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Sample records for oecd mcmsdrw

  1. OECD in Figures, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    "OECD in Figures" is a primary statistical source for key data on OECD countries, ranging from economic growth and employment to inflation, trade and environment. Information is presented in tabular form for: (1) Demography and Health; (2) Economy; (3) Energy; (4) Labour; (5) Science and Technology; (6) Environment; (7) Education; (8)…

  2. OECD in Figures, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    "OECD in Figures" is a primary statistical source for key data on OECD countries, ranging from economic growth and employment to inflation, trade and environment. Information is presented in tabular form for: (1) Demography and Health; (2) Economy; (3) Energy; (4) Labour; (5) Science and Technology; (6) Environment; (7) Education; (8)…

  3. Inequality in OECD countries.

    PubMed

    Thévenot, Celine

    2017-08-01

    This article recalls the state of play of inequality levels and trends in OECD countries, with a special focus on Nordic countries. It sheds light on explaining the drivers of the rise in inequality and its economic consequences. It addresses in particular the issue of redistribution through taxes and transfers. It concludes with an overview of policy packages that should be considered to address the issue of rising inequalities.

  4. OECD Maximum Residue Limit Calculator

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    With the goal of harmonizing the calculation of maximum residue limits (MRLs) across the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, the OECD has developed an MRL Calculator. View the calculator.

  5. OECD and USA GLP applications.

    PubMed

    Huntsinger, Del W

    2008-01-01

    Since the inception of the FDA good laboratory practice (GLP) regulations in 1979, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) principles of GLP in 1981 and the finalization of the EPA GLP programme in 1983 there have been recognizable differences among the three compliance programmes. All have been revised since their initial publication, but still there remain differences in verbiage, and in some cases content, among the FDA, EPA and OECD GLP principles, but the end result for each is the assurance that the experimental information generated under each programme is of sufficient quality and integrity to support the reports for the various studies. These differences, while not affecting the data quality, can result in issues when submitting studies globally. An overview is offered of some of the differences that exist between the USA and OECD GLP principles and the challenges global companies face when making regulatory submissions.

  6. Education Today 2010: The OECD Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2010

    2010-01-01

    What does the OECD have to say about the state of education today? What are the main OECD messages on early childhood education, teacher policies and tertiary education? What about student performance, educational spending and equity in education? OECD work on these important education topics and others have been brought together in a single…

  7. Education Today 2013: The OECD Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2012

    2012-01-01

    What does the OECD have to say about the state of education today? What are the main OECD messages on early childhood education, teacher policies and tertiary education? What about student performance, educational spending and equity in education? OECD work on these important education topics and others have been brought together in a single…

  8. The OECD and International Migration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    The document focuses on various aspects of the social, economic, and policy implications of migration in Europe based on the actions undertaken by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). A discussion of issues which may remedy the disequilibrium between the relative portions of the factors of production is presented: (1)…

  9. Implementing Inclusive Education. OECD Proceedings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Centre for Educational Research and Innovation.

    This document contains 25 papers presented at 1993 and 1995 conferences convened as part of a 7-year international project concerned with the integration of children with special educational needs into mainstream schools. The papers are: (1) "The OECD Project: Integrating Students with Special Needs into Mainstream Schools" (Peter Evans and Don…

  10. The OECD Fish Testing Framework Project

    EPA Science Inventory

    OECD Project 2.30 on a Fish Testing Framework was initiated in mid-2009, with the United States as the lead country. The objectives of the project are to review the regulatory needs and data requirements for fish testing and review the currency of existing OECD Test Guidelines. ...

  11. Education at a Glance 2008: OECD Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    Across OECD countries, governments are seeking policies to make education more effective while searching for additional resources to meet the increasing demand for education. The 2008 edition of "Education at a Glance: OECD Indicators" enables countries to see themselves in the light of other countries' performance. It provides a rich,…

  12. The OECD Fish Testing Framework Project

    EPA Science Inventory

    OECD Project 2.30 on a Fish Testing Framework was initiated in mid-2009, with the United States as the lead country. The objectives of the project are to review the regulatory needs and data requirements for fish testing and review the currency of existing OECD Test Guidelines. ...

  13. OECD Reviews of School Resources: Kazakhstan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pons, Anna; Amoroso, Jeremie; Herczynski, Jan; Kheyfets, Igor; Lockheed, Marlaine; Santiago, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    This joint OECD-World Bank report for Kazakhstan forms part of the OECD Review of Policies to Improve the Effectiveness of Resource Use in Schools. The purpose of the Review is to explore how resources can be governed, distributed, utilised and managed to improve the quality, equity and efficiency of school education. School resources are…

  14. Education at a Glance 2009: OECD Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    Across OECD countries, governments are seeking policies to make education more effective while searching for additional resources to meet the increasing demand for education. The 2009 edition of "Education at a Glance: OECD Indicators" enables countries to see themselves in the light of other countries' performance. It provides a rich,…

  15. Education at a Glance 2013: OECD Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "Education at a Glance: OECD Indicators" is the authoritative source for accurate and relevant information on the state of education around the world. It provides data on the structure, finances, and performance of education systems in more than 40 countries, including OECD members and G20 partners. Featuring more than 100 charts, 200…

  16. Education at a Glance 2009: OECD Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    Across OECD countries, governments are seeking policies to make education more effective while searching for additional resources to meet the increasing demand for education. The 2009 edition of "Education at a Glance: OECD Indicators" enables countries to see themselves in the light of other countries' performance. It provides a rich,…

  17. The OECD and Global Governance in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellar, Sam; Lingard, Bob

    2013-01-01

    This review essay discusses the history, evolution and development of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and traces the growing impact of its education work. The essay is in four main sections. The first discusses Carrol and Kellow's "The OECD: A Study of Organizational Adaptation" (Edward Elgar) and…

  18. Education at a Glance 2012: OECD Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2012

    2012-01-01

    "Education at a Glance: OECD Indicators" is the authoritative source for accurate and relevant information on the state of education around the world. It provides data on the structure, finances, and performance of education systems in the OECD's 34 member countries, as well as a number of non-member G20 nations. Featuring more than 140…

  19. Education at a Glance 2013: OECD Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "Education at a Glance: OECD Indicators" is the authoritative source for accurate and relevant information on the state of education around the world. It provides data on the structure, finances, and performance of education systems in more than 40 countries, including OECD members and G20 partners. Featuring more than 100 charts, 200…

  20. Education at a Glance 2008: OECD Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    Across OECD countries, governments are seeking policies to make education more effective while searching for additional resources to meet the increasing demand for education. The 2008 edition of "Education at a Glance: OECD Indicators" enables countries to see themselves in the light of other countries' performance. It provides a rich,…

  1. Education at a Glance 2011: OECD Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    Across OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries, governments are having to work with shrinking public budgets while designing policies to make education more effective and responsive to growing demand. The 2011 edition of "Education at a Glance: OECD Indicators" enables countries to see themselves in the light of…

  2. Education at a Glance 2010: OECD Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    Across OECD countries, governments are seeking policies to make education more effective while searching for additional resources to meet the increasing demand for education. The 2010 edition of "Education at a Glance: OECD Indicators" enables countries to see themselves in the light of other countries' performance. It provides a rich, comparable…

  3. OECD Reviews of School Resources: Kazakhstan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pons, Anna; Amoroso, Jeremie; Herczynski, Jan; Kheyfets, Igor; Lockheed, Marlaine; Santiago, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    This joint OECD-World Bank report for Kazakhstan forms part of the OECD Review of Policies to Improve the Effectiveness of Resource Use in Schools. The purpose of the Review is to explore how resources can be governed, distributed, utilised and managed to improve the quality, equity and efficiency of school education. School resources are…

  4. The OECD and Global Governance in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellar, Sam; Lingard, Bob

    2013-01-01

    This review essay discusses the history, evolution and development of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and traces the growing impact of its education work. The essay is in four main sections. The first discusses Carrol and Kellow's "The OECD: A Study of Organizational Adaptation" (Edward Elgar) and…

  5. Integration of Immigrants in OECD Countries: Do Policies Matter? OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 564

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Causa, Orsetta; Jean, Sebastien

    2007-01-01

    This working paper assesses the ease of immigrants' integration in OECD labour markets by estimating how an immigration background influences the probability of being active or employed and the expected hourly earnings, for given individual characteristics. Applying the same methodology to comparable data across twelve OECD countries, immigrants…

  6. Integration of Immigrants in OECD Countries: Do Policies Matter? OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 564

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Causa, Orsetta; Jean, Sebastien

    2007-01-01

    This working paper assesses the ease of immigrants' integration in OECD labour markets by estimating how an immigration background influences the probability of being active or employed and the expected hourly earnings, for given individual characteristics. Applying the same methodology to comparable data across twelve OECD countries, immigrants…

  7. Simulation Studies to Explore Biodegradation in Water-Sediment Systems: From OECD 308 to OECD 309.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Prasit; Junker, Thomas; Fenner, Kathrin; Hahn, Stefan; Honti, Mark; Bakkour, Rani; Diaz, Cecilia; Hennecke, Dieter

    2016-07-05

    Studies according to OECD 308 and OECD 309 are performed to simulate the biodegradation of chemicals in water-sediment systems in support of persistence assessment and exposure modeling. However, several shortcomings of OECD 308 have been identified that hamper data evaluation and interpretation, and its relation to OECD 309 is still unclear. The present study systematically compares OECD 308 and OECD 309 and two variants thereof to derive recommendations on how to experimentally address any shortcomings and improve data for persistence and risk assessment. To this end, four (14)C-labeled compounds with different biodegradation and sorption behavior were tested across standard OECD 308 and 309 test systems and two modified versions thereof. The well-degradable compounds showed slow equilibration and the least mineralization in OECD 308, whereas the modified systems provided the highest degree of mineralization. Different lines of evidence suggest that this was due to increased oxygenation of the sediment in the modified systems. Particularly for rapidly degrading compounds, non-extractable residue formation was in line with degradation and did not follow the sediment-water ratio. For the two more slowly degrading compounds, sorption in OECD 309 (standard and modified) increased with time beyond levels proposed by equilibrium partitioning, which could be attributed to the grinding of the sediment through the stirring of the sediment suspension. Overall, the large differences in degradation observed across the four test systems suggest that refined specifications in test guidelines are required to reduce variability in test outcomes. At the same time, the amount of sediment and its degree of oxygenation emerged as drivers across all test systems. This suggests that a unified description of the systems was possible and would pave the way toward a more consistent consideration of degradation in the water-sediment systems across different exposure situations and

  8. 40 CFR 262.89 - OECD Waste Lists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false OECD Waste Lists. 262.89 Section 262... Recovery within the OECD § 262.89 OECD Waste Lists. (a) General. For the purposes of this Subpart, a waste... addressed in § 262.82. (e) The OECD Green List of Wastes (revised May 1994), Amber List of Wastes and Red...

  9. Health Expenditure Trends in OECD Countries, 1970-1997

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Manfred

    1999-01-01

    This article provides an overview of current trends in health expenditures in 29 OECD countries and recent revisions of OECD health accounts. U.S. health expenditures are compared with those of other OECD countries. The interactions of cost-containment measures with changes in the public-private mix of financing and in the composition of health care spending are discussed. PMID:11481789

  10. Revision of the OECD Genetox Test Guidelines

    EPA Science Inventory

    The OECD Test Guidelines (TG) on genetic toxicology were initially prepared and adopted between 1981 and 1986. In 1997 the most commonly used guidelines were updated, and the in vivo UDS test (TG 486) was added. More recently, in 2010 and 2011, two new guidelines were adopted: th...

  11. OECD Reviews of School Resources: Lithuania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shewbridge, Claire; Godfrey, Katrina; Hermann, Zoltán; Nusche, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    This report for Lithuania forms part of the OECD Review of Policies to Improve the Effectiveness of Resource Use in Schools. The purpose of the review is to explore how school resources can be governed, distributed, utilised and managed to improve the quality, equity and efficiency of school education. School resources are understood in a broad…

  12. OECD Reviews of School Resources: Slovak Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santiago, Paulo; Halász, Gábor; Levacic, Rosalind; Shewbridge, Claire

    2016-01-01

    This report for the Slovak Republic forms part of the OECD Review of Policies to Improve the Effectiveness of Resource Use in Schools. The purpose of the Review is to explore how school resources can be governed, distributed, utilised and managed to improve the quality, equity and efficiency of school education. School resources are understood in…

  13. OECD Reviews of School Resources: Austria 2016

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nusche, Deborah; Radinger, Thomas; Busemeyer, Marius R.; Theisens, Henno

    2016-01-01

    This report for Austria forms part of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Review of Policies to Improve the Effectiveness of Resource Use in Schools. The purpose of the review is to explore how school resources can be governed, distributed, utilised and managed to improve the quality, equity and efficiency of school…

  14. OECD Reviews of School Resources: Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santiago, Paulo; Levitas, Anthony; Radó, Péter; Shewbridge, Claire

    2016-01-01

    This report for Estonia forms part of the OECD Review of Policies to Improve the Effectiveness of Resource Use in Schools. The purpose of the review is to explore how school resources can be governed, distributed, utilised and managed to improve the quality, equity and efficiency of school education. School resources are understood in a broad way,…

  15. Education at a Glance 2015: OECD Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing, 2015

    2015-01-01

    "Education at a Glance: OECD Indicators" is the authoritative source for accurate information on the state of education around the world. It provides data on the output of educational institutions; the impact of learning across countries; the financial and human resources invested in education; access, participation and progression in…

  16. OECD Reviews of School Resources: Lithuania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shewbridge, Claire; Godfrey, Katrina; Hermann, Zoltán; Nusche, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    This report for Lithuania forms part of the OECD Review of Policies to Improve the Effectiveness of Resource Use in Schools. The purpose of the review is to explore how school resources can be governed, distributed, utilised and managed to improve the quality, equity and efficiency of school education. School resources are understood in a broad…

  17. Education at a Glance 2015: OECD Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing, 2015

    2015-01-01

    "Education at a Glance: OECD Indicators" is the authoritative source for accurate information on the state of education around the world. It provides data on the output of educational institutions; the impact of learning across countries; the financial and human resources invested in education; access, participation and progression in…

  18. OECD Work on Future Educational Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theisens, Henno; Benavides, Francisco; Dumont, Hanna

    2008-01-01

    Designing school buildings to respond to change is not a new idea. But perhaps what is different today is the kind and degree of change which we have to anticipate. The OECD is carrying out projects that can help in the planning and design of future educational facilities--exploring trends in education and studying innovative learning…

  19. Education at OECD: Recent Themes and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Istance, David

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to provide an introduction to the work of OECD in the field of education through its recent projects and reports. It makes no pretence to be exhaustive. It relies heavily on published results of international reviews and comparisons where relatively clear messages have been identified, rather than single country…

  20. Decomposing Achievement Gaps among OECD Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Liang; Lee, Kristen A.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we use decomposition methods on PISA 2006 data to compare student academic performance across OECD countries. We first establish an empirical model to explain the variation in academic performance across individuals, and then use the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition method to decompose the achievement gap between each of the OECD…

  1. Revision of the OECD Genetox Test Guidelines

    EPA Science Inventory

    The OECD Test Guidelines (TG) on genetic toxicology were initially prepared and adopted between 1981 and 1986. In 1997 the most commonly used guidelines were updated, and the in vivo UDS test (TG 486) was added. More recently, in 2010 and 2011, two new guidelines were adopted: th...

  2. Education Today 2009: The OECD Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2009

    2009-01-01

    This book presents OECD's main messages regarding the current state of education. Organised into nine sections, this report examines early childhood, schooling, transitions beyond initial education, higher education, adult education, lifelong learning, outcomes and returns, equity, and innovation. Each section offers both key findings and…

  3. Education at OECD: Recent Themes and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Istance, David

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to provide an introduction to the work of OECD in the field of education through its recent projects and reports. It makes no pretence to be exhaustive. It relies heavily on published results of international reviews and comparisons where relatively clear messages have been identified, rather than single country…

  4. OECD Work on Future Educational Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theisens, Henno; Benavides, Francisco; Dumont, Hanna

    2008-01-01

    Designing school buildings to respond to change is not a new idea. But perhaps what is different today is the kind and degree of change which we have to anticipate. The OECD is carrying out projects that can help in the planning and design of future educational facilities--exploring trends in education and studying innovative learning…

  5. Decomposing Achievement Gaps among OECD Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Liang; Lee, Kristen A.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we use decomposition methods on PISA 2006 data to compare student academic performance across OECD countries. We first establish an empirical model to explain the variation in academic performance across individuals, and then use the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition method to decompose the achievement gap between each of the OECD…

  6. OECD Reviews of School Resources: Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santiago, Paulo; Levitas, Anthony; Radó, Péter; Shewbridge, Claire

    2016-01-01

    This report for Estonia forms part of the OECD Review of Policies to Improve the Effectiveness of Resource Use in Schools. The purpose of the review is to explore how school resources can be governed, distributed, utilised and managed to improve the quality, equity and efficiency of school education. School resources are understood in a broad way,…

  7. OECD Reviews of School Resources: Austria 2016

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nusche, Deborah; Radinger, Thomas; Busemeyer, Marius R.; Theisens, Henno

    2016-01-01

    This report for Austria forms part of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Review of Policies to Improve the Effectiveness of Resource Use in Schools. The purpose of the review is to explore how school resources can be governed, distributed, utilised and managed to improve the quality, equity and efficiency of school…

  8. OECD Reviews of School Resources: Slovak Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santiago, Paulo; Halász, Gábor; Levacic, Rosalind; Shewbridge, Claire

    2016-01-01

    This report for the Slovak Republic forms part of the OECD Review of Policies to Improve the Effectiveness of Resource Use in Schools. The purpose of the Review is to explore how school resources can be governed, distributed, utilised and managed to improve the quality, equity and efficiency of school education. School resources are understood in…

  9. Health Expenditure Trends in OECD Countries, 1990-2001

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Manfred; Orosz, Eva

    2003-01-01

    This article presents data on health care spending for 30 OECD countries from OECD Health Data 2003, the latest edition of OECD's annual data collection on health systems across industrialized countries. OECD data show health care expenditures as a proportion of gross domestic product at an all-time high, due to both increased expenditures and overall economic slowdown. The article discusses similarities and differences across countries in how health care expenditures are funded and how the health care dollar is spent among types of services. PMID:14997690

  10. Health spending in OECD countries in 2004: an update.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Gerard F; Frogner, Bianca K; Reinhardt, Uwe E

    2007-01-01

    In 2004, U.S. health care spending per capita was 2.5 times greater than health spending in the median Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) country and much higher than health spending in any other OECD country. The United States had fewer physicians, nurses, hospital beds, doctor visits, and hospital days per capita than the median OECD country. Health care prices and higher per capita incomes continued to be the major reasons for the higher U.S. health spending. One possible explanation is higher prevalence of obesity-related chronic disease in the United States relative to other OECD countries.

  11. Budgeting and Accounting in OECD Education Systems: A Literature Review. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 128

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fakharzadeh, Tala

    2016-01-01

    Recent demographic, economic and political trends have drawn attention to the issue of effectiveness and efficiency in the use of resources in the education sector. In the context of the renewed interest for the optimisation of resource use, this paper attempts to review the literature on budgeting and accounting in OECD education systems. The…

  12. Tackling Nurse Shortages in OECD Countries. OECD Health Working Papers, No. 19

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simoens, Steven; Villeneuve, Mike; Hurst, Jeremy

    2005-01-01

    There are reports of current nurse shortages in all but a few OECD countries. With further increases in demand for nurses expected and nurse workforce ageing predicted to reduce the supply of nurses, shortages are likely to persist or even increase in the future, unless action is taken to increase flows into and reduce flows out of the workforce…

  13. Tackling Nurse Shortages in OECD Countries. OECD Health Working Papers, No. 19

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simoens, Steven; Villeneuve, Mike; Hurst, Jeremy

    2005-01-01

    There are reports of current nurse shortages in all but a few OECD countries. With further increases in demand for nurses expected and nurse workforce ageing predicted to reduce the supply of nurses, shortages are likely to persist or even increase in the future, unless action is taken to increase flows into and reduce flows out of the workforce…

  14. Budgeting and Accounting in OECD Education Systems: A Literature Review. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 128

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fakharzadeh, Tala

    2016-01-01

    Recent demographic, economic and political trends have drawn attention to the issue of effectiveness and efficiency in the use of resources in the education sector. In the context of the renewed interest for the optimisation of resource use, this paper attempts to review the literature on budgeting and accounting in OECD education systems. The…

  15. Education and Obesity in Four OECD Countries. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 39

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sassi, Franco; Devaux, Marion; Church, Jody; Cecchini, Michele; Borgonovi, Francesca

    2009-01-01

    An epidemic of obesity has been developing in virtually all OECD countries over the last 30 years. Existing evidence provides strong suggestions that such epidemic has affected certain social groups more than others. In particular, education appears to be associated with a lower likelihood of obesity, especially among women. A range of analyses of…

  16. The Supply of Physician Services in OECD Countries. OECD Health Working Papers, No. 21

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simoens, Steven; Hurst, Jeremy

    2006-01-01

    The delivery of an appropriate quantity and quality of health care in an efficient way requires, among other things, matching the supply with the demand for the services of physicians, over time. Such matching has led to very different levels of physicians per million population across OECD countries--because of variations, among other things,…

  17. Education and Obesity in Four OECD Countries. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 39

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sassi, Franco; Devaux, Marion; Church, Jody; Cecchini, Michele; Borgonovi, Francesca

    2009-01-01

    An epidemic of obesity has been developing in virtually all OECD countries over the last 30 years. Existing evidence provides strong suggestions that such epidemic has affected certain social groups more than others. In particular, education appears to be associated with a lower likelihood of obesity, especially among women. A range of analyses of…

  18. Nuclear manpower needs addressed in OECD report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    Attendees of nuclear conferences are well aware of the increasing predominance of gray hair, and educational establishments in most countries are experiencing a decline in enrollments in nuclear-related courses. Clearly, there could be a problem of qualified manpower for the nuclear industry in the future. A report by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) seeks to assess the supply-and-demand situation for qualified manpower - defined as people with professional occupations as engineers and scientists with at least a bachelor's degree or equivalent. 3 figs.

  19. Soils, climate change and the OECD.

    PubMed

    Lynch, J M; Schepers, J S

    2008-01-01

    Some concepts of sustainability applied to soils are given in relation to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Co-operative Research Programme 'Biological Resource Management for Sustainable Agricultural Systems'. The application of these concepts to climate change will be discussed in relation to seven high-profile papers published over the past 12 months. It is argued that multi-disciplinary (including social science) approaches are needed to address the issues. There is also a brief discussion on biomass energy in terms of soil sustainability and climate change.

  20. OECD, "Key Competencies" and the New Challenges of Educational Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takayama, Keita

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I develop a critique of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)-based lifelong learning policy discourse with a particular focus on "key competencies" (KCs) and its equity implications for school curricular policies. First, I review the discussion of KCs in the writings by the OECD-affiliated…

  1. Harmonizing and Optimizing Fish Testing Methods: The OECD Framework Project

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) serves a key role in the international harmonization of testing of a wide variety of chemicals. An integrated fish testing framework project was initiated in mid-2009 through the OECD with the US as the lead country...

  2. The OECD Fish Testing Framework Project: Summary of Workshop Recommendations

    EPA Science Inventory

    An integrated Fish Testing Framework was initiated in mid-2009 as OECD Project 2.30 with the United States as the lead country. The objectives of the project were to review the regulatory needs and data requirements for fish testing and review the currency of existing OECD Test ...

  3. The OECD Fish Testing Framework Project: Summary of Workshop Recommendations

    EPA Science Inventory

    An integrated Fish Testing Framework was initiated in mid-2009 as OECD Project 2.30 with the United States as the lead country. The objectives of the project were to review the regulatory needs and data requirements for fish testing and review the currency of existing OECD Test ...

  4. OECD, "Key Competencies" and the New Challenges of Educational Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takayama, Keita

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I develop a critique of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)-based lifelong learning policy discourse with a particular focus on "key competencies" (KCs) and its equity implications for school curricular policies. First, I review the discussion of KCs in the writings by the OECD-affiliated…

  5. Shifting Themes in OECD Country Reviews of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Carrie P.

    2013-01-01

    There have been changes in the political economy since the 1980s, and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) has changed as well. Scholars have noted shifts in OECD discourse in some policy fields since that time: shifts away from what might be called classic neoliberal perspectives. This paper reflects on the changes in…

  6. Harmonizing and Optimizing Fish Testing Methods: The OECD Framework Project

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) serves a key role in the international harmonization of testing of a wide variety of chemicals. An integrated fish testing framework project was initiated in mid-2009 through the OECD with the US as the lead country...

  7. OECD Reviews of School Resources: Czech Republic 2016

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shewbridge, Claire; Herczynski, Jan; Radinger, Thomas; Sonnemann, Julie

    2016-01-01

    The effective use of school resources is a policy priority across OECD countries. The "OECD Reviews of School Resources" explore how resources can be governed, distributed, utilised and managed to improve the quality, equity and efficiency of school education. The series considers four types of resources: financial resources, such as…

  8. Shifting Themes in OECD Country Reviews of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Carrie P.

    2013-01-01

    There have been changes in the political economy since the 1980s, and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) has changed as well. Scholars have noted shifts in OECD discourse in some policy fields since that time: shifts away from what might be called classic neoliberal perspectives. This paper reflects on the changes in…

  9. Equity Index in the School Systems of Selected OECD Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozmusul, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analysis the equity in the school systems of selected OECD countries. For this purpose, the international data for selected OECD countries was analyzed in terms of four dimensions of equity as learning equity, school resource equity, participating in education, and digital equity. When analyzing data, the equity…

  10. Energy use and carbon emissions: Non-OECD countries

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    This report surveys world energy use and carbon emissions patterns, with particular emphasis on the non-OECD countries. The non OECD is important not only because it currently makes up 84% of world population, but because its energy consumption, carbon emissions, population, and grow domestic product have all been growing faster than OECD`s. This presentation has seven major sections: (1) overview of key trends in non-OECD energy use and carbon emissions since 1970; (2) Comparison and contrasting energy use and carbon emissions for five major non OEDC regions (former Soviet Union and eastern Europe, Pacific Rim including China, Latin America, other Asia; Africa; 3-7) presentation of aggregate and sectoral energy use and carbon emissions data for countries within each of the 5 regions.

  11. 21st Century Skills and Competences for New Millennium Learners in OECD Countries. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 41

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ananiadou, Katerina; Claro, Magdalean

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses issues related to the teaching and assessment of 21st century skills and competencies in OECD countries drawing on the findings of a questionnaire study and other relevant background material such as white papers or curriculum documents. Although all OECD countries were invited to participate in the questionnaire survey,…

  12. Employment Patterns in OECD Countries: Reassessing the Role of Policies and Institutions. OECD Economics Department Working Papers No. 486

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassanini, Andrea; Duval, Romain

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the impact of policies and institutions on employment and unemployment of OECD countries in the past decades. Reduced-form unemployment equations, consistent with standard wage setting/price-setting models, are estimated using cross-country/time-series data from 21 OECD countries over the period 1982-2003. In the…

  13. Employment Patterns in OECD Countries: Reassessing the Role of Policies and Institutions. OECD Economics Department Working Papers No. 486

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassanini, Andrea; Duval, Romain

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the impact of policies and institutions on employment and unemployment of OECD countries in the past decades. Reduced-form unemployment equations, consistent with standard wage setting/price-setting models, are estimated using cross-country/time-series data from 21 OECD countries over the period 1982-2003. In the…

  14. School Evaluation: Current Practices in OECD Countries and a Literature Review. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 42

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faubert, Violaine

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the current academic and policy literatures concerning school evaluation in primary and secondary education within the OECD countries. First, it provides a typology of the existing systems of school evaluation across the OECD. It encompasses the diverse criteria and instruments commonly used to carry out schools evaluation, as…

  15. Energy Use and Carbon Emissions: Non-OECD Countries

    EIA Publications

    1994-01-01

    Presents world energy use and carbon emissions patterns, with particular emphasis on the non-OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries (including the current and former centrally planned economies).

  16. Forecasting Crude Oil Spot Price Using OECD Petroleum Inventory Levels

    EIA Publications

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a short-term monthly forecasting model of West Texas Intermediate crude oil spot price using Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) petroleum inventory levels.

  17. Latest findings from the OECD Rasplav Project

    SciTech Connect

    Asmolov, V.

    1997-01-01

    During the late phase of a severe accident in a light water reactor (current and future designs of BWRs, PWRs and VVERs), a significant amount of core material may relocate downward to the lower head of the reactor vessel. If molten core materials were to relocate to the lower head of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV), a molten pool consisting primarily of a mixture of ZrO{sub 2} and UO{sub 2} and some combination of a metal would form on the lower head. A solid crust of material would form around the boundaries of the pool, but internal heat generation resulting from radioactive decay of fission products would assure that most of the pool remains molten. In fact, the molten pool would undergo significant internal natural convection which would reach steady state conditions in about a few hours. Detailed understanding of all aspects of this natural convection process, in conjunction with the thermal boundary conditions imposed on the outer surface, determines the fraction of the total heat dissipation that is transferred through the upper crust to the inside of the reactor vessel by radiative heat exchange and the fraction which must be conducted through the wall of the reactor vessel lower head. This distribution is critical in determining whether and under what conditions the molten material can be cooled and retained in the reactor pressure vessel. The OECD Rasplav Project was established in 1994 as a three year program to study molten pool behavior and its interactions with structural materials in the lower head. This paper reviews the establishment of the project, its initial studies and proposed experimental testing, and the construction, preparation, and actual testing of a chamber of corium heated to well above liquid temperature.

  18. Revision of OECD Guidelines for Genotoxicity Testing: Current Status and Next Steps

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the past 30 years, assays have been developed to evaluate chemical genotoxicity. OECD Genotoxicity Test Guidelines (TG) describe assay procedures for regulatory safety testing. Since the last OECD TG revision (1997), there has been tremendous scientific and technological pro...

  19. Revision of OECD Guidelines for Genotoxicity Testing: Current Status and Next Steps

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the past 30 years, assays have been developed to evaluate chemical genotoxicity. OECD Genotoxicity Test Guidelines (TG) describe assay procedures for regulatory safety testing. Since the last OECD TG revision (1997), there has been tremendous scientific and technological pro...

  20. The OECD and the Expansion of PISA: New Global Modes of Governance in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellar, Sam; Lingard, Bob

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the expansion of the OECD's Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) and associated growth in the influence of the OECD's education work. PISA has become one of the OECD's most successful "products" and has both strengthened the role of the Directorate for Education within the organization and enhanced…

  1. 75 FR 1235 - Revisions to the Requirements for: Transboundary Shipments of Hazardous Wastes Between OECD...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-08

    ... Between OECD Member Countries, Export Shipments of Spent Lead- Acid Batteries, Submitting Exception... OECD Member Countries, Export Shipments of Spent Lead-Acid Batteries, Submitting Exception Reports for... belonging to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), establish notice and consent...

  2. The OECD and the Expansion of PISA: New Global Modes of Governance in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellar, Sam; Lingard, Bob

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the expansion of the OECD's Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) and associated growth in the influence of the OECD's education work. PISA has become one of the OECD's most successful "products" and has both strengthened the role of the Directorate for Education within the organization and enhanced…

  3. ICTs and Gender. OECD Digital Economy Papers, No. 129

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Welsum, Desiree; Montagnier, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    This document provides an overview of the gender distribution of ICT and ICT-related employment in OECD countries, and ICT employment patterns are contrasted with overall employment to highlight differences. The authors discuss participation in ICT-related education and training, and differences in ICT access and use by gender. Overall,…

  4. Educational Research and Development: Austria, Germany, Switzerland. OECD Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    Three joint international seminars on governmental roles in organizing and promoting educational research and development were held as part of a study conducted by the Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (CERI) of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This document contains the proceedings of the third…

  5. OECD Examiners' Report on Educational Research and Development in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolter, Stefan; Keiner, Edwin; Palomba, Donatella; Lindblad, Sverker

    2004-01-01

    There exist two types of reviews the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) is conducting, country reviews and thematic reviews. Although all country reviews are also thematic by nature, the focus lies more on one country and the analysis serves the specific needs of the country under review and the other member states as a…

  6. Perspective on OECD activities from a non-member country.

    PubMed

    Alexandrova, Nevena; Atanassov, Atanas

    2006-01-01

    The OECD Blue Book, "Recombinant DNA: Safety Considerations" was published in 1986. The developed principles and concepts on the stepwise and case-by-case approach for risk assessment in the Blue Book have been used as a foundation for building national biosafety frameworks and international instruments for the regulation of the products of modern biotechnology. Twenty years after the Blue Book was published, OECD continues its activities on unique identifier systems, information-sharing, consensus documents for the biology of crops, trees and microorganisms with respect to harmonization of regulatory oversight and those of novel food and feed safety. These activities benefit, without any doubt, the international community at large, including OECD non-member countries. In order to strengthen its position in the international arena and to better respond to the needs of the changing world, OECD would be encouraged to participate in a more active manner in the technology transfer process and co-existence debate, together with continuing the organization's efforts on information-sharing and harmonization in the field of biotechnology and biosafety.

  7. Commentary on the OECD's Programme for International Student Assessment 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froese-Germain, Bernie

    2013-01-01

    Every three years the focus of the international education community shifts to the release of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) study conducted by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). No other international study of education commands as much attention as PISA. In an age of intense global…

  8. The OECD Member Countries--1984 Edition--20th Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Observer, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Lists Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) member countries with corresponding data on: area; agricultural area; population; labor force; unemployment rate; civilian employment; gross domestic produce; currency; imports; exports; consumer prices; industrial production change for 1983; infant mortality; public expenditure…

  9. Child and Family: Demographic Developments in the OECD Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Bras, Herve

    This study of early childhood and the family in member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) employs two statistical approaches to the problem of providing an accurate picture of modern conditions of family life. A classical demographic approach to population studies is initially used, then is critiqued,…

  10. OECD Reviews of School Resources: Flemish Community of Belgium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nusche, Deborah; Miron, Gary; Santiago, Paulo; Teese, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This report for the Flemish Community of Belgium forms part of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Review of Policies to Improve the Effectiveness of Resource Use in Schools and explores how resources can be governed, distributed, utilised and managed to improve the quality, equity and efficiency of school education.…

  11. OECD Review of the Secondary School Modernisation Programme in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blyth, Alastair

    2010-01-01

    On 26 February in Lisbon a team from the OECD's Centre for Effective Learning Environments (CELE) presented its first review of a national school building programme. The school building renovation programme in Portugal, which began in March 2007, involves the renovation of 332 schools by 2015. However, Portugal plans to complete 205 by the end of…

  12. Returns to ICT Skills. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 134

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falck, Oliver; Heimisch, Alexandra; Wiederhold, Simon

    2016-01-01

    How important is mastering information and communication technologies (ICT) in modern labour markets? We present the first evidence on this question, drawing on unique data that provide internationally comparable information on ICT skills in 19 countries from the OECD Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC). Our…

  13. 40 CFR 262.89 - OECD waste lists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Waste for... lists, as set forth in Annex B (“Green List”) and Annex C (“Amber List”) (collectively “OECD waste lists..., on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Wastes Destined for Recovery Operations,”...

  14. 40 CFR 262.89 - OECD waste lists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Waste for... lists, as set forth in Annex B (“Green List”) and Annex C (“Amber List”) (collectively “OECD waste lists..., on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Wastes Destined for Recovery Operations,”...

  15. 40 CFR 262.89 - OECD waste lists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Waste for... lists, as set forth in Annex B (“Green List”) and Annex C (“Amber List”) (collectively “OECD waste lists..., on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Wastes Destined for Recovery Operations,”...

  16. 40 CFR 262.89 - OECD waste lists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Waste for... lists, as set forth in Annex B (“Green List”) and Annex C (“Amber List”) (collectively “OECD waste lists..., on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Wastes Destined for Recovery Operations,”...

  17. The OECD International Education Indicators: A Framework for Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Centre for Educational Research and Innovation.

    This volume contains some of the many studies undertaken during the initial phase of activity by the Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (CERI) of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) concerning international education indicators. The studies trace the preparation of a set of international indicators as they…

  18. OECD Review of the Secondary School Modernisation Programme in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blyth, Alastair

    2010-01-01

    On 26 February in Lisbon a team from the OECD's Centre for Effective Learning Environments (CELE) presented its first review of a national school building programme. The school building renovation programme in Portugal, which began in March 2007, involves the renovation of 332 schools by 2015. However, Portugal plans to complete 205 by the end of…

  19. Recurrent Education: Policy and Development in OECD Member Countries. Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moro-oka, Kazufusa

    The report on recurrent education in Japan is one of a series describing continuation education in OECD member countries. Intended as a means of liberating individuals from the education-work-leisure-retirement sequence, recurrent education provides freedom to mix and alternate these phases of life within the limits of the socially possible.…

  20. OECD Reviews of Evaluation and Assessment in Education: Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santiago, Paulo; Donaldson, Graham; Herman, Joan; Shewbridge, Claire

    2011-01-01

    This report for Australia forms part of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Review on Evaluation and Assessment Frameworks for Improving School Outcomes. The purpose of the Review is to explore how systems of evaluation and assessment can be used to improve the quality, equity and efficiency of school education. The…

  1. OECD Reviews of Evaluation and Assessment in Education: Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santiago, Paulo; Donaldson, Graham; Herman, Joan; Shewbridge, Claire

    2011-01-01

    This report for Australia forms part of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Review on Evaluation and Assessment Frameworks for Improving School Outcomes. The purpose of the Review is to explore how systems of evaluation and assessment can be used to improve the quality, equity and efficiency of school education. The…

  2. [Violence during pregnancy: prevalence studies in OECD countries].

    PubMed

    Liepe, K; Blättner, B

    2013-08-01

    Violence during pregnancy can be associated with health consequences for both the pregnant woman und the unborn child. The available data on prevalence are insufficient in Germany, an underestimation of the problem is probable. Therefore data from other OECD countries are considered. Searching in the databases EMBASE (incl. Medline), CINAHL, PsycINFO and SSCI in English or German language, primary and secondary studies from OECD countries published from 2004 to 2011 were identified. Studies without a valid instrument were excluded. 20 studies using 6 different, partially modified instruments were identified. In OECD countries the prevalence data vary, depending on the instrument applied and the design of the studies. The majority of the studies underestimate the prevalence of violence during pregnancy. Study results from OECD countries are in the analysed range of the reviews. The data collected in Germany are at the bottom of the spectrum. This suggests an underestimation of the problem in Germany. Further research is needed using more valid instruments and better study designs. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Financial Inequity in Basic Education in Selected OECD Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yu; Mizunoya, Suguru; You, You; Tsang, Mun

    2011-01-01

    This is a study of financial disparities in primary and secondary education in OECD countries that have a relatively large population and a school finance system with decentralized features. These countries include the United States, Britain, Australia, Spain, Canada, and Japan. There are two major research questions: What are the trends in…

  4. The OECD International Education Indicators: A Framework for Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Centre for Educational Research and Innovation.

    This volume contains some of the many studies undertaken during the initial phase of activity by the Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (CERI) of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) concerning international education indicators. The studies trace the preparation of a set of international indicators as they…

  5. Recurrent Education: Policy and Development in OECD Member Countries. Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moro-oka, Kazufusa

    The report on recurrent education in Japan is one of a series describing continuation education in OECD member countries. Intended as a means of liberating individuals from the education-work-leisure-retirement sequence, recurrent education provides freedom to mix and alternate these phases of life within the limits of the socially possible.…

  6. ICTs and Gender. OECD Digital Economy Papers, No. 129

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Welsum, Desiree; Montagnier, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    This document provides an overview of the gender distribution of ICT and ICT-related employment in OECD countries, and ICT employment patterns are contrasted with overall employment to highlight differences. The authors discuss participation in ICT-related education and training, and differences in ICT access and use by gender. Overall,…

  7. OECD Reviews of School Resources: Flemish Community of Belgium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nusche, Deborah; Miron, Gary; Santiago, Paulo; Teese, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This report for the Flemish Community of Belgium forms part of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Review of Policies to Improve the Effectiveness of Resource Use in Schools and explores how resources can be governed, distributed, utilised and managed to improve the quality, equity and efficiency of school education.…

  8. Recurrent Education: Policy and Development in OECD Member Countries. Denmark.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Berrit

    The report on recurrent education in Denmark is one of a series describing continuation education in OECD member countries. Intended as a means of liberating individuals from the education-work-leisure-retirement sequence, recurrent education provides freedom to mix and alternate these phases of life within the limits of the socially possible.…

  9. Child and Family: Demographic Developments in the OECD Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Bras, Herve

    This study of early childhood and the family in member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) employs two statistical approaches to the problem of providing an accurate picture of modern conditions of family life. A classical demographic approach to population studies is initially used, then is critiqued,…

  10. Returns to ICT Skills. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 134

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falck, Oliver; Heimisch, Alexandra; Wiederhold, Simon

    2016-01-01

    How important is mastering information and communication technologies (ICT) in modern labour markets? We present the first evidence on this question, drawing on unique data that provide internationally comparable information on ICT skills in 19 countries from the OECD Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC). Our…

  11. Recurrent Education: Policy and Development in OECD Member Countries. Denmark.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Berrit

    The report on recurrent education in Denmark is one of a series describing continuation education in OECD member countries. Intended as a means of liberating individuals from the education-work-leisure-retirement sequence, recurrent education provides freedom to mix and alternate these phases of life within the limits of the socially possible.…

  12. OECD Reviews of Integrity in Education: Ukraine 2017

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing, 2017

    2017-01-01

    Education in Ukraine is marked by integrity violations from early childhood education and care through postgraduate study. In the past decade policy makers and civic organisations have made progress in addressing these challenges. However, much remains to be done. "OECD Reviews of Integrity in Education: Ukraine 2017" aims to support…

  13. Taxation and Skills. OECD Tax Policy Studies. No. 24

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing, 2017

    2017-01-01

    This Tax Policy Study on Taxation and Skills examines how tax policy can encourage skills development in OECD countries. This study also assesses the returns to tertiary and adult education and examines how these returns are shared between governments and students. The study builds indicators that examine incentives for individuals and governments…

  14. Governing Schooling through "What Works": The OECD's PISA for Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Steven

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) for Schools, a local variant of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD's) influential PISA that not only assesses an individual school's performance in reading, mathematics and science against international schooling systems, but also promotes 17…

  15. The OECD expert meeting on ecotoxicology and environmental fate--towards the development of improved OECD guidelines for the testing of nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Kühnel, Dana; Nickel, Carmen

    2014-02-15

    On behalf of the OECD Working Party on Manufactured Nanomaterials (WPMN) an expert meeting on ecotoxicology and environmental fate of nanomaterials (NMs) took place in January 2013 in Berlin. At this meeting experts from science, industry and regulatory bodies discussed the applicability of OECD test guidelines (TGs) for chemicals to nanomaterials. The objective was to discuss the current state of the relevant science and provide recommendations to the OECD WPMN on (1) the need for updating current OECD TGs and the need for developing new ones specific to nanomaterials; and (2) guidance needed for the appropriate and valid testing of environmental fate and ecotoxicity endpoints for NMs. Experts at the workshop agreed that the majority of the OECD TG for chemicals were generally applicable for the testing of NM, with the exception of TG 105 (water solubility) and 106 (adsorption-desorption). Additionally, the workshop also highlighted considerations when conducting OECD chemical TG on nanomaterials (e.g., sample preparation, dispersion, analysis, dosimetry and characterisation). These considerations will lead to the future development of proposals for new TG and guidance documents (GDs) to ensure that OECD TG give meaningful, repeatable, and accurate results when used for nanomaterials. This report provides a short overview of topics discussed during the meeting and the main outcomes. A more detailed report of the workshop will become available through the OECD, however, due to the urgency of having OECD TG relevant for nanomaterials, this brief report is being shared with the scientific community through this communication.

  16. Open Educational Resources: Analysis of Responses to the OECD Country Questionnaire. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 76

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hylen, Jan; Van Damme, Dirk; Mulder, Fred; D'Antoni, Susan

    2012-01-01

    OECD's Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (CERI) has worked on Open Educational Resources (OER) in the past, which led to the publication "Giving Knowledge for Free--the Emergence of Open Educational Resources" (2007). This working paper thus builds on exploratory and forward-looking research in CERI and invites countries to consider…

  17. Policy Coherence towards East Asia: Development Challenges for OECD Countries. OECD Development Centre Policy Brief No. 26

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fukasaku, K.; Kawai, M.; Plummer, M. G.; Trzeciak-Duval, A.

