pollinators

    PubMed Central

    Huda, A. Nurul; Salmah, M. R. Che; Hassan, A. Abu; Hamdan, A.; Razak, M. N. Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Measuring wild pollinator services in agricultural production is very important in the context of sustainable management. In this study, we estimated the contribution of native pollinators to mango fruit set production of two mango cultivars Mangifera indica (L). cv. ‘Sala’ and ‘Chok Anan’. Visitation rates of pollinators on mango flowers and number of pollen grains adhering to their bodies determined pollinator efficiency for reproductive success of the crop. Chok Anan failed to produce any fruit set in the absence of pollinators. In natural condition, we found that Sala produced 4.8% fruit set per hermaphrodite flower while Chok Anan produced 3.1% per flower. Hand pollination tremendously increased fruit set of naturally pollinated flower for Sala (>100%), but only 33% for Chok Anan. Pollinator contribution to mango fruit set was estimated at 53% of total fruit set production. Our results highlighted the importance of insect pollinations in mango production. Large size flies Eristalinus spp. and Chrysomya spp. were found to be effective pollen carriers and visited more mango flowers compared with other flower visitors. PMID:26246439

  5. Pollination Services of Mango Flower Pollinators.

    PubMed

    Huda, A Nurul; Salmah, M R Che; Hassan, A Abu; Hamdan, A; Razak, M N Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Measuring wild pollinator services in agricultural production is very important in the context of sustainable management. In this study, we estimated the contribution of native pollinators to mango fruit set production of two mango cultivars Mangifera indica (L). cv. 'Sala' and 'Chok Anan'. Visitation rates of pollinators on mango flowers and number of pollen grains adhering to their bodies determined pollinator efficiency for reproductive success of the crop. Chok Anan failed to produce any fruit set in the absence of pollinators. In natural condition, we found that Sala produced 4.8% fruit set per hermaphrodite flower while Chok Anan produced 3.1% per flower. Hand pollination tremendously increased fruit set of naturally pollinated flower for Sala (>100%), but only 33% for Chok Anan. Pollinator contribution to mango fruit set was estimated at 53% of total fruit set production. Our results highlighted the importance of insect pollinations in mango production. Large size flies Eristalinus spp. and Chrysomya spp. were found to be effective pollen carriers and visited more mango flowers compared with other flower visitors.

  6. Comparative evolution of flower and fruit morphology

    PubMed Central

    Whitney, Kenneth D.

    2009-01-01

    Angiosperm diversification has resulted in a vast array of plant morphologies. Only recently has it been appreciated that diversification might have proceeded quite differently for the two key diagnostic structures of this clade, flowers and fruits. These structures are hypothesized to have experienced different selective pressures via their interactions with animals in dispersal mutualisms, resulting in a greater amount of morphological diversification in animal-pollinated flowers than in animal-dispersed fruits. I tested this idea using size and colour traits for the flowers and fruits of 472 species occurring in three floras (St John, Hawaii and the Great Plains). Phylogenetically controlled analyses of nearest-neighbour distances in multidimensional trait space matched the predicted pattern: in each of the three floras, flowers were more divergent from one another than were fruits. In addition, the spacing of species clusters differed for flowers versus fruits in the flora of St John, with clusters in flower space more divergent than those in fruit space. The results are consistent with the idea that a major driver of angiosperm diversification has been stronger selection for divergent floral morphology than for divergent fruit morphology, although genetic, physiological and ecological constraints may also play a role. PMID:19474045

  7. Sex determination in flowering plants.

    PubMed Central

    Dellaporta, S L; Calderon-Urrea, A

    1993-01-01

    In many ways, plants offer unique systems through which to study sex determination. Because the production of unisexual flowers has evolved independently in many plant species, different and novel mechanisms may be operational. Hence, there is probably not one unifying mechanism that explains sex determination in plants. Advances in our understanding of sex determination will come from the analysis of the genetics, molecular biology, and biochemistry of genes controlling sexual determination in plants. Several excellent model systems for bisexual floral development (Arabidopsis and Antirrhinum), monoecy (maize), and dioecy (Silene, asparagus, and mercury) are available for such analyses. The important questions that remain concern the mechanism of action of sex determination genes and their interrelationship, if any, with homeotic genes that determine the sexual identity of floral organ primordia. At the physiological level, the connection between hormone signaling and sexuality is not well understood, although significant correlations have been discovered. Finally, once the genes that regulate these processes are identified, cloned, and studied, new strategies for the manipulation of sexuality in plants should be forthcoming. PMID:8281039

  8. Ring Beholds a Delicate Flower

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope finds a delicate flower in the Ring Nebula, as shown in this image. The outer shell of this planetary nebula looks surprisingly similar to the delicate petals of a camellia blossom. A planetary nebula is a shell of material ejected from a dying star. Located about 2,000 light years from Earth in the constellation Lyra, the Ring Nebula is also known as Messier Object 57 and NGC 6720. It is one of the best examples of a planetary nebula and a favorite target of amateur astronomers.

    The 'ring' is a thick cylinder of glowing gas and dust around the doomed star. As the star begins to run out of fuel, its core becomes smaller and hotter, boiling off its outer layers. The telescope's infrared array camera detected this material expelled from the withering star. Previous images of the Ring Nebula taken by visible-light telescopes usually showed just the inner glowing loop of gas around the star. The outer regions are especially prominent in this new image because Spitzer sees the infrared light from hydrogen molecules. The molecules emit infrared light because they have absorbed ultraviolet radiation from the star or have been heated by the wind from the star.

    Download the QuickTime movie for the animated version of this Ring Nebula image.

  9. Phytochrome, plant growth and flowering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, R. W.; Bagnall, D. J.

    1994-01-01

    Attempts to use artificially lit cabinets to grow plants identical to those growing in sunlight have provided compelling evidence of the importance of light quality for plant growth. Changing the balance of red (R) to far-red (FR) radiation, but with a fixed photosynthetic input can shift the phytochrome photoequilibrium in a plant and generate large differences in plant growth. With FR enrichment the plants elongate, and may produce more leaf area and dry matter. Similar morphogenic responses are also obtained when light quality is altered only briefly (15-30 min) at the end-of-the-day. Conversely, for plants grown in natural conditions the response of plant form to selective spectral filtering has again shown that red and far-red wavebands are important as found by Kasperbauer and coworkers. Also, where photosynthetic photon flux densities (PPFD) of sunlight have been held constant, the removal of far-red alone alters plant growth. With FR depletion plants grown in sunlight are small, more branched and darker green. Here we examine the implications for plant growth and flowering when the far-red composition of incident radiation in plant growth chambers is manipulated.

  10. Strawberry homologue of terminal flower1 integrates photoperiod and temperature signals to inhibit flowering.

    PubMed

    Rantanen, Marja; Kurokura, Takeshi; Jiang, Panpan; Mouhu, Katriina; Hytönen, Timo

    2015-04-01

    Photoperiod and temperature are major environmental signals affecting flowering in plants. Although molecular pathways mediating these signals have been well characterized in the annual model plant Arabidopsis, much less information is known in perennials. Many perennials including the woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca L.) are induced to flower in response to decreasing photoperiod and temperature in autumn and they flower following spring. We showed earlier that, in contrast with Arabidopsis, the photoperiodic induction of flowering in strawberry occurs in short days (SD) when the decrease in FvFT1 (flowering locus T) and FvSOC1 (suppressor of the overexpression of constans1) expression leads to lower mRNA levels of the floral repressor, FvTFL1 (terminal flower1). By using transgenic lines and gene expression analyses, we show evidence that the temperature-mediated changes in the FvTFL1 mRNA expression set critical temperature limits for the photoperiodic flowering in strawberry. At temperatures below 13 °C, low expression level of FvTFL1 in both SD and long days (LD) allows flower induction to occur independently of the photoperiod. Rising temperature gradually increases FvTFL1 mRNA levels under LD, and at temperatures above 13 °C, SD is required for the flower induction that depends on the deactivation of FvSOC1 and FvTFL1. However, an unknown transcriptional activator, which functions independently of FvSOC1, enhances the expression of FvTFL1 at 23 °C preventing photoperiodic flowering. We suggest that the observed effect of the photoperiod × temperature interaction on FvTFL1 mRNA expression may allow strawberry to induce flowers in correct time in different climates.

  11. A latitudinal cline in flowering time in Arabidopsis thaliana modulated by the flowering time gene FRIGIDA.

    PubMed

    Stinchcombe, John R; Weinig, Cynthia; Ungerer, Mark; Olsen, Kenneth M; Mays, Charlotte; Halldorsdottir, Solveig S; Purugganan, Michael D; Schmitt, Johanna

    2004-03-30

    A latitudinal cline in flowering time in accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana has been widely predicted because the environmental cues that promote flowering vary systematically with latitude, but evidence for such clines has been lacking. Here, we report evidence of a significant latitudinal cline in flowering time among 70 Northern European and Mediterranean ecotypes when grown under ecologically realistic conditions in a common garden environment. The detected cline, however, is found only in ecotypes with alleles of the flowering time gene FRIGIDA (FRI) that lack major deletions that would disrupt protein function, whereas there is no relationship between flowering time and latitude of origin among accessions with FRI alleles containing such deletions. Analysis of climatological data suggests that late flowering in accessions with putatively functional FRI was associated with reduced January precipitation at the site of origin, consistent with previous reports of a positive genetic correlation between water use efficiency and flowering time in Arabidopsis, and the pleiotropic effects of FRI of increasing water use efficiency. In accessions collected from Southern latitudes, we detected that putatively functional FRI alleles were associated with accelerated flowering relative to accessions with nonfunctional FRI under the winter conditions of our experiment. These results suggest that the ecological function of the vernalization requirement conferred by FRI differs across latitudes. More generally, our results indicate that by combining ecological and molecular genetic data, it is possible to understand the forces acting on life history transitions at the level of specific loci.

  12. A latitudinal cline in flowering time in Arabidopsis thaliana modulated by the flowering time gene FRIGIDA

    PubMed Central

    Stinchcombe, John R.; Weinig, Cynthia; Ungerer, Mark; Olsen, Kenneth M.; Mays, Charlotte; Halldorsdottir, Solveig S.; Purugganan, Michael D.; Schmitt, Johanna

    2004-01-01

    A latitudinal cline in flowering time in accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana has been widely predicted because the environmental cues that promote flowering vary systematically with latitude, but evidence for such clines has been lacking. Here, we report evidence of a significant latitudinal cline in flowering time among 70 Northern European and Mediterranean ecotypes when grown under ecologically realistic conditions in a common garden environment. The detected cline, however, is found only in ecotypes with alleles of the flowering time gene FRIGIDA (FRI) that lack major deletions that would disrupt protein function, whereas there is no relationship between flowering time and latitude of origin among accessions with FRI alleles containing such deletions. Analysis of climatological data suggests that late flowering in accessions with putatively functional FRI was associated with reduced January precipitation at the site of origin, consistent with previous reports of a positive genetic correlation between water use efficiency and flowering time in Arabidopsis, and the pleiotropic effects of FRI of increasing water use efficiency. In accessions collected from Southern latitudes, we detected that putatively functional FRI alleles were associated with accelerated flowering relative to accessions with nonfunctional FRI under the winter conditions of our experiment. These results suggest that the ecological function of the vernalization requirement conferred by FRI differs across latitudes. More generally, our results indicate that by combining ecological and molecular genetic data, it is possible to understand the forces acting on life history transitions at the level of specific loci. PMID:15070783

  13. Cytotoxic and bioactive properties of different color tulip flowers and degradation kinetic of tulip flower anthocyanins.

    PubMed

    Sagdic, Osman; Ekici, Lutfiye; Ozturk, Ismet; Tekinay, Turgay; Polat, Busra; Tastemur, Bilge; Bayram, Okan; Senturk, Berna

    2013-08-01

    This study was conducted to determine the potential use of anthocyanin-based extracts (ABEs) of wasted tulip flowers as food/drug colorants. For this aim, wasted tulip flowers were samples and analyzed for their bioactive properties and cytotoxicity. Total phenolic contents of the extracts of the claret red (126.55 mg of gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g dry extract) and orange-red (113.76 mg GAE/g dry extract) flowers were the higher than those of the other tulip flowers. Total anthocyanin levels of the violet, orange-red, claret red and pink tulip flower extracts were determined as 265.04, 236.49, 839.08 and 404.45 mg pelargonidin 3-glucoside/kg dry extract, respectively and these levels were higher than those of the other flowers. The extracts were more effective for the inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Yersinia enterocolitica compared to other tested bacteria. Additionally, the cytotoxic effects of five different tulip flower extracts on human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cell line were investigated. The results showed that the orange red, pink and violet extracts had no cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 cell lines while yellow and claret red extracts appeared to be toxic for the cells. Overall, the extracts of tulip flowers with different colors possess remarkable bioactive and cytotoxic properties.

  14. First flowering dates and flowering periods of prairie plants at Woodworth, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Callow, J.M.; Kantrud, H.A.; Higgins, K.F.

    1992-01-01

    We recorded flowering events for 97 species of prairie plants for 2-6 years near Woodworth, ND. Earliest and latest flower initiation dates varied by year. Temperature seemed much more important than precipitation in influencing phenology of species that bloom from late March through May, but no strong climatic effect was evident for plants that bloom later in the growing season.

  15. Flower Volatiles, Crop Varieties and Bee Responses

    PubMed Central

    Klatt, Björn K.; Burmeister, Carina; Westphal, Catrin; Tscharntke, Teja; von Fragstein, Maximillian

    2013-01-01

    Pollination contributes to an estimated one third of global food production, through both the improvement of the yield and the quality of crops. Volatile compounds emitted by crop flowers mediate plant-pollinator interactions, but differences between crop varieties are still little explored. We investigated whether the visitation of crop flowers is determined by variety-specific flower volatiles using strawberry varieties (Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne) and how this affects the pollination services of the wild bee Osmia bicornis L. Flower volatile compounds of three strawberry varieties were measured via headspace collection. Gas chromatography showed that the three strawberry varieties produced the same volatile compounds but with quantitative differences of the total amount of volatiles and between distinct compounds. Electroantennographic recordings showed that inexperienced females of Osmia bicornis had higher antennal responses to all volatile compounds than to controls of air and paraffin oil, however responses differed between compounds. The variety Sonata was found to emit a total higher level of volatiles and also higher levels of most of the compounds that evoked antennal responses compared with the other varieties Honeoye and Darselect. Sonata also received more flower visits from Osmia bicornis females under field conditions, compared with Honeoye. Our results suggest that differences in the emission of flower volatile compounds among strawberry varieties mediate their attractiveness to females of Osmia bicornis. Since quality and quantity of marketable fruits depend on optimal pollination, a better understanding of the role of flower volatiles in crop production is required and should be considered more closely in crop-variety breeding. PMID:23977347

  16. Flower power: Tree flowering phenology as a settlement cue for migrating birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGrath, L.J.; van Riper, Charles; Fontaine, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    1. Neotropical migrant birds show a clear preference for stopover habitats with ample food supplies; yet, the proximate cues underlying these decisions remain unclear. 2. For insectivorous migrants, cues associated with vegetative phenology (e.g. flowering, leaf flush, and leaf loss) may reliably predict the availability of herbivorous arthropods. Here we examined whether migrants use the phenology of five tree species to choose stopover locations, and whether phenology accurately predicts food availability. 3. Using a combination of experimental and observational evidence, we show migrant populations closely track tree phenology, particularly the flowering phenology of honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa), and preferentially forage in trees with more flowers. Furthermore, the flowering phenology of honey mesquite reliably predicts overall arthropod abundance as well as the arthropods preferred by migrants for food. 4. Together, these results suggest that honey mesquite flowering phenology is an important cue used by migrants to assess food availability quickly and reliably, while in transit during spring migration. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  17. Kaempferol glycosides in the flowers of carnation and their contribution to the creamy white flower color.

    PubMed

    Iwashina, Tsukasa; Yamaguchi, Masa-atsu; Nakayama, Masayoshi; Onozaki, Takashi; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Kawanobu, Shuji; Onoe, Hiroshi; Okamura, Masachika

    2010-12-01

    Three flavonol glycosides were isolated from the flowers of carnation cultivars 'White Wink' and 'Honey Moon'. They were identified from their UV, MS, 1H and 13C NMR spectra as kaempferol 3-O-neohesperidoside, kaempferol 3-O-sophoroside and kaempferol 3-O-glucosyl-(1 --> 2)-[rhamnosyl-(1 --> 6)-glucoside]. Referring to previous reports, flavonols occurring in carnation flowers are characterized as kaempferol 3-O-glucosides with additional sugars binding at the 2 and/or 6-positions of the glucose. The kaempferol glycoside contents of a nearly pure white flower and some creamy white flower lines were compared. Although the major glycoside was different in each line, the total kaempferol contents of the creamy white lines were from 5.9 to 20.9 times higher than the pure white line. Thus, in carnations, kaempferol glycosides surely contribute to the creamy tone of white flowers.

  18. Why sexually deceptive orchids have colored flowers

    PubMed Central

    Streinzer, Martin; Paulus, Hannes F

    2010-01-01

    Sexually deceptive orchids provide no reward to their pollinators. Instead, they mimic the sex pheromone of receptive insect females to attract males which pollinate the flowers in mating attempts. Nearly all species of the Mediterranean orchid genus Ophrys are sexually deceptive and pollinated by solitary bees and wasps. Due to the use of a highly specific olfactory communication channel most Ophrys species have, in contrast to food deceptive or rewarding orchids, an inconspicuous greenish perianth and a dark brownish labellum. However, some species possess a bright pink or white perianth, and the functional significant of such color signals in the orchid-pollinator communication system is unknown. We recently showed that the pink perianth of Ophrys heldreichii increases the performance of its bee pollinator, males of the long-horned bee Eucera (Tetralonia) berlandi, to detect the flower at short-range. At great distances (>30 cm) from the flower, male search behavior was found to be olfactory guided and unaffected by the spectral property of the perianth, i.e., chromatic and green receptor-specific contrast. However, in the near vicinity of the flower (<30 cm), where spatial vision is sufficient to detect the flower, search time only correlated with the green receptor-specific contrast between the perianth and the background. PMID:20585505

  19. Why sexually deceptive orchids have colored flowers.

    PubMed

    Spaethe, Johannes; Streinzer, Martin; Paulus, Hannes F

    2010-03-01

    Sexually deceptive orchids provide no reward to their pollinators. Instead, they mimic the sex pheromone of receptive insect females to attract males which pollinate the flowers in mating attempts. Nearly all species of the Mediterranean orchid genus Ophrys are sexually deceptive and pollinated by solitary bees and wasps. Due to the use of a highly specific olfactory communication channel most Ophrys species have, in contrast to food deceptive or rewarding orchids, an inconspicuous greenish perianth and a dark brownish labellum. However, some species possess a bright pink or white perianth, and the functional significant of such color signals in the orchid-pollinator communication system is unknown. We recently showed that the pink perianth of Ophrys heldreichii increases the performance of its bee pollinator, males of the long-horned bee Eucera (Tetralonia) berlandi, to detect the flower at short-range. At great distances (>30 cm) from the flower, male search behavior was found to be olfactory guided and unaffected by the spectral property of the perianth, i.e., chromatic and green receptor-specific contrast. However, in the near vicinity of the flower (<30 cm), where spatial vision is sufficient to detect the flower, search time only correlated with the green receptor-specific contrast between the perianth and the background.

  20. Late-Flowering Species are Sensitive to Warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, D. L.; VanderWeide, B. L.

    2012-12-01

    Phenological advancement is one of the most prevalent responses of vegetation to warming. The prevailing view is that that early flowering species are particularly sensitive warming, with greater phenological advancement per °C warming relative to later flowering species. However, we observed a three to four month advancement of late flowering species to the extreme warmth of 2012, which motivated us to ask quantitatively whether late flowering species are indeed less sensitive to warming. We focused on responses to inter-annual variation in mean monthly, seasonal, and annual temperatures, using species for which we have ≥10 observations of first flowering near Manhattan, KS between 1891 and 2012 (n = 259). As many other studies have found, early flowering species advanced flowering with warmer temperatures during the year preceding flowering, while late flowering species appeared insensitive to warming during the year preceding flowering. At the seasonal time scale, however, both early and late flowering species responded similarly to spring warming, while late flowering species delayed flowering in response to summer warmth. This divergent response created the illusion that later flowering species were insensitive to temperatures during the year preceding flowering. When absolute values of sensitivities to temperature were summed across months, late flowering species exhibited greater sensitivity to temperature than early flowering species. Late-flowering species were also the most sensitive to variation in precipitation and advanced flowering when summers were wet. We therefore speculate that flowering for late species is delayed by warm, dry summers because both warmth and dryness exacerbate plant water stress and delay growth. Furthermore, warm spring temperatures might allow both early and late flowering species to more quickly attain size or developmental requirements for flowering. Advanced flowering in 2012 provides an extreme example of some typically

  1. Tiger cubs and little flowers.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    Short vignettes are related to show the conditions for girls and women in Morocco. Descriptions are given for child labor, literacy, the government's education campaign, youth group efforts to enhance family planning (FP) knowledge, the impact of FP outreach in rural areas, and unmarried mothers. In Morocco's cities, young boys can be seen hawking cigarettes and working in market stalls; in the countryside, boys herd goats or do other farm work. In rural areas girls are hidden by having them perform work around the house or on the farm primarily indoors. Women are supervised by women. 54% work as maids and 39% are apprentices in carpet factories. Parents prefer to have their daughters working and consider it protection from mischief as well as needed income. Only 60% of girls are enrolled in primary school vs. 80% of the boys. In rural areas, only 44% of girls are enrolled, and 20% stay to complete their primary education, while 76% of boys enroll and 63% complete primary school. Literacy of women has an effect on the ability to accurately take birth control pills. All ages of women gather at schools in the evening for lessons in reading and writing in a program supported by the King. Women are pleased with their success in just learning how to write their own names. Television advertisements promote sending children to school, as another part of the Ministry of Education's campaign to increase girl's educational status. There are still not enough schools; many schools are double shift, and communities are building their own schools. Youth clubs, which refer to boys as "tiger cubs" and girls as "little flowers," try to familiarize young people with some basic information about contraception. A traditional midwife relates some problems with girl's education: costs for clothing and supplies, worry about male teachers, and poor role models. In some remote areas, farm families do not send their children to school, because of the distance to schools and the need for

  2. Unique Crystallization of Fullerenes: Fullerene Flowers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jungah; Park, Chibeom; Song, Intek; Lee, Minkyung; Kim, Hyungki; Choi, Hee Cheul

    2016-01-01

    Solution-phase crystallization of fullerene molecules strongly depends on the types of solvent and their ratios because solvent molecules are easily included in the crystal lattice and distort its structure. The C70 (solute)–mesitylene (solvent) system yields crystals with various morphologies and structures, such as cubes, tubes, and imperfect rods. Herein, using C60 and C70 dissolved in mesitylene, we present a novel way to grow unique flower-shaped crystals with six symmetric petals. The different solubility of C60 and C70 in mesitylene promotes nucleation of C70 with sixfold symmetry in the early stage, which is followed by co-crystallization of both C60 and C70 molecules, leading to lateral petal growth. Based on the growth mechanism, we obtained more complex fullerene crystals, such as multi-deck flowers and tube-flower complexes, by changing the sequence and parameters of crystallization. PMID:27561446

  3. Orchid flowers tolerance to gamma-radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Olivia Kimiko

    2000-03-01

    Cut flowers are fresh goods that may be treated with fumigants such as methyl bromide to meet the needs of the quarantine requirements of importing countries. Irradiation is a non-chemical alternative to substitute the methyl bromide treatment of fresh products. In this research, different cut orchids were irradiated to examine their tolerance to gamma-rays. A 200 Gy dose did inhibit the Dendrobium palenopsis buds from opening, but did not cause visible damage to opened flowers. Doses of 800 and 1000 Gy were damaging because they provoked the flowers to drop from the stem. Cattleya irradiated with 750 Gy did not show any damage, and were therefore eligible for the radiation treatment. Cymbidium tolerated up to 300 Gy and above this dose dropped prematurely. On the other hand, Oncydium did not tolerate doses above 150 Gy.

  4. Unique Crystallization of Fullerenes: Fullerene Flowers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jungah; Park, Chibeom; Song, Intek; Lee, Minkyung; Kim, Hyungki; Choi, Hee Cheul

    2016-08-01

    Solution-phase crystallization of fullerene molecules strongly depends on the types of solvent and their ratios because solvent molecules are easily included in the crystal lattice and distort its structure. The C70 (solute)–mesitylene (solvent) system yields crystals with various morphologies and structures, such as cubes, tubes, and imperfect rods. Herein, using C60 and C70 dissolved in mesitylene, we present a novel way to grow unique flower-shaped crystals with six symmetric petals. The different solubility of C60 and C70 in mesitylene promotes nucleation of C70 with sixfold symmetry in the early stage, which is followed by co-crystallization of both C60 and C70 molecules, leading to lateral petal growth. Based on the growth mechanism, we obtained more complex fullerene crystals, such as multi-deck flowers and tube-flower complexes, by changing the sequence and parameters of crystallization.

  5. Tropism in azalea and lily flowers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, M.; Tomita-Yokotani, K.; Nakamura, T.; Yamashita, M.

    Tropic responses were examined in azalea Rhododendrom pulchrum and lily Lilium cv. 'Casablanca' flowers. Orientation of the flowers in these two species depicts several up/down characteristics, such as angle of the corolla opening, alignment or configuration of a specific petal at the top, plus direction in the curved tip of the pistil and stamen. Gravity was found to be the prime factor, with light as a secondary signal that determines gravitropism in the pistil of the azalea. Within the azalea, sedimented amyloplasts were observed throughout the cells along the inner layers below the epidermis. In lily flowers, no sedimented amyloplasts were found in style cells, and phototropic responses caused upward bending of the pistil. Responses of lily pistils to monochromatic light were consistent with the action spectrum for phototropism in the shoots of monocotyledonous plants. We discuss how these features may increase the fitness for pollination in these two species.

  6. Pollinator coupling can induce synchronized flowering in different plant species.

    PubMed

    Tachiki, Yuuya; Iwasa, Yoh; Satake, Akiko

    2010-11-21

    Synchronous and intermittent plant reproduction has been identified widely in diverse biomes. While synchronous flowering is normally observed within the same species, different species also flower in synchrony. A well-known example of interspecific synchrony is "general flowering" in tropical rain forests of Southeast Asia. Environmental factors, such as low temperature and drought, have been considered as major trigger of general flowering. However, environmental cues are not enough to explain general flowering because some trees do not flower even when they encounter favorable environmental cues. We propose alternative explanation of general flowering; "pollinator coupling". When species flower synchronously, the elevated pollen and nectar resource may attract increased numbers of generalist pollinators, with a concomitant enhancement of pollination success (facilitation). However, under these circumstances, plants of different species may compete with one another for limited pollinator services, resulting in declines in pollination success for individual species (competition). Here, we present a model describing resource dynamics of individual trees serviced by generalist pollinators. We analyze combinations of conditions under which plants reproduce intermittently with synchronization within species, and/or (sometimes) between different species. We show that plants synchronize flowering when the number of pollinators attracted to an area increases at an accelerating rate with increasing numbers of flowers. In this case, facilitation of flowering by different species exceeds the negative influence of interspecific plant competition. We demonstrate mathematically that co-flowering of different species occurs under a much narrower range of circumstances than intraspecific co-flowering.

  7. Sensitivity of flowering phenology to changing temperature in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haicheng; Yuan, Wenping; Liu, Shuguang; Dong, Wenjie; Fu, Yang

    2015-08-01

    Plant phenology is one of the preferred indicators of climate change, and its variation potentially impacts community dynamics and ecosystem functions. To better understand the responses of plants' flowering phenology to rising temperatures, we investigated the temperature sensitivity (expressed as the date of changes in phenology per change in temperature in degree Celsius, d °C-1) of flowering phenology for more than 220 plant species at 59 sites in China during the period 1963-1988. Our results indicated that most flowerings in China were significantly sensitive to the temperature in the 2 months (60 days) prior to the flowering dates. Plants in warmer regions showed larger sensitivities to increased temperatures. Species flowering in the late spring and early summer were generally less sensitive to changing temperature than species flowering at other times of the year. For plants flowering in the spring, species that flower earlier showed higher temperature sensitivity; however, for plants flowering in the summer and autumn, species that flower earlier showed lower temperature sensitivity. The responses of the first and last flowering times to changing temperature were mostly consistent, so flowering durations were rarely (6.1%) sensitive to changing temperature. We hypothesize that plants in cold regions may have adapted to the more variable temperatures and thus showed lower temperature sensitivities than plants in warm regions. Overall, the responses of flowering phenology to temperature varied significantly among temperature zones and plant species, so it should be considered carefully when estimating the impacts of climate warming on the terrestrial biosphere.

  8. Genotype of FLOWERING LOCUS T homologue contributes to flowering time differences in wild and cultivated roses.

    PubMed

    Otagaki, S; Ogawa, Y; Hibrand-Saint Oyant, L; Foucher, F; Kawamura, K; Horibe, T; Matsumoto, S

    2015-07-01

    Rose flowers have long delighted humans as ornamental plants. To improve the ornamental value of roses it is necessary to understand the regulatory mechanisms of flowering. We previously found that flowering time is controlled by three minor quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and a major QTL co-localised with RoFT. In this study, we isolated three RoFT alleles encoding completely identical amino acid sequences from the parents of a mapping population. Correlation analysis of the RoFT genotypes and flowering time phenotypes in the mapping population showed that the RoFT_f and RoFT_g alleles contribute to the early-flowering phenotype, while the RoFT_e allele contributes to the late-flowering phenotype. We developed two novel cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) markers based on the genomic sequences of the RoFT alleles and clearly showed that the relationship between RoFT genotype and flowering time was applicable to 12 of 13 cultivated roses grown at the Higashiyama Botanical Gardens, Japan. Allele-specific expression analysis using a reverse transcription CAPS assay suggested that these RoFT alleles are regulated differentially at the transcription level. Furthermore, transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants ectopically expressing the RoFT gene showed an early-flowering phenotype. Conversely, in roses, RoFT was continuously expressed after floral bud formation, and RoFT transcript accumulation reached its peak after that of the floral meristem identity gene RoAP1b. These data suggest that RoFT may be essential not only for floral transition but also for normal floral development and flowering in roses.

  9. Natural Variation in Brachypodium Links Vernalization and Flowering Time Loci as Major Flowering Determinants1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Corke, Fiona M.K.; Opanowicz, Magdalena; Hernández-Pinzón, Inmaculada

    2017-01-01

    The domestication of plants is underscored by the selection of agriculturally favorable developmental traits, including flowering time, which resulted in the creation of varieties with altered growth habits. Research into the pathways underlying these growth habits in cereals has highlighted the role of three main flowering regulators: VERNALIZATION1 (VRN1), VRN2, and FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT). Previous reverse genetic studies suggested that the roles of VRN1 and FT are conserved in Brachypodium distachyon yet identified considerable ambiguity surrounding the role of VRN2. To investigate the natural diversity governing flowering time pathways in a nondomesticated grass, the reference B. distachyon accession Bd21 was crossed with the vernalization-dependent accession ABR6. Resequencing of ABR6 allowed the creation of a single-nucleotide polymorphism-based genetic map at the F4 stage of the mapping population. Flowering time was evaluated in F4:5 families in five environmental conditions, and three major loci were found to govern flowering time. Interestingly, two of these loci colocalize with the B. distachyon homologs of the major flowering pathway genes VRN2 and FT, whereas no linkage was observed at VRN1. Characterization of these candidates identified sequence and expression variation between the two parental genotypes, which may explain the contrasting growth habits. However, the identification of additional quantitative trait loci suggests that greater complexity underlies flowering time in this nondomesticated system. Studying the interaction of these regulators in B. distachyon provides insights into the evolutionary context of flowering time regulation in the Poaceae as well as elucidates the way humans have utilized the natural variation present in grasses to create modern temperate cereals. PMID:27650449

  10. Refuges, flower strips, biodiversity and agronomic interest.

    PubMed

    Roy, Grégory; Wateau, Karine; Legrand, Mickaël; Oste, Sandrine

    2008-01-01

    Several arthropods are natural predators of pests, and they are able to reduce and control their population development. FREDON Nord Pas-de-Calais (Federation Regionate de Defense contre les Organismes Nuisibles = Regional Federation for Pest Control) has begun for a long time to form farmers to the recognition of beneficial arthropods and to show them their usefulness. These beneficial insects or arachnids are present everywhere, in orchards and even in fields which are areas relatively poor in biodiversity. Adults feed in the flower strips instead larvae and some adults feed on preys such as aphids or caterpillars. Most of the time, beneficial insects can regulate pest but sometimes, in agricultural area, they can't make it early enough and efficiently. Their action begin too late and there biodiversity and number are too low. It's possible to enhance their action by manipulating the ecological infrastructures, like sewing flower strips or installing refuges. Flower strips increase the density of natural enemies and make them be present earlier in the field in order to control pests. Refuges permit beneficial's to spend winter on the spot. So they're able to be active and to grow in number earlier. From 2004 to 2007, on the one hand, FREDON Nord Pas-de-Calais has developed a research program. Its purpose was to inventory practices and also tools and means available and to judge the advisability of using such or such beneficial refuge in orchards. On the second hand, it studied the impact in orchard of refuges on population of beneficial's and the difference there were between manufactured refuges and homemade refuges. Interesting prospects were obtained with some of them. Otherwise, since 2003, FREDON has studied flower strips influence on beneficial population and their impact on pest control. In cabbage fields, results of trials have shown that flower strips lead to a reduction of aphid number under acceptable economic level, up to 50 meters from flower strips

  11. Glyphosate and Dicamba Inhibit Flowering of Native Willamette Valley Plants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Successful flowering is essential for reproduction of native plants and production of food for herbivores. It is also an important alternative endpoint for assessment of ecological risks from chemical stressors such as herbicides. We evaluated flowering phenology after herbicide...

  12. DNA tests for strawberry: perpetual flowering - Bx215

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perpetual flowering strawberries have great economic value to the fresh market industry. Floral initiation in strawberry is largely determined by photoperiod, temperature, and genetics. Commercially grown strawberries are generally classified as remontant (repeated or perpetual flowering, day neutr...

  13. Mutation in TERMINAL FLOWER1 reverses the photoperiodic requirement for flowering in the wild strawberry Fragaria vesca.

    PubMed

    Koskela, Elli A; Mouhu, Katriina; Albani, Maria C; Kurokura, Takeshi; Rantanen, Marja; Sargent, Daniel J; Battey, Nicholas H; Coupland, George; Elomaa, Paula; Hytönen, Timo

    2012-07-01

    Photoperiodic flowering has been extensively studied in the annual short-day and long-day plants rice (Oryza sativa) and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), whereas less is known about the control of flowering in perennials. In the perennial wild strawberry, Fragaria vesca (Rosaceae), short-day and perpetual flowering long-day accessions occur. Genetic analyses showed that differences in their flowering responses are caused by a single gene, SEASONAL FLOWERING LOCUS, which may encode the F. vesca homolog of TERMINAL FLOWER1 (FvTFL1). We show through high-resolution mapping and transgenic approaches that FvTFL1 is the basis of this change in flowering behavior and demonstrate that FvTFL1 acts as a photoperiodically regulated repressor. In short-day F. vesca, long photoperiods activate FvTFL1 mRNA expression and short days suppress it, promoting flower induction. These seasonal cycles in FvTFL1 mRNA level confer seasonal cycling of vegetative and reproductive development. Mutations in FvTFL1 prevent long-day suppression of flowering, and the early flowering that then occurs under long days is dependent on the F. vesca homolog of FLOWERING LOCUS T. This photoperiodic response mechanism differs from those described in model annual plants. We suggest that this mechanism controls flowering within the perennial growth cycle in F. vesca and demonstrate that a change in a single gene reverses the photoperiodic requirements for flowering.

  14. Mutation in TERMINAL FLOWER1 Reverses the Photoperiodic Requirement for Flowering in the Wild Strawberry Fragaria vesca1[W

    PubMed Central

    Koskela, Elli A.; Mouhu, Katriina; Albani, Maria C.; Kurokura, Takeshi; Rantanen, Marja; Sargent, Daniel J.; Battey, Nicholas H.; Coupland, George; Elomaa, Paula; Hytönen, Timo

    2012-01-01

    Photoperiodic flowering has been extensively studied in the annual short-day and long-day plants rice (Oryza sativa) and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), whereas less is known about the control of flowering in perennials. In the perennial wild strawberry, Fragaria vesca (Rosaceae), short-day and perpetual flowering long-day accessions occur. Genetic analyses showed that differences in their flowering responses are caused by a single gene, SEASONAL FLOWERING LOCUS, which may encode the F. vesca homolog of TERMINAL FLOWER1 (FvTFL1). We show through high-resolution mapping and transgenic approaches that FvTFL1 is the basis of this change in flowering behavior and demonstrate that FvTFL1 acts as a photoperiodically regulated repressor. In short-day F. vesca, long photoperiods activate FvTFL1 mRNA expression and short days suppress it, promoting flower induction. These seasonal cycles in FvTFL1 mRNA level confer seasonal cycling of vegetative and reproductive development. Mutations in FvTFL1 prevent long-day suppression of flowering, and the early flowering that then occurs under long days is dependent on the F. vesca homolog of FLOWERING LOCUS T. This photoperiodic response mechanism differs from those described in model annual plants. We suggest that this mechanism controls flowering within the perennial growth cycle in F. vesca and demonstrate that a change in a single gene reverses the photoperiodic requirements for flowering. PMID:22566495

  15. Genetic control of flowering and biomass in switchgrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early flowering can negatively affect biomass yield of switchgrass. In temperate regions of the USA, flowering occurs in switchgrass around the time of peak biomass yield (about 5 to 8 weeks prior to killing frost), effectively reducing the length of the growing season. The use of late-flowering swi...

  16. The evolution of flowering strategies in US weedy rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Local adaptation in plants often involves changes in flowering time in response to day length and temperature differences. Many crop varieties have been selected for uniformity in flowering time. In contrast, variable flowering may be important for increased competitiveness in weed species invading ...

  17. Flower biology and biologically-based integrated fire blight management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fire blight infection is generally initiated in flowers, and thus, research has been directed to the biology and microbial ecology of flowers as related to this disease. In addition to investigations involving apple and pear flowers, Manchurian crab apple (Malus manchurica), closely related to appl...

  18. Using a Mousy, Little Flower to Understand the Flamboyant Ones.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillis, Anna Maria

    1995-01-01

    Discusses major leaps in knowledge about the production of flowers that have come from studying genes that regulate the flowers of mouse ear cress (Arabidopsis thaliana). Examines the ABC model of flower morphogenesis, commonality of genes, evolution of angiosperms, and agricultural and horticultural potential. (LZ)

  19. Up and down asymmetrical world for flower blooming.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Masamichi; Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Nakamura, Teruko

    2004-11-01

    Form of plant body shows vertical polarity. Photosynthetic organs deploy upwards to seek light. Root system extends downward for water. In addition to this major polarity, flowers has similar features, because they bloom in the world where up and down asymmetry dominates. Many flowering plants co-evolved with pollinator animals. Success of their reproduction is linked to the shape of flower organs in many ways. Orientation of inflorescence and each individual flowers, arrangement and shape of flower organs exhibit various up and down asymmetry. Some flowers mimic female of its pollinator animal. In such case, posture of the target animal is copied to the flower. Since animal posture and shape have vertical polarity, flower happens to equip same kind of polarity. Tropic response of pistils is another up and down feature that improves fitness of flowering plants. Certain lily flowers show phototropism to bend pistil upward. Azalea flower depends on gravity as the major environmental cue, and light as the secondary signal for up. Molecular machinery for those tropic responses seems to be shared with other tropism expressed in shoot and root. However, certain differences are found in distribution of sediment amyloplast, or spatial allocation of photo-sensing and bending site. Tropic responses result in adaptation of those flowers against behavior of pollinator animals and terrestrial environment, where gravity affects living organisms and interaction among them.

  20. Do consecutive flower visits within a crown diminish fruit set in mass-flowering Hancornia speciosa (Apocynaceae)?

    PubMed

    Pinto, C E; Oliveira, R; Schlindwein, C

    2008-05-01

    Hancornia speciosa is a self-incompatible, mass-flowering, sphingophilous fruit crop (mangaba) of northeast and central Brazil. The flowers have a precise pollination apparatus, which optimizes pollen transfer between flower and pollinator. While the pollination mechanism avoids self-pollination, mass-flowering promotes geitonogamy. During a flower visit, almost half of the exogenous pollen grains adhering to the proboscis are deposited on the stigma surface. A pollination experiment with a nylon thread simulating six consecutive flower visits within a crown revealed that only the first two flowers visited (positions 1 and 2) are highly likely to set fruit. Super-production of flowers, and consequently obligate low fruit set, seem to be part of the reproductive strategy of the obligate outcrossing plant, Hancornia speciosa.

  1. The Genetic Architecture of Maize Flowering Time

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flowering time is the key trait controlling adaptation of plants to their local environment, and, in an outcrossing species like maize, it is a complex trait. Variation for this complex trait was dissected in maize using a novel set of 5000 recombinant inbred lines (maize Nested Association Mapping...

  2. Identification of Mendel's white flower character

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have identified A, the factor determining anthocyanin pigmentation in pea that was used by Gregor Mendel 150 years ago in his study of inheritance. The A gene encodes a bHLH transcription factor. The white flowered mutant allele most likely used by Mendel is a simple G to A transition in a splice...

  3. Teaching Art with Art: Flowers in Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Guy

    1998-01-01

    Justifies examining still-life pictures of flowers to provide students with an opportunity to learn how one distinguishes between deeply artistic pictures full of emotion and pictures lacking this quality. Claims that students will develop their own artistic expression. Offers pictures by Diego Rivera, Watanabe Shiko, Consuelo Kanaga, and Rachel…

  4. Flower development: open questions and future directions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Almost three decades of genetic and molecular analyses have resulted in detailed insights into many of the processes that take place during flower development and in the identification of a large number of key regulatory genes that control these processes. Despite this impressive progress, many ques...

  5. Grammar Schools: Brief Flowering of Social Mobility?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Grammar schools are increasingly remembered, especially by right-wing ideologues, as the agents of a "brief flowering" of post-war social mobility. This article presents statistical, documentary and interview evidence of secondary education in the eleven plus era, and finds nothing to justify the claim that selective schools produced a general…

  6. Headspace Volatiles of Scutellaria Baicalensis Georgi Flowers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Volatile constituents of Baikal skullcap (Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi) flowers were isolated by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and analyzed by GC and GC/MS. A total of 64 constituents was identified (constituting 57.1 – 89.9% of the total area), 13 of which were tentatively identified. beta...

  7. Unisexual cucumber flowers, sex and sex differentiation.

    PubMed

    Bai, Shu-Nong; Xu, Zhi-Hong

    2013-01-01

    Sex is a universal phenomenon in the world of eukaryotes. Attempts have been made to understand regulatory mechanisms for plant sex determination by investigating unisexual flowers. The cucumber plant is one of the model systems for studying how sex determination is regulated by phytohormones. A systematic investigation of the development of unisexual cucumber flowers is summarized here, and it is suggested that the mechanism of the unisexual flower can help us to understand how the process leading to one type of gametogenesis is prevented. Based on these findings, we concluded that the unisexual cucumber flowers is not an issue of sex differentiation, but instead a mechanism for avoiding self-pollination. Sex differentiation is essentially the divergent point(s) leading to heterogametogenesis. On the basis of analyses of sex differentiation in unicellular organisms and animals as well as the core process of plant life cycle, a concept of "sexual reproduction cycle" is proposed for understanding the essential role of sex and a "progressive model" for future investigations of sex differentiation in plants.

  8. Where Have All the Flowers Gone?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Janet M.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes an activity for secondary mathematics students using digital imaging on The Geometer's Sketchpad to model polar functions of flowers. The activity presented in the appendix engages students in learning and exploring the polar coordinate system while helping them analyze a real-world situation. By completing this activity,…

  9. The oxygen supply to thermogenic flowers.

    PubMed

    Seymour, Roger S; Ito, Kikukatsu; Umekawa, Yui; Matthews, Philip D G; Pirintsos, Stergios Arg

    2015-04-01

    Thermogenic flowers produce heat by intense respiration, and the rates of O2 consumption (Ṁo2) in some species can exceed those of all other tissues of plants and most animals. By exposing intact flowers to a range of O2 pressures (Po2) and measuring Ṁo2, we demonstrate that the highest respiration rates exceed the capacity of the O2 diffusive pathway and become diffusion limited in atmospheric air. The male florets on the inflorescence of Arum concinnatum have the highest known mass-specific Ṁo2 and can be severely diffusion limited. Intact spadices of Japanese skunk cabbage Symplocarpus renifolius are diffusion limited in air only when Ṁo2 is maximal, but not at lower levels. True flowers of the sacred lotus Nelumbo nucifera and the appendix of Arum concinnatum are never diffusion limited in air. Ṁo2 - Po2 curves are evaluated quantitatively with the 'Regulation Index', a new tool to measure dependence of Ṁo2 on ambient Po2 , as well as the conventional 'Critical Po2 '. The study also includes measurements of Po2 within thermogenic tissues with O2-sensitive fibre optics, and reveals that the diffusion pathway is complicated and that O2 can be provided not only from the surface of the tissues but also from the pith of the flower's peduncle.

  10. Flower colour and cytochromes P450.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Brugliera, Filippa

    2013-02-19

    Cytochromes P450 play important roles in biosynthesis of flavonoids and their coloured class of compounds, anthocyanins, both of which are major floral pigments. The number of hydroxyl groups on the B-ring of anthocyanidins (the chromophores and precursors of anthocyanins) impact the anthocyanin colour, the more the bluer. The hydroxylation pattern is determined by two cytochromes P450, flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H) and flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H) and thus they play a crucial role in the determination of flower colour. F3'H and F3'5'H mostly belong to CYP75B and CYP75A, respectively, except for the F3'5'Hs in Compositae that were derived from gene duplication of CYP75B and neofunctionalization. Roses and carnations lack blue/violet flower colours owing to the deficiency of F3'5'H and therefore lack the B-ring-trihydroxylated anthocyanins based upon delphinidin. Successful redirection of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway to delphinidin was achieved by expressing F3'5'H coding regions resulting in carnations and roses with novel blue hues that have been commercialized. Suppression of F3'5'H and F3'H in delphinidin-producing plants reduced the number of hydroxyl groups on the anthocyanidin B-ring resulting in the production of monohydroxylated anthocyanins based on pelargonidin with a shift in flower colour to orange/red. Pelargonidin biosynthesis is enhanced by additional expression of a dihydroflavonol 4-reductase that can use the monohydroxylated dihydrokaempferol (the pelargonidin precursor). Flavone synthase II (FNSII)-catalysing flavone biosynthesis from flavanones is also a P450 (CYP93B) and contributes to flower colour, because flavones act as co-pigments to anthocyanins and can cause blueing and darkening of colour. However, transgenic plants expression of a FNSII gene yielded paler flowers owing to a reduction of anthocyanins because flavanones are precursors of anthocyanins and flavones.

  11. Bilabiate Flowers: The Ultimate Response to Bees?

    PubMed Central

    Westerkamp, Christian; Claßen-Bockhoff, Regine

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Bilabiate flowers have evolved in many lineages of the angiosperms, thus representing a convincing example of parallel evolution. Similar to keel blossoms, they have obviously evolved in order to protect pollen against pollen-collecting bees. Although many examples are known, a comprehensive survey on floral diversity and functional constraints of bilabiate flowers is lacking. Here, the concept is widened and described as a general pattern. Methods The present paper is a conceptional review including personal observations of the authors. To form a survey on the diversity of bilabiate blossoms, a search was made for examples across the angiosperms and these were combined with personal observations collected during the last 25 years, coupled with knowledge from the literature. New functional terms are introduced that are independent of morphological and taxonomic associations. Key Results Bilabiate constructions occur in at least 38 angiosperm families. They are characterized by dorsiventral organization and dorsal pollen transfer. They are most often realised on the level of a single flower, but may also be present in an inflorescence or as part of a so-called ‘walk-around flower’. Interestingly, in functional terms all nototribic blossoms represent bilabiate constructions. The great majority of specialized bee-flowers can thus be included under bilabiate and keel blossoms. The syndrome introduced here, however, also paves the way for the inclusion of larger animals such as birds and bats. The most important evolutionary trends appear to be in the saving of pollen and the precision of its transfer. With special reference to the Lamiales, selected examples of bilabiate flowers are presented and their functional significance is discussed. Conclusions Bilabiate blossoms protect their pollen against pollen-collecting bees and at the same time render their pollination more precisely. The huge diversity of realised forms indicate the high selection

  12. A transposon insertion in FLOWERING LOCUS T is associated with delayed flowering in Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xueming; Meng, Lin; Liu, Bo; Hu, Yunyan; Cheng, Feng; Liang, Jianli; Aarts, Mark G M; Wang, Xiaowu; Wu, Jian

    2015-12-01

    Long days and vernalization accelerate the transition from vegetative growth to reproductive growth in Brassica rapa. Bolting before plants reach the harvesting stage is a serious problem in B. rapa vegetable crop cultivation. The genetic dissection of flowering time is important for breeding of premature bolting-resistant B. rapa crops. Using a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population, we twice detected two major quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for flowering time in two different growing seasons that were located on chromosomes A02 and A07, respectively. We hypothesized that an orthologue of the Arabidopsis thaliana FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene, named as BrFT2, was the candidate gene underlying the QTL localized to A07. A transposon insertion in the second intron of BrFT2 was detected in one of the parental lines, which was predicted to generate a loss-of-function allele. Transcription analysis revealed that the BrFT2 transcript was not present in the parental line that harbored the mutated allele. RILs carrying only the mutated BrFT2 allele showed delayed flowering regardless of growing seasons when compared to RILs carrying the wild-type BrFT2 allele. These data suggest that BrFT2 is involved in flowering time regulation in controlling flowering time in B. rapa.

  13. Production of early flowering transgenic barley expressing the early flowering allele of Cryptochrome2 gene.

    PubMed

    El-Assal, Salah El-Din; Abd-Alla, Samir M; El-Tarras, Adel A; El-Awady, Mohamed A

    2011-01-01

    This work was carried out in order to develop early flowering barley lines. These lines will be useful to producers by enabling multiple crops within a single season and increasing production. Transgenic barley plants containing the natural early flowering time AtCRY2 allele from the Cape Verde Island (Cvi) ecotype of Arabidopsis have been generated using biolistic transformation. Immature embryo derived calli of two commercially important barley cultivars (El-Dwaser and El-Taif), were transformed using a pCAMBIA-2300 plasmid harboring a genomic fragment containing the AtCRY2-Cvi allele. Transformation was performed utilizing 600 immature embryos for each cultivar. Stable transformation was confirmed in T 0 and T 1 plants by using genomic PCR, RT-PCR and western blot analysis with AtCRY2 specific primers and antibodies, respectively. The transformation efficiency was 5.6% and 3.4% for El-Dwaser and El-Taif cultivars, respectively. Seeds from several T 1 lines were germinated on kanamycin plates and the lines that contained a single locus were selected for further evaluation. The transformed barley plants showed the specific AtCRY2-Cvi flowering phenotype, i.e. early flowering and day length insensitivity, compared to the non transgenic plants. The time to flowering in transgenic T 1 plants was assessed and two lines exhibited flowering more than 25 days earlier than the parental cultivars under short day conditions.

  14. The Phenotypic and Genetic Underpinnings of Flower Size in Polemoniaceae.

    PubMed

    Landis, Jacob B; O'Toole, Rebecca D; Ventura, Kayla L; Gitzendanner, Matthew A; Oppenheimer, David G; Soltis, Douglas E; Soltis, Pamela S

    2015-01-01

    Corolla length is a labile flower feature and has strong implications for pollinator success. However, the phenotypic and genetic bases of corolla elongation are not well known, largely due to a lack of good candidate genes for potential genetic exploration and functional work. We investigate both the cellular phenotypic differences in corolla length, as well as the genetic control of this trait, in Saltugilia (Polemoniaceae). Taxa in this clade exhibit a large range of flower sizes and differ dramatically in pollinator guilds. Flowers of each species were collected from multiple individuals during four stages of flower development to ascertain if cell number or cell size is more important in determining flower size. In Saltugilia, increased flower size during development appears to be driven more by cell size than cell number. Differences in flower size between species are governed by both cell size and cell number, with the large-flowered S. splendens subsp. grantii having nearly twice as many cells as the small-flowered species. Fully mature flowers of all taxa contain jigsaw cells similar to cells seen in sepals and leaves; however, these cells are not typically found in the developing flowers of most species. The proportion of this cell type in mature flowers appears to have substantial implications, comprising 17-68% of the overall flower size. To identify candidate genes responsible for differences in cell area and cell type, transcriptomes were generated for two individuals of the species with the smallest (S. australis) and largest (S. splendens subsp. grantii) flowers across the same four developmental stages visualized with confocal microscopy. Analyses identified genes associated with cell wall formation that are up-regulated in the mature flower stage compared to mid-stage flowers (75% of mature size). This developmental change is associated with the origin of jigsaw cells in the corolla tube of mature flowers. Further comparisons between mature

  15. The Phenotypic and Genetic Underpinnings of Flower Size in Polemoniaceae

    PubMed Central

    Landis, Jacob B.; O'Toole, Rebecca D.; Ventura, Kayla L.; Gitzendanner, Matthew A.; Oppenheimer, David G.; Soltis, Douglas E.; Soltis, Pamela S.

    2016-01-01

    Corolla length is a labile flower feature and has strong implications for pollinator success. However, the phenotypic and genetic bases of corolla elongation are not well known, largely due to a lack of good candidate genes for potential genetic exploration and functional work. We investigate both the cellular phenotypic differences in corolla length, as well as the genetic control of this trait, in Saltugilia (Polemoniaceae). Taxa in this clade exhibit a large range of flower sizes and differ dramatically in pollinator guilds. Flowers of each species were collected from multiple individuals during four stages of flower development to ascertain if cell number or cell size is more important in determining flower size. In Saltugilia, increased flower size during development appears to be driven more by cell size than cell number. Differences in flower size between species are governed by both cell size and cell number, with the large-flowered S. splendens subsp. grantii having nearly twice as many cells as the small-flowered species. Fully mature flowers of all taxa contain jigsaw cells similar to cells seen in sepals and leaves; however, these cells are not typically found in the developing flowers of most species. The proportion of this cell type in mature flowers appears to have substantial implications, comprising 17–68% of the overall flower size. To identify candidate genes responsible for differences in cell area and cell type, transcriptomes were generated for two individuals of the species with the smallest (S. australis) and largest (S. splendens subsp. grantii) flowers across the same four developmental stages visualized with confocal microscopy. Analyses identified genes associated with cell wall formation that are up-regulated in the mature flower stage compared to mid-stage flowers (75% of mature size). This developmental change is associated with the origin of jigsaw cells in the corolla tube of mature flowers. Further comparisons between mature

  16. Models for forecasting the flowering of Cornicabra olive groves.

    PubMed

    Rojo, Jesús; Pérez-Badia, Rosa

    2015-11-01

    This study examined the impact of weather-related variables on flowering phenology in the Cornicabra olive tree and constructed models based on linear and Poisson regression to forecast the onset and length of the pre-flowering and flowering phenophases. Spain is the world's leading olive oil producer, and the Cornicabra variety is the second largest Spanish variety in terms of surface area. However, there has been little phenological research into this variety. Phenological observations were made over a 5-year period (2009-2013) at four sampling sites in the province of Toledo (central Spain). Results showed that the onset of the pre-flowering phase is governed largely by temperature, which displayed a positive correlation with the temperature in the start of dormancy (November) and a negative correlation during the months prior to budburst (January, February and March). A similar relationship was recorded for the onset of flowering. Other weather-related variables, including solar radiation and rainfall, also influenced the succession of olive flowering phenophases. Linear models proved the most suitable for forecasting the onset and length of the pre-flowering period and the onset of flowering. The onset and length of pre-flowering can be predicted up to 1 or 2 months prior to budburst, whilst the onset of flowering can be forecast up to 3 months beforehand. By contrast, a nonlinear model using Poisson regression was best suited to predict the length of the flowering period.

  17. Genetics and characterization of an open flower mutant in chickpea.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Samineni; Gaur, Pooran M

    2012-01-01

    The chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is a self-pollinated grain legume with cleistogamous flowers. A spontaneous open-flower mutant, designated OFM-3, was identified in which reproductive organs were not enclosed by the keel petals and thus remained exposed. All 10 stamens in this mutant were free, whereas these are in diadelphous (9 fused + 1 free) condition in normal chickpea flowers. A large number of pods (73%) remained unfilled (empty) in OFM-3, though its pollen fertility was as high as the standard cultivars. The open-flower trait was found to be recessive and controlled by a single gene. OFM-3 was crossed with earlier reported open-flower mutants, ICC 16341 and ICC 16129, to establish trait relationships of genes controlling open flower traits in these mutants. It was found that each of these mutants has a unique gene for open flower trait. The genes controlling open flower trait in ICC 16341, ICC 16129, and OFM-3 were designated ofl-1, ofl-2, and ofl-3, respectively. Breeding lines with open flower trait and higher percentage of filled pods have been developed from the progenies of the crosses of OFM-3 with normal-flowered lines. The open flower trait offers opportunity for exploring hybrid technology in the chickpea.

  18. Models for forecasting the flowering of Cornicabra olive groves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojo, Jesús; Pérez-Badia, Rosa

    2015-11-01

    This study examined the impact of weather-related variables on flowering phenology in the Cornicabra olive tree and constructed models based on linear and Poisson regression to forecast the onset and length of the pre-flowering and flowering phenophases. Spain is the world's leading olive oil producer, and the Cornicabra variety is the second largest Spanish variety in terms of surface area. However, there has been little phenological research into this variety. Phenological observations were made over a 5-year period (2009-2013) at four sampling sites in the province of Toledo (central Spain). Results showed that the onset of the pre-flowering phase is governed largely by temperature, which displayed a positive correlation with the temperature in the start of dormancy (November) and a negative correlation during the months prior to budburst (January, February and March). A similar relationship was recorded for the onset of flowering. Other weather-related variables, including solar radiation and rainfall, also influenced the succession of olive flowering phenophases. Linear models proved the most suitable for forecasting the onset and length of the pre-flowering period and the onset of flowering. The onset and length of pre-flowering can be predicted up to 1 or 2 months prior to budburst, whilst the onset of flowering can be forecast up to 3 months beforehand. By contrast, a nonlinear model using Poisson regression was best suited to predict the length of the flowering period.

  19. Large and abundant flowers increase indirect costs of corollas: a study of coflowering sympatric Mediterranean species of contrasting flower size.

    PubMed

    Teixido, Alberto L; Valladares, Fernando

    2013-09-01

    Large floral displays receive more pollinator visits but involve higher production and maintenance costs. This can result in indirect costs which may negatively affect functions like reproductive output. In this study, we explored the relationship between floral display and indirect costs in two pairs of coflowering sympatric Mediterranean Cistus of contrasting flower size. We hypothesized that: (1) corolla production entails direct costs in dry mass, N and P, (2) corollas entail significant indirect costs in terms of fruit set and seed production, (3) indirect costs increase with floral display, (4) indirect costs are greater in larger-flowered sympatric species, and (5) local climatic conditions influence indirect costs. We compared fruit set and seed production of petal-removed flowers and unmanipulated control flowers and evaluated the influence of mean flower number and mean flower size on relative fruit and seed gain of petal-removed and control flowers. Fruit set and seed production were significantly higher in petal-removed flowers in all the studied species. A positive relationship was found between relative fruit gain and mean individual flower size within species. In one pair of species, fruit gain was higher in the large-flowered species, as was the correlation between fruit gain and mean number of open flowers. In the other pair, the correlation between fruit gain and mean flower size was also higher in the large-flowered species. These results reveal that Mediterranean environments impose significant constraints on floral display, counteracting advantages of large flowers from the pollination point of view with increased indirect costs of such flowers.

  20. Microsporogenesis and flower development in Eucalyptus urophylla × E. tereticornis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; Kang, Xiangyang

    2015-03-01

    We compared microsporogenesis and flower development in Eucalyptus urophylla × E. tereticornis. In this study, although microsporogenesis and cytokinesis occurred simultaneously during meiosis of pollen mother cells, we observed a strong asynchronism in different anthers from a flower bud. The developmental period of microsporogenesis in anthers originated from the long thrum before the short thrum. Flower development was also asynchronous at different locations on a branch. The flower buds grew on the lower side of the branch and showed greater increases in diameter. In addition, we observed a relationship between microsporogenesis development and flower bud diameter growth. Generally, when the pachytene stage was first observed in a small single flower bud growing on top of a flowering branch, the remaining microsporogenesis stages (from diplotene to tetrad) in the whole branch occurred over the next 5-9 days. Thus, the start of microsporogenesis in E. urophylla × E. tereticornis could be determined, which may be applicable to future breeding studies.

