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Sample records for offers policymakers multiple

  1. Exercising their influence. As policymakers struggle in battle against obesity, providers and insurers are offering their own solutions.

    PubMed

    McKinney, Maureen; Zigmond, Jessica; Evans, Melanie; Kutscher, Beth; Robeznieks, Andis

    2013-03-18

    Policymakers aren't making much progress in their battle against obesity, with New York Mayor Michael Bloomberg, left, suffering a big blow last week when a judge invalidated limits on sugary drinks. But providers and insurers are using their influence to offer a different range of solutions.

  2. Negotiating for more: the multiple equivalent simultaneous offer.

    PubMed

    Heller, Richard E

    2014-02-01

    Whether a doctor, professional baseball manager, or a politician, having successful negotiation skills is a critical part of being a leader. Building upon prior journal articles on negotiation strategy, the author presents the concept of the multiple equivalent simultaneous offer (MESO). The concept of a MESO is straightforward: as opposed to making a single offer, make multiple offers with several variables. Each offer alters the different variables, such that the end result of each offer is equivalent from the perspective of the party making the offer. Research has found several advantages to the use of MESOs. For example, using MESOs, an offer was more likely to be accepted, and the counterparty was more likely to be satisfied with the negotiated deal. Additional benefits have been documented as well, underscoring why a prepared radiology business leader should understand the theory and practice of MESO. Copyright © 2014 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Policymaker, please consider your needs carefully: does outcomes research in relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma reduce policymaker uncertainty regarding value for money of bortezomib?

    PubMed

    Franken, Margreet G; Gaultney, Jennifer G; Blommestein, Hedwig M; Huijgens, Peter C; Sonneveld, Pieter; Redekop, William K; Uyl-de Groot, Carin A

    2014-03-01

    Dutch policy regulations require outcomes research for the assessment of appropriate drug use and cost-effectiveness after 4 years of temporary reimbursement. We investigated whether outcomes research reduced policymaker uncertainty regarding the question whether the costs are worth public funding. Our cohort study included 139 patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma who were treated outside of a clinical study; 72 received bortezomib and 67 did not receive bortezomib. Detailed data were retrospectively collected from medical records in 38% of Dutch hospitals. All patients received second-line treatment; 65%, 40%, and 14%, received three, four, or five or more lines of therapy. Neither a specific treatment sequence nor an appropriate comparator could be identified because of large variation in regimes. Kaplan-Meier curves showed an increased overall survival (mean [median] 29.5 [33.2] vs. 28.0 [21.6] months) for patients treated with bortezomib (Wilcoxon P = 0.01). Total mean costs were €81,626 (range €17,793-€229,783) and €52,760 (range €748-€179,571) for patients receiving bortezomib and patients not receiving bortezomib, respectively. Patients treated with bortezomib, however, were not comparable to other patients despite attempts to correct for confounding. Therefore, it was impossible to develop a feasible model to obtain a valid incremental cost-effectiveness estimate. It was possible to develop evidence on bortezomib's use, effects, and costs in everyday practice. Much uncertainty, however, remained regarding its cost-effectiveness. Policymakers should carefully consider whether outcomes research sufficiently decreases uncertainty or whether other options (e.g., finance- and/or outcomes-based risk-sharing arrangements) are more appropriate to ensure sufficient value for money of expensive drugs. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Multiple 60-Minute Massages per Week Offer Relief for Chronic Neck Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... X Y Z Multiple 60-Minute Massages per Week Offer Relief for Chronic Neck Pain Share: © Bob ... study found that multiple 60-minute massages per week were more effective than fewer or shorter sessions ...

  5. Multiple streams approach to tobacco control policymaking in a tobacco-growing state.

    PubMed

    Mamudu, Hadii M; Dadkar, Sumati; Veeranki, Sreenivas P; He, Yi; Barnes, Richard; Glantz, Stanton A

    2014-08-01

    Smokefree policies (SFPs) have diffused throughout the US and worldwide. However, the development of SFPs in the difficult policy environment of tobacco-producing states and economies worldwide has not been well-explored. In 2007, Tennessee, the third largest tobacco producer in the US, enacted the Non-Smoker Protection Act (NSPA). This study utilizes the multiple streams model to provide understanding of why and how this policy was developed by triangulating interviews with key stakeholders and legislative debates with archival documents. In June 2006, the Governor unexpectedly announced support for SFP, which created a window of opportunity for policy change. The Campaign for Healthy and Responsible Tennessee, a health coalition, seized this opportunity and worked with the administration and the Tennessee Restaurant Association to negotiate a comprehensive SFP, however, a weaker bill was used by the legislative leadership to develop the NSPA. Although the Governor and the Tennessee Restaurant Association's support generated an environment for 100% SFP, health groups did not fully capitalize on this environmental change and settled for a weak policy with several exemptions. This study suggests the importance for proponents of policy change to understand changes in their environment and be willing and able to capitalize on these changes.

  6. Multiple Streams Approach to Tobacco Control Policymaking in a Tobacco-Growing State

    PubMed Central

    Mamudu, Hadii M.; Dadkar, Sumati; Veeranki, Sreenivas P.; He, Yi; Barnes, Richard; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2014-01-01

    Smokefree policies (SFPs) have diffused throughout the US and worldwide. However, the development of SFPs in the difficult policy environment of tobacco-producing states and economies worldwide has not been well-explored. In 2007, Tennessee, the third largest tobacco producer in the US, enacted the Non-Smoker Protection Act (NSPA). This study utilizes the multiple streams model to provide understanding of why and how this policy was developed by triangulating interviews with key stakeholders and legislative debates with archival documents. In June 2006, the Governor unexpectedly announced support for SFP, which created a window of opportunity for policy change. The Campaign for Healthy and Responsible Tennessee, a health coalition, seized this opportunity and worked with the administration and the Tennessee Restaurant Association to negotiate a comprehensive SFP, however, a weaker bill was used by the legislative leadership to develop the NSPA. Although the Governor and the Tennessee Restaurant Association’s support generated an environment for 100 % SFP, health groups did not fully capitalize on this environmental change and settled for a weak policy with several exemptions. This study suggests the importance for proponents of policy change to understand changes in their environment and be willing and able to capitalize on these changes. PMID:24370600

  7. 48 CFR 538.270 - Evaluation of multiple award schedule (MAS) offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evaluation of multiple... and Administering Federal Supply Schedules 538.270 Evaluation of multiple award schedule (MAS) offers... determining the Government's price negotiation objectives, consider the following factors: (1)...

  8. Communication: Influencing policymakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jiaying

    2017-02-01

    Policymakers play a critical role in the global response to climate change. Now, research reveals an effective visual strategy for communicating climate science to policymakers and climate negotiators.

  9. Does applicant personality influence multiple mini-interview performance and medical school acceptance offers?

    PubMed

    Jerant, Anthony; Griffin, Erin; Rainwater, Julie; Henderson, Mark; Sousa, Francis; Bertakis, Klea D; Fenton, Joshua J; Franks, Peter

    2012-09-01

    To examine relationships among applicant personality, Multiple Mini-Interview (MMI) performance, and medical school acceptance offers. The authors conducted an observational study of applicants who participated in the MMI at the University of California, Davis, School of Medicine during the 2010-2011 admissions cycle and responded to the Big Five Inventory measuring their personality factors (agreeableness, conscientiousness, extraversion, neuroticism, openness). Individuals' MMI performance at 10 stations was summarized as a total score. Regression analyses examined associations of personality factors with MMI score, and associations of personality factors and MMI score with acceptance offers. Covariates included sociodemographic and academic performance measures. Among the 444 respondents, those with extraversion scores in the top (versus bottom) quartile had significantly higher MMI scores (adjusted parameter estimate = 5.93 higher, 95% CI: 4.27-7.59; P < .01). In a model excluding MMI score, top (versus bottom) quartile agreeableness (AOR = 3.22; 95% CI 1.57-6.58; P < .01) and extraversion (AOR = 3.61; 95% CI 1.91-6.82; P < .01) were associated with acceptance offers. After adding MMI score to the model, high agreeableness (AOR = 4.77; 95% CI 1.95-11.65; P < .01) and MMI score (AOR 1.33; 95% CI 1.26-1.42; P < .01) were associated with acceptance offers. Extraversion was associated with MMI performance, whereas both extraversion and agreeableness were associated with acceptance offers. Adoption of the MMI may affect diversity in medical student personalities, with potential implications for students' professional growth, specialty distribution, and patient care.

  10. Evidence-based policymaking: a critique.

    PubMed

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Russell, Jill

    2009-01-01

    The idea that policy should be based on best research evidence might appear to be self-evident. But a closer analysis reveals a number of problems and paradoxes inherent in the concept of "evidence-based policymaking." The current conflict over evidence-based policymaking parallels a long-standing "paradigm war" in social research between positivist, interpretivist, and critical approaches. This article draws from this debate in order to inform the discussions over the appropriateness of evidence- based policymaking and the related question of what is the nature of policymaking. The positivist, empiricist worldview that underpins the theory and practice of evidence-based medicine (EBM) fails to address key elements of the policymaking process. In particular, a narrowly "evidence-based" framing of policymaking is inherently unable to explore the complex, context-dependent, and value-laden way in which competing options are negotiated by individuals and interest groups. Sociolinguistic tools such as argumentation theory offer opportunities for developing richer theories about how policymaking happens. Such tools also have potential practical application in the policymaking process: by enhancing participants' awareness of their own values and those of others, the quality of the collective deliberation that lies at the heart of policymaking may itself improve.

  11. Does NASA's Constellation Architecture Offer Opportunities to Achieve Multiple Additional Goals in Space?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronson, Harley A.; Lester, Daniel F.

    2008-01-01

    Every major NASA human spaceflight program in the last four decades has been modified to achieve goals in space not incorporated within the original design goals: the Apollo Applications Program, Skylab, Space Shuttle, and International Space Station. Several groups in the US have been identifying major future science goals, the science facilities necessary to investigate them, as well as possible roles for augmented versions of elements of NASA's Constellation program. Specifically, teams in the astronomy community have been developing concepts for very capable missions to follow the James Webb Space Telescope that could take advantage of - or require - free-space operations by astronauts and/or robots. Taking as one example, the Single-Aperture Far-InfraRed (SAFIR) telescope with a approx.10+ m aperture proposed for operation in the 2020 timeframe. According to current NASA plans, the Ares V launch vehicle (or a variant) will be available about the same time, as will the capability to transport astronauts to the vicinity of the Moon via the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle and associated systems. [As the lunar surface offers no advantages - and major disadvantages - for most major optical systems, the expensive system for landing and operating on the lunar surface is not required.] Although as currently conceived, SAFIR and other astronomical missions will operate at the Sun-Earth L2 location, it appears trivial to travel for servicing to the more accessible Earth-Moon L1,2 locations. Moreover, as the recent Orbital Express and Automated Transfer Vehicle missions have demonstrated, future robotic capabilities should offer capabilities that would (remotely) extend human presence far beyond the vicinity of the Earth. In addition to multiplying the value of NASA's architecture for future human spaceflight to achieve the goals multiple major stakeholders, if humans one day travel beyond the Earth-Moon system - say, to Mars - technologies and capabilities for operating

  12. Does NASA's Constellation Architecture Offer Opportunities to Achieve Multiple Additional Goals in Space?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronson, Harley; Lester, Daniel F.

    2008-01-01

    Every major NASA human spaceflight program in the last four decades has been modified to achieve goals in space not incorporated within the original design goals: the Apollo Applications Program, Skylab, Space Shuttle, and International Space Station. Several groups in the US have been identifying major future science goals, the science facilities necessary to investigate them, as well as possible roles for augmented versions of elements of NASA's Constellation program. Specifically, teams in the astronomy community have been developing concepts for very capable missions to follow the James Webb Space Telescope that could take advantage of - or require - free-space operations by astronauts and/or robots. Taking as one example, the Single-Aperture Far-InfraRed (SAFIR) telescope with a approx. 10+ m aperture proposed for operation in the 2020 timeframe. According to current NASA plans, the Ares V launch vehicle (or a variant) will be available about the same time, as will the capability to transport astronauts to the vicinity of the Moon via the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle and associated systems. [As the lunar surface offers no advantages - and major disadvantages - for most major optical systems, the expensive system for landing and operating on the lunar surface is not required.] Although as currently conceived, SAFIR and other astronomical missions will operate at the Sun-Earth L2 location, it appears trivial to travel for servicing to the more accessible Earth-Moon L1,2 locations. Moreover. as the recent Orbital Express and Automated Transfer Vehicle missions have demonstrated, future robotic capabilities should offer capabilities that would (remotely) extend human presence far beyond the vicinity of the Earth. In addition to multiplying the value of NASA's architecture for future human spaceflight to achieve the goals multiple major stakeholders. if humans one day travel beyond the Earth-Moon system - say, to Mars - technologies and capabilities for operating

  13. Does the NASA Constellation Architecture Offer Opportunities to Achieve Multiple Additional Goals in Space?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronson, Harley; Lester, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Every major NASA human spaceflight program in the last four decades has been modified to achieve goals in space not incorporated within the original design goals: the Apollo Applications Program, Skylab, Space Shuttle, and International Space Station. Several groups in the U.S. have been identifying major future science goals, the science facilities necessary to investigate them, as well as possible roles for augmented versions of elements of NASA's Constellation program. Specifically, teams in the astronomy community have been developing concepts for very capable missions to follow the James Webb Space Telescope that could take advantage of - or require - free-space operations by astronauts and/or robots. Taking as one example, the Single-Aperture Far-InfraRed (SAFIR) telescope with a 10+ m aperture proposed for operation in the 2020 timeframe. According to current NASA plans, the Ares V launch vehicle (or a variant) will be available about the same time, as will the capability to transport astronauts to the vicinity of the Moon via the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle and associated systems. [As the lunar surface offers no advantages - and major disadvantages - for most major optical systems, the expensive system for landing and operating on the lunar surface is not required.] Although as currently conceived, SAFIR and other astronomical missions will operate at the Sun-Earth L2 location, it appears trivial to travel for servicing to the more accessible Earth-Moon L1,2 locations. Moreover, as the recent Orbital Express and Automated Transfer Vehicle Missions have demonstrated, future robotic capabilities should offer capabilities that would (remotely) extend human presence far beyond the vicinity of the Earth.

  14. Family Participation in Policymaking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caplan, Elizabeth, Ed.; Blankenship, Kelly, Ed.; McManus, Marilyn, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This bulletin focuses on family participation in mental health policymaking and highlights state efforts to increase family involvement. Articles include: (1) "Promoting Family Member Involvement in Children's Mental Health Policy Making Bodies," which describes how different states are promoting family member involvement in various statutory and…

  15. British nuclear policymaking

    SciTech Connect

    Bowie, C.J.; Platt, A.

    1984-01-01

    This study analyzes the domestic political, economic, and bureaucratic factors that affect the nuclear policymaking process in Great Britain. Its major conclusion is that, although there have been changes in that process in recent years (notably the current involvement of a segment of the British public in the debate about the deployment of intermediate-range nuclear forces), future British nuclear policymaking will remain much what it has been in the past. Three ideas are central to understanding British thinking on the subject: (1) Britain's long-standing resolve to have her own national nuclear force is largely traceable to her desire to maintain first-rank standing among the nations of the world in spite of loss of empire. (2) Financial considerations have always been important--so much so that they have usually dominated issues of nuclear policy. (3) The executive branch of government dominates the nuclear policymaking process but does not always present a united front. The United States heavily influences British nuclear policy through having supplied Britain since the late 1950s with nuclear data and components of nuclear weapon systems such as Polaris and Trident. The relationship works both ways since the U.S. depends on Britain as a base for deployment of both conventional and nuclear systems.

  16. Psychologist as Policy-Maker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saks, Michael J.

    Perhaps the most effective way to increase the utilization of behavioral science knowledge by policy-makers is for the behavioral scientist to become one. The psychologist who serves as a policy-maker becomes aware of the policy issues in addition to relevant empirical evidence. The author, a psychologist, relates his experience as a member of a…

  17. Advising Policymakers through the Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Klaus F.

    2004-01-01

    In the information age, an exchange with the media is part of the duties the economics profession has to deliver to educate the public. A key issue is the education of policymakers through the media. It is the silver bullet of policy advice in comparison to commissioned research and face-to-face advice provided to the politician. It also pleases…

  18. Advising Policymakers through the Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Klaus F.

    2004-01-01

    In the information age, an exchange with the media is part of the duties the economics profession has to deliver to educate the public. A key issue is the education of policymakers through the media. It is the silver bullet of policy advice in comparison to commissioned research and face-to-face advice provided to the politician. It also pleases…

  19. SUPPORT Tools for evidence-informed health Policymaking (STP).

    PubMed

    Lavis, John N; Oxman, Andrew D; Lewin, Simon; Fretheim, Atle

    2009-12-16

    This article is the Introduction to a series written for people responsible for making decisions about health policies and programmes and for those who support these decision makers. Knowing how to find and use research evidence can help policymakers and those who support them to do their jobs better and more efficiently. Each article in this series presents a proposed tool that can be used by those involved in finding and using research evidence to support evidence-informed health policymaking. The series addresses four broad areas: 1. Supporting evidence-informed policymaking 2. Identifying needs for research evidence in relation to three steps in policymaking processes, namely problem clarification, options framing, and implementation planning 3. Finding and assessing both systematic reviews and other types of evidence to inform these steps, and 4. Going from research evidence to decisions. Each article begins with between one and three typical scenarios relating to the topic. These scenarios are designed to help readers decide on the level of detail relevant to them when applying the tools described. Most articles in this series are structured using a set of questions that guide readers through the proposed tools and show how to undertake activities to support evidence-informed policymaking efficiently and effectively. These activities include, for example, using research evidence to clarify problems, assessing the applicability of the findings of a systematic review about the effects of options selected to address problems, organising and using policy dialogues to support evidence-informed policymaking, and planning policy monitoring and evaluation. In several articles, the set of questions presented offers more general guidance on how to support evidence-informed policymaking. Additional information resources are listed and described in every article. The evaluation of ways to support evidence-informed health policymaking is a developing field and feedback

  20. Can Qualitative Researchers Answer Policymakers' What-Works Question?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donmoyer, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The article asks whether constructivist qualitative researchers have anything to offer policymakers who expect researchers to tell them what works. The first part of the article addresses philosophical objections to characterizing the social world in cause/effect terms. Specifically, it considers whether it is legitimate for qualitative…

  1. Forecasting Models for Energy Policymaking

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    price shock is less than other estimates and contains an important lesson for DoD policymakers: macro - economic analysis highlights the facts that...Conclusions 3. LONG-RANGE ECONOMIC FORECASTS Model Structure Forecasts Review Models that Inform Judgment Conclusion: What Does Analysis ...of Long-Range Forecasts Tell DoD? 3-26 4. DECISION ANALYSIS APPROACHES 4-1 The Teisburg Model 4-1 Conclusion: What Do Decision

  2. Teacher Data Literacy: It's about Time. A Brief for State Policymakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Data Quality Campaign, 2014

    2014-01-01

    One element of quality teaching for improving student outcomes is effective data use. To date, however, policies have not gone far enough to promote the skills teachers need to be data literate. This brief for state policymakers offers a proposed definition of data literacy along with recommendations for state and federal policymakers. [The…

  3. Influence of experience on intake and feeding behavior of dairy sheep when offered forages from woody plants in a multiple-choice situation.