    2005-01-01

    Coherence issues drawn from specific country and regional cases can provide the most concrete information on the development implications of OECD-country policies. A first regional case study focused on East Asia, with financial support from the Policy Research Institute of the Japanese Ministry of Finance. The links between the region's…

  18. Migration in OECD countries: Labour Market Impact and Integration Issues. OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 562

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jean, Sebastien; Causa, Orsetta; Jimenez, Miguel; Wanner, Isabelle

    2007-01-01

    Immigration pressures are increasing in most OECD countries. This paper investigates the consequences of immigration for natives' labour market outcomes, as well as issues linked to immigrants' integration in the host country labour market. Changes in the share of immigrants in the labour force may have a distributive impact on natives' wages, and…

  19. Labour Market Performance, Income Inequality and Poverty in OECD Countries. OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 500

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burniaux, Jean-Marc; Padrini, Flavio; Brandt, Nicola

    2006-01-01

    There have been concerns that employment-enhancing reforms along the lines of the 1994 OECD Jobs Strategy could inadvertently lead to increased income inequality and poverty. This paper focuses on the impact of institutions and redistributive policies on inequality and poverty with the view of assessing whether a trade-off between better labour…

  20. Policy Coherence towards East Asia: Development Challenges for OECD Countries. OECD Development Centre Policy Brief No. 26

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fukasaku, K.; Kawai, M.; Plummer, M. G.; Trzeciak-Duval, A.

    2005-01-01

    Coherence issues drawn from specific country and regional cases can provide the most concrete information on the development implications of OECD-country policies. A first regional case study focused on East Asia, with financial support from the Policy Research Institute of the Japanese Ministry of Finance. The links between the region's…

  1. Convergence and determinants of health expenditures in OECD countries.

    PubMed

    Nghiem, Son Hong; Connelly, Luke Brian

    2017-08-17

    This study examines the trend and determinants of health expenditures in OECD countries over the 1975-2004 period. Based on recent developments in the economic growth literature we propose and test the hypothesis that health care expenditures in countries of similar economic development level may converge. We hypothesise that the main drivers for growth in health care costs include: aging population, technological progress and health insurance. The results reveal no evidence that health expenditures among OECD countries converge. Nevertheless, there is evidence of convergence among three sub-groups of countries. We found that the main driver of health expenditure is technological progress. Our results also suggest that health care is a (national) necessity, not a luxury good as some other studies in this field have found.

  2. Association between economic fluctuations and road mortality in OECD countries.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gang

    2014-08-01

    Using longitudinal data from 32 Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries (1970-2010), this article investigates association between annual variations in road mortality and the economic fluctuations. Two regression models (fixed-effects and random-coefficients) were adopted for estimation. The cross-country data analyses suggested that road mortality is pro-cyclical and that the cyclicality is symmetric. Based on data from 32 OECD countries, an increase of on average 1% in economic growth is associated with a 1.1% increase in road mortality, and vice versa. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  3. Utilization rates of knee-arthroplasty in OECD countries.

    PubMed

    Pabinger, C; Lothaller, H; Geissler, A

    2015-10-01

    The number of knee arthroplasties and the prevalence of obesity are increasing exponentially. To date there have been no published reviews on utilization rates of knee arthroplasty in OECD countries. We analysed economic, medical and population data relating to knee arthroplasty surgeries performed in OECD countries. Gross domestic product (GDP), health expenditures, obesity prevalence, knee arthroplasty utilization rates and growth in knee arthroplasty rates per 100,000 population were assessed for total population, for patients aged 65 years and over, and patients aged 64 years and younger. Obesity prevalence and utilization of knee arthroplasty have increased significantly in the past. The mean utilization rate of knee arthroplasty was 150 (22-235) cases per 100,000 total population in 2011. The strongest annual increase (7%) occurred in patients 64 years and under. Differences between individual countries can be explained by economic and medical patterns, with countries with higher medical expenditures and obesity prevalence having significantly higher utilization rates. Countries with lower utilization rates have significantly higher growth in utilization rates. The future demand for knee prostheses will increase x-fold by 2030, with exact rates dependant upon economic, social and medical factors. We observed a 10-fold variation in the utilization of knee arthroplasty among OECD countries. A significant and strong correlation of GDP, health expenditures and obesity prevalence with utilization of knee arthroplasty was found. Patients aged 64 years and younger show a two-fold higher growth rate in knee arthroplasty compared to the older population. This trend could result in a four-fold demand for knee arthroplasty in OECD countries by 2030. Copyright © 2015 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Utilization rates of hip arthroplasty in OECD countries.

    PubMed

    Pabinger, C; Geissler, A

    2014-06-01

    Hip arthroplasty and revision surgery is growing exponentially in OECD countries, but rates vary between countries. We extracted economic data and utilization rates data about hip arthroplasty done in OECD countries between 1990 and 2011. Absolute number of implantations and compound annual growth rates were computed per 100,000 population and for patients aged 65 years old and over and for patients aged 64 years and younger. In the majority of OECD countries, there has been a significant increase in the utilization of total hip arthroplasty in the last 10 years, but rates vary to a great extent: In the United States, Switzerland, and Germany the utilization rate exceeds 200/100,000 population whereas in Spain and Mexico rates are 102 and 8, respectively. There is a strong correlation between gross domestic product (GDP) and health care expenditures per capita with utilization rate. Utilization rates in all age groups have continued to rise up to present day. A seven fold higher growth rate was seen in patients aged 64 years and younger as compared to older patients. We observed a 38-fold variation in the utilization of hip arthroplasty among OECD countries, correlating with GDP and health care expenditures. Over recent years, there has been an increase in the utilization rate in most countries. This was particularly evident in the younger patients. Due to increasing life expectancy and the disproportionally high use of arthroplasty in younger patients we expect an exponential increase of revision rate in the future. Copyright © 2014 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Measuring and comparing health care waiting times in OECD countries.

    PubMed

    Siciliani, Luigi; Moran, Valerie; Borowitz, Michael

    2014-12-01

    Waiting times for elective treatments are a key health-policy concern in several OECD countries. This study describes common measures of waiting times from administrative data across OECD countries. It focuses on common elective procedures, such as hip and knee replacement, and cataract surgery, where waiting times are notoriously long. It provides comparative data on waiting times across 12 OECD countries and presents trends in waiting times over the last decade. Waiting times appear to be low in the Netherlands and Denmark. In the last decade the United Kingdom (in particular England), Finland and the Netherlands have witnessed large reductions in waiting times which can be attributed to a range of policy initiatives, including higher spending, waiting-times target schemes and incentive mechanisms, which reward higher levels of activity. The negative trend in these countries has, however, halted or reversed in recent years. The analysis also emphasizes systematic differences across different waiting-time measures, in particular between the distribution of waiting times of patients treated versus that of patients on the list. Mean waiting times are systematically higher than median waiting times and the difference can be quantitatively large. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Income inequality and obesity prevalence among OECD countries.

    PubMed

    Su, Dejun; Esqueda, Omar A; Li, Lifeng; Pagán, José A

    2012-07-01

    Using recent pooled data from the World Health Organization Global Infobase and the World Factbook compiled by the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States, this study assesses the relation between income inequality and obesity prevalence among 31 OECD countries through a series of bivariate and multivariate linear regressions. The United States and Mexico well lead OECD countries in both obesity prevalence and income inequality. A sensitivity analysis suggests that the inclusion or exclusion of these two extreme cases can fundamentally change the findings. When the two countries are included, the results reveal a positive correlation between income inequality and obesity prevalence. This correlation is more salient among females than among males. Income inequality alone is associated with 16% and 35% of the variations in male and female obesity rates, respectively, across OECD countries in 2010. Higher levels of income inequality in the 2005-2010 period were associated with a more rapid increase in obesity prevalence from 2002 to 2010. These associations, however, virtually disappear when the US and Mexico have been excluded from the analysis. Findings from this study underscore the importance of assessing the impact of extreme cases on the relation between income inequality and health outcomes. The potential pathways from income inequality to the alarmingly high rates of obesity in the cases of the US and Mexico warrant further research.

  7. Changing Patterns of Finance in Higher Education. Country Study: Japan. OECD Educational Monographs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaneko, Motohisa

    This report is one in a series of country studies prepared in the framework of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Education Committee activity on changing patterns of finance in higher education. In order to contribute to the OECD activity from the Japanese perspective, the Research Institute for Higher Education at…

  8. Digital Broadband Content: Digital Content Strategies and policies. OECD Digital Economy Papers, No. 119

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2006

    2006-01-01

    The development of digital content raises new issues as rapid technological developments challenge existing business models and government policies. This OECD study identifies and discusses six groups of business and public policy issues and illustrates these with existing and potential OECD Digital Content Strategies and Policies: (1) Innovation…

  9. Non-University Sectors and the Provision of Higher Education in OECD Countries: Problematics of Articulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Malcolm B.

    This paper identifies issues currently arising in efforts to coordinate public policy concerning competing sectors of postsecondary education in the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development Countries (OECD). It is presented as a result of the OECD's advisement that these industrialized countries need to further strengthen education…

  10. The work of OECD in the harmonization of the testing and control of chemicals.

    PubMed

    Walker, A P

    1984-11-01

    The 24 Member countries of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) have over the past few years reached agreement on several issues relating to the assessment of chemicals. The subjects on which agreement has been reached include guidelines for the testing of chemicals, good laboratory practice, mutual acceptance of data, and data interpretation guides. The agreement on mutual acceptance of data within OECD Member countries ensures that data generated on a chemical in one country (using OECD test guidelines and in accordance with OECD principles of good laboratory practice) will be accepted in other OECD Member countries for purposes of assessment related to protection of human health and the environment. This agreement will reduce repeated testing of the same chemical in different (OECD) countries, will result in more cost-efficient use of test facilities and specialist manpower, and, not least, will result in a significant reduction in the number of animals (and species) used in biological testing. It is hoped that other international organizations, and countries that are not members of OECD, will adopt the same approach. Reference to some other OECD activities intended to facilitate the transfer of information on chemicals between Member countries whilst maintaining proprietary rights and confidentiality is included in this review.

  11. Background and Rationale of the Conceptual Frame: The OECD/CERI International Indicators Project. Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delfau, Isabelle

    The exploratory and secondary phases of the "Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) project to develop a set of international indicators based on comparable educational data is described in this report. Voluntary networks in 24 OECD member countries are developing a cohesive conceptual framework based on a review of…

  12. New Policy Conclusions from Starting Strong II: An Update on the OECD Early Childhood Policy Reviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, John

    2006-01-01

    Since the start of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) thematic review of Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) Policy in 1998, some 20 countries across the world have been involved in the project. Recently the OECD has had a very successful launch of the report from the second round--Starting Strong II. This…

  13. Comparison of Early Childhood Education (Preschool Education) in Turkey and OECD Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozgan, Habib

    2010-01-01

    In this study, it was aimed to evaluate how the difference the early childhood education in Turkey and OECD countries. The outstanding point evaluated by the teachers about the difference between the education in Turkey and that in OECD countries and the conditions needing to be improved was the compare of age groups benefiting from the services…

  14. Health Workforce and International Migration: Can New Zealand Compete? OECD Health Working Papers No. 33

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zurn, Pascal; Dumont, Jean-Christophe

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines health workforce and migration policies in New Zealand, with a special focus on the international recruitment of doctors and nurses. The health workforce in New Zealand, as in all OECD countries, plays a central role in the health system. Nonetheless, maybe more than for any other OECD country, the health workforce in New…

  15. Early Childhood, Major Challenges: Review of Early Childhood Education and Care Policies in OECD Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, John; Neuman, Michelle J.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents the most recent results of a comparative review of early childhood education and care carried out by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Founded in 1961 and based in Paris, OECD is one of the world's most important sources of statistical, economic, and social data. Based on reviews in the…

  16. School-to-Work Transitions in the OECD: Do Education Systems Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karmel, Tom

    2017-01-01

    High unemployment among the young is a concern in many OECD countries. A key issue for policy makers is whether the education system has a role to play in assisting the transition from education to work or whether economic issues dominate. This paper uses OECD country-level data to see whether the structure of countries' education systems,…

  17. OECD Work on Technology and Education: Innovative Learning Environments as an Integrating Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Istance, David; Kools, Marco

    2013-01-01

    This article presents in summary a selection of the work conducted by OECD in the field of technology and education, which has been an on-going focus of OECD work since the 1980s. Recently, much of this has been under the heading of "New Millennium Learners", but it has also included the widening of student achievement surveys towards…

  18. Lay-Offs and Short-Time Working in Selected OECD Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grais, Bernard; And Others

    This report, which includes the conclusions of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Working Party on Employment and Unemployment Statistics, analyzes arrangements for compensating workers in the OECD countries who are temporarily laid-off or subject to short-time work. In introductory sections to part 1, the concepts of…

  19. PISA for Schools: Topological Rationality and New Spaces of the OECD's Global Educational

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Steven; Sellar, Sam; Lingard, Bob

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the OECD's new PISA-based Test for Schools ("PISA for Schools") program. PISA for Schools is part of the expanding education work of the OECD, building upon main PISA to enable school-to-schooling system comparisons. We examine the development of PISA for Schools, the nature of the instrument, and some initial…

  20. Too Eager to Comply? OECD Education Policies and the Finnish Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinne, Risto; Kallo, Johanna; Hokka, Sanna

    2004-01-01

    The Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) has strongly influenced European education policy and the entire global neo-liberally toned discourse that nowadays prevails in the implementation of national education policy and educational reforms. The educational policy governance of the OECD is based on overall and supranational…

  1. OECD Reviews of School Resources: Uruguay 2016

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santiago, Paulo; Ávalos, Beatrice; Burn, Tracey; Morduchowicz, Alejandro; Radinger, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The effective use of school resources is a policy priority across OECD countries. The "OECD Reviews of School Resources" explore how resources can be governed, distributed, utilised and managed to improve the quality, equity and efficiency of school education. The series considers four types of resources: financial resources, such as…

  2. Student Learning Time: A Literature Review. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 127

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gromada, Anna; Shewbridge, Claire

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines student learning time as a key educational resource. It presents an overview of how different OECD countries allocate instruction time. It also develops a model to understand the effective use of allocated instruction time and examines how different OECD countries compare on this. The paper confirms the value of sufficient…

  3. Adults, Computers and Problem Solving: "What's the Problem?" OECD Skills Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Ji Eun; Elliott, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    The "OECD Skills Studies" series aims to provide a strategic approach to skills policies. It presents OECD internationally comparable indicators and policy analysis covering issues such as: quality of education and curricula; transitions from school to work; vocational education and training (VET); employment and unemployment; innovative…

  4. Educating Students with Special Needs: A Comparison of Inclusion Practices in OECD Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Peter

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the differences and similarities among some OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) countries in educating special needs students. Although there are large differences in the type of provision made, when the process of inclusion is examined, there are more similarities than differences. OECD countries…

  5. Health Workforce and International Migration: Can New Zealand Compete? OECD Health Working Papers No. 33

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zurn, Pascal; Dumont, Jean-Christophe

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines health workforce and migration policies in New Zealand, with a special focus on the international recruitment of doctors and nurses. The health workforce in New Zealand, as in all OECD countries, plays a central role in the health system. Nonetheless, maybe more than for any other OECD country, the health workforce in New…

  6. The Inclusion and Construction of the Worthy Citizen through Lifelong Learning: A Focus on the OECD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Judith

    2009-01-01

    This paper argues that underlying the OECD's promotion of inclusion in, for and through lifelong learning is the notion of an "active citizen" who establishes their worth through learning and, ultimately, competence. Through the critical examination of recent OECD policy documents on adult and lifelong learning, the paper also calls for…

  7. OECD Skills Outlook 2013: First Results from the Survey of Adult Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This first "OECD Skills Outlook" presents the initial results of the Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC), which evaluates the skills of adults in 22 OECD member countries and two partner countries. The PIAAC survey was designed to provide insights into the availability of some key skills and how they are used at work and at home through the…

  8. Fiscal Rules and the Composition of Government Expenditures in OECD Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahan, Momi; Strawczynski, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1990s many OECD countries have adopted fiscal rules. After the adoption of these rules, the ratio of social transfers to government consumption substantially declined, and it recovered following the global economic crisis. Using a sample of 22 OECD countries, we found a negative effect of fiscal rules on the ratio of social transfers to…

  9. Adults, Computers and Problem Solving: "What's the Problem?" OECD Skills Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Ji Eun; Elliott, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    The "OECD Skills Studies" series aims to provide a strategic approach to skills policies. It presents OECD internationally comparable indicators and policy analysis covering issues such as: quality of education and curricula; transitions from school to work; vocational education and training (VET); employment and unemployment; innovative…

  10. Early Childhood Education and Care Policy in the United States of America. OECD Country Note.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This paper is the result of an intensive case study by an Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) review team, whose purpose was to investigate early childhood education and care (ECEC) in the United States, 1 of 12 countries participating in the OECD review between 1998 and 2000. The paper draws on information provided by a…

  11. OECD Reviews of School Resources: Uruguay 2016

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santiago, Paulo; Ávalos, Beatrice; Burn, Tracey; Morduchowicz, Alejandro; Radinger, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The effective use of school resources is a policy priority across OECD countries. The "OECD Reviews of School Resources" explore how resources can be governed, distributed, utilised and managed to improve the quality, equity and efficiency of school education. The series considers four types of resources: financial resources, such as…

  12. School-to-Work Transitions in the OECD: Do Education Systems Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karmel, Tom

    2017-01-01

    High unemployment among the young is a concern in many OECD countries. A key issue for policy makers is whether the education system has a role to play in assisting the transition from education to work or whether economic issues dominate. This paper uses OECD country-level data to see whether the structure of countries' education systems,…

  13. Fiscal Rules and the Composition of Government Expenditures in OECD Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahan, Momi; Strawczynski, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1990s many OECD countries have adopted fiscal rules. After the adoption of these rules, the ratio of social transfers to government consumption substantially declined, and it recovered following the global economic crisis. Using a sample of 22 OECD countries, we found a negative effect of fiscal rules on the ratio of social transfers to…

  14. OECD Skills Outlook 2013: First Results from the Survey of Adult Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This first "OECD Skills Outlook" presents the initial results of the Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC), which evaluates the skills of adults in 22 OECD member countries and two partner countries. The PIAAC survey was designed to provide insights into the availability of some key skills and how they are used at work and at home through the…

  15. The OECD and the Local: PISA-Based Test for Schools in the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutkowski, David

    2015-01-01

    The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) has recently piloted the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA)-based Test for Schools in the USA. In this paper, I contend that by connecting directly with local school boards this new initiative has the potential to further promote the OECD's educational agenda in…

  16. Student Learning Time: A Literature Review. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 127

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gromada, Anna; Shewbridge, Claire

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines student learning time as a key educational resource. It presents an overview of how different OECD countries allocate instruction time. It also develops a model to understand the effective use of allocated instruction time and examines how different OECD countries compare on this. The paper confirms the value of sufficient…

  17. PISA for Schools: Topological Rationality and New Spaces of the OECD's Global Educational

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Steven; Sellar, Sam; Lingard, Bob

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the OECD's new PISA-based Test for Schools ("PISA for Schools") program. PISA for Schools is part of the expanding education work of the OECD, building upon main PISA to enable school-to-schooling system comparisons. We examine the development of PISA for Schools, the nature of the instrument, and some initial…

  18. Update of OECD DART guidelines with endocrine disruptor relevant endpoints: Practical considerations.

    PubMed

    Beekhuijzen, Manon; van Otterdijk, Francois; Wieland, Willemien; van Tuyl, Miranda; Rijcken, Robert Pels; Peter, Birgit; Emmen, Harry

    2016-09-01

    In 1998, the OECD initiated a high-priority project aimed at revising existing test guidelines and developing new test guidelines for screening of potential endocrine disruptors. In 2011, OECD 443 was adopted, and in 2015 OECD 421 and OECD 422 were updated with endocrine disruptor relevant endpoints. A feasibility study for the enhancement of OECD 414 with endocrine disruptor relevant endpoints is currently ongoing. The addition of these endpoints is considered crucial for gaining more information on endocrine disruptor potency of tested chemicals, however it should be noted that these additions have a major impact on the study designs and give rise to several practical challenges. The aim of this review is to discuss important aspects of these challenging study designs and to share our knowledge on their implementation in our laboratory. Together, this review can be used as guidance for other laboratories, study monitors and registration officers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. 40 CFR 174.529 - Bacillus thuringiensis modified Cry1Ab protein as identified under OECD Unique Identifier SYN...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... protein as identified under OECD Unique Identifier SYN-IR67B-1 in cotton; exemption from the requirement... Tolerance Exemptions § 174.529 Bacillus thuringiensis modified Cry1Ab protein as identified under OECD... Bacillus thuringiensis modified Cry1Ab protein as identified under OECD Unique Identifier SYN-IR67B-1 are...

  20. Family policies in OECD countries: a comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Thévenon, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the diversity of family policy models in 28 OECD countries in terms of the balance between their different objectives and the mix of instruments adopted to implement the policies. Cross-country policy differences are investigated by applying a principal component analysis to comprehensive country-level data from the OECD Family database covering variables such as parental leave conditions, childcare service provision, and financial support to families. The results find persistent differences in the family policy patterns embedded in different contexts of work-family "outcomes." Country classifications of family policy packages only partially corroborate categorizations in earlier studies, owing to considerable within-group heterogeneity and the presence of group outliers. The Nordic countries outdistance the others with comprehensive support to working parents with very young children. Anglo-Saxon countries provide much less support for working parents with very young children, and financial support is targeted on low-income and large families and focuses on preschool and early elementary education. Continental and Eastern European countries form a more heterogeneous group, while the support received by families in Southern Europe and in Asian countries is much lower in all its dimensions.

  1. Social inequalities in obesity and overweight in 11 OECD countries.

    PubMed

    Devaux, Marion; Sassi, Franco

    2013-06-01

    Evidence of inequalities in obesity and overweight is available mostly from national studies. This article provides a broad international comparison of inequalities by education level and socio-economic status, in men and women and over time. Data from national health surveys of 11 OECD countries were used. The size of inequalities was assessed on the basis of absolute and relative inequality indexes. A regression-analysis approach was used to assess differences between social groups in trends over time. Of the countries examined, USA and England had the highest rates of obesity and overweight. Large social inequalities were consistently detected in all countries, especially in women. Absolute inequalities were largest in Hungary and Spain with a difference of 11.6 and 10% in obesity rates in men, and 18.3 and 18.9% in women, respectively, across the education spectrum. Relative inequalities were largest in France and Sweden with poorly educated men 3.2 and 2.8 times as likely to be obese as men with the highest education (18 and 17 times for women in Spain and Korea, respectively). Pro-poor inequalities in overweight were observed for men in USA, Canada, Korea, Hungary, Australia and England. Inequalities remained virtually stable during the last 15 years, with only small variations in England, Korea, Italy and France. Large and persistent social inequalities in obesity and overweight by education level and socio-economic status exist in OECD countries. These are consistently larger in women than in men.

  2. Fathers’ Leave and Fathers’ Involvement: Evidence from Four OECD Countries

    PubMed Central

    Huerta, Maria C.; Adema, Willem; Baxter, Jennifer; Han, Wen-Jui; Lausten, Mette; Lee, RaeHyuck; Waldfogel, Jane

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, several OECD countries have taken steps to promote policies encouraging fathers to spend more time caring for young children, thereby promoting a more gender equal division of care work. Evidence, mainly for the United States and United Kingdom, has shown fathers taking some time off work around childbirth are more likely to be involved in childcare related activities than fathers who do not take time off. This paper conducts a first cross-national analysis on the association between fathers’ leave taking and fathers’ involvement when children are young. It uses birth cohort data of children born around 2000 from four OECD countries: Australia, Denmark, the United Kingdom and the United States. Results show that the majority of fathers take time off around childbirth independent of the leave policies in place. In all countries, except Denmark, important socio-economic differences between fathers who take leave and those who do not are observed. In addition, fathers who take leave, especially those taking two weeks or more, are more likely to carry out childcare related activities when children are young. This study adds to the evidence that suggests that parental leave for fathers is positively associated with subsequent paternal involvement. PMID:28479865

  3. A systematic review of medical practice variation in OECD countries.

    PubMed

    Corallo, Ashley N; Croxford, Ruth; Goodman, David C; Bryan, Elisabeth L; Srivastava, Divya; Stukel, Therese A

    2014-01-01

    Major variations in medical practice have been documented internationally. Variations raise questions about the quality, equity, and efficiency of resource allocation and use, and have important implications for health care and health policy. To perform a systematic review of the peer-reviewed literature on medical practice variations in OECD countries. We searched MEDLINE to find publications on medical practice variations in OECD countries published between 2000 and 2011. We present an overview of the characteristics of published studies as well as the magnitude of variations for select high impact conditions. A total of 836 studies were included. Consistent with the gray literature, there were large variations across regions, hospitals and physician practices for almost every condition and procedure studied. Many studies focused on high-impact conditions, but very few looked at the causes or outcomes of medical practice variations. While there were an overwhelming number of publications on medical practice variations the coverage was broad and not often based on a theoretical construct. Future studies should focus on conditions and procedures that are clinically important, policy relevant, resource intensive, and have high levels of public awareness. Further study of the causes and consequences of variations is important. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Public Health Adaptation to Climate Change in OECD Countries

    PubMed Central

    Austin, Stephanie E.; Biesbroek, Robbert; Berrang-Ford, Lea; Ford, James D.; Parker, Stephen; Fleury, Manon D.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is a major challenge facing public health. National governments play a key role in public health adaptation to climate change, but there are competing views on what responsibilities and obligations this will—or should—include in different nations. This study aims to: (1) examine how national-level public health adaptation is occurring in Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries; (2) examine the roles national governments are taking in public health adaptation; and (3) critically appraise three key governance dimensions of national-level health adaptation—cross-sectoral collaboration, vertical coordination and national health adaptation planning—and identify practical examples suited to different contexts. We systematically reviewed publicly available public health adaptation to climate change documents and webpages by national governments in ten OECD countries using systematic web searches, assessment of self-reporting, and content analysis. Our findings suggest national governments are primarily addressing infectious disease and heat-related risks posed by climate change, typically emphasizing capacity building or information-based groundwork initiatives. We find national governments are taking a variety of approaches to public health adaptation to climate change that do not follow expected convergence and divergence by governance structure. We discuss practical options for incorporating cross-sectoral collaboration, vertical coordination and national health adaptation planning into a variety of contexts and identify leaders national governments can look to to inform their public health adaptation planning. Following the adoption of the Paris Agreement and subsequent increased momentum for adaptation, research tracking adaptation is needed to define what health adaptation looks like in practice, reveal insights that can be taken up across states and sectors, and ensure policy orientated learning. PMID:27618074

  5. Determinants of branded prescription medicine prices in OECD countries.

    PubMed

    Kanavos, Panos G; Vandoros, Sotiris

    2011-07-01

    This paper investigates the determinants of the prices of branded prescription medicines across different regulatory settings and health care systems, taking into account their launch date, patent status, market dynamics and the regulatory context in which they diffuse. By using volume-weighted price indices, this paper analyzes price levels for a basket of prescription medicines and their differences in 15 OECD countries, including the United States and key European countries, the impact of distribution margins and generic entry on public prices and to what extent innovation, by means of introducing newer classes of medicines, contributes to price formation across countries. In doing so, the paper seeks to understand the factors that contribute to the existing differences in prices across countries, whether at an ex-factory or a retail level. The evidence shows that retail prices for branded prescription medicines in the United States are higher than those in key European and other OECD countries, but not as high as widely thought. Large differences in prices are mainly observed at an ex-factory level, but these are not the prices that consumers and payers pay. Cross-country differences in retail prices are actually not as high as expected and, when controlling for exchange rates, these differences can be even smaller. Product age has a significant effect on prices in all settings after having controlled for other factors. Price convergence is observed across countries for newer prescription medicines compared with older medicines. There is no evidence that originator brand prices fall after generic entry in the United States, a phenomenon known as the 'generics paradox'. Finally, distribution and taxes are important determinants of retail prices in several of the study countries. To the extent that remuneration of the distribution chain and taxation are directly and proportionately linked to product prices this is likely to persist over time.

  6. Public Health Adaptation to Climate Change in OECD Countries.

    PubMed

    Austin, Stephanie E; Biesbroek, Robbert; Berrang-Ford, Lea; Ford, James D; Parker, Stephen; Fleury, Manon D

    2016-09-07

    Climate change is a major challenge facing public health. National governments play a key role in public health adaptation to climate change, but there are competing views on what responsibilities and obligations this will-or should-include in different nations. This study aims to: (1) examine how national-level public health adaptation is occurring in Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries; (2) examine the roles national governments are taking in public health adaptation; and (3) critically appraise three key governance dimensions of national-level health adaptation-cross-sectoral collaboration, vertical coordination and national health adaptation planning-and identify practical examples suited to different contexts. We systematically reviewed publicly available public health adaptation to climate change documents and webpages by national governments in ten OECD countries using systematic web searches, assessment of self-reporting, and content analysis. Our findings suggest national governments are primarily addressing infectious disease and heat-related risks posed by climate change, typically emphasizing capacity building or information-based groundwork initiatives. We find national governments are taking a variety of approaches to public health adaptation to climate change that do not follow expected convergence and divergence by governance structure. We discuss practical options for incorporating cross-sectoral collaboration, vertical coordination and national health adaptation planning into a variety of contexts and identify leaders national governments can look to to inform their public health adaptation planning. Following the adoption of the Paris Agreement and subsequent increased momentum for adaptation, research tracking adaptation is needed to define what health adaptation looks like in practice, reveal insights that can be taken up across states and sectors, and ensure policy orientated learning.

  7. Searching for a balance of responsibilities: OECD countries' changing elderly assistance policies.

    PubMed

    Swartz, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    The rapid aging of OECD country populations and the now five-year-long financial crisis in Europe are causing many OECD countries to reconfigure their assistance programs for the elderly, particularly their long-term care (LTC) policies. Debates about intergenerational responsibilities are evident in recently published research papers that examine how countries are revising programs for the elderly. Building financial sustainability into program reforms has suddenly become a priority. Until just recently, reform efforts focused on creating efficiencies and better quality of services. What emerges from the recent literature is a strong sense that the OECD countries are responding to the financial crisis and the rapid aging of populations in very similar ways. Given the countries' different histories of how they provide assistance to their elderly citizens, the convergence of policy responses is not something we might have foreseen. The United States could learn much from the OECD countries' choices.

  8. EPA's Role with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) brings together the governments of countries committed to democracy and the market economy from around the world to support sustainable economic growth.

  9. Alternative Test Methods for Developmental Neurotoxicity: A History and Path Forward (OECD EFSA workshop)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to environmental contaminants is well documented to adversely impact the development of the nervous system. However, the time, animal and resource intensive EPA and OECD testing guideline methods for developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) are not a viable solution to characte...

  10. Evaluating Decoupling Process in OECD Countries: Case Study of Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Nazan; Şengün Ucal, Meltem; Kurnaz, M. Levent

    2017-04-01

    Climate change is at the top of the present and future problems facing humanity. Climate change is now largely attributed to human activities and economic activities are the source of human activities that cause climate change by creating pressure on the environment. Providing the sustainability of resources for the future seems possible by reducing the pressure of these economic activities on the environment. Given the increasing population pressure and growth-focused economies, it is possible to say that achieving decoupling is not so easy on a global basis. It is known that there are some problems in developing countries especially in terms of accessing reliable data in transition and implementation process of decoupling. Developed countries' decoupling practices and proper calculation methods can also be a guide for developing countries. In this study, we tried to calculate the comparative decoupling index for OECD countries and Turkey in terms of data suitability, and we showed the differences between them. We tried to indicate the level of decoupling (weak, stable, strong) for each country. We think that the comparison of Turkey can be an example in terms of developing countries. Acknowledgement: This research has been supported by Bogazici University Research Fund Grant Number 12220.

  11. Interactions between Financial and Environmental Networks in OECD Countries

    PubMed Central

    Ruzzenenti, Franco; Joseph, Andreas; Ticci, Elisa; Vozzella, Pietro; Gabbi, Giampaolo

    2015-01-01

    We analysed a multiplex of financial and environmental networks between OECD countries from 2002 to 2010. Foreign direct investments and portfolio investment showing the flows in equity securities, short-term, long-term and total debt, these securities represent the financial layers; emissions of NOx, PM10, SO2, CO2 equivalent and the water footprint associated with international trade represent the environmental layers. We present a new measure of cross-layer correlations between flows in different layers based on reciprocity. For the assessment of results, we implement a null model for this measure based on the exponential random graph theory. We find that short-term financial flows are more correlated with environmental flows than long-term investments. Moreover, the correlations between reverse financial and environmental flows (i.e. the flows of different layers going in opposite directions) are generally stronger than correlations between synergic flows (flows going in the same direction). This suggests a trade-off between financial and environmental layers, where, more financialised countries display higher correlations between outgoing financial flows and incoming environmental flows than from lower financialised countries. Five countries are identified as hubs in this finance-environment multiplex: The United States, France, Germany, Belgium-Luxembourg and United Kingdom. PMID:26375393

  12. Sensitivity Analysis of OECD Benchmark Tests in BISON

    SciTech Connect

    Swiler, Laura Painton; Gamble, Kyle; Schmidt, Rodney C.; Williamson, Richard

    2015-09-01

    This report summarizes a NEAMS (Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation) project focused on sensitivity analysis of a fuels performance benchmark problem. The benchmark problem was defined by the Uncertainty Analysis in Modeling working group of the Nuclear Science Committee, part of the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD ). The benchmark problem involv ed steady - state behavior of a fuel pin in a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). The problem was created in the BISON Fuels Performance code. Dakota was used to generate and analyze 300 samples of 17 input parameters defining core boundary conditions, manuf acturing tolerances , and fuel properties. There were 24 responses of interest, including fuel centerline temperatures at a variety of locations and burnup levels, fission gas released, axial elongation of the fuel pin, etc. Pearson and Spearman correlatio n coefficients and Sobol' variance - based indices were used to perform the sensitivity analysis. This report summarizes the process and presents results from this study.

  13. Interactions between Financial and Environmental Networks in OECD Countries.

    PubMed

    Ruzzenenti, Franco; Joseph, Andreas; Ticci, Elisa; Vozzella, Pietro; Gabbi, Giampaolo

    2015-01-01

    We analysed a multiplex of financial and environmental networks between OECD countries from 2002 to 2010. Foreign direct investments and portfolio investment showing the flows in equity securities, short-term, long-term and total debt, these securities represent the financial layers; emissions of NOx, PM10, SO2, CO2 equivalent and the water footprint associated with international trade represent the environmental layers. We present a new measure of cross-layer correlations between flows in different layers based on reciprocity. For the assessment of results, we implement a null model for this measure based on the exponential random graph theory. We find that short-term financial flows are more correlated with environmental flows than long-term investments. Moreover, the correlations between reverse financial and environmental flows (i.e. the flows of different layers going in opposite directions) are generally stronger than correlations between synergic flows (flows going in the same direction). This suggests a trade-off between financial and environmental layers, where, more financialised countries display higher correlations between outgoing financial flows and incoming environmental flows than from lower financialised countries. Five countries are identified as hubs in this finance-environment multiplex: The United States, France, Germany, Belgium-Luxembourg and United Kingdom.

  14. Current trends in health insurance systems: OECD countries vs. Japan.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Toshiyuki; Izawa, Masahiro; Okada, Yoshikazu

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few decades, the longest extension in life expectancy in the world has been observed in Japan. However, the sophistication of medical care and the expansion of the aging society, leads to continuous increase in health-care costs. Medical expenses as a part of gross domestic product (GDP) in Japan are exceeding the current Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) average, challenging the universally, equally provided low cost health care existing in the past. A universal health insurance system is becoming a common system currently in developed countries, currently a similar system is being introduced in the United States. Medical care in Japan is under a social insurance system, but the injection of public funds for medical costs becomes very expensive for the Japanese society. In spite of some urgently decided measures to cover the high cost of advanced medical treatment, declining birthrate and aging population and the tendency to reduce hospital and outpatients' visits numbers and shorten hospital stays, medical expenses of Japan continue to be increasing.

  15. Current Trends in Health Insurance Systems: OECD Countries vs. Japan

    PubMed Central

    SASAKI, Toshiyuki; IZAWA, Masahiro; OKADA, Yoshikazu

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few decades, the longest extension in life expectancy in the world has been observed in Japan. However, the sophistication of medical care and the expansion of the aging society, leads to continuous increase in health-care costs. Medical expenses as a part of gross domestic product (GDP) in Japan are exceeding the current Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) average, challenging the universally, equally provided low cost health care existing in the past. A universal health insurance system is becoming a common system currently in developed countries, currently a similar system is being introduced in the United States. Medical care in Japan is under a social insurance system, but the injection of public funds for medical costs becomes very expensive for the Japanese society. In spite of some urgently decided measures to cover the high cost of advanced medical treatment, declining birthrate and aging population and the tendency to reduce hospital and outpatients’ visits numbers and shorten hospital stays, medical expenses of Japan continue to be increasing. PMID:25797778

  16. Adult Basic Skills in OECD Countries: Policy Issues and a Research Agenda. OECD/NCAL International Paper IP94-01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, David; Tuijnman, Albert

    In light of the transition from a labor- to a knowledge-intensive economic system, member countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) seem to have little choice but to increase the efficient allocation of both the quality and flow of knowledge and literacy skills. To reduce risks and counter the factors that…

  17. An Emerging Knowledge-Based Economy in China? Indicators from OECD Databases. OECD Science, Technology and Industry Working Papers, 2004/4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Criscuolo, Chiara; Martin, Ralf

    2004-01-01

    The main objective of this Working Paper is to show a set of indicators on the knowledge-based economy for China, mainly compiled from databases within EAS, although data from databases maintained by other parts of the OECD are included as well. These indicators are put in context by comparison with data for the United States, Japan and the EU (or…

  18. An Emerging Knowledge-Based Economy in China? Indicators from OECD Databases. OECD Science, Technology and Industry Working Papers, 2004/4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Criscuolo, Chiara; Martin, Ralf

    2004-01-01

    The main objective of this Working Paper is to show a set of indicators on the knowledge-based economy for China, mainly compiled from databases within EAS, although data from databases maintained by other parts of the OECD are included as well. These indicators are put in context by comparison with data for the United States, Japan and the EU (or…

  19. The Private Internal Rates of Return to Tertiary Education: New Estimates for 21 OECD Countries. OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 591

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boarini, Romina; Strauss, Hubert

    2007-01-01

    This study provides estimates of the private Internal Rates of Return (IRR) to tertiary education for women and men in 21 OECD countries, for the years between 1991 and 2005. IRR are computed by estimating labour market premia on cross-country comparable individual-level data. Labour market premia are then adjusted for fiscal factors and education…

  20. Bridging across OECD 308 and 309 Data in Search of a Robust Biotransformation Indicator.

    PubMed

    Honti, Mark; Hahn, Stefan; Hennecke, Dieter; Junker, Thomas; Shrestha, Prasit; Fenner, Kathrin

    2016-07-05

    The OECD guidelines 308 and 309 define simulation tests aimed at assessing biotransformation of chemicals in water-sediment systems. They should serve the estimation of persistence indicators for hazard assessment and half-lives for exposure modeling. Although dissipation half-lives of the parent compound are directly extractable from OECD 308 data, they are system-specific and mix up phase transfer with biotransformation. In contrast, aerobic biotransformation half-lives should be easier to extract from OECD 309 experiments with suspended sediments. Therefore, there is scope for OECD 309 tests with suspended sediment to serve as a proxy for degradation in the aerobic phase of the more complicated OECD 308 test, but that correspondence has remained untested so far. Our aim was to find a way to extract biotransformation rate constants that are universally valid across variants of water-sediment systems and, hence, provide a more general description of the compound's behavior in the environment. We developed a unified model that was able to simulate four experimental types (two variants of OECD 308 and two variants of OECD 309) for three compounds by using a biomass-corrected, generalized aerobic biotransformation parameter (k'bio). We used Bayesian calibration and uncertainty assessment to calibrate the models for individual experimental types separately and for combinations of experimental types. The results suggested that k'bio was a generally valid parameter for quantifying biotransformation across systems. However, its uncertainty remained significant when calibrated on individual systems alone. Using at least two different experimental types for the calibration of k'bio increased its robustness by clearly separating degradation from the phase-transfer processes taking place in the individual systems. Overall, k'bio has the potential to serve as a system-independent descriptor of aerobic biotransformation at the water-sediment interface that is equally and

  1. Impact, regulation and health policy implications of physician migration in OECD countries

    PubMed Central

    Forcier, Mélanie Bourassa; Simoens, Steven; Giuffrida, Antonio

    2004-01-01

    Background In the face of rising demand for medical services due to ageing populations, physician migration flows are increasingly affecting the supply of physicians in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and development (OECD) countries. This paper offers an integrated perspective on the impact of physician migration on home and host countries and discusses international regulation and policy approaches governing physician migration. Methods Information about migration flows, international regulation and policies governing physician migration were derived from two questionnaires sent to OECD countries, a secondary analysis of EUROSTAT Labour Force Surveys, a literature review and official policy documents of OECD countries. Results OECD countries increasingly perceive immigration of foreign physicians as a way of sustaining their physician workforce. As a result, countries have entered into international agreements regulating physician migration, although their success has been limited due to the imposition of licensing requirements and the protection of vested interests by domestic physicians. OECD countries have therefore adopted specific policies designed to stimulate the immigration of foreign physicians, whilst minimising its negative impact on the home country. Measures promoting immigration have included international recruitment campaigns, less strict immigration requirements and arrangements that foster shared learning between health care systems. Policies restricting the societal costs of physician emigration from developing countries such as good practice guidelines and taxes on host countries have not yet produced their expected effect or in some cases have not been established at all. Conclusions Although OECD countries generally favour long-term policies of national self-sufficiency to sustain their physician workforce, such policies usually co-exist with short-term or medium-term policies to attract foreign physicians. As this is likely to

  2. Improved estimates of Belgian private health expenditure can give important lessons to other OECD countries.

    PubMed

    Calcoen, Piet; Moens, Dirk; Verlinden, Pieter; van de Ven, Wynand P M M; Pacolet, Jozef

    2015-03-01

    OECD Health Data are a well-known source for detailed information about health expenditure. These data enable us to analyze health policy issues over time and in comparison with other countries. However, current official Belgian estimates of private expenditure (as published in the OECD Health Data) have proven not to be reliable. We distinguish four potential major sources of problems with estimating private health spending: interpretation of definitions, formulation of assumptions, missing or incomplete data and incorrect data. Using alternative sources of billing information, we have reached more accurate estimates of private and out-of-pocket expenditure. For Belgium we found differences of more than 100% between our estimates and the official Belgian estimates of private health expenditure (as published in the OECD Health Data). For instance, according to OECD Health Data private expenditure on hospitals in Belgium amounts to €3.1 billion, while according to our alternative calculations these expenses represent only €1.1 billion. Total private expenditure differs only 1%, but this is a mere coincidence. This exercise may be of interest to other OECD countries looking to improve their estimates of private expenditure on health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Two dimensions of trust in physicians in OECD-countries.

    PubMed

    Saarinen, Arttu Olavi; Räsänen, Pekka; Kouvo, Antti

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse citizens' trust in physicians in 22 OECD countries. The authors measure trust in physicians using items on generalised and particularised trust. Individual-level data are received from the ISSP Research Group (2011). The authors also utilise macro variables drawn from different data banks. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and xtlogit regression models. The main micro-level hypothesis is that low self-reported health is strongly associated with lower trust in physicians. The second micro-level hypothesis is that frequent meetings with physicians result in higher trust. The third micro-level hypothesis assumes that males, and older and better educated respondents, express higher trust compared to others. The first macro-level hypothesis is that lower income inequality leads to higher trust in physicians. The second macro-level hypothesis is that greater physician density leads to higher trust in physicians. The authors found that the influence of individual and macro-level characteristics varies between trust types. Results indicate that both trust types are clearly associated with individual-level determinants. However, only general trust in physicians has weak associations with macro-level indicators (mainly physician density) and therefore on institutional cross-country differences. It seems that particularised trust in a physician's skills is more restricted to the individuals' health and their own experiences meeting doctors, whereas general trust likely reflects attitudes towards the prevalent profession in the country. The findings hold significance for healthcare systems research and for research concerning social trust generally.