  1. Developmental morphology of branching flowers in Nymphaea prolifera.

    PubMed

    Grob, Valentin; Moline, Philip; Pfeifer, Evelin; Novelo, Alejandro R; Rutishauser, Rolf

    2006-11-01

    Nymphaea and Nuphar (Nymphaeaceae) share an extra-axillary mode of floral inception in the shoot apical meristem (SAM). Some leaf sites along the ontogenetic spiral are occupied by floral primordia lacking a subtending bract. This pattern of flower initiation in leaf sites is repeated inside branching flowers of Nymphaea prolifera (Central and South America). Instead of fertile flowers this species usually produces sterile tuberiferous flowers that act as vegetative propagules. N. prolifera changes the meristem identity from reproductive to vegetative or vice versa repeatedly. Each branching flower first produces some perianth-like leaves, then it switches back to the vegetative meristem identity of the SAM with the formation of foliage leaves and another set of branching flowers. This process is repeated up to three times giving rise to more than 100 vegetative propagules. The developmental morphology of the branching flowers of N. prolifera is described using both microtome sections and scanning electron microscopy.

  2. Photosynthate partitioning during flowering in relation to senescence of spinach

    SciTech Connect

    Sklensky, D.; Davies, P.J. )

    1990-05-01

    Male spinach plants are frequently cited as a counter-example to the nutrient drain hypothesis. Photosynthate partitioning in both male and female plants was examined. Leaves just below the inflorescences in plants at various stages of flowering were labelled with {sup 14}CO{sub 2} and the photosynthate allowed to partition for three hours. The leaves, flowers and stems of the inflorescence, and the other above ground vegetative tissue were harvested. These parts were combusted in a sample oxidizer for the collection of the {sup 14}CO{sub 2}. Allocation to the male and female flowers at very early stages are similar. As the flowers develop further, male flowers receive more photosynthate than do female flowers in early fruit production. Thus it is possible that nutrient drain to the flowers in male spinach plants is sufficient to account for senescence.

  3. Ants and ant scent reduce bumblebee pollination of artificial flowers.

    PubMed

    Cembrowski, Adam R; Tan, Marcus G; Thomson, James D; Frederickson, Megan E

    2014-01-01

    Ants on flowers can disrupt pollination by consuming rewards or harassing pollinators, but it is difficult to disentangle the effects of these exploitative and interference forms of competition on pollinator behavior. Using highly rewarding and quickly replenishing artificial flowers that simulate male or female function, we allowed bumblebees (Bombus impatiens) to forage (1) on flowers with or without ants (Myrmica rubra) and (2) on flowers with or without ant scent cues. Bumblebees transferred significantly more pollen analogue both to and from ant-free flowers, demonstrating that interference competition with ants is sufficient to modify pollinator foraging behavior. Bees also removed significantly less pollen analogue from ant-scented flowers than from controls, making this the first study to show that bees can use ant scent to avoid harassment at flowers. Ant effects on pollinator behavior, possibly in addition to their effects on pollen viability, may contribute to the evolution of floral traits minimizing ant visitation.

  4. Multisensory integration in Lepidoptera: Insights into flower-visitor interactions.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Michiyo; Stewart, Finlay J; Ômura, Hisashi

    2017-04-01

    As most work on flower foraging focuses on bees, studying Lepidoptera can offer fresh perspectives on how sensory capabilities shape the interaction between flowers and insects. Through a combination of innate preferences and learning, many Lepidoptera persistently visit particular flower species. Butterflies tend to rely on their highly developed sense of colour to locate rewarding flowers, while moths have evolved sophisticated olfactory systems towards the same end. However, these modalities can interact in complex ways; for instance, butterflies' colour preference can shift depending on olfactory context. The mechanisms by which such cross-modal interaction occurs are poorly understood, but the mushroom bodies appear to play a central role. Because of the diversity seen within Lepidoptera in terms of their sensory capabilities and the nature of their relationships with flowers, they represent a fruitful avenue for comparative studies to shed light on the co-evolution of flowers and flower-visiting insects.

  5. Pollinator-mediated selection on flower color, flower scent and flower morphology of Hemerocallis: evidence from genotyping individual pollen grains on the stigma.

    PubMed

    Hirota, Shun K; Nitta, Kozue; Suyama, Yoshihisa; Kawakubo, Nobumitsu; Yasumoto, Akiko A; Yahara, Tetsukazu

    2013-01-01

    To trace the fate of individual pollen grains through pollination processes, we determined genotypes of single pollen grains deposited on Hemerocallis stigmas in an experimental mixed-species array. Hemerocallis fulva, pollinated by butterflies, has diurnal, reddish and unscented flowers, and H. citrina, pollinated by hawkmoths, has nocturnal, yellowish and sweet scent flowers. We observed pollinator visits to an experimental array of 24 H. fulva and 12 F2 hybrids between the two species (H. fulva and H. citrina) and collected stigmas after every trip bout of swallowtail butterflies or hawkmoths. We then measured selection by swallowtail butterflies or hawkmoths through male and female components of pollination success as determined by single pollen genotyping. As expected, swallowtail butterflies imposed selection on reddish color and weak scent: the number of outcross pollen grains acquired is a quadratic function of flower color with the maximum at reddish color, and the combined pollination success was maximal at weak scent (almost unrecognizable for human). This explains why H. fulva, with reddish flowers and no recognizable scent, is mainly pollinated by swallowtail butterflies. However, we found no evidence of hawkmoths-mediated selection on flower color or scent. Our findings do not support a hypothesis that yellow flower color and strong scent intensity, the distinctive floral characteristics of H. citrina, having evolved in adaptations to hawkmoths. We suggest that the key trait that triggers the evolution of nocturnal flowers is flowering time rather than flower color and scent.

  6. Tropism in azalea and lily flowers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, M.; Tomita-Yokotani, K.; Nakamura, T.; Yamashita, M.

    Flowers have coevolved with pollinator animals. Some flowers have the up-down directional features in their form and orientation, which results the higher success of pollination under the influence of gravity. Azalea, Rhododendron pulchrum, flower responds against gravity, and orients the specific petal at its top. This petal with honey mark guides pollinator animals to nectary of the flower. Pistil and stamen bend upward by sensing gravity, and increase probability of their contact with pollinator. There was large sediment amyloplast found in sectioned tissue of style. In addition to this action of gravity, phototropic response was also observed at lesser degree, while the gravitational cue was removed by the 3D-clinorotation of the plant. In contrast to azalea, pistil of lily flower senses light in order to determine the direction of bending. Lily, Lilium cv. 'Casablanca', tepals open horizontally or slightly inclined downward. After its anthesis, pistil and stamen start to bend upward by light. Gravity induced no tropic response at all, evidenced by the experiment conducted under dark. Sediment amyloplast was not found in lily style. Phototropic response of pistil and stamen in lily was activated by blue light even at lower energy density. On the other hand, red light was not effective to induce the tropic response even with substantial energy density. This action spectrum of light agreed with those for the phototropism shown in coleoptile of monocotyledonous plants. Because the tropism of style was not hindered at removal of stigma, reception site for incident light is neither restricted to stigma nor its close vicinity, but distributes through style. The process of lily pistil elongation was analyzed in details to identify the site of its initiation and propagation of bending movement through the anthesis period. Elongation started at basal part of pistil and propagated towards its top after opening of perianth. Steep bending occurred at the basal zone of

  7. Using daily temperature to predict phenology trends in spring flowers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin-Hee; Kim, Soo-Ock; Kim, Dae-Jun; Moon, Kyung Hwan; Yun, Jin I.

    2015-05-01

    The spring season in Korea features a dynamic landscape with a variety of flowers blooming sequentially one after another. This enables local governments to earn substantial sightseeing revenues by hosting festivals featuring spring flowers. Furthermore, beekeepers move from the southern tip of the Korean Peninsula all the way northward in a quest to secure spring flowers as nectar sources for a sustained period of time. However, areal differences in flowering dates of flower species are narrowing, which has economic consequences. Analysis of data on flowering dates of forsythia ( Forsythia koreana) and cherry blossom ( Prunus serrulata), two typical spring flower species, as observed for the past 60 years at six weather stations of the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) indicated that the difference between the flowering date of forsythia, the earliest blooming flower in spring, and cherry blossom, which flowers later than forsythia, was 14 days on average in the climatological normal year for the period 1951-1980, compared with 11 days for the period 1981-2010. In 2014, the gap narrowed further to 7 days, making it possible in some locations to see forsythias and cherry blossoms blooming at the same time. Synchronized flowering of these two flower species is due to acceleration of flowering due to an abnormally high spring temperature, and this was more pronounced in the later-blooming cherry blossom than forsythia. While cherry blossom flowering dates across the nation ranged from March 31 to April 19 (an areal difference of 20 days) for the 1951-1980 normal year, the difference ranged from March 29 to April 12 (an areal difference of 16 days) for the 1981-2010 normal year, and in 2014, the flowering dates spanned March 25 and March 30 (an areal difference of 6 days). In the case of forsythia, the gap was narrower than in cherry blossoms. Climate change in the Korean Peninsula, reflected by rapid temperature hikes in late spring in contrast to a slow

  8. What flowers do we like? The influence of shape and color on the rating of flower beauty

    PubMed Central

    Flegr, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    There is no doubt that people find flowers beautiful. Surprisingly, we know very little about the actual properties which make flowers so appealing to humans. Although the evolutionary aesthetics provides some theories concerning generally preferred flower traits, empirical evidence is largely missing. In this study, we used an online survey in which residents of the Czech Republic (n = 2006) rated the perceived beauty of 52 flower stimuli of diverse shapes and colors. Colored flowers were preferred over their uncolored versions. When controlling for flower shape, we found an unequal preference for different flower colors, blue being the most and yellow the least preferred. In the overall assessment of beauty, shape was more important than color. Prototypical flowers, i.e., radially symmetrical flowers with low complexity, were rated as the most beautiful. We also found a positive effect of sharp flower contours and blue color on the overall rating of flower beauty. The results may serve as a basis for further studies in some areas of the people-plant interaction research. PMID:27330863

  9. Testing hypotheses for excess flower production and low fruit-to-flower ratios in a pollinating seed-consuming mutualism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holland, J. Nathaniel; Bronstein, Judith L.; DeAngelis, Donald L.

    2004-01-01

    Pollinator attraction, pollen limitation, resource limitation, pollen donation and selective fruit abortion have all been proposed as processes explaining why hermaphroditic plants commonly produce many more flowers than mature fruit. We conducted a series of experiments in Arizona to investigate low fruit-to-flower ratios in senita cacti, which rely exclusively on pollinating seed-consumers. Selective abortion of fruit based on seed predators is of particular interest in this case because plants relying on pollinating seed-consumers are predicted to have such a mechanism to minimize seed loss. Pollinator attraction and pollen dispersal increased with flower number, but fruit set did not, refuting the hypothesis that excess flowers increase fruit set by attracting more pollinators. Fruit set of natural- and hand-pollinated flowers were not different, supporting the resource, rather than pollen, limitation hypothesis. Senita did abort fruit, but not selectively based on pollen quantity, pollen donors, or seed predators. Collectively, these results are consistent with sex allocation theory in that resource allocation to excess flower production can increase pollen dispersal and the male fitness function of flowers, but consequently results in reduced resources available for fruit set. Inconsistent with sex allocation theory, however, fruit production and the female fitness function of flowers may actually increase with flower production. This is because excess flower production lowers pollinator-to-flower ratios and results in fruit abortion, both of which limit the abundance and hence oviposition rates, of pre-dispersal seed predators.

  10. What flowers do we like? The influence of shape and color on the rating of flower beauty.

    PubMed

    Hůla, Martin; Flegr, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    There is no doubt that people find flowers beautiful. Surprisingly, we know very little about the actual properties which make flowers so appealing to humans. Although the evolutionary aesthetics provides some theories concerning generally preferred flower traits, empirical evidence is largely missing. In this study, we used an online survey in which residents of the Czech Republic (n = 2006) rated the perceived beauty of 52 flower stimuli of diverse shapes and colors. Colored flowers were preferred over their uncolored versions. When controlling for flower shape, we found an unequal preference for different flower colors, blue being the most and yellow the least preferred. In the overall assessment of beauty, shape was more important than color. Prototypical flowers, i.e., radially symmetrical flowers with low complexity, were rated as the most beautiful. We also found a positive effect of sharp flower contours and blue color on the overall rating of flower beauty. The results may serve as a basis for further studies in some areas of the people-plant interaction research.

  11. Where have all the blue flowers gone: pollinator responses and selection on flower colour in New Zealand Wahlenbergia albomarginata.

    PubMed

    Campbell, D R; Bischoff, M; Lord, J M; Robertson, A W

    2012-02-01

    Although pollinators are thought to select on flower colour, few studies have experimentally decoupled effects of colour from correlated traits on pollinator visitation and pollen transfer. We combined selection analysis and phenotypic manipulations to measure the effect of petal colour on visitation and pollen export at two spatial scales in Wahlenbergia albomarginata. This species is representative of many New Zealand alpine herbs that have secondarily evolved white or pale flowers. The major pollinators, solitary bees, exerted phenotypic selection on flower size but not colour, quantified by bee vision. When presented with manipulated flowers, bees visited flowers painted blue to resemble a congener over white flowers in large, but not small, experimental arrays. Pollen export was higher for blue flowers in large arrays. Pollinator preference does not explain the pale colouration of W. albomarginata, as commonly hypothesized. Absence of bright blue could be driven instead by indirect selection of correlated characters.

  12. Changes of flowering phenology and flower size in rosaceous plants from a biodiversity hotspot in the past century.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qin; Jia, Dong-Rui; Tian, Bin; Yang, Yong-Ping; Duan, Yuan-Wen

    2016-06-17

    Responses of plant traits to climate changes are complex, which could be mirrored by the investigations of herbarium specimens. By examining specimens of Rosa and Cotoneaster species collected since 1920s in Hengduan Mountains, we analyzed the changes of flowering phenology and flower size in the past century when climate changes were considered to be intensified. We found that flowering phenology of Rosa showed no significant change, but flowering phenology of Cotoneaster was delayed in recent years. Flower size of Rosa species showed a marginally significant decrease over the past century. The results suggested that responses of flowering time to global changes and pollinator mediated selection on floral traits might be more complex than what were expected. Our results indicated that future researches based on investigations of herbarium specimens should be carried out on multiple plant species with different flower structures and life histories to better understand the effects of climate changes on plant traits.

  13. Flower-petal mode converter for NLC

    SciTech Connect

    Hoag, H.A.; Tantawi, S.G.; Callin, R.

    1993-04-01

    It is important to minimize power loss in the waveguide system connecting klystron, pulse-compressor, and accelerator in an X-Band NLC. However, existing designs of klystron output cavity circuits and accelerator input couplers utilize rectangular waveguide which has relatively high transmission loss. It is therefore necessary to convert to and from the low-loss mode in circular waveguide at each end of the system. A description is given of development work on high-power, high-vacuum `flower-petal` transducers, which convert the TE{sub 10} mode in rectangular guide to the TE{sub 01} mode in circular guide. A three-port modification of the flower petal device, which can be used as either a power combiner at the klystron or a power divider at the accelerator is also described.

  14. Epigenetic regulation of rice flowering and reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jinlei; Dong, Aiwu; Shen, Wen-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Current understanding of the epigenetic regulator roles in plant growth and development has largely derived from studies in the dicotyledonous model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Rice (Oryza sativa) is one of the most important food crops in the world and has more recently becoming a monocotyledonous model plant in functional genomics research. During the past few years, an increasing number of studies have reported the impact of DNA methylation, non-coding RNAs and histone modifications on transcription regulation, flowering time control, and reproduction in rice. Here, we review these studies to provide an updated complete view about chromatin modifiers characterized in rice and in particular on their roles in epigenetic regulation of flowering time, reproduction, and seed development. PMID:25674094

  15. Photoperiodic flowering: time measurement mechanisms in leaves.

    PubMed

    Song, Young Hun; Shim, Jae Sung; Kinmonth-Schultz, Hannah A; Imaizumi, Takato

    2015-01-01

    Many plants use information about changing day length (photoperiod) to align their flowering time with seasonal changes to increase reproductive success. A mechanism for photoperiodic time measurement is present in leaves, and the day-length-specific induction of the FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene, which encodes florigen, is a major final output of the pathway. Here, we summarize the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which photoperiodic information is perceived in order to trigger FT expression in Arabidopsis as well as in the primary cereals wheat, barley, and rice. In these plants, the differences in photoperiod are measured by interactions between circadian-clock-regulated components, such as CONSTANS (CO), and light signaling. The interactions happen under certain day-length conditions, as previously predicted by the external coincidence model. In these plants, the coincidence mechanisms are governed by multilayered regulation with numerous conserved as well as unique regulatory components, highlighting the breadth of photoperiodic regulation across plant species.

  16. Functional mapping of ontogeny in flowering plants.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiyang; Tong, Chunfa; Pang, Xiaoming; Wang, Zhong; Guo, Yunqian; Du, Fang; Wu, Rongling

    2012-05-01

    All organisms face the problem of how to perform a sequence of developmental changes and transitions during ontogeny. We revise functional mapping, a statistical model originally derived to map genes that determine developmental dynamics, to take into account the entire process of ontogenetic growth from embryo to adult and from the vegetative to reproductive phase. The revised model provides a framework that reconciles the genetic architecture of development at different stages and elucidates a comprehensive picture of the genetic control mechanisms of growth that change gradually from a simple to a more complex level. We use an annual flowering plant, as an example, to demonstrate our model by which to map genes and their interactions involved in embryo and postembryonic growth. The model provides a useful tool to study the genetic control of ontogenetic growth in flowering plants and any other organisms through proper modifications based on their biological characteristics.

  17. Optical magnetic plasma in artificial flowers.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingjing; Thylen, Lars; Bratkovsky, Alexander; Wang, Shiy-Yuan; Williams, R Stanley

    2009-06-22

    We report the design of an artificial flower-like structure that supports a magnetic plasma in the optical domain. The structure is composed of alternating "petals" of conventional dielectrics (epsilon > 0) and plasmonic materials (Re(epsilon ) < 0). The induced effective magnetic current on such a structure possesses a phase lag with respect to the incident TE-mode magnetic field, similar to the phase lag between the induced electric current and the incident TM-mode electric field on a metal wire. An analogy is thus drawn with an artificial electric plasma composed of metal wires driven by a radio frequency excitation. The effective medium of an array of flowers has a negative permeability within a certain wavelength range, thus behaving as a magnetic plasma.

  18. Epigenetic processes in flowering plant reproduction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guifeng; Köhler, Claudia

    2017-01-06

    Seeds provide up to 70% of the energy intake of the human population, emphasizing the relevance of understanding the genetic and epigenetic mechanisms controlling seed formation. In flowering plants, seeds are the product of a double fertilization event, leading to the formation of the embryo and the endosperm surrounded by maternal tissues. Analogous to mammals, plants undergo extensive epigenetic reprogramming during both gamete formation and early seed development, a process that is supposed to be required to enforce silencing of transposable elements and thus to maintain genome stability. Global changes of DNA methylation, histone modifications, and small RNAs are closely associated with epigenome programming during plant reproduction. Here, we review current knowledge on chromatin changes occurring during sporogenesis and gametogenesis, as well as early seed development in major flowering plant models.

  19. Plants and colour: Flowers and pollination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Renee; Owens, Simon J.; Rørslett, Bjørn

    2011-03-01

    While there is a range of colours found in plants the predominant colour is green. Pigments in plants have several roles e.g. photosynthesis and signalling. If colour is to be used as a signal then it must stand out from green. However, one should be aware that there are also coloured compounds where we have not yet fully investigated the role of colour in their functions—they may have roles in, for example, defence or heat exchange. In this paper, we will describe the basic chemistry of the major pigments found in plants and especially floral pigments. We will then discuss their locations in parts of the flower (such as sepals, petals, pollen and nectar), the cells in which they are found and their sub-cellular locations. Floral pigments have a large role to play in pollination of flowers by animals. They can and are modified in many ways during the development of flowers in nature, for example, at emergence and post-pollination. There are a range of biochemical mechanisms of colour change both within flowers and in isolated pigments. Some of the factors influencing colour are temperature, co-pigments, pH, metals, sugars, anthocyanin stacking and cell shape. There is a renewed interest in analysing floral pigments and how they are modified partly because of advances in recombinant DNA technologies, but also because of pollinators and their significance to biodiversity and for evolutionary studies. There is continued strong interest from the horticultural industry for the introduction of new colours e.g. the blue rose and for the exploitation of natural dyes. Funding in this area may impact future research in a potentially beneficial way but it must not deflect us from science-based conservation.

  20. Fibonacci, quasicrystals and the beauty of flowers

    PubMed Central

    Gardiner, John

    2012-01-01

    The appearance of Fibonacci sequences and the golden ratio in plant structures is one of the great outstanding puzzles of biology. Here I suggest that quasicrystals, which naturally pack in the golden ratio, may be ubiquitous in biological systems and introduce the golden ratio into plant phyllotaxy. The appearance of golden ratio-based structures as beautiful indicates that the golden ratio may play a role in the development of consciousness and lead to the aesthetic natural selection of flowering plants. PMID:23072998

  1. Fibonacci, quasicrystals and the beauty of flowers.

    PubMed

    Gardiner, John

    2012-12-01

    The appearance of Fibonacci sequences and the golden ratio in plant structures is one of the great outstanding puzzles of biology. Here I suggest that quasicrystals, which naturally pack in the golden ratio, may be ubiquitous in biological systems and introduce the golden ratio into plant phyllotaxy. The appearance of golden ratio-based structures as beautiful indicates that the golden ratio may play a role in the development of consciousness and lead to the aesthetic natural selection of flowering plants.

  2. Evolutionary diversification of the flowers in angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Endress, Peter K

    2011-03-01

    Angiosperms and their flowers have greatly diversified into an overwhelming array of forms in the past 135 million years. Diversification was shaped by changes in climate and the biological environment (vegetation, interaction with other organisms) and by internal structural constraints and potentials. This review focuses on the development and structural diversity of flowers and structural constraints. It traces floral diversification in the different organs and organ complexes (perianth, androecium, gynoecium) through the major clades of extant angiosperms. The continuously improved results of molecular phylogenetics provide the framework for this endeavor, which is necessary for the understanding of the biology of the angiosperms and their flowers. Diversification appears to work with innovations and modifications of form. Many structural innovations originated in several clades and in special cases could become key innovations, which likely were hot spots of diversification. Synorganization between organs was an important process to reach new structural levels, from which new diversifications originated. Complexity of synorganization reached peaks in Orchidaceae and Apocynaceae with the independent evolution of pollinaria. Such a review throughout the major clades of angiosperms also shows how superficial and fragmentary our knowledge on floral structure in many clades is. Fresh studies and a multidisciplinary approach are needed.

  3. Functional optics of glossy buttercup flowers.

    PubMed

    van der Kooi, Casper J; Elzenga, J Theo M; Dijksterhuis, Jan; Stavenga, Doekele G

    2017-02-01

    Buttercup (Ranunculus spp.) flowers are exceptional because they feature a distinct gloss (mirror-like reflection) in addition to their matte-yellow coloration. We investigated the optical properties of yellow petals of several Ranunculus and related species using (micro)spectrophotometry and anatomical methods. The contribution of different petal structures to the overall visual signal was quantified using a recently developed optical model. We show that the coloration of glossy buttercup flowers is due to a rare combination of structural and pigmentary coloration. A very flat, pigment-filled upper epidermis acts as a thin-film reflector yielding the gloss, and additionally serves as a filter for light backscattered by the strongly scattering starch and mesophyll layers, which yields the matte-yellow colour. We discuss the evolution of the gloss and its two likely functions: it provides a strong visual signal to insect pollinators and increases the reflection of sunlight to the centre of the flower in order to heat the reproductive organs.

  4. Is the flower fluorescence relevant in biocommunication?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iriel, Analía; Lagorio, María Gabriela

    2010-10-01

    Flower fluorescence has been previously proposed as a potential visual signal to attract pollinators. In this work, this point was addressed by quantitatively measuring the fluorescence quantum yield ( Φ f) for flowers of Bellis perennis (white, yellow, pink, and purple), Ornithogalum thyrsoides (petals and ovaries), Limonium sinuatum (white and yellow), Lampranthus productus (yellow), Petunia nyctaginiflora (white), Bougainvillea spectabilis (white and yellow), Antirrhinum majus (white and yellow), Eustoma grandiflorum (white and blue), Citrus aurantium (petals and stigma), and Portulaca grandiflora (yellow). The highest values were obtained for the ovaries of O. thyrsoides ( Φ f = 0.030) and for Citrus aurantium petals ( Φ f = 0.014) and stigma ( Φ f = 0.013). Emitted photons as fluorescence were compared with reflected photons. It was concluded that the fluorescence emission is negligible compared to the reflected light, even for the most fluorescent samples, and it may not be considered as an optical signal in biocommunication. The work was complemented with the calculation of quantum catches for each studied flower species to describe the visual sensitization of eye photoreceptors.

  5. Molecular aspects of flower development in grasses.

    PubMed

    Ciaffi, Mario; Paolacci, Anna Rita; Tanzarella, Oronzo Antonio; Porceddu, Enrico

    2011-12-01

    The grass family (Poaceae) of the monocotyledons includes about 10,000 species and represents one of the most important taxa among angiosperms. Their flower morphology is remarkably different from those of other monocotyledons and higher eudicots. The peculiar floral structure of grasses is the floret, which contains carpels and stamens, like eudicots, but lacks petals and sepals. The reproductive organs are surrounded by two lodicules, which correspond to eudicot petals, and by a palea and lemma, whose correspondence to eudicot organs remains controversial. The molecular and genetic analysis of floral morphogenesis and organ specification, primarily performed in eudicot model species, led to the ABCDE model of flower development. Several genes required for floral development in grasses correspond to class A, B, C, D, and E genes of eudicots, but others appear to have unique and diversified functions. In this paper, we outline the present knowledge on the evolution and diversification of grass genes encoding MIKC-type MADS-box transcription factors, based on information derived from studies in rice, maize, and wheat. Moreover, we review recent advances in studying the genes involved in the control of flower development and the extent of structural and functional conservation of these genes between grasses and eudicots.

  6. Lichens promote flowering Opuntia fragilis in west-central Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, J.P.; Bornar, C.R.; Harrington, C.A.

    2003-01-01

    Clumps of the cactus Opuntia fragilis growing in association with mats of the lichens Cladina mitis, Cladina rangiferina and a spikemoss, Selaginella rupestris, were discovered in an agricultural field in Pepin County, Wisconsin, that had been abandoned for over 50 y. The association appeared to be beneficial to the cactus, which flowered almost exclusively in the presence of lichens. Of 294 cactus clumps examined in 2001, 127 grew in the presence of lichen mats and, of these, 24 flowered, producing 91 flowers, while none of the cacti growing in the absence of lichens flowered. In 2002, 19 out of 265 cactus clumps flowered, all but one in the presence of lichens. All sizes of cacti in the presence of lichens flowered and the probability of flowering increased with cactus size. In addition, the cacti that flowered had cladodes that were on average 19% heavier than those of cacti that did not flower. The presence of lichens lowered summer soil temperatures 2a??4 C compared to soil temperatures in the absence of lichens. Cooler soil temperatures conserve soil moisture better, which may enhance flowering in these cacti.

  7. Bamboo Flowering from the Perspective of Comparative Genomics and Transcriptomics.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Prasun; Chakraborty, Sukanya; Dutta, Smritikana; Pal, Amita; Das, Malay

    2016-01-01

    Bamboos are an important member of the subfamily Bambusoideae, family Poaceae. The plant group exhibits wide variation with respect to the timing (1-120 years) and nature (sporadic vs. gregarious) of flowering among species. Usually flowering in woody bamboos is synchronous across culms growing over a large area, known as gregarious flowering. In many monocarpic bamboos this is followed by mass death and seed setting. While in sporadic flowering an isolated wild clump may flower, set little or no seed and remain alive. Such wide variation in flowering time and extent means that the plant group serves as repositories for genes and expression patterns that are unique to bamboo. Due to the dearth of available genomic and transcriptomic resources, limited studies have been undertaken to identify the potential molecular players in bamboo flowering. The public release of the first bamboo genome sequence Phyllostachys heterocycla, availability of related genomes Brachypodium distachyon and Oryza sativa provide us the opportunity to study this long-standing biological problem in a comparative and functional genomics framework. We identified bamboo genes homologous to those of Oryza and Brachypodium that are involved in established pathways such as vernalization, photoperiod, autonomous, and hormonal regulation of flowering. Additionally, we investigated triggers like stress (drought), physiological maturity and micro RNAs that may play crucial roles in flowering. We also analyzed available transcriptome datasets of different bamboo species to identify genes and their involvement in bamboo flowering. Finally, we summarize potential research hurdles that need to be addressed in future research.

  8. A perfect flower from the Jurassic of China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhong-Jian; Wang, Xin

    2016-07-03

    Flower, enclosed ovule and tetrasporangiate anther are three major characters distinguishing angiosperms from other seed plants. Morphologically, typical flowers are characterised by an organisation with gynoecium and androecium surrounded by corolla and calyx. Theoretically, flowers are derived from their counterparts in ancient ancestral gymnosperms. However, as for when, how and from which groups, there is no consensus among botanists yet. Although angiosperm-like pollen and angiosperms have been claimed in the Triassic and Jurassic, typical flowers with the aforesaid three key characters are still missing in the pre-Cretaceous age, making many interpretations of flower evolution tentative. Thus searching for flower in the pre-Cretaceous has been a tantalising task for palaeobotanists for a long time. Here, we report a typical flower, Euanthus paniigen. et sp. nov., from the Middle-Late Jurassic of Liaoning, China. Euanthus has sepals, petals, androecium with tetrasporangiate dithecate anthers and gynoecium with enclosed ovules, organised just like in perfect flowers of extant angiosperms. The discovery of Euanthus implies that typical angiosperm flowers have already been in place in the Jurassic, and provides a new insight unavailable otherwise for the evolution of flowers.

  9. Bamboo Flowering from the Perspective of Comparative Genomics and Transcriptomics

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Prasun; Chakraborty, Sukanya; Dutta, Smritikana; Pal, Amita; Das, Malay

    2016-01-01

    Bamboos are an important member of the subfamily Bambusoideae, family Poaceae. The plant group exhibits wide variation with respect to the timing (1–120 years) and nature (sporadic vs. gregarious) of flowering among species. Usually flowering in woody bamboos is synchronous across culms growing over a large area, known as gregarious flowering. In many monocarpic bamboos this is followed by mass death and seed setting. While in sporadic flowering an isolated wild clump may flower, set little or no seed and remain alive. Such wide variation in flowering time and extent means that the plant group serves as repositories for genes and expression patterns that are unique to bamboo. Due to the dearth of available genomic and transcriptomic resources, limited studies have been undertaken to identify the potential molecular players in bamboo flowering. The public release of the first bamboo genome sequence Phyllostachys heterocycla, availability of related genomes Brachypodium distachyon and Oryza sativa provide us the opportunity to study this long-standing biological problem in a comparative and functional genomics framework. We identified bamboo genes homologous to those of Oryza and Brachypodium that are involved in established pathways such as vernalization, photoperiod, autonomous, and hormonal regulation of flowering. Additionally, we investigated triggers like stress (drought), physiological maturity and micro RNAs that may play crucial roles in flowering. We also analyzed available transcriptome datasets of different bamboo species to identify genes and their involvement in bamboo flowering. Finally, we summarize potential research hurdles that need to be addressed in future research. PMID:28018419

  10. A perfect flower from the Jurassic of China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhong-Jian; Wang, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Flower, enclosed ovule and tetrasporangiate anther are three major characters distinguishing angiosperms from other seed plants. Morphologically, typical flowers are characterised by an organisation with gynoecium and androecium surrounded by corolla and calyx. Theoretically, flowers are derived from their counterparts in ancient ancestral gymnosperms. However, as for when, how and from which groups, there is no consensus among botanists yet. Although angiosperm-like pollen and angiosperms have been claimed in the Triassic and Jurassic, typical flowers with the aforesaid three key characters are still missing in the pre-Cretaceous age, making many interpretations of flower evolution tentative. Thus searching for flower in the pre-Cretaceous has been a tantalising task for palaeobotanists for a long time. Here, we report a typical flower, Euanthus panii gen. et sp. nov., from the Middle–Late Jurassic of Liaoning, China. Euanthus has sepals, petals, androecium with tetrasporangiate dithecate anthers and gynoecium with enclosed ovules, organised just like in perfect flowers of extant angiosperms. The discovery of Euanthus implies that typical angiosperm flowers have already been in place in the Jurassic, and provides a new insight unavailable otherwise for the evolution of flowers. PMID:27134345

  11. Flower colour and cytochromes P450†

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Brugliera, Filippa

    2013-01-01

    Cytochromes P450 play important roles in biosynthesis of flavonoids and their coloured class of compounds, anthocyanins, both of which are major floral pigments. The number of hydroxyl groups on the B-ring of anthocyanidins (the chromophores and precursors of anthocyanins) impact the anthocyanin colour, the more the bluer. The hydroxylation pattern is determined by two cytochromes P450, flavonoid 3′-hydroxylase (F3′H) and flavonoid 3′,5′-hydroxylase (F3′5′H) and thus they play a crucial role in the determination of flower colour. F3′H and F3′5′H mostly belong to CYP75B and CYP75A, respectively, except for the F3′5′Hs in Compositae that were derived from gene duplication of CYP75B and neofunctionalization. Roses and carnations lack blue/violet flower colours owing to the deficiency of F3′5′H and therefore lack the B-ring-trihydroxylated anthocyanins based upon delphinidin. Successful redirection of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway to delphinidin was achieved by expressing F3′5′H coding regions resulting in carnations and roses with novel blue hues that have been commercialized. Suppression of F3′5′H and F3′H in delphinidin-producing plants reduced the number of hydroxyl groups on the anthocyanidin B-ring resulting in the production of monohydroxylated anthocyanins based on pelargonidin with a shift in flower colour to orange/red. Pelargonidin biosynthesis is enhanced by additional expression of a dihydroflavonol 4-reductase that can use the monohydroxylated dihydrokaempferol (the pelargonidin precursor). Flavone synthase II (FNSII)-catalysing flavone biosynthesis from flavanones is also a P450 (CYP93B) and contributes to flower colour, because flavones act as co-pigments to anthocyanins and can cause blueing and darkening of colour. However, transgenic plants expression of a FNSII gene yielded paler flowers owing to a reduction of anthocyanins because flavanones are precursors of anthocyanins and flavones. PMID:23297355

  12. Endogenous ethylene does not regulate opening of unstressed Iris flowers but strongly inhibits it in water-stressed flowers.

    PubMed

    Çelikel, Fisun G; van Doorn, Wouter G

    2012-09-15

    The floral buds of Iris flowers (Iris x hollandica) are enclosed by two sheath leaves. Flower opening depends on lifting the flower up to a position whereby the tepals can move laterally. This upward movement is carried out by elongation of the subtending pedicel and ovary. In the pedicels and ovaries of unstressed control flowers, the concentration of ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid) and the rate of ethylene production increased during d 0-1 of flower opening, and then decreased. Exposure to ≥200 nL L(-1) ethylene for 24 h at 20°C inhibited elongation of the pedicel+ovary, and inhibited flower opening. However, pulsing of unstressed flowers with solutions containing inhibitors of ethylene synthesis (AOA, AVG), or an inhibitor of ethylene action (STS), did not affect pedicel+ovary elongation or flower opening. When the flowers were dehydrated for 2 d at 20°C and 60% RH, they did not open when subsequently placed in water, and showed inhibited elongation in the pedicel+ovary. This dehydration treatment resulted in elevated pedicel+ovary ACC levels and in increased ethylene production. Treatment with STS prevented the increase in ACC levels and ethylene production, overcame the effect of dehydration on elongation of the pedicel+ovary, and resulted in full flower opening. It is concluded that flower opening in unstressed Iris flowers is not regulated by endogenous ethylene. An increase in endogenous ethylene above normal levels during stress, by contrast, strongly inhibited flower opening, due to its inhibitory effect on elongation of the pedicel+ovary.

  13. More than colour attraction: behavioural functions of flower patterns

    PubMed Central

    Hempel de Ibarra, Natalie; Langridge, Keri V; Vorobyev, Misha

    2015-01-01

    Flower patterns are thought to influence foraging decisions of insect pollinators. However, the resolution of insect compound eyes is poor. Insects perceive flower patterns only from short distances when they initiate landings or search for reward on the flower. From further away flower displays jointly form larger-sized patterns within the visual scene that will guide the insect's flight. Chromatic and achromatic cues in such patterns may help insects to find, approach and learn rewarded locations in a flower patch, bringing them close enough to individual flowers. Flight trajectories and the spatial resolution of chromatic and achromatic vision in insects determine the effectiveness of floral displays, and both need to be considered in studies of plant–pollinator communication. PMID:27064650

  14. Inheritance of flower color in pickerelweed (Pontederia cordata L.).

    PubMed

    Gettys, Lyn A; Wofford, David S

    2007-01-01

    Pickerelweed (Pontederia cordata L.) is a diploid (2n = 2x = 16), erect, emergent, herbaceous aquatic perennial. The showy inflorescences of pickerelweed make this species a prime candidate for inclusion in water gardens and aquascapes. The objective of this experiment was to determine the number of loci, number of alleles, and gene action controlling flower color (blue vs. white) in pickerelweed. Two blue-flowered and one white-flowered parental lines were used in this experiment to create S(1) and F(1) populations. F(2) populations were produced through self-pollination of F(1) plants. Evaluation of S(1), F(1), and F(2) generations revealed that flower color in these populations was controlled by 2 alleles at one locus with blue flower color completely dominant to white. We propose that this locus be named white flower with alleles W and w.

  15. Transcriptomic Analysis of Flower Development in Wintersweet (Chimonanthus praecox)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Daofeng; Sui, Shunzhao; Ma, Jing; Li, Zhineng; Guo, Yulong; Luo, Dengpan; Yang, Jianfeng; Li, Mingyang

    2014-01-01

    Wintersweet (Chimonanthus praecox) is familiar as a garden plant and woody ornamental flower. On account of its unique flowering time and strong fragrance, it has a high ornamental and economic value. Despite a long history of human cultivation, our understanding of wintersweet genetics and molecular biology remains scant, reflecting a lack of basic genomic and transcriptomic data. In this study, we assembled three cDNA libraries, from three successive stages in flower development, designated as the flower bud with displayed petal, open flower and senescing flower stages. Using the Illumina RNA-Seq method, we obtained 21,412,928, 26,950,404, 24,912,954 qualified Illumina reads, respectively, for the three successive stages. The pooled reads from all three libraries were then assembled into 106,995 transcripts, 51,793 of which were annotated in the NCBI non-redundant protein database. Of these annotated sequences, 32,649 and 21,893 transcripts were assigned to gene ontology categories and clusters of orthologous groups, respectively. We could map 15,587 transcripts onto 312 pathways using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway database. Based on these transcriptomic data, we obtained a large number of candidate genes that were differentially expressed at the open flower and senescing flower stages. An analysis of differentially expressed genes involved in plant hormone signal transduction pathways indicated that although flower opening and senescence may be independent of the ethylene signaling pathway in wintersweet, salicylic acid may be involved in the regulation of flower senescence. We also succeeded in isolating key genes of floral scent biosynthesis and proposed a biosynthetic pathway for monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes in wintersweet flowers, based on the annotated sequences. This comprehensive transcriptomic analysis presents fundamental information on the genes and pathways which are involved in flower development in wintersweet. And our data

  16. Transcriptomic analysis of flower development in wintersweet (Chimonanthus praecox).

    PubMed

    Liu, Daofeng; Sui, Shunzhao; Ma, Jing; Li, Zhineng; Guo, Yulong; Luo, Dengpan; Yang, Jianfeng; Li, Mingyang

    2014-01-01

    Wintersweet (Chimonanthus praecox) is familiar as a garden plant and woody ornamental flower. On account of its unique flowering time and strong fragrance, it has a high ornamental and economic value. Despite a long history of human cultivation, our understanding of wintersweet genetics and molecular biology remains scant, reflecting a lack of basic genomic and transcriptomic data. In this study, we assembled three cDNA libraries, from three successive stages in flower development, designated as the flower bud with displayed petal, open flower and senescing flower stages. Using the Illumina RNA-Seq method, we obtained 21,412,928, 26,950,404, 24,912,954 qualified Illumina reads, respectively, for the three successive stages. The pooled reads from all three libraries were then assembled into 106,995 transcripts, 51,793 of which were annotated in the NCBI non-redundant protein database. Of these annotated sequences, 32,649 and 21,893 transcripts were assigned to gene ontology categories and clusters of orthologous groups, respectively. We could map 15,587 transcripts onto 312 pathways using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway database. Based on these transcriptomic data, we obtained a large number of candidate genes that were differentially expressed at the open flower and senescing flower stages. An analysis of differentially expressed genes involved in plant hormone signal transduction pathways indicated that although flower opening and senescence may be independent of the ethylene signaling pathway in wintersweet, salicylic acid may be involved in the regulation of flower senescence. We also succeeded in isolating key genes of floral scent biosynthesis and proposed a biosynthetic pathway for monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes in wintersweet flowers, based on the annotated sequences. This comprehensive transcriptomic analysis presents fundamental information on the genes and pathways which are involved in flower development in wintersweet. And our data

  17. Indexing Flowers by Color Names using Domain Knowledge-driven Segmentation,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    We describe a solution to the problem of indexing images of flowers for searching a flower patents database by color. We use a natural language color...feedback to isolate a flower region from the background. The color of the flower is defined by the color names present in the flower region and their

  18. Novel peach flower types in a segregating population from ‘Helen Borchers’

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several new peach (Prunus persica) flower types were discovered in an F2 segregating population from an open-pollinated, non-showy-flowered F1 seedling of ‘Helen Borchers’, a double-flowered ornamental cultivar. The novel flower types were white and red single-flowered, non-showy blooms, as well as ...

  19. Suboptimal Light Conditions Influence Source-Sink Metabolism during Flowering

    PubMed Central

    Christiaens, Annelies; De Keyser, Ellen; Pauwels, Els; De Riek, Jan; Gobin, Bruno; Van Labeke, Marie-Christine

    2016-01-01

    Reliance on carbohydrates during flower forcing was investigated in one early and one late flowering cultivar of azalea (Rhododendron simsii hybrids). Carbohydrate accumulation, invertase activity, and expression of a purported sucrose synthase gene (RsSUS) was monitored during flower forcing under suboptimal (natural) and optimal (supplemental light) light conditions, after a cold treatment (7°C + dark) to break flower bud dormancy. Post-production sucrose metabolism and flowering quality was also assessed. Glucose and fructose concentrations and invertase activity increased in petals during flowering, while sucrose decreased. In suboptimal light conditions RsSUS expression in leaves increased as compared to optimal light conditions, indicating that plants in suboptimal light conditions have a strong demand for carbohydrates. However, carbohydrates in leaves were markedly lower in suboptimal light conditions compared to optimal light conditions. This resulted in poor flowering of plants in suboptimal light conditions. Post-production flowering relied on the stored leaf carbon, which could be accumulated under optimal light conditions in the greenhouse. These results show that flower opening in azalea relies on carbohydrates imported from leaves and is source-limiting under suboptimal light conditions. PMID:26973689

  20. Functional homogenization of flower visitor communities with urbanization.

    PubMed

    Deguines, Nicolas; Julliard, Romain; de Flores, Mathieu; Fontaine, Colin

    2016-04-01

    Land-use intensification and resulting habitat loss are put forward as the main causes of flower visitor decline. However, the impact of urbanization, the prime driver of land-use intensification in Europe, is poorly studied. In particular, our understanding of whether and how it affects the composition and functioning of flower visitor assemblages is scant, yet required to cope with increasing urbanization worldwide. Here, we use a nation-wide dataset of plant-flower visitor (Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera) interactions sampled by citizen scientists following a standardized protocol to assess macroecological changes in richness and composition of flower visitor communities with urbanization. We measured the community composition by quantifying the relative occurrence of generalist and specialist flower visitors based on their specialisation on flowering plant families. We show that urbanization is associated with reduced flower visitor richness and a shift in community composition toward generalist insects, indicating a modification of the functional composition of communities. These results suggest that urbanization affects not only the richness of flower visitor assemblages but may also cause their large-scale functional homogenization. Future research should focus on designing measures to reconcile urban development with flower visitor conservation.

  1. FLOWER IPv4/IPv6 Network Flow Summarization software

    SciTech Connect

    Nickless, Bill; Curtis, Darren; Christy, Jason; Younkin, Chance; Mount, Jason; Richard Griswold, Joe Lenaeus

    2011-04-04

    FLOWER was written as a refactoring/reimplementation of the existing Flo software used by the Cooperative Protection Program (CPP) to provide network flow summaries for analysis by the Operational Analysis Center (OAC) and other US Department of Energy cyber security elements. FLOWER is designed and tested to operate at 10 gigabits/second, nearly 10 times faster than competing solutions. FLOWER output is optimized for importation into SQL databases for categorization and analysis. FLOWER is written in C++ using current best software engineering practices.

  2. Pollinator effectiveness varies with experimental shifts in flowering time

    PubMed Central

    Rafferty, Nicole E.; Ives, Anthony R.

    2013-01-01

    The earlier flowering times exhibited by many plant species are a conspicuous sign of climate change. Altered phenologies have caused concern that species could suffer population declines if they flower at times when effective pollinators are unavailable. For two perennial wildflowers, Tradescantia ohiensis and Asclepias incarnata, we used an experimental approach to explore how changing phenology affects the taxonomic composition of the pollinator assemblage and the effectiveness of individual pollinator taxa. After finding in the previous year that fruit set varied with flowering time, we manipulated flowering onset in greenhouses, placed plants in the field over the span of five weeks, and measured pollinator effectiveness as the number of seeds produced after a single visit to a flower. The average effectiveness of pollinators and the expected rates of pollination success were lower for plants of both species flowering earlier than for plants flowering at historical times, suggesting there could be reproductive costs to earlier flowering. Whereas for A. incarnata, differences in average seed set among weeks were due primarily to changes in the composition of the pollinator assemblage, the differences for T. ohiensis were driven by the combined effects of compositional changes and increases over time in the effectiveness of some pollinator taxa. Both species face the possibility of temporal mismatch between the availability of the most effective pollinators and the onset of flowering, and changes in the effectiveness of individual pollinator taxa through time may add an unexpected element to the reproductive consequences of such mismatches. PMID:22690631

  3. a Visualization Model of Flower Based on Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Ling; Wang, Lei; Yang, Xuedong

    We present a simple and effective modeling method for flowers. It starts with an initial geometric shape, such as ellipsoid, cylinder, or plane surface et al., and then simulates flower components (such as pedicel, receptacle, pistils, stamens, petals and sepals) by addition deformation to the basic geometric shape. The detailed geometry of flower component is defined by basic equation for the basic shape along with a deformation function. A variety of flower can be produced by varying the deformation parameters. A number of examples are given in the paper to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model.

  4. Record-Breaking Early Flowering in the Eastern United States

    PubMed Central

    Ellwood, Elizabeth R.; Temple, Stanley A.; Primack, Richard B.; Davis, Charles C.

    2013-01-01

    Flowering times are well-documented indicators of the ecological effects of climate change and are linked to numerous ecosystem processes and trophic interactions. Dozens of studies have shown that flowering times for many spring-flowering plants have become earlier as a result of recent climate change, but it is uncertain if flowering times will continue to advance as temperatures rise. Here, we used long-term flowering records initiated by Henry David Thoreau in 1852 and Aldo Leopold in 1935 to investigate this question. Our analyses demonstrate that record-breaking spring temperatures in 2010 and 2012 in Massachusetts, USA, and 2012 in Wisconsin, USA, resulted in the earliest flowering times in recorded history for dozens of spring-flowering plants of the eastern United States. These dramatic advances in spring flowering were successfully predicted by historical relationships between flowering and spring temperature spanning up to 161 years of ecological change. These results demonstrate that numerous temperate plant species have yet to show obvious signs of physiological constraints on phenological advancement in the face of climate change. PMID:23342001

  5. Natural soil microbes alter flowering phenology and the intensity of selection on flowering time in a wild Arabidopsis relative.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Maggie R; Lundberg, Derek S; Coleman-Derr, Devin; Tringe, Susannah G; Dangl, Jeffery L; Mitchell-Olds, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    Plant phenology is known to depend on many different environmental variables, but soil microbial communities have rarely been acknowledged as possible drivers of flowering time. Here, we tested separately the effects of four naturally occurring soil microbiomes and their constituent soil chemistries on flowering phenology and reproductive fitness of Boechera stricta, a wild relative of Arabidopsis. Flowering time was sensitive to both microbes and the abiotic properties of different soils; varying soil microbiota also altered patterns of selection on flowering time. Thus, soil microbes potentially contribute to phenotypic plasticity of flowering time and to differential selection observed between habitats. We also describe a method to dissect the microbiome into single axes of variation that can help identify candidate organisms whose abundance in soil correlates with flowering time. This approach is broadly applicable to search for microbial community members that alter biological characteristics of interest.

  6. The strength of assortative mating for flowering date and its basis in individual variation in flowering schedule.

    PubMed

    Weis, A E; Nardone, E; Fox, G A

    2014-10-01

    Although it has been widely asserted that plants mate assortatively by flowering time, there is virtually no published information on the strength or causes of phenological assortment in natural populations. When strong, assortative mating can accelerate the evolution of plant reproductive phenology through its inflationary effect on genetic variance. We estimated potential assortative mating for flowering date in 31 old-field species in Ontario, Canada. For each species, we constructed a matrix of pairwise mating probabilities from the individual flowering schedules, that is the number of flower deployed on successive dates. The matrix was used to estimate the phenotypic correlation between mates, ρ, for flowering date. We also developed a measure of flowering synchrony within species, S, based upon the eigenstructure of the mating matrix. The mean correlation between pollen recipients and potential donors for flowering date was ρ=0.31 (range: 0.05-0.63). A strong potential for assortative mating was found among species with high variance in flowering date, flowering schedules of short duration and skew towards early flower deployment. Flowering synchrony, S, was negatively correlated with potential assortment (r= -0.49), but we go on to show that although low synchrony is a necessary condition for phenological assortative mating, it may not be sufficient to induce assortment for a given phenological trait. The potential correlation between mates showed no seasonal trend; thus, as climate change imposes selection on phenology through longer growing seasons, spring-flowering species are no more likely to experience an accelerated evolutionary response than summer species.

  7. Medicinal flowers. XXX. Eight new glycosides, everlastosides F-M, from the flowers of Helichrysum arenarium.

    PubMed

    Morikawa, Toshio; Wang, Li-Bo; Ninomiya, Kiyofumi; Nakamura, Seikou; Matsuda, Hisashi; Muraoka, Osamu; Wu, Li-Jun; Yoshikawa, Masayuki

    2009-08-01

    Eight new glycosides, everlastosides F (1), G (2), H (3), I (4), J (5), K (6), L (7), and M (8), were isolated from the methanolic extract of the flowers of Helichrysum arenarium. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence.

  8. Influence of plant bioregulators on pecan flowering and implications for regulation of pistillate flower initiation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mitigation of alternate bearing (AB) through regulation of floral initiation of pistillate flowers is central to improving crop-load management of pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] trees and orchards. The present study examines the influence of key bioregulators {i.e., an auxin [as B-na...

  9. Identification of flowering genes in strawberry, a perennial SD plant

    PubMed Central

    Mouhu, Katriina; Hytönen, Timo; Folta, Kevin; Rantanen, Marja; Paulin, Lars; Auvinen, Petri; Elomaa, Paula

    2009-01-01

    Background We are studying the regulation of flowering in perennial plants by using diploid wild strawberry (Fragaria vesca L.) as a model. Wild strawberry is a facultative short-day plant with an obligatory short-day requirement at temperatures above 15°C. At lower temperatures, however, flowering induction occurs irrespective of photoperiod. In addition to short-day genotypes, everbearing forms of wild strawberry are known. In 'Baron Solemacher' recessive alleles of an unknown repressor, SEASONAL FLOWERING LOCUS (SFL), are responsible for continuous flowering habit. Although flower induction has a central effect on the cropping potential, the molecular control of flowering in strawberries has not been studied and the genetic flowering pathways are still poorly understood. The comparison of everbearing and short-day genotypes of wild strawberry could facilitate our understanding of fundamental molecular mechanisms regulating perennial growth cycle in plants. Results We have searched homologs for 118 Arabidopsis flowering time genes from Fragaria by EST sequencing and bioinformatics analysis and identified 66 gene homologs that by sequence similarity, putatively correspond to genes of all known genetic flowering pathways. The expression analysis of 25 selected genes representing various flowering pathways did not reveal large differences between the everbearing and the short-day genotypes. However, putative floral identity and floral integrator genes AP1 and LFY were co-regulated during early floral development. AP1 mRNA was specifically accumulating in the shoot apices of the everbearing genotype, indicating its usability as a marker for floral initiation. Moreover, we showed that flowering induction in everbearing 'Baron Solemacher' and 'Hawaii-4' was inhibited by short-day and low temperature, in contrast to short-day genotypes. Conclusion We have shown that many central genetic components of the flowering pathways in Arabidopsis can be identified from

  10. Current trends and future directions in flower development research

    PubMed Central

    Scutt, Charlie P.; Vandenbussche, Michiel

    2014-01-01

    Flowers, the reproductive structures of the approximately 400 000 extant species of flowering plants, exist in a tremendous range of forms and sizes, mainly due to developmental differences involving the number, arrangement, size and form of the floral organs of which they consist. However, this tremendous diversity is underpinned by a surprisingly robust basic floral structure in which a central group of carpels forms on an axis of determinate growth, almost invariably surrounded by two successive zones containing stamens and perianth organs, respectively. Over the last 25 years, remarkable progress has been achieved in describing the molecular mechanisms that control almost all aspects of flower development, from the phase change that initiates flowering to the final production of fruits and seeds. However, this work has been performed almost exclusively in a small number of eudicot model species, chief among which is Arabidopsis thaliana. Studies of flower development must now be extended to a much wider phylogenetic range of flowering plants and, indeed, to their closest living relatives, the gymnosperms. Studies of further, more wide-ranging models should provide insights that, for various reasons, cannot be obtained by studying the major existing models alone. The use of further models should also help to explain how the first flowering plants evolved from an unknown, although presumably gymnosperm-like ancestor, and rapidly diversified to become the largest major plant group and to dominate the terrestrial flora. The benefits for society of a thorough understanding of flower development are self-evident, as human life depends to a large extent on flowering plants and on the fruits and seeds they produce. In this preface to the Special Issue, we introduce eleven articles on flower development, representing work in both established and further models, including gymnosperms. We also present some of our own views on current trends and future directions of the

  11. Warming Contracts Flowering Phenology in an Alpine Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabis, M. D.; Winkler, D. E.; Kueppers, L. M.

    2015-12-01

    In alpine ecosystems where temperature increases associated with anthropogenic climate change are likely to be amplified, the flowering phenology of plants may be particularly sensitive to changes in environmental signals. For example, earlier snowmelt and higher temperature have been found to be important factors driving plant emergence and onset of flowering. However, few studies have examined the interactive role of soil moisture in response to warming. Using infrared heating to actively warm plots crossed with manual watering over the growing season in a moist alpine meadow at Niwot Ridge, Colorado, our preliminary results indicate that community-level phenology (length of flowering time across all species) was contracted with heating but was unaffected by watering. At the species level, additional water extended the length of the flowering season by one week for almost half (43%) of species. Heating, which raised plant and surface soil temperatures (+1.5 C) advanced snowmelt by ~7.6 days days and reduced soil moisture by ~2%, advanced flowering phenology for 86% of species. The response of flowering phenology to combined heating and watering was predominantly a heating effect. However, watering did appear to mitigate advances in end of flowering for 22% of species. The length of flowering season, for some species, appears to be tied, in part, to moisture availability as alleviating ambient soil moisture stress delayed phenology in unheated plots. Therefore, we conclude that both temperature and moisture appear to be important factors driving flowering phenology in this alpine ecosystem. The relationship between flowering phenology and species- or community-level productivity is not well established, but heating advanced community peak productivity by 5.4 days, and also reduced peak productivity unless additional water was provided, indicating some consistency between drivers of productivity and drivers of flowering phenology.

  12. Carbon relations of flowering in a semelparous clonal desert perennial

    SciTech Connect

    Tissue, D.T.; Nobel, P.S. )

    1990-02-01

    Agave deserti is a long-lived, semelparous perennial of the northwestern Sonoran Desert that flowers after {approx} 50-55 yr. Measurements of CO{sub 2} exchange over 24-h periods indicated that leaves of flowering rosettes had 24% more net CO{sub 2} uptake than leaves of adjacent nonflowering rosettes during the first month of inflorescence production. Net CO{sub 2} uptake for leaves of flowering rosettes was 32% less thereafter than for leaves of nonflowering rosettes, as senescing leaves of flowering rosettes exhibited dramatic reductions in nitrogen and chlorophyll contents. During the course of flowering, levels of total nonstructural carbohydrate (TNC) in the leaves of flowering rosettes dropped from 38 to 6% of the leaf dry mass, indicating substantial translocation of stored carbon to the inflorescence. TNC reserves of the rosette provided 70% of the carbon required to produce the 1.53 kg inflorescence, and CO{sub 2} uptake by the leaves and the inflorescence provided the remaining 30%. Rosettes must attain a minimum size (> 1,000 g dry mass) to initiate flowering, unless they are connected to a large flowering rosette. Small rosettes did not produce inflorescences when their rhizome connection to a large rosette was severed {approx} 4 wk before inflorescences emerged, suggesting that a chemical signal is transmitted through the rhizome that induces the small rosette to flower precociously. Small flowering rosettes could not complete formation of the inflorescence unless partially supported by carbon supplied by the connected large rosette. The contribution of the large rosette declined from 74% for a 0-30 g dry mass connected rosette to 35% for a 200-600 g rosette. For both small and large flowering rosettes, the translocation of substantial carbohydrate reserves from the leaves is essential for production of the inflorescence.

  13. Current trends and future directions in flower development research.

    PubMed

    Scutt, Charlie P; Vandenbussche, Michiel

    2014-11-01

    Flowers, the reproductive structures of the approximately 400 000 extant species of flowering plants, exist in a tremendous range of forms and sizes, mainly due to developmental differences involving the number, arrangement, size and form of the floral organs of which they consist. However, this tremendous diversity is underpinned by a surprisingly robust basic floral structure in which a central group of carpels forms on an axis of determinate growth, almost invariably surrounded by two successive zones containing stamens and perianth organs, respectively. Over the last 25 years, remarkable progress has been achieved in describing the molecular mechanisms that control almost all aspects of flower development, from the phase change that initiates flowering to the final production of fruits and seeds. However, this work has been performed almost exclusively in a small number of eudicot model species, chief among which is Arabidopsis thaliana. Studies of flower development must now be extended to a much wider phylogenetic range of flowering plants and, indeed, to their closest living relatives, the gymnosperms. Studies of further, more wide-ranging models should provide insights that, for various reasons, cannot be obtained by studying the major existing models alone. The use of further models should also help to explain how the first flowering plants evolved from an unknown, although presumably gymnosperm-like ancestor, and rapidly diversified to become the largest major plant group and to dominate the terrestrial flora. The benefits for society of a thorough understanding of flower development are self-evident, as human life depends to a large extent on flowering plants and on the fruits and seeds they produce. In this preface to the Special Issue, we introduce eleven articles on flower development, representing work in both established and further models, including gymnosperms. We also present some of our own views on current trends and future directions of the

  14. Gravitropism in cut flower stalks of snapdragon.

    PubMed

    Philosoph-Hadas, S; Friedman, H; Meir, S; Berkovitz-SimanTov, R; Rosenberger, I; Halevy, A H; Kaufman, P B; Balk, P; Woltering, E J

    2001-01-01

    The negative gravitropic response of cut flower stalks is a complex multistep process that requires the participation of various cellular components acting in succession or in parallel. The process was particularly characterized in snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus L.) spikes with regard to (1) gravity stimulus perception associated with amyloplast reorientation; (2) stimulus transduction mediated through differential changes in the level, action and related genes of auxin and ethylene and their possible interaction; (3) stimulus response associated with differential growth leading to stalk curvature; (4) involvement of cytosolic calcium and actin cytoskeleton. Results show that the gravity-induced amyloplast reorientation, differential over-expression of two early auxin responsive genes and asymmetrical distribution of free IAA are early events in the bending process. These precede the asymmetrical ethylene production and differential stem growth, which was derived from initial shrinkage of the upper stem side and a subsequent elongation of the lower stem side. Results obtained with various calcium- and cytoskeleton-related agents indicate that cytosolic calcium and actin filaments may play essential roles in gravitropism-related processes of cut flower stalks. Therefore, modulators of these two physiological mediators may serve as means for controlling any undesired gravitropic bending.

  15. The expression level of Rosa Terminal Flower 1 (RTFL1) is related with recurrent flowering in roses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Na; Liu, Yun-Feng; Zhang, Yu-Man; Fang, Rong-Xiang; Liu, Qing-Lin

    2012-04-01

    We examined the relationship between the recurrent flowering character and the expression patterns of TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (TFL1) homologs in roses, using flower buds of Rosa multiflora, R. rugosa, R. chinensis, and six other rose species and nine rose cultivars. RTFL1 (Rosa TFL1) genes were amplified from rose genomic DNA using a combination of degenerate and gene-specific primers by thermal asymmetric interlaced-PCR and normal PCR, respectively. Their copy numbers in different species were determined by Southern blots. We used real-time PCR to analyze the expression patterns of RTFL1 genes at four developmental stages (pre-sprouting, young, mid-aged, and mature flower buds). Our results show that there are at least three RTFL1 homologs in roses; RTFL1a, RTFL1b, and RTFL1c. The sequences of the homologs were more similar among the same homolog in different species than among the different homologs in the same species. For RTFL1a, we detected two copies in R. multiflora, two copies in R. rugosa, and one copy in R. chinensis. For RTFL1c, we detected one copy in R. multiflora, two copies in R. rugosa, and three copies in R. chinensis. We detected only one copy of RTFL1b in R. chinensis. RTFL1c was expressed at high levels at all four flowering stages in R. multiflora and R. rugosa, which are non-recurrent flowering species, whereas it was barely detected in R. chinensis (a recurrent flowering species) at any stage. These results were further verified in six other non-recurrent flowering species and nine recurrent flowering cultivars. These results suggest that the recurrent flowering habit in roses results from lower expression of RTFL1c, which may be related to recurrent flowering character in roses.

