Science.gov

Sample records for off-road vehicle trails

  1. Automatic mapping of off-road vehicle trails and paths at Fort Riley Installation, Kansas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oller, Adam

    The U.S. Army manages thousands of sites that cover millions of acres of land for various military training purposes and activities and often faces a great challenge on how to optimize the use of resources. A typical example is that the training activities often lead to off-road vehicle trails and paths and how to use the trails and paths in terms of minimizing maintenance cost becomes a problem. Being able to accurately extract and map the trails and paths is critical in advancing the U.S. Army's sustainability practices. The primary objective of this study is to develop a method geared specifically toward the military's needs of identifying and updating the off-road vehicle trails and paths for both environmental and economic purposes. The approach was developed using a well-known template matching program, called Feature Analyst, to analyze and extract the relevant trails and paths from Fort Riley's designated training areas. A 0.5 meter resolution false color infrared orthophoto with various spectral transformations/enhancements were used to extract the trails and paths. The optimal feature parameters for the highest accuracy of detecting the trails and paths were also investigated. A modified Heidke skill score was used for accuracy assessment of the outputs in comparison to the observed. The results showed the method was very promising, compared to traditional visual interpretation and hand digitizing. Moreover, suggested methods for extracting the trails and paths using remotely sensed images, including image spatial and spectral resolution, image transformations and enhancements, and kernel size, was obtained. In addition, the complexity of the trails and paths and the discussion on how to improve their extraction in the future were given.

  2. Dust dynamics in off-road vehicle trails: Measurements on 16 arid soil types, Nevada, USA.

    PubMed

    Goossens, Dirk; Buck, Brenda

    2009-08-01

    Soil analyses and measurements with the Portable In Situ Wind Erosion Laboratory (PI-SWERL) were conducted on 16 soil types in an area heavily affected by off-road vehicle (ORV) driving. Measurements were performed in ORV trails as well as on undisturbed terrain to investigate how ORV driving affects the vulnerability of a soil to emit PM10 (particles<10microm), during the driving as well as during episodes of wind erosion. Particular attention is paid to how the creation of a new trail affects those properties of the topsoil that determine its capability to emit PM10. Also, recommendations are given for adequate management of ORV-designed areas. The type of surface (sand, silt, gravel, drainage) is a key factor with respect to dust emission in an ORV trail. Trails in sand, defined in this study as the grain size fraction 63-2000microm, show higher deflation thresholds (the critical wind condition at which wind erosion starts) than the surrounding undisturbed soil. Trails in silt (2-63microm) and in drainages, on the other hand, have lower deflation thresholds than undisturbed soil. The increase in PM10 emission resulting from the creation of a new ORV trail is much higher for surfaces with silt than for surfaces with sand. Also, the creation of a new trail in silt decreases the supply limitation in the top layer: the capacity of the reservoir of emission-available PM10 increases. For sand the situation is reversed: the supply limitation increases, and the capacity of the PM10 reservoir decreases. Finally, ORV trails are characterized by a progressive coarsening of the top layer with time, but the speed of coarsening is much lower in trails in silt than in trails in sand or in drainages. The results of this study suggest that, to minimize emissions of PM10, new ORV fields should preferably be designed on sandy terrain rather than in silt areas or in drainages.

  3. 43 CFR 420.22 - Criteria for off-road vehicle areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Criteria for off-road vehicle areas. 420..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE Designated Areas and Permitted Events § 420.22 Criteria for off-road vehicle areas. (a) Areas and trails to be opened to off-road vehicle use shall be located:...

  4. 43 CFR 420.22 - Criteria for off-road vehicle areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Criteria for off-road vehicle areas. 420..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE Designated Areas and Permitted Events § 420.22 Criteria for off-road vehicle areas. (a) Areas and trails to be opened to off-road vehicle use shall be located:...

  5. 43 CFR 420.22 - Criteria for off-road vehicle areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Criteria for off-road vehicle areas. 420..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE Designated Areas and Permitted Events § 420.22 Criteria for off-road vehicle areas. (a) Areas and trails to be opened to off-road vehicle use shall be located:...

  6. 43 CFR 420.22 - Criteria for off-road vehicle areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Criteria for off-road vehicle areas. 420.22..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE Designated Areas and Permitted Events § 420.22 Criteria for off-road vehicle areas. (a) Areas and trails to be opened to off-road vehicle use shall be located:...

  7. Deaths among drivers of off-road vehicles after collisions with trail gates--New Hampshire, 1997-2002.

    PubMed

    2003-01-24

    During April-July 2002, three deaths occurred on New Hampshire trails when adolescents driving off-highway recreational vehicles (OHRVs) collided with trail gates. Because of these three incidents, the New Hampshire Department of Health and Human Services conducted a study to determine the extent of the problem and characteristics of the fatal events. This report describes trail gate fatalities in New Hampshire during 1997-2002. To prevent trail gate collisions, efforts should focus on increased enforcement of OHRV operating rules, driver education, enhanced gate visibility, and improved signage.

  8. 43 CFR 420.21 - Procedure for designating areas for off-road vehicle use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE Designated Areas and Permitted Events § 420.21 Procedure for designating areas for off-road vehicle use. The Regional Director shall, to...) Regional Directors shall designate and publicize those areas and trails which are open to off-road...

  9. Analyzing the impacts of off-road vehicle (ORV) trails on watershed processes in Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Arp, Christopher D; Simmons, Trey

    2012-03-01

    Trails created by off-road vehicles (ORV) in boreal lowlands are known to cause local impacts, such as denuded vegetation, soil erosion, and permafrost thaw, but impacts on stream and watershed processes are less certain. In Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve (WRST), Alaska, ORV trails have caused local resource damage in intermountain lowlands with permafrost soils and abundant wetlands and there is a need to know whether these impacts are more extensive. Comparison of aerial photography from 1957, 1981, and 2004 coupled with ground surveys in 2009 reveal an increase in trail length and number and show an upslope expansion of a trail system around points of stream channel initiation. We hypothesized that these impacts could also cause premature initiation and headward expansion of channels because of lowered soil resistance and greater runoff accumulation as trails migrate upslope. Soil monitoring showed earlier and deeper thaw of the active layer in and adjacent to trails compared to reference sites. Several rainfall-runoff events during the summer of 2009 showed increased and sustained flow accumulation below trail crossings and channel shear forces sufficient to cause headward erosion of silt and peat soils. These observations of trail evolution relative to stream and wetland crossings together with process studies suggest that ORV trails are altering watershed processes. These changes in watershed processes appear to result in increasing drainage density and may also alter downstream flow regimes, water quality, and aquatic habitat. Addressing local land-use disturbances in boreal and arctic parklands with permafrost soils, such as WRST, where responses to climate change may be causing concurrent shifts in watershed processes, represents an important challenge facing resource managers.

  10. 43 CFR 420.21 - Procedure for designating areas for off-road vehicle use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... or is causing considerable adverse effects on the soil, vegetation, wildlife, wildlife habitat, or... close such areas or trails to the type of off-road vehicle causing such effects. No area or trail...

  11. 43 CFR 420.21 - Procedure for designating areas for off-road vehicle use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... or is causing considerable adverse effects on the soil, vegetation, wildlife, wildlife habitat, or... close such areas or trails to the type of off-road vehicle causing such effects. No area or trail...

  12. 43 CFR 420.21 - Procedure for designating areas for off-road vehicle use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... or is causing considerable adverse effects on the soil, vegetation, wildlife, wildlife habitat, or... close such areas or trails to the type of off-road vehicle causing such effects. No area or trail...

  13. 36 CFR 13.702 - Off-Road Vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Off-Road Vehicles. 13.702... NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Bering Land Bridge National Preserve § 13.702 Off-Road Vehicles. The use of off-road vehicles for purposes of reindeer grazing may be permitted...

  14. 36 CFR 13.702 - Off-Road Vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Off-Road Vehicles. 13.702 Section 13.702 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...-Road Vehicles. The use of off-road vehicles for purposes of reindeer grazing may be permitted...

  15. 36 CFR 261.15 - Use of vehicles off roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Use of vehicles off roads... PROHIBITIONS General Prohibitions § 261.15 Use of vehicles off roads. It is prohibited to operate any vehicle off National Forest System, State or County roads: (a) Without a valid license as required by...

  16. 36 CFR 13.702 - Off-Road Vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Off-Road Vehicles. 13.702 Section 13.702 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...-Road Vehicles. The use of off-road vehicles for purposes of reindeer grazing may be permitted...

  17. 36 CFR 261.15 - Use of vehicles off roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Use of vehicles off roads... PROHIBITIONS General Prohibitions § 261.15 Use of vehicles off roads. It is prohibited to operate any vehicle off National Forest System, State or County roads: (a) Without a valid license as required by...

  18. 36 CFR 13.702 - Off-Road Vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Off-Road Vehicles. 13.702 Section 13.702 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...-Road Vehicles. The use of off-road vehicles for purposes of reindeer grazing may be permitted...

  19. 36 CFR 261.15 - Use of vehicles off roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Use of vehicles off roads... PROHIBITIONS General Prohibitions § 261.15 Use of vehicles off roads. It is prohibited to operate any vehicle off National Forest System, State or County roads: (a) Without a valid license as required by...

  20. 36 CFR 13.702 - Off-Road Vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Off-Road Vehicles. 13.702 Section 13.702 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...-Road Vehicles. The use of off-road vehicles for purposes of reindeer grazing may be permitted...

  1. 36 CFR 261.15 - Use of vehicles off roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of vehicles off roads... PROHIBITIONS General Prohibitions § 261.15 Use of vehicles off roads. It is prohibited to operate any vehicle off National Forest System, State or County roads: (a) Without a valid license as required by...

  2. Evaluating Environmental Impacts of Off-Road Vehicles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Jeanne; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Discusses a study undertaken to determine the ecological effects of off-road vehicles, such as four-wheel drive trucks and dirt bikes in the Big Cottonwood Canyon area near Salt Lake City. Applications of the study to other investigations of off-road vehicles are discussed. (DB)

  3. 75 FR 71730 - General Management Plan/Wilderness Study/Off-Road Vehicle Management Plan, Final Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ... National Park Service General Management Plan/Wilderness Study/Off-Road Vehicle Management Plan, Final... Management Plan/Wilderness Study/Off-Road Vehicle Management Plan (FEIS/GMP/WS/ORV Plan), Big Cypress... proposed wilderness (about 37,567 acres), and develop limited new hiking-only trails. The entire...

  4. Spine Trauma Associated with Off-Road Vehicles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, David C.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A seven-year review of 1,447 cases of spine trauma showed that 53 cases were associated with the use of off-road vehicles, such as all-terrain vehicles, snowmobiles, and motorized dirt bikes. The development of safe riding areas, legislation governing safe operation, and public safety education are advised to curb this trend. (Author/JL)

  5. 36 CFR 261.15 - Use of vehicles off roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Use of vehicles off roads. 261.15 Section 261.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... or property. (h) In a manner which damages or unreasonably disturbs the land, wildlife, or...

  6. Injuries associated with off-road vehicles among children.

    PubMed Central

    Wiley, J J; McIntyre, W M; Mercier, P

    1986-01-01

    Off-road vehicles have attained growing popularity, expanding markets and increasing rates of associated injury, especially among young people. In 1984-85, 148 patients were treated at the Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Ottawa, for injuries suffered in off-road vehicle accidents. The average age of the patients was 14 years. Soft-tissue injuries occurred in 33 patients, 21 of whom had severe injuries. There were 179 fractures in 133 patients. One patient died as a result of his injuries. The most common mechanism of injury was losing control of and tumbling from the machine. Seventeen patients were struck by their own vehicles, and 39 collided with objects such as cars, trees or people. The health care costs of these accidents are no less serious than the concerns for the appropriate legislation to protect consumers, particularly the young. PMID:3779572

  7. 36 CFR 13.903 - Subsistence use of off-road vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Subsistence use of off-road... Preserve General Provisions § 13.903 Subsistence use of off-road vehicles. Operating a motor vehicle off... holding a permit issued under § 13.440 of this part. Operating a motor vehicle off road for...

  8. 77 FR 6581 - Meetings of the Big Cypress National Preserve Off-Road Vehicle Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    ... National Park Service Meetings of the Big Cypress National Preserve Off-Road Vehicle Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Off-road Vehicle (ORV) Advisory Committee... Off-road Vehicle Management Plan and the Federal Advisory Committee Act of 1972 (5 U.S.C. Appendix)...

  9. 36 CFR 13.1109 - Off-road vehicle use in Glacier Bay National Preserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Off-road vehicle use in... National Park and Preserve Administrative Provisions § 13.1109 Off-road vehicle use in Glacier Bay National Preserve. The use of off-road vehicles is authorized only on designated routes and areas in Glacier...

  10. 76 FR 64102 - Big Cypress National Preserve Off-Road Vehicle Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-17

    ... National Park Service Big Cypress National Preserve Off-Road Vehicle Advisory Committee AGENCY: National... notice of renewal of the Big Cypress National Preserve Off-Road Vehicle Advisory Committee to offer recommendations, alternatives and possible solutions to management of off-road vehicles at Big Cypress...

  11. 75 FR 69700 - Final Environmental Impact Statement and Cape Hatteras National Seashore Off-Road Vehicle...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... National Park Service Final Environmental Impact Statement and Cape Hatteras National Seashore Off-Road... Environmental Impact Statement for the Cape Hatteras National Seashore Off-Road Vehicle Management Plan. SUMMARY... Cape Hatteras National Seashore (Seashore) Off-Road Vehicle Management Plan (Plan/ FEIS). The...

  12. 43 CFR 420.21 - Procedure for designating areas for off-road vehicle use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-road vehicle use. 420.21 Section 420.21 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE Designated Areas and Permitted Events § 420.21 Procedure for designating areas for off-road vehicle use. The Regional Director shall,...

  13. Off-road perception testbed vehicle design and evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spofford, John R.; Herron, Jennifer B.; Anhalt, David J.; Morgenthaler, Matthew K.; DeHerrera, Clinton

    2003-09-01

    Off-road robotics efforts such as DARPA"s PerceptOR program have motivated the development of testbed vehicles capable of sustained operation in a variety of terrain and environments. This paper describes the retrofitting of a minimally-modified ATV chassis into such a testbed which has been used by multiple programs for autonomous mobility development and sensor characterization. Modular mechanical interfaces for sensors and equipment enclosures enabled integration of multiple payload configurations. The electric power subsystem was capable of short-term operation on batteries with refueled generation for continuous operation. Processing subsystems were mounted in sealed, shock-dampened enclosures with heat exchangers for internal cooling to protect against external dust and moisture. The computational architecture was divided into a real-time vehicle control layer and an expandable high level processing and perception layer. The navigation subsystem integrated real time kinematic GPS with a three-axis IMU for accurate vehicle localization and sensor registration. The vehicle software system was based on the MarsScape architecture developed under DARPA"s MARS program. Vehicle mobility software capabilities included route planning, waypoint navigation, teleoperation, and obstacle detection and avoidance. The paper describes the vehicle design in detail and summarizes its performance during field testing.

  14. Fugitive dust emissions from off-road vehicle maneuvers on military training lands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Off-road vehicle training can contribute to air quality degradation because of increased wind erosion as a result of soil disruption during high wind events. However, limited information exists regarding the impacts of off-road vehicle maneuvering on wind erosion potential of soils. This study was c...

  15. 78 FR 5494 - Off-Road Vehicle Management Plan, Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Lake Meredith National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ... National Park Service Off-Road Vehicle Management Plan, Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Lake Meredith.../DEIS evaluates the impacts of four alternatives that address off-road vehicle (ORV) management in the...), the National Park Service (NPS) is releasing a Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) for the...

  16. Injuries related to off-road vehicles in Canada.

    PubMed

    Vanlaar, Ward; McAteer, Heather; Brown, Steve; Crain, Jennifer; McFaull, Steven; Hing, Marisela Mainegra

    2015-02-01

    Off-road vehicles (ORVs; this includes snowmobiles, all-terrain vehicles or ATVs and dirt bikes) were once used primarily for work and travel. Such use remains common in Canada, although their recreational use has also gained popularity in recent years. An epidemiological injury profile of ORV users is important for better understanding injuries and their risk factors to help inform injury prevention initiatives. The Traffic Injury Research Foundation (TIRF) partnered with the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC) to analyze the epidemiology of ORV-related injuries. The primary aim was to assess crashes and injuries in Canada, including the extent of alcohol involvement. Secondly, the burden of injury among children and teen ORV drivers in Canada, as well as passengers, was investigated. Descriptive and inferential epidemiological statistics were generated using the following data sources: first, TIRF's National Fatality Database, which is a comprehensive, pan-Canadian, set of core data on all fatal motor vehicle crashes; second, TIRF's Serious Injury Database, which contains information on persons seriously injured in crashes; and, third, PHAC's Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP), a surveillance system currently operating in the emergency departments of some pediatric and general hospitals across Canada. Exposure data have been used in the analyzes where available. Between 1990 and 2010, fatality rates increased among ATV and dirt bike operators. The fatality rate among snowmobilers declined during this period. Of particular concern, among fatally injured female ATV users, children aged 0-15 years comprised the highest proportion of any age group at 33.8%. Regarding alcohol use, among fatally injured snowmobile and ATV/dirt bike operators tested for alcohol, 66% and 55% tested positive, respectively. Alcohol involvement in adult ORV crashes remains an important factor. In light of the growing popularity of ORVs, prevention and

  17. 76 FR 52690 - Final Environmental Impact Statement on Nabesna Off-Road Vehicle Management Plan, Wrangell-St...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... National Park Service Final Environmental Impact Statement on Nabesna Off-Road Vehicle Management Plan... (FEIS) on Off-Road Vehicle Management in the Nabesna District of Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and... alternatives for management of off-road vehicles in the Nabesna District. The purpose is to...

  18. 77 FR 20843 - Record of Decision for the Nabesna Off-Road Vehicle Management Plan and Final Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ... National Park Service Record of Decision for the Nabesna Off-Road Vehicle Management Plan and Final..., Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability of a record of decision for the Nabesna Off-Road Vehicle... documents decisions regarding off-road vehicle management in the Nabesna District of Wrangell-St....

  19. 78 FR 61380 - Notice of Renewal of Big Cypress National Preserve Off-Road Vehicle Advisory Committee Charter

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-03

    ... National Park Service Notice of Renewal of Big Cypress National Preserve Off-Road Vehicle Advisory... national preserve off-road vehicle advisory committee. SUMMARY: The Secretary of the Interior is giving notice of renewal of the Big Cypress National Preserve Off-Road Vehicle Advisory Committee to...

  20. 76 FR 3653 - 2011 Meetings of the Big Cypress National Preserve Off-Road Vehicle (ORV) Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ... National Park Service 2011 Meetings of the Big Cypress National Preserve Off-Road Vehicle (ORV) Advisory..., 2007, pp. 42108-42109) pursuant to the Preserve's 2000 Recreational Off-road Vehicle Management Plan... recommendations regarding the management of off-road vehicles (ORVs) in the Preserve. The agendas for...

  1. 76 FR 55840 - Cape Hatteras National Seashore Proposed Rule: Off-Road Vehicle Management-Reopening of Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ... National Park Service 36 CFR Part 7 RIN 1024-AD85 Cape Hatteras National Seashore Proposed Rule: Off-Road... comment period for the proposed rule to manage off-road vehicle use at Cape Hatteras National Seashore in... published in the Federal Register a proposed rule to manage off-road vehicle use at Cape Hatteras...

  2. 76 FR 35468 - Cancellation of June 23, 2011, Meeting of the Big Cypress National Preserve Off-Road Vehicle (ORV...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ... National Park Service Cancellation of June 23, 2011, Meeting of the Big Cypress National Preserve Off-Road.... 42108-42109) pursuant to the Preserve's 2000 Recreational Off-road Vehicle Management Plan and the... regarding the management of off-road vehicles (ORVs) in the Preserve. The agendas for these meetings...

  3. 43 CFR 420.22 - Criteria for off-road vehicle areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE Designated Areas and Permitted Events § 420.22 Criteria for... the public lands. (3) To minimize harassment of wildlife or significant disruption of...

  4. Detecting the environmental impact of off-road vehicles on Rawdat Al Shams in central Saudi Arabia by remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Dewidar, K; Thomas, J; Bayoumi, S

    2016-07-01

    Off-road vehicles can have a devastating impact on vegetation and soil. Here, we sought to quantify, through a combination of field vegetation, bulk soil, and image analyses, the impact of off-road vehicles on the vegetation and soils of Rawdat Al Shams, which is located in central Saudi Arabia. Soil compaction density was measured in the field, and 27 soil samples were collected for bulk density analysis in the lab to quantify the impacts of off-road vehicles. High spatial resolution images, such as those obtained by the satellites GeoEye-1 and IKONOS-2, were used for surveying the damage to vegetation cover and soil compaction caused by these vehicles. Vegetation cover was mapped using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) technique based on high-resolution images taken at different times of the year. Vehicle trails were derived from satellite data via visual analysis. All damaged areas were determined from high-resolution image data. In this study, we conducted quantitative analyses of vegetation cover change, the impacts of vehicle trails (hereafter "trail impacts"), and a bulk soil analysis. Image data showed that both vegetation cover and trail impacts increased from 2008 to 2015, with the average percentage of trail impacts nearly equal to that of the percentage of vegetation cover during this period. Forty-six species of plants were found to be present in the study area, consisting of all types of life forms, yet trees were represented by a single species, Acacia gerrardii. Herbs composed the largest share of plant life, with 29 species, followed by perennial herbs (12 species), grasses (5 species), and shrubs (3 species). Analysis of soil bulk density for Rawdat Al Shams showed that off-road driving greatly impacts soil density. Twenty-two plant species were observed on the trails, the majority of which were ephemerals. Notoceras bicorne was the most common, with a frequency rate of 93.33 %, an abundance value of 78.47 %, and a density of 0

  5. Detecting the environmental impact of off-road vehicles on Rawdat Al Shams in central Saudi Arabia by remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Dewidar, K; Thomas, J; Bayoumi, S

    2016-07-01

    Off-road vehicles can have a devastating impact on vegetation and soil. Here, we sought to quantify, through a combination of field vegetation, bulk soil, and image analyses, the impact of off-road vehicles on the vegetation and soils of Rawdat Al Shams, which is located in central Saudi Arabia. Soil compaction density was measured in the field, and 27 soil samples were collected for bulk density analysis in the lab to quantify the impacts of off-road vehicles. High spatial resolution images, such as those obtained by the satellites GeoEye-1 and IKONOS-2, were used for surveying the damage to vegetation cover and soil compaction caused by these vehicles. Vegetation cover was mapped using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) technique based on high-resolution images taken at different times of the year. Vehicle trails were derived from satellite data via visual analysis. All damaged areas were determined from high-resolution image data. In this study, we conducted quantitative analyses of vegetation cover change, the impacts of vehicle trails (hereafter "trail impacts"), and a bulk soil analysis. Image data showed that both vegetation cover and trail impacts increased from 2008 to 2015, with the average percentage of trail impacts nearly equal to that of the percentage of vegetation cover during this period. Forty-six species of plants were found to be present in the study area, consisting of all types of life forms, yet trees were represented by a single species, Acacia gerrardii. Herbs composed the largest share of plant life, with 29 species, followed by perennial herbs (12 species), grasses (5 species), and shrubs (3 species). Analysis of soil bulk density for Rawdat Al Shams showed that off-road driving greatly impacts soil density. Twenty-two plant species were observed on the trails, the majority of which were ephemerals. Notoceras bicorne was the most common, with a frequency rate of 93.33 %, an abundance value of 78.47 %, and a density of 0

  6. Off-Road Vehicle Crash Risk during the Six Months after a Birthday

    PubMed Central

    Woodfine, Jason D.; Thiruchelvam, Deva; Redelmeier, Donald A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Off-road vehicles are popular and thrilling for youth outside urban settings, yet sometimes result in a serious crash that requires emergency medical care. The relation between birthdays and the subsequent risk of an off-road vehicle crash is unknown. Methods We conducted a population-based before-and-after longitudinal analysis of youth who received emergency medical care in Ontario, Canada, due to an off-road vehicle crash between April 1, 2002, and March 31, 2014. We identified youth injured in an off-road vehicle crash through population-based health-care databases of individuals treated for medical emergencies. We included youth aged 19 years or younger, distinguishing juniors (age ≤ 15 years) from juveniles (age ≥ 16 years). Results A total 32,777 youths accounted for 35,202 emergencies due to off-road vehicle crashes within six months of their nearest birthday. Comparing the six months following a birthday to the six months prior to a birthday, crashes increased by about 2.7 events per 1000 juniors (18.3 vs 21.0, p < 0.0001). The difference equaled a 15% increase in relative risk (95% confidence interval 12 to 18). The increase extended for months following a birthday, was not observed for traffic crashes due to on-road vehicles, and was partially explained by a lack of helmet wearing. As expected, off-road crash risks did not change significantly following a birthday among juveniles (19.2 vs 19.8, p = 0.61). Conclusions Off-road vehicle crashes leading to emergency medical care increase following a birthday in youth below age 16 years. An awareness of this association might inform public health messages, gift-giving practices, age-related parental permissions, and prevention by primary care physicians. PMID:27695070

  7. 40 CFR 1037.631 - Exemption for vocational vehicles intended for off-road use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... sites. This section does not exempt the engine used in the vehicle from the standards of 40 CFR part 86... control information label under § 1037.135: “THIS VEHICLE WAS EXEMPTED UNDER 40 CFR 1037.631.”. ... intended for off-road use. 1037.631 Section 1037.631 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...

  8. 40 CFR 1037.631 - Exemption for vocational vehicles intended for off-road use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... sites. This section does not exempt the engine used in the vehicle from the standards of 40 CFR part 86... control information label under § 1037.135: “THIS VEHICLE WAS EXEMPTED UNDER 40 CFR 1037.631.”. ... intended for off-road use. 1037.631 Section 1037.631 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...

  9. Fugitive particulate air emissions from off-road vehicle maneuvers at military training lands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Military training lands used for off-road vehicle maneuvers may be subject to severe soil loss and air quality degradation as a result of severe wind erosion. The objective of this study was to measure suspended particulate matter resulting from various different vehicle training scenarios. Soil s...

  10. 36 CFR 13.903 - Subsistence use of off-road vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Subsistence use of off-road vehicles. 13.903 Section 13.903 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park...

  11. 36 CFR 13.903 - Subsistence use of off-road vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Subsistence use of off-road vehicles. 13.903 Section 13.903 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park...

  12. 36 CFR 13.903 - Subsistence use of off-road vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Subsistence use of off-road vehicles. 13.903 Section 13.903 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park...

  13. 36 CFR 13.903 - Subsistence use of off-road vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Subsistence use of off-road vehicles. 13.903 Section 13.903 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park...

  14. 36 CFR 13.1109 - Off-road vehicle use in Glacier Bay National Preserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Glacier Bay National Preserve. 13.1109 Section 13.1109 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Administrative Provisions § 13.1109 Off-road vehicle use in Glacier Bay...

  15. 36 CFR 13.1109 - Off-road vehicle use in Glacier Bay National Preserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Glacier Bay National Preserve. 13.1109 Section 13.1109 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Administrative Provisions § 13.1109 Off-road vehicle use in Glacier Bay...

  16. 36 CFR 13.1109 - Off-road vehicle use in Glacier Bay National Preserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Glacier Bay National Preserve. 13.1109 Section 13.1109 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Administrative Provisions § 13.1109 Off-road vehicle use in Glacier Bay...

  17. 36 CFR 13.1109 - Off-road vehicle use in Glacier Bay National Preserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Glacier Bay National Preserve. 13.1109 Section 13.1109 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Administrative Provisions § 13.1109 Off-road vehicle use in Glacier Bay...

  18. Future Emissions Impact On Off-Road Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby Baumgard; Steve Ephraim

    2001-04-18

    Summaries of paper: Emission requirements dictate vehicle update cycles; Packaging, performance and cost impacted; Styling updates can be integrated; Opportunity to integrate features and performance; Non-uniform regulations challenge resources; and Customers won't expect to pay more or receive less.

  19. Analysis of possibilities of waste heat recovery in off-road vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojciechowski, K. T.; Zybala, R.; Leszczynski, J.; Nieroda, P.; Schmidt, M.; Merkisz, J.; Lijewski, P.; Fuc, P.

    2012-06-01

    The paper presents the preliminary results of the waste heat recovery investigations for an agricultural tractor engine (7.4 dm3) and excavator engine (7.2 dm3) in real operating conditions. The temperature of exhaust gases and exhaust mass flow rate has been measured by precise portable exhaust emissions analyzer SEMTECH DS (SENSORS Inc.). The analysis shows that engines of tested vehicles operate approximately at constant speed and load. The average temperature of exhaust gases is in the range from 300 to 400 °C for maximum gas mass flows of 1100 kg/h and 1400 kg/h for tractor and excavator engine respectively. Preliminary tests show that application of TEGs in tested off-road vehicles offers much more beneficial conditions for waste heat recovery than in case of automotive engines.

  20. Run-off-road and recovery - state estimation and vehicle control strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, P.; Wagner, J.; Alexander, K.

    2016-09-01

    Despite many advances in vehicle safety technology, traffic fatalities remain a devastating burden on society. With over two-thirds of all fatal single-vehicle crashes occurring off the roadway, run-off-road (ROR) crashes have become the focus of much roadway safety research. Current countermeasures, including roadway infrastructure modifications and some on-board vehicle safety systems, remain limited in their approach as they do not directly address the critical factor of driver behaviour. It has been shown that ROR crashes are often the result of poor driver performance leading up to the crash. In this study, the performance of two control algorithms, sliding control and linear quadratic control, was investigated for use in an autonomous ROR vehicle recovery system. The two controllers were simulated amongst a variety of ROR conditions where typical driver performance was inadequate to safely operate the vehicle. The sliding controller recovered the fastest within the nominal conditions but exhibited large variability in performance amongst the more extreme ROR scenarios. Despite some small sacrifices in lateral error and yaw rate, the linear quadratic controller demonstrated a higher level of consistency and stability amongst the various conditions examined. Overall, the linear quadratic controller recovered the vehicle 25% faster than the sliding controller while using 70% less steering, which combined with its robust performance, indicates its high potential as an autonomous ROR countermeasure.

  1. Use of off-road vehicles and mitigation of effects in Alaska permafrost environments: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slaughter, Charles W.; Racine, Charles H.; Walker, Donald A.; Johnson, Larry A.; Abele, Gunars

    1990-01-01

    Use of off-road vehicles (ORVs) in permafrost-affected terrain of Alaska has increased sharply over the past two decades. Until the early 1960s, most ORV use was by industry or government, which employed heavy vehicles such as industrial tractors and tracked carriers. Smaller, commercial ORVs became available in the 1960s, with the variety and number in use rapidly increasing. Wheeled and tracked ORVs, many used exclusively for recreation or subsistence harvesting by individuals, are now ubiquitous in Alaska. This increased use has led to concern over the cumulative effects of such vehicles on vegetation, soils, and environmental variables including off-site values. Factors affecting impact and subsequent restoration include specific environmental setting; vegetation; presence and ice content of permafrost; microtopography; vehicle design, weight, and ground pressure; traffic frequency; season of traffic; and individual operator practices. Approaches for mitigating adverse effects of ORVs include regulation and zoning, terrain analysis and sensitivity mapping, route selection, surface protection, and operator training.

  2. 75 FR 1809 - 2010 Meetings of the Big Cypress National Preserve Off-Road Vehicle (ORV) Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-13

    ... National Park Service 2010 Meetings of the Big Cypress National Preserve Off-Road Vehicle (ORV) Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of the Interior, National Park Service, ORV Advisory Committee. ACTION: Notice.... 770, 5 U.S.C. App 1, 10), notice is hereby given of the meetings of the Big Cypress National...

  3. 77 FR 77090 - 2013 Meetings of the Big Cypress National Preserve Off-Road Vehicle (ORV) Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... National Park Service 2013 Meetings of the Big Cypress National Preserve Off-Road Vehicle (ORV) Advisory Committee AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Meetings. SUMMARY: In accordance with... hereby given of the meetings of the Big Cypress National Preserve ORV Advisory Committee for 2013....

  4. Helmet use among Alaskan children involved in off-road motorized vehicle crashes

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Christopher W.; Muensterer, Oliver J.; Sacco, Frank; Safford, Shawn D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Off-road motorized vehicle crashes are a common source of trauma among Alaska children. Injury morbidity is worse in Alaska Native children than non-Native children, but the reasons are unclear. Objective To evaluate the differences in helmet use between the Native and the non-Native children, and to assess the impact of helmet use on injury patterns and outcomes. Design This retrospective cohort study identified patients aged 17 or younger admitted after all-terrain vehicle, snowmobile or motorbike injury between 2001 and 2011 from the Alaska Trauma Registry. Helmeted and non-helmeted patients were compared with respect to demographics, central nervous system (CNS) injury and the overall risk of death or permanent disability. Logistic regression was used to evaluate predictors of helmet use and the effects of ethnicity and helmet use on outcomes. Results Of the 921 injured children, 51% were Alaska Native and 49% were non-Native. Helmet use was lower among Native versus non-Native patients on unadjusted comparison (24% vs. 71%) and multivariable logistic regression (OR 0.17, 95% CI 0.11–0.27, p<0.0001). Prevalence of CNS injury was higher among Native children (39.7% vs. 30.4%, p=0.016). However, on logistic regression with adjustment for helmet use, Native ethnicity was not a significant predictor of CNS injury (OR 1.07, 95% CI 0.68–1.68, p=0.78), whereas helmet use was strongly protective against CNS injury (OR 0.28, 95% CI 0.18–0.44, p<0.0001) as well as death or permanent disability (OR 0.26, 95% CI 0.10–0.67, p=0.006). Conclusions Helmet use is lower among Alaska Native children involved in off-road motorized vehicle crashes. These ethnic disparities in helmet use contribute to higher rates of CNS injury among Native children. Helmet use significantly improves overall outcome. Helmet promotion efforts should be expanded, especially in Native communities. PMID:25317382

  5. A cross-sectional examination of the physical fitness and selected health attributes of recreational all-terrain vehicle riders and off-road motorcyclists.

    PubMed

    Burr, Jamie F; Jamnik, Veronica; Gledhill, Norman

    2010-11-01

    The aims of this study were: (1) to characterize selected fitness and health attributes of two types of habitual recreational off-road vehicle riders - off-road motorcyclists and all-terrain vehicle riders; (2) to explore differences among riders in terms of vehicle type, age, and gender; and (3) to compare the fitness and health of riders to population norms and clinical health standards. Canadian off-road riders (n = 141) of both sexes aged 16 years and over were recruited through local and national off-road riding organizations. Anthropometry, fitness, and health measures of off-road motorcycle and all-terrain vehicle riders were compared with population norms, health standards, and physical activity guidelines. Off-road motorcycle riders had above average aerobic fitness (79th percentile), while all-terrain vehicle riders were lower than average (40th percentile). All riders had a healthy blood lipid profile and a low incidence of the metabolic syndrome (12.9%) compared with members of the general population. Off-road motorcycle riders had healthier body composition and fitness than all-terrain vehicle riders; however, the body composition of off-road motorcycle riders was no healthier than that of the general population and all-terrain vehicle riders were worse than the general population. Off-road motorcycle riders had healthier anthropometry and fitness than all-terrain vehicle riders and thus fewer health risk factors for future disease, demonstrating that the physiological profiles of off-road riders are dependent on vehicle type.

  6. Intermediate Volatility Organic Compound Emissions from On-Road Gasoline Vehicles and Small Off-Road Gasoline Engines.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yunliang; Nguyen, Ngoc T; Presto, Albert A; Hennigan, Christopher J; May, Andrew A; Robinson, Allen L

    2016-04-19

    Dynamometer experiments were conducted to characterize the intermediate volatility organic compound (IVOC) emissions from a fleet of on-road gasoline vehicles and small off-road gasoline engines. IVOCs were quantified through gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of adsorbent samples collected from a constant volume sampler. The dominant fraction (>80%, on average) of IVOCs could not be resolved on a molecular level. These unspeciated IVOCs were quantified as two chemical classes (unspeciated branched alkanes and cyclic compounds) in 11 retention-time-based bins. IVOC emission factors (mg kg-fuel(-1)) from on-road vehicles varied widely from vehicle to vehicle, but showed a general trend of lower emissions for newer vehicles that met more stringent emission standards. IVOC emission factors for 2-stroke off-road engines were substantially higher than 4-stroke off-road engines and on-road vehicles. Despite large variations in the magnitude of emissions, the IVOC volatility distribution and chemical characteristics were consistent across all tests and IVOC emissions were strongly correlated with nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), primary organic aerosol and speciated IVOCs. Although IVOC emissions only correspond to approximately 4% of NMHC emissions from on-road vehicles over the cold-start unified cycle, they are estimated to produce as much or more SOA than single-ring aromatics. Our results clearly demonstrate that IVOCs from gasoline engines are an important class of SOA precursors and provide observational constraints on IVOC emission factors and chemical composition to facilitate their inclusion into atmospheric chemistry models.

  7. Physiological fitness and health adaptations from purposeful training using off-road vehicles.

    PubMed

    Burr, J F; Jamnik, V K; Gledhill, N

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate fitness and health adaptations from a training program riding all-terrain vehicles (ATV) and off-road motorcycles (ORM) as the exercise stimulus. Participants (n = 58) were randomized to a control group (n = 12) or one of four experimental groups; 2 days/week ATV (n = 11), 2 days/week ORM (n = 12), 4 days/week ATV (n = 11), or 4 days/week ORM (n = 12). Aerobic fitness, musculoskeletal fitness, body composition, clinical health, and quality of life (QOL) were compared at baseline and following 6 weeks of training. In all riding groups, there were improvements in blood pressure (SBP = 9.4 ± 10.1, DBP = 5.8 ± 6.2 mmHg), fasting glucose (0.5 ± 0.7 mmol/l), subcutaneous adiposity (0.9 ± 1.1%), body mass (0.7 ± 2.7 kg), waist circumference (1.3 ± 2.5 cm), and isometric leg endurance (26 ± 44 s). All changes were of moderate to large magnitude (Cohen's d 0.52-0.94) with the exception of a small loss of body mass (Cohen's d = 0.27). Although changes occurred in the riding groups for aerobic power (2.9 ± 4.6 ml kg(-1) min(-1)), leg power (172 ± 486 w), and curl-ups (13.2 ± 22.7), these changes were not significantly different from the control group. No significant alterations occurred in resting heart rate, trunk flexibility, back endurance, hand grip strength, long jump, pull/push strength, or push-up ability as a result of training. Physical domain QOL increased in all 2 days/week riders but mental domain QOL increased in all ORM, but not ATV riders regardless of volume. Ambient carbon monoxide levels while riding (<30 ppm) were within safe exposure guidelines. Positive adaptations can be gained from a training program using off-road vehicle riding as the exercise stimulus.

  8. Impacts of Off-Road Vehicles (ORVs) on Macrobenthic Assemblages on Sandy Beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlacher, Thomas A.; Richardson, Darren; McLean, Ian

    2008-06-01

    Sandy beaches are the prime sites for human recreation and underpin many coastal economies and developments. In many coastal areas worldwide, beach recreation relies on the use of off-road vehicles (ORVs) driven on the shore. Yet, the use of ORVs is not universally embraced due to social conflicts with other beach user groups and putative environmental consequences of vehicle traffic on sandy shores. Such ecological impacts of ORVs are, however, poorly understood for endobenthic invertebrates of the intertidal zone seawards of the dunes. Consequently, this study quantified the degree to which assemblages of intertidal beach invertebrates are affected by traffic. The study design comprised a series of temporally replicated spatial contrasts between two reference sites (no ORVs) and two beaches with heavy ORV traffic (in excess of 250,000 vehicles per year) located in South-East Queensland, Australia. Macrobenthic assemblages on ORV-impacted beaches had significantly fewer species at substantially reduced densities, resulting in marked shifts in community composition and structure. These shifts were particularly strong on the middle and upper shore where vehicle traffic was concentrated. Strong effects of ORVs were detectable in all seasons, but increased towards the summer months as a result of heavier traffic volumes. This study provides clear evidence that ORVs can have substantial impacts on sandy beach invertebrates that are manifested throughout the whole community. Demonstrating such an ecological impact caused by a single type of human use poses a formidable challenge to management, which needs to develop multi-faceted approaches to balance environmental, social, cultural, and economic arguments in the use of sandy shores, including management of “beach traffic.”

  9. Impacts of off-road vehicles (ORVs) on macrobenthic assemblages on sandy beaches.

    PubMed

    Schlacher, Thomas A; Richardson, Darren; McLean, Ian

    2008-06-01

    Sandy beaches are the prime sites for human recreation and underpin many coastal economies and developments. In many coastal areas worldwide, beach recreation relies on the use of off-road vehicles (ORVs) driven on the shore. Yet, the use of ORVs is not universally embraced due to social conflicts with other beach user groups and putative environmental consequences of vehicle traffic on sandy shores. Such ecological impacts of ORVs are, however, poorly understood for endobenthic invertebrates of the intertidal zone seawards of the dunes. Consequently, this study quantified the degree to which assemblages of intertidal beach invertebrates are affected by traffic. The study design comprised a series of temporally replicated spatial contrasts between two reference sites (no ORVs) and two beaches with heavy ORV traffic (in excess of 250,000 vehicles per year) located in SouthEast Queensland, Australia. Macrobenthic assemblages on ORV-impacted beaches had significantly fewer species at substantially reduced densities, resulting in marked shifts in community composition and structure. These shifts were particularly strong on the middle and upper shore where vehicle traffic was concentrated. Strong effects of ORVs were detectable in all seasons, but increased towards the summer months as a result of heavier traffic volumes. This study provides clear evidence that ORVs can have substantial impacts on sandy beach invertebrates that are manifested throughout the whole community. Demonstrating such an ecological impact caused by a single type of human use poses a formidable challenge to management, which needs to develop multi-faceted approaches to balance environmental, social, cultural, and economic arguments in the use of sandy shores, including management of "beach traffic."

  10. Intermediate Volatility Organic Compound Emissions from On-Road Gasoline Vehicles and Small Off-Road Gasoline Engines.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yunliang; Nguyen, Ngoc T; Presto, Albert A; Hennigan, Christopher J; May, Andrew A; Robinson, Allen L

    2016-04-19

    Dynamometer experiments were conducted to characterize the intermediate volatility organic compound (IVOC) emissions from a fleet of on-road gasoline vehicles and small off-road gasoline engines. IVOCs were quantified through gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of adsorbent samples collected from a constant volume sampler. The dominant fraction (>80%, on average) of IVOCs could not be resolved on a molecular level. These unspeciated IVOCs were quantified as two chemical classes (unspeciated branched alkanes and cyclic compounds) in 11 retention-time-based bins. IVOC emission factors (mg kg-fuel(-1)) from on-road vehicles varied widely from vehicle to vehicle, but showed a general trend of lower emissions for newer vehicles that met more stringent emission standards. IVOC emission factors for 2-stroke off-road engines were substantially higher than 4-stroke off-road engines and on-road vehicles. Despite large variations in the magnitude of emissions, the IVOC volatility distribution and chemical characteristics were consistent across all tests and IVOC emissions were strongly correlated with nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), primary organic aerosol and speciated IVOCs. Although IVOC emissions only correspond to approximately 4% of NMHC emissions from on-road vehicles over the cold-start unified cycle, they are estimated to produce as much or more SOA than single-ring aromatics. Our results clearly demonstrate that IVOCs from gasoline engines are an important class of SOA precursors and provide observational constraints on IVOC emission factors and chemical composition to facilitate their inclusion into atmospheric chemistry models. PMID:27023443

  11. Low level off-road vehicle (ORV) traffic negatively impacts macroinvertebrate assemblages at sandy beaches in south-western Australia.

    PubMed

    Davies, Rebecca; Speldewinde, Peter C; Stewart, Barbara A

    2016-04-28

    Off-road vehicle use is arguably one of the most environmentally damaging human activities undertaken on sandy beaches worldwide. Existing studies focused on areas of high traffic volumes have demonstrated significantly lower abundance, diversity and species richness of fauna in zones where traffic is concentrated. The impact of lower traffic volumes is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the impacts of relatively low-level vehicle traffic on sandy beach fauna by sampling invertebrate communities at eight beaches located in south-western Australia. We found that even low-level vehicle traffic negatively impacts the physical beach environment, and consequently, the ability of many species to survive in this habitat in the face of this disturbance. Compaction, rutting and displacement of the sand matrix were observed over a large area, resulting in significant decreases in species diversity and density, and measurable shifts in community structure on beaches that experienced off-road vehicle traffic. Communities at impact sites did not display seasonal recovery as traffic was not significantly different between seasons. Given a choice between either reducing traffic volumes, or excluding ORV traffic from beaches, our results suggest that the latter would be more appropriate when the retention of ecological integrity is the objective.

  12. Low level off-road vehicle (ORV) traffic negatively impacts macroinvertebrate assemblages at sandy beaches in south-western Australia.

    PubMed

    Davies, Rebecca; Speldewinde, Peter C; Stewart, Barbara A

    2016-01-01

    Off-road vehicle use is arguably one of the most environmentally damaging human activities undertaken on sandy beaches worldwide. Existing studies focused on areas of high traffic volumes have demonstrated significantly lower abundance, diversity and species richness of fauna in zones where traffic is concentrated. The impact of lower traffic volumes is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the impacts of relatively low-level vehicle traffic on sandy beach fauna by sampling invertebrate communities at eight beaches located in south-western Australia. We found that even low-level vehicle traffic negatively impacts the physical beach environment, and consequently, the ability of many species to survive in this habitat in the face of this disturbance. Compaction, rutting and displacement of the sand matrix were observed over a large area, resulting in significant decreases in species diversity and density, and measurable shifts in community structure on beaches that experienced off-road vehicle traffic. Communities at impact sites did not display seasonal recovery as traffic was not significantly different between seasons. Given a choice between either reducing traffic volumes, or excluding ORV traffic from beaches, our results suggest that the latter would be more appropriate when the retention of ecological integrity is the objective. PMID:27121212

  13. Low level off-road vehicle (ORV) traffic negatively impacts macroinvertebrate assemblages at sandy beaches in south-western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Rebecca; Speldewinde, Peter C.; Stewart, Barbara A.

    2016-01-01

    Off-road vehicle use is arguably one of the most environmentally damaging human activities undertaken on sandy beaches worldwide. Existing studies focused on areas of high traffic volumes have demonstrated significantly lower abundance, diversity and species richness of fauna in zones where traffic is concentrated. The impact of lower traffic volumes is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the impacts of relatively low-level vehicle traffic on sandy beach fauna by sampling invertebrate communities at eight beaches located in south-western Australia. We found that even low-level vehicle traffic negatively impacts the physical beach environment, and consequently, the ability of many species to survive in this habitat in the face of this disturbance. Compaction, rutting and displacement of the sand matrix were observed over a large area, resulting in significant decreases in species diversity and density, and measurable shifts in community structure on beaches that experienced off-road vehicle traffic. Communities at impact sites did not display seasonal recovery as traffic was not significantly different between seasons. Given a choice between either reducing traffic volumes, or excluding ORV traffic from beaches, our results suggest that the latter would be more appropriate when the retention of ecological integrity is the objective. PMID:27121212

  14. Impacts of off-road vehicles (ORVs) on burrow architecture of ghost crabs (genus Ocypode) on sandy beaches.

    PubMed

    Lucrezi, Serena; Schlacher, Thomas A

    2010-06-01

    Recreational beach use with off-road vehicles is popular, but potentially harmful from an environmental perspective. Beaches are important habitats to invertebrates such as ghost crabs of the genus Ocyopde, which excavate extensive and elaborate burrows. Ghost crabs are sensitive to human pressures and changes in burrow architecture may thus be a consequence of disturbance by vehicles--the predictive hypothesis of this article. This was tested during the austral spring and summer by comparing 305 burrow casts between beaches open and closed to vehicles in Eastern Australia. Traffic influenced burrow architecture: there were smaller crabs on vehicle-impacted beaches, and after the peak traffic period (Christmas and New Year holidays), these crabs had tunnelled deeper into the sediment on shores rutted by cars. Crabs constructed all types of previously described burrows, but, significantly, smaller crabs from vehicle-impacted beaches simplified their shapes following heavy traffic disturbance from four (I, J, Y, M) to only two types (I, Y). These data support a model of active behavioural responses to disturbance from vehicles, extending the known effects of beach traffic to impacts on behavioural traits of the beach fauna.