    PubMed

    Meier, J S; Liesegang, A; Rischkowsky, B; Louhaichi, M; Zaklouta, M; Kreuzer, M; Marquardt, S

    2013-10-01

    A satisfactory intake of novel low-quality forages by ruminants may require previous experience with this feed. Therefore, this study tested in sheep whether experience with forages from woody plants had an influence on feed intake, feeding behavior, and nutrient supply when offered in a multiple-choice arrangement. Two sheep experiments were conducted, 1 in Syria (Mediterranean region; Exp. 1) and the other in Switzerland (Central Europe; Exp. 2), that investigated 5 and 6 woody test plants, respectively. In Exp. 1, the test plants were Artemisia herba-alba, Atriplex leucoclada, Haloxylon articulatum, Noaea mucronata, and Salsola vermiculata. In Exp. 2, Betula pendula, Castanea sativa, and Juglans regia were used in addition to A. leucoclada, H. articulatum, and S. vermiculata (the plants most consumed in Exp. 1). In each experiment, 12 lactating sheep (Awassi sheep in Exp. 1 and East Friesian Milk sheep in Exp. 2) were allocated to 2 groups ("experienced" and "naïve"). Experienced sheep subsequently were familiarized with each test plant during a learning period of binary choices (1 test plant vs. barley straw) for 4 h in the morning for 7 d each. The naïve group received only straw. During the rest of the day, a basal diet composed of barley straw (ad libitum) and concentrate was offered to both groups. For the 2 wk following the learning period, the sheep were subjected to feeding of the basal diet to avoid carryover effects of the last offered test plant. In the following multiple-choice period, both groups were allowed to select from all test plants during 4 h in the morning for 14 d. Forage intake after 4 and 24 h and feeding behavior during the first 30 min of the test feeding were assessed. Milk yield and composition were measured at the end of the multiple-choice period. Nutrient intake was calculated using feed intake measurements and compositional analyses. Only in Exp. 2, group differences (P < 0.05) were found on d 1 of the multiple-choice period

  4. Interpretation and use of evidence in state policymaking: a qualitative analysis

    PubMed Central

    Apollonio, Dorie E; Bero, Lisa A

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Researchers advocating for evidence-informed policy have attempted to encourage policymakers to develop a greater understanding of research and researchers to develop a better understanding of the policymaking process. Our aim was to apply findings drawn from studies of the policymaking process, specifically the theory of policy windows, to identify strategies used to integrate evidence into policymaking and points in the policymaking process where evidence was more or less relevant. Methods Our observational study relied on interviews conducted with 24 policymakers from the USA who had been trained to interpret scientific research in multiple iterations of an evidence-based workshop. Participants were asked to describe cases where they had been involved in making health policy and to provide examples in which research was used, either successfully or unsuccessfully. Interviews were transcribed, independently coded by multiple members of the study team and analysed for content using key words, concepts identified by participants and concepts arising from review of the texts. Results Our results suggest that policymakers who focused on health issues used multiple strategies to encourage evidence-informed policymaking. The respondents used a strict definition of what constituted evidence, and relied on their experience with research to discourage the use of less rigorous research. Their experience suggested that evidence was less useful in identifying problems, encouraging political action or ensuring feasibility and more useful in developing policy alternatives. Conclusions Past research has suggested multiple strategies to increase the use of evidence in policymaking, including the development of rapid-response research and policy-oriented summaries of data. Our findings suggest that these strategies may be most relevant to the policymaking stream, which develops policy alternatives. In addition, we identify several strategies that policymakers and

  5. The challenges of nutrition policymaking.

    PubMed

    Slavin, Joanne L

    2015-02-07

    In my over three decades of work in the field of food and nutrition, I have participated in many efforts that seek new policy initiatives in the hopes that these programs can curb rates of obesity and chronic disease and help consumers make healthier dietary choices. Because of the profound effect that many of these policies have on consumers, the food environment, federal nutrition assistance programs and subsequent policy and regulatory recommendations, it is imperative that only the strongest, best available evidence is used to set policy. This review evaluates methods by which current nutrition policies use scientific research as well as provides recommendations for how best to ensure future nutrition policies are truly science-based and likely to have a meaningful impact on public health. Specifically, this review will: Describe the current food and nutrition policy environment in the US Examine how science is used in federal food and nutrition policymaking efforts, using the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) as an example Describe strong versus weak science as well as what types of studies are most appropriate for use in policymaking Discuss the potential effects and consequences of making policy recommendations in the absence of scientific consensus or agreement Make recommendations to support the present and ongoing development of science-based policy likely to positively impact public health.

  6. A State Policymaker's STEM Playbook. Promising Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinth, Jennifer; Goetz, Tami

    2016-01-01

    Science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) has captured the attention of state policymakers who are concerned about equitable access to high-quality educational experiences and preparing and inspiring students to pursue STEM careers. Yet in many states, STEM policymaking efforts have not achieved their intended return on investment…

  7. Modelers and policymakers : improving the relationships.

    SciTech Connect

    Karas, Thomas H.

    2004-06-01

    On April 22 and 23, 2004, a diverse group of 14 policymakers, modelers, analysts, and scholars met with some 22 members of the Sandia National Laboratories staff to explores ways in which the relationships between modelers and policymakers in the energy and environment fields (with an emphasis on energy) could be made more productive for both. This report is not a transcription of that workshop, but draws very heavily on its proceedings. It first describes the concept of modeling, the varying ways in which models are used to support policymaking, and the institutional context for those uses. It then proposes that the goal of modelers and policymakers should be a relationship of mutual trust, built on a foundation of communication, supported by the twin pillars of policy relevance and technical credibility. The report suggests 20 guidelines to help modelers improve the relationship, followed by 10 guidelines to help policymakers toward the same goal.

  8. Mitigating Evidentiary Bias in Planning and Policy-Making

    PubMed Central

    Parkhurst, Justin

    2017-01-01

    The field of cognitive psychology has increasingly provided scientific insights to explore how humans are subject to unconscious sources of evidentiary bias, leading to errors that can affect judgement and decision-making. Increasingly these insights are being applied outside the realm of individual decision-making to the collective arena of policy-making as well. A recent editorial in this journal has particularly lauded the work of the World Bank for undertaking an open and critical reflection on sources of unconscious bias in its own expert staff that could undermine achievement of its key goals. The World Bank case indeed serves as a remarkable case of a global policy-making agency making its own critical reflections transparent for all to see. Yet the recognition that humans are prone to cognitive errors has been known for centuries, and the scientific exploration of such biases provided by cognitive psychology is now well-established. What still remains to be developed, however, is a widespread body of work that can inform efforts to institutionalise strategies to mitigate the multiple sources and forms of evidentiary bias arising within administrative and policy-making environments. Addressing this gap will require a programme of conceptual and empirical work that supports robust development and evaluation of institutional bias mitigation strategies. The cognitive sciences provides a scientific basis on which to proceed, but a critical priority will now be the application of that science to improve policy-making within those agencies taking responsibility for social welfare and development programmes.

  9. Fluorofenidone Offers Improved Renoprotection at Early Interventions during the Course of Diabetic Nephropathy in db/db Mice via Multiple Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Xuan; Mei, Wenjuan; Xie, Yanyun; Liu, Jishi; Lu, Miaomiao; Peng, Xiongqun; Yang, Congyin; Zhang, Xin; Xie, Mingyan; Luo, Renna; Yuan, Xiangning; Huang, Ling; Wu, Lin; Qin, Jiao; Peng, Yu; Jia, Xiujie; Hu, Gaoyun; Tang, Damu; Tao, Lijian

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) remains the leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), a situation that is in part attributable to the lack of effective treatments. Fluorofenidone is a newly developed reagent with anti-fibrotic activity. While fluorofenidone was previously demonstrated to possess renoprotection from DN pathogenesis in db/db mice, the protective process and its underlying mechanisms have not been well studied. To characterize fluorofenidone-derived renoprotection, we treated 5, 8, or 12-week old db/db mice with daily doses of placebo, fluorofenidone, or losartan until 24 weeks of age; the time at which diabetes and DN were fully developed in placebo-treated animals. In comparison to db/db mice receiving fluorofenidone at 12-weeks old, those treated at 5-weeks had less glomerular expansion and better preservation of renal functions, judged by serum creatinine levels, albumin to creatinine ratio, and urinary albumin excretion (mg/24 hours). These benefits of early treatment were associated with significant reductions of multiple DN-promoting events, such as decreased expression of TGF-β1 and the p22phox subunit of NADPH oxidase as well as downregulated activation of protein kinase C-zeta (ζ), ERK and AKT. This improvement in renoprotection following early interventions is not a unique property of DN pathogenesis, as losartan does not apparently offer the same benefits and is not more renoprotective than fluorofenidone. Additionally, the enhanced renoprotection provided by fluorofenidone did not affect the diabetic process, as it did not alter serum levels of glycated serum proteins, glucose, triglyceride or cholesterol. Collectively, we provide evidence that fluorofenidone offers improved renoprotection at early stages of DN pathogenesis. PMID:25347392

  10. Galvanizers, guides, champions, and shields: the many ways that policymakers use public health researchers.

    PubMed

    Haynes, Abby S; Gillespie, James A; Derrick, Gemma E; Hall, Wayne D; Redman, Sally; Chapman, Simon; Sturk, Heidi

    2011-12-01

    Public health researchers make a limited but important contribution to policy development. Some engage with policy directly through committees, advisory boards, advocacy coalitions, ministerial briefings, intervention design consultation, and research partnerships with government, as well as by championing research-informed policy in the media. Nevertheless, the research utilization literature has paid little attention to these diverse roles and the ways that policymakers use them. This article describes how policymakers use researchers in policymaking and examines how these activities relate to models of research utilization. It also explores the extent to which policymakers' accounts of using researchers concur with the experiences of "policy-engaged" public health researchers. We conducted semi-structured interviews with thirty-two Australian civil servants, parliamentary ministers, and ministerial advisers identified as "research-engaged" by public health researchers. We used structured and inductive coding to generate categories that we then compared with some of the major research utilization models. Policymakers were sophisticated and multifaceted users of researchers for purposes that we describe as Galvanizing Ideas, Clarification and Advice, Persuasion, and Defense. These categories overlapped but did not wholly fit with research utilization models. Despite the negative connotation, "being used" was reported as reciprocal and uncompromising, although researchers and policymakers were likely to categorize these uses differently. Policymakers countered views expressed by some researchers. That is, they sought robust dialogue and creative thinking rather than compliance, and they valued expert opinion when research was insufficient for decision making. The technical/political character of policy development shaped the ways in which researchers were used. Elucidating the diverse roles that public health researchers play in policymaking, and the multiple ways

  11. Factors that encourage and discourage policy-making to prevent childhood obesity: Experience in the United States.

    PubMed

    Rutkow, Lainie; Jones-Smith, Jesse; Walters, Hannah J; O'Hara, Marguerite; Bleich, Sara N

    2016-09-09

    Policy-makers throughout the world seek to address childhood obesity prevention, yet little is known about factors that influence policy-makers' decisions on this topic. From September 2014 to April 2015, we conducted 43 semi-structured interviews about factors that encourage and discourage policy-makers' support for childhood obesity prevention policies. We interviewed policy-makers (n = 12) and two other groups engaged with childhood obesity prevention policies: representatives of non-governmental organizations (n = 24) and academics (n = 7). Factors that encourage policy-makers' support for childhood obesity prevention policies included: positive impact on government finances, an existing evidence base, partnerships with community-based collaborators, and consistency with policy-makers' priorities. Factors that discourage policy-makers' support included the following: perceptions about government's role, food and beverage industry opposition, and policy-makers' beliefs about personal responsibility. As public health practitioners, advocates, and others seek to advance childhood obesity prevention in the U.S. and elsewhere, the factors we identified offer insights into ways to frame proposed policies and strategies to influence policy-makers.

  12. Factors that encourage and discourage policy-making to prevent childhood obesity: Experience in the United States.

    PubMed

    Rutkow, Lainie; Jones-Smith, Jesse; Walters, Hannah J; O'Hara, Marguerite; Bleich, Sara N

    2016-12-01

    Policy-makers throughout the world seek to address childhood obesity prevention, yet little is known about factors that influence policy-makers' decisions on this topic. From September 2014 to April 2015, we conducted 43 semi-structured interviews about factors that encourage and discourage policy-makers' support for childhood obesity prevention policies. We interviewed policy-makers (n = 12) and two other groups engaged with childhood obesity prevention policies: representatives of non-governmental organizations (n = 24) and academics (n = 7). Factors that encourage policy-makers' support for childhood obesity prevention policies included: positive impact on government finances, an existing evidence base, partnerships with community-based collaborators, and consistency with policy-makers' priorities. Factors that discourage policy-makers' support included the following: perceptions about government's role, food and beverage industry opposition, and policy-makers' beliefs about personal responsibility. As public health practitioners, advocates, and others seek to advance childhood obesity prevention in the U.S. and elsewhere, the factors we identified offer insights into ways to frame proposed policies and strategies to influence policy-makers.

  13. Galvanizers, Guides, Champions, and Shields: The Many Ways That Policymakers Use Public Health Researchers

    PubMed Central

    Haynes, Abby S; Gillespie, James A; Derrick, Gemma E; Hall, Wayne D; Redman, Sally; Chapman, Simon; Sturk, Heidi

    2011-01-01

    researchers play in policymaking, and the multiple ways that policymakers use these roles, provides researchers and policymakers with a framework for negotiating and reflecting on activities that may advance the public health goals shared by both. PMID:22188348

  14. SUPPORT Tools for evidence-informed health Policymaking (STP) 1: What is evidence-informed policymaking?

    PubMed

    Oxman, Andrew D; Lavis, John N; Lewin, Simon; Fretheim, Atle

    2009-12-16

    This article is part of a series written for people responsible for making decisions about health policies and programmes and for those who support these decision makers. In this article, we discuss the following three questions: What is evidence? What is the role of research evidence in informing health policy decisions? What is evidence-informed policymaking? Evidence-informed health policymaking is an approach to policy decisions that aims to ensure that decision making is well-informed by the best available research evidence. It is characterised by the systematic and transparent access to, and appraisal of, evidence as an input into the policymaking process. The overall process of policymaking is not assumed to be systematic and transparent. However, within the overall process of policymaking, systematic processes are used to ensure that relevant research is identified, appraised and used appropriately. These processes are transparent in order to ensure that others can examine what research evidence was used to inform policy decisions, as well as the judgements made about the evidence and its implications. Evidence-informed policymaking helps policymakers gain an understanding of these processes.

  15. Formative Assessment: Guidance for Early Childhood Policymakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley-Ayers, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    This policy report provides a guide and framework to early childhood policymakers considering formative assessment. The report defines formative assessment and outlines its process and application in the context of early childhood. The substance of this document is the issues for consideration in the implementation of the formative assessment…

  16. Formative Assessment: Guidance for Early Childhood Policymakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley-Ayers, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    This policy report provides a guide and framework to early childhood policymakers considering formative assessment. The report defines formative assessment and outlines its process and application in the context of early childhood. The substance of this document is the issues for consideration in the implementation of the formative assessment…

  17. Education Policy-Making and Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Greg; Cook, Ian

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the global policy convergence toward high-stakes testing in schools and the use of test results to "steer at a distance", particularly as it applies to policy-makers' promise to improve teacher quality. Using Deleuze's three syntheses of time in the context of the Australian policy blueprint Quality Education, this…

  18. Education Policy-Making and Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Greg; Cook, Ian

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the global policy convergence toward high-stakes testing in schools and the use of test results to "steer at a distance", particularly as it applies to policy-makers' promise to improve teacher quality. Using Deleuze's three syntheses of time in the context of the Australian policy blueprint Quality Education, this…

  19. Increasing Charter School Accountability through Interventions and Closures: A Guide For State Policymakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafson, Joey; Keller, Eric; LaVallee, Robert E.; Stewart, Nichole H.

    2010-01-01

    A basic premise of charter school reform in public education is offering more autonomy in the use of funds and the design of curriculum in exchange for greater accountability in academic and financial outcomes. This premise poses a significant policy challenge for state policymakers to establish an appropriate level of regulation; charter schools…

  20. Process, pitfalls and profits: lessons from interviewing New Zealand policy-makers.

    PubMed

    Signal, Louise N; Bowers, Sharron G; Edwards, Richard; Gifford, Heather; Hudson, Sheena; Jenkin, Gabrielle L S; Lanumata, Tolotea S; Russell, Marie L; Thompson, George; Walton, Mat D

    2016-08-19

    Little has been written about interviewing policy-makers in health promotion and public health research. This article explores the process, pitfalls and profits of semi-structured interviews with policy-makers in 10 research projects conducted in New Zealand. Key members of each research team were surveyed about their research and findings verified against research publications. Key aspects of the process of policy-maker interviews include gaining ethical approval, navigating gatekeepers, using personal contacts and multiple research dissemination methods. Pitfalls of interviewing policy-makers include interviewers not having enough knowledge of the topic so efforts were made to use knowledgeable researchers or up-skill others. Interviews provide access to specialist knowledge of the policy process which cannot be obtained by other methods. While this study was conducted in one jurisdiction, it has implications for other countries. Effective policy-maker interviews in health promotion policy research could contribute to improvements in the quality of data collected and uptake of research by policy-makers. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. A glossary of theories for understanding policymaking.

    PubMed

    Smith, Katherine Elizabeth; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal

    2013-02-01

    Public health practitioners and researchers often seek to influence public policies in order to improve population health and/or reduce health inequalities. However, these efforts frequently appear to be uninformed by the many empirically-based theories about policymaking that have been developed within political science. This glossary provides a brief overview of some of the most popular of these theories, describing how each: frames the policymaking process; portrays the relationships and influence of specific policy actors; and depicts the potential for policy change (or inertia). Examples of their application to public health are provided to help improve understanding of the material presented. Throughout the article, the implications of the different theories for public health researchers and advocates seeking to inform policy decisions are emphasised. The glossary aims to provide an accessible overview to key theories about policy and decision-making, with a view to supporting public health efforts to achieve healthier public policies.