  16. Spring Flowers--The Harvest of a Sensitive Eye

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Ted

    1977-01-01

    Twelve flowers are described in the order of their appearance in the spring. Drawings compliment the text. Flowers are the Hepatica, Bloodroot, Red Trillium, Wild Ginger, Marsh Marigold, Juneberry, Shadbush, Wild Iris, Clintonia, Starflower, Labrador Tea, Bunchberry, and Partridge Berry. (NQ)

  17. Transcriptomic and lipidomic profiles of glycerolipids during Arabidopsis flower development.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yuki; Teo, Norman Z W; Shui, Guanghou; Chua, Christine H L; Cheong, Wei-Fun; Parameswaran, Sriram; Koizumi, Ryota; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Wenk, Markus R; Ito, Toshiro

    2014-07-01

    Flower glycerolipids are the yet-to-be discovered frontier of the lipidome. Although ample evidence suggests important roles for glycerolipids in flower development, stage-specific lipid profiling in tiny Arabidopsis flowers is challenging. Here, we utilized a transgenic system to synchronize flower development in Arabidopsis. The transgenic plant PAP1::AP1-GR ap1-1 cal-5 showed synchronized flower development upon dexamethasone treatment, which enabled massive harvesting of floral samples of homogenous developmental stages for glycerolipid profiling. Glycerolipid profiling revealed a decrease in concentrations of phospholipids involved in signaling during the early development stages, such as phosphatidic acid and phosphatidylinositol, and a marked increase in concentrations of nonphosphorous galactolipids during the late stage. Moreover, in the midstage, phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate concentration was increased transiently, which suggests the stimulation of the phosphoinositide metabolism. Accompanying transcriptomic profiling of relevant glycerolipid metabolic genes revealed simultaneous induction of multiple phosphoinositide biosynthetic genes associated with the increased phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate concentration, with a high degree of differential expression patterns for genes encoding other glycerolipid-metabolic genes. The phosphatidic acid phosphatase mutant pah1 pah2 showed flower developmental defect, suggesting a role for phosphatidic acid in flower development. Our concurrent profiling of glycerolipids and relevant metabolic gene expression revealed distinct metabolic pathways stimulated at different stages of flower development in Arabidopsis.

  18. Genome-wide associations with flowering time in switchgrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Switchgrass is an emerging bioenergy crop and perennial grass native to North America. Improving biomass yields is critical for developing switchgrass into an economically viable crop. Flowering time has a major effect on biomass yields as delaying flowering time prolongs the period of vegetative gr...

  19. Optimization of lychee and longan flowering and fruiting in Hawaii.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new management method was developed for consistent flowering and fruiting of ‘Kaimana’ lychee at the Inconsistent or lack of flower and fruit production in germplasm accessions is a major obstacle in the evaluation, characterization and documentation of germplasm accessions and limits the genetic...

  20. Irreversible commitment to flowering in two mango cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years, the state of Nayarit, Mexico has experienced variations in rainfall distribution and warmer temperatures during the autumn-winter season which have caused erratic flowering of mango. The early-flowering cultivars, such as ‘Ataulfo’, have been less affected than tardy ones such as ‘T...

  1. Susceptibility of blackberry flower parts to subfreezing temperatures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Injury of tight buds, open flowers and green fruit often occur in fruit crops in later winter to early spring frosts. In this study, freezing tolerance of ‘Triple Crown’ blackberry flowers at various maturity ranging from tight bud to green drupe stage was determined using two freezing methods. On...

  2. I Can Count the Petals of a Flower. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahl, John; Wahl, Stacey

    This book introduces children to the numbers 1 through 16 (and some basic mathematical concepts) using the petals of a variety of flowers. The first part of the book contains 16 full-color photographs, each photograph showing a flower with 1 to 16 petals, with the number printed below the photograph. These pages can be used to introduce or…

  3. Petal, Sepal, or Tepal? B-Genes and Monocot Flowers.

    PubMed

    Dodsworth, Steven

    2017-01-01

    In petaloid monocots expansion of B-gene expression into whorl 1 of the flower results in two whorls of petaloid organs (tepals), as opposed to sepals in whorl 1 of typical eudicot flowers. Recently, new gene-silencing technologies have provided the first functional data to support this, in the genus Tricyrtis (Liliaceae).

  4. Interspecific hybridizations in ornamental flowering cherries (Prunus species)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flowering cherries belong to the genus Prunus L., consisting primarily of species native to Asia. Despite the popularity of ornamental cherry trees in the landscape, most ornamental Prunus planted in the U.S. are derived from a limited genetic base of Japanese flowering cherry taxa. Controlled cross...

  5. Anatomical investigation of flower of Butea monosperma Lam.

    PubMed Central

    Muthuswamy, Ragunathan; Senthamarai, R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Butea frondosa Roxb. and Koen. syn. Butea monosperma Lam. (Leguminosae or Fabaceae) is a tree grows up to the height of 8 m at the age 50 years. Its flowers are being used in traditional medicine for the treatment of ulcer, inflammation, hepatic disorder, and eye diseases. Aims: The present study was aimed at establishing the microscopic characteristics of flower B. monosperma Lam. Materials and Methods: Histological evaluation of flowers was done using standard procedures. Images of microscopic characters were taken at different magnifications using Nikon Labphoto 2 microscopic Unit. Perkin Elmer 5000 an atomic absorption spectrophotometer was employed for elemental analysis. Results: In the study, microscopic characters of floral parts were investigated in transverse section and the flower powder. The current study reveals the presence of pollen grains, ovary (OV), and trichomes in their flower powder. Different cell components were studied, and their sizes were measured. Elemental analysis showed the presence of Zn 52.2 μg/g and Cu 36.3 μg/g were major contents, whereas Cr, Mn, and Pd were minor contents in dried flower powder. Conclusion: The current study paves the way to provide standard information related to the presence of essential elements in the flower. Microscopic characters of the flower and its quantitative measurement of cell components will help to identify the plant and also help to improvise the existing monograph of B. monosperma in the Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia. PMID:25861140

  6. Spatiotemporal analysis of olive flowering using geostatistical techniques.

    PubMed

    Rojo, Jesús; Pérez-Badia, Rosa

    2015-02-01

    Analysis of flowering patterns in the olive (Olea europaea L.) are of considerable agricultural and ecological interest, and also provide valuable information for allergy-sufferers, enabling identification of the major sources of airborne pollen at any given moment by interpreting the aerobiological data recorded in pollen traps. The present spatiotemporal analysis of olive flowering in central Spain combined geostatistical techniques with the application of a Geographic Information Systems, and compared results for flowering intensity with airborne pollen records. The results were used to obtain continuous phenological maps which determined the pattern of the succession of the olive flowering. The results show also that, although the highest airborne olive-pollen counts were recorded during the greatest flowering intensity of the groves closest to the pollen trap, the counts recorded at the start of the pollen season were not linked to local olive groves, which had not yet begin to flower. To detect the remote sources of olive pollen several episodes of pollen recorded before the local flowering season were analysed using a HYSPLIT trajectory model and the findings showed that western, southern and southwestern winds transported pollen grains into the study area from earlier-flowering groves located outside the territory.

  7. The regulation of seasonal flowering in the Rosaceae.

    PubMed

    Kurokura, Takeshi; Mimida, Naozumi; Battey, Nicholas H; Hytönen, Timo

    2013-11-01

    Molecular mechanisms regulating the flowering process have been extensively studied in model annual plants; in perennials, however, understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling flowering has just started to emerge. Here we review the current state of flowering research in perennial plants of the rose family (Rosaceae), which is one of the most economically important families of horticultural plants. Strawberry (Fragaria spp.), raspberry (Rubus spp.), rose (Rosa spp.), and apple (Malus spp.) are used to illustrate how photoperiod and temperature control seasonal flowering in rosaceous crops. We highlight recent molecular studies which have revealed homologues of terminal flower1 (TFL1) to be major regulators of both the juvenile to adult, and the vegetative to reproductive transitions in various rosaceous species. Additionally, recent advances in understanding of the regulation of TFL1 are discussed.

  8. Tissue-specific regulation of flowering by photoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Endo, Motomu; Araki, Takashi; Nagatani, Akira

    2016-02-01

    Plants use various kinds of environmental signals to adjust the timing of the transition from the vegetative to reproductive phase (flowering). Since flowering at the appropriate time is crucial for plant reproductive strategy, several kinds of photoreceptors are deployed to sense environmental light conditions. In this review, we will update our current understanding of light signaling pathways in flowering regulation, especially, in which tissue do photoreceptors regulate flowering in response to light quality and photoperiod. Since light signaling is also integrated into other flowering pathways, we also introduce recent progress on how photoreceptors are involved in tissue-specific thermosensation and the gibberellin pathway. Finally, we discuss the importance of cell-type-specific analyses for future plant studies.

  9. Cranberry flowering times and climate change in southern Massachusetts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellwood, Elizabeth R.; Playfair, Susan R.; Polgar, Caroline A.; Primack, Richard B.

    2014-09-01

    Plants in wild and agricultural settings are being affected by the warmer temperatures associated with climate change. Here we examine the degree to which the iconic New England cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon, is exhibiting signs of altered flowering phenology. Using contemporary records from commercial cranberry bogs in southeastern Massachusetts in the United States, we found that cranberry plants are responsive to temperature. Flowering is approximately 2 days earlier for each 1 °C increase in May temperature. We also investigated the relationship between cranberry flowering and flight dates of the bog copper, Lycaena epixanthe—a butterfly dependent upon cranberry plants in its larval stage. Cranberry flowering and bog copper emergence were found to be changing disproportionately over time, suggesting a potential ecological mismatch. The pattern of advanced cranberry flowering over time coupled with increased temperature has implications not only for the relationship between cranberry plants and their insect associates but also for agricultural crops in general and for the commercial cranberry industry.

  10. Experimental evidence of pollination in marine flowers by invertebrate fauna

    PubMed Central

    van Tussenbroek, Brigitta I.; Villamil, Nora; Márquez-Guzmán, Judith; Wong, Ricardo; Monroy-Velázquez, L. Verónica; Solis-Weiss, Vivianne

    2016-01-01

    Pollen transport by water-flow (hydrophily) is a typical, and almost exclusive, adaptation of plants to life in the marine environment. It is thought that, unlike terrestrial environments, animals are not involved in pollination in the sea. The male flowers of the tropical marine angiosperm Thalassia testudinum open-up and release pollen in mucilage at night when invertebrate fauna is active. Here we present experimental evidence that, in the absence of water-flow, these invertebrates visit the flowers, carry and transfer mucilage mass with embedded pollen from the male flowers to the stigmas of the female flowers. Pollen tubes are formed on the stigmas, indicating that pollination is successful. Thus, T. testudinum has mixed abiotic–biotic pollination. We propose a zoobenthophilous pollination syndrome (pollen transfer in the benthic zone by invertebrate animals) which shares many characteristics with hydrophily, but flowers are expected to open-up during the night. PMID:27680661

  11. Cranberry flowering times and climate change in southern Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    Ellwood, Elizabeth R; Playfair, Susan R; Polgar, Caroline A; Primack, Richard B

    2014-09-01

    Plants in wild and agricultural settings are being affected by the warmer temperatures associated with climate change. Here we examine the degree to which the iconic New England cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon, is exhibiting signs of altered flowering phenology. Using contemporary records from commercial cranberry bogs in southeastern Massachusetts in the United States, we found that cranberry plants are responsive to temperature. Flowering is approximately 2 days earlier for each 1 °C increase in May temperature. We also investigated the relationship between cranberry flowering and flight dates of the bog copper, Lycaena epixanthe-a butterfly dependent upon cranberry plants in its larval stage. Cranberry flowering and bog copper emergence were found to be changing disproportionately over time, suggesting a potential ecological mismatch. The pattern of advanced cranberry flowering over time coupled with increased temperature has implications not only for the relationship between cranberry plants and their insect associates but also for agricultural crops in general and for the commercial cranberry industry.

  12. A MYB transcription factor controls flower color in soybean.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Ryoji; Yamagishi, Noriko; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

    2013-01-01

    Purple-blue flower of soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) is controlled by the W2 locus. Previous studies revealed that a MYB transcription factor gene GmMYB-G20-1 was located at a position similar to the W2 gene and that a base substitution generated a stop codon in the MYB domains of 2 soybean lines with purple-blue flowers. This study was conducted to confirm the relationship between GmMYB-G20-1 and the W2 gene. Cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence analysis to detect the base substitution suggested that a similar mutation occurred in 2 other soybean lines having purple-blue flowers, 037-E-8, and Yogetsu 1-blue. Thus, all genotypes having purple-blue flowers had identical base substitutions. To verify the function of GmMYB-G20-1, apple latent spherical virus (ALSV) vectors were constructed to perform virus-induced gene silencing of GmMYB-G20-1. A cultivar Harosoy with purple flowers (W2W2) was infected by the empty ALSV vector (wtALSV) or the GmMYB-G20-1-ALSV vector containing a fragment (nucleotide position 685-885) of GmMYB-G20-1. Plants infected by empty vectors had only purple flowers. In contrast, most flowers of plants infected with GmMYB-G20-1-ALSV had irregular gray/blue sectors in flower petals and some of the flowers had almost gray/blue petals. These results strongly suggest that silencing of GmMYB-G20-1 can alter flower color and that it may correspond to the W2 gene.

  13. The flavonoid pathway regulates the petal colors of cotton flower.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jiafu; Wang, Maojun; Tu, Lili; Nie, Yichun; Lin, Yongjun; Zhang, Xianlong

    2013-01-01

    Although biochemists and geneticists have studied the cotton flower for more than one century, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the dramatic color change that occurs during its short developmental life following blooming. Through the analysis of world cotton germplasms, we found that all of the flowers underwent color changes post-anthesis, but there is a diverse array of petal colors among cotton species, with cream, yellow and red colors dominating the color scheme. Genetic and biochemical analyses indicated that both the original cream and red colors and the color changes post-anthesis were related to flavonoid content. The anthocyanin content and the expression of biosynthesis genes were both increased from blooming to one day post-anthesis (DPA) when the flower was withering and undergoing abscission. Our results indicated that the color changes and flavonoid biosynthesis of cotton flowers were precisely controlled and genetically regulated. In addition, flavonol synthase (FLS) genes involved in flavonol biosynthesis showed specific expression at 11 am when the flowers were fully opened. The anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) genes, which are responsible for proanthocyanidins biosynthesis, showed the highest expression at 6 pm on 0 DPA, when the flowers were withered. Light showed primary, moderate and little effects on flavonol, anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin biosynthesis, respectively. Flavonol biosynthesis was in response to light exposure, while anthocyanin biosynthesis was involved in flower color changes. Further expression analysis of flavonoid genes in flowers of wild type and a flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H) silenced line showed that the development of cotton flower color was controlled by a complex interaction between genes and light. These results present novel information regarding flavonoids metabolism and flower development.

  14. Promoting flowering, lateral shoot outgrowth, leaf development, and flower abscission in tobacco plants overexpressing cotton FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT)-like gene GhFT1

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chao; Zhang, Yannan; Zhang, Kun; Guo, Danli; Cui, Baiming; Wang, Xiyin; Huang, Xianzhong

    2015-01-01

    FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) encodes a mobile signal protein, recognized as major component of florigen, which has a central position in regulating flowering, and also plays important roles in various physiological aspects. A mode is recently emerging for the balance of indeterminate and determinate growth, which is controlled by the ratio of FT-like and TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (TFL1)-like gene activities, and has a strong influence on the floral transition and plant architecture. Orthologs of GhFT1 was previously isolated and characterized from Gossypium hirsutum. We demonstrated that ectopic overexpression of GhFT1 in tobacco, other than promoting flowering, promoted lateral shoot outgrowth at the base, induced more axillary bud at the axillae of rosette leaves, altered leaf morphology, increased chlorophyll content, had higher rate of photosynthesis and caused flowers abscission. Analysis of gene expression suggested that flower identity genes were significantly upregulated in transgenic plants. Further analysis of tobacco FT paralogs indicated that NtFT4, acting as flower inducer, was upregulated, whereas NtFT2 and NtFT3 as flower inhibitors were upregulated in transgenic plants under long-day conditions, but downregulated under short-day conditions. Our data suggests that sufficient level of transgenic cotton FT might disturb the balance of the endogenous tobacco FT paralogs of inducers and repressors and resulted in altered phenotype in transgenic tobacco, emphasizing the expanding roles of FT in regulating shoot architecture by advancing determine growth. Manipulating the ratio for indeterminate and determinate growth factors throughout FT-like and TFL1-like gene activity holds promise to improve plant architecture and enhance crop yield. PMID:26136765

  15. Promoting flowering, lateral shoot outgrowth, leaf development, and flower abscission in tobacco plants overexpressing cotton FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT)-like gene GhFT1.

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Zhang, Yannan; Zhang, Kun; Guo, Danli; Cui, Baiming; Wang, Xiyin; Huang, Xianzhong

    2015-01-01

    FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) encodes a mobile signal protein, recognized as major component of florigen, which has a central position in regulating flowering, and also plays important roles in various physiological aspects. A mode is recently emerging for the balance of indeterminate and determinate growth, which is controlled by the ratio of FT-like and TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (TFL1)-like gene activities, and has a strong influence on the floral transition and plant architecture. Orthologs of GhFT1 was previously isolated and characterized from Gossypium hirsutum. We demonstrated that ectopic overexpression of GhFT1 in tobacco, other than promoting flowering, promoted lateral shoot outgrowth at the base, induced more axillary bud at the axillae of rosette leaves, altered leaf morphology, increased chlorophyll content, had higher rate of photosynthesis and caused flowers abscission. Analysis of gene expression suggested that flower identity genes were significantly upregulated in transgenic plants. Further analysis of tobacco FT paralogs indicated that NtFT4, acting as flower inducer, was upregulated, whereas NtFT2 and NtFT3 as flower inhibitors were upregulated in transgenic plants under long-day conditions, but downregulated under short-day conditions. Our data suggests that sufficient level of transgenic cotton FT might disturb the balance of the endogenous tobacco FT paralogs of inducers and repressors and resulted in altered phenotype in transgenic tobacco, emphasizing the expanding roles of FT in regulating shoot architecture by advancing determine growth. Manipulating the ratio for indeterminate and determinate growth factors throughout FT-like and TFL1-like gene activity holds promise to improve plant architecture and enhance crop yield.

  16. Nonrandom Composition of Flower Colors in a Plant Community: Mutually Different Co-Flowering Natives and Disturbance by Aliens

    PubMed Central

    Makino, Takashi T.; Yokoyama, Jun

    2015-01-01

    When pollinators use flower color to locate food sources, a distinct color can serve as a reproductive barrier against co-flowering species. This anti-interference function of flower color may result in a community assembly of plant species displaying mutually different flower colors. However, such color dispersion is not ubiquitous, suggesting a variable selection across communities and existence of some opposing factors. We conducted a 30-week study in a plant community and measured the floral reflectances of 244 species. The reflectances were evaluated in insect color spaces (bees, swallowtails, and flies), and the dispersion was compared with random expectations. We found that co-existing colors were overdispersed for each analyzed pollinator type, and this overdispersion was statistically significant for bees. Furthermore, we showed that exclusion of 32 aliens from the analysis significantly increased the color dispersion of native flowers in every color space. This result indicated that aliens disturbed a native plant–pollinator network via similarly colored flowers. Our results demonstrate the masking effects of aliens in the detection of color dispersion of native flowers and that variations in pollinator vision yield different outcomes. Our results also support the hypothesis that co-flowering species are one of the drivers of color diversification and affect the community assembly. PMID:26650121

  17. Nonrandom Composition of Flower Colors in a Plant Community: Mutually Different Co-Flowering Natives and Disturbance by Aliens.

    PubMed

    Makino, Takashi T; Yokoyama, Jun

    2015-01-01

    When pollinators use flower color to locate food sources, a distinct color can serve as a reproductive barrier against co-flowering species. This anti-interference function of flower color may result in a community assembly of plant species displaying mutually different flower colors. However, such color dispersion is not ubiquitous, suggesting a variable selection across communities and existence of some opposing factors. We conducted a 30-week study in a plant community and measured the floral reflectances of 244 species. The reflectances were evaluated in insect color spaces (bees, swallowtails, and flies), and the dispersion was compared with random expectations. We found that co-existing colors were overdispersed for each analyzed pollinator type, and this overdispersion was statistically significant for bees. Furthermore, we showed that exclusion of 32 aliens from the analysis significantly increased the color dispersion of native flowers in every color space. This result indicated that aliens disturbed a native plant-pollinator network via similarly colored flowers. Our results demonstrate the masking effects of aliens in the detection of color dispersion of native flowers and that variations in pollinator vision yield different outcomes. Our results also support the hypothesis that co-flowering species are one of the drivers of color diversification and affect the community assembly.

  18. CAPRICE family genes control flowering time through both promoting and repressing CONSTANS and FLOWERING LOCUS T expression.

    PubMed

    Wada, Takuji; Tominaga-Wada, Rumi

    2015-12-01

    CAPRICE (CPC) and six additional CPC family genes encode R3-type MYB transcription factors involved in epidermal cell fate determination, including Arabidopsis root hair and trichome differentiation. Previously, we reported that the CPC and CPC family genes TRIPTYCHON (TRY) and CAPRICE LIKE MYB3 (CPL3) also affect flowering time. The cpl3 mutant plants flower earlier, with fewer but larger leaves, than do wild type plants, and mutations in CPC or TRY delay flowering in the cpl3 mutant. In this study, we examined flowering time, leaf number, and fresh weight for CPC family gene double and triple mutants. Mutation in ENHANCER OF TRY AND CPC1 (ETC1) shortened the flowering time of the cpl3 single mutant. Mutation in ETC2 significantly reduced fresh weight in the cpl3 mutant. Expression levels of the flowering-related genes CONSTANS (CO) and FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) were higher in the cpl3 mutant than in wild type plants. The high expression levels of CO and FT in cpl3 were significantly reduced by mutations in CPC, TRY, ETC1, or ETC2. Our results suggest that CPC family genes antagonistically regulate flowering time through CO and FT expression.

  19. Precocious flowering in trees: the FLOWERING LOCUS T gene as a research and breeding tool in Populus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huanling; Harry, David E; Ma, Cathleen; Yuceer, Cetin; Hsu, Chuan-Yu; Vikram, Vikas; Shevchenko, Olga; Etherington, Elizabeth; Strauss, Steven H

    2010-06-01

    Expression of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and its homologues has been shown to accelerate the onset of flowering in a number of plant species, including poplar (Populus spp.). The application of FT should be of particular use in forest trees, as it could greatly accelerate and enable new kinds of breeding and research. Recent evidence showing the extent to which FT is effective in promoting flowering in trees is discussed, and its effectiveness in poplar is reported. Results using one FT gene from Arabidopsis and two from poplar, all driven by a heat-inducible promoter, transformed into two poplar genotypes are also described. Substantial variation in flowering response was observed depending on the FT gene and genetic background. Heat-induced plants shorter than 30 cm failed to flower as well as taller plants. Plants exposed to daily heat treatments lasting 3 weeks tended to produce fewer abnormal flowers than those in heat treatments of shorter durations; increasing the inductive temperature from 37 degrees C to 40 degrees C produced similar benefits. Using optimal induction conditions, approximately 90% of transgenic plants could be induced to flower. When induced FT rootstocks were grafted with scions that lacked FT, flowering was only observed in rootstocks. The results suggest that a considerable amount of species- or genotype-specific adaptation will be required to develop FT into a reliable means for shortening the generation cycle for breeding in poplar.

  20. Modulation of Ambient Temperature-Dependent Flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana by Natural Variation of FLOWERING LOCUS M.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Ulrich; Posé, David; Pfeifer, Matthias; Gundlach, Heidrun; Hagmann, Jörg; Wang, Congmao; Weigel, Detlef; Mayer, Klaus F X; Schmid, Markus; Schwechheimer, Claus

    2015-10-01

    Plants integrate seasonal cues such as temperature and day length to optimally adjust their flowering time to the environment. Compared to the control of flowering before and after winter by the vernalization and day length pathways, mechanisms that delay or promote flowering during a transient cool or warm period, especially during spring, are less well understood. Due to global warming, understanding this ambient temperature pathway has gained increasing importance. In Arabidopsis thaliana, FLOWERING LOCUS M (FLM) is a critical flowering regulator of the ambient temperature pathway. FLM is alternatively spliced in a temperature-dependent manner and the two predominant splice variants, FLM-ß and FLM-δ, can repress and activate flowering in the genetic background of the A. thaliana reference accession Columbia-0. The relevance of this regulatory mechanism for the environmental adaptation across the entire range of the species is, however, unknown. Here, we identify insertion polymorphisms in the first intron of FLM as causative for accelerated flowering in many natural A. thaliana accessions, especially in cool (15°C) temperatures. We present evidence for a potential adaptive role of this structural variation and link it specifically to changes in the abundance of FLM-ß. Our results may allow predicting flowering in response to ambient temperatures in the Brassicaceae.

  1. Flower vs. Leaf Feeding by Pieris brassicae: Glucosinolate-Rich Flower Tissues are Preferred and Sustain Higher Growth Rate

    PubMed Central

    Smallegange, R. C.; Blatt, S. E.; Harvey, J. A.; Agerbirk, N.; Dicke, M.

    2007-01-01

    Interactions between butterflies and caterpillars in the genus Pieris and plants in the family Brassicaceae are among the best explored in the field of insect–plant biology. However, we report here for the first time that Pieris brassicae, commonly assumed to be a typical folivore, actually prefers to feed on flowers of three Brassica nigra genotypes rather than on their leaves. First- and second-instar caterpillars were observed to feed primarily on leaves, whereas late second and early third instars migrated via the small leaves of the flower branches to the flower buds and flowers. Once flower feeding began, no further leaf feeding was observed. We investigated growth rates of caterpillars having access exclusively to either leaves of flowering plants or flowers. In addition, we analyzed glucosinolate concentrations in leaves and flowers. Late-second- and early-third-instar P. brassicae caterpillars moved upward into the inflorescences of B. nigra and fed on buds and flowers until the end of the final (fifth) instar, after which they entered into the wandering stage, leaving the plant in search of a pupation site. Flower feeding sustained a significantly higher growth rate than leaf feeding. Flowers contained levels of glucosinolates up to five times higher than those of leaves. Five glucosinolates were identified: the aliphatic sinigrin, the aromatic phenyethylglucosinolate, and three indole glucosinolates: glucobrassicin, 4-methoxyglucobrassicin, and 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin. Tissue type and genotype were the most important factors affecting levels of identified glucosinolates. Sinigrin was by far the most abundant compound in all three genotypes. Sinigrin, 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin, and phenylethylglucosinolate were present at significantly higher levels in flowers than in leaves. In response to caterpillar feeding, sinigrin levels in both leaves and flowers were significantly higher than in undamaged plants, whereas 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin leaf levels were

  2. Volatile Organic Compounds Emissions from Luculia pinceana Flower and Its Changes at Different Stages of Flower Development.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuying; Ma, Hong; Wan, Youming; Li, Taiqiang; Liu, Xiuxian; Sun, Zhenghai; Li, Zhenghong

    2016-04-22

    Luculia plants are famed ornamental plants with sweetly fragrant flowers, of which L. pinceana Hooker, found primarily in Yunnan Province, China, has the widest distribution. Solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) was employed to identify the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from different flower development stages of L. pinceana for the evaluation of floral volatile polymorphism. Peak areas were normalized as percentages and used to determine the relative amounts of the volatiles. The results showed that a total of 39 compounds were identified at four different stages of L. pinceana flower development, including 26 at the bud stage, 26 at the initial-flowering stage, 32 at the full-flowering stage, and 32 at the end-flowering stage. The most abundant compound was paeonol (51%-83%) followed by (E,E)-α-farnesene, cyclosativene, and δ-cadinene. All these volatile compounds create the unique fragrance of L. pinceana flower. Floral scent emission offered tendency of ascending first and descending in succession, meeting its peak level at the initial-flowering stage. The richest diversity of floral volatile was detected at the third and later periods of flower development. Principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that the composition and its relative content of floral scent differed throughout the whole flower development. The result has important implications for future floral fragrance breeding of Luculia. L. pinceana would be adequate for a beneficial houseplant and has a promising prospect for development as essential oil besides for a fragrant ornamental owing to the main compounds of floral scent with many medicinal properties.

  3. Male gamete biology in flowering plants.

    PubMed

    Russell, Scott D; Gou, Xiaoping; Wei, Xiaoping; Yuan, Tong

    2010-04-01

    Flowering plant reproduction is characterized by double fertilization, in which two diminutive brother sperm cells initiate embryo and endosperm. The role of the male gamete, although studied structurally for over a century at various levels, is still being explored on a molecular and cellular level. The potential of the male to influence development has been historically underestimated and the reasons for this are obvious: limitations provided by maternal imprinting, the much greater cellular volume of female gametes and the general paucity of paternal effects. However, as more is known about molecular expression of chromatin-modifying proteins, ubiquitin pathway proteins and transcription factors in sperm cells, as well as their ability to achieve effect by intaglio expression, passing transcripts directly into translation, the role of the male is likely to expand. Much of the expression in the male germline that appears to be distinct from patterns of pollen vegetative cell expression may be the result of chromosomal level regulation of transcription.

  4. Flower development: from morphodynamics to morphomechanics

    PubMed Central

    Abad, Ursula

    2017-01-01

    The shoot apical meristem (SAM) is a small population of stem cells that continuously generates organs and tissues. We will discuss here flower formation at the SAM, which involves a complex network of regulatory genes and signalling molecules. A major downstream target of this network is the extracellular matrix or cell wall, which is a local determinant for both growth rates and growth directions. We will discuss here a number of recent studies aimed at analysing the link between cell wall structure and molecular regulation. This has involved multidisciplinary approaches including quantitative imaging, molecular genetics, computational biology and biophysics. A scenario emerges where molecular networks impact on both cell wall anisotropy and synthesis, thus causing the rapid outgrowth of organs at specific locations. More specifically, this involves two interdependent processes: the activation of wall remodelling enzymes and changes in microtubule dynamics. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Systems morphodynamics: understanding the development of tissue hardware’. PMID:28348258

  5. Canna indica flower: New source of anthocyanins.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Jyoti; Vankar, Padma S

    2010-12-01

    In this study the red flowers of Canna indica (Cannaceae) were extracted by using sonicator and isolation of anthocyanins have been carried out. Four anthocyanin pigments have been isolated apart from quercetin and lycopene. They are Cyanidin-3-O-(6''-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl)-β-glucopyranoside (1), Cyanidin-3-O-(6''-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl)-β-galactopyranoside (2), Cyanidin-3-O-β-glucopyranoside (3) and Cyanidin-O-β-galactopyranoside (4). These compounds were isolated by using HPLC and their structures were subsequently determined on the basis of spectroscopic analyses, i.e., (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, HMQC, HMBC, ESI-MS, FTIR, UV-Visible etc. The isolated compounds showed good antioxidant activity thus makes it suitable for use in food coloration and as a nutraceutical. Thus it is a promising pigment source for food applications.

  6. Delayed Flowering in Bamboo: Evidence from Fargesia qinlingensis in the Qinling Mountains of China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Franklin, Scott B; Lu, Zhijun; Rude, Brian J

    2016-01-01

    Gregarious flowering of bamboo species impacts ecosystem properties and conservation, but documentation of these periodic events is difficult. Here, we compare the characteristics of flowering sites and un-flowered patches of an arrow bamboo (Fargesia qinlingensis) in the Qinling Mountains, China, over a 5-year period (2003-2007) after a mast flowering event (2003). We examined flowering culm and seedling characteristics in relation to questions regarding the evolution of delayed flowering. Density of live culms decreased over the 5 years in both flowering sites and un-flowered patches. New shoots regenerated only in un-flowered patches. Chemical constituent allocation varied among culm parts (stems, branches, and leaves). Crude protein and extract ether in branches and leaves were less in flowering culms than in un-flowered culms. Seedling density was lower than expected based on floret counts, suggesting predation of seeds. Seedling density was significantly greater in flowering sites than in un-flowered patches and decreased over time. Seedlings performed better in flowering sites than in un-flowered patches based on their height, leaf number per seedling, and average leaf length, while fertilization on flowering sites had no significant effect on seedling growth, suggesting a saturation of resources. This study suggested that the characteristics of bamboos and bamboo stands were dramatically altered during this flowering event, enhancing seedling establishment and growth, and supporting mostly the habitat modification hypothesis of delayed reproduction.

  7. Delayed Flowering in Bamboo: Evidence from Fargesia qinlingensis in the Qinling Mountains of China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Franklin, Scott B.; Lu, Zhijun; Rude, Brian J.

    2016-01-01

    Gregarious flowering of bamboo species impacts ecosystem properties and conservation, but documentation of these periodic events is difficult. Here, we compare the characteristics of flowering sites and un-flowered patches of an arrow bamboo (Fargesia qinlingensis) in the Qinling Mountains, China, over a 5-year period (2003–2007) after a mast flowering event (2003). We examined flowering culm and seedling characteristics in relation to questions regarding the evolution of delayed flowering. Density of live culms decreased over the 5 years in both flowering sites and un-flowered patches. New shoots regenerated only in un-flowered patches. Chemical constituent allocation varied among culm parts (stems, branches, and leaves). Crude protein and extract ether in branches and leaves were less in flowering culms than in un-flowered culms. Seedling density was lower than expected based on floret counts, suggesting predation of seeds. Seedling density was significantly greater in flowering sites than in un-flowered patches and decreased over time. Seedlings performed better in flowering sites than in un-flowered patches based on their height, leaf number per seedling, and average leaf length, while fertilization on flowering sites had no significant effect on seedling growth, suggesting a saturation of resources. This study suggested that the characteristics of bamboos and bamboo stands were dramatically altered during this flowering event, enhancing seedling establishment and growth, and supporting mostly the habitat modification hypothesis of delayed reproduction. PMID:26909094

  8. Bees, birds and yellow flowers: pollinator-dependent convergent evolution of UV patterns.

    PubMed

    Papiorek, S; Junker, R R; Alves-Dos-Santos, I; Melo, G A R; Amaral-Neto, L P; Sazima, M; Wolowski, M; Freitas, L; Lunau, K

    2016-01-01

    Colour is one of the most obvious advertisements of flowers, and occurs in a huge diversity among the angiosperms. Flower colour is responsible for attraction from a distance, whereas contrasting colour patterns within flowers aid orientation of flower visitors after approaching the flowers. Due to the striking differences in colour vision systems and neural processing across animal taxa, flower colours evoke specific behavioural responses by different flower visitors. We tested whether and how yellow flowers differ in their spectral reflectance depending on the main pollinator. We focused on bees and birds and examined whether the presence or absence of the widespread UV reflectance pattern of yellow flowers predicts the main pollinator. Most bee-pollinated flowers displayed a pattern with UV-absorbing centres and UV-reflecting peripheries, whereas the majority of bird-pollinated flowers are entirely UV- absorbing. In choice experiments we found that bees did not show consistent preferences for any colour or pattern types. However, all tested bee species made their first antennal contact preferably at the UV-absorbing area of the artificial flower, irrespective of its spatial position within the flower. The appearance of UV patterns within flowers is the main difference in spectral reflectance between yellow bee- and bird-pollinated flowers, and affects the foraging behaviour of flower visitors. The results support the hypothesis that flower colours and the visual capabilities of their efficient pollinators are adapted to each other.

  9. Flowering phenology, fruiting success and progressive deterioration of pollination in an early-flowering geophyte

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, James D.

    2010-01-01

    Spatio-temporal patterns of snowmelt and flowering times affect fruiting success in Erythronium grandiflorum Pursh (Liliaceae) in subalpine western Colorado, USA. From 1990 to 1995, I measured the consistency across years of snowmelt patterns and flowering times along a permanent transect. In most years since 1993, I have monitored fruit set in temporal cohorts (early- to late-flowering groups of plants) at one site. To assess ‘pollination limitation’, I have also conducted supplemental hand-pollination experiments at various times through the blooming season. The onset of blooming is determined by snowmelt, with the earliest years starting a month before the latest years owing to variation in winter snowpack accumulation. Fruit set is diminished or prevented entirely by killing frosts in some years, most frequently but not exclusively for the earlier cohorts. When frosts do not limit fruit set, pollination limitation is frequent, especially in the earlier cohorts. Pollination limitation is strongest for middle cohorts: it tends to be negated by frost in early cohorts and ameliorated by continuing emergence of bumble-bee queens in later cohorts. This lily appears to be poorly synchronized with its pollinators. Across the years of the study, pollination limitation appears to be increasing, perhaps because the synchronization is getting worse. PMID:20819812

  10. Flowering phenology shifts in response to biodiversity loss

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolf, Amelia A.; Zavaleta, Erika S; Selmants, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Observational studies and experimental evidence agree that rising global temperatures have altered plant phenology—the timing of life events, such as flowering, germination, and leaf-out. Other large-scale global environmental changes, such as nitrogen deposition and altered precipitation regimes, have also been linked to changes in flowering times. Despite our increased understanding of how abiotic factors influence plant phenology, we know very little about how biotic interactions can affect flowering times, a significant knowledge gap given ongoing human-caused alteration of biodiversity and plant community structure at the global scale. We experimentally manipulated plant diversity in a California serpentine grassland and found that many plant species flowered earlier in response to reductions in diversity, with peak flowering date advancing an average of 0.6 days per species lost. These changes in phenology were mediated by the effects of plant diversity on soil surface temperature, available soil N, and soil moisture. Peak flowering dates were also more dispersed among species in high-diversity plots than expected based on monocultures. Our findings illustrate that shifts in plant species composition and diversity can alter the timing and distribution of flowering events, and that these changes to phenology are similar in magnitude to effects induced by climate change. Declining diversity could thus contribute to or exacerbate phenological changes attributed to rising global temperatures.

  11. Oligogalacturonides induce flowers in tobacco thin cell layers

    SciTech Connect

    Marfa-Riera, V.; Gollin, D.; Mohnen, D.; Darvill, A.; Albersheim, P. )

    1989-04-01

    An optimized tobacco thin-cell-layer (TCL) bioassay was used to study the induction of flowers by plant oligosaccharins. Endopolygalacturonase (EPG)-released fragments of suspension-cultured sycamore cell walls induced flowers on TCLs grown on a medium containing 1.5 {mu}M IBA and 0.9 {mu}M kinetin. The EPG-released fragments were primarily composed of the polysaccharides rhamnogalacturonan I (RG-I), rhamnogalacturonan II (RG-II), and {alpha}-1,4-linked oligogalacturonides. The {alpha}-1,4-linked oligogalacturonides, subsequently purified from the EPG-released sycamore cell wall fragment mixture, induced flowers on TCLs. Purified RG-I and RG-II did not induce flowers. Oligosaccharide fragments, generated by partial acid hydrolysis of citrus pectin, were also capable of inducing flowers on the TCLs. The active components in the pectin fragment mixture were {alpha}-1,4-linked oligogalacturonides. Oligogalacturonides with a degree of polymerization (DP) of 8-16, at concentrations of {approx} 0.1 {mu}M, induced flowers, while oligogalacturonides with a DP 2-7, even at higher concentrations, did not. Oligogalacturonides have previously been shown to induce the synthesis of phytoalexins, protease inhibitors, lignin, and ethylene in other plant systems. Thus, the ability of {alpha}-1,4-linked oligogalacturonides to induce flower formation in the tobacco TCLs represents a new biological activity of these oligosaccharins.

  12. Nitric oxide participates in plant flowering repression by ascorbate

    PubMed Central

    Senthil Kumar, Rajendran; Shen, Chin-Hui; Wu, Pei-Yin; Suresh Kumar, Subbiah; Hua, Moda Sang; Yeh, Kai-Wun

    2016-01-01

    In Oncidium, redox homeostasis involved in flowering is mainly due to ascorbic acid (AsA). Here, we discovered that Oncidium floral repression is caused by an increase in AsA-mediated NO levels, which is directed by the enzymatic activities of nitrate reductase (NaR) and nitrite reducatase (NiR). Through Solexa transcriptomic analysis of two libraries, ‘pseudobulb with inflorescent bud’ (PIB) and ‘pseudobulb with axillary bud’ (PAB), we identified differentially expressed genes related to NO metabolism. Subsequently, we showed a significant reduction of NaR enzymatic activities and NO levels during bolting and blooming stage, suggesting that NO controlled the phase transition and flowering process. Applying AsA to Oncidium PLB (protocorm-like bodies) significantly elevated the NO content and enzyme activities. Application of sodium nitroprusside (-NO donor) on Arabidopsis vtc1 mutant caused late flowering and expression level of flowering-associated genes (CO, FT and LFY) were reduced, suggesting NO signaling is vital for flowering repression. Conversely, the flowering time of noa1, an Arabidopsis NO-deficient mutant, was not altered after treatment with L-galacturonate, a precursor of AsA, suggesting AsA is required for NO-biosynthesis involved in the NO-mediated flowering-repression pathway. Altogether, Oncidium bolting is tightly regulated by AsA-mediated NO level and downregulation of transcriptional levels of NO metabolism genes. PMID:27731387

  13. [Nutritional content, functional properties and conservation of edible flowers. Review].

    PubMed

    Lara-Cortés, Estrella; Osorio-Díaz, Perla; Jiménez-Aparicio, Antonio; Bautista-Bañios, Silvia

    2013-09-01

    The floriphagia that is the consumption of flowers as a food, is an old practice not widespread among consumers until some decades ago. Edible flowers contribute to increasing the appearance of food. They can provide biologically active substances including vitamin A, C, riboflavins, niacin, minerals such as calcium, phosphorous, iron and potassium that are eventually beneficial to consumers' health. This review includes some examples of edible flowers including roses, violets and nasturtium among others, uses and applications, sensorial characteristics and nutritional values that lead them to be considered as functional food: An important factor that affects the quality of edible flowers is the form in which they are preserved since it may affect their sensorial and nutritional characteristics. However, not all flowers can be eaten as food since there are some of them that can be toxic or even mortal. Finally, although the consumption of flowers is an ancient practice, there is little regulation in this regard. Of the review on edible flowers, it is concluded that there are still numerous aspects about them to evaluate such as nutritional and functional characteristics, conservation and regulation with the aim to extend its consumption.

  14. Genetic regulation of flowering time in annual and perennial plants.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Rehman Gul; Ai, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Jin-Zhi

    2014-01-01

    Flowering time plays a significant role in the reproductive success of plants. So far, five major pathways to flowering have been characterized in Arabidopsis, including environmental induction through photoperiod, vernalization, and gibberellins and autonomous floral iation, and aging by sequentially operating miRNAs (typically miR156 and miR172) responding to endogenous cues. The balance of signals from these pathways is integrated by a common set of genes (FLOWERING LOCUS C, FLOWERING LOCUS T, LEAFY, and SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1) that determine the flowering time. Recent studies have indicated that epigenetic modification, alternative splicing, antisense RNA and chromatin silencing regulatory mechanisms play an important role in this process by regulating related flowering gene expression. In this review, we discuss the current understanding in genetic regulation of the phase transition from vegetative to reproductive growth by using Arabidopsis as a model. We also describe how this knowledge has been successfully applied for identifying homologous genes from perennial crops. Furthermore, detailed analysis of the similarities and differences between annual and perennial plants flowering will help elucidate the mechanisms of perennial plant maturation and regulation of floral initiation.

  15. Physiological temperature regulation by flowers of the sacred lotus

    PubMed Central

    Seymour, R. S.

    1998-01-01

    Flowers of the sacred lotus, Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. (Nelumbonaceae) are thermogenic and physiologically thermoregulatory. The 42 g flowers remain between 30-36°C during a 2 to 4-day period despite fluctuations in environmental temperatures between about 10-45°C. As the ambient temperature drops, the flowers increase heat production in proportion. Temperature regulation apparently occurs at a cellular level, by a steep, reversible thermal inhibition of respiration at flower temperatures above 30°C. There was a marked time lag between change in flower temperature and compensatory response, suggesting regulation through a biochemical feedback mechanism rather than structural changes in enzymes or membranes. By oxidizing carbohydrate, the flowers produce up to 1 W, with about half of the heat coming from the 8.5 g carpellary receptacle. The period of temperature regulation begins before petal opening and continues through the period of stigma receptivity. Temperature regulation may reward insect pollinators with a warm, equable environment, or it possibly enhances and coordinates flower development.

  16. Colour cues facilitate learning flower refill schedules in wild hummingbirds.

    PubMed

    Samuels, Michael; Hurly, T Andrew; Healy, Susan D

    2014-11-01

    Free-living hummingbirds can learn the refill schedules of individual experimental flowers but little is known about what information they use to do this. Colour cues, in particular, may be important to hummingbirds when learning about rewarded flower properties. We investigated, therefore, whether colour cues facilitated the learning of flower refill schedules in wild, free-living rufous hummingbirds (Selasphorus rufus). In the Cued condition, we presented birds with an array of six flowers, three of one colour, each of which were refilled 10min after being emptied by the bird and three of a different colour, which were refilled 20min after being emptied. In the Uncued condition we presented birds with six flowers of the same colour, three of which were refilled after 10min and three of which were refilled after 20min as for the birds in the Cued condition. In the second part of the experiment, we moved the array 2m and changed the shape of the array. Across both phases, birds in the Cued condition learned to discriminate between 10 and 20-min flowers more quickly than did the birds in the Uncued condition. The Cued birds were also better at discriminating between the two distinct refill intervals. Colour cues can, therefore, facilitate learning the refill schedules of experimental flowers in these birds. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cognition in the wild.

  17. The impact of plant and flower age on mating patterns

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Diane L.; Avritt, Joy J.; Maliakal-Witt, Satya; Medeiros, Juliana S.; Shaner, Marieken G. M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Over a season, plant condition, amount of ongoing reproduction and biotic and abiotic environmental factors vary. As flowers age, flower condition and amount of pollen donated and received also vary. These internal and external changes are significant for fitness if they result in changes in reproduction and mating. Scope Literature from several fields was reviewed to provide a picture of the changes that occur in plants and flowers that can affect mating over a season. As flowers age, both the entire flower and individual floral whorls show changes in appearance and function. Over a season, changes in mating often appear as alteration in seed production vs. pollen donation. In several species, older, unpollinated flowers are more likely to self. If flowers are receiving pollen, staying open longer may increase the number of mates. In wild radish, for which there is considerable information on seed paternity, older flowers produce fewer seeds and appear to discriminate less among pollen donors. Pollen donor performance can also be linked to maternal plant age. Different pollinators and mates are available across the season. Also in wild radish, maternal plants appear to exert the most control over paternity when they are of intermediate age. Conclusions Although much is known about the characters of plants and flowers that can change over a season, there is less information on the effects of age on mating. Several studies document changes in self-pollination over time, but very few, other than those on wild radish, consider more subtle aspects of differential success of pollen donors over time. PMID:19875519

  18. Folivory versus florivory—adaptiveness of flower feeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandeili, Babak; Müller, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    The distribution of resources and defence is heterogeneous within plants. Specialist insects may prefer tissue with high concentrations of the plant’s characteristic defence compounds. Most herbivorous butterfly or sawfly larvae are considered to be folivores, so also the turnip sawfly Athalia rosae (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae), a specialist herbivore on Brassicaceae. We investigated which tissue larvae choose to feed upon and how they perform on flowers, young or old leaves of Sinapis alba. Furthermore, constitutive and inducible levels of glucosinolates and myrosinases were investigated and nutrients analysed. Larvae moved from leaves to flowers for feeding from the third larval instar on. Flowers were not actively chosen, but larvae moved upwards on the plant, regardless of how plants were orientated (upright or inverted). Flower-feeding larvae were heavier and developed faster than larvae feeding on young leaves, and adults laid more eggs. Old leaves as food source resulted in the lowest growth rates. Flowers contained three and ten times higher myrosinase activities than young and old leaves, respectively, whereas glucosinolate concentrations and nitrogen levels of flowers and young leaves were comparable. Glucosinolate concentrations of old leaves were very low. Changes in tissue chemistry caused by larval feeding were tissue specific. Defence levels did not change in flowers and old leaves after A. rosae feeding in contrast to young leaves. The high insect performance on flowers cannot be explained by differences in chemical defence. Instead, the lack of mechanical defence (trichomes) is probably responsible. Movement to the flowers and folivory is overall highly adaptive for this sawfly species.

  19. Sublethal imidacloprid effects on honey bee flower choices when foraging.

    PubMed

    Karahan, Ahmed; Çakmak, Ibrahim; Hranitz, John M; Karaca, Ismail; Wells, Harrington

    2015-11-01

    Neonicotinoids, systemic neuro-active pesticides similar to nicotine, are widely used in agriculture and are being investigated for a role in honey bee colony losses. We examined one neonicotinoid pesticide, imidacloprid, for its effects on the foraging behavior of free-flying honey bees (Apis mellifera anatoliaca) visiting artificial blue and white flowers. Imidacloprid doses, ranging from 1/5 to 1/50 of the reported LD50, were fed to bees orally. The study consisted of three experimental parts performed sequentially without interruption. In Part 1, both flower colors contained a 4 μL 1 M sucrose solution reward. Part 2 offered bees 4 μL of 1.5 M sucrose solution in blue flowers and a 4 μL 0.5 M sucrose solution reward in white flowers. In Part 3 we reversed the sugar solution rewards, while keeping the flower color consistent. Each experiment began 30 min after administration of the pesticide. We recorded the percentage of experimental bees that returned to forage after treatment. We also recorded the visitation rate, number of flowers visited, and floral reward choices of the bees that foraged after treatment. The forager return rate declined linearly with increasing imidacloprid dose. The number of foraging trips by returning bees was also affected adversely. However, flower fidelity was not affected by imidacloprid dose. Foragers visited both blue and white flowers extensively in Part 1, and showed greater fidelity for the flower color offering the higher sugar solution reward in Parts 2 and 3. Although larger samples sizes are needed, our study suggests that imidacloprid may not affect the ability to select the higher nectar reward when rewards were reversed. We observed acute, mild effects on foraging by honey bees, so mild that storage of imidacloprid tainted-honey is very plausible and likely to be found in honey bee colonies.

  20. Photoperiodic induction of synchronous flowering near the Equator.

    PubMed

    Borchert, Rolf; Renner, Susanne S; Calle, Zoraida; Navarrete, Diego; Tye, Alan; Gautier, Laurent; Spichiger, Rodolphe; von Hildebrand, Patricio

    2005-02-10

    In tropical rainforests, 30-65% of tree species grow at densities of less than one individual per hectare. At these low population densities, successful cross-pollination relies on synchronous flowering. In rainforests with low climatic seasonality, photoperiodic control is the only reliable mechanism for inducing synchronous flowering. This poses a problem because there is no variation in day length at the Equator. Here we propose a new mechanism of photoperiodic timekeeping based on the perception of variation in sunrise or sunset time, which explains and predicts the annually repeated, staggered, synchronous and bimodal flowering of many tree species in Amazonian rainforests near the Equator.

  1. Flowering and tuberization: a tale of two nightshades.

    PubMed

    Abelenda, José A; Navarro, Cristina; Prat, Salomé

    2014-02-01

    The concept of florigen, postulated in the early 1930s, has taken form after the identification of the FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) protein as the flowering-inducing signal. Besides their role in flowering, FT genes were subsequently reported to play additional functions in other biological processes. This is particularly relevant in the nightshades, where the FT genes appear to have undergone considerable expansion at the functional level and gained a new role in the control of storage organ formation in potato (Solanum tuberosum). Neofunctionalization of FT homologs in the nightshades identifies these proteins as a new class of primary signaling components that modulate development and organogenesis in these agronomic relevant species.

  2. Synthesis of flower-like silver nanoarchitectures at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Hong Lijun; Li Qing; Lin Hua; Li Yuan

    2009-06-03

    Novel flower-like silver nanoarchitectures were synthesized via a facile and environmentally benign route in the presence of citric acid and ascorbic acid. The flower-like structures are composed of nano-petals of ca. 20 nm in thickness. The products were characterized with X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The growth mechanism of flower-like silver nanoarchitectures involves a film-fold process. Some crucial factors affect the nanocrchitectures growth, such as, pH, the concentration of citric acid, and the concentration of ascorbic acid, have also been discussed.

  3. FE, a phloem-specific Myb-related protein, promotes flowering through transcriptional activation of FLOWERING LOCUS T and FLOWERING LOCUS T INTERACTING PROTEIN 1.

    PubMed

    Abe, Mitsutomo; Kaya, Hidetaka; Watanabe-Taneda, Ayako; Shibuta, Mio; Yamaguchi, Ayako; Sakamoto, Tomoaki; Kurata, Tetsuya; Ausín, Israel; Araki, Takashi; Alonso-Blanco, Carlos

    2015-09-01

    In many flowering plants, the transition to flowering is primarily affected by seasonal changes in day length (photoperiod). An inductive photoperiod promotes flowering via synthesis of a floral stimulus, called florigen. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) protein is an essential component of florigen, which is synthesized in leaf phloem companion cells and is transported through phloem tissue to the shoot apical meristem where floral morphogenesis is initiated. However, the molecular mechanism involved in the long-distance transport of FT protein remains elusive. In this study, we characterized the classic Arabidopsis mutant fe, which is involved in the photoperiodic induction of flowering, and showed that FE encodes a phloem-specific Myb-related protein that was previously reported as ALTERED PHLOEM DEVELOPMENT. Phenotypic analyses of the fe mutant showed that FT expression is reduced in leaf phloem companion cells. In addition, the transport of FT protein from leaves to the shoot apex is impaired in the fe mutant. Expression analyses further demonstrated that FE is also required for transcriptional activation of FLOWERING LOCUS T INTERACTING PROTEIN 1 (FTIP1), an essential regulator for selective trafficking of the FT protein from companion cells to sieve elements. These findings indicate that FE plays a dual role in the photoperiodic induction of flowering: as a transcriptional activator of FT on the one hand, and its transport machinery component, FTIP1, on the other hand. Thus, FE is likely to play a role in regulating FT by coordinating FT synthesis and FT transport in phloem companion cells.

  4. Reproducing under a warming climate: long winter flowering and extended flower longevity in the only Mediterranean and maritime Primula.

    PubMed

    Aronne, G; Buonanno, M; De Micco, V

    2015-03-01

    Under the pressure of global warming, general expectations of species migration and evolution of adaptive traits should always be confirmed with species-specific studies. Within this framework, some species can be used as study systems to predict possible consequences of global warming also on other relatives. Unlike its mountain congeneric, Primula palinuri Petagn. has endured all the climatic fluctuations since the Pleistocene, while surviving on Mediterranean coastal cliffs. The aim of this work was to investigate the possible evolution of reproductive biological and ecological traits in P. palinuri adaptation to a warmer environment. Data showed that flowering starts in mid-winter; single flowers remain open for over a month, changing from pendulous to erect. The number of insects visiting flowers of P. palinuri increases during the flowering season, and pollination reduces flower longevity. Overall, the best pollen performances, in terms of viability and germinability, occur at winter temperatures, while pollinator activity prolongs flowering until spring. Moreover, extended longevity of single flowers optimises reproductive success. Both phenotypic plasticity and selective processes might have occurred in P. palinuri. However, we found that reproductive traits of the only Mediterranean Primula remain more associated with cold mountain habitats than warm coastal cliffs. Given the rapid trend of climate warming, migration and new adaptive processes in P. palinuri are unlikely. Response to past climate warming of P. palinuri provides useful indications for future scenarios in other Primula species.

  5. Genetic and linkage analysis of purple-blue flower in soybean.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Ryoji; Matsumura, Hisakazu; Oyoo, Maurice E; Khan, Nisar A

    2008-01-01

    Flower color of soybean is primarily controlled by genes W1, W3, W4, Wm, and Wp. In addition, the soybean gene symbol W2, w2 produces purple-blue flower in combination with W1. This study was conducted to determine the genetic control of purple-blue flower of cultivar (cv). Nezumisaya. F(1) plants derived from a cross between Nezumisaya and purple flower cv. Harosoy had purple flowers. Segregation of the F(2) plants fitted a ratio of 3 purple:1 purple-blue. F(3) lines derived from F(2) plants with purple-blue flowers were fixed for purple-blue flowers, whereas those from F(2) plants with purple flowers fitted a ratio of 1 fixed for purple flower:2 segregating for flower color. These results indicated that the flower color of Nezumisaya is controlled by a single gene whose recessive allele is responsible for purple-blue flower. Complementation analysis revealed that flower color of Nezumisaya is controlled by W2. Linkage mapping revealed that W2 is located in molecular linkage group B2. Sap obtained from banner petals of cvs. with purple flower had a pH value of 5.73-5.77, whereas that of cvs. with purple-blue flower had a value of 6.07-6.10. Our results suggested that W2 is responsible for vacuolar acidification of flower petals.

  6. Pollen consumption by flower mites in three hummingbird-pollinated plant species.

    PubMed

    Velázquez, Tonatiuh; Ornelas, Juan Francisco

    2010-02-01

    Laboratory studies suggest that pollen consumption by flower mites may decrease the male fitness of the plant by reducing the available pollen for dispersal. Here we assessed pollen consumption by flower mites under natural conditions in three plant species with long-lived, protandrous flowers, Moussonia deppeana (Gesneriaceae), Lobelia laxiflora and L. cardinalis (Lobeliaceae). Total pollen mass was measured after 24 and 48 h in flowers exposed to flower mites and excluded from hummingbirds, flowers exposed to mites and hummingbird visitation, and in flowers recently opened with dehisced anthers. Compared with recently opened flowers, pollen availability was reduced about half in the presence of flower mites and the same effect was observed in the three plant species. Our results suggest that flower mites are removing a great deal of pollen and the reduction of pollen implies the possibility of direct impact on pollen transfer.

  7. A study of extraction of petal region on flower picture using HSV color information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagihara, Yoshio; Nakayama, Ryo

    2014-01-01

    It is one of useful and interesting applications to discriminate the kind of the flower or recognize the name of the flower, as example of retrieving flower database. As its contour line of the petal region of flower is useful for such problems, it is important to extract the precise region of the petal of a flower picture. In this paper, the method which extracts petal regions on a flower picture using HSV color information is proposed, such to discriminate the kind of the flower. The experiments show that the proposed method can extract petal regions at the success rate of about 90%, which is thought to be satisfied. In detail, the success rates of one-colored flower, plural-colored flower, and white flower are about 98%, 85%, and 83%, respectively.

  8. Anthocyanin-dependent anoxygenic photosynthesis in coloured flower petals?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lysenko, Vladimir; Varduny, Tatyana

    2013-11-01

    Chlorophylless flower petals are known to be composed of non-photosynthetic tissues. Here, we show that the light energy storage that can be photoacoustically measured in flower petals of Petunia hybrida is approximately 10-12%. We found that the supposed chlorophylless photosynthesis is an anoxygenic, anthocyanin-dependent process occurring in blue flower petals (ADAPFP), accompanied by non-respiratory light-dependent oxygen uptake and a 1.5-fold photoinduced increase in ATP levels. Using a simple, adhesive tape stripping technique, we have obtained a backside image of an intact flower petal epidermis, revealing sword-shaped ingrowths connecting the cell wall and vacuole, which is of interest for the further study of possible vacuole-related photosynthesis. Approaches to the interpretations of ADAPFP are discussed, and we conclude that these results are not impossible in terms of the known photochemistry of anthocyanins.

  9. Flower Colour: How Bumblebees Handle Colours with Perceptually Changing Hues.

    PubMed

    Lunau, Klaus

    2016-03-21

    Colours are floral signals enabling bees to detect, inspect and discriminate flowers in a multitasking world. Behavioural tests now show that trained bumblebees find iridescent coloured targets more quickly and that weak iridescence does not corrupt target identification.

  10. Let's Stop Teaching About Sex (of the Flowering Plants)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, John F.; Thelen, Leverne J

    1969-01-01

    Points out common misconceptions, especially the idea that pollination in flowering plants corresponds to fertilization in animals. Gives history of understanding of plant sexuality, then summarizes modern view. Suggests we teach accurately or not at all. (EB)

  11. EPAs Educational Exhibit Honored at Philadelphia Flower Show

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    PHILADELPHIA (March 8, 2016) - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's exhibit at the 2016 Philadelphia Flower Show was recognized with three prestigious awards. The awards include a Gold Medal Award by the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society for

  12. Inflorescence Architecture: The Transition from Branches to Flowers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The shapes of flowers and their organization into branching systems, called inflorescences, dictate much of plant diversity. Recent studies have identified key regulators in this diversity, revealing that the inflorescence architecture of Solanaceous species depends on sequential and temporal expres...