  4. Reporting and use of the OECD Health Care Quality Indicators at national and regional level in 15 countries.

    PubMed

    Rotar, Alexandru M; van den Berg, Michael J; Kringos, Dionne S; Klazinga, Niek S

    2016-06-01

    OECD member states are involved since 2003 in a project coordinated by the OECD on Health Care Quality Indicators (HCQI). All OECD countries are biennially requested by the OECD to deliver national data on the quality indicators for international benchmarking purposes. Currently, there is no knowledge whether the OECD HCQI information is used by the countries themselves for healthcare system accountability and improvement purposes. The objective of the study is to explore the reporting and use of OECD HCQI in OECD member-states. Data were collected through a questionnaire sent to all OECD member-states containing factual questions on the reporting on all OECD HCQ-indicators. Responses were received between June and December 2014. In this timeframe, two reminders were sent to the participants. The work progress was presented during HCQI Meetings in November 2014 and May 2015. Fifteen countries reported to have a total of 163 reports in which one or more HCQIs were reported. One hundred and sixteen were national and 47 were regional reports. Forty-nine reports had a general system focus, 80 were disease specific, 10 referred to a specific type of care setting, 22 were thematic and 2 were a combination of two (disease specific for a particular type of care and thematic for a specific type of care). Most reports were from Canada: 49. All 15 countries use one or more OECD indicators. The OECD quality indicators have acquired a clear place in national and regional monitoring activities. Some indicators are reported more often than others. These differences partly reflect differences between healthcare systems. Whereas some indicators have become very common, such as cancer care indicators, others, such as mental healthcare and patient experience indicators are relatively new and require some more time to be adopted more widely. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care; all rights

  5. Do Quasi-Markets Foster Innovation in Education?: A Comparative Perspective. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 25

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubienski, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    This report seeks to address critical issues such as these by synthesising the evidence on innovations in more market-driven education systems. The analysis draws on data from over 20 OECD and non-OECD countries, including both developed nations that seek to move beyond established systems of state-run schools, and developing nations where formal…

  6. Statistical Matching of PISA 2009 and TALIS 2008 Data in Iceland. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 78

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, David; Turner, Alyn

    2012-01-01

    The OECD Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) and the OECD Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS) constitute two of the largest ongoing international student and teacher surveys presently underway. Data generated from these surveys offer researchers and policy-makers opportunities to identify particular educational…

  7. Benchmarking the Performance of Bhutanese Students with the Performance of the Students from the OECD's PISA Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tshering, Gembo; Prain, Vaughan

    2011-01-01

    Setting international benchmarks for education systems of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries is one of the goals of the OECD's Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). However, some countries are not able to participate in PISA, despite their desire to set international benchmarks for their…

  8. Statistical Matching of PISA 2009 and TALIS 2008 Data in Iceland. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 78

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, David; Turner, Alyn

    2012-01-01

    The OECD Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) and the OECD Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS) constitute two of the largest ongoing international student and teacher surveys presently underway. Data generated from these surveys offer researchers and policy-makers opportunities to identify particular educational…

  9. What Works in Migrant Education? A Review of Evidence and Policy Options. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 22

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nusche, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    Education plays an essential role in preparing the children of immigrants for participation in the labour market and society. Giving these children opportunities to fully develop their potential is vital for future economic growth and social cohesion in OECD countries. But migrant students in most OECD countries tend to have lower education…

  10. Comparing the OECD's and Norway's Orientation to Equity in Their Teacher Education Policies--Teacher Autonomy under Attack?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haugen, Cecilie Ronning

    2013-01-01

    More and more nations are losing the ability to control their education systems. OECD is an important premise provider for educational policymaking championing a neoliberal agenda. With the aim to investigate the impact the OECD may have on national policymaking, this paper compares their recent teacher education policies with those of Norway. The…

  11. Evaluation of the test method activated sludge, respiration inhibition test proposed by the OECD

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshioka, Y.; Nagase, H.; Ose, Y.; Sato, T.

    1986-12-01

    The test method of activated sludge, respiration inhibition test proposed by the OECD was critically carried out and compared with other test methods. Investigation of test conditions showed that the moderate deviation from the test conditions defined by the OECD Test Guidelines did not have much effect on the result, and some modifications were proposed to improve the method. This method had a poor detection limit compared with the LC50 test with Oryzias latipes and EC50 of the growth inhibition test with Tetrahymena pyriformis. The susceptivity of the method was particularly poor for the chemicals which were highly toxic in the other two tests.

  12. OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development): A Guide to Publications and Data Available in the Libraries of Duke University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basefsky, Stuart, Comp.

    Designed to make Duke University's collection of OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development) publications and data more readily accessible, this guide is divided into the following sections: Introduction to OECD and Its Publications; General References about OECD and Its Activities; Indexes and Other Sources for Accessing OECD…

  13. CFD validation in OECD/NEA t-junction benchmark.

    SciTech Connect

    Obabko, A. V.; Fischer, P. F.; Tautges, T. J.; Karabasov, S.; Goloviznin, V. M.; Zaytsev, M. A.; Chudanov, V. V.; Pervichko, V. A.; Aksenova, A. E.

    2011-08-23

    benchmark data. The numerical scheme has a very small scheme diffusion and is the second and the first order accurate in space and time, correspondingly. We compare and contrast simulation results for three computational fluid dynamics codes CABARET, Conv3D, and Nek5000 for the T-junction thermal striping problem that was the focus of a recent OECD/NEA blind benchmark. The corresponding codes utilize finite-difference implicit large eddy simulation (ILES), finite-volume LES on fully staggered grids, and an LES spectral element method (SEM), respectively. The simulations results are in a good agreement with experimenatl data. We present results from a study of sensitivity to computational mesh and time integration interval, and discuss the next steps in the simulation of this problem.

  14. Rethinking Universal Service for a Next Generation Network Environment. OECD Digital Economy Papers, No. 113

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xavier, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    There is a clear need, in view of significant competitive, technological and service changes taking place in the telecommunications sector, to review universal service obligations, their coverage, how they are financed and who is responsible for providing them. In many OECD countries, a primary longer term issue is how to provide universal service…

  15. Exploring the Complex Interaction between Governance and Knowledge in Education. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 67

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fazekas, Mihaly; Burns, Tracey

    2012-01-01

    Governments in all Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries are facing the challenge of governing increasingly complex education systems. There is a growing need for governance structures that can handle this complexity and which can provide actors with the knowledge they need to make decisions. This working paper…

  16. Skills Development for the Knowledge Economy in Asia: Some Conclusions from the OECD Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez-Fernandez, Cristina; Weyman, Tamara

    2014-01-01

    The development of a knowledge-based economy relies greatly on developing the skills and education needed for inclusive and sustainable development so that growth will reach all parts of the society. Addressing skills development for all is challenging for all OECD countries; Asian economies are working towards developing integrated pathways of…

  17. Rebuilding Schools after the Wenchuan Earthquake: China Visits OECD, Italy and Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CELE Exchange, 2009

    2009-01-01

    As the reconstruction efforts continue in China in the wake of the Great Wenchuan earthquake in May 2008, the China Development Research Foundation, with the support of the OECD Centre for Effective Learning Environments, organised an International Training Programme on the Post-Earthquake Reconstruction of Public Facilities from 1 to 11 December…

  18. Innovative Research-Based Approaches to Learning and Teaching. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 79

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Broek, Gesa Sonja Elsa

    2012-01-01

    Building on an earlier 2008 summary prepared for OECD by Marlene Scardamalia and Carl Bereiter, this paper by Gesa S. E. van den Broek provides a more extensive discussion of approaches described as "research based innovation." "Fostering Communities of Learning" is a constructivist approach in which teachers help students discover important…

  19. The Effect of Teacher-Student Gender Matching: Evidence from OECD Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Insook

    2012-01-01

    While some educators argue that teacher-student gender matching improves student performance, there is little empirical evidence to support this hypothesis. This paper assesses the impact of teacher-student gender matching on academic achievement across fifteen OECD countries using data from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science…

  20. Exploring the Complex Interaction between Governance and Knowledge in Education. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 67

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fazekas, Mihaly; Burns, Tracey

    2012-01-01

    Governments in all Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries are facing the challenge of governing increasingly complex education systems. There is a growing need for governance structures that can handle this complexity and which can provide actors with the knowledge they need to make decisions. This working paper…

  1. The Position of Turkey among OECD Member and Candidate Countries According to PISA 2009 Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acar, Tulin

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the status of Turkey among OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) members and candidate countries through cluster and discriminant analyses according to PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment) 2009 results. The study includes 475460 fifteen year-old students from 65…

  2. Skilled Voices?: Reflections on Political Participation and Education in Austria. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Florian; Rosenberger, Sieglinde

    2007-01-01

    This study, part of OECD/CERI's project on Measuring the Social Outcomes of Learning, investigates the relationship between educational attainment and political participation in Austria. First, a model based on various theoretical considerations is introduced. This incorporates direct educational effects as well as indirect effects that occur…

  3. Innovation in Education. News from the Centre for Educational Research and Innovation OECD Paris. Number 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Centre for Educational Research and Innovation.

    Brief notices of topics arising during the preceding four months from the Center's continuing program of work on behalf of Member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) are given in this news-sheet. CERI's interest and activity focus on three areas: 1) Research into the relations between education and…

  4. Education and Labour Market in the OECD-CERI Educational Indicators Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micali, Aurea

    The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD-CERI) Educational Indicators Project (INES), initiated in 1988, is described in this paper, which focuses on the development of "Network B" to study education and labor market destinations (Network B is one of four networks set up by the project, each of which was assigned a different…

  5. Convergence in Education Policy? A Quantitative Analysis of Policy Change and Stability in OECD Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakobi, Anja P.; Teltemann, Janna

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we quantitatively assess education policy change in OECD countries. While research has frequently underlined the importance of international exchange for national policy development, it is yet unclear whether resulting policies are converging. By distinguishing different kinds of education policy goals, we hypothesise that…

  6. Higher Education and Economic Development in the OECD: Policy Lessons for Other Countries and Regions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinheiro, Rómulo; Pillay, Pundy

    2016-01-01

    This paper sheds light on the role of tertiary or higher education in economic development across two successful OECD case studies: Finland and South Korea. A number of key aspects are discussed, from the nature of the social contract between higher education and the economy to the endogenous characteristics of domestic higher education to the…

  7. Validation in Support of Internationally Harmonised OECD Test Guidelines for Assessing the Safety of Chemicals.

    PubMed

    Gourmelon, Anne; Delrue, Nathalie

    Ten years elapsed since the OECD published the Guidance document on the validation and international regulatory acceptance of test methods for hazard assessment. Much experience has been gained since then in validation centres, in countries and at the OECD on a variety of test methods that were subjected to validation studies. This chapter reviews validation principles and highlights common features that appear to be important for further regulatory acceptance across studies. Existing OECD-agreed validation principles will most likely generally remain relevant and applicable to address challenges associated with the validation of future test methods. Some adaptations may be needed to take into account the level of technique introduced in test systems, but demonstration of relevance and reliability will continue to play a central role as pre-requisite for the regulatory acceptance. Demonstration of relevance will become more challenging for test methods that form part of a set of predictive tools and methods, and that do not stand alone. OECD is keen on ensuring that while these concepts evolve, countries can continue to rely on valid methods and harmonised approaches for an efficient testing and assessment of chemicals.

  8. Implications of the OECD Comparative Study of Performance Standards for Educational Reform in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Eva L.

    This paper discusses the implications for educational reform in the United States of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) comparative study of performance standards. To provide some context for the reader, the paper briefly reprises major shifts in the intellectual underpinnings of U.S. educational reform and reports on…

  9. Educational Differentiation Policies and the Performance of Disadvantaged Students across OECD Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castejón, Alba; Zancajo, Adrián

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on analysing the effect of educational differentiation policies of OECD educational systems on socioeconomically disadvantaged students, based on data from PISA 2009. The analysis is conducted on the basis of a definition of two subgroups of disadvantaged students: those that achieve high scores, and those obtaining scores…

  10. Alignment in Complex Education Systems: Achieving Balance and Coherence. OECD Education Working Papers, Number 64

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Looney, Janet W.

    2011-01-01

    The majority of OECD countries now implement one form or another of standards-based assessment and evaluation. The core logic of standards-based systems rests upon the alignment of three key elements: "standards" defining the knowledge and skills--or "competences"--students are expected to have attained at different stages of their education;…

  11. Recurrent Education, Policy and Development in OECD Countries: Recurrent Education in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudolph, Hedwig; And Others

    This report, part of a series on the state of recurrent education in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) member countries, focuses on recurrent education in West Germany. The West German thrust for continuing adult education has come from business, industry, and the 1969 Labor Promotion Act which publicly funds…

  12. Educational Equity in Spain and Norway: A Comparative Analysis of Two OECD Country Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haugen, Cecilie Ronning

    2011-01-01

    This article undertakes a comparative study of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development's (OECD) thematic reviews on "equity in education" for Spain and Norway. The author investigates whether there may be a similar orientation to equity expressed in the two reviews and discusses how social stratification may occur…

  13. Educational Equity in Spain and Norway: A Comparative Analysis of Two OECD Country Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haugen, Cecilie Ronning

    2011-01-01

    This article undertakes a comparative study of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development's (OECD) thematic reviews on "equity in education" for Spain and Norway. The author investigates whether there may be a similar orientation to equity expressed in the two reviews and discusses how social stratification may occur…

  14. Canadian and United States Students' Performances on the OECD's PISA 2012 Problem-Solving Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dossey, John A.; Funke, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development's (OECD) Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2012 Problem-Solving assessment. The assessment examined the capabilities of 15-year-olds in 40 nations and four large international cities, as well as the Canadian Provinces, to solve a set…

  15. Measuring the Impacts of ICT Using Official Statistics. OECD Digital Economy Papers, No. 136

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Sheridan

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the findings of an OECD project examining ICT impact measurement and analyses based on official statistics. Both economic and social impacts are covered and some results are presented. It attempts to place ICT impacts measurement into an Information Society conceptual framework, provides some suggestions for standardising…

  16. The OECD PISA Study as a Soft Power in Education? Lessons from Switzerland and the US

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bieber, Tonia; Martens, Kerstin

    2011-01-01

    Although originally created for economic purposes, the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) has increasingly gained weight in education policy in recent years and is now regarded as an international authority in the field, particularly through its "Programme for International Student Assessment" (PISA), which was…

  17. MBA Effectiveness in Non-OECD Countries: Perceptions of Leadership and Managerial Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Douglas J.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative comparative methods research was to compare the perceptions relative to 12 Master of Business Administration (MBA) skill sets of respondents situated in non-member countries of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) with the findings of a prior study of United States situated respondents.…

  18. New Approaches in International Guidelines for Genetic Toxicology Assays: Latest Updates on OECD Guidelines

    EPA Science Inventory

    In March 2010, the 22nd meeting of the Working Group of National Coordinators of the OECD Test Guidelines Programme (WNT) approved a project for updating the Test Guidelines on genotoxicity, with Canada, the Netherlands, France and the USA identified as lead countries for this wo...

  19. An Exploration of Differences in Mathematics Attainment among Immigrant Pupils in 18 OECD Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapira, Marina

    2012-01-01

    This article presents findings from a comparative study of sources of educational disadvantage of immigrant children across 18 OECD countries, which is based the data from the 2006 Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). The findings show that disadvantaged family background and lack of host-country-specific cultural capital account…

  20. Primary and Secondary Education in the United States. OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 585

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tulip, Peter; Wurzburg, Gregory

    2007-01-01

    The average educational attainment of US students is weak by international comparison. For example, mean results of PISA test scores are below the OECD [Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development] average. This is despite substantial resources devoted to the schooling system. One partial explanation for this is that academic standards,…

  1. Governance of Early Childhood Education and Care: Recent Developments in OECD Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuman, Michelle J.

    2005-01-01

    Since the 1990s, many OECD countries have expanded their early childhood services and developed more coherent and coordinated policies. Through this process, countries have adopted very different approaches to governing their early childhood systems. Drawing from findings of a 12-country comparative study, this article explores cross-national…

  2. Adult Literacy in OECD Countries: Technical Report on the First International Adult Literacy Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, T. Scott; Kirsch, Irwin S.; Jenkins, Lynn B.

    In December 1995, the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) and Statistics Canada jointly published the results of the first International Adult Literacy Survey (IALS). For this survey, representative samples of adults aged 16 to 65 were interviewed and tested in their homes in Canada, France, Germany, the Netherlands,…

  3. AN OVERVIEW OF OECD AND EPA/ORD ACTIVITIES RELATED TO AMPHIBIAN TESTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    There has been significant recent activity related to testing amphibians in a regulatory setting. Much of this has emanated from interest by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Office of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) in utilizing amphibians in scree...

  4. AN OVERVIEW OF OECD AND EPA/ORD ACTIVITIES RELATED TO AMPHIBIAN TESTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    There has been significant recent activity related to testing amphibians in a regulatory setting. Much of this has emanated from interest by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Office of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) in utilizing amphibians in scree...

  5. Recurrent Education, Policy and Development in OECD Countries: Recurrent Education in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudolph, Hedwig; And Others

    This report, part of a series on the state of recurrent education in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) member countries, focuses on recurrent education in West Germany. The West German thrust for continuing adult education has come from business, industry, and the 1969 Labor Promotion Act which publicly funds…

  6. MBA Effectiveness in Non-OECD Countries: Perceptions of Leadership and Managerial Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Douglas J.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative comparative methods research was to compare the perceptions relative to 12 Master of Business Administration (MBA) skill sets of respondents situated in non-member countries of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) with the findings of a prior study of United States situated respondents.…

  7. Comparing the Similarities and Differences of PISA 2003 and TIMSS. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 32

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    This paper makes an in-depth comparison of the PISA (OECD) and TIMSS (IEA) mathematics assessments conducted in 2003. First, a comparison of survey methodologies is presented, followed by an examination of the mathematics frameworks in the two studies. The methodologies and the frameworks in the two studies form the basis for providing…

  8. An Exploration of Differences in Mathematics Attainment among Immigrant Pupils in 18 OECD Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapira, Marina

    2012-01-01

    This article presents findings from a comparative study of sources of educational disadvantage of immigrant children across 18 OECD countries, which is based the data from the 2006 Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). The findings show that disadvantaged family background and lack of host-country-specific cultural capital account…

  9. Another Look at "SourceOECD": Providing Access to Online Publications through the Library Catalog

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragains, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    "SourceOECD," the online/print subscription service of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, is examined. Solutions for providing access in library online catalogs are described, as are recent technical improvements to the online subscription service.

  10. Skills Matter: Further Results from the Survey of Adult Skills. OECD Skills Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kankaraš, Miloš; Montt, Guillermo; Paccagnella, Marco; Quintini, Glenda; Thorn, William

    2016-01-01

    In the wake of the technological revolution that began in the last decades of the 20th century, labour market demand for information-processing and other high-level cognitive and interpersonal skills is growing substantially. The "Survey of Adult Skills," a product of the OECD Programme for the International Assessment of Adult…

  11. The Legitimation of OECD's Global Educational Governance: Examining PISA and AHELO Test Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Clara; Shahjahan, Riyad A.

    2014-01-01

    Although international student assessments and the role of international organisations (IOs) in governing education via an evidence-based educational policy discourse are of growing interest to educational researchers, few have explored the complex ways in which an IO, such as the OECD, gains considerable influence in governing education during…

  12. School Segregation and Its Effects on Educational Equality and Efficiency in 16 OECD Comprehensive School Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benito, Ricard; Alegre, Miquel Àngel; Gonzàlez-Balletbò, Isaac

    2014-01-01

    Using PISA data for 16 Western OECD countries having comprehensive school systems, we explore the conditions under which the socioeconomic composition of schools affects educational efficiency and equality, to a greater or lesser extent. First, a multilevel analysis is applied to examine and compare the effect of school socioeconomic composition…

  13. Coloniality and a Global Testing Regime in Higher Education: Unpacking the OECD's AHELO Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahjahan, Riyad A.

    2013-01-01

    The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) is currently engaging in a worldwide feasibility study entitled International Assessment of Higher Education Learning Outcomes (AHELO). This feasibility study seeks to develop measures that would assess student learning outcomes that would be valid across different languages,…

  14. Coloniality and a Global Testing Regime in Higher Education: Unpacking the OECD's AHELO Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahjahan, Riyad A.

    2013-01-01

    The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) is currently engaging in a worldwide feasibility study entitled International Assessment of Higher Education Learning Outcomes (AHELO). This feasibility study seeks to develop measures that would assess student learning outcomes that would be valid across different languages,…

  15. Human Capital: How What You Know Shapes Your Life. OECD Insights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, Brian

    2007-01-01

    This first book in the new OECD Insights Series examines the increasing economic and social importance of human capital--our education, skills, competencies, and knowledge. As economies in developed countries shift away from manufacturing, economic success for individuals and national economies is increasingly reliant on the quality of human…

  16. Skills Matter: Further Results from the Survey of Adult Skills. OECD Skills Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kankaraš, Miloš; Montt, Guillermo; Paccagnella, Marco; Quintini, Glenda; Thorn, William

    2016-01-01

    In the wake of the technological revolution that began in the last decades of the 20th century, labour market demand for information-processing and other high-level cognitive and interpersonal skills is growing substantially. The "Survey of Adult Skills," a product of the OECD Programme for the International Assessment of Adult…

  17. Another Look at "SourceOECD": Providing Access to Online Publications through the Library Catalog

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragains, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    "SourceOECD," the online/print subscription service of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, is examined. Solutions for providing access in library online catalogs are described, as are recent technical improvements to the online subscription service.

  18. Improving Education Outcomes in the Slovak Republic. OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 578

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, David

    2007-01-01

    Improving education outcomes is vital for achieving convergence with GDP per capita levels in Western European countries and for reducing income inequality. While some education outcomes are favourable, such as the low secondary-school drop-out rate, others have room for improvement: education achievement is below the OECD average and strongly…

  19. Rebuilding Schools after the Wenchuan Earthquake: China Visits OECD, Italy and Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CELE Exchange, 2009

    2009-01-01

    As the reconstruction efforts continue in China in the wake of the Great Wenchuan earthquake in May 2008, the China Development Research Foundation, with the support of the OECD Centre for Effective Learning Environments, organised an International Training Programme on the Post-Earthquake Reconstruction of Public Facilities from 1 to 11 December…

  20. The Educational Situation in OECD Countries: A Review of Trends and Priority Issues for Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    An analysis of the educational situation in Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) member nations is presented in this report. Members are Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, The Federal Republic of Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway,…

  1. PROGRESS IN THE OECD WORK ON ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS TESTING AND ASSESSMENT FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The OECD Special Activity on endocrine disruptors testing and assessment (EDTA) started in 1996 at the request of member countries and industry with the objective to develop test methods for the detection and characterization of endocrine disrupting chemicals. The purpose of the ...

  2. The OECD 2012 Economic Survey of Canada and the Relationship between Higher Education and Productivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skolnik, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    The report entitled, "OECD Economic Surveys: Canada 2012," offers an exceptionally rigorous, in-depth, well-informed and well-documented review of policy and performance of Canada's economy and postsecondary system. The report is divided into three parts. The first part contains an overview of the Canadian economy, a summary of the rest…

  3. New Approaches in International Guidelines for Genetic Toxicology Assays: Latest Updates on OECD Guidelines

    EPA Science Inventory

    In March 2010, the 22nd meeting of the Working Group of National Coordinators of the OECD Test Guidelines Programme (WNT) approved a project for updating the Test Guidelines on genotoxicity, with Canada, the Netherlands, France and the USA identified as lead countries for this wo...

  4. Enhancing Portugal's Human Capital. OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 505

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guichard, Stephanie; Larre, Benedicte

    2006-01-01

    The lack of human capital in Portugal has become a key obstacle to higher growth. This paper discusses the performance of education and training services in Portugal and shows that improvements are needed to narrow the significant human capital gap with other OECD countries. Despite progress in the past decades, Portuguese children spend…

  5. Comparing the Similarities and Differences of PISA 2003 and TIMSS. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 32

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    This paper makes an in-depth comparison of the PISA (OECD) and TIMSS (IEA) mathematics assessments conducted in 2003. First, a comparison of survey methodologies is presented, followed by an examination of the mathematics frameworks in the two studies. The methodologies and the frameworks in the two studies form the basis for providing…

  6. Convergence in Education Policy? A Quantitative Analysis of Policy Change and Stability in OECD Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakobi, Anja P.; Teltemann, Janna

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we quantitatively assess education policy change in OECD countries. While research has frequently underlined the importance of international exchange for national policy development, it is yet unclear whether resulting policies are converging. By distinguishing different kinds of education policy goals, we hypothesise that…

  7. Internationalization of Higher Education in the OECD Countries: Challenges and Opportunities for the Coming Decade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Wende, Marijk

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the possible development of internationalization of higher education in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries, analyzing how the main driving forces may influence the internationalization process, globalization and the changing role of nation-states, regional and international bodies, and…

  8. Rethinking Universal Service for a Next Generation Network Environment. OECD Digital Economy Papers, No. 113

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xavier, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    There is a clear need, in view of significant competitive, technological and service changes taking place in the telecommunications sector, to review universal service obligations, their coverage, how they are financed and who is responsible for providing them. In many OECD countries, a primary longer term issue is how to provide universal service…

  9. Educational Differentiation Policies and the Performance of Disadvantaged Students across OECD Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castejón, Alba; Zancajo, Adrián

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on analysing the effect of educational differentiation policies of OECD educational systems on socioeconomically disadvantaged students, based on data from PISA 2009. The analysis is conducted on the basis of a definition of two subgroups of disadvantaged students: those that achieve high scores, and those obtaining scores…

  10. The OECD as Pivot of the Emerging Global Educational Accountability Regime: How Accountable Are the Accountants?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Heinz-Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: PISA has catapulted the OECD- an organization whose mission is the global growth of market economies-to a central role in international education policy making, rivaling and sometimes outdoing the various national governments in influence. While claiming scientific evidence as the basis for the accountability regime it…

  11. Changing Patterns of Finance in Higher Education. Country Study: United States of America. OECD Educational Monographs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This report on the United States of America is one in a series of country studies prepared in the framework of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Education Committee activity on changing patterns of finance in higher education. The United States maintains the largest and most diverse system of higher education in the…

  12. Primary and Secondary Education in the United States. OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 585

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tulip, Peter; Wurzburg, Gregory

    2007-01-01

    The average educational attainment of US students is weak by international comparison. For example, mean results of PISA test scores are below the OECD [Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development] average. This is despite substantial resources devoted to the schooling system. One partial explanation for this is that academic standards,…

  13. A Literature Review of School Practices to Overcome School Failure. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 68

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faubert, Brenton

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to review the body of literature concerned with reducing school failure by improving equity in schools and classrooms. The literature review will be used to inform the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Project "Overcoming School Failure: Policies that Work" and hopefully, future educational…

  14. School Funding Formulas: Review of Main Characteristics and Impacts. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 74

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fazekas, Mihaly

    2012-01-01

    This study provides a literature review on school funding formulas across OECD countries. It looks at three salient questions from a comparative perspective: i) What kind of school formula funding schemes exist and how are they used, particularly for promoting the needs of socially disadvantaged pupils?; ii) How do school formula funding regimes…

  15. How Technology Changes Demands for Human Skills. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 45

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Frank

    2010-01-01

    This paper places the competencies to be measured by the OECD's Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC) in the context of the technological developments which are reshaping the nature of the workplace and work in the 21st century. The largest technological force currently shaping work is the computer. Computers are…

  16. Measuring the Impacts of ICT Using Official Statistics. OECD Digital Economy Papers, No. 136

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Sheridan

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the findings of an OECD project examining ICT impact measurement and analyses based on official statistics. Both economic and social impacts are covered and some results are presented. It attempts to place ICT impacts measurement into an Information Society conceptual framework, provides some suggestions for standardising…

  17. PROGRESS IN THE OECD WORK ON ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS TESTING AND ASSESSMENT FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The OECD Special Activity on endocrine disruptors testing and assessment (EDTA) started in 1996 at the request of member countries and industry with the objective to develop test methods for the detection and characterization of endocrine disrupting chemicals. The purpose of the ...

  18. Skills Development for the Knowledge Economy in Asia: Some Conclusions from the OECD Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez-Fernandez, Cristina; Weyman, Tamara

    2014-01-01

    The development of a knowledge-based economy relies greatly on developing the skills and education needed for inclusive and sustainable development so that growth will reach all parts of the society. Addressing skills development for all is challenging for all OECD countries; Asian economies are working towards developing integrated pathways of…

  19. The Legitimation of OECD's Global Educational Governance: Examining PISA and AHELO Test Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Clara; Shahjahan, Riyad A.

    2014-01-01

    Although international student assessments and the role of international organisations (IOs) in governing education via an evidence-based educational policy discourse are of growing interest to educational researchers, few have explored the complex ways in which an IO, such as the OECD, gains considerable influence in governing education during…

  20. Income-related inequalities and inequities in health care services utilisation in 18 selected OECD countries.

    PubMed

    Devaux, Marion

    2015-01-01

    A key policy objective in OECD countries is to achieve adequate access to health care for all people on the basis of need. Previous studies have shown that there are inequities in health care services utilisation (HCSU) in the OECD area. In recent years, measures have been taken to enhance health care access. This paper re-examines income-related inequities in doctor visits among 18 selected OECD countries, updating previous results for 12 countries with 2006-2009 data, and including six new countries. Inequalities in preventive care services are also considered for the first time. The indirect standardisation procedure is used to estimate the need-adjusted HCSU and concentration indexes are derived to gauge inequalities and inequities. Overall, inequities in HCSU remain present in OECD countries. In most countries, for the same health care needs, people with higher incomes are more likely to consult a doctor than those with lower incomes. Pro-rich inequalities in dental visits and cancer screening uptake are also found in nearly all countries, although the magnitude of these varies among countries. These findings suggest that further monitoring of inequalities is essential in order to assess whether country policy objectives are achieved on a regular basis.

  1. The OECD as Pivot of the Emerging Global Educational Accountability Regime: How Accountable Are the Accountants?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Heinz-Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: PISA has catapulted the OECD- an organization whose mission is the global growth of market economies-to a central role in international education policy making, rivaling and sometimes outdoing the various national governments in influence. While claiming scientific evidence as the basis for the accountability regime it…

  2. Patterns of Parental Involvement in Selected OECD Countries: Cross-National Analyses of PISA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartas, Dimitra

    2015-01-01

    Using data from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), patterns of parental involvement were examined in selected OECD countries. The findings showed that, irrespective of educational qualifications, parents were frequently involved in their children's learning at the start of primary school and at age 15. Cross-national…

  3. Financial impact of the GFC: health care spending across the OECD.

    PubMed

    Morgan, David; Astolfi, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Since the onset of the global financial crisis (GFC), health spending has slowed markedly or fallen in many OECD countries after years of continuous growth. However, health spending patterns across the 34 countries of the OECD have been affected to varying degrees. This article examines in more detail the observed downturn in health expenditure growth, analysing which countries and which sectors of health spending have been most affected. In addition, using more recent preliminary data for a subset of countries, this article tries to shed light on the prospects for health spending trends. Given that public sources account for around three-quarters of total spending on health on average across the OECD, and, in an overall context of managing public deficits, the article focuses on the specific areas of public spending that have been most affected. This study also tries to link the observed trends with some of the main policy measures and instruments put in place by countries. The investigation finds that while nearly all OECD countries have seen health spending growth decrease since 2009, there is wide variation as to the extent of the slowdown, with some countries outside of Europe continuing to see significant growth in health spending. While all sectors of spending appear to have been affected, initial analysis appears to show the greatest decreases has been experienced in pharmaceutical spending and in areas of public health and prevention.

  4. The OECD PISA Study as a Soft Power in Education? Lessons from Switzerland and the US

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bieber, Tonia; Martens, Kerstin

    2011-01-01

    Although originally created for economic purposes, the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) has increasingly gained weight in education policy in recent years and is now regarded as an international authority in the field, particularly through its "Programme for International Student Assessment" (PISA), which was…

  5. Higher Education and Economic Development in the OECD: Policy Lessons for Other Countries and Regions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinheiro, Rómulo; Pillay, Pundy

    2016-01-01

    This paper sheds light on the role of tertiary or higher education in economic development across two successful OECD case studies: Finland and South Korea. A number of key aspects are discussed, from the nature of the social contract between higher education and the economy to the endogenous characteristics of domestic higher education to the…

  6. Adapting the Icelandic Education System to a Changing Environment. OECD Economics Department Working Papers No. 516

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suppanz, Hannes

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews Iceland's performance in skills accumulation against the backdrop of a rapidly changing economic environment and discusses directions for further improvements. Since the late 1990s, the government has considerably raised expenditure on education, which is now among the highest in the OECD relative to GDP. Nonetheless, Iceland…

  7. Benchmarking health IT among OECD countries: better data for better policy.

    PubMed

    Adler-Milstein, Julia; Ronchi, Elettra; Cohen, Genna R; Winn, Laura A Pannella; Jha, Ashish K

    2014-01-01

    To develop benchmark measures of health information and communication technology (ICT) use to facilitate cross-country comparisons and learning. The effort is led by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Approaches to definition and measurement within four ICT domains were compared across seven OECD countries in order to identify functionalities in each domain. These informed a set of functionality-based benchmark measures, which were refined in collaboration with representatives from more than 20 OECD and non-OECD countries. We report on progress to date and remaining work to enable countries to begin to collect benchmark data. The four benchmarking domains include provider-centric electronic record, patient-centric electronic record, health information exchange, and tele-health. There was broad agreement on functionalities in the provider-centric electronic record domain (eg, entry of core patient data, decision support), and less agreement in the other three domains in which country representatives worked to select benchmark functionalities. Many countries are working to implement ICTs to improve healthcare system performance. Although many countries are looking to others as potential models, the lack of consistent terminology and approach has made cross-national comparisons and learning difficult. As countries develop and implement strategies to increase the use of ICTs to promote health goals, there is a historic opportunity to enable cross-country learning. To facilitate this learning and reduce the chances that individual countries flounder, a common understanding of health ICT adoption and use is needed. The OECD-led benchmarking process is a crucial step towards achieving this.

  8. Benchmarking health IT among OECD countries: better data for better policy

    PubMed Central

    Adler-Milstein, Julia; Ronchi, Elettra; Cohen, Genna R; Winn, Laura A Pannella; Jha, Ashish K

    2014-01-01

    Objective To develop benchmark measures of health information and communication technology (ICT) use to facilitate cross-country comparisons and learning. Materials and methods The effort is led by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Approaches to definition and measurement within four ICT domains were compared across seven OECD countries in order to identify functionalities in each domain. These informed a set of functionality-based benchmark measures, which were refined in collaboration with representatives from more than 20 OECD and non-OECD countries. We report on progress to date and remaining work to enable countries to begin to collect benchmark data. Results The four benchmarking domains include provider-centric electronic record, patient-centric electronic record, health information exchange, and tele-health. There was broad agreement on functionalities in the provider-centric electronic record domain (eg, entry of core patient data, decision support), and less agreement in the other three domains in which country representatives worked to select benchmark functionalities. Discussion Many countries are working to implement ICTs to improve healthcare system performance. Although many countries are looking to others as potential models, the lack of consistent terminology and approach has made cross-national comparisons and learning difficult. Conclusions As countries develop and implement strategies to increase the use of ICTs to promote health goals, there is a historic opportunity to enable cross-country learning. To facilitate this learning and reduce the chances that individual countries flounder, a common understanding of health ICT adoption and use is needed. The OECD-led benchmarking process is a crucial step towards achieving this. PMID:23721983

  9. OECD MCCI project final report, February 28, 2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, M. T.; Lomperski, S.; Kilsdonk, D. J.; Aeschlimann, R. W.; Basu, S.

    2011-05-23

    -dimensional. Although the MACE Scoping Test was carried out with a two-dimensional concrete cavity, the interaction was flooded soon after ablation was initiated to investigate debris coolability. Moreover, due to the scoping nature of this test, the apparatus was minimally instrumented and therefore the results are of limited value from the code validation viewpoint. Aside from the MACE program, the COTELS test series also investigated 2-D CCI under flooded cavity conditions. However, the input power density for these tests was quite high relative to the prototypic case. Finally, the BETA test series provided valuable data on 2-D core concrete interaction under dry cavity conditions, but these tests focused on investigating the interaction of the metallic (steel) phase with concrete. Due to these limitations, there is significant uncertainty in the partitioning of energy dissipated for the ablation of concrete in the lateral and axial directions under dry cavity conditions for the case of a core oxide melt. Accurate knowledge of this 'power split' is important in the evaluation of the consequences of an ex-vessel severe accident; e.g., lateral erosion can undermine containment structures, while axial erosion can penetrate the basemat, leading to ground contamination and/or possible containment bypass. As a result of this uncertainty, there are still substantial differences among computer codes in the prediction of 2-D cavity erosion behavior under both wet and dry cavity conditions. Thus, a second key aim of the current program was to provide the necessary data to help resolve these modeling differences. In light of the above issues, the OECD-sponsored Melt Coolability and Concrete Interaction (MCCI) program was initiated at Argonne National Laboratory. The project conducted reactor materials experiments and associated analysis to achieve the following technical objectives: (1) resolve the ex-vessel debris coolability issue through a program that focused on providing both confirmatory

  10. Meeting Materials for OECD Expert Meeting on Categorization of Manufactured Nanomaterials on September 17-19, 2014

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Here are materials for the OECD Working Party on Nanomanufactured Materials Expert Meeting on Categorization of Nanomaterials (developing nanomaterial categories) took place on September 17-19, 2014 in Washington, D.C hosted by U.S. EPA.

  11. Deaths from international terrorism compared with road crash deaths in OECD countries

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, N; Thomson, G

    2005-01-01

    Methods: Data on deaths from international terrorism (US State Department database) were collated (1994–2003) and compared to the road injury deaths (year 2000 and 2001 data) from the OECD International Road Transport Accident Database. Results: In the 29 OECD countries for which comparable data were available, the annual average death rate from road injury was approximately 390 times that from international terrorism. The ratio of annual road to international terrorism deaths (averaged over 10 years) was lowest for the United States at 142 times. In 2001, road crash deaths in the US were equal to those from a September 11 attack every 26 days. Conclusions: There is a large difference in the magnitude of these two causes of deaths from injury. Policy makers need to be aware of this when allocating resources to preventing these two avoidable causes of mortality. PMID:16326764

  12. The impact of fiscal decentralization on infant mortality rates: evidence from OECD countries.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Rubio, Dolores

    2011-11-01

    This study re-examines the hypothesis that shifts towards more decentralization would be accompanied by improvements in population health on a panel of 20 OECD countries over a thirty year period (1970-2001). Decentralization is proxied using a conventional indicator of revenue decentralization and a new measure of fiscal decentralization that reflects better than previous measures the existence of autonomy in the decision-making authority of lower tiers of government, a crucial issue in the decentralization process. The results show a considerable and positive effect of fiscal decentralization on infant mortality only if a substantial degree of autonomy in the sources of revenue is devolved to local governments. The proportion of health care expenditure on GDP and, in particular, education, were found to have a larger contribution to the reduction of infant mortality in the sample of OECD countries analysed over the period of study.

  13. Impact of health system factors on changes in human resource and expenditures levels in OECD countries.

    PubMed

    Narine, L

    2000-01-01

    In order to gain further insight into the system factors responsible for changes in the health workforce, this study undertook an empirical examination of the determinants of the size of the health workforce and overall health expenditures across fifteen OECD countries. Specifically, using the latest release of OECD data, the analysis estimated and evaluated the effects of variables such as the proportion of female physicians and the elderly, expenditures on ambulatory care, enrollment levels in training programs, level of public financing, and per capita income on the size of the health workforce and level of health spending between 1970-1991. The findings of this study help to place the problem of the changing health workforce within the context of the complexity of health systems. It confirms any understanding of what accounts for changes in the size of the health labor force and expenditures require disentangling the effects of variables which needs to be taken into account when considering health system reforms.

  14. Promoting the 3Rs to enhance the OECD fish toxicity testing framework.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Thomas H; Wheeler, James R; Gourmelon, Anne; Burden, Natalie

    2016-04-01

    Fish toxicity testing has been conducted since the 1860's in order to help define safe levels of chemical contaminants in lakes, rivers and coastal waters. The historical emphasis on acute lethality testing of chemicals has more recently focussed on long term sublethal effects of chemicals on fish and their prey species. Fish toxicity testing is now embedded in much environment legislation on chemical safety while it is recognized that animal use should be Replaced, Reduced and Refined (the 3Rs) where possible. The OECD Fish Toxicity Testing Framework provides a useful structure with which to address the needs of environmental safety assessment whilst implementing the 3Rs. This commentary aims to promote the implementation of the recommendations of the OECD Fish Toxicity Testing Framework. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The redistributive effect of health care finance in twelve OECD countries.

    PubMed

    van Doorslaer, E; Wagstaff, A; van der Burg, H; Christiansen, T; Citoni, G; Di Biase, R; Gerdtham, U G; Gerfin, M; Gross, L; Häkinnen, U; John, J; Johnson, P; Klavus, J; Lachaud, C; Lauritsen, J; Leu, R; Nolan, B; Pereira, J; Propper, C; Puffer, F; Rochaix, L; Schellhorn, M; Sundberg, G; Winkelhake, O

    1999-06-01

    The OECD countries finance their health care through a mixture of taxes, social insurance contributions, private insurance premiums and out-of-pocket payments. The various payment sources have very different implications for both vertical and horizontal equity and on redistributive effect which is a function of both. This paper presents results on the income redistribution consequences of the health care financing mixes adopted in twelve OECD countries by decomposing the overall income redistributive effect into a progressivity, horizontal inequity and reranking component. The general finding of this study is that the vertical effect is much more important than horizontal inequity and reranking in determining the overall redistributive effect but that their relative importance varies by source of payment. Public finance sources tend to have small positive redistributive effects and less differential treatment while private financing sources generally have (larger) negative redistributive effects which are to a substantial degree caused by differential treatment.

  16. Toward better teacher/nuclear energy interface: An overview of OECD experience

    SciTech Connect

    De La Frete, J.

    1994-12-31

    Teachers play a key role in forming the judgement of young generations on major issues facing modem society. For teachers to discuss nuclear energy at school in a broad and balanced context, they need proper training and information on methods and tools available. A multidisciplinary approach of the subject is desirable. A substantial experience in this field already exists in OECD countries, but access by teachers to information regarding training opportunities and material available should be improved.

  17. A summary of lessons learned activities conducted at the OECD Halden Reactor Project

    SciTech Connect

    Hallbert, B.P.

    1997-02-01

    A series of lessons learned studies have been conducted at the OECD Halden Reactor Project. The purpose of these lessons learned reports are to summarize knowledge and experience gained across a number of research project. This paper presents a summary of main issues addressed in four of these lessons learned projects. These are concerned with software development and quality assurance, software reliability, methods for test and evaluation of developed systems, and the evaluation of system design features.

  18. [The impact of the economic crisis on health systems of OECD countries].

    PubMed

    Paris, Valérie

    2014-10-01

    This paper describes measures adopted by OECD countries in the health sector in response to the economic crisis which began in 2008: increase and diversification of revenues collected for health, increases in user charges, reductions in staff, salaries and prices of health goods and services; and policies aiming to increase health systems efficiency. It then reviews the impact of these policies on health spending trends. © 2014 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  19. Deaths from international terrorism compared with road crash deaths in OECD countries.

    PubMed

    Wilson, N; Thomson, G

    2005-12-01

    To estimate the relative number of deaths in member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) from international terrorism and road crashes. Data on deaths from international terrorism (US State Department database) were collated (1994-2003) and compared to the road injury deaths (year 2000 and 2001 data) from the OECD International Road Transport Accident Database. In the 29 OECD countries for which comparable data were available, the annual average death rate from road injury was approximately 390 times that from international terrorism. The ratio of annual road to international terrorism deaths (averaged over 10 years) was lowest for the United States at 142 times. In 2001, road crash deaths in the US were equal to those from a September 11 attack every 26 days. There is a large difference in the magnitude of these two causes of deaths from injury. Policy makers need to be aware of this when allocating resources to preventing these two avoidable causes of mortality.