  2. Adapting American Policymaking to Overcome American Exceptionalism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-13

    while recognizing its third-order impact of the nuanced and volatile cultures within the Arab and Muslim community, and the threat to the homeland...created by this impact. 15. SUBJECT TEEMS Policymaking, Muslim and Arab ideology, Middle East, American exceptionalism, foreign policy, cultural nuances 16...its third-order impact of the nuanced and volatile cultures within the Arab and Muslim community’, and the threat to the homeland created by this

  3. Cloning expression and analysis of phytochelatin synthase (pcs) gene from Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 offering multiple stress tolerance in Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Chaurasia, Neha; Mishra, Yogesh; Rai, Lal Chand

    2008-11-07

    Phytochelatin synthase (PCS) is involved in the synthesis of phytochelatins (PCs), plays role in heavy metal detoxification. The present study describes for first time the functional expression and characterization of pcs gene of Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 in Escherichia coli in terms of offering protection against heat, salt, carbofuron (pesticide), cadmium, copper, and UV-B stress. The involvement of pcs gene in tolerance to above abiotic stresses was investigated by cloning of pcs gene in expression vector pGEX-5X-2 and its transformation in E. coli BL21 (DE3). The E. coli cells transformed with pGEX-5X-pcs showed better growth than control cells (pGEX-5X-2) under temperature (47 deg. C), NaCl (6% w/v), carbofuron (0.025 mg ml{sup -1}), CdCl{sub 2} (4 mM), CuCl{sub 2} (1 mM), and UV-B (10 min) exposure. The enhanced expression of pcs gene revealed by RT-PCR analysis under above stresses at different time intervals further advocates its role in tolerance against above abiotic stresses.

  4. A Policymaker's Guide to Scaling Home Energy Upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    LeBaron, Robin; Saul-Rinaldi, Kara

    2015-09-01

    There has never been a better time to launch initiatives to promote residential energy efficiency savings. Over the past several decades, residential retrofit programs have demonstrated that energy efficiency measures contribute to achieving multiple benefits, including but not limited to reductions in home energy consumption, stabilization improvements for the grid by shaving peak loads, saving consumers millions on utility bills, and significantly reducing carbon emissions. Although a number of barriers to widespread uptake of home energy upgrades persist, the lessons learned as a result of the 2009 stimulus funding1 have resulted in a set of policy approaches that create new strategies for taking residential energy efficiency to scale.2 The identification of these approaches is well timed; energy efficiency is often the least expensive and most cost effective way to comply with a variety of federal, state and local policies. This Guide is designed to help state and local policymakers to take full advantage of new policy developments by providing them with a comprehensive set of tools to support launching or accelerating residential energy efficiency programs. It is written primarily for state and local policymakers, including state and local executives, legislators, public utility commissioners, and the staff who advise them.

  5. Identifying public health policymakers' sources of information: comparing survey and network analyses.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Kathryn A; de Vocht, Frank; Money, Annemarie; Everett, Martin

    2017-05-01

    Research suggests that policymakers often use personal contacts to find information and advice. However, the main sources of information for public health policymakers are not known. This study aims to describe policymakers' sources of information. A questionnaire survey of public health policymakers across Greater Manchester (GM) was carried out (response rate 48%). All policy actors above Director level involved in public health policy (finding, analyzing or producing information, producing or implementing policy) in GM were included in the sampling frame. Respondents were provided with a list of sources of information and asked which they used (categorical data) and to name specific individuals who acted as sources of information (network data). Data were analyzed using frequencies and network analysis. The most frequently chosen sources of information from the categorical data were NICE, government websites and Directors of Public Health. However, the network data showed that the main sources of information in the network were actually mid-level managers in the NHS, who had no direct expertise in public health. Academics and researchers did not feature in the network. Both survey and network analyses provide useful insights into how policymakers access information. Network analysis offers practical and theoretical contributions to the evidence-based policy debate. Identifying individuals who act as key users and producers of evidence allows academics to target actors likely to use and disseminate their work.

  6. Offer/Acceptance Ratio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Mimi

    1997-01-01

    Explores how human resource professionals, with above average offer/acceptance ratios, streamline their recruitment efforts. Profiles company strategies with internships, internal promotion, cooperative education programs, and how to get candidates to accept offers. Also discusses how to use the offer/acceptance ratio as a measure of program…

  7. Defensive medicine: No wonder policymakers are confused.

    PubMed

    Kapp, Marshall B

    2016-01-01

    Discussions regarding defensive medical practice often result in proposals for public policy actions. Such proposals generally are premised on assumptions about defensive medicine, namely, that it (a) is driven by physicians' legal anxieties, (b) constitutes bad medical practice, (c) drives up health care costs, (d) varies depending on a jurisdiction's particular tort law climate, (e) depends on medical specialty and a physician's own prior experience as a malpractice defendant, and (f) is a rational response to actual legal risks confronting physicians. This article examines a sample of recent literature focusing on defensive medicine and finds that the messages conveyed vary widely, helping to explain the confusion experienced by many policymakers trying to improve the quality and affordability of health care.

  8. Why national eHealth programs need dead philosophers: Wittgensteinian reflections on policymakers' reluctance to learn from history.

    PubMed

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Russell, Jill; Ashcroft, Richard E; Parsons, Wayne

    2011-12-01

    Policymakers seeking to introduce expensive national eHealth programs would be advised to study lessons from elsewhere. But these lessons are unclear, partly because a paradigm war (controlled experiment versus interpretive case study) is raging. England's $20.6 billion National Programme for Information Technology (NPfIT) ran from 2003 to 2010, but its overall success was limited. Although case study evaluations were published, policymakers appeared to overlook many of their recommendations and persisted with some of the NPfIT's most criticized components and implementation methods. In this reflective analysis, illustrated by a case fragment from the NPfIT, we apply ideas from Ludwig Wittgenstein's postanalytic philosophy to justify the place of the "n of 1" case study and consider why those in charge of national eHealth programs appear reluctant to learn from such studies. National eHealth programs unfold as they do partly because no one fully understands what is going on. They fail when this lack of understanding becomes critical to the programs' mission. Detailed analyses of the fortunes of individual programs, articulated in such a way as to illuminate the contextualized talk and action ("language games") of multiple stakeholders, offer unique and important insights. Such accounts, portrayals rather than models, deliver neither statistical generalization (as with experiments) nor theoretical generalization (as with multisite case comparisons or realist evaluations). But they do provide the facility for heuristic generalization (i.e., to achieve a clearer understanding of what is going on), thereby enabling more productive debate about eHealth programs' complex, interdependent social practices. A national eHealth program is best conceptualized not as a blueprint and implementation plan for a state-of-the-art technical system but as a series of overlapping, conflicting, and mutually misunderstood language games that combine to produce a situation of ambiguity

  9. What Policymakers Can Do to Make Education Inclusive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pijl, Sip Jan; Frissen, Paul H. A.

    2009-01-01

    Inclusive education challenges all schools to cater for a wider range of students. This implies that schools and teachers have to change. This literature study analyses how, if at all, policymakers can bring about changes in schools. Specific steering concepts of policymakers, whose interventions seem to address schools as "machine" bureaucracies,…

  10. Policymaking and the Uses of History. Review Essay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuban, Larry

    1991-01-01

    Praises Harold Silver's book "Education, Change, and the Policy Process" for its complex, thoughtful essays justifying the use of history to make informed educational policy. Questions Silver's strong focus on top policymakers and his failure to acknowledge policymakers' usual reliance on intuition and ordinary knowledge, not scholarly studies.…

  11. HRD Policymaking in Companies: An Interpretation of the Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wognum, Ida

    1998-01-01

    Usable responses from 106 of 199 Dutch human resources practitioners in industry, transportation, and banking revealed significant differences in human resource policymaking and strategic choices among these sectors. Better interaction between policymakers and human resource departments is needed to align personnel practices with company needs.…

  12. Flint Photovoice: community building among youths, adults, and policymakers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Caroline C; Morrel-Samuels, Susan; Hutchison, Peter M; Bell, Lee; Pestronk, Robert M

    2004-06-01

    Flint Photovoice represents the work of 41 youths and adults recruited to use a participatory-action research approach to photographically document community assets and concerns, critically discuss the resulting images, and communicate with policymakers. At the suggestion of grassroots community leaders, we included policymakers among those asked to take photographs. In accordance with previously established photovoice methodology, we also recruited at the project's outset another group of policymakers and community leaders to provide political will and support for implementing photovoice participants' policy and program recommendations. Flint Photovoice enabled youths to express their concerns about neighborhood violence to policymakers and was instrumental in acquiring funding for local violence prevention. We note salutary outcomes produced by the inclusion of policymakers among adults who took photographs.

  13. Flint Photovoice: Community Building Among Youths, Adults, and Policymakers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Caroline C.; Morrel-Samuels, Susan; Hutchison, Peter M.; Bell, Lee; Pestronk, Robert M.

    2004-01-01

    Flint Photovoice represents the work of 41 youths and adults recruited to use a participatory-action research approach to photographically document community assets and concerns, critically discuss the resulting images, and communicate with policymakers. At the suggestion of grassroots community leaders, we included policymakers among those asked to take photographs. In accordance with previously established photovoice methodology, we also recruited at the project’s outset another group of policymakers and community leaders to provide political will and support for implementing photovoice participants’ policy and program recommendations. Flint Photovoice enabled youths to express their concerns about neighborhood violence to policymakers and was instrumental in acquiring funding for local violence prevention. We note salutary outcomes produced by the inclusion of policymakers among adults who took photographs. PMID:15249287

  14. POLICYMAKING UNDER UNCERTAINTY: ROUTINE SCREENING FOR INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE

    PubMed Central

    Dagher, Rada K.; Garza, Mary A.; Kozhimannil, Katy Backes

    2013-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant public health issue affecting around 3 million U.S. women during their lifetimes; this paper provides guidance to policymakers on addressing IPV. In 2011, an Institute of Medicine panel recommended routine IPV screening for women and adolescents as part of comprehensive preventive care services, which is in conflict with the 2004 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendations. The current evidence base for policymaking suffers weaknesses related to study design which should be addressed in future research. Meanwhile, policymakers should consider available evidence in their settings, assess local needs, and make recommendations where appropriate. PMID:25011677

  15. Top priorities of Canadian and American policymakers for conservation science

    EPA Science Inventory

    We summarize the content of America's "top 40" conservation research questions and how they can inform policy and management needs that emerged from informal interviews with senior policymakers and other decision makers

  16. Top priorities of Canadian and American policymakers for conservation science

    EPA Science Inventory

    We summarize the content of America's "top 40" conservation research questions and how they can inform policy and management needs that emerged from informal interviews with senior policymakers and other decision makers

  17. NREL Geothermal Policymakers' Guidebooks Web site (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-10-01

    This document highlights the NREL Geothermal Policymakers' Guidebooks Web site, including the five steps to effective geothermal policy development for geothermal electricity generation and geothermal heating and cooling technologies.

  18. SUPPORT Tools for evidence-informed health Policymaking (STP) 7: Finding systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Lavis, John N; Oxman, Andrew D; Grimshaw, Jeremy; Johansen, Marit; Boyko, Jennifer A; Lewin, Simon; Fretheim, Atle

    2009-12-16

    This article is part of a series written for people responsible for making decisions about health policies and programmes and for those who support these decision makers. Systematic reviews are increasingly seen as a key source of information in policymaking, particularly in terms of assisting with descriptions of the impacts of options. Relative to single studies they offer a number of advantages related to understanding impacts and are also seen as a key source of information for clarifying problems and providing complementary perspectives on options. Systematic reviews can be undertaken to place problems in comparative perspective and to describe the likely harms of an option. They also assist with understanding the meanings that individuals or groups attach to a problem, how and why options work, and stakeholder views and experiences related to particular options. A number of constraints have hindered the wider use of systematic reviews in policymaking. These include a lack of awareness of their value and a mismatch between the terms employed by policymakers, when attempting to retrieve systematic reviews, and the terms used by the original authors of those reviews. Mismatches between the types of information that policymakers are seeking, and the way in which authors fail to highlight (or make obvious) such information within systematic reviews have also proved problematic. In this article, we suggest three questions that can be used to guide those searching for systematic reviews, particularly reviews about the impacts of options being considered. These are: 1. Is a systematic review really what is needed? 2. What databases and search strategies can be used to find relevant systematic reviews? 3. What alternatives are available when no relevant review can be found?

  19. Using systems thinking in state health policymaking: an educational initiative.

    PubMed

    Minyard, Karen J; Ferencik, Rachel; Ann Phillips, Mary; Soderquist, Chris

    2014-06-01

    In response to limited examples of opportunities for state policymakers to learn about and productively discuss the difficult, adaptive challenges of our health system, the Georgia Health Policy Center developed an educational initiative that applies systems thinking to health policymaking. We created the Legislative Health Policy Certificate Program - an in-depth, multi-session series for lawmakers and their staff - concentrating on building systems thinking competencies and health content knowledge by applying a range of systems thinking tools: behavior over time graphs, stock and flow maps, and a system dynamics-based learning lab (a simulatable model of childhood obesity). Legislators were taught to approach policy issues from the big picture, consider changing dynamics, and explore higher-leverage interventions to address Georgia's most intractable health challenges. Our aim was to determine how we could improve the policymaking process by providing a systems thinking-focused educational program for legislators. Over 3 years, the training program resulted in policymakers' who are able to think more broadly about difficult health issues. The program has yielded valuable insights into the design and delivery of policymaker education that could be applied to various disciplines outside the legislative process.

  20. An audience research study to disseminate evidence about comprehensive state mental health parity legislation to US State policymakers: protocol.

    PubMed

    Purtle, Jonathan; Lê-Scherban, Félice; Shattuck, Paul; Proctor, Enola K; Brownson, Ross C

    2017-06-26

    A large proportion of the US population has limited access to mental health treatments because insurance providers limit the utilization of mental health services in ways that are more restrictive than for physical health services. Comprehensive state mental health parity legislation (C-SMHPL) is an evidence-based policy intervention that enhances mental health insurance coverage and improves access to care. Implementation of C-SMHPL, however, is limited. State policymakers have the exclusive authority to implement C-SMHPL, but sparse guidance exists to inform the design of strategies to disseminate evidence about C-SMHPL, and more broadly, evidence-based treatments and mental illness, to this audience. The aims of this exploratory audience research study are to (1) characterize US State policymakers' knowledge and attitudes about C-SMHPL and identify individual- and state-level attributes associated with support for C-SMHPL; and (2) integrate quantitative and qualitative data to develop a conceptual framework to disseminate evidence about C-SMHPL, evidence-based treatments, and mental illness to US State policymakers. The study uses a multi-level (policymaker, state), mixed method (QUAN→qual) approach and is guided by Kingdon's Multiple Streams Framework, adapted to incorporate constructs from Aarons' Model of Evidence-Based Implementation in Public Sectors. A multi-modal survey (telephone, post-mail, e-mail) of 600 US State policymakers (500 legislative, 100 administrative) will be conducted and responses will be linked to state-level variables. The survey will span domains such as support for C-SMHPL, knowledge and attitudes about C-SMHPL and evidence-based treatments, mental illness stigma, and research dissemination preferences. State-level variables will measure factors associated with C-SMHPL implementation, such as economic climate and political environment. Multi-level regression will determine the relative strength of individual- and state

  1. Dynamic development of public attitudes towards science policymaking.

    PubMed

    Okamura, Keisuke

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the heterogeneity of mechanisms that form public attitudes towards science and technology policymaking is essential to the establishment of an effective public engagement platform. Using the 2011 public opinion survey data from Japan (n = 6,136), I divided the general public into three categories: the Attentive public, who are willing to actively engage with science and technology policymaking dialogue; the Interested public, who have moderate interest in science and technology but rely on experts for policy decisions; and the Residual public, who have minimal interest in science and technology. On the basis of the results of multivariate regression analysis, I have identified several key predispositions towards science and technology and other socio-demographic characteristics that influence the shift of individuals from one category of the general public to another. The findings provide a foundation for understanding how to induce more accountable, evidence-based science and technology policymaking. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Remaking Teacher Evaluation: A Heavy Lift for State Education Policymakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuinn, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The "Race to the Top" competitive grant program initiated a wave of teacher evaluation reform, which scholars and policymakers have long identified as critical to improving teacher quality and student performance. State boards of education (SBEs) and state education agencies (SEAs) took different approaches to these reforms, and as a…

  3. Education Hubs and Talent Development: Policymaking and Implementation Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jack T.

    2014-01-01

    The discourse on the internationalization of higher education emphasizes revenue generation while neglecting other diverse rationales pursued by governments and institutions. For countries that are seeking to venture into a knowledge economy or accrue greater competitive advantages under globalization, many policymakers view cross-border higher…

  4. Remaking Teacher Evaluation: A Heavy Lift for State Education Policymakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuinn, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The "Race to the Top" competitive grant program initiated a wave of teacher evaluation reform, which scholars and policymakers have long identified as critical to improving teacher quality and student performance. State boards of education (SBEs) and state education agencies (SEAs) took different approaches to these reforms, and as a…

  5. Qualitative Research: Its Value and Role in Policymaking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Policy Research Brief, 1991

    1991-01-01

    This Policy Research Brief explores the strengths of qualitative research and the types of information it can make available to policymakers concerned with issues affecting persons with disabilities. The naturalistic methodology employed in qualitative research is described. Three specific studies using qualitative methodology are excerpted and…

  6. Strategic Planning in Education: A Guide for Policymakers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Harry A.

    As defined in chapter I of this guide for policymakers, strategic planning is the method by which an organization identifies relevant trends in its environment, analyzes their potential implications, and projects an integrated strategy to address these future events and their contingencies. This process differs from formalized planning, based on…

  7. Researching Community-Based Support Networks: What Policymakers Should Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dadich, Ann

    2009-01-01

    Self-help support groups (SHSGs) have a valuable role in civic society. However, it is difficult to measure their value through sole use of the positivist approaches that interest policymakers. This is because SHSGs are consumer-driven and voluntary. Thus, they cannot be regulated by research agendas or prescribed like treatment. Although social…

  8. Effective Workplace Literacy Programs: A Guide for Policymakers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikulecky, Larry; Lloyd, Paul

    This policymakers' guide examines considerations in developing policies regarding the development and evaluation of workplace literacy programs for seven targeted worker groups that have been especially adversely affected by recent demographic and economic changes. Section 1 presents considerations and recommendations for developing workplace…

  9. China's Education Policy-Making: A Policy Network Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Shuangmiao; Ye, Fugui

    2017-01-01

    Policy network approach has become a broadly accepted and frequently adopted practice in modern state governance, especially in the public sector. The study utilises a broadly defined policy network conceptual frame and categories of reference to trace the evolution of education policy-making in China. The study uses "The Outline of China's…

  10. Researching Community-Based Support Networks: What Policymakers Should Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dadich, Ann

    2009-01-01

    Self-help support groups (SHSGs) have a valuable role in civic society. However, it is difficult to measure their value through sole use of the positivist approaches that interest policymakers. This is because SHSGs are consumer-driven and voluntary. Thus, they cannot be regulated by research agendas or prescribed like treatment. Although social…

  11. Public Schools as Partners in Rural Development: Considerations for Policymakers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmon, Hobart L.