  13. Anthocyanin-dependent anoxygenic photosynthesis in coloured flower petals?

    PubMed

    Lysenko, Vladimir; Varduny, Tatyana

    2013-11-28

    Chlorophylless flower petals are known to be composed of non-photosynthetic tissues. Here, we show that the light energy storage that can be photoacoustically measured in flower petals of Petunia hybrida is approximately 10-12%. We found that the supposed chlorophylless photosynthesis is an anoxygenic, anthocyanin-dependent process occurring in blue flower petals (ADAPFP), accompanied by non-respiratory light-dependent oxygen uptake and a 1.5-fold photoinduced increase in ATP levels. Using a simple, adhesive tape stripping technique, we have obtained a backside image of an intact flower petal epidermis, revealing sword-shaped ingrowths connecting the cell wall and vacuole, which is of interest for the further study of possible vacuole-related photosynthesis. Approaches to the interpretations of ADAPFP are discussed, and we conclude that these results are not impossible in terms of the known photochemistry of anthocyanins.

  14. Plant-herbivore synchrony and selection on plant flowering phenology.

    PubMed

    Fogelström, Elsa; Olofsson, Martin; Posledovich, Diana; Wiklund, Christer; Dahlgren, Johan P; Ehrlén, Johan

    2017-03-01

    Temporal variation in natural selection has profound effects on the evolutionary trajectories of populations. One potential source of variation in selection is that differences in thermal reaction norms and temperature influence the relative phenology of interacting species. We manipulated the phenology of the butterfly herbivore Anthocharis cardamines relative to genetically identical populations of its host plant, Cardamine pratensis, and examined the effects on butterfly preferences and selection acting on the host plant. We found that butterflies preferred plants at an intermediate flowering stage, regardless of the timing of butterfly flight relative to flowering onset of the population. Consequently, the probability that plant genotypes differing in timing of flowering should experience a butterfly attack depended strongly on relative phenology. These results suggest that differences in spring temperature influence the direction of herbivore-mediated selection on flowering phenology, and that climatic conditions can influence natural selection also when phenotypic preferences remain constant.

  15. Panoramic view from the intersection of Flower and Chapman looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Panoramic view from the intersection of Flower and Chapman looking west ( Views 11,12,13 complete 360 degree Panoramic) - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Marion Branch, 1700 East 38th Street, Marion, Grant County, IN

  16. Panoramic view from the intersection of Flower and Chapman looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Panoramic view from the intersection of Flower and Chapman looking southwest ( Views 11,12,13 complete 360 degree Panoramic) - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Marion Branch, 1700 East 38th Street, Marion, Grant County, IN

  17. Panoramic view from the intersection of Flower and Chapman looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Panoramic view from the intersection of Flower and Chapman looking northeast ( Views 11,12,13 complete 360 degree Panoramic) - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Marion Branch, 1700 East 38th Street, Marion, Grant County, IN

  18. Fragrance volatiles of developing and senescing carnation flowers.

    PubMed

    Schade, F; Legge, R L; Thompson, J E

    2001-04-01

    Thirteen major volatiles of the carnation flower fragrance signature have been identified by GC/MS. Of these, ten, hexanal, (2E)-hexenal, 1-hexanol, 2-hexanol, 3-hexen-1-ol, nonanal, benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, benzyl benzoate and caryophyllene, were quantified. The steady-state levels of these ten volatiles change independently as the flowers develop and senesce, suggesting that their synthesis is developmentally regulated. In addition, the chemical composition of the fragrance signature in naturally senesced flowers proved to be very different from that for flowers that had been induced to senesce prematurely by treatment with ethylene. Thus, senescence-related changes in carnation floral scent appear not to be directly regulated by ethylene. From cellular fractionation studies, it is evident that all of the volatiles, except 2-hexanol, are present in both membranous and cytosolic compartments, suggesting that their synthesis is membrane-associated and that they subsequently partition into the cytosol in accordance with partition coefficients.

  19. Lower Acetylcholinesterase Activity among Children Living with Flower Plantation Workers

    PubMed Central

    Suarez-Lopez, Jose R.; Jacobs, David R.; Himes, John H.; Alexander, Bruce H.; Lazovich, DeAnn; Gunnar, Megan

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Children of workers exposed to pesticides are at risk of secondary pesticide exposure. We evaluated the potential for lower acetylcholinesterase activity in children cohabiting with fresh-cut flower plantation workers, which would be expected from organophosphate and carbamate insecticide exposure. Parental home surveys were performed and acetylcholinesterase activity was measured in 277 children aged 4–9 years in the study of Secondary Exposure to Pesticides among Infants, Children and Adolescents (ESPINA). Participants lived in a rural county in Ecuador with substantial flower plantation activity. RESULTS Mean acetylcholinesterase activity was 3.14 U/ml, standard deviation (SD): 0.49. It was lower by 0.09 U/ml (95% confidence interval (CI) −0.19, −0.001) in children of flower workers (57% of participants) than non-flower workers’ children, after adjustment for gender, age, height-for-age, hemoglobin concentration, income, pesticide use within household lot, pesticide use by contiguous neighbors, examination date and residence distance to nearest flower plantation. Using a 4 level polychotomous acetylcholinesterase activity dependent variable, flower worker cohabitation (vs. not) had odds ratio 3.39 (95% CI 1.19, 9.64) for being <15th percentile compared to the highest tertile. Children cohabitating for ≥5 years (vs. never) had OR of 4.11 (95% CI: 1.17, 14.38) of AChE activity within <15th percentile compared to the highest tertile. CONCLUSIONS Cohabitation with a flower worker was related to lower acetylcholinesterase activity in children. This supports the hypothesis that the amount of take-home pesticides from flower workers suffices to decrease acetylcholinesterase activity, with lower activity associated with longer exposure. PMID:22405996

  20. Arabidopsis MSI1 functions in photoperiodic flowering time control.

    PubMed

    Steinbach, Yvonne; Hennig, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Appropriate timing of flowering is crucial for crop yield and the reproductive success of plants. Flowering can be induced by a number of molecular pathways that respond to internal and external signals such as photoperiod, vernalization or light quality, ambient temperature and biotic as well as abiotic stresses. The key florigenic signal FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) is regulated by several flowering activators, such as CONSTANS (CO), and repressors, such as FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC). Chromatin modifications are essential for regulated gene expression, which often involves the well conserved MULTICOPY SUPRESSOR OF IRA 1 (MSI1)-like protein family. MSI1-like proteins are ubiquitous partners of various complexes, such as POLYCOMB REPRESSIVE COMPLEX2 or CHROMATIN ASSEMBLY FACTOR 1. In Arabidopsis, one of the functions of MSI1 is to control the switch to flowering. Arabidopsis MSI1 is needed for the correct expression of the floral integrator gene SUPPRESSOR OF CO 1 (SOC1). Here, we show that the histone-binding protein MSI1 acts in the photoperiod pathway to regulate normal expression of CO in long day (LD) photoperiods. Reduced expression of CO in msi1-mutants leads to failure of FT and SOC1 activation and to delayed flowering. MSI1 is needed for normal sensitivity of Arabidopsis to photoperiod, because msi1-mutants responded less than wild type to an intermittent LD treatment of plants grown in short days. Finally, genetic analysis demonstrated that MSI1 acts upstream of the CO-FT pathway to enable an efficient photoperiodic response and to induce flowering.

  1. High generalization in flower-visiting networks of social wasps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mello, Marco A. R.; Santos, Gilberto Marcos de Mendonça; Mechi, Maria Rita; Hermes, Marcel G.

    2011-01-01

    Flower-visiting interactions, such as nectarivory and pollination, are considered to form networks with higher interaction specialization than other plant-animal facultative mutualisms. However, subsets within each network sometimes are different from the complete system. Social wasps are one subset within flower-visiting networks; they use nectar as a secondary food of adults. Some of the visited plants depend on wasps for pollination, and many are further benefited through predation of herbivores captured to feed wasp larvae. Therefore, mutual dependence is lower in the wasp subset compared to complete pollination networks, so we expected wasp-flower networks to exhibit more generalistic interactions. Quantitative datasets were built by recording wasp visits to flowers in six Brazilian localities in four ecoregions, and comparisons were made with complete pollination networks from the literature (with different taxa included). Nestedness (NODF = 0.39 ± 0.06) was similar in wasp-flower and complete pollination networks (NODF = 0.32 ± 0.18). Interaction specialization in wasp-flower networks was lower (median H2' = 0.31 ± 0.09) than in complete pollination networks (median H2' = 0.55 ± 0.17). Modularity in wasp-flower networks (M = 0.36 ± 0.05) was also lower than in complete pollination networks (M = 0.47 ± 0.09); there were on average 5 ± 1 modules on each network formed by species of different genera. In summary, our findings confirm that wasps that feed on nectar interact with similar subsets of plants; therefore, wasp-flower networks are more generalistic than other pollination networks. Our results corroborate the hypothesis that, despite some universal properties found in facultative mutualisms, parts of a system differ from the complete system. Furthermore, mutual dependence influences interaction specialization, and so it is an important structuring factor of mutualistic networks.

  2. Anthocyanins from red flower tea (Benibana-cha), Camellia sinensis.

    PubMed

    Terahara, N; Takeda, Y; Nesumi, A; Honda, T

    2001-02-01

    Three anthocyanins were isolated from the leaves of red flower tea (Benibana-cha), Camellia sinensis, and their structures were determined by means of chemical and spectroscopic analyses. Two are the anthocyanins, delphinidin and cyanidin 3-O-beta-D-galactosides, respectively. Whereas the third, delphinidin 3-0-beta-D-(6-(E)-p-coumaryl)galactopyranoside. The anthocyanins were also contained in the flowers of Benibana-cha in different compositions.

  3. The Quest for Molecular Regulation Underlying Unisexual Flower Development

    PubMed Central

    Sobral, Rómulo; Silva, Helena G.; Morais-Cecílio, Leonor; Costa, Maria M. R.

    2016-01-01

    The understanding of the molecular mechanisms responsible for the making of a unisexual flower has been a long-standing quest in plant biology. Plants with male and female flowers can be divided mainly into two categories: dioecious and monoecious, and both sexual systems co-exist in nature in ca of 10% of the angiosperms. The establishment of male and female traits has been extensively described in a hermaphroditic flower and requires the interplay of networks, directly and indirectly related to the floral organ identity genes including hormonal regulators, transcription factors, microRNAs, and chromatin-modifying proteins. Recent transcriptomic studies have been uncovering the molecular processes underlying the establishment of unisexual flowers and there are many parallelisms between monoecious, dioecious, and hermaphroditic individuals. Here, we review the paper entitled “Comparative transcriptomic analysis of male and female flowers of monoecious Quercus suber” published in 2014 in the Frontiers of Plant Science (volume 5 |Article 599) and discussed it in the context of recent studies with other dioecious and monoecious plants that utilized high-throughput platforms to obtain transcriptomic profiles of male and female unisexual flowers. In some unisexual flowers, the developmental programs that control organ initiation fail and male or female organs do not form, whereas in other species, organ initiation and development occur but they abort or arrest during different species-specific stages of differentiation. Therefore, a direct comparison of the pathways responsible for the establishment of unisexual flowers in different species are likely to reveal conserved modules of gene regulatory hubs involved in stamen or carpel development, as well as differences that reflect the different stages of development in which male and/or female organ arrest or loss-of-function occurs. PMID:26925078

  4. Three-dimensional fluorescence characteristics of white chrysanthemum flowers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Yunchang; Li, Yang; Cai, Hongxin; Li, Jing; Miao, Juan; Fu, Dexue; Su, Kun

    2014-09-01

    White chrysanthemum flower is one of the most popular plants found everywhere in China and used as herbs. In the present work, three-dimensional fluorescence technique was used to discriminate species of white chrysanthemum flowers. Parameters affecting extraction efficiency were investigated. Under the optimal conditions, the three-dimensional fluorescence characteristics of three types of white chrysanthemum flowers were obtained. It was found that there were two main fluorescence peaks with remarkable difference in fluorescence intensity, one was corresponding to flavonoids and another was attributed to chlorophyll-like compounds. There were remarkable differences among the contours of the three white chrysanthemum flowers. Further studies showed that the fluorescence intensity ratios of chlorophyll-like compounds to flavonoids had a certain relationship with the species; those for Huai, Hang and Huangshan white chrysanthemum flowers were 6.9-7.4, 18.9-21.4 and 73.6-84.5, respectively. All of the results suggest that three-dimensional fluorescence spectra can be used for the discrimination of white chrysanthemum flowers with the advantages of low cost, ease for operation and intuition.

  5. Adaptation of flower and fruit colours to multiple, distinct mutualists.

    PubMed

    Renoult, Julien P; Valido, Alfredo; Jordano, Pedro; Schaefer, H Martin

    2014-01-01

    Communication in plant-animal mutualisms frequently involves multiple perceivers. A fundamental uncertainty is whether and how species adapt to communicate with groups of mutualists having distinct sensory abilities. We quantified the colour conspicuousness of flowers and fruits originating from one European and two South American plant communities, using visual models of pollinators (bee and fly) and seed dispersers (bird, primate and marten). We show that flowers are more conspicuous than fruits to pollinators, and the reverse to seed dispersers. In addition, flowers are more conspicuous to pollinators than to seed dispersers and the reverse for fruits. Thus, despite marked differences in the visual systems of mutualists, flower and fruit colours have evolved to attract multiple, distinct mutualists but not unintended perceivers. We show that this adaptation is facilitated by a limited correlation between flower and fruit colours, and by the fact that colour signals as coded at the photoreceptor level are more similar within than between functional groups (pollinators and seed dispersers). Overall, these results provide the first quantitative demonstration that flower and fruit colours are adaptations allowing plants to communicate simultaneously with distinct groups of mutualists.

  6. Shielding Flowers Developing under Stress: Translating Theory to Field Application.

    PubMed

    Chayut, Noam; Sobol, Shiri; Nave, Nahum; Samach, Alon

    2014-07-11

    Developing reproductive organs within a flower are sensitive to environmental stress. A higher incidence of environmental stress during this stage of a crop plants' developmental cycle will lead to major breaches in food security. Clearly, we need to understand this sensitivity and try and overcome it, by agricultural practices and/or the breeding of more tolerant cultivars. Although passion fruit vines initiate flowers all year round, flower primordia abort during warm summers. This restricts the season of fruit production in regions with warm summers. Previously, using controlled chambers, stages in flower development that are sensitive to heat were identified. Based on genetic analysis and physiological experiments in controlled environments, gibberellin activity appeared to be a possible point of horticultural intervention. Here, we aimed to shield flowers of a commercial cultivar from end of summer conditions, thus allowing fruit production in new seasons. We conducted experiments over three years in different settings, and our findings consistently show that a single application of an inhibitor of gibberellin biosynthesis to vines in mid-August can cause precocious flowering of ~2-4 weeks, leading to earlier fruit production of ~1 month. In this case, knowledge obtained on phenology, environmental constraints and genetic variation, allowed us to reach a practical solution.

  7. Flower bouquet variation in four species of Crocus ser. Verni.

    PubMed

    Carta, Angelino; Flamini, Guido; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Pistelli, Luisa; Peruzzi, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    Flowering plants employ a wide variety of signals, including scent, to attract pollinators. The aim of this work was to examine whether flower volatiles in four closely related Crocus species are linked to species divergence and to the current knowledge on their pollination syndromes. Fragrances of freshly opened flowers in Crocus etruscus, C. ilvensis, C. neglectus, and C. vernus, all belonging to ser. Verni, were analyzed using GC/MS. Results coincide with present knowledge about systematic relationships among taxa. The four species fall into two main fragrance types, based on similarities of their volatile compounds. In C. etruscus, C. ilvensis, and C. neglectus, oxygenated monoterpenes (lilac aldehyde B and A) are most abundant, while C. vernus has a fragrance rich in monoterpene hydrocarbons (α-pinene and limonene). Our results point towards outcrossing mating strategies for C. etruscus, C. ilvensis, and C. neglectus, whose volatile compounds are known as pollinator attractants. This is in line with their flower architecture, showing a style of variable height, often overtopping stamens. On the other hand, a self-pollination strategy was repeatedly suggested in the literature for C. vernus, marked by flowers with the style deeply inserted in the stamens and also by a completely different flower bouquet.

  8. Three-dimensional fluorescence characteristics of white chrysanthemum flowers.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yunchang; Li, Yang; Cai, Hongxin; Li, Jing; Miao, Juan; Fu, Dexue; Su, Kun

    2014-09-15

    White chrysanthemum flower is one of the most popular plants found everywhere in China and used as herbs. In the present work, three-dimensional fluorescence technique was used to discriminate species of white chrysanthemum flowers. Parameters affecting extraction efficiency were investigated. Under the optimal conditions, the three-dimensional fluorescence characteristics of three types of white chrysanthemum flowers were obtained. It was found that there were two main fluorescence peaks with remarkable difference in fluorescence intensity, one was corresponding to flavonoids and another was attributed to chlorophyll-like compounds. There were remarkable differences among the contours of the three white chrysanthemum flowers. Further studies showed that the fluorescence intensity ratios of chlorophyll-like compounds to flavonoids had a certain relationship with the species; those for Huai, Hang and Huangshan white chrysanthemum flowers were 6.9-7.4, 18.9-21.4 and 73.6-84.5, respectively. All of the results suggest that three-dimensional fluorescence spectra can be used for the discrimination of white chrysanthemum flowers with the advantages of low cost, ease for operation and intuition.

  9. BRR2a Affects Flowering Time via FLC Splicing

    PubMed Central

    Mahrez, Walid; Shin, Juhyun; Exner, Vivien; Siretskiy, Alexey; Köhler, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Several pathways control time to flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana through transcriptional and posttranscriptional gene regulation. In recent years, mRNA processing has gained interest as a critical regulator of flowering time control in plants. However, the molecular mechanisms linking RNA splicing to flowering time are not well understood. In a screen for Arabidopsis early flowering mutants we identified an allele of BRR2a. BRR2 proteins are components of the spliceosome and highly conserved in eukaryotes. Arabidopsis BRR2a is ubiquitously expressed in all analyzed tissues and involved in the processing of flowering time gene transcripts, most notably FLC. A missense mutation of threonine 895 in BRR2a caused defects in FLC splicing and greatly reduced FLC transcript levels. Reduced FLC expression increased transcription of FT and SOC1 leading to early flowering in both short and long days. Genome-wide experiments established that only a small set of introns was not correctly spliced in the brr2a mutant. Compared to control introns, retained introns were often shorter and GC-poor, had low H3K4me1 and CG methylation levels, and were often derived from genes with a high-H3K27me3-low-H3K36me3 signature. We propose that BRR2a is specifically needed for efficient splicing of a subset of introns characterized by a combination of factors including intron size, sequence and chromatin, and that FLC is most sensitive to splicing defects. PMID:27100965

  10. Flies and flowers in Darwin's race.

    PubMed

    Pauw, Anton; Stofberg, Jaco; Waterman, Richard J

    2009-01-01

    The idea of coevolution originated with Darwin's proposal that long-proboscid pollinators and long-tubed flowers might be engaged in reciprocal selection, but this has not been demonstrated. Here we test key aspects of Darwin's hypothesis of reciprocal selection in an experiment with naturally interacting populations of extremely long-proboscid flies (Moegistorhynchus longirostris: Nemestinidae) and long-tubed irises (Lapeirousia anceps: Iridaceae). We show that the benefit derived by both the fly (volume of nectar consumed) and the plant (number pollen grains received) depends on the relative length of their interacting organs. Each trait is shown to act both as agent and target in directional reciprocal selection, potentially leading to a race. This understanding of how fitness in both species varies in relation to the balance of their armament allows us to make tentative predictions about the nature of selection across multiple communities. We find that in each community a core group of long-tubed plant species might together be involved in diffuse coevolution with the fly. In poorly matched populations, the imbalance in armament is too great to allow reciprocal selection to act, and these species might instead experience one-sided selection that leads to convergence with the core species. Reciprocal selection drives the evolution of the community, then, additional species become attached to the network of interacting mutualists by convergence.

  11. Analysis of flavonoids in flower petals of soybean near-isogenic lines for flower and pubescence color genes.

    PubMed

    Iwashina, Tsukasa; Githiri, Stephen M; Benitez, Eduardo R; Takemura, Tomoko; Kitajima, Junichi; Takahashi, Ryoji

    2007-01-01

    W1, W3, W4, and Wm genes control flower color, whereas T and Td genes control pubescence color in soybean. W1, W3, Wm, and T are presumed to encode flavonoid 3'5'-hydroxylase (EC 1.14.13.88), dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (EC 1.1.1.219), flavonol synthase (EC 1.14.11.23), and flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (EC 1.14.13.21), respectively. The objective of this study was to determine the structure of the primary anthocyanin, flavonol, and dihydroflavonol in flower petals. Primary component of anthocyanin in purple flower cultivars Clark (W1W1 w3w3 W4W4 WmWm TT TdTd) and Harosoy (W1W1 w3w3 W4W4 WmWm tt TdTd) was malvidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside with delphinidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside as a minor compound. Primary flavonol and dihydroflavonol were kaempferol 3-O-gentiobioside and aromadendrin 3-O-glucoside, respectively. Quantitative analysis of near-isogenic lines (NILs) for flower or pubescence color genes, Clark-w1 (white flower), Clark-w4 (near-white flower), Clark-W3w4 (dilute purple flower), Clark-t (gray pubescence), Clark-td (near-gray pubescence), Harosoy-wm (magenta flower), and Harosoy-T (tawny pubescence) was carried out. No anthocyanins were detected in Clark-w1 and Clark-w4, whereas a trace amount was detected in Clark-W3w4. Amount of flavonols and dihydroflavonol in NILs with w1 or w4 were largely similar to the NILs with purple flower suggesting that W1 and W4 affect only anthocyanin biosynthesis. Amount of flavonol glycosides was substantially reduced and dihydroflavonol was increased in Harosoy-wm suggesting that Wm is responsible for the production of flavonol from dihydroflavonol. The recessive wm allele reduces flavonol amount and inhibits co-pigmentation between anthocyanins and flavonols resulting in less bluer (magenta) flower color. Pubescence color genes, T or Td, had no apparent effect on flavonoid biosynthesis in flower petals.

  12. Transcriptomic analysis of Arabidopsis overexpressing flowering locus T driven by a meristem-specific promoter that induces early flowering.

    PubMed

    Duplat-Bermúdez, L; Ruiz-Medrano, R; Landsman, D; Mariño-Ramírez, L; Xoconostle-Cázares, B

    2016-08-10

    Here we analyzed in leaves the effect of FT overexpression driven by meristem-specific KNAT1 gene homolog of Arabidopsis thaliana (Lincoln et al., 1994; Long et al., 1996) on the transcriptomic response during plant development. Our results demonstrated that meristematic FT overexpression generates a phenotype with an early flowering independent of photoperiod when compared with wild type (WT) plants. Arabidopsis FT-overexpressor lines (AtFTOE) did not show significant differences compared with WT lines neither in leaf number nor in rosette diameter up to day 21, when AtFTOE flowered. After this period AtFTOE plants started flower production and no new rosette leaves were produced. Additionally, WT plants continued on vegetative stage up to day 40, producing 12-14 rosette leaves before flowering. Transcriptomic analysis of rosette leaves studied by sequencing Illumina RNA-seq allowed us to determine the differential expression in mature leaf rosette of 3652 genes, being 626 of them up-regulated and 3026 down-regulated. Overexpressed genes related with flowering showed up-regulated transcription factors such as MADS-box that are known as flowering markers in meristem and which overexpression has been related with meristem identity preservation and the transition from vegetative to floral stage. Genes related with sugar transport have shown a higher demand of monosaccharides derived from the hydrolysis of sucrose to glucose and probably fructose, which can also be influenced by reproductive stage of AtFTOE plants.

  13. Short-term effects of burn season on flowering phenology of savanna plants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pavlovic, N.B.; Leicht-Young, S. A.; Grundel, R.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the effect of season of burn on flowering phenology of groundlayer species, in the year following burns, in a mesic-sand Midwestern oak savanna. Burn treatments were fall, early-season, growing-season, late-season, and 1 or 5 years after a prior early-season wildfire. For these treatments, we compared the number of flowering stems and of flowers for species overall, for the 20 most prolifically flowering species, as well as for species grouped by flowering phenoperiods, and by growth form. Growing-season burn had a significant negative effect on number of flowering stems and total number of flowers. This effect occurred when either the burn occurred during the flowering season or during the season prior to the flowering phenoperiod. Tradescantia ohiensis showed expedited flowering and Phlox pilosa showed delayed flowering in response to early-season burning. Flowering of early shrubs was reduced by the previous fall and early-spring fires, while flowering of mid-season blooming shrubs was reduced by the early- and growing-season burns. Vaccinium and Gaylussacia, early-flowering shrubs, produced fewer flowers 1 year after than 5 years after an early-season burn. Arabis lyrata showed reduced flowering from the early-season burn. We also found four instances where the early-spring burn effect on flowering was more severe than the fall burn effect, suggesting that many frequent early-season burns may be deleterious to flowering and reproduction of some species. Burns occurring too frequently in the same season could negatively affect future flowering and reproduction of these plant species.

  14. Flower diversity and bee reproduction in an arid ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez, Diego P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diverse flower communities are more stable in floral resource production along the flowering season, but the question about how the diversity and stability of resources affect pollinator reproduction remains open. High plant diversity could favor short foraging trips, which in turn would enhance bee fitness. In addition to plant diversity, greater temporal stability of floral resources in diverse communities could favor pollinator fitness because such communities are likely to occupy the phenological space more broadly, increasing floral availability for pollinators throughout the season. In addition, this potential effect of flower diversity on bee reproduction could be stronger for generalist pollinators because they can use a broader floral spectrum. Based on above arguments we predicted that pollinator reproduction would be positively correlated to flower diversity, and to temporal stability in flower production, and that this relationship would be stronger for the most generalized pollinator species. Materials and Methods: Using structural equation models, we evaluated the effect of these variables and other ecological factors on three estimates of bee reproduction (average number of brood cells per nest per site, total number of brood cells per site, and total number of nests per site), and whether such effects were modulated by bee generalization on floral resources. Results: Contrary to our expectations, flower diversity had no effect on bee reproduction, stability in flower production had a weakly negative effect on one of the bee reproductive variables, and the strength of the fitness-diversity relationship was unrelated to bee generalization. In contrast, elevation had a negative effect on bee reproduction, despite the narrow elevation range encompassed by our sites. Discussion: Flower diversity did not affect the reproduction of the solitary bees studied here. This result could stem from the context dependence of the diversity

  15. Attraction of pea moth Cydia nigricana to pea flower volatiles.

    PubMed

    Thöming, Gunda; Knudsen, Geir K

    2014-04-01

    The pea moth Cydia nigricana causes major crop losses in pea (Pisum sativum) production. We investigated attraction of C. nigricana females to synthetic pea flower volatiles in a wind tunnel and in the field. We performed electroantennogram analysis on 27 previously identified pea plant volatiles, which confirmed antennal responses to nine of the compounds identified in pea flowers. A dose-dependent response was found to eight of the compounds. Various blends of the nine pea flower volatiles eliciting antennal responses were subsequently studied in a wind tunnel. A four-compound blend comprising hexan-1-ol, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol, (Z)-β-ocimene and (E)-β-ocimene was equally attractive to mated C. nigricana females as the full pea flower mimic blend. We conducted wind-tunnel tests on different blends of these four pea flower compounds mixed with a headspace sample of non-flowering pea plants. By considering the effects of such green leaf background odour, we were able to identify (Z)- and (E)-β-ocimene as fundamental for host location by the pea moths, and hexan-1-ol and (E)-2-hexen-1-ol as being of secondary importance in that context. In the field, the two isomers of β-ocimene resulted in trap catches similar to those obtained with the full pea flower mimic and the four-compound blend, which clearly demonstrated the prime significance of the β-ocimenes as attractants of C. nigricana. The high level of the trap catches of female C. nigricana noted in this first field experiment gives a first indication of the potential use of such artificial kairomones in pea moth control.

  16. Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Origin and Diversification of the Angiosperm Flower

    PubMed Central

    Theissen, Guenter; Melzer, Rainer

    2007-01-01

    Background Understanding the mode and mechanisms of the evolution of the angiosperm flower is a long-standing and central problem of evolutionary biology and botany. It has essentially remained unsolved, however. In contrast, considerable progress has recently been made in our understanding of the genetic basis of flower development in some extant model species. The knowledge that accumulated this way has been pulled together in two major hypotheses, termed the ‘ABC model’ and the ‘floral quartet model’. These models explain how the identity of the different types of floral organs is specified during flower development by homeotic selector genes encoding transcription factors. Scope We intend to explain how the ‘ABC model’ and the ‘floral quartet model’ are now guiding investigations that help to understand the origin and diversification of the angiosperm flower. Conclusions Investigation of orthologues of class B and class C floral homeotic genes in gymnosperms suggest that bisexuality was one of the first innovations during the origin of the flower. The transition from dimer to tetramer formation of floral homeotic proteins after establishment of class E proteins may have increased cooperativity of DNA binding of the transcription factors controlling reproductive growth. That way, we hypothesize, better ‘developmental switches’ originated that facilitated the early evolution of the flower. Expression studies of ABC genes in basally diverging angiosperm lineages, monocots and basal eudicots suggest that the ‘classical’ ABC system known from core eudicots originated from a more fuzzy system with fading borders of gene expression and gradual transitions in organ identity, by sharpening of ABC gene expression domains and organ borders. Shifting boundaries of ABC gene expression may have contributed to the diversification of the angiosperm flower many times independently, as may have changes in interactions between ABC genes and their target

  17. Genetic engineering of novel flower colors in floricultural plants: recent advances via transgenic approaches.

    PubMed

    Nishihara, Masahiro; Nakatsuka, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    Since the first successful genetic engineering of flower color in petunia, several new techniques have been developed and applied to modify flower color not only in model plants but also in floricultural plants. A typical example is the commercial violet-flowered carnation "Moondust series" developed by Suntry Ltd. and Florigene Ltd. More recently, blue-flowered roses have been successfully produced and are expected to be commercially available in the near future. In recent years, successful modification of flower color by sophisticated regulation of flower-pigment metabolic pathways has become possible. In this chapter, we review recent advances in flower color modification by genetic engineering, especially focusing on the methodology. We have included our own recent results on successful production of flower-color-modified transgenic plants in a model plant, tobacco and an ornamental plant, gentian. Based on these results, genetic engineering of flower color for improvement of floricultural plants is discussed.

  18. Volatile organic compound emissions from different stages of Cananga odorata flower development.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xiao-Wei; Hao, Chao-Yun; He, Shu-Zhen; Wu, Gang; Tan, Le-He; Xu, Fei; Hu, Rong-Suo

    2014-06-27

    Headspace-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) was used to identify the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of the different flower development stages of Cananga odorata for the evaluation of floral volatile polymorphism as a basis to determine the best time of harvest. Electronic nose results, coupled with discriminant factor analysis, suggested that emitted odors varied in different C. odorata flower development stages, including the bud, display-petal, initial-flowering, full-flowering, end-flowering, wilted-flower, and dried flower stages. The first two discriminant factors explained 97.52% of total system variance. Ninety-two compounds were detected over the flower life, and the mean Bray-Curtis similarity value was 52.45% among different flower development stages. A high level of volatile polymorphism was observed during flower development. The VOCs were largely grouped as hydrocarbons, esters, alcohols, aldehydes, phenols, acids, ketones, and ethers, and the main compound was β-caryophyllene (15.05%-33.30%). Other identified compounds were β-cubebene, D-germacrene, benzyl benzoate, and α-cubebene. Moreover, large numbers of VOCs were detected at intermediate times of flower development, and more hydrocarbons, esters, and alcohols were identified in the full-flowering stage. The full-flowering stage may be the most suitable period for C. odorata flower harvest.

  19. Molecular characterization of mutations in white-flowered torenia plants

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Torenia (Torenia fournieri Lind.) is a model plant increasingly exploited in studies in various disciplines, including plant engineering, biochemistry, physiology, and ecology. Additionally, cultivars with different flower colors have been bred and made commercially available. Flower color in torenia is mainly attributed to the accumulation of anthocyanins, but the molecular mechanisms inducing flower color mutations in torenia have not been well elucidated. In this study, we therefore attempted to identify the cause of white coloration in torenia by comparing the white-flowered cultivar Crown White (CrW) with Crown Violet (CrV), a violet-flowered variety. Results In an expression analysis, no flavanone 3-hydroxylase (TfF3H) transcript accumulation was detected in CrW petals. Sequence analyses revealed that a novel long terminal repeat (LTR)-type retrotransposable element, designated as TORE1 (Torenia retrotransposon 1), is inserted into the 5′-upstream region of the TfF3H gene in CrW. A transient expression assay using torenia F3H promoters with or without TORE1 insertion showed that the TORE1 insertion substantially suppressed F3H promoter activity, suggesting that this insertion is responsible for the absence of F3H transcripts in white petals. Furthermore, a transformation experiment demonstrated that the introduction of a foreign gentian F3H cDNA, GtF3H, into CrW was able to recover pink-flower pigmentation, indicating that F3H deficiency is indeed the cause of the colorless flower phenotype in CrW. Detailed sequence analysis also identified deletion mutations in flavonoid 3′-hydroxylase (TfF3′H) and flavonoid 3′,5′- hydroxylase (TfF3′5′H) genes, but these were not directly responsible for white coloration in this cultivar. Conclusions Taken together, a novel retrotransposable element, TORE1, inserted into the F3H 5′-upstream region is the cause of deficient F3H transcripts in white-flowered torenia, thereby leading to reduced petal

  20. Flowering Dynamics and Pollinator Visitation of Oilseed Echium (Echium plantagineum)

    PubMed Central

    Eberle, Carrie A.; Forcella, Frank; Gesch, Russ; Weyers, Sharon; Peterson, Dean; Eklund, James

    2014-01-01

    Echium (Echium plantagineum L.) is an alternative oilseed crop in summer-wet temperate regions that provides floral resources to pollinators. Its seed oil is rich in omega-3 fatty acids, such as stearidonic acid, which is desired highly by the cosmetic industry. Seeds were sown in field plots over three years in western Minnesota in spring (early-sown) or early summer (late-sown), and flower abundance, pollinator visitation, and seed yields were studied. Initial flowering commenced 41 to 55 d after sowing, and anthesis duration (first flowering to harvest) was 34 to 70 d. Late sowing dates delayed anthesis, but increased the intensity of visitation by pollinators. Cumulative flower densities ranged from 1 to 4.5 billion ha−1. Flowers attracted numerous honey bees (Apis mellifera L.), as many as 35 per minute of observation, which represented about 50% of all insect visitors. Early-sown echium produced seed yields up to 750 kg ha−1, which were 2–29 times higher than those of late-sown echium. Early sowing of echium in Minnesota provides abundant floral resources for pollinators for up to two months and simultaneously produces seed yields whose profits rival those of corn (Zea mays L.). PMID:25427071

  1. Innate preferences for flower features in the hawkmoth Macroglossum stellatarum

    PubMed

    Kelber

    1997-01-01

    The diurnal hawkmoth Macroglossum stellatarum is known to feed from a variety of flower species of almost all colours, forms and sizes. A newly eclosed imago, however, has to find its first flower by means of an innate flower template. This study investigates which visual flower features are represented in this template and their relative importance. Newly eclosed imagines were tested for their innate preferences, using artificial flowers made out of coloured paper or projected onto a screen through interference filters. The moths were found to have a strong preference for 440 nm and a weaker preference for 540 nm. The attractiveness of a colour increases with light intensity. The background colour, as well as the spectral composition of the ambient illumination, influences the choice behaviour. Blue paper disks against a yellowish background are chosen much more often than the same disks against a bluish background. Similarly, under ultraviolet-rich illumination, the preference for 540 nm is much more pronounced than under yellowish illumination. Disks of approximately 32 mm in diameter are preferred to smaller and larger ones, and a sectored pattern is more attractive than a ring pattern. Pattern preferences are less pronounced with coloured than with black-and-white patterns. Tests using combinations of two parameters reveal that size is more important than colour and that colour is more important than pattern.

  2. A Strategy for Screening Monoclonal Antibodies for Arabidopsis Flowers

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Qian; Zhou, Lian; Wang, Yingxiang; Ma, Hong

    2017-01-01

    The flower is one of the most complex structures of angiosperms and is essential for sexual reproduction. Current studies using molecular genetic tools have made great advances in understanding flower development. Due to the lack of available antibodies, studies investigating the localization of proteins required for flower development have been restricted to use commercial antibodies against known antigens such as GFP, YFP, and FLAG. Thus, knowledge about cellular structures in the floral organs is limited due to the scarcity of antibodies that can label cellular components. To generate monoclonal antibodies that can facilitate molecular studies of the flower, we constructed a library of monoclonal antibodies against antigenic proteins from Arabidopsis inflorescences and identified 61 monoclonal antibodies. Twenty-four of these monoclonal antibodies displayed a unique band in a western blot assay in at least one of the examined tissues. Distinct cellular distribution patterns of epitopes were detected by these 24 antibodies by immunofluorescence microscopy in a flower section. Subsequently, a combination of immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry analysis identified potential targets for three of these antibodies. These results provide evidence for the generation of an antibody library using the total plant proteins as antigens. Using this method, the present study identified 61 monoclonal antibodies and 24 of them were efficiently detecting epitopes in both western blot experiments and immunofluorescence microscopy. These antibodies can be applied as informative cellular markers to study the biological mechanisms underlying floral development in plants. PMID:28293248

  3. Iridescent flowers? Contribution of surface structures to optical signaling.

    PubMed

    van der Kooi, Casper J; Wilts, Bodo D; Leertouwer, Hein L; Staal, Marten; Elzenga, J Theo M; Stavenga, Doekele G

    2014-07-01

    The color of natural objects depends on how they are structured and pigmented. In flowers, both the surface structure of the petals and the pigments they contain determine coloration. The aim of the present study was to assess the contribution of structural coloration, including iridescence, to overall floral coloration. We studied the reflection characteristics of flower petals of various plant species with an imaging scatterometer, which allows direct visualization of the angle dependence of the reflected light in the hemisphere above the petal. To separate the light reflected by the flower surface from the light backscattered by the components inside (e.g. the vacuoles), we also investigated surface casts. A survey among angiosperms revealed three different types of floral surface structure, each with distinct reflections. Petals with a smooth and very flat surface had mirror-like reflections and petal surfaces with cones yielded diffuse reflections. Petals with striations yielded diffraction patterns when single cells were illuminated. The iridescent signal, however, vanished when illumination similar to that found in natural conditions was applied. Pigmentary rather than structural coloration determines the optical appearance of flowers. Therefore, the hypothesized signaling by flowers with striated surfaces to attract potential pollinators presently seems untenable.

  4. MicroRNA-mediated regulation of flower development in grasses.

    PubMed

    Smoczynska, Aleksandra; Szweykowska-Kulinska, Zofia

    2016-01-01

    Flower structure in grasses is very unique. There are no petals or sepals like in eudicots but instead flowers develop bract-like structures - palea and lemma. Reproductive organs are enclosed by round lodicule that not only protects reproductive organs but also plays an important role during flower opening. The first genetic model for floral organ development was proposed 25 years ago and it was based on the research on model eudicots. Since then, studies have been carried out to answer the question whether this model could be applicable in the case of monocots. Genes from all classes found in eudicots have been also identified in genomes of such monocots like rice, maize or barley. What's more, it seems that miRNA-mediated regulation of floral organ genes that was observed in the case of Arabidopsis thaliana also takes place in monocots. MiRNA172, miRNA159, miRNA171 and miRNA396 regulate expression of floral organ identity genes in barley, rice and maize, affecting various features of the flower structure, ranging from formation of lemma and palea to the development of reproductive organs. A model of floral development in grasses and its genetic regulation is not yet fully characterized. Further studies on both, the model eudicots and grasses, are needed to unravel this topic. This review provides general overview of genetic model of flower organ identity specification in monocots and it's miRNA-mediated regulation.

  5. Bioactive steroidal saponins from Agave offoyana flowers.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Andy J; Calle, Juan M; Simonet, Ana M; Guerra, José O; Stochmal, Anna; Macías, Francisco A

    2013-11-01

    Bioguided studies of flowers of Agave offoyana allowed the isolation of five steroidal saponins never described previously, Magueyosides A-E (1-5), along with six known steroidal saponins (6-11). The structures of compounds were determined as (25R)-spirost-5-en-2α,3β-diol-12-one 3-O-{β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (1), (25R)-spirost-5-en-2α,3β-diol-12-one 3-O-{β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (2), (25R)-spirost-5-en-2α,3β,12β-triol 3-O-{β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (3), (25R)-5α-spirostan-2α,3β-diol-12-one 3-O-{β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (4), and (25R)-5α-spirostan-2α,3β-diol-9(11)-en-12-one 3-O-{β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (5), by comprehensive spectroscopic analysis, including one- and two-dimensional NMR techniques, mass spectrometry and chemical methods. The bioactivities of the isolated compounds on the standard target species Lactuca sativa were evaluated. A dose-dependent phytotoxicity and low dose stimulation were observed.

  6. Pollinator attractiveness increases with distance from flowering orchids.

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Bob B M; Salzmann, Charlotte; Schiestl, Florian P

    2004-01-01

    Orchids are extraordinary among plants because many species are pollinated through sexual duplicity by producing flowers that mimic female insects to lure unsuspecting males. Previous work showed that sexual deception by the orchid Chiloglottis trapeziformis can have a negative impact on its wasp pollinator Neozeleboria cryptoides. We report that female wasps may be capable of mitigating the cost of the orchids' deception. Although male wasps quickly habituated to areas planted with unrewarding flower decoys, we found that the effectiveness of the chemical cue used by the wingless females to attract males increases with increasing distance from an orchid patch. The apparent specificity of the males' site-based avoidance strategy means that females emerging in areas occupied by flowering orchids could, potentially, leave the orchid colony by walking to increase their attractiveness. PMID:15252987

  7. Circumnutation on the water surface: female flowers of Vallisneria

    PubMed Central

    Kosuge, Keiko; Iida, Satoko; Katou, Kiyoshi; Mimura, Tetsuro

    2013-01-01

    Circumnutation, the helical movement of growing organ tips, is ubiquitous in land plants. The mechanisms underlying circumnutation have been debated since Darwin's time. Experiments in space and mutant analyses have revealed that internal oscillatory (tropism-independent) movement and gravitropic response are involved in circumnutation. Female flower buds of tape grass (Vallisneria asiatica var. biwaensis) circumnutate on the water surface. Our observations and experiments with an artificial model indicated that gravitropism is barely involved in circumnutation. Instead, we show that helical intercalary growth at the base of peduncle plays the primary role in all movements in Vallisneria. This growth pattern produces torsional bud rotation, and gravity and buoyancy forces have a physical effect on the direction of peduncle elongation, resulting in bud circumnutation on the water surface. In contrast to other water-pollinated hydrophilous plants, circumnutation in Vallisneria enables female flowers to actively collect male flowers from a larger surface area of water. PMID:23355948

  8. The Antioxidants Changes in Ornamental Flowers during Development and Senescence

    PubMed Central

    Cavaiuolo, Marina; Cocetta, Giacomo; Ferrante, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The concentration of antioxidant compounds is constitutive and variable from species to species and is also variable considering the development of the plant tissue. In this review, we take into consideration the antioxidant changes and the physiological, biochemical and molecular factors that are able to modulate the accumulation of antioxidant compounds in ornamental flowers during the whole development process until the senescence. Many ornamental flowers are natural sources of very important bioactive compounds with benefit to the human health and their possible role as dietary components has been reported. The most part of antioxidants are flower pigments such as carotenoids and polyphenols, often present in higher concentration compared with the most common fruits and vegetables. The antioxidants content changes during development and during senescence many biochemical systems and molecular mechanisms are activated to counteract the increase of reactive oxygen species and free radicals. There is a tight correlation between antioxidants and senescence processes and this aspect is detailed and appropriately discussed. PMID:26784342

  9. Roles of jasmonate signalling in plant inflorescence and flower development.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zheng; Zhang, Dabing

    2015-10-01

    Development of inflorescences and flowers in plants is controlled by the combined action of environmental and genetic signals. Investigations reveal that the phytohormone jasmonate (JA) plays a critical function in plant reproduction such as male fertility, sex determination and seed maturation. Here, we review recent progress on JA synthesis, signalling, the interplay between JAs and other hormones, and regulatory network of JA in controlling the development of inflorescence, flower and the male organ. The conserved and diversified roles of JAs in meristem transition and specification of flower organ identity and number, and multiple regulatory networks of JAs in stamen development are highlighted. Further, this review provides perspectives on future research endeavors to elucidate mechanisms underlying JAs homeostasis and transport during plant reproductive development.

  10. High performance magnetorheological fluids with flower-like cobalt particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Yu; Dong, Xufeng; Qi, Min

    2017-02-01

    Recent studies indicated the electrorhological (ER) effect of the ER fluids with flower-like particles were more significant than those with traditional sphere particles, but whether the special morphology can enhance the properties of magnetorheological (MR) fluids remains unclear. To address the issue, flower-like cobalt particles (FCP) and sphere cobalt particles (SCP) were synthesized, and the properties of the two kinds of MR fluids with the two kinds of particles were compared. Particle characterization results indicate the two kinds of particles have significant difference in morphology, but little difference in crystal structure, particle size, and magnetic properties. The FCP based MR fluids (FCP-MRFs) present higher zero-field viscosity, higher field-induced yield stress, higher storage modulus and better sedimentation stability than the SCP based samples (SCP-MRFs). The high performance of the FCP-MRF can be attributed to the special morphology of the flower-like particles.

  11. FT and florigen long-distance flowering control in plants.

    PubMed

    Putterill, Joanna; Varkonyi-Gasic, Erika

    2016-10-01

    The great hunt for florigen, the universal, long distance flowering regulator proposed by Chailakhan in the 1930s, resulted in the discovery a decade ago that FT-like proteins fulfilled the predictions for florigen. They are small (∼175 amino acids), globular, phosphatidylethanolamine-binding (PEBP) proteins, phloem-expressed, graft-transmissible and able to move to the shoot apex to act as potent stimulators of flowering in many plants. Genes that regulate Arabidopsis FT protein movement and some features of Arabidopsis FT protein that make it an effective florigen have recently been identified. Although floral promotion via graft transmission of FT has not been demonstrated in trees, FT-like genes have been successfully applied to reducing the long juvenile (pre-flowering) phase of many trees enabling fast track breeding.

  12. Impact of climate extremes on wildlife plant flowering over Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegmund, J. F.; Wiedermann, M.; Donges, J. F.; Donner, R. V.

    2015-11-01

    Ongoing climate change is known to cause an increase in the frequency and amplitude of local temperature and precipitation extremes in many regions of the Earth. While gradual changes in the climatological conditions are known to strongly influence plant flowering dates, the question arises if and how extremes specifically impact the timing of this important phenological phase. In this study, we systematically quantify simultaneities between meteorological extremes and the timing of flowering of four shrub species across Germany by means of event coincidence analysis, a novel statistical tool that allows assessing whether or not two types of events exhibit similar sequences of occurrences. Our systematic investigation supports previous findings of experimental studies by highlighting the impact of early spring temperatures on the flowering of wildlife plants. In addition, we find statistically significant indications for some long-term relations reaching back to the previous year.

  13. Flower patterns are adapted for detection by bees.

    PubMed

    Hempel de Ibarra, Natalie; Vorobyev, Misha

    2009-03-01

    We have demonstrated previously that honeybees use brightness vision mediated by green (or L-) receptor to detect targets from a long distance. They detect circular targets having a dim, for the L-receptor, centre and bright surround from a longer distance than targets having bright centre and dim surround. Here we show that a majority of bee-pollinated flowers have a centre that, for the L-receptor, is dim with bright surround, i.e. have patterns that are easy for a bee to detect. Flowers with dim for the L-receptor surrounds tend to be larger than those with bright surrounds, indicating that flowers compensate for the impaired visibility of their patterns by increasing the size of their displays.

  14. Lutein production from biomass: marigold flowers versus microalgae.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jian-Hao; Lee, Duu-Jong; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2015-05-01

    Microalgae have faster growth rates and more free lutein than marigold flowers, the current source of lutein. However, no commercial lutein production uses microalgae. This review compares lutein content, cultivation, harvesting, cell disruption, and extraction stages of lutein production using marigold flowers and those using microalgae as feedstock. The lutein production rate of microalgae is 3-6 times higher than that of marigold flowers. To produce 1 kg of pure lutein, marigolds need more land and water, but require less nutrients (N, P, K) and less energy than microalgae. Since lutein is tightly bound in microalgae and microalgae are small, cell disruption and subsequent extraction stages consume a considerable amount of energy. Research and development of affordable lutein production from microalgae are discussed.

  15. The 3-D lattice theory of Flower Constellations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Jeremy J.; Avendaño, Martín E.; Mortari, Daniele

    2013-08-01

    Flower Constellations (FCs) have been extensively studied for use in optimal constellation design. The Harmonic FCs (HFCs) subset, representing the symmetric configurations, have recently been reformulated into 2-D Lattice Flower Constellations (2D-LFCs), encompassing the complete set of HFCs. Elliptic orbits are generally avoided due to the deleterious effects of Earth's oblateness on the constellation, but here we present a novel concept for avoiding this problem and enabling more effective global coverage utilizing elliptic orbits. This new 3D Lattice Flower Constellations (3D-LFCs) framework generalizes the 2D-LFCs, Walker constellations, elliptical Walker constellations, and many of Draim's global coverage constellations. Previous studies have shown FCs can provide improved performance in global navigation over existing Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). We found a 3D-LFC design that improved the average positioning accuracy by 3.5 % while reducing launch \\varDelta v requirements when compared to the existing Galileo GNSS constellation.

  16. Effects of fire season on flowering of forbs and shrubs in longleaf pine forests.

    PubMed

    Platt, William J; Evans, Gregory W; Davis, Mary M

    1988-08-01

    Effects of variation in fire season on flowering of forbs and shrubs were studied experimentally in two longleaf pine forest habitats in northern Florida, USA. Large, replicated plots were burned at different times of the year, and flowering on each plot was measured over the twelve months following fire. While fire season had little effect on the number of species flowering during the year following fire, fires during the growing season decreased average flowering duration per species and increased synchronization of peak flowering times within species relative to fires between growing seasons. Fires during the growing season also increased the dominance of fall flowering forbs and delayed peak fall flowering. Differences in flowering resulting from variation in fire season were related to seasonal changes in the morphology of clonal forbs, especially fall-flowering composites. Community level differences in flowering phenologies indicated that timing of fire relative to environmental cues that induced flowering was important in determining flowering synchrony among species within the ground cover of longleaf pine forests. Differences in fire season produced qualitatively similar effects on flowering phenologies in both habitats, indicating plant responses to variation in the timing of fires were not habitat specific.

  17. An ortholog of LEAFY in Jatropha curcas regulates flowering time and floral organ development

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Mingyong; Tao, Yan-Bin; Fu, Qiantang; Song, Yaling; Niu, Longjian; Xu, Zeng-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Jatropha curcas seeds are an excellent biofuel feedstock, but seed yields of Jatropha are limited by its poor flowering and fruiting ability. Thus, identifying genes controlling flowering is critical for genetic improvement of seed yield. We isolated the JcLFY, a Jatropha ortholog of Arabidopsis thaliana LEAFY (LFY), and identified JcLFY function by overexpressing it in Arabidopsis and Jatropha. JcLFY is expressed in Jatropha inflorescence buds, flower buds, and carpels, with highest expression in the early developmental stage of flower buds. JcLFY overexpression induced early flowering, solitary flowers, and terminal flowers in Arabidopsis, and also rescued the delayed flowering phenotype of lfy-15, a LFY loss-of-function Arabidopsis mutant. Microarray and qPCR analysis revealed several flower identity and flower organ development genes were upregulated in JcLFY-overexpressing Arabidopsis. JcLFY overexpression in Jatropha also induced early flowering. Significant changes in inflorescence structure, floral organs, and fruit shape occurred in JcLFY co-suppressed plants in which expression of several flower identity and floral organ development genes were changed. This suggests JcLFY is involved in regulating flower identity, floral organ patterns, and fruit shape, although JcLFY function in Jatropha floral meristem determination is not as strong as that of Arabidopsis. PMID:27869146

  18. Polycomb-Group Proteins and FLOWERING LOCUS T Maintain Commitment to Flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Müller-Xing, Ralf; Clarenz, Oliver; Pokorny, Lena; Goodrich, Justin; Schubert, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The switch from vegetative to reproductive growth is extremely stable even if plants are only transiently exposed to environmental stimuli that trigger flowering. In the photoperiodic pathway, a mobile signal, florigen, encoded by FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) in Arabidopsis thaliana, induces flowering. Because FT activity in leaves is not maintained after transient photoperiodic induction, the molecular basis for stable floral commitment is unclear. Here, we show that Polycomb-group (Pc-G) proteins, which mediate epigenetic gene regulation, maintain the identity of inflorescence and floral meristems after floral induction. Thus, plants with reduced Pc-G activity show a remarkable increase of cauline leaves under noninductive conditions and floral reversion when shifted from inductive to noninductive conditions. These phenotypes are almost completely suppressed by loss of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) and SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE, which both delay flowering and promote vegetative shoot identity. Upregulation of FLC in Pc-G mutants leads to a strong decrease of FT expression in inflorescences. We find that this activity of FT is needed to prevent floral reversion. Collectively, our results reveal that floral meristem identity is at least partially maintained by a daylength-independent role of FT whose expression is indirectly sustained by Pc-G activity. PMID:24920331

  19. Spatial and temporal transcriptome changes occurring during flower opening and senescence of the ephemeral hibiscus flower, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis.

    PubMed

    Trivellini, Alice; Cocetta, Giacomo; Hunter, Donald A; Vernieri, Paolo; Ferrante, Antonio

    2016-10-01

    Flowers are complex systems whose vegetative and sexual structures initiate and die in a synchronous manner. The rapidity of this process varies widely in flowers, with some lasting for months while others such as Hibiscus rosa-sinensis survive for only a day. The genetic regulation underlying these differences is unclear. To identify key genes and pathways that coordinate floral organ senescence of ephemeral flowers, we identified transcripts in H. rosa-sinensis floral organs by 454 sequencing. During development, 2053 transcripts increased and 2135 decreased significantly in abundance. The senescence of the flower was associated with increased abundance of many hydrolytic genes, including aspartic and cysteine proteases, vacuolar processing enzymes, and nucleases. Pathway analysis suggested that transcripts altering significantly in abundance were enriched in functions related to cell wall-, aquaporin-, light/circadian clock-, autophagy-, and calcium-related genes. Finding enrichment in light/circadian clock-related genes fits well with the observation that hibiscus floral development is highly synchronized with light and the hypothesis that ageing/senescence of the flower is orchestrated by a molecular clock. Further study of these genes will provide novel insight into how the molecular clock is able to regulate the timing of programmed cell death in tissues.

  20. Can red flowers be conspicuous to bees? Bombus dahlbomii and South American temperate forest flowers as a case in point.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Harms, J; Palacios, A G; Márquez, N; Estay, P; Arroyo, M T K; Mpodozis, J

    2010-02-15

    It has been argued that trichromatic bees with photoreceptor spectral sensitivity peaks in the ultraviolet (UV), blue and green areas of the spectrum are blind to long wavelengths (red to humans). South American temperate forests (SATF) contain a large number of human red-looking flowers that are reported to be visited by the bumblebee Bombus dahlbomii. In the present study, B. dahlbomii's spectral sensitivity was measured through electroretinogram (ERG) recordings. No extended sensitivity to long wavelengths was found in B. dahlbomii. The spectral reflectance curves from eight plant species with red flowers were measured. The color loci occupied by these flowers in the bee color space was evaluated using the receptor noise-limited model. Four of the plant species have pure red flowers with low levels of chromatic contrast but high levels of negative L-receptor contrast. Finally, training experiments were performed in order to assess the role of achromatic cues in the detection and discrimination of red targets by B. dahlbomii. The results of the training experiments suggest that the bumblebee relies on achromatic contrast provided by the L-receptor to detect and discriminate red targets. These findings are discussed in the context of the evolutionary background under which the relationship between SATF species and their flower visitors may have evolved.

  1. Spatial and temporal transcriptome changes occurring during flower opening and senescence of the ephemeral hibiscus flower, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Trivellini, Alice; Cocetta, Giacomo; Hunter, Donald A.; Vernieri, Paolo; Ferrante, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Flowers are complex systems whose vegetative and sexual structures initiate and die in a synchronous manner. The rapidity of this process varies widely in flowers, with some lasting for months while others such as Hibiscus rosa-sinensis survive for only a day. The genetic regulation underlying these differences is unclear. To identify key genes and pathways that coordinate floral organ senescence of ephemeral flowers, we identified transcripts in H. rosa-sinensis floral organs by 454 sequencing. During development, 2053 transcripts increased and 2135 decreased significantly in abundance. The senescence of the flower was associated with increased abundance of many hydrolytic genes, including aspartic and cysteine proteases, vacuolar processing enzymes, and nucleases. Pathway analysis suggested that transcripts altering significantly in abundance were enriched in functions related to cell wall-, aquaporin-, light/circadian clock-, autophagy-, and calcium-related genes. Finding enrichment in light/circadian clock-related genes fits well with the observation that hibiscus floral development is highly synchronized with light and the hypothesis that ageing/senescence of the flower is orchestrated by a molecular clock. Further study of these genes will provide novel insight into how the molecular clock is able to regulate the timing of programmed cell death in tissues. PMID:27591432

  2. Pollination triggers female gametophyte development in immature Nicotiana tabacum flowers

    PubMed Central

    Brito, Michael S.; Bertolino, Lígia T.; Cossalter, Viviane; Quiapim, Andréa C.; DePaoli, Henrique C.; Goldman, Gustavo H.; Teixeira, Simone P.; Goldman, Maria H. S.

    2015-01-01

    In Nicotiana tabacum, female gametophytes are not fully developed at anthesis, but flower buds pollinated 12 h before anthesis produce mature embryo sacs. We investigated several pollination-associated parameters in N. tabacum flower buds to determine the developmental timing of important events in preparation for successful fertilization. First, we performed hand pollinations in flowers from stages 4 to 11 to study at which developmental stage pollination would produce fruits. A Peroxtesmo test was performed to correlate peroxidase activity on the stigma surface, indicative of stigma receptivity, with fruit set. Pollen tube growth and female gametophyte development were microscopically analyzed in pistils of different developmental stages. Fruits were obtained only after pollinations of flower buds at late stage 7 and older; fruit weight and seed germination capacity increased as the developmental stage of the pollinated flower approached anthesis. Despite positive peroxidase activity and pollen tube growth, pistils at stages 5 and 6 were unable to produce fruits. At late stage 7, female gametophytes were undergoing first mitotic division. After 24 h, female gametophytes of unpollinated pistils were still in the end of the first division, whereas those of pollinated pistils showed egg cells. RT-qPCR assay showed that the expression of the NtEC1 gene, a marker of egg cell development, is considerably higher in pollinated late stage 7 ovaries compared with unpollinated ovaries. To test whether ethylene is the signal eliciting female gametophyte maturation, the expression of ACC synthase was examined in unpollinated and pollinated stage 6 and late stage 7 stigmas/styles. Pollination induced NtACS expression in stage 6 pistils, which are unable to produce fruits. Our results show that pollination is a stimulus capable of triggering female gametophyte development in immature tobacco flowers and suggests the existence of a yet undefined signal sensed by the pistil. PMID

  3. Dynamic Pulse-Driven Flowering Phenology in a Semiarid Shrubland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krell, N.; Papuga, S. A.; Kipnis, E. L.; Nelson, K.

    2014-12-01

    Elevated springtime temperature has been convincingly linked to an increasingly earlier onset of phenological activity. Studies highlighting this phenomenon have generally been conducted in ecosystems where energy is the primary limiting factor. Importantly, phenological studies in semiarid ecosystems where water is the major limiting factor are rare. In semiarid ecosystems, the timing of phenological activity is also highly sensitive to discrete moisture pulses from infrequent precipitation events. The objective of this study is to identify the triggers of flowering phenology in a semiarid creosotebush-dominated ecosystem. Creosotebush (Larrea tridentata) is a repeat-flowering evergreen shrub that is the dominant species in three of the North American deserts. We present results from six years of daily meteorological and phenological data collected within the Santa Rita Experimental Range in southern Arizona. Our site is equipped with an eddy covariance tower providing estimates of water and carbon fluxes and associated meteorological variables including precipitation and soil moisture at multiple depths. Additionally, three digital cameras distributed within the footprint of the eddy provide daily images of phenological activity. Our results highlight substantial interannual variability in flowering phenology, both in spring and summer flowering. We show that spring flowering activity tends to be associated with energy triggers (e.g. temperature, growing degree days), whereas summer flowering activity tends to be associated with moisture triggers (e.g. large precipitation events, deep soil moisture). Our study suggests that changes in frequency and duration of precipitation events will impact timing of phenological activity resulting in important consequences for vegetation dynamics and pollinator behavior.

  4. Biofabrication of nanogold from the flower extracts of Lantana camara.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Brajesh; Smita, Kumari; Cumbal, Luis

    2016-06-01

    The present investigation was done to explore the potential of Lantana camara (L. camara) flower in the fabrication of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The shape and size of AuNPs have been successfully controlled by introducing small amounts of L. camara flower extract. It produced spherical nanogold of average size 10.6 ± 2.9 nm without any aggregation and showed significant photocatalytic degradation activity of the methylene blue (>62%, 10 mg/L) in the presence of solar light. In addition, the experimental approach is inexpensive, rapid and eco-friendly for industrial scale production of nanoparticles.