  20. National GHG inventories: Recent developments under the IPCC/OECD Joint Programme.

    PubMed

    Morlot, J C; Schwengels, P; Lurding, S

    1994-05-01

    This paper summarises key results of the Joint IPCC/OECD Programme, in particular the draft IPCC Guidelines for National GHG Inventories to be released in January 1994. The focus is on how these results are likely to improve the availability and the quality of national inventories of anthropogenic GHG emission sources and removals by sinks. The IPCC/OECD has already received nearly 50 inventories from 35 countries. Most of the data are for 1988, but some reports cover 1989 and 1990. In addition to CO2, many of these inventories include CH4, N2O, NOx, CO, and NMVOC. Detailed analyses of these inventories have provided valuable insights about the strengths and weaknesses of the national inventories, differences in approach to estimation, reporting, available methods and data. These results in turn, have facilitated the development of the draft Guidelines, most notably the proposed reporting system, and also on estimation methods for the different anthropogenic sources and sinks of GHG. The paper previews key aspects of the draft Guidelines for non-CO2 GHG. Experts are urged to actively participate in the IPCC/OECD Programme to continue to improve inventory methods and overall the Guidelines.

  1. Scientific productivity of OECD countries in dermatology journals within the last 10-year period.

    PubMed

    Tasli, Levent; Kacar, Nida; Aydemir, Ertugrul H

    2012-06-01

      Scientific productivity is closely related to gross income, population, and cultures of the countries. Every country, more or less, has a responsibility of contributing to science. The publications, citations received, and the h-index under the category of "dermatology" in 43 journals between the years of 1999-2003 and 2004-2008 according to the ISI JCR data of 2008 were examined individually for each OECD country. In the journals under the category of "dermatology" between the years of 1999 and 2008, there were 89,319 publications, 76,899 of which were published by OECD countries. USA ranks first with 27,109 publications and 196,002 citations; Germany, Japan, England, and France are the other countries among the top five, respectively. Regarding the number of publications, Turkey and Korea are among the top 10 by surpassing many Northern European countries. With regard to h-index and citations, Northern European countries and Canada rank among the top 10, while Japan, Spain, Turkey, and Korea rank behind. The number of publications showed a significant correlation with the number of citations, population, gross domestic product, and h-index.   Nearly half of all publications were performed by the European origin OECD countries, and one-third of all publications were performed by USA. Journals from Germany and France, which are published in their own language, receive fewer citations, but they contribute a lot to these countries with respect to the number of publications. © 2012 The International Society of Dermatology.

  2. Unemployment and prostate cancer mortality in the OECD, 1990-2009.

    PubMed

    Maruthappu, Mahiben; Watkins, Johnathan; Taylor, Abigail; Williams, Callum; Ali, Raghib; Zeltner, Thomas; Atun, Rifat

    2015-01-01

    The global economic downturn has been associated with increased unemployment in many countries. Insights into the impact of unemployment on specific health conditions remain limited. We determined the association between unemployment and prostate cancer mortality in members of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). We used multivariate regression analysis to assess the association between changes in unemployment and prostate cancer mortality in OECD member states between 1990 and 2009. Country-specific differences in healthcare infrastructure, population structure, and population size were controlled for and lag analyses conducted. Several robustness checks were also performed. Time trend analyses were used to predict the number of excess deaths from prostate cancer following the 2008 global recession. Between 1990 and 2009, a 1% rise in unemployment was associated with an increase in prostate cancer mortality. Lag analysis showed a continued increase in mortality years after unemployment rises. The association between unemployment and prostate cancer mortality remained significant in robustness checks with 46 controls. Eight of the 21 OECD countries for which a time trend analysis was conducted, exhibited an estimated excess of prostate cancer deaths in at least one of 2008, 2009, or 2010, based on 2000-2007 trends. Rises in unemployment are associated with significant increases in prostate cancer mortality. Initiatives that bolster employment may help to minimise prostate cancer mortality during times of economic hardship.

  3. Unemployment and prostate cancer mortality in the OECD, 1990–2009

    PubMed Central

    Maruthappu, Mahiben; Watkins, Johnathan; Taylor, Abigail; Williams, Callum; Ali, Raghib; Zeltner, Thomas; Atun, Rifat

    2015-01-01

    The global economic downturn has been associated with increased unemployment in many countries. Insights into the impact of unemployment on specific health conditions remain limited. We determined the association between unemployment and prostate cancer mortality in members of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). We used multivariate regression analysis to assess the association between changes in unemployment and prostate cancer mortality in OECD member states between 1990 and 2009. Country-specific differences in healthcare infrastructure, population structure, and population size were controlled for and lag analyses conducted. Several robustness checks were also performed. Time trend analyses were used to predict the number of excess deaths from prostate cancer following the 2008 global recession. Between 1990 and 2009, a 1% rise in unemployment was associated with an increase in prostate cancer mortality. Lag analysis showed a continued increase in mortality years after unemployment rises. The association between unemployment and prostate cancer mortality remained significant in robustness checks with 46 controls. Eight of the 21 OECD countries for which a time trend analysis was conducted, exhibited an estimated excess of prostate cancer deaths in at least one of 2008, 2009, or 2010, based on 2000–2007 trends. Rises in unemployment are associated with significant increases in prostate cancer mortality. Initiatives that bolster employment may help to minimise prostate cancer mortality during times of economic hardship. PMID:26045715

  4. Productivity changes in OECD healthcare systems: bias-corrected Malmquist productivity approach.

    PubMed

    Kim, Younhee; Oh, Dong-Hyun; Kang, Minah

    2016-10-01

    This study evaluates productivity changes in the healthcare systems of 30 Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries over the 2002-2012 periods. The bootstrapped Malmquist approach is used to estimate bias-corrected indices of healthcare performance in productivity, efficiency and technology by modifying the original distance functions. Two inputs (health expenditure and school life expectancy) and two outputs (life expectancy at birth and infant mortality rate) are used to calculate productivity growth. There are no perceptible trends in productivity changes over the 2002-2012 periods, but positive productivity improvement has been noticed for most OECD countries. The result also informs considerable variations in annual productivity scores across the countries. Average annual productivity growth is evenly yielded by efficiency and technical changes, but both changes run somewhat differently across the years. The results of this study assert that policy reforms in OECD countries have improved productivity growth in healthcare systems over the past decade. Countries that lag behind in productivity growth should benchmark peer countries' practices to increase performance by prioritizing an achievable trajectory based on socioeconomic conditions. For example, relatively inefficient countries in this study indicate higher income inequality, corresponding to inequality and health outcomes studies. Although income inequality and globalization are not direct measures to estimate healthcare productivity in this study, these issues could be latent factors to explain cross-country healthcare productivity for future research. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. A Retrospective Performance Assessment of the Developmental Neurotoxicity Study in Support of OECD Test Guideline 426

    PubMed Central

    Makris, Susan L.; Raffaele, Kathleen; Allen, Sandra; Bowers, Wayne J.; Hass, Ulla; Alleva, Enrico; Calamandrei, Gemma; Sheets, Larry; Amcoff, Patric; Delrue, Nathalie; Crofton, Kevin M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective We conducted a review of the history and performance of developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) testing in support of the finalization and implementation of Organisation of Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) DNT test guideline 426 (TG 426). Information sources and analysis In this review we summarize extensive scientific efforts that form the foundation for this testing paradigm, including basic neurotoxicology research, interlaboratory collaborative studies, expert workshops, and validation studies, and we address the relevance, applicability, and use of the DNT study in risk assessment. Conclusions The OECD DNT guideline represents the best available science for assessing the potential for DNT in human health risk assessment, and data generated with this protocol are relevant and reliable for the assessment of these end points. The test methods used have been subjected to an extensive history of international validation, peer review, and evaluation, which is contained in the public record. The reproducibility, reliability, and sensitivity of these methods have been demonstrated, using a wide variety of test substances, in accordance with OECD guidance on the validation and international acceptance of new or updated test methods for hazard characterization. Multiple independent, expert scientific peer reviews affirm these conclusions. PMID:19165382

  6. Five types of OECD healthcare systems: empirical results of a deductive classification.

    PubMed

    Böhm, Katharina; Schmid, Achim; Götze, Ralf; Landwehr, Claudia; Rothgang, Heinz

    2013-12-01

    This article classifies 30 OECD healthcare systems according to a deductively generated typology by Rothgang and Wendt [1]. This typology distinguishes three core dimensions of the healthcare system: regulation, financing, and service provision, and three types of actors: state, societal, and private actors. We argue that there is a hierarchical relationship between the three dimensions, led by regulation, followed by financing and finally service provision, where the superior dimension restricts the nature of the subordinate dimensions. This hierarchy rule limits the number of theoretically plausible types to ten. To test our argument, we classify 30 OECD healthcare systems, mainly using OECD Health Data and WHO country reports. The classification results in five system types: the National Health Service, the National Health Insurance, the Social Health Insurance, the Etatist Social Health Insurance, and the Private Health System. All five types belong to the group of healthcare system types considered theoretically plausible. Merely Slovenia does not comply with our assumption of a hierarchy among dimensions and typical actors due to its singular transformation history. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Peer review of validation studies: an assessment of the role of the OECD by reference to the validation of the uterotrophic assay for endocrine disruptors.

    PubMed

    Combes, Robert D

    2004-06-01

    The involvement of the OECD in managing the validation of the rat uterotrophic assay for endocrine disruptors, and in organising the peer review of the results of this study, has been assessed and compared with the many conclusions and recommendations in several published reports of international workshops on validation, and information in guidance documents, produced by the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM), the US Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM) and the OECD itself. It is concluded that the OECD has not followed the recommendations for full transparency and independence of the peer-review process. This is based on the fact that it has published a draft guidance document that differs from the report of a recent OECD workshop on validation, in such a way as to give the OECD the flexibility to fully control the peer-review process and, in so doing, to avoid full transparency. Comparison of the timing of the organisation of workshops by the OECD and the progression of the validation study, together with the fact that a draft test guideline for the assay was written before completion of the peer review, suggest that the OECD has given a higher priority to the expedition of the validation and regulatory acceptance of the uterotrophic assay than it has to good scientific and logistical practice. This severely undermines its credibility in the validation process, so, in order for the OECD to be rightly perceived as an honest broker, it is recommended that the OECD should play no role in the validation of new or revised tests, until after they have been successfully validated, peer reviewed, and endorsed by the appropriate authorities, and are ready for test guideline development. With regard to the on-going OECD validation studies of other in vivo assays for endocrine disruptors, the OECD should take immediate steps to ensure full independence and transparency of their peer review.

  8. GBD-2010 overestimates deaths from road injuries in OECD countries: new methods perform poorly.

    PubMed

    Bhalla, Kavi; Harrison, James E

    2015-10-01

    We assessed the quality of Global Burden of Disease-2010 (GBD-2010) estimates of road injury deaths by comparing with government statistics for Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries that report to the International Road Traffic Accident Database (IRTAD). We obtained tabulated data for 25 OECD countries that report to IRTAD and also report vital registration (VR) data to WHO. We collated VR deaths corresponding to the GBD-2010 road injury definition and estimated 'traffic', 'non-traffic' and 'unspecified whether traffic or non-traffic' components. We estimated national road injury deaths by redistributing partially specified causes of death, as was done by GBD until this was replaced by more complex methods in GBD-2010. GBD-2010 estimates of road injury deaths exceeded IRTAD by 45% overall. IRTAD values fell below the GBD-2010 95% uncertainty interval in all but three countries. Mismatch of conceptual scope accounted for about 8% of this discrepancy, 5% was because GBD-2010 included cases other than road traffic and 3% because GBD-2010 (unlike IRTAD) includes deaths >30 days after injury. Pro rata distribution of partially specified causes in VR data gave estimates that were 18% higher than IRTAD but closer than GBD-2010 estimates for all but two countries. Cases in VR data specified as road injury gave estimates closer to IRTAD. GBD-2010 road injury mortality estimates are substantially higher than the road death toll in OECD countries. The discrepancy is not explained by wider scope of the GBD road injury construct nor by undercounting by IRTAD. GBD-2010 likely attributed substantially more deaths with partially specified causes to road injuries than is appropriate. © The Author 2015; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  9. Impacts of Informal Caregiver Availability on Long-term Care Expenditures in OECD Countries

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Byung-Kwang; Bhattacharya, Jay; McDonald, Kathryn M; Garber, Alan M

    2004-01-01

    Objective To quantify the effects of informal caregiver availability and public funding on formal long-term care (LTC) expenditures in developed countries. Data Source/Study Setting Secondary data were acquired for 15 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries from 1970 to 2000. Study Design Secondary data analysis, applying fixed- and random-effects models to time-series cross-sectional data. Outcome variables are inpatient or home heath LTC expenditures. Key explanatory variables are measures of the availability of informal caregivers, generosity in public funding for formal LTC, and the proportion of the elderly population in the total population. Data Collection/Extraction Method Aggregated macro data were obtained from OECD Health Data, United Nations Demographic Yearbooks, and U.S. Census Bureau International Data Base. Principal Findings Most of the 15 OECD countries experienced growth in LTC expenditures over the study period. The availability of a spouse caregiver, measured by male-to-female ratio among the elderly, is associated with a $28,840 (1995 U.S. dollars) annual reduction in formal LTC expenditure per additional elderly male. Availability of an adult child caregiver, measured by female labor force participation and full-time/part-time status shift, is associated with a reduction of $310 to $3,830 in LTC expenditures. These impacts on LTC expenditure vary across countries and across time within a country. Conclusions The availability of an informal caregiver, particularly a spouse caregiver, is among the most important factors explaining variation in LTC expenditure growth. Long-term care policies should take into account behavioral responses: decreased public funding in LTC may lead working women to leave the labor force to provide more informal care. PMID:15544640

  10. The OECD Blue Book on Recombinant DNA Safety Considerations: it's influence on ISBR and EFSA activities.

    PubMed

    Schiemann, Joachim

    2006-01-01

    Biosafety regulatory frameworks are intended to serve as mechanisms for ensuring the safe use of biotechnology products without imposing unacceptable risk to human health or the environment, or unintended constraints to technology transfer. The OECD Blue Book on "Recombinant DNA Safety Considerations", setting out principles and concepts for handling genetically modified organisms safely outside of contained laboratory conditions, was a milestone in the history of biotechnology. The "Recombinant DNA Safety Considerations" definitively became the major resource for the formulation of national regulatory frameworks and international regulations, including the Cartagena Protocol.

  11. Regulatory assessment of chemicals within OECD member countries, EU and in Russia.

    PubMed

    Fjodorova, Natalja; Novich, Marjana; Vrachko, Marjan; Kharchevnikova, Nina; Zholdakova, Zoya; Sinitsyna, Oxana; Benfenati, Emilio

    2008-01-01

    The chemical risk assessment is essesntial part of new chemical legislation registration, evaluation, and authorization of chemicals (REACH). The article presents a review of chemical legislation policies in the European Union (EU) and in Russia, and changes in chemicals regulations to meet the requirement of REACH. The risk assessment paradigm, toxicological parameters, safe limits and classification criteria used by different agencies and authorities in different countries are reported. Our investigation also focuses on comparison of chemical risk assessment criteria used in OECD member countries and in Russia. Tendencies in harmonization in accordance with the globally harmonized system of classification and labeling of chemicals (GHS) are discussed.

  12. A comparison of the poverty impact of transfers, taxes and market income across five OECD countries.

    PubMed

    Bibi, Sami; Duclos, Jean-Yves

    2010-01-01

    This paper compares the poverty reduction impact of income sources, taxes and transfers across five OECD countries. Since the estimation of that impact can depend on the order in which the various income sources are introduced into the analysis, it is done by using the Shapley value. Estimates of the poverty reduction impact are presented in a normalized and unnormalized fashion, in order to take into account the total as well as the per dollar impacts. The methodology is applied to data from the Luxembourg Income Study database.

  13. Convergence tests on tax burden and economic growth among China, Taiwan and the OECD countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, David Han-Min

    2007-07-01

    The unfolding globalization has profound impact on a wide range of nations’ policies including tax and economy policies. This study adopts the time series and cluster analyses to examine the convergence property of tax burden and per capita gross domestic product among Taiwan, China and the OECD countries. The empirical results show that there is no significant relationship between the integration process and fiscal convergence among countries. However, the cluster analyses identify that the group of China, Taiwan, and Korea was stably moving toward one model during the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s. And, the convergence of tax burden is found in the group, but no pairwise convergence exists.

  14. The growth of public health expenditures in OECD countries: do government ideology and electoral motives matter?

    PubMed

    Potrafke, Niklas

    2010-12-01

    This paper empirically evaluates whether government ideology and electoral motives influenced the growth of public health expenditures in 18 OECD countries over the 1971-2004 period. The results suggest that incumbents behaved opportunistically and increased the growth of public health expenditures in election years. Government ideology did not have an influence. These findings indicate (1) the importance of public health in policy debates before elections and (2) the political pressure towards re-organizing public health policy platforms especially in times of demographic change.

  15. The relationship between health expenditures and the age structure of the population in OECD countries.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, J M

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse national health expenditures of OECD countries relative to their age structures. Using econometric techniques designed to analyse cross-sectional time series data, the ageing of the population was found to affect health spending in several countries while having no effect in others. In addition, the effect of income on health spending was lower than that generally reported in the literature. These findings suggest that unobserved country-specific factors play a major role in determining the amount of resources allocated to health services in a country. Such factors also determine if the ageing of the population with increased health spending.

  16. Measuring User-Created Content: Implications for the ICT Access and Use by Households and Individuals Surveys. OECD Digital Economy Papers, No. 139

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Beuzekom, Brigitte

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews recent measurement work on User-Created Content (UCC) undertaken in OECD countries. It shows that UCC is emerging as a significant area of economic and social activity worthy of consideration for official measurement and discusses the implications for the OECD Model Survey on ICT Access and Use by Households and Individuals.…

  17. Measuring User-Created Content: Implications for the ICT Access and Use by Households and Individuals Surveys. OECD Digital Economy Papers, No. 139

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Beuzekom, Brigitte

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews recent measurement work on User-Created Content (UCC) undertaken in OECD countries. It shows that UCC is emerging as a significant area of economic and social activity worthy of consideration for official measurement and discusses the implications for the OECD Model Survey on ICT Access and Use by Households and Individuals.…

  18. Strengthening Innovation in the Netherlands: Making Better Use of Knowledge Creation in Innovation Activities. OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 479

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, David; Ernst, Ekkehard; Oyomopito, Rebecca; Theisens, Jelte

    2006-01-01

    Strengthening the innovation system in the Netherlands is a priority for raising productivity growth, which has been relatively weak in recent years. Knowledge creation in the Netherlands is strong -- scientific publications per capita are the sixth highest in the OECD -- but innovation activity is only around the average for OECD countries…

  19. Strengthening Innovation in the Netherlands: Making Better Use of Knowledge Creation in Innovation Activities. OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 479

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, David; Ernst, Ekkehard; Oyomopito, Rebecca; Theisens, Jelte

    2006-01-01

    Strengthening the innovation system in the Netherlands is a priority for raising productivity growth, which has been relatively weak in recent years. Knowledge creation in the Netherlands is strong -- scientific publications per capita are the sixth highest in the OECD -- but innovation activity is only around the average for OECD countries…

  20. A Comparative Evaluation of Pisa 2003-2006 Results in Reading Literacy Skills: An Example of Top-Five OECD Countries and Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydin, Ayhan; Erdagf, Coskun; Tas, Nuray

    2011-01-01

    In this study it is aimed to describe and evaluate comparatively the reading literacy exam results, the finance of education and schools, and socio-cultural status of parents in Turkey and the top-five OECD countries, Finland, Korea, Canada, Australia, New Zealand respectively, in the light reports and publications by OECD regarding PISA 2003 and…

  1. Summary of the June 2009 Educationtoday Crisis Survey: Initial Reflections on the Impact of the Economic Crisis on Education. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 43

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karkkainen, Kiira

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides initial reflections on the impact of the economic crisis on education across the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) area by analysing the OECD educationtoday crisis survey responses of June 2009. It first looks at the impact of the crisis on education demand and participation, after which the focus…

  2. Tobacco control and the dental profession. A survey of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) national dental associations.

    PubMed

    Beaglehole, Rob H; Tsakos, Georgios; Watt, Richard G

    2005-10-01

    To explore the current role played by national dental associations (NDAs) in tobacco control and to assess relevant policy initiatives across OECD countries. A self-complete questionnaire survey. Chief Executive Officers of NDAs of OECD countries. A response rate of 74% was achieved. An overview of tobacco control policies from OECD member states was obtained. Half of the NDAs reported that they had a policy on tobacco control. Furthermore, a minority of OECD countries appear to have tobacco control guidelines that specifically include reference to the role of dental professionals. Dentists are able to prescribe nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) in less than a third of OECD member states. In a small number of OECD countries there was funding available to encourage dentists to become more actively involved in tobacco control activities. Undergraduate training focusing on tobacco control is not universally provided across all OECD countries. There is an urgent need to put tobacco control initiatives on the oral health policy agenda of NDAs across the OECD. A range of policy opportunities exist to facilitate greater involvement of the dental profession in tobacco control activities.

  3. More for less: Analysis of the performance of avian acute oral guideline OECD 223 from empirical data.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Peter J; Leopold, Annegaaike; Beavers, Joann B; Springer, Timothy A; Chapman, Peter; Maynard, Samuel K; Hubbard, Patrick

    2017-09-01

    Since the publication of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) avian acute oral guideline, OECD 223, empirical data have become available to compare the performance of OECD 223 with statistical simulations used to validate this guideline and with empirical data for US Environmental Protection Agency Office of Chemical Safety and Pollution Prevention (USEPA OCSPP) guideline OCSPP 850.2100. Empirical studies comprised 244 for Northern bobwhite, of which 73 were dose-response tests and 171 were limit tests. Of the dose-response tests, 26 were conducted to OECD 223 (using 3-4 stages) and 33 to OCSPP 850.2100 (using the single 50-bird design). Data were collected from 5 avian testing laboratories from studies performed between 2006 and 2013. The success with which the LD50 and slope could be determined was 100% and 96% for OECD 223 (mean 26 birds per test) and 100% and 51% for OCSPP 850.2100 (mean 50 birds per test). This was consistent with the statistical simulations. Control mortality across all species and designs amounted to 0.26% (n = 2655) with only single mortalities occurring in any 1 study and <1% for any 1 species. The simulations used to validate the OECD 223 design showed that control mortality up to 1% will have no observable impact on the performance. The distribution of time to death for Northern bobwhite, zebra finch, and canary were obtained from 90, 29, and 17 studies, and mortalities appeared within 3 d for 71%, 95%, and 91% of birds tested, respectively. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:906-914. © 2017 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society of Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry (SETAC). © 2017 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society of Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry (SETAC).

  4. The OECD policy for the implementation of the principles of good laboratory practice.

    PubMed

    Turnheim, D

    1994-01-01

    OECD has been involved in the harmonisation of policies and instruments for chemicals control since the late 1970's. The OECD principles of good laboratory practice (GLP) were developed and subsequently adopted by the Council in 1981. These principles have the primary objective of ensuring the generation of high quality test data. They set out managerial concepts covering the organisation of test laboratories as well as the conditions under which laboratory studies are planned, performed, monitored, recorded and reported. A system of compliance monitoring procedures has been established to ensure that laboratory studies are carried out in member countries according to the principles of GLP. The harmonization and mutual recognition of compliance monitoring methods among member countries have been a crucial step in ensuring the international acceptability of data. This undertaking involved the development of consistent criteria for determining whether a laboratory conducts studies in accordance with the principles of GLP. Training courses are held for GLP inspectors, an activity which lies at the basis of harmonising monitoring procedures. Consensus workshops result in consensus documents on the harmonised application and interpretation of the GLP principles in specific areas or on specific points. This system makes it possible for countries to speak the same language when exchanging information about specific laboratories, and to have confidence in the quality and rigour of safety tests undertaken in a laboratory.

  5. Potential markets for small coal-fired combustors in OECD countries: Country screening

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-08-01

    This report examines potential for use of US-developed advanced coal technology (ACT) for small combustor applications in foreign markets, in particular, the member countries of the Organization of Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). After screening out OECD countries were evaluated on eight important factors favoring use of US ACT, including: the energy plan and/or situation; oil/gas import dependency; coal experience; residential/commercial energy demand; industrial energy demand; trade relations with the United States; lack of domestic competition in the country to US ACT manufacturers; and environmental pressure for use of advanced technology. Statistical and other information was gathered to support each country's rating---high, medium-high, low-medium, or low---for each factor. The country/factor ratings were then used to group the countries into categories indicating their relative potential as markets were found to exist in Spain, Italy, Turkey, Greece, and Canada. It was recommended that Spain, Italy, and Turkey be the subject of future studies, in which more detailed analysis will be made. 23 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  6. Evaluation of OECD guidelines for testing of chemicals with aquatic organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Blaylock, B.G.; McCarthy, J.F.; Frank, M.L.; Singley, P.T.

    1983-10-01

    The protocols in the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) guidelines for testing of chemicals with aquatic organisms were evaluated for the following tests: (1) Fish, Acute Toxicity Test, (2) Bioaccumulation: Flow-through Fish Test, (3) Daphnia sp., 14-day Reproduction Test (including an Acute Immobilization Test), and (4) Alga, Growth Inhibition Test. The protocols were evaluated by conducting the tests with different classes of chemicals (i.e., water soluble, less water soluble requiring a chemical carrier, and volatile chemical). Flow-through and semistatic Fish, Acute Toxicity Tests were conducted with cupric chloride and acridine. The Bioaccumulation Flow-Through Fish Test was conducted with naphthalene and DDE. Three chemicals - cupric chloride, acridine, and di-n-butyl phthalate - were used to evaluate the Daphnia sp., 14-day Reproduction Test. The Alga, Growth Inhibition Test was evaluated with three chemicals: cupric chloride, acridine, and paradichlorobenzene. By following the OECD guidelines in conducting these tests, results were obtained that are comparable with literature data obtained with other methods. An evaluation of each test protocol is given with recommendations for the guidelines for conducting the tests.

  7. Association between antidepressant prescribing and suicide rates in OECD countries: an ecological study.

    PubMed

    Kamat, M A; Edgar, L; Niblock, P; McDowell, C; Kelly, C B

    2014-01-01

    We have conducted an ecological study to assess the association between antidepressant prescribing and suicide rates using the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) health data, making this the largest ecological study in recent times. Data were derived for the years 1995-2008 from the OECD health data set. The residuals for all variables were adjusted for country and year within each country. These were then analysed to identify predictors of suicide rate. Pearson's rank correlation coefficient and linear regression model were employed to assess associations and identify significant predictors of suicide rate. Suicide rate has significant positive correlations with antidepressant rates (p=0.031) and unemployment (p=0.028). It also has a significant negative correlation with inpatient psychiatric beds (p=0.039). The actual coefficients are less than ±0.16, indicating weak relationships. After adjusting for other variables, the only variable that is a statistically significant predictor of suicide rate is antidepressant prescribing (p=0.005, r²=0.09). Our analysis using this large data set suggests a statistically significant, albeit weak positive, association between antidepressant prescribing and suicide rates. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Informing policy makers about future health spending: a comparative analysis of forecasting methods in OECD countries.

    PubMed

    Astolfi, Roberto; Lorenzoni, Luca; Oderkirk, Jillian

    2012-09-01

    Concerns about health care expenditure growth and its long-term sustainability have risen to the top of the policy agenda in many OECD countries. As continued growth in spending places pressure on government budgets, health services provision and patients' personal finances, policy makers have launched forecasting projects to support policy planning. This comparative analysis reviewed 25 models that were developed for policy analysis in OECD countries by governments, research agencies, academics and international organisations. We observed that the policy questions that need to be addressed drive the choice of forecasting model and the model's specification. By considering both the level of aggregation of the units analysed and the level of detail of health expenditure to be projected, we identified three classes of models: micro, component-based, and macro. Virtually all models account for demographic shifts in the population, while two important influences on health expenditure growth that are the least understood include technological innovation and health-seeking behaviour. The landscape for health forecasting models is dynamic and evolving. Advances in computing technology and increases in data granularity are opening up new possibilities for the generation of system of models which become an on-going decision support tool capable of adapting to new questions as they arise. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. OECD validation of phase-3 Hershberger assay using the stimulated weanling male rat in Korea.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hyun-Ju; Kang, Tae Seok; Kim, Tae Sung; Kang, Il Hyun; Kim, Seung Hee; Han, Soon Young

    2010-05-01

    The OECD has proposed a new, validated test guideline with the stimulated weanling male Hershberger assay to avoid the surgical castration step. In the present study, we assessed the relevance and reliability of the stimulated weanling Hershberger assay in four stages. All chemicals except for testosterone propionate (TP) were orally administered to sexually immature male rats of 22 days old for 10 days. The weights of four mandatory accessory sex organs, two additional reproductive tissues and optional systemic organs were evaluated. At the first two stages, TP, as reference androgen, significantly increased the weights of epididymides and accessory sex organs (ASO) at 1.0 mg kg(-1) and flutamide (FLU), as a positive anti-androgen control, decreased the TP-stimulated organ weights at 3.0 mg kg(-1). At stage 3, trenbolone (40 mg kg(-1)), an anabolic steroid, significantly increased ASO weights, and weak anti-androgens (DDE and linuron) decreased the TP-stimulated ASO weights at each high dose. The above results were confirmed in a blind test with coded substances provided by OECD. Compared with results from our previous castrated male assay, the intact weanling version is less sensitive than the castrated male version, in terms of a smaller response at the reference dose of TP or FLU. However, this study suggests that the stimulated weanling Hershberger assay can detect the effects of both potent and weak anti-androgens on androgen-producing and androgen-dependent tissues.

  10. Main issues addressed in the 2014-2015 revisions to the OECD Genetic Toxicology Test Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Thybaud, Veronique; Lorge, Elisabeth; Levy, Dan D; van Benthem, Jan; Douglas, George R; Marchetti, Francesco; Moore, Martha M; Schoeny, Rita

    2017-03-07

    The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) recently revised the test guidelines (TGs) for genetic toxicology. This article describes the main issues addressed during the revision process, and the new and consistent recommendations made in the revised TGs for: (1) demonstration of laboratory proficiency; (2) generation and use of robust historical control data; (3) improvement of the statistical power of the tests; (4) selection of top concentration for in vitro assays; (5) consistent data interpretation and determination of whether the result is clearly positive, clearly negative or needs closer consideration; and, (6) consideration of 3R's for in vivo assay design. The revision process resulted in improved consistency among OECD TGs (including the newly developed ones) and more comprehensive recommendations for the conduct and the interpretation of the assays. Altogether, the recommendations made during the revision process should improve the efficiency, by which the data are generated, and the quality and reliability of test results. Environ. Mol. Mutagen., 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Trends of Breastfeeding Rate in Korea (1994-2012): Comparison with OECD and Other Countries

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Sung-Hoon; Kim, Hye-Ryun; Choi, Yong-Sung

    2013-01-01

    Breastfeeding has numerous benefits both for infants and mothers. WHO, UNICEF, and OECD report the breastfeeding rate (BR) and exclusive breastfeeding rate (EBR) at 3, 4, and 6 months of age for the international comparison. This article investigates the nationwide changes in BR and EBR in Korea from 1994 to 2012. EBR declined from 1994 to 2000, however progressively increased untill 2012. The latest data in 2012 revealed EBRs at 3, 4, and 6 months were 50.0%, 40.5%, and 11.4% respectively. The exclusive formula feeding rate (EFR) was highest in 2000 and gradually declined thereafter. In 2012, the EFRs at 3, 4 and 6 months were 21.7%, 26.5%, and 10.1%. In 2009, the EBRs at 3 and 6 months in the United States were 36.0% and 16.3% compared to 50.0% and 11.4% in Korea. In England, the EBRs were 17% and 12% in 2010. Amongst OECD countries, Hungary ranked highest EBRwith 95%, and Iceland, Norway, Slovak Republic, Australia, New Zealand followed. In conclusion, BRs were lowest in 2000, and there have been remarkable increases in BRs over the past 10 yr in Korea. Although BRs have been increasing, further efforts to increase BRs should be made continuously. PMID:24265518

  12. Behavior of nanoscale titanium dioxide in laboratory wastewater treatment plants according to OECD 303 A.

    PubMed

    Gartiser, Stefan; Flach, Felcitas; Nickel, Carmen; Stintz, Michael; Damme, Stefanie; Schaeffer, Andreas; Erdinger, Lothar; Kuhlbusch, Thomas A J

    2014-06-01

    The fate assessment of nanomaterials in municipal sewage treatment plants (STP) is a crucial step for their environmental risk assessment and may be assessed by monitoring full scale STP, dosage to medium scale pilot STP or by laboratory testing. For regulatory purposes preferably standardised test protocols such as the OECD guidelines for testing of chemicals should be used. However, these test protocols have not yet been specifically designed for nanoparticles. Therefore, the fate and behavior of a TiO2 nanomaterial (P25, average hydrodynamic diameter <250 nm) was investigated in laboratory sewage treatment plants according to the OECD Guideline for the Testing of Chemicals 303 A. It is concluded that this guideline is applicable for the testing of nanomaterials if modifications regarding the dosage, nitrifying conditions, and a characterisation of the nanoparticles in the effluent are applied. A compilation of the cumulative mass balance by comparison of the total dosage added with the amount in the outflow and in the activated sludge is recommended. In this study, the majority of the TiO2 nanomaterial (>95%) was retained in the sewage sludge and only 3-4% was found in the effluent. No effect of the TiO2 nanomaterials on the biodegradation or nitrification was observed.

  13. Machines that Go 'Ping': Medical Technology and Health Expenditures in OECD Countries.

    PubMed

    Willemé, Peter; Dumont, Michel

    2015-08-01

    Technology is believed to be a major determinant of increasing health spending. The main difficulty to quantify its effect is to find suitable proxies to measure medical technological innovation. This paper's main contribution is the use of data on approved medical devices and drugs to proxy for medical technology. The effects of these variables on total real per capita health spending are estimated using a panel model for 18 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries covering the period 1981-2012. The results confirm the substantial cost-increasing effect of medical technology, which accounts for almost 50% of the explained historical growth of spending. Despite the overall net positive effect of technology, the effect of two subgroups of approvals on expenditure is significantly negative. These subgroups can be thought of as representing 'incremental medical innovation', whereas the positive effects are related to radically innovative pharmaceutical products and devices. A separate time series model was estimated for the USA because the FDA approval data in fact only apply to the USA, while they serve as proxies for the other OECD countries. Our empirical model includes an indicator of obesity, and estimations confirm the substantial contribution of this lifestyle variable to health spending growth in the countries studied.

  14. How did the economic recession (2008-2010) influence traffic fatalities in OECD-countries?

    PubMed

    Wegman, Fred; Allsop, Richard; Antoniou, Constantinos; Bergel-Hayat, Ruth; Elvik, Rune; Lassarre, Sylvain; Lloyd, Daryl; Wijnen, Wim

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents analyses of how the economic recession that started in 2008 has influenced the number of traffic fatalities in OECD countries. Previous studies of the relationship between economic recessions and changes in the number of traffic fatalities are reviewed. Based on these studies, a causal diagram of the relationship between changes of the business cycle and changes in the number of traffic fatalities is proposed. This causal model is tested empirically by means of multivariate analyses and analyses of accident statistics for Great Britain and Sweden. Economic recession, as indicated both by slower growth of, or decline of gross national product, and by increased unemployment is associated with an accelerated decline in the number of traffic fatalities, i.e. a larger decline than the long-term trend that is normal in OECD countries. The principal mechanisms bringing this about are a disproportionate reduction of driving among high-risk drivers, in particular young drivers and a reduction of fatality rate per kilometre of travel, probably attributable to changes in road user behaviour that are only partly observable. The total number of vehicle kilometres of travel did not change very much as a result of the recession. The paper is based on an ITF-report that presents the analyses in greater detail. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Analyzing the Limitations and the Applicability Domain of Water-Sediment Transformation Tests like OECD 308.

    PubMed

    Ter Horst, Mechteld M S; Koelmans, Albert A

    2016-10-04

    The assessment of chemical degradation rates from water-sediment experiments like for instance OECD 308 is challenging due to parallel occurrence of processes like degradation, sorption and diffusive transport, at different rates in water and sediment or at their interface. To systematically and quantitatively analyze this limitation, we generated artificial experiment data sets using model simulations and then used these data sets in an inverse modeling exercise to estimate degradation half-lives in water and sediment (DegT50wat and DegT50sed), which then were evaluated against their true values. Results were visualized by chemical space diagrams that identified those substance property combinations for which the OECD 308 test is fundamentally inappropriate. We show that the uncertainty in estimated degradation half-lives in water increases as the process of diffusion to the sediment becomes dominant over degradation in the water. We show that in theory the uncertainty in the estimated DegT50sed is smaller than the uncertainty in the DegT50wat. The predictive value of our chemical space diagrams was validated using literature transformation rates and their uncertainties that were inferred from real water-sediment experiments.

  16. More Health Expenditure, Better Economic Performance? Empirical Evidence From OECD Countries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fuhmei

    2015-01-01

    Recent economic downturns have led many countries to reduce health spending dramatically, with the World Health Organization raising concerns over the effects of this, in particular among the poor and vulnerable. With the provision of appropriate health care, the population of a country could have better health, thus strengthening the nation's human capital, which could contribute to economic growth through improved productivity. How much should countries spend on health care? This study aims to estimate the optimal health care expenditure in a growing economy. Applying the experiences of countries from the Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) over the period 1990 to 2009, this research introduces the method of system generalized method of moments (GMM) to derive the design of the estimators of the focal variables. Empirical evidence indicates that when the ratio of health spending to gross domestic product (GDP) is less than the optimal level of 7.55%, increases in health spending effectively lead to better economic performance. Above this, more spending does not equate to better care. The real level of health spending in OECD countries is 5.48% of GDP, with a 1.87% economic growth rate. The question which is posed by this study is a pertinent one, especially in the current context of financially constrained health systems around the world. The analytical results of this work will allow policymakers to better allocate scarce resources to achieve their macroeconomic goals. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. OECD Global Science Forum's Astronomy Workshop to take place in Munich

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-11-01

    On December 1 to 3, the city of Munich (Bavaria, Germany) will be the venue for a "Workshop on Large Scale Programmes and Projects in Astronomy and Astrophysics" organised by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Global Science Forum in co-operation with the European Southern Observatory (ESO). The Workshop will be chaired by Ian Corbett (ESO). The Global Science Forum brings together science policy officials from the OECD countries. The delegates, who meet twice a year, look at a range of generic issues in science funding and seek to identify and maximise opportunities for international co-operation in basic scientific research. This Workshop was proposed by Germany and agreed by the delegates to the Global Science Forum in June. Government officials and scientists will be able to review in detail the information and the observational and technological advances needed for major progress in the field during the next 15- 20 years. The research subjects reviewed will cover the full range from planets, solar systems, life in the Universe, stars, galaxies, extreme objects to cosmology. Related technological challenges, virtual observatories and other data handling issues will also be considered. The primary objective is to specify the policy issues relating to priority-setting, planning, funding and, above all, international co-ordination and co-operation. The Workshop will focus on issues relevant to the process through which astronomy advances, and will highlight means to enhance that process in light of longer-term scientific and political trends. There will probably be a follow-up meeting early in 2004, from which a policy level report will be prepared for consideration by the Global Science Forum and so transmitted to governments. Eighteen delegations, from non-OECD as well as OECD countries, will attend, each consisting of senior programme managers from the national ministry, funding agency or research council, and one or more senior

  18. A Tuning-AHELO Conceptual Framework of Expected Desired/Learning Outcomes in Engineering. OECD Education Working Papers, Number 60

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    The OECD Secretariat, at the invitation of the AHELO Group of National Experts, contracted the Tuning Association to undertake initial development work on learning outcomes to be used for valid and reliable assessments of students from diverse institutions and countries. The two disciplines selected for the AEHLO Feasibility Study are engineering…

  19. Future Digital Economy: Digital Content Creation, Distribution and Access--Conference Conclusions. OECD Digital Economy Papers No. 118

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2006

    2006-01-01

    This conference, jointly organised by OECD's Department for Science, Technology and Industry and the Italian Ministry for Innovation and Technology, was attended by approximately 350 representatives from industry, academia and government. Rapporteurs presented summaries in terms of issues and areas where there was agreement and/or convergence…

  20. From Ideas to Development: The Determinants of R&D and Patenting. OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 457

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaumotte, Florence; Pain, Nigel

    2005-01-01

    This paper uses panel regressions to investigate the effects of innovation policies and framework factors on business R&D intensity and patenting for a sample of 20 OECD countries over the period 1982- 2001. Both sets of factors are found to matter; the main determinants of innovativeness appear to be the availability of scientists and engineers,…

  1. Effects of Migration on Sending Countries: What Do We Know? OECD Development Centre Working Paper No. 250

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katseli, Louka T.; Lucas, Robert E. B.; Xenogiani, Theodora

    2006-01-01

    This report evaluates the evidence on how migration may promote or hinder development in countries of origin, and explores possible win-win solutions for both sending and receiving countries. The analysis of recent OECD data of foreign-born nationals into Europe documents the presence of multiple migration patterns and reveals that the EU lags…

  2. Tuning-AHELO Conceptual Framework of Expected and Desired Learning Outcomes in Economics. OECD Education Working Papers No. 59

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Secretariat, at the invitation of the AHELO Group of National Experts, contracted the Tuning Association to undertake initial development work on learning outcomes to be used for valid and reliable assessments of students from diverse institutions and countries. The two disciplines…

  3. Education and Civic Engagement: Review of Research and a Study on Norwegian Youths. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauglo, Jon; Oia, Tormod

    2007-01-01

    What difference does education make for young adults' engagement in politics and social issues? This study is part of the OECD's Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (CERI) project on "Measuring the Social Outcomes of Learning" (SOL). It discusses relevant international research, with special attention to studies in the Nordic…

  4. CERI's 20th Anniversary: A Special Supplement. Innovation in Education: News from the OECD-Paris, No. 51.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This newsletter briefly discusses three topics generated from the continuing work in the field of education of the international Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and the Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (CERI). The topics are titled: (1) The Contribution of Research, Innovation and Development to Effective…

  5. Rural Education in Urbanized Nations: Issues and Innovations. Westview Special Studies in Education. An OECD/CERI Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sher, Jonathan P., Ed.

    Collected as part of the program of work for the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development/Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (OECD/CERI) Education and Local Development project, scheduled to operate from 1979 to the end of 1981, this volume is designed to provide a foundation of information and insights on education in…

  6. Education at a Glance: OECD Indicators = Regards sur l'education: Les indicateurs de l'OCDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Centre for Educational Research and Innovation.

    This report presents a preliminary set of international education indicators developed by the Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (CERI) of the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD). The set of indicators is designed to meet the growing demands by national authorities and the education community for comparative…

  7. The Changing Functions of Higher Education: Implications for Innovation. Reports from the 1984 OECD/Japan Seminar on Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Higher Education.

    College curricula and instruction, differentiation, and innovation and change in American and Japanese higher education are discussed in 18 papers presented at the 1984 international seminars of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Higher education in three European countries is also addressed. Titles and authors…

  8. Change Management in the Governance of Schooling: The Rise of Experts, Planners, and Statistics in the Early OECD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tröhler, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: Based on archival material, the following paper analyzes the political strategies of the early OECD stakeholders in transforming schooling from a cultural to a technological system and how they were in need of standardizing different existing patterns of thoughts or institutional behaviors in the member countries. The European…

  9. Some Thoughts about the Value of an OECD International Assessment Framework for Early Childhood Services in Aotearoa New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Margaret; Mitchell, Linda; Rameka, Lesley

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the authors argue that the use of Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) standardized tests to evaluate the early childhood education sector, while it may be perfectly "scientific", could be disastrous for "Te Whariki", a curriculum that is child-centred and learning-oriented. The basic…

  10. OSERS/OECD International Symposium on Inclusion and Professional Development. Proceedings (Bethesda, MD, September 24-26, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Anne, Ed.; Doll, Beth, Ed.; Gengel, Stacey, Ed.

    This report is an outcome of the OSERS/OECD International Symposium on Inclusion and Professional Development held in Bethesda, Maryland, from September 24-26, 1998. The purpose of the symposium was to examine promising professional preparation practices that support the inclusion of students with disabilities in the general education curriculum.…

  11. Competitive Comparison and PISA Bragging Rights: Sub-National Uses of the OECD's PISA in Canada and the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, Laura C.; Frizzell, Matthew O.