    This paper describes four considerations for policymakers who wish to have public schools serve as viable partners in the rural development efforts of their communities. First, schools are a community resource. When rural students are given opportunities to engage in community-based learning, they develop responsible citizenship and leadership…

  12. Accountability: Implications for State and Local Policymakers. Policy Perspectives Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirst, Michael W.

    This paper presents research findings to help policymakers understand and select various options for holding schools accountable for their performance and to help them devise a multistrategy accountability system. However, it does not recommend one system over another, since a given accountability option must be compatible and adapted to…

  13. Democratization and Participation: National Education Policy-Making in Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredua-Kwarteng, Eric

    2016-01-01

    This is Ghanaian case study that focuses on widening participation in national education policy-making via a social justice panel. It analyses the narratives of two former members of the Ghana Education Reform Committee and focus-groups interviews of ordinary Ghanaians. While the narratives of commission members are in favour of maintaining the…

  14. Stewart's maxims: eight "do's" for successfully communicating silviculture to policymakers

    Treesearch

    R. E. Stewart

    1997-01-01

    Technical specialists may experience difficulties in presenting information to non-technical policymakers and having that information used. Eight maxims are discussed that should help the silviculturist successfully provide technical information to non-technical audiences so that it will be considered in the formulation of policy.

  15. Higher Education Policy-Making: A Role for the States?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Neil

    1992-01-01

    This discussion of higher education policy formation in Australia focuses on the changing role of the state governments. The nature of state involvement in policymaking in 1959-87 is chronicled, and the diminished role of the states in very recent years is examined. The need for state participation is supported. (MSE)

  16. Power, Politics and Transnational Policy-Making in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moutsios, Stavros

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses the relation between power and politics under the conditions of economic globalisation and transnational policy-making in education. The paper argues that power lies not only with the producers of the dominant educational discourse nor simply with the very discourse which is circulated and reproduced in national legislations,…

  17. FCC Broadcast Content Regulation: Policymaking in a Vacuum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Todd; And Others

    The history of the Federal Communications Commission's content regulation of broadcasting is a history of policymaking in a vacuum. A review of the literature reveals that no one has yet attempted to show whether the Fairness Doctrine results in poorer or better broadcast journalism. To remedy this, content regulation should be explored from…

  18. Policymaking in Education: Understanding Influences on the Reading Excellence Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmondson, Jacqueline

    2005-01-01

    Educators and researchers are being called to participate in language and literacy policy making (Roller & Long, 2001). In order to do so, however, there needs to be an understanding of how policy is made. Although policymaking often appears to be an irrational process, there are theories that exist to explain the influences and mechanisms…

  19. The Great Speckled Bird: Multicultural Politics and Education Policymaking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornbleth, Catherine; Waugh, Dexter

    Focusing on the states of California and New York, this book highlights the political aspects of educational policy, the configurations of power and how they play out with respect to history-social studies curriculum policy. The volume examines the politics of multicultural curriculum policymaking in these two states within the context of the…

  20. Institute of Education Science Findings from Interviews with Education Policymakers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Gary; Reiser, Mindy; Parker, Albert; Muniec, Judith; Salvucci, Sameena

    This reports presents interview findings with education policymakers on various aspects of educational research. The sampling contained the following groups: superintendents and other local education officials; chief state school officers; state higher education executive officers; state legislators; governors' educational policy advisors;…

  1. Political and Academic Linkages in Public Sector Policymaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, LaVerne Williamson

    2006-01-01

    Decision making in the public sector encompasses many topics of interest to the academic researcher--environmental issues, health and human services, budget planning, and so on. Expertise in data collection and analysis is critical to the policy-making process and can be provided by academic researchers. But the "real world" policymaker…

  2. Education Hubs and Talent Development: Policymaking and Implementation Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jack T.

    2014-01-01

    The discourse on the internationalization of higher education emphasizes revenue generation while neglecting other diverse rationales pursued by governments and institutions. For countries that are seeking to venture into a knowledge economy or accrue greater competitive advantages under globalization, many policymakers view cross-border higher…

  3. Multiplicity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-01

    practice as a "[descent] into that inner circle of the Inferno where the damned endlessly degate multiplicity for sentencing." United States v. Barnard...select the charges to be brought in a particular case"). 19 Brown v. Ohio, 432 U.S. 161, 165 (1977). 20 Whalen v. United States, 445 U.S. at 689. 21...parte Lange, 8-5 U.S. (19 Wall.) 163 (1874). Cf. Brown v. Ohio, 432 U.S. at 165 ("once the legislature has acted courts may not impose more than one

  4. Orchestrating Multiple Intelligences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Seana; Kornhaber, Mindy; Gardner, Howard

    2006-01-01

    Education policymakers often go astray when they attempt to integrate multiple intelligences theory into schools, according to the originator of the theory, Howard Gardner, and his colleagues. The greatest potential of a multiple intelligences approach to education grows from the concept of a profile of intelligences. Each learner's intelligence…

  5. Orchestrating Multiple Intelligences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Seana; Kornhaber, Mindy; Gardner, Howard

    2006-01-01

    Education policymakers often go astray when they attempt to integrate multiple intelligences theory into schools, according to the originator of the theory, Howard Gardner, and his colleagues. The greatest potential of a multiple intelligences approach to education grows from the concept of a profile of intelligences. Each learner's intelligence…

  6. Therapeutic jurisprudence: A framework for evidence-informed health care policymaking.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Amy T

    2010-01-01

    Translation of evidence-based practice (EBP) into health care policy is of growing importance, with discussions most often focused on how to fund and otherwise promote EBP through policy (i.e., at system level, beyond the bedside). Less attention has been focused on how to ensure that such policies - as enacted and implemented, and as distinguished from the practices underlying policies - do not themselves cause harm, or at least frustrate accomplishment of "therapeutic" goals of EBP. On a different front, principles of therapeutic jurisprudence (TJ) in law have been developed, most prominently in certain areas of law (e.g., mental health and family law), to support more collaborative, less traumatic advocacy and conflict resolution. This paper draws on current applications of TJ and translates such into a therapeutic approach to health care policymaking that moves beyond promotion of EBP in policy. Health care policy itself may be viewed as an intervention that impacts health, positively or not. The goal is to offer a framework for health care policymaking grounded in TJ principles that does not focus on which evidence is "right" for policy use, but rather how we can better understand how consequences of policy, intended or not, affect the well-being of populations. Such framework thus moves policymaking from an either/or debate to a data- and human-driven process. Utilizing TJ framing questions, policies can be developed and evaluated through open dialogue among diverse voices at the table, including - like interventions - the "patients" or, here, targets of such policies. Collectively, they clarify how ends sought - to enhance (or at least not impair) health - can best be achieved through policy when needed, recognizing that as an intervention, there are limits to and boundaries on the usefulness of policy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Enhancing health policymakers' information literacy knowledge and skill for policymaking on control of infectious diseases of poverty in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Ezeoha, Abel Ebeh; Uro-Chukwu, Henry; Ezeonu, Chinonyelum Thecla; Ogbu, Ogbonnaya; Onwe, Friday; Edoga, Chima

    2015-01-01

    Background In Nigeria, one of the major challenges associated with evidence-to-policy link in the control of infectious diseases of poverty (IDP), is deficient information literacy knowledge and skill among policymakers. There is need for policymakers to acquire the skill to discover relevant information, accurately evaluate retrieved information and to apply it correctly. Objectives To use information literacy tool of International Network for Availability of Scientific Publications (INASP) to enhance policymakers' knowledge and skill for policymaking on control of IDP in Nigeria. Methods Modified "before and after" intervention study design was used in which outcomes were measured on target participants both before the intervention is implemented and after. This study was conducted in Ebonyi State, south-eastern Nigeria and participants were career health policy makers. A two-day health-policy information literacy training workshop was organized to enhance participants" information literacy capacity. Topics covered included: introduction to information literacy; defining information problem; searching for information online; evaluating information; science information; knowledge sharing interviews; and training skills. Results A total of 52 policymakers attended the workshop. The pre-workshop mean rating (MNR) of knowledge and capacity for information literacy ranged from 2.15-2.97, while the post-workshop MNR ranged from 3.34-3.64 on 4-point scale. The percentage increase in MNR of knowledge and capacity at the end of the workshop ranged from 22.6%-55.3%. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that through information literacy training workshop policy makers can acquire the knowledge and skill to identify, capture and share the right kind of information in the right contexts to influence relevant action or a policy decision. PMID:26284149

  8. Enhancing health policymakers' information literacy knowledge and skill for policymaking on control of infectious diseases of poverty in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Ezeoha, Abel Ebeh; Uro-Chukwu, Henry; Ezeonu, Chinonyelum Thecla; Ogbu, Ogbonnaya; Onwe, Friday; Edoga, Chima

    2015-01-01

    In Nigeria, one of the major challenges associated with evidence-to-policy link in the control of infectious diseases of poverty (IDP), is deficient information literacy knowledge and skill among policymakers. There is need for policymakers to acquire the skill to discover relevant information, accurately evaluate retrieved information and to apply it correctly. To use information literacy tool of International Network for Availability of Scientific Publications (INASP) to enhance policymakers' knowledge and skill for policymaking on control of IDP in Nigeria. Modified "before and after" intervention study design was used in which outcomes were measured on target participants both before the intervention is implemented and after. This study was conducted in Ebonyi State, south-eastern Nigeria and participants were career health policy makers. A two-day health-policy information literacy training workshop was organized to enhance participants" information literacy capacity. Topics covered included: introduction to information literacy; defining information problem; searching for information online; evaluating information; science information; knowledge sharing interviews; and training skills. A total of 52 policymakers attended the workshop. The pre-workshop mean rating (MNR) of knowledge and capacity for information literacy ranged from 2.15-2.97, while the post-workshop MNR ranged from 3.34-3.64 on 4-point scale. The percentage increase in MNR of knowledge and capacity at the end of the workshop ranged from 22.6%-55.3%. The results of this study suggest that through information literacy training workshop policy makers can acquire the knowledge and skill to identify, capture and share the right kind of information in the right contexts to influence relevant action or a policy decision.

  9. SUPPORT Tools for evidence-informed health Policymaking (STP) 3: Setting priorities for supporting evidence-informed policymaking.

    PubMed

    Lavis, John N; Oxman, Andrew D; Lewin, Simon; Fretheim, Atle

    2009-12-16

    This article is part of a series written for people responsible for making decisions about health policies and programmes and for those who support these decision makers. Policymakers have limited resources for developing--or supporting the development of--evidence-informed policies and programmes. These required resources include staff time, staff infrastructural needs (such as access to a librarian or journal article purchasing), and ongoing professional development. They may therefore prefer instead to contract out such work to independent units with more suitably skilled staff and appropriate infrastructure. However, policymakers may only have limited financial resources to do so. Regardless of whether the support for evidence-informed policymaking is provided in-house or contracted out, or whether it is centralised or decentralised, resources always need to be used wisely in order to maximise their impact. Examples of undesirable practices in a priority-setting approach include timelines to support evidence-informed policymaking being negotiated on a case-by-case basis (instead of having clear norms about the level of support that can be provided for each timeline), implicit (rather than explicit) criteria for setting priorities, ad hoc (rather than systematic and explicit) priority-setting process, and the absence of both a communications plan and a monitoring and evaluation plan. In this article, we suggest questions that can guide those setting priorities for finding and using research evidence to support evidence-informed policymaking. These are: 1. Does the approach to prioritisation make clear the timelines that have been set for addressing high-priority issues in different ways? 2. Does the approach incorporate explicit criteria for determining priorities? 3. Does the approach incorporate an explicit process for determining priorities? 4. Does the approach incorporate a communications strategy and a monitoring and evaluation plan?

  10. Practical Guidelines for Educating Policymakers: The Family Impact Seminar as an Approach to Advancing the Interests of Children and Families in the Policy Arena

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Brian L.; Weisz, P. Victoria; Miller, Monica K.

    2005-01-01

    Psychologists are well positioned to contribute to policymaking on issues affecting the well-being of children, youth, and families. A good deal of psychological research is relevant to policy issues such as child mental health services, child care, adoption and foster care, and children's media. In this article we offer an alternative to direct…

  11. Practical Guidelines for Educating Policymakers: The Family Impact Seminar as an Approach to Advancing the Interests of Children and Families in the Policy Arena

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Brian L.; Weisz, P. Victoria; Miller, Monica K.

    2005-01-01

    Psychologists are well positioned to contribute to policymaking on issues affecting the well-being of children, youth, and families. A good deal of psychological research is relevant to policy issues such as child mental health services, child care, adoption and foster care, and children's media. In this article we offer an alternative to direct…

  12. Do evidence summaries increase policy-makers' use of evidence from systematic reviews: A systematic review protocol.

    PubMed

    Petkovic, Jennifer; Welch, Vivian; Tugwell, Peter

    2015-09-28

    Systematic reviews are important for decision-makers. They offer many potential benefits but are often written in technical language, are too long, and do not contain contextual details which makes them hard to use for decision-making. There are many organizations that develop and disseminate derivative products, such as evidence summaries, from systematic reviews for different populations or subsets of decision-makers. This systematic review will assess the effectiveness of systematic review summaries on increasing policymakers' use of systematic review evidence and to identify the components or features of these summaries that are most effective. We will include studies of policy-makers at all levels as well as health-system managers. We will include studies examining any type of "evidence summary," "policy brief," or other products derived from systematic reviews that present evidence in a summarized form. The primary outcomes are the following: (1) use of systematic review summaries decision-making (e.g., self-reported use of the evidence in policy-making, decision-making) and (2) policy-maker understanding, knowledge, and/or beliefs (e.g., changes in knowledge scores about the topic included in the summary). We will conduct a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomized controlled trials (NRCTs), controlled before-after studies (CBA), and interrupted time series (ITS) studies. The results of this review will inform the development of future systematic review summaries to ensure that systematic review evidence is accessible to and used by policy-makers making health-related decisions.

  13. Uncertainty in macroeconomic policy-making: art or science?

    PubMed

    Aikman, David; Barrett, Philip; Kapadia, Sujit; King, Mervyn; Proudman, James; Taylor, Tim; de Weymarn, Iain; Yates, Tony

    2011-12-13

    Uncertainty is pervasive in economic policy-making. Modern economies share similarities with other complex systems in their unpredictability. But economic systems also differ from those in the natural sciences because outcomes are affected by the state of beliefs of the systems' participants. The dynamics of beliefs and how they interact with economic outcomes can be rich and unpredictable. This paper relates these ideas to the recent crisis, which has reminded us that we need a financial system that is resilient in the face of the unpredictable and extreme. It also highlights how such uncertainty puts a premium on sound communication strategies by policy-makers. This creates challenges in informing others about the uncertainties in the economy, and how policy is set in the face of those uncertainties. We show how the Bank of England tries to deal with some of these challenges in its communications about monetary policy.

  14. Communicating space weather to policymakers and the wider public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Bárbara

    2014-05-01

    As a natural hazard, space weather has the potential to affect space- and ground-based technological systems and cause harm to human health. As such, it is important to properly communicate this topic to policymakers and the general public alike, informing them (without being unnecessarily alarmist) about the potential impact of space-weather phenomena and how these can be monitored and mitigated. On the other hand, space weather is related to interesting phenomena on the Sun such as coronal-mass ejections, and incorporates one of the most beautiful displays in the Earth and its nearby space environment: aurora. These exciting and fascinating aspects of space weather should be cultivated when communicating this topic to the wider public, particularly to younger audiences. Researchers have a key role to play in communicating space weather to both policymakers and the wider public. Space scientists should have an active role in informing policy decisions on space-weather monitoring and forecasting, for example. And they can exercise their communication skills by talking about space weather to school children and the public in general. This presentation will focus on ways to communicate space weather to wider audiences, particularly policymakers. It will also address the role researchers can play in this activity to help bridge the gap between the space science community and the public.

  15. Practical guidelines for educating policymakers: the family impact seminar as an approach to advancing the interests of children and families in the policy arena.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Brian L; Weisz, P Victoria; Miller, Monica K

    2005-12-01

    Psychologists are well positioned to contribute to policymaking on issues affecting the well-being of children, youth, and families. A good deal of psychological research is relevant to policy issues such as child mental health services, child care, adoption and foster care, and children's media. In this article we offer an alternative to direct policy advocacy as a means for psychologists' involvement in the policy arena. Policy education, a nonpartisan and nonadversarial approach to working with policymakers, is described and differentiated from child advocacy. We then present an example of 1 approach to policy education, the Family Impact Seminar. The article closes with a discussion of lessons we have learned regarding effectively communicating research to policymakers.

  16. Offer Versus Serve. Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Health and Drug Education and Services.

    A growing awareness about food supplies, food shortages, and conservation of natural resources has resulted in public concern over food waste within the National School Lunch Program. Prior to 1976, all participating students were required to take all five items offered on a planned menu. In October 1975, the Offer v. Serve Provision was enacted…

  17. Offer Versus Serve. Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Health and Drug Education and Services.

    A growing awareness about food supplies, food shortages, and conservation of natural resources has resulted in public concern over food waste within the National School Lunch Program. Prior to 1976, all participating students were required to take all five items offered on a planned menu. In October 1975, the Offer v. Serve Provision was enacted…

  18. Effective communications strategies: engaging the media, policymakers, and the public.

    PubMed

    Blake, Allison; Bonk, Kathy; Heimpel, Daniel; Wright, Cathy S

    2013-01-01

    Too often, strategic communication is too little, or comes too late, when involved with a child fatality or serious injury. This article explores the challenges arising from negative publicity around child safety issues and the opportunities for communications strategies that employ a proactive public health approach to engaging media, policymakers, and the public. The authors provide a case study and review methods by which child welfare agencies across the nation are building public engagement and support for improved outcomes in child safety while protecting legitimate confidentiality requirements. Finally, the piece articulates the rationale for agency investments in the resources necessary to develop and implement an effective communications plan.

  19. Perspectives of Fijian Policymakers on the Obesity Prevention Policy Landscape

    PubMed Central

    Hendriks, Anna-Marie; Delai, Mere Y.; Thow, Anne-Marie; Gubbels, Jessica S.; De Vries, Nanne K.; Kremers, Stef P. J.; Jansen, Maria W. J.