  15. Impacts of Off-Road Vehicles (ORVs) on Burrow Architecture of Ghost Crabs (Genus Ocypode) on Sandy Beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucrezi, Serena; Schlacher, Thomas A.

    2010-06-01

    Recreational beach use with off-road vehicles is popular, but potentially harmful from an environmental perspective. Beaches are important habitats to invertebrates such as ghost crabs of the genus Ocyopde, which excavate extensive and elaborate burrows. Ghost crabs are sensitive to human pressures and changes in burrow architecture may thus be a consequence of disturbance by vehicles—the predictive hypothesis of this article. This was tested during the austral spring and summer by comparing 305 burrow casts between beaches open and closed to vehicles in Eastern Australia. Traffic influenced burrow architecture: there were smaller crabs on vehicle-impacted beaches, and after the peak traffic period (Christmas and New Year holidays), these crabs had tunnelled deeper into the sediment on shores rutted by cars. Crabs constructed all types of previously described burrows, but, significantly, smaller crabs from vehicle-impacted beaches simplified their shapes following heavy traffic disturbance from four (I, J, Y, M) to only two types (I, Y). These data support a model of active behavioural responses to disturbance from vehicles, extending the known effects of beach traffic to impacts on behavioural traits of the beach fauna.

  16. Road and off-road vehicle system dynamics. Understanding the future from the past

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vantsevich, Vladimir V.

    2015-02-01

    A detailed analysis of scientific research directions and methods in ground vehicle dynamics and vehicle system dynamics during the past century is presented in this article. What started as peculiarities of vehicle motion, dynamics of vehicles went through extensive research and engineering work and was established as an applied science - vehicle dynamics. Steady motion and transient manoeuvres, multi-flexible-body dynamics, nonlinear and stochastic dynamics, terramechanics, vehicle operational properties and their multi-criterion optimisation, computer modelling and simulation, analysis and optimal synthesis, various controls, inverse vehicle dynamics, open architecture-type, and multi-domain vehicle systems - these are the milestones of developments over the past century. This article considers the subject-matter and the substance of vehicle dynamics in general, and new research directions of modern vehicle dynamics in particular. It is shown that modern vehicle dynamics is acquiring principally new features including agile dynamics of multi-physics mechatronic systems (including cyber-type systems), coupled and interactive vehicle system dynamics.

  17. 40 CFR 1037.631 - Exemption for vocational vehicles intended for off-road use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... sites. This section does not exempt the engine used in the vehicle from the standards of 40 CFR part 86... speed rating at or below 55 mph. (2) Vehicles are exempt if they were primarily designed to perform work... speeds such that it is unsuitable for normal highway operation. (ii) The vehicle must meet one of...

  18. Off-Road and the Fragile Desert

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stebbins, Robert C.

    1974-01-01

    Part one of a two-part article sets forth the dimensions and the political-cultural aspects of the use of off-road vehicles in desert areas. Presents arguments for and against off-road vehicle use on national-resource land as exemplified in the California Desert. (Editor/JR)

  19. Impacts of off-road vehicles on nitrogen cycles in biological soil crusts: Resistance in different U.S. deserts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belnap, J.

    2002-01-01

    Biological soil crusts are an important component of desert ecosystems, as they influence soil stability and fertility. This study examined and compared the short-term vehicular impacts on lichen cover and nitrogenase activity (NA) of biological soil crusts. Experimental disturbance was applied to different types of soil in regions throughout the western U.S. (Great Basin, Colorado Plateau, Sonoran, Chihuahuan, and Mojave deserts). Results show that pre-disturbance cover of soil lichens is significantly correlated with the silt content of soils, and negatively correlated with sand and clay. While disturbance appeared to reduce NA at all sites, differences were statistically significant at only 12 of the 26 sites. Cool desert sites showed a greater decline than hot desert sites, which may indicate non-heterocystic cyanobacterial species are more susceptible to disturbance than non-heterocystic species. Sandy soils showed greater reduction of NA as sand content increased, while fine-textured soils showed a greater decline as sand content increased. At all sites, higher NA before the disturbance resulted in less impact to NA post-disturbance. These results may be useful in predicting the impacts of off-road vehicles in different regions and different soils. ?? 2002 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

  20. Real-time adaptive off-road vehicle navigation and terrain classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Urs A.; Jackel, Lawrence D.; LeCun, Yann; Flepp, Beat

    2013-05-01

    We are developing a complete, self-contained autonomous navigation system for mobile robots that learns quickly, uses commodity components, and has the added benefit of emitting no radiation signature. It builds on the au­tonomous navigation technology developed by Net-Scale and New York University during the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Learning Applied to Ground Robots (LAGR) program and takes advantage of recent scientific advancements achieved during the DARPA Deep Learning program. In this paper we will present our approach and algorithms, show results from our vision system, discuss lessons learned from the past, and present our plans for further advancing vehicle autonomy.

  1. Stereovision-based 3D field recognition for automatic guidance system of off-road vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fangming; Ying, Yibin; Shen, Chuan; Jiang, Huanyu; Zhang, Qin

    2005-11-01

    A stereovision-based disparity evaluation algorithm was developed for rice crop field recognition. The gray level intensities and the correlation relation were integrated to produce the disparities of stereo-images. The surface of ground and rice were though as two rough planes, but their disparities waved in a narrow range. The cut/uncut edges of rice crops were first detected and track through the images. We used a step model to locate those edge positions. The points besides the edges were matched respectively to get disparity values using area correlation method. The 3D camera coordinates were computed based on those disparities. The vehicle coordinates were obtained by multiplying the 3D camera coordinates with a transform formula. It has been implemented on an agricultural robot and evaluated in rice crop field with straight rows. The results indicated that the developed stereovision navigation system is capable of reconstructing the field image.

  2. Fuel Used for Off-Road Recreation: A Reassessment of the Fuel Use Model

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, S.C.; Truett, L.F.; Hu, P.S.

    1999-07-01

    The Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA) established a National Recreational Trails Funding Program and the National Recreational Trails Trust Fund. ISTEA required that certain tax revenue generated from the sales of motor fuel used for off-road recreation be transferred from the Highway Trust Funds to the Trails Trust Fund for recreational trail and facility improvements. In order to apportion the Trails Trust Fund to individual States equitably, the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) asked the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in 1993 to estimate the amount of motor fuel used for off-road recreation in the State level by different vehicle types. A modification of the methodology developed by ORNL has been used to apportion funds to the States since that time.

  3. Evaluating distraction of in-vehicle information systems while driving by predicting total eyes-off-road times with keystroke level modeling.

    PubMed

    Purucker, Christian; Naujoks, Frederik; Prill, Andy; Neukum, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    Increasingly complex in-vehicle information systems (IVIS) have become available in the automotive vehicle interior. To ensure usability and safety of use while driving, the distraction potential of system-associated tasks is most often analyzed during the development process, either by employing empirical or analytical methods, with both families of methods offering certain advantages and disadvantages. The present paper introduces a method that combines the predictive precision of empirical methods with the economic advantages of analytical methods. Keystroke level modeling (KLM) was extended to a task-dependent modeling procedure for total eyes-off-road times (TEORT) resulting from system use while driving and demonstrated by conducting two subsequent simulator studies. The first study involved the operation of an IVIS by N = 18 participants. The results suggest a good model fit (R(2)Adj. = 0.67) for predicting the TEORT, relying on regressors from KLM and participant age. Using the parameter estimates from study 1, the predictive validity of the model was successfully tested during a second study with N = 14 participants using a version of the IVIS prototype with a revised design and task structure (rPred.-Obs. = 0.58). Possible applications and shortcomings of the approach are discussed.

  4. Analysis of an off road 4WD vehicle's suspension system modification - Case study of aftermarket suspension lift and modification of wheel track size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, J.; Hazrat, M. A.; Rasul, M. G.

    2016-07-01

    In this research, a four wheel drive (4WD) suspension of a vehicle has been modified by increasing the ride height to investigate stability and cornering potential of the vehicle through load transfer and variation of roll angle. Further investigation has been conducted to observe the characteristics which are deemed desirable for off road application but detrimental to the on road application. The Constant Radius Cornering Test (CRCT) was chosen as a base method for experimental investigation to observe the effect of the suspension modifications. The test was carried out by undertaking a known radius and cambered corner at a constant speed. For this test, the acceleration and gyroscopic data were measured to check and compare the accuracy of the analysis performed by OptimumDynamics model. The tests were conducted by means of negotiating the curve at the speed of 80 km/h and it was gradually achieved to allow a good consensus of the amount of body roll the vehicle experienced. Using a surveyor's wheel, the radius of the corner was estimated as 160 m and using the gyroscopic sensor, the corner camber was measured at 4 degrees. While comparing the experimental results with the simulation results, the experimental constraints led to higher values than those of the analytical results. The total load transfer reduced by 2.9% with the increased track size. It has been observed that the dynamic load transfer component is lesser than the standard suspension with the aftermarket suspension lift and the upgraded anti-roll bar (ARB). With the simulation of the fitment of the other modifications aimed to improve the characteristics of the raised vehicle, the vehicle showed a reduced tendency towards roll angle due to the stiffened anti-roll bar and the maximum increased wheel track demonstrated reduced lateral load transfer and body roll. Even with these modifications however, the decrease in load transfer is minimal in comparison to what was expected.

  5. Effects of off-road vehicle use on the hydrology and landscape of arid environments in central and southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Charles T.; Frickel, D.G.; Hadley, R.F.; Miller, R.F.

    1976-01-01

    Two widely separated sites in California used for motorcycle hill-climbing were studied to evaluate the impact on the landscape and hydrology. At Panoche Hills in central California, an area formerly used by motorcycles together with an adjacent unused area were monitored from 1971 to 1975. Observations in both areas included measurements of precipitation, runoff, soil moisture, soil bulk density, plant cover, and erosion surveys. At Dove Spring Canyon in souther California erosion was measured on a site that is currently being used for motorcycle hill-climbing. At the Panoche Hills site, the area used by motorcycles produced about eight times as nuch runoff as the unused area. Similarly, sediment yield from the used areas was 857 cubic meters/sq km, while the quantity of sediment from the unused area was not measurable by standard methods. At the Dove Spring Canyon site, which is still being used for hill-climbing, erosion surveys show that degradation in trails has been as much as 0.3 m in the period 1973-75. Compaction of soils and reduction of permeability appears to be the most serious hydrologic impact of motorcycle use at Panoche Hills. Increased bulk density of soils reduces depth of moisture penetration which deprives plants of moisture needed for growth. (Woodard-USGS)

  6. Impact of off-road vehicles (ORVs) on ghost crabs of sandy beaches with traffic restrictions: a case study of Sodwana Bay, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Lucrezi, Serena; Saayman, Melville; van der Merwe, Peet

    2014-03-01

    Off-road vehicles (ORVs) are popular in coastal recreation, although they have negative impacts on sandy shores. In South Africa, ORVs are banned from most coastal areas, while some areas are designated for restricted ORV use, providing an opportunity to assess whether ORV traffic restrictions translate into biological returns. In Sodwana Bay, the impact of ORVs on ghost crab populations was investigated. During Easter 2012, ghost crab burrows were counted on beach sections open and closed to traffic. Burrow density in the Impact section was less than a third that of the Reference section, and by the end of the study burrow size in the Impact section was half that of the Reference section. ORV traffic caused a shift in burrow distribution to the Lower beach. However, differences in burrow densities between sections were 14 times smaller than differences obtained at a time when ORV use in Sodwana Bay was not controlled. While confirming the well-established detrimental effects of ORV use on sandy beach ecosystems, results demonstrated that traffic restrictions on beaches measurably minimize impacts to the fauna, thus translating into clear-cut biological returns.

  7. Impact of Off-road Vehicles (ORVs) on Ghost Crabs of Sandy Beaches with Traffic Restrictions: A Case Study of Sodwana Bay, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucrezi, Serena; Saayman, Melville; van der Merwe, Peet

    2014-03-01

    Off-road vehicles (ORVs) are popular in coastal recreation, although they have negative impacts on sandy shores. In South Africa, ORVs are banned from most coastal areas, while some areas are designated for restricted ORV use, providing an opportunity to assess whether ORV traffic restrictions translate into biological returns. In Sodwana Bay, the impact of ORVs on ghost crab populations was investigated. During Easter 2012, ghost crab burrows were counted on beach sections open and closed to traffic. Burrow density in the Impact section was less than a third that of the Reference section, and by the end of the study burrow size in the Impact section was half that of the Reference section. ORV traffic caused a shift in burrow distribution to the Lower beach. However, differences in burrow densities between sections were 14 times smaller than differences obtained at a time when ORV use in Sodwana Bay was not controlled. While confirming the well-established detrimental effects of ORV use on sandy beach ecosystems, results demonstrated that traffic restrictions on beaches measurably minimize impacts to the fauna, thus translating into clear-cut biological returns.

  8. Assessment of propeller and off-road vehicle scarring in seagrass beds and wind-tidal flats of the southwestern Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, S.R.; Onuf, C.P.; Dunton, K.H.

    2008-01-01

    We used aerial photography and GIS to establish a quantitative baseline of propeller and off-road vehicle (ORV) scarring in seagrass and wind-tidal flats of the upper Laguna Madre in the Padre Island National Seashore (Texas, USA). We also examined scar recovery through comparison of recent (2002, 2005) and historical (1967) aerial photographs of the study area. Scarring intensity was calculated using two different methods. In the first, polygons were visually drawn around groups of scars on digital images. Scarring intensity was estimated as light (20%), based on the total coverage of scars within each polygon (taking into account the length, width, and density of scars). We developed a more objective method that employed creation of vector grid cells and buffers that incorporated the localized ecological impact of scars. Results of spatial and temporal analysis revealed that the polygon approach greatly underestimated the magnitude of scarring. For example, in a single photograph, 7% of seagrass area was lightly scarred according to the polygon method; but light scarring increased to 51% according to grid analysis of the same image. Our results also indicated that propeller scars in Halodule wrightii beds appear to recover in less than three years and ORV tracks have persisted in the wind-tidal flats for at least 38 years. Our approach provides resource managers with procedures for a more objective and efficient assessment of physical disturbances to seagrass and wind-tidal flats caused by boats and ORVs. ?? 2008 by Walter de Gruyter.

  9. Off-road cycling injuries. An overview.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, R P; Kronisch, R L

    1995-05-01

    Off-road bicycles, commonly called 'mountain bikes', have become increasingly popular worldwide since their introduction in the western US in the late 1970s. This popularity is partly because these vehicles can be ridden on a wide variety of terrain which is not accessible to other types of bicycle. Although early versions were rather crude, off-road bicycles today typically include high strength, lightweight frames with a wide array of available suspension and braking systems. Virtually all aspects of the technology continue to evolve, including components and protective equipment. As the popularity of off-road cycling has increased, so too has the interest and level of participation in the competitive aspects of the sport. Currently, 2 organisations--the National Off-Road Bicycle Association (NORBA) and the Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI)--sponsor the major events within the US and around the world. To date, the majority of studies have been descriptive in nature, with data collected via self-report, questionnaire formats. Only 1 prospective study has been reported thus far, which surveyed a major international competition held in the US in 1994. Injury rates calculated on the basis of injuries per ride or event in competitive venues have been reported, ranging from 0.2 to 0.39% compared with 0.30% for recreational participants. Retrospective data collected from recreational and competitive riders indicate that from 20 to 88% of those surveyed reported having sustained an injury during the previous year of participation. The majority of injuries appear to be acute, traumatic episodes involving the extremities, with contusions and abrasions being the most common. In general, the incidence of more severe injuries such as dislocations, fractures and concussions is low. Comparisons between road and off-road cycling events indicate that off-road cyclists sustain more fractures, dislocations and concussions than their road-event counterparts. Future research should

  10. Differences in gender and performance in off-road triathlon.

    PubMed

    Lepers, Romuald; Stapley, Paul J

    2010-12-01

    The aims of this study were: (1) to examine performance trends and compare elite male and female athletes at the off-road triathlon (1.5-km swim, 30-km mountain biking, and 11-km trail running) world championships since its inception in 1996, and (2) to compare gender-related differences between off-road triathlon and conventional road-based triathlon. Linear regression analyses and ANOVA were used to examine performance trends and differences between the sexes. Elite male performance times stabilized over the 2005-2009 period, whereas elite female performance times continued to improve, especially for the run leg. Differences in performance times between the sexes were less marked in swimming than in mountain biking and running, whereas differences in power output were more marked for mountain biking than for swimming and running. In addition, differences in cycling between the sexes were greater for off-road than conventional on-road triathlon. The specific aspects of mountain biking (e.g. level and terrain) may partly explain the significant differences between the sexes recorded in cycling for off-road triathlon. Future studies will need to focus on the physiological bases of off-road triathlon and how they differ from conventional triathlon.

  11. Age-related changes in conventional road versus off-road triathlon performance.

    PubMed

    Lepers, Romuald; Stapley, Paul J

    2011-08-01

    The aims of this study were: (i) to analyze age-related declines in swimming, cycling, and running performances for road-based and off-road triathlons, and (ii) to compare age-related changes in these three disciplines between road-based and off-road triathlons. Swimming, cycling, running and total time performances of the top five males between 20 and 70 years of age (in 5-year intervals) were analyzed for short distance road-based (1.5 km swim, 40 km cycle, and 10 km run) and off-road (1.5 km swim, 30 km mountain bike, and 11 km trail run) triathlons at the 2009 World Championships. Independently of age, there was a lesser age-related decline in cycling performance (P < 0.01) compared to running and swimming for road-based triathlon. In contrast, age-related decline did not differ between the three locomotion modes for off-road triathlon. With advancing age, the performance decline was less pronounced (P < 0.01) for road-based than for off-road triathlon in swimming (≥65 years), cycling (≥50 years), running (≥60 years), and total event (≥55 years) times, respectively. These results suggest that the rate of the decline in performance for off-road triathlon is greater than for road-based triathlon, indicating that the type of discipline (road vs. mountain bike cycling and road vs. trail running) exerts an important influence on the magnitude of the age-associated changes in triathlon performance.

  12. A fuel-based assessment of off-road diesel engine emissions.

    PubMed

    Kean, A J; Sawyer, R F; Harley, R A

    2000-11-01

    The use of diesel engines in off-road applications is a significant source of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM10). Such off-road applications include railroad locomotives, marine vessels, and equipment used for agriculture, construction, logging, and mining. Emissions from these sources are only beginning to be controlled. Due to the large number of these engines and their wide range of applications, total activity and emissions from these sources are uncertain. A method for estimating the emissions from off-road diesel engines based on the quantity of diesel fuel consumed is presented. Emission factors are normalized by fuel consumption, and total activity is estimated by the total fuel consumed. Total exhaust emissions from off-road diesel equipment (excluding locomotives and marine vessels) in the United States during 1996 have been estimated to be 1.2 x 10(9) kg NOx and 1.2 x 10(8) kg PM10. Emissions estimates published by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency are 2.3 times higher for both NOx and exhaust PM10 emissions than estimates based directly on fuel consumption. These emissions estimates disagree mainly due to differences in activity estimates, rather than to differences in the emission factors. All current emission inventories for off-road engines are uncertain because of the limited in-use emissions testing that has been performed on these engines. Regional- and state-level breakdowns in diesel fuel consumption by off-road mobile sources are also presented. Taken together with on-road measurements of diesel engine emissions, results of this study suggest that in 1996, off-road diesel equipment (including agriculture, construction, logging, and mining equipment, but not locomotives or marine vessels) was responsible for 10% of mobile source NOx emissions nationally, whereas on-road diesel vehicles contributed 33%.

  13. Target Trailing With Safe Navigation for Maritime Autonomous Surface Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, Michael; Kuwata, Yoshiaki; Zarzhitsky, Dimitri V.

    2013-01-01

    This software implements a motion-planning module for a maritime autonomous surface vehicle (ASV). The module trails a given target while also avoiding static and dynamic surface hazards. When surface hazards are other moving boats, the motion planner must apply International Regulations for Avoiding Collisions at Sea (COLREGS). A key subset of these rules has been implemented in the software. In case contact with the target is lost, the software can receive and follow a "reacquisition route," provided by a complementary system, until the target is reacquired. The programmatic intention is that the trailed target is a submarine, although any mobile naval platform could serve as the target. The algorithmic approach to combining motion with a (possibly moving) goal location, while avoiding local hazards, may be applicable to robotic rovers, automated landing systems, and autonomous airships. The software operates in JPL s CARACaS (Control Architecture for Robotic Agent Command and Sensing) software architecture and relies on other modules for environmental perception data and information on the predicted detectability of the target, as well as the low-level interface to the boat controls.

  14. Secondary Organic Aerosol from On- and Off-Road Combustion Emissions: Scientific and Policy Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Timothy D.

    Combustion emissions from on-road sources such as light duty gasoline vehicles (LDGV), medium duty diesel vehicles (MDDV) and heavy duty diesel vehicles (HDDV) as well as small off-road engines (SORE) such those used in lawn and garden equipment are a major source of fine particulate matter (PM) pollution in the ambient atmosphere. Existing regulations have restricted direct PM emissions, especially for on-road sources; however, recent studies suggest that organic PM formed from the photo-oxidation of gaseous precursor emissions—so-called secondary organic aerosol (SOA)—contributes at least as much to the overall PM burden as PM "emitted from the tailpipe." A major limitation of many of these studies is that they attempt to induce from the behavior of simple emission surrogates (e.g., vaporized whole fuel) the behavior of actual combustion emissions from real world sources. This research investigates combustion emissions directly. The primary gas- and particle-phase emissions, SOA production and SOA yields from a range of different on-road and off-road combustion sources were characterized. LDGV, MDDV and HDDV were driven on chassis dynamometers over realistic, urban driving cycles. Off-road sources, including 2- and 4-stroke lawn and garden equipment and a diesel transportation refrigeration unit were tested using engine dynamometers operated over certification cycles. For nearly all gasoline engines (LDGV and SOREs), photo-oxidizing dilute combustion emissions for 3 hours produced at least as much SOA as the directly emitted primary PM. SOA increased net PM production for LDGV by a factor of 1-10, depending on the vehicle emission standard. SOA yields were found to increase with newer vehicles, which have lower primary emissions. SOA for diesel vehicles, while still large on an absolute basis, was a smaller fraction of the primary PM emissions (between 10-30%), due to the very high elemental carbon (EC) emissions from vehicles without diesel particulate

  15. The Prediction of Noise Due to Jet Turbulence Convecting Past Flight Vehicle Trailing Edges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Steven A. E.

    2014-01-01

    High intensity acoustic radiation occurs when turbulence convects past airframe trailing edges. A mathematical model is developed to predict this acoustic radiation. The model is dependent on the local flow and turbulent statistics above the trailing edge of the flight vehicle airframe. These quantities are dependent on the jet and flight vehicle Mach numbers and jet temperature. A term in the model approximates the turbulent statistics of single-stream heated jet flows and is developed based upon measurement. The developed model is valid for a wide range of jet Mach numbers, jet temperature ratios, and flight vehicle Mach numbers. The model predicts traditional trailing edge noise if the jet is not interacting with the airframe. Predictions of mean-flow quantities and the cross-spectrum of static pressure near the airframe trailing edge are compared with measurement. Finally, predictions of acoustic intensity are compared with measurement and the model is shown to accurately capture the phenomenon.

  16. Attitudes and intentions of off-highway vehicle riders toward trail use: implications for forest managers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuehn, D.M.; D'Luhosch, P. D.; Luzadis, V.A.; Malmsheimer, R.W.; Schuster, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    Management of off-highway vehicles (OHV) in public forest areas requires up-to-date information about the attitudes and intentions of OHV riders toward trail use. A survey of 811 members of the New England Trail Riders Association was conducted in fall 2007; 380 questionnaires were completed and returned. Descriptive statistics and regressions were used to identify relationships between OHV rider attitudes, management preferences, and intentions toward two trail use-related behaviors (i.e., illegal use of trails by OHVs and the creation and/or use of unauthorized trails by OHV riders). Results reveal that the average responding association member has a negative attitude toward the two depreciative behaviors, intends to ride OHVs legally, and slightly prefers indirect over direct forms of management. Significant relationships between intentions and both attitudes and management preferences are identified. Policy and management implications and strategies are discussed. ?? 2011 by the Society of American Foresters.

  17. Off-road motorbike performance analysis using a rear semi-active suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozoya-Santos, Jorge de J.; Cervantes-Muñoz, Damián.; Ramírez Mendoza, Ricardo

    2015-04-01

    The topic of this paper is the analysis of a control system for a semi active rear suspension in an off-road 2-wheel vehicle. Several control methods are studied, as well as the recently proposed Frequency Estimation Based (FEB) algorithm. The test motorcycle dynamics, as well as the passive, semi active, and the algorithm controlled shock absorber models are loaded into BikeSim, a professional two-wheeled vehicle simulation software, and tested in several road conditions. The results show a detailed comparison of the theoretical performance of the different control approaches in a novel environment for semi active dampers.

  18. Beach disturbance caused by off-road vehicles (ORVs) on sandy shores: relationship with traffic volumes and a new method to quantify impacts using image-based data acquisition and analysis.

    PubMed

    Schlacher, Thomas A; Morrison, Jennifer M

    2008-09-01

    Vehicles cause environmental damage on sandy beaches, including physical displacement and compaction of the sediment. Such physical habitat disturbance provides a relatively simple indicator of ORV-related impacts that is potentially useful in monitoring the efficacy of beach traffic management interventions; such interventions also require data on the relationship between traffic volumes and the resulting levels of impact. Here we determined how the extent of beach disturbance is linked to traffic volumes and tested the utility of image-based data acquisition to monitor beach surfaces. Experimental traffic application resulted in disturbance effects ranging from 15% of the intertidal zone being rutted after 10 vehicle passes to 85% after 100 passes. A new camera platform, specifically designed for beach surveys, was field tested and the resulting image-based data compared with traditional line-intercept methods and in situ measurements using quadrats. All techniques gave similar results in terms of quantifying the relationship between traffic intensity and beach disturbance. However, the physical, in situ measurements, using quadrats, generally produced higher (+4.68%) estimates than photos taken with the camera platform coupled with off-site image analysis. Image-based methods can be more costly, but in politically and socially sensitive monitoring applications, such as ORV use on sandy beaches, they are superior in providing unbiased and permanent records of environmental conditions in relation to anthropogenic pressures.

  19. Navigation in Off-Road Environments: Orienteering Interviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Leslie A; Cuqlock-Knopp, Grayson

    1992-01-01

    Twelve orienteers and four military scouts each described a critical incident requiring navigation skills in off-road terrain. Interview analysis generated a taxonomy of the navigator's cognitive model encompassing perception and use of environmental cues, problem-solving and decision-making strategies, and skill level. Contains 38 references. (SV)

  20. Daytime Water Detection by Fusing Multiple Cues for Autonomous Off-Road Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rankin, A. L.; Matthies, L. H.; Huertas, A.

    2004-01-01

    Detecting water hazards is a significant challenge to unmanned ground vehicle autonomous off-road navigation. This paper focuses on detecting the presence of water during the daytime using color cameras. A multi-cue approach is taken. Evidence of the presence of water is generated from color, texture, and the detection of reflections in stereo range data. A rule base for fusing water cues was developed by evaluating detection results from an extensive archive of data collection imagery containing water. This software has been implemented into a run-time passive perception subsystem and tested thus far under Linux on a Pentium based processor.

  1. Physiological correlates to off-road cycling performance.

    PubMed

    Impellizzeri, Franco M; Rampinini, Ermanno; Sassi, Aldo; Mognoni, Piero; Marcora, Samuele

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between maximal and submaximal tests for aerobic fitness and performance in an off-road cross-country circuit race. Thirteen competitive off-road male cyclists participated in the study. Peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), peak power output, and lactate thresholds corresponding to 1 mmol x l(-1) above baseline (lactate threshold) and to 4 mmol x l(-1) (onset of blood lactate accumulation) were measured during an incremental cycling test. Race time and final ranking within the same group of cyclists were determined during a cross-country off-road competition. All correlations between the measured parameters of aerobic fitness and off-road cycling performance were significant, particularly between race time and physiological parameters scaled to body mass0.79 (r = -0.68 to -0.94; P < 0.05) and between final ranking and physiological parameters expressed relative to body mass0.79 (r = -0.81 to - 0.96; P < 0.001). Moreover, there was a large difference (effect sizes = 1.12-1.70) in all measured parameters of aerobic fitness between the group of six cyclists with a race time above the median and the group of six cyclists with a race time below the median (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the results of this study provide empirical support to the widespread use of these maximal (VO2peak, peak power output) and submaximal (lactate thresholds) parameters of aerobic fitness in the physiological assessments of off-road cyclists. Furthermore, our results suggest body size should be taken into account when evaluating such athletes.

  2. 36 CFR 212.57 - Monitoring of effects of motor vehicle use on designated roads and trails and in designated areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... motor vehicle use on designated roads and trails and in designated areas. 212.57 Section 212.57 Parks... Roads, Trails, and Areas for Motor Vehicle Use § 212.57 Monitoring of effects of motor vehicle use on designated roads and trails and in designated areas. For each administrative unit of the National...

  3. 36 CFR 212.57 - Monitoring of effects of motor vehicle use on designated roads and trails and in designated areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... motor vehicle use on designated roads and trails and in designated areas. 212.57 Section 212.57 Parks... Roads, Trails, and Areas for Motor Vehicle Use § 212.57 Monitoring of effects of motor vehicle use on designated roads and trails and in designated areas. For each administrative unit of the National...

  4. 36 CFR 212.57 - Monitoring of effects of motor vehicle use on designated roads and trails and in designated areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... motor vehicle use on designated roads and trails and in designated areas. 212.57 Section 212.57 Parks... Roads, Trails, and Areas for Motor Vehicle Use § 212.57 Monitoring of effects of motor vehicle use on designated roads and trails and in designated areas. For each administrative unit of the National...

  5. 36 CFR 212.57 - Monitoring of effects of motor vehicle use on designated roads and trails and in designated areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... motor vehicle use on designated roads and trails and in designated areas. 212.57 Section 212.57 Parks... Roads, Trails, and Areas for Motor Vehicle Use § 212.57 Monitoring of effects of motor vehicle use on designated roads and trails and in designated areas. For each administrative unit of the National...

  6. 36 CFR 212.57 - Monitoring of effects of motor vehicle use on designated roads and trails and in designated areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... motor vehicle use on designated roads and trails and in designated areas. 212.57 Section 212.57 Parks... Roads, Trails, and Areas for Motor Vehicle Use § 212.57 Monitoring of effects of motor vehicle use on designated roads and trails and in designated areas. For each administrative unit of the National...

  7. Quantification of structural loading during off-road cycling.

    PubMed

    De Lorenzo, D S; Hull, M L

    1999-08-01

    To provide data for fatigue life prediction and testing of structural components in off-road bicycles, the objective of the research described herein was to quantify the loads input to an off-road bicycle as a result of surface-induced loads. A fully instrumented test bicycle was equipped with dynamometers at the pedals, handlebars, and hubs to measure all in-plane structural loads acting through points of contact between the bicycle and both the rider and the ground. A portable data acquisition system carried by the standing rider allowed, for the first time, this loading information to be collected during extended off-road testing. In all, seven experienced riders rode a downhill trial test section with the test bicycle in both front-suspension and full-suspension configurations. The load histories were used quantitatively to describe the load components through the computation of means, standard deviations, amplitude probability density functions, and power spectral density functions. For the standing position, the coefficients of variation for the load components normal to the ground were greater than 1.2 for handlebar forces and 0.3 and 0.5-0.6 for the pedal and hub forces, respectively. Thus, the relative contribution of the dynamic loading was much greater than the static loading at the handlebars but less so at the pedals and hubs. As indicated by the rainflow count, high amplitude loading was developed approaching 3 and 5 times the weight of the test subjects at the front and rear wheels, respectively. The power spectral densities showed that energy was concentrated in the band 0-50 Hz. Through stress computations and knowledge of material properties, the data can be used analytically to predict the fatigue life of important structural components such as those for steering. The data can also be used to develop a fatigue testing protocol for verifying analytical predictions of fatigue life.

  8. Traffic Flow of Interacting Self-Driven Particles: Rails and Trails, Vehicles and Vesicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Debashish

    One common feature of a vehicle, an ant and a kinesin motor is that they all convert chemical energy, derived from fuel or food, into mechanical energy required for their forward movement; such objects have been modelled in recent years as self-driven particles. Cytoskeletal filaments, e.g., microtubules, form a rail network for intra-cellular transport of vesicular cargo by molecular motors like, for example, kinesins. Similarly, ants move along trails while vehicles move along lanes. Therefore, the traffic of vehicles and organisms as well as that of molecular motors can be modelled as systems of interacting self-driven particles; these are of current interest in non-equilibrium statistical mechanics. In this paper we point out the common features of these model systems and emphasize the crucial differences in their physical properties.

  9. Older drivers: On-road and off-road test results.

    PubMed

    Selander, Helena; Lee, Hoe C; Johansson, Kurt; Falkmer, Torbjörn

    2011-07-01

    Eighty-five volunteer drivers, 65-85 years old, without cognitive impairments impacting on their driving were examined, in order to investigate driving errors characteristic for older drivers. In addition, any relationships between cognitive off-road and on-road tests results, the latter being the gold standard, were identified. Performance measurements included Trail Making Test (TMT), Nordic Stroke Driver Screening Assessment (NorSDSA), Useful Field of View (UFOV), self-rating driving performance and the two on-road protocols P-Drive and ROA. Some of the older drivers displayed questionable driving behaviour. In total, 21% of the participants failed the on-road assessment. Some of the specific errors were more serious than others. The most common driving errors embraced speed; exceeding the speed limit or not controlling the speed. Correlations with the P-Drive protocol were established for NorSDSA total score (weak), UFOV subtest 2 (weak), and UFOV subtest 3 (moderate). Correlations with the ROA protocol were established for UFOV subtest 2 (weak) and UFOV subtest 3 (weak). P-Drive and self ratings correlated weakly, whereas no correlation between self ratings and the ROA protocol was found. The results suggest that specific problems or errors seen in an older person's driving can actually be "normal driving behaviours".

  10. 77 FR 9916 - California State Motor Vehicle and Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Mobile Cargo...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-21

    ... off-road equipment or a vehicle registered as an on-road motor vehicle, and whether they are newly acquired or already in-use.\\7\\ \\7\\ CARB normally uses the term ``off-road'' while EPA uses the term... for on-road operation (off-road yard trucks) acquired after January 1, 2007 must be equipped...

  11. 32 CFR 636.29 - Go-carts, minibikes, and all terrain vehicles (ATV's).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of this part and the Georgia Traffic Code. (c) Off-road vehicles will only be operated in areas specified by the DPCA. The DPCA will specify conditions for off-road operation. (d) “Go-carts,”...

  12. 43 CFR 420.2 - General closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.2 General closure. Reclamation lands are closed to off- road vehicle use, except for an area or trail specifically opened to use of off- road vehicles in accordance...

  13. Research and Development for Off-Road Fuel Cell Applications U.S. Department of Energy Grant DE-FG36-04GO14303 - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, Michael; Erickson, Paul; Lawrence, Richard; Tejaswi, Arun; Brum, Magdalena

    2013-04-30

    Off-road concerns are related to the effects of shock and vibration and air quality on fuel cell power requirements. Mechanical stresses on differing material makeup and mass distribution within the system may render some components susceptible to impulse trauma while others may show adverse effects from harmonic disturbances or broad band mechanical agitation. One of the recognized challenges in fuel cell systems air purification is in providing a highly efficient particulate and chemical filter with minimal pressure drop. PEM integrators do not want additional parasitic loads added to the system as compensation for a highly efficient yet highly restrictive filter. Additionally, there is challenge in integrating multiple functions into a single air intake module tasked with effectively filtering high dust loads, diesel soot, pesticides, ammonias, and other anticipated off-road contaminants. This project has investigated both off-road associated issues cumulating in the prototype build and testing of two light duty off-road vehicles with integrated fuel cell power plant systems.

  14. Detecting unforgiving roadside contributors through the severity analysis of ran-off-road crashes.

    PubMed

    Roque, Carlos; Moura, Filipe; Lourenço Cardoso, João

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to study the contributors influencing ran-off-road (ROR) crash severities in a setting that has not been analysed in the literature, namely on freeways not designed according to the "forgiving roadside" concept. To accomplish the analysis, ROR crash data were collected on freeway road sections in Portugal and multinomial and mixed logit models were estimated using the driver injury and the most severely injured occupant as outcome variables. Our results are in line with previous findings reported in the literature on ROR crash severity in a number of distinct settings. Most importantly, this study shows the contribution of critical slopes and vehicle rollover towards fatal injuries and highlights the importance of introducing the "forgiving roadside" concept to mitigate ROR crash severity in Portuguese freeways. The study also indicates the importance of protecting errant vehicles particularly in horizontal curves, as these are linked with fatalities. Finally, the empirical findings from the developed models revealed problems in current Portuguese roadside design, especially with regards to criteria for forgiving slopes provision and warrants for safety barrier installation.

  15. 78 FR 76176 - Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the Final Trail Management Plan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-16

    ..., if fully implemented. This alternative will include a new 10-mile off-road single track bicycle trail... person or obtained by request in writing to Cuyahoga Valley National Park, 15610 Vaughn Road,...

  16. Physiological Demands of Simulated Off-Road Cycling Competition

    PubMed Central

    Smekal, Gerhard; von Duvillard, Serge P.; Hörmandinger, Maximilian; Moll, Roland; Heller, Mario; Pokan, Rochus; Bacharach, David W.; LeMura, Linda M.; Arciero, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to measure the demands of off-road cycling via portable spirometry, leg-power output (PO), heart rate (HR) and blood lactate (BLa) concentration. Twenty-four male competitive cyclists (age: 29±7.2 yrs, height: 1.79 ± 0.05 m, body mass: 70.0 ± 4.9 kg, VO2peak: 64.9 ± 7.5 ml·kg-1·min-1) performed simulated mountain bike competitions (COMP) and laboratory tests (LabT). From LabT, we determined maximal workload and first and second ventilatory thresholds (VT1, VT2). A high-performance athlete (HPA) was used for comparison with three groups of subjects with different sport-specific performance levels. Load profiles of COMP were also investigated during uphill, flat and downhill cycling. During the COMP, athletes achieved a mean oxygen uptake (VO2COMP) of 57.0 ± 6.8 ml·kg-1·min-1 vs. 71.1 ml·kg-1·min-1 for the HPA. The POCOMP was 2.66±0.43 W·kg-1 and 3.52 W·kg-1 for the HPA. POCOMP, VO2COMP and HRCOMP were compared to corresponding variables at the VT2 of LabT. LabT variables correlated with racing time (RTCOMP) and POCOMP (p < 0.01 to <0.001; r-0.59 to -0.80). The VO2peak (LabT) accounted for 65% of variance of a single COMP test. VO2COMP, POCOMP and also endurance variables measured from LabTs were found as important determinants for cross-country performance. The high average VO2COMP indicates that a high aerobic capacity is a prerequisite for successful COMP. Findings derived from respiratory gas measures during COMPs might be useful when designing mountain bike specific training. Key points Cross- country cycling is characterized by high oxygen costs due to the high muscle mass simultaneously working to fulfill the demands of this kind of sports. Heart rate and blood lactate concentration measures are not sensitive enough to assess the energy requirements of COMP. Therefore, respiratory gas and power output measures are helpful to provide new information to physiological profile of cross- country cycling. An excellent

  17. Physiological Demands of Simulated Off-Road Cycling Competition.

    PubMed

    Smekal, Gerhard; von Duvillard, Serge P; Hörmandinger, Maximilian; Moll, Roland; Heller, Mario; Pokan, Rochus; Bacharach, David W; LeMura, Linda M; Arciero, Paul

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to measure the demands of off-road cycling via portable spirometry, leg-power output (PO), heart rate (HR) and blood lactate (BLa) concentration. Twenty-four male competitive cyclists (age: 29±7.2 yrs, height: 1.79 ± 0.05 m, body mass: 70.0 ± 4.9 kg, VO2peak: 64.9 ± 7.5 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) performed simulated mountain bike competitions (COMP) and laboratory tests (LabT). From LabT, we determined maximal workload and first and second ventilatory thresholds (VT1, VT2). A high-performance athlete (HPA) was used for comparison with three groups of subjects with different sport-specific performance levels. Load profiles of COMP were also investigated during uphill, flat and downhill cycling. During the COMP, athletes achieved a mean oxygen uptake (VO2COMP) of 57.0 ± 6.8 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1) vs. 71.1 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1) for the HPA. The POCOMP was 2.66±0.43 W·kg(-1) and 3.52 W·kg(-1) for the HPA. POCOMP, VO2COMP and HRCOMP were compared to corresponding variables at the VT2 of LabT. LabT variables correlated with racing time (RTCOMP) and POCOMP (p < 0.01 to <0.001; r-0.59 to -0.80). The VO2peak (LabT) accounted for 65% of variance of a single COMP test. VO2COMP, POCOMP and also endurance variables measured from LabTs were found as important determinants for cross-country performance. The high average VO2COMP indicates that a high aerobic capacity is a prerequisite for successful COMP. Findings derived from respiratory gas measures during COMPs might be useful when designing mountain bike specific training. Key pointsCross- country cycling is characterized by high oxygen costs due to the high muscle mass simultaneously working to fulfill the demands of this kind of sports.Heart rate and blood lactate concentration measures are not sensitive enough to assess the energy requirements of COMP. Therefore, respiratory gas and power output measures are helpful to provide new information to physiological profile of cross- country cycling

  18. Evaluation of stereo vision obstacle detection algorithms for off-road autonomous navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rankin, Arturo; Huertas, Andres; Matthies, Larry

    2005-01-01

    Reliable detection of non-traversable hazards is a key requirement for off-road autonomous navigation. A detailed description of each obstacle detection algorithm and their performance on the surveyed obstacle course is presented in this paper.

  19. The Effects of Vibrations Experienced during Road vs. Off-road Cycling.

    PubMed

    Macdermid, P W; Fink, P W; Stannard, S R

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to compare the effects of vibrations experienced during off-road and road cycling. It was hypothesised that additional damping will be expressed through a greater work demand and increased physiological markers when travelling at the same speed over an identical terrain profile. Participants ascended a tar-sealed road climb and a single-track off-road climb at a predetermined speed. Time, speed, power, cadence, heart rate and V̇ O2 were sampled and logged every second while tri-axial accelerometers recorded accelerations (128 Hz) to quantify vibrations experienced. Statistical analysis indicated accelerations to be greater during the off-road condition (p<0.0001) with post-hoc analysis exposing differences (p<0.001) for handlebar, arm, leg and seat post but not the lower back or head. The increased accelerations during off-road riding are associated with the increased vibrations and rolling resistance experienced. This led to increases in the work done (road: 280±69 vs. off-road: 312±74 W, p=0.0003) and, consequentially, a significant increase in the physiological markers V̇ O2 (road: 48.5±7.5 off-road 51.4±7.3 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1), p=0.0033) and heart rate (road: 161±10 off-road 170±10 bpm, p=0.0001) during the off-road condition. Such physiological differences and their causes are important to understand in order to provide suitable training recommendations or technological interventions for improving competitive performance or recreational enjoyment.

  20. 43 CFR 420.11 - Requirements-vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Requirements-vehicles. 420.11 Section 420... THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE Operating Criteria § 420.11 Requirements—vehicles. Each off-road vehicle that is operated on Reclamation lands shall meet the following requirements: (a) It shall...

  1. Non-market valuation of off-highway vehicle recreation in Larimer County, Colorado: Implications of trail closures.

    PubMed

    Deisenroth, Daniel; Loomis, John; Bond, Craig

    2009-08-01

    Few economic studies are available to measure off-highway vehicle recreation benefits foregone when trails must be closed to protect the environment. This paper estimates the non-market benefits associated with off-highway vehicle (OHV) recreation on National Forest lands in Larimer County, Colorado. We use a contingent valuation model (CVM) to estimate benefits to OHV users, which includes dirt bike riders, all terrain vehicle (ATV) riders, and 4-wheel drive (4x4) users. Using CVM we find the mean consumer surplus estimates to be $78 per person per day. These results are consistent with the few previous estimates of OHV recreation benefits. This equates to a per trail per summer consumer surplus of at least between $219,467 and $296,876, and a county level surplus per summer to be at least between $796,447 and $1,077,367. These benefits can be compared to environmental costs to obtain a more complete picture of the effects of trail closure, as well as the negative spillovers to non-motorized users.

  2. Night-time negative obstacle detection for off-road autonomous navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rankin, Arturo L.; Huertas, Andres; Matthies, Larry H.

    2007-04-01

    Detecting negative obstacles (ditches, holes, wadis, and other depressions) is one of the most difficult problems in perception for unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) off-road autonomous navigation. One reason for this is that the width of the visible portion of a negative obstacle may only span a few pixels at the stopping distance for vehicle speeds UGV programs aspire to operate at (up to 50kph). The problem can be further compounded when negative obstacles are obscured by vegetation or when negative obstacles are embedded in undulating terrain. Because of the variety of appearances of negative obstacles, a multi-cue detection approach is desired. In previous nighttime negative obstacle detection work, we have described combining geometry based cues from stereo range data and a thermal signature based cue from thermal infrared imagery. Thermal signature is a powerful cue during the night since the interiors of negative obstacles generally remain warmer than surrounding terrain throughout the night. In this paper, we further couple the thermal signature based cue and geometry based cues from stereo range data for nighttime negative obstacle detection. Edge detection is used to generate closed contour candidate negative obstacle regions that are geometrically filtered to determine if they lie within the ground plane. Cues for negative obstacles from thermal signature, geometry-based analysis of range images, and geometry-based analysis of terrain maps are fused. The focus of this work is to increase the range at which UGVs can reliably detect negative obstacles on cross-country terrain, thereby increasing the speed at which UGVs can safely operate.

  3. Relative Importance of Dust, Splash, and Sheet/Rill Transport Processes on Off-Highway Vehicle Trails in the Ouachita Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marion, D.; Phillips, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    Sheet/rill erosion, dust displacement, and vehicle induced splash are the primary sediment transport processes on off-highway vehicle (OHV) trails in the Ouachita Mountains of the central United States. The relative importance of these three processes is assessed by comparing the area affected and the sediment connectivity of each process to affected streams using field data from the Wolf Pen Gap Trail Complex. The occurrence and areal extent of erosion processes were assessed using systematic transect measurements, feature inventories, and visual observation over representative trail segments. Sheet/rill erosion affects the entire denunded surface of the trail system, an area of 2,820 m2 km-1 of trail. Distinct erosion features created by sheet/rill erosion occur 16.3 times per km. Dust transport extends a mean travel distance of 3.7 m off-trail. Dust transport affects both the entire trail area and an additional 6,640 m2 km-1 of off-trail area. In contrast, splash transport was restricted to trail dips, and extends 1.6 m off-trail. Splash transport affects 60 m2 km-1of off-trail area.The impact of trail erosion increases where sediment sources are connected to drainageways. Of 480 sheet/rill erosion features rated, 69.4% had high to very high connectivity to channels. All sampled dips were directly connected to drainage ways. Dust transport affected 99% of dips on one trail side and 90% on both sides. About 80% of the dips had splash transport on one trail side and 42% on both sides.Sheet/rill, dust, and splash transport processes are all important in the Trail Complex, but for different reasons. Sheet/rill erosion affects the entire trail surface, is well connected to area drainageways, but only occurs after rainfall. Dust transport affects the largest area and occurs most often throughout the year, but the sediment is deposited diffusely, and the ratio delivered to the drainage network is relatively low. Splash affects the smallest area

  4. Stereo Vision Based Terrain Mapping for Off-Road Autonomous Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rankin, Arturo L.; Huertas, Andres; Matthies, Larry H.