    2015-01-01

    Participation in the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development's (OECD) Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) has continuously expanded: from 43 systems in 2000 to 65 systems in the 2012 cycle, with 71 signed up for PISA 2015. There also has been a growth in sub-national participation, expanding PISA's reach beyond the…

  12. Report to OECD/CERI Policy Group from Pacific Circle Consortium on Phase 1 Activities: 1977-1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connell, Helen; Wells, Marguerite

    Established in 1977, the Pacific Circle Consortium is a group of national-level educational research and development agencies from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Pacific region countries engaged in cooperative projects intended to improve international understanding and relations. From 1977 to 1980 the Consortium…

  13. 40 CFR 174.529 - Bacillus thuringiensis modified Cry1Ab protein as identified under OECD Unique Identifier SYN...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... protein as identified under OECD Unique Identifier SYN-IR67B-1 in cotton; exemption from the requirement... Unique Identifier SYN-IR67B-1 in cotton; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of... exempt from the requirement of a tolerance when used as a plant-incorporated protectant in cotton;...

  14. 40 CFR 174.529 - Bacillus thuringiensis modified Cry1Ab protein as identified under OECD Unique Identifier SYN...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... protein as identified under OECD Unique Identifier SYN-IR67B-1 in cotton; exemption from the requirement... Unique Identifier SYN-IR67B-1 in cotton; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of... exempt from the requirement of a tolerance when used as a plant-incorporated protectant in cotton;...

  15. 40 CFR 174.529 - Bacillus thuringiensis modified Cry1Ab protein as identified under OECD Unique Identifier SYN...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... protein as identified under OECD Unique Identifier SYN-IR67B-1 in cotton; exemption from the requirement... Unique Identifier SYN-IR67B-1 in cotton; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of... exempt from the requirement of a tolerance when used as a plant-incorporated protectant in cotton;...

  16. 40 CFR 174.529 - Bacillus thuringiensis modified Cry1Ab protein as identified under OECD Unique Identifier SYN...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... protein as identified under OECD Unique Identifier SYN-IR67B-1 in cotton; exemption from the requirement... Unique Identifier SYN-IR67B-1 in cotton; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of... exempt from the requirement of a tolerance when used as a plant-incorporated protectant in cotton;...

  17. PISA for Development Technical Strand A: Enhancement of PISA Cognitive Instruments. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 126

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Ray; Cresswell, John

    2016-01-01

    The OECD is planning to enhance existing PISA assessment instruments in reading, mathematics and science so that they will be more suitable to the context of developing countries. The main purpose of this paper is to identify the main technical issues associated with this aim. The paper reports detailed analysis of the existing PISA item pool and…

  18. The Education Challenge in Mexico: Delivering Good Quality Education to All. OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 447

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guichard, Stephanie

    2005-01-01

    The growth of potential GDP in Mexico is not fast enough to narrow the income gap with other OECD countries at a sufficient pace. The persistent weakness in human capital development contributes to this situation. In particular, Mexicans spend comparatively few years in formal education, and the quality of the education they receive is lower than…

  19. Report to OECD/CERI Policy Group from Pacific Circle Consortium on Phase 1 Activities: 1977-1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connell, Helen; Wells, Marguerite

    Established in 1977, the Pacific Circle Consortium is a group of national-level educational research and development agencies from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Pacific region countries engaged in cooperative projects intended to improve international understanding and relations. From 1977 to 1980 the Consortium…

  20. A Tuning-AHELO Conceptual Framework of Expected Desired/Learning Outcomes in Engineering. OECD Education Working Papers, Number 60

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    The OECD Secretariat, at the invitation of the AHELO Group of National Experts, contracted the Tuning Association to undertake initial development work on learning outcomes to be used for valid and reliable assessments of students from diverse institutions and countries. The two disciplines selected for the AEHLO Feasibility Study are engineering…

  1. Higher Education R&D and Productivity Growth: An Empirical Study on High-Income OECD Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eid, Ashraf

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a macro study on higher education R&D and its impact on productivity growth. I measure the social rate of return on higher education R&D in 17 high-income OECD countries using country level data on the percentage of gross expenditure on R&D performed by higher education, business, and government sectors over the period…

  2. Higher Education R&D and Productivity Growth: An Empirical Study on High-Income OECD Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eid, Ashraf

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a macro study on higher education R&D and its impact on productivity growth. I measure the social rate of return on higher education R&D in 17 high-income OECD countries using country level data on the percentage of gross expenditure on R&D performed by higher education, business, and government sectors over the period…

  3. PISA for Development Technical Strand A: Enhancement of PISA Cognitive Instruments. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 126

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Ray; Cresswell, John

    2016-01-01

    The OECD is planning to enhance existing PISA assessment instruments in reading, mathematics and science so that they will be more suitable to the context of developing countries. The main purpose of this paper is to identify the main technical issues associated with this aim. The paper reports detailed analysis of the existing PISA item pool and…

  4. Effects of Migration on Sending Countries: What Do We Know? OECD Development Centre Working Paper No. 250

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katseli, Louka T.; Lucas, Robert E. B.; Xenogiani, Theodora

    2006-01-01

    This report evaluates the evidence on how migration may promote or hinder development in countries of origin, and explores possible win-win solutions for both sending and receiving countries. The analysis of recent OECD data of foreign-born nationals into Europe documents the presence of multiple migration patterns and reveals that the EU lags…

  5. Change Management in the Governance of Schooling: The Rise of Experts, Planners, and Statistics in the Early OECD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tröhler, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: Based on archival material, the following paper analyzes the political strategies of the early OECD stakeholders in transforming schooling from a cultural to a technological system and how they were in need of standardizing different existing patterns of thoughts or institutional behaviors in the member countries. The European…

  6. Education and Civic Engagement: Review of Research and a Study on Norwegian Youths. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauglo, Jon; Oia, Tormod

    2007-01-01

    What difference does education make for young adults' engagement in politics and social issues? This study is part of the OECD's Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (CERI) project on "Measuring the Social Outcomes of Learning" (SOL). It discusses relevant international research, with special attention to studies in the Nordic…

  7. The Education Challenge in Mexico: Delivering Good Quality Education to All. OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 447

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guichard, Stephanie

    2005-01-01

    The growth of potential GDP in Mexico is not fast enough to narrow the income gap with other OECD countries at a sufficient pace. The persistent weakness in human capital development contributes to this situation. In particular, Mexicans spend comparatively few years in formal education, and the quality of the education they receive is lower than…

  8. Rebuilding Schools after the Wenchuan Earthquake: China Visits OECD, Italy and Turkey. CELE Exchange 2009/7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    As the reconstruction efforts continue in China in the wake of the Great Wenchuan earthquake in May 2008, the China Development Research Foundation, with the support of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Centre for Effective Learning Environments, organised an International Training Programme on the Post-Earthquake…

  9. Future Digital Economy: Digital Content Creation, Distribution and Access--Conference Conclusions. OECD Digital Economy Papers No. 118

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2006

    2006-01-01

    This conference, jointly organised by OECD's Department for Science, Technology and Industry and the Italian Ministry for Innovation and Technology, was attended by approximately 350 representatives from industry, academia and government. Rapporteurs presented summaries in terms of issues and areas where there was agreement and/or convergence…

  10. Rebuilding Schools after the Wenchuan Earthquake: China Visits OECD, Italy and Turkey. CELE Exchange 2009/7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    As the reconstruction efforts continue in China in the wake of the Great Wenchuan earthquake in May 2008, the China Development Research Foundation, with the support of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Centre for Effective Learning Environments, organised an International Training Programme on the Post-Earthquake…

  11. Some Thoughts about the Value of an OECD International Assessment Framework for Early Childhood Services in Aotearoa New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Margaret; Mitchell, Linda; Rameka, Lesley

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the authors argue that the use of Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) standardized tests to evaluate the early childhood education sector, while it may be perfectly "scientific", could be disastrous for "Te Whariki", a curriculum that is child-centred and learning-oriented. The basic…

  12. From Role Models to Nations in Need of Advice: Norway and Sweden under the OECD's Magnifying Glass

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettersson, Daniel; Prøitz, Tine Sophie; Forsberg, Eva

    2017-01-01

    By analysing five separate OECD reviews of evaluation and assessment practices with Norway and Sweden as cases, our study illustrates different ways in which a specific international educational reasoning is blended into more context-based national education policies and, as such, works in parallel with internal reforms and agendas. It is evident…

  13. Evaluation of the OECD 314B activated sludge die-away test for assessing the biodegradation of pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Ericson, Jon F

    2010-01-01

    The European Medicines Agency guideline for the environmental risk assessment of medicinal products provides a step-by-step phased approach to evaluate the potential risks of new medicines to the environment. Phase I ("prescreen") estimates the initial exposure of the new medicine in the environment. Phase II A ("screen") estimates the fate and effects in the environment. The fate screen determines the inherent properties of the new medicinal active ingredient to sorb to sludge, soil, and sediment matrices and its potential to degrade in a sewage treatment plant and in the subsequent water-sediment compartment. Current ERA Guidance (2006) recommends the OECD 301B Ready Biodegradation Test for Phase II Tier A testing without a clear recommendation for Phase II Tier B testing when further refinement may be needed. With the recent approval of the OECD 314B method for activated sludge, there is now an alternative test method that may be better suited for Phase II Tier A testing and to the data needs of the ERA. As a batch test, it fits the needs of a Tier A screen. It is not designed to simulate the operational steps of a sewage treatment plant, such as the OECD 303 tests, and yet provides the following without considerable costs or resources of OECD 303: (1) useful kinetic information in a test that reflects the conditions of the sewage-treatment environment, i.e., realistic biomass solids concentrations and low level test material concentrations to simulate first-order (nongrowth) kinetics, (2) mass balance analysis for CO(2) evolution and for residues found in mixed liquor, (3) use of an abiotic control to assess losses other than those attributed to biotic biodegradation, and (4) biotransformation profile of degradants. This paper presents the results of OECD 301B with that of OECD 314B for activated sludge biodegradation for five Pfizer drug substances. The use of this new method as an alternative to OECD 301B would strengthen the fate testing screen in Phase II

  14. INL Results for Phases I and III of the OECD/NEA MHTGR-350 Benchmark

    SciTech Connect

    Gerhard Strydom; Javier Ortensi; Sonat Sen; Hans Hammer

    2013-09-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Technology Development Office (TDO) Methods Core Simulation group led the construction of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Modular High Temperature Reactor (MHTGR) 350 MW benchmark for comparing and evaluating prismatic VHTR analysis codes. The benchmark is sponsored by the OECD's Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), and the project will yield a set of reference steady-state, transient, and lattice depletion problems that can be used by the Department of Energy (DOE), the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and vendors to assess their code suits. The Methods group is responsible for defining the benchmark specifications, leading the data collection and comparison activities, and chairing the annual technical workshops. This report summarizes the latest INL results for Phase I (steady state) and Phase III (lattice depletion) of the benchmark. The INSTANT, Pronghorn and RattleSnake codes were used for the standalone core neutronics modeling of Exercise 1, and the results obtained from these codes are compared in Section 4. Exercise 2 of Phase I requires the standalone steady-state thermal fluids modeling of the MHTGR-350 design, and the results for the systems code RELAP5-3D are discussed in Section 5. The coupled neutronics and thermal fluids steady-state solution for Exercise 3 are reported in Section 6, utilizing the newly developed Parallel and Highly Innovative Simulation for INL Code System (PHISICS)/RELAP5-3D code suit. Finally, the lattice depletion models and results obtained for Phase III are compared in Section 7. The MHTGR-350 benchmark proved to be a challenging simulation set of problems to model accurately, and even with the simplifications introduced in the benchmark specification this activity is an important step in the code-to-code verification of modern prismatic VHTR codes. A final OECD/NEA comparison report will compare the Phase I and III results

  15. Disability, Work Absenteeism, Sickness Benefits, and Cancer in Selected European OECD Countries-Forecasts to 2020.

    PubMed

    Jakovljevic, Mihajlo; Malmose-Stapelfeldt, Christina; Milovanovic, Olivera; Rancic, Nemanja; Bokonjic, Dubravko

    2017-01-01

    Disability either due to illness, aging, or both causes remains an essential contributor shaping European labor markets. Ability of modern day welfare states to compensate an impaired work ability and absenteeism arising from incapacity is very diverse. The aims of this study were to establish and explain intercountry differences among selected European OECD countries and to provide forecasts of future work absenteeism and expenditures on wage replacement benefits. Two major public registries, European health for all database and Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development database (OECD Health Data), were coupled to form a joint database on 12 core indicators. These were related to disability, work absenteeism, and sickness benefits in European OECD countries. Time horizon 1989-2013 was observed. Forecasting analysis was done on mean values of all data for each single variable for all observed countries in a single year. Trends were predicted on a selected time horizon based on the mean value, in our case, 7 years up to 2020. For this purpose, ARIMA prediction model was applied, and its significance was assessed using Ljung-Box Q test. Our forecasts based on ARIMA modeling of available data indicate that up to 2020, most European countries will experience downfall of absenteeism from work due to illness. The number of citizens receiving social/disability benefits and the number being compensated due to health-related absence from work will decline. As opposed to these trends, cancer morbidity may become the top ranked disability driver as hospital discharge diagnoses. Concerning development is the anticipated bold growth of hospital discharge frequencies due to cancer across the region. This effectively means that part of these savings on social support expenditure shall effectively be spent to combat strong cancer morbidity as the major driver of disability. We have clearly growing work load for the national health systems attributable to the

  16. Towards actionable international comparisons of health system performance: expert revision of the OECD framework and quality indicators.

    PubMed

    Carinci, F; Van Gool, K; Mainz, J; Veillard, J; Pichora, E C; Januel, J M; Arispe, I; Kim, S M; Klazinga, N S

    2015-04-01

    To review and update the conceptual framework, indicator content and research priorities of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development's (OECD) Health Care Quality Indicators (HCQI) project, after a decade of collaborative work. A structured assessment was carried out using a modified Delphi approach, followed by a consensus meeting, to assess the suite of HCQI for international comparisons, agree on revisions to the original framework and set priorities for research and development. International group of countries participating to OECD projects. Members of the OECD HCQI expert group. A reference matrix, based on a revised performance framework, was used to map and assess all seventy HCQI routinely calculated by the OECD expert group. A total of 21 indicators were agreed to be excluded, due to the following concerns: (i) relevance, (ii) international comparability, particularly where heterogeneous coding practices might induce bias, (iii) feasibility, when the number of countries able to report was limited and the added value did not justify sustained effort and (iv) actionability, for indicators that were unlikely to improve on the basis of targeted policy interventions. The revised OECD framework for HCQI represents a new milestone of a long-standing international collaboration among a group of countries committed to building common ground for performance measurement. The expert group believes that the continuation of this work is paramount to provide decision makers with a validated toolbox to directly act on quality improvement strategies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care; all rights reserved.

  17. Activities of the OECD/NEA Expert Group on Assay Data for Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Gauld, Ian C; Rugama, Yolanda

    2009-01-01

    Management of spent nuclear fuel is a key issue for many NEA member countries. In nuclear criticality safety, the decision of many countries to advance burnup credit as part of their licensing strategy has heightened recent interest in experimental data needed to validate computer codes used in burnup credit calculations. This paper discusses recent activities of an Expert Group on assay data, formed under the OECD/NEA/NSC/WPNCS (Working Party on Nuclear Criticality Safety) to help coordinate isotopic assay data activities and facilitate international collaboration between NEA member countries developing or implementing burnup credit methodologies. Recent activities of the Expert Group are described, focusing on the planned expansion of the Spent Fuel Isotopic Composition Database (SFCOMPO), and preparation of a state-of-the-art report on assay data that includes sections on recommended radiochemical analysis methods, techniques, and lessons learned from previous experiments.

  18. Healthcare policy tools as determinants of health-system efficiency: evidence from the OECD.

    PubMed

    Wranik, Dominika

    2012-04-01

    This paper assesses which policy-relevant characteristics of a healthcare system contribute to health-system efficiency. Health-system efficiency is measured using the stochastic frontier approach. Characteristics of the health system are included as determinants of efficiency. Data from 21 OECD countries from 1970 to 2008 are analysed. Results indicate that broader health-system structures, such as Beveridgian or Bismarckian financing arrangements or gatekeeping, are not significant determinants of efficiency. Significant contributors to efficiency are policy instruments that directly target patient behaviours, such as insurance coverage and cost sharing, and those that directly target physician behaviours, such as physician payment methods. From the perspective of the policymaker, changes in cost-sharing arrangements or physician remuneration are politically easier to implement than changes to the foundational financing structure of the system.

  19. Energy intensities in OECD countries, 1970--1989: A sectoral analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Schipper, L.; Meyers, S.; Howarth, R.

    1992-11-01

    We discuss the evolution of energy intensities in key sectors or subsectors between the early 1970s and the late 1980s in nine OECD countries. The sectors covered are manufacturing, automobile and air travel, freight trucking, residential space heating, and the service sector. Intensity changes varied among the sectors and countries, but common trends are visible in many cases. In most cases, the intensity decline slowed or ceased in the mid-1980s. We discuss the causes for the changes observed in each area, showing how energy-price changes were but one of many factors that played a role. Weighting the changes in intensities by 1973 energy use patterns, we find that the aggregate energy intensity index fell by 14--19% between 1973 and 1988 in the US, Japan, and West Germany.

  20. The analysis of the OECD/NEA/NSC PBMR-400 benchmark problem using PARCS-DIREKT

    SciTech Connect

    Seker, V.; Downar, T. J.

    2006-07-01

    The OECD/NEA/NSC PBMR-400 benchmark problem was developed to support the validation and verification efforts for the PBMR design. This paper describes the analysis of this problem using the PARCS-DIREKT coupled code system. The benchmark problem involved the use of two different cross-section libraries, one which was generated from a VSOP equilibrium core calculation and has no dependence on core conditions. The second library provides for dependence on five state parameters and was designed for transient analysis. The paper here reports the steady-state cases using the VSOP set of cross-sections. The results are shown to be in good agreement with those of VSOP. Also reported here are the results of the steady-state thermal-hydraulic DIRECKT solution with a given power profile obtained from VSOP equilibrium core calculation. This analysis provides some insight as to the most important parameters in the design of PBMR-400. (authors)

  1. The distribution of "big ticket" medical technologies in OECD countries. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.

    PubMed

    Lázaro, P; Fitch, K

    1995-01-01

    Five "big ticket" medical technologies (BTTs) in 1990 were compared in the 24 OECD countries in relation to population, the number of physicians, gross domestic product (GDP), and health care expenditures (HCE). Wide variations were observed between and within countries for all measures. Regression analysis revealed that HCE explains part of the variation in the distribution of computed tomography scanners (excluding Japan), magnetic resonance imaging units, and radiation therapy units (R2 between 0.40 and 0.69), but not extracorporeal shock wave lithotripters. To a lesser extent, GDP was also found to correlate with the distribution of these technologies, but no correlation was found with number of physicians. Other factors affecting the diffusion of these technologies are proposed for study.

  2. Gender policy developments and policy regimes in 22 OECD countries, 1979-2008.

    PubMed

    Backhans, Mona C; Burström, Bo; Marklund, Staffan

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates trends and clustering of gender policy in 22 OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries during 1979-2008. The starting point was Sainsbury's gender policy regime framework, and the study included indicators reflecting the male bread-winner, individual earner-carer, and separate gender roles regimes. The indicators were followed over seven time points for mean, range, and distribution. Cluster analyses were performed for the years 1979, 1989, 1999, and 2004. In accordance with previous studies, the authors found a Nordic cluster of earner-carer countries, while several Southern European countries and the United States were marked by their low generosity and high pension requirements. Though aspects of the separate gender roles regime have become more widespread, no country could be classified as fully belonging to this regime type. The two aspects of the model--compensatory measures in the pension system, and benefits for caring activities--were never present simultaneously.

  3. Economic and cultural correlates of road-traffic accident fatality rates in OECD countries.

    PubMed

    Gaygisiz, Esma

    2009-10-01

    The relationships between economic conditions, cultural characteristics, personality dimensions, intelligence scores, and road-traffic accident mortality rates were investigated in 30 member and five accession countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Economic indicators included the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita, the unemployment rate, and the Gini index. Cultural variables included five Hofstede's cultural dimensions, seven Schwartz cultural value dimensions, NEO-PI-R scales, and the intelligence quotient (IQ). The results showed positive associations between favorable economic conditions (high income per capita, high employment rate, and low income inequality) and high traffic safety. Countries with higher road-traffic accident fatality rates were characterized by higher power distance and uncertainty avoidance as well as embeddedness and emphasis on social hierarchy. Countries with lower road-traffic accident fatality rates were more individualistic, egalitarian, and emphasized autonomy of individuals. Conscientiousness (from NEO-PI-R) and IQ correlated negatively with road-traffic accident fatalities.

  4. The link between health governance models and global health innovation: an exploration of OECD nations.

    PubMed

    Schnarr, Karin; Snowdon, Anne; Cramm, Heidi; Cohen, Jason; Alessi, Charles

    2015-01-01

    While there is established research that explores individual innovations across countries or developments in a specific health area, there is less work that attempts to match national innovations to specific systems of health governance to uncover themes across nations. We used a cross-comparison design that employed content analysis of health governance models and innovation patterns in eight OECD nations (Australia, Britain, Canada, France, Germany, The Netherlands, Switzerland, and the United States). Country-level model of health governance may impact the focus of health innovation within the eight jurisdictions studied. Innovation across all governance models has targeted consumer engagement in health systems, the integration of health services across the continuum of care, access to care in the community, and financial models that drive competition. Improving our understanding of the linkage between health governance and innovation in health systems may heighten awareness of potential enablers and barriers to innovation success.

  5. Thermal-hydraulic post-test analysis of OECD LOFT LP-FP-2 experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Pena, J.J. ); Enciso, S. ); Reventos, F. )

    1992-04-01

    An assessment of RELAP5/MOD2 and SCDAP/MOD1 against the OECD LOFT experiment LP-FP-2 is presented. LP-FP-2 studies the hypothetical release of fission products and their transport following a large-break LOCA scenario. The report comprises a general description of the LP-FP-2 experiment, a summary of thermal-hydraulic data, a simulation of the LP-FP-2 experiment, results of the RELAP5/MOD2 base calculation, the RELAP5/MOD2 sensitivity analysis, the SCDAP/MOD1 nodalization for an LP-FP-2 experiment, the results of the SCDAP/MOD1 calculation, and the summary and conclusions.

  6. Foodborne and waterborne pathogenic bacteria in selected Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Dennis; Hill, Arthur; Wilcock, Anne; Charlebois, Sylvain

    2014-10-01

    The World Ranking Food Safety Performance reports by Charlebois in 2008 and 2010 importantly stimulated international discussion and encouraged efforts to establish realistic international benchmarks for food safety performance among Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries. This paper presents the international incidence of 5 common foodborne pathogens and describes the challenges of comparing international data. Data were compiled from surveillance authorities in the countries, such as the Natl. Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System of Australia; the Canadian Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System; the European Food Safety Authority, EFSA; the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan; New Zealand Food Safety Authority; and the U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention. The highest average rates in cases per 100000 people over the 12-y period from 2000 to 2011 for Campylobacter spp. (237.47), Salmonella spp. (67.08), Yersinia spp. (12.09), Verotoxigenic/Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (3.38), and Listeria monocytogenes (1.06) corresponded, in order, to New Zealand, Belgium, Finland, Canada, and Denmark. Comparatively, annual average rates for these 5 pathogens showed an increase over the 12-y period in 28%, 17%, 14%, 50%, and 6% of the countries for which data were available. Salmonella spp. showed a decrease in 56% of the countries, while incidence of L. monocytogenes was constant in most countries (94%). Variable protocols for monitoring incidence of pathogens among OECD countries remain. Nevertheless, there is evidence of sufficient standardization of monitoring protocols such as the European Surveillance System, which has contributed to reduce this gap.

  7. Information for Exporters of Hazardous Waste to Canada, Chile, Mexico or Non-Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Countries

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information for exporters of hazardous waste from Canada, Chile, Mexico, or non-OECD countries who are subject to the hazardous waste generator and importer requirements described in 40 CFR Part 262 Subpart E, under RCRA

  8. Information for Importers of Hazardous Waste from Canada, Chile, Mexico or Non-Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Countries

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information for importers of hazardous waste from Canada, Chile, Mexico, or non-OECD countries who are subject to the hazardous waste generator and importer requirements described in 40 CFR Part 262 Subpart A – D and F, under RCRA

  9. Review of achievements of the OECD Working Party on Manufactured Nanomaterials' Testing and Assessment Programme. From exploratory testing to test guidelines.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Kirsten; González, Mar; Kearns, Peter; Sintes, Juan Riego; Rossi, François; Sayre, Phil

    2016-02-01

    This paper charts the almost ten years of history of OECD's work on nanosafety, during which the programme of the OECD on the Testing and Assessment of Manufactured Nanomaterials covered the testing of eleven nanomaterials for about 59 end-points addressing physical-chemical properties, mammalian and environmental toxicity, environmental fate and material safety. An overview of the materials tested, the test methods applied and the discussions regarding the applicability of the OECD test guidelines, which are recognised methods for regulatory testing of chemicals, are given. The results indicate that many existing OECD test guidelines are suitable for nanomaterials and consequently, hazard data collected using such guidelines will fall under OECD's system of Mutual Acceptance of Data (MAD) which is a legally binding instrument to facilitate the international acceptance of information for the regulatory safety assessment of chemicals. At the same time, some OECD test guidelines and guidance documents need to be adapted to address nanomaterials while new test guidelines and guidance documents may be needed to address endpoints that are more relevant to nanomaterials. This paper presents examples of areas where test guidelines or guidance for nanomaterials are under development.

  10. Identification of chemical hazards for terrestrial plants in the regulatory context: comparison of OECD and ISO guidelines.

    PubMed

    Tarazona, Jose V; Cesnaitis, Romanas; Herranz-Montes, Francisco Javier; Versonnen, Bram

    2013-11-01

    Standardized test protocols are used in the regulatory context for identifying the hazardous properties of chemicals, wastes, and contaminated materials. This paper compares the relevance of two guidelines measuring effects on terrestrial plants, the OECD TG 208 and the ISO TG 22030 and presents the scientific basis for a recent decision of the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) under the European chemicals regulation REACH. If there are no specific phytotoxicity alerts, both guidelines are considered suitable for assessing long-term hazards, providing that a sufficient number of species is included in the OECD protocol, the recommended minimum number is six, which offer a reasonably broad selection of species to account for interspecies sensitivity. The proposed methodology, based on a combination of probabilistic assessments using Monte Carlo analysis, can be adapted for supporting similar decisions under specific regulatory processes; for example, for assessing contaminated soils or pesticides' applications.

  11. TRAC-PF1/MOD1 post-test calculations of the OECD LOFT Experiment LP-SB-3

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, E J; Neill, A P

    1990-04-01

    Analysis of the small, cold leg break, OECD LOFT Experiment LP-SB-3 using the best-estimate computer code TRAC-PF1/MOD1 is presented. Descriptions of the LOFT facility and the LP-SB-3 experiment are given and development of the TRAC-PF1/MOD1 input model is detailed. The calculations performed in achieving the steady state conditions, from which the experiment was initiated, and the specification of experimental boundary conditions are outlined. Results of the TRAC-PF1/MOD1 calculation are found to be generally consistent with those reported, by members of the OECD LOFT Program Review Group, in the LP-SB-3 Comparison Report.'' Overall trends with respect to pressure histories, minimum primary system mass inventory and accumulator behaviour are reasonably well reproduced by TRAC-PF1/MOD1. 17 refs., 26 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Baseline characteristics and statistical implications for the OECD 210 fish early-life stage chronic toxicity test.

    PubMed

    Oris, James T; Belanger, Scott E; Bailer, A John

    2012-02-01

    The fish toxicity assay most commonly used to establish chronic effects is the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) 210, fish early-life stage test. However, the authors are not aware of any systematic analysis of the experimental design or statistical characteristics of the test since the test guideline was adopted nearly 20 years ago. Here, the authors report the results of an analysis of data compiled from OECD 210 tests conducted by industry labs. The distribution of responses observed in control treatments was analyzed, with the goal of understanding the implication of this variability on the sensitivity of the OECD 210 test guideline and providing recommendations on revised experimental design requirements of the test. Studies were confined to fathead minnows, rainbow trout, and zebrafish. Dichotomous endpoints (hatching success and posthatch survival) were examined for indications of overdispersion to evaluate whether significant chamber-to-chamber variability was present. Dichotomous and continuous (length, wet wt, dry wt) measurement endpoints were analyzed to determine minimum sample size requirements to detect differences from control responses with specified power. Results of the analysis indicated that sensitivity of the test could be improved by maximizing the number of replicate chambers per treatment concentration, increasing the acceptable level of control hatching success and larval survival compared to current levels, using wet weight measurements rather than dry weight, and focusing test efforts on species that demonstrate less variability in outcome measures. From these analyses, the authors provide evidence of the impact of expected levels of variability on the sensitivity of traditional OECD 210 studies and the implications for defining a target for future animal alternative methods for chronic toxicity testing in fish. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  13. RELAP/MOD2 post-test calculation of the OECD LOFT experiment LP-SB-1

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, J.; Mendizabal, R. )

    1992-04-01

    This document presents the analysis of the OECD LOFT LP-SB-1 Experiment performed by the Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear of Spain working group making use of RELAP5/MOD2 in the frame of the Spanish LOFT Project. LP-SB-1 experiment studies the effect of an early pump trip in a small break LOCA scenario with a 3-inch equivalent diameter break in the hot leg of a commercial PWR.

  14. RELAP5/MOD2 post-test calculation of the OECD LOFT experiment LP-SB-2

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, J.; Mendizabal, R.

    1992-04-01

    This document presents the analysis of the OECD LOFT LP-SB-2 Experiment performed by the Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear of Spain working group making use of RELAP5/MOD2 in the frame of the Spanish LOFT Project. LB-SB-2 experiment studies the effect of a delayed pump trip in a small break LOCA scenario with a 3-inch equivalent diameter break in the hot leg of a commercial PWR.

  15. Social factors associated with centenarian rate (CR) in 32 OECD countries

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Over the last fifty years, the number of centenarians has dramatically increased. The centenarian rate (CR) is representative of the general longevity prevalent in a nation; it indicates the number of individuals aged 100 years or above at a given date divided by the size of the corresponding cohort of a given age. Two important attributes of the CR (50–54) are that it reflects both unchanged age-specific fertility and the absence of migration in populations. It can generally be used in longevity-based evaluations of the broader concept of successful ageing. As such, this retrospective analysis of the social factors that contribute to the CR (50–54) may help to identify the factors associated with successful ageing. This study estimates the CR (50–54) and elucidates the influence of social factors on successful ageing and the CR (50–54), examining 32 member countries of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Methods The social indicators for this study were obtained from the United Nations database. The data for the analysis of centenarians in the 32 OECD countries were obtained from the world population prospects conducted by the United Nations. Associations between social factors and CR (50–54) were assessed using Pearson correlation coefficients and regression models. Results Significant positive correlations were found between the CR (50–54) and the social factors of expenditure on health as a percentage of gross domestic product (HEGDP: r = 0.411, p < 0.021), general government expenditure on health as a percentage of total government expenditure (GGEH: r = 0.474, p < 0.006), the proportion of fixed-telephone subscriptions in the population (FTS: r = 0.489, p < 0.005), and the human development index (HDI: r = 0.486, p < 0.005). Finally, these CR (50–54) predictors were used to form a model of successful ageing, with higher HEGDP and GGEH as health expenditure, higher FTS as

  16. OECD Detailed Review Paper (DRP) number 31 on "Cell Transformation Assays for Detection of Chemical Carcinogens": main results and conclusions.

    PubMed

    Vasseur, Paule; Lasne, Claude

    2012-04-11

    The Detailed Review Paper (DRP) number 31 of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) analyses the performance of the three models used in Cell Transformation Assays (CTAs) to screen the carcinogenic potential of chemicals: the Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells, and the mouse cell lines BALB/c 3T3 and C3H10T1/2. The CTA results have been compared to results from recent genotoxicity tests using mammalian and non-mammalian cell systems. The performance of the CTAs in predicting carcinogenic potential has been established on several hundreds of chemicals, comprising organic and inorganic substances. The results have been analysed and the chemicals classified as rodent and/or human carcinogens. Based on this comparison and on their performance - concordance, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive capacity, and evidence for intra- and inter-laboratory reproducibility - OECD recommended that the CTAs using the SHE cells (carried out at physiological or acidic pH) and the BALB/c 3T3 cell line should be developed into OECD test guidelines. The CTA using the C3H10T1/2 cell line was considered to be useful to elucidate molecular mechanisms of cell transformation at the genomic and transcriptomic level. However, due to the limited data available on reproducibility, a test guideline was not recommended at that time.

  17. In vitro OECD test methods applied to screen the estrogenic effect of chemicals, used in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee-Seok; Park, Eun-Jung; Han, Songyi; Oh, Gyeong-Yong; Kim, Min-Hee; Kang, Hui-Seung; Suh, Jin-Hyang; Oh, Jae-Ho; Lee, Kwang-Soo; Hwang, Myung-Sil; Moon, Guiim; Hong, Jin-Hwan; Hwang, In-Gyun

    2016-09-01

    In this study, 27 chemicals found in household products, which became an issue in Korea were screened for the agonistoc and antagonistic effects against human estrogen receptor using official Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) in vitro assays, STTA assay using ERα-HeLa-9903 cell line and BG1Luc ER TA assay. In the case of human ER agonist screening by two assays, all tested chemicals did not show agonist effect against ER. In ER antagonist test by BG1Luc ER TA assay, five surfactants α-dodecyl-ω-hydroxypoly(oxyethylene), alcohols C16-18 ethoxylated, nonylphenol, ethoxylated, 3,6,9,12,15,18,21-heptaoxatritriacontan-1-ol, and α-dodecyl-ω-hydroxypoly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl)) were found to exhibit weak antagonistic activities. The agonist/antagonist effects against human estrogen receptor of various chemicals, used in Korea by OECD test guideline are reported in this study. These results indicated that two OECD in vitro assays will can be applied in Korea by screening of agonistic/antagonistic effects against human ER of various chemicals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The impact of minimum wages on population health: evidence from 24 OECD countries.

    PubMed

    Lenhart, Otto

    2016-11-14

    This study examines the relationship between minimum wages and several measures of population health by analyzing data from 24 OECD countries for a time period of 31 years. Specifically, I test for health effects as a result of within-country variations in the generosity of minimum wages, which are measured by the Kaitz index. The paper finds that higher levels of minimum wages are associated with significant reductions of overall mortality rates as well as in the number of deaths due to outcomes that have been shown to be more prevalent among individuals with low socioeconomic status (e.g., diabetes, disease of the circulatory system, stroke). A 10% point increase of the Kaitz index is associated with significant declines in death rates and an increase in life expectancy of 0.44 years. Furthermore, I provide evidence for potential channels through which minimum wages impact population health by showing that more generous minimum wages impact outcomes such as poverty, the share of the population with unmet medical needs, the number of doctor consultations, tobacco consumption, calorie intake, and the likelihood of people being overweight.

  19. RELAP5/MOD2 calculations of OECD LOFT test LP-SB-2

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, P.C. . Generation Development and Construction Div.)

    1990-04-01

    To help in assessing the capabilities of RELAP5/MOD2 for PWR Fault Analysis, the code is being used by CEGB to simulate several small LOCA and pressurized transient experiments in the LOFT experimental reactor. The present report describes an analysis of small LOCA test LP-SB-02, which simulated a 1% hot leg break LOCA in a PWR, with delayed tripping of the primary coolant pumps. This test was carried out under the OECD LOFT Programme. An important deficiency identified in the code is inadequate modelling of the quality of the fluid discharged from the hot leg into the break pipework. This gives rise to large errors in the calculated system mass inventory. The effect of using an improved model for vapor pull-through into the break is described. A second significant code deficiency identified is the failure to predict the occurrence of stratified flow in the hot leg at the correct time in the test. It is believed that this error contributed to gross errors in the loop flow conditions after about 1300s. Additional separate effects data necessary to resolve the code deficiencies encountered are identified.

  20. Renewable energy consumption and economic growth in nine OECD countries: bounds test approach and causality analysis.

    PubMed

    Hung-Pin, Lin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the short-run and long-run causality between renewable energy (RE) consumption and economic growth (EG) in nine OECD countries from the period between 1982 and 2011. To examine the linkage, this paper uses the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach of cointegration test and vector error-correction models to test the causal relationship between variables. The co-integration and causal relationships are found in five countries-United States of America (USA), Japan, Germany, Italy, and United Kingdom (UK). The overall results indicate that (1) a short-run unidirectional causality runs from EG to RE in Italy and UK; (2) long-run unidirectional causalities run from RE to EG for Germany, Italy, and UK; (3) a long-run unidirectional causality runs from EG to RE in USA, and Japan; (4) both long-run and strong unidirectional causalities run from RE to EG for Germany and UK; and (5) Finally, both long-run and strong unidirectional causalities run from EG to RE in only USA. Further evidence reveals that policies for renewable energy conservation may have no impact on economic growth in France, Denmark, Portugal, and Spain.

  1. Achieving value for money in health: a comparative analysis of OECD countries and regional countries.

    PubMed

    Çelik, Yusuf; Khan, Mahmud; Hikmet, Neşet

    2016-08-11

    To measure efficiency gains in health sector over the years 1995 to 2013 in OECD, EU, non-member European countries. An output-oriented DEA model with variable return to scale, and residuals estimated by regression equations were used to estimate efficiencies of health systems. Slacks for health care outputs and inputs were calculated by using DEA multistage method of estimating country efficiency scores. Better health outcomes of countries were related with higher efficiency. Japan, France, or Sweden were found to be peer-efficient countries when compared to other developed countries like Germany and United States. Increasing life expectancy beyond a certain high level becomes very difficult to achieve. Despite declining marginal productivity of inputs on health outcomes, some developed countries and developing countries were found to have lowered their inefficiencies in the use of health inputs. Although there was no systematic relationship between political system of countries and health system efficiency, the objectives of countries on social and health policy and the way of achieving these objectives might be a factor increasing the efficiency of health systems. Economic and political stability might be as important as health expenditure in improving health system goals. A better understanding of the value created by health expenditures, especially in developed countries, will require analysis of specific health interventions that can increase value for money in health. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. How does private finance affect public health care systems? Marshaling the evidence from OECD nations.

    PubMed

    Tuohy, Carolyn Hughes; Flood, Colleen M; Stabile, Mark

    2004-06-01

    The impact of private finance on publicly funded health care systems depends on how the relationship between public and private finance is structured. This essay first reviews the experience in five nations that exemplify different ways of drawing the public/private boundary to address the particular questions raised by each model. This review is then used to interpret aggregate empirical analyses of the dynamic effects between public and private finance in OECD nations over time. Our findings suggest that while increases in the private share of health spending substitute in part for public finance (and vice versa), this is the result of a complex mix of factors having as much to do with cross-sectoral shifts as with deliberate policy decisions within sectors and that these effects are mediated by the different dynamics of distinctive national models. On balance, we argue that a resort to private finance is more likely to harm than to help publicly financed systems, although the effects will vary depending on the form of private finance.

  3. The relationship between health and GDP in OECD countries in the very long run.

    PubMed

    Swift, Robyn

    2011-03-01

    This paper uses Johansen multivariate cointegration analysis to examine the relationship between health and GDP for 13 OECD countries over the last two centuries, for periods ranging from 1820-2001 to 1921-2001. A similar, long run, cointegrating relationship between life expectancy and both total GDP and GDP per capita was found for all the countries estimated. The relationships have a significant influence on both total GDP and GPD per capita in most of the countries estimated, with 1% increase in life expectancy resulting in an average 6% increase in total GDP in the long run, and 5% increase in GDP per capita. Total GDP and GDP per capita also have a significant influence on life expectancy for most countries. There is no evidence of changes in the relationships for any country over the periods estimated, indicating that shifts in the major causes of illness and death over time do not appear to have influenced the link between health and economic growth.

  4. The effect of national suicide prevention programs on suicide rates in 21 OECD nations.

    PubMed

    Matsubayashi, Tetsuya; Ueda, Michiko

    2011-11-01

    Suicide has become a serious and growing public health problem in many countries. To address the problem of suicide, some countries have developed comprehensive suicide prevention programs as a collective political effort. However, no prior research has offered a systematic test of their effectiveness using cross-national data. This paper evaluates whether the national suicide prevention programs in twenty-one OECD nations had the anticipated effect of reducing suicide rates. By analyzing data between 1980 and 2004 with a fixed-effect estimator, we test whether there is a statistically meaningful difference in the suicide rates before and after the implementation of national suicide prevention programs. Our panel data analysis shows that the overall suicide rates decreased after nationwide suicide prevention programs were introduced. These government-led suicide prevention programs are most effective in preventing suicides among the elderly and young populations. By contrast, the suicide rates of working-age groups, regardless of gender, do not seem to respond to the introduction of national prevention programs. Our findings suggest that the presence of a national strategy can be effective in reducing suicide rates. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Renewable Energy Consumption and Economic Growth in Nine OECD Countries: Bounds Test Approach and Causality Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hung-Pin, Lin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the short-run and long-run causality between renewable energy (RE) consumption and economic growth (EG) in nine OECD countries from the period between 1982 and 2011. To examine the linkage, this paper uses the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach of cointegration test and vector error-correction models to test the causal relationship between variables. The co-integration and causal relationships are found in five countries—United States of America (USA), Japan, Germany, Italy, and United Kingdom (UK). The overall results indicate that (1) a short-run unidirectional causality runs from EG to RE in Italy and UK; (2) long-run unidirectional causalities run from RE to EG for Germany, Italy, and UK; (3) a long-run unidirectional causality runs from EG to RE in USA, and Japan; (4) both long-run and strong unidirectional causalities run from RE to EG for Germany and UK; and (5) Finally, both long-run and strong unidirectional causalities run from EG to RE in only USA. Further evidence reveals that policies for renewable energy conservation may have no impact on economic growth in France, Denmark, Portugal, and Spain. PMID:24558343

  6. Changes in Income at Macro Level Predict Sex Ratio at Birth in OECD Countries

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The human sex ratio at birth (SRB) is approximately 107 boys for every 100 girls. SRB was rising until the World War II and has been declining slightly after the 1950s in several industrial countries. Recent studies have shown that SRB varies according to exposure to disasters and socioeconomic conditions. However, it remains unknown whether changes in SRB can be explained by observable macro-level socioeconomic variables across multiple years and countries. Here we show that changes in disposable income at the macro level positively predict SRB in OECD countries. A one standard deviation increase in the change of disposable income is associated with an increase of 1.03 male births per 1000 female births. The relationship is possibly nonlinear and driven by extreme changes. The association varies from country to country being particular strong in Estonia. This is the first evidence to show that economic and social conditions are connected to SRB across countries at the macro level. This calls for further research on the effects of societal conditions on general characteristics at birth. PMID:27437701

  7. Comparison of Cramer classification between Toxtree, the OECD QSAR Toolbox and expert judgment.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Sneha; Schultz, Terry; Roberts, David; Shen, Jie; Kromidas, Lambros; Marie Api, Anne

    2015-02-01

    The Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC) is a pragmatic approach in risk assessment. In the absence of data, it sets up levels of human exposure that are considered to have no appreciable risk to human health. The Cramer decision tree is used extensively to determine these exposure thresholds by categorizing non-carcinogenic chemicals into three different structural classes. Therefore, assigning an accurate Cramer class to a material is a crucial step to preserve the integrity of the risk assessment. In this study the Cramer class of over 1000 fragrance materials across diverse chemical classes were determined by using Toxtree (TT), the OECD QSAR Toolbox (TB), and expert judgment. Disconcordance was observed between TT and the TB. A total of 165 materials (16%) showed different results from the two programs. The overall concordance for Cramer classification between TT and expert judgment is 83%, while the concordance between the TB and expert judgment is 77%. Amines, lactones and heterocycles have the lowest percent agreement with expert judgment for TT and the TB. For amines, the expert judgment agreement is 45% for TT and 55% for the TB. For heterocycles, the expert judgment agreement is 55% for TT and the TB. For lactones, the expert judgment agreement is 56% for TT and 50% for the TB. Additional analyses were conducted to determine the concordance within various chemical classes. Critical checkpoints in the decision tree are identified. Strategies and guidance on determining the Cramer class for various chemical classes are discussed.