    2015-01-01

    In Fiji and other Pacific Island countries, obesity has rapidly increased in the past decade. Therefore, several obesity prevention policies have been developed. Studies show that their development has been hampered by factors within Fiji's policy landscape such as pressure from industry. Since policymakers in the Fijian national government are primarily responsible for the development of obesity policies, it is important to understand their perspectives; we therefore interviewed 15 policymakers from nine Fijian ministries. By applying the “attractor landscape” metaphor from dynamic systems theory, we captured perceived barriers and facilitators in the policy landscape. A poor economic situation, low food self-sufficiency, power inequalities, inappropriate framing of obesity, limited policy evidence, and limited resource sharing hamper obesity policy developments in Fiji. Facilitators include policy entrepreneurs and policy brokers who were active when a window of opportunity opened and who strengthened intersectoral collaboration. Fiji's policy landscape can become more conducive to obesity policies if power inequalities are reduced. In Fiji and other Pacific Island countries, this may be achievable through increased food self-sufficiency, strengthened intersectoral collaboration, and the establishment of an explicit functional focal unit within government to monitor and forecast the health impact of policy changes in non-health sectors. PMID:26380307

  20. The effects of corporate restructuring on hospital policymaking.

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, J A; Morlock, L L; Gifford, B D

    1988-01-01

    Hospital corporate restructuring is the segmentation of assets or functions of the hospital into separate corporations. While these functions are almost always legally separated from the hospital, their impact on hospital policymaking may be far more direct. This study examines the effects of corporate restructuring by community hospitals on the structure, composition, and activity of hospital governing boards. In general, we expect that the policymaking function of the hospital will change to adapt to the multicorporate structure implemented under corporate restructuring, as well as the overlapping boards and diversified business responsibilities of the new corporate entity. Specifically, we hypothesize that the hospital board under corporate restructuring will conform more to the "corporate" model found in the business/industrial sector and less to the "philanthropic" model common to most community hospitals to date. Analysis of survey data from 1,037 hospitals undergoing corporate restructuring from 1979-1985 and a comparison group of 1,883 noncorporately restructured hospitals suggests general support for this hypothesis. Implications for health care governance and research are discussed. PMID:3384671

  1. Implementation research evidence uptake and use for policy-making

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A major obstacle to the progress of the Millennium Development Goals has been the inability of health systems in many low- and middle-income countries to effectively implement evidence-informed interventions. This article discusses the relationships between implementation research and knowledge translation and identifies the role of implementation research in the design and execution of evidence-informed policy. After a discussion of the benefits and synergies needed to translate implementation research into action, the article discusses how implementation research can be used along the entire continuum of the use of evidence to inform policy. It provides specific examples of the use of implementation research in national level programmes by looking at the scale up of zinc for the treatment of childhood diarrhoea in Bangladesh and the scaling up of malaria treatment in Burkina Faso. A number of tested strategies to support the transfer of implementation research results into policy-making are provided to help meet the standards that are increasingly expected from evidence-informed policy-making practices. PMID:22748142

  2. Valuing environmental health for informed policy-making.

    PubMed

    Máca, Vojtěch; Melichar, Jan; Ščasný, Milan; Kohlová, Markéta Braun

    2017-03-01

    Monetized environmental health impact assessments help to better evaluate the environmental burden of a wide range of economic activities. Apart from the limitations and uncertainties in physical and biological science used in such assessments, assumptions taken from economic valuation may also substantially influence subsequent policy-making considerations. This study attempts to demonstrate the impact of normative policy assumptions on quantified external costs using a case study of recently discussed variants of future coal mining and use of extracted coal in electricity and heat generation in the Czech Republic. A bottom-up impact-pathway approach is used for quantification of external costs. Several policy perspectives are elaborated for aggregating impacts that differ in geographic coverage and in how valuation of quantified impacts is adjusted in a particular perspective. We find that the fraction of monetized external impacts taken into policy-making considerations may vary according to choice of decision perspective up to a factor of 10. At present there are virtually no hard rules for defining geographical boundaries or adjusting values for a summation of monetized environmental impacts. We, however, stress that any rigorous external cost assessment should, for instance in a separate calculation, take account of impacts occurring beyond country borders.

  3. Presidential and bureaucratic policy-making: The case of Mexican oil policy

    SciTech Connect

    de la Luz Valverde Rocha, M.

    1991-01-01

    A close examination of the literature yielded two different, but vague models of Mexican policy-making: (1) closed presidential policy-making and (2) open presidential policy-making. These two models are tested by identifying the regime's policy-making structures and by explaining the manner in which they operated to produce oil policy in two presidential administrations. To attain these goals, the oil policy-making process was divided into several stages. The policy roles played by different actors in the various stages of policy-making were analyzed. The process they engaged in to produce oil policy was also examined. The findings lend strong support to the open presidential policy-making model. The most salient features of this model are: (1) the president and different members of the Mexican federal bureaucracy share policy-making functions, power, and influence; (2) policymakers engage in a political process of persuasion, coalition building, information functions, power, and influence; and (3) policymakers engage in these and other political techniques to produce government decisions and actions.

  4. The Anatomy of Online Offerings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoskins, Barbara J.

    2014-01-01

    The perceptions about online teaching and learning are frequently different from the reality. Some students say they expected the online course to be easier than the traditional face-to-face course and are surprised by the rigor, while skeptics decry the quality of online offerings since students cannot possibly learn as well online as they do in…

  5. The Anatomy of Online Offerings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoskins, Barbara J.

    2014-01-01

    The perceptions about online teaching and learning are frequently different from the reality. Some students say they expected the online course to be easier than the traditional face-to-face course and are surprised by the rigor, while skeptics decry the quality of online offerings since students cannot possibly learn as well online as they do in…

  6. Offering Reflection to an Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faulkner, Ann; Gooding, Guy

    2010-01-01

    From 1998 to 2008, the Dallas County Community College District (DCCCD) offered its employees a variety of options for formation, a type of reflective practice. The district encompasses 10 locations, seven of them independently accredited colleges. Formation is based primarily on Parker Palmer's model for Circles of Trust as described in "A…

  7. Linguistic analysis of IPCC summaries for policymakers and associated coverage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkemeyer, Ralf; Dessai, Suraje; Monge-Sanz, Beatriz; Renzi, Barbara Gabriella; Napolitano, Giulio

    2016-03-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Summary for Policymakers (SPM) is the most widely read section of IPCC reports and the main springboard for the communication of its assessment reports. Previous studies have shown that communicating IPCC findings to a variety of scientific and non-scientific audiences presents significant challenges to both the IPCC and the mass media. Here, we employ widely established sentiment analysis tools and readability metrics to explore the extent to which information published by the IPCC differs from the presentation of respective findings in the popular and scientific media between 1990 and 2014. IPCC SPMs clearly stand out in terms of low readability, which has remained relatively constant despite the IPCC’s efforts to consolidate and readjust its communications policy. In contrast, scientific and quality newspaper coverage has become increasingly readable and emotive. Our findings reveal easy gains that could be achieved in making SPMs more accessible for non-scientific audiences.

  8. Student leadership in interprofessional education: benefits, challenges and implications for educators, researchers and policymakers.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Steven J; Rosenfield, Daniel; Gilbert, John H V; Oandasan, Ivy F

    2008-07-01

    Context Interprofessional collaboration is gaining increasing prominence as a team-based approach to health care delivery that synergistically maximises the strengths of each health professional to enhance patient care, decrease medical errors and optimise efficiency. The often neglected role that student leaders have in preparing their peers, as the health professionals of the future, for collaboration in health care should not be overlooked. Objective This paper offers the foundational arguments supporting the integral role that student leadership in interprofessional education (IPE) can play and its comparative advantages. Methods Evidence from previous literature and the National Health Science Students' Association in Canada was reviewed and a questionnaire on student-initiated IPE was administered among Canada's top student leaders in this area. Results Student leadership is essential to the success of IPE because it enhances students' willingness to collaborate and facilitates the longterm sustainability of IPE efforts. Student-initiated IPE, a subset of student leadership, is particularly important to achieving the aforementioned goals and offers a number of benefits, comparative advantages and associated challenges. Conclusions Successful student leadership in IPE will yield significant benefits for everyone in the years to come. However, it requires the support of educators, researchers and policymakers in fostering an enabling environment that will facilitate the efforts and contributions of student leaders.

  9. Evidence-based policymaking is not like evidence-based medicine, so how far should you go to bridge the divide between evidence and policy?

    PubMed

    Cairney, Paul; Oliver, Kathryn

    2017-04-26

    There is extensive health and public health literature on the 'evidence-policy gap', exploring the frustrating experiences of scientists trying to secure a response to the problems and solutions they raise and identifying the need for better evidence to reduce policymaker uncertainty. We offer a new perspective by using policy theory to propose research with greater impact, identifying the need to use persuasion to reduce ambiguity, and to adapt to multi-level policymaking systems.We identify insights from secondary data, namely systematic reviews, critical analysis and policy theories relevant to evidence-based policymaking. The studies are drawn primarily from countries such as the United States, United Kingdom, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. We combine empirical and normative elements to identify the ways in which scientists can, do and could influence policy.We identify two important dilemmas, for scientists and researchers, that arise from our initial advice. First, effective actors combine evidence with manipulative emotional appeals to influence the policy agenda - should scientists do the same, or would the reputational costs outweigh the policy benefits? Second, when adapting to multi-level policymaking, should scientists prioritise 'evidence-based' policymaking above other factors? The latter includes governance principles such the 'co-production' of policy between local public bodies, interest groups and service users. This process may be based primarily on values and involve actors with no commitment to a hierarchy of evidence.We conclude that successful engagement in 'evidence-based policymaking' requires pragmatism, combining scientific evidence with governance principles, and persuasion to translate complex evidence into simple stories. To maximise the use of scientific evidence in health and public health policy, researchers should recognise the tendency of policymakers to base judgements on their beliefs, and shortcuts based on their emotions

  10. Challenges to pharmaceutical policymaking: lessons from Australia's national medicines policy.

    PubMed

    Lipworth, Wendy; Doran, Evan; Kerridge, Ian; Day, Richard

    2014-05-01

    National medicines policies (NMP) provide a means for governments to achieve their objectives in relation to pharmaceuticals and other medicines. This research aimed to identify challenges to implementing the objectives of the Australian NMP from the perspective of key stakeholders. In 2012 and 2103, we conducted 30 semistructured interviews with stakeholders involved in the discovery, clinical testing, regulation and funding of medicines in Australia. We asked participants to describe their careers and to give their opinions on specific issues surrounding drug development, clinical research, regulation and subsidisation in Australia. Data were analysed using Morse's outline of the cognitive basis of qualitative research and Charmaz's outline of data analysis in grounded theory. The initial phase of 'open coding' revealed findings that could be mapped to three of the four objectives of the NMP. We then conducted 'focussed coding' for themes relevant to these objectives. Participants identified many issues relevant to the ongoing evolution of the NMP, relating primarily to ongoing tensions between the commercial objective of ensuring a viable medicines industry, and the non-commercial objectives of ensuring that medicines are safe, effective and affordable. There were also several other challenges identified to the achievement of both the commercial and non-commercial objectives of the NMP. These included limits to government funding, globalisation, consumer advocacy, changing scientific paradigms and new information technologies. There are many issues that need to be addressed if policymakers are to achieve the best outcomes from the NMP. Tensions between the commercial and non-commercial objectives of the NMP suggest the need to ensure that one stakeholder group's imperatives do not stifle those of other groups. At the same time, there are several emerging issues that are likely to concern all stakeholders equally, and these are both challenges and opportunities

  11. Probability as Possibility Spaces: Communicating Uncertainty to Policymakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiso, C.

    2015-12-01

    One problem facing the sciences is communicating results and recommendations to policymakers. This is perhaps particularly difficult in the geosciences where results are often based on probabilistic models, as probability is often and unduly equated with a specific kind of uncertainty or unreliability in the results. This leads to a great deal of miscommunication and misguided policy decisions. It is, then, valid to ask how scientists should talk about probability, uncertainty, and models in a way that correctly conveys what the users of these models intend. What I propose is a new way to think and, importantly, talk about probability which will hopefully make this much more transparent to both users and policy makers. Rather than using a frequentist (prior percentages) or Bayesian (observer uncertainty) framework, we should talk about probability as a tool for defining a possibility space for measurements. This model is conceptually simple and makes probability a tool of refinement rather than a source of inaccuracy. A similar possibility-space model has proven useful in the climate sciences and there is good reason to believe it will have similar applications in hydrology.

  12. Evaluating inspection and maintenance programs: a policy-making framework.

    PubMed

    Eisinger, Douglas S

    2005-02-01

    This article presents a new analysis approach to design and evaluate motor vehicle inspection and maintenance (I/M) programs. The new approach, called I/M-Design, uses real-world data to provide two resources not previously available: (1) a transparent framework to quantitatively illustrate the range of emission reductions available from I/M, and (2) a sensitivity analysis tool to evaluate how key variables affect I/M performance. In addition, the approach satisfies a policy-making information need--how to convey, in a logical and straightforward manner, the expected benefits from I/M without relying on modeling tools inaccessible to those outside the air quality field. The material presented in this article illustrates the new approach by estimating hydrocarbon (HC) emission reduction benefits available from enhanced I/M in southern California's South Coast Air Basin. I/M-Design estimates that enhanced I/M results in a 14-28% reduction in light-duty motor vehicle HC exhaust emissions; this estimate compares well to other California I/M program evaluations. Even more importantly, I/M-Design sensitivity analyses illustrate how I/M programs that implement stringent failure thresholds, motivate pre-test repair work, and improve repair effectiveness can provide emission reductions that substantially exceed the performance of existing programs.

  13. Policymaker's Guide to Feed-in Tariff Policy Design

    SciTech Connect

    Couture, T. D.; Cory, K.; Kreycik, C.; Williams, E.

    2010-07-01

    Feed-in tariffs (FITs) are the most widely used renewable energy policy in the world for driving accelerating renewable energy (RE) deployment, accounting for a greater share of RE development than either tax incentives or renewable portfolio standard (RPS) policies. FITs have generated significant RE deployment, helping bring the countries that have implemented them successfully to the forefront of the global RE industry. In the European Union (EU), FIT policies have led to the deployment of more than 15,000 MW of solar photovoltaic (PV) power and more than 55,000 MW of wind power between 2000 and the end of 2009. In total, FITs are responsible for approximately 75% of global PV and 45% of global wind deployment. Countries such as Germany, in particular, have demonstrated that FITs can be used as a powerful policy tool to drive RE deployment and help meet combined energy security and emissions reductions objectives. This policymaker's guide provides a detailed analysis of FIT policy design and implementation and identifies a set of best practices that have been effective at quickly stimulating the deployment of large amounts of RE generation. Although the discussion is aimed primarily at decision makers who have decided that a FIT policy best suits their needs, exploration of FIT policies can also help inform a choice among alternative renewable energy policies.

  14. Economic Development Policymaking Down the Global Commodity Chain: Attracting an Auto Industry to Silao, Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothstein, Jeffrey S.

    2005-01-01

    This article applies the global commodity chain approach to analyze the way policymakers encouraged an automotive commodity chain to touch down in Silao, Mexico. The article explains that the changing dynamics of the global auto industry have transformed it into an "assembler-driven" commodity chain. It notes how policymakers in the…

  15. The Impact of School Culture on Schools' Pupil Well-Being Policy-Making Capacities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Gasse, Roos; Vanhoof, Jan; Van Petegem, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Pupil well-being has been an important topic in educational research for some time. Differences between schools in their influence on the well-being of their pupils are attributed to the policy-making capacities of the school. Little is known about schools' policy-making capacities with regard to pupil well-being, and the impact of school culture…

  16. Support Mechanisms for Evidence-Based Policy-Making in Education. Eurydice Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riiheläinen, Jari Matti; Böhm, Franziska

    2017-01-01

    The report describes the mechanisms and practices that support evidence-based policy-making in the education sector in Europe. It comparatively looks at institutions and practices in evidence-based policy-making, as well as the accessibility, and mediation, of evidence. The report presents more detailed information on each individual country, with…

  17. Education Policymaking in Serbia through the Eyes of Teachers, Counselors, and Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teodorovic, Jelena; Stankovic, Dejan; Bodroža, Bojana; Milin, Vladeta; Ðeric, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    Numerous educational reforms have been initiated in Serbia since 2000. The aim of this study was to examine education policymaking in Serbia in order to provide policymakers and stakeholders with recommendations on how to minimize pitfalls and increase success of future educational endeavors. In the study, we utilized the education policy cycle…

  18. A Meeting Place for Policy-Makers and Researchers: The Transatlantic Forum on Inclusive Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peeters, Jan; Vandekerckhove, Ankie

    2015-01-01

    While policy-makers and researchers in the field of early childhood education and care (ECEC) often seem to speak different languages, overwhelming research evidence on how quality ECEC can play a key role in alleviating the effects of disadvantage can be extremely relevant for policy-makers. In this article, we focus on how philanthropic…

  19. Economic Development Policymaking Down the Global Commodity Chain: Attracting an Auto Industry to Silao, Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothstein, Jeffrey S.