  5. Meiosis in flowering plants and other green organisms.

    PubMed

    Harrison, C Jill; Alvey, Elizabeth; Henderson, Ian R

    2010-06-01

    Sexual eukaryotes generate gametes using a specialized cell division called meiosis that serves both to halve the number of chromosomes and to reshuffle genetic variation present in the parent. The nature and mechanism of the meiotic cell division in plants and its effect on genetic variation are reviewed here. As flowers are the site of meiosis and fertilization in angiosperms, meiotic control will be considered within this developmental context. Finally, we review what is known about the control of meiosis in green algae and non-flowering land plants and discuss evolutionary transitions relating to meiosis that have occurred in the lineages giving rise to the angiosperms.

  6. Lessons from flower colour evolution on targets of selection.

    PubMed

    Wessinger, Carolyn A; Rausher, Mark D

    2012-10-01

    The genetic basis of flower colour evolution provides a useful system to address the debate over the relative contribution of regulatory vs. functional mutations in evolution. The relative importance of these two categories depends on the type of flower colour transition and the genes involved in those transitions. These differences reflect differences in the degree of deleterious pleiotropy associated with functional inactivation of various anthocyanin pathway genes. Our findings illustrate how generalized statements regarding the contributions of regulatory and functional mutations to broad categories of traits, such as morphological vs. physiological, ignore differences among traits within categories and in doing so overlook important factors determining the relative importance of regulatory and functional mutations.

  7. High Prevalence of Respiratory and Dermal Symptoms Among Ethiopian Flower Farm Workers.

    PubMed

    Hanssen, Vegard Mjelde; Nigatu, Amare Workiye; Zeleke, Zeyede Kebede; Moen, Bente Elisabeth; Bråtveit, Magne

    2015-01-01

    The flower industry is among the most important export industries in Ethiopia, employing more than 50,000 workers. The working conditions and health status among workers in Ethiopian flower industry are not documented. A questionnaire-based interview was conducted among 213 flower industry workers from 3 flower farms and 60 control workers from supermarkets from February to March 2012. A walk-through survey was also performed on the 3 flower farms. Interviewed flower farm workers have high prevalences of respiratory and dermal symptoms, which are rarely reported among controls. Female workers inside the greenhouses on the 3 flower farms have significantly more respiratory and dermal symptoms than workers outside the greenhouse, also when adjusting for age and education. Limited access to personal protection equipment (PPE) and unsafe pesticide routines are documented. This study indicates that working in these flower greenhouses might be associated with adverse health effects.

  8. Fine-tuned Bee-Flower Coevolutionary State Hidden within Multiple Pollination Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Akira; Dohzono, Ikumi; Nakaji, Masayoshi; Roff, Derek A.; Miller III, Donald G.; Osato, Sara; Yajima, Takuya; Niitsu, Shûhei; Utsugi, Nozomu; Sugawara, Takashi; Yoshimura, Jin

    2014-01-01

    Relationships between flowers and pollinators are generally considered cases of mutualism since both agents gain benefits. Fine-tuned adaptations are usually found in the form of strict one-to-one coevolution between species. Many insect pollinators are, however, considered generalists, visiting numerous kinds of flowers, and many flower species (angiosperms) are also considered generalists, visited by many insect pollinators. We here describe a fine-tuned coevolutionary state of a flower-visiting bee that collects both nectar and pollen from an early spring flower visited by multiple pollinators. Detailed morphology of the bee proboscis is shown to be finely adjusted to the floral morphology and nectar production of the flower. Behavioral observations also confirm the precision of this mutualism. Our results suggest that a fine-tuned one-to-one coevolutionary state between a flower species and a pollinator species might be common, but frequently overlooked, in multiple flower-pollinator interactions. PMID:24496444

  9. Clonal Structure, Seed Set, and Self-Pollination Rate in Mass-Flowering Bamboo Species during Off-Year Flowering Events

    PubMed Central

    Mizuki, Inoue; Sato, Ayaka; Matsuo, Ayumi; Suyama, Yoshihisa; Suzuki, Jun-Ichirou; Makita, Akifumi

    2014-01-01

    Bamboos are typical examples of highly synchronized semelparous species. Their mass-flowering events occur at supra-annual intervals but they sometimes flower on a small scale in off-years. If some bamboo ramets (culms) of a genet flower and die in off-years, whereas other culms of the same genet do not flower synchronously, the genet can still survive blooming in an off-year and could participate in the next mass-flowering event. At genet level, the effect might be similar to that achieved by synchronously reproducing iteroparous plants. In addition, if multiple genets flower simultaneously in off-years, cross-pollination will be promoted. However, it is not known whether all the culms in a genet flower synchronously and whether multiple genets flower in off-years. We determined the clonal structure of three temperate dwarf bamboo species, i.e., Sasa senanensis, S. kurilensis, and S. palmata, at 24 off-year flowering sites and the surrounding areas in northern Japan using seven microsatellite markers. We also estimated seed set at seven of the sites and self-pollination rates at five sites to determine off-year reproductive success. Next, we investigated whether seed sets at the culm level were related to flowering area and/or number of flowering genets, using generalized linear mixed-effect models (GLMMs). Multiple genets flowered at 9/24 flowering sites. We found that 40/96 of the genets identified had some flowering culms. Non-flowering culms were present in 24/40 flowering genets. Seed set was in the range 2.2%–12.5% and the self-pollination rate was 96.3%. In the best GLMM, seed set increased with flowering area. Seeds were produced in off-years, but cross-pollination was rare in off-years. We suggest that some dwarf bamboos may exhibit iteroparity or imperfectly synchronized semelparity at the genet level, a characteristic similar to that of other reproductively synchronous plants. We also found synchronous flowering of a few genets even in off-years. PMID

  10. Low temperatures are required to induce the development of fertile flowers in transgenic male and female early flowering poplar (Populus tremula L.).

    PubMed

    Hoenicka, Hans; Lehnhardt, Denise; Briones, Valentina; Nilsson, Ove; Fladung, Matthias

    2016-05-01

    Until now, artificial early flowering poplar systems have mostly led to the development of sterile flowers. In this study, several strategies aimed at inducting fertile flowers in pHSP::AtFT transgenic poplar were evaluated, in particular the influence of temperature and photoperiod. Our results provide evidence that temperature, and not photoperiod, is the key factor required for the development of fertile flowers in early flowering poplar. Fertile flowers were only obtained when a cold treatment phase of several weeks was used after the heat treatment phase. Heat treatments induced AtFT gene activity through activation of the heat-shock promoter (pHSP). Photoperiod did not show a similar influence on flower fertility as pollen grains were obtained under both long- and short-day conditions. Fertility was confirmed in flowers of both male and female plants. For the first time, crosses were successfully performed with transgenic female early flowering poplar. All mature flowers obtained after 8 weeks of inductive treatments were fertile. Gene expression studies also confirmed that cold temperatures influenced expression of poplar genes homologous to 'pollen development genes' from Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. Homology and expression patterns suggested a role for PtTDF1, PtBAM1, PtSERK1/2 and PtMS1 on anther and pollen development in poplar flowers. The system developed in this study allows a fast and very reliable induction of fertile poplar flowers in a very short period of time. The non-reproductive phase, usually 7-10 years, can now be shortened to 6-10 months, and fertile flowers can be obtained independently of the season. This system is a reliable tool for breeding purposes (high-speed breeding technology), genomics and biosafety research.

  11. Spatial variation in the community of insects associated with the flowers of Pachycereus weberi (Caryophyllales: Cactaceae).

    PubMed

    Figueroa-Castro, Dulce María; Valverde, Pedro Luis; Vite, Fernando; Carrillo-Ruiz, Hortensia

    2014-08-01

    The positive relationship between productivity and species diversity is well-known. Insect communities associated with the flowers of Cactaceae species represent an interesting system to explore the productivity-diversity relationship because branches facing the equator receive more photosynthetically active radiation and have higher productivity. Thus, flowers with contrasting orientations within an individual, and even within a single branch, might differ in productivity. Therefore, higher abundance, species richness, and diversity are expected for the insect communities associated with south-facing flowers. This hypothesis was tested in Pachycereus weberi (J.M. Coulter) Backeberg (Cactaceae). Insects within flowers with contrasting orientations were collected and its abundance, richness, and diversity were estimated. We also asked if insects prefer big flowers. Thus, flower volume was estimated and regression analyses were conducted to test if there is a positive relationship between flower size and insect abundance. Flower orientation did not affect species richness. However, species abundance and diversity were different in flowers with contrasting orientations. In general, species abundance was higher in flowers facing southwards than in north-facing flowers. On the contrary, species diversity was higher in north-facing flowers. Abundance of Coleoptera was explained by flower volume in south-facing flowers. Contrary to our hypothesis, total diversity was greater in the less productive oriented flowers. Three possible explanations are discussed to explain the low diversity found in the highly productive, south-facing flowers. Our study provides evidence for the effects of productivity on the structure of insect communities at a very small-scale.

  12. Use of transcriptome sequencing to understand the pistillate flowering in hickory (Carya cathayensis Sarg.)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Different from herbaceous plants, the woody plants undergo a long-period vegetative stage to achieve floral transition. They then turn into seasonal plants, flowering annually. In this study, a preliminary model of gene regulations for seasonal pistillate flowering in hickory (Carya cathayensis) was proposed. The genome-wide dynamic transcriptome was characterized via the joint-approach of RNA sequencing and microarray analysis. Results Differential transcript abundance analysis uncovered the dynamic transcript abundance patterns of flowering correlated genes and their major functions based on Gene Ontology (GO) analysis. To explore pistillate flowering mechanism in hickory, a comprehensive flowering gene regulatory network based on Arabidopsis thaliana was constructed by additional literature mining. A total of 114 putative flowering or floral genes including 31 with differential transcript abundance were identified in hickory. The locations, functions and dynamic transcript abundances were analyzed in the gene regulatory networks. A genome-wide co-expression network for the putative flowering or floral genes shows three flowering regulatory modules corresponding to response to light abiotic stimulus, cold stress, and reproductive development process, respectively. Totally 27 potential flowering or floral genes were recruited which are meaningful to understand the hickory specific seasonal flowering mechanism better. Conclusions Flowering event of pistillate flower bud in hickory is triggered by several pathways synchronously including the photoperiod, autonomous, vernalization, gibberellin, and sucrose pathway. Totally 27 potential flowering or floral genes were recruited from the genome-wide co-expression network function module analysis. Moreover, the analysis provides a potential FLC-like gene based vernalization pathway and an 'AC’ model for pistillate flower development in hickory. This work provides an available framework for pistillate flower

  13. Flower-visiting behavior of male bees is triggered by nectar-feeding insects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiura, Shinji; Abe, Tetsuto; Yamaura, Yuichi; Makino, Shun'ichi

    2007-08-01

    Bees are important pollinators for many flowering plants. Female bees are thought to be more effective pollinators than male bees because they carry much more pollen than males. Males of some solitary bee species are known to patrol near flowers that females visit. Because patrolling males visit flowers to mate or defend their territories, they may function as pollinators. However, the significance of patrolling males to pollination has not been studied. We studied males of a solitary bee, Heriades fulvohispidus (Megachilidae), patrolling near flowers and visiting flowers that attracted nectar-feeding insects, including conspecifics, on the Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands. To test the hypothesis that patrolling male bees may function as pollen vectors, we compared the frequency of visits by H. fulvohispidus to flowers of an endemic plant, Schima mertensiana (Theaceae); comparisons were made among flowers with a dead H. fulvohispidus, a dead beetle, a piece of plastic, and nothing (control flowers). Patrolling H. fulvohispidus more frequently visited flowers with a dead conspecific, a dead beetle, or a piece of plastic than the control flowers. Our experiment demonstrates that nectar-feeding insects (including conspecifics and other insects) enhance the flower-visiting frequency of patrolling H. fulvohispidus males on S. mertensiana flowers. Furthermore, we observed S. mertensiana pollen on patrolling males as well as females, suggesting that male bees may also function as pollen vectors.

  14. Flower-visiting behavior of male bees is triggered by nectar-feeding insects.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Shinji; Abe, Tetsuto; Yamaura, Yuichi; Makino, Shun'ichi

    2007-08-01

    Bees are important pollinators for many flowering plants. Female bees are thought to be more effective pollinators than male bees because they carry much more pollen than males. Males of some solitary bee species are known to patrol near flowers that females visit. Because patrolling males visit flowers to mate or defend their territories, they may function as pollinators. However, the significance of patrolling males to pollination has not been studied. We studied males of a solitary bee, Heriades fulvohispidus (Megachilidae), patrolling near flowers and visiting flowers that attracted nectar-feeding insects, including conspecifics, on the Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands. To test the hypothesis that patrolling male bees may function as pollen vectors, we compared the frequency of visits by H. fulvohispidus to flowers of an endemic plant, Schima mertensiana (Theaceae); comparisons were made among flowers with a dead H. fulvohispidus, a dead beetle, a piece of plastic, and nothing (control flowers). Patrolling H. fulvohispidus more frequently visited flowers with a dead conspecific, a dead beetle, or a piece of plastic than the control flowers. Our experiment demonstrates that nectar-feeding insects (including conspecifics and other insects) enhance the flower-visiting frequency of patrolling H. fulvohispidus males on S. mertensiana flowers. Furthermore, we observed S. mertensiana pollen on patrolling males as well as females, suggesting that male bees may also function as pollen vectors.

  15. Adaptation to climate through flowering phenology: a case study in Medicago truncatula.

    PubMed

    Burgarella, Concetta; Chantret, Nathalie; Gay, Laurène; Prosperi, Jean-Marie; Bonhomme, Maxime; Tiffin, Peter; Young, Nevin D; Ronfort, Joelle

    2016-07-01

    Local climatic conditions likely constitute an important selective pressure on genes underlying important fitness-related traits such as flowering time, and in many species, flowering phenology and climatic gradients strongly covary. To test whether climate shapes the genetic variation on flowering time genes and to identify candidate flowering genes involved in the adaptation to environmental heterogeneity, we used a large Medicago truncatula core collection to examine the association between nucleotide polymorphisms at 224 candidate genes and both climate variables and flowering phenotypes. Unlike genome-wide studies, candidate gene approaches are expected to enrich for the number of meaningful trait associations because they specifically target genes that are known to affect the trait of interest. We found that flowering time mediates adaptation to climatic conditions mainly by variation at genes located upstream in the flowering pathways, close to the environmental stimuli. Variables related to the annual precipitation regime reflected selective constraints on flowering time genes better than the other variables tested (temperature, altitude, latitude or longitude). By comparing phenotype and climate associations, we identified 12 flowering genes as the most promising candidates responsible for phenological adaptation to climate. Four of these genes were located in the known flowering time QTL region on chromosome 7. However, climate and flowering associations also highlighted largely distinct gene sets, suggesting different genetic architectures for adaptation to climate and flowering onset.

  16. 15 CFR Appendix A to Subpart L of... - Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Coordinates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flower Garden Banks National Marine... Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922, Subpt. L, App. A Appendix A to Subpart L of Part 922—Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Coordinates This appendix contains a...

  17. 15 CFR Appendix A to Subpart L of... - Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Coordinates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flower Garden Banks National Marine... Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922, Subpt. L, App. A Appendix A to Subpart L of Part 922—Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Coordinates This appendix contains a...

  18. 15 CFR Appendix A to Subpart L of... - Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Coordinates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flower Garden Banks National Marine... Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922, Subpt. L, App. A Appendix A to Subpart L of Part 922—Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Coordinates This appendix contains a...

  19. 78 FR 2957 - Availability of Seats for the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-15

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Availability of Seats for the Flower Garden Banks National... vacant seats on the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council: recreational fishing.... ADDRESSES: Application kits may be obtained from Jennifer Morgan, NOAA--Flower Garden Banks National...

  20. 75 FR 16074 - Availability of Conservation Seat for the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Availability of Conservation Seat for the Flower Garden... the following vacant seat on the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council... may be obtained from Jennifer Morgan, NOA- Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary, 4700...

  1. 15 CFR Appendix A to Subpart L of... - Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Coordinates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flower Garden Banks National Marine... Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922, Subpt. L, App. A Appendix A to Subpart L of Part 922—Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Coordinates This appendix contains a...

  2. Implications of High Temperature and Elevated CO2 on Flowering Time in Plants.

    PubMed

    Jagadish, S V Krishna; Bahuguna, Rajeev N; Djanaguiraman, Maduraimuthu; Gamuyao, Rico; Prasad, P V Vara; Craufurd, Peter Q

    2016-01-01

    Flowering is a crucial determinant for plant reproductive success and seed-set. Increasing temperature and elevated carbon-dioxide (e[CO2]) are key climate change factors that could affect plant fitness and flowering related events. Addressing the effect of these environmental factors on flowering events such as time of day of anthesis (TOA) and flowering time (duration from germination till flowering) is critical to understand the adaptation of plants/crops to changing climate and is the major aim of this review. Increasing ambient temperature is the major climatic factor that advances flowering time in crops and other plants, with a modest effect of e[CO2].Integrated environmental stimuli such as photoperiod, temperature and e[CO2] regulating flowering time is discussed. The critical role of plant tissue temperature influencing TOA is highlighted and crop models need to substitute ambient air temperature with canopy or floral tissue temperature to improve predictions. A complex signaling network of flowering regulation with change in ambient temperature involving different transcription factors (PIF4, PIF5), flowering suppressors (HvODDSOC2, SVP, FLC) and autonomous pathway (FCA, FVE) genes, mainly from Arabidopsis, provides a promising avenue to improve our understanding of the dynamics of flowering time under changing climate. Elevated CO2 mediated changes in tissue sugar status and a direct [CO2]-driven regulatory pathway involving a key flowering gene, MOTHER OF FT AND TFL1 (MFT), are emerging evidence for the role of e[CO2] in flowering time regulation.

  3. Natural variation for flowering time, perennialism, and nutrient recycling in bioenergy crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have analyzed annual Brachypodium for flowering time and nitrogen content when grown under a nitrogen gradient. Flowering time is correlated to whole plant N content, likely due to greater leaf mass in later flowering accessions. We hope the easily transformable annuals can assist in gene charact...

  4. Determinants of pollinator activity and flower preference in the early spring blooming Crocus vernus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Totland, Ørjan; Matthews, Ingrid

    1998-04-01

    This study examines the effects of environmental factors on the pollination activity on Crocus vernus by Apis mellifera, and also whether bees discriminate among flowers on the basis of floral display size and colour. Flower density was much more important than temperature, humidity, and time of day and season in explaining variation in bee numbers, the total number of flowers visited, the number of flowers visited by individual bees and the total number of visits per flower (visitation rate) during 10 min observation periods. Although flower density positively influenced bee abundance and the number of flowers visited by individual bees, we found a negative relationship between flower density and visitation rates, suggesting that the pool of available pollinators was saturated at flower densities below maximum. Despite this, visitation rates were high. On average a flower received 3.42 visits during one hour; thus there seems to be little intraspecific competition for pollinators despite saturation of the pollinator pool. There was no significant difference between the size or colour of flowers that were visited, approached, or ignored by bees, and duration of visits was not related to floral display size or colour. Thus, on average A. mellifera did not appear to discriminate between flowers on the basis of floral display. Consequently, the data indicate that there is no pollinator mediated selection on floral display, driven by discriminating pollinators.

  5. Flowering patterns of long-lived Heliconia inflorescences: implications for visiting and resident nectarivores.

    PubMed

    Dobkin, David S

    1984-10-01

    Flowering patterns of four Heliconia (Heliconiaceae) species in Trinidad, West Indies were examined for their predictability and availability to the nectarivores that rely on Heliconia floral nectar. Principal flower visitors are trapling hermit hummingbirds; inflorescences are inhabited by nectarivorous hummingbird flower mites that move between inflorescences by riding in the hummingbirds' nares. Heliconia inflorescences flower for 40-200 days, providing long-term sources of copious nectar (30-60 μl per flower), but each Heliconia flower lasts only a single day. As an inflorescence ages the interval increases between open flowers within a bract; wet-season inflorescences produce open flowers more slowly than dry-season conspecifics.Estimated daily energy expenditures for hermit hummingbirds demonstrate that slow production of short-lived open flowers plus low inflorescence density preclude territorial defense of Heliconia by the hermits. Heliconia flowering patterns are viewed as a means of (i) regulating reproductive investment by the plants through staggered flower production over long periods of time, and (ii) maintaining outcrossing by necessitating a traplining visitation pattern by its hummingbird pollinators. I suggest that Heliconia exhibit a two-tiered pollination system by using hermit hummingbirds primarily for outcrossing and using hummingbird flower mites primarily for self-pollination.

  6. Flowering Tendencies in Strawberry Species in the USDA Collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Clonal Germplasm Repository (NCGR), Corvallis, Oregon, maintains a national genebank for strawberry, Fragaria L. This collection includes diverse species maintained in screenhouses. The plants are exposed to an annual temperature regime that allows flower...

  7. Identification of phenolic components of chrysanthemum flower (Chrysanthemum morifolium)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A standardized LC-DAD-ESI/MS method was used to detect 31 phenolic compounds in the extract of chrysanthemum flowers (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat) (Compositae), an important Chinese traditional medicine. Of these phenolic compounds, 7 caffeoylquinic acids (3-, 4, 5-mono-, 3,4-, 3,5-, 1,5-, and 4...

  8. Widespread flower color convergence in Solanaceae via alternate biochemical pathways.

    PubMed

    Ng, Julienne; Smith, Stacey D

    2016-01-01

    Phenotypic convergence is rampant throughout the tree of life. While recent studies have made significant progress in ascertaining the proximate mechanisms underlying convergent phenotypes, less is known about the frequency and predictability with which convergent phenotypes arise via the same or multiple pathways at the macroevolutionary scale. We investigated the proximate causes and evolutionary patterns of red flower color in the tomato family, Solanaceae, using large-scale data mining and new sequence data to reconstruct a megaphylogeny of 1341 species. We then combined spectral and anatomical data to assess how many times red flowers have evolved, the relative contribution of different pathways to independent origins of red, and whether the underlying pathway is predicted by phylogenetic relatedness. We estimated at least 30 relatively recent origins of red flowers using anthocyanins, carotenoids, or a dual production of both pigments, with significant phylogenetic signal in the use of anthocyanins and dual production, indicating that closely related red-flowered species tend to employ the same mechanism for coloration. Our study is the first to test whether developmental pathways exhibit phylogenetic signal and implies that historical contingency strongly influences the evolution of new phenotypes.

  9. Method for production of sorghum hybrids with selected flowering times

    DOEpatents

    Mullet, John E.; Rooney, William L.

    2016-08-30

    Methods and composition for the production of sorghum hybrids with selected and different flowering times are provided. In accordance with the invention, a substantially continual and high-yield harvest of sorghum is provided. Improved methods of seed production are also provided.

  10. Bird-pollinated flowers in an evolutionary and molecular context.

    PubMed

    Cronk, Quentin; Ojeda, Isidro

    2008-01-01

    Evolutionary shifts to bird pollination (ornithophily) have occurred independently in many lineages of flowering plants. This shift affects many floral features, particularly those responsible for the attraction of birds, deterrence of illegitimate flower visitors (particularly bees), protection from vigorous foraging by birds, and accurate placement of pollen on bird's bodies. Red coloration appears to play a major role in both bee-deterrence and bird-attraction. Other mechanisms of bird-attraction include the production of abundant dilute nectar and the provision of secondary perches (for non-hovering birds). As a result of selection for similar phenotypic traits in unrelated bird-pollinated species, a floral syndrome of ornithophily can be recognized, and this review surveys the component floral traits. The strong convergent evolution evident in bird-pollinated flowers raises a question about the nature of the genetic mechanisms underlying such transitions and whether the same gene systems are involved in most cases. As yet there is too little information to answer this question. However, some promising model systems have been developed that include closely related bee and bird-pollinated flowers, such as Ipomoea, Mimulus, and Lotus. Recent studies of floral developmental genetics have identified numerous genes important in the development of the floral phenotype, which are also potential candidates for involvement in shifts between bee-pollination and bird pollination. As more whole-genome information becomes available, progress should be rapid.

  11. Genetic variation of flowering time and biomass in switchgrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The timing of phase change from juvenile (vegetative) to adult with reproductive competence is a key factor influencing biomass yield of switchgrass. A decline in biomass yield is typically observed in switchgrass immediately following completion of flowering. In temperate regions of the USA, if flo...

  12. A soilless Verticillium wilt assay using an early flowering lettuce

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A soilless growth chamber assay was evaluated for rapid assessment of Verticillium wilt symptoms on lettuce. Seedlings of the early flowering plant introduction (PI) 251246 were inoculated in tubes with conidial suspensions of Verticillium spp. isolates from lettuce or cauliflower. PI 251246 devel...

  13. Chemical Interruption of Flowering to Improve Harvested Peanut Maturity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is a botanically indeterminate plant where flowering, fruit initiation, and pod maturity occurs over an extended time period during the growing season. As a result, the maturity and size of individual peanut pods varies considerably at harvest. Immature kernels that meet co...

  14. Spermidine and Flavonoid conjugates from Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) Flower

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new triamide has been isolated from peanut flowers and identified as di-p-(EE)-coumaroylacetylspermidine on the basis of detailed analysis of NMR, MS, and UV data. Two other spermidine conjugates, N1, N5, N10-tri-p-(EEE)-coumaroylspermidine and di-p-(EE)-coumaroylspermidine, as well as four flavon...

  15. Management of flowering and fruiting of 'Kaimana' lychee in Hawaii.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Kaimana' lychee was selected in Hawaii based upon its high fruit quality and capacity to flower under Hawaii's mild winter climate. In Hawaii, consistent lychee production is achieved through management practices that limit high nitrogen content and new vegetative flushes during the time of year w...

  16. Sparse-flowering orchardgrass is stable across temperate North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three sparse-flowering orchardgrass populations were developed by selective breeding as a mechanism to reduce stem production during the early spring season in management-intensive grazing systems. These populations and three check cultivars were evaluated under frequent- and infrequent-harvest syst...

  17. Response of yellow flowering magnolia varieties to powdery mildew, 2015

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yellow flowering varieties of Magnolia spp. hybrids were planted in April 2008 in a field plot with Waynesboro loam soil at the Otis L. Floyd Nursery Research Center in McMinnville, TN. Severity of powdery mildew was determined on 14 Jul, 21 Aug and 15 Oct using a scale of 0-100% foliage affected. ...

  18. MISSING FLOWERS gene controls axillary meristems initiation in sunflower.

    PubMed

    Fambrini, Marco; Cionini, Giuliano; Bertini, Daniele; Michelotti, Vania; Conti, Alessio; Pugliesi, Claudio

    2003-05-01

    The initiation and growth of axillary meristems are fundamental components of plant architecture. Here, we describe the mutant missing flowers (mf) of Helianthus annuus characterized by the lack of axillary shoots. Decapitation experiments and histological analysis indicate that this phenotype is the result of a defect in axillary meristem initiation. In addition to shoot branching, mutation affects floral differentiation. The indeterminate inflorescence of sunflower (capitulum) is formed of a large flat meristem which produces floret primordia in multiple spirals. In wildtype plants a bisecting crease divides each primordium in two distinct bumps that adopt different fate. The peripheral (abaxial) part of the primordium becomes a small leaf-like bract and the adaxial part becomes a flower. In the mf mutant, the formation of flowers at the axil of bracts is precluded. Histological analyses show that in floret primordia of the mutant a clear subdivision in dyads is not established. The primordia progressively bend inside and only large involucral floral bracts are developed. The results suggest that the MISSING FLOWERS gene is essential to provide or perceive an appropriate signal to the initiation of axillary meristems during both vegetative and reproductive phases.

  19. The Flowering of the Suburbs: Common Land and Community Farming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donahue, Brian

    2000-01-01

    Land's Sake, a community farm in suburban Weston (Massachusetts), cares for most of the town's conservation land, grows organic fruits and flowers, harvests forest products, employs young people, and offers various outdoor environmental education programs. The community's engagement with the land led to the passing of a bond issue to preserve the…

  20. The imbalanced supertree of flowering-plant phylogeny

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Sean W; Cronk, Quentin CB

    2004-01-01

    Two contrasting approaches have been used to construct the overall tree of life from molecular data: one involves the analysis of single large datasets, while the other involves joining many independent smaller analyses into a supertree. A recent study uses the latter approach to produce the most complete phylogeny yet of flowering plant families. PMID:15287967

  1. Arabidopsis cryptochrome 1 functions in nitrogen regulation of flowering

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Shu; Zhang, Zhong-Wei; Zheng, Chong; Zhao, Zhong-Yi; Wang, Yu; Feng, Ling-Yang; Niu, Guoqi; Wang, Chang-Quan; Wang, Jian-Hui; Feng, Hong; Xu, Fei; Bao, Fang; Hu, Yong; Cao, Ying; Ma, Ligeng; Wang, Haiyang; Kong, Dong-Dong; Xiao, Wei; Lin, Hong-Hui; He, Yikun

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenon of delayed flowering after the application of nitrogen (N) fertilizer has long been known in agriculture, but the detailed molecular basis for this phenomenon is largely unclear. Here we used a modified method of suppression-subtractive hybridization to identify two key factors involved in N-regulated flowering time control in Arabidopsis thaliana, namely ferredoxin-NADP+-oxidoreductase and the blue-light receptor cryptochrome 1 (CRY1). The expression of both genes is induced by low N levels, and their loss-of-function mutants are insensitive to altered N concentration. Low-N conditions increase both NADPH/NADP+ and ATP/AMP ratios, which in turn affect adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity. Moreover, our results show that the AMPK activity and nuclear localization are rhythmic and inversely correlated with nuclear CRY1 protein abundance. Low-N conditions increase but high-N conditions decrease the expression of several key components of the central oscillator (e.g., CCA1, LHY, and TOC1) and the flowering output genes (e.g., GI and CO). Taken together, our results suggest that N signaling functions as a modulator of nuclear CRY1 protein abundance, as well as the input signal for the central circadian clock to interfere with the normal flowering process. PMID:27325772

  2. Anthocyanin Content in Seeds, Leaves and Flowers of Lablab Purpureus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lablab purpureus contain bioactive phytochemicals and with potential to be utilized in the pharmaceutical and nutraceutical markets. Ninety four Lablab purpureus accessions are conserved at the USDA, ARS, Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit in Griffin, GA. Anthocyanins are present in flowers...

  3. Flowering and Fruiting Patterns of Primocane-Fruiting Blackberries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The flowering morphology of the erect, thorny, primocane-fruiting blackberry (Rubus L. subgenus Rubus, Watson) cultivars Prime-Jan® and Prime-Jim® were studied in 2005 and 2006 in Aurora, Ore. Primocanes that were "soft-tipped" in early summer to 1 m were compared to un-tipped primocanes. In both ...

  4. Growth, Flowering and Cold Hardiness of Rockrose in Western Oregon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ninety-three species, cultivars, and hybrid selections of Cistus spp. L., Halimium spp. Spach. (Dunal) and ×Halimiocistus spp. Janch. were evaluated for growth, flowering, and cold hardiness in a landscape trial in Aurora, OR, from 2004 to 2009. Plants were irrigated to aid establishment when plant...

  5. Fair Trade Flowers: Global Certification, Environmental Sustainability, and Labor Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raynolds, Laura T.

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes the organization of the fair trade flower industry, integration of Ecuadorian enterprises into these networks, and power of certification to address key environmental and social concerns on participating estates. Pursuing a social regulatory approach, I locate fair trade within the field of new institutions that establish and…

  6. Trichomes control flower bud shape by linking together young petals.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jiafu; Walford, Sally-Anne; Dennis, Elizabeth S; Llewellyn, Danny

    2016-06-20

    Trichomes are widespread in plants and develop from surface cells on different tissues(1). They have many forms and functions, from defensive spines to physical barriers that trap layers of air to insulate against desiccation, but there is growing evidence that trichomes can also have developmental roles in regulating flower structure(2,3). We report here that the trichomes on petals of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., are essential for correct flower bud shape through a mechanical entanglement of the trichomes on adjacent petals that anchor the edges to counter the opposing force generated by asymmetric expansion of overlapping petals. Silencing a master regulator of petal trichomes, GhMYB-MIXTA-Like10 (GhMYBML10), by RNA interference (RNAi) suppressed petal trichome growth and resulted in flower buds forming into abnormal corkscrew shapes that exposed developing anthers and stigmas to desiccation damage. Artificially gluing petal edges together could partially restore correct bud shape and fertility. Such petal 'Velcro' is present in other Malvaceae and perhaps more broadly in other plant families, although it is not ubiquitous. This mechanism for physical association between separate organs to regulate flower shape and function is different from the usual organ shape control(4) exerted through cell-to-cell communication and differential cell expansion within floral tissues(5,6).

  7. Attracting and maintaining Tachinidae with flowering plants: estimating attractiveness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flowering plants in agricultural landscapes can provide ecological services, such as nectar-food for adult parasitic flies such as Tachinidae. Of the 14 plant species tested only 4 captured significantly more Tachinidae than controls (Agastache hybrid, Ageratina aromatic, Aloysia virgata, and Daucus...

  8. Flowering phenological changes in relation to climate change in Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szabó, Barbara; Vincze, Enikő; Czúcz, Bálint

    2016-09-01

    The importance of long-term plant phenological time series is growing in monitoring of climate change impacts worldwide. To detect trends and assess possible influences of climate in Hungary, we studied flowering phenological records for six species ( Convallaria majalis, Taraxacum officinale, Syringa vulgaris, Sambucus nigra, Robinia pseudoacacia, Tilia cordata) based on phenological observations from the Hungarian Meteorological Service recorded between 1952 and 2000. Altogether, four from the six examined plant species showed significant advancement in flowering onset with an average rate of 1.9-4.4 days per decade. We found that it was the mean temperature of the 2-3 months immediately preceding the mean flowering date, which most prominently influenced its timing. In addition, several species were affected by the late winter (January-March) values of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index. We also detected sporadic long-term effects for all species, where climatic variables from earlier months exerted influence with varying sign and little recognizable pattern: the temperature/NAO of the previous autumn (August-December) seems to influence Convallaria, and the temperature/precipitation of the previous spring (February-April) has some effect on Tilia flowering.

  9. The use of flowering plants to attract Aedes albopictus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New approaches to vector surveillance and control are being evaluated at the Center for Medical, Agricultural, and Veterinary Entomology, Gainesville, Florida. One approach is to use flowering plants. Mosquitoes of both sexes are attracted to nectar producing plants. These plants generate mixture...

  10. Chemical Interruption of Flowering to Improve Harvested Peanut Maturity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is a botanically indeterminate plant where flowering, fruit initiation, and pod maturity occurs over an extended time period during the growing season. As a result, the maturity and size of individual peanut pods varies considerably at harvest. Immature kernels that meet...

  11. Retail Flower Shop Salesperson and Floral Designer. Student's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This document consists of the student manual for a course in retail flower shop sales and floral design for use in vocational education courses in high schools in South Carolina. The guide consists of 22 learning modules that incorporate the subject matter needed by workers in these jobs. Each learning module consists of an introduction,…

  12. Creativity...The Flowering Tornado, Art by Ginny Ruffner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mark M.

    2003-01-01

    Presents background information on the artist Ginny Ruffner who was a "flameworker." Includes information on the exhibition entitled "Creativity: The Flowering Tornado, Art by Ginny Ruffner" and the accompanying art pop-up book. Provides photographs of some of her artwork. (CMK)

  13. Trait correlates and functional significance of heteranthery in flowering plants.

    PubMed

    Vallejo-Marín, Mario; Da Silva, Elizabeth M; Sargent, Risa D; Barrett, Spencer C H

    2010-10-01

    Flowering plants display extraordinary diversity in the morphology of male sexual organs, yet the functional significance of this variation is not well understood. Here, we conducted a comparative analysis of floral correlates of heteranthery - the morphological and functional differentiation of anthers within flowers - among angiosperm families to identify traits associated with this condition. • We performed a phylogenetic analysis of correlated evolution between heteranthery and several floral traits commonly reported from heterantherous taxa. In addition, we quantified the effect of phylogenetic uncertainty in the observed patterns of correlated evolution by comparing trees in which polytomous branches were randomly resolved. • Heteranthery is reported from 12 angiosperm orders and is phylogenetically associated with the absence of floral nectaries, buzz-pollination and enantiostyly (mirror-image flowers). These associations are robust to particularities of the underlying phylogenetic hypothesis. • Heteranthery has probably evolved as a result of pollinator-mediated selection and appears to function to reduce the conflict of relying on pollen both as food to attract pollinators and as the agent of male gamete transfer. The relative scarcity of heteranthery among angiosperm families suggests that the conditions permitting its evolution are not easily met despite the abundance of pollen-collecting bees and nectarless flowers.

  14. Associations with flowering time, latitude, and climate in switchgrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Switchgrass is a North American perennial grass and emerging bioenergy feedstock, and increasing biomass yields will improve the economic viability of switchgrass as a bioenergy crop. Flowering time is an important determinant of biomass yields in switchgrass because the majority of biomass accumula...

  15. Flowering dynamics and pollinator visitation of oilseed echium (Echium plantagineum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Echium (Echium plantagineum L.) is an alternative oilseed crop in summer-wet temperate regions that provides floral resources to pollinators. Its seed oil is rich in omega-3 fatty acids, such as stearidonic acid, which is desired highly by the cosmetic industry. We examined flowering dynamics, polli...

  16. Rapid synthesis of flower-like ZnO nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Movahedi, Maryam; Mahjoub, Ali Reza; Yavari, Issa; Kowsari, Elaheh

    2010-09-01

    Flower-like ZnO nanostructures were prepared via microwave assisted heating in the presence and absence of ionic liquid (IL). X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy SEM and room temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectra have been employed for characterization of the products. The SEM image illustrates the surface of flower-like ZnO prepared in the presence of IL is not smooth and consists of nanoparticles with grain size of about 48 nm. PL spectra of flower-like ZnO in absence and presence IL reveal similar photoluminescence features: a strong UV, weak blue and green-yellow emissions peak at a bout 393 nm, 448 nm and 583 nm respectively. The strong UV photoluminescence and the weak green emission indicate the good crystallization quality of the flower-like nanostructure. The results show that imidazolium-based IL can be used as template for achieving very high level control over the size and shape of nanostructures. The approach developed in this work can potentially be used as a viable method for making various other uniform nanostructures in the presence of IL. This method is simple, fast, low-cost and suitable for large-scale production of ZnO nanostructures.

  17. Flower of the Dragon: An Example of Applied Humanistic Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenhart, R. Wayne

    1977-01-01

    Focuses primarily upon the applications of the tools of humanistic psychology with Viet Nam era veterans. The Flower of the Dragon, a self-help project seeking to facilitate the growth of Viet Nam era veterans, is one example of a means by which humanistic psychology can build a stronger foundation for itself and for society at large. (Author)

  18. Changes in flowering phenology of woody plants in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Junhu

    2016-04-01

    Over the past several decades, abundant evidences proved that the first flowering date of plants in northern hemisphere became earlier in response to climate warming. However, the existing results about impact of climate change on flowering duration are controversial. In this study, we studied temporal trends in first flowering date (FFD), end of flowering date (EFD) and flowering duration (FD) of 94 woody plants from 1963 to 2014 at three stations (Harbin, Beijing and Xi'an) in North China. Meanwhile, we analyzed the relationship between length of flowering periods and temperature using two phenological models (including regression model and growing degree day model). At all stations, more than 90% of observed species showed earlier flowering over time from 1963 to 2014. The average trends in FFD were 1.33, 1.77 and 3.01 days decade-1 at Harbin, Beijing and Xi'an, respectively. During the same period, EFD also became earlier by a mean rate of 2.19, 1.39 and 2.00 days decade-1, respectively. Regarding FD, a significant shortening of FD was observed at Harbin (-0.86 days decade-1), but FD extended by 0.37 and 1.01 days decade-1 at Beijing and Xi'an, respectively. At interspecific level, the plant species with longer FD tend to have stronger trends of FD extension. Through regression analyses, we found more than 85% of time series revealed a significant negative relationship between FFD (or EFD) and preseason temperature. The regression model could simulate the interannual changes in FFD and EFD with the mean goodness of fit (R2) ranging from 0.38 to 0.67, but failed to simulate the FD accurately, as R2 ranging from 0.09 to 0.18. Regarding to FFD and EFD, the growing degree day model could improved R2 of simuation, but also could not simulate FD accurately. Therefore, we concluded that the FFD and EFD advanced notably in recent six decades as a result of climate warming, but the direction of FD changes depended on locations and the species involved. In addition, the

  19. Year clustering analysis for modelling olive flowering phenology.

    PubMed

    Oteros, J; García-Mozo, H; Hervás-Martínez, C; Galán, C

    2013-07-01

    It is now widely accepted that weather conditions occurring several months prior to the onset of flowering have a major influence on various aspects of olive reproductive phenology, including flowering intensity. Given the variable characteristics of the Mediterranean climate, we analyse its influence on the registered variations in olive flowering intensity in southern Spain, and relate them to previous climatic parameters using a year-clustering approach, as a first step towards an olive flowering phenology model adapted to different year categories. Phenological data from Cordoba province (Southern Spain) for a 30-year period (1982-2011) were analysed. Meteorological and phenological data were first subjected to both hierarchical and "K-means" clustering analysis, which yielded four year-categories. For this classification purpose, three different models were tested: (1) discriminant analysis; (2) decision-tree analysis; and (3) neural network analysis. Comparison of the results showed that the neural-networks model was the most effective, classifying four different year categories with clearly distinct weather features. Flowering-intensity models were constructed for each year category using the partial least squares regression method. These category-specific models proved to be more effective than general models. They are better suited to the variability of the Mediterranean climate, due to the different response of plants to the same environmental stimuli depending on the previous weather conditions in any given year. The present detailed analysis of the influence of weather patterns of different years on olive phenology will help us to understand the short-term effects of climate change on olive crop in the Mediterranean area that is highly affected by it.

  20. A functional role for the colleters of coffee flowers

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Juliana Lischka Sampaio; Carmello-Guerreiro, Sandra Maria; Mazzafera, Paulo

    2013-01-01

    Colleters are protuberances or trichomes that produce and release an exudate that overlays vegetative or reproductive buds. Colleters have a functional definition, as they are thought to protect young tissues against dehydration and pest attack. Decaffeinated coffee plants, named Decaffito®, have recently been obtained through chemical mutagenesis, and in addition to the absence of the alkaloid, the flowers of these plants open precociously. Decaffito mutants exhibit minimal production and secretion of the exudate by the colleters. We compared these mutants with normal coffee plants to infer the functional role of colleters and the secreted exudate covering flower buds. Decaffito mutants were obtained by sodium azide mutagenesis of Coffea arabica cv. Catuaí seeds. Wild-type plants were used as controls and are referred to as Catuaí. The flower colleters were analysed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy in addition to histochemical analysis. Histochemical analysis indicated the presence of heterogeneous exudate in the secretory cells of the colleters of both variants of coffee trees. Alkaloids were detected in Catuaí but not in Decaffito. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the secretory cells in the Catuaí colleters possessed the normal and common characteristics found in secretory structures. In the secretory cells of the Decaffito colleters, it was not possible to identify any organelles or even the nucleus, but the cells had a darkened central cytoplasm, indicating that the secretion is produced in low amounts but not released. Our results offer a proof of concept of colleters in coffee, strongly indicating that the exudate covering the flower parts works as an adhesive to keep the petals together and the flower closed, which in part helps to avoid dehydration. Additionally, the exudate itself helps to prevent water loss from the epidermal cells of the petals.

  1. The Overlooked Biodiversity of Flower-Visiting Invertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Wardhaugh, Carl W.; Stork, Nigel E.; Edwards, Will; Grimbacher, Peter S.

    2012-01-01

    Estimates suggest that perhaps 40% of all invertebrate species are found in tropical rainforest canopies. Extrapolations of total diversity and food web analyses have been based almost exclusively on species inhabiting the foliage, under the assumption that foliage samples are representative of the entire canopy. We examined the validity of this assumption by comparing the density of invertebrates and the species richness of beetles across three canopy microhabitats (mature leaves, new leaves and flowers) on a one hectare plot in an Australian tropical rainforest. Specifically, we tested two hypotheses: 1) canopy invertebrate density and species richness are directly proportional to the amount of resource available; and 2) canopy microhabitats represent discrete resources that are utilised by their own specialised invertebrate communities. We show that flowers in the canopy support invertebrate densities that are ten to ten thousand times greater than on the nearby foliage when expressed on a per-unit resource biomass basis. Furthermore, species-level analyses of the beetle fauna revealed that flowers support a unique and remarkably rich fauna compared to foliage, with very little species overlap between microhabitats. We reject the hypothesis that the insect fauna on mature foliage is representative of the greater canopy community even though mature foliage comprises a very large proportion of canopy plant biomass. Although the significance of the evolutionary relationship between flowers and insects is well known with respect to plant reproduction, less is known about the importance of flowers as resources for tropical insects. Consequently, we suggest that this constitutes a more important piece of the ‘diversity jigsaw puzzle’ than has been previously recognised and could alter our understanding of the evolution of plant-herbivore interactions and food web dynamics, and provide a better foundation for accurately estimating global species richness. PMID

  2. The overlooked biodiversity of flower-visiting invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Wardhaugh, Carl W; Stork, Nigel E; Edwards, Will; Grimbacher, Peter S

    2012-01-01

    Estimates suggest that perhaps 40% of all invertebrate species are found in tropical rainforest canopies. Extrapolations of total diversity and food web analyses have been based almost exclusively on species inhabiting the foliage, under the assumption that foliage samples are representative of the entire canopy. We examined the validity of this assumption by comparing the density of invertebrates and the species richness of beetles across three canopy microhabitats (mature leaves, new leaves and flowers) on a one hectare plot in an Australian tropical rainforest. Specifically, we tested two hypotheses: 1) canopy invertebrate density and species richness are directly proportional to the amount of resource available; and 2) canopy microhabitats represent discrete resources that are utilised by their own specialised invertebrate communities. We show that flowers in the canopy support invertebrate densities that are ten to ten thousand times greater than on the nearby foliage when expressed on a per-unit resource biomass basis. Furthermore, species-level analyses of the beetle fauna revealed that flowers support a unique and remarkably rich fauna compared to foliage, with very little species overlap between microhabitats. We reject the hypothesis that the insect fauna on mature foliage is representative of the greater canopy community even though mature foliage comprises a very large proportion of canopy plant biomass. Although the significance of the evolutionary relationship between flowers and insects is well known with respect to plant reproduction, less is known about the importance of flowers as resources for tropical insects. Consequently, we suggest that this constitutes a more important piece of the 'diversity jigsaw puzzle' than has been previously recognised and could alter our understanding of the evolution of plant-herbivore interactions and food web dynamics, and provide a better foundation for accurately estimating global species richness.

  3. Flower Morphology, Pollination Biology and Mating System of the Complex Flower of Vigna caracalla (Fabaceae: Papilionoideae)

    PubMed Central

    Etcheverry, Angela Virginia; Alemán, Maria Mercedes; Fleming, Trinidad Figueroa

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Vigna caracalla has the most complex flower among asymmetrical Papilionoideae. The objective of this study was to understand the relationships among floral characteristics, specialization, mating system and the role of floral visitors under different ecological contexts. Methods Five populations were studied in north-western Argentina, from 700 to 1570 m a.s.l. Anthesis, colour and odour patterns, stigmatic receptivity, visitors and pollination mechanism were examined and mating-system experiments were performed. Key Results The petals are highly modified and the keel shows 3·75–5·25 revolutions. The sense of asymmetry was always left-handed. Hand-crosses showed that V. caracalla is self-compatible, but depends on pollinators to set seeds. Hand-crossed fruits were more successful than hand-selfed ones, with the exception of the site at the highest elevation. Bombus morio (queens and workers), Centris bicolor, Eufriesea mariana and Xylocopa eximia trigger the pollination mechanism (a ‘brush type’). The greatest level of self-compatibility and autonomous self-pollination were found at the highest elevation, together with the lowest reproductive success and number of pollinators (B. morio workers only). Conclusions Self-fertilization may have evolved in the peripheral population at the highest site of V. caracalla because of the benefits of reproductive assurance under reduced pollinator diversity. PMID:18587133

  4. The Complexity of Background Clutter Affects Nectar Bat Use of Flower Odor and Shape Cues.

    PubMed

    Muchhala, Nathan; Serrano, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Given their small size and high metabolism, nectar bats need to be able to quickly locate flowers during foraging bouts. Chiropterophilous plants depend on these bats for their reproduction, thus they also benefit if their flowers can be easily located, and we would expect that floral traits such as odor and shape have evolved to maximize detection by bats. However, relatively little is known about the importance of different floral cues during foraging bouts. In the present study, we undertook a set of flight cage experiments with two species of nectar bats (Anoura caudifer and A. geoffroyi) and artificial flowers to compare the importance of shape and scent cues in locating flowers. In a training phase, a bat was presented an artificial flower with a given shape and scent, whose position was constantly shifted to prevent reliance on spatial memory. In the experimental phase, two flowers were presented, one with the training-flower scent and one with the training-flower shape. For each experimental repetition, we recorded which flower was located first, and then shifted flower positions. Additionally, experiments were repeated in a simple environment, without background clutter, or a complex environment, with a background of leaves and branches. Results demonstrate that bats visit either flower indiscriminately with simple backgrounds, with no significant difference in terms of whether they visit the training-flower odor or training-flower shape first. However, in a complex background olfaction was the most important cue; scented flowers were consistently located first. This suggests that for well-exposed flowers, without obstruction from clutter, vision and/or echolocation are sufficient in locating them. In more complex backgrounds, nectar bats depend more heavily on olfaction during foraging bouts.

  5. The Complexity of Background Clutter Affects Nectar Bat Use of Flower Odor and Shape Cues

    PubMed Central

    Muchhala, Nathan; Serrano, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Given their small size and high metabolism, nectar bats need to be able to quickly locate flowers during foraging bouts. Chiropterophilous plants depend on these bats for their reproduction, thus they also benefit if their flowers can be easily located, and we would expect that floral traits such as odor and shape have evolved to maximize detection by bats. However, relatively little is known about the importance of different floral cues during foraging bouts. In the present study, we undertook a set of flight cage experiments with two species of nectar bats (Anoura caudifer and A. geoffroyi) and artificial flowers to compare the importance of shape and scent cues in locating flowers. In a training phase, a bat was presented an artificial flower with a given shape and scent, whose position was constantly shifted to prevent reliance on spatial memory. In the experimental phase, two flowers were presented, one with the training-flower scent and one with the training-flower shape. For each experimental repetition, we recorded which flower was located first, and then shifted flower positions. Additionally, experiments were repeated in a simple environment, without background clutter, or a complex environment, with a background of leaves and branches. Results demonstrate that bats visit either flower indiscriminately with simple backgrounds, with no significant difference in terms of whether they visit the training-flower odor or training-flower shape first. However, in a complex background olfaction was the most important cue; scented flowers were consistently located first. This suggests that for well-exposed flowers, without obstruction from clutter, vision and/or echolocation are sufficient in locating them. In more complex backgrounds, nectar bats depend more heavily on olfaction during foraging bouts. PMID:26445216

  6. Southern Monarchs do not Develop Learned Preferences for Flowers With Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Marina Vasconcelos; Trigo, José Roberto; Rodrigues, Daniela

    2015-07-01

    Danaus butterflies sequester pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) from nectar and leaves of various plant species for defense and reproduction. We tested the hypothesis that the southern monarch butterfly Danaus erippus shows innate preferences for certain flower colors and has the capacity to develop learned preferences for artificial flowers presenting advantageous floral rewards such as PAs. We predicted that orange and yellow flowers would be innately preferred by southern monarchs. Another prediction is that flowers with both sucrose and PAs would be preferred over those having sucrose only, regardless of flower color. In nature, males of Danaus generally visit PA sources more often than females, so we expected that males of D. erippus would exhibit a stronger learned preference for PA sources than the females. In the innate preference tests, adults were offered artificial non-rewarding yellow, orange, blue, red, green, and violet flowers. Orange and yellow artificial flowers were most visited by southern monarchs, followed by blue and red ones. No individual visited either green or violet flowers. For assessing learned preferences for PA flowers over flowers with no PAs, southern monarchs were trained to associate orange flowers with sucrose plus the PA monocrotaline vs. yellow flowers with sucrose only; the opposite combination was used to train another set of butterflies. In the tests, empty flowers were offered to trained butterflies. Neither males nor females showed learned preferences for flower colors associated with PAs in the training set. Thus, southern monarchs resemble the sister species Danaus plexippus in their innate preferences for orange and yellow flowers. Southern monarchs, similarly to temperate monarchs, might not be as PA-demanding as are other danaine species.

  7. Repressed ethylene production in the gynoecium of long-lasting flowers of the carnation 'White Candle': role of the gynoecium in carnation flower senescence.

    PubMed

    Nukui, Hideki; Kudo, Sakiko; Yamashita, Atsushi; Satoh, Shigeru

    2004-03-01

    Ethylene production and expression of ethylene biosynthetic genes was investigated in senescing flowers of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) cultivars 'White Candle (WC)' and 'Light Pink Barbara (LPB)', with long and short vase-lives, respectively. Ethylene production from the gynoecium and petals of senescing 'WC' flowers was below the limit of detection, in agreement with the repressed ethylene production from the whole flowers. However, exogenous ethylene treatment caused the accumulation of transcripts for DC-ACS1 and DC-ACO1 genes in both the gynoecium and petals, resulting in ethylene production from the flowers. Moreover, application of ABA or IAA, which are known to exhibit their action through the induction of ethylene synthesis in the gynoecium, to 'WC' flowers from their cut stem-end induced ethylene production and wilting in the flowers. These findings suggested that, in 'WC' flowers the mechanism of ethylene biosynthesis, i.e. the induction of expression of genes for ethylene biosynthesis and the action of resulting enzymes, was not defective, but that its function was repressed during natural senescence. Transcripts of DC-ACO1, DC-ACS3, and DC-ACS1 were present in the gynoecium of senescing 'LPB' flowers. In the gynoecium of senescing 'WC' flowers, however, the DC-ACO1 transcript was present, but the DC-ACS1 transcript was absent and the DC-ACS3 transcript was detected only in a small amount; the latter two were associated with the low rate of ethylene production in the gynoecium of 'WC' flowers. These findings indicated that the repressed ethylene production in 'WC' flowers during natural senescence is caused by the repressed ethylene production in the gynoecium, giving further support for the role of the gynoecium in regulating petal senescence in carnation flowers.

  8. NUCLEAR FACTOR Y, Subunit A (NF-YA) Proteins Positively Regulate Flowering and Act Through FLOWERING LOCUS T

    PubMed Central

    Siriwardana, Chamindika L.; Kumimoto, Roderick W.; Mantovani, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Photoperiod dependent flowering is one of several mechanisms used by plants to initiate the developmental transition from vegetative growth to reproductive growth. The NUCLEAR FACTOR Y (NF-Y) transcription factors are heterotrimeric complexes composed of NF-YA and histone-fold domain (HFD) containing NF-YB/NF-YC, that initiate photoperiod-dependent flowering by cooperatively interacting with CONSTANS (CO) to drive the expression of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT). This involves NF-Y and CO binding at distal CCAAT and proximal “CORE” elements, respectively, in the FT promoter. While this is well established for the HFD subunits, there remains some question over the potential role of NF-YA as either positive or negative regulators of this process. Here we provide strong support, in the form of genetic and biochemical analyses, that NF-YA, in complex with NF-YB/NF-YC proteins, can directly bind the distal CCAAT box in the FT promoter and are positive regulators of flowering in an FT-dependent manner. PMID:27977687

  9. Peace, a MYB-like transcription factor, regulates petal pigmentation in flowering peach 'Genpei' bearing variegated and fully pigmented flowers.

    PubMed

    Uematsu, Chiyomi; Katayama, Hironori; Makino, Izumi; Inagaki, Azusa; Arakawa, Osamu; Martin, Cathie

    2014-03-01

    Flowering peach Prunus persica cv. Genpei bears pink and variegated flowers on a single tree. The structural genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis were expressed strongly in pink petals but only very weakly or not at all in variegated petals. A cDNA clone encoding a MYB-like gene, isolated from pink petals was strongly expressed only in pink petals. Introduction of this gene, via biolistics gave magenta spots in the white areas of variegated petals, therefore this gene was named as Peace (peach anthocyanin colour enhancement). Differences in Peace expression determine the pattern of flower colouration in flowering peach. The R2R3 DNA-binding domain of Peace is similar to those of other plant MYBs regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis. Key amino acids for tertiary structure and the motif for interaction with bHLH proteins were conserved in Peace. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that Peace is closely related to AtMYB123 (TT2), which regulates proanthocyanidin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis, and to anthocyanin regulators in monocots rather than to regulators in dicots. This is the first report that a TT2-like R2R3 MYB has been shown to regulate anthocyanin biosynthesis.

  10. Indexing Flowers by Color Names Using Domain Knowledge-Driven Segmentation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-01-01

    We describe a solution to the problem of indexing image of flowers for searching a flower patents database by ers iii t color. We use a natural...segmentation algorithm with knowledge natnral driven feedback to isolate a flower region from the background. The color of the flower is defined by the...color names present in the flower region and their relative proportions. The database can be queried by example and by color names. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the strategy on a test database.

  11. Comparative analysis of essential oil composition from flower and leaf of Magnolia kwangsiensis Figlar & Noot.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yan-Fei; Ren, Fan; Liu, Xiong-Min; Lai, Fang; Ma, Li

    2016-07-01

    The essential oils from Magnolia kwangsiensis Figlar & Noot. were obtained using hydrodistillation, and analysed by GC and GC-MS. A total of 31, 27 and 26 constituents were identified in the oils from male flower, female flower and leaf of M. kwangsiensis, and they comprised 99.2, 98.5 and 96.2% of the oils, respectively. Monoterpene hydrocarbons predominated in the oils and accounted for 48.3% of male flower oil, 54.0% of female flower oil and 44.6% of leaf oil. The compositions of flower oils were quite similar but with different content, and were different from those of leaf oil.

  12. Comparative Study of the Volatile Components of Fresh and Fermented Flowers of Alnus sieboldiana (Betulaceae).

    PubMed

    Ab Ghani, Nurunajah; Ismail, Nor Hadiani; Asakawa, Yoshinori

    2016-02-01

    Analysis of the volatile components present in the fresh male and female flowers and young leaves shows that 2-phenylethanol is the major component in all these three organs, which play a significant role in the strong resinous aromatic odor. The male flowers contained styrene as a second major compound. The level of styrene does not affect the male flowers odor concentration. The level of β-phenylethyl cinnamate and trans-methyl cinnamate in the fermented male flowers decreased as the fermentation time increased. This was due to the Penicillium enzymatic action on the fermented male flowers.

  13. Phenological mismatch with abiotic conditions implications for flowering in Arctic plants.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Helen C; Høye, Toke T; Schmidt, Niels Martin; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Forchhammer, Mads C

    2015-03-01

    Although many studies have examined the phenological mismatches between interacting organisms, few have addressed the potential for mismatches between phenology and seasonal weather conditions. In the Arctic, rapid phenological changes in many taxa are occurring in association with earlier snowmelt. The timing of snowmelt is jointly affected by the size of the late winter snowpack and the temperature during the spring thaw. Increased winter snowpack results in delayed snowmelt, whereas higher air temperatures and faster snowmelt advance the timing of snowmelt. Where interannual variation in snowpack is substantial, changes in the timing of snowmelt can be largely uncoupled from changes in air temperature. Using detailed, long-term data on the flowering phenology of four arctic plant species from Zackenberg, Greenland, we investigate whether there is a phenological component to the temperature conditions experienced prior to and during flowering. In particular, we assess the role of timing of flowering in determining pre-flowering exposure to freezing temperatures and to the temperatures-experienced prior to flowering. We then examine the implications of flowering phenology for flower abundance. Earlier snowmelt resulted in greater exposure to freezing conditions, suggesting an increased potential for a mismatch between the timing of flowering and seasonal weather conditions and an increased potential for negative consequences, such as freezing 'damage. We also found a parabolic relationship between the timing of flowering and the temperature experienced during flowering after taking interannual temperature effects into account. If timing of flowering advances to a cooler period of the growing season, this may moderate the effects of a general warming trend across years. Flower abundance was quadratically associated with the timing of flowering, such that both early and late flowering led to lower flower abundance than did intermediate flowering. Our results

  14. [Effects of silicon on flowering Chinese cabbage's anthracnose occurence, flower stalk formation, and silicon uptake and accumulation].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xian; Feng, Hong-Xian; Yang, Yue-Sheng

    2008-05-01

    Different concentrations of silicon (Si) were applied to flowering Chinese cabbbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis var. utilis Tsen et Lee) to study their effects on the flowering Chinese cabbage's anthracnose occurrence, flower stalk formation, and Si uptake and accumulation. The results indicated that Si could obviously control the occurrence of anthracnose, and the effect was genotype-dependant. The plants of susceptible cultivar applied with 2.5 mmol L(-1) Si and those of resistant cultivar applied with 0.5 mmol L(-1) Si exhibited the highest resistance to Colletotrichum higginsianum, with the lowest disease index and the higheist flower stalk yield. Si application also obviously affected the quality of flower stalk. For susceptible cultivar, Si application promoted the synthesis of chlorophyll, crude fiber and vitamin C, and induced the formation of soluble sugars. The contents of chlorophyll and crude fiber increased with increasing Si level. For resistant cultivar, the chlorophyll content increased while vitamin C content decreased with increasing Si level, but Si application had less effect on the contents of crude fiber and soluble sugars. For both cultivars, Si application did not have significant effect on the contents of crude protein and soluble protein but remarkably increased the Si accumulation in plant leaves, and the leaf Si content was significantly increased with increasing Si level. The Si granules deposited in leaf tissues were not equal in size, and distributed unevenly in epidermis tissues. It was concluded that the accumulation of Si in leaves could increase the resistance of plant to anthracnose, but there was no linear correlation between the accumulated amount of Si and the resistance.