    2009-01-01

    Successful off-road autonomous navigation by an unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) requires reliable perception and representation of natural terrain. While perception algorithms are used to detect driving hazards, terrain mapping algorithms are used to represent the detected hazards in a world model a UGV can use to plan safe paths. There are two primary ways to detect driving hazards with perception sensors mounted to a UGV: binary obstacle detection and traversability cost analysis. Binary obstacle detectors label terrain as either traversable or non-traversable, whereas, traversability cost analysis assigns a cost to driving over a discrete patch of terrain. In uncluttered environments where the non-obstacle terrain is equally traversable, binary obstacle detection is sufficient. However, in cluttered environments, some form of traversability cost analysis is necessary. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has explored both approaches using stereo vision systems. A set of binary detectors has been implemented that detect positive obstacles, negative obstacles, tree trunks, tree lines, excessive slope, low overhangs, and water bodies. A compact terrain map is built from each frame of stereo images. The mapping algorithm labels cells that contain obstacles as no-go regions, and encodes terrain elevation, terrain classification, terrain roughness, traversability cost, and a confidence value. The single frame maps are merged into a world map where temporal filtering is applied. In previous papers, we have described our perception algorithms that perform binary obstacle detection. In this paper, we summarize the terrain mapping capabilities that JPL has implemented during several UGV programs over the last decade and discuss some challenges to building terrain maps with stereo range data.

  5. Factors affecting the impact of off-road driving on soils in an area in the Kruger National Park, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Nortjé, Gerhardus Petrus; van Hoven, Wouter; Laker, Michiel C

    2012-12-01

    Studies on the effects of off-road driving on soils were conducted in the Makuleke Contractual Park of the Kruger National Park. The studies were conducted on three different soils with different textures and soil compactibilities. Traffic pressure was applied with a game drive vehicle loaded with 11 sand bags, each weighing 70 kg. This gave a total vehicle mass of 3,795 kg, simulating a vehicle fully laden with tourists. The study included: (i) comparing of the effects of four different tyre pressures; (ii) comparing the effects of 1-3 vehicle passes over the same tyre tracks; (iii) comparison of traffic effects under dry and wet soil moisture conditions, on soil compaction, respectively. After each pass penetration resistances were measured (a) on the tyre tracks, (b) between the tyre tracks and (c) at different distances outside the tyre tracks. As expected, vehicular traffic caused soil compaction below the wheel tracks. Lower tyre pressures caused less compaction than higher tyre pressures. Fewer vehicle passes also caused less compaction than more passes on the same tracks, but most compaction occurred during the first pass. Thus, driving on the same tracks more than once is less damaging than driving once on different tracks. Controlled traffic should be considered when developing management strategies for off-road driving in wildlife protected areas.

  6. Factors Affecting the Impact of Off-Road Driving on Soils in an Area in the Kruger National Park, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nortjé, Gerhardus Petrus; van Hoven, Wouter; Laker, Michiel C.

    2012-12-01

    Studies on the effects of off-road driving on soils were conducted in the Makuleke Contractual Park of the Kruger National Park. The studies were conducted on three different soils with different textures and soil compactibilities. Traffic pressure was applied with a game drive vehicle loaded with 11 sand bags, each weighing 70 kg. This gave a total vehicle mass of 3,795 kg, simulating a vehicle fully laden with tourists. The study included: (i) comparing of the effects of four different tyre pressures; (ii) comparing the effects of 1-3 vehicle passes over the same tyre tracks; (iii) comparison of traffic effects under dry and wet soil moisture conditions, on soil compaction, respectively. After each pass penetration resistances were measured (a) on the tyre tracks, (b) between the tyre tracks and (c) at different distances outside the tyre tracks. As expected, vehicular traffic caused soil compaction below the wheel tracks. Lower tyre pressures caused less compaction than higher tyre pressures. Fewer vehicle passes also caused less compaction than more passes on the same tracks, but most compaction occurred during the first pass. Thus, driving on the same tracks more than once is less damaging than driving once on different tracks. Controlled traffic should be considered when developing management strategies for off-road driving in wildlife protected areas.

  7. A video based run-off-road training program with practice and evaluation in a simulator.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Paul; Neyens, David M; Wagner, John; Switzer, Fred; Alexander, Kim; Pidgeon, Philip

    2015-09-01

    A run-off-road (ROR) event occurs when one or more of a vehicle's wheels leaves the roadway and begins to travel on the surface or shoulder adjacent to the road. Despite various countermeasures, ROR crashes continue to yield a large number of fatalities and injuries. Infrastructure-based solutions do not directly address the critical factor of driver performance preceding and during an ROR event. In this study, a total of 75 individuals participated in a pre-post experiment to examine the effect of a training video on improving driver performance during a set of simulated ROR scenarios (e.g., on a high speed highway, a horizontal curve, and a residential rural road). In each scenario, the vehicle was unexpectedly forced into an ROR scenario for which the drivers were instructed to recover as safely as possible. The treatment group then watched a custom ROR training video while the control group viewed a placebo video. The participants then drove the same simulated ROR scenarios. The results suggest that the training video had a significant positive effect on drivers' steering response on all three roadway conditions as well as improvements in vehicle stability, subjectively rated demand on the driver, and self-evaluated performance in the highway scenario. Under the highway conditions, the treatment group reduced the frequency of spinouts from 70% in the pre-training events to 16% in the post-training events (χ(2)(1)=23.32, p<0.001) with no significant improvement found for the control group. In the horizontal curve, spinouts were reduced for the treatment group from 50% in the pre-training events to 30% in the post-training events (χ(2)(1)=8.45, p=0.004) with the control group also not showing any significant improvement. The results of this study suggest that even a short video about recovering from ROR events can significantly influence a driver's ability to recover. It is possible that additional training may have further benefits in recovering from ROR

  8. A video based run-off-road training program with practice and evaluation in a simulator.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Paul; Neyens, David M; Wagner, John; Switzer, Fred; Alexander, Kim; Pidgeon, Philip

    2015-09-01

    A run-off-road (ROR) event occurs when one or more of a vehicle's wheels leaves the roadway and begins to travel on the surface or shoulder adjacent to the road. Despite various countermeasures, ROR crashes continue to yield a large number of fatalities and injuries. Infrastructure-based solutions do not directly address the critical factor of driver performance preceding and during an ROR event. In this study, a total of 75 individuals participated in a pre-post experiment to examine the effect of a training video on improving driver performance during a set of simulated ROR scenarios (e.g., on a high speed highway, a horizontal curve, and a residential rural road). In each scenario, the vehicle was unexpectedly forced into an ROR scenario for which the drivers were instructed to recover as safely as possible. The treatment group then watched a custom ROR training video while the control group viewed a placebo video. The participants then drove the same simulated ROR scenarios. The results suggest that the training video had a significant positive effect on drivers' steering response on all three roadway conditions as well as improvements in vehicle stability, subjectively rated demand on the driver, and self-evaluated performance in the highway scenario. Under the highway conditions, the treatment group reduced the frequency of spinouts from 70% in the pre-training events to 16% in the post-training events (χ(2)(1)=23.32, p<0.001) with no significant improvement found for the control group. In the horizontal curve, spinouts were reduced for the treatment group from 50% in the pre-training events to 30% in the post-training events (χ(2)(1)=8.45, p=0.004) with the control group also not showing any significant improvement. The results of this study suggest that even a short video about recovering from ROR events can significantly influence a driver's ability to recover. It is possible that additional training may have further benefits in recovering from ROR

  9. Mechanized Off-Road Equipment Safety. Module SH-17. Safety and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This student module on mechanized off-road equipment safety is one of 50 modules concerned with job safety and health. This module aims to encourage the development of a positive approach to safety as it concerns the heavy equipment industry. Following the introduction, 15 objectives (each keyed to a page in the text) the student is expected to…

  10. COMPARISON OF ON AND OFF ROAD DIESEL EXHAUST SOURCES ON THE SUSCEPTIBILITY TO AN INFLUENZA INFECTION.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diesel exhaust (DE), a major component of urban air pollution, and its modulatory role in human susceptibility to respiratory infections is of great concern. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of on- and off-road sources of DE exposure on the severity of an ...

  11. Effect of drivers' age and push button locations on visual time off road, steering wheel deviation and safety perception.

    PubMed

    Dukic, T; Hanson, L; Falkmer, T

    2006-01-15

    The study examined the effects of manual control locations on two groups of randomly selected young and old drivers in relation to visual time off road, steering wheel deviation and safety perception. Measures of visual time off road, steering wheel deviations and safety perception were performed with young and old drivers during real traffic. The results showed an effect of both driver's age and button location on the dependent variables. Older drivers spent longer visual time off road when pushing the buttons and had larger steering wheel deviations. Moreover, the greater the eccentricity between the normal line of sight and the button locations, the longer the visual time off road and the larger the steering wheel deviations. No interaction effect between button location and age was found with regard to visual time off road. Button location had an effect on perceived safety: the further away from the normal line of sight the lower the rating.

  12. 78 FR 25762 - Notice of Availability of the Final Trail Management Plan/Final Environmental Impact Statement...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-02

    ... includes the addition of 37 miles of trails, including 10 miles of trails for off-road bicycle use... Valley National Park, 15610 Vaughn Road, Brecksville, Ohio 44141. The document is also available on the..., 15610 Vaughn Road, Brecksville, Ohio 44140, telephone (440) 546-5903. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: We,...

  13. Correlations between physiological variables and performance in high level cross country off road cyclists

    PubMed Central

    Impellizzeri, F; Marcora, S; Rampinini, E; Mognoni, P; Sassi, A

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the relations between maximal and submaximal indices of aerobic fitness and off road cycling performance in a homogeneous group of high level mountain bikers. Methods: 12 internationally competitive mountain bikers completed the study. Maximum oxygen uptake (V·O2max), peak power output (PPO), power output (PO), and oxygen uptake (V·O2) at first (VT) and second (RCT) ventilatory thresholds were measured in the laboratory, and correlated with race time during a cross country circuit race. Results: The only physiological indices of aerobic fitness correlated with off road cycling performance were PO and V·O2 at RCT when normalised to body mass (r = –0.63 and r = –0.66, respectively; p<0.05). VT, V·O2max, and PPO were not correlated to performance in this homogeneous group of high level mountain bikers. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that submaximal indices of aerobic fitness such as PO and V·O2 at RCT are more important determinants of off road cycling performance than maximal indices such as PPO and V·O2max. This study confirms the importance of body mass for mountain biking performance. As aerobic fitness explained only 40% of the variance, other physiological and technical factors should be investigated, as they may be important determinants of cross country performance among elite mountain bikers. PMID:16183772

  14. All-terrain vehicle injury prevention: two-, three-, and four-wheeled unlicensed motor vehicles.

    PubMed

    2000-06-01

    Since 1987, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) has had a policy about the use of motorized cycles and all-terrain vehicles (ATVs) by children. The purpose of this policy statement is to update and strengthen previous policy. This statement describes the various kinds of motorized cycles and ATVs and outlines the epidemiologic characteristics of deaths and injuries related to their use by children in light of the 1987 consent decrees entered into by the US Consumer Product Safety Commission and the manufacturers of ATVs. Recommendations are made for public, patient, and parent education by pediatricians; equipment modifications; the use of safety equipment; and the development and improvement of safer off-road trails and responsive emergency medical systems. In addition, the AAP strengthens its recommendation for passage of legislation in all states prohibiting the use of 2- and 4-wheeled off-road vehicles by children younger than 16 years, as well as a ban on the sale of new and used 3-wheeled ATVs, with a recall of all used 3-wheeled ATVs.

  15. Primary gas- and particle-phase emissions and secondary organic aerosol production from gasoline and diesel off-road engines.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Timothy D; Tkacik, Daniel S; Presto, Albert A; Zhang, Mang; Jathar, Shantanu H; Nguyen, Ngoc T; Massetti, John; Truong, Tin; Cicero-Fernandez, Pablo; Maddox, Christine; Rieger, Paul; Chattopadhyay, Sulekha; Maldonado, Hector; Maricq, M Matti; Robinson, Allen L

    2013-12-17

    Dilution and smog chamber experiments were performed to characterize the primary emissions and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from gasoline and diesel small off-road engines (SOREs). These engines are high emitters of primary gas- and particle-phase pollutants relative to their fuel consumption. Two- and 4-stroke gasoline SOREs emit much more (up to 3 orders of magnitude more) nonmethane organic gases (NMOGs), primary PM and organic carbon than newer on-road gasoline vehicles (per kg of fuel burned). The primary emissions from a diesel transportation refrigeration unit were similar to those of older, uncontrolled diesel engines used in on-road vehicles (e.g., premodel year 2007 heavy-duty diesel trucks). Two-strokes emitted the largest fractional (and absolute) amount of SOA precursors compared to diesel and 4-stroke gasoline SOREs; however, 35-80% of the NMOG emissions from the engines could not be speciated using traditional gas chromatography or high-performance liquid chromatography. After 3 h of photo-oxidation in a smog chamber, dilute emissions from both 2- and 4-stroke gasoline SOREs produced large amounts of semivolatile SOA. The effective SOA yield (defined as the ratio of SOA mass to estimated mass of reacted precursors) was 2-4% for 2- and 4-stroke SOREs, which is comparable to yields from dilute exhaust from older passenger cars and unburned gasoline. This suggests that much of the SOA production was due to unburned fuel and/or lubrication oil. The total PM contribution of different mobile source categories to the ambient PM burden was calculated by combining primary emission, SOA production and fuel consumption data. Relative to their fuel consumption, SOREs are disproportionately high total PM sources; however, the vastly greater fuel consumption of on-road vehicles renders them (on-road vehicles) the dominant mobile source of ambient PM in the Los Angeles area.

  16. Target Trailing With Safe Navigation With Colregs for Maritime Autonomous Surface Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuwata, Yoshiaki (Inventor); Wolf, Michael T. (Inventor); Zarzhitsky, Dimitri V. (Inventor); Aghazarian, Hrand (Inventor); Huntsberger, Terrance L. (Inventor); Howard, Andrew B. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Systems and methods for operating autonomous waterborne vessels in a safe manner. The systems include hardware for identifying the locations and motions of other vessels, as well as the locations of stationary objects that represent navigation hazards. By applying a computational method that uses a maritime navigation algorithm for avoiding hazards and obeying COLREGS using Velocity Obstacles to the data obtained, the autonomous vessel computes a safe and effective path to be followed in order to accomplish a desired navigational end result, while operating in a manner so as to avoid hazards and to maintain compliance with standard navigational procedures defined by international agreement. The systems and methods have been successfully demonstrated on water with radar and stereo cameras as the perception sensors, and integrated with a higher level planner for trailing a maneuvering target.

  17. 78 FR 724 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Off-Highway Recreational Vehicles...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-04

    ... Decision, 61 FR 69093 (December 31, 1996). The 1999 OHRV amendments did not change the numerical exhaust..., see 67 FR 68242 (November 8, 2002), and later amended in 2008, see 73 FR 59034 (October 8, 2008). The... vehicles. Second, the amendments reclassified sand cars, off-road utility vehicles and off-road...

  18. Driving and off-road impairments underlying failure on road testing in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Devos, Hannes; Vandenberghe, Wim; Tant, Mark; Akinwuntan, Abiodun E; De Weerdt, Willy; Nieuwboer, Alice; Uc, Ergun Y

    2013-12-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) affects driving ability. We aimed to determine the most critical impairments in specific road skills and in clinical characteristics leading to failure on a road test in PD. In this cross-sectional study, certified driving assessment experts evaluated specific driving skills in 104 active, licensed drivers with PD using a standardized, on-road checklist and issued a global decision of pass/fail. Participants also completed an off-road evaluation assessing demographic features, disease characteristics, motor function, vision, and cognition. The most important driving skills and off-road predictors of the pass/fail outcome were identified using multivariate stepwise regression analyses. Eighty-six (65%) passed and 36 (35%) failed the on-road driving evaluation. Persons who failed performed worse on all on-road items. When adjusted for age and gender, poor performances on lateral positioning at low speed, speed adaptations at high speed, and left turning maneuvers yielded the best model that determined the pass/fail decision (R(2) = 0.56). The fail group performed poorer on all motor, visual, and cognitive tests. Measures of visual scanning, motor severity, PD subtype, visual acuity, executive functions, and divided attention were independent predictors of pass/fail decisions in the multivariate model (R(2) = 0.60). Our study demonstrated that failure on a road test in PD is determined by impairments in specific driving skills and associated with deficits in motor, visual, executive, and visuospatial functions. These findings point to specific driving and off-road impairments that can be targeted in multimodal rehabilitation programs for drivers with PD.

  19. Flight and Integrated Testing: Blazing the Trail for the Ares Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, James L.; Cockrell, Charlie; Robinson, Kimberly; Tuma, Margaret L.; Flynn, Kevin C.; Briscoe, Jeri M.

    2007-01-01

    It has been 30 years since the United States last designed and built a human-rated launch vehicle. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has marshaled unique resources from the government and private sectors that will carry the next generation of astronauts into space safer and more efficiently than ever and send them to the Moon to develop a permanent outpost. NASA's Flight and Integrated Test Office (FITO) located at Marshall Space Flight Center and the Ares I-X Mission Management Office have primary responsibility for developing and conducting critical ground and flight tests for the Ares I and Ares V launch vehicles. These tests will draw upon Saturn and the Space Shuttle experiences, which taught the value of using sound systems engineering practices, while also applying aerospace best practices such as "test as you fly" and other lessons learned. FITO will use a variety of methods to reduce the technical, schedule, and cost risks of flying humans safely aboard a launch vehicle.

  20. Driver's lane keeping ability with eyes off road: Insights from a naturalistic study.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yiyun; Boyle, Linda Ng; Hallmark, Shauna L

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have shown that driver inattention can influence lane-keeping ability. The majority of studies on lane keeping have been conducted in controlled on-road networks or in simulated environments. However, few studies have examined lane-keeping ability in naturalistic settings for the same purpose. In this current study, the relationship between driver inattention and lane keeping ability was examined using naturalistic data for 24 drivers. Driver inattention was placed into two categories based on whether drivers were looking forward toward the roadway (inattention with eyes-on-road) or not looking forward (inattention with eyes-off-road) while engaged in a secondary task. Repeated measures regression models were used to account for within-subject correlations. The results showed that, after accounting for driving speed and lane width, the eyes-off-road significantly increased the standard deviation of lane position (SDLP). The findings from this study are consistent with other studies that show that the amount of time drivers spend looking away from the road can impact drivers' ability to maintain their lane position. Additionally, this paper demonstrates how driver inattention can be examined with real world data while accounting for the roadway, environment, and driver behavior.

  1. Prediction and uncertainty source analysis of the spatial and temporal disturbance from off-road vehicular traffic in a complex ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Fang, Shoufan; Gertner, George Z; Anderson, Alan B; Howard, Heidi R; Sullivan, Patricia; Otto, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Vehicle use during military training activities results in soil disturbance and vegetation loss. The capacity of lands to sustain training is a function of the sensitivity of lands to vehicle use and the pattern of land use. The sensitivity of land to vehicle use has been extensively studied. Less well understood are the spatial patterns of vehicle disturbance. Since disturbance from off-road vehicular traffic moving through complex landscapes varies spatially, a spatially explicit nonlinear regression model (disturbance model) was used to predict the pattern of vehicle disturbance across a training facility. An uncertainty analysis of the model predictions assessed the spatial distribution of prediction uncertainty and the contribution of different error sources to that uncertainty. For the most part, this analysis showed that mapping and modeling process errors contributed more than 95% of the total uncertainty of predicted disturbance, while satellite imagery error contributed less than 5% of the uncertainty. When the total uncertainty was larger than a threshold, modeling error contributed 60% to 90% of the prediction uncertainty. Otherwise, mapping error contributed about 10% to 50% of the total uncertainty. These uncertainty sources were further partitioned spatially based on other sources of uncertainties associated with vehicle moment, landscape characterization, satellite imagery, etc.

  2. Modelling and study of active vibration control for off-road vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Junwei; Chen, Sizhong

    2014-05-01

    In view of special working characteristics and structure, engineering machineries do not have conventional suspension system typically. Consequently, operators have to endure severe vibrations which are detrimental both to their health and to the productivity of the loader. Based on displacement control, a kind of active damping method is developed for a skid-steer loader. In this paper, the whole hydraulic system for active damping method is modelled which include swash plate dynamics model, proportional valve model, piston accumulator model, pilot-operated check valve model, relief valve model, pump loss model, and cylinder model. A new road excitation model is developed for the skid-steer loader specially. The response of chassis vibration acceleration to road excitation is verified through simulation. The simulation result of passive accumulator damping is compared with measurements and the comparison shows that they are close. Based on this, parallel PID controller and track PID controller with acceleration feedback are brought into the simulation model, and the simulation results are compared with passive accumulator damping. It shows that the active damping methods with PID controllers are better in reducing chassis vibration acceleration and pitch movement. In the end, the test work for active damping method is proposed for the future work.

  3. Nonfatal injuries from off-road motorcycle riding among children and teens--United States, 2001-2004.

    PubMed

    2006-06-01

    Motorcycle crashes are a substantial public health problem for children and teens. During 2003, among persons aged off-road motorcycle riding, an increasingly popular recreational activity among youths. To characterize nonfatal injuries among young off-road motorcycle riders in the United States, CDC analyzed data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System-All Injury Program (NEISS-AIP) during 2001-2004. Those data indicated that an estimated 23,800 off-road motorcyclists aged off-road motorcycle riding need to be strengthened; requiring minimum ages for off-road motorcycle riding might help prevent such injuries among children and teens.

  4. Ballistic motion of dust particles in the Lunar Roving Vehicle dust trails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Hsiang-Wen; Horányi, Mihály

    2012-05-01

    We have selected video images from the Apollo 16 mission and analyzed the motion of dust clouds kicked up by the wheels of the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV). Applying the equations of ballistic motion, we estimate both the velocity of the dust and the gravitational field strength at the lunar surface. From measurements of the rotation of an LRV wheel, we estimate the speed of the LRV. Such exercises can be useful when discussing ballistic trajectories and angular motion in a high school or introductory level college physics class.

  5. Usability of pointing devices for office applications in a moving off-road environment.

    PubMed

    Baldus, Thorsten; Patterson, Patrick

    2008-11-01

    Three pointing devices (mouse, touch pad, touch screen) were evaluated for usability with a Windows-style menu selection task while in a moving off-road environment. A pilot study determined which commercially available devices had the potential to promote good performance in the environment. Eighteen subjects performed a series of complex pointing tasks that simulated the use of a standard application in a moving tractor. The devices were also rated for subjective usability. The mouse and the touch screen produced the best performances, with the mouse receiving the best subjective usability ratings. The participants had a significantly lower performance with the touch pad, which also received lower ratings in the subjective usability ratings.

  6. How does exposure to nitrogen dioxide compare between on-road and off-road cycle routes?

    PubMed

    Bean, T; Carslaw, N; Ashmore, M; Gillah, A; Parkinson, C

    2011-04-01

    This study demonstrates a simple method to estimate the extent to which the exposure of cyclists to NO(2) is reduced by using off-road cycle routes rather than on-road cycle routes. Diffusion tubes were used to measure monthly NO(2) concentrations on three paired sets of on- and off-road cycle journeys in and around the City of York in August and September 2008. These measurements were combined with estimates of journey times to calculate time-weighted average concentration and exposure on each route. The average concentration of NO(2) was significantly reduced by a mean of 37.5% when off-road routes were used in place of on-road routes and, despite the longer journey times for off-road routes, exposure was also significantly reduced by a mean of 25.5%. The method described in this study could be adopted more widely to provide a cost effective and simple means of assessing the benefits of alternative cycle routes that are provided by Local Authorities.

  7. 43 CFR 423.40 - Vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... addition to the regulations in this part, the regulations governing off-road-vehicle use in 43 CFR part 420... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Vehicles. 423.40 Section 423.40 Public... Vehicles. (a) When operating a vehicle on Reclamation lands and Reclamation projects, you must comply...

  8. 43 CFR 423.40 - Vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... addition to the regulations in this part, the regulations governing off-road-vehicle use in 43 CFR part 420... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vehicles. 423.40 Section 423.40 Public... Vehicles. (a) When operating a vehicle on Reclamation lands and Reclamation projects, you must comply...

  9. A hub dynamometer for measurement of wheel forces in off-road bicycling.

    PubMed

    De Lorenzo, D S; Hull, M L

    1999-02-01

    A dynamometric hubset that measures the two ground contact force components acting on a bicycle wheel in the plane of the bicycle during off-road riding while either coasting or braking was designed, constructed, and evaluated. To maintain compatibility with standard mountain bike construction, the hubs use commercially available shells with modified, strain gage-equipped axles. The axle strain gages are sensitive to forces acting in the radial and tangential directions, while minimizing sensitivity to transverse forces, steering moments, and variations in the lateral location of the center of pressure. Static calibration and a subsequent accuracy check that computed differences between applied and apparent loads developed during coasting revealed root mean squared errors of 1 percent full-scale or less (full-scale load = 4500 N). The natural frequency of the rear hub with the wheel attached exceeded 350 Hz. These performance capabilities make the dynamometer useful for its intended purpose during coasting. To demonstrate this usefulness, sample ground contact forces are presented for a subject who coasted downhill over rough terrain. The dynamometric hubset can also be used to determine ground contact forces during braking providing that the brake reaction force components are known. However, compliance of the fork can lead to high cross-sensitivity and corresponding large (> 5 percent FS) measurement errors at the front wheel.

  10. Effects of Sodium Phosphate Loading on Aerobic Power and Capacity in off Road Cyclists.

    PubMed

    Czuba, Milosz; Zajac, Adam; Poprzecki, Stanislaw; Cholewa, Jaroslaw; Woska, Scott

    2009-01-01

    The main aim of this paper was to evaluate the effects of short- term (6 days) phosphate loading, as well as prolonged (21 days) intake of sodium phosphate on aerobic capacity in off-road cyclists. Nineteen well-trained cyclists were randomly divided into a supplemental (S) and control group (C). Group S was supplemented for 6 days with tri-sodium phosphate, in a dose of 50 mg·kg(-1) of FFM/d, while a placebo was provided for the C group. Additionally, group S was further subjected to a 3-week supplementation of 25 mg·kg(-1) FFM/d, while group C received 2g of glucose. The results indicate a significant (p < 0.05) increase in VO2max, VEmax, and O2/HR, due to sodium phosphate intake over 6 days. Also a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in HRrest and HRmax occurred. The supplementation procedure caused a significant increase (p < 0.05) in Pmax and a shift of VAT towards higher loads. There were no significant changes in the concentration of 2,3-DPG, acid-base balance and lactate concentration, due to phosphate salt intake. Key pointsStudies on bone acute biochemical response to loading have yielded unequivocal results.There is a paucity of research on the biochemical bone response to high impact exercise.An increase in bone turnover was observed one to two days post exercise.

  11. Detection and Classification of Motor Vehicle Noise in a Forested Landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Casey L.; Reed, Sarah E.; Dietz, Matthew S.; Fristrup, Kurt M.

    2013-11-01

    Noise emanating from human activity has become a common addition to natural soundscapes and has the potential to harm wildlife and erode human enjoyment of nature. In particular, motor vehicles traveling along roads and trails produce high levels of both chronic and intermittent noise, eliciting varied responses from a wide range of animal species. Anthropogenic noise is especially conspicuous in natural areas where ambient background sound levels are low. In this article, we present an acoustic method to detect and analyze motor vehicle noise. Our approach uses inexpensive consumer products to record sound, sound analysis software to automatically detect sound events within continuous recordings and measure their acoustic properties, and statistical classification methods to categorize sound events. We describe an application of this approach to detect motor vehicle noise on paved, gravel, and natural-surface roads, and off-road vehicle trails in 36 sites distributed throughout a national forest in the Sierra Nevada, CA, USA. These low-cost, unobtrusive methods can be used by scientists and managers to detect anthropogenic noise events for many potential applications, including ecological research, transportation and recreation planning, and natural resource management.

  12. Detection and classification of motor vehicle noise in a forested landscape.

    PubMed

    Brown, Casey L; Reed, Sarah E; Dietz, Matthew S; Fristrup, Kurt M

    2013-11-01

    Noise emanating from human activity has become a common addition to natural soundscapes and has the potential to harm wildlife and erode human enjoyment of nature. In particular, motor vehicles traveling along roads and trails produce high levels of both chronic and intermittent noise, eliciting varied responses from a wide range of animal species. Anthropogenic noise is especially conspicuous in natural areas where ambient background sound levels are low. In this article, we present an acoustic method to detect and analyze motor vehicle noise. Our approach uses inexpensive consumer products to record sound, sound analysis software to automatically detect sound events within continuous recordings and measure their acoustic properties, and statistical classification methods to categorize sound events. We describe an application of this approach to detect motor vehicle noise on paved, gravel, and natural-surface roads, and off-road vehicle trails in 36 sites distributed throughout a national forest in the Sierra Nevada, CA, USA. These low-cost, unobtrusive methods can be used by scientists and managers to detect anthropogenic noise events for many potential applications, including ecological research, transportation and recreation planning, and natural resource management.

  13. Magneto-rheological fluid shock absorber for suspension of an off-road motorcycle: a theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ericksen, Everet O.; Gordaninejad, Faramarz

    2000-06-01

    This work presents a theoretical model for the damping force of a magneto-rheological fluid (MRF) shock absorber of an off-road motorcycle. The Bingham plastic model and a 3D electromagnetic finite-element analysis are employed to develop a theoretical model to estimate the damping force of a MRF shock absorber. The mode is based on the physical parameters of the device as well as the properties of the fluid, making a valuable tool in shock absorber design for a particular application. By comparing the theoretical and experimental results, it is demonstrated that the model accurately predicts the damping force.

  14. FTIR analysis of surface functionalities on particulate matter produced by off-road diesel engines operating on diesel and biofuel.

    PubMed

    Popovicheva, Olga B; Kireeva, Elena D; Shonija, Natalia K; Vojtisek-Lom, Michal; Schwarz, Jaroslav

    2015-03-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy is applied as a powerful analytic technique for the evaluation of the chemical composition of combustion aerosols emitted by off-road engines fuelled by diesel and biofuels. Particles produced by burning diesel, heated rapeseed oil (RO), RO with ethylhexylnitrate, and heated palm oil were sampled from exhausts of representative in-use diesel engines. Multicomponent composition of diesel and biofuel particles reveal the chemistry related to a variety of functional groups containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur, and nitrogen. The most intensive functionalities of diesel particles are saturated C-C-H and unsaturated C=C-H aliphatic groups in alkanes and alkenes, aromatic C=C and C=C-H groups in polyaromatics, as well as sulfates and nitrated ions. The distinguished features of biofuel particles were carbonyl C=O groups in carboxylic acids, ketones, aldehydes, esters, and lactones. NO2, C-N and -NH groups in nitrocompounds and amines are found to dominate biofuel particles. Group identification is confirmed by complementary measurements of organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon, and water-soluble ion species. The relationship between infrared bands of polar oxygenated and non-polar aliphatic functionalities indicates the higher extent of the surface oxidation of biofuel particles. Findings provide functional markers of organic surface structure of off-road diesel emission, allowing for a better evaluation of relation between engine, fuel, operation condition, and particle composition, thus improving the quantification of environmental impacts of alternative energy source emissions. PMID:25318418

  15. FTIR analysis of surface functionalities on particulate matter produced by off-road diesel engines operating on diesel and biofuel.

    PubMed

    Popovicheva, Olga B; Kireeva, Elena D; Shonija, Natalia K; Vojtisek-Lom, Michal; Schwarz, Jaroslav

    2015-03-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy is applied as a powerful analytic technique for the evaluation of the chemical composition of combustion aerosols emitted by off-road engines fuelled by diesel and biofuels. Particles produced by burning diesel, heated rapeseed oil (RO), RO with ethylhexylnitrate, and heated palm oil were sampled from exhausts of representative in-use diesel engines. Multicomponent composition of diesel and biofuel particles reveal the chemistry related to a variety of functional groups containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur, and nitrogen. The most intensive functionalities of diesel particles are saturated C-C-H and unsaturated C=C-H aliphatic groups in alkanes and alkenes, aromatic C=C and C=C-H groups in polyaromatics, as well as sulfates and nitrated ions. The distinguished features of biofuel particles were carbonyl C=O groups in carboxylic acids, ketones, aldehydes, esters, and lactones. NO2, C-N and -NH groups in nitrocompounds and amines are found to dominate biofuel particles. Group identification is confirmed by complementary measurements of organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon, and water-soluble ion species. The relationship between infrared bands of polar oxygenated and non-polar aliphatic functionalities indicates the higher extent of the surface oxidation of biofuel particles. Findings provide functional markers of organic surface structure of off-road diesel emission, allowing for a better evaluation of relation between engine, fuel, operation condition, and particle composition, thus improving the quantification of environmental impacts of alternative energy source emissions.

  16. 43 CFR 420.11 - Requirements-vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements-vehicles. 420.11 Section 420.11 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE Operating Criteria § 420.11 Requirements—vehicles. Each...

  17. Experimental optimization of pivot point height for swing-arm type rear suspensions in off-road bicycles.

    PubMed

    Karchin, Ari; Hull, M L

    2002-02-01

    Towards the ultimate goal of designing dual suspension off-road bicycles which decouple the suspension motion from the pedaling action, this study focused on determining experimentally the optimum pivot point height for a swing-arm type rear suspension such that the suspension motion was minimized. Specific objectives were (1) to determine the effect of interaction between the front and rear suspensions on the optimal pivot point height, (2) to investigate the sensitivity of the optimal height to the pedaling mechanics of the rider in both the seated and standing postures, (3) to determine the dependence of the optimal height on the rider posture. Eleven experienced subjects rode a custom-built adjustable dual suspension off-road bicycle, [Needle, S., and Hull, M. L., 1997, "An Off-Road Bicycle With Adjustable Suspension Kinematics," Journal of Mechanical Design 119, pp. 370-375], on an inclined treadmill. The treadmill was set to a constant 6 percent grade at a constant velocity of 24.8 km/hr. With the bicycle in a fixed gear combination of 38 x 14, the corresponding cadence was 84 rpm. For each subject, the pivot point height was varied randomly while the motions across both the front and rear suspension elements were measured. Subjects rode in both the seated and standing postures and with the front suspension active and inactive. It was found that the power loss from the rear suspension at the optimal pivot point height was not significantly dependent on the interaction between the front and rear suspensions. In the seated posture, the optimal pivot point height was 9.8 cm on average and had a range of 8.0-12.3 cm. The average optimal pivot point height for the seated posture corresponded to an average power loss for the rear suspension that was within 10 percent of the minimum power loss for each subject for 8 of the 11 subjects. In the standing posture, the average height was 5.9 cm and ranged from 5.1-7.2 cm. The average heightfor the standing posture was

  18. Evaluation of off-road terrain with static stereo and monoscopic displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yorchak, John P.; Hartley, Craig S.

    1990-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is currently funding research into the design of a Mars rover vehicle. This unmanned rover will be used to explore a number of scientific and geologic sites on the Martian surface. Since the rover can not be driven from Earth in real-time, due to lengthy communication time delays, a locomotion strategy that optimizes vehicle range and minimizes potential risk must be developed. In order to assess the degree of on-board artificial intelligence (AI) required for a rover to carry out its' mission, researchers conducted an experiment to define a no AI baseline. In the experiment 24 subjects, divided into stereo and monoscopic groups, were shown video snapshots of four terrain scenes. The subjects' task was to choose a suitable path for the vehicle through each of the four scenes. Paths were scored based on distance travelled and hazard avoidance. Study results are presented with respect to: (1) risk versus range; (2) stereo versus monocular video; (3) vehicle camera height; and (4) camera field-of-view.

  19. Algorithmic solution for autonomous vision-based off-road navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolesnik, Marina; Paar, Gerhard; Bauer, Arnold; Ulm, Michael

    1998-07-01

    A vision based navigation system is a basic tool to provide autonomous operations of unmanned vehicles. For offroad navigation that means that the vehicle equipped with a stereo vision system and perhaps a laser ranging device shall be able to maintain a high level of autonomy under various illumination conditions and with little a priori information about the underlying scene. The task becomes particularly important for unmanned planetary exploration with the help of autonomous rovers. For example in the LEDA Moon exploration project currently under focus by the European Space Agency (ESA), during the autonomous mode the vehicle (rover) should perform the following operations: on-board absolute localization, elevation model (DEM) generation, obstacle detection and relative localization, global path planning and execution. Focus of this article is a computational solution for fully autonomous path planning and path execution. An operational DEM generation method based on stereoscopy is introduced. Self-localization on the DEM and robust natural feature tracking are used as basic navigation steps, supported by inertial sensor systems. The following operations are performed on the basis of stereo image sequences: 3D scene reconstruction, risk map generation, local path planning, camera position update during the motion on the basis of landmarks tracking, obstacle avoidance. Experimental verification is done with the help of a laboratory terrain mockup and a high precision camera mounting device. It is shown that standalone tracking using automatically identified landmarks is robust enough to give navigation data for further stereoscopic reconstruction of the surrounding terrain. Iterative tracking and reconstruction leads to a complete description of the vehicle path and its surrounding with an accuracy high enough to meet the specifications for autonomous outdoor navigation.

  20. 75 FR 48721 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement on Nabesna Off-Road Vehicle Management Plan, Wrangell-St...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-11

    ... requested from Meg Jensen, Superintendent, Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, P.O. Box 439...-delivered to Meg Jensen, Superintendent, Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, P.O. Box 439,...

  1. Impact analysis of off-road-vehicle use on vegetation in the Grand Mere dune environment. [Lake Michigan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultink, G. (Principal Investigator)

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A linear regression between percent nonvegetative land and the time variable was completed for the two sample areas. Sample area no. 1 showed an average vegetation loss of 1.901% per year, while the loss for sample area no. 2 amounted to 5.889% per year. Two basic reasons for the difference were assumed to play a role: the difference in access potential and the amount of already fragmented vegetation complexes in existence during the first year of the comparative analysis - 1970. Sample area no. 2 was located closer to potential access points and was more fragmented initially.

  2. Snail Trails

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galus, Pamela

    2002-01-01

    The slime trails of snails lead the author's students to a better understanding of science as inquiry and the processes of science. During this five-day activity, students get up close and personal with one of her favorite creatures, the land snail. Students begin by observing the organism and recording their observations. After making initial…

  3. Insights into the chemical partitioning of trace metals in roadside and off-road agricultural soils along two major highways in Attica's region, Greece.

    PubMed

    Botsou, Fotini; Sungur, Ali; Kelepertzis, Efstratios; Soylak, Mustafa

    2016-10-01

    We report in this study the magnetic properties and partitioning patterns of selected trace metals (Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, Ni) in roadside and off-road (>200m distance from the road edge) agricultural soils collected along two major highways in Greece. Sequential extractions revealed that the examined trace metals for the entire data set were predominantly found in the residual fraction, averaging 37% for Cd up to 80% for Cu. Due to the strong influence of lithogenic factors, trace metal pseudototal contents of the roadside soils did not differ significantly to those of the off-road soils. Magnetic susceptibility and frequency dependent magnetic susceptibility determinations showed a magnetic enhancement of soils; however, it was primarily related to geogenic factors and not to traffic-derived magnetic particles. These results highlight that in areas characterized by strong geogenic backgrounds, neither pseudototal trace metal contents nor magnetic properties determinations effectively capture traffic-related contamination of topsoils. The vehicular emission signal was traced by the increased acid-soluble and reducible trace metal contents of the roadside soils compared to their off-road counterparts. In the case of Cu and Zn, changes in the partitioning patterns were also observed between the roadside and off-road soils. Environmental risks associated with agricultural lands extending at the margins of the studied highways may arise from the elevated Ni contents (both pseudototal and potentially mobile), and future studies should investigate Ni levels in the edible parts of plants grown on these agricultural soils.

  4. On Entropy Trail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farokhi, Saeed; Taghavi, Ray; Keshmiri, Shawn

    2015-11-01

    Stealth technology is developed for military aircraft to minimize their signatures. The primary attention was focused on radar signature, followed by the thermal and noise signatures of the vehicle. For radar evasion, advanced configuration designs, extensive use of carbon composites and radar-absorbing material, are developed. On thermal signature, mainly in the infra-red (IR) bandwidth, the solution was found in blended rectangular nozzles of high aspect ratio that are shielded from ground detectors. For noise, quiet and calm jets are integrated into vehicles with low-turbulence configuration design. However, these technologies are totally incapable of detecting new generation of revolutionary aircraft. These shall use all electric, distributed, propulsion system that are thermally transparent. In addition, composite skin and non-emitting sensors onboard the aircraft will lead to low signature. However, based on the second-law of thermodynamics, there is no air vehicle that can escape from leaving an entropy trail. Entropy is thus the only inevitable signature of any system, that once measured, can detect the source. By characterizing the entropy field based on its statistical properties, the source may be recognized, akin to face recognition technology. Direct measurement of entropy is cumbersome, however as a derived property, it can be easily measured. The measurement accuracy depends on the probe design and the sensors onboard. One novel air data sensor suite is introduced with promising potential to capture the entropy trail.

  5. The Effects of a Ketogenic Diet on Exercise Metabolism and Physical Performance in Off-Road Cyclists

    PubMed Central

    Zajac, Adam; Poprzecki, Stanisław; Maszczyk, Adam; Czuba, Miłosz; Michalczyk, Małgorzata; Zydek, Grzegorz

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this research was to determine the effects of a long-term ketogenic diet, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, on aerobic performance and exercise metabolism in off-road cyclists. Additionally, the effects of this diet on body mass and body composition were evaluated, as well as those that occurred in the lipid and lipoprotein profiles due to the dietary intervention. The research material included eight male subjects, aged 28.3 ± 3.9 years, with at least five years of training experience that competed in off-road cycling. Each cyclist performed a continuous exercise protocol on a cycloergometer with varied intensity, after a mixed and ketogenic diet in a crossover design. The ketogenic diet stimulated favorable changes in body mass and body composition, as well as in the lipid and lipoprotein profiles. Important findings of the present study include a significant increase in the relative values of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and oxygen uptake at lactate threshold (VO2 LT) after the ketogenic diet, which can be explained by reductions in body mass and fat mass and/or the greater oxygen uptake necessary to obtain the same energy yield as on a mixed diet, due to increased fat oxidation or by enhanced sympathetic activation. The max work load and the work load at lactate threshold were significantly higher after the mixed diet. The values of the respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were significantly lower at rest and during particular stages of the exercise protocol following the ketogenic diet. The heart rate (HR) and oxygen uptake were significantly higher at rest and during the first three stages of exercise after the ketogenic diet, while the reverse was true during the last stage of the exercise protocol conducted with maximal intensity. Creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity were significantly lower at rest and during particular stages of the 105-min exercise protocol following the low carbohydrate ketogenic diet

  6. The effects of a ketogenic diet on exercise metabolism and physical performance in off-road cyclists.

    PubMed

    Zajac, Adam; Poprzecki, Stanisław; Maszczyk, Adam; Czuba, Miłosz; Michalczyk, Małgorzata; Zydek, Grzegorz

    2014-06-27

    The main objective of this research was to determine the effects of a long-term ketogenic diet, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, on aerobic performance and exercise metabolism in off-road cyclists. Additionally, the effects of this diet on body mass and body composition were evaluated, as well as those that occurred in the lipid and lipoprotein profiles due to the dietary intervention. The research material included eight male subjects, aged 28.3 ± 3.9 years, with at least five years of training experience that competed in off-road cycling. Each cyclist performed a continuous exercise protocol on a cycloergometer with varied intensity, after a mixed and ketogenic diet in a crossover design. The ketogenic diet stimulated favorable changes in body mass and body composition, as well as in the lipid and lipoprotein profiles. Important findings of the present study include a significant increase in the relative values of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and oxygen uptake at lactate threshold (VO2 LT) after the ketogenic diet, which can be explained by reductions in body mass and fat mass and/or the greater oxygen uptake necessary to obtain the same energy yield as on a mixed diet, due to increased fat oxidation or by enhanced sympathetic activation. The max work load and the work load at lactate threshold were significantly higher after the mixed diet. The values of the respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were significantly lower at rest and during particular stages of the exercise protocol following the ketogenic diet. The heart rate (HR) and oxygen uptake were significantly higher at rest and during the first three stages of exercise after the ketogenic diet, while the reverse was true during the last stage of the exercise protocol conducted with maximal intensity. Creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity were significantly lower at rest and during particular stages of the 105-min exercise protocol following the low carbohydrate ketogenic diet

  7. The effects of a ketogenic diet on exercise metabolism and physical performance in off-road cyclists.

    PubMed

    Zajac, Adam; Poprzecki, Stanisław; Maszczyk, Adam; Czuba, Miłosz; Michalczyk, Małgorzata; Zydek, Grzegorz

    2014-07-01

    The main objective of this research was to determine the effects of a long-term ketogenic diet, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, on aerobic performance and exercise metabolism in off-road cyclists. Additionally, the effects of this diet on body mass and body composition were evaluated, as well as those that occurred in the lipid and lipoprotein profiles due to the dietary intervention. The research material included eight male subjects, aged 28.3 ± 3.9 years, with at least five years of training experience that competed in off-road cycling. Each cyclist performed a continuous exercise protocol on a cycloergometer with varied intensity, after a mixed and ketogenic diet in a crossover design. The ketogenic diet stimulated favorable changes in body mass and body composition, as well as in the lipid and lipoprotein profiles. Important findings of the present study include a significant increase in the relative values of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and oxygen uptake at lactate threshold (VO2 LT) after the ketogenic diet, which can be explained by reductions in body mass and fat mass and/or the greater oxygen uptake necessary to obtain the same energy yield as on a mixed diet, due to increased fat oxidation or by enhanced sympathetic activation. The max work load and the work load at lactate threshold were significantly higher after the mixed diet. The values of the respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were significantly lower at rest and during particular stages of the exercise protocol following the ketogenic diet. The heart rate (HR) and oxygen uptake were significantly higher at rest and during the first three stages of exercise after the ketogenic diet, while the reverse was true during the last stage of the exercise protocol conducted with maximal intensity. Creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity were significantly lower at rest and during particular stages of the 105-min exercise protocol following the low carbohydrate ketogenic diet

  8. Passive perception system for day/night autonomous off-road navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rankin, Arturo L.; Bergh, Charles F.; Goldberg, Steven B.; Bellutta, Paolo; Huertas, Andres; Matthies, Larry H.

    2005-05-01

    Passive perception of terrain features is a vital requirement for military related unmanned autonomous vehicle operations, especially under electromagnetic signature management conditions. As a member of Team Raptor, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory developed a self-contained passive perception system under the DARPA funded PerceptOR program. An environmentally protected forward-looking sensor head was designed and fabricated in-house to straddle an off-the-shelf pan-tilt unit. The sensor head contained three color cameras for multi-baseline daytime stereo ranging, a pair of cooled mid-wave infrared cameras for nighttime stereo ranging, and supporting electronics to synchronize captured imagery. Narrow-baseline stereo provided improved range data density in cluttered terrain, while wide-baseline stereo provided more accurate ranging for operation at higher speeds in relatively open areas. The passive perception system processed stereo images and outputted over a local area network terrain maps containing elevation, terrain type, and detected hazards. A novel software architecture was designed and implemented to distribute the data processing on a 533MHz quad 7410 PowerPC single board computer under the VxWorks real-time operating system. This architecture, which is general enough to operate on N processors, has been subsequently tested on Pentium-based processors under Windows and Linux, and a Sparc based-processor under Unix. The passive perception system was operated during FY04 PerceptOR program evaluations at Fort A. P. Hill, Virginia, and Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona. This paper discusses the Team Raptor passive perception system hardware and software design, implementation, and performance, and describes a road map to faster and improved passive perception.