    2005-01-01

    This article applies the global commodity chain approach to analyze the way policymakers encouraged an automotive commodity chain to touch down in Silao, Mexico. The article explains that the changing dynamics of the global auto industry have transformed it into an "assembler-driven" commodity chain. It notes how policymakers in the…

  20. The Employability Skills of Business Graduates in Syria: Do Policymakers and Employers Speak the Same Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayoubi, Rami M.; Alzarif, Kahla; Khalifa, Bayan

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to compare the desired employability skills of business graduates in Syria from the perspective of both higher education policymakers and employers in the private sector. Design/Methodology/Approach: Interviews were conducted with 12 higher education policymakers and managers from the business sector. Content…

  1. How Do We Get More Effective Policies for Higher Education? Reflections of a Policymaker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Roger

    2008-01-01

    In this article the author, until recently Vice-Chancellor of Southampton Solent University, draws on his long experience of higher education policymaking to suggest how policies for higher education can be improved. His recommendations cover the structure of policymaking, with a reduced role for the Funding Councils and a more effective role for…

  2. Policymakers Dependence on Evidence in Education Decision Making in Oyo State Ministry of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babalola, Joel B.; Gbolahan, Sowunmi

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated policymaker dependence on evidence in education decision making in Oyo State Ministry of Education. The study was conducted under a descriptive survey design, 44 out of the 290 policymakers of the Ministry and Board of Education across the State were purposively selected for the study. Descriptive statistics of frequency…

  3. The Impact of School Culture on Schools' Pupil Well-Being Policy-Making Capacities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Gasse, Roos; Vanhoof, Jan; Van Petegem, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Pupil well-being has been an important topic in educational research for some time. Differences between schools in their influence on the well-being of their pupils are attributed to the policy-making capacities of the school. Little is known about schools' policy-making capacities with regard to pupil well-being, and the impact of school culture…

  4. People, Processes, and Policy-Making in Canadian Post-secondary Education, 1990-2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Axelrod, Paul; Desai-Trilokekar, Roopa; Shanahan, Theresa; Wellen, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Policy-making in Canadian post-secondary education is rarely the subject of intensive, systematic study. This paper seeks to identify the distinctive ways in which Canadian post-secondary education policy decisions were constructed and implemented, and to posit an analytical framework for interpreting policy-making process in post-secondary…

  5. A Policymaker's Guide to Higher Education in Ohio, 2004. Frequently Asked Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Board of Regents, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The Ohio Board of Regents has prepared this document to provide detailed but easy to use information about higher education and the role that it plays in shaping Ohio's economy. The document tries to anticipate questions that might be asked of policymakers by their constituents. Information needed by policymakers to answer those questions, has…

  6. A Policymaker's Primer on Education Research: How to Understand, Evaluate and Use It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauer, Patricia A.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this primer is to help policymakers and other interested individuals answer three big questions: (1) What does the research say? (2) Is the research trustworthy? (3) How can the research be used to guide policy? Answering these questions will help policymakers: (1) make evidenced-based decisions about education policies; (2) gain a…

  7. An assessment of policymakers' engagement initiatives to promote evidence informed health policy making in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Sombie, Issiaka; Keita, Namoudou; Lokossou, Virgil; Johnson, Ermel; Ongolo-Zogo, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    In most developing countries including Nigeria, one of the most challenging issues associated with evidence-to-policy link is the capacity constraints of policymakers to access, synthesize, adapt and utilize available research evidence. The purpose of this review is to assess the efforts and various initiatives that have been undertaken to deliberately engage policymakers and other stakeholders in the health sector in Nigeria for the promotion of evidence informed policymaking. A MEDLINE Entrez Pubmed search was performed and studies that investigated policy making process, evidence to policy link, research to policy mechanism, and researchers/policymakers interaction in Nigeria in relation to health policy were sought. Of the 132 publications found, 14(10.6%) fulfilled the study inclusion criteria and were selected and included in the review. Of the fourteen scientific publications identified, 11 of the studies targeted both researchers and policymakers and the principal tool of intervention was training workshops which focused on various aspects of evidence informed policymaking. All the studies indicated positive outcomes and impacts in relation to quantifiable improvement in policymakers' knowledge and competence in evidence to policy process. Capacity strengthening engagement mechanism is needed for both researchers to generate better evidence and for policymakers and health-care professionals to better use available evidence.

  8. Education Policymaking in Serbia through the Eyes of Teachers, Counselors, and Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teodorovic, Jelena; Stankovic, Dejan; Bodroža, Bojana; Milin, Vladeta; Ðeric, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    Numerous educational reforms have been initiated in Serbia since 2000. The aim of this study was to examine education policymaking in Serbia in order to provide policymakers and stakeholders with recommendations on how to minimize pitfalls and increase success of future educational endeavors. In the study, we utilized the education policy cycle…

  9. How Do We Get More Effective Policies for Higher Education? Reflections of a Policymaker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Roger

    2008-01-01

    In this article the author, until recently Vice-Chancellor of Southampton Solent University, draws on his long experience of higher education policymaking to suggest how policies for higher education can be improved. His recommendations cover the structure of policymaking, with a reduced role for the Funding Councils and a more effective role for…

  10. Ideal-Oriented Policymaking: An Analysis of the 985 Project Policy Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xuefei, Chen

    2011-01-01

    Generally, there are two types of Chinese public educational policymaking: problem oriented and ideal oriented. The 985 Project policy clearly exhibits the characteristics of the latter. Usually, the goals of ideal-oriented policymaking are long-term and overarching, so they can play a role in propagating, directing, and encouraging people to…

  11. Educational Policymaking and the Methodology of Positive Economics: A Theoretical Critique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilead, Tal

    2014-01-01

    By critically interrogating the methodological foundations of orthodox economic theory, Tal Gilead challenges the growing conviction in educational policymaking quarters that, being more scientific than other forms of educational investigation, inquiries grounded in orthodox economics should provide the basis for educational policymaking. He…

  12. The Policy-Making Process of the State University System of Florida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Sandra M.

    The policy-making process of the State University System of Florida is described using David Easton's model of a political system as the conceptual framwork. Two models describing the policy-making process were developed from personal interviews with the primary participants in the governance structure and from three case studies of policy…

  13. Media Literacy and the Policymaking Process: A Framework for Understanding Influences on Potential Educational Policy Outputs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Bradford L.

    This paper examines some of the key public policy implications of the media literacy movement using D. Easton's (1965) model of the policymaking process. The model has six elements: (1) demands and supports; (2) policymakers; (3) policy outputs; (4) policy outcomes; (5) feedback; and (6) environment. Each element is vital to understanding the…

  14. The Employability Skills of Business Graduates in Syria: Do Policymakers and Employers Speak the Same Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayoubi, Rami M.; Alzarif, Kahla; Khalifa, Bayan

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to compare the desired employability skills of business graduates in Syria from the perspective of both higher education policymakers and employers in the private sector. Design/Methodology/Approach: Interviews were conducted with 12 higher education policymakers and managers from the business sector. Content…

  15. The Voice of Experience: How Social Scientists Communicate Family Research to Policymakers

    PubMed Central

    Friese, Bettina; Bogenschneider, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Because scientific understanding of communicating family research to policymakers is incomplete, qualitative interviews were conducted with social scientists experienced in bridging the gulf between research and family policy. In keeping with the tenets of two communities and community dissonance theories, the underutilization of research in policymaking was attributed, in part, to misperceptions and miscommunication between researchers and policymakers who operate in different cultures. Social scientists identified cultural barriers they encountered and rewards they experienced when communicating research to policymakers. Ten recommendations detail pragmatic strategies for communicating across conflicting cultures to promote greater use of research in family policy decisions. The findings suggest a paradigm shift away from simply disseminating research to policymakers and toward developing collaborative relationships with them. PMID:20407597

  16. Policy offers protection from harassment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNutt, Marcia

    We face a number of legal and ethical issues in our work as scientists and as AGU members. To uphold the highest ethical standards in our professional activities, the Council has adopted policies on free access to published material, ethics in publishing, and misconduct in science. But what about guidelines to govern the personal behavior that constitutes harassment, sexual or otherwise?For years the AGU headquarters staff has had a policy that offers protection from harassment and rules for dealing with it, but the membership went without one until 1994. That year the Council adopted a policy that extends to the membership as well as to the staff and the vendors they encounter at meetings. The law only requires a policy to prevent harassment in the workplace, but the Council felt that a harassment policy was particularly important for members because the subtle behavior that can constitute harassment is most likely to occur at events that combine work and social interaction, such as the meetings, conferences, and training seminars that AGU members attend.

  17. Offering an Array of Improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Sensors Unlimited, Inc., with SBIR funding from NASA's Langley Research Center, Goddard Space Flight Center, Marshall Space Flight Center, and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, developed a monolithic focal plane array for near-infrared imaging. The company developed one- (1- D) and two-dimensional (2-D) imaging arrays consisting of a highly reliable InGaAs p-I-n diode as a photodetector for monitoring a variety of applications, including single element device applications in receivers. The InGaAs 1-D and 2-D arrays have many applications. For example, they monitor the performance of dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) systems- the process of packaging many channels into a single fiber-optic cable. Sensors Unlimited commercially offers its LXTM and LYTM Series InGaAs linear arrays for reliable DWDM performance monitoring. The LX and LY arrays enable instrument module designs with no moving parts, which provides for superior uniformity, and fast, linear outputs that remain stable over a wide temperature range. Innovative technologies derived from the monolithic focal plane array have enabled telecommunication companies to optimize existing bandwidth in their fiber-optic networks in order to support a high volume of network traffic. At the same time, the technologies obtained from the array have the potential for reducing costs, while increasing performance from Sensors Unlimited's current product lines.

  18. Transport policy-making and planning Javanese cities

    SciTech Connect

    Dimitriou, H.

    1995-12-31

    Based on findings of field studies in five Javanese cities in Indonesia, this paper looks at a hierarchy of settlements and investigates what aspects of urban development and the transport sector most influences transport policy-making and planning in the country. The paper highlights the presence of a community hierarchy within these settlements with consonant trip-making patterns and the widespread mis-use of certain transport modes. The paper cross-relates observed transport problems and policy issues diagnosed from the five Javanese cities with an earlier prepared national agenda of urban transport policy issues and problems. This is done with a view to arriving at more sensitive policy and planning responses nationwide for cities of different kinds in Indonesia. The paper commences with an explanation of the settlement hierarchy and community structure employed by Indonesian government planners. An attempt is then made to relate this hierarchy and structure to the five cities studied. Within this context, factors affecting urban transport are discussed and tabulated against the above cities settlement hierarchy. These include aspects of: settlement size, structure and area; settlement development policy, urban for, density and topography; and travel and transport characteristics. An attempt is made to match this settlement hierarchy (and its constituent community structure) with a conceptualized hierarchy of transport modes, simultaneously investigating: the relationship between urban communities and assigned road hierarchies; community-based travel demand and trip-making characteristics; and the relationship between travel, speed and distance. From this an assessment is made of the performance and current use and mis-use of such transport modes.

  19. Strengthening the framework for independence of science in policymaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, A.; Phartiyal, P.; Halpern, M.; Goldman, G. T.; Reed, G.

    2016-12-01

    The "independence" of scientific advice—shorthand for the safeguards that are needed to ensure that scientific evidence that informs policy proposals stems from a valid and credible scientific process—is crucial to better policy decisions and public faith in public policy decisions. To the public, and often policy-makers, the process of developing, refereeing, and synthesizing science is often opaque, confusing, and underappreciated. At the same time, calls for disclosure of real or perceived conflicts of interest and for greater public access to scientific information and data are increasing. Further, vested interests routinely produce their own analyses, which often do not meet acceptable standards, to justify their own ends or a particular pre-determined policy position for economic, political, ideological, or other gains. These are not speculative concerns. For example, conflict of interest disclosure is often incomplete and inconsistently enforced. Peer review, even in the academic community, has been compromised or circumvented in too many cases. Scientific misconduct and research integrity in several fields have become high-profile scandals. Scientific integrity policies in government agencies are not fully implemented. A decline in public funding of research makes private-public partnerships more commonplace, and sometimes, those partnerships allow funders to unduly influence faculty appointment, curricula, and research. In this complicated landscape, a coherent, publicly credible and acceptable framework to assure that scientific advice is independent is sorely needed. Such a framework must incorporate best practices such as peer review; disclosure of conflicts; public availability of research findings, methodology and data; reproducibility of results; scientific freedom to publish; and deterrents against scientific misconduct. The framework would be broadly applicable across many technical fields and sectors. Here we delve into each of these elements

  20. Ciclovía initiatives: engaging communities, partners and policymakers along the route to success

    PubMed Central

    Hipp, Aaron; Eyler, Amy A.; Kim, Mi-Sook

    2015-01-01

    Context Recent efforts to increase physical activity through changes to the built environment have led to strategies and programs that use existing public space including bicycle lanes, temporary parks and the ciclovia initiative (scheduled events in which streets are closed to motorized vehicles and opened for recreational activities) popularized in South America. Objective The current paper describes and compares the processes and structures involved in developing and implementing a ciclovia-type program in two U.S. urban contexts: San Francisco, California, and St. Louis, Missouri. Considering the current growth of and interest in ciclovia initiatives, important outcomes, lessons learned are offered for application in other, similar settings. Design Primary sources from both initiatives and from published research on ciclovias constitute the body of evidence and include: year-end reports, grant applications, meeting minutes, budgets, published ciclovia guidelines, evaluation studies and websites, media sources and interviews and personal communication with the organizers. Main Outcome Measures Primary source documents were reviewed and included in this analysis if they offered information on three grounded questions: What processes were used in developing the initiative? What are the current structures and practices used in implementation of initiatives? What are important lessons learned and best practices from initiatives for recommendations to stakeholders and policy-makers in other contexts? Results Among the categories compared, the structures and processes for implementation regarding buy-in and city department collaboration, route selection, programming, partnerships, media promotion, community outreach and merchant support were relatively similar among the two initiatives. The categories that differed included staffing and volunteer engagement and funding. Conclusion Buy-in from community partners, merchants, residents and city agencies are critical for

  1. Opportunities in public policy to support infant and early childhood mental health: the role of psychologists and policymakers.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Florence; Mann, Tammy

    2011-01-01

    Infant and early childhood mental health practices can be supported by policies and professional standards of care that foster the healthy development of young children. Policies that support infants and toddlers include those that strengthen their families to provide a family environment that promotes mental wellness. Policy issues for infants, toddlers, and young children have come to the forefront of thinking as children need a "voice" to advocate for their support and care. This article (a) highlights several important policy areas that support the social-emotional development of very young children and (b) gives examples of current policy accomplishments and challenges. The article offers a policy agenda to promote the mental health of infants and young children and suggests ways that psychologists can engage with policymakers to promote policies that foster infant mental health, including contributing to the knowledge base that informs policy decisions, educating the public and policymakers about early childhood development and mental wellness, forming community partnerships to identify and address infant mental health risks, and participating in the development of policy recommendations that improve access to evidence-based practices in infant mental health. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. 75 FR 32840 - Securities Offering Disclosures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Securities Offering Disclosures AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS... on the following information collection. Title of Proposal: Securities Offering Disclosures. OMB... requirement: 12 CFR 563g. Description: The Securities Offering regulation provides necessary information...

  3. A multistage crucible of revision and approval shapes IPCC policymaker summaries.

    PubMed

    Mach, Katharine J; Freeman, Patrick T; Mastrandrea, Michael D; Field, Christopher B

    2016-08-01

    Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) member governments approve each report's summary for policymakers (SPM) by consensus, discussing and agreeing on each sentence in a plenary session with scientist authors. A defining feature of IPCC assessment, the governmental approval process builds joint ownership of current knowledge by scientists and governments. The resulting SPM revisions have been extensively discussed in anecdotes, interviews, and perspectives, but they have not been comprehensively analyzed. We provide an in-depth evaluation of IPCC SPM revisions, establishing an evidential basis for understanding their nature. Revisions associated with governmental review and approval generally expand SPMs, with SPM text growing by 17 to 53% across recent assessment reports. Cases of high political sensitivity and failure to reach consensus are notable exceptions, resulting in SPM contractions. In contrast to recent claims, we find that IPCC SPMs are as readable, for multiple metrics of reading ease, as other professionally edited assessment summaries. Across reading-ease metrics, some SPMs become more readable through governmental review and approval, whereas others do not. In an SPM examined through the entire revision process, most revisions associated with governmental review and approval occurred before the start of the government-approval plenary session. These author revisions emphasize clarity, scientific rigor, and explanation. In contrast, the subsequent plenary revisions place greater emphasis especially on policy relevance, comprehensiveness of examples, and nuances of expert judgment. Overall, the value added by the IPCC process emerges in a multistage crucible of revision and approval, as individuals together navigate complex science-policy terrain.

  4. Financing and Efficiency in Education: Reference for Administration and Policymaking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zymelman, Manuel

    This book examines the advantages and disadvantages of various methods of financing education and discusses the basic issues related to increasing efficiency in education. Section 1 offers a short history of educational finance and discusses many of the traditional approaches to financing education. Section 2 presents methods for distributing…

  5. Research glut and information famine: making research evidence more useful for policymakers.

    PubMed

    Colby, David C; Quinn, Brian C; Williams, Claudia H; Bilheimer, Linda T; Goodell, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    The gap between the two worlds of researchers and policymakers renders the use of research in the policy-making process problematic. Policymakers have three primary needs in their use of research evidence: clear translation, accessible and easy-to-use information, and relevance to the policy context. These needs are sometimes at odds with the priorities of the research community. This paper describes the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Synthesis Project, which aims to strengthen links between research and policy making by synthesizing evidence on pressing health policy questions.

  6. Practice-based Research Networks (PBRNs) Bridging the Gaps between Communities, Funders, and Policymakers

    PubMed Central

    Gaglioti, Anne H.; Werner, James J.; Rust, George; Fagnan, Lyle J.; Neale, Anne Victoria

    2016-01-01

    In this commentary, we propose that practice-based research networks (PBRNs) engage with funders and policymakers by applying the same engagement strategies they have successfully used to build relationships with community stakeholders. A community engagement approach to achieve new funding streams for PBRNs should include a strategy to engage key stakeholders from the communities of funders, thought leaders, and policymakers using collaborative principles and methods. PBRNs that implement this strategy would build a robust network of engaged partners at the community level, across networks, and would reach state and federal policymakers, academic family medicine departments, funding bodies, and national thought leaders in the redesign of health care delivery. PMID:27613796

  7. How Can Policy Theory Have an Impact on Policymaking? The Role of Theory-Led Academic-Practitioner Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cairney, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Policymakers and academics often hold different assumptions about the policymaking world based on their different experiences. Academics may enjoy enough distance from the policy process to develop a breadth of knowledge and produce generalisable conclusions across governments, while policymakers/practitioners such as civil servants may develop…

  8. How Can Policy Theory Have an Impact on Policymaking? The Role of Theory-Led Academic-Practitioner Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cairney, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Policymakers and academics often hold different assumptions about the policymaking world based on their different experiences. Academics may enjoy enough distance from the policy process to develop a breadth of knowledge and produce generalisable conclusions across governments, while policymakers/practitioners such as civil servants may develop…

  9. Summary for policymakers: Unlocking the sustainable potential of land resources. Evaluation systems, strategies and tools

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Land evaluation can be used by national policymakers, international development organizations, farmers, and conservationists to increase productivity, biodiversity conservation success, and to promote innovation. Land evaluation helps make better decisions about how to use the land, and is therefore...