  15. Plastic Responses Contribute to Explaining Altitudinal and Temporal Variation in Potential Flower Longevity in High Andean Rhodolirion montanum.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Diego Andrés; Dudley, Leah S; Cabezas, Josefina; Cavieres, Lohengrin A; Arroyo, Mary T K

    2016-01-01

    The tendency for flower longevity to increase with altitude is believed by many alpine ecologists to play an important role in compensating for low pollination rates at high altitudes due to cold and variable weather conditions. However, current studies documenting an altitudinal increase in flower longevity in the alpine habitat derive principally from studies on open-pollinated flowers where lower pollinator visitation rates at higher altitudes will tend to lead to flower senescence later in the life-span of a flower in comparison with lower altitudes, and thus could confound the real altitudinal pattern in a species´ potential flower longevity. In a two-year study we tested the hypothesis that a plastic effect of temperature on flower longevity could contribute to an altitudinal increase in potential flower longevity measured in pollinator-excluded flowers in high Andean Rhodolirium montanum Phil. (Amaryllidaceae). Using supplemental warming we investigated whether temperature around flowers plastically affects potential flower longevity. We determined tightly temperature-controlled potential flower longevity and flower height for natural populations on three alpine sites spread over an altitudinal transect from 2350 and 3075 m a.s.l. An experimental increase of 3.1°C around flowers significantly decreased flower longevity indicating a plastic response of flowers to temperature. Flower height in natural populations decreased significantly with altitude. Although temperature negatively affects flower longevity under experimental conditions, we found no evidence that temperature around flowers explains site variation in flower longevity over the altitudinal gradient. In a wetter year, despite a 3.5°C temperature difference around flowers at the extremes of the altitudinal range, flower longevity showed no increase with altitude. However, in a drier year, flower longevity increased significantly with altitude. The emerging picture suggests an increase in flower

  16. Plastic Responses Contribute to Explaining Altitudinal and Temporal Variation in Potential Flower Longevity in High Andean Rhodolirion montanum

    PubMed Central

    Cavieres, Lohengrin A.

    2016-01-01

    The tendency for flower longevity to increase with altitude is believed by many alpine ecologists to play an important role in compensating for low pollination rates at high altitudes due to cold and variable weather conditions. However, current studies documenting an altitudinal increase in flower longevity in the alpine habitat derive principally from studies on open-pollinated flowers where lower pollinator visitation rates at higher altitudes will tend to lead to flower senescence later in the life-span of a flower in comparison with lower altitudes, and thus could confound the real altitudinal pattern in a species´ potential flower longevity. In a two-year study we tested the hypothesis that a plastic effect of temperature on flower longevity could contribute to an altitudinal increase in potential flower longevity measured in pollinator-excluded flowers in high Andean Rhodolirium montanum Phil. (Amaryllidaceae). Using supplemental warming we investigated whether temperature around flowers plastically affects potential flower longevity. We determined tightly temperature-controlled potential flower longevity and flower height for natural populations on three alpine sites spread over an altitudinal transect from 2350 and 3075 m a.s.l. An experimental increase of 3.1°C around flowers significantly decreased flower longevity indicating a plastic response of flowers to temperature. Flower height in natural populations decreased significantly with altitude. Although temperature negatively affects flower longevity under experimental conditions, we found no evidence that temperature around flowers explains site variation in flower longevity over the altitudinal gradient. In a wetter year, despite a 3.5°C temperature difference around flowers at the extremes of the altitudinal range, flower longevity showed no increase with altitude. However, in a drier year, flower longevity increased significantly with altitude. The emerging picture suggests an increase in flower

  17. Trends in flower symmetry evolution revealed through phylogenetic and developmental genetic advances.

    PubMed

    Hileman, Lena C

    2014-08-05

    A striking aspect of flowering plant (angiosperm) diversity is variation in flower symmetry. From an ancestral form of radial symmetry (polysymmetry, actinomorphy), multiple evolutionary transitions have contributed to instances of non-radial forms, including bilateral symmetry (monosymmetry, zygomorphy) and asymmetry. Advances in flowering plant molecular phylogenetic research and studies of character evolution as well as detailed flower developmental genetic studies in a few model species (e.g. Antirrhinum majus, snapdragon) have provided a foundation for deep insights into flower symmetry evolution. From phylogenetic studies, we have a better understanding of where during flowering plant diversification transitions from radial to bilateral flower symmetry (and back to radial symmetry) have occurred. From developmental studies, we know that a genetic programme largely dependent on the functional action of the CYCLOIDEA gene is necessary for differentiation along the snapdragon dorsoventral flower axis. Bringing these two lines of inquiry together has provided surprising insights into both the parallel recruitment of a CYC-dependent developmental programme during independent transitions to bilateral flower symmetry, and the modifications to this programme in transitions back to radial flower symmetry, during flowering plant evolution.

  18. Reproductive isolation between Zaluzianskya species: the influence of volatiles and flower orientation on hawkmoth foraging choices.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Diane R; Jürgens, Andreas; Johnson, Steven D

    2016-04-01

    Floral trait differences between related species may play a key role in reproductive isolation imposed by pollinators. Volatile emissions can influence pollinator choice, but how they act in combination with traits such as flower orientation is rarely studied. We compared flower-opening patterns, morphology, colour, orientation and volatile emissions for two closely related species of Zaluzianskya and their natural hybrids. Hawkmoth pollinators were tested for preference between flowers of the two species, and between flowers with manipulations of volatiles or orientation. Flowers of Z. natalensis and Z. microsiphon open at night and day, respectively, but they overlap during early evening, when hawkmoths showed a strong preference for Z. natalensis. The species have similar flower size and colour, but Z. natalensis emits more floral volatiles in the evening and presents flowers vertically face-up as opposed to horizontally in Z. microsiphon, whereas natural hybrids are intermediate. Adding methyl benzoate and linalool to flowers of Z. microsiphon did not increase hawkmoth attraction, but re-orientation of flowers to face vertically increased attraction when scent cues were present, whereas re-orientation of Z. natalensis flowers to face horizontally decreased attraction. This study highlights the importance of flower orientation in imposing reproductive isolation.

  19. Selective Pressures Explain Differences in Flower Color among Gentiana lutea Populations.

    PubMed

    Sobral, Mar; Veiga, Tania; Domínguez, Paula; Guitián, Javier A; Guitián, Pablo; Guitián, José M

    2015-01-01

    Flower color variation among plant populations might reflect adaptation to local conditions such as the interacting animal community. In the northwest Iberian Peninsula, flower color of Gentiana lutea varies longitudinally among populations, ranging from orange to yellow. We explored whether flower color is locally adapted and the role of pollinators and seed predators as agents of selection by analyzing the influence of flower color on (i) pollinator visitation rate and (ii) escape from seed predation and (iii) by testing whether differences in pollinator communities correlate with flower color variation across populations. Finally, (iv) we investigated whether variation in selective pressures explains flower color variation among 12 G. lutea populations. Flower color influenced pollinator visits and differences in flower color among populations were related to variation in pollinator communities. Selective pressures on flower color vary among populations and explain part of flower color differences among populations of G. lutea. We conclude that flower color in G. lutea is locally adapted and that pollinators play a role in this adaptation.

  20. Genetic structure of Hepatica nobilis var. japonica, focusing on within population flower color polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Kameoka, Shinichiro; Sakio, Hitoshi; Abe, Harue; Ikeda, Hajime; Setoguchi, Hiroaki

    2017-03-01

    How phenotypic or genetic diversity is maintained in a natural habitat is a fundamental question in evolutionary biology. Flower color polymorphism in plants is a common polymorphism. Hepatica nobilis var. japonica on the Sea of Japan (SJ) side of the Japanese mainland exhibits within population flower color polymorphism (e.g., white, pink, and purple), while only white flowers are observed on the Pacific Ocean (PO) side. To determine the relationships between flower color polymorphism, within and among populations, and the genetic structure of H. nobilis var. japonica, we estimated the genetic variation using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. First, we examined whether cryptic lineages corresponding to distinct flower colors contribute to the flower color polymorphisms in H. nobilis var. japonica. In our field observations, no bias in color frequency was observed among populations on Sado Island, a region with high variation in flower color. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) analyses revealed that 18% of the genetic variance was explained by differences among populations, whereas no genetic variation was explained by flower color hue or intensity (0% for both components). These results indicate that the flower color polymorphism is likely not explained by cryptic lineages that have different flower colors. In contrast, populations in the SJ and PO regions were genetically distinguishable. As with the other plant species in these regions, refugial isolation and subsequent migration history may have caused the genetic structure as well as the spatially heterogeneous patterns of flower color polymorphisms in H. nobilis var. japonica.

  1. Selective Pressures Explain Differences in Flower Color among Gentiana lutea Populations

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez, Paula; Guitián, Javier A.; Guitián, Pablo; Guitián, José M.

    2015-01-01

    Flower color variation among plant populations might reflect adaptation to local conditions such as the interacting animal community. In the northwest Iberian Peninsula, flower color of Gentiana lutea varies longitudinally among populations, ranging from orange to yellow. We explored whether flower color is locally adapted and the role of pollinators and seed predators as agents of selection by analyzing the influence of flower color on (i) pollinator visitation rate and (ii) escape from seed predation and (iii) by testing whether differences in pollinator communities correlate with flower color variation across populations. Finally, (iv) we investigated whether variation in selective pressures explains flower color variation among 12 G. lutea populations. Flower color influenced pollinator visits and differences in flower color among populations were related to variation in pollinator communities. Selective pressures on flower color vary among populations and explain part of flower color differences among populations of G. lutea. We conclude that flower color in G. lutea is locally adapted and that pollinators play a role in this adaptation. PMID:26172378

  2. The FLF MADS box gene: a repressor of flowering in Arabidopsis regulated by vernalization and methylation.

    PubMed Central

    Sheldon, C C; Burn, J E; Perez, P P; Metzger, J; Edwards, J A; Peacock, W J; Dennis, E S

    1999-01-01

    A MADS box gene, FLF (for FLOWERING LOCUS F ), isolated from a late-flowering, T-DNA-tagged Arabidopsis mutant, is a semidominant gene encoding a repressor of flowering. The FLF gene appears to integrate the vernalization-dependent and autonomous flowering pathways because its expression is regulated by genes in both pathways. The level of FLF mRNA is downregulated by vernalization and by a decrease in genomic DNA methylation, which is consistent with our previous suggestion that vernalization acts to induce flowering through changes in gene activity that are mediated through a reduction in DNA methylation. The flf-1 mutant requires a greater than normal amount of an exogenous gibberellin (GA3) to decrease flowering time compared with the wild type or with vernalization-responsive late-flowering mutants, suggesting that the FLF gene product may block the promotion of flowering by GAs. FLF maps to a region on chromosome 5 near the FLOWERING LOCUS C gene, which is a semidominant repressor of flowering in late-flowering ecotypes of Arabidopsis. PMID:10072403

  3. Number of hummingbird visits determines flower mite abundance on hummingbird feeders.

    PubMed

    Márquez-Luna, Ubaldo; Vázquez González, María Magdalena; Castellanos, Ignacio; Ortiz-Pulido, Raúl

    2016-08-01

    Members of several genera of mites from the family Melicharidae (Mesostigmata) use hummingbirds as transport host to move from flower to flower, where they feed on pollen and nectar. The factors that influence hummingbird flower mite abundance on host plant flowers are not currently known. Here we tested whether hummingbird flower mite abundance on an artificial nectar source is determined by number of hummingbird visits, nectar energy content or species richness of visiting hummingbirds. We conducted experiments employing hummingbird feeders with sucrose solutions of low, medium, and high energy concentrations, placed in a xeric shrubland. In the first experiment, we recorded the number of visiting hummingbirds and the number of visiting hummingbird species, as well as the abundance of hummingbird flower mites on each feeder. Feeders with the highest sucrose concentration had the most hummingbird visits and the highest flower mite abundances; however, there was no significant effect of hummingbird species richness on mite abundance. In the second experiment, we recorded flower mite abundance on feeders after we standardized the number of hummingbird visits to them. Abundance of flower mites did not differ significantly between feeders when we controlled for hummingbird visits. Our results suggest that nectar energy concentration determines hummingbird visits, which in turn determines flower mite abundance in our feeders. Our results do not support the hypothesis that mites descend from hummingbird nostrils more on richer nectar sources; however, it does not preclude the possibility that flower mites select for nectar concentration at other spatial and temporal scales.

  4. Bumble-bee learning selects for both early and long flowering in food-deceptive plants.

    PubMed

    Internicola, Antonina I; Harder, Lawrence D

    2012-04-22

    Most rewardless orchids engage in generalized food-deception, exhibiting floral traits typical of rewarding species and exploiting the instinctive foraging of pollinators. Generalized food-deceptive (GFD) orchids compete poorly with rewarding species for pollinator services, which may be overcome by flowering early in the growing season when relatively more pollinators are naive and fewer competing plant species are flowering, and/or flowering for extended periods to enhance the chance of pollinator visits. We tested these hypotheses by manipulating flowering time and duration in a natural population of Calypso bulbosa and quantifying pollinator visitation based on pollen removal. Both early and long flowering increased bumble-bee visitation compared with late and brief flowering, respectively. To identify the cause of reduced visitation during late flowering, we tested whether negative experience with C. bulbosa (avoidance learning) and positive experience with a rewarding species, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, (associative learning) by captive bumble-bees could reduce C. bulbosa's competitiveness. Avoidance learning explained the higher visitation of early- compared with late-flowering C. bulbosa. The resulting pollinator-mediated selection for early flowering may commonly affect GFD orchids, explaining their tendency to flower earlier than rewarding orchids. For dissimilar deceptive and rewarding sympatric species, associative learning may additionally favour early flowering by GFD species.

  5. Explaining the effects of floral density on flower visitor species composition

    PubMed Central

    Essenberg, Carla J.

    2013-01-01

    Floral density often influences the species composition of flower visitors. This variation in visitor species composition could have significant effects on pollination success and plant fitness but is poorly understood, especially in the many pollination guilds dominated by non-territorial species. This paper presents a foraging model that explores how flower visitors with diverse traits should distribute themselves across resource patches differing in floral density. The model predicts that species with low flower search speeds and low flower handling costs compared to competitors will usually dominate dense flower patches. In addition, amongst flower visitors that have lower energy expenditure rates while handling flowers than while traveling, species maximizing energetic efficiency are typically associated with dense flower patches whereas those maximizing net rate of energy intake are associated with sparse patches. The model is able to predict some key aspects of a previously-observed effect of floral density on species composition of flower visitors to the yellowflower tarweed (Holocarpha virgata). By providing insights into how flower visitors’ traits shape the effects of floral density on the species composition of flower visitors, this study makes an important step towards understanding how pollinator diversity influences relationships between plant density and plant fitness. PMID:23448884

  6. Involvement of ethylene in sex expression and female flower development in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus).

    PubMed

    Manzano, Susana; Martínez, Cecilia; García, Juan Manuel; Megías, Zoraida; Jamilena, Manuel

    2014-12-01

    Although it is known that ethylene has a masculinizing effect on watermelon, the specific role of this hormone in sex expression and flower development has not been analyzed in depth. By using different approaches the present work demonstrates that ethylene regulates differentially two sex-related developmental processes: sexual expression, i.e. the earliness and the number of female flowers per plant, and the development of individual floral buds. Ethylene production in the shoot apex as well as in male, female and bisexual flowers demonstrated that the female flower requires much more ethylene than the male one to develop, and that bisexual flowers result from a decrease in ethylene production in the female floral bud. The occurrence of bisexual flowers was found to be associated with elevated temperatures in the greenhouse, concomitantly with a reduction of ethylene production in the shoot apex. External treatments with ethephon and AVG, and the use of Cucurbita rootstocks with different ethylene production and sensitivity, confirmed that, as occurs in other cucurbit species, ethylene is required to arrest the development of stamens in the female flower. Nevertheless, in watermelon ethylene inhibits the transition from male to female flowering and reduces the number of pistillate flowers per plant, which runs contrary to findings in other cucurbit species. The use of Cucurbita rootstocks with elevated ethylene production delayed the production of female flowers but reduced the number of bisexual flowers, which is associated with a reduced fruit set and altered fruit shape.

  7. Trends in flower symmetry evolution revealed through phylogenetic and developmental genetic advances

    PubMed Central

    Hileman, Lena C.

    2014-01-01

    A striking aspect of flowering plant (angiosperm) diversity is variation in flower symmetry. From an ancestral form of radial symmetry (polysymmetry, actinomorphy), multiple evolutionary transitions have contributed to instances of non-radial forms, including bilateral symmetry (monosymmetry, zygomorphy) and asymmetry. Advances in flowering plant molecular phylogenetic research and studies of character evolution as well as detailed flower developmental genetic studies in a few model species (e.g. Antirrhinum majus, snapdragon) have provided a foundation for deep insights into flower symmetry evolution. From phylogenetic studies, we have a better understanding of where during flowering plant diversification transitions from radial to bilateral flower symmetry (and back to radial symmetry) have occurred. From developmental studies, we know that a genetic programme largely dependent on the functional action of the CYCLOIDEA gene is necessary for differentiation along the snapdragon dorsoventral flower axis. Bringing these two lines of inquiry together has provided surprising insights into both the parallel recruitment of a CYC-dependent developmental programme during independent transitions to bilateral flower symmetry, and the modifications to this programme in transitions back to radial flower symmetry, during flowering plant evolution. PMID:24958922

  8. Psidium guajava and Piper betle leaf extracts prolong vase life of cut carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) flowers.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M M; Ahmad, S H; Lgu, K S

    2012-01-01

    The effect of leaf extracts of Psidium guajava and Piper betle on prolonging vase life of cut carnation flowers was studied. "Carola" and "Pallas Orange" carnation flowers, at bud stage, were pulsed 24 hours with a floral preservative. Then, flowers were placed in a vase solution containing sprite and a "germicide" (leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle, 8-HQC, or a copper coin). Flowers treated with 8-HQC, copper coin, and leaf extracts had longer vase life, larger flower diameter, and higher rate of water uptake compared to control (tap water). The leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle showed highest antibacterial and antifungal activities compared to the other treatments. Both showed similar effects on flower quality as the synthetic germicide, 8-HQC. Therefore, these extracts are likely natural germicides to prolong vase life of cut flowers.

  9. Zeatin modulates flower bud development and tocopherol levels in Cistus albidus (L.) plants as they age.

    PubMed

    Hernández, I; Miret, J A; Van Der Kelen, K; Rombaut, D; Van Breusegem, F; Munné-Bosch, S

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study we showed that Cistus albidus (L.) experiences an age-dependent decay in flower vigour correlated with a decline in trans-zeatin (tZ) levels. In the present study we aimed to establish a causal relationship between these two phenomena. Exogenous tZ applied to plants grown under semi-controlled conditions did not rescue flower vigour; however, it accelerated flower development, but only in younger individuals. Older plants showed lower tocopherol levels in flower buds, which were restored by exogenous tZ, suggesting that a loss of antioxidant defences may underlie the age-dependent decay in flower vigour. We conclude that declining tZ levels may not be directly responsible for the age-associated loss of floral vigour; that tZ modulates the speed of flower development as plants age; and that flower buds alter their sensitivity to tZ as plants age.

  10. Genetic engineering of flavonoid pigments to modify flower color in floricultural plants.

    PubMed

    Nishihara, Masahiro; Nakatsuka, Takashi

    2011-03-01

    Recent advances in genetic transformation techniques enable the production of desirable and novel flower colors in some important floricultural plants. Genetic engineering of novel flower colors is now a practical technology as typified by commercialization of a transgenic blue rose and blue carnation. Many researchers exploit knowledge of flavonoid biosynthesis effectively to obtain unique flower colors. So far, the main pigments targeted for flower color modification are anthocyanins that contribute to a variety of colors such as red, pink and blue, but recent studies have also utilized colorless or faint-colored compounds. For example, chalcones and aurones have been successfully engineered to produce yellow flowers, and flavones and flavonols used to change flower color hues. In this review, we summarize examples of successful flower color modification in floricultural plants focusing on recent advances in techniques.

  11. A petunia homeodomain-leucine zipper protein, PhHD-Zip, plays an important role in flower senescence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flower senescence is mediated in part by changes of plant hormones, such as ethylene, cytokinin and abscisic acid (ABA). Ethylene is known to control flower senescence in many species, especially ethylene sensitive flowers, like petunia, carnation and rose. During flower senescence in petunia and ot...

  12. All about Plant Pollination: Fruit, Flowers & Seeds. Plant Life for Children[TM]. Schlessinger Science Library. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    Flowers are not only pretty, they are also one of the key elements in the process of plant pollination and reproduction that goes from flowers to fruits to seeds! In All About Plant Pollination: Fruit, Flowers & Seeds, young scientists learn about the different parts of a flower through the use of microscopic photography and detailed diagrams.…

  13. Phenological patterns of flowering across biogeographical regions of Europe.

    PubMed

    Templ, Barbara; Templ, Matthias; Filzmoser, Peter; Lehoczky, Annamária; Bakšienè, Eugenija; Fleck, Stefan; Gregow, Hilppa; Hodzic, Sabina; Kalvane, Gunta; Kubin, Eero; Palm, Vello; Romanovskaja, Danuta; Vucˇetic, Višnja; Žust, Ana; Czúcz, Bálint

    2017-02-20

    Long-term changes of plant phenological phases determined by complex interactions of environmental factors are in the focus of recent climate impact research. There is a lack of studies on the comparison of biogeographical regions in Europe in terms of plant responses to climate. We examined the flowering phenology of plant species to identify the spatio-temporal patterns in their responses to environmental variables over the period 1970-2010. Data were collected from 12 countries along a 3000-km-long, North-South transect from northern to eastern Central Europe.Biogeographical regions of Europe were covered from Finland to Macedonia. Robust statistical methods were used to determine the most influential factors driving the changes of the beginning of flowering dates. Significant species-specific advancements in plant flowering onsets within the Continental (3 to 8.3 days), Alpine (2 to 3.8 days) and by highest magnitude in the Boreal biogeographical regions (2.2 to 9.6 days per decades) were found, while less pronounced responses were detected in the Pannonian and Mediterranean regions. While most of the other studies only use mean temperature in the models, we show that also the distribution of minimum and maximum temperatures are reasonable to consider as explanatory variable. Not just local (e.g. temperature) but large scale (e.g. North Atlantic Oscillation) climate factors, as well as altitude and latitude play significant role in the timing of flowering across biogeographical regions of Europe. Our analysis gave evidences that species show a delay in the timing of flowering with an increase in latitude (between the geographical coordinates of 40.9 and 67.9), and an advance with changing climate. The woody species (black locust and small-leaved lime) showed stronger advancements in their timing of flowering than the herbaceous species (dandelion, lily of the valley). In later decades (1991-2010), more pronounced phenological change was detected than during the

  14. Phenological patterns of flowering across biogeographical regions of Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Templ, Barbara; Templ, Matthias; Filzmoser, Peter; Lehoczky, Annamária; Bakšienè, Eugenija; Fleck, Stefan; Gregow, Hilppa; Hodzic, Sabina; Kalvane, Gunta; Kubin, Eero; Palm, Vello; Romanovskaja, Danuta; Vucˇetic´, Višnja; žust, Ana; Czúcz, Bálint

    2017-02-01

    Long-term changes of plant phenological phases determined by complex interactions of environmental factors are in the focus of recent climate impact research. There is a lack of studies on the comparison of biogeographical regions in Europe in terms of plant responses to climate. We examined the flowering phenology of plant species to identify the spatio-temporal patterns in their responses to environmental variables over the period 1970-2010. Data were collected from 12 countries along a 3000-km-long, North-South transect from northern to eastern Central Europe. Biogeographical regions of Europe were covered from Finland to Macedonia. Robust statistical methods were used to determine the most influential factors driving the changes of the beginning of flowering dates. Significant species-specific advancements in plant flowering onsets within the Continental (3 to 8.3 days), Alpine (2 to 3.8 days) and by highest magnitude in the Boreal biogeographical regions (2.2 to 9.6 days per decades) were found, while less pronounced responses were detected in the Pannonian and Mediterranean regions. While most of the other studies only use mean temperature in the models, we show that also the distribution of minimum and maximum temperatures are reasonable to consider as explanatory variable. Not just local (e.g. temperature) but large scale (e.g. North Atlantic Oscillation) climate factors, as well as altitude and latitude play significant role in the timing of flowering across biogeographical regions of Europe. Our analysis gave evidences that species show a delay in the timing of flowering with an increase in latitude (between the geographical coordinates of 40.9 and 67.9), and an advance with changing climate. The woody species (black locust and small-leaved lime) showed stronger advancements in their timing of flowering than the herbaceous species (dandelion, lily of the valley). In later decades (1991-2010), more pronounced phenological change was detected than during

  15. Cold Treatment Breaks Dormancy but Jeopardizes Flower Quality in Camellia japonica L.

    PubMed

    Berruti, Andrea; Christiaens, Annelies; Keyser, Ellen De; Labeke, Marie-Christine Van; Scariot, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Camellia japonica L. is an evergreen shrub whose cultivars are of great ornamental value. In autumn, after flower bud differentiation, dormancy is initiated. As in many other spring flowering woody ornamentals, winter low temperatures promote dormancy release of both flower and vegetative buds. However, warm spells during late autumn and winter can lead to unfulfilled chilling requirements leading to erratic and delayed flowering. We hypothesized that storing plants at no light and low temperature could favor dormancy breaking and lead to early and synchronized flowering in response to forcing conditions in C. japonica 'Nuccio's Pearl'. Plants with fully developed floral primordia were stored at dark, 7°C, and RH > 90% for up to 8 weeks. To monitor endodormancy release during the storage, we evaluated the content of abscisic acid (ABA) in flower buds and the expression profiles of five putative genes related to dormancy and cold acclimation metabolism in leaves and flower buds. In addition, the expression of four anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway genes was profiled in flower buds to assess the effect of the treatment on flower pigment biosynthesis. At 0, 4, 6, and 8 weeks of cold treatment, 10 plants were transferred to the greenhouse and forced to flower. Forced plant flower qualities and growth were observed. The ABA content and the expression profiles of two dormancy-related genes (CjARP and CjDEH) suggested that dormancy breaking occurred after 6-8 weeks of cold treatment. Overall, plants treated for 6-8 weeks showed earlier vegetative sprouting, enhanced, and homogeneous flowering with reduced forcing time. Prolonged cold treatments also reduced flower size and longevity, anthocyanin content, and pigment biosynthesis-related gene transcripts. In conclusion, the cold treatment had a promotive effect on dormancy breaking but caused severe drawbacks on flower quality.

  16. A Matter of Contrast: Yellow Flower Colour Constrains Style Length in Crocus species

    PubMed Central

    Lunau, Klaus; Konzmann, Sabine; Bossems, Jessica; Harpke, Doerte

    2016-01-01

    Most flowers display distinct colour patterns comprising two different areas. The peripheral large-area component of floral colour patterns attracts flower visitors from some distance and the central small-area component guides flower visitors towards landing sites. Whereas the peripheral colour is largely variable among species, the central colour, produced mostly by anthers and pollen or pollen mimicking floral guides, is predominantly yellow and UV-absorbing. This holds also for yellow flowers that regularly display a UV bull’s eye pattern. Here we show that yellow-flowering Crocus species are a noticeable exception, since yellow-flowering Crocus species–being entirely UV-absorbing–exhibit low colour contrast between yellow reproductive organs and yellow tepals. The elongated yellow or orange-yellow style of Crocus flowers is a stamen-mimicking structure promoting cross-pollination by facilitating flower visitors’ contact with the apical stigma before the flower visitors are touching the anthers. Since Crocus species possess either yellow, violet or white tepals, the colour contrast between the stamen-mimicking style and the tepals varies among species. In this study comprising 106 Crocus species, it was tested whether the style length of Crocus flowers is dependent on the corolla colour. The results show that members of the genus Crocus with yellow tepals have evolved independently up to twelve times in the genus Crocus and that yellow-flowering Crocus species possess shorter styles as compared to violet- and white-flowering ones. The manipulation of flower visitors by anther-mimicking elongated styles in Crocus flowers is discussed. PMID:27124278

  17. Gloss, colour and grip: multifunctional epidermal cell shapes in bee- and bird-pollinated flowers.

    PubMed

    Papiorek, Sarah; Junker, Robert R; Lunau, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Flowers bear the function of filters supporting the attraction of pollinators as well as the deterrence of floral antagonists. The effect of epidermal cell shape on the visual display and tactile properties of flowers has been evaluated only recently. In this study we quantitatively measured epidermal cell shape, gloss and spectral reflectance of flowers pollinated by either bees or birds testing three hypotheses: The first two hypotheses imply that bee-pollinated flowers might benefit from rough surfaces on visually-active parts produced by conical epidermal cells, as they may enhance the colour signal of flowers as well as the grip on flowers for bees. In contrast, bird-pollinated flowers might benefit from flat surfaces produced by flat epidermal cells, by avoiding frequent visitation from non-pollinating bees due to a reduced colour signal, as birds do not rely on specific colour parameters while foraging. Moreover, flat petal surfaces in bird-pollinated flowers may hamper grip for bees that do not touch anthers and stigmas while consuming nectar and thus, are considered as nectar thieves. Beside this, the third hypothesis implies that those flower parts which are vulnerable to nectar robbing of bee- as well as bird-pollinated flowers benefit from flat epidermal cells, hampering grip for nectar robbing bees. Our comparative data show in fact that conical epidermal cells are restricted to visually-active parts of bee-pollinated flowers, whereas robbing-sensitive parts of bee-pollinated as well as the entire floral surface of bird-pollinated flowers possess on average flat epidermal cells. However, direct correlations between epidermal cell shape and colour parameters have not been found. Our results together with published experimental studies show that epidermal cell shape as a largely neglected flower trait might act as an important feature in pollinator attraction and avoidance of antagonists, and thus may contribute to the partitioning of flower-visitors.

  18. Gloss, Colour and Grip: Multifunctional Epidermal Cell Shapes in Bee- and Bird-Pollinated Flowers

    PubMed Central

    Papiorek, Sarah; Junker, Robert R.; Lunau, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Flowers bear the function of filters supporting the attraction of pollinators as well as the deterrence of floral antagonists. The effect of epidermal cell shape on the visual display and tactile properties of flowers has been evaluated only recently. In this study we quantitatively measured epidermal cell shape, gloss and spectral reflectance of flowers pollinated by either bees or birds testing three hypotheses: The first two hypotheses imply that bee-pollinated flowers might benefit from rough surfaces on visually-active parts produced by conical epidermal cells, as they may enhance the colour signal of flowers as well as the grip on flowers for bees. In contrast, bird-pollinated flowers might benefit from flat surfaces produced by flat epidermal cells, by avoiding frequent visitation from non-pollinating bees due to a reduced colour signal, as birds do not rely on specific colour parameters while foraging. Moreover, flat petal surfaces in bird-pollinated flowers may hamper grip for bees that do not touch anthers and stigmas while consuming nectar and thus, are considered as nectar thieves. Beside this, the third hypothesis implies that those flower parts which are vulnerable to nectar robbing of bee- as well as bird-pollinated flowers benefit from flat epidermal cells, hampering grip for nectar robbing bees. Our comparative data show in fact that conical epidermal cells are restricted to visually-active parts of bee-pollinated flowers, whereas robbing-sensitive parts of bee-pollinated as well as the entire floral surface of bird-pollinated flowers possess on average flat epidermal cells. However, direct correlations between epidermal cell shape and colour parameters have not been found. Our results together with published experimental studies show that epidermal cell shape as a largely neglected flower trait might act as an important feature in pollinator attraction and avoidance of antagonists, and thus may contribute to the partitioning of flower

  19. Cold Treatment Breaks Dormancy but Jeopardizes Flower Quality in Camellia japonica L.

    PubMed Central

    Berruti, Andrea; Christiaens, Annelies; Keyser, Ellen De; Labeke, Marie-Christine Van; Scariot, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Camellia japonica L. is an evergreen shrub whose cultivars are of great ornamental value. In autumn, after flower bud differentiation, dormancy is initiated. As in many other spring flowering woody ornamentals, winter low temperatures promote dormancy release of both flower and vegetative buds. However, warm spells during late autumn and winter can lead to unfulfilled chilling requirements leading to erratic and delayed flowering. We hypothesized that storing plants at no light and low temperature could favor dormancy breaking and lead to early and synchronized flowering in response to forcing conditions in C. japonica ‘Nuccio’s Pearl’. Plants with fully developed floral primordia were stored at dark, 7°C, and RH > 90% for up to 8 weeks. To monitor endodormancy release during the storage, we evaluated the content of abscisic acid (ABA) in flower buds and the expression profiles of five putative genes related to dormancy and cold acclimation metabolism in leaves and flower buds. In addition, the expression of four anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway genes was profiled in flower buds to assess the effect of the treatment on flower pigment biosynthesis. At 0, 4, 6, and 8 weeks of cold treatment, 10 plants were transferred to the greenhouse and forced to flower. Forced plant flower qualities and growth were observed. The ABA content and the expression profiles of two dormancy-related genes (CjARP and CjDEH) suggested that dormancy breaking occurred after 6–8 weeks of cold treatment. Overall, plants treated for 6–8 weeks showed earlier vegetative sprouting, enhanced, and homogeneous flowering with reduced forcing time. Prolonged cold treatments also reduced flower size and longevity, anthocyanin content, and pigment biosynthesis-related gene transcripts. In conclusion, the cold treatment had a promotive effect on dormancy breaking but caused severe drawbacks on flower quality. PMID:26617623

  20. Variation in highbush blueberry floral volatile profiles as a function of pollination status, cultivar, time of day and flower part: implications for flower visitation by bees

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Parra, Leonardo; Quiroz, Andrés; Isaacs, Rufus

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Studies of the effects of pollination on floral scent and bee visitation remain rare, particularly in agricultural crops. To fill this gap, the hypothesis that bee visitation to flowers decreases after pollination through reduced floral volatile emissions in highbush blueberries, Vaccinium corymbosum, was tested. Other sources of variation in floral emissions and the role of floral volatiles in bee attraction were also examined. Methods Pollinator visitation to blueberry flowers was manipulated by bagging all flowers within a bush (pollinator excluded) or leaving them unbagged (open pollinated), and then the effect on floral volatile emissions and future bee visitation were measured. Floral volatiles were also measured from different blueberry cultivars, times of the day and flower parts, and a study was conducted to test the attraction of bees to floral volatiles. Key Results Open-pollinated blueberry flowers had 32 % lower volatile emissions than pollinator-excluded flowers. In particular, cinnamyl alcohol, a major component of the floral blend that is emitted exclusively from petals, was emitted in lower quantities from open-pollinated flowers. Although, no differences in cinnamyl alcohol emissions were detected among three blueberry cultivars or at different times of day, some components of the blueberry floral blend were emitted in higher amounts from certain cultivars and at mid-day. Field observations showed that more bees visited bushes with pollinator-excluded flowers. Also, more honey bees were caught in traps baited with a synthetic blueberry floral blend than in unbaited traps. Conclusions Greater volatile emissions may help guide bees to unpollinated flowers, and thus increase plant fitness and bee energetic return when foraging in blueberries. Furthermore, the variation in volatile emissions from blueberry flowers depending on pollination status, plant cultivar and time of day suggests an adaptive role of floral signals in

  1. Evolution of a climbing habit promotes diversification in flowering plants.

    PubMed Central

    Gianoli, Ernesto

    2004-01-01

    Key innovations are traits that are associated with the particular evolutionary 'success' of some taxonomic groups. Climbing plants depend on the availability of physical support to reach the canopy and thereby prevent shading by neighbouring plants. The present article shows that the evolution of a climbing habit in flowering plants constitutes a key innovation. A literature survey identified 48 pairs of sister groups from 45 families of flowering plants for which information on phylogenetic relationships, growth habit and species richness was available. In 38 cases, the climbing taxa were more diverse than their non-climbing sister groups. This pattern was highly significant. The same result was found when separate analyses were carried out for herbaceous and woody climbing plants, which differ in their constraints for successfully reaching a support. PMID:15451690

  2. Three-dimensional crystalline SiC nanowire flowers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Ghim Wei; Weng Wong, Andrew See; Kang, Dae-Joon; Welland, Mark E.

    2004-08-01

    Several techniques have already been developed for synthesizing silicon carbide (SiC) material in the form of nanospheres and nanowires/rods. Here, we report the synthesis of a distinctly different kind of SiC nanostructure in the form of three-dimensional crystalline nanowire-based flower-like structures. Interest in such structures centres around the combination of a simple growth process based on SiC nanowire formation, with a resultant structure having potentially complex mechanical and optical properties, the latter a consequence of the wide band gap of bulk SiC. The synthesis of these SiC nanowire flowers is via a vapour-liquid-solid (VLS) process, on which a detailed study of both the chemical and structural composition has been carried out.

  3. Blue metal complex pigments involved in blue flower color

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Kosaku

    2006-01-01

    The blue pigment of cornflower, protocyanin, has been investigated for a long time, but its precise structure was not entirely explained until recently. The molecular structure of the pigment was recently shown to be a metal complex of six molecules each of anthocyanin and flavone glycoside, with one ferric iron, one magnesium and two calcium ions by X-ray crystallographic analysis. The studies provided the answer to the question posed in the early part of the last century, “why is the cornflower blue and rose red when both flowers contain the same anthocyanin?” This work was achieved on the basis of the results of long years of the studies made by many researchers. In this review, the author focuses on the investigations of the blue metal complex pigments involved in the bluing of flowers, commelinin from Commelina commusis, protocyanin from Centaurea cyanus, protodelphin from Salvia patens and hydrangea blue pigment. PMID:25792777

  4. Blue metal complex pigments involved in blue flower color.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Kosaku

    2006-05-01

    The blue pigment of cornflower, protocyanin, has been investigated for a long time, but its precise structure was not entirely explained until recently. The molecular structure of the pigment was recently shown to be a metal complex of six molecules each of anthocyanin and flavone glycoside, with one ferric iron, one magnesium and two calcium ions by X-ray crystallographic analysis. The studies provided the answer to the question posed in the early part of the last century, "why is the cornflower blue and rose red when both flowers contain the same anthocyanin?" This work was achieved on the basis of the results of long years of the studies made by many researchers. In this review, the author focuses on the investigations of the blue metal complex pigments involved in the bluing of flowers, commelinin from Commelina commusis, protocyanin from Centaurea cyanus, protodelphin from Salvia patens and hydrangea blue pigment.

  5. Identification of volatile organic compounds in flowers of Astragalus lagopoides.

    PubMed

    Movafeghi, Ali; Delazar, Abbas; Amini, Majid; Asnaashari, Solmaz

    2012-01-01

    Composition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in flowers of Astragalus lagopoides was studied using a hydrodistillation extraction procedure coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The analyses allowed the identification of a number of 25 compounds, among which the presence of several bioactive aromatic derivatives such as guaiacol, eugenol, linalool, α- and 4-terpineol as well as nerol was attention-grabbing. Moreover, some other compounds like cyclohexane, 2-bromoethyl with repellent function also appeared to be present in the flower. As a result, the floral VOCs profile of A. lagopoides might reflect an adaptation to attract specialised pollinator insects. These findings provide important information for advances in understanding the ecological and evolutionary perspectives of pollination biology of the giant genus Astragalus.

  6. Reproductive cross-talk: seed development in flowering plants.

    PubMed

    Nowack, Moritz K; Ungru, Alexander; Bjerkan, Katrine N; Grini, Paul E; Schnittger, Arp

    2010-04-01

    Flowering plants have evolved to be a predominant life form on earth. A common principle of flowering plants and probably one of the main reasons for their evolutionary success is the rapid development of an embryo next to a supporting tissue called the endosperm. The embryo and the endosperm are protected by surrounding maternal tissues, the integuments, and the trinity of integuments, embryo and endosperm comprise the plant seed. For proper seed development, these three structures have to develop in a highly controlled and co-ordinated manner, representing a paradigm for cell-cell communication during development. Communication pathways between the endosperm and the seed coat are now beginning to be unravelled. Moreover, recently isolated mutants affecting plant reproduction have allowed a genetic dissection of seed development, and revealed that the embryo plays a previously unrecognized yet important role in co-ordinating seed development.

  7. [Double fertilization in flowering plants: 1898-2008].

    PubMed

    Kordium, E L

    2008-01-01

    A short review of the results of investigations in the field of plant embryology in vivo and in vitro which are directly connected with the discovery of double fertilization in flowering plants by S.G. Navashin is presented. These results have been obtained by using the methods of electron and fluorescence microscopy, cytophotometry, cultures of isolated ovules, sperms, eggs, and embryo sac central cells. The question on an origin of the female gametophyte of flowering plants, double fertilization, and endosperm are discussed. It is emphasized that the progress in this field is connected mostly with the study of molecular processes which control the development and functioning of a female gametophyte and sporophyte at the early stages of ontogenesis.

  8. Flavonoids and antioxidant activity of flowers of Mexican Crataegus spp.

    PubMed

    García-Mateos, Rosario; Aguilar-Santelises, Leonor; Soto-Hernández, Marcos; Nieto-Angel, Raúl

    2013-01-01

    Flavonoids and antioxidant activity of extracts of flowers from some Mexican accessions of Crataegus were studied using six accessions with the purpose of contributing to the knowledge of the nutraceutical properties of the accessions of the Germplasm Bank of the Universidad Autonoma Chapingo. Flavonoids were identified by HPLC-MS. Among the flavonoids, the quercetin 3-O-glucoside (3), quercetin 3-O-rhamnoside (4), quercetin 3-O-rhamnosyl-(1 → 6)-glucoside (2) and quercetin 3-O-rhamnosyl-(1 → 2)-[rhamnosyl-(1 → 6)]-glucoside (1) were assigned. Flavonoid content and radical scavenging activity explain some of the medicinal properties attributed to flowers of Mexican hawthorns.

  9. Attraction of New Zealand flower thrips, Thrips obscuratus, to cis-jasmone, a volatile identified from Japanese honeysuckle flowers.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, A M; Mitchell, V J; McLaren, G F; Manning, L M; Bunn, B; Suckling, D M

    2009-06-01

    This work was undertaken to identify floral compound(s) produced by honeysuckle flowers, Lonicera japonica (Thunberg), that mediate the attraction of New Zealand flower thrips Thrips obscuratus (Crawford). Volatiles were collected during the day and night and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to determine their emission over these two periods. Nine compounds were identified in the headspace; the main compound was linalool, and the other compounds were germacrene D, E,E-alpha-farnesene, nerolidol, cis-jasmone, cis-3-hexenyl acetate, hexyl acetate, cis-hexenyl tiglate, and indole. There was a quantitative difference between day and night volatiles, with cis-3-hexenyl acetate, hexyl acetate, cis-hexenyl tiglate, and cis-jasmone emitted in higher amounts during the day compared to the night. When the compounds were tested individually in field trapping experiments, only cis-jasmone attracted New Zealand flower thrips in a significant number. In another field trapping experiment, cis-jasmone caught similar numbers of New Zealand flower thrips compared to a floral blend formulated to mimic the ratios of the compounds emitted during the day, while catch with the night-emitted floral blend was not significantly different from the control. Subsequently, two field trapping experiments were conducted to determine the optimal attraction dose for cis-jasmone, a range of 1-100 mg loaded onto a red rubber stopper was tested, and the highest catches were in traps baited with 100 mg loading. A higher range of 100-1000 mg loaded into polyethylene vials was tested, and the highest catch was in traps baited with 500 mg. In another experiment aimed at comparing the attraction efficacy of cis-jasmone with the two other known thrips attractants (ethyl nicotinate and p-anisaldehyde), ethyl nicotinate showed the highest trap catch followed by cis-jasmone. A smaller number of Thrips tabaci (Lindeman) was attracted to traps baited with cis-jasmone. These results

  10. Antimicrobial activity of Willowherb (Epilobium angustifolium L.) leaves and flowers.

    PubMed

    Kosalec, Ivan; Kopjar, Nevenka; Kremer, Dario

    2013-08-01

    Since the aetiology of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BHP) is still unknown, the use of medicinal herb extracts and products prepared thereof are recommended due to their antimicrobial activity, especially during early stages of BHP. A comparison was performed of the in vitro antimicrobial activity (using broth microdilution assay) of flowers and leaves of willowherb (Epilobium angustifolium L., Onagraceae) from Mt. Velebit (Croatia). The strains (standard ATCC and clinical isolates) of Staphylococcus aureus (including MRSA), Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli (including p-fimbriae positive strain), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, C. dubliniensis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were susceptible with MIC values between 4.6±0.2 and 18.2±0.8 mg/mL. The results of in vitro studies showed that no differences were found in the antimicrobial activity between the ethanol extracts of leaves and flowers of E. angustifolium. Using the quantitative fluorescent assay with ethidium bromide and acridine orange, the viability of C. albicans ATCC 10231 was assessed after in vitro exposure to E. angustifolium leaf and flower ethanol extracts. Apoptosis of C. albicans blastospores dominated over necrosis in all treated samples after short-term exposure with 6 to 12 mg/mL of extracts. In addition to the valuable biological activity of E. angustifolium extracts, the data obtained from the in vitro diffusion, the dilution assay and antifungal viability fluorescent assay suggest that leaf and flower ethanol extracts of E. angustifolium L. are a promising complementary herbal therapy of conditions such as BHP.

  11. Regulation of flower development in Arabidopsis by SCF complexes.

    PubMed

    Ni, Weimin; Xie, Daoxin; Hobbie, Lawrence; Feng, Baomin; Zhao, Dazhong; Akkara, Joseph; Ma, Hong

    2004-04-01

    SCF complexes are the largest and best studied family of E3 ubiquitin protein ligases that facilitate the ubiquitylation of proteins targeted for degradation. The SCF core components Skp1, Cul1, and Rbx1 serve in multiple SCF complexes involving different substrate-specific F-box proteins that are involved in diverse processes including cell cycle and development. In Arabidopsis, mutations in the F-box gene UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) result in a number of defects in flower development. However, functions of the core components Cul1 and Rbx1 in flower development are poorly understood. In this study we analyzed floral phenotypes caused by altering function of Cul1 or Rbx1, as well as the effects of mutations in ASK1 and ASK2. Plants homozygous for a point mutation in the AtCUL1 gene showed reduced floral organ number and several defects in each of the four whorls. Similarly, plants with reduced AtRbx1 expression due to RNA interference also exhibited floral morphological defects. In addition, compared to the ask1 mutant, plants homozygous for ask1 and heterozygous for ask2 displayed enhanced reduction of B function, as well as other novel defects of flower development, including carpelloid sepals and an inhibition of petal development. Genetic analyses demonstrate that AGAMOUS (AG) is required for the novel phenotypes observed in the first and second whorls. Furthermore, the genetic interaction between UFO and AtCUL1 supports the idea that UFO regulates multiple aspects of flower development as a part of SCF complexes. These results suggest that SCF complexes regulate several aspects of floral development in Arabidopsis.

  12. Somatic embryogenesis from flower explants of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.).

    PubMed

    Silva, J J; Debergh, P

    2001-01-01

    Two types of flower explants, staminoides and petals, were used for in vitro induction of somatic embryos in cocoa. After 14 days in culture, we observed globular structures and callus formation on both types of explants. However, the better results were obtained on staminoides: 98.3% formed callus and 86.2% somatic embryos on Murashige and Skoog (1962) medium supplemented with sucrose, coconut water, 2,4-D, kinetin and agar.

  13. Mammea coumarins from the flowers of Mammea siamensis.

    PubMed

    Mahidol, Chulabhorn; Kaweetripob, Wirongrong; Prawat, Hunsa; Ruchirawat, Somsak

    2002-05-01

    Four new mammea coumarins, mammea E/BA cyclo D (1), mammea E/BC cyclo D (2), mammea E/BD cyclo D (3), and mammea E/AC cyclo D (4), were isolated from the flowers of Mammea siamensis, along with six known coumarins. Extensive 1D and 2D NMR experiments and other spectroscopic studies, as well as chemical transformations, were employed to determine the structures of 1-4.

  14. The AT-hook Motif-containing Protein AHL22 Regulates Flowering Initiation by Modifying FLOWERING LOCUS T Chromatin in Arabidopsis*

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Ju; Kim, Youn-Sung; Jung, Jae-Hoon; Seo, Pil Joon; Park, Chung-Mo

    2012-01-01

    Coordination of the onset of flowering with developmental status and seasonal cues is critical for reproductive success in plants. Molecular genetic studies on Arabidopsis mutants that have alterations in flowering time have identified a wide array of genes that belong to distinct genetic flowering pathways. The flowering time genes are regulated through versatile molecular and biochemical mechanisms, such as controlled RNA metabolism and chromatin modifications. Recent studies have shown that a group of AT-hook DNA-binding motif-containing proteins plays a role in plant developmental processes and stress responses. Here, we demonstrate that the AT-hook protein AHL22 (AT-hook motif nuclear localized 22) regulates flowering time by modifying FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) chromatin in Arabidopsis. AHL22 binds to a stretch of the AT-rich sequence in the FT locus. It interacts with a subset of histone deacetylases. An Arabidopsis mutant overexpressing the AHL22 gene (OE-AHL22) exhibited delayed flowering, and FT transcription was significantly reduced in the mutant. Consistent with the delayed flowering and FT suppression in the OE-AHL22 mutant, histone 3 (H3) acetylation was reduced and H3 lysine 9 dimethylation was elevated in the FT chromatin. We propose that AHL22 acts as a chromatin remodeling factor that modifies the architecture of FT chromatin by modulating both H3 acetylation and methylation. PMID:22442143

  15. A soybean quantitative trait locus that promotes flowering under long days is identified as FT5a, a FLOWERING LOCUS T ortholog

    PubMed Central

    Takeshima, Ryoma; Hayashi, Takafumi; Zhu, Jianghui; Zhao, Chen; Xu, Meilan; Yamaguchi, Naoya; Sayama, Takashi; Ishimoto, Masao; Kong, Lingping; Shi, Xinyi; Liu, Baohui; Tian, Zhixi; Yamada, Tetsuya; Kong, Fanjiang; Abe, Jun

    2016-01-01

    FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) is an important floral integrator whose functions are conserved across plant species. In soybean, two orthologs, FT2a and FT5a, play a major role in initiating flowering. Their expression in response to different photoperiods is controlled by allelic combinations at the maturity loci E1 to E4, generating variation in flowering time among cultivars. We determined the molecular basis of a quantitative trait locus (QTL) for flowering time in linkage group J (Chromosome 16). Fine-mapping delimited the QTL to a genomic region of 107kb that harbors FT5a. We detected 15 DNA polymorphisms between parents with the early-flowering (ef) and late-flowering (lf) alleles in the promoter region, an intron, and the 3′ untranslated region of FT5a, although the FT5a coding regions were identical. Transcript abundance of FT5a was higher in near-isogenic lines for ef than in those for lf, suggesting that different transcriptional activities or mRNA stability caused the flowering time difference. Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) calling from re-sequencing data for 439 cultivated and wild soybean accessions indicated that ef is a rare haplotype that is distinct from common haplotypes including lf. The ef allele at FT5a may play an adaptive role at latitudes where early flowering is desirable. PMID:27422993

  16. Linkage disequilibrium mapping of Arabidopsis CRY2 flowering time alleles.

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Kenneth M; Halldorsdottir, Solveig S; Stinchcombe, John R; Weinig, Cynthia; Schmitt, Johanna; Purugganan, Michael D

    2004-01-01

    The selfing plant Arabidopsis thaliana has been proposed to be well suited for linkage disequilibrium (LD) mapping as a means of identifying genes underlying natural trait variation. Here we apply LD mapping to examine haplotype variation in the genomic region of the photoperiod receptor CRYPTOCHROME2 and associated flowering time variation. CRY2 DNA sequences reveal strong LD and the existence of two highly differentiated haplogroups (A and B) across the gene; in addition, a haplotype possessing a radical glutamine-to-serine replacement (AS) occurs within the more common haplogroup. Growth chamber and field experiments using an unstratified population of 95 ecotypes indicate that under short-day photoperiod, the AS and B haplogroups are both highly significantly associated with early flowering. Data from six genes flanking CRY2 indicate that these haplogroups are limited to an approximately 65-kb genomic region around CRY2. Whereas the B haplogroup cannot be delimited to <16 kb around CRY2, the AS haplogroup is characterized almost exclusively by the nucleotide polymorphisms directly associated with the serine replacement in CRY2; this finding strongly suggests that the serine substitution is directly responsible for the AS early flowering phenotype. This study demonstrates the utility of LD mapping for elucidating the genetic basis of natural, ecologically relevant variation in Arabidopsis. PMID:15280248

  17. Linkage disequilibrium mapping of Arabidopsis CRY2 flowering time alleles.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Kenneth M; Halldorsdottir, Solveig S; Stinchcombe, John R; Weinig, Cynthia; Schmitt, Johanna; Purugganan, Michael D

    2004-07-01

    The selfing plant Arabidopsis thaliana has been proposed to be well suited for linkage disequilibrium (LD) mapping as a means of identifying genes underlying natural trait variation. Here we apply LD mapping to examine haplotype variation in the genomic region of the photoperiod receptor CRYPTOCHROME2 and associated flowering time variation. CRY2 DNA sequences reveal strong LD and the existence of two highly differentiated haplogroups (A and B) across the gene; in addition, a haplotype possessing a radical glutamine-to-serine replacement (AS) occurs within the more common haplogroup. Growth chamber and field experiments using an unstratified population of 95 ecotypes indicate that under short-day photoperiod, the AS and B haplogroups are both highly significantly associated with early flowering. Data from six genes flanking CRY2 indicate that these haplogroups are limited to an approximately 65-kb genomic region around CRY2. Whereas the B haplogroup cannot be delimited to <16 kb around CRY2, the AS haplogroup is characterized almost exclusively by the nucleotide polymorphisms directly associated with the serine replacement in CRY2; this finding strongly suggests that the serine substitution is directly responsible for the AS early flowering phenotype. This study demonstrates the utility of LD mapping for elucidating the genetic basis of natural, ecologically relevant variation in Arabidopsis.

  18. Spatial Distribution of Flower Color Induced by Interspecific Sexual Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Yuma; Takakura, Koh-ichi; Kawata, Masakado

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms shaping the spatiotemporal distribution of species has long been a central concern of ecology and evolutionary biology. Contemporary patterns of plant assemblies suggest that sexual interactions among species, i.e., reproductive interference, lead to the exclusive distributions of closely related species that share pollinators. However, the fitness consequences and the initial ecological/evolutionary responses to reproductive interference remain unclear in nature, since reproductive isolation or allopatric distribution has already been achieved in the natural community. In Japan, three species of blue-eyed grasses (Sisyrinchium) with incomplete reproductive isolation have recently colonized and occur sympatrically. Two of them are monomorphic with white flowers, whereas the other exhibits heritable color polymorphism (white and purple morphs). Here we investigated the effects of the presence of two monomorphic species on the distribution and reproductive success of color morphs. The frequency and reproductive success of white morphs decreased in area where monomorphic species were abundant, while those of purple morphs did not. The rate of hybridization between species was higher in white morphs than in the purple ones. Resource competition and habitat preference seemed not to contribute to the spatial distribution and reproductive success of two morphs. Our results supported that color-dependent reproductive interference determines the distribution of flower color polymorphism in a habitat, implying ecological sorting promoted by pollinator-mediated reproductive interference. Our study helps us to understand the evolution and spatial structure of flower color in a community. PMID:27723785

  19. Recent Progress of Flower Colour Modification by Biotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Brugliera, Filippa; Chandler, Steve

    2009-01-01

    Genetically-modified, colour-altered varieties of the important cut-flower crop carnation have now been commercially available for nearly ten years. In this review we describe the manipulation of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway that has lead to the development of these varieties and how similar manipulations have been successfully applied to both pot plants and another cut-flower species, the rose. From this experience it is clear that down- and up-regulation of the flavonoid and anthocyanin pathway is both possible and predictable. The major commercial benefit of the application of this technology has so far been the development of novel flower colours through the development of transgenic varieties that produce, uniquely for the target species, anthocyanins derived from delphinidin. These anthocyanins are ubiquitous in nature, and occur in both ornamental plants and common food plants. Through the extensive regulatory approval processes that must occur for the commercialization of genetically modified organisms, we have accumulated considerable experimental and trial data to show the accumulation of delphinidin based anthocyanins in the transgenic plants poses no environmental or health risk. PMID:20054474

  20. Antibacterial activity of Nymphaea nouchali (Burm. f) flower

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The present work aimed to find out the antibacterial activity of Nymphaea nouchali flower on human and plant pathogenic bacteria. Methods Antibacterial potency of methanol, acetone, ethyl acetate and petroleum spirit extracts of Nymphaea nouchali flower has been tested against four human pathogenic bacteria Bacillus subtilis (FO 3026) Escherichia coli (IFO 3007), Klebsiella pneumonia (ATTC 10031) and Sarcina lutea (IFO 3232) and one plant pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris (IAM 1671) by disc diffusion assay. Zone of inhibition produced by different extracts against the test bacteria was measured and compared with standard antibiotic disc. Results Methanol extract possessed better antibacterial activity against two pathogenic bacteria, B. subtilis (FO 3026) and S. lutea (IFO 3232) than commercial antibiotic nalidixic acid. Acetone extract showed moderate sensitivity whereas B. subtilis (FO 3026), S. lutea (IFO 3232) and X. campestris (IAM 1671) showed resistance to ethyl acetate and petroleum spirit extracts. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of various extracts were ranged between 128–2048 μgml-1. Conclusions Nymphaea nouchali flower could be a potential candidate for future development of novel broad spectrum antibacterial herbal formulation. PMID:24099586

  1. Assessment of Quercus flowering trends in NW Spain.

    PubMed

    Jato, V; Rodríguez-Rajo, F J; Fernandez-González, M; Aira, M J

    2015-05-01

    This paper sought to chart airborne Quercus pollen counts over the last 20 years in the region of Galicia (NW Spain) with a view to detecting the possible influence of climate change on the Quercus airborne pollen season (APS). Pollen data from Ourense, Santiago de Compostela, Vigo and Lugo were used. The Quercus airborne pollen season was characterized in terms of the following parameters: pollen season start and end dates, peak pollen count, pollen season length and pollen index. Several methods, dates and threshold temperatures for determining the chill and heat requirements needed to trigger flowering were applied. A diverse APS onset timing sequence was observed for the four cities as Quercus flowers few days in advance in Vigo. The variations observed could be related to differences in the meteorological conditions or the thermal requirements needed for flowering. Thermal requirements differed depending on local climate conditions in the study cities: the lowest values for chilling accumulation were recorded in Vigo and the highest in Lugo, whereas the lowest heat accumulation was achieved in Vigo. Differences in APS trends between cities may reflect variations in weather-related trends. A significant trend towards rising Quercus pollen indices and higher maximum daily mean pollen counts was observed in Ourense, linked to the more marked temperature increase across southern Galicia. A non-uniform trend towards increased temperatures was noted over the study period, particularly in late summer and early autumn in all four study cities. Additionally, an increase in spring temperatures was observed in south-western Galicia.

  2. Selenium accumulation in flowers and its effects on pollination.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Colin F; Prins, Christine N; Freeman, John L; Gross, Amanda M; Hantzis, Laura J; Reynolds, Ray J B; Yang, Soo in; Covey, Paul A; Bañuelos, Gary S; Pickering, Ingrid J; Fakra, Sirine C; Marcus, Matthew A; Arathi, H S; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A H

    2011-11-01

    • Selenium (Se) hyperaccumulation has a profound effect on plant-arthropod interactions. Here, we investigated floral Se distribution and speciation in flowers and the effects of floral Se on pollen quality and plant-pollinator interactions. • Floral Se distribution and speciation were compared in Stanleya pinnata, an Se hyperaccumulator, and Brassica juncea, a comparable nonhyperaccumulator. Pollen germination was measured from plants grown with varying concentrations of Se and floral visitation was compared between plants with high and low Se. • Stanleya pinnata preferentially allocated Se to flowers, as nontoxic methyl-selenocysteine (MeSeCys). Brassica juncea had higher Se concentrations in leaves than flowers, and a lower fraction of MeSeCys. For B. juncea, high floral Se concentration impaired pollen germination; in S. pinnata Se had no effect on pollen germination. Floral visitors collected from Se-rich S. pinnata contained up to 270 μg g(-1), concentrations toxic to many herbivores. Indeed, floral visitors showed no visitation preference between high- and low-Se plants. Honey from seleniferous areas contained 0.4-1 μg Se g(-1), concentrations that could provide human health benefits. • This study is the first to shed light on the possible evolutionary cost, through decreased pollen germination in B. juncea, of Se accumulation and has implications for the management of seleniferous areas.