  9. Uncertainty analysis of predicted disturbance from off-road vehicular traffic in complex landscapes at fort hood.

    PubMed

    Fang, Shoufan; Wente, Stephen; Gertner, George Z; Wang, Guangxing; Anderson, Alan

    2002-08-01

    The US Army Engineering Research Development Center (ERDC) uses a modified form of the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) to estimate spatially explicit rates of soil erosion by water across military training facilities. One modification involves the RUSLE support practice factor (P factor), which is used to account for the effect of disturbance by human activities on erosion rates. Since disturbance from off-road military vehicular traffic moving through complex landscapes varies spatially, a spatially explicit nonlinear regression model (disturbance model) is used to predict the distribution of P factor values across a training facility. This research analyzes the uncertainty in this model's disturbance predictions for the Fort Hood training facility in order to determine both the spatial distribution of prediction uncertainty and the contribution of different error sources to that uncertainty. This analysis shows that a three-category vegetation map used by the disturbance model was the greatest source of prediction uncertainty, especially for the map categories shrub and tree. In areas mapped as grass, modeling error (uncertainty associated with the model parameter estimates) was the largest uncertainty source. These results indicate that the use of a high-quality vegetation map that is periodically updated to reflect current vegetation distributions, would produce the greatest reductions in disturbance prediction uncertainty.

  10. 36 CFR 212.56 - Identification of designated roads, trails, and areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... roads, trails, and areas. 212.56 Section 212.56 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TRAVEL MANAGEMENT Designation of Roads, Trails, and Areas for Motor Vehicle Use § 212.56 Identification of designated roads, trails, and areas. Designated roads, trails, and...

  11. 36 CFR 212.56 - Identification of designated roads, trails, and areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... roads, trails, and areas. 212.56 Section 212.56 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TRAVEL MANAGEMENT Designation of Roads, Trails, and Areas for Motor Vehicle Use § 212.56 Identification of designated roads, trails, and areas. Designated roads, trails, and...

  12. 36 CFR 212.56 - Identification of designated roads, trails, and areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... roads, trails, and areas. 212.56 Section 212.56 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TRAVEL MANAGEMENT Designation of Roads, Trails, and Areas for Motor Vehicle Use § 212.56 Identification of designated roads, trails, and areas. Designated roads, trails, and...

  13. 36 CFR 212.56 - Identification of designated roads, trails, and areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... roads, trails, and areas. 212.56 Section 212.56 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TRAVEL MANAGEMENT Designation of Roads, Trails, and Areas for Motor Vehicle Use § 212.56 Identification of designated roads, trails, and areas. Designated roads, trails, and...

  14. 36 CFR 212.56 - Identification of designated roads, trails, and areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... roads, trails, and areas. 212.56 Section 212.56 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TRAVEL MANAGEMENT Designation of Roads, Trails, and Areas for Motor Vehicle Use § 212.56 Identification of designated roads, trails, and areas. Designated roads, trails, and...

  15. Motor vehicle and roadway factors in pedestrian and bicyclist injuries: an examination based on emergency department data.

    PubMed

    Stutts, J C; Hunter, W W

    1999-09-01

    Information on 2558 persons treated for injuries incurred while bicycling or walking was collected from eight hospital emergency departments over approximately a one-year time period. The emergency departments represented a mix of urban and suburban/rural sites in three states--California, New York, and North Carolina. The data were collected on special survey forms and included detailed information about the location of the injury event. Results show that, overall, 70% of the reported bicycle injury events and 64% of the reported pedestrian injury events did not involve a motor vehicle. In addition, 31% of the bicyclists and 53% of the pedestrians were injured in non-roadway locations such as sidewalks, parking lots, or off-road trails. Although pedestrians and bicyclists struck by motor vehicles in the roadway were generally the most seriously injured, they represented less than a third of the reported cases. Increased knowledge of non-roadway and non-motor vehicle pedestrian and bicyclist injury events can contribute to more effective program and countermeasure development to improve pedestrian and bicyclist safety.

  16. Intelligent mobility for robotic vehicles in the army after next

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerhart, Grant R.; Goetz, Richard C.; Gorsich, David J.

    1999-07-01

    The TARDEC Intelligent Mobility program addresses several essential technologies necessary to support the army after next (AAN) concept. Ground forces in the AAN time frame will deploy robotic unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) in high-risk missions to avoid exposing soldiers to both friendly and unfriendly fire. Prospective robotic systems will include RSTA/scout vehicles, combat engineering/mine clearing vehicles, indirect fire artillery and missile launch platforms. The AAN concept requires high on-road and off-road mobility, survivability, transportability/deployability and low logistics burden. TARDEC is developing a robotic vehicle systems integration laboratory (SIL) to evaluate technologies and their integration into future UGV systems. Example technologies include the following: in-hub electric drive, omni-directional wheel and steering configurations, off-road tires, adaptive tire inflation, articulated vehicles, active suspension, mine blast protection, detection avoidance and evasive maneuver. This paper will describe current developments in these areas relative to the TARDEC intelligent mobility program.

  17. The Pimlico Chemistry Trail.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borrows, Peter

    1984-01-01

    Describes a chemistry "trail" (similar to a nature trail) which focuses on chemical phenomena in the environment. The trail includes 20 stops in and around a local school. Types of phenomena examined include building materials, air pollution, corrosion of metals, swimming pools, and others. Additional activities are also suggested. (DH)

  18. 75 FR 54183 - Notice of Temporary Closure for Lands West of North Menan Butte, Idaho

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ... human entry by foot and by horse. Off-road vehicles are allowed entry but will be required to stay on developed roads and trails. Any person who fails to comply with a closure or restriction order issued under... to human entry by foot and by horse. Off-road vehicles are allowed entry but will be required to...

  19. 36 CFR 261.20 - Pacific Crest National Scenic Trail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Crest National Scenic... AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS General Prohibitions § 261.20 Pacific Crest National Scenic Trail. It is prohibited to use a motorized vehicle on the Pacific Crest National Scenic Trail without a...

  20. 36 CFR 261.20 - Pacific Crest National Scenic Trail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Crest National Scenic... AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS General Prohibitions § 261.20 Pacific Crest National Scenic Trail. It is prohibited to use a motorized vehicle on the Pacific Crest National Scenic Trail without a...

  1. 36 CFR 261.20 - Pacific Crest National Scenic Trail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Crest National Scenic... AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS General Prohibitions § 261.20 Pacific Crest National Scenic Trail. It is prohibited to use a motorized vehicle on the Pacific Crest National Scenic Trail without a...

  2. 36 CFR 212.55 - Criteria for designation of roads, trails, and areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... roads, trails, and areas. 212.55 Section 212.55 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TRAVEL MANAGEMENT Designation of Roads, Trails, and Areas for Motor Vehicle Use § 212.55 Criteria for designation of roads, trails, and areas. (a) General criteria for designation...

  3. 36 CFR 212.55 - Criteria for designation of roads, trails, and areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... roads, trails, and areas. 212.55 Section 212.55 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TRAVEL MANAGEMENT Designation of Roads, Trails, and Areas for Motor Vehicle Use § 212.55 Criteria for designation of roads, trails, and areas. (a) General criteria for designation...

  4. Differentiated influence of off-road and on-road cycling practice on balance control and the related-neurosensory organization.

    PubMed

    Lion, Alexis; Gauchard, Gérome C; Deviterne, Dominique; Perrin, Philippe P

    2009-08-01

    This study aimed to determine the sensorimotor strategies privileged by mountain bikers (MTB) and road cyclists (RC) for balance control. Twenty-four MTB and 24 RC (off-road Olympics, world, continental and national champions, Tour-de-France participants, on-road world cup race winner) volunteered to answer a questionnaire about the characteristics of cycling practice and perform a sensory organization test, aiming to evaluate balance control in 6 different sensory situations based upon visual and support surface perturbations (C1(ES) to C6(ES)). RC balance performances were better than those of MTB both during quiet stance eyes opened (C1(ES), p=0.011) and when only somatosensory information is disrupted (C4(ES), p=0.039), highlighting a higher use of vision to control balance in RC. Moreover, a positive correlation was shown in the whole population (MTB+RC) between the visual ratio (R(VIS)=C4(ES)/C1(ES)) and the proportion of riding distance of on-road cycling (rho=0.28, p=0.054). In MTB, the use of proprioception (somatosensory ratio: R(SOM)=C2(ES(eyes closed))/C1(ES)) was increased by a higher intensity of off-road cycling (rho=0.49, p=0.018) and that of vision (R(VIS)) by a higher intensity of on-road cycling (rho=0.41, p=0.048). The difference in sensory organization between MTB and RC could be explained by adaptive processes elaborated from environmental stimulations and technical specificities of these disciplines.

  5. Military vehicle trafficking impacts vegetation and soil bulk density at Fort Benning, Georgia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potential increases in wind erosion that might be brought about by military vehicles travelling off-road during training are of concern to the United States military. Field studies were conducted in the summer of 2012 at Fort Benning, Georgia. The objective of the experiment was to assess the traffi...

  6. Military vehicle trafficking impacts on vegetation and soil bulk density at Fort Benning, Georgia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potential increases in wind erosion that might be brought about by military vehicles travelling on off-road sites during training are of concern to the Military establishment. Field studies were conducted in the summer of 2012 at Fort Benning, Georgia. The objective of the experiment was to assess t...

  7. Micro-unmanned aerodynamic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Reuel, Nigel; Lionberger, Troy A.; Galambos, Paul C.; Okandan, Murat; Baker, Michael S.

    2008-03-11

    A MEMS-based micro-unmanned vehicle includes at least a pair of wings having leading wing beams and trailing wing beams, at least two actuators, a leading actuator beam coupled to the leading wing beams, a trailing actuator beam coupled to the trailing wing beams, a vehicle body having a plurality of fulcrums pivotally securing the leading wing beams, the trailing wing beams, the leading actuator beam and the trailing actuator beam and having at least one anisotropically etched recess to accommodate a lever-fulcrum motion of the coupled beams, and a power source.

  8. Oregon Trail Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    The road to the U.S. West, known as the Oregon Trail, had its first real traffic in 1843 when a group of about 1000 people left Independence, Missouri and traveled west. This teacher's guide contains short descriptions of the main landmarks and stopping points that were significant along the northwest portion of the Oregon Trail. The guide is…

  9. Argentine ant trail pheromone disruption is mediated by trail concentration.

    PubMed

    Suckling, David Maxwell; Stringer, Lloyd D; Corn, Joshua E

    2011-10-01

    Argentine ant trail pheromone disruption, using continuous release of the trail pheromone compound (Z)-9-hexadecanal, reduces the incidence of trails and foraging rates of field populations. However, little is known about the concentrations of pheromone required for successful disruption. We hypothesized that higher pheromone quantities would be necessary to disrupt larger ant populations. To test this, we laid a 30-cm long base trail of (Z)-9-hexadecanal on a glass surface at low and high rates (1 and 100 pg/cm) (Trail 1), and laid a second, shorter trail (Trail 2, 10 cm long, located 1.5 cm upwind) near the middle of Trail 1 at six rates (1, 10, 100, 1,000, 10,000, and 100,000 pg/cm). We then recorded and digitized movements of individual ants following Trail 1, and derived a regression statistic, r (2), as an index of trail integrity, and also recorded arrival success at the other end of the trail (30 cm) near a food supply. Disruption of trails required 100 fold more pheromone upwind, independent of base-trail concentration. This implies that in the field, trail disruption is likely to be less successful against high ant-trail densities (greater concentration of trail pheromone), and more successful against newly formed or weak trails, as could be expected along invasion fronts. PMID:21964852

  10. 36 CFR 212.51 - Designation of roads, trails, and areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., and areas. 212.51 Section 212.51 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TRAVEL MANAGEMENT Designation of Roads, Trails, and Areas for Motor Vehicle Use § 212.51 Designation of roads, trails, and areas. (a) General. Motor vehicle use on National Forest System roads,...

  11. Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grant Program

    SciTech Connect

    Jack Mallinger

    2004-08-27

    Project Description: Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grants The Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grants was established to demonstrate the benefits of new propane equipment. The US Department of Energy, the Propane Education & Research Council (PERC) and the Propane Vehicle Council (PVC) partnered in this program. The project impacted ten different states, 179 vehicles, and 15 new propane fueling facilities. Based on estimates provided, this project generated a minimum of 1,441,000 new gallons of propane sold for the vehicle market annually. Additionally, two new off-road engines were brought to the market. Projects originally funded under this project were the City of Portland, Colorado, Kansas City, Impco Technologies, Jasper Engines, Maricopa County, New Jersey State, Port of Houston, Salt Lake City Newspaper, Suburban Propane, Mutual Liquid Propane and Ted Johnson.

  12. Potential ozone impacts of excess NO2 emissions from diesel particulate filters for on- and off-road diesel engines.

    PubMed

    Bar-llan, Amnon; Johnson, Jeremiah R; Denbleyker, Allison; Chan, Lit-Mian; Yarwood, Gregory; Hitchcock, David; Pinto, Joseph P

    2010-08-01

    This study considers potential impacts of increased use of diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs) and catalyzed diesel particulate filters (DPFs) on ozone formation in the Dallas/ Fort Worth (DFW) area. There is concern that excess nitrogen dioxide (NO2) emissions from vehicles equipped with these devices could increase ambient ozone levels. The approach involved developing two scenarios for use of these devices, quantifying excess NO2 emissions in each scenario, and using a photochemical model to estimate the resulting ozone changes. In the "maximum penetration" scenario, DOC/DPF devices in a 2009 fleet of heavy-duty on-road trucks, school buses, and construction equipment were significantly increased by accelerating turnover of these vehicles and equipment to models that would require DOCs/DPFs. In the "realistic" scenario, current fractional usage of these devices was assessed for 2009. For both scenarios, excess NO2 emissions from DOCs/DPFs were estimated using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's MOBILE6 and NONROAD emissions inventory modeling tools. The emissions analyses were used to adjust the DFW photochemical modeling emissions inventories and the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions air quality model was rerun for the DFW area to determine the impact of these two scenarios on ozone formation. The maximum penetration scenario, which showed an overall reduction in oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)) because of the accelerated turnover of equipment to cleaner models, resulted in a net decrease in daily maximum 8-hr ozone of 4-5 parts per billion (ppb) despite the increase in NO2 emissions. The realistic scenario resulted in a small increase in daily maximum 8-hr ozone of less than 1 ppb for the DFW area. It was concluded that the excess NO2 emissions from DOC/DPF devices result in very small ozone impacts, particularly for the realistic scenario, in the DFW area. There are noticeable decreases in ozone for the maximum penetration scenario because NO

  13. DIRBE Comet Trails

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arendt, Richard G.

    2015-01-01

    Re-examination of the COBE DIRBE data reveals the thermal emission of several comet dust trails.The dust trails of 1P/Halley, 169P/NEAT, and 3200 Phaethon have not been previously reported.The known trails of 2P/Encke, and 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 are also seen. The dust trails have 12 and 25 microns surface brightnesses of <0.1 and <0.15 MJy/sr, respectively, which is <1% of the zodiacal light intensity. The trails are very difficult to see in any single daily image of the sky, but are evident as rapidly moving linear features in movies of the DIRBE data. Some trails are clearest when crossing through the orbital plane of the parent comet, but others are best seen at high ecliptic latitudes as the Earth passes over or under the dust trail. All these comets have known associations with meteor showers. This re-examination also reveals one additional comet and 13 additional asteroids that had not previously been recognized in the DIRBE data.

  14. DRBE comet trails

    SciTech Connect

    Arendt, Richard G.

    2014-12-01

    Re-examination of the Cosmic Background Explorer Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) data reveals the thermal emission of several comet dust trails. The dust trails of 1P/Halley, 169P/NEAT, and 3200 Phaethon have not been previously reported. The known trails of 2P/Encke and 73P/Schwassmann–Wachmann 3 are also seen. The dust trails have 12 and 25 μm surface brightnesses of <0.1 and <0.15 MJy sr{sup −1}, respectively, which is <1% of the zodiacal light intensity. The trails are very difficult to see in any single daily image of the sky, but are evident as rapidly moving linear features in movies of the DIRBE data. Some trails are clearest when crossing through the orbital plane of the parent comet, but others are best seen at high ecliptic latitudes as the Earth passes over or under the dust trail. All these comets have known associations with meteor showers. This re-examination also reveals 1 additional comet and 13 additional asteroids that had not previously been recognized in the DIRBE data.

  15. DIRBE Comet Trails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arendt, Richard G.

    2014-12-01

    Re-examination of the Cosmic Background Explorer Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) data reveals the thermal emission of several comet dust trails. The dust trails of 1P/Halley, 169P/NEAT, and 3200 Phaethon have not been previously reported. The known trails of 2P/Encke and 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 are also seen. The dust trails have 12 and 25 μm surface brightnesses of \\lt 0.1 and \\lt 0.15 MJy sr-1, respectively, which is \\lt 1% of the zodiacal light intensity. The trails are very difficult to see in any single daily image of the sky, but are evident as rapidly moving linear features in movies of the DIRBE data. Some trails are clearest when crossing through the orbital plane of the parent comet, but others are best seen at high ecliptic latitudes as the Earth passes over or under the dust trail. All these comets have known associations with meteor showers. This re-examination also reveals 1 additional comet and 13 additional asteroids that had not previously been recognized in the DIRBE data.

  16. Make a Nature Trail

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Janice K.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the planning, construction, use, and maintenance of a nature trail. Ideal for demonstrating interrelationships between plants and animals, conservation practices, wildlife management, plant succession, forestry, geologic features and other scientific phenomena. (JR)

  17. Certification trails for data structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Gregory F.; Masson, Gerald M.

    1993-01-01

    Certification trails are a recently introduced and promising approach to fault detection and fault tolerance. The applicability of the certification trail technique is significantly generalized. Previously, certification trails had to be customized to each algorithm application; trails appropriate to wide classes of algorithms were developed. These certification trails are based on common data-structure operations such as those carried out using these sets of operations such as those carried out using balanced binary trees and heaps. Any algorithms using these sets of operations can therefore employ the certification trail method to achieve software fault tolerance. To exemplify the scope of the generalization of the certification trail technique provided, constructions of trails for abstract data types such as priority queues and union-find structures are given. These trails are applicable to any data-structure implementation of the abstract data type. It is also shown that these ideals lead naturally to monitors for data-structure operations.

  18. R-Gator: an unmanned utility vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moorehead, Stewart J.; Wellington, Carl K.; Paulino, Heidi; Reid, John F.

    2010-04-01

    The R-Gator is an unmanned ground vehicle built on the John Deere 6x4 M-Gator utility vehicle chassis. The vehicle is capable of operating in urban and off-road terrain and has a large payload to carry supplies, wounded, or a marsupial robot. The R-Gator has 6 modes of operation: manual driving, teleoperation, waypoint, direction drive, playback and silent sentry. In direction drive the user specifies a direction for the robot. It will continue in that direction, avoiding obstacles, until given a new direction. Playback allows previously recorded paths, from any other mode including manual, to be played back and repeated. Silent sentry allows the engine to be turned off remotely while cameras, computers and comms remain powered by batteries. In this mode the vehicle stays quiet and stationary, collecting valuable surveillance information. The user interface consists of a wearable computer, monocle and standard video game controller. All functions of the R-Gator can be controlled by the handheld game controller, using at most 2 button presses. This easy to use user interface allows even untrained users to control the vehicle. This paper details the systems developed for the R-Gator, focusing on the novel user interface and the obstacle detection system, which supports safeguarded teleoperation as well as full autonomous operation in off-road terrain. The design for a new 4-wheel, independent suspension chassis version of the R-Gator is also presented.

  19. Comprehensive Trail Making Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    The Comprehensive Trail Making Test (CTMT) is designed to be used in neuropsychological assessment for the purposes of detecting effects of brain defects and deficits and in tracking progress in rehabilitation. More specific purposes include the detection of frontal lobe deficits, problems with psychomotor speed, visual search and sequencing,…

  20. 36 CFR 212.55 - Criteria for designation of roads, trails, and areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., conflicts among uses of National Forest System lands, the need for maintenance and administration of roads... roads, trails, and areas. 212.55 Section 212.55 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TRAVEL MANAGEMENT Designation of Roads, Trails, and Areas for Motor Vehicle...

  1. 36 CFR 212.55 - Criteria for designation of roads, trails, and areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., conflicts among uses of National Forest System lands, the need for maintenance and administration of roads... roads, trails, and areas. 212.55 Section 212.55 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TRAVEL MANAGEMENT Designation of Roads, Trails, and Areas for Motor Vehicle...

  2. 36 CFR 212.55 - Criteria for designation of roads, trails, and areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., conflicts among uses of National Forest System lands, the need for maintenance and administration of roads... roads, trails, and areas. 212.55 Section 212.55 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TRAVEL MANAGEMENT Designation of Roads, Trails, and Areas for Motor Vehicle...

  3. Concept design of a new generation military vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantemir, Codrin-Gruie; Ursescu, Gabriel; Serrao, Lorenzo; Rizzoni, Giorgio; Bechtel, James; Udvare, Thomas; Letherwood, Mike

    2006-05-01

    This paper presents the development of an advanced concept for a next generation military vehicle based on state of the art technologies. The vehicle's platform will be directly suitable for high mobility applications for instance: Special Forces missions, Marine reconnaissance missions, and commercial racing in events such as Bajas and the Paris - Dakar. The platform will be a 10000 -14000 lbs high-speed multi-purpose vehicle, designed for extreme off-road operation. A completely new suspension concept is expected to be developed and the new vehicle topology will accommodate a new generation hybrid-electric power train. The dynamic performance targets are 125 mph off-road and 0-60 in 7 seconds. The concept design will focus also on survivability mainly through the use of a new vehicle topology (herein referred to as "island") specifically designed to enhance crew protection. The "island" topology consists in locating the powertrain and other vehicle equipment and subsystems around the crew compartment. Thus, even in the event of an external shield penetration the crew compartment remains protected by the surrounding equipment which serves in an additional role as a secondary shield. The paper presents vehicle specifications, performance capabilities, simulation models and virtual models of the vehicle.

  4. Real-Time and High-Fidelity Simulation Environment for Autonomous Ground Vehicle Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, Jonathan; Myint, Steven; Kuo, Calvin; Jain, Abhi; Grip, Havard; Jayakumar, Paramsothy; Overholt, Jim

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on a collaborative project between U.S. Army TARDEC and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to develop a unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) simulation model using the ROAMS vehicle modeling framework. Besides modeling the physical suspension of the vehicle, the sensing and navigation of the HMMWV vehicle are simulated. Using models of urban and off-road environments, the HMMWV simulation was tested in several ways, including navigation in an urban environment with obstacle avoidance and the performance of a lane change maneuver.

  5. The influence of use-related, environmental, and managerial factors on soil loss from recreational trails

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olive, Nathaniel D.; Marion, Jeffrey L.

    2009-01-01

    Recreational uses of unsurfaced trails inevitably result in their degradation, with the type and extent of resource impact influenced by factors such as soil texture, topography, climate, trail design and maintenance, and type and amount of use. Of particular concern, the loss of soil through erosion is generally considered a significant and irreversible form of trail impact. This research investigated the influence of several use-related, environmental, and managerial factors on soil loss on recreational trails and roads at Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area, a unit of the U.S. National Park Service. Regression modeling revealed that trail position, trail slope alignment angle, grade, water drainage, and type of use are significant determinants of soil loss. The introduction of individual and groups of variables into a series of regression models provides improved understanding and insights regarding the relative influence of these variables, informing the selection of more effective trail management actions. Study results suggest that trail erosion can be minimized by avoiding “fall-line” alignments, steep grades, and valley-bottom alignments near streams, installing and maintaining adequate densities of tread drainage features, applying gravel to harden treads, and reducing horse and all-terrain vehicle use or restricting them to more resistant routes.This research also sought to develop a more efficient Variable Cross-Sectional Area method for assessing soil loss on trails. This method permitted incorporation of CSA measures in a representative sampling scheme applied to a large (24%) sample of the park's 526 km trail system. The variety of soil loss measures derived from the Variable CSA method, including extrapolated trail-wide soil loss estimates, permit an objective quantification of soil erosion on recreational trails and roads. Such data support relational analyses to increase understanding of trail degradation, and long

  6. The influence of use-related, environmental, and managerial factors on soil loss from recreational trails

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olive, N.D.; Marion, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    Recreational uses of unsurfaced trails inevitably result in their degradation, with the type and extent of resource impact influenced by factors such as soil texture, topography, climate, trail design and maintenance, and type and amount of use. Of particular concern, the loss of soil through erosion is generally considered a significant and irreversible form of trail impact. This research investigated the influence of several use-related, environmental, and managerial factors on soil loss on recreational trails and roads at Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area, a unit of the U.S. National Park Service. Regression modeling revealed that trail position, trail slope alignment angle, grade, water drainage, and type of use are significant determinants of soil loss. The introduction of individual and groups of variables into a series of regression models provides improved understanding and insights regarding the relative influence of these variables, informing the selection of more effective trail management actions. Study results suggest that trail erosion can be minimized by avoiding ?fall-line? alignments, steep grades, and valley-bottom alignments near streams, installing and maintaining adequate densities of tread drainage features, applying gravel to harden treads, and reducing horse and all-terrain vehicle use or restricting them to more resistant routes. This research also sought to develop a more efficient Variable Cross-Sectional Area method for assessing soil loss on trails. This method permitted incorporation of CSA measures in a representative sampling scheme applied to a large (24%) sample of the park's 526 km trail system. The variety of soil loss measures derived from the Variable CSA method, including extrapolated trail-wide soil loss estimates, permit an objective quantification of soil erosion on recreational trails and roads. Such data support relational analyses to increase understanding of trail degradation, and long-term monitoring of

  7. The influence of use-related, environmental, and managerial factors on soil loss from recreational trails.

    PubMed

    Olive, Nathaniel D; Marion, Jeffrey L

    2009-03-01

    Recreational uses of unsurfaced trails inevitably result in their degradation, with the type and extent of resource impact influenced by factors such as soil texture, topography, climate, trail design and maintenance, and type and amount of use. Of particular concern, the loss of soil through erosion is generally considered a significant and irreversible form of trail impact. This research investigated the influence of several use-related, environmental, and managerial factors on soil loss on recreational trails and roads at Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area, a unit of the U.S. National Park Service. Regression modeling revealed that trail position, trail slope alignment angle, grade, water drainage, and type of use are significant determinants of soil loss. The introduction of individual and groups of variables into a series of regression models provides improved understanding and insights regarding the relative influence of these variables, informing the selection of more effective trail management actions. Study results suggest that trail erosion can be minimized by avoiding "fall-line" alignments, steep grades, and valley-bottom alignments near streams, installing and maintaining adequate densities of tread drainage features, applying gravel to harden treads, and reducing horse and all-terrain vehicle use or restricting them to more resistant routes. This research also sought to develop a more efficient Variable Cross-Sectional Area method for assessing soil loss on trails. This method permitted incorporation of CSA measures in a representative sampling scheme applied to a large (24%) sample of the park's 526 km trail system. The variety of soil loss measures derived from the Variable CSA method, including extrapolated trail-wide soil loss estimates, permit an objective quantification of soil erosion on recreational trails and roads. Such data support relational analyses to increase understanding of trail degradation, and long-term monitoring of

  8. Large eddy simulation of trailing edge noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Jacob; Nitzkorski, Zane; Mahesh, Krishnan

    2015-11-01

    Noise generation is an important engineering constraint to many marine vehicles. A significant portion of the noise comes from propellers and rotors, specifically due to flow interactions at the trailing edge. Large eddy simulation is used to investigate the noise produced by a turbulent 45 degree beveled trailing edge and a NACA 0012 airfoil. A porous surface Ffowcs-Williams and Hawkings acoustic analogy is combined with a dynamic endcapping method to compute the sound. This methodology allows for the impact of incident flow noise versus the total noise to be assessed. LES results for the 45 degree beveled trailing edge are compared to experiment at M = 0 . 1 and Rec = 1 . 9 e 6 . The effect of boundary layer thickness on sound production is investigated by computing using both the experimental boundary layer thickness and a thinner boundary layer. Direct numerical simulation results of the NACA 0012 are compared to available data at M = 0 . 4 and Rec = 5 . 0 e 4 for both the hydrodynamic field and the acoustic field. Sound intensities and directivities are investigated and compared. Finally, some of the physical mechanisms of far-field noise generation, common to the two configurations, are discussed. Supported by Office of Naval research.

  9. Trail following by gliding bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Burchard, R P

    1982-01-01

    Slime trails, which are deposited on surfaces by gliding bacteria and which serve as preferential pathways for gliding motility, were tested for the species specificity of their support of movement. Among the pairs of bacteria tested, a variety of gliding bacteria and a flagellated bacterium moved along trails of unrelated species. Thus, the trails did not serve as pheromones. Rather, they may have guided gliding elasticotactically. Some biological implications of this finding are considered. Images PMID:6811562

  10. 75 FR 12254 - Official Trail Marker for the Ala Kahakai National Historic Trail

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ... National Park Service Official Trail Marker for the Ala Kahakai National Historic Trail AGENCY: National.... SUMMARY: This notice issues the official trail marker insignia of the Ala Kahakai National Historic Trail... prescribed as the official trail marker logo for the Ala Kahakai National Historic Trail, administered by...

  11. The "Owl Trail"--A Sensory Awareness Rope Trail

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauffman, Robert B.

    1978-01-01

    Constructed and experienced by students engaged in an outdoor education class at East Stroudsburg State College in Pennsylvania, the "Owl Trail" is a self guided rope trail (600 yards in length) employing such devices as sensory corrals, bridges, and "go to" ropes (ropes attached to the main rope which provide side trip experiences). (JC)

  12. TRAIL/TRAIL Receptor System and Susceptibility to Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    García-León, Juan Antonio; Pinto-Medel, María Jesús; Oliver-Martos, Begoña; Ortega-Pinazo, Jesús; Suardíaz, Margarita; García-Trujillo, Lucía; Guijarro-Castro, Cristina; Benito-León, Julián; Prat, Isidro; Varadé, Jezabel; Álvarez-Lafuente, Roberto; Urcelay, Elena

    2011-01-01

    The TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL)/TRAIL receptor system participates in crucial steps in immune cell activation or differentiation. It is able to inhibit proliferation and activation of T cells and to induce apoptosis of neurons and oligodendrocytes, and seems to be implicated in autoimmune diseases. Thus, TRAIL and TRAIL receptor genes are potential candidates for involvement in susceptibility to multiple sclerosis (MS). To test whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the human genes encoding TRAIL, TRAILR-1, TRAILR-2, TRAILR-3 and TRAILR-4 are associated with MS susceptibility, we performed a candidate gene case-control study in the Spanish population. 59 SNPs in the TRAIL and TRAIL receptor genes were analysed in 628 MS patients and 660 controls, and validated in an additional cohort of 295 MS patients and 233 controls. Despite none of the SNPs withstood the highly conservative Bonferroni correction, three SNPs showing uncorrected p values<0.05 were successfully replicated: rs4894559 in TRAIL gene, p = 9.8×10−4, OR = 1.34; rs4872077, in TRAILR-1 gene, p = 0.005, OR = 1.72; and rs1001793 in TRAILR-2 gene, p = 0.012, OR = 0.84. The combination of the alleles G/T/A in these SNPs appears to be associated with a reduced risk of developing MS (p = 2.12×10−5, OR = 0.59). These results suggest that genes of the TRAIL/TRAIL receptor system exerts a genetic influence on MS. PMID:21814551

  13. Sensing, Control, and System Integration for Autonomous Vehicles: A Series of Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özgüner, Ümit; Redmill, Keith

    One of the important examples of mechatronic systems can be found in autonomous ground vehicles. Autonomous ground vehicles provide a series of challenges in sensing, control and system integration. In this paper we consider off-road autonomous vehicles, automated highway systems and urban autonomous driving and indicate the unifying aspects. We specifically consider our own experience during the last twelve years in various demonstrations and challenges in attempting to identify unifying themes. Such unifying themes can be observed in basic hierarchies, hybrid system control approaches and sensor fusion techniques.

  14. Global Variation of Meteor Trail Plasma Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyrud, L. P.; Hinrichs, J.; Urbina, J.

    2011-01-01

    We present the first global simulations on the occurrence of meteor trail plasma irregularities. These results seek to answer the following questions: when a meteoroid disintegrates in the atmosphere will the resulting trail become plasma turbulent, what are the factors influencing the development of turbulence, and how do they vary on a global scale. Understanding meteor trail plasma turbulence is important because turbulent meteor trails are visible as non-specular trails to coherent radars, and turbulence influences the evolution of specular radar meteor trails, particularly regarding the inference of mesospheric temperatures from trail diffusion rates, and their usage for meteor burst communication. We provide evidence of the significant effect that neutral atmospheric winds and density, and ionospheric plasma density have on the variability of meteor trail evolution and the observation of nonspecular meteor trails, and demonstrate that trails are far less likely to become and remain turbulent in daylight, explaining several observational trends using non-specular and specular meteor trails.

  15. Reduction of airfoil trailing edge noise by trailing edge blowing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerhard, T.; Erbslöh, S.; Carolus, T.

    2014-06-01

    The paper deals with airfoil trailing edge noise and its reduction by trailing edge blowing. A Somers S834 airfoil section which originally was designed for small wind turbines is investigated. To mimic realistic Reynolds numbers the boundary layer is tripped on pressure and suction side. The chordwise position of the blowing slot is varied. The acoustic sources, i.e. the unsteady flow quantities in the turbulent boundary layer in the vicinity of the trailing edge, are quantified for the airfoil without and with trailing edge blowing by means of a large eddy simulation and complementary measurements. Eventually the far field airfoil noise is measured by a two-microphone filtering and correlation and a 40 microphone array technique. Both, LES-prediction and measurements showed that a suitable blowing jet on the airfoil suction side is able to reduce significantly the turbulence intensity and the induced surface pressure fluctuations in the trailing edge region. As a consequence, trailing edge noise associated with a spectral hump around 500 Hz could be reduced by 3 dB. For that a jet velocity of 50% of the free field velocity was sufficient. The most favourable slot position was at 90% chord length.

  16. Onto better TRAILs for cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    de Miguel, D; Lemke, J; Anel, A; Walczak, H; Martinez-Lostao, L

    2016-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), also known as Apo-2 ligand (Apo2L), is a member of the TNF cytokine superfamily. By cross-linking TRAIL-Receptor (TRAIL-R) 1 or TRAIL-R2, also known as death receptors 4 and 5 (DR4 and DR5), TRAIL has the capability to induce apoptosis in a wide variety of tumor cells while sparing vital normal cells. The discovery of this unique property among TNF superfamily members laid the foundation for testing the clinical potential of TRAIL-R-targeting therapies in the cancer clinic. To date, two of these therapeutic strategies have been tested clinically: (i) recombinant human TRAIL and (ii) antibodies directed against TRAIL-R1 or TRAIL-R2. Unfortunately, however, these TRAIL-R agonists have basically failed as most human tumors are resistant to apoptosis induction by them. It recently emerged that this is largely due to the poor agonistic activity of these agents. Consequently, novel TRAIL-R-targeting agents with increased bioactivity are currently being developed with the aim of rendering TRAIL-based therapies more active. This review summarizes these second-generation novel formulations of TRAIL and other TRAIL-R agonists, which exhibit enhanced cytotoxic capacity toward cancer cells, thereby providing the potential of being more effective when applied clinically than first-generation TRAIL-R agonists. PMID:26943322

  17. Routing Vehicles with Ants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Wen Fang; Lee, Lai Soon; Majid, Zanariah Abdul; Seow, Hsin Vonn

    Routing vehicles involve the design of an optimal set of routes for a fleet of vehicles to serve a number of customers with known demands. This research develops an Ant Colony Optimization for the vehicle routing with one central depot and identical vehicles. The procedure simulates the behavior of real ants that always find the shortest path between their nest and a food source through a form of communication, pheromone trail. Finally, preliminary results on the learning of the algorithm testing on benchmark data set will be presented in this paper.

  18. Base passive porosity for vehicle drag reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Steven X. S. (Inventor); Wood, Richard M. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A device for controlling drag on a ground vehicle. The device consists of a porous skin or skins mounted on the trailing surface and/or aft portions of the ground vehicle. The porous skin is separated from the vehicle surface by a distance of at least the thickness of the porous skin. Alternately, the trailing surface, sides, and/or top surfaces of the ground vehicle may be porous. The device minimizes the strength of the separation in the base and wake regions of the ground vehicle, thus reducing drag.

  19. Base Passive Porosity for Vehicle Drag Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Steven X. S. (Inventor); Wood, Richard M. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A device for controlling drag on a ground vehicle. The device consists of a porous skin or skins mounted on the trailing surface and/or aft portions of the ground vehicle. The porous skin is separated from the vehicle surface by a distance of at least the thickness of the porous skin. Alternately, the trailing surface, sides, and/or top surfaces of the ground vehicle may be porous. The device minimizes the strength of the separation in the base and wake regions of the ground vehicle, thus reducing drag.

  20. The influence of wearing compression stockings on performance indicators and physiological responses following a prolonged trail running exercise.

    PubMed

    Vercruyssen, Fabrice; Easthope, Christopher; Bernard, Thierry; Hausswirth, Christophe; Bieuzen, Francois; Gruet, Mathieu; Brisswalter, Jeanick

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of wearing compression socks (CS) on performance indicators and physiological responses during prolonged trail running. Eleven trained runners completed a 15.6 km trail run at a competition intensity whilst wearing or not wearing CS. Counter movement jump, maximal voluntary contraction and the oxygenation profile of vastus lateralis muscle using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) method were measured before and following exercise. Run time, heart rate (HR), blood lactate concentration and ratings of perceived exertion were evaluated during the CS and non-CS sessions. No significant difference in any dependent variables was observed during the run sessions. Run times were 5681.1 ± 503.5 and 5696.7 ± 530.7 s for the non-CS and CS conditions, respectively. The relative intensity during CS and non-CS runs corresponded to a range of 90.5-91.5% HRmax. Although NIRS measurements such as muscle oxygen uptake and muscle blood flow significantly increased following exercise (+57.7% and + 42.6%,+59.2% and + 32.4%, respectively for the CS and non-CS sessions, P<0.05), there was no difference between the run conditions. The findings suggest that competitive runners do not gain any practical or physiological benefits from wearing CS during prolonged off-road running.

  1. Trail Pheromone Disruption of Argentine Ant Trail Formation and Foraging

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Suckling, D.M.; Peck, R.W.; Stringer, L.D.; Snook, K.; Banko, P.C.

    2010-01-01

    Trail pheromone disruption of invasive ants is a novel tactic that builds on the development of pheromone-based pest management in other insects. Argentine ant trail pheromone, (Z)-9-hexadecenal, was formulated as a micro-encapsulated sprayable particle and applied against Argentine ant populations in 400 m2 field plots in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park. A widely dispersed point source strategy for trail pheromone disruption was used. Traffic rates of ants in bioassays of treated filter paper, protected from rainfall and sunlight, indicated the presence of behaviorally significant quantities of pheromone being released from the formulation for up to 59 days. The proportion of plots, under trade wind conditions (2-3 m s-1), with visible trails was reduced for up to 14 days following treatment, and the number of foraging ants at randomly placed tuna-bait cards was similarly reduced. The success of these trail pheromone disruption trials in a natural ecosystem highlights the potential of this method for control of invasive ant species in this and other environments. ?? Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010.

  2. Trail pheromone disruption of Argentine ant trail formation and foraging.

    PubMed

    Suckling, David Maxwell; Peck, Robert W; Stringer, Lloyd D; Snook, Kirsten; Banko, Paul C

    2010-01-01

    Trail pheromone disruption of invasive ants is a novel tactic that builds on the development of pheromone-based pest management in other insects. Argentine ant trail pheromone, (Z)-9-hexadecenal, was formulated as a micro-encapsulated sprayable particle and applied against Argentine ant populations in 400 m2 field plots in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park. A widely dispersed point source strategy for trail pheromone disruption was used. Traffic rates of ants in bioassays of treated filter paper, protected from rainfall and sunlight, indicated the presence of behaviorally significant quantities of pheromone being released from the formulation for up to 59 days. The proportion of plots, under trade wind conditions (2–3 m s−1), with visible trails was reduced for up to 14 days following treatment, and the number of foraging ants at randomly placed tuna-bait cards was similarly reduced. The success of these trail pheromone disruption trials in a natural ecosystem highlights the potential of this method for control of invasive ant species in this and other environments. PMID:20077128

  3. DR4 specific TRAIL variants are more efficacious than wild-type TRAIL in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Yu, Rui; Albarenque, Stella Maris; Cool, Robbert H; Quax, Wim J; Mohr, Andrea; Zwacka, Ralf M

    2014-01-01

    Current treatment modalities for pancreatic carcinoma afford only modest survival benefits. TRAIL, as a potent and specific inducer of apoptosis in cancer cells, would be a promising new treatment option. However, since not all pancreatic cancer cells respond to TRAIL, further improvements and optimizations are still needed. One strategy to improve the effectiveness of TRAIL-based therapies is to specifically target one of the 2 cell death inducing TRAIL-receptors, TRAIL-R1 or TRAIL-R2 to overcome resistance. To this end, we designed constructs expressing soluble TRAIL (sTRAIL) variants that were rendered specific for either TRAIL-R1 or TRAIL-R2 by amino acid changes in the TRAIL ectodomain. When we expressed these constructs, including wild-type sTRAIL (sTRAIL(wt)), TRAIL-R1 (sTRAIL(DR4)) and TRAIL-R2 (sTRAIL(DR5)) specific variants, in 293 producer cells we found all to be readily expressed and secreted into the supernatant. These supernatants were subsequently transferred onto target cancer cells and apoptosis measured. We found that the TRAIL-R1 specific variant had higher apoptosis-inducing activity in human pancreatic carcinoma Colo357 cells as well as PancTu1 cells that were additionally sensitized by targeting of XIAP. Finally, we tested TRAIL-R1 specific recombinant TRAIL protein (rTRAIL(DR4)) on Colo357 xenografts in nude mice and found them to be more efficacious than rTRAIL(wt). Our results demonstrate the benefits of synthetic biological approaches and show that TRAIL-R1 specific variants can potentially enhance the therapeutic efficacy of TRAIL-based therapies in pancreatic cancer, suggesting that they can possibly become part of individualized and tumor specific combination treatments in the future. PMID:25482930

  4. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell-facilitated TRAIL expression in melanoma treatment in vitro

    PubMed Central

    JING, HAI XIA; DUAN, DE JIAN; ZHOU, HUI; HU, QING MEI; LEI, TIE CHI

    2016-01-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) may be useful as an efficient vehicle in cell-based gene therapy of human diseases due to their ability to migrate to disease lesions. This study investigated the ability of ADSC-harbored human tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) cDNA to facilitate TRAIL expression and induce A375 melanoma cell apoptosis as observed using a Transwell co-culture system. A cell migration assay was used to observe ADSC migration ability. In addition, TRAIL protein expression was successfully detected by western blot analysis in ADSCs after stable transfection of TRAIL cDNA. The Transwell co-culture system data showed that TRAIL-ADSCs could induce A375 cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. At the gene level, the killing activity of TRAIL-ADSCs was associated with activation of caspase-4 and caspase-8. Collectively, the data from the current study provides preclinical support of ADSC-facilitated TRAIL expression in the treatment of melanoma. Further investigation is required to evaluate and confirm the in vivo ability of TRAIL-ADSCs in therapy of melanoma in animal models. PMID:27177242

  5. Fuel cell power system for utility vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, M.; Barbir, F.; Marken, F.; Nadal, M.

    1996-12-31

    Based on the experience of designing and building the Green Car, a fuel cell/battery hybrid vehicle, and Genesis, a hydrogen/oxygen fuel cell powered transporter, Energy Partners has developed a fuel cell power system for propulsion of an off-road utility vehicle. A 10 kW hydrogen/air fuel cell stack has been developed as a prototype for future mass production. The main features of this stack are discussed in this paper. Design considerations and selection criteria for the main components of the vehicular fuel cell system, such as traction motor, air compressor and compressor motor, hydrogen storage and delivery, water and heat management, power conditioning, and control and monitoring subsystem are discussed in detail.

  6. 43 CFR 420.23 - Public notice and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE Designated Areas and Permitted Events § 420.23 Public notice... off-road vehicle use on Reclamation lands. All notices concerning the regulation of off-road vehicles... regulations are to be (a) opened to off-road vehicle use, (b) restricted to certain types of off-road......

  7. 75 FR 37463 - Official Trail Marker for the Star-Spangled Banner National Historic Trail

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-29

    ... National Park Service Official Trail Marker for the Star-Spangled Banner National Historic Trail AGENCY.... SUMMARY: This notice issues the official trail marker insignia of the Star-Spangled Banner National..., Superintendent, Star-Spangled Banner National Historic Trail. The insignia depicted below is prescribed as...

  8. 75 FR 37462 - Official Trail Marker for the Captain John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Trail

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-29

    ... National Park Service Official Trail Marker for the Captain John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Trail....S.C. 701. SUMMARY: This notice issues the official trail marker insignias of the Captain John Smith... John Maounis, Superintendent, Captain John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Trail. The...

  9. 17 CFR 37.205 - Audit trail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... database. A swap execution facility's audit trail program shall include an electronic transaction history... respect to all audit trail data in the transaction history database. Such electronic analysis capability... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Audit trail. 37.205 Section...

  10. The Healthy Trail Food Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Dorcas S.

    An 800-mile canoe trip down a Canadian river provided the testing ground for the tenets of this trail food book. On the seven week expedition two pounds of food per person per day at a daily cost of $1.70 were carried. The only perishables were cheese, margarine, and onions. Recipes and menu ideas from that expedition are provided along with…

  11. Life on the Oregon Trail.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middle Level Learning: Teaching and Learning Social Studies in the Middle Grades, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This supplement to "Social Education" and "Social Studies & the Young Learner" seeks to support creative and rigorous social studies teaching in middle schools. The articles show how students can revisit the Oregon Trail through the diaries of children, learn about the five themes of geography (location, place, human/environment interaction,…

  12. On the Trail to Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School and University, 1979

    1979-01-01

    The University of Hartford planned fitness trail will allow students to develop their bodies by providing a jogging route to improve cardiovascular fitness and exercise stations designed to provide warm-up exercises and improve strength, flexibility, balance, and endurance. (Author/MLF)

  13. Ho-Nee-Um Trail.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Harriet; And Others

    Appreciation and concern for the preservation of our natural resources by all citizens is the primary concern of this teacher's guide for use in the elementary grades. It employes the use of a filmstrip in conjunction with a local nature trail, to guide students in developing awareness - by looking closely, listening, touching, and smelling. Major…

  14. 32 CFR 636.22 - Speed regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... vehicles and will obey the following off-road driving speeds: Day Driving: Trails, 16 MPH Cross County, 6... operate their vehicles at a reasonable and prudent speed based on traffic and road conditions, regardless... obey posted speed limits; however, drivers will not exceed 40 miles per hour on paved roads and...

  15. Electronic Escape Trails for Firefighters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorgensen, Charles; Schipper, John; Betts, Bradley

    2008-01-01

    A proposed wireless-communication and data-processing system would exploit recent advances in radio-frequency identification devices (RFIDs) and software to establish information lifelines between firefighters in a burning building and a fire chief at a control station near but outside the building. The system would enable identification of trails that firefighters and others could follow to escape from the building, including identification of new trails should previously established trails become blocked. The system would include a transceiver unit and a computer at the control station, portable transceiver units carried by the firefighters in the building, and RFID tags that the firefighters would place at multiple locations as they move into and through the building (see figure). Each RFID tag, having a size of the order of a few centimeters, would include at least standard RFID circuitry and possibly sensors for measuring such other relevant environmental parameters as temperature, levels of light and sound, concentration of oxygen, concentrations of hazardous chemicals in smoke, and/or levels of nuclear radiation. The RFID tags would be activated and interrogated by the firefighters and control-station transceivers. Preferably, RFID tags would be configured to communicate with each other and with the firefighters units and the control station in an ordered sequence, with built-in redundancy. In a typical scenario, as firefighters moved through a building, they would scatter many RFID tags into smoke-obscured areas by use of a compressed-air gun. Alternatively or in addition, they would mark escape trails by dropping RFID tags at such points of interest as mantraps, hot spots, and trail waypoints. The RFID tags could be of different types, operating at different frequencies to identify their functions, and possibly responding by emitting audible beeps when activated by signals transmitted by transceiver units carried by nearby firefighters.