  10. Exploring health researchers’ perceptions of policymaking in Argentina: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Corluka, Adrijana; Hyder, Adnan A; Winch, Peter J; Segura, Elsa

    2014-01-01

    Much of the published research on evidence-informed health policymaking in low- and middle-income countries has focused on policymakers, overlooking the role of health researchers in the research-to-policy process. Through 20 semi-structured, in-depth qualitative interviews conducted with researchers in Argentina’s rural northwest and the capital of Buenos Aires, we explore the perspectives, experiences and attitudes of Argentine health researchers regarding the use and impact of health research in policymaking in Argentina. We find that the researcher, and the researcher’s function of generating evidence, is nested within a broader complex system that influences the researcher’s interaction with policymaking. This system comprises communities of practice, government departments/civil society organizations, bureaucratic processes and political governance and executive leadership. At the individual level, researcher capacity and determinants of research availability also play a role in contributing to evidence-informed policymaking. In addition, we find a recurrent theme around ‘lack of trust’ and explore the role of trust within a research system, finding that researchers’ distrust towards policymakers and even other researchers are linked inextricably to the sociopolitical history of Argentina, which contributes to shaping researchers’ identities in opposition to policymakers. For policymakers, national research councils and funders of national health research systems, this article provides a deeper understanding of researchers’ perceptions which can help inform and improve programme design when developing interventions to enhance research utilization and develop equitable and rational health policies. For donors and development agencies interested in health research capacity building and achieving development goals, this research demonstrates a need for investment in building research capacity and training health researchers to interact with the

  11. National policy-makers speak out: are researchers giving them what they need?

    PubMed

    Hyder, Adnan A; Corluka, Adrijana; Winch, Peter J; El-Shinnawy, Azza; Ghassany, Harith; Malekafzali, Hossein; Lim, Meng-Kin; Mfutso-Bengo, Joseph; Segura, Elsa; Ghaffar, Abdul

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this empirical study was to understand the perspectives and attitudes of policy-makers towards the use and impact of research in the health sector in low- and middle-income countries. The study used data from 83 semi-structured, in-depth interviews conducted with purposively selected policy-makers at the national level in Argentina, Egypt, Iran, Malawi, Oman and Singapore. The interviews were structured around an interview guide developed based on existing literature and in consultation with all six country investigators. Transcripts were processed using a thematic-analysis approach. Policy-makers interviewed for this study were unequivocal in their support for health research and the high value they attribute to it. However, they stated that there were structural and informal barriers to research contributing to policy processes, to the contribution research makes to knowledge generally, and to the use of research in health decision-making specifically. Major findings regarding barriers to evidence-based policy-making included poor communication and dissemination, lack of technical capacity in policy processes, as well as the influence of the political context. Policy-makers had a variable understanding of economic analysis, equity and burden of disease measures, and were vague in terms of their use in national decisions. Policy-maker recommendations regarding strategies for facilitating the uptake of research into policy included improving the technical capacity of policy-makers, better packaging of research results, use of social networks, and establishment of fora and clearinghouse functions to help assist in evidence-based policy-making.

  12. National policy-makers speak out: are researchers giving them what they need?

    PubMed Central

    Hyder, Adnan A; Corluka, Adrijana; Winch, Peter J; El-Shinnawy, Azza; Ghassany, Harith; Malekafzali, Hossein; Lim, Meng-Kin; Mfutso-Bengo, Joseph; Segura, Elsa; Ghaffar, Abdul

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this empirical study was to understand the perspectives and attitudes of policy-makers towards the use and impact of research in the health sector in low- and middle-income countries. The study used data from 83 semi-structured, in-depth interviews conducted with purposively selected policy-makers at the national level in Argentina, Egypt, Iran, Malawi, Oman and Singapore. The interviews were structured around an interview guide developed based on existing literature and in consultation with all six country investigators. Transcripts were processed using a thematic-analysis approach. Policy-makers interviewed for this study were unequivocal in their support for health research and the high value they attribute to it. However, they stated that there were structural and informal barriers to research contributing to policy processes, to the contribution research makes to knowledge generally, and to the use of research in health decision-making specifically. Major findings regarding barriers to evidence-based policy-making included poor communication and dissemination, lack of technical capacity in policy processes, as well as the influence of the political context. Policy-makers had a variable understanding of economic analysis, equity and burden of disease measures, and were vague in terms of their use in national decisions. Policy-maker recommendations regarding strategies for facilitating the uptake of research into policy included improving the technical capacity of policy-makers, better packaging of research results, use of social networks, and establishment of fora and clearinghouse functions to help assist in evidence-based policy-making. PMID:20547652

  13. Exploring health researchers' perceptions of policymaking in Argentina: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Corluka, Adrijana; Hyder, Adnan A; Winch, Peter J; Segura, Elsa

    2014-09-01

    Much of the published research on evidence-informed health policymaking in low- and middle-income countries has focused on policymakers, overlooking the role of health researchers in the research-to-policy process. Through 20 semi-structured, in-depth qualitative interviews conducted with researchers in Argentina's rural northwest and the capital of Buenos Aires, we explore the perspectives, experiences and attitudes of Argentine health researchers regarding the use and impact of health research in policymaking in Argentina. We find that the researcher, and the researcher's function of generating evidence, is nested within a broader complex system that influences the researcher's interaction with policymaking. This system comprises communities of practice, government departments/civil society organizations, bureaucratic processes and political governance and executive leadership. At the individual level, researcher capacity and determinants of research availability also play a role in contributing to evidence-informed policymaking. In addition, we find a recurrent theme around 'lack of trust' and explore the role of trust within a research system, finding that researchers' distrust towards policymakers and even other researchers are linked inextricably to the sociopolitical history of Argentina, which contributes to shaping researchers' identities in opposition to policymakers. For policymakers, national research councils and funders of national health research systems, this article provides a deeper understanding of researchers' perceptions which can help inform and improve programme design when developing interventions to enhance research utilization and develop equitable and rational health policies. For donors and development agencies interested in health research capacity building and achieving development goals, this research demonstrates a need for investment in building research capacity and training health researchers to interact with the public policy

  14. The effectiveness of evidence summaries on health policymakers and health system managers use of evidence from systematic reviews: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Petkovic, Jennifer; Welch, Vivian; Jacob, Maria Helena; Yoganathan, Manosila; Ayala, Ana Patricia; Cunningham, Heather; Tugwell, Peter

    2016-12-09

    Systematic reviews are important for decision makers. They offer many potential benefits but are often written in technical language, are too long, and do not contain contextual details which make them hard to use for decision-making. There are many organizations that develop and disseminate derivative products, such as evidence summaries, from systematic reviews for different populations or subsets of decision makers. This systematic review aimed to (1) assess the effectiveness of evidence summaries on policymakers' use of the evidence and (2) identify the most effective summary components for increasing policymakers' use of the evidence. We present an overview of the available evidence on systematic review derivative products. We included studies of policymakers at all levels as well as health system managers. We included studies examining any type of "evidence summary," "policy brief," or other products derived from systematic reviews that presented evidence in a summarized form. The primary outcomes were the (1) use of systematic review summaries in decision-making (e.g., self-reported use of the evidence in policymaking and decision-making) and (2) policymakers' understanding, knowledge, and/or beliefs (e.g., changes in knowledge scores about the topic included in the summary). We also assessed perceived relevance, credibility, usefulness, understandability, and desirability (e.g., format) of the summaries. Our database search combined with our gray literature search yielded 10,113 references after removal of duplicates. From these, 54 were reviewed in full text, and we included six studies (reported in seven papers) as well as protocols from two ongoing studies. Two studies assessed the use of evidence summaries in decision-making and found little to no difference in effect. There was also little to no difference in effect for knowledge, understanding or beliefs (four studies), and perceived usefulness or usability (three studies). Summary of findings tables

  15. SUPPORT Tools for evidence-informed health Policymaking (STP) 14: Organising and using policy dialogues to support evidence-informed policymaking

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    This article is part of a series written for people responsible for making decisions about health policies and programmes and for those who support these decision makers. Policy dialogues allow research evidence to be considered together with the views, experiences and tacit knowledge of those who will be involved in, or affected by, future decisions about a high-priority issue. Increasing interest in the use of policy dialogues has been fuelled by a number of factors: 1. The recognition of the need for locally contextualised 'decision support' for policymakers and other stakeholders 2. The recognition that research evidence is only one input into the decision-making processes of policymakers and other stakeholders 3. The recognition that many stakeholders can add significant value to these processes, and 4. The recognition that many stakeholders can take action to address high-priority issues, and not just policymakers. In this article, we suggest questions to guide those organising and using policy dialogues to support evidence-informed policymaking. These are: 1. Does the dialogue address a high-priority issue? 2. Does the dialogue provide opportunities to discuss the problem, options to address the problem, and key implementation considerations? 3. Is the dialogue informed by a pre-circulated policy brief and by a discussion about the full range of factors that can influence the policymaking process? 4. Does the dialogue ensure fair representation among those who will be involved in, or affected by, future decisions related to the issue? 5. Does the dialogue engage a facilitator, follow a rule about not attributing comments to individuals, and not aim for consensus? 6. Are outputs produced and follow-up activities undertaken to support action? PMID:20018104

  16. SUPPORT Tools for evidence-informed health Policymaking (STP) 14: Organising and using policy dialogues to support evidence-informed policymaking.

    PubMed

    Lavis, John N; Boyko, Jennifer A; Oxman, Andrew D; Lewin, Simon; Fretheim, Atle

    2009-12-16

    This article is part of a series written for people responsible for making decisions about health policies and programmes and for those who support these decision makers. Policy dialogues allow research evidence to be considered together with the views, experiences and tacit knowledge of those who will be involved in, or affected by, future decisions about a high-priority issue. Increasing interest in the use of policy dialogues has been fuelled by a number of factors: 1. The recognition of the need for locally contextualised 'decision support' for policymakers and other stakeholders 2. The recognition that research evidence is only one input into the decision-making processes of policymakers and other stakeholders 3. The recognition that many stakeholders can add significant value to these processes, and 4. The recognition that many stakeholders can take action to address high-priority issues, and not just policymakers. In this article, we suggest questions to guide those organising and using policy dialogues to support evidence-informed policymaking. These are: 1. Does the dialogue address a high-priority issue? 2. Does the dialogue provide opportunities to discuss the problem, options to address the problem, and key implementation considerations? 3. Is the dialogue informed by a pre-circulated policy brief and by a discussion about the full range of factors that can influence the policymaking process? 4. Does the dialogue ensure fair representation among those who will be involved in, or affected by, future decisions related to the issue? 5. Does the dialogue engage a facilitator, follow a rule about not attributing comments to individuals, and not aim for consensus? 6. Are outputs produced and follow-up activities undertaken to support action?

  17. From a "perfect storm" to "smooth sailing": policymaker perspectives on implementation and sustainment of an evidence-based practice in two states.

    PubMed

    Willging, Cathleen E; Green, Amy E; Gunderson, Lara; Chaffin, Mark; Aarons, Gregory A

    2015-02-01

    Policymakers shape implementation and sustainment of evidence-based practices (EBPs), whether they are developing or responding to legislation and policies or negotiating public sector resource constraints. As part of a large mixed-method study, we conducted qualitative interviews with 24 policymakers involved in delivery of the same EBP in two U.S. states. We analyzed transcripts via open and focused coding techniques to identify the commonality, diversity, and complexity of implementation challenges; approaches to overcoming those challenges; and the importance of system-level contextual factors in ensuring successful implementation. Key findings centered on building support and leadership for EBPs; funding and contractual strategies; partnering with stakeholders; tackling challenges via proactive planning and problem solving; and the political, legal, and systemic pressures affecting EBP longevity. The policymaker perspectives offer guidance on nurturing system and organizational practice environments to achieve positive outcomes and for optimally addressing macro-level influences that bear upon the instantiation of EBPs in public sector child welfare systems. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. From a “Perfect Storm” to “Smooth Sailing”: Policymaker Perspectives on Implementation and Sustainment of an Evidence-Based Practice in Two States

    PubMed Central

    Willging, Cathleen E.; Green, Amy E.; Gunderson, Lara; Chaffin, Mark; Aarons, Gregory A.

    2015-01-01

    Policymakers shape implementation and sustainment of evidence-based practices (EBPs), whether they are developing or responding to legislation and policies or negotiating public sector resource constraints. As part of a large mixed-method study, we conducted qualitative interviews with 24 policymakers involved in delivery of the same EBP in two U.S. states. We analyzed transcripts via open and focused coding techniques to identify the commonality, diversity, and complexity of implementation challenges; approaches to overcoming those challenges; and the importance of system-level contextual factors in ensuring successful implementation. Key findings centered on building support and leadership for EBPs; funding and contractual strategies; partnering with stakeholders; tackling challenges via proactive planning and problem solving; and the political, legal, and systemic pressures affecting EBP longevity. The policymaker perspectives offer guidance on nurturing system and organizational practice environments to achieve positive outcomes and for optimally addressing macro-level influences that bear upon the instantiation of EBPs in public sector child welfare systems. PMID:25125232

  19. Considering economic analyses in the revision of the preventive vaccination law: a new direction for health policy-making in Japan?

    PubMed

    Akazawa, Manabu; Yongue, Julia; Ikeda, Shunya; Satoh, Toshihiko

    2014-10-01

    Evidence of a significant vaccine policy shift can be witnessed not only in the number of new vaccines available in Japan but also in the way that vaccine policy is being formulated. In 2010, policy makers decided for the first time ever to commission economic analyses as a reference in their consideration of subsidy allocation. This research offers a first hand account of the recent changes in vaccine policies by examining the decision-making process from the perspective of the researchers commissioned to perform the economic evaluations. In order to understand the vaccine policy-making process, a review was made of all the documents that were distributed and discussed during the government committee meetings from February 2010 when the revision of the Preventive Vaccination Law was initially proposed to May 2012 when the final recommendations were made. Economic evaluations were conducted for seven vaccines under consideration in the routine immunization program (Haemophilus influenzae type b or Hib, pneumococcal disease for children and adults, human papillomavirus, varicella, mumps, and hepatitis B). All were cost-effective options, except the Hib and hepatitis B vaccines. Nonetheless, all the vaccines were recommended equally for inclusion in the routine immunization program. While it is significant that policy-makers decided to commission economic assessments at all, various issues remain regarding the influence of external pressure, the choice of evaluation methods and the implications of using cost-effectiveness analyses on the future of Japanese health policy-making.

  20. Enhancing evidence use in public health nutrition policymaking: theoretical insights from a New Zealand case study.

    PubMed

    Field, P; Gauld, R; Lawrence, M

    2016-11-25

    Enhancing the use of evidence in policymaking is critical to addressing the global burden of nutrition-related disease. Whilst the public health nutrition community has embraced evidence-informed policymaking, their approach of defining relevant evidence and evaluating policy has not brought about major shifts in policymaking. This article uses a public health nutrition case study to refine a novel theory-informed framework for enhancing the use of evidence in government public health nutrition policymaking. Our aim is to contribute insights from evidence-informed policy to the emerging paradigm in public health nutrition policymaking. An enquiry framework informed by three groups of theories underpinning evidence-informed policy was used to explore the role of socially mediated processes on the use of evidence. A public health nutrition case study on food marketing to New Zealand children was conducted to refine the framework. Interview data collected from 54 individuals representing four key policy stakeholder groups, policymakers, academics, and food industry and non-government organisations were analysed using deductive and inductive thematic analysis. To enhance theoretical robustness, an alternative hypothesis of political explanations for evidence use was explored alongside the enquiry framework. We found the prevailing political climate influenced the impact of advocacy for evidence inclusive processes at the meta-policy and policymaking process levels and in policy community relationships. Low levels of awareness of the impact of these processes on evidence use and uncoordinated advocacy resulted in the perpetuation of ad hoc policymaking. These findings informed refinements to the enquiry framework. Our study highlights the role advocates can play in shifting government public health nutrition policymaking systems towards enhanced use of evidence. Our Advocacy for Evidence Use framework argues for a three-channel approach to advocacy for using evidence in

  1. Distance Education in European Higher Education--The Offer. Report 1 (of 3) of the IDEAL (Impact of Distance Education on Adult Learning) Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneller, Chripa; Holmberg, Carl

    2014-01-01

    This report is the first in a series published by the IDEAL (Impact of Distance Education on Adult Learning) project. The IDEAL project ran from October 2013 to September 2015 with financial support from the EU Lifelong Learning Programme. The project aims to: (1) offer insights on the needs of adult learners to both policymakers and distance…

  2. 17 CFR 230.253 - Offering circular.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... Repetition of information should be avoided; cross-referencing of information within the document is... COMPLETENESS OF ANY OFFERING CIRCULAR OR OTHER SELLING LITERATURE. THESE SECURITIES ARE OFFERED PURSUANT TO...

  3. 17 CFR 230.253 - Offering circular.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... Repetition of information should be avoided; cross-referencing of information within the document is... COMPLETENESS OF ANY OFFERING CIRCULAR OR OTHER SELLING LITERATURE. THESE SECURITIES ARE OFFERED PURSUANT TO...

  4. 17 CFR 230.253 - Offering circular.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... Repetition of information should be avoided; cross-referencing of information within the document is... COMPLETENESS OF ANY OFFERING CIRCULAR OR OTHER SELLING LITERATURE. THESE SECURITIES ARE OFFERED PURSUANT TO...

  5. 17 CFR 230.253 - Offering circular.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... Repetition of information should be avoided; cross-referencing of information within the document is... COMPLETENESS OF ANY OFFERING CIRCULAR OR OTHER SELLING LITERATURE. THESE SECURITIES ARE OFFERED PURSUANT TO...

  6. 17 CFR 230.253 - Offering circular.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... Repetition of information should be avoided; cross-referencing of information within the document is... COMPLETENESS OF ANY OFFERING CIRCULAR OR OTHER SELLING LITERATURE. THESE SECURITIES ARE OFFERED PURSUANT TO...