  3. Hawkmoths evaluate scenting flowers with the tip of their proboscis

    PubMed Central

    Haverkamp, Alexander; Yon, Felipe; Keesey, Ian W; Mißbach, Christine; Koenig, Christopher; Hansson, Bill S; Baldwin, Ian T

    2016-01-01

    Pollination by insects is essential to many ecosystems. Previously, we have shown that floral scent is important to mediate pollen transfer between plants (Kessler et al., 2015). Yet, the mechanisms by which pollinators evaluate volatiles of single flowers remained unclear. Here, Nicotiana attenuata plants, in which floral volatiles have been genetically silenced and its hawkmoth pollinator, Manduca sexta, were used in semi-natural tent and wind-tunnel assays to explore the function of floral scent. We found that floral scent functions to increase the fitness of individual flowers not only by increasing detectability but also by enhancing the pollinator's foraging efforts. Combining proboscis choice tests with neurophysiological, anatomical and molecular analyses we show that this effect is governed by newly discovered olfactory neurons on the tip of the moth's proboscis. With the tip of their tongue, pollinators assess the advertisement of individual flowers, an ability essential for maintaining this important ecosystem service. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15039.001 PMID:27146894

  4. Metabolic networking in Brunfelsia calycina petals after flower opening.

    PubMed

    Bar-Akiva, Ayelet; Ovadia, Rinat; Rogachev, Ilana; Bar-Or, Carmiya; Bar, Einat; Freiman, Zohar; Nissim-Levi, Ada; Gollop, Natan; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Aharoni, Asaph; Weiss, David; Koltai, Hinanit; Oren-Shamir, Michal

    2010-03-01

    Brunfelsia calycina flowers change colour from purple to white due to anthocyanin degradation, parallel to an increase in fragrance and petal size. Here it was tested whether the production of the fragrant benzenoids is dependent on induction of the shikimate pathway, or if they are formed from the anthocyanin degradation products. An extensive characterization of the events taking place in Brunfelsia flowers is presented. Anthocyanin characterization was performed using ultraperfomance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight-tandem mass specrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS). Volatiles emitted were identified by headspace solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS). Accumulated proteins were identified by 2D gel electrophoresis. Transcription profiles were characterized by cross-species hybridization of Brunfelsia cDNAs to potato cDNA microarrays. Identification of accumulated metabolites was performed by UPLC-QTOF-MS non-targeted metabolite analysis. The results include characterization of the nine main anthocyanins in Brunfelsia flowers. In addition, 146 up-regulated genes, 19 volatiles, seven proteins, and 17 metabolites that increased during anthocyanin degradation were identified. A multilevel analysis suggests induction of the shikimate pathway. This pathway is the most probable source of the phenolic acids, which in turn are precursors of both the benzenoid and lignin production pathways. The knowledge obtained is valuable for future studies on degradation of anthocyanins, formation of volatiles, and the network of secondary metabolism in Brunfelsia and related species.

  5. Sex determination in flowering plants: papaya as a model system.

    PubMed

    Aryal, Rishi; Ming, Ray

    2014-03-01

    Unisexuality in flowering plants evolved from a hermaphrodite ancestor. Transition from hermaphrodite to unisexual flowers has occurred multiple times across the different lineages of the angiosperms. Sexuality in plants is regulated by genetic, epigenetic and physiological mechanisms. The most specialized mechanism of sex determination is sex chromosomes. The sex chromosomes ensure the stable segregation of sexual phenotypes by preventing the recombination of sex determining genes. Despite continuous efforts, sex determining genes of dioecious plants have not yet been cloned. Concerted efforts with various model systems are necessary to understand the complex mechanism of sex determination in plants. Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a tropical fruit tree with three sex forms, male, hermaphrodite, and female. Sexuality in papaya is determined by an XY chromosome system that is in an early evolutionary stage. The male and hermaphrodite of papaya are controlled by two different types of Y chromosomes: Y and Y(h). Large amounts of information in the area of genetics, genomics, and epigenetics of papaya have been accumulated over the last few decades. Relatively short lifecycle, small genome size, and readily available genetic and genomic resources render papaya an excellent model system to study sex determination and sex chromosomes in flowering plants.

  6. Quality assessment and scavenging activity of Siamese neem flower extract.

    PubMed

    Chaisawangwong, Worarat; Gritsanapan, Wandee

    2013-03-01

    Young leaves and flowers of Siamese neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. var. siamensis Valeton) are commonly consumed as a bitter tonic vegetable. Active antioxidant components in the flowers are rutin and quercetin flavonoids. The aqueous extracts of young flowers collected from 14 different locations in Thailand were quantitatively analysed using high-performance liquid chromatography for the contents of rutin and quercetin, and were determined for the loss on drying, heavy metals and pesticide residues, microbial contamination, solubility, chromatographic fingerprints and acute toxicity. The extracts contained rutin and quercetin in the ranges from 388 to 1178 mg% dry weight (average 772 mg%), and 1 to 10 mg% dry weight (average 5 mg%), respectively. EC50 of the scavenging activity of all extracts was found in the range of 27-133 µg mL(-1). Loss on drying of the extracts was less than 7% w/w and no sign of toxicity (LD50 > 5 g kg(-1)) was found.

  7. Assessment of Quercus flowering trends in NW Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jato, V.; Rodríguez-Rajo, F. J.; Fernandez-González, M.; Aira, M. J.

    2015-05-01

    This paper sought to chart airborne Quercus pollen counts over the last 20 years in the region of Galicia (NW Spain) with a view to detecting the possible influence of climate change on the Quercus airborne pollen season (APS). Pollen data from Ourense, Santiago de Compostela, Vigo and Lugo were used. The Quercus airborne pollen season was characterized in terms of the following parameters: pollen season start and end dates, peak pollen count, pollen season length and pollen index. Several methods, dates and threshold temperatures for determining the chill and heat requirements needed to trigger flowering were applied. A diverse APS onset timing sequence was observed for the four cities as Quercus flowers few days in advance in Vigo. The variations observed could be related to differences in the meteorological conditions or the thermal requirements needed for flowering. Thermal requirements differed depending on local climate conditions in the study cities: the lowest values for chilling accumulation were recorded in Vigo and the highest in Lugo, whereas the lowest heat accumulation was achieved in Vigo. Differences in APS trends between cities may reflect variations in weather-related trends. A significant trend towards rising Quercus pollen indices and higher maximum daily mean pollen counts was observed in Ourense, linked to the more marked temperature increase across southern Galicia. A non-uniform trend towards increased temperatures was noted over the study period, particularly in late summer and early autumn in all four study cities. Additionally, an increase in spring temperatures was observed in south-western Galicia.

  8. Nitrogen recycling and flowering time in perennial bioenergy crops.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Christopher; Amasino, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Perennials have a number of traits important for profitability and sustainability of a biofuel crop. Perennialism is generally defined as the ability to grow and reproduce in multiple years. In temperate climates, many perennial plants enter dormancy during winter and recycle nutrients, such as nitrogen, to below ground structures for the next growing season. Nitrogen is expensive to produce and application of nitrogen increases the potent greenhouse gas NO x . Perennial bioenergy crops have been evaluated for biomass yields with nitrogen fertilization, location, year, and genotype as variables. Flowering time and dormancy are closely related to the N recycling program. Substantial variation for flowering time and dormancy has been identified in the switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) species, which provides a source to identify the genetic components of N recycling, and for use in breeding programs. Some studies have addressed recycling specifically, but flowering time and developmental differences were largely ignored, complicating interpretation of the results. Future studies on recycling need to appreciate plant developmental stage to allow comparison between experiments. A perennial/annual model(s) and more environmentally controlled experiments would be useful to determine the genetic components of nitrogen recycling. Increasing biomass yield per unit of nitrogen by maximizing recycling might mean the difference for profitability of a biofuel crop and has the added benefit of minimizing negative environmental effects from agriculture.

  9. Flower color polymorphism maintained by overdominant selection in Sisyrinchium sp.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yuma; Takakura, Koh-ichi; Kawata, Masakado

    2015-11-01

    Negative frequency-dependent selection derived from positive frequency-dependent foraging is the best-known selection force maintaining genetic polymorphism within a population. However, in flowering plants, positive frequency-dependent foraging by pollinators is expected to accelerate the loss of low-frequency morphs by conferring a fitness advantage to the common morph, leading to monomorphism. In Japan, a non-native species, Sisyrinchium sp., exhibits conspicuous flower color polymorphism within a population comprising both purple morphs (homozygous recessive) and white morphs (heterozygous or homozygous dominant). Here we quantified genotype-specific reproductive success in order to reveal the contribution of overdominant selection on the maintenance of flower color polymorphism in this species. In artificial pollination experiments using individuals with identified genotypes, female reproductive success was higher in the heterozygote than in either homozygote. The frequency of purple morphs in natural populations (ca. 31%) is similar to the frequency predicted by overdominant selection (25%). Our results suggest that overdominant selection contributes to the maintenance of color morphs in the natural population of this species.

  10. Testing the influence of gravity on flower symmetry in five Saxifraga species.

    PubMed

    Koethe, Sebastian; Bloemer, Judith; Lunau, Klaus

    2017-04-01

    Flower symmetry is considered a species-specific trait and is categorized in asymmetry, actinomorphic symmetry, bisymmetry and zygomorphic symmetry. Here we report on the intra-individual variation of flower symmetry in the genus Saxifraga and the influence of light, gravity and intrinsic factors on the development of flower symmetry. We tested five species-Saxifraga cuneifolia, Saxifraga imparilis, Saxifraga rotundifolia, Saxifraga stolonifera and Saxifraga umbrosa-concerning six flower parameters-angles between petals, petal length, petal pigmentation, angular position of carpels, movement of stamens and (only for S. imparilis and S. stolonifera) the length of the two lower elongated petals in regard to their position towards the stem. Specimens of all species were tested on a vertical clinostat as a gravity compensator, on a horizontal clinostat as a light incidence compensator and on a stationary control. The results show that the angle of incident light has no apparent impact on flower symmetry, whereas gravity affects the angular position of petals in S. cuneifolia and S. umbrosa and the petal colouration in S. rotundifolia. In S. cuneifolia and S. umbrosa, the absence of directional gravity resulted in the development of actinomorphic flowers, whereas the corresponding control flowers were zygomorphic. The development of flowers in S. rotundifolia was not altered by this treatment. The length of the two elongated petals in S. stolonifera and S. imparilis was not affected by gravity, but rather was determined by position of the flower within the inflorescence and resulted in asymmetrical flowers.

  11. Difference in defense strategy in flower heads and leaves of Asteraceae: multiple-species approach.

    PubMed

    Oguro, Michio; Sakai, Satoki

    2014-01-01

    Although a vast number of studies have investigated defenses against herbivores in leaves, relatively little is known about defenses in flowers. Using wild individuals of 34 species of Asteraceae, we investigated differences in five traits that are thought to affect the intensity of herbivory (C, N, P, water, and total phenolic contents). Combinations of these traits between flower heads and leaves were studied as well. We also evaluated phylogenetic patterns of flower head and leaf traits. Flower heads had higher P and lower total phenolics than leaves. Water and C contents were negatively correlated both in the flower heads and leaves. N, P, and water contents were positively correlated in the flower heads, whereas this pattern was not found in the leaves. Thus, the traits we measured were more tightly inter-correlated in flower heads than in leaves. Because the flower heads had a lower total phenolic content, the relative allocation of defensive compounds could not be explained solely by fitness values of the organs. Perhaps plants employ an escape strategy rather than a defense strategy to cope with floral herbivores and higher allocation in P may enhance their escape from herbivores by improving the growth rate of flower heads, though our result might be affected in part by the plasticity of plants growing at different sites. Moreover, we found weak phylogenetic signals in the defensive traits. Because we found significant differences in the flower head traits, these weak signals may imply that the traits we measured evolved frequently.

  12. An examination of the function of male flowers in an andromonoecious shrub Capparis spinosa.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Tan, Dun-Yan

    2009-03-01

    The pollen donor and pollinator attractor hypotheses are explanations for the functions of the male flowers of andromonoecious plants. We tested these two hypotheses in the andromonoecious shrub Capparis spinosa L. (Capparaceae) and confirmed that pollen production and cumulative volume and sugar concentration of nectar do not differ between male and perfect flowers. However, male flowers produced larger anthers, larger pollen grains and smaller ovaries than perfect flowers. Observations on pollinators indicated that two major pollinators (Xylocopa valga Gerst and Proxylocopa sinensis Wu) did not discriminate between flower morphs and that they transferred pollen grains a similar distance. However, there were more seeds per fruit following hand pollination with pollen from male flowers than from perfect flowers. Individuals of C. spinosa with a larger floral display (i.e. bearing more flowers) received more pollen grains on the stigma of perfect flowers. Female reproductive success probably is not limited by pollen. These results indicate that male flowers of C. spinosa save resources for female function and that they primarily serve to attract pollinators as pollen donors.

  13. Relative abundance of an invasive alien plant affects insect-flower interaction networks in Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stout, Jane C.; Casey, Leanne M.

    2014-02-01

    Invasive alien flowering plants may affect native plant pollinator interactions and have knock on impacts on populations of native plants and animals. The magnitude of these impacts, however, may be modified by the relative abundance of the invasive plant and the number of flowers it presents.We tested this by examining the structure of insect-flower interaction networks in six sites with increasing levels of invasion by Rhododendron ponticum in Ireland.Neither flower-visiting insect abundance, species richness nor diversity were related to R. ponticum flower abundance, but the composition of insect communities was. The total number of flowers in a site increased with the relative abundance of R. ponticum flowers but the number of co-flowering native plant species in these sites was low (<6), making interaction networks relatively small.As a result, changes in interaction network properties (connectance, interaction evenness and network level specialisation), which correlated with R. ponticum flower abundance, were a result of the small network size rather than due to changes in the resilience of networks.Overall, we conclude that the impacts of invasive alien plants on native plant-pollinator interactions are not only species specific, but site specific, according to the abundance of flowers produced by both the invasive and the native plants.

  14. How Nectar-Feeding Bats Localize their Food: Echolocation Behavior of Leptonycteris yerbabuenae Approaching Cactus Flowers

    PubMed Central

    Koblitz, Jens C.; Fleming, Theodore H.; Medellín, Rodrigo A.; Kalko, Elisabeth K. V.; Schnitzler, Hans-Ulrich; Tschapka, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Nectar-feeding bats show morphological, physiological, and behavioral adaptations for feeding on nectar. How they find and localize flowers is still poorly understood. While scent cues alone allow no precise localization of a floral target, the spatial properties of flower echoes are very precise and could play a major role, particularly at close range. The aim of this study is to understand the role of echolocation for classification and localization of flowers. We compared the approach behavior of Leptonycteris yerbabuenae to flowers of a columnar cactus, Pachycereus pringlei, to that to an acrylic hollow hemisphere that is acoustically conspicuous to bats, but has different acoustic properties and, contrary to the cactus flower, present no scent. For recording the flight and echolocation behaviour we used two infrared video cameras under stroboscopic illumination synchronized with ultrasound recordings. During search flights all individuals identified both targets as a possible food source and initiated an approach flight; however, they visited only the cactus flower. In experiments with the acrylic hemisphere bats aborted the approach at ca. 40–50 cm. In the last instant before the flower visit the bats emitted a long terminal group of 10–20 calls. This is the first report of this behaviour for a nectar-feeding bat. Our findings suggest that L. yerbabuenae use echolocation for classification and localization of cactus flowers and that the echo-acoustic characteristics of the flower guide the bats directly to the flower opening. PMID:27684373

  15. Flower development of Meliosma (Sabiaceae): evidence for multiple origins of pentamery in the eudicots.

    PubMed

    Wanntorp, Livia; Ronse De Craene, Louis P

    2007-11-01

    Flower developmental studies are a complement to molecular phylogenetics and a tool to understand the evolution of the angiosperm flower. Buds and mature flowers of Meliosma veitchiorum, M. cuneifolia, and M. dilleniifolia (Sabiaceae) were investigated using scanning electron microscopy to clarify flower developmental patterns and morphology, to understand the origin of the perianth merism, and to discuss the two taxonomic positions proposed for Sabiaceae, among rosids or in the basal grade of eudicots. Flowers in Meliosma appear pentamerous with two of the five sepals and petals strongly reduced, three staminodes alternating with two fertile stamens opposite the small petals, and a two-carpellate gynoecium. The flower development in Meliosma is spiral without distinction between bracteoles and sepals. Because of this development, sepals, petals, and stamens are almost opposite and not alternating as expected in cyclical pentamerous flowers. In four-sepal flowers the direction of petal initiation is reversed. The symmetry of the flower appears to be transversally zygomorphic, although this is hidden by the almost equal size of the larger petals. Evidence points to a unique pentamerous origin of flowers in Meliosma, and not to a trimerous origin, as earlier suggested, and adds support to multiple origins of pentamery in the eudicots.

  16. Pollinators, "mustard oil" volatiles, and fruit production in flowers of the dioecious tree Drypetes natalensis (Putranjivaceae).

    PubMed

    Johnson, Steven D; Griffiths, Megan E; Peter, Craig I; Lawes, Michael J

    2009-11-01

    The Putranjivaceae is an enigmatic family, notable for being the only lineage outside the Capparales to possess the glucosinolate biochemical pathway, which forms the basis of an induced chemical defense system against herbivores (the "mustard oil bomb"). We investigated the pollination biology and floral scent chemistry of Drypetes natalensis (Putranjivaceae), a dioecious subcanopy tree with flowers borne on the stem (cauliflory). Flowering male trees were more abundant than female ones and produced about 10-fold more flowers. Flowers of both sexes produce copious amounts of nectar on disc-like nectaries accessible to short-tongued insects. The main flower visitors observed were cetoniid beetles, bees, and vespid wasps. Pollen load analysis indicated that these insects exhibit a high degree of fidelity to D. natalensis flowers. Insects effectively transfer pollen from male to female plants resulting in about 31% of female flowers developing fruits with viable seeds. Cetoniid beetles showed significant orientation toward the scent of D. natalensis flowers in a Y-maze olfactometer. The scents of male and female flowers are similar in chemical composition and dominated by fatty acid derivatives and isothiocyanates from the glucosinolate pathway. The apparent constitutive emission of isothiocyanates raises interesting new questions about their functional role in flowers.

  17. Phytohormone and assimilate profiles in emasculated flowers of the black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) during development.

    PubMed

    Sun, Peng; Yuan, Cunquan; Dai, Li; Xi, Yang; Li, Yunfei; Hu, Ruiyang; Sun, Yuhan; Xu, Zhaohe; Li, Yun

    2013-09-01

    Emasculation and bagging of flowers, which are widely used in the controlled pollination of monoclinous plants, may induce premature senescence, flower abscission and low fruit set. To determine the mechanism responsible for these phenomena, levels of abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), ethylene, soluble sugars, reducing sugars and free amino acids in black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) flowers subjected to different treatments were quantified at different developmental stages. The phytohormones and assimilates were also quantified in untreated flowers to investigate the presence of discernible patterns. The levels of ethylene and ABA in emasculated and bagged (EB) flowers increased prematurely compared with those of untreated flowers, whereas the content of reducing sugars in EB flowers decreased compared with that of untreated flowers. These results indicated that the premature increase in ethylene and ABA synthesis, and the decrease in reducing sugars content, in EB flowers may cause flower abscission and result in low fruit set, which may be relevant for assimilate applications and future research on the regulation of controlled pollinations with exogenous phytohormones.

  18. A small indel mutation in an anthocyanin transporter causes variegated colouration of peach flowers.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jun; Liao, Liao; Zhou, Hui; Gu, Chao; Wang, Lu; Han, Yuepeng

    2015-12-01

    The ornamental peach cultivar 'Hongbaihuatao (HBH)' can simultaneously bear pink, red, and variegated flowers on a single tree. Anthocyanin content in pink flowers is extremely low, being only 10% that of a red flower. Surprisingly, the expression of anthocyanin structural and potential regulatory genes in white flowers was not significantly lower than that in both pink and red flowers. However, proteomic analysis revealed a GST encoded by a gene-regulator involved in anthocyanin transport (Riant)-which is expressed in the red flower, but almost undetectable in the variegated flower. The Riant gene contains an insertion-deletion (indel) polymorphism in exon 3. In white flowers, the Riant gene is interrupted by a 2-bp insertion in the last exon, which causes a frameshift and a premature stop codon. In contrast, both pink and red flowers that arise from bud sports are heterozygous for the Riant locus, with one functional allele due to the 2-bp deletion or a novel 1-bp insertion. Southern blot analysis indicated that the Riant gene occurs in a single copy in the peach genome and it is not interrupted by a transposon. The function of the Riant gene was confirmed by its ectopic expression in the Arabidopsis tt19 mutant, where it complements the anthocyanin phenotype, but not the proanthocyanidin pigmentation in seed coat. Collectively,these results indicate that a small indel mutation in the Riant gene, which is not the result of a transposon insertion or excision, causes variegated colouration of peach flowers.

  19. Role of the gynoecium in natural senescence of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) flowers.

    PubMed

    Shibuya, K; Yoshioka, T; Hashiba, T; Satoh, S

    2000-12-01

    Although the role of the gynoecium in natural senescence of the carnation flower has long been suggested, it has remained a matter of dispute because petal senescence in the cut carnation flower was not delayed by the removal of gynoecium. In this study, the gynoecium was snapped off by hand, in contrast to previous investigations where removal was achieved by forceps or scissors. The removal of the gynoecium by hand prevented the onset of ethylene production and prolonged the vase life of the flower, demonstrating a decisive role of the gynoecium in controlling natural senescence of the carnation flower. Abscisic acid (ABA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), which induced ethylene production and accelerated petal senescence in carnation flowers, did not stimulate ethylene production in the flowers with gynoecia removed (-Gyn flowers). Application of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC), the ethylene precursor, induced substantial ethylene production and petal wilting in the flowers with gynoecia left intact, but was less effective at stimulating ethylene production in the -Gyn flowers and negligible petal in-rolling was observed. Exogenous ethylene induced autocatalytic production of the gas and petal wilting in the -Gyn flowers. These results indicated that ethylene generated in the gynoecium triggers the onset of ethylene production in the petals of carnation during natural senescence.

  20. Is 'peak N' key to understanding the timing of flowering in annual plants?

    PubMed

    Guilbaud, Camille S E; Dalchau, Neil; Purves, Drew W; Turnbull, Lindsay A

    2015-01-01

    Flowering time in annual plants has large fitness consequences and has been the focus of theoretical and empirical study. Previous theory has concluded that flowering time has evolved over evolutionary time to maximize fitness over a particular season length. We introduce a new model where flowering is cued by a growth-rate rule (peak nitrogen (N)). Flowering is therefore sensitive to physiological parameters and to current environmental conditions, including N availability and the presence of competitors. The model predicts that, when overall conditions are suitable for flowering, plants should never flower after 'peak N', the point during development when the whole-plant N uptake rate reaches its maximum. Our model further predicts correlations between flowering time and vegetative growth rates, and that the response to increased N depends heavily on how this extra N is made available. We compare our predictions to observations in the literature. We suggest that annual plants may have evolved to use growth-rate rules as part of the cue for flowering, allowing them to smoothly and optimally adjust their flowering time to a wide range of local conditions. If so, there are widespread implications for the study of the molecular biology behind flowering pathways.

  1. Effects of elevated CO 2 on flowering phenology and nectar production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erhardt, Andreas; Rusterholz, Hans-Peter

    Effects of elevated CO 2 on flowering phenology and nectar production were studied in five important nectar plants of calcareous grasslands, i.e. Lotus corniculatus, Trifolium pratense, Betonica officinalis, Scabiosa columbaria and Centaurea jacea. Glasshouse experiments showed that flowering probability was significantly enhanced in C. jacea. B. officinalis flowered carlier and L. corniculatus produced more flowers under elevated CO 2. In contrast, the number of flowers decreased in T. pratense. The amount of nectar produced per flower was not affected in the investigated legumes ( T. pratense, L. corniculatus), but was significantly reduced in the other forbs. Elevated CO 2 did not significantly affect nectar sugar concentration and sugar composition. However, S. columbaria and C. jacea produced significantly less total sugar per flower under elevated CO 2. The nectar amino acid concentration remained unaffected in all investigated plant species whereas the total of amino acids produced per flower was significantly reduced in all non-legumes. In addition, the amino acid composition changed significantly in all investigated species except for C. jacea. The observed effects are unexpected and are a potential threat to flower visitors such as most butterflies which have no alternative food resources except nectar. Changes in nectar production due to elevated CO 2 could also generally have detrimental effects on the interactions of flowers and their pollinators.

  2. Genome-Wide Comparative Analysis of Flowering-Related Genes in Arabidopsis, Wheat, and Barley

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Fred Y.; Hu, Zhiqiu; Yang, Rong-Cai

    2015-01-01

    Early flowering is an important trait influencing grain yield and quality in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in short-season cropping regions. However, due to large and complex genomes of these species, direct identification of flowering genes and their molecular characterization remain challenging. Here, we used a bioinformatic approach to predict flowering-related genes in wheat and barley from 190 known Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh.) flowering genes. We identified 900 and 275 putative orthologs in wheat and barley, respectively. The annotated flowering-related genes were clustered into 144 orthologous groups with one-to-one, one-to-many, many-to-one, and many-to-many orthology relationships. Our approach was further validated by domain and phylogenetic analyses of flowering-related proteins and comparative analysis of publicly available microarray data sets for in silico expression profiling of flowering-related genes in 13 different developmental stages of wheat and barley. These further analyses showed that orthologous gene pairs in three critical flowering gene families (PEBP, MADS, and BBX) exhibited similar expression patterns among 13 developmental stages in wheat and barley, suggesting similar functions among the orthologous genes with sequence and expression similarities. The predicted candidate flowering genes can be confirmed and incorporated into molecular breeding for early flowering wheat and barley in short-season cropping regions. PMID:26435710

  3. Pistil starch reserves at anthesis correlate with final flower fate in avocado (Persea americana).

    PubMed

    Alcaraz, María Librada; Hormaza, José Ignacio; Rodrigo, Javier

    2013-01-01

    A common observation in different plant species is a massive abscission of flowers and fruitlets even after adequate pollination, but little is known as to the reason for this drop. Previous research has shown the importance of nutritive reserves accumulated in the flower on fertilization success and initial fruit development but direct evidence has been elusive. Avocado (Persea americana) is an extreme case of a species with a very low fruit to flower ratio. In this work, the implications of starch content in the avocado flower on the subsequent fruit set are explored. Firstly, starch content in individual ovaries was analysed from two populations of flowers with a different fruit set capacity showing that the flowers from the population that resulted in a higher percentage of fruit set contained significantly more starch. Secondly, in a different set of flowers, the style of each flower was excised one day after pollination, once the pollen tubes had reached the base of the style, and individually fixed for starch content analysis under the microscope once the fate of its corresponding ovary (that remained in the tree) was known. A high variability in starch content in the style was found among flowers, with some flowers having starch content up to 1,000 times higher than others, and the flowers that successfully developed into fruits presented significantly higher starch content in the style at anthesis than those that abscised. The relationship between starch content in the ovary and the capacity of set of the flower together with the correlation found between the starch content in the style and the fate of the ovary support the hypothesis that the carbohydrate reserves accumulated in the flower at anthesis are related to subsequent abscission or retention of the developing fruit.

  4. Pistil Starch Reserves at Anthesis Correlate with Final Flower Fate in Avocado (Persea americana)

    PubMed Central

    Alcaraz, María Librada; Hormaza, José Ignacio; Rodrigo, Javier

    2013-01-01

    A common observation in different plant species is a massive abscission of flowers and fruitlets even after adequate pollination, but little is known as to the reason for this drop. Previous research has shown the importance of nutritive reserves accumulated in the flower on fertilization success and initial fruit development but direct evidence has been elusive. Avocado (Persea americana) is an extreme case of a species with a very low fruit to flower ratio. In this work, the implications of starch content in the avocado flower on the subsequent fruit set are explored. Firstly, starch content in individual ovaries was analysed from two populations of flowers with a different fruit set capacity showing that the flowers from the population that resulted in a higher percentage of fruit set contained significantly more starch. Secondly, in a different set of flowers, the style of each flower was excised one day after pollination, once the pollen tubes had reached the base of the style, and individually fixed for starch content analysis under the microscope once the fate of its corresponding ovary (that remained in the tree) was known. A high variability in starch content in the style was found among flowers, with some flowers having starch content up to 1,000 times higher than others, and the flowers that successfully developed into fruits presented significantly higher starch content in the style at anthesis than those that abscised. The relationship between starch content in the ovary and the capacity of set of the flower together with the correlation found between the starch content in the style and the fate of the ovary support the hypothesis that the carbohydrate reserves accumulated in the flower at anthesis are related to subsequent abscission or retention of the developing fruit. PMID:24167627

  5. Post-Flowering Nitrate Uptake in Wheat Is Controlled by N Status at Flowering, with a Putative Major Role of Root Nitrate Transporter NRT2.1

    PubMed Central

    Taulemesse, François; Le Gouis, Jacques; Gouache, David; Gibon, Yves; Allard, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    In bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), the simultaneous improvement of both yield and grain protein is difficult because of the strong negative relationship between these two traits. However, some genotypes deviate positively from this relationship and this has been linked to their ability to take up nitrogen (N) during the post-flowering period, regardless of their N status at flowering. The physiological and genetic determinants of post-flowering N uptake relating to N satiety are poorly understood. This study uses semi-hydroponic culture of cv. Récital under controlled conditions to explore these controls. The first objective was to record the effects of contrasting N status at flowering on post-flowering nitrate (NO3-) uptake under non-limiting NO3- conditions, while following the expression of key genes involved in NO3- uptake and assimilation. We found that post-flowering NO3- uptake was strongly influenced by plant N status at flowering during the first 300–400 degree-days after flowering, overlapping with a probable regulation of nitrate uptake exerted by N demand for growth. The uptake of NO3- correlated well with the expression of the gene TaNRT2.1, coding for a root NO3- transporter, which seems to play a major role in post-flowering NO3- uptake. These results provide a useful knowledge base for future investigation of genetic variability in post-flowering N uptake and may lead to concomitant gains in both grain yield and grain protein in wheat. PMID:25798624

  6. Impacts of climate change on spring flower tourism in Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huanjiong

    2016-04-01

    The beauty of blooming flowers causes spring to be one of the most picturesque and pleasant seasons in which to travel. However, the blooming time of plant species are very sensitive to small changes in climate. Therefore, recent climate change may shift flowering time and, as a result, may affect timing of spring tourism for tourists. In order to prove this assumption, we gathered data of first flowering date and end of flowering date (1963-2014) for 49 common ornamental plants in Beijing, China. In addition, we used the number of messages (2010-2014) posted on Sina Weibo (one of the most popular microblogs sites in China, in use by well over 30% of internet users, with a market penetration similar to the United States' Twitter) to indicate the tourist numbers of five scenic spots in Beijing. These spots are most famous places for seeing spring flowers, including the Summer Palace, Yuyuantan Park, Beijing Botanical Garden, Jingshan Park, Dadu City Wall Relics Park. The results showed that the number of species in flower starts to increase in early spring and peaks in middle spring, and then begins to decrease from late spring. The date when the number of species in flower peaks can be defined as best date of spring flower tourism, because on this day people can see blooming flowers of most plant species. The best date of spring flower tourism varied from March 31 to May 1 among years with a mean of April 20. At above scenic spots characterized by the beauty of blooming flowers, tourist numbers also had a peak value during spring. Furthermore, peak time of tourist numbers derived from Weibo varied among different years and was related to best date of spring flower tour derived from phenological data. This suggests that the time of spring outing for tourists is remarkably attracted by flowering phenology. From 1963 to 2014, the best date of spring flower tour became earlier at a rate of 1.6 days decade-1, but the duration for spring flower tour (defined as width at

  7. Vulnerability of the northern Mongolian steppe to climate change: insights from flower production and phenology.

    PubMed

    Liancourt, Pierre; Spence, Laura A; Boldgiv, Bazartseren; Lkhagva, Ariuntsetseg; Helliker, Brent R; Casper, Brenda B; Petraitis, Peter S

    2012-04-01

    The semiarid, northern Mongolian steppe, which still supports pastoral nomads who have used the steppe for millennia, has experienced an average 1.7 degrees C temperature rise over the past 40 years. Continuing climate change is likely to affect flowering phenology and flower numbers with potentially important consequences for plant community composition, ecosystem services, and herder livelihoods. Over the growing seasons of 2009 and 2010, we examined flowering responses to climate manipulation using open-top passive warming chambers (OTCs) at two locations on a south-facing slope: one on the moister, cooler lower slope and the other on the drier, warmer upper slope, where a watering treatment was added in a factorial design with warming. Canonical analysis of principal coordinates (CAP) revealed that OTCs reduced flower production and delayed peak flowering in graminoids as a whole but only affected forbs on the upper slope, where peak flowering was also delayed. OTCs affected flowering phenology in seven of eight species, which were examined individually, either by altering the time of peak flowering and/or the onset and/or cessation of flowering, as revealed by survival analysis. In 2010, which was the drier year, OTCs reduced flower production in two grasses but increased production in an annual forb found only on the upper slope. The particular effects of OTCs on phenology, and whether they caused an extension or contraction of the flowering season, differed among species, and often depended on year, or slope, or watering treatment; however, a relatively strong pattern emerged for 2010 when four species showed a contraction of the flowering season in OTCs. Watering increased flower production in two species in 2010, but slope location more often affected flowering phenology than did watering. Our results show the importance of taking landscape-scale variation into account in climate change studies and also contrasted with those of several studies set in cold

  8. Transcriptome profiling for discovery of genes involved in shoot apical meristem and flower development.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vikash K; Jain, Mukesh

    2014-12-01

    Flower development is one of the major developmental processes that governs seed setting in angiosperms. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying flower development in legumes. Employing RNA-seq for various stages of flower development and few vegetative tissues in chickpea, we identified differentially expressed genes in flower tissues/stages in comparison to vegetative tissues, which are related to various biological processes and molecular functions during flower development. Here, we provide details of experimental methods, RNA-seq data (available at Gene Expression Omnibus database under GSE42679) and analysis pipeline published by Singh and colleagues in the Plant Biotechnology Journal (Singh et al., 2013), along with additional analysis for discovery of genes involved in shoot apical meristem (SAM) development. Our data provide a resource for exploring the complex molecular mechanisms underlying SAM and flower development and identification of gene targets for functional and applied genomics in legumes.

  9. Co-ordination of Flower Development Through Epigenetic Regulation in Two Model Species: Rice and Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Siyi; Sun, Bo; Looi, Liang-Sheng; Xu, Yifeng; Gan, Eng-Seng; Huang, Jiangbo; Ito, Toshiro

    2015-05-01

    Angiosperms produce flowers for reproduction. Flower development is a multistep developmental process, beginning with the initiation of the floral meristems, followed by floral meristem identity specification and maintenance, organ primordia initiation, floral organ identity specification, floral stem cell termination and finally floral organ maturation. During flower development, each of a large number of genes is expressed in a spatiotemporally regulated manner. Underlying these molecular and phenotypic events are various genetic and epigenetic pathways, consisting of diverse transcription factors, chromatin-remodeling factors and signaling molecules. Over the past 30 years, genetic, biochemical and genomic assays have revealed the underlying genetic frameworks that control flower development. Here, we will review the transcriptional regulation of flower development in two model species: Arabidopsis thaliana and rice (Oryza sativa). We focus on epigenetic regulation that functions to co-ordinate transcription pathways in flower development.

  10. Phytochemical Content, Health Benefits, and Toxicology of Common Edible Flowers: A Review (2000-2015).

    PubMed

    Lu, Baiyi; Li, Maiquan; Yin, Ran

    2016-07-29

    Edible flowers contain numerous phytochemicals which contribute to their health benefits, and consumption of edible flowers has increased significantly in recent years. While many researchers have been conducted, no literature review of the health benefits of common edible flowers and their phytochemicals has been compiled. This review aimed to present the findings of research conducted from 2000 to 2015 on the species, traditional application, phytochemicals, health benefits, and the toxicology of common edible flowers. It was found in 15 species of common edible flowers that four flavonols, three flavones, four flavanols, three anthocyanins, three phenolic acids and their derivatives were common phytochemicals and they contributed to the health benefits such as anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-obesity, and neuroprotective effect. Toxicology studies have been conducted to evaluate the safety of common edible flowers and provide information on their dosages and usages.

  11. Survey of insect visitation of ornamental flowers in Southover Grange garden, Lewes, UK.

    PubMed

    Garbuzov, Mihail; Samuelson, Elizabeth E W; Ratnieks, Francis L W

    2015-10-01

    Ornamental flowers commonly grown in urban gardens and parks can be of value to flower-visiting insects. However, there is huge variation in the number of insects attracted among plant varieties. In this study, we quantified the insect attractiveness of 79 varieties in full bloom being grown in a public urban garden that is popular due to its beautiful flowers and other attractions. The results showed very clearly that most varieties (77%, n = 61) were either poorly attractive or completely unattractive to insect flower visitors. Several varieties (19%, n = 15) were moderately attractive, but very few (4%, n = 3) were highly attractive. Closer examination of Dahlia varieties showed that "open" flowered forms were approximately 20 times more attractive than "closed" flowered forms. These results strongly suggest that there is a great potential for making urban parks and gardens considerably more bee- and insect-friendly by selecting appropriate varieties.

  12. Kiwifruit Flower Odor Perception and Recognition by Honey Bees, Apis mellifera.

    PubMed

    Twidle, Andrew M; Mas, Flore; Harper, Aimee R; Horner, Rachael M; Welsh, Taylor J; Suckling, David M

    2015-06-17

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from male and female kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa 'Hayward') flowers were collected by dynamic headspace sampling. Honey bee (Apis mellifera) perception of the flower VOCs was tested using gas chromatography coupled to electroantennogram detection. Honey bees consistently responded to six compounds present in the headspace of female kiwifruit flowers and five compounds in the headspace of male flowers. Analysis of the floral volatiles by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and microscale chemical derivatization showed the compounds to be nonanal, 2-phenylethanol, 4-oxoisophorone, (3E,6E)-α-farnesene, (6Z,9Z)-heptadecadiene, and (8Z)-heptadecene. Bees were then trained via olfactory conditioning of the proboscis extension response (PER) to synthetic mixtures of these compounds using the ratios present in each flower type. Honey bees trained to the synthetic mixtures showed a high response to the natural floral extracts, indicating that these may be the key compounds for honey bee perception of kiwifruit flower odor.

  13. Red-purple flower color and delphinidin-type pigments in the flowers of Pueraria lobata (Leguminosae).

    PubMed

    Tatsuzawa, Fumi; Tanikawa, Natsu; Nakayama, Masayoshi

    2017-05-01

    A previously undescribed acylated anthocyanin was extracted from the red-purple flowers of Pueraria lobata with 5% HOAc-H2O, and determined to be petunidin 3-O-(β-glucopyranoside)-5-O-[6-O-(malonyl)-β-glucopyranoside], by chemical and spectroscopic methods. In addition, two known acylated anthocyanins, delphinidin 3-O-(β-glucopyranoside)-5-O-[6-O-(malonyl)-β-glucopyranoside] and malvidin 3-O-(β-glucopyranoside)-5-O-[6-O-(malonyl)-β-glucopyranoside] were identified. Delphinidin 3,5-di-glucoside, petunidin 3,5-di-glucoside, and malvidin 3,5-di-glucoside, have been known as major components of P. lobata in the former study. However, malonyl esters amounts were detected over 10 times compared with non-malonyl esters amounts. In those anthocyanins the most abundant anthocyanin was petunidin 3-O-(β-glucopyranoside)-5-O-[6-O-(malonyl)-β-glucopyranoside] in total flowers. On the visible absorption spectral curve of fresh red-purple petals, one characteristic absorption maximum was observed at 520 nm, which is similar to those of flowers containing pelargonidin derivatives. In contrast, the absorption spectral curve of old violet petals was observed at 500(sh), 536, 564(sh), and 613(sh) nm, which are similar to those of violet flowers containing delphinidin-type pigments. Pressed juices of both fresh red-purple petals and old violet petals had pH5.2 and 5.5 respectively, and had the same flavonoid constitution. Crude fresh red-purple petal pigments extracted by pH 2.2 and pH 5.2 buffers exhibited the same color and spectral curves as fresh red-purple petals and old violet petals, respectively. Moreover, in a cross-TLC experiment of crude extracted pigments, red-purple color was exhibited by the anthocyanin region and the crossed region of anthocyanins and isoflavone. Thus, it may be assumed that the unusually low pH in the vacuole of fresh petals plays an important role to form red-purple flower color against weak acidic pH in the vacuole of old violet P

  14. Trade-Offs of Flowering and Maturity Synchronisation for Pineapple Quality

    PubMed Central

    Fassinou Hotegni, V. Nicodème; Lommen, Willemien J. M.; Agbossou, Euloge K.; Struik, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    In the pineapple sector of Benin, poor fruit quality prevents pineapple producers to enter the European market. We investigated effects of common cultural practices, flowering and maturity synchronisation, (1) to quantify the trade-offs of flowering and maturity synchronisation for pineapple quality and the proportion of fruits exportable to European markets, and (2) to determine the effect of harvesting practice on quality attributes. Four on-farm experiments were conducted during three years using cultivars Sugarloaf and Smooth Cayenne. A split-split plot design was used in each experiment, with flowering induction practice as main factor (artificial or natural flowering induction), maturity induction practice as split factor (artificial or natural maturity induction) and harvesting practice as the split-split factor (farmers’ harvest practice or individual fruit harvesting at optimum maturity). Artificial flowering induction gave fruits with lower infructescence weight, higher ratio crown: infructescence length, and a lower proportion of fruits exportable to European markets than natural flowering induction. The costs of the improvements by natural flowering induction were huge: the longer durations from planting to flowering induction and harvesting, the higher number of harvestings of the fruits increasing the labour cost and the lower proportion of plants producing fruits compared with crops from artificially flowering-induced plants. Artificial maturity induction decreased the total soluble solids concentration in the fruits compared with natural maturity induction thus decreasing the proportion of fruits exportable to European markets, at a benefit of only a slightly shorter time from flowering induction to harvesting. Harvesting individual fruits at optimum maturity gave fruits with higher total soluble solids in naturally maturity induced fruits compared with the farmers’ harvest practice. Given the huge costs of natural flowering induction, options

  15. Transcription Profiles Reveal Sugar and Hormone Signaling Pathways Mediating Flower Induction in Apple (Malus domestica Borkh.).

    PubMed

    Xing, Li-Bo; Zhang, Dong; Li, You-Mei; Shen, Ya-Wen; Zhao, Cai-Ping; Ma, Juan-Juan; An, Na; Han, Ming-Yu

    2015-10-01

    Flower induction in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) is regulated by complex gene networks that involve multiple signal pathways to ensure flower bud formation in the next year, but the molecular determinants of apple flower induction are still unknown. In this research, transcriptomic profiles from differentiating buds allowed us to identify genes potentially involved in signaling pathways that mediate the regulatory mechanisms of flower induction. A hypothetical model for this regulatory mechanism was obtained by analysis of the available transcriptomic data, suggesting that sugar-, hormone- and flowering-related genes, as well as those involved in cell-cycle induction, participated in the apple flower induction process. Sugar levels and metabolism-related gene expression profiles revealed that sucrose is the initiation signal in flower induction. Complex hormone regulatory networks involved in cytokinin (CK), abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid pathways also induce apple flower formation. CK plays a key role in the regulation of cell formation and differentiation, and in affecting flowering-related gene expression levels during these processes. Meanwhile, ABA levels and ABA-related gene expression levels gradually increased, as did those of sugar metabolism-related genes, in developing buds, indicating that ABA signals regulate apple flower induction by participating in the sugar-mediated flowering pathway. Furthermore, changes in sugar and starch deposition levels in buds can be affected by ABA content and the expression of the genes involved in the ABA signaling pathway. Thus, multiple pathways, which are mainly mediated by crosstalk between sugar and hormone signals, regulate the molecular network involved in bud growth and flower induction in apple trees.

  16. Proteomic Identification of Differentially Expressed Proteins during Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Flower Development.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lingling; Chen, Quanzhu; Zhu, Yanqiao; Hou, Longyu; Mao, Peisheng

    2016-01-01

    Flower development, pollination, and fertilization are important stages in the sexual reproduction process of plants; they are also critical steps in the control of seed formation and development. During alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) seed production, some distinct phenomena such as a low seed setting ratio, serious flower falling, and seed abortion commonly occur. However, the causes of these phenomena are complicated and largely unknown. An understanding of the mechanisms that regulate alfalfa flowering is important in order to increase seed yield. Hence, proteomic technology was used to analyze changes in protein expression during the stages of alfalfa flower development. Flower samples were collected at pre-pollination (S1), pollination (S2), and the post-pollination senescence period (S3). Twenty-four differentially expressed proteins were successfully identified, including 17 down-regulated in pollinated flowers, one up-regulated in pollinated and senesced flowers, and six up-regulated in senesced flowers. The largest proportions of the identified proteins were involved in metabolism, signal transduction, defense response, oxidation reduction, cell death, and programmed cell death (PCD). Their expression profiles demonstrated that energy metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, and amino acid metabolism provided the nutrient foundation for pollination in alfalfa. Furthermore, there were three proteins involved in multiple metabolic pathways: dual specificity kinase splA-like protein (kinase splALs), carbonic anhydrase, and NADPH: quinone oxidoreductase-like protein. Expression patterns of these proteins indicated that MAPK cascades regulated multiple processes, such as signal transduction, stress response, and cell death. PCD also played an important role in the alfalfa flower developmental process, and regulated both pollination and flower senescence. The current study sheds some light on protein expression profiles during alfalfa flower development and

  17. Functional Characterization of Phalaenopsis aphrodite Flowering Genes PaFT1 and PaFD.

    PubMed

    Jang, Seonghoe; Choi, Sang-Chul; Li, Hsing-Yi; An, Gynheung; Schmelzer, Elmon

    2015-01-01

    We show that the key flowering regulators encoded by Phalaenopsis aphrodite FLOWERING LOCUS T1 (PaFT1) and PaFD share high sequence homologies to these from long-day flowering Arabidopsis and short-day flowering rice. Interestingly, PaFT1 is specifically up-regulated during flowering inductive cooling treatment but is not subjected to control by photoperiod in P. aphrodite. Phloem or shoot apex-specific expression of PaFT1 restores the late flowering of Arabidopsis ft mutants. Moreover, PaFT1 can suppress the delayed flowering caused by SHORT VEGATATIVE PHASE (SVP) overexpression as well as an active FRIGIDA (FRI) allele, indicating the functional conservation of flowering regulatory circuit in different plant species. PaFT1 promoter:GUS in Arabidopsis showed similar staining pattern to that of Arabidopsis FT in the leaves and guard cells but different in the shoot apex. A genomic clone or heat shock-inducible expression of PaFT1 is sufficient to the partial complementation of the ft mutants. Remarkably, ectopic PaFT1 expression also triggers precocious heading in rice. To further demonstrate the functional conservation of the flowering regulators, we show that PaFD, a bZIP transcription factor involved in flowering promotion, interacts with PaFT1, and PaFD partially complemented Arabidopsis fd mutants. Transgenic rice expressing PaFD also flowered early with increased expression of rice homologues of APETALA1 (AP1). Consistently, PaFT1 knock-down Phalaenopsis plants generated by virus-induced gene silencing exhibit delayed spiking. These studies suggest functional conservation of FT and FD genes, which may have evolved and integrated into distinct regulatory circuits in monopodial orchids, Arabidopsis and rice that promote flowering under their own inductive conditions.

  18. Implications of High Temperature and Elevated CO2 on Flowering Time in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Jagadish, S. V. Krishna; Bahuguna, Rajeev N.; Djanaguiraman, Maduraimuthu; Gamuyao, Rico; Prasad, P. V. Vara; Craufurd, Peter Q.

    2016-01-01

    Flowering is a crucial determinant for plant reproductive success and seed-set. Increasing temperature and elevated carbon-dioxide (e[CO2]) are key climate change factors that could affect plant fitness and flowering related events. Addressing the effect of these environmental factors on flowering events such as time of day of anthesis (TOA) and flowering time (duration from germination till flowering) is critical to understand the adaptation of plants/crops to changing climate and is the major aim of this review. Increasing ambient temperature is the major climatic factor that advances flowering time in crops and other plants, with a modest effect of e[CO2].Integrated environmental stimuli such as photoperiod, temperature and e[CO2] regulating flowering time is discussed. The critical role of plant tissue temperature influencing TOA is highlighted and crop models need to substitute ambient air temperature with canopy or floral tissue temperature to improve predictions. A complex signaling network of flowering regulation with change in ambient temperature involving different transcription factors (PIF4, PIF5), flowering suppressors (HvODDSOC2, SVP, FLC) and autonomous pathway (FCA, FVE) genes, mainly from Arabidopsis, provides a promising avenue to improve our understanding of the dynamics of flowering time under changing climate. Elevated CO2 mediated changes in tissue sugar status and a direct [CO2]-driven regulatory pathway involving a key flowering gene, MOTHER OF FT AND TFL1 (MFT), are emerging evidence for the role of e[CO2] in flowering time regulation. PMID:27446143

  19. Trade-Offs of Flowering and Maturity Synchronisation for Pineapple Quality.

    PubMed

    Fassinou Hotegni, V Nicodème; Lommen, Willemien J M; Agbossou, Euloge K; Struik, Paul C

    2015-01-01

    In the pineapple sector of Benin, poor fruit quality prevents pineapple producers to enter the European market. We investigated effects of common cultural practices, flowering and maturity synchronisation, (1) to quantify the trade-offs of flowering and maturity synchronisation for pineapple quality and the proportion of fruits exportable to European markets, and (2) to determine the effect of harvesting practice on quality attributes. Four on-farm experiments were conducted during three years using cultivars Sugarloaf and Smooth Cayenne. A split-split plot design was used in each experiment, with flowering induction practice as main factor (artificial or natural flowering induction), maturity induction practice as split factor (artificial or natural maturity induction) and harvesting practice as the split-split factor (farmers' harvest practice or individual fruit harvesting at optimum maturity). Artificial flowering induction gave fruits with lower infructescence weight, higher ratio crown: infructescence length, and a lower proportion of fruits exportable to European markets than natural flowering induction. The costs of the improvements by natural flowering induction were huge: the longer durations from planting to flowering induction and harvesting, the higher number of harvestings of the fruits increasing the labour cost and the lower proportion of plants producing fruits compared with crops from artificially flowering-induced plants. Artificial maturity induction decreased the total soluble solids concentration in the fruits compared with natural maturity induction thus decreasing the proportion of fruits exportable to European markets, at a benefit of only a slightly shorter time from flowering induction to harvesting. Harvesting individual fruits at optimum maturity gave fruits with higher total soluble solids in naturally maturity induced fruits compared with the farmers' harvest practice. Given the huge costs of natural flowering induction, options to

  20. Functional Characterization of Phalaenopsis aphrodite Flowering Genes PaFT1 and PaFD

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Seonghoe; Choi, Sang-Chul; Li, Hsing-Yi; An, Gynheung; Schmelzer, Elmon

    2015-01-01

    We show that the key flowering regulators encoded by Phalaenopsis aphrodite FLOWERING LOCUS T1 (PaFT1) and PaFD share high sequence homologies to these from long-day flowering Arabidopsis and short-day flowering rice. Interestingly, PaFT1 is specifically up-regulated during flowering inductive cooling treatment but is not subjected to control by photoperiod in P. aphrodite. Phloem or shoot apex-specific expression of PaFT1 restores the late flowering of Arabidopsis ft mutants. Moreover, PaFT1 can suppress the delayed flowering caused by SHORT VEGATATIVE PHASE (SVP) overexpression as well as an active FRIGIDA (FRI) allele, indicating the functional conservation of flowering regulatory circuit in different plant species. PaFT1 promoter:GUS in Arabidopsis showed similar staining pattern to that of Arabidopsis FT in the leaves and guard cells but different in the shoot apex. A genomic clone or heat shock-inducible expression of PaFT1 is sufficient to the partial complementation of the ft mutants. Remarkably, ectopic PaFT1 expression also triggers precocious heading in rice. To further demonstrate the functional conservation of the flowering regulators, we show that PaFD, a bZIP transcription factor involved in flowering promotion, interacts with PaFT1, and PaFD partially complemented Arabidopsis fd mutants. Transgenic rice expressing PaFD also flowered early with increased expression of rice homologues of APETALA1 (AP1). Consistently, PaFT1 knock-down Phalaenopsis plants generated by virus-induced gene silencing exhibit delayed spiking. These studies suggest functional conservation of FT and FD genes, which may have evolved and integrated into distinct regulatory circuits in monopodial orchids, Arabidopsis and rice that promote flowering under their own inductive conditions. PMID:26317412

  1. Stamen-derived bioactive gibberellin is essential for male flower development of Cucurbita maxima L.

    PubMed

    Pimenta Lange, Maria João; Knop, Nicole; Lange, Theo

    2012-04-01

    Gibberellin (GA) signalling during pumpkin male flower development is highly regulated, including biosynthetic, perception, and transduction pathways. GA 20-oxidases, 3-oxidases, and 2-oxidases catalyse the final part of GA synthesis. Additionally, 7-oxidase initiates this part of the pathway in some cucurbits including Cucurbita maxima L. (pumpkin). Expression patterns for these GA-oxidase-encoding genes were examined by competitive reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and endogenous GA levels were determined during pumpkin male flower development. In young flowers, GA20ox3 transcript levels are high in stamens, followed by high levels of the GA precursor GA(9). Later, just before flower opening, transcript levels for GA3ox3 and GA3ox4 increase in the hypanthium and stamens, respectively. In the stamen, following GA3ox4 expression, bioactive GA(4) levels rise dramatically. Accordingly, catabolic GA2ox2 and GA2ox3 transcript levels are low in developing flowers, and increase in mature flowers. Putative GA receptor GID1b and DELLA repressor GAIPb transcript levels do not change in developing flowers, but increase sharply in mature flowers. Emasculation arrests floral development completely and leads to abscission of premature flowers. Application of GA(4) (but not of its precursors GA(12)-aldehyde or GA(9)) restores normal growth of emasculated flowers. These results indicate that de novo GA(4) synthesis in the stamen is under control of GA20ox3 and GA3ox4 genes just before the rapid flower growth phase. Stamen-derived bioactive GA is essential and sufficient for male flower development, including the petal and the pedicel growth.

  2. Proteomic Identification of Differentially Expressed Proteins during Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Flower Development

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lingling; Chen, Quanzhu; Zhu, Yanqiao; Hou, Longyu; Mao, Peisheng

    2016-01-01

    Flower development, pollination, and fertilization are important stages in the sexual reproduction process of plants; they are also critical steps in the control of seed formation and development. During alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) seed production, some distinct phenomena such as a low seed setting ratio, serious flower falling, and seed abortion commonly occur. However, the causes of these phenomena are complicated and largely unknown. An understanding of the mechanisms that regulate alfalfa flowering is important in order to increase seed yield. Hence, proteomic technology was used to analyze changes in protein expression during the stages of alfalfa flower development. Flower samples were collected at pre-pollination (S1), pollination (S2), and the post-pollination senescence period (S3). Twenty-four differentially expressed proteins were successfully identified, including 17 down-regulated in pollinated flowers, one up-regulated in pollinated and senesced flowers, and six up-regulated in senesced flowers. The largest proportions of the identified proteins were involved in metabolism, signal transduction, defense response, oxidation reduction, cell death, and programmed cell death (PCD). Their expression profiles demonstrated that energy metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, and amino acid metabolism provided the nutrient foundation for pollination in alfalfa. Furthermore, there were three proteins involved in multiple metabolic pathways: dual specificity kinase splA-like protein (kinase splALs), carbonic anhydrase, and NADPH: quinone oxidoreductase-like protein. Expression patterns of these proteins indicated that MAPK cascades regulated multiple processes, such as signal transduction, stress response, and cell death. PCD also played an important role in the alfalfa flower developmental process, and regulated both pollination and flower senescence. The current study sheds some light on protein expression profiles during alfalfa flower development and

  3. Caught between parasitoids and predators - survival of a specialist herbivore on leaves and flowers of mustard plants.

    PubMed

    Lucas-Barbosa, Dani; Poelman, Erik H; Aartsma, Yavanna; Snoeren, Tjeerd A L; van Loon, Joop J A; Dicke, Marcel

    2014-06-01

    The survival of insect herbivores typically is constrained by food choice and predation risk. Here, we explored whether movement from leaves to flowers increases survival of herbivores that prefer to feed on floral tissues. Combining field and greenhouse experiments, we investigated whether flowering influences the behavior of Pieris brassicae butterflies and caterpillars and, consequently, herbivore survival in the field. In this context, we investigated also if flowers of Brassica nigra can provide caterpillars refuge from the specialist parasitoid Cotesia glomerata and from predatory social wasps. By moving to flowers, caterpillars escaped from the parasitoid. Flowers are nutritionally superior when compared with leaves, and caterpillars develop faster when feeding on flowers. However, late-stage caterpillars can be preyed upon intensively by social wasps, irrespective of whether they feed on leaves or flowers. We conclude that flower preference by P. brassicae is more likely driven by nutritional advantages and reduced parasitism on flowers, than by risks of being killed by generalist predators.

  4. A new method for evaluating flowering synchrony to support the temporal isolation of genetically modified crops from their wild relatives.

    PubMed

    Ohigashi, Kentaro; Mizuguti, Aki; Yoshimura, Yasuyuki; Matsuo, Kazuhito; Miwa, Tetsuhisa

    2014-01-01

    Hybridization between crops and their wild relatives potentially threatens the genetic identity of the wild plants, particularly in the case of genetically modified crops. Only a few studies have examined the use of temporal isolation to prevent hybridization, and the indices used in those studies, (e.g., the days of flowering overlap), are not precise to evaluate the degree of synchrony in flowering. Here we propose a flowering similarity index that can compare the degree of flowering synchrony between two relevant species and measure the efficiency of temporal isolation. The results showed that the flowering similarity index predicts the likelihood of hybridization much better than the number of flowering-overlap days, regardless of different flowering patterns among cultivars. Thus, temporal isolation of flowering or flowering asynchrony is the most effective means in preventing hybridization between crops and their wild relatives.

  5. Pollinator-prey conflicts in carnivorous plants: When flower and trap properties mean life or death.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, Ashraf M; Byers, John A; Suckling, David M

    2016-02-18

    Insect-pollinated carnivorous plants are expected to have higher fitness if they resolve pollinator-prey conflicts by sparing insects pollinating their flowers while trapping prey insects. We examined whether separation between flowers and traps of the carnivorous sundew species or pollinator preferences for colours of flowers enable these plants to spare pollinators. In addition, we collected odours from flowers and traps of each carnivorous species in order to identify volatile chemicals that are attractive or repellent to pollinators and prey insects. In Drosera spatulata and D. arcturi, no volatiles were detected from either their flowers or traps that could serve as kairomone attractants for insects. However, behavioural experiments indicated white colour and spatial separation between flowers and traps aid in reducing pollinator entrapment while capturing prey. In contrast, D. auriculata have flowers that are adjacent to their traps. In this species we identified chemical signals emanating from flowers that comprised an eight-component blend, while the plant's traps emitted a unique four-component blend. The floral odour attracted both pollinator and prey insects, while trap odour only attracted prey. This is the first scientific report to demonstrate that carnivorous plants utilize visual, spatial, and chemical signals to spare flower visitors while trapping prey insects.

  6. Using Self-Organising Maps (SOMs) to assess synchronies: an application to historical eucalypt flowering records.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Irene L; Keatley, Marie R; Lee, Shalem Y

    2011-11-01

    Self-Organising Map (SOM) clustering methods applied to the monthly and seasonal averaged flowering intensity records of eight Eucalypt species are shown to successfully quantify, visualise and model synchronisation of multivariate time series. The SOM algorithm converts complex, nonlinear relationships between high-dimensional data into simple networks and a map based on the most likely patterns in the multiplicity of time series that it trains. Monthly- and seasonal-based SOMs identified three synchronous species groups (clusters): E. camaldulensis, E. melliodora, E. polyanthemos; E. goniocalyx, E. microcarpa, E. macrorhyncha; and E. leucoxylon, E. tricarpa. The main factor in synchronisation (clustering) appears to be the season in which flowering commences. SOMs also identified the asynchronous relationship among the eight species. Hence, the likelihood of the production, or not, of hybrids between sympatric species is also identified. The SOM pattern-based correlation values mirror earlier synchrony statistics gleaned from Moran correlations obtained from the raw flowering records. Synchronisation of flowering is shown to be a complex mechanism that incorporates all the flowering characteristics: flowering duration, timing of peak flowering, of start and finishing of flowering, as well as possibly specific climate drivers for flowering. SOMs can accommodate for all this complexity and we advocate their use by phenologists and ecologists as a powerful, accessible and interpretable tool for visualisation and clustering of multivariate time series and for synchrony studies.

  7. A global view of transcriptome dynamics during flower development in chickpea by deep sequencing.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vikash K; Garg, Rohini; Jain, Mukesh

    2013-08-01

    Measurement of gene expression can provide important clues about gene function and molecular basis of developmental processes. Here, we have analysed the chickpea transcriptome in vegetative and flower tissues by exploiting the potential of high-throughput sequencing to measure gene expression. We mapped more than 295 million reads to quantify the transcript abundance during flower development. We detected the expression of more than 90% genes in at least one tissue analysed. We found quite a large number of genes were differentially expressed during flower development as compared to vegetative tissues. Further, we identified several genes expressed in a stage-specific manner. Various transcription factor families and metabolic pathways involved in flower development were elucidated. The members of MADS-box family were most represented among the transcription factor genes up-regulated during various stages of flower development. The abundant expression of several well-known genes implicated in flower development in chickpea flower development stages confirmed our results. In addition, we detected the expression specificities of lineage-specific genes during flower development. The expression data presented in this study is the most comprehensive dataset available for chickpea as of now and will serve as resource for unraveling the functions of many specific genes involved in flower development in chickpea and other legumes.