  16. Policy influences on community trail development.

    PubMed

    Eyler, Amy A; Brownson, Ross C; Evenson, Kelly R; Levinger, David; Maddock, Jay E; Pluto, Delores; Troped, Philip J; Schmid, Thomas L; Carnoske, Cheryl; Richards, Katherine L; Steinman, Lesley E

    2008-06-01

    This study explores processes and policies that facilitate the development of community trails. With funding from Active Living Research and the research framework of the Physical Activity Policy Research Network (PAPRN), we conducted a multiple-site case study. A total of six trails in Hawaii, Massachusetts, Missouri, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Washington were chosen for study. The goals of this case study were to identify the policy influences on trail development, explore the roles of key players in trail development, and compare and contrast findings from the different trails. Trail development can be a long process. Some of the trails took over a decade to complete because of funding, opposition, and roadblocks in the form of design standard policies. Work in trail development requires a team of many players, and it is necessary to balance their varied motives to accomplish a shared overall goal. Foresight through the master planning process is also a vital component of successful trail development. Finally, community involvement is key. Communities contemplating trail development should explore the effects of policy on the trail projects reported here to proactively identify potential influence.

  17. Uncovering the complexity of ant foraging trails.

    PubMed

    Czaczkes, Tomer J; Grüter, Christoph; Jones, Sam M; Ratnieks, Francis L W

    2012-01-01

    The common garden ant Lasius niger use both trail pheromones and memory of past visits to navigate to and from food sources. In a recent paper we demonstrated a synergistic effect between route memory and trail pheromones: the presence of trail pheromones results in experienced ants walking straighter and faster. We also found that experienced ants leaving a pheromone trail deposit less pheromone. Here we focus on another finding of the experiment: the presence of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs), which are used as home range markers by ants, also affects pheromone deposition behavior. When walking on a trail on which CHCs are present but trail pheromones are not, experienced foragers deposit less pheromone on the outward journey than on the return journey. The regulatory mechanisms ants use during foraging and recruitment behavior is subtle and complex, affected by multiple interacting factors such as route memory, travel direction and the presence trail pheromone and home-range markings. PMID:22482017

  18. Experiences in teleoperation of land vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgovern, Douglas E.

    1989-01-01

    Teleoperation of land vehicles allows the removal of the operator from the vehicle to a remote location. This can greatly increase operator safety and comfort in applications such as security patrol or military combat. The cost includes system complexity and reduced system performance. All feedback on vehicle performance and on environmental conditions must pass through sensors, a communications channel, and displays. In particular, this requires vision to be transmitted by close-circuit television with a consequent degradation of information content. Vehicular teleoperation, as a result, places severe demands on the operator. Teleoperated land vehicles have been built and tested by many organizations, including Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The SNL fleet presently includes eight vehicles of varying capability. These vehicles have been operated using different types of controls, displays, and visual systems. Experimentation studying the effects of vision system characteristics on off-road, remote driving was performed for conditions of fixed camera versus steering-coupled camera and of color versus black and white video display. Additionally, much experience was gained through system demonstrations and hardware development trials. The preliminary experimental findings and the results of the accumulated operational experience are discussed.

  19. Natural gas vehicles : Status, barriers, and opportunities.

    SciTech Connect

    Rood Werpy, M.; Santini, D.; Burnham, A.; Mintz, M.; Energy Systems

    2010-11-29

    In the United States, recent shale gas discoveries have generated renewed interest in using natural gas as a vehicular fuel, primarily in fleet applications, while outside the United States, natural gas vehicle use has expanded significantly in the past decade. In this report for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities Program - a public-private partnership that advances the energy, economic, and environmental security of the U.S. by supporting local decisions that reduce petroleum use in the transportation sector - we have examined the state of natural gas vehicle technology, current market status, energy and environmental benefits, implications regarding advancements in European natural gas vehicle technologies, research and development efforts, and current market barriers and opportunities for greater market penetration. The authors contend that commercial intracity trucks are a prime area for advancement of this fuel. Therefore, we examined an aggressive future market penetration of natural gas heavy-duty vehicles that could be seen as a long-term goal. Under this scenario using Energy Information Administration projections and GREET life-cycle modeling of U.S. on-road heavy-duty use, natural gas vehicles would reduce petroleum consumption by approximately 1.2 million barrels of oil per day, while another 400,000 barrels of oil per day reduction could be achieved with significant use of natural gas off-road vehicles. This scenario would reduce daily oil consumption in the United States by about 8%.

  20. Vortex trails in stratified fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pao, H.-P.; Lai, R. Y.; Schemm, C. E.

    1982-03-01

    A framework is proposed which accounts for the properties of atmospheric vortex trails used by wind flow. Similarities between atmospheric vortex patterns and those in stratified fluids are observed noting that the generation of vortex trails is primarily due to density stratification. Horizontal vortices form for values of Froude numbers between 2-505, and for Reynolds numbers between 600-100,000. The cause of late-wake vortices and the reason for their great regularity is the presence of a large-scale coherent structure in the early wake. A critical Froude number exists above which no horizontal vortices form and its value for a bluff body is about 160. Finally, it is also noted that ambient shear can prevent or destroy late-wake horizontal vortices.

  1. The science of trail surveys: Recreation ecology provides new tools for managing wilderness trails

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marion, Jeffrey L.; Wimpey, Jeremy F.; Park, Logan O.

    2011-01-01

    Recreation ecology examines the effects of recreation on protected area ecosystems. One core focus of recreation ecology research is trail science, including the development of efficient protocols to assess and monitor the type and severity of resource impacts, analyses to improve knowledge of factors that influence trail conditions, and studies to assist land managers in improving trail design, maintenance, and visitor management. This article reviews alternative trail survey methodologies most useful for the management of wilderness and backcountry trail networks. Illustrations and implications from survey data for trail planning, design, and management are included.

  2. 36 CFR 212.51 - Designation of roads, trails, and areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... administrative use by the Forest Service; (5) Use of any fire, military, emergency, or law enforcement vehicle... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Designation of roads, trails, and areas. 212.51 Section 212.51 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...

  3. 36 CFR 212.51 - Designation of roads, trails, and areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... administrative use by the Forest Service; (5) Use of any fire, military, emergency, or law enforcement vehicle... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Designation of roads, trails, and areas. 212.51 Section 212.51 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...

  4. 36 CFR 212.51 - Designation of roads, trails, and areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... administrative use by the Forest Service; (5) Use of any fire, military, emergency, or law enforcement vehicle... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Designation of roads, trails, and areas. 212.51 Section 212.51 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...

  5. Trail formation based on directed pheromone deposition.

    PubMed

    Boissard, Emmanuel; Degond, Pierre; Motsch, Sebastien

    2013-05-01

    We propose an Individual-Based Model of ant-trail formation. The ants are modeled as self-propelled particles which deposit directed pheromone particles and interact with them through alignment interaction. The directed pheromone particles intend to model pieces of trails, while the alignment interaction translates the tendency for an ant to follow a trail when it meets it. Thanks to adequate quantitative descriptors of the trail patterns, the existence of a phase transition as the ant-pheromone interaction frequency is increased can be evidenced. We propose both kinetic and fluid descriptions of this model and analyze the capabilities of the fluid model to develop trail patterns. We observe that the development of patterns by fluid models require extra trail amplification mechanisms that are not needed at the Individual-Based Model level. PMID:22526837

  6. 30 CFR 75.603 - Temporary splice of trailing cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Temporary splice of trailing cable. 75.603... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 75.603 Temporary splice of trailing cable. One temporary splice may be made in any trailing cable. Such trailing cable...

  7. Beam Trail Tracking at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Nicklaus, Dennis J.; Carmichael, Linden Ralph; Neswold, Richard; Yuan, Zongwei

    2015-01-01

    We present a system for acquiring and sorting data from select devices depending on the destination of each particular beam pulse in the Fermilab accelerator chain. The 15 Hz beam that begins in the Fermilab ion source can be directed to a variety of additional accelerators, beam lines, beam dumps, and experiments. We have implemented a data acquisition system that senses the destination of each pulse and reads the appropriate beam intensity devices so that profiles of the beam can be stored and analysed for each type of beam trail. We envision utilizing this data long term to identify trends in the performance of the accelerators

  8. 36 CFR 261.13 - Motor vehicle use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... System trails, and areas on National Forest System lands have been designated pursuant to 36 CFR 212.51... prohibition: (a) Aircraft; (b) Watercraft; (c) Over-snow vehicles; (d) Limited administrative use by...

  9. 30 CFR 77.606 - Energized trailing cables; handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 77.606 Energized trailing cables; handling. Energized medium- and high-voltage trailing cables shall be handled only by persons wearing protective rubber gloves (see §...

  10. 30 CFR 77.606 - Energized trailing cables; handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 77.606 Energized trailing cables; handling. Energized medium- and high-voltage trailing cables shall be handled only by persons wearing protective rubber gloves (see §...

  11. 30 CFR 77.606 - Energized trailing cables; handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 77.606 Energized trailing cables; handling. Energized medium- and high-voltage trailing cables shall be handled only by persons wearing protective rubber gloves (see §...

  12. Evaluation of powertrain solutions for future tactical truck vehicle systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisu, Pierluigi; Cantemir, Codrin-Gruie; Dembski, Nicholas; Rizzoni, Giorgio; Serrao, Lorenzo; Josephson, John R.; Russell, James

    2006-05-01

    The article presents the results of a large scale design space exploration for the hybridization of two off-road vehicles, part of the Future Tactical Truck System (FTTS) family: Maneuver Sustainment Vehicle (MSV) and Utility Vehicle (UV). Series hybrid architectures are examined. The objective of the paper is to illustrate a novel design methodology that allows for the choice of the optimal values of several vehicle parameters. The methodology consists in an extensive design space exploration, which involves running a large number of computer simulations with systematically varied vehicle design parameters, where each variant is paced through several different mission profiles, and multiple attributes of performance are measured. The resulting designs are filtered to choose the design tradeoffs that better satisfy the performance and fuel economy requirements. At the end, few promising vehicle configuration designs will be selected that will need additional detailed investigation including neglected metrics like ride and drivability. Several powertrain architectures have been simulated. The design parameters include the number of axles in the vehicle (2 or 3), the number of electric motors per axle (1 or 2), the type of internal combustion engine, the type and quantity of energy storage system devices (batteries, electrochemical capacitors or both together). An energy management control strategy has also been developed to provide efficiency and performance. The control parameters are tunable and have been included into the design space exploration. The results show that the internal combustion engine and the energy storage system devices are extremely important for the vehicle performance.

  13. Riding a Trail of Debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    This image taken by NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope shows the comet Encke riding along its pebbly trail of debris (long diagonal line) between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. This material actually encircles the solar system, following the path of Encke's orbit. Twin jets of material can also be seen shooting away from the comet in the short, fan-shaped emission, spreading horizontally from the comet.

    Encke, which orbits the Sun every 3.3 years, is well traveled. Having exhausted its supply of fine particles, it now leaves a long trail of larger more gravel-like debris, about one millimeter in size or greater. Every October, Earth passes through Encke's wake, resulting in the well-known Taurid meteor shower.

    This image was captured by Spitzer's multiband imaging photometer when Encke was 2.6 times farther away than Earth is from the Sun. It is the best yet mid-infrared view of the comet at this great distance. The data are helping astronomers understand how rotating comets eject particles as they circle the Sun.

  14. Airbag Trail Dubbed 'Magic Carpet'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Airbag Trail Dubbed 'Magic Carpet' (QTVR)

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Magic Carpet Close-upMagic Carpet Close-up HD

    This section of the first color image from the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has been further processed to produce a sharper look at a trail left by the one of rover's airbags. The drag mark was made after the rover landed and its airbags were deflated and retracted. Scientists have dubbed the region the 'Magic Carpet' after a crumpled portion of the soil that appears to have been peeled away (lower left side of the drag mark). Rocks were also dragged by the airbags, leaving impressions and 'bow waves' in the soil. The mission team plans to drive the rover over to this site to look for additional clues about the composition of the martian soil. This image was taken by Spirit's panoramic camera.

    This extreme close-up image (see insets above) highlights the martian feature that scientists have named 'Magic Carpet' because of its resemblance to a crumpled carpet fold. Scientists think the soil here may have detached from its underlying layer, possibly due to interaction with the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's airbag after landing. This image was taken on Mars by the rover's panoramic camera.

  15. Trail inventory and assessment approaches to trail system planning at Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, P.B.; Marion, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    Trail system planning and management require accurate assessments of existing trail resources and their condition. A standardized and efficient process for surveying, inventorying, and assessing trail systems was developed and applied in the Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area. Two approaches employed were (1) a Trail System Inventory, and (2) Prescriptive Work Logs. These complimentary approaches provide resource managers with valuable information regarding the location and length of individual trails, their current condition and needed maintenance work, and material and labor estimates necessary to conduct such work.

  16. Back in Time on a Mathematics Trail

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffett, Pamela

    2010-01-01

    The recently revised "Northern Ireland Primary Curriculum" recommends that teachers make use of the environment to extend children's understanding of mathematics. One approach to using the environment in mathematics is to take children on a mathematics trail. A mathematics trail uses the resources and features within the environment as a stimulus…

  17. In-Trail Procedure (ITP) Algorithm Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, Cesar A.; Siminiceanu, Radu I.

    2007-01-01

    The primary objective of this document is to provide a detailed description of the In-Trail Procedure (ITP) algorithm, which is part of the Airborne Traffic Situational Awareness In-Trail Procedure (ATSA-ITP) application. To this end, the document presents a high level description of the ITP Algorithm and a prototype implementation of this algorithm in the programming language C.

  18. Nature Trails for the Visually Impaired.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Jonathan R.

    Many interpretive nature trails have been established for the visually impaired in recent years. The objectives of the investigation were to (a) identify what has been done in the past in the way of nature trail design for the visually impaired, (b) compare this with what professional workers for the visually impaired consider important in the…

  19. On the TRAIL to successful cancer therapy? Predicting and counteracting resistance against TRAIL-based therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Dimberg, L Y; Anderson, C K; Camidge, R; Behbakht, K; Thorburn, A; Ford, H L

    2013-03-14

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and agonistic antibodies against TRAIL death receptors (DR) kill tumor cells while causing virtually no damage to normal cells. Several novel drugs targeting TRAIL receptors are currently in clinical trials. However, TRAIL resistance is a common obstacle in TRAIL-based therapy and limits the efficiency of these drugs. In this review article we discuss different mechanisms of TRAIL resistance, and how they can be predicted and therapeutically circumvented. In addition, we provide a brief overview of all TRAIL-based clinical trials conducted so far. It is apparent that although the effects of TRAIL therapy are disappointingly modest overall, a small subset of patients responds very well to TRAIL. We argue that the true potential of targeting TRAIL DRs in cancer can only be reached when we find efficient ways to select for those patients that are most likely to benefit from the treatment. To achieve this, it is crucial to identify biomarkers that can help us predict TRAIL sensitivity.

  20. Remote Sensing-based Models of Soil Vulnerability to Compaction and Erosion from Off-highway Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villarreal, M. L.; Webb, R. H.; Norman, L.; Psillas, J.; Rosenberg, A.; Carmichael, S.; Petrakis, R.; Sparks, P.

    2014-12-01

    Intensive off-road vehicle use for immigration, smuggling, and security of the United States-Mexico border has prompted concerns about long-term human impacts on sensitive desert ecosystems. To help managers identify areas susceptible to soil erosion from vehicle disturbances, we developed a series of erosion potential models based on factors from the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE), with particular focus on the management factor (P-factor) and vegetation cover (C-factor). To better express the vulnerability of soils to human disturbances, a soil compaction index (applied as the P-factor) was calculated as the difference in saturated hydrologic conductivity (Ks) between disturbed and undisturbed soils, which was then scaled up to remote sensing-based maps of vehicle tracks and digital soils maps. The C-factor was improved using a satellite-based vegetation index, which was better correlated with estimated ground cover (r2 = 0.77) than data derived from regional land cover maps (r2 = 0.06). RUSLE factors were normalized to give equal weight to all contributing factors, which provided more management-specific information on vulnerable areas where vehicle compaction of sensitive soils intersects with steep slopes and low vegetation cover. Resulting spatial data on vulnerability and erosion potential provide land managers with information to identify critically disturbed areas and potential restoration sites where off-road driving should be restricted to reduce further degradation.

  1. Trail impacts and trail impact management related to ecotourism visitation at Torres del Paine National Park, Chile

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farrell, T.A.; Marion, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    Ecotourism and protected area visitation in Central and South America are largely dependent upon a relatively undisturbed quality of natural resources. However, visitation may impact vegetation, soil, water and wildlife resources, and degrade visitor facilities such as recreation sites and trails. Findings are reported from trail impact research conducted at Torres del Paine National Park in Patagonia, Chile. The frequency and magnitude of selected trail impacts and the relative effect of the amount of use, vegetation type, trail position and trail grade are investigated. Findings differed from previous studies in that amount of use was significantly related to both trail width increases and trail erosion. Management actions to minimize trail impacts are offered.

  2. Intelligent mobility through omnidirectional vehicles: a research program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flann, Nicholas S.; Gunderson, Robert W.; Moore, Kevin L.; Wood, Carl G.

    2000-07-01

    Beginning in FY98 and continuing in FY99, the Center for Self-Organizing and Intelligent Systems (CSOIS) at Utah State University (USU) has been funded by the US Army Tank-Automotive and Armaments Command's (TACOM) Intelligent Mobility Program to develop and demonstrate enhanced mobility concepts for unmanned ground vehicles (UGV). The long-range goal of the program is to develop and demonstrate enabling technologies that allow lightweight robotic and semiautonomous ground vehicles to achieve on-road and off-road mobility and survivability similar to current manned, wheeled, and tracked military vehicles, with a focus on small-scale to mid-scale vehicles. This paper describes the design concept and the performance of the T-series of robotic vehicles resulting from the TACOM Intelligent Mobility funding at USU (the T1, T2 and T3). USU-TACOM intelligent mobility concepts discussed in the paper include: (1) inherent mobility capability improvements, achieve through the unique concept of USU's omni-directional vehicle (ODV) steering design, which features six independently-controlled smart wheels; (2) intelligent mobility control, enhanced through intelligent coordination and control of each of the six wheels in the ODV vehicles; (3) global mobility control, enhanced through USU optimal multi-agent mission and mobility planning system; and (4) future mobility capability and control.

  3. 36 CFR 212.81 - Use by over-snow vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Use by over-snow vehicles... TRAVEL MANAGEMENT Use by Over-Snow Vehicles § 212.81 Use by over-snow vehicles. (a) General. Use by over-snow vehicles on National Forest System roads and National Forest System trails and in areas...

  4. 36 CFR 212.81 - Use by over-snow vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Use by over-snow vehicles... TRAVEL MANAGEMENT Use by Over-Snow Vehicles § 212.81 Use by over-snow vehicles. (a) General. Use by over-snow vehicles on National Forest System roads and National Forest System trails and in areas...

  5. 36 CFR 212.81 - Use by over-snow vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use by over-snow vehicles... TRAVEL MANAGEMENT Use by Over-Snow Vehicles § 212.81 Use by over-snow vehicles. (a) General. Use by over-snow vehicles on National Forest System roads and National Forest System trails and in areas...

  6. 36 CFR 212.81 - Use by over-snow vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Use by over-snow vehicles... TRAVEL MANAGEMENT Use by Over-Snow Vehicles § 212.81 Use by over-snow vehicles. (a) General. Use by over-snow vehicles on National Forest System roads and National Forest System trails and in areas...

  7. 36 CFR 212.81 - Use by over-snow vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Use by over-snow vehicles... TRAVEL MANAGEMENT Use by Over-Snow Vehicles § 212.81 Use by over-snow vehicles. (a) General. Use by over-snow vehicles on National Forest System roads and National Forest System trails and in areas...

  8. Pheromone disruption of Argentine ant trail integrity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Suckling, D.M.; Peck, R.W.; Manning, L.M.; Stringer, L.D.; Cappadonna, J.; El-Sayed, A. M.

    2008-01-01

    Disruption of Argentine ant trail following and reduced ability to forage (measured by bait location success) was achieved after presentation of an oversupply of trail pheromone, (Z)-9-hexadecenal. Experiments tested single pheromone point sources and dispersion of a formulation in small field plots. Ant walking behavior was recorded and digitized by using video tracking, before and after presentation of trail pheromone. Ants showed changes in three parameters within seconds of treatment: (1) Ants on trails normally showed a unimodal frequency distribution of walking track angles, but this pattern disappeared after presentation of the trail pheromone; (2) ants showed initial high trail integrity on a range of untreated substrates from painted walls to wooden or concrete floors, but this was significantly reduced following presentation of a point source of pheromone; (3) the number of ants in the pheromone-treated area increased over time, as recruitment apparently exceeded departures. To test trail disruption in small outdoor plots, the trail pheromone was formulated with carnuba wax-coated quartz laboratory sand (1 g quartz sand/0.2 g wax/1 mg pheromone). The pheromone formulation, with a half-life of 30 h, was applied by rotary spreader at four rates (0, 2.5, 7.5, and 25 mg pheromone/m2) to 1- and 4-m2 plots in Volcanoes National Park, Hawaii. Ant counts at bait cards in treated plots were significantly reduced compared to controls on the day of treatment, and there was a significant reduction in ant foraging for 2 days. These results show that trail pheromone disruption of Argentine ants is possible, but a much more durable formulation is needed before nest-level impacts can be expected. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  9. Pheromone disruption of Argentine ant trail integrity.

    PubMed

    Suckling, D M; Peck, R W; Manning, L M; Stringer, L D; Cappadonna, J; El-Sayed, A M

    2008-12-01

    Disruption of Argentine ant trail following and reduced ability to forage (measured by bait location success) was achieved after presentation of an oversupply of trail pheromone, (Z)-9-hexadecenal. Experiments tested single pheromone point sources and dispersion of a formulation in small field plots. Ant walking behavior was recorded and digitized by using video tracking, before and after presentation of trail pheromone. Ants showed changes in three parameters within seconds of treatment: (1) Ants on trails normally showed a unimodal frequency distribution of walking track angles, but this pattern disappeared after presentation of the trail pheromone; (2) ants showed initial high trail integrity on a range of untreated substrates from painted walls to wooden or concrete floors, but this was significantly reduced following presentation of a point source of pheromone; (3) the number of ants in the pheromone-treated area increased over time, as recruitment apparently exceeded departures. To test trail disruption in small outdoor plots, the trail pheromone was formulated with carnuba wax-coated quartz laboratory sand (1 g quartz sand/0.2 g wax/1 mg pheromone). The pheromone formulation, with a half-life of 30 h, was applied by rotary spreader at four rates (0, 2.5, 7.5, and 25 mg pheromone/m(2)) to 1- and 4-m(2) plots in Volcanoes National Park, Hawaii. Ant counts at bait cards in treated plots were significantly reduced compared to controls on the day of treatment, and there was a significant reduction in ant foraging for 2 days. These results show that trail pheromone disruption of Argentine ants is possible, but a much more durable formulation is needed before nest-level impacts can be expected. PMID:19034574

  10. 43 CFR 420.5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.5 Definitions. As used in this part, the term: (a) Off-road vehicle means... Commissioner, Bureau of Reclamation. (d) Off-road vehicle area means a portion or all of a specifically designated parcel of Reclamation lands opened to off-road vehicle use in accordance with the procedure...

  11. A robust nonlinear skid-steering control design applied to the MULE (6x6) unmanned ground vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaloust, Joseph

    2006-05-01

    The paper presents a robust nonlinear skid-steering control design concept. The control concept is based on the recursive/backstepping control design technique and is capable of compensating for uncertainties associated with sensor noise measurements and/or system dynamic state uncertainties. The objective of this control design is to demonstrate the performance of the nonlinear controller under uncertainty associate with road traction (rough off-road and on-road terrain). The MULE vehicle is used in the simulation modeling and results.

  12. TRIPPy: Python-based Trailed Source Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, Wesley C.; Alexandersen, Mike; Schwamb, Megan E.; Marsset, Michael E.; Pike, Rosemary E.; Kavelaars, JJ; Bannister, Michele T.; Benecchi, Susan; Delsanti, Audrey

    2016-05-01

    TRIPPy (TRailed Image Photometry in Python) uses a pill-shaped aperture, a rectangle described by three parameters (trail length, angle, and radius) to improve photometry of moving sources over that done with circular apertures. It can generate accurate model and trailed point-spread functions from stationary background sources in sidereally tracked images. Appropriate aperture correction provides accurate, unbiased flux measurement. TRIPPy requires numpy, scipy, matplotlib, Astropy (ascl:1304.002), and stsci.numdisplay; emcee (ascl:1303.002) and SExtractor (ascl:1010.064) are optional.

  13. 30 CFR 77.602 - Permanent splicing of trailing cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Permanent splicing of trailing cables. 77.602... COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 77.602 Permanent splicing of trailing cables. When permanent splices in trailing cables are made, they shall be: (a) Mechanically strong with adequate electrical conductivity;...

  14. 30 CFR 75.606 - Protection of trailing cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection of trailing cables. 75.606 Section... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 75.606 Protection of trailing cables. Trailing cables shall be adequately protected to prevent damage by mobile equipment....

  15. 30 CFR 75.600 - Trailing cables; flame resistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trailing cables; flame resistance. 75.600... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 75.600 Trailing cables; flame resistance. Trailing cables used in coal mines shall meet the requirements established...

  16. 30 CFR 75.604 - Permanent splicing of trailing cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Permanent splicing of trailing cables. 75.604... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 75.604 Permanent splicing of trailing cables. When permanent splices in trailing cables are made, they shall be:...

  17. 30 CFR 77.604 - Protection of trailing cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection of trailing cables. 77.604 Section 77.604 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY... MINES Trailing Cables § 77.604 Protection of trailing cables. Trailing cables shall be...

  18. 30 CFR 75.602 - Trailing cable junctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trailing cable junctions. 75.602 Section 75.602... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 75.602 Trailing cable junctions. When two or more trailing cables junction to the same distribution center, means shall be provided...

  19. Trail marking by larvae of the eastern tent caterpillar.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, T D

    1976-11-26

    Eastern tent caterpillars that are successful foragers deposit trails as they return to the tent that are more attractive than the exploratory trails of the unfed larvae. The trails of these fed returning larvae attract unfed tentmates to food finds anre chemical factors account for the attractiveness of these trails.

  20. Miniature Trailing Edge Effector for Aerodynamic Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Hak-Tae (Inventor); Bieniawski, Stefan R. (Inventor); Kroo, Ilan M. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Improved miniature trailing edge effectors for aerodynamic control are provided. Three types of devices having aerodynamic housings integrated to the trailing edge of an aerodynamic shape are presented, which vary in details of how the control surface can move. A bucket type device has a control surface which is the back part of a C-shaped member having two arms connected by the back section. The C-shaped section is attached to a housing at the ends of the arms, and is rotatable about an axis parallel to the wing trailing edge to provide up, down and neutral states. A flip-up type device has a control surface which rotates about an axis parallel to the wing trailing edge to provide up, down, neutral and brake states. A rotating type device has a control surface which rotates about an axis parallel to the chord line to provide up, down and neutral states.

  1. A trail of research revisted.

    PubMed

    Liener, Irvin E

    2002-10-23

    The author describes how his interest in the nutritional value of soybeans led to a trail of research that had many ramifications. In an attempt to account for the poor nutritional value of raw soybeans and the beneficial effect of heat treatment, a protein displaying hemagglutinating activity and capable of inhibiting the growth of rats was isolated and characterized. This protein subsequently proved to be an example of a class of proteins that were later referred to as "lectins". Lectins were also isolated from kidney beans and shown to be even more toxic than the soybean lectin. Concurrent studies with the soybean trypsin inhibitors revealed that these proteins inhibited growth by stimulating the secretory activity of the pancreas and could in the long term cause acinar cell adenoma of the pancreas. Acute experiments with human subjects showed that the human pancreas also responded to the stimulatory effects of the so-called Bowman-Birk soybean inhibitor. The studies on soybean trypsin inhibitors were expanded to include a protease inhibitor present in blood, alpha-1-antitrypsin, a deficiency of which leads to emphysema in humans. The mechanism whereby this protein inhibits leucocyte elastase was investigated. On the basis of these results the intratracheal administration of a synthetic peptide inhibitor of elastase attached to albumin microspheres was found to prevent elastase-induced emphysema in hamsters. PMID:12381154

  2. A standard audit trail format

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, M.

    1995-02-01

    The central role of audit trails, or (more properly) logs, in security monitoring needs little description, for it is too well known for any to doubt it. Auditing, or the analysis of logs, is a central part of security not only in computer system security but also in analyzing financial and other non-technical systems. As part of this process, it is often necessary to reconcile logs from different sources. This speaks of a need for a standard logging format. A standard log format robust enough to meet the needs of heterogeneity, transportability across various network protocols, and flexibility sufficient to meet a variety of needs in very different environments must satisfy two basic properties: extensibility and portability. This report presents the author`s proposed format for a standard log record. In section 3, he shows how and where the translation should be done, and in section 4 he demonstrates how log records from several disparate systems would be put into this format. Section 5 concludes with some observations and suggestions for future work.

  3. Nature Trails, Braille Trails, Foot Paths, Fragrance Gardens, Touch Museums for the Blind; Policy Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Foundation for the Blind, New York, NY.

    The policy statement by the American Foundation for the Blind deals with nature trails, braille trails, foot paths, fragrance gardens, and touch museums for the blind. It is stated that the foundation approves of services such as provision of tape recorded guides and planting of fragrant shrubs which would benefit all users while recognizing…

  4. Use and Nonuse of a Rail Trail Conversion for Physical Activity: Implications for Promoting Trail Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Anna E.; Reed, Julian A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is limited research examining both use and nonuse of trails for physical activity. Purpose: Such research might enable health educators to better promote physical activity on trails.Methods:We used random digit dialing methods to survey 726 respondents in 2012. Results: The majority (75.1%) of respondents reported not using the…

  5. Energy saving through trail following in a marine snail.

    PubMed

    Davies, Mark S; Blackwell, Janine

    2007-05-01

    Most snails and slugs locomote over a layer of mucus and although the resultant mucus trail is expensive to produce, we show that this expense can be reduced by trail following. When tracking over fresh conspecific trails, the marine intertidal snail Littorina littorea (L.) produced only approximately 27% of the mucus laid by marker snails. When tracking over weathered trails, snails adjusted their mucus production to recreate a convex trail profile of similar shape and thickness to the trail as originally laid. Maximum energy saving occurs when following recently laid trails which are little weathered. Many and diverse ecological roles for trail following have been proposed. Energy saving is the only role that applies across the Gastropoda and so may help to explain why trail following is such a well-established behaviour. PMID:17327203

  6. Transverse dune trailing ridges and vegetation succession

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesp, Patrick A.; ‘Marisa' Martinez, M. L.

    2008-07-01

    We describe the evolution of, and vegetation succession on, a previously undescribed landform: transverse dune trailing ridges at El Farallón transgressive dunefield in the state of Veracruz, Mexico. Three-dimensional clinometer/compass and tape topographic surveys were conducted in conjunction with 1 m 2 contiguous percent cover and presence/absence vegetation survey transects at eight locations across two adjacent trailing ridges. At the study site, and elsewhere, the transverse dune trailing ridges are formed by vegetation colonization of the lateral margins of active transverse, barchanoidal transverse, and aklé or network dunes. For simplicity, all trailing ridges formed from these dune types are referred to as transverse dune trailing ridges. Because there are several transverse dunes in the dunefield, multiple trailing ridges can be formed at one time. Two adjacent trailing ridges were examined. The shortest length ridge was 70 m long, and evolving from a 2.5 m-high transverse dune, while the longer ridge was 140 m long, and evolving from an 8 m-high dune. Trailing ridge length is a proxy measure of ridge age, since the longer the ridge, the greater the length of time since initial formation. With increasing age or distance upwind, species diversity increased, as well as species horizontal extent and percent cover. In turn, the degree of bare sand decreased. Overall, the data indicate a successional trend in the vegetation presence and cover with increasing age upwind. Those species most tolerant to burial ( Croton and Palafoxia) begin the process of trailing ridge formation. Ipomoea and Canavalia are less tolerant to burial and also are typically the next colonizing species. Trachypogon does not tolerate sand burial or deposition very well and only appears after significant stabilization has taken place. The ridges display a moderately defined successional sequence in plant colonization and percentage cover with time (and upwind distance). They are

  7. 36 CFR 261.13 - Motor vehicle use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... System trails, and areas on National Forest System lands have been designated pursuant to 36 CFR 212.51... Forest Service; (e) Use of any fire, military, emergency, or law enforcement vehicle for emergency... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Motor vehicle use....

  8. 36 CFR 261.13 - Motor vehicle use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... System trails, and areas on National Forest System lands have been designated pursuant to 36 CFR 212.51... Forest Service; (e) Use of any fire, military, emergency, or law enforcement vehicle for emergency... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Motor vehicle use....

  9. 36 CFR 261.13 - Motor vehicle use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... General Prohibitions § 261.13 Motor vehicle use. After National Forest System roads, National Forest System trails, and areas on National Forest System lands have been designated pursuant to 36 CFR 212.51... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle use....

  10. 36 CFR 261.13 - Motor vehicle use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... General Prohibitions § 261.13 Motor vehicle use. After National Forest System roads, National Forest System trails, and areas on National Forest System lands have been designated pursuant to 36 CFR 212.51... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Motor vehicle use....

  11. Trailing edge modifications for flatback airfoils.

    SciTech Connect

    Kahn, Daniel L.; van Dam, C.P.; Berg, Dale E.

    2008-03-01

    The adoption of blunt trailing edge airfoils (also called flatback airfoils) for the inboard region of large wind turbine blades has been proposed. Blunt trailing edge airfoils would not only provide a number of structural benefits, such as increased structural volume and ease of fabrication and handling, but they have also been found to improve the lift characteristics of thick airfoils. Therefore, the incorporation of blunt trailing edge airfoils would allow blade designers to more freely address the structural demands without having to sacrifice aerodynamic performance. These airfoils do have the disadvantage of generating high levels of drag as a result of the low-pressure steady or periodic flow in the near-wake of the blunt trailing edge. Although for rotors, the drag penalty appears secondary to the lift enhancement produced by the blunt trailing edge, high drag levels are of concern in terms of the negative effect on the torque and power generated by the rotor. Hence, devices are sought that mitigate the drag of these airfoils. This report summarizes the literature on bluff body vortex shedding and bluff body drag reduction devices and proposes four devices for further study in the wind tunnel.

  12. TRIPPy: Trailed Image Photometry in Python

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, Wesley; Alexandersen, Mike; Schwamb, Megan E.; Marsset, Michaël; Pike, Rosemary E.; Kavelaars, J. J.; Bannister, Michele T.; Benecchi, Susan; Delsanti, Audrey

    2016-06-01

    Photometry of moving sources typically suffers from a reduced signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) or flux measurements biased to incorrect low values through the use of circular apertures. To address this issue, we present the software package, TRIPPy: TRailed Image Photometry in Python. TRIPPy introduces the pill aperture, which is the natural extension of the circular aperture appropriate for linearly trailed sources. The pill shape is a rectangle with two semicircular end-caps and is described by three parameters, the trail length and angle, and the radius. The TRIPPy software package also includes a new technique to generate accurate model point-spread functions (PSFs) and trailed PSFs (TSFs) from stationary background sources in sidereally tracked images. The TSF is merely the convolution of the model PSF, which consists of a moffat profile, and super-sampled lookup table. From the TSF, accurate pill aperture corrections can be estimated as a function of pill radius with an accuracy of 10 mmag for highly trailed sources. Analogous to the use of small circular apertures and associated aperture corrections, small radius pill apertures can be used to preserve S/Ns of low flux sources, with appropriate aperture correction applied to provide an accurate, unbiased flux measurement at all S/Ns.

  13. Aircraft wing trailing-edge noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Underwood, R. L.; Hodgson, T. H.

    1981-01-01

    The mechanism and sound pressure level of the trailing-edge noise for two-dimensional turbulent boundary layer flow was examined. Experiment is compared with current theory. A NACA 0012 airfoil of 0.61 m chord and 0.46 m span was immersed in the laminar flow of a low turbulence open jet. A 2.54 cm width roughness strip was placed at 15 percent chord from the leading edge on both sides of the airfoil as a boundary layer trip so that two separate but statistically equivalent turbulent boundary layers were formed. Tests were performed with several trailing-edge geometries with the upstream velocity U sub infinity ranging from a value of 30.9 m/s up to 73.4 m/s. Properties of the boundary layer for the airfoil and pressure fluctuations in the vicinity of the trailing-edge were examined. A scattered pressure field due to the presence of the trailing-edge was observed and is suggested as a possible sound producing mechanism for the trailing-edge noise.

  14. c-Cbl-mediated degradation of TRAIL receptors is responsible for the development of the early phase of TRAIL resistance

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jae J.; Szczepanski, Miroslaw Jerzy; Kim, So Young; Kim, Joo-Hang; An, Jee Young; Kwon, Yong Tae; Alcala, Marco A.; Bartlett, David L.; Lee, Yong J.

    2010-01-01

    We previously reported two modes of development of acquired TRAIL resistance: early phase and late phase [1]. In these studies, we observed that greater Akt activity and the expression of Bcl-xL were related mainly to the late phase of acquired TRAIL resistance. Recently we became aware of a possible mechanism of early phase TRAIL resistance development through internalization and degradation of TRAIL receptors (DR4 and DR5). Our current studies demonstrate that TRAIL receptors rapidly diminish at the membrane as well as the cytoplasm within four hours after TRAIL exposure, but recover completely after one or two days. Our studies also reveal that Cbl, a ubiquitously expressed cytoplasmic adaptor protein, is responsible for the rapid degradation of TRAIL receptors; Cbl binds to them and induces mono-ubiquitination of these receptors concurrent with their degeneration soon after TRAIL exposure, creating the early phase of acquired TRAIL resistance. PMID:19932172

  15. The trail pheromone of the venomous samsum ant, Pachycondyla sennaarensis.

    PubMed

    Mashaly, Ashraf Mohamed Ali; Ahmed, Ashraf Mohamed; Al-Abdullah, Mosa Abdullah; Al-Khalifa, Mohamed Saleh

    2011-01-01

    Ant species use branching networks of pheromone trails for orientation between nest and resources. The current study demonstrated that workers of the venomous samsum ant, Pachycondyla sennaarensis (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Ponerinae), employ recruitment trail pheromones discharged from the Dufour's gland. Secretions of other abdomen complex glands, as well as hindgut gland secretions, did not evoke trail following. The optimum concentration of trail pheromone was found to be 0.1 gland equivalent/40 cm trail. This concentration demonstrated effective longevity for about one hour. This study also showed that P. sennaarensis and Tapinoma simrothi each respond to the trail pheromones of the other species as well as their own. PMID:21529253

  16. The trail pheromone of the venomous samsum ant, Pachycondyla sennaarensis.

    PubMed

    Mashaly, Ashraf Mohamed Ali; Ahmed, Ashraf Mohamed; Al-Abdullah, Mosa Abdullah; Al-Khalifa, Mohamed Saleh

    2011-01-01

    Ant species use branching networks of pheromone trails for orientation between nest and resources. The current study demonstrated that workers of the venomous samsum ant, Pachycondyla sennaarensis (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Ponerinae), employ recruitment trail pheromones discharged from the Dufour's gland. Secretions of other abdomen complex glands, as well as hindgut gland secretions, did not evoke trail following. The optimum concentration of trail pheromone was found to be 0.1 gland equivalent/40 cm trail. This concentration demonstrated effective longevity for about one hour. This study also showed that P. sennaarensis and Tapinoma simrothi each respond to the trail pheromones of the other species as well as their own.

  17. The Trail Pheromone of the Venomous Samsum Ant, Pachycondyla sennaarensis

    PubMed Central

    Mashaly, Ashraf Mohamed Ali; Ahmed, Ashraf Mohamed; Al—Abdullah, Mosa Abdullah; Al—Khalifa, Mohamed Saleh

    2011-01-01

    Ant species use branching networks of pheromone trails for orientation between nest and resources. The current study demonstrated that workers of the venomous samsum ant, Pachycondyla sennaarensis (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Ponerinae), employ recruitment trail pheromones discharged from the Dufour's gland. Secretions of other abdomen complex glands, as well as hindgut gland secretions, did not evoke trail following. The optimum concentration of trail pheromone was found to be 0.1 gland equivalent/40 cm trail. This concentration demonstrated effective longevity for about one hour. This study also showed that P. sennaarensis and Tapinoma simrothi each respond to the trail pheromones of the other species as well as their own. PMID:21529253

  18. Therapeutic applications of TRAIL receptor agonists in cancer and beyond

    PubMed Central

    Amarante-Mendes, Gustavo P.; Griffith, Thomas S.

    2016-01-01

    TRAIL/Apo-2L is a member of the TNF superfamily first described as an apoptosis-inducing cytokine in 1995. Similar to TNF and Fas ligand, TRAIL induces apoptosis in caspase-dependent manner following TRAIL death receptor trimerization. Because tumor cells were shown to be particularly sensitive to this cytokine while normal cells/tissues proved to be resistant along with being able to synthesize and release TRAIL, it was rapidly appreciated that TRAIL likely served as one of our major physiologic weapons against cancer. In line with this, a number of research laboratories and pharmaceutical companies have attempted to exploit the ability of TRAIL to kill cancer cells by developing recombinant forms of TRAIL or TRAIL receptor agonists (e.g., receptor-specific mAb) for therapeutic purposes. In this review article we will describe the biochemical pathways used by TRAIL to induce different cell death programs. We will also summarize the clinical trials related to this pathway and discuss possible novel uses of TRAIL-related therapies. In recent years, the physiological importance of TRAIL has expanded beyond being a tumoricidal molecule to one critical for a number of clinical settings — ranging from infectious disease and autoimmunity to cardiovascular anomalies. We will also highlight some of these conditions where modulation of the TRAIL/TRAIL receptor system may be targeted in the future. PMID:26343199

  19. Therapeutic applications of TRAIL receptor agonists in cancer and beyond.

    PubMed

    Amarante-Mendes, Gustavo P; Griffith, Thomas S

    2015-11-01

    TRAIL/Apo-2L is a member of the TNF superfamily first described as an apoptosis-inducing cytokine in 1995. Similar to TNF and Fas ligand, TRAIL induces apoptosis in caspase-dependent manner following TRAIL death receptor trimerization. Because tumor cells were shown to be particularly sensitive to this cytokine while normal cells/tissues proved to be resistant along with being able to synthesize and release TRAIL, it was rapidly appreciated that TRAIL likely served as one of our major physiologic weapons against cancer. In line with this, a number of research laboratories and pharmaceutical companies have attempted to exploit the ability of TRAIL to kill cancer cells by developing recombinant forms of TRAIL or TRAIL receptor agonists (e.g., receptor-specific mAb) for therapeutic purposes. In this review article we will describe the biochemical pathways used by TRAIL to induce different cell death programs. We will also summarize the clinical trials related to this pathway and discuss possible novel uses of TRAIL-related therapies. In recent years, the physiological importance of TRAIL has expanded beyond being a tumoricidal molecule to one critical for a number of clinical settings - ranging from infectious disease and autoimmunity to cardiovascular anomalies. We will also highlight some of these conditions where modulation of the TRAIL/TRAIL receptor system may be targeted in the future.

  20. Analysis of Steering Knuckle of All Terrain Vehicles (ATV) Using Finite Element Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusane, S. V.; Dipke, M. K.; Kumbhalkar, M. A.

    2016-09-01

    Steering knuckle is the most stress sustaining and critical component of All Terrain Vehicle (ATV). Steering knuckle is the pivot point of the steering and suspension system, which allows the front wheels to turn and also allow the movement of suspension arms motion. The light weight and high strength component is always in demanding for racecar application. Lightweight and optimized design of steering knuckle is proposed to use for a BAJA SAE INDIA off road racecar. Due to the failure in knuckle in terrain vehicle after some instances, it has to be modified for better performance. The 3D CAD model created by using CATIA V5 and static as well as model analysis carried out in ANSYS 12 to understand its behavior under operating conditions. All test for frame was carried out on aluminum alloys 6061-T6 & for spindle EN8. The paper discusses the FE analysis of existing and modified Steering Knuckle.

  1. Ant foraging on complex trails: route learning and the role of trail pheromones in Lasius niger.

    PubMed

    Czaczkes, Tomer J; Grüter, Christoph; Ellis, Laura; Wood, Elizabeth; Ratnieks, Francis L W

    2013-01-15

    Ants are central place foragers and use multiple information sources to navigate between the nest and feeding sites. Individual ants rapidly learn a route, and often prioritize memory over pheromone trails when tested on a simple trail with a single bifurcation. However, in nature, ants often forage at locations that are reached via more complex routes with multiple trail bifurcations. Such routes may be more difficult to learn, and thus ants would benefit from additional information. We hypothesized that trail pheromones play a more significant role in ant foraging on complex routes, either by assisting in navigation or route learning or both. We studied Lasius niger workers foraging on a doubly bifurcating trail with four end points. Route learning was slower and errors greater on alternating (e.g. left-right) versus repeating routes (e.g. left-left), with error rates of 32 and 3%, respectively. However, errors on alternating routes decreased by 30% when trail pheromone was present. Trail pheromones also aid route learning, leading to reduced errors in subsequent journeys without pheromone. If an experienced forager makes an error when returning to a food source, it reacts by increasing pheromone deposition on the return journey. In addition, high levels of trail pheromone suppress further pheromone deposition. This negative feedback mechanism may act to conserve pheromone or to regulate recruitment. Taken together, these results demonstrate further complexity and sophistication in the foraging system of ant colonies, especially in the role of trail pheromones and their relationship with learning and the use of private information (memory) in a complex environment. PMID:22972897

  2. Near Field Trailing Edge Tone Noise Computation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loh, Ching Y.

    2002-01-01

    Blunt trailing edges in a flow often generate tone noise due to wall-jet shear layer and vortex shedding. In this paper, the space-time conservation element (CE/SE) method is employed to numerically study the near-field noise of blunt trailing edges. Two typical cases, namely, flow past a circular cylinder (aeolian noise problem) and flow past a flat plate of finite thickness are considered. The computed frequencies compare well with experimental data. For the aeolian noise problem, comparisons with the results of other numerical approaches are also presented.

  3. 27. YCC CREW THAT REBUILT PIMA POINT TRAILS. TIM BEALE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. YCC CREW THAT REBUILT PIMA POINT TRAILS. TIM BEALE, NPS TRAILS, FRONT ROW RIGHT; BERNIE PONYAH, NPS YCC SUPERVISOR, BACK ROW RIGHT. - West Rim Drive, Between Grand Canyon Village & Hermit Rest, Grand Canyon, Coconino County, AZ

  4. 5. VIEW OF TRAIL WHERE IT PASSES THROUGH SAGE AREA, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF TRAIL WHERE IT PASSES THROUGH SAGE AREA, OWL CREEK IN CENTER OF PHOTOGRAPH. VIEW LOOKING EAST - Hole-in-the-Rock Trail, Running From Bluff Vicinity to Escalante, Garfield County, Bluff, San Juan County, UT

  5. 12. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, place of a thousand ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, place of a thousand drips, view from road. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  6. 9. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Reagan House. Great ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Reagan House. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  7. 11. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, boulders along road after ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, boulders along road after stop 13. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  8. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Title Sheet Great Smoky ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Title Sheet - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  9. 6. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, road view after stop ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, road view after stop four. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  10. 7. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, rocks along edge of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, rocks along edge of road. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  11. 3. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, view between second and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, view between second and third stops - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  12. 5. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, vista at stop three. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, vista at stop three. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  13. 8. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, handbuilt rock pile. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, hand-built rock pile. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  14. 1. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, entrance sign. Great ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, entrance sign. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  15. 2. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, road view before first ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, road view before first stop. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  16. The spectrum of facial fractures in motor vehicle accidents: an MDCT study of 374 patients.