  8. Changes in Income at Macro Level Predict Sex Ratio at Birth in OECD Countries.

    PubMed

    Kanninen, Ohto; Karhula, Aleksi

    2016-01-01

    The human sex ratio at birth (SRB) is approximately 107 boys for every 100 girls. SRB was rising until the World War II and has been declining slightly after the 1950s in several industrial countries. Recent studies have shown that SRB varies according to exposure to disasters and socioeconomic conditions. However, it remains unknown whether changes in SRB can be explained by observable macro-level socioeconomic variables across multiple years and countries. Here we show that changes in disposable income at the macro level positively predict SRB in OECD countries. A one standard deviation increase in the change of disposable income is associated with an increase of 1.03 male births per 1000 female births. The relationship is possibly nonlinear and driven by extreme changes. The association varies from country to country being particular strong in Estonia. This is the first evidence to show that economic and social conditions are connected to SRB across countries at the macro level. This calls for further research on the effects of societal conditions on general characteristics at birth.

  9. Endocrine disruption of cadmium in rats using the OECD enhanced TG 407 test system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Heng Juan; Liu, Zhao Ping; Jia, Xu Dong; Chen, Hao; Tan, Yan Jun

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the endocrine disrupting effects of cadmium (Cd) using OECD enhanced TG407 test guideline. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into six groups and accordingly administered with 0, 1, 2.5, 5, 10, 20 mg/kg•BW/day of Cd by gavage for 28 days. Body weight, food consumption, hematology, biochemistry, sex hormone levels, urinary β2-microglobulin, organ weights and histopathology and estrous cycle were detected. Cd could significantly decrease animals' body weight (P<0.05). Serum luteinizing hormone (LH) at 10-20 mg/kg•BW groups and testosterone (T) at 2.5 and 10 mg/kg•BW groups decreased significantly (P<0.05). However, no statistically significant change was found in urinary β2-microglobulin among Cd-treatment groups (P>0.05). Endpoints related to female reproduction including uterus weight and histopathological change at 10-20 mg/kg•BW groups showed significant increase (P<0.05). While among male rats in 2.5, 10, 20 mg/kg•BW groups, weight of prostate, thyroids, and seminal vesicle glands significantly decreased (P<0.05). Moreover, no histopathological change was observed in kidney. Results suggested that Cd can cause endocrine disrupting effects in SD rats. Comparing with possible renal toxicity of Cd, its toxicity on endocrine system was more sensitive. Copyright © 2014 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  10. Mortality rates in OECD countries converged during the period 1990-2010.

    PubMed

    Bremberg, Sven G

    2017-06-01

    Since the scientific revolution of the 18th century, human health has gradually improved, but there is no unifying theory that explains this improvement in health. Studies of macrodeterminants have produced conflicting results. Most studies have analysed health at a given point in time as the outcome; however, the rate of improvement in health might be a more appropriate outcome. Twenty-eight OECD member countries were selected for analysis in the period 1990-2010. The main outcomes studied, in six age groups, were the national rates of decrease in mortality in the period 1990-2010. The effects of seven potential determinants on the rates of decrease in mortality were analysed in linear multiple regression models using least squares, controlling for country-specific history constants, which represent the mortality rate in 1990. The multiple regression analyses started with models that only included mortality rates in 1990 as determinants. These models explained 87% of the intercountry variation in the children aged 1-4 years and 51% in adults aged 55-74 years. When added to the regression equations, the seven determinants did not seem to significantly increase the explanatory power of the equations. The analyses indicated a decrease in mortality in all nations and in all age groups. The development of mortality rates in the different nations demonstrated significant catch-up effects. Therefore an important objective of the national public health sector seems to be to reduce the delay between international research findings and the universal implementation of relevant innovations.

  11. Mobility of coated and uncoated TiO2 nanomaterials in soil columns--Applicability of the tests methods of OECD TG 312 and 106 for nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Nickel, Carmen; Gabsch, Stephan; Hellack, Bryan; Nogowski, Andre; Babick, Frank; Stintz, Michael; Kuhlbusch, Thomas A J

    2015-07-01

    Nanomaterials are commonly used in everyday life products and during their life cycle they can be released into the environment. Soils and sediments are estimated as significant sinks for those nanomaterials. To investigate and assess the behaviour of nanomaterials in soils and sediments standardized test methods are needed. In this study the applicability of two existing international standardized test guidelines for the testing of nanomaterials, OECD TG 106 "Adsorption/Desorption using a Bath Equilibrium Method" and the OECD TG 312 "Leaching in Soil Columns", were investigated. For the study one coated and two uncoated TiO2 nanomaterials were used, respectively. The results indicate that the OECD TG 106 is not applicable for nanomaterials. However, the test method according to OECD TG 312 was found to be applicable if nano-specific adaptations are applied. The mobility investigations of the OECD TG 312 indicated a material-dependent mobility of the nanomaterials, which in some cases may lead to an accumulation in the upper soil layers. Whereas no significant transport was observed for the uncoated materials for the double-coated material (coating with dimethicone and aluminiumoxide) a significant transport was detected and attributed to the coating. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Payment systems for health care providers in Latin America and OECD countries].

    PubMed

    Alvarez, B; Pellisé, L; Lobo, F

    2000-01-01

    The system used to pay health services providers is one of the most important components of the contractual relationship between persons who receive health services and the individual practitioners and institutions that provide those services. That payment system is also relevant in assessing a health system, including its efficiency and quality. In this article we present a simple analytical framework for various payment systems. We also provide an overview of the payment approaches used in two groups of countries whose experiences we consider representative: 10 nations of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and four countries of Latin America. We present a basic model to characterize the different forms of payment based on two dimensions. One of the dimensions is the payment "unit," which is used to measure the amount of health care services provided or promised. The other dimension is the distribution of financial risks between the service provider and the service purchaser. Each payment system has advantages and disadvantages that should be evaluated in relation to the intended objectives. On one extreme of the approaches is fixed remuneration, without any adjustments; it represents the purest prepayment approach. One example of fixed remuneration is capitated payment, in which providers carry all the financial risks coming from the variability in the cost of providing services. On the other extreme is fee-for-service payment, where service providers are not at financial risk; the insurer or other financing institution carries all the risk from variable costs. Neither of the extremes appears to be the best choice, and so the issue becomes one of selecting a remuneration system that falls between those extremes. Therefore, it is necessary to choose, on the one hand, the optimal payment unit according to the objectives of the financing entity and, on the other hand, a risk distribution approach that allocates to the service provider

  13. Gender gaps in life expectancy: generalized trends and negative associations with development indices in OECD countries.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Arai, Asuna; Kanda, Koji; Lee, Romeo B; Glasser, Jay; Tamashiro, Hiko

    2013-08-01

    Life expectancy (LE) is a major marker of individual survival. It also serves as a guide to highlight both the progress and the gaps in total social and societal health. Comparative LE in concert with measures of gender-specific experience, indices of empowerment and societal happiness and development offer a comparative tool to examine trends and similarities of societal progress as seen through the lens of cross-national experience. To determine the gender gaps in LE (GGLE) trends, we performed a longitudinal analysis, covering a period of 49 years (1960-2008). To examine the association of GGLE with development indices, we used the 2007 GGLE data, the newest happiness data mostly drawn from 2006; the 2006 Human Development Index (HDI) data and the 2006 Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM) data. It revealed that most of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries had a GGLE trend that occurred in an inverted U-curve fashion. We divided them into three subgroups based on the peak years of respective GGLE. The earlier the peak year, the happier the countries, the higher the HDI and the smaller the current GGLE are. Association analysis indicates that Happiness, HDI and GEM are all negatively associated with GGLE. This pattern suggests that GGLE undergoes three phases of growth, peak and stability and decline. Japan will soon be seeing its GGLE gradually shrinking in the foreseeable future. The continuing increases in Happiness, HDI and GEM are associated with a decrease in GGLE, which should be carefully taken into consideration.

  14. Effect of Governance Indicators on Under-Five Mortality in OECD Nations: Generalized Method of Moments.

    PubMed

    Emamgholipour, Sara; Asemane, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Today, it is recognized that factors other than health services are involved in health improvement and decreased inequality so identifying them is the main concern of policy makers and health authorities. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of governance indicators on health outcomes. A panel data study was conducted to investigate the effect of governance indicators on child mortality rate in 27 OECD countries from 1996 to 2012 using the Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) model and EVIEWS.8 software. According to the results obtained, under-five mortality rate was significantly related to all of the research variables (p < 0.05). One percent increase in under-five mortality in the previous period resulted in a 0.83% increase in the mortality rate in the next period, and a 1% increase in total fertility rate, increased the under-five mortality rate by 0.09%. In addition, a 1% increase in GDP per capita decreased the under-five mortality rate by 0.07%, and a 1% improvement in control of corruption and rule of law indicators decreased child mortality rate by 0.05 and 0.08%, respectively. Furthermore, 1% increase in public health expenditure per capita resulted in a 0.03% decrease in under-five mortality rate. The results of the study suggest that considering control variables, including GDP per capita, public health expenditure per capita, total fertility rate, and improvement of governance indicators (control of corruption and rule of law) would decrease the child mortality rate.

  15. OECD/NEA Ongoing activities related to the nuclear fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Cornet, S.M.; McCarthy, K.; Chauvin, N.

    2013-07-01

    As part of its role in encouraging international collaboration, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency is coordinating a series of projects related to the Nuclear Fuel Cycle. The Nuclear Science Committee (NSC) Working Party on Scientific Issues of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle (WPFC) comprises five different expert groups covering all aspects of the fuel cycle from front to back-end. Activities related to fuels, materials, physics, separation chemistry, and fuel cycles scenarios are being undertaken. By publishing state-of-the-art reports and organizing workshops, the groups are able to disseminate recent research advancements to the international community. Current activities mainly focus on advanced nuclear systems, and experts are working on analyzing results and establishing challenges associated to the adoption of new materials and fuels. By comparing different codes, the Expert Group on Advanced Fuel Cycle Scenarios is aiming at gaining further understanding of the scientific issues and specific national needs associated with the implementation of advanced fuel cycles. At the back end of the fuel cycle, separation technologies (aqueous and pyrochemical processing) are being assessed. Current and future activities comprise studies on minor actinides separation and post Fukushima studies. Regular workshops are also organized to discuss recent developments on Partitioning and Transmutation. In addition, the Nuclear Development Committee (NDC) focuses on the analysis of the economics of nuclear power across the fuel cycle in the context of changes of electricity markets, social acceptance and technological advances and assesses the availability of the nuclear fuel and infrastructure required for the deployment of existing and future nuclear power. The Expert Group on the Economics of the Back End of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle (EBENFC), in particular, is looking at assessing economic and financial issues related to the long term management of spent nuclear fuel. (authors)

  16. Deriving persistence indicators from regulatory water-sediment studies – opportunities and limitations in OECD 308 data.

    PubMed

    Honti, Mark; Fenner, Kathrin

    2015-05-19

    The OECD guideline 308 describes a laboratory test method to assess aerobic and anaerobic transformation of organic chemicals in aquatic sediment systems and is an integral part of tiered testing strategies in different legislative frameworks for the environmental risk assessment of chemicals. The results from experiments carried out according to OECD 308 are generally used to derive persistence indicators for hazard assessment or half-lives for exposure assessment. We used Bayesian parameter estimation and system representations of various complexities to systematically assess opportunities and limitations for estimating these indicators from existing data generated according to OECD 308 for 23 pesticides and pharmaceuticals. We found that there is a disparity between the uncertainty and the conceptual robustness of persistence indicators. Disappearance half-lives are directly extractable with limited uncertainty, but they lump degradation and phase transfer information and are not robust against changes in system geometry. Transformation half-lives are less system-specific but require inverse modeling to extract, resulting in considerable uncertainty. Available data were thus insufficient to derive indicators that had both acceptable robustness and uncertainty, which further supports previously voiced concerns about the usability and efficiency of these costly experiments. Despite the limitations of existing data, we suggest the time until 50% of the parent compound has been transformed in the entire system (DegT(50,system)) could still be a useful indicator of persistence in the upper, partially aerobic sediment layer in the context of PBT assessment. This should, however, be accompanied by a mandatory reporting or full standardization of the geometry of the experimental system. We recommend transformation half-lives determined by inverse modeling to be used as input parameters into fate models for exposure assessment, if due consideration is given to their

  17. Persistence assessment of cyclohexyl- and norbornyl-derived ketones and their degradation products in different OECD screening tests.

    PubMed

    Seyfried, M; van Ginkel, C G; Boschung, A; Miffon, F; Fantini, P; Tissot, E; Baroux, L; Merle, P; Chaintreau, A

    2015-07-01

    The persistence of synthetic cyclohexyl- and norbornyl-derived ketones was assessed by using OECD 301F and 301D biodegradation tests. While cyclohexyl-derived ketones either reached or came close to the pass level (60%) after 60 d, the corresponding norbornyl derivatives yielded significantly less biodegradation (<40%). By analyzing extracts at 60 d, the key degradation products of four norbornyl derivatives were identified. Consistently, 2-bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane carboxylic acid was found as a principal degradation product with minor quantities of bicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-one and 2-bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane acetic acid. When the three degradation products were re-synthesized and tested individually for biodegradability, the former two were found to be ultimately biodegradable after 60 d in OECD 301D tests, thus proving non-persistence. Similarly, 2-bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane acetic acid was found to be degraded significantly, albeit with long lag phases exceeding 60 d in the case of freshwater inoculum, then ultimately reaching the pass level. On the other hand, norbornyl ketones were still only partially biodegradable in the same test. We conclude that despite the potential for ultimate biodegradation of norbornyl-derived ketones, current screening tests yield an incomplete picture of their biodegradability, particularly when applying strict OECD criteria. The appearance of long lag phases when re-testing norbornyl ketone degradation products underlines the importance of extending tests to well beyond 28 and even 60 d in the case of freshwater inocula. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Validation of the OECD reproduction test guideline with the New Zealand mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum using trenbolone and prochloraz.

    PubMed

    Geiß, Cornelia; Ruppert, Katharina; Askem, Clare; Barroso, Carlos; Faber, Daniel; Ducrot, Virginie; Holbech, Henrik; Hutchinson, Thomas H; Kajankari, Paula; Kinnberg, Karin Lund; Lagadic, Laurent; Matthiessen, Peter; Morris, Steve; Neiman, Maurine; Penttinen, Olli-Pekka; Sanchez-Marin, Paula; Teigeler, Matthias; Weltje, Lennart; Oehlmann, Jörg

    2017-04-01

    The Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) provides several standard test methods for the environmental hazard assessment of chemicals, mainly based on primary producers, arthropods, and fish. In April 2016, two new test guidelines with two mollusc species representing different reproductive strategies were approved by OECD member countries. One test guideline describes a 28-day reproduction test with the parthenogenetic New Zealand mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum. The main endpoint of the test is reproduction, reflected by the embryo number in the brood pouch per female. The development of a new OECD test guideline involves several phases including inter-laboratory validation studies to demonstrate the robustness of the proposed test design and the reproducibility of the test results. Therefore, a ring test of the reproduction test with P. antipodarum was conducted including eight laboratories with the test substances trenbolone and prochloraz and results are presented here. Most laboratories could meet test validity criteria, thus demonstrating the robustness of the proposed test protocol. Trenbolone did not have an effect on the reproduction of the snails at the tested concentration range (nominal: 10-1000 ng/L). For prochloraz, laboratories produced similar EC10 and NOEC values, showing the inter-laboratory reproducibility of results. The average EC10 and NOEC values for reproduction (with coefficient of variation) were 26.2 µg/L (61.7%) and 29.7 µg/L (32.9%), respectively. This ring test shows that the mudsnail reproduction test is a well-suited tool for use in the chronic aquatic hazard and risk assessment of chemicals.

  19. A comparative study of biodegradability of a carcinogenic aromatic amine (4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane) with OECD 301 test methods.

    PubMed

    Mei, Cheng-Fang; Liu, Yan-Zhen; Long, Wei-Nian; Sun, Guo-Ping; Zeng, Guo-Qu; Xu, Mei-Ying; Luan, Tian-Gang

    2015-01-01

    4,4'-Diaminodiphenylmethane (MDA) is a widely used compound in industries. Studies on the biodegradability of MDA are necessary for environmental hazard identification and risk assessment. Previous studies have suggested that MDA was not readily biodegradable. In the present study, three batches of biodegradation tests (OECD 301A, B, D and F tests) were performed on MDA in June, August and December of 2012. MDA was found to be readily biodegradable and produced colored intermediates in the 301A, B and F test systems. MDA biodegradation measurements were consistent among the three batches of tests. Differences in the extent of biodegradation determined in different methods originated from different test conditions and assessment endpoints. The 301D test has stringent test conditions and is usually performed on chemicals that are toxic to microorganisms, so the test results obtained from 301D tests are less meaningful for evaluating the biodegradability of MDA. The low MDA biodegradation measurements in the 301B tests compared to the 301A and F tests were due to the assessment method, which did not account for MDA incorporation into biomass in its calculation of CO2 formation rate. The differences in the biodegradation rates, as measured by the different OECD 301 test systems, could also be related to the structure and properties of the chemical. For test substances that can be assessed by all OECD 301 test methods, the highest biodegradation values may be obtained from the 301A and F test methods. This study provides new information to assess the environmental fate in the risk assessment of MDA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. TRAC-PF1 MOD1 post test calculations of the OECD LOFT Experiment LP-SB-1

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, E J

    1990-04-01

    Analysis of the small, hot leg break, OECD LOFT Experiment LP-SB-1. using the best-estimate'' computer code TRAC-PF1/MOD1 is presented. Descriptions of the LOFT facility and the LP-SB-1 experiment are given and development of the TRAC-PF1/MOD1 input model is detailed. The calculations performed in achieving the steady state conditions, from which the experiment was initiated, and the specification of experimental boundary conditions are outlined. 24 refs., 66 figs., 12 tabs.

  1. A critique of the IPCC/OECD/IEA methodology for assessing the greenhouse gas emissions from biomass: A case study of Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Rosa, L.P.; Aurelio dos Santos, M.

    1996-12-31

    The coefficients of Carbon Dioxide emissions from biomass energy release are extremely important in the case of Brazil, in view of the share of this energy in the national energy balance - accounting for 30{double_prime}% of the total primary energy in 1991. However, the last issue of OECD`s Expert Meetings, prepared for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Changes (IPCC) did not include these coefficients, properly speaking, as we pointed out during the work meetings on Brazil with the USA Environmental Protection Agency. The revised version of the OECD Methodology, lists the coefficients for firewood, charcoal, and sugar cane bagasse. Nevertheless, a careful analysis of these coefficients, based on comparisons with Brazilian energy data, may prove useful before their being put to wider practical use. The results of the analysis carried out by the work group of the Greenhouse Gas Emissions Evaluation Project of the Energy Planning Program at COPPE/UFRJ, is detailed in this paper.

  2. Education in OECD Countries: A Compendium of Statistical Information, 1988-89 and 1989-90 = l'Enseignement dans les pays de l'OCDE: Recueil d'informations statistiques, 1988-89 et 1989-90.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This report is an annual update on education statistics for member countries in the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), with the cooperation of UNESCO and the Statistical Office of the European Union. Some changes from earlier versions of "Education in OECD Countries" are introduced in this edition. Data comes from…

  3. THE OECD PROGRAM TO VALIDATE THE RAT HERSHBERGER BIOASSAY TO SCREEN COMPOUNDS FOR IN VIVO ANDROGEN AND ANTIANDROGEN RESPONSES. PHASE 1: USE OF A POTENT AGONIST AND A POTENT ANTAGONIST TO TEST THE STANDARDIZED PROTOCOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The OECD has completed Phase-1 of the Hershberger validation intended to identify in vivo activity of

    suspected androgens and antiandrogens. 17 laboratories from 7 countries participated in Phase-1, and results

    were collated and evaluated by the OECD with the suppor...

  4. THE OECD PROGRAM TO VALIDATE THE RAT HERSHBERGER BIOASSAY TO SCREEN COMPOUNDS FOR IN VIVO ANDROGEN AND ANTIANDROGEN RESPONSES. PHASE 1: USE OF A POTENT AGONIST AND A POTENT ANTAGONIST TO TEST THE STANDARDIZED PROTOCOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The OECD has completed Phase-1 of the Hershberger validation intended to identify in vivo activity of

    suspected androgens and antiandrogens. 17 laboratories from 7 countries participated in Phase-1, and results

    were collated and evaluated by the OECD with the suppor...

  5. (OECD Expert Group meeting on reduction of capital costs of nuclear power plants, Paris, France, July 21--26, 1989): Foreign trip report

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, C.R. II

    1989-08-09

    The OECD initiated a study of means to reduce the capital costs of nuclear power plants in the latter part of 1988. To accomplish the study, an Expert Group consisting of representatives of OECD member countries was formed. The initial meeting of the Expert Group was held in November 1988. A second meeting, documented in an ORNL trip report by this author, was held in May 1989. This meeting represents the third follow-on meeting with the primary goal of reviewing the draft report written by members of the Expert Group.

  6. Implementation of the OECD principles of good laboratory practice in test facilities complying with a quality system accredited to the ISO/IEC 17025 standard.

    PubMed

    Feller, Etty

    2008-01-01

    Laboratories with a quality system accredited to the ISO/IEC 17025 standard have a definite advantage, compared to non-accredited laboratories, when preparing their facilities for the implementation of the principles of good laboratory practice (GLP) of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Accredited laboratories have an established quality system covering the administrative and technical issues specified in the standard. The similarities and differences between the ISO/IEC 17025 standard and the OECD principles of GLP are compared and discussed.

  7. The influence of time on lead toxicity and bioaccumulation determined by the OECD earthworm toxicity test.

    PubMed

    Davies, Nicola A; Hodson, Mark E; Black, Stuart

    2003-01-01

    worms shortly after addition of Pb to soils may result in the over-estimate of Pb toxicity to worms. The current OECD acute worm toxicity test fails to take these two phenomena into account thereby reducing the environmental relevance of the contaminant toxicities it is used to calculate.

  8. Reconciliation of climate protection & development: the role of OECD & developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kropp, J. P.; Costa, L.; Rybski, D.

    2012-04-01

    Although developing countries are called to participate in CO2 emission reduction efforts to avoid dangerous climate change, the implications of proposed reduction schemes in human development standards of developing countries remain a matter of debate. We show the existence of a positive and time-dependent correlation between the Human Development Index (HDI) and per capita CO2 emissions from fossil fuel use. We employ this empirical relation under consideration the parallel constraint of the 2°C target, extrapolations of the HDI, and using population scenarios to determine emission pathways for countries. We assume that developing countries will rely on fossil fuel use in the future, e.g. due to cost reasons (Development as Usual - DAU), but we also define as turning the 0.8 HDI threshold. Beyond this value a country is commonly considered as developed. We show if current demographic and development trends are maintained that around 85% of the world's population will live in countries with high HDI (above 0.8) by 2050. In such a case 300 Gt of cumulative CO2 emissions are estimated to be necessary for the development of 104 developing countries in the year 2000 between 2000 and 2050. This value represents between 20 % to 30 % of previously calculated CO2 budgets limiting global warming to 2°C. These constraints and results are incorporated into a CO2 reduction framework involving four domains of climate action for individual countries. The framework reserves a fair and equitable emission path for developing countries to proceed with their development by indexing country-dependent reduction rates proportional to the HDI in order to preserve the 2°C target after a particular development threshold is reached. It can be shown that in such a case the pressure to the OECD countries could be higher than assumed. For example, in each time step of five years, countries with an HDI of 0.85 would need to reduce their per capita emissions by approx. 17% and countries with

  9. Health-care expenditure and health policy in the USA versus other high-spending OECD countries.

    PubMed

    Lorenzoni, Luca; Belloni, Annalisa; Sassi, Franco

    2014-07-05

    The USA has exceptional levels of health-care expenditure, but growth has slowed dramatically in recent years, amidst major efforts to close the coverage gap with other countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). We reviewed expenditure trends and key policies since 2000 in the USA and five other high-spending OECD countries. Higher health-sector prices explain much of the difference between the USA and other high-spending countries, and price dynamics are largely responsible for the slowdown in expenditure growth. Other high-spending countries did not face the same coverage challenges, and could draw from a broader set of policies to keep expenditure under control, but expenditure growth was similar to the USA. Tightening Medicare and Medicaid price controls on plans and providers, and leveraging the scale of the public programmes to increase efficiency in financing and care delivery, might prevent a future economic recovery from offsetting the slowdown in health sector prices and expenditure growth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Reduced tobacco consumption, improved diet and life expectancy for 1988-1998: analysis of New Zealand and OECD data.

    PubMed

    Laugesen, Murray; Grace, Randolph C

    2017-06-02

    We compared changes in tobacco consumption and diet in relation to changes in life expectancy in 1988-1998 in 22 OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries. Between 1985 and 1995 using regression analysis we estimated differences in tobacco consumption per adult and the differences in the sum of atherogenic and thrombogenic indices against life expectancy. Each index was derived from the various fats per gram of food from standard texts, and from the annual measurements of fat in the food balance sheets of each country. In 1985-1995, New Zealand showed the largest decrease in tobacco consumption per adult (41%) and the greatest decrease (except for Switzerland) in the sum of atherogenic and thrombogenic indices (17%) as a measure of diet. New Zealand ranked first for life expectancy increases from 1988-1998 for men (3.2 years), women (2.8 years) and both sexes combined. Regression analyses revealed that increases in life expectancy across the OECD for males, but not females, were strongly associated with decreases in tobacco consumption, with a weaker effect of diet improvement. These results suggest that reduced tobacco consumption in 1985-1995 likely contributed to New Zealand's gains in life expectancy from 1988-1998.

  11. Uptake route and resulting toxicity of silver nanoparticles in Eisenia fetida earthworm exposed through Standard OECD Tests.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Velasco, Nerea; Gandariasbeitia, Maite; Irizar, Amaia; Soto, Manuel

    2016-10-01

    Despite the increasing interest in silver nanoparticles toxicity still few works dealt with the hazards of nanosized Ag in soils (either dissolved in pore water or coupled to colloids) although disposal of biosolids in landfills has been reported as the major source of silver nanoparticles in terrestrial environments. Presently, Eisenia fetida was used to assess the toxicity of 5 nm sized PVP-PEI coated silver nanoparticles in soil through the implementation of different exposure media Standard Toxicity Tests (Paper Contact and Artificial Soil -OECD-207- and Reproduction -OECD-222- Tests) together with cellular biomarkers measured in extruded coelomocytes. In order to decipher the mode of action of silver nanoparticles in soil and the uptake routes in earthworms, special attention was given to the Ag accumulation and distribution in tissues. High Ag accumulation rates, weight loss, and mortality due to the disruption of the tegument could be the result of a dermal absorption of Ag ions released from silver nanoparticles (Paper Contact Test). However, autometallography showed metals mainly localized in the digestive tract after Artificial Soil Test, suggesting that Ag uptake occurred mostly through soil ingestion. That is, silver nanoparticles attached to soil colloids seemed to be internalized in earthworms after ingestion of soil and transferred to the digestive gut epithelium where at high doses they have triggered severe effects at different levels of biological complexity.

  12. Pay for performance in the inpatient sector: A review of 34 P4P programs in 14 OECD countries.

    PubMed

    Milstein, Ricarda; Schreyoegg, Jonas

    2016-10-01

    Across the member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), pay-for-performance (P4P) programs have been implemented in the inpatient sector to improve the quality of care provided by hospitals. This paper provides an overview of 34 existing P4P programs in the inpatient sector in 14 OECD countries based on a structured literature search in five databases to identify relevant sources in Danish, English, French, German, Hebrew, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Norwegian, Spanish, Swedish and Turkish. It assembles information on the design and effects of these P4P systems and discusses whether evaluations of such programs allow preliminary conclusions to be drawn about the effects of P4P. The programs are very heterogeneous in their aim, the selection of indicators and the design of financial rewards. The impact of P4P is unclear and it may be that the moderately positive effects seen for some programs can be attributed to side effects, such as public reporting and increased awareness of data recording. Policy makers must decide whether the potential benefits of introducing a P4P program outweigh the potential risks within their particular national or regional context, and should be aware that P4P programs have yet not lived up to expectations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Avoidance, biomass and survival response of soil dwelling (endogeic) earthworms to OECD artificial soil: potential implications for earthworm ecotoxicology.

    PubMed

    Brami, C; Glover, A R; Butt, K R; Lowe, C N

    2017-05-01

    Soil dwelling earthworms are now adopted more widely in ecotoxicology, so it is vital to establish if standardised test parameters remain applicable. The main aim of this study was to determine the influence of OECD artificial soil on selected soil-dwelling, endogeic earthworm species. In an initial experiment, biomass change in mature Allolobophora chlorotica was recorded in Standard OECD Artificial Soil (AS) and also in Kettering Loam (KL). In a second experiment, avoidance behaviour was recorded in a linear gradient with varying proportions of AS and KL (100% AS, 75% AS + 25% KL, 50% KS + 50% KL, 25% AS + 75% KL, 100% KL) with either A. chlorotica or Octolasion cyaneum. Results showed a significant decrease in A. chlorotica biomass in AS relative to KL, and in the linear gradient, both earthworm species preferentially occupied sections containing higher proportions of KL over AS. Soil texture and specifically % composition and particle size of sand are proposed as key factors that influenced observed results. This research suggests that more suitable substrates are required for ecotoxicology tests with soil dwelling earthworms.

  14. Issues in Education in Asia and the Pacific: An International Perspective. OECD Documents. Conference Proceedings (Hiroshima, Japan, October 7-9, 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Phillip; Renwick, William

    This document reports on the first international conference in Japan in October 1992 to open up a dialogue among Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) member countries and the Dynamic Asian Economies (DAEs) of Hong Kong, Malaysia, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand and Singapore. Experts from each of the DAEs attended the…

  15. Goals and Methods in Science, Mathematics and Technology Education in the Netherlands. Report of a Conference in the Framework of the OECD Project, 'Science, Mathematics, and Technology Education.'

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krabbendam, Hans, Ed.; de Vries, Marc, Ed.

    The aim of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) project "Science, Mathematics, and Technology" is to formulate recommendations for educational policy. Preparations for the project were made in each of the various member countries. Reported here are the results of the Netherlands meeting. The conference and…

  16. Assessment for Qualification and Certification in Upper Secondary Education: A Review of Country Practices and Research Evidence. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 83

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dufaux, Stefanie

    2012-01-01

    Within the policy field of student assessment, the assessment of students for qualification and certification in upper secondary education has special importance since key decisions for the progression of students may be taken on the basis of assessment results. Students in most OECD countries face increased specialisation in upper secondary…

  17. Taking on the Completion Challenge: A Literature Review on Policies to Prevent Dropout and Early School Leaving. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 53

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyche, Cecilia S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews international research in the field of dropout from upper secondary education and training in OECD countries in order to present possible solutions to policymakers faced with the completion challenge. The paper begins by presenting existing definitions of dropout and upper secondary completion and states that dropout must be…

  18. Labour Market Characteristics and International Mobility of Doctorate Holders: Results for Seven Countries. OECD Science, Technology and Industry Working Papers, 2007/2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auriol, Laudeline

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the first results of a project initiated in 2004 by the OECD in collaboration with Eurostat and the UNESCO Institute for Statistics, and aimed at developing a regular and internationally comparable production system of indicators on the careers and mobility of doctorate holders. A first data collection was launched in September…

  19. A Comparative Analysis of National Media Responses to the OECD Survey of Adult Skills: Policy Making from the Global to the Local?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yasukawa, Keiko; Hamilton, Mary; Evans, Jeff

    2017-01-01

    The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development's (OECD) Programme of International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC) is put forward as a landmark development in the lifelong monitoring and international comparison of education. The first round of PIAAC's Survey of Adult Skills compared performance in literacy, numeracy and…

  20. A "Global Eye" for Teaching and Learning in Higher Education: A Critical Policy Analysis of the OECD's AHELO Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahjahan, Riyad A.; Torres, Lisette E.

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an overview and critical policy analysis of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development's (OECD) international Assessment of Higher Education Learning Outcomes (AHELO) project which is currently under way. It briefly describes the purpose, components and participants of the AHELO project. Informed by a…

  1. Labour Market Characteristics and International Mobility of Doctorate Holders: Results for Seven Countries. OECD Science, Technology and Industry Working Papers, 2007/2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auriol, Laudeline

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the first results of a project initiated in 2004 by the OECD in collaboration with Eurostat and the UNESCO Institute for Statistics, and aimed at developing a regular and internationally comparable production system of indicators on the careers and mobility of doctorate holders. A first data collection was launched in September…

  2. Translation of the UNESCO/OECD Guidelines for Quality Provision in Cross-Border Higher Education into Local Policy Contexts: A Comparative Study of Finland and Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kallo, Johanna; Semchenko, Anzhelika

    2016-01-01

    This article analyses the localisation of the United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO)/Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) "Guidelines for Quality Provision in Cross-Border Higher Education" (2005) at the national and university levels in Finland and Russia. The article engages…

  3. The Efficiency of Italian Secondary Schools and the Potential Role of Competition: A Data Envelopment Analysis Using OECD-PISA2006 Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agasisti, Tommaso

    2013-01-01

    In this study, data envelopment analysis (DEA) is used to compute efficiency scores for a sample of Italian schools by employing OECD-PISA2006 data aggregated at school level. Efficiency has been defined as the ability to transform inputs (resources, student background, etc.) into outputs (student achievement). Different versions of the DEA models…

  4. Evaluating Cross-National Metrics of Tertiary Graduation Rates for OECD Countries: A Case for Increasing Methodological Congruence and Data Comparability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heuser, Brian L.; Drake, Timothy A.; Owens, Taya L.

    2013-01-01

    By examining the different methods and processes by which national data gathering agencies compile and submit their findings to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), the authors (1) assess the methodological challenges of accurately reporting tertiary completion and graduation rates cross-nationally; (2) to examine the…

  5. Translation of the UNESCO/OECD Guidelines for Quality Provision in Cross-Border Higher Education into Local Policy Contexts: A Comparative Study of Finland and Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kallo, Johanna; Semchenko, Anzhelika

    2016-01-01

    This article analyses the localisation of the United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO)/Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) "Guidelines for Quality Provision in Cross-Border Higher Education" (2005) at the national and university levels in Finland and Russia. The article engages…

  6. A "Global Eye" for Teaching and Learning in Higher Education: A Critical Policy Analysis of the OECD's AHELO Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahjahan, Riyad A.; Torres, Lisette E.

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an overview and critical policy analysis of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development's (OECD) international Assessment of Higher Education Learning Outcomes (AHELO) project which is currently under way. It briefly describes the purpose, components and participants of the AHELO project. Informed by a…

  7. A Logistic Regression Analysis of Turkey's 15-Year-Olds' Scoring above the OECD Average on the PISA'09 Reading Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasapoglu, Koray

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate which factors are associated with Turkey's 15-year-olds' scoring above the OECD average (493) on the PISA'09 reading assessment. Collected from a total of 4,996 15-year-old students from Turkey, data were analyzed by logistic regression analysis in order to model the data of students who were split into two: (1)…

  8. Development and validation of an OECD reproductive toxicity test guideline with the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis (Mollusca, Gastropoda).

    PubMed

    Ducrot, Virginie; Askem, Clare; Azam, Didier; Brettschneider, Denise; Brown, Rebecca; Charles, Sandrine; Coke, Maïra; Collinet, Marc; Delignette-Muller, Marie-Laure; Forfait-Dubuc, Carole; Holbech, Henrik; Hutchinson, Thomas; Jach, Arne; Kinnberg, Karin L; Lacoste, Cédric; Le Page, Gareth; Matthiessen, Peter; Oehlmann, Jörg; Rice, Lynsey; Roberts, Edward; Ruppert, Katharina; Davis, Jessica Elphinstone; Veauvy, Clemence; Weltje, Lennart; Wortham, Ruth; Lagadic, Laurent

    2014-12-01

    The OECD test guideline development program has been extended in 2011 to establish a partial life-cycle protocol for assessing the reproductive toxicity of chemicals to several mollusk species, including the great pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis. In this paper, we summarize the standard draft protocol for a reproduction test with this species, and present inter-comparison results obtained in a 56-day prevalidation ring-test using this protocol. Seven European laboratories performed semi-static tests with cultured snails of the strain Renilys® exposed to nominal concentrations of cadmium chloride (from 53 to 608μgCdL(-1)). Cd concentrations in test solutions were analytically determined to confirm accuracy in the metal exposure concentrations in all laboratories. Physico-chemical and biological validity criteria (namely dissolved oxygen content >60% ASV, water temperature 20±1°C, control snail survival >80% and control snail fecundity >8 egg-masses per snail over the test period) were met in all laboratories which consistently demonstrated the reproductive toxicity of Cd in snails using the proposed draft protocol. Effect concentrations for fecundity after 56days were reproducible between laboratories (68OECD test guidelines for invertebrates. The inter-laboratory reproducibility coefficient of variation (CV) for the Cd LC50-56d values was 8.19%. The inter-laboratory comparison of fecundity within the controls gave a CV of 29.12%, while exposure to Cd gave a CV of 25.49% based on the EC50-56d values. The OECD has acknowledged the success of this prevalidation exercise and a validation ring-test involving 14 laboratories in Europe, North- and South-America is currently being implemented using four chemicals (Cd, prochloraz, trenbolone

  9. OECD/NEA expert group on uncertainty analysis for criticality safety assessment: Results of benchmark on sensitivity calculation (phase III)

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanova, T.; Laville, C.; Dyrda, J.; Mennerdahl, D.; Golovko, Y.; Raskach, K.; Tsiboulia, A.; Lee, G. S.; Woo, S. W.; Bidaud, A.; Sabouri, P.; Bledsoe, K.; Rearden, B.; Gulliford, J.; Michel-Sendis, F.

    2012-07-01

    The sensitivities of the k{sub eff} eigenvalue to neutron cross sections have become commonly used in similarity studies and as part of the validation algorithm for criticality safety assessments. To test calculations of the sensitivity coefficients, a benchmark study (Phase III) has been established by the OECD-NEA/WPNCS/EG UACSA (Expert Group on Uncertainty Analysis for Criticality Safety Assessment). This paper presents some sensitivity results generated by the benchmark participants using various computational tools based upon different computational methods: SCALE/TSUNAMI-3D and -1D, MONK, APOLLO2-MORET 5, DRAGON-SUSD3D and MMKKENO. The study demonstrates the performance of the tools. It also illustrates how model simplifications impact the sensitivity results and demonstrates the importance of 'implicit' (self-shielding) sensitivities. This work has been a useful step towards verification of the existing and developed sensitivity analysis methods. (authors)

  10. The underestimated value of OECD 421 and 422 repro screening studies: putting it in the right perspective.

    PubMed

    Beekhuijzen, Manon; de Raaf, Michiel Alexander; Zmarowski, Amy; van Otterdijk, Francois; Peter, Birgit; Emmen, Harry

    2014-09-01

    To assess the efficacy of reproduction/developmental screening studies (OECD 421 and 422), a retrospective evaluation of 134 studies was performed. The major findings were: (1) for up to half of the studies with developmental and reproductive toxicity, these effects would have been missed in other types of studies, which underscores that reproduction/developmental screening studies should not be waived by default based on negative 28-day and/or prenatal developmental data, (2) the required number of animals as stated in the guidelines, is appropriate for detecting developmental and reproductive toxicity, and (3) adding measurements like anogenital distance, internal sex determination and nipple retention, plus extending the postnatal period would add predictive value. Overall, the current reproduction/developmental screening studies are effective in providing unique data, especially considering the limited number of animals used. Some simple additions would enrich its value in risk assessment even further. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Determinants of households’ investment in energy efficiency and renewables: evidence from the OECD survey on household environmental behaviour and attitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ameli, Nadia; Brandt, Nicola

    2015-04-01

    This paper provides novel evidence on the main factors behind consumer choices regarding investments in energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies using the OECD Survey on Household Environmental Behaviour and Attitudes. The empirical analysis is based on the estimation of binary logit regression models. Empirical results suggest that households’ propensity to invest in clean energy technologies depends mainly on home ownership, income, social context and household energy conservation practices. Indeed, home owners and high-income households are more likely to invest than renters and low-income households. In addition, environmental attitudes and beliefs, as manifest in energy conservation practices or membership in an environmental non-governmental organisation, also play a relevant role in technology adoption.

  12. Guidance on the selection of cohorts for the extended one-generation reproduction toxicity study (OECD test guideline 443).

    PubMed

    Moore, Nigel P; Beekhuijzen, Manon; Boogaard, Peter J; Foreman, Jennifer E; North, Colin M; Palermo, Christine; Schneider, Steffen; Strauss, Volker; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard; Poole, Alan

    2016-10-01

    The extended one-generation reproduction toxicity study (EOGRTS; OECD test guideline 433) is a new and technically complex design to evaluate the putative effects of chemicals on fertility and development, including effects upon the developing nervous and immune systems. In addition to offering a more comprehensive assessment of developmental toxicity, the EOGRTS offers important improvements in animal welfare through reduction and refinement in a modular study design. The challenge to the practitioner is to know how the modular aspects of the study should be triggered on the basis of prior knowledge of a particular chemical, or on earlier findings in the EOGRTS itself, requirements of specific regulatory frameworks notwithstanding. The purpose of this document is to offer guidance on science-based triggers for these extended evaluations.

  13. The impact of no-fault compensation on health care expenditures: an empirical study of OECD countries.

    PubMed

    Vandersteegen, Tom; Marneffe, Wim; Cleemput, Irina; Vereeck, Lode

    2015-03-01

    Around the world, governments are faced with spiralling health care expenditures. This raises the need for further insight in the determinants of these expenditures. Existing literature focuses primarily on income, ageing, health care financing and supply variables. This paper includes medical malpractice system characteristics as determinants of health spending in OECD countries. Estimates from our regression models suggest that no-fault schemes for medical injuries with decoupling of deterrence and compensation reduce health expenditures per capita by 0.11%. Furthermore, countries that introduced a no-fault system without decoupling of deterrence and compensation are found to have higher (+0.06%) health care spending. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. OECD/MCCI 2-D Core Concrete Interaction (CCI) tests : final report February 28, 2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, M. T.; Lomperski, S.; Kilsdonk, D. J.; Aeschlimann, R. W.; Basu, S.

    2011-05-23

    reactor material database for dry cavity conditions is solely one-dimensional. Although the MACE Scoping Test was carried out with a two-dimensional concrete cavity, the interaction was flooded soon after ablation was initiated to investigate debris coolability. Moreover, due to the scoping nature of this test, the apparatus was minimally instrumented and therefore the results are of limited value from the code validation viewpoint. Aside from the MACE program, the COTELS test series also investigated 2-D CCI under flooded cavity conditions. However, the input power density for these tests was quite high relative to the prototypic case. Finally, the BETA test series provided valuable data on 2-D core concrete interaction under dry cavity conditions, but these tests focused on investigating the interaction of the metallic (steel) phase with concrete. Due to these limitations, there is significant uncertainty in the partition of energy dissipated for the ablation of concrete in the lateral and axial directions under dry cavity conditions for the case of a core oxide melt. Accurate knowledge of this 'power split' is important in the evaluation of the consequences of an ex-vessel severe accident; e.g., lateral erosion can undermine containment structures, while axial erosion can penetrate the basemat, leading to ground contamination and/or possible containment bypass. As a result of this uncertainty, there are still substantial differences among computer codes in the prediction of 2-D cavity erosion behavior under both wet and dry cavity conditions. In light of the above issues, the OECD-sponsored Melt Coolability and Concrete Interaction (MCCI) program was initiated at Argonne National Laboratory. The project conducted reactor materials experiments and associated analysis to achieve the following technical objectives: (1) resolve the ex-vessel debris coolability issue through a program that focused on providing both confirmatory evidence and test data for the coolability

  15. A SCALE 5.0 Reactor Physics Assessment using the Module TRITON against Mixed Oxide (MOX) OECD/NEA Benchmarks

    SciTech Connect

    Saccheri, J.G.B.; Diamond, D.J.