  8. Simulated warming shifts the flowering phenology and sexual reproduction of Cardamine hirsuta under different Planting densities

    PubMed Central

    Cao, YuSong; Xiao, Yian; Huang, Haiqun; Xu, Jiancheng; Hu, Wenhai; Wang, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Climate warming can shift the reproductive phenology of plant, and hence dramatically reduced the reproductive capacity both of density-dependent and -independent plant species. But it is still unclear how climate warming affects flowering phenology and reproductive allocation of plant under different planting densities. Here, we assessed the impact of simulated warming on flowering phenology and sexual reproduction in the ephemeral herb Cardamine hirsuta under four densities. We found that simulated warming delayed the onset of flowering averagely for 3.6 days but preceded the end of flowering for about 1 day, which indicated climate warming shortened the duration of the flowering. And the flowering amplitude in the peak flowering day also dramatically increased in the simulated warming treatment, which caused a mass-flowering pattern. Climate warming significantly increased the weights of the fruits, seeds and seed, but reduced fruit length and sexual reproductive allocation under all the four densities. The duration of flowering was shortened and the weights of the fruits, seeds and seed, and sexual reproductive allocation were reduced under The highest density. PMID:27296893

  9. Synthetic control of flowering in rice independent of the cultivation environment.

    PubMed

    Okada, Ryo; Nemoto, Yasue; Endo-Higashi, Naokuni; Izawa, Takeshi

    2017-03-27

    For genetically homogeneous crops, the timing of flowering is determined largely by the cultivation environment and is strongly associated with the yield and quality of the harvest(1). Flowering time and other agronomical traits are often tightly correlated, which can lead to difficulty excluding the effects of flowering time when evaluating the characteristics of different genetic varieties(2). Here, we describe the development of transgenic rice plants whose flowering time can be controlled by specific agrochemicals. We first developed non-flowering rice plants by overexpressing a floral repressor gene, Grain number, plant height and heading date 7 (Ghd7)(3,4), to inhibit any environmentally induced spontaneous flowering. We then co-transformed plants with a rice florigen gene, Heading date 3a (Hd3a)(5), which is induced by the application of specific agrochemicals. This permitted the flowering time to be experimentally controlled regardless of the cultivation environment: some transgenic plants flowered only after agrochemical treatment. Furthermore, plant size and yield-related traits could, in some cases, be increased owing to both a longer duration of vegetative growth and an increased panicle size. This ability to control flowering time experimentally, independently of environmental variables, may lead to production of crops suitable for growth in different climates and facilitate breeding for various agronomical traits.

  10. Genetic Architecture of Flowering-Time Variation in Brachypodium distachyon1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Bednarek, Ryland; Garvin, David F.

    2017-01-01

    The transition to reproductive development is a crucial step in the plant life cycle, and the timing of this transition is an important factor in crop yields. Here, we report new insights into the genetic control of natural variation in flowering time in Brachypodium distachyon, a nondomesticated pooid grass closely related to cereals such as wheat (Triticum spp.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). A recombinant inbred line population derived from a cross between the rapid-flowering accession Bd21 and the delayed-flowering accession Bd1-1 were grown in a variety of environmental conditions to enable exploration of the genetic architecture of flowering time. A genotyping-by-sequencing approach was used to develop SNP markers for genetic map construction, and quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that control differences in flowering time were identified. Many of the flowering-time QTLs are detected across a range of photoperiod and vernalization conditions, suggesting that the genetic control of flowering within this population is robust. The two major QTLs identified in undomesticated B. distachyon colocalize with VERNALIZATION1/PHYTOCHROME C and VERNALIZATION2, loci identified as flowering regulators in the domesticated crops wheat and barley. This suggests that variation in flowering time is controlled in part by a set of genes broadly conserved within pooid grasses. PMID:27742753

  11. Flowering pathway is regulated by bulb size in Lilium longiflorum (Easter lily).

    PubMed

    Lazare, S; Zaccai, M

    2016-07-01

    Lilium longiflorum (Easter lily) vegetative propagation occurs through production of underground bulbs containing apical and axillary meristems. In addition, sexual reproduction is achieved by flowering of elongated shoots above the bulb. It is generally accepted that L. longiflorum has an obligatory requirement for vernalisation and that long day (LD) regime hastens flowering. However, the effect of bulb size and origin, with respect to axillary or apical meristems on flowering, as well as the interactions between these meristems are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of bulb size, vernalisation and photoperiod on L. longiflorum flowering. To this end, we applied vernalisation and photoperiod treatments to the different bulb sizes and used a system of constant ambient temperature of 25 °C, above vernalisation spectrum, to avoid cold-dependent floral induction during plant growth. Vernalisation and LD hasten flowering in all bulbs. Large, non-vernalised bulbs invariably remained at a vegetative stage. However, small non-vernalised bulbs flowered under LD conditions. These results demonstrate for the first time that cold exposure is not an obligatory prerequisite for L. longiflorum flowering, and that an alternative flowering pathway can bypass vernalisation in small bulbs. We suggest that apical dominance interactions determine the distinct flowering pathways of the apical and axillary meristems. Similar floral induction is achieved in propagated bulblets from scaling. These innovative findings in the field of geophyte floral induction represent valuable applicative knowledge for lily production.

  12. Pollinator-prey conflicts in carnivorous plants: When flower and trap properties mean life or death

    PubMed Central

    El-Sayed, Ashraf M.; Byers, John A.; Suckling, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Insect-pollinated carnivorous plants are expected to have higher fitness if they resolve pollinator-prey conflicts by sparing insects pollinating their flowers while trapping prey insects. We examined whether separation between flowers and traps of the carnivorous sundew species or pollinator preferences for colours of flowers enable these plants to spare pollinators. In addition, we collected odours from flowers and traps of each carnivorous species in order to identify volatile chemicals that are attractive or repellent to pollinators and prey insects. In Drosera spatulata and D. arcturi, no volatiles were detected from either their flowers or traps that could serve as kairomone attractants for insects. However, behavioural experiments indicated white colour and spatial separation between flowers and traps aid in reducing pollinator entrapment while capturing prey. In contrast, D. auriculata have flowers that are adjacent to their traps. In this species we identified chemical signals emanating from flowers that comprised an eight-component blend, while the plant’s traps emitted a unique four-component blend. The floral odour attracted both pollinator and prey insects, while trap odour only attracted prey. This is the first scientific report to demonstrate that carnivorous plants utilize visual, spatial, and chemical signals to spare flower visitors while trapping prey insects. PMID:26888545

  13. Inheritance of flower color and spininess in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.).

    PubMed

    Pahlavani, M H; Mirlohi, A F; Saeidi, G

    2004-01-01

    Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) flowers are used for coloring and flavoring food and also as fresh-cut and dried flowers. The most important characteristics which contribute to the ornamental value of safflower are flower color and spinelessness. The objective of this study was to determine the inheritance mode and the number of genes controlling spininess and flower color in some Iranian genotypes of safflower. The results indicated that the existence of spines on the leaves and bracts of safflower is controlled by a single dominant gene in which the spiny phenotype was completely dominant to spineless. In some crosses, flower color was controlled by two epistatic loci each with two alleles, resulting in a ratio of 13:3 in the segregating F2 population for plants with orange and yellow flowers. Also, other mechanisms of genetic control, such as duplicate dominance and duplicate recessive types of epistasis, were observed for flower color in other crosses that led to ratios of 7:9 and 15:1 for plants with orange and yellow flowers, respectively. The results suggest that for ornamental use or in the food dying industry, genotypes with orange or yellow flowers and without spines on the leaves and bracts can be produced.

  14. Nectar yeasts warm the flowers of a winter-blooming plant

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Carlos M.; Pozo, María I.

    2010-01-01

    Yeasts are ubiquitous in terrestrial and aquatic microbiota, yet their ecological functionality remains relatively unexplored in comparison with other micro-organisms. This paper formulates and tests the novel hypothesis that heat produced by the sugar catabolism of yeast populations inhabiting floral nectar can increase the temperature of floral nectar and, more generally, modify the within-flower thermal microenvironment. Two field experiments were designed to test this hypothesis for the winter-blooming herb Helleborus foetidus (Ranunculaceae). In experiment 1, the effect of yeasts on the within-flower thermal environment was tested by excluding them from flowers, while in experiment 2 the test involved artificial inoculation of virgin flowers with yeasts. Nectary temperature (Tnect), within-flower air temperature (Tflow) and external air temperature (Tair) were measured on experimental and control flowers in both experiments. Experimental exclusion of yeasts from the nectaries significantly reduced, and experimental addition of yeasts significantly increased, the temperature excess of nectaries (ΔTnect = Tnect − Tair) and the air space inside flowers in relation to the air just outside the flowers. In non-experimental flowers exposed to natural pollinator visitation, ΔTnect was linearly related to log yeast cell density in nectar, and reached +6°C in nectaries with the densest yeast populations. The warming effect of nectar-dwelling yeasts documented in this study suggests novel ecological mechanisms potentially linking nectarivorous microbes with winter-blooming plants and their insect pollinators. PMID:20147331

  15. Effects of plant size, temperature, and light intensity on flowering of Phalaenopsis hybrids in Mediterranean greenhouses.

    PubMed

    Paradiso, Roberta; De Pascale, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    Mediterranean greenhouses for cultivation of Phalaenopsis orchids reproduce the warm, humid, and shaded environment of tropical underbrush. Heating represents the highest production cost, due to the high thermal requirements and the long unproductive phase of juvenility, in which plants attain the critical size for flowering. Our researches aimed to investigate the effect of plant size, temperature, and light intensity, during the phase of flower induction, on flowering of modern genotypes selected for Mediterranean greenhouses. Three experiments were carried out to compare (i) plant size: reduced size versus size considered optimal for flowering (hybrids "Sogo Yukidian," "Chain Xen Diamond," and "Pinlong"); (ii) temperature: moderate reduction of temperature versus standard thermal regime (hybrid "Premium"); (iii) light intensity: supplemental lighting versus reference light intensity (hybrid "Premium"). The premature exposure of plants to the inductive treatment delayed the beginning of flowering and reduced the flower stem quality, in all the tested hybrids. In "Premium," the lower temperature did not affect flowering earliness and commercial quality of flower stems compared to the standard regime, whereas it promoted stem branching. In the same hybrid, supplemental lighting anticipated flowering and promoted the emission of the second stem and the stem branching, compared to the reference light regime.

  16. Parallel evolution of TCP and B-class genes in Commelinaceae flower bilateral symmetry

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Flower bilateral symmetry (zygomorphy) has evolved multiple times independently across angiosperms and is correlated with increased pollinator specialization and speciation rates. Functional and expression analyses in distantly related core eudicots and monocots implicate independent recruitment of class II TCP genes in the evolution of flower bilateral symmetry. Furthermore, available evidence suggests that monocot flower bilateral symmetry might also have evolved through changes in B-class homeotic MADS-box gene function. Methods In order to test the non-exclusive hypotheses that changes in TCP and B-class gene developmental function underlie flower symmetry evolution in the monocot family Commelinaceae, we compared expression patterns of teosinte branched1 (TB1)-like, DEFICIENS (DEF)-like, and GLOBOSA (GLO)-like genes in morphologically distinct bilaterally symmetrical flowers of Commelina communis and Commelina dianthifolia, and radially symmetrical flowers of Tradescantia pallida. Results Expression data demonstrate that TB1-like genes are asymmetrically expressed in tepals of bilaterally symmetrical Commelina, but not radially symmetrical Tradescantia, flowers. Furthermore, DEF-like genes are expressed in showy inner tepals, staminodes and stamens of all three species, but not in the distinct outer tepal-like ventral inner tepals of C. communis. Conclusions Together with other studies, these data suggest parallel recruitment of TB1-like genes in the independent evolution of flower bilateral symmetry at early stages of Commelina flower development, and the later stage homeotic transformation of C. communis inner tepals into outer tepals through the loss of DEF-like gene expression. PMID:22394484

  17. Transcriptomic Analysis of Flower Blooming in Jasminum sambac through De Novo RNA Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong-Hua; Zhang, Wei; Li, Yong

    2015-06-10

    Flower blooming is a critical and complicated plant developmental process in flowering plants. However, insufficient information is available about the complex network that regulates flower blooming in Jasminum sambac. In this study, we used the RNA-Seq platform to analyze the molecular regulation of flower blooming in J. sambac by comparing the transcript profiles at two flower developmental stages: budding and blooming. A total of 4577 differentially-expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between the two floral stages. The Gene Ontology and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analyses revealed that the DEGs in the "oxidation-reduction process", "extracellular region", "steroid biosynthesis", "glycosphingolipid biosynthesis", "plant hormone signal transduction" and "pentose and glucuronate interconversions" might be associated with flower development. A total of 103 and 92 unigenes exhibited sequence similarities to the known flower development and floral scent genes from other plants. Among these unigenes, five flower development and 19 floral scent unigenes exhibited at least four-fold differences in expression between the two stages. Our results provide abundant genetic resources for studying the flower blooming mechanisms and molecular breeding of J. sambac.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of flower-like {beta}-Ni(OH){sub 2} nanoarchitectures

    SciTech Connect

    Luo Yuanyuan; Duan Guotao; Li Guanghai

    2007-07-15

    Flower-like Ni(OH){sub 2} nanoarchitectures have been synthesized through a one-step mild hydrothermal reaction with the aid of ethylenediamine in NiCl{sub 2} aqueous solution. The flower with the size of several micrometers in diameter is composed of the ultra-thin nanosheets of several nanometers in thickness. It was found the ethylenediamine is vital to the formation of the flower-like nanoarchitectures. The influence of the concentration of the ethylenediamine and the reaction temperature on the formation of the flowers was analyzed and the formation mechanism of the flowers was proposed. Such flower-like {beta}-Ni(OH){sub 2} nanoarchitectures will find potential applications in the fields, such as electrode, or will be used as a starting material to produce NiO, which is widely used in the magnetic, catalysts, sensor and electrochromic devices. - Graphical abstract: Flower-like Ni(OH){sub 2} nanoarchitectures were synthesized by a one-step mild hydrothermal reaction with the aid of ethylenediamine in NiCl{sub 2} aqueous solution. The flower with the size of several micrometers in diameter is composed of the ultra-thin nanosheets of several nanometers in thickness. The flowers could be in catalysts, sensor and electrochromic devices, and alkaline rechargeable batteries.

  19. The influence of pigmentation patterning on bumblebee foraging from flowers of Antirrhinum majus.

    PubMed

    Whitney, Heather M; Milne, Georgina; Rands, Sean A; Vignolini, Silvia; Martin, Cathie; Glover, Beverley J

    2013-03-01

    Patterns of pigmentation overlying the petal vasculature are common in flowering plants and have been postulated to play a role in pollinator attraction. Previous studies report that such venation patterning is significantly more attractive to bee foragers in the field than ivory or white flowers without veins. To dissect the ways in which venation patterning of pigment can influence bumblebee behaviour, we investigated the response of flower-naïve individuals of Bombus terrestris to veined, ivory and red near-isogenic lines of Antirrhinum majus. We find that red venation shifts flower colour slightly, although the ivory background is the dominant colour. Bees were readily able to discriminate between ivory and veined flowers under differential conditioning but showed no innate preference when presented with a free choice of rewarding ivory and veined flowers. In contrast, both ivory and veined flowers were selected significantly more often than were red flowers. We conclude that advantages conferred by venation patterning might stem from bees learning of their use as nectar guides, rather than from any innate preference for striped flowers.

  20. The influence of pigmentation patterning on bumblebee foraging from flowers of Antirrhinum majus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitney, Heather M.; Milne, Georgina; Rands, Sean A.; Vignolini, Silvia; Martin, Cathie; Glover, Beverley J.

    2013-03-01

    Patterns of pigmentation overlying the petal vasculature are common in flowering plants and have been postulated to play a role in pollinator attraction. Previous studies report that such venation patterning is significantly more attractive to bee foragers in the field than ivory or white flowers without veins. To dissect the ways in which venation patterning of pigment can influence bumblebee behaviour, we investigated the response of flower-naïve individuals of Bombus terrestris to veined, ivory and red near-isogenic lines of Antirrhinum majus. We find that red venation shifts flower colour slightly, although the ivory background is the dominant colour. Bees were readily able to discriminate between ivory and veined flowers under differential conditioning but showed no innate preference when presented with a free choice of rewarding ivory and veined flowers. In contrast, both ivory and veined flowers were selected significantly more often than were red flowers. We conclude that advantages conferred by venation patterning might stem from bees learning of their use as nectar guides, rather than from any innate preference for striped flowers.

  1. Interconnection between flowering time control and activation of systemic acquired resistance.

    PubMed

    Banday, Zeeshan Z; Nandi, Ashis K

    2015-01-01

    The ability to avoid or neutralize pathogens is inherent to all higher organisms including plants. Plants recognize pathogens through receptors, and mount resistance against the intruders, with the help of well-elaborated defense arsenal. In response to some localinfections, plants develop systemic acquired resistance (SAR), which provides heightened resistance during subsequent infections. Infected tissues generate mobile signaling molecules that travel to the systemic tissues, where they epigenetically modify expression o a set of genes to initiate the manifestation of SAR in distant tissues. Immune responses are largely regulated at transcriptional level. Flowering is a developmental transition that occurs as a result of the coordinated action of large numbers of transcription factors that respond to intrinsic signals and environmental conditions. The plant hormone salicylic acid (SA) which is required for SAR activation positively regulates flowering. Certain components of chromatin remodeling complexes that are recruited for suppression of precocious flowering are also involved in suppression of SAR in healthy plants. FLOWERING LOCUS D, a putative histone demethylase positively regulates SAR manifestation and flowering transition in Arabidopsis. Similarly, incorporation of histone variant H2A.Z in nucleosomes mediated by PHOTOPERIOD-INDEPENDENT EARLY FLOWERING 1, an ortholog of yeast chromatin remodeling complex SWR1, concomitantly influences SAR and flowering time. SUMO conjugation and deconjugation mechanisms also similarly affect SAR and flowering in an SA-dependent manner. The evidences suggest a common underlying regulatory mechanism for activation of SAR and flowering in plants.

  2. The effect of timing of growing season drought on flowering of a dominant C4 grass.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, John D; Smith, Melinda D

    2016-06-01

    Timing of precipitation is equally important as amount for determining ecosystem function, especially aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP), in a number of ecosystems. In tallgrass prairie of the Central Plains of North America, grass flowering stalks of dominant C4 grasses, such as Andropogon gerardii, can account for more than 70 % of ANPP, or almost none of it, as the number of flowering stalks produced is highly variable. Although growing season precipitation amount is important for driving variation in flowering stalk production, it remains unknown whether there are critical periods within the growing season in which sufficient rainfall must occur to allow for flowering. The effect of timing of rainfall deficit (drought) on flowering of A. gerardii, was tested by excluding rainfall during three periods within the growing season (starting in mid-April, mid-May and mid-June). Mid-summer drought (starting in mid-June) strongly reduced the flowering rate (e.g., density and biomass) of A. gerardii (e.g., as high as 94 % compared to the control), suggesting flowering is highly sensitive to precipitation at this time. This effect appeared to be related to plant water status at the time of flowering stalk initiation, rather than an indirect consequence of reduced C assimilation. Our results suggest that increased frequency of growing season drought forecast with climate change could reduce sexual reproduction in this dominant grass species, particularly if it coincides with timing of flowering stalk initiation, with important implications for ecosystem functioning.

  3. Paternity analysis-based inference of pollen dispersal patterns, male fecundity variation, and influence of flowering tree density and general flowering magnitude in two dipterocarp species

    PubMed Central

    Tani, Naoki; Tsumura, Yoshihiko; Kado, Tomoyuki; Taguchi, Yuriko; Lee, Soon Leong; Muhammad, Norwati; Ng, Kevin Kit Siong; Numata, Shinya; Nishimura, Sen; Konuma, Akihiro; Okuda, Toshinori

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Knowledge of pollen dispersal patterns and variation of fecundity is essential to understanding plant evolutionary processes and to formulating strategies to conserve forest genetic resources. Nevertheless, the pollen dispersal pattern of dipterocarp, main canopy tree species in palaeo-tropical forest remains unclear, and flowering intensity variation in the field suggests heterogeneity of fecundity. Methods Pollen dispersal patterns and male fecundity variation of Shorea leprosula and Shorea parvifolia ssp. parvifolia on Peninsular Malaysian were investigated during two general flowering seasons (2001 and 2002), using a neighbourhood model modified by including terms accounting for variation in male fecundity among individual trees to express heterogeneity in flowering. Key Results The pollen dispersal patterns of the two dipterocarp species were affected by differences in conspecific tree flowering density, and reductions in conspecific tree flowering density led to an increased selfing rate. Active pollen dispersal and a larger number of effective paternal parents were observed for both species in the season of greater magnitude of general flowering (2002). Conclusions The magnitude of general flowering, male fecundity variation, and distance between pollen donors and mother trees should be taken into account when attempting to predict the effects of management practices on the self-fertilization and genetic structure of key tree species in tropical forest, and also the sustainability of possible management strategies, especially selective logging regimes. PMID:19808773

  4. Analysis of conifer FLOWERING LOCUS T/TERMINAL FLOWER1-like genes provides evidence for dramatic biochemical evolution in the angiosperm FT lineage.

    PubMed

    Klintenäs, Maria; Pin, Pierre A; Benlloch, Reyes; Ingvarsson, Pär K; Nilsson, Ove

    2012-12-01

    In flowering plants, homologs of the Arabidopsis phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP) FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) are key components in controlling flowering time. We show here that, although FT homologs are found in all angiosperms with completed genome sequences, there is no evidence to date that FT-like genes exist in other groups of plants. Through phylogeny reconstructions and heterologous expression, we examined the biochemical function of the Picea (spruces) and Pinus (pines) PEBP families - two gymnosperm taxa phylogenetically distant from the angiosperms. We have defined a lineage of gymnosperm PEBP genes, termed the FT/TERMINAL FLOWER1 (TFL1)-like genes, that share sequence characteristics with both the angiosperm FT- and TFL1-like clades. When expressed in Arabidopsis, FT/TFL1-like genes repressed flowering, indicating that the proteins are biochemically more similar to the angiosperm TFL1-like proteins than to the FT-like proteins. This suggests that the regulation of the vegetative-to-reproductive switch might differ in gymnosperms compared with angiosperms. Molecular evolution studies suggest that plasticity at exon 4 contributes to the divergence of FT-like function in floral promotion. In addition, the presence of FT-like genes in basal angiosperms indicates that the FT-like function emerged at an early stage during the evolution of flowering plants as a means to regulate flowering time.

  5. vitisFlower®: Development and Testing of a Novel Android-Smartphone Application for Assessing the Number of Grapevine Flowers per Inflorescence Using Artificial Vision Techniques.

    PubMed

    Aquino, Arturo; Millan, Borja; Gaston, Daniel; Diago, María-Paz; Tardaguila, Javier

    2015-08-28

    Grapevine flowering and fruit set greatly determine crop yield. This paper presents a new smartphone application for automatically counting, non-invasively and directly in the vineyard, the flower number in grapevine inflorescence photos by implementing artificial vision techniques. The application, called vitisFlower(®), firstly guides the user to appropriately take an inflorescence photo using the smartphone's camera. Then, by means of image analysis, the flowers in the image are detected and counted. vitisFlower(®) has been developed for Android devices and uses the OpenCV libraries to maximize computational efficiency. The application was tested on 140 inflorescence images of 11 grapevine varieties taken with two different devices. On average, more than 84% of flowers in the captures were found, with a precision exceeding 94%. Additionally, the application's efficiency on four different devices covering a wide range of the market's spectrum was also studied. The results of this benchmarking study showed significant differences among devices, although indicating that the application is efficiently usable even with low-range devices. vitisFlower is one of the first applications for viticulture that is currently freely available on Google Play.

  6. vitisFlower®: Development and Testing of a Novel Android-Smartphone Application for Assessing the Number of Grapevine Flowers per Inflorescence Using Artificial Vision Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Aquino, Arturo; Millan, Borja; Gaston, Daniel; Diago, María-Paz; Tardaguila, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Grapevine flowering and fruit set greatly determine crop yield. This paper presents a new smartphone application for automatically counting, non-invasively and directly in the vineyard, the flower number in grapevine inflorescence photos by implementing artificial vision techniques. The application, called vitisFlower®, firstly guides the user to appropriately take an inflorescence photo using the smartphone’s camera. Then, by means of image analysis, the flowers in the image are detected and counted. vitisFlower® has been developed for Android devices and uses the OpenCV libraries to maximize computational efficiency. The application was tested on 140 inflorescence images of 11 grapevine varieties taken with two different devices. On average, more than 84% of flowers in the captures were found, with a precision exceeding 94%. Additionally, the application’s efficiency on four different devices covering a wide range of the market’s spectrum was also studied. The results of this benchmarking study showed significant differences among devices, although indicating that the application is efficiently usable even with low-range devices. vitisFlower is one of the first applications for viticulture that is currently freely available on Google Play. PMID:26343664

  7. Overexpression of AtAP1M3 regulates flowering time and floral development in Arabidopsis and effects key flowering-related genes in poplar.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhong; Ye, Meixia; Su, Xiaoxing; Liao, Weihua; Ma, Huandi; Gao, Kai; Lei, Bingqi; An, Xinmin

    2015-08-01

    APETALA1 plays a crucial role in the transition from vegetative to reproductive phase and in floral development. In this study, to determine the effect of AP1 expression on flowering time and floral organ development, transgenic Arabidopsis and poplar overexpressing of AtAP1M3 (Arabidopsis AP1 mutant by dominant negative mutation) were generated. Transgenic Arabidopsis with e35Spro::AtAP1M3 displayed phenotypes with delayed-flowering compared to wild-type and flowers with abnormal sepals, petals and stamens. In addition, transgenic Arabidopsis plants exhibited reduced growth vigor compared to the wild-type plants. Ectopic expression of AtAP1M3 in poplar resulted in up- or down-regulation of some endogenous key flowering-related genes, including floral meristems identity gene LFY, B-class floral organ identity genes AP3 and PI, flowering pathway integrator FT1 and flower repressors TFL1 and SVP. These results suggest that AtAP1M3 regulates flowering time and floral development in plants.

  8. Hd18, Encoding Histone Acetylase Related to Arabidopsis FLOWERING LOCUS D, is Involved in the Control of Flowering Time in Rice.

    PubMed

    Shibaya, Taeko; Hori, Kiyosumi; Ogiso-Tanaka, Eri; Yamanouchi, Utako; Shu, Koka; Kitazawa, Noriyuki; Shomura, Ayahiko; Ando, Tsuyu; Ebana, Kaworu; Wu, Jianzhong; Yamazaki, Toshimasa; Yano, Masahiro

    2016-09-01

    Flowering time is one of the most important agronomic traits in rice (Oryza sativa L.), because it defines harvest seasons and cultivation areas, and affects yields. We used a map-based strategy to clone Heading date 18 (Hd18). The difference in flowering time between the Japanese rice cultivars Koshihikari and Hayamasari was due to a single nucleotide polymorphism within the Hd18 gene, which encodes an amine oxidase domain-containing protein and is homologous to Arabidopsis FLOWERING LOCUS D (FLD). The Hayamasari Hd18 allele and knockdown of Hd18 gene expression delayed the flowering time of rice plants regardless of the day-length condition. Structural modeling of the Hd18 protein suggested that the non-synonymous substitution changed protein stability and function due to differences in interdomain hydrogen bond formation. Compared with those in Koshihikari, the expression levels of the flowering-time genes Early heading date 1 (Ehd1), Heading date 3a (Hd3a) and Rice flowering locus T1 (RFT1) were lower in a near-isogenic line with the Hayamasari Hd18 allele in a Koshihikari genetic background. We revealed that Hd18 acts as an accelerator in the rice flowering pathway under both short- and long-day conditions by elevating transcription levels of Ehd1 Gene expression analysis also suggested the involvement of MADS-box genes such as OsMADS50, OsMADS51 and OsMADS56 in the Hd18-associated regulation of Ehd1 These results suggest that, like FLD, its rice homolog accelerates flowering time but is involved in rice flowering pathways that differ from the autonomous pathways in Arabidopsis.

  9. The Medicago FLOWERING LOCUS T Homolog, MtFTa1, Is a Key Regulator of Flowering Time1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Laurie, Rebecca E.; Diwadkar, Payal; Jaudal, Mauren; Zhang, Lulu; Hecht, Valérie; Wen, Jiangqi; Tadege, Million; Mysore, Kirankumar S.; Putterill, Joanna; Weller, James L.; Macknight, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) genes encode proteins that function as the mobile floral signal, florigen. In this study, we characterized five FT-like genes from the model legume, Medicago (Medicago truncatula). The different FT genes showed distinct patterns of expression and responses to environmental cues. Three of the FT genes (MtFTa1, MtFTb1, and MtFTc) were able to complement the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ft-1 mutant, suggesting that they are capable of functioning as florigen. MtFTa1 is the only one of the FT genes that is up-regulated by both long days (LDs) and vernalization, conditions that promote Medicago flowering, and transgenic Medicago plants overexpressing the MtFTa1 gene flowered very rapidly. The key role MtFTa1 plays in regulating flowering was demonstrated by the identification of fta1 mutants that flowered significantly later in all conditions examined. fta1 mutants do not respond to vernalization but are still responsive to LDs, indicating that the induction of flowering by prolonged cold acts solely through MtFTa1, whereas photoperiodic induction of flowering involves other genes, possibly MtFTb1, which is only expressed in leaves under LD conditions and therefore might contribute to the photoperiodic regulation of flowering. The role of the MtFTc gene is unclear, as the ftc mutants did not have any obvious flowering-time or other phenotypes. Overall, this work reveals the diversity of the regulation and function of the Medicago FT family. PMID:21685176

  10. Evaluation of Phalaenopsis flowering quality using near infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Suming; Chuang, Yung-Kun; Tsai, Chao-Yin; Chang, Yao-Chien A.; Yang, I.-Chang; Chang, Yung-Huei; Tai, Chu-Chun; Hou, Jiunn-Yan

    2013-05-01

    Carbohydrate contents have been demonstrated as indicators for flowering quality of Phalaenopsis plants. In this study, near infrared reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy was employed for quantitative analysis of carbohydrate contents like fructose, glucose, sucrose, and starch in Phalaenopsis. The modified partial least squares regression (MPLSR) method was adopted for spectra analyses of 176 grown plant samples (88 shoots and 88 roots), over the full wavelength range (FWR, 400 to 2498 nm). For fructose concentrations, the smoothing 1st derivative model can produce the best effect (Rc = 0.961, SEC = 0.210% DW, SEV = 0.324% DW) in the wavelength ranges of 1400-1600, 1800-2000, and 2200-2300 nm. For glucose concentrations, the smoothing 1st derivative model can produce the best effect (Rc = 0.975, SEC = 0.196% DW, SEV = 0.264% DW) in the wavelength range of 1400-1600, 1800-2000, and 2100-2400 nm. For sucrose concentrations, the smoothing 1st derivative model can produce the best effect (Rc = 0.961, SEC = 0.237% DW, SEV = 0.322% DW) in the wavelength range of 1300-1400, 1500-1800, 2000-2100, and 2200-2300 nm. For starch concentrations, the smoothing 1st derivative model can produce the best effect (Rc = 0.873, SEC = 0.697% DW, SEV = 0.774% DW) in the wavelength ranges of 500-700, 1200-1300, 1700-1800, and 2200-2300 nm. This study successfully developed the calibration models for inspecting concentrations of carbohydrates to predict the flowering quality in different cultivation environments of Phalaenopsis. The specific wavelengths can be used to predict the quality of Phalaenopsis flowers and thus to adjust cultivation managements.

  11. Dynamic network modelling to understand flowering transition and floral patterning.

    PubMed

    Davila-Velderrain, J; Martinez-Garcia, J C; Alvarez-Buylla, E R

    2016-04-01

    Differentiation and morphogenetic processes during plant development are particularly robust. At the cellular level, however, plants also show great plasticity in response to environmental conditions, and can even reverse apparently terminal differentiated states with remarkable ease. Can we understand and predict both robust and plastic systemic responses as a general consequence of the non-trivial interplay between intracellular regulatory networks, extrinsic environmental signalling, and tissue-level mechanical constraints? Flower development has become an ideal model system to study these general questions of developmental biology, which are especially relevant to understanding stem cell patterning in plants, animals, and human disease. Decades of detailed study of molecular developmental genetics, as well as novel experimental techniques for in vivo assays in both wild-type and mutant plants, enable the postulation and testing of experimentally grounded mathematical and computational network dynamical models. Research in our group aims to explain the emergence of robust transitions that occur at the shoot apical meristem, as well as flower development, as the result of the collective action of key molecular components in regulatory networks subjected to intra-organismal signalling and extracellular constraints. Here we present a brief overview of recent work from our group, and that of others, focusing on the use of simple dynamical models to address cell-fate specification and cell-state stochastic dynamics during flowering transition and cell-state transitions at the shoot apical meristem of Arabidopsis thaliana. We also focus on how our work fits within the general field of plant developmental modelling, which is being developed by many others.

  12. QTL Mapping of Flowering and Fruiting Traits in Olive

    PubMed Central

    Sadok, Inès Ben; Celton, Jean-Marc; Essalouh, Laila; El Aabidine, Amal Zine; Garcia, Gilbert; Martinez, Sebastien; Grati-Kamoun, Naziha; Rebai, Ahmed; Costes, Evelyne; Khadari, Bouchaib

    2013-01-01

    One of the challenge fruit growers are facing is to balance between tree production and vegetative growth from year to year. To investigate the existence of genetic determinism for reproductive behaviour in olive tree, we studied an olive segregating population derived from a cross between ‘Olivière’ and ‘Arbequina’ cultivars. Our strategy was based on (i) an annual assessment of individual trees yield, and (ii) a decomposition of adult growth units at the crown periphery into quantitative variables related to both flowering and fruiting process in relation to their growth and branching. Genetic models, including the year, genotype effects and their interactions, were built with variance function and correlation structure of residuals when necessary. Among the progeny, trees were either ‘ON’ or ‘OFF’ for a given year and patterns of regular vs. irregular bearing were revealed. Genotype effect was significant on yield but not for flowering traits at growth unit (GU) scale, whereas the interaction between genotype and year was significant for both traits. A strong genetic effect was found for all fruiting traits without interaction with the year. Based on the new constructed genetic map, QTLs with small effects were detected, revealing multigenic control of the studied traits. Many were associated to alleles from ‘Arbequina’. Genetic correlations were found between Yield and Fruit set at GU scale suggesting a common genetic control, even though QTL co-localisations were in spe`cific years only. Most QTL were associated to flowering traits in specific years, even though reproductive traits at GU scale did not capture the bearing status of the trees in a given year. Results were also interpreted with respect to ontogenetic changes of growth and branching, and an alternative sampling strategy was proposed for capturing tree fruiting behaviour. Regular bearing progenies were identified and could constitute innovative material for selection programs

  13. MADS box genes control vernalization-induced flowering in cereals

    PubMed Central

    Trevaskis, Ben; Bagnall, David J.; Ellis, Marc H.; Peacock, W. James; Dennis, Elizabeth S.

    2003-01-01

    By comparing expression levels of MADS box transcription factor genes between near-isogenic winter and spring lines of bread wheat, Triticum aestivum, we have identified WAP1 as the probable candidate for the Vrn-1 gene, the major locus controlling the vernalization flowering response in wheat. WAP1 is strongly expressed in spring wheats and moderately expressed in semispring wheats, but is not expressed in winter wheat plants that have not been exposed to vernalization treatment. Vernalization promotes flowering in winter wheats and strongly induces expression of WAP1. WAP1 is located on chromosome 5 in wheat and, by synteny with other cereal genomes, is likely to be collocated with Vrn-1. These results in hexaploid bread wheat cultivars extend the conclusion made by Yan et al. [Yan, L., Loukoianov, A., Tranquilli, G., Helguera, M., Fahima, T. & Dubcovsky, J. (2003) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 6263–6268] in the diploid wheat progenitor Triticum monococcum that WAP1 (TmAP1) corresponds to the Vrn-1 gene. The barley homologue of WAP1, BM5, shows a similar pattern of expression to WAP1 and TmAP1. BM5 is not expressed in winter barleys that have not been vernalized, but as with WAP1, expression of BM5 is strongly induced by vernalization treatment. In spring barleys, the level of BM5 expression is determined by interactions between the Vrn-H1 locus and a second locus for spring habit, Vrn-H2. There is now evidence that AP1-like genes determine the time of flowering in a range of cereal and grass species. PMID:14557548

  14. Genetics of flowering time in bread wheat Triticum aestivum: complementary interaction between vernalization-insensitive and photoperiod-insensitive mutations imparts very early flowering habit to spring wheat.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sushil; Sharma, Vishakha; Chaudhary, Swati; Tyagi, Anshika; Mishra, Poonam; Priyadarshini, Anupama; Singh, Anupam

    2012-01-01

    Time to flowering in the winter growth habit bread wheat is dependent on vernalization (exposure to cold conditions) and exposure to long days (photoperiod). Dominant Vrn-1 (Vrn-A1, Vrn-B1 and Vrn-D1) alleles are associated with vernalization independent spring growth habit. The semidominant Ppd-D1a mutation confers photoperiod-insensitivity or rapid flowering in wheat under short day and long day conditions. The objective of this study was to reveal the nature of interaction between Vrn-1 and Ppd-D1a mutations (active alleles of the respective genes vrn-1 and Ppd-D1b). Twelve Indian spring wheat cultivars and the spring wheat landrace Chinese Spring were characterized for their flowering times by seeding them every month for five years under natural field conditions in New Delhi. Near isogenic Vrn-1 Ppd-D1 and Vrn-1 Ppd-D1a lines constructed in two genetic backgrounds were also phenotyped for flowering time by seeding in two different seasons. The wheat lines of Vrn-A1a Vrn-B1 Vrn-D1 Ppd-D1a, Vrn-A1a Vrn-B1 Ppd-D1a and Vrn-A1a Vrn-D1 Ppd-D1a (or Vrn-1 Ppd-D1a) genotypes flowered several weeks earlier than that of Vrn-A1a Vrn-B1 Vrn-D1 Ppd-D1b, Vrn-A1b Ppd-D1b and Vrn-D1 Ppd-D1b (or Vrn-1 Ppd-D1b) genotypes. The flowering time phenotypes of the isogenic vernalization-insensitive lines confirmed that Ppd-D1a hastened flowering by several weeks. It was concluded that complementary interaction between Vrn-1 and Ppd-D1a active alleles imparted super/very-early flowering habit to spring wheats. The early and late flowering wheat varieties showed differences in flowering time between short day and long day conditions. The flowering time in Vrn-1 Ppd-D1a genotypes was hastened by higher temperatures under long day conditions. The ambient air temperature and photoperiod parameters for flowering in spring wheat were estimated at 25°C and 12 h, respectively.

  15. Flavonoids from flowers of Malva crispa L. (Malvaceae).

    PubMed

    Matławska, Irena; Sikorska, Maria

    2004-01-01

    The following flavonoids were isolated and identified from the flowers of Malva crispa L.: kaempferol 3-O-beta-glucopyranoside, 3-O-(6"-tran-p-coumaroyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside and 3,7-O-diglucoside as well as quercetin 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1-->6) -beta-D-glucopyranoside and apigenin 7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside. Their structures were established by chemical analysis, UV, 1H and 13C NMR spectrometry.

  16. Acylated flavonol glycosides from the flower of Elaeagnus angustifolia L.

    PubMed

    Bendaikha, Sarah; Gadaut, Méredith; Harakat, Dominique; Magid, Alabdul

    2014-07-01

    Seven acylated flavonol glycosides named elaeagnosides A-G, in addition to seven known flavonoids were isolated from the flowers of Elaeagnus angustifolia. Their structures were elucidated by different spectroscopic methods including 1D, 2D NMR experiments and HR-ESI-MS analysis. In order to identify natural antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitor agents, the abilities of these flavonoids to scavenge the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) and to inhibit tyrosinase activity were evaluated. Results revealed that two of these compounds had significant anti-oxidant effect and one compound showed weak tyrosinase-inhibitory activity compared with kojic acid, quercetin, or ascorbic acid, which were used as positive control.

  17. Identification of myosin in a flowering plant, Egeria densa.

    PubMed

    Ohsuka, K; Inoue, A

    1979-02-01

    A myosin-like protein was extracted and partially purified from a flowering plant, Egeria densa. It had no p-nitrophenyl phosphatase activity, but exhibited EDTA(K+)-ATPase [EC 3.6.1.3] activity at high ionic strength. Its molecular weight as estimated by gel filtration was 4-5 X 10(5). The presence of a heavy chain (MW = about 1.8 X 10(5)) was indicated by SDS-gel electrophoresis. Egeria myosin aggregated in an environment of low ionic strength and formed bipolar filaments. It bound with skeletal muscle F-actin with a periodicity of 40 nm.

  18. Flower pollination algorithm: A novel approach for multiobjective optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xin-She; Karamanoglu, Mehmet; He, Xingshi

    2014-09-01

    Multiobjective design optimization problems require multiobjective optimization techniques to solve, and it is often very challenging to obtain high-quality Pareto fronts accurately. In this article, the recently developed flower pollination algorithm (FPA) is extended to solve multiobjective optimization problems. The proposed method is used to solve a set of multiobjective test functions and two bi-objective design benchmarks, and a comparison of the proposed algorithm with other algorithms has been made, which shows that the FPA is efficient with a good convergence rate. Finally, the importance for further parametric studies and theoretical analysis is highlighted and discussed.

  19. A Century of Sex Determination in Flowering Plants.

    PubMed

    Harkess, Alex; Leebens-Mack, Jim

    2017-01-01

    Plants have evolved a diverse array of strategies for sexual reproduction, particularly through the modification of male and female organs at distinct points in development. The immense variation in sexual systems across the land plants provides a unique opportunity to study the genetic, epigenetic, phylogenetic, and ecological underpinnings of sex determination. Here, we reflect on more than a century of research into flowering plant sex determination, placing a particular focus on the foundational genetic and cytogenetic observations, experiments, and hypotheses. Building on the seminal work on the genetics of plant sex, modern comparative genomic analyses now allow us to address longstanding questions about sex determination and the origins of sex chromosomes.

  20. Aspects of Clock Resetting in Flowering of Xanthium 1

    PubMed Central

    Papenfuss, Herbert D.; Salisbury, Frank B.

    1967-01-01

    Flowering is induced in Xanthium strumarium by a single dark period exceeding about 8.3 hours in length (the critical night). To study the mechanism which measures this dark period, plants were placed in growth chambers for about 2 days under constant light and temperature, given a phasing dark period terminated by an intervening light period (1 min to several hrs in duration), and finally a test dark period long enough normally to induce flowering. In some experiments, light interruptions during the test dark period were given to establish the time of maximum sensitivity. If the phasing dark period was less than 5 hours long, its termination by a light flash only broadened the subsequent time of maximum sensitivity to a light flash, but the critical night was delayed. In causing the delay, the end of the intervening light period was acting like the dusk signal which initiated time measurement at the beginning of the phasing dark period. If the phasing dark period was 6 hours or longer, time of maximum sensitivity during the subsequent test dark period was shifted by as much as 10 to 14 hours. In this case the light terminating the phasing dark period acted as a rephaser or a dawn signal. Following a 7.5-hour phasing dark period, intervening light periods of 1 minute to 5 hours did not shift the subsequent time of maximum sensitivity, but with intervening light periods longer than 5 hours, termination of the light acts clearly like a dusk signal. The clock appears to be suspended during intervening light periods longer than 5 to 15 hours. It is restarted by a dusk signal. There is an anomaly with intervening light periods of 10 to 13 hours, following which time of maximum sensitivity is actually less than the usual 8 hours after dusk. Ability of the clock in Xanthium to be rephased, suspended, restarted, or delayed, depending always upon conditions of the experiment, is characteristic of an oscillating timer and may confer upon this plant its ability to respond to

  1. γ-Lactam alkaloids from the flower buds of daylily.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Takahiro; Nakamura, Seikou; Nakashima, Souichi; Ohta, Tomoe; Yano, Mamiko; Tsujihata, Junichiro; Tsukioka, Junko; Ogawa, Keiko; Fukaya, Masashi; Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Matsuda, Hisashi

    2016-07-01

    Four new alkaloids, hemerocallisamines IV-VII, were isolated from the methanol extract of flower buds of daylily. The chemical structures of the new compounds were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence. The absolute stereochemistry of the hemerocallisamines IV-VI was elucidated by the application of the modified Mosher's method, HPLC analysis, and optical rotation. In the present study, the isolated alkaloids significantly inhibited the aggregation of Aβ42 in vitro. This is the first report about bioactive alkaloids with a γ-lactam ring from daylily. In addition, isolated nucleosides showed accelerative effects on neurite outgrowth under the non-fasting condition.

  2. Color and chirality: carotenoid self-assemblies in flower petals.

    PubMed

    Zsila, F; Deli, J; Simonyi, M

    2001-10-01

    As a novel phenomenon, optical activity--often very strong--has been detected by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy in carotenoid-containing living flowers of several species belonging to different families. Using natural pure xanthophyll esters, very similar CD spectra were obtained in vitro, proving the ability of these molecules to form chiral self-assemblies. The relationship between the ultrastructure of the chromoplast, its chemical composition and the optical activity is discussed. The applicability of CD spectroscopy for studying intact plant tissue is emphasized.

  3. The causes and molecular consequences of polyploidy in flowering plants.

    PubMed

    Moghe, Gaurav D; Shiu, Shin-Han

    2014-07-01

    Polyploidy is an important force shaping plant genomes. All flowering plants are descendants of an ancestral polyploid species, and up to 70% of extant vascular plant species are believed to be recent polyploids. Over the past century, a significant body of knowledge has accumulated regarding the prevalence and ecology of polyploid plants. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of the causes and molecular consequences of polyploidization in angiosperms. We also provide a discussion on the relationships between polyploidy and adaptation and suggest areas where further research may provide a better understanding of polyploidy.

  4. [Hydroxycinnamic acid levels of various batches from mugwort flowering tops].

    PubMed

    Fraisse, D; Carnat, A; Carnat, A-P; Guédon, D; Lamaison, J-L

    2003-07-01

    Dried flowering tops of 24 harvested batches (Artemisia vulgaris: 13; Artemisia verlotiorum: 11) and 12 batches of mugwort from commercial origin were examined. The levels of principal compounds averaged respectively: total hydroxycinnamic acids 6.09; 10.29 and 9.13%, chlorogenic acid 0.79; 2.05 and 1.35%, 1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid 0.51; 4.01 and 1.25%, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid 2.21; 1.25 and 2.60%. Specifications were discussed for an European Pharmacopoeial monography.

  5. Modification of flower colour by suppressing β-ring carotene hydroxylase genes in Oncidium.

    PubMed

    Wang, H-M; To, K-Y; Lai, H-M; Jeng, S-T

    2016-03-01

    Oncidium 'Gower Ramsey' (Onc. GR) is a popular cut flower, but its colour is limited to bright yellow. The β-ring carotene hydroxylase (BCH2) gene is involved in carotenoid biogenesis for pigment formation. However, the role of BCH2 in Onc. GR is poorly understood. Here, we investigated the functions of three BCH2 genes, BCH-A2, BCH-B2 and BCH-C2 isolated from Onc. GR, to analyse their roles in flower colour. RT-PCR expression profiling suggested that BCH2 was mainly expressed in flowers. The expression of BCH-B2 remained constant while that of BCH-A2 gradually decreased during flower development. Using Agrobacterium tumefaciens to introduce BCH2 RNA interference (RNAi), we created transgenic Oncidium plants with down-regulated BCH expression. In the transgenic plants, flower colour changed from the bright yellow of the wild type to light and white-yellow. BCH-A2 and BCH-B2 expression levels were significantly reduced in the transgenic flower lips, which make up the major portion of the Oncidium flower. Sectional magnification of the flower lip showed that the amount of pigmentation in the papillate cells of the adaxial epidermis was proportional to the intensity of yellow colouration. HPLC analyses of the carotenoid composition of the transgenic flowers suggested major reductions in neoxanthin and violaxanthin. In conclusion, BCH2 expression regulated the accumulation of yellow pigments in the Oncidium flower, and the down-regulation of BCH-A2 and BCH-B2 changed the flower colour from bright yellow to light and white-yellow.

  6. Flowers regulate the growth and vascular development of the inflorescence rachis in Vitis vinifera L.

    PubMed

    Gourieroux, Aude M; McCully, Margaret E; Holzapfel, Bruno P; Scollary, Geoffrey R; Rogiers, Suzy Y

    2016-11-01

    The rachis, the structural framework of the grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) inflorescence (and subsequent bunch), consists of a main axis and one or more orders of lateral branches with the flower-bearing pedicels at their fine tips. The rachis is crucial both for support, and transport from the shoot. Earlier suggestions that the flowers per se affect normal rachis development are investigated further in this study. Different percentages (0, 25, 50, 75 or 100) of flowers were removed manually one week before anthesis on field-grown vines. Treatment effects on subsequent rachis development (curvature, vitality, anatomy, starch deposit) were assessed. Sections, both fixed and embedded, and fresh hand-cut were observed by fluorescence and bright-field optics after appropriate staining. Emphasis was on measurement of changes in cross-sectional area of secondary xylem and phloem, and on maturation of fibres and periderm. Specific defects in rachis development were dependent on the percent and location of flower removal one week prior to anthesis. The rachises curved inwards where most of the flowers were removed. When fully de-flowered, they became progressively necrotic from the laterals back to the primary axes and from the distal to the proximal end of those axes, with a concurrent disorganisation of their anatomy. A few remaining groups of flowers prevented desiccation and abscission of the rachis axes proximal to the group, but not distally. Flower removal (50%) reduced rachis elongation, while 75% removal reduced xylem and phloem area and delayed phloem fibre and periderm development. 75% flower removal did not affect starch present in the rachis during berry development. Developing flowers affect the growth and vitality of the rachis and the development of its vascular and support structures. The extent of these effects depends on the cultivar and the number and position of flowers remaining after some are removed one week before anthesis.

  7. Within-season flowering interruptions are common in the water-limited Sky Islands.

    PubMed

    Crimmins, Theresa M; Bertelsen, David C; Crimmins, Michael A

    2014-05-01

    Within-season breaks in flowering have been reported in a wide range of highly variable ecosystems including deserts, tropical forests and high-elevation meadows. A tendency for interruptions in flowering has also been documented in southwestern US "Sky Island" plant communities, which encompass xeric to mesic conditions. Seasonal breaks in flowering have implications for plant reproductive success, population structure, and gene flow as well as resource availability for pollinators and dependent animals. Most reports of multiple within-season flowering events describe only two distinct flowering episodes. In this study, we set out to better quantify distinct within-season flowering events in highly variable Sky Islands plant communities. Across a >1,200 m elevation gradient, we documented a strong tendency for multiple within-season flowering events. In both distinct spring and summer seasons, we observed greater than two distinct within-season flowering in more than 10 % of instances. Patterns were clearly mediated by the different climate factors at work in the two seasons. The spring season, which is influenced by both temperature and precipitation, showed a mixed response, with the greatest tendency for multiple flowering events occurring at mid-elevations and functional types varying in their responses across the gradient. In the summer season, during which flowering across the gradient is limited by localized precipitation, annual plants exhibited the fewest within-season flowering events and herbaceous perennial plants showed the greatest. Additionally, more distinct events occurred at lower elevations. The patterns documented here provide a baseline for comparison of system responses to changing climate conditions.

  8. Within-season flowering interruptions are common in the water-limited Sky Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crimmins, Theresa M.; Bertelsen, C. David; Crimmins, Michael A.

    2014-05-01

    Within-season breaks in flowering have been reported in a wide range of highly variable ecosystems including deserts, tropical forests and high-elevation meadows. A tendency for interruptions in flowering has also been documented in southwestern US "Sky Island" plant communities, which encompass xeric to mesic conditions. Seasonal breaks in flowering have implications for plant reproductive success, population structure, and gene flow as well as resource availability for pollinators and dependent animals. Most reports of multiple within-season flowering events describe only two distinct flowering episodes. In this study, we set out to better quantify distinct within-season flowering events in highly variable Sky Islands plant communities. Across a >1,200 m elevation gradient, we documented a strong tendency for multiple within-season flowering events. In both distinct spring and summer seasons, we observed greater than two distinct within-season flowering in more than 10 % of instances. Patterns were clearly mediated by the different climate factors at work in the two seasons. The spring season, which is influenced by both temperature and precipitation, showed a mixed response, with the greatest tendency for multiple flowering events occurring at mid-elevations and functional types varying in their responses across the gradient. In the summer season, during which flowering across the gradient is limited by localized precipitation, annual plants exhibited the fewest within-season flowering events and herbaceous perennial plants showed the greatest. Additionally, more distinct events occurred at lower elevations. The patterns documented here provide a baseline for comparison of system responses to changing climate conditions.

  9. A phylogenetic comparative study of flowering phenology along an elevational gradient in the Canadian subarctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lessard-Therrien, Malie; Davies, T. Jonathan; Bolmgren, Kjell

    2014-05-01

    Climate change is affecting high-altitude and high-latitude communities in significant ways. In the short growing season of subarctic habitats, it is essential that the timing and duration of phenological phases match favorable environmental conditions. We explored the time of the first appearance of flowers (first flowering day, FFD) and flowering duration across subarctic species composing different communities, from boreal forest to tundra, along an elevational gradient (600-800 m). The study was conducted on Mount Irony (856 m), North-East Canada (54°90'N, 67°16'W) during summer 2012. First, we quantified phylogenetic signal in FFD at different spatial scales. Second, we used phylogenetic comparative methods to explore the relationship between FFD, flowering duration, and elevation. We found that the phylogenetic signal for FFD was stronger at finer spatial scales and at lower elevations, indicating that closely related species tend to flower at similar times when the local environment is less harsh. The comparatively weaker phylogenetic signal at higher elevation may be indicative of convergent evolution for FFD. Flowering duration was correlated significantly with mean FFD, with later-flowering species having a longer flowering duration, but only at the lowest elevation. Our results indicate significant evolutionary conservatism in responses to phenological cues, but high phenotypic plasticity in flowering times. We suggest that phylogenetic relationships should be considered in the search for predictions and drivers of flowering time in comparative analyses, because species cannot be considered as statistically independent. Further, phenological drivers should be measured at spatial scales such that variation in flowering matches variation in environment.

  10. Sexual dimorphism of staminate- and pistillate-phase flowers of Saponaria officinalis (bouncing bet) affects pollinator behavior and seed set.

    PubMed

    Davis, Sandra L; Dudle, Dana A; Nawrocki, Jenna R; Freestone, Leah M; Konieczny, Peter; Tobin, Michael B; Britton, Michael M

    2014-01-01

    The sequential separation of male and female function in flowers of dichogamous species allows for the evolution of differing morphologies that maximize fitness through seed siring and seed set. We examined staminate- and pistillate-phase flowers of protandrous Saponaria officinalis for dimorphism in floral traits and their effects on pollinator attraction and seed set. Pistillate-phase flowers have larger petals, greater mass, and are pinker in color, but due to a shape change, pistillate-phase flowers have smaller corolla diameters than staminate-phase flowers. There was no difference in nectar volume or sugar content one day after anthesis, and minimal evidence for UV nectar guide patterns in staminate- and pistillate-phase flowers. When presented with choice arrays, pollinators discriminated against pistillate-phase flowers based on their pink color. Finally, in an experimental garden, in 2012 there was a negative correlation between seed set of an open-pollinated, emasculated flower and pinkness (as measured by reflectance spectrometry) of a pistillate-phase flower on the same plant in plots covered with shade cloth. In 2013, clones of genotypes chosen from the 2012 plants that produced pinker flowers had lower seed set than those from genotypes with paler flowers. Lower seed set of pink genotypes was found in open-pollinated and hand-pollinated flowers, indicating the lower seed set might be due to other differences between pink and pale genotypes in addition to pollinator discrimination against pink flowers. In conclusion, staminate- and pistillate-phase flowers of S. officinalis are dimorphic in shape and color. Pollinators discriminate among flowers based on these differences, and individuals whose pistillate-phase flowers are most different in color from their staminate-phase flowers make fewer seeds. We suggest morphological studies of the two sex phases in dichogamous, hermaphroditic species can contribute to understanding the evolution of sexual

  11. Hypoglycemic activity evaluation and chemical study on hollyhock flowers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Jin, Lijun; Chen, Qiu; Wu, Zhizhen; Dong, Yongzhe; Han, Lifeng; Wang, Tao

    2015-04-01

    Hollyhock (Althaea rosea (Linn.) Cavan) belongs to Althaea genus, Malvaceae family, is a perennial garden plant distributed throughout the world in warm temperate and tropical regions, which was used as anti-diabetes ingredient in traditional Chinese medicine. In the process of our research, ethanolic extract of hollyhock flower (HFE) was found to decrease serum triglyceride and glucose levels significantly in KK-A(y) mice after oral administration for 8weeks. Meanwhile, gene expressions on AMPK, IRS2, PI3K, AKT and GLUT4 in liver were remarkably up-regulated. Three new dihydroflavonol glycosides, named as roseaflavanonolosides A (1), B (2), and C (3), together with two known ones were obtained from HFE. Their structures were elucidated by chemical and spectroscopic methods. Hepatic cell glucose uptake experiment was performed using 2-NBDG as a glucose uptake indicator. At the dosage of 20μg/mL for 1-5, the glucose uptake increasing level was nearly 30%-40% in HepG2 cells. We partly revealed the glucose metabolism regulation effect may relate to dihydroflavonols in hollyhock flower.

  12. Studies on spasmogenic and spasmolytic activities of Calendula officinalis flowers.

    PubMed

    Bashir, Samra; Janbaz, Khalid H; Jabeen, Qaiser; Gilani, Anwar H

    2006-10-01

    The aqueous-ethanol extract of Calendula officinalis flowers (Co.Cr) was studied for its possible spasmolytic and spasmogenic effects in isolated gut preparations. In rabbit jejunum, Co.Cr caused a dose-dependent (0.03-3.0 mg/mL) relaxation of spontaneous and K+-induced contractions, suggestive of calcium channel blockade (CCB). In a few preparations, a mild non-reproducible spasmogenic effect was observed at lower doses, followed by relaxation. The CCB effect was confirmed when pretreatment of the jejunum preparations with Co.Cr produced a dose-dependent rightward shift in the Ca(++) dose-response curves, similar to that of verapamil. Activity-directed fractionation revealed that the spasmolytic activity of the plant was concentrated in its organic fractions. The aqueous fraction exhibited a marked atropine sensitive spasmogenic effect but was found to be devoid of any spasmolytic effect. These data indicate that the crude extract of Calendula officinalis flowers contains both spasmolytic and spasmogenic constituents, exhibiting these effects through calcium channel blocking and cholinergic activities and this study provides a scientific base for its traditional use in abdominal cramps and constipation.

  13. MAEWEST expression in flower development of two petunia species.

    PubMed

    Segatto, Ana Lúcia A; Turchetto-Zolet, Andreia Carina; Aizza, Lilian Cristina B; Monte-Bello, Carolina C; Dornelas, Marcelo C; Margis, Rogerio; Freitas, Loreta B

    2013-07-03

    Changes in flower morphology may influence the frequency and specificity of animal visitors. In Petunia (Solanaceae), adaptation to different pollinators is one of the factors leading to species diversification within the genus. This study provides evidence that differential expression patterns of MAWEWEST (MAW) homologs in different Petunia species may be associated with adaptive changes in floral morphology. The Petunia × hybrida MAW gene belongs to the WOX (WUSCHEL-related homeobox) transcription factor family and has been identified as a controller of petal fusion during corolla formation. We analyzed the expression patterns of P. inflata and P. axillaris MAW orthologs (PiMAW and PaMAW, respectively) by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) and in situ hybridization in different tissues and different developmental stages of flowers in both species. The spatial expression patterns of PiMAW and PaMAW were similar in P. inflata and P. axillaris. Nevertheless, PaMAW expression level in P. axillaris was higher during the late bud development stage as compared to PiMAW in P. inflata. This work represents an expansion of petunia developmental research to wild accessions.

  14. MAEWEST Expression in Flower Development of Two Petunia Species

    PubMed Central

    Segatto, Ana Lúcia A.; Turchetto-Zolet, Andreia Carina; Aizza, Lilian Cristina B.; Monte-Bello, Carolina C.; Dornelas, Marcelo C.; Margis, Rogerio; Freitas, Loreta B.

    2013-01-01

    Changes in flower morphology may influence the frequency and specificity of animal visitors. In Petunia (Solanaceae), adaptation to different pollinators is one of the factors leading to species diversification within the genus. This study provides evidence that differential expression patterns of MAWEWEST (MAW) homologs in different Petunia species may be associated with adaptive changes in floral morphology. The Petunia × hybrida MAW gene belongs to the WOX (WUSCHEL-related homeobox) transcription factor family and has been identified as a controller of petal fusion during corolla formation. We analyzed the expression patterns of P. inflata and P. axillaris MAW orthologs (PiMAW and PaMAW, respectively) by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), reverse transcription–quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) and in situ hybridization in different tissues and different developmental stages of flowers in both species. The spatial expression patterns of PiMAW and PaMAW were similar in P. inflata and P. axillaris. Nevertheless, PaMAW expression level in P. axillaris was higher during the late bud development stage as compared to PiMAW in P. inflata. This work represents an expansion of petunia developmental research to wild accessions. PMID:23823801

  15. Chilling and heat requirements for flowering in temperate fruit trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Liang; Dai, Junhu; Ranjitkar, Sailesh; Yu, Haiying; Xu, Jianchu; Luedeling, Eike