    PubMed

    Peltola, Elina M; Koivikko, Mika P; Koskinen, Seppo K

    2014-04-01

    Road traffic accidents are a major health problem worldwide resulting frequently in maxillofacial injuries. The purpose of the study was to assess the incidence and spectrum of facial fractures in patients involved in a motor vehicle accident (MVA). Using picture archiving and communication system, all requests for suspected facial trauma were retrieved during a 62-month period; 374 met the inclusion criteria. Two researchers interpreted the multidetector computed tomography images by consensus. The motor vehicles involved were divided into two groups: those involving a passenger car or a larger vehicle and those involving a motorized two-wheeler. Furthermore, the motor vehicle accidents were divided into collisions and run-off-road accidents. Of the 374 patients (aged 15-80, mean 34), 271 (72 %) were male and 103 (28 %) female. Of all patients, 262 (70 %) had a facial or skull base fracture; of these, multiple separate fractures were present in 56 %. Nasal fractures were the most common fractures followed by orbital, skull base, and maxillary fractures. Frontal bone, LeFort, and zygomatic arch fractures were always accompanied by other fractures. Fractures were more frequent in the group of collisions compared with run-off-road accidents. In the two-wheeled group, only 15 % did not have facial or skull base fractures. Fractures often occur in multitudes as 39 % of all patients have multiple facial or skull bone fractures, and thus, emergency radiologists should be familiar with the complexity of the injuries. Negative clear sinus sign and low-energy sentinel injuries should be trusted as indications of undetected injuries in MVA victims. PMID:24221020

  17. Influence of unsprung weight on vehicle ride quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrovat, D.

    1988-08-01

    In the first part of this paper, a simple quarter-car, two-degree-of-freedom (2 DOF) vehicle model is used to investigate potential benefits and adaptive control capabilities of active suspensions. The results of this study indicate that, with an active suspension, it is possible to trade each 1% increase in tire deflection with a circa 1% decrease in r.m.s. sprung mass acceleration. This can be used for adaptive suspension tuning based on varying road/speed conditions. The second part of this paper is concerned with the influence of unsprung mass on optimal vibration isolation for the case of a linear 2 DOF, quarter-car model. In the study, it is assumed that the tire stiffness and geometry remain the same while unsprung mass is changed. The comprehensive computer analysis shows that, for active suspensions, both ride and handling can be improved by reducing the unsprung mass. In particular, when the total vehicle mass is kept constant, every 10% reduction in unsprung mass contributes to a circa 6% reduction in r.m.s. sprung mass acceleration for the same level of wheel-hop. For active suspension vehicles, this gives an added incentive for reducing the unsprung weight through the usage of, for example, aluminum wheels and lightweight composite materials. Although used primarily in the context of automotive applications, the results of this study are generic to similar 2 DOF structures in other areas of vibration isolation, ranging from computer peripherals to off-road vehicles.

  18. 30 CFR 57.12003 - Trailing cable overload protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trailing cable overload protection. 57.12003... Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12003 Trailing cable overload protection. Individual overload protection or short circuit protection shall be provided for the trailing cables of mobile equipment....

  19. 30 CFR 57.12039 - Protection of surplus trailing cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection of surplus trailing cables. 57.12039... Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12039 Protection of surplus trailing cables. Surplus trailing cables to shovels, cranes and similar equipment shall be— (a) Stored in cable boats; (b) Stored on...

  20. 30 CFR 57.12088 - Splicing trailing cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Splicing trailing cables. 57.12088 Section 57... Underground Only § 57.12088 Splicing trailing cables. No splice, except a vulcanized splice or its equivalent, shall be made in a trailing cable within 25 feet of the machine unless the machine is equipped with...

  1. 30 CFR 57.4057 - Underground trailing cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground trailing cables. 57.4057 Section 57.4057 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... and Control § 57.4057 Underground trailing cables. Underground trailing cables shall be accepted...

  2. 30 CFR 57.12038 - Attachment of trailing cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Attachment of trailing cables. 57.12038 Section 57.12038 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12038 Attachment of trailing cables. Trailing cables shall...

  3. 30 CFR 56.12038 - Attachment of trailing cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Attachment of trailing cables. 56.12038 Section 56.12038 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... § 56.12038 Attachment of trailing cables. Trailing cables shall be attached to machines in a...

  4. 30 CFR 75.826 - High-voltage trailing cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-voltage trailing cables. 75.826 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Underground High-Voltage Distribution High-Voltage Longwalls § 75.826 High-voltage trailing cables. High-voltage trailing cables must: (a)...

  5. 36 CFR 212.21 - Pacific Crest National Scenic Trail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Crest National Scenic... AGRICULTURE TRAVEL MANAGEMENT Administration of the Forest Transportation System § 212.21 Pacific Crest National Scenic Trail. The Pacific Crest National Scenic Trail as defined by the National Trails...

  6. 36 CFR 212.21 - Pacific Crest National Scenic Trail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Crest National Scenic... AGRICULTURE TRAVEL MANAGEMENT Administration of the Forest Transportation System § 212.21 Pacific Crest National Scenic Trail. The Pacific Crest National Scenic Trail as defined by the National Trails...

  7. 36 CFR 212.21 - Pacific Crest National Scenic Trail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Crest National Scenic... AGRICULTURE TRAVEL MANAGEMENT Administration of the Forest Transportation System § 212.21 Pacific Crest National Scenic Trail. The Pacific Crest National Scenic Trail as defined by the National Trails...

  8. Rails-to-Trails: A Valuable Resource for Outdoor Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Jim

    1993-01-01

    Describes the rails-to-trails movement, particularly in Ontario, where abandoned railways are converted to trails for hiking, skiing, cycling, and horseback riding. Proposes the often controversial rails-to-trails issue as a resource for discussion in outdoor leadership classes, focusing on rural and urban viewpoints. Also suggests using the…

  9. 30 CFR 75.826 - High-voltage trailing cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false High-voltage trailing cables. 75.826 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Underground High-Voltage Distribution High-Voltage Longwalls § 75.826 High-voltage trailing cables. High-voltage trailing cables must: (a)...

  10. 30 CFR 75.826 - High-voltage trailing cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false High-voltage trailing cables. 75.826 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Underground High-Voltage Distribution High-Voltage Longwalls § 75.826 High-voltage trailing cables. High-voltage trailing cables must: (a)...

  11. 30 CFR 75.826 - High-voltage trailing cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false High-voltage trailing cables. 75.826 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Underground High-Voltage Distribution High-Voltage Longwalls § 75.826 High-voltage trailing cables. High-voltage trailing cables must: (a)...

  12. Etoposide sensitizes neuroblastoma cells expressing caspase 8 to TRAIL.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Ryung; Lee, Myoung Woo; Kim, Dae Seong; Jo, Ha Yeong; Lee, Soo Hyun; Chueh, Hee Won; Jung, Hye Lim; Yoo, Keon Hee; Sung, Ki Woong; Koo, Hong Hoe

    2012-01-01

    TRAIL [TNF (tumour necrosis factor)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand] is a promising agent for clinical use since it kills a wide range of tumour cells without affecting normal cells. We provide evidence that pretreatment with etoposide significantly enhanced TRAIL-mediated apoptosis via up-regulation of DR5 (death receptor 5 or TRAIL-R2) expression in the caspase 8 expressing neuroblastoma cell line, SK-N-MC. In addition, sequential treatment with etoposide and TRAIL increased caspases 8, 9 and 3 activation, Mcl-1 cleavage and Bid truncation, which suggests that the ability of etoposide and TRAIL to induce apoptosis is mediated through activation of an intrinsic signalling pathway. Although TRAIL-R2 expression increased in IMR-32 cells in response to etoposide treatment, cell death was not increased by concurrent treatment with TRAIL compared with etoposide alone, because the cells lacked caspase 8 expression. Restoration of caspase 8 expression by exposure to IFNγ (interferon γ) sensitizes IMR-32 cells to TRAIL. Moreover, pretreatment with etoposide increased TRAIL-induced apoptosis in caspase 8 restored IMR-32 cells through activation of a caspase cascade that included caspases 8, 9 and 3. These results indicate that the etoposide-mediated sensitization of neuroblastoma cells to TRAIL is associated with an increase in TRAIL-R2 expression and requires caspase 8 expression. These observations support the potential use of a combination of etoposide and TRAIL in future clinical trials. PMID:23124518

  13. 21 CFR 1311.215 - Internal audit trail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Internal audit trail. 1311.215 Section 1311.215... ORDERS AND PRESCRIPTIONS Electronic Prescriptions § 1311.215 Internal audit trail. (a) The pharmacy... audit trail functions. (6) For application service providers, attempted or successful...

  14. Tracing the X-Ray Trail

    MedlinePlus

    What you need to know about… Tracing the X-ray Trail If you’ve just completed an x-ray, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance (MR) Start here! or other diagnostic imaging procedure, you probably want to know when you will ... los rayos X Si acaba de hacerse una radiografía, tomografía ¡Empezar ...

  15. Hassle-free audit trails: Automated audits

    SciTech Connect

    Manatt, D.R.

    1989-04-01

    The origin and history of data in databases are often as important as the data itself. A full audit trail of database operations is the best record of a database's history. INGRES provides an audit facility to format journal file entries into audit records. This facility is cumbersome and difficult to use. I describe two INGRES Report Writer reports that take all the effort out of maintaining a complete audit trail. To maintain an audit trail of changes to INGRES tables it is necessary to run AUDITDB individually on each table and store a record of the AUDITDB output. The INGRES manuals suggest how the audit records can be copied into INGRES tables for storage. Thus the maintenance of an audit trail consists of: creating tables to receive audit records, running AUDITDB, and storing the audit records into the tables. All this must be done for each table to be audited. My approach to this drudgery is to give it all to the INGRES system. Therefore, I present reports that generate command files to create the tables and run the audits. The only job left for a human is to submit the generated command files to the batch queue.

  16. Gorp, Again? Alternate Camp Trail Meals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Layne

    1998-01-01

    By planning menus, repackaging food, packing the right spices, and being creative with aluminum foil and zip-top plastic bags, there is no reason to eat a bland trail meal again. Gives ten recipes, some with options for varying the dish. Eight of them serve two campers, two serve four to six. (TD)

  17. ‘Columbia Star’ thornless trailing blackberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Columbia Star’ is a new thornless, trailing blackberry (Rubus subg. Rubus Watson) cultivar from the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) breeding program in Corvallis, OR, released in cooperation with the Oregon State University’s Agricultural Experiment Station. ...

  18. Helicopter rotor trailing edge noise. [noise prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlinker, R. H.; Amier, R. K.

    1981-01-01

    A two dimensional section of a helicopter main rotor blade was tested in an acoustic wind tunnel at close to full-scale Reynolds numbers to obtain boundary layer data and acoustic data for use in developing an acoustic scaling law and testing a first principles trailing edge noise theory. Results were extended to the rotating frame coordinate system to develop a helicopter rotor trailing edge noise prediction. Comparisons of the calculated noise levels with helicopter flyover spectra demonstrate that trailing edge noise contributes significantly to the total helicopter noise spectrum at high frequencies. This noise mechanism is expected to control the minimum rotor noise. In the case of noise radiation from a local blade segment, the acoustic directivity pattern is predicted by the first principles trailing edge noise theory. Acoustic spectra are predicted by a scaling law which includes Mach number, boundary layer thickness and observer position. Spectrum shape and sound pressure level are also predicted by the first principles theory but the analysis does not predict the Strouhal value identifying the spectrum peak.

  19. Certification trails and software design for testability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Gregory F.; Wilson, Dwight S.; Masson, Gerald M.

    1993-01-01

    Design techniques which may be applied to make program testing easier were investigated. Methods for modifying a program to generate additional data which we refer to as a certification trail are presented. This additional data is designed to allow the program output to be checked more quickly and effectively. Certification trails were described primarily from a theoretical perspective. A comprehensive attempt to assess experimentally the performance and overall value of the certification trail method is reported. The method was applied to nine fundamental, well-known algorithms for the following problems: convex hull, sorting, huffman tree, shortest path, closest pair, line segment intersection, longest increasing subsequence, skyline, and voronoi diagram. Run-time performance data for each of these problems is given, and selected problems are described in more detail. Our results indicate that there are many cases in which certification trails allow for significantly faster overall program execution time than a 2-version programming approach, and also give further evidence of the breadth of applicability of this method.

  20. 75 FR 32555 - Consolidated Audit Trail

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... strategies, to assist regulatory staff in reviewing and analyzing EBS data.\\29\\ Adopted in June 2001,\\30\\ the... and the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (``FINRA'') have audit trail rules and systems... Commission's ability to quickly reconstruct and analyze the severe market disruption that occurred on May...

  1. Interpreter's Guide to Blackbird Marsh Nature Trail.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Studies Center, Pensacola, FL.

    This booklet was prepared to help the user interpret the natural history of Blackbird Marsh Nature Trail in Escambia County, Florida, and serves as a guide to the animal and plant life. The publication is part of a series of illustrated guides designed for use by teachers and students of all levels in conjunction with field trips to the 1200-acre…

  2. The OBIS Trail Module. Trial Version.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairwell, Kay, Ed.; And Others

    Designed to allow youngsters aged 10 to 15 to experience the challenges and problems environmental investigators might face making an environmental impact study, the trial version of the Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies (OBIS) Trail Module focuses on aspects of construction-related environment problems. Four activities are included in the…

  3. TRAIL treatment provokes mutations in surviving cells

    PubMed Central

    Lovric, M M; Hawkins, C J

    2010-01-01

    Chemotherapy and radiotherapy commonly damage DNA and trigger p53-dependent apoptosis through intrinsic apoptotic pathways. Two unfortunate consequences of this mechanism are resistance due to blockade of p53 or intrinsic apoptosis pathways, and mutagenesis of non-malignant surviving cells which can impair cellular function or provoke second malignancies. Death ligand-based drugs, such as tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL), stimulate extrinsic apoptotic signaling, and may overcome resistance to treatments that induce intrinsic apoptosis. As death receptor ligation does not damage DNA as a primary mechanism of pro-apoptotic action, we hypothesized that surviving cells would remain genetically unscathed, suggesting that death ligand-based therapies may avoid some of the adverse effects associated with traditional cancer treatments. Surprisingly, however, treatment with sub-lethal concentrations of TRAIL or FasL was mutagenic. Mutations arose in viable cells that contained active caspases, and overexpression of the caspase-8 inhibitor crmA or silencing of caspase-8 abolished TRAIL-mediated mutagenesis. Downregulation of the apoptotic nuclease caspase-activated DNAse (CAD)/DNA fragmentation factor 40 (DFF40) prevented the DNA damage associated with TRAIL treatment. Although death ligands do not need to damage DNA in order to induce apoptosis, surviving cells nevertheless incur DNA damage after treatment with these agents. PMID:20639907

  4. SAHM:VisTrails (Software for Assisted Habitat Modeling for VisTrails): training course

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holcombe, Tracy

    2014-01-01

    VisTrails is an open-source management and scientific workflow system designed to integrate the best of both scientific workflow and scientific visualization systems. Developers can extend the functionality of the VisTrails system by creating custom modules for bundled VisTrails packages. The Invasive Species Science Branch of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Fort Collins Science Center (FORT) and the U.S. Department of the Interior’s North Central Climate Science Center have teamed up to develop and implement such a module—the Software for Assisted Habitat Modeling (SAHM). SAHM expedites habitat modeling and helps maintain a record of the various input data, the steps before and after processing, and the modeling options incorporated in the construction of an ecological response model. There are four main advantages to using the SAHM:VisTrails combined package for species distribution modeling: (1) formalization and tractable recording of the entire modeling process; (2) easier collaboration through a common modeling framework; (3) a user-friendly graphical interface to manage file input, model runs, and output; and (4) extensibility to incorporate future and additional modeling routines and tools. In order to meet increased interest in the SAHM:VisTrails package, the FORT offers a training course twice a year. The course includes a combination of lecture, hands-on work, and discussion. Please join us and other ecological modelers to learn the capabilities of the SAHM:VisTrails package.

  5. Novel TRAIL sensitizer Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg enhances TRAIL-induced apoptosis in Huh7 cells.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Ji-Yong; Cho, Hyun-Soo; Lee, Jeong-Ju; Lee, Hyo-Jung; Jun, Soo Young; Lee, Jae-Hye; Song, Hyuk-Hwan; Choi, SangHo; Saloura, Vassiliki; Park, Choon Gil; Kim, Cheol-Hee; Kim, Nam-Soon

    2016-04-01

    TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand) is a promising anti-cancer drug target that selectively induces apoptosis in cancer cells. However, many cancer cells are resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Therefore, reversing TRAIL resistance is an important step for the development of effective TRAIL-based anti-cancer therapies. We previously reported that knockdown of the TOR signaling pathway regulator-like (TIPRL) protein caused TRAIL-induced apoptosis by activation of the MKK7-c-Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK) pathway through disruption of the MKK7-TIPRL interaction. Here, we identified Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg (TO) as a novel TRAIL sensitizer from a set of 500 natural products using an ELISA system and validated its activity by GST pull-down analysis. Furthermore, combination treatment of Huh7 cells with TRAIL and TO resulted in TRAIL-induced apoptosis mediated through inhibition of the MKK7-TIPRL interaction and subsequent activation of MKK7-JNK phosphorylation. Interestingly, HPLC analysis identified chicoric acid as a major component of the TO extract, and combination treatment with chicoric acid and TRAIL induced TRAIL-induced cell apoptosis via JNK activation due to inhibition of the MKK7-TIPRL interaction. Our results suggest that TO plays an important role in TRAIL-induced apoptosis, and further functional studies are warranted to confirm the importance of TO as a novel TRAIL sensitizer for cancer therapy. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25647515

  6. Targeting Death Receptor TRAIL-R2 by Chalcones for TRAIL-Induced Apoptosis in Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Szliszka, Ewelina; Jaworska, Dagmara; Kłósek, Małgorzata; Czuba, Zenon P.; Król, Wojciech

    2012-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces apoptosis in cancer cells without toxicity to normal cells. TRAIL binds to death receptors, TRAIL-R1 (DR4) and TRAIL-R2 (DR5) expressed on cancer cell surface and activates apoptotic pathways. Endogenous TRAIL plays an important role in immune surveillance and defense against cancer cells. However, as more tumor cells are reported to be resistant to TRAIL mediated death, it is important to search for and develop new strategies to overcome this resistance. Chalcones can sensitize cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. We examined the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of TRAIL in combination with four chalcones: chalcone, isobavachalcone, licochalcone A and xanthohumol on HeLa cancer cells. The cytotoxicity was measured by MTT and LDH assays. The apoptosis was detected using annexin V-FITC staining by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Death receptor expression was analyzed using flow cytometry. The decreased expression of death receptors in cancer cells may be the cause of TRAIL-resistance. Chalcones enhance TRAIL-induced apoptosis in HeLa cells through increased expression of TRAIL-R2. Our study has indicated that chalcones augment the antitumor activity of TRAIL and confirm their cancer chemopreventive properties. PMID:23203129

  7. Novel TRAIL sensitizer Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg enhances TRAIL-induced apoptosis in Huh7 cells.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Ji-Yong; Cho, Hyun-Soo; Lee, Jeong-Ju; Lee, Hyo-Jung; Jun, Soo Young; Lee, Jae-Hye; Song, Hyuk-Hwan; Choi, SangHo; Saloura, Vassiliki; Park, Choon Gil; Kim, Cheol-Hee; Kim, Nam-Soon

    2016-04-01

    TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand) is a promising anti-cancer drug target that selectively induces apoptosis in cancer cells. However, many cancer cells are resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Therefore, reversing TRAIL resistance is an important step for the development of effective TRAIL-based anti-cancer therapies. We previously reported that knockdown of the TOR signaling pathway regulator-like (TIPRL) protein caused TRAIL-induced apoptosis by activation of the MKK7-c-Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK) pathway through disruption of the MKK7-TIPRL interaction. Here, we identified Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg (TO) as a novel TRAIL sensitizer from a set of 500 natural products using an ELISA system and validated its activity by GST pull-down analysis. Furthermore, combination treatment of Huh7 cells with TRAIL and TO resulted in TRAIL-induced apoptosis mediated through inhibition of the MKK7-TIPRL interaction and subsequent activation of MKK7-JNK phosphorylation. Interestingly, HPLC analysis identified chicoric acid as a major component of the TO extract, and combination treatment with chicoric acid and TRAIL induced TRAIL-induced cell apoptosis via JNK activation due to inhibition of the MKK7-TIPRL interaction. Our results suggest that TO plays an important role in TRAIL-induced apoptosis, and further functional studies are warranted to confirm the importance of TO as a novel TRAIL sensitizer for cancer therapy. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Spanwise morphing trailing edge on a finite wing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankonien, Alexander M.; Inman, Daniel J.

    2015-04-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles are prime targets for morphing implementation as they must adapt to large changes in flight conditions associated with locally varying wind or large changes in mass associated with payload delivery. The Spanwise Morphing Trailing Edge concept locally varies the trailing edge camber of a wing or control surface, functioning as a modular replacement for conventional ailerons without altering the spar box. Utilizing alternating active sections of Macro Fiber Composites (MFCs) driving internal compliant mechanisms and inactive sections of elastomeric honeycombs, the SMTE concept eliminates geometric discontinuities associated with shape change, increasing aerodynamic performance. Previous work investigated a representative section of the SMTE concept and investigated the effect of various skin designs on actuation authority. The current work experimentally evaluates the aerodynamic gains for the SMTE concept for a representative finite wing as compared with a conventional, articulated wing. The comparative performance for both wings is evaluated by measuring the drag penalty associated with achieving a design lift coefficient from an off-design angle of attack. To reduce experimental complexity, optimal control configurations are predicted with lifting line theory and experimentally measured control derivatives. Evaluated over a range of off-design flight conditions, this metric captures the comparative capability of both concepts to adapt or "morph" to changes in flight conditions. Even with this simplistic model, the SMTE concept is shown to reduce the drag penalty due to adaptation up to 20% at off-design conditions, justifying the increase in mass and complexity and motivating concepts capable of larger displacement ranges, higher fidelity modelling, and condition-sensing control.

  9. Experimental aerodynamics of mesoscale trailing-edge actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solovitz, Stephen Adam

    Uninhabited air vehicles (UAVs) are commonly designed with high-aspect ratio wings, which can be susceptible to significant aeroelastic vibrations. These modes can result in a loss of control or structural failure, and new techniques are necessary to alleviate them. A multidisciplinary effort at Stanford developed a distributed flow control method that used small trailing-edge actuators to alter the aerodynamic loads at specific spanwise locations along an airplane wing. This involved design and production of the actuators, computational and experimental study of their characteristics, and application to a flexible wing. This project focused on the experimental response. The actuators were based on a Gurney flap, which is a trailing-edge flap of small size and large deflection, typically about 2% of the chord and 90 degrees, respectively. Because of the large deflection, there is a significant change to the wing camber, increasing the lift. However, due to the small size, the drag does not increase substantially, and the performance is actually improved for high lift conditions. For this project, a 1.5% flap was divided into small span segments (5.2% of the chord), each individually controllable. These devices are termed microflaps or Micro Trailing-edge Effectors (MiTEs). The aerodynamic response was examined to determine the effects of small flap span, the influence of the device structure, and the transient response to relatively rapid MiTE actuation. Measurements included integrated loads, pressure profiles, wake surveys, and near-wake studies using particle image velocimetry. The basic response was similar to a Gurney flap, as full-span actuation of the devices produced a lift increment of about +0.25 when applied towards the pressure surface. For partial actuated spans, the load increment was approximately linear with the actuated span, regardless of configuration. The primary effects occurred within two device spans, indicating that most of the load was

  10. Trailing Vortex-Induced Loads During Close Encounters in Cruise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendenhall, Michael R.; Lesieutre, Daniel J; Kelly, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The trailing vortex induced aerodynamic loads on a Falcon 20G business jet flying in the wake of a DC-8 are predicted to provide a preflight estimate of safe trail distances during flight test measurements in the wake. Static and dynamic loads on the airframe flying in the near wake are shown at a matrix of locations, and the dynamic motion of the Falcon 20G during traverses of the DC-8 primary trailing vortex is simulated. Safe trailing distances for the test flights are determined, and optimum vortex traverse schemes are identified to moderate the motion of the trailing aircraft during close encounters with the vortex wake.

  11. Vegetation moderates impacts of tourism usage on bird communities along roads and hiking trails.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Isabelle D; Hagenloh, Gerald; Croft, David B

    2013-11-15

    Bird communities inhabiting ecosystems adjacent to recreational tracks may be adversely affected by disturbance from passing tourism traffic, vehicle-related mortality, habitat alteration and modified biotic relationships such as the increase of strong competitors. This study investigated the effects of tourist usage of roads vs. hiking trails on bird communities in gorges of the Flinders Ranges, a popular South Australian tourist destination in the arid-lands. High tourist usage along roads decreased the individual abundance and species richness of birds relative to low usage trails. The decrease in species richness, though less pronounced, also occurred at high-usage sites along trails. Changes in the species response to recreational disturbance/impacts varied depending on the ecology of the species. Bigger, more competitive birds with a generalist diet were overrepresented at high-usage sites along roads and trails. Species using microhabitats in lower vegetation layers were more sensitive. However, structural and floristic complexity of vegetation was a more important factor influencing bird abundance than tourist usage. Sites with a better developed shrub and tree layer sustained higher species abundance and richer communities. Importantly, vegetation qualities moderated the negative effect of high usage on the individual abundance of birds along roads, to the extent that such an effect was absent at sites with the best developed shrub and tree layer. To protect avifauna along recreational tracks in arid-lands gorges, we recommend the closure of some gorges or sections for vehicle or any access. Further, open space particularly for camping needs to be minimized as it creates areas of high tourist usage with modified habitat that provides birds with little buffer from disturbance.

  12. Trail resource impacts and an examination of alternative assessment techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marion, J.L.; Leung, Y.-F.

    2001-01-01

    Trails are a primary recreation resource facility on which recreation activities are performed. They provide safe access to non-roaded areas, support recreational opportunities such as hiking, biking, and wildlife observation, and protect natural resources by concentrating visitor traffic on resistant treads. However, increasing recreational use, coupled with poorly designed and/or maintained trails, has led to a variety of resource impacts. Trail managers require objective information on trails and their conditions to monitor trends, direct trail maintenance efforts, and evaluate the need for visitor management and resource protection actions. This paper reviews trail impacts and different types of trail assessments, including inventory, maintenance, and condition assessment approaches. Two assessment methods, point sampling and problem assessment, are compared empirically from separate assessments of a 15-mile segment of the Appalachian Trail in Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Results indicate that point sampling and problem assessment methods yield distinctly different types of quantitative information. The point sampling method provides more accurate and precise measures of trail characteristics that are continuous or frequent (e.g., tread width or exposed soil). The problem assessment method is a preferred approach for monitoring trail characteristics that can be easily predefined or are infrequent (e.g., excessive width or secondary treads), particularly when information on the location of specific trail impact problems is needed. The advantages and limitations of these two assessment methods are examined in relation to various management and research information needs. The choice and utility of these assessment methods are also discussed.

  13. H-Ras regulation of TRAIL death receptor mediated apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jun-Jie; Bozza, William P.; Di, Xu; Zhang, Yaqin; Hallett, William; Zhang, Baolin

    2014-01-01

    TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces apoptosis through the death receptors (DRs) 4 and/or 5 expressed on the cell surface. Multiple clinical trials are underway to evaluate the antitumor activity of recombinant human TRAIL and agonistic antibodies to DR4 or DR5. However, their therapeutic potential is limited by the high frequency of cancer resistance. Here we provide evidence demonstrating the role of H-Ras in TRAIL receptor mediated apoptosis. By analyzing the genome wide mRNA expression data of the NCI60 cancer cell lines, we found that H-Ras expression was consistently upregulated in TRAIL-resistant cell lines. By contrast, no correlation was found between TRAIL sensitivity and K-Ras expression levels or their mutational profiles. Notably, H-Ras upregulation associated with a surface deficiency of TRAIL death receptors. Selective inhibition of H-Ras activity in TRAIL-resistant cells restored the surface expression of both DR4 and DR5 without changing their total protein levels. The resulting cells became highly susceptible to both TRAIL and agonistic DR5 antibody, whereas K-Ras inhibition had little or no effect on TRAIL-induced apoptosis, indicating H-Ras plays a distinct role in the regulation of TRAIL death receptors. Further studies are warranted to determine the therapeutic potential of H-Ras-specific inhibitors in combination with TRAIL receptor agonists. PMID:25026275

  14. Vision system testing for teleoperated vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    McGovern, D.E.; Miller, D.P.

    1989-03-01

    This study compared three forward-looking vision systems consisting of a fixed mount, black and white video camera system, a fixed mount, color video camera system and a steering-slaved color video camera system. Subjects were exposed to a variety of objects and obstacles over a marked, off-road, course while either viewing videotape or performing actual teleoperation of the vehicle. The subjects were required to detect and identify those objects which might require action while driving such as slowing down or maneuvering around the object. Subjects also estimated the same video systems as in the driving task. Two modes of driver interaction were tested: (1) actual remote driving, and (2) noninteractive video simulation. Remote driving has the advantage of realism, but is subject to variability in driving strategies and can be hazardous to equipment. Video simulation provides a more controlled environment in which to compare vision-system parameters, but at the expense of some realism. Results demonstrated that relative differences in performance among the visual systems are generally consistent in the two test modes of remote driving and simulation. A detection-range metric was found to be sensitive enough to demonstrate performance differences viewing large objects. It was also found that subjects typically overestimated distances, and when in error judging clearance, tended to overestimate the gap between the objects. 11 refs., 26 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Shear-Layer Effects on Trailing Vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, Z. C.; Baek, K.

    1998-01-01

    Crosswind shear can influence the trailing vortex trajectories significantly, according to both field measurement and numerical simulations. Point vortex models are used in this paper to study the fluid dynamic mechanism in the interactions between trailing vortex pair and shear layers. It has been shown that the shear-layer deformation causes the vortex descent history difference in the two vortices of the vortex pair. When a shear layer is below the vortex pair with the same sign as the left vortex, the right vortex descends less than the left vortex. When the same shear layer is above the vortex pair, the right vortex descends more. The descent altitudes of the two vortices are the same when they go through a constant, non-deformed shear layer. Those trends are in agreement with Navier-Stokes simulations.

  16. Influenza leaves a TRAIL to pulmonary edema.

    PubMed

    Brauer, Rena; Chen, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Influenza infection can cause acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), leading to poor disease outcome with high mortality. One of the driving features in the pathogenesis of ARDS is the accumulation of fluid in the alveoli, which causes severe pulmonary edema and impaired oxygen uptake. In this issue of the JCI, Peteranderl and colleagues define a paracrine communication between macrophages and type II alveolar epithelial cells during influenza infection where IFNα induces macrophage secretion of TRAIL that causes endocytosis of Na,K-ATPase by the alveolar epithelium. This reduction of Na,K-ATPase expression decreases alveolar fluid clearance, which in turn leads to pulmonary edema. Inhibition of the TRAIL signaling pathway has been shown to improve lung injury after influenza infection, and future studies will be needed to determine if blocking this pathway is a viable option in the treatment of ARDS. PMID:26999598

  17. TRAIL-coated lipid-nanoparticles overcome resistance to soluble recombinant TRAIL in non-small cell lung cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Miguel, Diego; Gallego-Lleyda, Ana; María Ayuso, José; Erviti-Ardanaz, Sandra; Pazo-Cid, Roberto; del Agua, Celia; José Fernández, Luis; Ochoa, Ignacio; Anel, Alberto; Martinez-Lostao, Luis

    2016-05-01

    Purpose. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is one the types of cancer with higher prevalence and mortality. Apo2-Ligand/TRAIL is a TNF family member able to induce apoptosis in tumor cells but not in normal cells. It has been tested in clinical trials against different types of human cancer including NSCLC. However, results of clinical trials have shown a limited efficacy of TRAIL-based therapies. Recently we have demonstrated that artificial lipid nanoparticles coated with bioactive Apo2L/TRAIL (LUV-TRAIL) greatly improved TRAIL cytotoxic ability being capable of killing chemoresistant hematological cancer cells. In the present work we have extended the study to NSCLC. Methods/patients. LUV-TRAIL-induced cytotoxicity was assessed on different NSCLC cell lines with different sensitivity to soluble TRAIL and on primary human tumor cells from three patients suffering from NSCLC cancer. We also tested LUV-TRAIL-cytotoxic ability in combination with several anti-tumor agents. Results. LUV-TRAIL exhibited a greater cytotoxic effect compared to soluble TRAIL both in A549 cells and primary human NSCLC cells. LUV-TRAIL-induced cell death was dependent on caspase-8 and caspase-3 activation. Moreover, combination of LUV-TRAIL with other anti-tumor agents such as flavopiridol, and SNS-032 clearly enhanced LUV-TRAIL-induced cytotoxicity against NSCLC cancer cells. Conclusion. The novel formulation of TRAIL based on displaying it on the surface of lipid nanoparticles greatly increases its anti-tumor activity and has clinical potential in cancer treatment.

  18. Mating system shifts on the trailing edge

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Donald A.

    2012-01-01

    Background The trailing edges of species ranges are becoming a subject of increasing interest as the environment changes due to global warming. Trailing edge populations are likely to face extinction because of a decline in numbers and an inability to evolve new adaptations with sufficient speed. Discussions of character change in the trailing edge have focused on physiological, exomorphic and phenological traits. The mating pattern within populations has not been part of the discourse, in spite of the fact that the mating pattern may affect the ability of populations to respond to environmental change and to maintain their sizes. In this paper, the case is made that a substantial increase in self-fertilization rates may occur via plastic responses to stress. Scope and Conclusions Small populations on the trailing edge are especially vulnerable to environmental change because of inadequate levels of cross-fertilization. Evidence is presented that a deficiency of cross-seed production is due to inadequate pollinator services and a paucity of self-incompatibility alleles within populations. Evidence also is presented that if plants are self-compatible, self-fertilization may compensate in part for this deficiency through a stress-induced increase in levels of self-compatibility and stress-induced alterations in floral morphology that elevate self-pollination. Whereas increased self-fertility may afford populations the time to adapt to their changing environments, it can be concluded that increased selfing is not a panacea for the ills of environmental change, because it will lead to substantial reductions in genetic diversity, which may render adaptation unlikely. PMID:21980190

  19. A vehicle-terrain system modeling and simulation approach to mobility analysis of vehicles on soft terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Weidong; Papelis, Yiannis E.; He, Yefei

    2004-09-01

    This paper presents an approach to modeling and simulation of vehicles interacting with the environment (terrain) in a realistic, three-dimensional setting and to assess vehicle mobility based on simulation results. To reliably predict vehicle performance under realistic off-road conditions, lumped-parameter models commonly used in vehicle dynamics are not adequate. In this work, high fidelity, multibody dynamics approach is employed to capture vehicle nonlinear dynamic characteristics. Because all vehicle control forces/moments are generated at the patch where tire and terrain interacts, tire modeling, soil modeling, and tire-soil interaction modeling are critical. In this work, tire is modeled as multiple-input-multiple-output system with parameters determined via high-fidelity physical-based finite element model and/or test data; soil is modeled using the Bekker-Wong approach with parameters determined using high-fidelity physical-based finite element soil model and/or test data. Although the Bekker-Wong approach is relatively old, effective implementation to achieve its fully potential is possible only recently, with the advent of the so-called dynamic terrain database. A computational algorithm for such an implementation is presented. Dynamic terrain allows natural treatment of the multiple-pass problem in spatial and dynamic fashion, as opposed to the approaches found in the literature that can only deal with planar, steady-state rolling in an ad hoc fashion. Tire-terrain interaction is modeled using a hybrid approach of empirical and semi-empirical models. A complete simulation environment can be constructed by integrating all the models and mobility analysis of vehicles be perform on soft terrain. An example is presented to demonstrate the approach. Conclusions and future research directions are presented at the end of the paper.

  20. Improved Asteroid Astrometry and Photometry with Trail Fitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vereš, Peter; Jedicke, Robert; Denneau, Larry; Wainscoat, Richard; Holman, Matthew J.; Lin, Hsing-Wen

    2012-11-01

    Asteroid detections in astronomical images may appear as trails due to a combination of their apparent rate of motion and exposure duration. Nearby asteroids in particular typically have high apparent rates of motion and acceleration. Their recovery, especially on their discovery apparition, depends upon obtaining good astrometry from the trailed detections. We present an analytic function describing a trailed detection under the assumption of a Gaussian point spread function (PSF) and constant rate of motion. We have fit the function to both synthetic and real trailed asteroid detections from the Pan-STARRS1 survey telescope to obtain accurate astrometry and photometry. For short trails our trailing function yields the same astrometric and photometry accuracy as a functionally simpler two-dimensional Gaussian but the latter underestimates the length of the trail—a parameter that can be important for measuring the object's rate of motion and assessing its cometary activity. For trails longer than about 10 pixels (~3× PSF) our trail fitting provides ~3× better astrometric accuracy and up to two magnitudes improvement in the photometry. The trail fitting algorithm can be implemented at the source detection level for all detections to provide trail length and position angle that can be used to reduce the false tracklet rate.

  1. Trail geometry gives polarity to ant foraging networks.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Duncan E; Holcombe, Mike; Ratnieks, Francis L W

    2004-12-16

    Pheromone trails are used by many ants to guide foragers between nest and food. But how does a forager that has become displaced from a trail know which way to go on rejoining the trail? A laden forager, for example, should walk towards the nest. Polarized trails would enable ants to choose the appropriate direction, thereby saving time and reducing predation risk. However, previous research has found no evidence that ants can detect polarity from the pheromone trail alone. Pharaoh's ants (Monomorium pharaonis) produce elaborate trail networks throughout their foraging environment. Here we show that by using information from the geometry of trail bifurcations within this network, foragers joining a trail can adaptively reorientate themselves if they initially walk in the wrong direction. The frequency of correct reorientations is maximized when the trail bifurcation angle is approximately 60 degrees, as found in natural networks. These are the first data to demonstrate how ant trails can themselves provide polarity information. They also demonstrate previously unsuspected sophistication in the organization and information content of networks in insect societies. PMID:15602563

  2. BLE protection scheme for light-trail WDM mesh networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Junwei; Wang, Hongxiang; Ji, Yuefeng

    2007-11-01

    Light-trail is a solution to providing high resource utilization and sub-wavelength support [1]. A light-trail is a multi-point light-path, such that multiple users can take part in communication along the trail, through time (differentiated) non-overlapping connections. This multi-point flow model leads to a new set of problems in the area of protecting and restoring light-trail based networks. Conventional link protection which just protects the existed connection in the light-trail at the time of the failure is not sufficient for light-trails because of the potential of having multiple possible source-destination pairs in the same trail over time. The fact is demonstrated and explained detailedly in [4]. In this paper, a novel protection mechanism is proposed for light-trail WDM mesh network, which is Backup Light-trail Expending scheme. Subsequently the performance of this scheme is evaluated and compared to conventional Connection Dedicated Protection Scheme. Numerical results obtained by simulation indicate that, Backup Light-trail Expending Scheme has a faster restoration time and better wavelength utilization.

  3. The Effect of Nozzle Trailing Edge Thickness on Jet Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Brenda; Kinzie, Kevin; Haskin, Henry

    2004-01-01

    The effect of nozzle trailing edge thickness on broadband acoustic radiation and the production of tones is investigated for coannular nozzles. Experiments were performed for a core nozzle trailing edge thickness between 0.38 mm and 3.17 mm. The on-set of discrete tones was found to be predominantly affected by the velocity ratio, the ratio of the fan velocity to the core velocity, although some dependency on trailing edge thickness was also noted. For a core nozzle trailing edge thickness greater than or equal to 0.89 mm, tones were produced for velocity ratios between 0.91 and 1.61. For a constant nozzle trailing edge thickness, the frequency varied almost linearly with the core velocity. The Strouhal number based on the core velocity changed with nozzle trailing edge thickness and varied between 0.16 and 0.2 for the core nozzles used in the experiments. Increases in broadband noise with increasing trailing edge thickness were observed for tone producing and non-tone producing conditions. A variable thickness trailing edge (crenellated) nozzle resulted in no tonal production and a reduction of the broadband trailing edge noise relative to that of the corresponding constant thickness trailing edge.

  4. TOTE Project. A Curriculum Source Book for Teaching Human Relations, Environmental Education, and Camping Skills in the Classroom and on the Trail.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maughan, Durrell A.; And Others

    Backpacking serves as the vehicle for teaching basic secondary school subjects in this curriculum guide which suggests various learning activities for teaching human relations, environmental education, and camping. The activities, some for the classroom and some for the trail, are designed to help students observe, draw conclusions, and develop…

  5. 78 FR 52485 - Revisions to the Arizona State Implementation Plan, Maricopa County Area

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-23

    ... Revised submittal 9-500.27 Off-road vehicle July 2, 2007 May 25, 2012 May 21, 2013. ordinance...; civil penalties. 49-457.03 Off-road July 2, 2007 May 25, 2012 May 21, 2013. vehicles; pollution advisory... vehicles, all-terrain vehicles, off-road recreational motor vehicles, residential wood burning and...

  6. Experimental evaluation of certification trails using abstract data type validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Dwight S.; Sullivan, Gregory F.; Masson, Gerald M.

    1993-01-01

    Certification trails are a recently introduced and promising approach to fault-detection and fault-tolerance. Recent experimental work reveals many cases in which a certification-trail approach allows for significantly faster program execution time than a basic time-redundancy approach. Algorithms for answer-validation of abstract data types allow a certification trail approach to be used for a wide variety of problems. An attempt to assess the performance of algorithms utilizing certification trails on abstract data types is reported. Specifically, this method was applied to the following problems: heapsort, Hullman tree, shortest path, and skyline. Previous results used certification trails specific to a particular problem and implementation. The approach allows certification trails to be localized to 'data structure modules,' making the use of this technique transparent to the user of such modules.

  7. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Potential for Energy Efficiency Improvement Beyond the Light-Duty-Vehicle Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Vyas, A. D.; Patel, D. M.; Bertram, K. M.

    2013-03-01

    Considerable research has focused on energy efficiency and fuel substitution options for light-duty vehicles, while much less attention has been given to medium- and heavy-duty trucks, buses, aircraft, marine vessels, trains, pipeline, and off-road equipment. This report brings together the salient findings from an extensive review of literature on future energy efficiency options for these non-light-duty modes. Projected activity increases to 2050 are combined with forecasts of overall fuel efficiency improvement potential to estimate the future total petroleum and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions relative to current levels. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  8. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Potential for Energy Efficiency Improvement Beyond the Light-Duty-Vehicle Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Vyas, A. D.; Patel, D. M.; Bertram, K. M.

    2013-02-01

    Considerable research has focused on energy efficiency and fuel substitution options for light-duty vehicles, while much less attention has been given to medium- and heavy-duty trucks, buses, aircraft, marine vessels, trains, pipeline, and off-road equipment. This report brings together the salient findings from an extensive review of literature on future energy efficiency options for these non-light-duty modes. Projected activity increases to 2050 are combined with forecasts of overall fuel efficiency improvement potential to estimate the future total petroleum and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions relative to current levels. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  9. Trails of meaning construction: Symbolic artifacts engage the social brain.

    PubMed

    Tylén, Kristian; Philipsen, Johanne Stege; Roepstorff, Andreas; Fusaroli, Riccardo

    2016-07-01

    Symbolic artifacts present a challenge to theories of neurocognitive processing due to their hybrid nature: they are at the same time physical objects and vehicles of intangible social meanings. While their physical properties can be read of their perceptual appearance, the meaning of symbolic artifacts depends on the perceiver's interpretative attitude and embeddedness in cultural practices. In this study, participants built models of LEGO bricks to illustrate their understanding of abstract concepts. They were then scanned with fMRI while presented to photographs of their own and others' models. When participants attended to the meaning of the models in contrast to their bare physical properties, we observed activations in mPFC and TPJ, areas often associated with social cognition, and IFG, possibly related to semantics. When contrasting own and others' models, we also found activations in precuneus, an area associated with autobiographical memory and agency, while looking at one's own collective models yielded interaction effects in rostral ACC, right IFG and left Insula. Interestingly, variability in the insula was predicted by individual differences in participants' feeling of relatedness to their fellow group members during LEGO construction activity. Our findings support a view of symbolic artifacts as neuro-cognitive trails of human social interactions.

  10. Trails of meaning construction: Symbolic artifacts engage the social brain.

    PubMed

    Tylén, Kristian; Philipsen, Johanne Stege; Roepstorff, Andreas; Fusaroli, Riccardo

    2016-07-01

    Symbolic artifacts present a challenge to theories of neurocognitive processing due to their hybrid nature: they are at the same time physical objects and vehicles of intangible social meanings. While their physical properties can be read of their perceptual appearance, the meaning of symbolic artifacts depends on the perceiver's interpretative attitude and embeddedness in cultural practices. In this study, participants built models of LEGO bricks to illustrate their understanding of abstract concepts. They were then scanned with fMRI while presented to photographs of their own and others' models. When participants attended to the meaning of the models in contrast to their bare physical properties, we observed activations in mPFC and TPJ, areas often associated with social cognition, and IFG, possibly related to semantics. When contrasting own and others' models, we also found activations in precuneus, an area associated with autobiographical memory and agency, while looking at one's own collective models yielded interaction effects in rostral ACC, right IFG and left Insula. Interestingly, variability in the insula was predicted by individual differences in participants' feeling of relatedness to their fellow group members during LEGO construction activity. Our findings support a view of symbolic artifacts as neuro-cognitive trails of human social interactions. PMID:27039141

  11. Trail impact monitoring in Rocky Mountain National Park, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svajda, J.; Korony, S.; Brighton, I.; Esser, S.; Ciapala, S.

    2015-11-01

    This paper examines impacts of increased visitation leading to human trampling of vegetation and soil along several trails in Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP) to understand how abiotic factors and level of use can influence trail conditions. RMNP is one of the most visited national parks in the USA with 3.3 million visitors in 2012 across 1075 km2 and 571 km of hiking trails. 95 % of the park is designated wilderness making the balance between preservation and visitor use challenging. This research involves the application of trail condition assessments to 56 km of trails to determine prevailing factors and what, if any, connection between them exist. The study looked at a variety of inventory and impact indicators and standards to determine their importance and to develop a baseline condition of trails. The data can be used for future comparison and evaluation of development trends. We found that trail widening (mean trail width 88.9 cm) and soil loss (cross sectional area 172.7 cm2) are the most visible effects of trail degradation. Further statistical analyses of data identified the role and influence of various factors (e.g. use level and topography). Insights into the influence of these factors can lead to the selection of appropriate management measures to avoid or minimize negative consequences from increased visitation.

  12. Trail impact monitoring in Rocky Mountain National Park, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svajda, J.; Korony, S.; Brighton, I.; Esser, S.; Ciapala, S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines impacts of increased visitation leading to human trampling of vegetation and soil along several trails in Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP) to understand how abiotic factors and level of use can influence trail conditions. RMNP is one of the most visited national parks in the USA, with 3.3 million visitors in 2012 across 1075 km2 and 571 km of hiking trails. 95 % of the park is designated wilderness, making the balance between preservation and visitor use challenging. This research involves the application of trail condition assessments to 56 km of trails to determine prevailing factors and what, if any, connection between them exist. The study looked at a variety of inventory and impact indicators and standards to determine their importance and to develop a baseline condition of trails. The data can be used for future comparison and evaluation of development trends. We found that trail widening (mean trail width 88.9 cm) and soil loss (cross-sectional area 172.7 cm2) are the most visible effects of trail degradation. Further statistical analyses of data identified the role and influence of various factors (e.g., use level and topography). Insights into the influence of these factors can lead to the selection of appropriate management measures to avoid or minimize negative consequences from increased visitation.

  13. HDAC inhibitor treatment of hepatoma cells induces both TRAIL-independent apoptosis and restoration of sensitivity to TRAIL.