    2006-07-01

    Reactor physics numerical benchmarks have been performed at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) with the software package SCALE 5.0 and its TRITON module to assess their capability to predict neutronics parameters for mixed oxide (MOX) fuels. The results of such calculations are herein presented. Specifically, BNL results for neutron multiplication factors (kINF), neutron fluxes and fuel burnup have been added to published OECD/NEA benchmarks for MOX fuels and particular emphasis has been given to the impact of cross-section libraries and their energy structure on the results. Among the OECD/NEA published benchmarks two have been considered here: the first one models a fuel pin surrounded by moderator, in which two different MOX fuels can be introduced, and for each one of them kINF and neutron fluxes as a function of burnup are calculated. The second one includes both a fuel pin case and a macro-cell case (a heterogeneous 30 by 30 configuration of fuel pins), for which the void coefficient is determined by calculating kINF at zero burnup as a function of moderation. The calculations are repeated for several combinations of MOX and uranium oxide fuels using several different cross-section libraries. The final results have been compared with each other. This study shows that SCALE 5.0 (with TRITON) overall performs in line with the other codes in the benchmark, but the results are dependent on the energy group structure of the cross section libraries used. For instance, when fissile plutonium is increased in the fuel, TRITON results become slightly divergent with burnup (with respect to the other codes in the benchmark) and if the standard 44-group library provided with SCALE 5.0 is used void coefficient calculations become inadequate for very low void (below 10% of the operating value of moderator density). Moreover, the prediction capabilities of the code are shown to be dependent on the MOX fuel enrichment and the MOX isotopic composition. (authors)

  16. A Report on the Achievements of Subgroup 19 on Activation Cross Sections of the WPEC, OECD-NEA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plompen, A. J. M.; Smith, D. L.; Semkova, V. M.

    2005-05-01

    Subgroup 19 on Activation Cross Sections of the Working Party on Evaluation Cooperation of the OECD-NEA has recently concluded its activities. The goal of the subgroup was to generate a large set of new measured activation cross sections relevant to nuclear applications and make these data available to the nuclear science community. In addition, modeling efforts and sensitivity studies were undertaken to evaluate the use of measured data and model calculations for the prediction of unknown cross sections. The latter addresses the potential of model calculations to satisfy issues on the High Priority Request List when no measured data are available. In the course of the activities of the subgroup over ninety reaction channels were studied experimentally. All except the most recent of these data have been compiled into EXFOR format by members of the subgroup and submitted to OECD- NEA. As a result most of these data can now be retrieved online from the data centers. A systematic comparison was made with the new evaluated data files JEF3.0/EAF2003, JENDL3.3, and ENDF/B-VI.8 and with the current status of the global parameter systematics of the model code TALYS-0.57. In addition, a considerable number of locally optimized parameter sets were developed. Both the global and local approaches emphasize the use of consistent physics modelling for all important reaction channels and nuclides involved in the decay. Comparison of the two approaches allows assessment of the effort required when model estimates to a certain accuracy must be made. Parameter sensitivity studies were undertaken to further assess the accuracy requirements on model parameters if target uncertainties for the cross sections have been specified. The value of this approach has demonstrated itself and indicates the need for model codes that fit all available experimental data in order to connect the data covariance with the covariance of the model predictions. The work of the subgroup was a joint effort

  17. A Report on the Achievements of Subgroup 19 on Activation Cross Sections of the WPEC, OECD-NEA

    SciTech Connect

    Plompen, A.J.M.; Smith, D.L.; Semkova, V.M.

    2005-05-24

    Subgroup 19 on Activation Cross Sections of the Working Party on Evaluation Cooperation of the OECD-NEA has recently concluded its activities. The goal of the subgroup was to generate a large set of new measured activation cross sections relevant to nuclear applications and make these data available to the nuclear science community. In addition, modeling efforts and sensitivity studies were undertaken to evaluate the use of measured data and model calculations for the prediction of unknown cross sections. The latter addresses the potential of model calculations to satisfy issues on the High Priority Request List when no measured data are available. In the course of the activities of the subgroup over ninety reaction channels were studied experimentally. All except the most recent of these data have been compiled into EXFOR format by members of the subgroup and submitted to OECD- NEA. As a result most of these data can now be retrieved online from the data centers. A systematic comparison was made with the new evaluated data files JEF3.0/EAF2003, JENDL3.3, and ENDF/B-VI.8 and with the current status of the global parameter systematics of the model code TALYS-0.57. In addition, a considerable number of locally optimized parameter sets were developed. Both the global and local approaches emphasize the use of consistent physics modelling for all important reaction channels and nuclides involved in the decay. Comparison of the two approaches allows assessment of the effort required when model estimates to a certain accuracy must be made. Parameter sensitivity studies were undertaken to further assess the accuracy requirements on model parameters if target uncertainties for the cross sections have been specified. The value of this approach has demonstrated itself and indicates the need for model codes that fit all available experimental data in order to connect the data covariance with the covariance of the model predictions. The work of the subgroup was a joint effort

  18. Simulating future supply of and requirements for human resources for health in high-income OECD countries.

    PubMed

    Tomblin Murphy, Gail; Birch, Stephen; MacKenzie, Adrian; Rigby, Janet

    2016-12-12

    As part of efforts to inform the development of a global human resources for health (HRH) strategy, a comprehensive methodology for estimating HRH supply and requirements was described in a companion paper. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the application of that methodology, using data publicly available online, to simulate the supply of and requirements for midwives, nurses, and physicians in the 32 high-income member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) up to 2030. A model combining a stock-and-flow approach to simulate the future supply of each profession in each country-adjusted according to levels of HRH participation and activity-and a needs-based approach to simulate future HRH requirements was used. Most of the data to populate the model were obtained from the OECD's online indicator database. Other data were obtained from targeted internet searches and documents gathered as part of the companion paper. Relevant recent measures for each model parameter were found for at least one of the included countries. In total, 35% of the desired current data elements were found; assumed values were used for the other current data elements. Multiple scenarios were used to demonstrate the sensitivity of the simulations to different assumed future values of model parameters. Depending on the assumed future values of each model parameter, the simulated HRH gaps across the included countries could range from shortfalls of 74 000 midwives, 3.2 million nurses, and 1.2 million physicians to surpluses of 67 000 midwives, 2.9 million nurses, and 1.0 million physicians by 2030. Despite important gaps in the data publicly available online and the short time available to implement it, this paper demonstrates the basic feasibility of a more comprehensive, population needs-based approach to estimating HRH supply and requirements than most of those currently being used. HRH planners in individual countries, working with their

  19. “A question of balance”: addressing the public health impacts of multinational enterprises in the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Joshua S.; McDaniel, Patricia A.; Malone, Ruth E.

    2012-01-01

    Background The global community is beginning to address non-communicable diseases, but how to increase the accountability of multinational enterprises (MNEs) for the health impacts of their products and practices remains unclear. We examine the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development’s (OECD) efforts to do so through voluntary MNE guidelines. Methods We developed a historical case study of how the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises were developed and revised from 1973–2000 through an analysis of publicly available archived OECD and tobacco industry documents. Results The first edition of the Guidelines was a purely economic instrument. Outside pressures and a desire to ward off more stringent regulatory efforts resulted in the addition over time of guidelines related to the environment, consumer interests, sustainable development, and human rights. Conclusion Despite their voluntary nature, the Guidelines can play a role in efforts to help balance the interests of MNEs and public health by providing a starting point for efforts to create binding provisions addressing MNEs’ contributions to disease burden or disease reduction. PMID:23046298

  20. OECD validation of the rodent Hershberger assay using three reference chemicals; 17alpha-methyltestosterone, procymidone, and p,p'-DDE.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jae-Ho; Moon, Hyun Ju; Kang, Il Hyun; Kim, Tae Sung; Lee, Su Jung; Ahn, Ji Youn; Bae, Hoon; Jeung, Eui Bae; Han, Soon Young

    2007-05-01

    The rodent Hershberger assay is being validated as an in vivo test method for detecting androgenic or antiandrogenic compounds by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). As part of the international validation work, we studied 17alpha-methyltestosterone for evaluating androgenic activity, and procymidone and p,p'-DDE for evaluating antiandrogenic activity. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were castrated at postnatal day 42, and only the rats that showed preputial separation were used in this study. Seven days after castration, chemicals were administered daily by gavages to groups of rats for 10 days, as recommended by OECD phase-2 protocol. Administration of 17alpha-methyltestosterone induced increases of weights of accessory sex tissues and glands in a dose-dependent manner. Administration of procymidone and p,p'-DDE produced a dose-dependent decrease of weights of accessory sex tissues and glands in the rats co-treated with testosterone propionate (0.4 mg/kg/day) subcutaneously. Our data strongly suggested that the current protocol of OECD Hershberger assay (phase-2) should be used as a reliable method for the detection of endocrine related toxicity of other chemicals.

  1. Exploring simple, transparent, interpretable and predictive QSAR models for classification and quantitative prediction of rat toxicity of ionic liquids using OECD recommended guidelines.

    PubMed

    Das, Rudra Narayan; Roy, Kunal; Popelier, Paul L A

    2015-11-01

    The present study explores the chemical attributes of diverse ionic liquids responsible for their cytotoxicity in a rat leukemia cell line (IPC-81) by developing predictive classification as well as regression-based mathematical models. Simple and interpretable descriptors derived from a two-dimensional representation of the chemical structures along with quantum topological molecular similarity indices have been used for model development, employing unambiguous modeling strategies that strictly obey the guidelines of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) for quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis. The structure-toxicity relationships that emerged from both classification and regression-based models were in accordance with the findings of some previous studies. The models suggested that the cytotoxicity of ionic liquids is dependent on the cationic surfactant action, long alkyl side chains, cationic lipophilicity as well as aromaticity, the presence of a dialkylamino substituent at the 4-position of the pyridinium nucleus and a bulky anionic moiety. The models have been transparently presented in the form of equations, thus allowing their easy transferability in accordance with the OECD guidelines. The models have also been subjected to rigorous validation tests proving their predictive potential and can hence be used for designing novel and "greener" ionic liquids. The major strength of the present study lies in the use of a diverse and large dataset, use of simple reproducible descriptors and compliance with the OECD norms.

  2. Scientific and Regulatory Policy Committee Review: Review of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Guidance on the GLP Requirements for Peer Review of Histopathology.

    PubMed

    Fikes, James D; Patrick, Daniel J; Francke, Sabine; Frazier, Kendall S; Reindel, James F; Romeike, Annette; Spaet, Robert H; Tomlinson, Lindsay; Schafer, Kenneth A

    2015-10-01

    In 2014, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) issued guidance no. 16, Guidance on the GLP Requirements for Peer Review of Histopathology. The stated purpose of the guidance document is "to provide guidance to pathologists, test facility management, study directors and quality assurance personnel on how the peer review of histopathology should be planned, managed, documented, and reported in order to meet Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) expectations and requirements." On behalf of and in collaboration with the global societies of toxicologic pathology, the Society of Toxicologic Pathology initiated a review of OECD guidance no. 16. The objectives of this review are to provide a unified interpretation of the guidance, to recommend compliant processes for organizations to implement, and to avoid inconsistent process adaptations across the industry. This review of the guidance document is the product of a global collaboration with other societies of toxicologic pathology and provides a section-by-section international consensus view and interpretation of the OECD guidance on peer review. © 2015 by The Author(s).

  3. The involvement of medical doctors in hospital governance and implications for quality management: a quick scan in 19 and an in depth study in 7 OECD countries.

    PubMed

    Rotar, A M; Botje, D; Klazinga, N S; Lombarts, K M; Groene, O; Sunol, R; Plochg, T

    2016-05-24

    Hospital governance is broadening its orientation from cost and production controls towards 'improving performance on clinical outcomes'. Given this new focus one might assume that doctors are drawn into hospital management across OECD countries. Hospital performance in terms of patient health, quality of care and efficiency outcomes is supposed to benefit from their involvement. However, international comparative evidence supporting this idea is limited. Just a few studies indicate that there may be a positive relationship between medical doctors being part of hospital boards, and overall hospital performance. More importantly, the assumed relationship between these so-called doctor managers and hospital performance has remained a 'black-box' thus far. However, there is an increasing literature on the implementation of quality management systems in hospitals and their relation with improved performance. It seems therefore fair to assume that the relation between the involvement of doctors in hospital management and improved hospital performance is partly mediated via quality management systems. The threefold aim of this paper is to 1) perform a quick scan of the current situation with regard to doctor managers in hospital management in 19 OECD countries, 2) explore the phenomenon of doctor managers in depth in 7 OECD countries, and 3) investigate whether doctor involvement in hospital management is associated with more advanced implementation of quality management systems. This study draws both on a quick scan amongst country coordinators in OECD's Health Care Quality Indicator program, and on the DUQuE project which focused on the implementation of quality management systems in European hospitals. This paper reports two main findings. First, medical doctors fulfil a broad scope of managerial roles at departmental and hospital level but only partly accompanied by formal decision making responsibilities. Second, doctor managers having more formal decision making

  4. OECD/NEA Data Bank Scientific and Intergral Experiments Databases in Support of Knowledge Preservation and Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    J. B. Briggs; E. Sartori; J. Gado; A. Hasegawa; P. D'hondt; I. Kodeli; F. J. Mompean; W. Wiesenack; A. Zaetta

    2004-09-01

    The OECD/Nuclear Energy Data Bank was established by its member countries as an institution to allow effective sharing of knowledge and its basic underlying information and data in key areas of nuclear science and technology. The activities as regards preserving and transferring knowledge consist of the: — Acquisition of basic nuclear data, computer codes and experimental system data needed over a wide range of nuclear and radiation applications. — Independent verification and validation of these data using quality assurance methods, adding value through international benchmark exercises, workshops and meetings and by issuing relevant reports with conclusions and recommendations, as well as by organising training courses to ensure their qualified and competent use. — Dissemination of the different products to authorised establishments in member countries and collecting and integrating user feedback. Of particular importance has been the establishment of basic and integral experiments databases and the methodology developed with the aim of knowledge preservation and transfer. Databases established thus far include: — IRPhE – International Reactor Physics Experimental Benchmarks Evaluations, — SINBAD – a radiation shielding experiments database (nuclear reactors, fusion neutronics and accelerators), — IFPE – International Fuel Performance Benchmark Experiments Database, — TDB – The Thermochemical Database Project, — ICSBE – International Nuclear Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluations [1], — CCVM – CSNI Code Validation Matrix of Thermal-hydraulic Codes for LWR LOCA and Transients [2]. This paper will concentrate on knowledge preservation and transfer concepts and methods related to some of the integral experiments and TDB.

  5. Summary of important results and SCDAP/RELAP5 analysis for OECD LOFT experiment LP-FP-2

    SciTech Connect

    Coryell, E.W.

    1994-04-01

    This report summarizes significant technical findings from the LP-FP-2 Experiment sponsored by the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). It was the second, and final, fission product experiment conducted in the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The overall technical objective of the test was to contribute to the understanding of fuel rod behavior, hydrogen generation, and fission product release, transport, and deposition during a V-sequence accident scenario that resulted in severe core damage. An 11 by 11 test bundle, comprised of 100 prepressurized fuel rods, 11 control rods, and 10 instrumented guide tubes, was surrounded by an insulating shroud and contained in a specially designed central fuel module, that was inserted into the LOFT reactor. The simulated transient was a V-sequence loss-of-coolant accident scenario featuring a pipe break in the low pressure injection system line attached to the hot leg of the LOFT broken loop piping. The transient was terminated by reflood of the reactor vessel when the outer wall shroud temperature reached 1517 K. With sustained fission power and heat from oxidation and metal-water reactions, elevated temperatures resulted in zircaloy melting, fuel liquefaction, material relocation, and the release of hydrogen, aerosols, and fission products. A description and evaluation of the major phenomena, based upon the response of on line instrumentation, analysis of fission product data, postirradiation examination of the fuel bundle, and calculations using the SCDAP/RELAP5 computer code, are presented.

  6. REVIEW OF RESULTS FOR THE OECD/NEA PHASE VII BENCHMARK: STUDY OF SPENT FUEL COMPOSITIONS FOR LONG TERM DISPOSAL

    SciTech Connect

    Radulescu, Georgeta; Wagner, John C

    2011-01-01

    This paper summarizes the problem specification and compares participants results for the OECD/NEA/WPNCS Expert Group on Burn-up Credit Criticality Safety Phase VII Benchmark Study of Spent Fuel Compositions for Long-Term Disposal. The Phase VII benchmark was developed to study the ability of relevant computer codes and associated nuclear data to predict spent fuel isotopic compositions and corresponding keff values in a cask configuration over the time duration relevant to spent nuclear fuel (SNF) disposal. The benchmark was divided into two sets of calculations: (1) decay calculations out to 1,000,000 years for provided pressurized-water-reactor (PWR) UO2 discharged fuel compositions and (2) burnup credit criticality calculations for a representative cask model at selected time steps. Contributions from 15 organizations and companies in 10 countries were submitted to the Phase VII benchmark exercise. This paper provides a description of the Phase VII benchmark and detailed comparisons of the participants isotopic compositions and keff values that were calculated with a diversity of computer codes and nuclear data sets. Differences observed in the calculated time-dependent nuclide densities are attributed to different decay data or code-specific numerical approximations. The variability of the keff results is consistent with the evaluated uncertainty associated with cross-section data.

  7. QSAR prediction of estrogen activity for a large set of diverse chemicals under the guidance of OECD principles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huanxiang; Papa, Ester; Gramatica, Paola

    2006-11-01

    A large number of environmental chemicals, known as endocrine-disrupting chemicals, are suspected of disrupting endocrine functions by mimicking or antagonizing natural hormones, and such chemicals may pose a serious threat to the health of humans and wildlife. They are thought to act through a variety of mechanisms, mainly estrogen-receptor-mediated mechanisms of toxicity. However, it is practically impossible to perform thorough toxicological tests on all potential xenoestrogens, and thus, the quantitative structure--activity relationship (QSAR) provides a promising method for the estimation of a compound's estrogenic activity. Here, QSAR models of the estrogen receptor binding affinity of a large data set of heterogeneous chemicals have been built using theoretical molecular descriptors, giving full consideration to the new OECD principles in regulation for QSAR acceptability, during model construction and assessment. An unambiguous multiple linear regression (MLR) algorithm was used to build the models, and model predictive ability was validated by both internal and external validation. The applicability domain was checked by the leverage approach to verify prediction reliability. The results obtained using several validation paths indicate that the proposed QSAR model is robust and satisfactory, and can provide a feasible and practical tool for the rapid screening of the estrogen activity of organic compounds.

  8. The political economy of the public-private mix in heath expenditure: an empirical review of thirteen OECD countries.

    PubMed

    Mou, Haizhen

    2013-12-01

    This study investigates the factors that may have influenced the public-private mix of health expenditure in 13 OECD countries from 1981 to 2007. The degree to which health services are socialized is regarded as the product of a trade-off between the desire to redistribute income through the fiscal system and the losses some citizens will incur when the public health care system expands. The estimation results show that, greater income inequality and population aging are associated with a smaller share of public health expenditure in total health expenditure. The more ideologically left-leaning the electorate is, the larger the share of public health expenditure. Private health insurance tends to erode the political support for the public health care systems in countries with private duplicate health insurance, but not in countries with private primary health insurance. The findings suggest that the role of private sources of funding for health care is likely to grow in developed countries. The expansion of public coverage to include pharmaceuticals and long-term care in some countries may (theoretically) encounter less opposition if the current insurance holders have no duplicate coverage, if the voters as a whole share more left-leaning political ideology, and if low-income voters are more politically mobilized. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Preliminary Results for the OECD/NEA Time Dependent Benchmark using Rattlesnake, Rattlesnake-IQS and TDKENO

    SciTech Connect

    DeHart, Mark D.; Mausolff, Zander; Weems, Zach; Popp, Dustin; Smith, Kristin; Shriver, Forrest; Goluoglu, Sedat; Prince, Zachary; Ragusa, Jean

    2016-08-01

    One goal of the MAMMOTH M&S project is to validate the analysis capabilities within MAMMOTH. Historical data has shown limited value for validation of full three-dimensional (3D) multi-physics methods. Initial analysis considered the TREAT startup minimum critical core and one of the startup transient tests. At present, validation is focusing on measurements taken during the M8CAL test calibration series. These exercises will valuable in preliminary assessment of the ability of MAMMOTH to perform coupled multi-physics calculations; calculations performed to date are being used to validate the neutron transport solver Rattlesnake\\cite{Rattlesnake} and the fuels performance code BISON. Other validation projects outside of TREAT are available for single-physics benchmarking. Because the transient solution capability of Rattlesnake is one of the key attributes that makes it unique for TREAT transient simulations, validation of the transient solution of Rattlesnake using other time dependent kinetics benchmarks has considerable value. The Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) has recently developed a computational benchmark for transient simulations. This benchmark considered both two-dimensional (2D) and 3D configurations for a total number of 26 different transients. All are negative reactivity insertions, typically returning to the critical state after some time.

  10. Biometrical evaluation of the performance of the revised OECD Test Guideline 402 for assessing acute dermal toxicity.

    PubMed

    Mielke, H; Strickland, J; Jacobs, M N; Mehta, J M

    2017-10-01

    A comprehensive biometrical assessment was conducted to compare the performance of multiple test designs for acute dermal systemic toxicity to support the animal welfare update to the original OECD Test Guideline (TG) 402 for acute dermal toxicity. The test designs evaluated included: (1) two, three, or five animals per dose group (2) evident toxicity or lethality endpoints and (3) absence or presence of a one-animal sighting study. The revision of TG 402 respected the 3R principles (replace, reduce, refine) of animal testing. The results demonstrate that the TG 402 test design can be optimised with reduced animal numbers per test group, such that a scenario of two animals per group following a sighting study at a starting dose of 200 mg/kg bw (unless further information is available to better define the starting dose) would provide a classification which in most cases is conservative, without compromising both the statistical ability of the study to assess dermal toxicity, or the relevant classification outcome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessment of core damage models in SCDAP/RELAP5 during OECD LOFT LP-FP-2

    SciTech Connect

    Coryell, E.W.

    1991-12-31

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has sponsored a program to apply the SCDAP/RELAP5 code to analysis of the transient and reflood phases of the OECD LOFT LP-FP-2 Experiment. The principal objectives of the LP-FP-2 experiment were to determine the fission product release from the fuel during the early phases of a severe fuel damage scenario and to examine the phenomena controlling fission product transport in a vapor/aerosol environment. Calculations with the SCDAP/RELAP5 code, developed at the INEL with NRC support, have been performed to (1) examine the phenomena controlling the progression of both transient and reflood phases of the experiment, (2) enhance our understanding of the phenomena occurring during reflood and add credence to the postulated phenomenological sequence, (3) assess the ability of SCDAP/RELAP5 to examine severe fuel damage issues and phenomena, and (4) identify code strengths and deficiencies with the intent of prioritizing code improvements. Results indicate that the code is able to analyze the early phases of severe fuel damage reasonably well, with potential deficiencies in modelling interaction between molten control rod material and intact fuel.

  12. Assessment of core damadge models in SCDAP/RELAP5 during OECD LOFT LP-FP-2

    SciTech Connect

    Coryell, E.W.

    1991-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has sponsored a program to apply the SCDAP/RELAP5 code to analysis of the transient and reflood phases of the OECD LOFT LP-FP-2 Experiment. The principal objectives of the LP-FP-2 experiment were to determine the fission product release from the fuel during the early phases of a severe fuel damage scenario and to examine the phenomena controlling fission product transport in a vapor/aerosol environment. Calculations with the SCDAP/RELAP5 code, developed at the INEL with NRC support, have been performed to (1) examine the phenomena controlling the progression of both transient and reflood phases of the experiment, (2) enhance our understanding of the phenomena occurring during reflood and add credence to the postulated phenomenological sequence, (3) assess the ability of SCDAP/RELAP5 to examine severe fuel damage issues and phenomena, and (4) identify code strengths and deficiencies with the intent of prioritizing code improvements. Results indicate that the code is able to analyze the early phases of severe fuel damage reasonably well, with potential deficiencies in modelling interaction between molten control rod material and intact fuel.

  13. Is the OECD acute worm toxicity test environmentally relevant? The effect of mineral form on calculated lead toxicity.

    PubMed

    Davies, Nicola A; Hodson, Mark E; Black, Stuart

    2003-01-01

    In a series of experiments the toxicity of lead to worms in soil was determined following the draft OECD earthworm reproduction toxicity protocol except that lead was added as solid lead nitrate, carbonate and sulphide rather than as lead nitrate solution as would normally be the case. The compounds were added to the test soil to give lead concentrations of 625-12 500 microg Pb g(-1) of soil. Calculated toxicities of the lead decreased in the order nitrate> carbonate> sulphide, the same order as the decrease in the solubility of the metal compounds used. The 7-day LC50 (lethal concentration when 50% of the population is killed) for the nitrate was 5321+/-275 microg Pb g(-1) of soil and this did not change with time. The LC50 values for carbonate and sulphide could not be determined at the concentration ranges used. The only parameter sensitive enough to distinguish the toxicities of the three compounds was cocoon (egg) production. The EC50s for cocoon production (the concentration to produce a 50% reduction in cocoon production) were 993, 8604 and 10246 pg Pb g(-1) of soil for lead nitrate, carbonate and sulphide, respectively. Standard toxicity tests need to take into account the form in which the contaminant is present in the soil to be of environmental relevance.

  14. RELAP5-3D results for phase I (Exercise 2) of the OECD/NEA MHTGR-350 MW benchmark

    SciTech Connect

    Strydom, G.; Epiney, A. S.

    2012-07-01

    The coupling of the PHISICS code suite to the thermal hydraulics system code RELAP5-3D has recently been initiated at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to provide a fully coupled prismatic Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) system modeling capability as part of the NGNP methods development program. The PHISICS code consists of three modules: INSTANT (performing 3D nodal transport core calculations), MRTAU (depletion and decay heat generation) and a perturbation/mixer module. As part of the verification and validation activities, steady state results have been obtained for Exercise 2 of Phase I of the newly-defined OECD/NEA MHTGR-350 MW Benchmark. This exercise requires participants to calculate a steady-state solution for an End of Equilibrium Cycle 350 MW Modular High Temperature Reactor (MHTGR), using the provided geometry, material, and coolant bypass flow description. The paper provides an overview of the MHTGR Benchmark and presents typical steady state results (e.g. solid and gas temperatures, thermal conductivities) for Phase I Exercise 2. Preliminary results are also provided for the early test phase of Exercise 3 using a two-group cross-section library and the Relap5-3D model developed for Exercise 2. (authors)

  15. RELAP5-3D Results for Phase I (Exercise 2) of the OECD/NEA MHTGR-350 MW Benchmark

    SciTech Connect

    Gerhard Strydom

    2012-06-01

    The coupling of the PHISICS code suite to the thermal hydraulics system code RELAP5-3D has recently been initiated at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to provide a fully coupled prismatic Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) system modeling capability as part of the NGNP methods development program. The PHISICS code consists of three modules: INSTANT (performing 3D nodal transport core calculations), MRTAU (depletion and decay heat generation) and a perturbation/mixer module. As part of the verification and validation activities, steady state results have been obtained for Exercise 2 of Phase I of the newly-defined OECD/NEA MHTGR-350 MW Benchmark. This exercise requires participants to calculate a steady-state solution for an End of Equilibrium Cycle 350 MW Modular High Temperature Reactor (MHTGR), using the provided geometry, material, and coolant bypass flow description. The paper provides an overview of the MHTGR Benchmark and presents typical steady state results (e.g. solid and gas temperatures, thermal conductivities) for Phase I Exercise 2. Preliminary results are also provided for the early test phase of Exercise 3 using a two-group cross-section library and the Relap5-3D model developed for Exercise 2.

  16. Use of the Monte Carlo Method for OECD Principles-Guided QSAR Modeling of SIRT1 Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ashwani; Chauhan, Shilpi

    2017-01-01

    SIRT1 inhibitors offer therapeutic potential for the treatment of a number of diseases including cancer and human immunodeficiency virus infection. A diverse series of 45 compounds with reported SIRT1 inhibitory activity has been employed for the development of quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models using the Monte Carlo optimization method. This method makes use of simplified molecular input line entry system notation of the molecular structure. The QSAR models were built up according to OECD principles. Three subsets of three splits were examined and validated by respective external sets. All the three described models have good statistical quality. The best model has the following statistical characteristics: R(2)  = 0.8350, Q(2)test  = 0.7491 for the test set and R(2)  = 0.9655, Q(2)ext  = 0.9261 for the validation set. In the mechanistic interpretation, structural attributes responsible for the endpoint increase and decrease are defined. Further, the design of some prospective SIRT1 inhibitors is also presented on the basis of these structural attributes. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. The Effects of Molecular Properties on Ready Biodegradation of Aromatic Compounds in the OECD 301B CO2 Evolution Test.

    PubMed

    He, Mei; Mei, Cheng-Fang; Sun, Guo-Ping; Li, Hai-Bei; Liu, Lei; Xu, Mei-Ying

    2016-07-01

    Ready biodegradation is the primary biodegradability of a compound, which is used for discriminating whether a compound could be rapidly and readily biodegraded in the natural ecosystems in a short period and has been applied extensively in the environmental risk assessment of many chemicals. In this study, the effects of 24 molecular properties (including 2 physicochemical parameters, 10 geometrical parameters, 6 topological parameters, and 6 electronic parameters) on the ready biodegradation of 24 kinds of synthetic aromatic compounds were investigated using the OECD 301B CO2 Evolution test. The relationship between molecular properties and ready biodegradation of these aromatic compounds varied with molecular properties. A significant inverse correlation was found for the topological parameter TD, five geometrical parameters (Rad, CAA, CMA, CSEV, and N c), and the physicochemical parameter K ow, and a positive correlation for two topological parameters TC and TVC, whereas no significant correlation was observed for any of the electronic parameters. Based on the correlations between molecular properties and ready biodegradation of these aromatic compounds, the importance of molecular properties was demonstrated as follows: geometrical properties > topological properties > physicochemical properties > electronic properties. Our study first demonstrated the effects of molecular properties on ready biodegradation by a number of experiment data under the same experimental conditions, which should be taken into account to better guide the ready biodegradation tests and understand the mechanisms of the ready biodegradation of aromatic compounds.

  18. SFCOMPO-2.0: An OECD NEA database of spent nuclear fuel isotopic assays, reactor design specifications, and operating data

    DOE PAGES

    Michel-Sendis, F.; Gauld, I.; Martinez, J. S.; ...

    2017-08-02

    SFCOMPO-2.0 is the new release of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) database of experimental assay measurements. These measurements are isotopic concentrations from destructive radiochemical analyses of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) samples. We supplement the measurements with design information for the fuel assembly and fuel rod from which each sample was taken, as well as with relevant information on operating conditions and characteristics of the host reactors. These data are necessary for modeling and simulation of the isotopic evolution of the fuel during irradiation. SFCOMPO-2.0 has been developed and is maintained by the OECDmore » NEA under the guidance of the Expert Group on Assay Data of Spent Nuclear Fuel (EGADSNF), which is part of the NEA Working Party on Nuclear Criticality Safety (WPNCS). Significant efforts aimed at establishing a thorough, reliable, publicly available resource for code validation and safety applications have led to the capture and standardization of experimental data from 750 SNF samples from more than 40 reactors. These efforts have resulted in the creation of the SFCOMPO-2.0 database, which is publicly available from the NEA Data Bank. Our paper describes the new database, and applications of SFCOMPO-2.0 for computer code validation, integral nuclear data benchmarking, and uncertainty analysis in nuclear waste package analysis are briefly illustrated.« less

  19. Energy Security and Climate Change Policy in the OECD: The Political Economy of Carbon-Energy Taxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachapelle, Erick

    Why do countries tax the same fuels at widely different rates, even among similarly situated countries in the global political economy? Given the potentially destabilizing effects of climate change, and the political and economic risks associated with a reliance on geographically concentrated, finite fossil fuels, International Organizations and economists of all political stripes have consistently called for increasing tax rates on fossil-based energy. Despite much enthusiasm among policy experts, however, politicians concerned with distributional consequences, economic performance and competitiveness impacts continue to be wary of raising taxes on carbon-based fuels. In this context, this thesis investigates the political economy of tax rates affecting the price of fossil fuels in advanced capitalist democracies. Through an examination of the political limits of government capacity to implement stricter carbon-energy policy, as well as the identification of the correlates of higher carbon-based energy taxes, it throws new light on the conditions under which carbon-energy tax reform becomes politically possible. Based on recent data collected from the OECD, EEA and IEA, I develop an estimate of the relative size of implicit carbon taxes across OECD member countries on six carbon-based fuels and across the household and industrial sectors. I exploit large cross-national differences in these carbon-energy tax rates in order to identify the correlates of, and constraints on, carbon-energy tax reform. Applying multiple regression analysis to both cross-section and time-series cross-sectional (TSCS) data, this thesis leverages considerable empirical evidence to demonstrate how and why electoral systems matter for energy and environmental tax policy outcomes. In particular, I find considerable empirical evidence to support the claim that systems of proportional representation (PR), in addition to the partisan preferences of the electorate, work together to explain

  20. Short-term and long-term effects of GDP on traffic deaths in 18 OECD countries, 1960-2011.

    PubMed

    Dadgar, Iman; Norström, Thor

    2017-02-01

    Research suggests that increases in gross domestic product (GDP) lead to increases in traffic deaths plausibly due to the increased road traffic induced by an expanding economy. However, there also seems to exist a long-term effect of economic growth that is manifested in improved traffic safety and reduced rates of traffic deaths. Previous studies focus on either the short-term, procyclical effect, or the long-term, protective effect. The aim of the present study is to estimate the short-term and long-term effects jointly in order to assess the net impact of GDP on traffic mortality. We extracted traffic death rates for the period 1960-2011 from the WHO Mortality Database for 18 OECD countries. Data on GDP/capita were obtained from the Maddison Project. We performed error correction modelling to estimate the short-term and long-term effects of GDP on the traffic death rates. The estimates from the error correction modelling for the entire study period suggested that a one-unit increase (US$1000) in GDP/capita yields an instantaneous short-term increase in the traffic death rate by 0.58 (p<0.001), and a long-term decrease equal to -1.59 (p<0.001). However, period-specific analyses revealed a structural break implying that the procyclical effect outweighs the protective effect in the period prior to 1976, whereas the reverse is true for the period 1976-2011. An increase in GDP leads to an immediate increase in traffic deaths. However, after the mid-1970s this short-term effect is more than outweighed by a markedly stronger protective long-term effect, whereas the reverse is true for the period before the mid-1970s. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  1. Development and validation of an OECD reproductive toxicity test guideline with the mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Mollusca, Gastropoda).

    PubMed

    Ruppert, Katharina; Geiß, Cornelia; Askem, Clare; Benstead, Rachel; Brown, Rebecca; Coke, Maira; Ducrot, Virginie; Egeler, Philipp; Holbech, Henrik; Hutchinson, Thomas H; Kinnberg, Karin L; Lagadic, Laurent; Le Page, Gareth; Macken, Ailbhe; Matthiessen, Peter; Ostermann, Sina; Schimera, Agnes; Schmitt, Claudia; Seeland-Fremer, Anne; Smith, Andy J; Weltje, Lennart; Oehlmann, Jörg

    2017-08-01

    Mollusks are known to be uniquely sensitive to a number of reproductive toxicants including some vertebrate endocrine disrupting chemicals. However, they have widely been ignored in environmental risk assessment procedures for chemicals. This study describes the validation of the Potamopyrgus antipodarum reproduction test within the OECD Conceptual Framework for Endocrine Disrupters Testing and Assessment. The number of embryos in the brood pouch and adult mortality serve as main endpoints. The experiments are conducted as static systems in beakers filled with artificial medium, which is aerated trough glass pipettes. The test chemical is dispersed into the medium, and adult snails are subsequently introduced into the beakers. After 28 days the reproductive success is determined by opening the brood pouch and embryo counting. This study presents the results of two validation studies of the reproduction test with eleven laboratories and the chemicals tributyltin (TBT) with nominal concentrations ranging from 10 to 1000 ng TBT-Sn/L and cadmium with concentrations from 1.56 to 25 μg/L. The test design could be implemented by all laboratories resulting in comparable effect concentrations for the endpoint number of embryos in the brood pouch. After TBT exposure mean EC10, EC50, NOEC and LOEC were 35.6, 127, 39.2 and 75.7 ng Sn/L, respectively. Mean effect concentrations in cadmium exposed snails were, respectively, 6.53, 14.2, 6.45 and 12.6 μg/L. The effect concentrations are in good accordance with already published data. Both validation studies show that the reproduction test with P. antipodarum is a well-suited tool to assess reproductive effects of chemicals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The OECD program to validate the rat uterotrophic bioassay to screen compounds for in vivo estrogenic responses: phase 1.

    PubMed Central

    Kanno, J; Onyon, L; Haseman, J; Fenner-Crisp, P; Ashby, J; Owens, W

    2001-01-01

    The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development has completed the first phase of an international validation program for the rodent uterotrophic bioassay. This uterotrophic bioassay is intended to identify the in vivo activity of compounds that are suspected agonists or antagonists of estrogen. This information could, for example, be used to help prioritize positive compounds for further testing. Using draft protocols, we tested and compared two model systems, the immature female rat and the adult ovariectomized rat. Data from 19 participating laboratories using a high-potency reference agonist, ethinyl estradiol (EE), and an antagonist, ZM 189,154, indicate no substantive performance differences between models. All laboratories and all protocols successfully detected increases in uterine weights using EE in phase 1. These significant uterine weight increases were achieved under a variety of experimental conditions (e.g., strain, diet, housing protocol, bedding, vehicle). For each protocol, there was generally good agreement among laboratories with regard to the actual EE doses both in producing the first significant increase in uterine weights and achieving the maximum uterine response. Furthermore, the Hill equation appears to model the dose response satisfactorily and indicates general agreement based on calculated effective dose (ED)(10) and ED(50) within and among laboratories. The feasibility of an antagonist assay was also successfully demonstrated. Therefore, both models appear robust, reproducible, and transferable across laboratories for high-potency estrogen agonists such as EE. For the next phase of the OECD validation program, both models will be tested against a battery of weak, partial estrogen agonists. PMID:11564613

  3. Regulatory ecotoxicity testing of nanomaterials - proposed modifications of OECD test guidelines based on laboratory experience with silver and titanium dioxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Hund-Rinke, Kerstin; Baun, Anders; Cupi, Denisa; Fernandes, Teresa F; Handy, Richard; Kinross, John H; Navas, José M; Peijnenburg, Willie; Schlich, Karsten; Shaw, Benjamin J; Scott-Fordsmand, Janeck J

    2016-12-01

    Regulatory ecotoxicity testing of chemicals is of societal importance and a large effort is undertaken at the OECD to ensure that OECD test guidelines (TGs) for nanomaterials (NMs) are available. Significant progress to support the adaptation of selected TGs to NMs was achieved in the context of the project MARINA ( http://www.marina-fp7.eu/ ) funded within the 7th European Framework Program. Eight OECD TGs were adapted based on the testing of at least one ion-releasing NM (Ag) and two inert NMs (TiO2). With the materials applied, two main variants of NMs (ion releasing vs. inert NMs) were addressed. As the modifications of the test guidelines refer to general test topics (e.g. test duration or measuring principle), we assume that the described approaches and modifications will be suitable for the testing of further NMs with other chemical compositions. Firm proposals for modification of protocols with scientific justification(s) are presented for the following tests: growth inhibition using the green algae Raphidocelis subcapitata (formerly: Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata; TG 201), acute toxicity with the crustacean Daphnia magna (TG 202), development toxicity with the fish Danio rerio (TG 210), reproduction of the sediment-living worm Lumbriculus variegatus (TG 225), activity of soil microflora (TGs 216, 217), and reproduction of the invertebrates (Enchytraeus crypticus, Eisenia fetida, TGs 220, 222). Additionally, test descriptions for two further test systems (root elongation of plants in hydroponic culture; test on fish cells) are presented. Ecotoxicological data obtained with the modified test guidelines for TiO2 NMs and Ag NM and detailed method descriptions are available.

  4. The strains recommended for use in the bacterial reverse mutation test (OECD guideline 471) can be certified as non-genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Kei-Ichi; Yamada, Masami; Awogi, Takumi; Hakura, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial reverse mutation test, commonly called Ames test, is used worldwide. In Japan, the genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are regulated under the Cartagena Domestic Law, and organisms obtained by self-cloning and/or natural occurrence would be exempted from the law case by case. The strains of Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli recommended for use in the bacterial reverse mutation test (OECD guideline 471), have been considered as non-GMOs because they can be constructed by self-cloning or naturally occurring bacterial strains, or do not disturb the biological diversity. The present article explains the reasons why these tester strains should be classified as non-GMOs.

  5. An overview of the activities of the OECD/NEA Task Force on adapting computer codes in nuclear applications to parallel architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Kirk, B.L.; Sartori, E.

    1997-06-01

    Subsequent to the introduction of High Performance Computing in the developed countries, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA) created the Task Force on Adapting Computer Codes in Nuclear Applications to Parallel Architectures (under the guidance of the Nuclear Science Committee`s Working Party on Advanced Computing) to study the growth area in supercomputing and its applicability to the nuclear community`s computer codes. The result has been four years of investigation for the Task Force in different subject fields - deterministic and Monte Carlo radiation transport, computational mechanics and fluid dynamics, nuclear safety, atmospheric models and waste management.

  6. Preference for cesarean section in young nulligravid women in eight OECD countries and implications for reproductive health education.

    PubMed

    Stoll, Kathrin H; Hauck, Yvonne L; Downe, Soo; Payne, Deborah; Hall, Wendy A

    2017-09-12

    Efforts to reduce unnecessary Cesarean sections (CS) in high and middle income countries have focused on changing hospital cultures and policies, care provider attitudes and behaviors, and increasing women's knowledge about the benefits of vaginal birth. These strategies have been largely ineffective. Despite evidence that women have well-developed preferences for mode of delivery prior to conceiving their first child, few studies and no interventions have targeted the next generation of maternity care consumers. The objectives of the study were to identify how many women prefer Cesarean section in a hypothetical healthy pregnancy, why they prefer CS and whether women report knowledge gaps about pregnancy and childbirth that can inform educational interventions. Data was collected via an online survey at colleges and universities in 8 OECD countries (Australia, Canada, Chile, England, Germany, Iceland, New Zealand, United States) in 2014/2015. Childless young men and women between 18 and 40 years of age who planned to have at least one child in the future were eligible to participate. The current analysis is focused on the attitudes of women (n = 3616); rates of CS preference across countries are compared, using a standardized cohort of women aged 18-25 years, who were born in the survey country and did not study health sciences (n = 1390). One in ten young women in our study preferred CS, ranging from 7.6% in Iceland to 18.4% in Australia. Fear of uncontrollable labor pain and fear of physical damage were primary reasons for preferring a CS. Both fear of childbirth and preferences for CS declined as the level of confidence in women's knowledge of pregnancy and birth increased. Education sessions delivered online, through social media, and face-to-face using drama and stories told by peers (young women who have recently had babies) or celebrities could be designed to maximize young women's capacity to understand the physiology of labor and birth, and the

  7. Evaluation of mechanisms inducing thyroid toxicity and the ability of the enhanced OECD Test Guideline 407 to detect these changes.

    PubMed

    Cunha, G Coelho-Palermo; van Ravenzwaay, B

    2005-07-01

    The OECD has developed an "enhanced Test Guideline 407" (TG 407) protocol for detecting endocrine effects during the course of a 28-day testing scheme. This protocol has gone through a validation process with (anti)estrogenic and (anti)androgenic compounds and substances that affect the thyroid (thyroxine and propylthiouracil). This review investigates whether a 28-day testing scheme would show up alterations in the thyroid-related parameters of the "enhanced TG 407" (T3, T4, TSH, thyroid weight and histopathology), irrespective of the mode of action. For each mode of action, a generally accepted reference chemical was selected and an in-depth literature survey was carried out, and the chemical was evaluated for treatment-related changes of thyroid-dependent parameters. The following model chemicals were selected: ion perchlorate, blockage of iodine uptake; propylthiouracil, inhibition of thyroid hormone synthesis; excess of iodine, blockage of thyroid hormone release; pyrazole, thyroid cytotoxicity; minocycline, thyroid pigmentation; amiodarone, inhibition of TSH synthesis; diethylstilbestrol, competition for thyroid hormone binding globulin; selenium-deficient diet, inhibition of thyroxine deiodination; FD&C Red No. 3, inhibition of peripheral 5'-deiodinase; cadmium, lipid peroxidation; phenobarbital, increase in thyroxine conjugation and biliary excretion; temelastine, thyroxine accumulation. Test data for treatments lasting approximately one month were available for most of these model chemicals, and these demonstrated the expected thyroid-related changes. Thus, it can be concluded that a 28-day testing scheme allows for the detection of thyroid-disrupting chemicals. The literature data also were evaluated according to whether preference can be given to any of the thyroid-related parameters (thyroid/pituitary hormones, thyroid weight and histopathology) with regard to dose-related sensitivities. Due to different study designs (such as treatment duration

  8. First report on development of quantitative interspecies structure-carcinogenicity relationship models and exploring discriminatory features for rodent carcinogenicity of diverse organic chemicals using OECD guidelines.

    PubMed

    Kar, Supratik; Roy, Kunal

    2012-04-01

    Different regulatory agencies in food and drug administration and environmental protection worldwide are employing quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models to fill the data gaps related with properties of chemicals affecting the environment and human health. Carcinogenicity is a toxicity endpoint of major concern in recent times. Interspecies toxicity correlations may provide a tool for estimating sensitivity towards toxic chemical exposure with known levels of uncertainty for a diversity of wildlife species. In this background, we have developed quantitative interspecies structure-carcinogenicity correlation models for rat and mouse [rodent species according to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) guidelines] based on the carcinogenic potential of 166 organic chemicals with wide diversity of molecular structures, spanning a large number of chemical classes and biological mechanisms. All the developed models have been assessed according to the OECD principles for the validation of QSAR models. Consensus predictions for carcinogenicity of the individual compounds are presented here for any one species when the data for the other species are available. Informative illustrations of the contributing structural fragments of chemicals which are responsible for specific carcinogenicity endpoints are identified by the developed models. The models have also been used to predict mouse carcinogenicities of 247 organic chemicals (for which rat carcinogenicities are present) and rat carcinogenicities of 150 chemicals (for which mouse carcinogenicities are present). Discriminatory features for rat and mouse carcinogenicity values have also been explored.

  9. Organic solvents impair life-traits and biomarkers in the New Zealand mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Gray) at concentrations below OECD recommendations.

    PubMed

    Lecomte, V; Noury, P; Tutundjian, R; Buronfosse, T; Garric, J; Gust, M

    2013-09-15

    Potamopyrgus antipodarum is a gastropod mollusk proposed for use in the development of reproduction tests within the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Numerous chemicals, including endocrine disrupters, are relatively water-insoluble, and water-miscible solvents are currently used for testing them. OECD recommends a maximum concentration of 100 μll(-1). As several studies highlighted effects of lower concentrations of solvents, this study assessed the effects of 20 μll(-1) acetone, ethanol, methanol and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) on juvenile and adult snails during 42 days. Ethanol decreased juvenile growth, while acetone increased the rate of embryonic development. All solvents increased estradiol-like levels in adult snails. DMSO only increased mRNA expression of vitellogenin-like gene, while acetone, ethanol and methanol decreased mRNA expression of three nuclear receptor (estrogen receptor-like, ecdysone-induced protein and chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor) genes as well as of genes encoding proteins involved in genomic (prohibitin-2) and non-genomic (striatin) pathways of estrogens activity in vertebrates. This study highlights the confounding effects of low concentrations of solvents and recommends avoiding their use. Where solvent use is inevitable, their concentrations and type should be investigated for suitability for the measured endpoints prior to use in chemical testing strategies.

  10. Disease management index of potential years of life lost as a tool for setting priorities in national disease control using OECD health data.

    PubMed

    Jang, Sung-In; Nam, Jung-Mo; Choi, Jongwon; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2014-03-01

    Limited healthcare resources make it necessary to maximize efficiency in disease management at the country level by priority-setting according to disease burden. To make the best priority settings, it is necessary to measure health status and have standards for its judgment, as well as consider disease management trends among nations. We used 17 International Classification of Diseases (ICD) categories of potential years of life lost (YPLL) from Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) health data for 2012, 37 disease diagnoses YPLL from OECD health data for 2009 across 22 countries and disability-adjusted life years (DALY) from the World Health Organization (WHO). We set a range of 1-1 for each YPLL per disease in a nation (position value for relative comparison, PARC). Changes over 5 years were also accounted for in this disease management index (disease management index, DMI). In terms of ICD categories, the DMI indicated specific areas for priority setting for different countries with regard to managing disease treatment and diagnosis. Our study suggests that DMI is a realistic index that reflects trend changes over the past 5 years to the present state, and PARC is an easy index for identifying relative status. Moreover, unlike existing indices, DMI and PARC make it easy to conduct multiple comparisons among countries and diseases. DMI and PARC are therefore useful tools for policy implications and for future studies incorporating them and other existing indexes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. OECD validation study to assess intra- and inter-laboratory reproducibility of the zebrafish embryo toxicity test for acute aquatic toxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Busquet, François; Strecker, Ruben; Rawlings, Jane M; Belanger, Scott E; Braunbeck, Thomas; Carr, Gregory J; Cenijn, Peter; Fochtman, Przemyslaw; Gourmelon, Anne; Hübler, Nicole; Kleensang, André; Knöbel, Melanie; Kussatz, Carola; Legler, Juliette; Lillicrap, Adam; Martínez-Jerónimo, Fernando; Polleichtner, Christian; Rzodeczko, Helena; Salinas, Edward; Schneider, Katharina E; Scholz, Stefan; van den Brandhof, Evert-Jan; van der Ven, Leo T M; Walter-Rohde, Susanne; Weigt, Stefan; Witters, Hilda; Halder, Marlies

    2014-08-01

    The OECD validation study of the zebrafish embryo acute toxicity test (ZFET) for acute aquatic toxicity testing evaluated the ZFET reproducibility by testing 20 chemicals at 5 different concentrations in 3 independent runs in at least 3 laboratories. Stock solutions and test concentrations were analytically confirmed for 11 chemicals. Newly fertilised zebrafish eggs (20/concentration and control) were exposed for 96h to chemicals. Four apical endpoints were recorded daily as indicators of acute lethality: coagulation of the embryo, lack of somite formation, non-detachment of the tail bud from the yolk sac and lack of heartbeat. Results (LC50 values for 48/96h exposure) show that the ZFET is a robust method with a good intra- and inter-laboratory reproducibility (CV<30%) for most chemicals and laboratories. The reproducibility was lower (CV>30%) for some very toxic or volatile chemicals, and chemicals tested close to their limit of solubility. The ZFET is now available as OECD Test Guideline 236. Considering the high predictive capacity of the ZFET demonstrated by Belanger et al. (2013) in their retrospective analysis of acute fish toxicity and fish embryo acute toxicity data, the ZFET is ready to be considered for acute fish toxicity for regulatory purposes. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. An investigation on the determinants of carbon emissions for OECD countries: empirical evidence from panel models robust to heterogeneity and cross-sectional dependence.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Eyup; Seker, Fahri

    2016-07-01

    This empirical study analyzes the impacts of real income, energy consumption, financial development and trade openness on CO2 emissions for the OECD countries in the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) model by using panel econometric approaches that consider issues of heterogeneity and cross-sectional dependence. Results from the Pesaran CD test, the Pesaran-Yamagata's homogeneity test, the CADF and the CIPS unit root tests, the LM bootstrap cointegration test, the DSUR estimator, and the Emirmahmutoglu-Kose Granger causality test indicate that (i) the panel time-series data are heterogeneous and cross-sectionally dependent; (ii) CO2 emissions, real income, the quadratic income, energy consumption, financial development and openness are integrated of order one; (iii) the analyzed data are cointegrated; (iv) the EKC hypothesis is validated for the OECD countries; (v) increases in openness and financial development mitigate the level of emissions whereas energy consumption contributes to carbon emissions; (vi) a variety of Granger causal relationship is detected among the analyzed variables; and (vii) empirical results and policy recommendations are accurate and efficient since panel econometric models used in this study account for heterogeneity and cross-sectional dependence in their estimation procedures.

  13. TRAC-PF1/MOD1 post-test calculations of the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) LOFT experiment LP-SB-2

    SciTech Connect

    Pelayo, F. )

    1990-12-01

    An analysis of the OECD-LOFT-LP-SB-2 experiment making use of TRAC-PF1/MOD1 is described in the report. LP-SB2 experiment studies the effect of a delayed pump trip in a small break LOCA scenario with a 3 inches equivalent diameter break in the hot leg of a commercial PWR operating at full power. The experiment was performed on 14 July 1983 in the LOFT facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory under the auspices of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). This analysis presents an evaluation of the code capability in reproducing the complex phenomena which determined the LP-SB-2 transient evolution. the analysis comprises the results obtained from two different runs. The first run is described in detail analysing the main variables over two time spans: short and longer term. Several conclusions are drawn and then a second run testing some of these conclusions is shown. All of the calculations were preformed at the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Establishment at Winfrith under the auspices of an agreement between the UKAEA (United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority) and the Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear Espanol (CSN). 16 refs., 64 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. Foreign Students and Internationalization of Higher Education. Proceedings of OECD/Japan Seminar on Higher Education and the Flow of Foreign Students (Hiroshima, Japan, November 8-10, 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebuchi, Kazuhiro, Ed.

    This volume reports on a seminar structured around three themes: institutional policies toward the flow of foreign students in member countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD); specific measures and programs for foreign students; and social and cultural adjustment by foreign students. The volume contains seminar…

  15. Learning To Bridge the Digital Divide: Schooling for Tomorrow. Education and Skills. [National Center on Adult Literacy (NCAL)/Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Roundtable (5th, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, December 8-10, 1999)].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jame, Edwyn; Istance, David

    This publication builds on the papers and discussions of the Fifth National Center on Adult Literacy (NCAL)/Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Roundtable. The volume presents an analysis of the "learning digital divide" in different countries--developed and developing--and the policies and innovations designed…

  16. Lower extremity amputation rates in people with diabetes as an indicator of health systems performance. A critical appraisal of the data collection 2000-2011 by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD).

    PubMed

    Carinci, F; Massi Benedetti, M; Klazinga, N S; Uccioli, L

    2016-10-01

    Critical appraisal of secondary data made available by the OECD for the time frame 2000-2011. Comparison of trends and variation of amputations in people with diabetes across OECD countries. Generalized estimating equations to test the statistical significance of the annual change adjusting for major potential confounders. A total of 26 OECD countries contributed to the OECD data collection for at least 1 year in the reference time frame, showing a decline in rates of over 40 %, from a mean of 13.2 (median 9.4, range 5.1-28.1) to 7.8 amputations per 100,000 in the general population (9.9, 1.0-18.4). The multivariate model showed an average decrease equal to -0.27 per 100,000 per year (p = 0.015), adjusted by structural characteristics of health systems, showing lower amputation rates for health systems financed by public taxation (-4.55 per 100,000 compared to insurance based, p = 0.002) and non-ICD coding mechanisms (-7.04 per 100,000 compared to ICD-derived, p = 0.001). Twelve-year decrease was stronger among insurance-based financing systems (tax based: -0.16 per 100,000, p = 0.064; insurance based: -0.36 per 100,000; p = 0.046). In OECD countries, amputation rates in diabetes continuously decreased over 12 years. Still, in 2011, one amputation every 7 min could be directly attributed to diabetes. Although interesting, these results should be taken with extreme caution, until common definitions are improved and data quality issues, e.g., a different ability in capturing diabetes diagnoses, are fully resolved.

  17. Household adoption of energy and water-efficient appliances: An analysis of attitudes, labelling and complementary green behaviours in selected OECD countries.

    PubMed

    Dieu-Hang, To; Grafton, R Quentin; Martínez-Espiñeira, Roberto; Garcia-Valiñas, Maria

    2017-03-28

    Using a household-based data set of more than 12,000 households from 11 OECD countries, we analyse the factors underlying the decision by households to adopt energy-efficient and water-efficient equipment. We evaluate the roles of both attitudes and labelling schemes on the adoption of energy and water-efficient equipment, and also the interaction and complementarity between energy and water conservation behaviours. Our findings show: one, 'green' social norms and favourable attitudes towards the environment are associated with an increased likelihood of households' adoption of energy and water-efficient appliances; two, households' purchase decisions are positively affected by their awareness, understanding, and trust of labelling schemes; and three, there is evidence of complementarity between energy conservation and water conservation behaviours.

  18. An overview of hazard and risk assessment of the OECD high production volume chemical category--long chain alcohols [C(6)-C(22)] (LCOH).

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Hans; Belanger, Scott E; Fisk, Peter R; Schäfers, Christoph; Veenstra, Gauke; Nielsen, Allen M; Kasai, Yutaka; Willing, Andreas; Dyer, Scott D; Stanton, Kathleen; Sedlak, Richard

    2009-05-01

    This review summarizes the findings of the assessment report for the category, long chain alcohols (LCOH) with a carbon chain length range of C(6)-C(22) covering 30 substances, and >1.5million tonnes/year consumed globally. The category was evaluated under the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) high production volume chemicals program in 2006. The main findings of the assessment include: (1) no unacceptable human or environmental risks were identified; (2) these materials are rapidly and readily biodegradable; (3) a parabolic relationship was demonstrated between carbon chain length and acute and chronic aquatic toxicity; (4) category-specific (quantitative) structure-activity relationships were developed enabling prediction of properties across the entire category; (5) LCOH occur naturally in the environment in an equilibrium between synthesis and degradation; (6) industry coming together and sharing resources results in minimizing the need for additional animal tests, produces cost savings, and increases scientific quality of the assessment.

  19. Economic and cultural correlates of subjective wellbeing in countries using data from the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD).

    PubMed

    Gaygisiz, Esma

    2010-06-01

    The correlations among indicators of objective well-being, cultural dimensions, and subjective well-being were investigated using Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) data from 35 countries. The subjective well-being measures included life satisfaction as well as six positive and six negative indexes of experience. Positive and negative experience scores were subjected to principal component analysis, and two positive experience components (labeled as "positive experiences" and "time management") and two negative experience components (labeled as "pain, worry, and sadness" and "anger and boredom") were extracted. Objective well-being included economic indicators, education, and health. The cultural variables included Hofstede's and Schwartz's cultural dimensions, national Big Five personality scores, and national IQs. High life satisfaction was positively related to Gross Domestic Product, life expectancy, education, individualism, affective and intellectual autonomy, egalitarianism, and conscientiousness, whereas low life satisfaction was related to unemployment, unequal income distribution, power distance, masculinity uncertainty avoidance, embeddedness, hierarchy, and neuroticism.

  20. Performance of potential non-crop or wild species under OECD 208 testing guideline study conditions for terrestrial non-target plants.

    PubMed

    Pallett, Ken; Cole, Jon; Oberwalder, Christian; Porch, John

    2007-02-01

    The inclusion of 52 potential non-crop or wild species in new OECD guidelines for terrestrial non-target plant (TNTP) testing led to a ring test conducted by four laboratories experienced in regulatory testing. Species selected had shown potential to meet validity criteria of emergence for TNTP studies in a previous evaluation of the 52 species. OECD 208 guideline conditions were applied, with and without seed pretreatments recommended to enhance germination. These species were Abutilon theophrasti (L.) Medic., Avena fatua L., Fallopia convolvulus (L.) Adans., Galium aparine L., Ipomoea hederacea (L.) Jacq. and Veronica persica Poir. Only I. hederacea met the validity criterion of 70% emergence in all laboratories and showed a low variability in biomass. Of the other species, none led to 70% emergence in all four laboratories. The recommended pretreatments did not have a major impact on emergence. Biomass was also investigated with A. theophrasti, A. fatua, Centaurea cyanus L., I. hederacea and Rumex crispus L. Variability of biomass, a key parameter in TNTP regulatory studies, exceeded normal biomass variability of crop species used for TNTP studies. The addition of a thin layer of quartz sand to the soil surface resulted in improved emergence of C. cyanus, G. aparine and V. persica; however, such a procedure, while routine in screening studies to improve germination, is a deviation from the TNTP guidelines. These initial studies indicate that some species could meet the emergence criteria for TNTP testing. However, there is a need for further studies on seed source, seed quality and conditions for uniform emergence before their use in routine regulatory testing.

  1. How and why do countries differ in their governance and financing-related administrative expenditure in health care? An analysis of OECD countries by health care system typology.

    PubMed

    Hagenaars, Luc L; Klazinga, Niek S; Mueller, Michael; Morgan, David J; Jeurissen, Patrick P T

    2017-10-12

    Administration is vital for health care. Its importance may increase as health care systems become more complex, but academic attention has remained minimal. We investigated trends in administrative expenditure across OECD countries, cross-country spending differences, spending differences between health care system typologies, and differences in the scale and scope of administrative functions across typologies. We used OECD data, which include health system governance and financing-related administrative activities by regulators, governance bodies, and insurers (macrolevel), but exclude administrative expenditure by health care providers (mesolevel and microlevel). We find that governance and financing-related administrative spending at the macrolevel has remained stable over the last decade at slightly over 3% of total health spending. Cross-country differences range from 1.3% of health spending in Iceland to 8.3% in the United States. Voluntary private health insurance bears much higher administrative costs than compulsory schemes in all countries. Among compulsory schemes, multiple payers exhibit significantly higher administrative spending than single payers. Among single-payer schemes, those where entitlements are based on residency have significantly lower administrative spending than those with single social health insurance, albeit with a small difference. These differences can partially be explained because multi-payer and voluntary private health insurance schemes require additional administrative functions and enjoy less economies of scale. Studies in hospitals and primary care indicate similar differences in administrative costs across health system typologies at the mesolevel and microlevel of health care delivery, which warrants more research on total administrative costs at all the levels of health systems. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. 17alpha-methyltestosterone: 28-day oral toxicity study in the rat based on the "Enhanced OECD Test Guideline 407" to detect endocrine effects.

    PubMed

    Wason, Sheila; Pohlmeyer-Esch, Gabriele; Pallen, Catherine; Palazzi, Xavier; Espuña, Gemma; Bars, Remi

    2003-11-05

    A 28-day oral gavage toxicity study in the rat with 17alpha-methyltestosterone was conducted as part of the international validation exercise on the modified Enhanced OECD Test Guideline 407 (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Paris). Special emphasis was placed on the endocrine mediated effects exerted by 17alpha-methyltestosterone, a potent androgen agonist. The test compound was administered daily by oral gavage for at least 28 days to groups of 7-week-old-Wistar rats. Dose levels were 0, 10, 40 and 200 mg/kg body weight per day for males and 0, 10, 100 and 600 mg/kg body weight per day for females. In addition, and outside the remit of the enhanced protocol, testosterone levels in males, oestradiol levels in females and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels in both sexes were measured, to provide a broader profile on the hormonally mediated effects of 17alpha-methyltestosterone. Furthermore, stage-specific quantification of Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP Nick-End Labeling (TUNEL)-labeled germ cells (apoptotic germ cells) in the seminiferous tubules was also performed, in an effort to demonstrate the precise stages in the spermatogenic cycle 17alpha-methyltestosterone exerts its effect. In this study, the most critical additional parameters contained in the Enhanced OECD Test Guideline 407 for the detection of endocrine disruption were considered to be the histopathological assessment and organ weight data of endocrine-related tissues. Beyond the scope of this validation exercise, an increase in apoptosis in specific germ cell types was detected using the TUNEL assay in male rats treated at 200 and 40 mg/kg.

  3. The relative contribution of income inequality and imprisonment to the variation in homicide rates among Developed (OECD), South and Central American countries.

    PubMed

    Nadanovsky, Paulo; Cunha-Cruz, Joana

    2009-11-01

    Homicide rates vary widely across and within different continents. In order to address the problem of violence in the world, it seems important to clarify the sources of this variability. Despite the fact that income inequality and imprisonment seem to be two of the most important determinants of the variation in homicide rates over space and time, the concomitant effect of income inequality and imprisonment on homicide has not been examined. The objective of this cross-sectional ecological study was to investigate the association of income inequality and imprisonment with homicide rates among Developed (OECD), South and Central American countries. A novel index was developed to indicate imprisonment: the Impunity Index (the total number of homicides in the preceding decade divided by the number of persons in prison at a single slice in time). Negative binomial models were used to estimate rate ratios of homicides for young males and for the total population in relation to Gini Index and Impunity Index, controlling for infant mortality (as a proxy for poverty levels), Gross Domestic Product per-capita, education, percentage of young males in the population and urbanization. Both low income inequality and low impunity (high imprisonment of criminals) were related to low homicide rates. In addition, we found that countries with lower income inequality, lower infant mortality (less poverty), higher average income (GDP per-capita) and higher levels of education had low impunity. Our results are compatible with the hypothesis that both low income inequality and imprisonment of criminals, independent of each other and of other social-structural circumstances, may greatly contribute to the reduction in homicide rates in South and Central American countries, and to the maintenance of low levels of homicides in OECD countries. The Impunity Index reveals that countries that show greater commitment to education and to distribution of income also show greater commitment to

  4. Assessment of the human epidermal model LabCyte EPI-MODEL for In vitro skin corrosion testing according to the OECD test guideline 431.

    PubMed

    Katoh, Masakazu; Hamajima, Fumiyasu; Ogasawara, Takahiro; Hata, Ken-Ichiro

    2010-06-01

    A new OECD test guideline 431 (TG431) for in vitro skin corrosion tests using human reconstructed skin models was adopted by OECD in 2004. TG431 defines the criteria for the general function and performance of applicable skin models. In order to confirm that the new reconstructed human epidermal model, LabCyte EPI-MODEL is applicable for the skin corrosion test according to TG431, the predictability and repeatability of the model for the skin corrosion test was evaluated. The test was performed according to the test protocol described in TG431. Based on the knowledge that LabCyte EPI-MODEL is an epidermal model as well as EpiDerm, we decided to adopt the the Epiderm prediction model of skin corrosion for the LabCyte EPI-MODEL, using twenty test chemicals (10 corrosive chemicals and 10 non-corrosive chemicals) in the 1(st) stage. The prediction model results showed that the distinction of non-corrosion to corrosion corresponded perfectly. Therefore, it was judged that the prediction model of EpiDerm could be applied to the LabCyte EPI-MODEL. In the 2(nd) stage, the repeatability of this test protocol with the LabCyte EPI-MODEL was examined using twelve chemicals (6 corrosive chemicals and 6 non-corrosive chemicals) that are described in TG431, and these results recognized a high repeatability and accurate predictability. It was concluded that LabCyte EPI-MODEL is applicable for the skin corrosive test protocol according to TG431.

  5. The OECD Program to Validate the Rat Hershberger Bioassay to Screen Compounds for in Vivo Androgen and Antiandrogen Responses: Phase 2 Dose–Response Studies

    PubMed Central

    Owens, William; Gray, L. Earl; Zeiger, Errol; Walker, Michael; Yamasaki, Kanji; Ashby, John; Jacob, Elard

    2007-01-01

    Objective The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has completed phase 2 of an international program to validate the rodent Hershberger bioassay. Design The Hershberger bioassay is designed to identify suspected androgens and antiandrogens based on changes in the weights of five androgen-responsive tissues (ventral prostate, paired seminal vesicles and coagulating glands, the levator ani and bulbocavernosus muscles, the glans penis, and paired Cowper’s or bulbourethral glands). Protocol sensitivity and reproducibility were tested using two androgen agonists (17α-methyl testosterone and 17β-trenbolone), four antagonists [procymi-done, vinclozolin, linuron, and 1,1-dichoro-2,2-bis-(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p’-DDE)], and a 5α-reductase inhibitor (finasteride). Sixteen laboratories from seven countries participated in phase 2. Results In 40 of 41 studies, the laboratories successfully detected substance-related weight changes in one or more tissues. The one exception was with the weakest antiandrogen, linuron, in a laboratory with reduced sensitivity because of high coefficients of variation in all tissue weights. The protocols performed well under different experimental conditions (e.g., strain, diet, housing protocol, bedding, vehicle). There was good agreement and reproducibility among laboratories with regard to the lowest dose inducing significant effects on tissue weights. Conclusions The results show that the OECD Hershberger bioassay protocol is reproducible and transferable across laboratories with androgen agonists, weak androgen antagonists, and a 5α-reductase inhibitor. The next validation phase will employ coded test substances, including positive substances and negative substances having no androgenic or antiandrogenic activity. PMID:17520051

  6. Macro determinants of cause-specific injury mortality in the OECD countries: an exploration of the importance of GDP and unemployment.

    PubMed

    Muazzam, Sana; Nasrullah, Muazzam

    2011-08-01

    Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and unemployment has a strong documented impact on injury mortality. The aim of our study is to investigate the relationship of GDP per capita and unemployment with gender- and cause-specific injury mortalities in the member nations of Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Country-based data on injury mortality per 100,000 population, including males and females aged 1-74, for the 4 year period 1996-1999, were gathered from the World Health Organization's Statistical Information System. We selected fourteen cause-specific injury mortalities. Data on GDP, unemployment rate and population growth were taken from World Development Indicators. GDP and unemployment rate per 100 separately were regressed on total and cause-specific injury mortality rate per 100,000 for males and females. Overall in the OECD countries, GDP per capita increased 12.5% during 1996-1999 (P = 0.03) where as unemployment rate decreased by 12.3% (P = 0.05). Among males, most cause-specific injury mortality rates decreased with increasing GDP except motor vehicle traffic crashes (MTC) that increased with increasing GDP (coefficient = 0.75; P < 0.001). Similar trend was found in females, except suicidal injury mortalities that also increased with increasing GDP (coefficient = 0.31; P = 0.04). When we modeled cause-specific injury mortality rates with unemployment, injuries due to firearm missiles (coefficient = 0.53; P < 0.001), homicide (coefficient = 0.36; P < 0.001), and other violence (coefficient = 0.41; P < 0.001) increased with increase in unemployment rate among males. However, among females only accidental falls (coefficient = 0.36; P = 0.01) were found significantly associated with increasing unemployment rate. GDP is more related to cause-specific injury mortality than unemployment. Injury mortality does not relate similarly to each diagnosis-specific cause among males and females. Further research on

  7. Comparison of the PHISICS/RELAP5-3D ring and block model results for phase I of the OECD/NEA MHTGR-350 benchmark

    DOE PAGES

    Strydom, G.; Epiney, A. S.; Alfonsi, Andrea; ...

    2015-12-02

    The PHISICS code system has been under development at INL since 2010. It consists of several modules providing improved coupled core simulation capability: INSTANT (3D nodal transport core calculations), MRTAU (depletion and decay heat generation) and modules performing criticality searches, fuel shuffling and generalized perturbation. Coupling of the PHISICS code suite to the thermal hydraulics system code RELAP5-3D was finalized in 2013, and as part of the verification and validation effort the first phase of the OECD/NEA MHTGR-350 Benchmark has now been completed. The theoretical basis and latest development status of the coupled PHISICS/RELAP5-3D tool are described in more detailmore » in a concurrent paper. This paper provides an overview of the OECD/NEA MHTGR-350 Benchmark and presents the results of Exercises 2 and 3 defined for Phase I. Exercise 2 required the modelling of a stand-alone thermal fluids solution at End of Equilibrium Cycle for the Modular High Temperature Reactor (MHTGR). The RELAP5-3D results of four sub-cases are discussed, consisting of various combinations of coolant bypass flows and material thermophysical properties. Exercise 3 required a coupled neutronics and thermal fluids solution, and the PHISICS/RELAP5-3D code suite was used to calculate the results of two sub-cases. The main focus of the paper is a comparison of results obtained with the traditional RELAP5-3D “ring” model approach against a much more detailed model that include kinetics feedback on individual block level and thermal feedbacks on a triangular sub-mesh. The higher fidelity that can be obtained by this “block” model is illustrated with comparison results on the temperature, power density and flux distributions. Furthermore, it is shown that the ring model leads to significantly lower fuel temperatures (up to 10%) when compared with the higher fidelity block model, and that the additional model development and run-time efforts are worth the gains obtained

  8. Comparison of the PHISICS/RELAP5-3D ring and block model results for phase I of the OECD/NEA MHTGR-350 benchmark

    SciTech Connect

    Strydom, G.; Epiney, A. S.; Alfonsi, Andrea; Rabiti, Cristian

    2015-12-02

    The PHISICS code system has been under development at INL since 2010. It consists of several modules providing improved coupled core simulation capability: INSTANT (3D nodal transport core calculations), MRTAU (depletion and decay heat generation) and modules performing criticality searches, fuel shuffling and generalized perturbation. Coupling of the PHISICS code suite to the thermal hydraulics system code RELAP5-3D was finalized in 2013, and as part of the verification and validation effort the first phase of the OECD/NEA MHTGR-350 Benchmark has now been completed. The theoretical basis and latest development status of the coupled PHISICS/RELAP5-3D tool are described in more detail in a concurrent paper. This paper provides an overview of the OECD/NEA MHTGR-350 Benchmark and presents the results of Exercises 2 and 3 defined for Phase I. Exercise 2 required the modelling of a stand-alone thermal fluids solution at End of Equilibrium Cycle for the Modular High Temperature Reactor (MHTGR). The RELAP5-3D results of four sub-cases are discussed, consisting of various combinations of coolant bypass flows and material thermophysical properties. Exercise 3 required a coupled neutronics and thermal fluids solution, and the PHISICS/RELAP5-3D code suite was used to calculate the results of two sub-cases. The main focus of the paper is a comparison of results obtained with the traditional RELAP5-3D “ring” model approach against a much more detailed model that include kinetics feedback on individual block level and thermal feedbacks on a triangular sub-mesh. The higher fidelity that can be obtained by this “block” model is illustrated with comparison results on the temperature, power density and flux distributions. Furthermore, it is shown that the ring model leads to significantly lower fuel temperatures (up to 10%) when compared with the higher fidelity block model, and that the additional model development and run-time efforts are worth the gains obtained in the

  9. A synthesis of recent analyses of human resources for health requirements and labour market dynamics in high-income OECD countries.

    PubMed

    Tomblin Murphy, Gail; Birch, Stephen; MacKenzie, Adrian; Bradish, Stephanie; Elliott Rose, Annette

    2016-09-29

    Recognition of the importance of effective human resources for health (HRH) planning is evident in efforts by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Global Health Workforce Alliance (GHWA) to facilitate, with partner organizations, the development of a global HRH strategy for the period 2016-2030. As part of efforts to inform the development of this strategy, the aims of this study, the first of a pair, were (a) to conduct a rapid review of recent analyses of HRH requirements and labour market dynamics in high-income countries who are members of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and (b) to identify a methodology to determine future HRH requirements for these countries. A systematic search of peer-reviewed literature, targeted website searches, and multi-stage reference mining were conducted. To supplement these efforts, an international Advisory Group provided additional potentially relevant documents. All documents were assessed against predefined inclusion criteria and reviewed using a standardized data extraction tool. In total, 224 documents were included in the review. The HRH supply in the included countries is generally expected to grow, but it is not clear whether that growth will be adequate to meet health care system objectives in the future. Several recurring themes regarding factors of importance in HRH planning were evident across the documents reviewed, such as aging populations and health workforces as well as changes in disease patterns, models of care delivery, scopes of practice, and technologies in health care. However, the most common HRH planning approaches found through the review do not account for most of these factors. The current evidence base on HRH labour markets in high-income OECD countries, although large and growing, does not provide a clear picture of the expected future HRH situation in these countries. Rather than HRH planning methods and analyses being guided by explicit HRH policy questions

  10. Performance of Core Exit Thermocouple for PWR Accident Management Action in Vessel Top Break LOCA Simulation Experiment at OECD/NEA ROSA Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Mitsuhiro; Takeda, Takeshi; Nakamura, Hideo

    Presented are experiment results of the Large Scale Test Facility (LSTF) conducted at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) with a focus on core exit thermocouple (CET) performance to detect core overheat during a vessel top break loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) simulation experiment. The CET temperatures are used to start accident management (AM) action to quickly depressurize steam generator (SG) secondary side in case of core temperature excursion. Test 6-1 is the first test of the OECD/NEA ROSA Project started in 2005, simulating withdraw of a control rod drive mechanism penetration nozzle at the vessel top head. The break size is equivalent to 1.9% cold leg break. The AM action was initiated when CET temperature rose up to 623K. There was no reflux water fallback onto the CETs during the core heat-up period. The core overheat, however, was detected with a time delay of about 230s. In addition, a large temperature discrepancy was observed between the CETs and the hottest core region. This paper clarifies the reasons of time delay and temperature discrepancy between the CETs and heated core during boil-off including three-dimensional steam flows in the core and core exit. The paper discusses applicability of the LSTF CET performance to pressurized water reactor (PWR) conditions and a possibility of alternative indicators for earlier AM action than in Test 6-1 is studied by using symptom-based plant parameters such as a reactor vessel water level detection.

  11. New prompt fission gamma-ray spectral data from 239Pu(nth, f) in response to a high priority request from OECD Nuclear Energy Agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatera, Angélique; Belgya, Tamás; Geerts, Wouter; Göök, Alf; Hambsch, Franz-Josef; Lebois, Matthieu; Maróti, Boglárka; Oberstedt, Stephan; Oberstedt, Andreas; Postelt, Frederik; Qi, Liqiang; Szentmiklósi, Laszló; Vidali, Marzio; Zeiser, Fabio

    2017-09-01

    Benchmark reactor calculations have revealed an underestimation of γ-heat following fission of up to 28%. To improve the modelling of new nuclear reactors, the OECD/NEA initiated a nuclear data High Priority Request List (HPRL) entry for the major isotopes (235U, 239Pu). In response to that HPRL entry, we executed a dedicated measurement program on prompt fission γ-rays employing state-of-the-art lanthanum bromide (LaBr3) detectors with superior timing and good energy resolution. Our new results from 252Cf(sf), 235U(nth,f) and 241Pu(nth,f) provide prompt fission γ-ray spectra characteristics : average number of photons per fission, average total energy per fission and mean photon energy; all within 2% of uncertainty. We present preliminary results on 239Pu(nth,f), recently measured at the Budapest Neutron Centre and supported by the CHANDA Trans-national Access Activity, as well as discussing our different published results in comparison to the historical data and what it says about the discrepancy observed in the benchmark calculations.

  12. A review of national-level adaptation planning with regards to the risks posed by climate change on infectious diseases in 14 OECD nations.

    PubMed

    Panic, Mirna; Ford, James D

    2013-12-12

    Climate change is likely to have significant implications for human health, particularly through alterations of the incidence, prevalence, and distribution of infectious diseases. In the context of these risks, governments in high income nations have begun developing strategies to reduce potential climate change impacts and increase health system resilience (i.e., adaptation). In this paper, we review and evaluate national-level adaptation planning in relation to infectious disease risks in 14 OECD countries with respect to "best practices" for adaptation identified in peer-reviewed literature. We find a number of limitations to current planning, including negligible consideration of the needs of vulnerable population groups, limited emphasis on local risks, and inadequate attention to implementation logistics, such as available funding and timelines for evaluation. The nature of planning documents varies widely between nations, four of which currently lack adaptation plans. In those countries where planning documents were available, adaptations were mainstreamed into existing public health programs, and prioritized a sectoral, rather than multidisciplinary, approach. The findings are consistent with other scholarship examining adaptation planning indicating an ad hoc and fragmented process, and support the need for enhanced attention to adaptation to infectious disease risks in public health policy at a national level.

  13. Application of the PSI-NUSS Tool for the Estimation of Nuclear Data Related keff Uncertainties for the OECD/NEA WPNCS UACSA Phase I Benchmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, T.; Vasiliev, A.; Ferroukhi, H.; Pautz, A.

    2014-04-01

    At the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), a methodology titled PSI-NUSS is under development for the propagation of nuclear data uncertainties into Criticality Safety Evaluation (CSE) with the Monte Carlo code MCNPX. The primary purpose is to provide a complementary option for the uncertainty assessment related to nuclear data, versus the traditional approach which relies on estimating biases/uncertainties based on validation studies against representative critical benchmark experiments. In the present paper, the PSI-NUSS methodology is applied to quantify nuclear data uncertainties for the OECD/NEA UACSA Exercise Phase I benchmark. One underlying reason is that PSI's CSE methodology developed so far and previously applied for this benchmark was based on using a more conventional approach, involving engineering guesses in order to estimate uncertainties in the calculated effective multiplication factor (keff). Therefore, as the PSI-NUSS methodology aims precisely at integrating a more rigorous treatment of the specific type of uncertainties from nuclear data for CSE, its application to the UACSA is conducted here: nuclear data related uncertainty component is estimated and compared to results obtained by other participants using different codes/libraries and methodologies.

  14. International comparisons of the technical efficiency of the hospital sector: panel data analysis of OECD countries using parametric and non-parametric approaches.

    PubMed

    Varabyova, Yauheniya; Schreyögg, Jonas

    2013-09-01

    There is a growing interest in the cross-country comparisons of the performance of national health care systems. The present work provides a comparison of the technical efficiency of the hospital sector using unbalanced panel data from OECD countries over the period 2000-2009. The estimation of the technical efficiency of the hospital sector is performed using nonparametric data envelopment analysis (DEA) and parametric stochastic frontier analysis (SFA). Internal and external validity of findings is assessed by estimating the Spearman rank correlations between the results obtained in different model specifications. The panel-data analyses using two-step DEA and one-stage SFA show that countries, which have higher health care expenditure per capita, tend to have a more technically efficient hospital sector. Whether the expenditure is financed through private or public sources is not related to the technical efficiency of the hospital sector. On the other hand, the hospital sector in countries with higher income inequality and longer average hospital length of stay is less technically efficient. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of the adverse outcome pathway "alkylation of DNA in male premeiotic germ cells leading to heritable mutations" using the OECD's users' handbook supplement.

    PubMed

    Yauk, Carole L; Lambert, Iain B; Meek, M E Bette; Douglas, George R; Marchetti, Francesco

    2015-12-01

    The Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development's (OECD) Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) programme aims to develop a knowledgebase of all known pathways of toxicity that lead to adverse effects in humans and ecosystems. A Users' Handbook was recently released to provide supplementary guidance on AOP development. This article describes one AOP-alkylation of DNA in male premeiotic germ cells leading to heritable mutations. This outcome is an important regulatory endpoint. The AOP describes the biological plausibility and empirical evidence supporting that compounds capable of alkylating DNA cause germ cell mutations and subsequent mutations in the offspring of exposed males. Alkyl adducts are subject to DNA repair; however, at high doses the repair machinery becomes saturated. Lack of repair leads to replication of alkylated DNA and ensuing mutations in male premeiotic germ cells. Mutations that do not impair spermatogenesis persist and eventually are present in mature sperm. Thus, the mutations are transmitted to the offspring. Although there are some gaps in empirical support and evidence for essentiality of the key events for certain aspects of this AOP, the overall AOP is generally accepted as dogma and applies broadly to any species that produces sperm. The AOP was developed and used in an iterative process to test and refine the Users' Handbook, and is one of the first publicly available AOPs. It is our hope that this AOP will be leveraged to develop other AOPs in this field to advance method development, computational models to predict germ cell effects, and integrated testing strategies.

  16. Vinblastine and diethylstilboestrol tested in the in vitro mammalian cell micronucleus test (MNvit) at Swansea University UK in support of OECD draft Test Guideline 487.

    PubMed

    Johnson, George E; Jenkins, Gareth J; Thomas, Adam D; Doak, Shareen H

    2010-10-29

    The known aneugens vinblastine and diethylstilboestrol (DES) were tested in the in vitro micronucleus assay, with and without cytokinesis block in Chinese hamster CHO cells, at the laboratories of Swansea University, Swansea, UK. These experiments were carried out to determine the suitability of the cell death and cytostasis measures used in the assay, as recommended in the draft OECD Test Guideline 487, 2007. Both compounds were positive in the assay without cytokinesis block at concentrations giving approximately 50% or less cell death and cytostasis, using relative population doublings and relative increase in cell counts. Moreover, both compounds were positive in the assay with cytokinesis block at concentrations giving approximately 50% cell death and cytostasis, using replicative index. Vinblastine was also positive for mitotic slippage, causing micronuclei in mononucleate cells with cytokinesis block. Relative population doublings and relative increase in cell counts were appropriate measures of cell death and cytostasis for the non-cytokinesis block in vitro micronucleus assay. In the cytokinesis blocked micronucleus assay, replicative index and cytokinesis block proliferation index were suitable cell death and cytostasis measures.

  17. A Review of National-Level Adaptation Planning with Regards to the Risks Posed by Climate Change on Infectious Diseases in 14 OECD Nations

    PubMed Central

    Panic, Mirna; Ford, James D.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is likely to have significant implications for human health, particularly through alterations of the incidence, prevalence, and distribution of infectious diseases. In the context of these risks, governments in high income nations have begun developing strategies to reduce potential climate change impacts and increase health system resilience (i.e., adaptation). In this paper, we review and evaluate national-level adaptation planning in relation to infectious disease risks in 14 OECD countries with respect to “best practices” for adaptation identified in peer-reviewed literature. We find a number of limitations to current planning, including negligible consideration of the needs of vulnerable population groups, limited emphasis on local risks, and inadequate attention to implementation logistics, such as available funding and timelines for evaluation. The nature of planning documents varies widely between nations, four of which currently lack adaptation plans. In those countries where planning documents were available, adaptations were mainstreamed into existing public health programs, and prioritized a sectoral, rather than multidisciplinary, approach. The findings are consistent with other scholarship examining adaptation planning indicating an ad hoc and fragmented process, and support the need for enhanced attention to adaptation to infectious disease risks in public health policy at a national level. PMID:24351735

  18. Regulatory Forum opinion piece: New testing paradigms for reproductive and developmental toxicity--the NTP modified one generation study and OECD 443.

    PubMed

    Foster, Paul M D

    2014-12-01

    The National Toxicology Program (NTP) has developed a new flexible study design, termed the modified one generation (MOG) reproduction study. The MOG study will encompass measurements of developmental and reproductive toxicity parameters as well as enable the setting of appropriate dose levels for a cancer bioassay through evaluation of target organ toxicity that is based on test article exposure that starts during gestation. This study design is compared and contrasted with the new Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) 443 test guideline, the extended one generation reproduction study. The MOG study has a number of advantages, with a focus on F 1 animals, the generation of adequately powered, robust data sets that include both pre and postnatal developmental toxicity information, and the measurement of effects on reproductive structure and function in the same animals. This new study design does not employ the use of internal triggers in the design structure for the use of animals already on test and is also consistent with the principles of the 3R's.

  19. In-house or outsourced public services? A social and economic analysis of the impact of spending policy on the private wage share in OECD countries.

    PubMed

    Pensiero, Nicola

    2017-08-01

    This article analyses the relationship between government spending and the distribution of private income between capital and labour. While most previous research assumes that government spending redistributes in favour of the less wealthy, I distinguish between types of expenditures that enhance the bargaining position of labour - that is, unemployment benefits, public sector employment and investment in new capital - and labour-saving and pro-business types of expenditures - that is, outsourcing to private firms. The results are derived from various panel regression techniques on a panel of 19 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries in the period 1985-2010 and show that expenditures on public sector employment and, to a lesser extent, on new capital prevented the private wage share from declining further, even after controlling for labour market institutions, globalisation and technological change. Conversely, expenditures on outsourcing substantially contributed to reducing the private wage share. Unemployment benefits had a non-significant and negative effect on the private wage share because their increase was the consequence of higher levels of unemployment rather than policy. Implications for theory and policy are drawn, including the support for a public employment-led spending policy.

  20. Evaluation of fibrin-based dermal-epidermal organotypic cultures for in vitro skin corrosion and irritation testing of chemicals according to OECD TG 431 and 439.

    PubMed

    Morales, Mariana; Pérez, David; Correa, Luis; Restrepo, Luz

    2016-10-01

    Reconstructed human epidermis (RhE) models have been used for in vitro testing of the potential harmful effects of exposure to chemical compounds on health. In the past, skin irritation and corrosion were evaluated in animal models; however, in recent years, due to the bioethics implications of the method and, to minimize the use of experimental animals, alternative procedures have been proposed. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in its test guidelines (TG) 431 and 439 indicates the requirements for validating new methods for the evaluation of skin corrosion and irritation, respectively. Here, we present an in-house human dermal-epidermal model, useful for the performance of these tests. Using the methods described in this work, it was possible to obtain human fibrin-based dermal-epidermal organotypic skin cultures (ORGs) displaying similar histological characteristics to native skin and expressing specific differentiation epithelial proteins. The end points to classify a substance as irritant or corrosive were cell viability evaluated by MTT assay, and cytokine release measured by BD CBA for human inflammatory cytokines. According to the MTT test, the ORGs correctly classified irritating and corrosive substances. Moreover, the cytokine release assay was difficult to interpret in the context of testing chemical hazard classification. Further experiments are needed to validate this new model for the evaluation of surfactants because the fibrin matrix was affected in the presence of these substances. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.