    PubMed

    Pathil, Anita; Armeanu, Sorin; Venturelli, Sascha; Mascagni, Paolo; Weiss, Thomas S; Gregor, Michael; Lauer, Ulrich M; Bitzer, Michael

    2006-03-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) displays a striking resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs or innovative tumor cell apoptosis-inducing agents such as tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). Recently, we found 2 histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDAC-I), valproic acid and ITF2357, exhibiting inherent therapeutic activity against HCC. In TRAIL-sensitive cancer cells, the mechanism of HDAC-I-induced cell death has been identified to be TRAIL-dependent by inducing apoptosis in an autocrine fashion. In contrast, in HCC-derived cells, a prototype of TRAIL-resistant tumor cells, we found a HDAC-I-mediated apoptosis that works independently of TRAIL and upregulation of death receptors or their cognate ligands. Interestingly, TRAIL resistance could be overcome by a combinatorial application of HDAC-I and TRAIL, increasing the fraction of apoptotic cells two- to threefold compared with HDAC-I treatment alone, whereas any premature HDAC-I withdrawal rapidly restored TRAIL resistance. Furthermore, a tumor cell-specific downregulation of the FLICE inhibitory protein (FLIP) was observed, constituting a new mechanism of TRAIL sensitivity restoration by HDAC-I. In contrast, FLIP levels in primary human hepatocytes (PHH) from different donors were upregulated by HDAC-I. Importantly, combination HDAC-I/TRAIL treatment did not induce any cytotoxicity in nonmalignant PHH. In conclusion, HDAC-I compounds, exhibiting a favorable in vivo profile and inherent activity against HCC cells, are able to selectively overcome the resistance of HCC cells toward TRAIL. Specific upregulation of intracellular FLIP protein levels in nonmalignant hepatocytes could enhance the therapeutic window for clinical applications of TRAIL, opening up a highly specific new treatment option for advanced HCC. PMID:16583461

  14. Inviscid to turbulent transition of trailing vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iversen, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    The characteristics of the plateau region in the vortex system which trails from a lifting wing are discussed. The decay of the vortex due to viscous or turbulent shear is very slow in the plateau so that the maximum tangential speed in the vortices remains nearly constant for some distance downstream of roll-up and then begins to decrease, becoming inversely proportional to the square root of the distance downstream. Mathematical models are developed to analyze the structure of the plateau area. Solutions are obtained for both constant and variable eddy viscosity models.

  15. Using modeling and simulation to evaluate stability and traction performance of a track-laying robotic vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunter, D. D.; Bylsma, W. W.; Edgar, K.; Letherwood, M. D.; Gorsich, D. J.

    2005-05-01

    DOD has been involved in the research, development and acquisition of unmanned ground vehicle systems to support the troops in the field while minimizing the risks associated with supplying these troops. Engineers and scientists at TARDEC are using computer based modeling and simulation (M&S) to investigate how modifications to unmanned ground vehicles impact their mobility and stability, and to predict performance levels attainable for these types of vehicle systems. The objective of this paper will be to describe the computerbased modeling, simulation, and limited field testing effort that has been undertaken to investigate the dynamic performance of an unmanned tracked vehicle system while conducting a full matrix of tests designed to evaluate system shock, vibration, dynamic stability and off road mobility characteristics. In this paper we will describe the multi-body modeling methodology used as well as the characteristic data incorporated to define the models and their subsystems. The analysis undertaken is applying M&S to baseline the dynamic performance of the vehicle, and comparing these results with performance levels recorded for several manned vehicle systems. We will identify the virtual test matrix over which we executed the models. Finally we will describe our efforts to visualize our findings through the use of computer generated animations of the vehicle system negotiating various virtual automotive tests making up the test matrix.

  16. Analyzing the influence of median cross-section design on highway safety using vehicle dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Stine, Jason S; Hamblin, Bridget C; Brennan, Sean N; Donnell, Eric T

    2010-11-01

    Although vehicle dynamics simulations have long been used in vehicle design and crash reconstruction, their use for highway design is rare. This paper investigates the safety of highway medians through iterative simulations of off-road median encroachments. The commercially available software CarSim was used to simulate over one hundred thousand encroachments, representing the entire passenger vehicle fleet and a wide range of encroachment angles, departure speeds, steering inputs, and braking inputs. Each individual simulation output was then weighted using data from previous studies to reflect the probability of each specific accident scenario occurring in a real-life median encroachment. Results of this analysis illustrate the relative influence of median cross-section geometry on the resulting accident outcomes. The simulations indicate that the overall safety of a highway median depends on the occurrence of both vehicle rollover and median crossover events, and the cross-section shape, slope, and width are all shown to greatly affect each of these incidents. An evaluation of the simulation results was conducted with vehicle trajectories from previous experimental crash tests. Further assessment of the aggregate simulation results to actual crash data was achieved through comparison with several databases of crash statistics. Both efforts showed a strong agreement between the simulations and the real-life crash data.

  17. Trail pheromone disruption of red imported fire ant.

    PubMed

    Suckling, David M; Stringer, Lloyd D; Bunn, Barry; El-Sayed, Ashraf M; Vander Meer, Robert K

    2010-07-01

    The fire ant, Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), is considered one of the most aggressive and invasive species in the world. Toxic bait systems are used widely for control, but they also affect non-target ant species and cannot be used in sensitive ecosystems such as organic farms and national parks. The fire ant uses recruitment pheromones to organize the retrieval of large food resources back to the colony, with Z,E-alpha-farnesene responsible for the orientation of workers along trails. We prepared Z,E-alpha-farnesene, (91% purity) from extracted E,E-alpha-farnesene and demonstrated disruption of worker trail orientation after presentation of an oversupply of this compound from filter paper point sources (30 microg). Trails were established between queen-right colony cells and food sources in plastic tubs. Trail-following behavior was recorded by overhead webcam, and ants were digitized before and after presentation of the treatment, using two software approaches. The linear regression statistic, r(2) was calculated. Ants initially showed high linear trail integrity (r(2) = 0.75). Within seconds of presentation of the Z,E-alpha-farnesene treatment, the trailing ants showed little or no further evidence of trail following behavior in the vicinity of the pheromone source. These results show that trailing fire ants become disorientated in the presence of large amounts of Z,E-alpha-farnesene. Disrupting fire ant recruitment to resources may have a negative effect on colony size or other effects yet to be determined. This phenomenon was demonstrated recently for the Argentine ant, where trails were disrupted for two weeks by using their formulated trail pheromone, Z-9-hexadecenal. Further research is needed to establish the long term effects and control potential for trail disruption in S. invicta.

  18. Trail pheromone disruption of red imported fire ant.

    PubMed

    Suckling, David M; Stringer, Lloyd D; Bunn, Barry; El-Sayed, Ashraf M; Vander Meer, Robert K

    2010-07-01

    The fire ant, Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), is considered one of the most aggressive and invasive species in the world. Toxic bait systems are used widely for control, but they also affect non-target ant species and cannot be used in sensitive ecosystems such as organic farms and national parks. The fire ant uses recruitment pheromones to organize the retrieval of large food resources back to the colony, with Z,E-alpha-farnesene responsible for the orientation of workers along trails. We prepared Z,E-alpha-farnesene, (91% purity) from extracted E,E-alpha-farnesene and demonstrated disruption of worker trail orientation after presentation of an oversupply of this compound from filter paper point sources (30 microg). Trails were established between queen-right colony cells and food sources in plastic tubs. Trail-following behavior was recorded by overhead webcam, and ants were digitized before and after presentation of the treatment, using two software approaches. The linear regression statistic, r(2) was calculated. Ants initially showed high linear trail integrity (r(2) = 0.75). Within seconds of presentation of the Z,E-alpha-farnesene treatment, the trailing ants showed little or no further evidence of trail following behavior in the vicinity of the pheromone source. These results show that trailing fire ants become disorientated in the presence of large amounts of Z,E-alpha-farnesene. Disrupting fire ant recruitment to resources may have a negative effect on colony size or other effects yet to be determined. This phenomenon was demonstrated recently for the Argentine ant, where trails were disrupted for two weeks by using their formulated trail pheromone, Z-9-hexadecenal. Further research is needed to establish the long term effects and control potential for trail disruption in S. invicta. PMID:20549330

  19. An aerial-photographic assessment of reenacted handcart treks on a section of the Mormon Pioneer National Historic Trail, Fremont County, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDougal, Robert R.; Waltermire, Robert G.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Germaine, Stephen S.; Nielsen, Scott E.; Nielsen, Charlene C.; Hanson, Leanne; Bowen, Zachary H.

    2008-01-01

    Based on these results, there are identifiable management considerations. Toilet and rest sites need to be carefully located relative to where sensitive vegetation or soils occur. The analyses presented here indicate that limiting motorized vehicle use needs to be a priority over that of adjusting the number of trekkers. Additionally, monitoring of the Trail from Sixth Crossing to Rock Creek Hollow segment needs to consider explicit management targets, such as minimum acceptable levels of bare ground or trail width, and the establishment of permanent monitoring plots to evaluate targets and measure responses to altered management activities.

  20. 30 CFR 77.605 - Breaking trailing cable and power cable connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Breaking trailing cable and power cable... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 77.605 Breaking trailing cable and power cable... or broken under load....

  1. 30 CFR 77.605 - Breaking trailing cable and power cable connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Breaking trailing cable and power cable... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 77.605 Breaking trailing cable and power cable... or broken under load....

  2. 30 CFR 77.605 - Breaking trailing cable and power cable connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Breaking trailing cable and power cable... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 77.605 Breaking trailing cable and power cable... or broken under load....

  3. Wake evolution and trailing vortex instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odemark, Ylva; Fransson, Jens H. M.

    2011-11-01

    The production losses and inhomogeneous loads of wind power turbines placed in the wake of another turbine is a well-known problem when building new wind power farms, and a subject of intensive research. The present work aims at developing an increased understanding of the behaviour of turbine wakes, with special regard to wake evolution and the stability of the trailing vortices. Single point velocity measurements with hot-wire anemometry were performed in the wake of a small-scale model turbine. The model was placed in the middle of the wind tunnel test section, outside the boundary layers from the wind tunnel walls. In order to study the stability of the wake and the trailing vortices, a disturbance was introduced at the end of the nacelle. This was accomplished through two orifices perpendicular to the main flow, which were connected to a high-pressure tank and two fast-switching valves. Both varicose and sinusoidal modes of different frequencies could be triggered. By also triggering the measurements on the blade passage, the meandering of the wake and the disturbance frequency, phase averaged results could be computed. The results for different frequencies as well as studies of wake evolution will be presented.

  4. Shape Optimization for Trailing Edge Noise Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsden, Alison; Wang, Meng; Mohammadi, Bijan; Moin, Parviz

    2001-11-01

    Noise generated by turbulent boundary layers near the trailing edge of lifting surfaces continues to pose a challenge for many applications. In this study, we explore noise reduction strategies through shape optimization. A gradient based shape design method is formulated and implemented for use with large eddy simulation of the flow over an airfoil. The cost function gradient is calculated using the method of incomplete sensitivities (Mohammadi and Pironneau 2001 ph Applied shape Optimization for Fluids, Oxford Univ. Press). This method has the advantage that effects of geometry changes on the flow field can be neglected when computing the gradient of the cost function, making it far more cost effective than solving the full adjoint problem. Validation studies are presented for a model problem of the unsteady laminar flow over an acoustically compact airfoil. A section of the surface is allowed to deform and the cost function is derived based on aeroacoustic theroy. Rapid convergence of the trailing-edge shape and significant reduction of the noise due to vortex shedding and wake instability have been achieved. The addition of constraints and issues of extension to fully turbulent flows past an acoustically noncompact airfoil are also discussed.

  5. LES tests on airfoil trailing edge serration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, a large number of acoustic simulations are carried out for a low noise airfoil with different Trailing Edge Serrations (TES). The Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FWH) acoustic analogy is used for noise prediction at trailing edge. The acoustic solver is running on the platform of our in-house incompressible flow solver EllipSys3D. The flow solution is first obtained from the Large Eddy Simulation (LES), the acoustic part is then carried out based on the instantaneous hydrodynamic pressure and velocity field. To obtain the time history data of sound pressure, the flow quantities are integrated around the airfoil surface through the FWH approach. For all the simulations, the chord based Reynolds number is around 1.5x106. In the test matrix, the effects from angle of attack, the TE flap angle, the length/width of the TES are investigated. Even though the airfoil under investigation is already optimized for low noise emission, most numerical simulations and wind tunnel experiments show that the noise level is further decreased by adding the TES device.

  6. How do mice follow odor trails?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwicker, David; Trastour, Sophie; Mishra, Shruti; Mathis, Alexander; Murthy, Venkatesh; Brenner, Michael P.

    2015-11-01

    Mice are excellent at following odor trails e.g. to locate food or to find mates. However, it is not yet understood what navigation strategies they use. In principle, they could either evaluate temporal differences between sniffs or they could use concurrent input from the two nostrils. It is unknown to what extend these two strategies contribute to mice's performance. When mice follow trails, odors evaporate from the ground, are transported by flow in the air, and are then inhaled with the two nostrils. In order to differentiate between the two navigation strategies, we determine what information the mouse receives: first, we calculate the airflow by numerically solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. We then determine the spatiotemporal odor concentration from the resulting advection-diffusion equations. Lastly, we determine the odor amount in each nostril by calculating the inhalation volumes using potential flow theory. Taken together, we determine the odor amount in each nostril during each sniff, allowing a detailed study of navigation strategies.

  7. Development and evaluation of an in-vehicle information system

    SciTech Connect

    Spelt, P.F.; Tufano, D.R.; Knee, H.E.

    1997-04-01

    In this paper, the authors introduce an In-Vehicle Information System (IVIS) which will manage messages from a variety of Advanced Traveler Information Services (ATIS) devices which can be installed in a road vehicle. The IVIS serves as the interface between the driver and the driving information environment. Increasingly, aftermarket systems, such as routing and navigation aids, are becoming available which can be added to vehicles to aid in travel and/or the conduct of business in the vehicle. The installation of multiple devices, each with its own driver interface, increases the likelihood of driver distraction and thus the risk of an accident. The goal of this project is the development of a fully-integrated IVIS which will filter, prioritize and display highway and vehicle information safely and efficiently, while also providing an integrated driver interface to a variety of ATIS information sources. Because these devices will be integrated into IVIS as components, they are referred to in this paper as IVIS subsystems. Such a system, using modern digital technology, will tailor information both to the driver`s needs and to the driving environment. A variety of other efforts, both in the Us and abroad, either have been completed or are nearing completion, and the results of these efforts will be incorporated into this present system. IVIS must perform three high level functions (Tufano, et al, 1997). It must (1) interact with (ATIS) subsystems, (2) management information, and (3) interact with the driver. To safely develop and evaluate such a device, a platform must be devised which permits testing in an off-road setting.

  8. Interior of shop, showing the reheat furnaces; the vehicle in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of shop, showing the reheat furnaces; the vehicle in the center is a charging machine the operator of which manipulates steel ingots in the furnace, as well as in the adjacent forging hammers - Bethlehem Steel Corporation, South Bethlehem Works, Tool Steel-Electric Furnace Shop, Along Lehigh River, North of Fourth Street, West of Minsi Trail Bridge, Bethlehem, Northampton County, PA

  9. Caspase-8 activation by TRAIL monotherapy predicts responses to IAPi and TRAIL combination treatment in breast cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Polanski, R; Vincent, J; Polanska, U M; Petreus, T; Tang, E K Y

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of cancer cell-selective tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis generated broad excitement and development of TRAIL receptor agonists (TRA) as potential cancer therapy. Studies demonstrating the synergistic combination effect of SMAC mimetics and TRA further suggested potentially effective treatment in multiple tumour settings. However, predictive biomarkers allowing identification of patients that could respond to treatment are lacking. Here, we described a high throughput combination screen conducted across a panel of 31 breast cancer cell lines in which we observed highly synergistic activity between TRAIL and the inhibitors of apoptosis proteins (IAP) inhibitor (IAPi) AZD5582 in ~30% of cell lines. We detected no difference in the expression levels of the IAPi or TRAIL-targeted proteins or common modulators of the apoptotic pathway between the sensitive and resistant cell lines. Synergistic combination effect of AZD5582 and TRAIL correlated with sensitivity to TRAIL, but not to AZD5582 as a single agent. TRAIL treatment led to significantly greater activity of Caspase-8 in sensitive than in resistant cell lines (P=0.002). The majority (12/14) of AZD5582+TRAIL-resistant cell lines retained a functional cell death pathway, as they were sensitive to AZD5582+TNFα combination treatment. This suggested that failure of the TRAIL receptor complex to transduce the death signal to Caspase-8 underlies AZD5582+TRAIL resistance. We developed a 3D spheroid assay and demonstrated its suitability for the ex vivo analysis of the Caspase-8 activity as a predictive biomarker. Altogether, our study demonstrated a link between the functionality of the TRAIL receptor pathway and the synergistic activity of the IAPi+TRA combination treatment. It also provided a rationale for development of the Caspase-8 activity assay as a functional predictive biomarker that could allow better prediction of the response to IAPi

  10. 30 CFR 75.600 - Trailing cables; flame resistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Trailing cables; flame resistance. 75.600... cables; flame resistance. Trailing cables used in coal mines shall meet the requirements established by the Secretary for flame-resistant cables....

  11. 30 CFR 75.600 - Trailing cables; flame resistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Trailing cables; flame resistance. 75.600... cables; flame resistance. Trailing cables used in coal mines shall meet the requirements established by the Secretary for flame-resistant cables....

  12. 30 CFR 75.600 - Trailing cables; flame resistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Trailing cables; flame resistance. 75.600... cables; flame resistance. Trailing cables used in coal mines shall meet the requirements established by the Secretary for flame-resistant cables....

  13. 30 CFR 75.600 - Trailing cables; flame resistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Trailing cables; flame resistance. 75.600... cables; flame resistance. Trailing cables used in coal mines shall meet the requirements established by the Secretary for flame-resistant cables....

  14. On the Trail of Drug-Defying Superbugs

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Trail of Drug-Defying Superbugs Inside Life Science View All Articles | Inside Life Science Home Page On the Trail of Drug-Defying ... Findings About Our Resident Microbes This Inside Life Science article also appears on LiveScience . Learn about related ...

  15. 36 CFR 261.55 - National Forest System trails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false National Forest System trails. 261.55 Section 261.55 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS Prohibitions in Areas Designated by Order § 261.55 National Forest System trails. When provided...

  16. 36 CFR 261.55 - National Forest System trails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false National Forest System trails. 261.55 Section 261.55 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS Prohibitions in Areas Designated by Order § 261.55 National Forest System trails. When provided...

  17. 36 CFR 261.55 - National Forest System trails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false National Forest System trails. 261.55 Section 261.55 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS Prohibitions in Areas Designated by Order § 261.55 National Forest System trails. When provided...

  18. 36 CFR 261.55 - National Forest System trails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false National Forest System trails. 261.55 Section 261.55 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS Prohibitions in Areas Designated by Order § 261.55 National Forest System trails. When provided...

  19. 36 CFR 261.55 - National Forest System trails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National Forest System trails. 261.55 Section 261.55 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS Prohibitions in Areas Designated by Order § 261.55 National Forest System trails. When provided...

  20. Trail Planning and Layout. Information-Education Bulletin No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbaugh, Byron L.

    Planning, design, construction and educational use of creative and functional trails and walkways are described in a series of guidelines for those interested in designing outdoor recreational facilities. The outdoor trail is described as one of many useful devices through which teachers and naturalists are able to bring the world of nature closer…

  1. 30 CFR 18.35 - Portable (trailing) cables and cords.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... conductor of a current-carrying capacity consistent with the Insulated Power Cable Engineers Association... a portable (trailing) cable shall not exceed 500 feet. Where the method of mining requires the length of a portable (trailing) cable to be more than 500 feet, such length of cable shall be...

  2. 14. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Place of a thousand ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Place of a thousand drips, view with three culvert pipes. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  3. Hydrodynamic Trails Produced by Daphnia: Size and Energetics

    PubMed Central

    Wickramarathna, Lalith N.; Noss, Christian; Lorke, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on quantifying hydrodynamic trails produced by freely swimming zooplankton. We combined volumetric tracking of swimming trajectories with planar observations of the flow field induced by Daphnia of different size and swimming in different patterns. Spatial extension of the planar flow field along the trajectories was used to interrogate the dimensions (length and volume) and energetics (dissipation rate of kinetic energy and total dissipated power) of the trails. Our findings demonstrate that neither swimming pattern nor size of the organisms affect the trail width or the dissipation rate. However, we found that the trail volume increases with increasing organism size and swimming velocity, more precisely the trail volume is proportional to the third power of Reynolds number. This increase furthermore results in significantly enhanced total dissipated power at higher Reynolds number. The biggest trail volume observed corresponds to about 500 times the body volume of the largest daphnids. Trail-averaged viscous dissipation rate of the swimming daphnids vary in the range of to and the observed magnitudes of total dissipated power between and , respectively. Among other zooplankton species, daphnids display the highest total dissipated power in their trails. These findings are discussed in the context of fluid mixing and transport by organisms swimming at intermediate Reynolds numbers. PMID:24671019

  4. Discussion on "The Trail" from the Perspective of Christianism Theology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jing

    2008-01-01

    Kafka is a writer of strong religious complex. In "The Trail," he illustrates his religious thoughts by probing into the alienation of modern human beings from the God and also shows his pursuit and befuddlement of beliefs. This paper analyzes the crimes and punishment in "The Trail" through three parts, the accusation of…

  5. 30 CFR 77.606 - Energized trailing cables; handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Energized trailing cables; handling. 77.606 Section 77.606 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 77.606...

  6. 30 CFR 75.828 - Trailing cable pulling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Trailing cable pulling. 75.828 Section 75.828 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Underground High-Voltage Distribution High-Voltage Longwalls § 75.828 Trailing cable...

  7. Rail Trails and Property Values: Is There an Association?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartenian, Ella; Horton, Nicholas J.

    2015-01-01

    The Rail Trail and Property Values dataset includes information on a set of n = 104 homes which sold in Northampton, Massachusetts in 2007. The dataset provides house information (square footage, acreage, number of bedrooms, etc.), price estimates (from Zillow.com) at four time points, location, distance from a rail trail in the community, biking…

  8. View of blind curve along National Old Trails Road, about ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of blind curve along National Old Trails Road, about 1,000 feet from top, facing north. - La Bajada Historic Trails and Roads, Approximately 1 mile East/Northeast of intersection of State Highway 16 and Indian Service Road 841, La Bajada, Santa Fe County, NM

  9. Audit Trail Management System in Community Health Care Information Network.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Naoki; Nakayama, Masaharu; Nakaya, Jun; Tominaga, Teiji; Suganuma, Takuo; Shiratori, Norio

    2015-01-01

    After the Great East Japan Earthquake we constructed a community health care information network system. Focusing on the authentication server and portal server capable of SAML&ID-WSF, we proposed an audit trail management system to look over audit events in a comprehensive manner. Through implementation and experimentation, we verified the effectiveness of our proposed audit trail management system.

  10. State Secret: North Carolina and the Cherokee Trail of Tears

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, James

    2008-01-01

    This paper is an analytic essay that examines the treatment of the Cherokee Trail of Tears in a North Carolina fourth grade textbook. I begin by offering a satiric look at an imaginary textbook's treatment of the Holocaust that is based closely on the actual narrative of the Trail of Tears written in the fourth grade text. Following this, close…

  11. Into the Woods: A 6th-Grade Nature Trail.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilburn, Douglas

    1983-01-01

    Describes an ecology project in which sixth-grade students built and operated a nature trail on the edge of school property. Classes toured the trail and participated in grade-appropriate follow-up activities (e.g., art lessons and soil analysis activities). (RH)

  12. 43 CFR 420.12 - Requirements-operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE Operating Criteria § 420.12 Requirements—operators. (a) In addition... off-road vehicles; if State laws are lacking or less stringent than the regulations established in... operator of an off-road vehicle operated on Reclamation lands shall possess a valid motor vehicle...

  13. 43 CFR 8343.1 - Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS OFF-ROAD VEHICLES Vehicle Operations § 8343.1 Standards. (a) No off-road vehicle may be operated on public lands unless equipped with brakes in good working condition. (b) No off-road vehicle equipped with a muffler cutout, bypass, or similar device, or...

  14. Effective Dynamics of Microorganisms That Interact with Their Own Trail.

    PubMed

    Kranz, W Till; Gelimson, Anatolij; Zhao, Kun; Wong, Gerard C L; Golestanian, Ramin

    2016-07-15

    Like ants, some microorganisms are known to leave trails on surfaces to communicate. We explore how trail-mediated self-interaction could affect the behavior of individual microorganisms when diffusive spreading of the trail is negligible on the time scale of the microorganism using a simple phenomenological model for an actively moving particle and a finite-width trail. The effective dynamics of each microorganism takes on the form of a stochastic integral equation with the trail interaction appearing in the form of short-term memory. For a moderate coupling strength below an emergent critical value, the dynamics exhibits effective diffusion in both orientation and position after a phase of superdiffusive reorientation. We report experimental verification of a seemingly counterintuitive perpendicular alignment mechanism that emerges from the model. PMID:27472143

  15. Partially turbulated trailing edge cooling passages for gas turbine nozzles

    DOEpatents

    Thatcher, Jonathan Carl; Burdgick, Steven Sebastian

    2001-01-01

    A plurality of passages are spaced one from the other along the length of a trailing edge of a nozzle vane in a gas turbine. The passages lie in communication with a cavity in the vane for flowing cooling air from the cavity through the passages through the tip of the trailing edge into the hot gas path. Each passage is partially turbulated and includes ribs in an aft portion thereof to provide enhanced cooling effects adjacent the tip of the trailing edge. The major portions of the passages are smooth bore. By this arrangement, reduced temperature gradients across the trailing edge metal are provided. Additionally, the inlets to each of the passages have a restriction whereby a reduced magnitude of compressor bleed discharge air is utilized for trailing edge cooling purposes.

  16. Fast and Flexible: Argentine Ants Recruit from Nearby Trails

    PubMed Central

    Flanagan, Tatiana P.; Pinter-Wollman, Noa M.; Moses, Melanie E.; Gordon, Deborah M.

    2013-01-01

    Argentine ants (Linepithema humile) live in groups of nests connected by trails to each other and to stable food sources. In a field study, we investigated whether some ants recruit directly from established, persistent trails to food sources, thus accelerating food collection. Our results indicate that Argentine ants recruit nestmates to food directly from persistent trails, and that the exponential increase in the arrival rate of ants at baits is faster than would be possible if recruited ants traveled from distant nests. Once ants find a new food source, they walk back and forth between the bait and sometimes share food by trophallaxis with nestmates on the trail. Recruiting ants from nearby persistent trails creates a dynamic circuit, like those found in other distributed systems, which facilitates a quick response to changes in available resources. PMID:23967129

  17. Health Impact Assessment, Physical Activity and Federal Lands Trail Policy

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Sally M.; Cruz, Theresa H.; Kozoll, Richard L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of this paper are to describe the application of Health Impact Assessment (HIA) to inform trail decisions affecting a rural, under-resourced community and propose the routine integration of HIAs to enhance NEPA environmental assessments and environmental impact statements for trail decisions on federal lands. Methods Screening, scoping, assessment, recommendations, reporting, monitoring and evaluation are being used to examine the health impact of trail location and design. Results HIA recommendations are being integrated into the public lands National Environmental Protection Act process for planning access to a new segment of the Continental Divide National Scenic Trail. Potential users from a nearby rural New Mexico community and a region of almost one million may benefit from this HIA-informed planning. Conclusions HIA can be integrated into the policy and decision-making process for trails on public lands. PMID:27213163

  18. Effective Dynamics of Microorganisms That Interact with Their Own Trail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kranz, W. Till; Gelimson, Anatolij; Zhao, Kun; Wong, Gerard C. L.; Golestanian, Ramin

    2016-07-01

    Like ants, some microorganisms are known to leave trails on surfaces to communicate. We explore how trail-mediated self-interaction could affect the behavior of individual microorganisms when diffusive spreading of the trail is negligible on the time scale of the microorganism using a simple phenomenological model for an actively moving particle and a finite-width trail. The effective dynamics of each microorganism takes on the form of a stochastic integral equation with the trail interaction appearing in the form of short-term memory. For a moderate coupling strength below an emergent critical value, the dynamics exhibits effective diffusion in both orientation and position after a phase of superdiffusive reorientation. We report experimental verification of a seemingly counterintuitive perpendicular alignment mechanism that emerges from the model.

  19. Trailing edge flow conditions as a factor in airfoil design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ormsbee, A. I.; Maughmer, M. D.

    1984-01-01

    Some new developments relevant to the design of single-element airfoils using potential flow methods are presented. In particular, the role played by the non-dimensional trailing edge velocity in design is considered and the relationship between the specified value and the resulting airfoil geometry is explored. In addition, the ramifications of the unbounded trailing edge pressure gradients generally present in the potential flow solution of the flow over an airfoil are examined, and the conditions necessary to obtain a class of airfoils having finite trailing edge pressure gradients developed. The incorporation of these conditions into the inverse method of Eppler is presented and the modified scheme employed to generate a number of airfoils for consideration. The detailed viscous analysis of airfoils having finite trailing edge pressure gradients demonstrates a reduction in the strong inviscid-viscid interactions generally present near the trailing edge of an airfoil.

  20. 43 CFR 420.25 - Reclamation lands administered by other agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE Designated Areas and Permitted Events § 420.25 Reclamation lands administered by other agencies. (a) Off-road vehicle use will be administered in...

  1. 43 CFR 420.24 - Permits for organized events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE Designated Areas and Permitted Events § 420.24 Permits for organized events. Regional Directors may issue permits for the operation of off-road vehicles in...

  2. 43 CFR 420.1 - Objectives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.1 Objectives. The provisions of this part establish regulations for off-road vehicle use on reclamation lands to protect the land resources, to promote the safety of all...

  3. Trailing Ballute Aerocapture: Concept and Feasibility Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Kevin L.; Gulick, Doug; Lewis, Jake; Trochman, Bill; Stein, Jim; Lyons, Daniel T.; Wilmoth, Richard G.

    2003-01-01

    Trailing Ballute Aerocapture offers the potential to obtain orbit insertion around a planetary body at a fraction of the mass of traditional methods. This allows for lower costs for launch, faster flight times and additional mass available for science payloads. The technique involves an inflated ballute (balloon-parachute) that provides aerodynamic drag area for use in the atmosphere of a planetary body to provide for orbit insertion in a relatively benign heating environment. To account for atmospheric, navigation and other uncertainties, the ballute is oversized and detached once the desired velocity change (Delta V) has been achieved. Analysis and trades have been performed for the purpose of assessing the feasibility of the technique including aerophysics, material assessments, inflation system and deployment sequence and dynamics, configuration trades, ballute separation and trajectory analysis. Outlined is the technology development required for advancing the technique to a level that would allow it to be viable for use in space exploration missions.

  4. Wind turbine trailing edge aerodynamic brakes

    SciTech Connect

    Migliore, P G; Miller, L S; Quandt, G A

    1995-04-01

    Five trailing-edge devices were investigated to determine their potential as wind-turbine aerodynamic brakes, and for power modulation and load alleviation. Several promising configurations were identified. A new device, called the spoiler-flap, appears to be the best alternative. It is a simple device that is effective at all angles of attack. It is not structurally intrusive, and it has the potential for small actuating loads. It is shown that simultaneous achievement of a low lift/drag ratio and high drag is the determinant of device effectiveness, and that these attributes must persist up to an angle of attack of 45{degree}. It is also argued that aerodynamic brakes must be designed for a wind speed of at least 45 m/s (100 mph).

  5. Complete trails of coauthorship network evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Deokjae; Goh, K.-I.; Kahng, B.; Kim, D.

    2010-08-01

    The rise and fall of a research field is the cumulative outcome of its intrinsic scientific value and social coordination among scientists. The structure of the social component is quantifiable by the social network of researchers linked via coauthorship relations, which can be tracked through digital records. Here, we use such coauthorship data in theoretical physics and study their complete evolutionary trail since inception, with a particular emphasis on the early transient stages. We find that the coauthorship networks evolve through three common major processes in time: the nucleation of small isolated components, the formation of a treelike giant component through cluster aggregation, and the entanglement of the network by large-scale loops. The giant component is constantly changing yet robust upon link degradations, forming the network’s dynamic core. The observed patterns are successfully reproducible through a network model.

  6. Complete trails of coauthorship network evolution.

    PubMed

    Lee, Deokjae; Goh, K-I; Kahng, B; Kim, D

    2010-08-01

    The rise and fall of a research field is the cumulative outcome of its intrinsic scientific value and social coordination among scientists. The structure of the social component is quantifiable by the social network of researchers linked via coauthorship relations, which can be tracked through digital records. Here, we use such coauthorship data in theoretical physics and study their complete evolutionary trail since inception, with a particular emphasis on the early transient stages. We find that the coauthorship networks evolve through three common major processes in time: the nucleation of small isolated components, the formation of a treelike giant component through cluster aggregation, and the entanglement of the network by large-scale loops. The giant component is constantly changing yet robust upon link degradations, forming the network's dynamic core. The observed patterns are successfully reproducible through a network model.

  7. Trail-A Tokamak RAIL Gun Limiter

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, W.S; Fillo, J.A.; Powell, J.R.; Usher, J.L.

    1984-09-01

    An attractive new limiter concept is investigated. The Tokamak RAIl Gun Limiter (TRAIL) system directs a stream of moderate velocity pellets (100 to 200 m/s) through the plasma edge region to absorb energy and define the plasma boundary. The pellets are recycled, after cooling, to the injector in an electromagnetic mass accelerator. Heat fluxes of about30000 W/cm/sup 2/ can be readily accommodated by the pellets, with very low recirculating power requirements ( about0.1%) for the accelerator. The mass accelerator velocity requirements are well within the present state of the art (several kilometres per second). Accelerators injecting pellets at about1 km/s can be used to control local plasma temperature and current profiles and to act as energy absorbers to shut down the plasma without damage to the first wall if a plasma disruption occurs.

  8. TRAIL: a tokamak rail gun limiter

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, W S; Powell, J R; Usher, J L

    1980-01-01

    An attractive new limiter concept is investigated. The TRAIL (Tokamak Rail Gun Limiter) system impacts a stream of moderate velocity pellets (100 to 200 m/sec through the plasma edge region to absorb energy and define the plasma boundary. The pellets are recycled after cooling, to the injector of an E-M mass accelerator. Heat fluxes of approx. 30,000 W/cm/sup 2/ can be readily accommodated by the pellets, with very low recirculating power requirements (approx. 0.1%) for the accelerator. The mass accelerator velocity requirements are well within the present state of the art (several Km/sec). Accelerators injecting pellets at approx. 1 Km/sec can be used to control local plasma temperature and current profiles and to act as energy absorbers to shut down the plasma without damage to the first wall if a plasma disruption occurs.

  9. TRAIL: a tokamak rail gun limiter

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, W.S.; Powell, J.R.; Usher, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    An attractive new limiter concept is investigated. The TRAIL (Tokamak Rail Gun Limiter) system impacts a stream of moderate velocity pellets (100 to 200 m/sec through the plasma edge region to absorb energy and define the plasma boundary. The pellets are recycled, after cooling, to the injector in an E-M mass accelerator. Heat fluxes of approx. 30,000 W/cm/sup 2/ can be readily accommodated by the pellets, with very low recirculating power requirements (approx. 0.1%) for the accelerator. The mass accelerator velocity requirements are well within the present state-of-the-art (several km/sec). Accelerators injecting pellets at approx. 1 km/sec can be used to control local plasma temperature and current profiles and to act as energy absorbers to shut down the plasma without damage to the first wall if a plasma disruption occurs.

  10. Constraint-based semi-autonomy for unmanned ground vehicles using local sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Sterling J.; Karumanchi, Sisir B.; Johnson, Bryan; Perlin, Victor; Rohde, Mitchell; Iagnemma, Karl

    2012-06-01

    Teleoperated vehicles are playing an increasingly important role in a variety of military functions. While advantageous in many respects over their manned counterparts, these vehicles also pose unique challenges when it comes to safely avoiding obstacles. Not only must operators cope with difficulties inherent to the manned driving task, but they must also perform many of the same functions with a restricted field of view, limited depth perception, potentially disorienting camera viewpoints, and significant time delays. In this work, a constraint-based method for enhancing operator performance by seamlessly coordinating human and controller commands is presented. This method uses onboard LIDAR sensing to identify environmental hazards, designs a collision-free path homotopy traversing that environment, and coordinates the control commands of a driver and an onboard controller to ensure that the vehicle trajectory remains within a safe homotopy. This system's performance is demonstrated via off-road teleoperation of a Kawasaki Mule in an open field among obstacles. In these tests, the system safely avoids collisions and maintains vehicle stability even in the presence of "routine" operator error, loss of operator attention, and complete loss of communications.

  11. Active Management of Flap-Edge Trailing Vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenblatt, David; Yao, Chung-Sheng; Vey, Stefan; Paschereit, Oliver C.; Meyer, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The vortex hazard produced by large airliners and increasingly larger airliners entering service, combined with projected rapid increases in the demand for air transportation, is expected to act as a major impediment to increased air traffic capacity. Significant reduction in the vortex hazard is possible, however, by employing active vortex alleviation techniques that reduce the wake severity by dynamically modifying its vortex characteristics, providing that the techniques do not degrade performance or compromise safety and ride quality. With this as background, a series of experiments were performed, initially at NASA Langley Research Center and subsequently at the Berlin University of Technology in collaboration with the German Aerospace Center. The investigations demonstrated the basic mechanism for managing trailing vortices using retrofitted devices that are decoupled from conventional control surfaces. The basic premise for managing vortices advanced here is rooted in the erstwhile forgotten hypothesis of Albert Betz, as extended and verified ingeniously by Coleman duPont Donaldson and his collaborators. Using these devices, vortices may be perturbed at arbitrarily long wavelengths down to wavelengths less than a typical airliner wingspan and the oscillatory loads on the wings, and hence the vehicle, are small. Significant flexibility in the specific device has been demonstrated using local passive and active separation control as well as local circulation control via Gurney flaps. The method is now in a position to be tested in a wind tunnel with a longer test section on a scaled airliner configuration. Alternatively, the method can be tested directly in a towing tank, on a model aircraft, a light aircraft or a full-scale airliner. The authors believed that this method will have significant appeal from an industry perspective due to its retrofit potential with little to no impact on cruise (devices tucked away in the cove or retracted); low operating power

  12. Piperlongumine and immune cytokine TRAIL synergize to promote tumor death

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiahe; Sharkey, Charles C.; King, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Malignant transformation results in increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Adaption to this toxic stress allows cancer cells to proliferate. Recently, piperlongumine (PL), a natural alkaloid, was identified to exhibit novel anticancer effects by targeting ROS signaling. PL induces apoptosis specifically in cancer cells by downregulating several anti-apoptotic proteins. Notably, the same anti-apoptotic proteins were previously found to reduce tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis in cancer cells. Therefore, we reasoned that PL would synergize with TRAIL to stimulate potent apoptosis in cancer cells. We demonstrate for the first time that PL and TRAIL exhibit a synergistic anti-cancer effect in cancer cell lines of various origins. PL resulted in the upregulation of TRAIL receptor DR5, which potentiated TRAIL-induced apoptosis in cancer cells. Furthermore, such upregulation was found to be dependent on ROS and the activation of JNK and p38 kinases. Treatment with combined PL and TRAIL demonstrated significant anti-proliferative effects in a triple-negative breast cancer MDA-MB-231 xenograft model. This work provides a novel therapeutic approach for inducing cancer cell death. Combination of PL and TRAIL may suggest a novel paradigm for treatment of primary and metastatic tumors. PMID:25984950

  13. Quinacrine sensitizes hepatocellular carcinoma cells to TRAIL and chemotherapeutic agents.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenge; Gallant, Jean-Nicolas; Katz, Sharyn I; Dolloff, Nathan G; Smith, Charles D; Abdulghani, Junaid; Allen, Joshua E; Dicker, David T; Hong, Bo; Navaraj, Arunasalam; El-Deiry, Wafik S

    2011-08-01

    Quinacrine has been widely explored in treatment of malaria, giardiasis, and rheumatic diseases. We find that quinacrine stabilizes p53 and induces p53-dependent and independent cell death. Treatment by quinacrine alone at concentrations of 10-20 mM for 1-2 d cannot kill hepatocellular carcinoma cells, such as HepG2, Hep3B, Huh7, which are also resistant to TRAIL. However, quinacrine renders these cells sensitive to treatment by TRAIL. Co-treatment of these cells with quinacrine and TRAIL induces overwhelming cell death within 3-4 h. Levels of DR5, a pro-apoptotic death receptor of TRAIL, are increased upon treatment with quinacrine, while levels of Mcl-1, an anti-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family, are decreased. While the synergistic effect of quinacrine with TRAIL appears to be in part independent of p53, knockdown of p53 in HepG2 cells by siRNA results in more cell death after treatment by quinacrine and TRAIL. The mechanism by which quinacrine sensitizes hepatocellular carcinoma cells to TRAIL and chemotherapies, and the potential for clinical application currently are being further explored. Lastly, quinacrine synergizes with chemotherapeutics, such as adriamycin, 5-FU, etoposide, CPT11, sorafenib, and gemcitabine, in killing hepatocellular carcinoma cells in vitro and the drug enhances the activity of sorafenib to delay tumor growth in vivo. PMID:21725212

  14. An experimental assessment of vehicle disturbance effects on migratory shorebirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tarr, N.M.; Simons, T.R.; Pollock, K.H.

    2010-01-01

    Off-road vehicle (ORV) traffic is one of several forms of disturbance thought to affect shorebirds at migration stopover sites. Attempts to measure disturbance effects on shorebird habitat use and behavior at stopover sites are difficult because ORV disturbance is frequently confounded with habitat and environmental factors. We used a before-after-control-impact experimental design to isolate effects of vehicle disturbance from shorebird responses to environmental and habitat factors. We manipulated disturbance levels within beach closures along South Core Banks, North Carolina, USA, and measured changes in shorebird abundance and location, as well as the activity of one focal species, the sanderling (Calidris alba), within paired control and impact plots. We applied a discrete treatment level of one flee-response-inducing event every 10 minutes on impact plots. We found that disturbance reduced total shorebird and black-bellied plover (Pluvialis squatarola) abundance and reduced relative use of microhabitat zones above the swash zone (wet sand and dry sand) by sanderlings, black-bellied plovers, willets (Tringa semipalmata), and total shorebirds. Sanderlings and total shorebirds increased use of the swash zone in response to vehicle disturbance. Disturbance reduced use of study plots by sanderlings for resting and increased sanderling activity, but we did not detect an effect of vehicle disturbance on sanderling foraging activity. We provide the first estimates of how a discrete level of disturbance affects shorebird distributions among ocean beach microhabitats. Our findings provide a standard to which managers can compare frequency and intensity of disturbance events at other shorebird stopover and roosting sites and indicate that limiting disturbance will contribute to use of a site by migratory shorebirds. ?? 2010 The Wildlife Society.

  15. Probe-Based Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy for Imaging TRAIL-Expressing Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Monitor Colon Xenograft Tumors In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhen; Li, Ming; Chen, Feixue; Li, Lixiang; Liu, Jun; Li, Zhen; Ji, Rui; Zuo, Xiuli; Li, Yanqing

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can serve as vehicles for therapeutic genes. However, little is known about MSC behavior in vivo. Here, we demonstrated that probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE) can be used to track MSCs in vivo and individually monitor tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) gene expression within carcinomas. Methods Isolated BALB/c nu/nu mice MSCs (MSCs) were characterized and engineered to co-express the TRAIL and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) genes. The number of MSCs co-expressing EGFP and TRAIL (TRAIL-MSCs) at tumor sites was quantified with pCLE in vivo, while their presence was confirmed using immunofluorescence (IF) and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The therapeutic effects of TRAIL-MSCs were evaluated by measuring the volumes and weights of subcutaneous HT29-derived xenograft tumors. Results Intravital imaging of the subcutaneous xenograft tumors revealed that BALB/c mice treated with TRAIL-MSCs exhibited specific cellular signals, whereas no specific signals were observed in the control mice. The findings from the pCLE images were consistent with the IF and qPCR results. Conclusion The pCLE results indicated that endomicroscopy could effectively quantify injected MSCs that homed to subcutaneous xenograft tumor sites in vivo and correlated well with the therapeutic effects of the TRAIL gene. By applying pCLE for the in vivo monitoring of cellular trafficking, stem cell-based anticancer gene therapeutic approaches might be feasible and attractive options for individualized clinical treatments. PMID:27617958

  16. Maternal Plasma Soluble TRAIL is Decreased in Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Chaemsaithong, Piya; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Romero, Roberto; Korzeniewski, Steven J.; Stampalija, Tamara; Than, Nandor Gabor; Dong, Zhong; Miranda, Jezid; Yeo, Lami; Hassan, Sonia S

    2014-01-01

    Objective Preeclampsia (PE) is characterized by systemic intravascular inflammation. Women who develop PE are at an increased risk for cardiovascular disease in later life. Tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) has anti-atherosclerotic effects in endothelial cells and can mediate neutrophil apoptosis. Low soluble TRAIL (sTRAIL) and high C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations are associated with an increased risk of future cardiovascular disease in non-pregnant individuals. The aim of this study was to determine whether maternal plasma concentrations of sTRAIL and CRP differ between women with PE and those with uncomplicated pregnancies. Methods This cross-sectional study included women with an uncomplicated pregnancy (n=93) and those with PE (n=52). Maternal plasma concentrations of sTRAIL and CRP concentrations were determined by ELISA. Results 1) The median plasma sTRAIL concentration (pg/mL) was significantly lower and the median plasma CRP concentration was significantly higher in women with PE than in those with an uncomplicated pregnancy (25.55 vs. 29.17; p = 0.03 and 8.0 vs. 4.1; p=0.001, respectively); 2) the median plasma concentration sTRAIL/CRP ratio was twofold lower in women with PE than in those with an uncomplicated pregnancy (p<0.001); and 3) women with plasma sTRAIL and CRP ratio in the lowest quartile were eight times more likely to have PE than women with concentrations in the upper three quartiles (OR 8.9; 95% CI: 2.8–27.8). Conclusion Maternal plasma sTRAIL concentrations are lower (while those of CRP are higher) in women with PE than in those with uncomplicated pregnancies. These findings are consistent with the evidence of intravascular inflammation in this disorder. PMID:23688319

  17. Ambient air conditions and variation in urban trail use.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Ann M; Lindsey, Greg; Qiu, Chenchen

    2009-11-01

    This study examines the effect of air quality and administrative policies on use of urban trails in Indianapolis, IN. Attention is focused on two policy variables: (1) issuance of air pollution advisories and (2) the adoption of Daylight Savings Time. Results suggest that while trail use varies with air quality, current public advisories regarding air pollution may be of limited effectiveness in reducing trail users' exposures to hazardous pollutants. In contrast, the adoption of Daylight Savings Time was associated with a statistically significant increase in traffic levels.

  18. Trails of Kilovolt Ions Created by Subsurface Channeling

    SciTech Connect

    Redinger, Alex; Standop, Sebastian; Michely, Thomas; Rosandi, Yudi; Urbassek, Herbert M.

    2010-02-19

    Using scanning tunneling microscopy, we observe the damage trails produced by keV noble-gas ions incident at glancing angles onto Pt(111). Surface vacancies and adatoms aligned along the ion trajectory constitute the ion trails. Atomistic simulations reveal that these straight trails are produced by nuclear (elastic) collisions with surface layer atoms during subsurface channeling of the projectiles. In a small energy window around 5 keV, Xe{sup +} ions create vacancy grooves that mark the ion trajectory with atomic precision. The asymmetry of the adatom production on the two sides of the projectile path is traced back to the asymmetry of the ion's subsurface channel.

  19. Modelling landscape-scale erosion potential related to vehicle disturbances along the U.S.-Mexico border

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Villarreal, Miguel; Webb, Robert H.; Norman, Laura M.; Psillas, Jennifer L.; Rosenberg, Abigail S.; Carmichael, Shinji; Petrakis, Roy E.; Sparks, Philip E.

    2014-01-01

    Decades of intensive off-road vehicle use for border security, immigration, smuggling, recreation, and military training along the USA–Mexico border have prompted concerns about long-term human impacts on sensitive desert ecosystems. To help managers identify areas susceptible to soil erosion from anthropogenic activities, we developed a series of erosion potential models based on factors from the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE). To better express the vulnerability of soils to human disturbances, we refined two factors whose categorical and spatial representations limit the application of the USLE for non-agricultural landscapes: the C-factor (vegetation cover) and the P-factor (support practice/management). A soil compaction index (P-factor) was calculated as the difference in saturated hydrologic conductivity (Ks) between disturbed and undisturbed soils, which was then scaled up to maps of vehicle disturbances digitized from aerial photography. The C-factor was improved using a satellite-based vegetation index, which was better correlated with estimated ground cover (r2 = 0·77) than data derived from land cover (r2 = 0·06). We identified 9,780 km of unauthorized off-road tracks in the 2,800-km2 study area. Maps of these disturbances, when integrated with soil compaction data using the USLE, provided landscape-scale information on areas vulnerable to erosion from both natural processes and human activities and are detailed enough for adaptive management and restoration planning. The models revealed erosion potential hotspots adjacent to the border and within areas managed as critical habitat for the threatened flat-tailed horned lizard and endangered Sonoran pronghorn.

  20. Effect of Trail Bifurcation Asymmetry and Pheromone Presence or Absence on Trail Choice by Lasius niger Ants.

    PubMed

    Forster, Antonia; Czaczkes, Tomer J; Warner, Emma; Woodall, Tom; Martin, Emily; Ratnieks, Francis L W; Herberstein, M

    2014-08-01

    During foraging, ant workers are known to make use of multiple information sources, such as private information (personal memory) and social information (trail pheromones). Environmental effects on foraging, and how these interact with other information sources, have, however, been little studied. One environmental effect is trail bifurcation asymmetry. Ants forage on branching trail networks and must often decide which branch to take at a junction (bifurcation). This is an important decision, as finding food sources relies on making the correct choices at bifurcations. Bifurcation angle may provide important information when making this choice. We used a Y-maze with a pivoting 90° bifurcation to study trail choice of Lasius niger foragers at varying branch asymmetries (0°, [both branches 45° from straight ahead], 30° [branches at 30° and 60° from straight ahead], 45°, 60° and 90° [one branch straight ahead, the other at 90°]). The experiment was carried out either with equal amounts of trail pheromone on both branches of the bifurcation or with pheromone present on only one branch. Our results show that with equal pheromone, trail asymmetry has a significant effect on trail choice. Ants preferentially follow the branch deviating least from straight, and this effect increases as asymmetry increases (47% at 0°, 54% at 30°, 57% at 45°, 66% at 60° and 73% at 90°). However, when pheromone is only present on one branch, the graded effect of asymmetry disappears. Overall, however, there is an effect of asymmetry as the preference of ants for the pheromone-marked branch over the unmarked branch is reduced from 65%, when it is the less deviating branch, to 53%, when it is the more deviating branch. These results demonstrate that trail asymmetry influences ant decision-making at bifurcations and that this information interacts with trail pheromone presence in a non-hierarchical manner. PMID:25400307

  1. Regulation in the targeting of TRAIL receptor 1 to cell surface via GODZ for TRAIL sensitivity in tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Oh, Y; Jeon, Y-J; Hong, G-S; Kim, I; Woo, H-N; Jung, Y-K

    2012-07-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and its receptors, TRAIL-R1 (DR4) and TRAIL-R2 (DR5), promote the selective clearing of various malignancies by inducing apoptosis, holding the promise as a potent therapeutic agent for anticancer. Though DR4 and DR5 have high sequence similarity, differential regulation of both receptors in human tumor cells remains largely unexplored. Here, we repot that golgi-specific Asp-His-His-Cys (DHHC) zinc finger protein (GODZ) regulates TRAIL/DR4-mediated apoptosis. Using the SOS protein recruitment-yeast two-hybrid screening, we isolated GODZ that interacted with the death domain of DR4. GODZ binds to DR4, but not to DR5, through the DHHC and the C-terminal transmembrane domain. Expression level of GODZ affects apoptosis of tumor cells triggered by TRAIL, but not that induced by TNF-α/cycloheximide (CHX) or DNA-damaging drugs. In parallel, GODZ functions to localize DR4 to the plasma membrane (PM) via DHHC motif. Also, introduction of mutation into the cysteine-rich motif of DR4 results in its mistargeting and attenuates TRAIL- or GODZ-mediated apoptosis. Interestingly, GODZ expression is highly downregulated in Hep-3B tumor cells, which show resistance to TRAIL. However, reconstitution of GODZ expression enhances the targeting of DR4 to cell surface and sensitizes Hep-3B cells to TRAIL. Taken together, these data establish that GODZ is a novel DR4-selective regulator responsible for targeting of DR4 to the PM, and thereby for TRAIL-induced apoptosis. PMID:22240897

  2. Effect of Trail Bifurcation Asymmetry and Pheromone Presence or Absence on Trail Choice by Lasius niger Ants.

    PubMed

    Forster, Antonia; Czaczkes, Tomer J; Warner, Emma; Woodall, Tom; Martin, Emily; Ratnieks, Francis L W; Herberstein, M

    2014-08-01

    During foraging, ant workers are known to make use of multiple information sources, such as private information (personal memory) and social information (trail pheromones). Environmental effects on foraging, and how these interact with other information sources, have, however, been little studied. One environmental effect is trail bifurcation asymmetry. Ants forage on branching trail networks and must often decide which branch to take at a junction (bifurcation). This is an important decision, as finding food sources relies on making the correct choices at bifurcations. Bifurcation angle may provide important information when making this choice. We used a Y-maze with a pivoting 90° bifurcation to study trail choice of Lasius niger foragers at varying branch asymmetries (0°, [both branches 45° from straight ahead], 30° [branches at 30° and 60° from straight ahead], 45°, 60° and 90° [one branch straight ahead, the other at 90°]). The experiment was carried out either with equal amounts of trail pheromone on both branches of the bifurcation or with pheromone present on only one branch. Our results show that with equal pheromone, trail asymmetry has a significant effect on trail choice. Ants preferentially follow the branch deviating least from straight, and this effect increases as asymmetry increases (47% at 0°, 54% at 30°, 57% at 45°, 66% at 60° and 73% at 90°). However, when pheromone is only present on one branch, the graded effect of asymmetry disappears. Overall, however, there is an effect of asymmetry as the preference of ants for the pheromone-marked branch over the unmarked branch is reduced from 65%, when it is the less deviating branch, to 53%, when it is the more deviating branch. These results demonstrate that trail asymmetry influences ant decision-making at bifurcations and that this information interacts with trail pheromone presence in a non-hierarchical manner.

  3. 43 CFR 420.5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.5 Definitions. As used in this part, the term: (a) Off-road vehicle means... travel on or immediately over land, water, sand, snow, ice, marsh, swampland, or natural terrain. The... Commissioner, Bureau of Reclamation. (d) Off-road vehicle area means a portion or all of a...

  4. 75 FR 10307 - Notice of Availability of a Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Cape Hatteras National Seashore

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ... regulations and procedures that would manage off-road vehicle (ORV) use/access in the Seashore to protect and... that routes and areas designated for off-road vehicle use shall be promulgated as special regulations.../caha , clicking on *open for comment, clicking on the Off-Road Vehicle Management Plan/EIS, and...

  5. 43 CFR 36.11 - Special access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., nonmotorized surface transportation, aircraft, as well as off-road vehicle use. As used in this section, the.... (g) Off-road vehicles. (1) The use of off-road vehicles (ORV) in locations other than established... provided in 36 CFR 13.45. The operation of aircraft resulting in the harassment of wildlife is...

  6. 36 CFR 4.10 - Travel on park roads and designated routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... designated for off-road motor vehicle use. (b) Routes and areas designated for off-road motor vehicle use... designated for off-road motor vehicle use, from 1/2 hour after sunset to 1/2 hour before sunrise, without... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Travel on park roads...

  7. 36 CFR 7.82 - Apostle Islands National Lakeshore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... headquarters. (c) Off-road vehicles. (1) Off-road motor vehicles may be operated for authorized purposes in the... Superior from Sand Point to the mainland unit's eastern boundary. (2) Off-road motor vehicle use is... property by owners, and to NPS properties by “use and occupancy” lessees and their guests. (3)...

  8. 15 CFR 770.2 - Item interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... vehicles capable of off-road use which have been manufactured or fitted with materials to provide ballistic... drive vehicles capable of off-road use that are not described in paragraph (h)(4) of this section and... any all-wheel drive vehicle capable of off-road use which has been manufactured or fitted...

  9. 77 FR 22800 - Wilderness Eligibility Reclassifications, Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... reclassification as part of the Nabesna Off-Road Vehicle Management Plan/Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS... be ineligible. ADDRESSES: Hard copies of the Nabesna Off-Road Vehicle Management Plan/ Final... was described in the Nabesna Off-Road Vehicle Management Plan/Draft Environmental Impact...

  10. 36 CFR 7.67 - Cape Cod National Seashore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.67 Cape Cod National Seashore. (a) Off-road operation of motor vehicles. (1) What do I need to do to operate a vehicle off road? To operate a vehicle off road at Cape Cod National Seashore, you must meet the requirements in paragraphs (b) through...

  11. 30 CFR 77.605 - Breaking trailing cable and power cable connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Breaking trailing cable and power cable... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 77.605 Breaking trailing cable and power cable connections. Trailing cable and power cable connections between cables and to power sources shall not be...

  12. 30 CFR 77.601 - Trailing cables or portable cables; temporary splices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trailing cables or portable cables; temporary... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 77.601 Trailing cables or portable cables; temporary splices. Temporary splices in trailing cables or portable cables shall be made in a workmanlike manner...

  13. 30 CFR 75.607 - Breaking trailing cable and power cable connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Breaking trailing cable and power cable... LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 75.607 Breaking trailing cable and power cable connections. Trailing cable and power cable connections...

  14. 78 FR 59368 - Notice of Joint Meeting for Captain John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Trail Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-26

    ... Advisory Council and Star-Spangled Banner National Historic Trail Advisory Council AGENCY: National Park... John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Trail and the Star-Spangled Banner National Historic Trail will.... The Star-Spangled Banner National Historic Trail consists of ``water and overland routes...

  15. Indicators and protocols for monitoring impacts of formal and informal trails in protected areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marion, Jeffrey L.; Leung, Yu-Fai

    2011-01-01

    Trails are a common recreation infrastructure in protected areas and their conditions affect the quality of natural resources and visitor experiences. Various trail impact indicators and assessment protocols have been developed in support of monitoring programs, which are often used for management decision-making or as part of visitor capacity management frameworks. This paper reviews common indicators and assessment protocols for three types of trails, surfaced formal trails, unsurfaced formal trails, and informal (visitor-created) trails. Monitoring methods and selected data from three U.S. National Park Service units are presented to illustrate some common trail impact indicators and assessment options.

  16. TRAIL restores DCA/metformin-mediated cell death in hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sung-Eun; Kim, Chang Soon; An, Sungkwan; Kim, Hyun-Ah; Hwang, Sang-Gu; Song, Jie-Young; Lee, Jin Kyung; Hong, Jungil; Kim, Jong-Il; Noh, Woo Chul; Jin, Hyeon-Ok; Park, In-Chul

    2016-09-23

    Previous studies have shown that hypoxia can reverse DCA/metformin-induced cell death in breast cancer cells. Therefore, targeting hypoxia is necessary for therapies targeting cancer metabolism. In the present study, we found that TRAIL can overcome the effect of hypoxia on the cell death induced by treatment of DCA and metformin in breast cancer cells. Unexpectedly, DR5 is upregulated in the cells treated with DCA/metformin, and sustained under hypoxia. Blocking DR5 by siRNA inhibited DCA/metformin/TRAIL-induced cell death, indicating that DR5 upregulation plays an important role in sensitizing cancer cells to TRAIL-induced cell death. Furthermore, we found that activation of JNK and c-Jun is responsible for upregulation of DR5 induced by DCA/metformin. These findings support the potential application of combining TRAIL and metabolism-targeting drugs in the treatment of cancers under hypoxia. PMID:27569287

  17. Geomorphological hazard and tourist vulnerability along Portofino Park trails (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandolini, P.; Faccini, F.; Piccazzo, M.

    2006-06-01

    The many trails existing in the coastal area of Portofino Promontory are used by tourists for trekking or as pathways to small villages and beaches. The aim of this paper is to define geomorphological hazard and tourist vulnerability in this area, within the framework of the management and planning of hiking activities in Portofino Natural Park. In particular, processes triggered by gravity, running waters and wave motion, affecting the slopes and the cliff, are considered. The typology of the trails and trail maintenance are also taken into account in relation to weather conditions that can make the excursion routes dangerous for tourists. In conclusion, an operative model is applied for the definition of possible risk scenarios. This model is founded on an inventory and the quantification of geomorphological hazards and tourist vulnerability, in comparison with trail rescue data. The model can be applied to other environments and tourist areas.

  18. 36 CFR 13.1308 - Harding Icefield Trail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Kenai Fjords National Park General... trail near Exit Glacier to the emergency hut near the terminus is closed to— (a) Camping within 1/8...

  19. 36 CFR 13.1308 - Harding Icefield Trail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Kenai Fjords National Park General... trail near Exit Glacier to the emergency hut near the terminus is closed to— (a) Camping within 1/8...

  20. 36 CFR 13.1308 - Harding Icefield Trail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Kenai Fjords National Park General... trail near Exit Glacier to the emergency hut near the terminus is closed to— (a) Camping within 1/8...

  1. 36 CFR 13.1308 - Harding Icefield Trail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Kenai Fjords National Park General... trail near Exit Glacier to the emergency hut near the terminus is closed to— (a) Camping within 1/8...

  2. 36 CFR 13.1308 - Harding Icefield Trail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Kenai Fjords National Park General... trail near Exit Glacier to the emergency hut near the terminus is closed to— (a) Camping within 1/8...

  3. The Shape of Trail Canyon Alluvial Fan, Death Valley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farr, Tom G.; Dohrenwend, John C.

    1993-01-01

    A modified conic equation has been fit to high-resolution digital topographic data for Trail Canyon alluvial fan in Death Valley, California. Fits were accomplished for 3 individual fan units of different age.

  4. 5. Abandoned mule trail tunnel. 1 mile from intersection with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Abandoned mule trail tunnel. 1 mile from intersection with Newfound Gap Road looking SSE. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Clingmans Dome Road, Between Newfound Gap Road & Clingmans Dome, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  5. 1. EAGLE CREEK RECREATION AREA, VIEW OF EAGLE CREEK TRAIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EAGLE CREEK RECREATION AREA, VIEW OF EAGLE CREEK TRAIL REGISTRY BOOTH. - Historic Columbia River Highway, Eagle Creek Recreation Area, Historic Columbia River Highway at Eagle Creek, Troutdale, Multnomah County, OR

  6. 30 CFR 75.827 - Guarding of trailing cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Underground High-Voltage Distribution High-Voltage Longwalls § 75.827 Guarding of trailing cables. (a) Guarding. (1) The high-voltage cable must...

  7. Development of Variable Camber Continuous Trailing Edge Flap System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urnes, Jim, Sr.; Nguyen, Nhan T.; Dykman, John

    2012-01-01

    This presentation describes the current status of the joint NASA/Boeing collaboration on the development of a variable camber continuous trailing edge flap system for use in wing shaping control for cruise drag reduction.

  8. Curve of Western Maryland Rail Trail west of Hancock, milepost ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Curve of Western Maryland Rail Trail west of Hancock, milepost 117 vicinity, looking west. - Western Maryland Railway, Cumberland Extension, Pearre to North Branch, from WM milepost 125 to 160, Pearre, Washington County, MD

  9. Mechanism of trail following by the arboreal termite Nasutitermes corniger (Isoptera: Termitidae).

    PubMed

    Gazai, Vinícius; Bailez, Omar; Viana-Bailez, Ana Maria

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the mechanisms used by the arboreal termite Nasutitermes corniger (Motschulsky, 1855) to follow trails from the nest to sources of food. A plate containing one of seven trail types was used to connect an artificial nest of N. corniger with an artificial foraging arena. The trail types were: termite trail; paraffined termite trail; trail made of paraffin; rectal fluid extract trail; sternal gland extract trail; feces extract trail; and solvent trail (control). In each test, the time was recorded from the start of the test until the occurrence of trail following, at which point the number of termites that followed the trail for least 5 cm in the first 3 min of observation was recorded. The delay for termites initiating trail following along the termite trail was lower (0.55 ± 0.16 min) than in the trails of sternal gland extract (1.05 ± 0.08 min) and trails of termite feces extract (1.57 ± 0.21 min) (F(2), (48) = 22.59, P < 0.001). The number of termites that followed the termite trail was greater (207.3 ± 17.3) than the number that followed the trail of termite feces extract (102.5 ± 9.4) or sternal gland extract (36, 9 ± 1.6) (F(2), (48) = 174.34, P < 0.001). Therefore, feces on the trail may play an important role alongside sternal gland pheromones in increasing the persistence of the trail.

  10. Electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    Quiet, clean, and efficient, electric vehicles (EVs) may someday become a practical mode of transportation for the general public. Electric vehicles can provide many advantages for the nation's environment and energy supply because they run on electricity, which can be produced from many sources of energy such as coal, natural gas, uranium, and hydropower. These vehicles offer fuel versatility to the transportation sector, which depends almost solely on oil for its energy needs. Electric vehicles are any mode of transportation operated by a motor that receives electricity from a battery or fuel cell. EVs come in all shapes and sizes and may be used for different tasks. Some EVs are small and simple, such as golf carts and electric wheel chairs. Others are larger and more complex, such as automobile and vans. Some EVs, such as fork lifts, are used in industries. In this fact sheet, we will discuss mostly automobiles and vans. There are also variations on electric vehicles, such as hybrid vehicles and solar-powered vehicles. Hybrid vehicles use electricity as their primary source of energy, however, they also use a backup source of energy, such as gasoline, methanol or ethanol. Solar-powered vehicles are electric vehicles that use photovoltaic cells (cells that convert solar energy to electricity) rather than utility-supplied electricity to recharge the batteries. This paper discusses these concepts.

  11. Computational investigation of miniature trailing edge effectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hak-Tae

    Miniature trailing edge effectors (MiTEs) are small flaps (typically 1% to 5% chord) actuated with deflection angles of up to 90 degrees. The small size, combined with little required power and good control authority, enables the device to be used for high bandwidth control as well as conventional attitude control. However, some of the aerodynamic characteristics of these devices are complex and poorly understood. This research investigated the aerodynamics of MiTEs using incompressible Navier-Stokes flow solvers, INS2D and INS3D. To understand the flow structure and establish a parametric database, two dimensional steady-state computations were performed for MiTEs with various geometries and flow conditions. Time accurate computations were used to resolve the unsteady characteristics including transient response and vortex shedding phenomena. The frequency response was studied to fully identify the dynamics of MiTEs. Three dimensional computations show the change in control effectiveness with respect to the spanwise length of MiTEs as well as the spanwise lift distribution induced by these devices. Based on the CFD results, an approximate vortex panel model was developed for design purposes that reproduces the key characteristics of MiTEs. Two application areas for MiTEs were explored. Flutter suppression was demonstrated by combining a finite element structural model with the vortex panel model. The application of MiTEs to augment maximum lift and improve the post stall behavior of an airfoil was also investigated.

  12. Europa's Northern Trailing Hemisphere: Lineament Stratigraphic Framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figueredo, P. H.; Hare, T.; Ricq, E.; Strom, K.; Greeley, R.; Tanaka, K.; Senske, D.

    2004-01-01

    Knowledge of the global distribution of Europan geologic units in time and space is a necessary step for the synthesis of the results of the Galileo mission and in preparation for future exploration (namely, by JIMO) of the satellite. We have initiated the production of the first Global Geological Map of Europa. As a base map, we use the recently published global photomosaic of Europa (U.S.G.S. Map I-2757) and additional Galileo SSI images at their original resolution. The map is being produced entirely on GIS format for analysis and combination with other datasets [1]. One of the main objectives of this project is to establish a global stratigraphic framework for Europa. In the absence of a well-developed cratering record, this goal will be achieved using the satellite s global network of lineaments (ridges, ridge complexes and bands; cf. [2]). Here we present the preliminary stratigraphic framework synthesized from the sequence of lineaments derived for the northern trailing hemisphere of Europa (Figure 1, below), and we discuss its significance and some emerging implications.

  13. Trail Marking by Larvae of the Cactus Moth, Cactoblastis cactorum

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, Terrence D.; Wolfin, Michael; Rossi, Frank; Carpenter, James E.; Pescador-Rubio, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), spends most of its larval life feeding within the cladodes of Opuntia cactuses, but the gregarious caterpillars begin their life outside the plant, and in the later instars make intermittent excursions over plant surfaces to access new cladodes and to thermoregulate. The study reported here showed that when the caterpillars move en masse, they mark and follow trails that serve to keep the cohort together. Artificial trails prepared from hexane extracts of the caterpillar's paired mandibular glands were readily followed by the caterpillars. The glands are remarkably large, and their fluid contents, which constitute approximately 1% of the total wet mass of a caterpillar, are secreted onto the substrate as they move. Although the caterpillars also lay down copious quantities of silk, the material in itself neither elicits trail following nor is it a requisite component of pathways that elicit trail following. Previous analyses of the mandibular glands of other species of pyralid caterpillars showed that they contain a series of structurally distinct 2-acyl-1,3 cyclohexane diones. Chemical analysis indicates that the glands of C. cactorum contain structurally similar compounds, and bioassays indicate that trail following occurs in response to these chemicals. While the mandibular glands' fluids have been shown to act as semiochemicals, effecting both interspecific and intraspecific behavior in other species of pyralids, the present study is the first to report their use as a trail pheromone. PMID:25373211

  14. Drinking, Substance Use and the Operation of Motor Vehicles by Young Adolescents in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Pickett, William; Davison, Colleen; Torunian, Michael; McFaull, Steven; Walsh, Patricia; Thompson, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Background Impaired driving is a recognized cause of major injury. Contemporary data are lacking on exposures to impaired driving behaviours and related injury among young adolescents, as well as inequities in these youth risk behaviours. Methods and Findings Cycle 6 (2009/10) of the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children survey involved 26,078 students enrolled in 436 Canadian schools. We profiled cross-sectionally the reported use of alcohol, marijuana, or other illicit drugs by on-road and off-road vehicle operators when young adolescents (mean age 13.3 (±1.6) years) were either driving or riding as a passenger. Comparisons were made across vulnerable subgroups. Multi-level logistic regression analyses were used to quantify the effects of the driving behaviours on risks for motor vehicle-related injury. Attributable risk fractions were also estimated. A total of 10% (±3%) of participants reported recent operation of an on-road or off-road motor vehicle after consuming alcohol, marijuana, or other illicit drugs, while 21% (±3%) reported riding as a passenger with a driver under the same conditions. Larger proportions of youth reporting these risk behaviours were males, and from older age groups, rural communities, and socio-economically disadvantaged populations. The behaviours were consistently associated with increased risks for motor vehicle-related injury at the individual level (RR 2.35; 95% CI: 1.54 to 3.58 for frequent vs. no exposure as a driver; RR 1.68; 95% CI: 1.20 to 2.36 for frequent vs. no exposure as a passenger) and at the population level (Attributable Risk Fraction: 7.1% for drivers; 14.0% for passengers). The study was limited mainly by its reliance on self-reported data. Conclusion Impaired driving is an important health priority among young adolescents in Canada. Inequities in the involvement of younger adolescents in these risk behaviours suggest the need for targeted interventions for specific subgroups such as youth from rural

  15. Decoy receptors block TRAIL sensitivity at a supracellular level: the role of stromal cells in controlling tumour TRAIL sensitivity.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, L; van der Sloot, A M; Reis, C R; Deegan, S; Ryan, A E; Dhami, S P S; Murillo, L S; Cool, R H; Correa de Sampaio, P; Thompson, K; Murphy, G; Quax, W J; Serrano, L; Samali, A; Szegezdi, E

    2016-03-10

    Tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a death ligand cytokine known for its cytotoxic activity against malignantly transformed cells. TRAIL induces cell death through binding to death receptors DR4 and DR5. The inhibitory decoy receptors (DcR1 and DcR2) co-expressed with death receptor 4 (DR4)/DR5 on the same cell can block the transmission of the apoptotic signal. Here, we show that DcRs also regulate TRAIL sensitivity at a supracellular level and thus represent a mechanism by which the microenvironment can diminish tumour TRAIL sensitivity. Mathematical modelling and layered or spheroid stroma-extracellular matrix-tumour cultures were used to model the tumour microenvironment. By engineering TRAIL to escape binding by DcRs, we found that DcRs do not only act in a cell-autonomous or cis-regulatory manner, but also exert trans-cellular regulation originating from stromal cells and affect tumour cells, highlighting the potent inhibitory effect of DcRs in the tumour tissue and the necessity of selective targeting of the two death-inducing TRAIL receptors to maximise efficacy. PMID:26050621

  16. Recent Laboratory and Numerical Trailing Vortex Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delisi, Donald P.; Greene, George C.; Robins, Robert E.; Singh, Raminder

    1996-01-01

    Results from two laboratory studies and two numerical studies are presented. In the first laboratory study, measurements of the strength of vortices from a three-dimensional (3-D) model wing are presented. The measurements follow the vortices as they evolve in time from a two-dimensional (2-D) line vortex pair to the development and migration of 3-D vortex rings. It is shown that the resulting vortex rings can contain up to 40 percent of the initial vortex circulation. Thus, the formation of vortex rings may not necessarily signal the end of the wake hazard to following aircraft. In the second laboratory study, we present the results of an experiment which shows how the spanwise drag distribution affects wake-vortex evolution. In this experiment, we modified the spanwise drag distribution on a model wing while keeping the total lift and drag constant. The results show that adding drag on or near the centerline of the wing has a larger effect than adding drag at or near the wingtips. These measurements complement the results of NASA studies in the 1970s. In the first numerical study, results of 3-D numerical calculations are presented which show that the vortex Reynolds number has a significant influence on the evolution and migration of wake vortices. When the Reynolds number is large, 3-D vortex rings evolve from the initially 2-D line vortex pairs. These vortex rings then migrate vertically. When the Reynolds number is lower, the transition of vorticity from 2-D to 3-D is delayed. When the Reynolds number is very low, the vortices never transition to 3-D, and the vertical migration is significantly reduced. It is suggested that this effect may have been important in previous laboratory wake-evolution studies. A second numerical study shows the influence that vertical wind shear can have on trailing vortex evolution.

  17. Using certification trails to achieve software fault tolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Gregory F.; Masson, Gerald M.

    1993-01-01

    A conceptually novel and powerful technique to achieve fault tolerance in hardware and software systems is introduced. When used for software fault tolerance, this new technique uses time and software redundancy and can be outlined as follows. In the initial phase, a program is run to solve a problem and store the result. In addition, this program leaves behind a trail of data called a certification trail. In the second phase, another program is run which solves the original problem again. This program, however, has access to the certification trail left by the first program. Because of the availability of the certification trail, the second phase can be performed by a less complex program and can execute more quickly. In the final phase, the two results are accepted as correct; otherwise an error is indicated. An essential aspect of this approach is that the second program must always generate either an error indication or a correct output even when the certification trail it receives from the first program is incorrect. The certification trail approach to fault tolerance was formalized and it was illustrated by applying it to the fundamental problem of finding a minimum spanning tree. Cases in which the second phase can be run concorrectly with the first and act as a monitor are discussed. The certification trail approach was compared to other approaches to fault tolerance. Because of space limitations we have omitted examples of our technique applied to the Huffman tree, and convex hull problems. These can be found in the full version of this paper.

  18. Experimental evaluation of the certification-trail method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Gregory F.; Wilson, Dwight S.; Masson, Gerald M.; Itoh, Mamoru; Smith, Warren W.; Kay, Jonathan S.

    1993-01-01

    Certification trails are a recently introduced and promising approach to fault-detection and fault-tolerance. A comprehensive attempt to assess experimentally the performance and overall value of the method is reported. The method is applied to algorithms for the following problems: huffman tree, shortest path, minimum spanning tree, sorting, and convex hull. Our results reveal many cases in which an approach using certification-trails allows for significantly faster overall program execution time than a basic time redundancy-approach. Algorithms for the answer-validation problem for abstract data types were also examined. This kind of problem provides a basis for applying the certification-trail method to wide classes of algorithms. Answer-validation solutions for two types of priority queues were implemented and analyzed. In both cases, the algorithm which performs answer-validation is substantially faster than the original algorithm for computing the answer. Next, a probabilistic model and analysis which enables comparison between the certification-trail method and the time-redundancy approach were presented. The analysis reveals some substantial and sometimes surprising advantages for ther certification-trail method. Finally, the work our group performed on the design and implementation of fault injection testbeds for experimental analysis of the certification trail technique is discussed. This work employs two distinct methodologies, software fault injection (modification of instruction, data, and stack segments of programs on a Sun Sparcstation ELC and on an IBM 386 PC) and hardware fault injection (control, address, and data lines of a Motorola MC68000-based target system pulsed at logical zero/one values). Our results indicate the viability of the certification trail technique. It is also believed that the tools developed provide a solid base for additional exploration.

  19. Dihydroflavonol BB-1, an extract of natural plant Blumea balsamifera, abrogates TRAIL resistance in leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Hiroo; Yamada, Yasuaki; Komiyama, Kanki; Hayashi, Masahiko; Ishibashi, Masami; Yoshida, Tatsushi; Sakai, Toshiyuki; Koyano, Takashi; Kam, Toh-Seok; Murata, Ken; Sugahara, Kazuyuki; Tsuruda, Kazuto; Akamatsu, Norihiko; Tsukasaki, Kunihiro; Masuda, Masato; Takasu, Nobuyuki; Kamihira, Shimeru

    2006-01-15

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces apoptosis in many transformed cells but not in normal cells and, hence, has emerged as a novel anticancer agent. Previously, we showed that although most adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) cells express the TRAIL death receptor DR4 (TRAIL-R1) or DR5 (TRAIL-R2), they are resistant to TRAIL. Thus, in this study, we tried to find natural products that can overcome TRAIL resistance. Among more than 150 materials screened, a dihydroflavonol that was extracted from Blumea balsamifera (BB-1) exhibited the most striking synergism with TRAIL. Treatment of the TRAIL-resistant ATLL cell line KOB, with a combination of BB-1 and TRAIL, resulted in apparent apoptosis that was not observed on treatment with either agent alone. Furthermore, pretreatment with BB-1 followed by TRAIL further augmented the synergism. BB-1 increased the level of TRAIL-R2 promoter activity and surface protein expression in a p53-independent manner. TRAIL-R2 siRNA inhibited the synergism, indicating that sensitization was caused by the increase of TRAIL-R2 expression. More interestingly, similar effects were observed in other leukemia cell lines by exactly the same mechanisms. These results suggest that combined treatment with BB-1 and TRAIL may be a new strategy for cancer therapy. PMID:16195335

  20. Descent vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popov, Y. I.

    1985-01-01

    The creation of descent vehicles marked a new stage in the development of cosmonautics, involving the beginning of manned space flight and substantial progress in space research on the distant bodies of the Solar System. This booklet describes these vehicles and their structures, systems, and purposes. It is intended for the general public interested in modern problems of space technology.

  1. AN ANALYSIS OF THE IMPACT OF SPORTS UTILITY VEHICLES IN THE UNITED STATES

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, S.C.

    2000-08-16

    During the 1990s, sport utility vehicles (SUVs) became the fastest growing segment of the auto industry, especially those in the medium-size category. In 1999, SUV sales reached almost 19% of the total light vehicle market and the mix of SUVs on the road, as measured by registration data, was about 8.7%. This immense popularity has been called by some a passing fad--vehicle purchases based on the SUV ''image''. But the continued yearly increases in SUV sales seem to indicate a more permanent trend. Additional explanations for SUV popularity include the general economic well being in the United States, a perception of safety, and ''utility''. Generally larger and heavier than the typical automobile, SUVs require more fuel per mile to operate and produce greater amounts of pollutants. They are also driven further annually than are automobiles of the same vintage, a fact that exacerbates the fuel-use and emission problems. Although buyers believe that SUVs are safer than automobiles which they are in some cases, SUVs are more prone to roll-overs than are automobiles. In addition, SUVs, with their higher bumpers and greater weight, may be a threat to other vehicles on the highway, especially in side-impact crashes. With sales projected to grow to over 3 million units per year beginning in 2001, SUVs show no sign of decreasing in popularity. These vehicles are used primarily for general mobility, rather than off-road activities. An emphasis on better fuel economy and improved emissions control could address environmental and oil dependency concerns. In fact, recently, two vehicle manufacturers announced intentions of improving the fuel economy of their SUVs in the next few years. Also, tests simulating crashes involving automobiles and SUVs could provide valuable data for identifying potential safety design issues. It is clear that automobiles and SUVs will be sharing the highways for years to come.

  2. Cohort Profile Update: The TRacking Adolescents’ Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS)

    PubMed Central

    Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Rosmalen, Judith GM; Buitelaar, Jan K; Hoek, Hans W; Ormel, Johan; Raven, Dennis; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Veenstra, René; Verhulst, Frank C; Vollebergh, Wilma AM; Hartman, Catharina A

    2015-01-01

    TRAILS consists of a population cohort (N = 2230) and a clinical cohort (N = 543), both of which were followed from about age 11 years onwards. To date, the population cohort has been assessed five times over a period of 11 years, with retention rates ranging between 80% and 96%. The clinical cohort has been assessed four times over a period of 8 years, with retention rates ranging between 77% and 85%. Since the IJE published a cohort profile on the TRAILS in 2008, the participants have matured from adolescents into young adults. The focus shifted from parents and school to entry into the labour market and family formation, including offspring. Furthermore, psychiatric diagnostic interviews were administered, the database was linked to a Psychiatric Case Registry, and the availability of genome-wide SNP variations opened the door to genome-wide association studies regarding a wide range of (endo)phenotypes. With some delay, TRAILS data are available to researchers outside the TRAILS consortium without costs; access can be obtained by submitting a publication proposal (see www.trails.nl). PMID:25431468

  3. Structural design of morphing trailing edge actuated by SMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qi; Xu, Zhiwei; Zhu, Qian

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, the morphing trailing edge is designed to achieve the up and down deflection under the aerodynamic load. After a detailed and accurate computational analysis to determine the SMA specifications and layout programs, a solid model is created in CATIA and the structures of the morphing wing trailing edge are produced by CNC machining. A set of DSP measurement and control system is designed to accomplish the controlling experiment of the morphing wing trailing edge. At last, via the force analysis, the trailing edge is fabricated with four sections of aluminum alloy, and the arrangement scheme of SMA wires is determined. Experiment of precise control integral has been performed to survey the control effect. The experiment consists of deflection angle tests of the third joint and the integral structure. Primarily, the ultimate deflection angle is tested in these two experiments. Therefore, the controlling experiment of different angles could be performed within this range. The results show that the deflection error is less than 4%and response time is less than 6.7 s, the precise controlling of the morphing trailing edge is preliminary realized.

  4. Center determination for trailed sources in astronomical observation images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Jun Ju; Hu, Shao Ming; Chen, Xu; Guo, Di Fu

    2014-11-01

    Images with trailed sources can be obtained when observing near-Earth objects, such as small astroids, space debris, major planets and their satellites, no matter the telescopes track on sidereal speed or the speed of target. The low centering accuracy of these trailed sources is one of the most important sources of the astrometric uncertainty, but how to determine the central positions of the trailed sources accurately remains a significant challenge to image processing techniques, especially in the study of faint or fast moving objects. According to the conditions of one-meter telescope at Weihai Observatory of Shandong University, moment and point-spread-function (PSF) fitting were chosen to develop the image processing pipeline for space debris. The principles and the implementations of both two methods are introduced in this paper. And some simulated images containing trailed sources are analyzed with each technique. The results show that two methods are comparable to obtain the accurate central positions of trailed sources when the signal to noise (SNR) is high. But moment tends to fail for the objects with low SNR. Compared with moment, PSF fitting seems to be more robust and versatile. However, PSF fitting is quite time-consuming. Therefore, if there are enough bright stars in the field, or the high astronometric accuracy is not necessary, moment is competent. Otherwise, the combination of moment and PSF fitting is recommended.

  5. Leading and Trailing Anvil Clouds of West African Squall Lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Centrone, Jasmine; Houze, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    The anvil clouds of tropical squall-line systems over West Africa have been examined using cloud radar data and divided into those that appear ahead of the leading convective line and those on the trailing side of the system. The leading anvils are generally higher in altitude than the trailing anvil, likely because the hydrometeors in the leading anvil are directly connected to the convective updraft, while the trailing anvil generally extends out of the lower-topped stratiform precipitation region. When the anvils are subdivided into thick, medium, and thin portions, the thick leading anvil is seen to have systematically higher reflectivity than the thick trailing anvil, suggesting that the leading anvil contains numerous larger ice particles owing to its direct connection to the convective region. As the leading anvil ages and thins, it retains its top. The leading anvil appears to add hydrometeors at the highest altitudes, while the trailing anvil is able to moisten a deep layer of the atmosphere.

  6. Trails Management at LANL - A Presentation to the Los Alamos County Parks and Recreation Board

    SciTech Connect

    Pava, Daniel Seth

    2015-05-12

    Los Alamos National Laboratory’s (LANL) trail management program goals include reduce risk of damage and injury to property, human life, and health, and sensitive natural and cultural resources from social trail use at LANL, facilitate the establishment of a safe viable network of linked trails, maintain security of LANL operations, and many more, respect the wishes of local Pueblos, adapt trail use to changing conditions in a responsive manner, and maintain the recreational functionality of the DOE lands. There are approximately 30 miles of LANL trails. Some are open to the public and allow bicycles, horses, hikers, and runners. Know the rules of the trails to stay safe.

  7. 75 FR 81640 - Record of Decision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... Seashore Off-Road Vehicle Management Plan. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of... National Seashore (Seashore) Off-Road Vehicle (ORV) Management Plan. The ROD documents the decision by the... prohibited off-road in the Seashore except on designated routes, and an ORV permit, with a short...

  8. 32 CFR Appendix D to Subpart M of... - Unauthorized Activities in Maneuver Training Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Lewis: Civilian paramilitary activities and combat games. Off-pavement motorcycle riding. Off-road.... Off-pavement motorcycle riding. Off-road vehicle operation. Hang gliding. Ultralight aircraft flying... combat games. Off-pavement motorcycle riding. Off-road vehicle operation. Hang gliding....

  9. 75 FR 27997 - Record of Decision (ROD) for the Development and Implementation of Range-Wide Mission and Major...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-19

    ... allow off-road vehicle maneuver on designated portions of the installation. WSMR will maintain its... area and construction of supporting infrastructure and additional off-road maneuver areas for training... changes allowing for expanded off-road vehicle use, facilities and infrastructure construction,...

  10. 76 FR 38597 - Regulatory Guidance: Applicability of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations to Operators...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations to Operators of Certain Farm Vehicles and Off-Road... Regulations to operators of certain farm vehicles and off-road agricultural equipment. The public comment... determine whether off-road farm equipment or implements of husbandry operated on public roads for...

  11. Trailing Edge Noise Prediction Based on a New Acoustic Formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casper, J.; Farassat, F.

    2002-01-01

    A new analytic result in acoustics called 'Formulation 1B,' proposed by Farassat, is used to compute broadband trailing edge noise from an unsteady surface pressure distribution on a thin airfoil in the time domain. This formulation is a new solution of the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equation with the loading source term, and has been shown in previous research to provide time domain predictions of broadband noise that are in excellent agreement with experiment. Furthermore, this formulation lends itself readily to rotating reference frames and statistical analysis of broadband trailing edge noise. Formulation 1B is used to calculate the far field noise radiated from the trailing edge of a NACA 0012 airfoil in low Mach number flows, using both analytical and experimental data on the airfoil surface. The results are compared to analytical results and experimental measurements that are available in the literature. Good agreement between predictions and measurements is obtained.

  12. Broadband Trailing Edge Noise Predictions in the Time Domain. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casper, Jay; Farassat, Fereidoun

    2003-01-01

    A recently developed analytic result in acoustics, "Formulation 1B," is used to compute broadband trailing edge noise from an unsteady surface pressure distribution on a thin airfoil in the time domain. This formulation is a new solution of the Ffowcs Willliams-Hawkings equation with the loading source term, and has been shown in previous research to provide time domain predictions of broadband noise that are in excellent agreement with experimental results. Furthermore, this formulation lends itself readily to rotating reference frames and statistical analysis of broadband trailing edge noise. Formulation 1B is used to calculate the far field noise radiated from the trailing edge of a NACA 0012 airfoil in low Mach number flows, by using both analytical and experimental data on the airfoil surface. The acoustic predictions are compared with analytical results and experimental measurements that are available in the literature. Good agreement between predictions and measurements is obtained.

  13. Merging of aircraft vortex trails: Similarities to magnetic field merging

    SciTech Connect

    Gurnett, D.A. )

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the phenomenological and formal similarities between the merging of aircraft vortex trails and the merging of magnetic field lines in a plasma. High-resolution photographs are shown of smoke trails from the wing tips of an airplane. These photographs show that the two vortex trails merge together downstream of the aircraft in a way similar to the merging of oppositely directed magnetic field lines in a plasma. Although there are some differences, this correspondence is apparently related to the fact that the vorticity equation in a fluid has the same mathematical form as the magnetic field equation in a MHD plasma. In both cases the merging proceeds at a rate considerably faster than would be predicted from classical estimates of the viscosity and resistivity. The enhanced merging rate in the fluid case appears to result from turbulence that increases the diffusion rate in the merging region.

  14. Wake-Induced Aerodynamics on a Trailing Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendenhall, Michael R.; Lesieutre, Daniel J.; Kelly, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    NASA conducted flight tests to measure the exhaust products from alternative fuels using a DC-8 transport aircraft and a Falcon business jet. An independent analysis of the maximum vortex-induced loads on the Falcon in the DC-8 wake was conducted for pre-flight safety analysis and to define safe trail distances for the flight tests. Static and dynamic vortex-induced aerodynamic loads on the Falcon were predicted at a matrix of locations aft of the DC-8 under flight-test conditions, and the maximum loads were compared with design limit loads to assess aircraft safety. Trajectory simulations for the Falcon during close encounters with the DC-8 wake were made to study the vortex-induced loads during traverses of the DC-8 primary trailing vortex. A parametric study of flight traverses through the trailing vortex was conducted to assess Falcon flight behavior and motion characteristics.

  15. Application of Passive Porous Treatment to Slat Trailing Edge Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Choudhari, Meelan M.

    2003-01-01

    Porous trailing-edge treatment is investigated as a passive means for slat noise reduction by using time-accurate simulations based on Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. For the model scale high-lift configuration used during previous experiments in the Low-Turbulence Pressure Tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center, application of the proposed treatment over a minute fraction of the slat surface area is shown to mitigate the noise impact of the trailing edge, with no measurable aerodynamic penalty. Assessment of the pressure fluctuations in the vicinity of the treated edge indicates a potential noise reduction in excess of 20 dB. The primary mechanism underlying this reduction is related to the reduced strength of Strouhal shedding from the finite thickness trailing edge. A secondary effect of the treatment involves an upward shift in the Strouhal-shedding frequency to a frequency band of reduced auditory sensitivity in a full-scale application.

  16. Merging of aircraft vortex trails - Similarities to magnetic field merging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurnett, Donald A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the phenomenological and formal similarities between the merging of aircraft vortex trails and the merging of magnetic field lines in a plasma. High-resolution photographs are shown of smoke trails from the wing tips of an airplane. These photographs show that the two vortex trails merge together downstream of the aircraft in a way similar to the merging of oppositely directed magnetic field lines in a plasma. Although there are some differences, this correspondence is apparently related to the fact that the vorticity equation in a fluid has the same mathematical form as the magnetic field equation in an MHD plasma. In both cases the merging proceeds at a rate considerably faster than would be predicted from classical estimates of the viscosity and resistivity. The enhanced merging rate in the fluid case appears to result from turbulence that increases the diffusion rate in the merging region.

  17. Hiking trails and tourism impact assessment in protected area: Jiuzhaigou Biosphere Reserve, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenjun; Ge, Xiaodong; Liu, Chunyan

    2005-09-01

    More and more visitors are attracted to protected areas nowadays, which not only bring about economic increase but also seriously adverse impacts on the ecological environment. In protected areas, trails are linkage between visitors and natural ecosystem, so they concentrate most of the adverse impacts caused by visitors. The trampling problems on the trails have been received attentions in the tremendous researches. However, few of them have correlated the environmental impacts to trail spatial patterns. In this project, the trails were selected as assessment objective, the trampling problems trail widening, multiple trail, and root exposure were taken as assessment indicators to assess ecological impacts in the case study area Jiuzhaigou Biosphere Reserve, and two spatial index, connectivity and circularity, were taken to indicate the trail network spatial patterns. The research results showed that the appearing frequency of the trampling problems had inverse correlation with the circularity and connectivity of the trail network, while the problem extent had no correlation with the spatial pattern. Comparing with the pristine trails, the artificial maintenance for the trails such as wooden trails and flagstone trails could prohibit vegetation root from exposure effectively. The research finds will be useful for the future trail design and tourism management.

  18. On the wake flow of asymmetrically beveled trailing edges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Yaoyi; Pröbsting, Stefan; Stephens, David; Gupta, Abhineet; Morris, Scott C.

    2016-05-01

    Trailing edge and wake flows are of interest for a wide range of applications. Small changes in the design of asymmetrically beveled or semi-rounded trailing edges can result in significant difference in flow features which are relevant for the aerodynamic performance, flow-induced structural vibration and aerodynamically generated sound. The present study describes in detail the flow field characteristics around a family of asymmetrically beveled trailing edges with an enclosed trailing-edge angle of 25° and variable radius of curvature R. The flow fields over the beveled trailing edges are described using data obtained by particle image velocimetry (PIV) experiments. The flow topology for different trailing edges was found to be strongly dependent on the radius of curvature R, with flow separation occurring further downstream as R increases. This variation in the location of flow separation influences the aerodynamic force coefficients, which were evaluated from the PIV data using a control volume approach. Two-point correlations of the in-plane velocity components are considered to assess the structure in the flow field. The analysis shows large-scale coherent motions in the far wake, which are associated with vortex shedding. The wake thickness parameter yf is confirmed as an appropriate length scale to characterize this large-scale roll-up motion in the wake. The development in the very near wake was found to be critically dependent on R. In addition, high-speed PIV measurements provide insight into the spectral characteristics of the turbulent fluctuations. Based on the time-resolved flow field data, the frequency range associated with the shedding of coherent vortex pairs in the wake is identified. By means of time-correlation of the velocity components, turbulent structures are found to convect from the attached or separated shear layers without distinct separation point into the wake.

  19. Air cushion vehicles - Any potential for Canada?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laframboise, J. F.

    1987-09-01

    The present evaluation of air cushion vehicle (ACV) operational and commercial suitability in the Canadian context notes that the most successful and durable ACV applications are those in which only ACVs can perform the required mission. An important factor is the reliability of the craft being tested in a given field of operations. Because of their low ground pressure, ACVs can operate over low-cost trails with an efficiency that compares with that of trucks over conventional roads; this renders them especially attractive for transportation networks in the North West Territories.

  20. Detection of a trailing (L5) Neptune Trojan.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, Scott S; Trujillo, Chadwick A

    2010-09-10

    The orbits of small Solar System bodies record the history of our Solar System. Here, we report the detection of 2008 LC18, which is a Neptune Trojan in the trailing (L5) Lagrangian region of gravitational equilibrium within Neptune's orbit. We estimate that the leading and trailing Neptune Trojan regions have similarly sized populations and dynamics, with both regions dominated by high-inclination objects. Similar populations and dynamics at both Neptune Lagrangian regions indicate that the Trojans were likely captured by a migrating, eccentric Neptune in a dynamically excited planetesimal population.