  7. Usage of an online tool to help policymakers better engage with research: Web CIPHER.

    PubMed

    Makkar, Steve R; Gilham, Frances; Williamson, Anna; Bisset, Kellie

    2015-04-23

    There is a need to develop innovations that help policymakers better engage with research in order to increase its use in policymaking. As part of the Centre for Informing Policy in Health with Evidence from Research (CIPHER), we established Web CIPHER, an online tool with dynamic interactive elements such as hot topics, research summaries, blogs from trusted figures in health policy and research, a community bulletin board, multimedia section and research portal. The aim of this study was to examine policymakers' use of the website, and determine which sections were key drivers of use. Google Analytics (GA) was used to gather usage data during a 16-month period. Analysis was restricted to Web CIPHER members from policy agencies. We examined descriptive statistics including mean viewing times, number of page visits and bounce rates for each section and performed analyses of variance to compare usage between sections. Repeated measures analyses were undertaken to examine whether a weekly reminder email improved usage of Web CIPHER, particularly for research-related content. During the measurement period, 223 policymakers from more than 32 organisations joined Web CIPHER. Users viewed eight posts on average per visit and stayed on the site for approximately 4 min. The bounce rate was less than 6%. The Blogs and Community sections received more unique views than all other sections. Blogs relating to improving policymakers' skills in applying research to policy were particularly popular. The email reminder had a positive effect on improving usage, particularly for research-related posts. The data indicated a relatively small number of users. However, this sample may not be representative of policymakers since membership to the site and usage was completely voluntarily. Nonetheless, those who used the site appeared to engage well with it. The findings suggest that providing blog-type content written by trusted experts in health policy and research as well as regular

  8. Unravelling networks in local public health policymaking in three European countries - a systems analysis.

    PubMed

    Spitters, Hilde P E M; Lau, Cathrine J; Sandu, Petru; Quanjel, Marcel; Dulf, Diana; Glümer, Charlotte; van Oers, Hans A M; van de Goor, Ien A M

    2017-02-03

    Facilitating and enhancing interaction between stakeholders involved in the policymaking process to stimulate collaboration and use of evidence, is important to foster the development of effective Health Enhancing Physical Activity (HEPA) policies. Performing an analysis of real-world policymaking processes will help reveal the complexity of a network of stakeholders. Therefore, the main objectives were to unravel the stakeholder network in the policy process by conducting three systems analyses, and to increase insight into the similarities and differences in the policy processes of these European country cases. A systems analysis of the local HEPA policymaking process was performed in three European countries involved in the 'REsearch into POlicy to enhance Physical Activity' (REPOPA) project, resulting in three schematic models showing the main stakeholders and their relationships. The models were used to compare the systems, focusing on implications with respect to collaboration and use of evidence in local HEPA policymaking. Policy documents and relevant webpages were examined and main stakeholders were interviewed. The systems analysis in each country identified the main stakeholders involved and their position and relations in the policymaking process. The Netherlands and Denmark were the most similar and both differed most from Romania, especially at the level of accountability of the local public authorities for local HEPA policymaking. The categories of driving forces underlying the relations between stakeholders were formal relations, informal interaction and knowledge exchange. A systems analysis providing detailed descriptions of positions and relations in the stakeholder network in local level HEPA policymaking is rather unique in this area. The analyses are useful when a need arises for increased interaction, collaboration and use of knowledge between stakeholders in the local HEPA network, as they provide an overview of the stakeholders involved and

  9. 43 CFR 12.715 - Evaluating offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... domestic offer is from a large business that is not a labor surplus area concern; or (2) More than 12 percent, if the domestic offer is from a small business concern or any labor surplus area concern. (b) The... price of a domestic end product is unreasonable when the lowest acceptable domestic offer exceeds...

  10. 75 FR 17205 - Securities Offering Disclosures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-05

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Securities Offering Disclosures AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS... of Proposal: Securities Offering Disclosures. OMB Number: 1550-0035. Form Numbers: SEC Forms S-1, S-3... Securities Offering regulation provides necessary information, including financial disclosure, to persons to...

  11. A multistage crucible of revision and approval shapes IPCC policymaker summaries

    PubMed Central

    Mach, Katharine J.; Freeman, Patrick T.; Mastrandrea, Michael D.; Field, Christopher B.

    2016-01-01

    Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) member governments approve each report’s summary for policymakers (SPM) by consensus, discussing and agreeing on each sentence in a plenary session with scientist authors. A defining feature of IPCC assessment, the governmental approval process builds joint ownership of current knowledge by scientists and governments. The resulting SPM revisions have been extensively discussed in anecdotes, interviews, and perspectives, but they have not been comprehensively analyzed. We provide an in-depth evaluation of IPCC SPM revisions, establishing an evidential basis for understanding their nature. Revisions associated with governmental review and approval generally expand SPMs, with SPM text growing by 17 to 53% across recent assessment reports. Cases of high political sensitivity and failure to reach consensus are notable exceptions, resulting in SPM contractions. In contrast to recent claims, we find that IPCC SPMs are as readable, for multiple metrics of reading ease, as other professionally edited assessment summaries. Across reading-ease metrics, some SPMs become more readable through governmental review and approval, whereas others do not. In an SPM examined through the entire revision process, most revisions associated with governmental review and approval occurred before the start of the government-approval plenary session. These author revisions emphasize clarity, scientific rigor, and explanation. In contrast, the subsequent plenary revisions place greater emphasis especially on policy relevance, comprehensiveness of examples, and nuances of expert judgment. Overall, the value added by the IPCC process emerges in a multistage crucible of revision and approval, as individuals together navigate complex science-policy terrain. PMID:27532046

  12. Health inequalities in European cities: perceptions and beliefs among local policymakers

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Joana; Pons-Vigués, Mariona; Bécares, Laia; Burström, Bo; Gandarillas, Ana; Domínguez-Berjón, Felicitas; Diez, Èlia; Costa, Giuseppe; Ruiz, Milagros; Pikhart, Hynek; Marinacci, Chiara; Hoffmann, Rasmus; Santana, Paula; Borrell, Carme

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe the knowledge and beliefs of public policymakers on social inequalities in health and policies to reduce them in cities from different parts of Europe during 2010 and 2011. Design Phenomenological qualitative study. Setting 13 European cities. Participants 19 elected politicians and officers with a directive status from 13 European cities. Main outcome Policymaker's knowledge and beliefs. Results Three emerging discourses were identified among the interviewees, depending on the city of the interviewee. Health inequalities were perceived by most policymakers as differences in life-expectancy between population with economic, social and geographical differences. Reducing health inequalities was a priority for the majority of cities which use surveys as sources of information to analyse these. Bureaucracy, funding and population beliefs were the main barriers. Conclusions The majority of the interviewed policymakers gave an account of interventions focusing on the immediate determinants and aimed at modifying lifestyles and behaviours in the more disadvantaged classes. More funding should be put towards academic research on effective universal policies, evaluation of their impact and training policymakers and officers on health inequalities in city governments. PMID:24871536

  13. Economics for assisting policy-makers to take decisions about new and endemic diseases.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, T E

    2017-04-01

    Animal health policy-makers are frequently faced with making decisions concerning the control and exclusion of diseases in livestock and wildlife populations. Economics is one of the tools they have to aid their decision-making. It can enable them to make objective decisions based on the expected costs and benefits of their policy. In addition, economics can help them determine both the distribution impact and the indirect impact of their decisions. However, economics is only one of many tools available to policy-makers, who also need to consider non-economic outcomes in their decision-making process. While there are sophisticated epidemic and economic (epinomic) models that are available to help evaluate complex problems, these models typically require extensive data and well-trained analysts to run and interpret their results. In addition, effective communication between analysts and policy-makers is important to ensure that results are clearly conveyed to the policy-makers. This may be facilitated by early and continued discussions between these two potentially disparate groups. If successfully performed and communicated, economic analyses may present valuable information to policy-makers, enabling them to not only better understand the economic implications of their policy, but also to communicate the policy to relevant stakeholders, further ensuring their likelihood of participating in the planned policy and hence increasing its likelihood of success.

  14. SUPPORT Tools for evidence-informed health Policymaking (STP) 2: Improving how your organisation supports the use of research evidence to inform policymaking.

    PubMed

    Oxman, Andrew D; Vandvik, Per Olav; Lavis, John N; Fretheim, Atle; Lewin, Simon

    2009-12-16

    This article is part of a series written for people responsible for making decisions about health policies and programmes and for those who support these decision makers. In this article, we address ways of organising efforts to support evidence-informed health policymaking. Efforts to link research to action may include a range of activities related to the production of research that is both highly relevant to--and appropriately synthesised for--policymakers. Such activities may include a mix of efforts used to link research to action, as well as the evaluation of such efforts. Little is known about how best to organise the range of activity options available and, until recently, there have been relatively few organisations responsible for supporting the use of research evidence in developing health policy. We suggest five questions that can help guide considerations of how to improve organisational arrangements to support the use of research evidence to inform health policy decision making. These are: 1. What is the capacity of your organisation to use research evidence to inform decision making? 2. What strategies should be used to ensure collaboration between policymakers, researchers and stakeholders? 3. What strategies should be used to ensure independence as well as the effective management of conflicts of interest? 4. What strategies should be used to ensure the use of systematic and transparent methods for accessing, appraising and using research evidence? 5. What strategies should be used to ensure adequate capacity to employ these methods?

  15. SUPPORT Tools for evidence-informed health Policymaking (STP) 2: Improving how your organisation supports the use of research evidence to inform policymaking

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    This article is part of a series written for people responsible for making decisions about health policies and programmes and for those who support these decision makers. In this article, we address ways of organising efforts to support evidence-informed health policymaking. Efforts to link research to action may include a range of activities related to the production of research that is both highly relevant to – and appropriately synthesised for – policymakers. Such activities may include a mix of efforts used to link research to action, as well as the evaluation of such efforts. Little is known about how best to organise the range of activity options available and, until recently, there have been relatively few organisations responsible for supporting the use of research evidence in developing health policy. We suggest five questions that can help guide considerations of how to improve organisational arrangements to support the use of research evidence to inform health policy decision making. These are: 1. What is the capacity of your organisation to use research evidence to inform decision making? 2. What strategies should be used to ensure collaboration between policymakers, researchers and stakeholders? 3. What strategies should be used to ensure independence as well as the effective management of conflicts of interest? 4. What strategies should be used to ensure the use of systematic and transparent methods for accessing, appraising and using research evidence? 5. What strategies should be used to ensure adequate capacity to employ these methods? PMID:20018109

  16. Integrated assessment in international policy-making. Final technical report, September 15, 1994--September 14, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Parson, E.A.

    1997-08-01

    This project undertook a preliminary investigation of the conduct and use of assessments, particularly integrated assessments, in international negotiation and policy-making. The research involved review of existing secondary literatures including related theoretical literatures of negotiation analysis and multi-party bargaining; review of archival and documentary material on a few international assessment cases; and interviews in North America and Europe with assessment managers and users. The project sought to identify empirical regularities in the relationships between assessment characteristics and the manner and extent of their contribution to policy-making; to specify and critically assess a set of candidate mechanisms through which assessments influence and assist international policy-making; and to derive from these investigations preliminary practical guidance for assessment design.

  17. Practice-based Research Networks (PBRNs) Bridging the Gaps between Communities, Funders, and Policymakers.

    PubMed

    Gaglioti, Anne H; Werner, James J; Rust, George; Fagnan, Lyle J; Neale, Anne Victoria

    2016-01-01

    In this commentary, we propose that practice-based research networks (PBRNs) engage with funders and policymakers by applying the same engagement strategies they have successfully used to build relationships with community stakeholders. A community engagement approach to achieve new funding streams for PBRNs should include a strategy to engage key stakeholders from the communities of funders, thought leaders, and policymakers using collaborative principles and methods. PBRNs that implement this strategy would build a robust network of engaged partners at the community level, across networks, and would reach state and federal policymakers, academic family medicine departments, funding bodies, and national thought leaders in the redesign of health care delivery. © Copyright 2016 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  18. A pilot qualitative study of New Zealand policymakers' knowledge of, and attitudes to, the tobacco industry

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Sheena; Thomson, George; Wilson, Nick

    2007-01-01

    Background The actions of policymakers are critical to advancing tobacco control. To evaluate the feasibility of using anonymous in-depth interviews to ascertain policymakers' knowledge about, and attitudes to, the tobacco industry, we undertook a pilot study involving New Zealand policymakers. Methods Five politicians (from different political parties) and five senior officials, who were involved in tobacco control policy, were recruited for semi-structured, anonymous, face-to-face interviews. Results Recruitment of appropriate senior policymakers was found to be possible. Interviewees were willing to answer questions fully and frankly about their knowledge and views of the tobacco industry. The preliminary data from this pilot suggest that some New Zealand politicians appeared to see contact with the industry as similar to contact with other groups, whereas the officials indicated at least a different style of relationship. Only one politician knew if their party accepted funding from tobacco companies. All but one of the interviewees thought that promotion of tobacco to under-16 s still occurs, albeit indirectly. The interviewees' knowledge of the investment in tobacco industries by New Zealand government agencies was low or absent. While most of those interviewed showed scepticism about tobacco company public relations efforts, this was absent in some cases. There was a wide understanding that the tobacco industry will use many tactics in the pursuit of profit, and to counteract government efforts to reduce the harm from smoking. Conclusion In-depth anonymous interviews appear to be feasible and can be productive for exploring sensitive tobacco-related policy issues with policymakers. The preliminary data from this group of New Zealand policymakers suggest important knowledge gaps, but also general distrust of this industry. From a tobacco control perspective, the results may suggest a greater focus by advocates on the funding of political parties by the

  19. The utilisation of health research in policy-making: concepts, examples and methods of assessment

    PubMed Central

    Hanney, Stephen R; Gonzalez-Block, Miguel A; Buxton, Martin J; Kogan, Maurice

    2003-01-01

    The importance of health research utilisation in policy-making, and of understanding the mechanisms involved, is increasingly recognised. Recent reports calling for more resources to improve health in developing countries, and global pressures for accountability, draw greater attention to research-informed policy-making. Key utilisation issues have been described for at least twenty years, but the growing focus on health research systems creates additional dimensions. The utilisation of health research in policy-making should contribute to policies that may eventually lead to desired outcomes, including health gains. In this article, exploration of these issues is combined with a review of various forms of policy-making. When this is linked to analysis of different types of health research, it assists in building a comprehensive account of the diverse meanings of research utilisation. Previous studies report methods and conceptual frameworks that have been applied, if with varying degrees of success, to record utilisation in policy-making. These studies reveal various examples of research impact within a general picture of underutilisation. Factors potentially enhancing utilisation can be identified by exploration of: priority setting; activities of the health research system at the interface between research and policy-making; and the role of the recipients, or 'receptors', of health research. An interfaces and receptors model provides a framework for analysis. Recommendations about possible methods for assessing health research utilisation follow identification of the purposes of such assessments. Our conclusion is that research utilisation can be better understood, and enhanced, by developing assessment methods informed by conceptual analysis and review of previous studies. PMID:12646071

  20. The role of geomatics in supporting sustainable development policy-making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Aining

    Sustainable development has been on national policy agendas since 1992 when Agenda 21, an international agreement on sustainable development, was signed by over 150 countries. A key to sustainable development policy-making is information. Spatial information is an integral part of this information pool given the spatial nature of sustainable development. Geomatics, a technology dealing specifically with spatial information, can play a major role in support of the policy-making process. This thesis is aimed at advancing this role. The thesis starts with a discussion of theories and methodologies for sustainable development. The policy process for sustainable development is characterized, followed by an analysis of the requirements of sustainable development policy-making for geomatics support. The current status of geomatics in meeting these requirements is then examined, and the challenges and potential for geomatics to further address the needs are identified. To deal with these challenges, an integrated solution, namely the development of an on-line national policy atlas for sustainable development, is proposed, with a focus to support policy action formulation. The thesis further addresses one of the major research topics required for the implementation of the proposed solution, namely the exploration of the feasibility of a spatial statistics approach to predictive modelling in support of policy scenario assessments. The study is based on the case of national climate change policy formulation, with a focus on the development of new light duty vehicle sales mix models in support of transportation fuel efficiency policy-making aimed at greenhouse gas reductions. The conceptual framework and methodology for the case study are followed by the presentation of outcomes including models and policy scenario forecasts. The case study has illustrated that a spatial statistics approach is not only feasible for the development of predictive models in support of policy-making

  1. Motivations and Barriers for Policymakers to Developing State Adaptation Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, R.; Sylak-Glassman, E.

    2016-12-01

    Current approaches for developing high-quality adaptation plan require significant resources. In recent years, communities have grown to embrace adaptive plans across multiple forms, including adaptive capacity assessments, resilience strategies, and vulnerability assessments. Across the United States, as of this writing, 14 states have established adaptation plans, with another 8 states having begun the process. Given the high resources requirements and increasing interest in the development of adaptation plans, we aim to examine patterns behind the establishment of resilience plans at the state level. We examine demographic, financial, political, and physical characteristics associated with different states in an effort to explore the reasoning behind investing in the development of adaptation plans. This analysis considers quantitative and qualitative factors, including recent elections for political parties, politicians' climate-related statements and campaign promises, demographics, budgets, and regional climate threats. The analysis aims to identify motivations for state leadership taking action to develop adaptation plans. Results from the analysis seek to identify the primary drivers and barriers associated with state-wide resilience planning. These results could inform the design of scientific communication tools or approaches to aid future adaptation responses to climate change.

  2. Enhancing evidence informed policymaking in complex health systems: lessons from multi-site collaborative approaches.

    PubMed

    Langlois, Etienne V; Becerril Montekio, Victor; Young, Taryn; Song, Kayla; Alcalde-Rabanal, Jacqueline; Tran, Nhan

    2016-03-17

    There is an increasing interest worldwide to ensure evidence-informed health policymaking as a means to improve health systems performance. There is a need to engage policymakers in collaborative approaches to generate and use knowledge in real world settings. To address this gap, we implemented two interventions based on iterative exchanges between researchers and policymakers/implementers. This article aims to reflect on the implementation and impact of these multi-site evidence-to-policy approaches implemented in low-resource settings. The first approach was implemented in Mexico and Nicaragua and focused on implementation research facilitated by communities of practice (CoP) among maternal health stakeholders. We conducted a process evaluation of the CoPs and assessed the professionals' abilities to acquire, analyse, adapt and apply research. The second approach, called the Policy BUilding Demand for evidence in Decision making through Interaction and Enhancing Skills (Policy BUDDIES), was implemented in South Africa and Cameroon. The intervention put forth a 'buddying' process to enhance demand and use of systematic reviews by sub-national policymakers. The Policy BUDDIES initiative was assessed using a mixed-methods realist evaluation design. In Mexico, the implementation research supported by CoPs triggered monitoring by local health organizations of the quality of maternal healthcare programs. Health programme personnel involved in CoPs in Mexico and Nicaragua reported improved capacities to identify and use evidence in solving implementation problems. In South Africa, Policy BUDDIES informed a policy framework for medication adherence for chronic diseases, including both HIV and non-communicable diseases. Policymakers engaged in the buddying process reported an enhanced recognition of the value of research, and greater demand for policy-relevant knowledge. The collaborative evidence-to-policy approaches underline the importance of iterations and continuity

  3. Views of policymakers, healthcare workers and NGOs on HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP): a multinational qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Wheelock, Ana; Eisingerich, Andreas B; Gomez, Gabriela B; Gray, Emily; Dybul, Mark R; Piot, Peter

    2012-01-01

    To examine policymakers and providers' views on pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and their willingness to support its introduction, to inform policy and practice in this emerging field. Semistructured qualitative interview study. Peru, Ukraine, India, Kenya, Uganda, Botswana and South Africa. 35 policymakers, 35 healthcare workers and 21 non-governmental organisation representatives involved in HIV prevention. Six themes emerged from the data: (1) perceived HIV prevention landscape: prevention initiatives needed to be improved and expanded; (2) PrEP awareness: 50 of 91 participants had heard of PrEP; (3) benefits of PrEP: one component of the combination prevention arsenal that could help prioritise HIV prevention, empower key populations and result in economic gains; (4) challenges of PrEP: regimen complexity, cost and cost-effectiveness, risk compensation, efficacy and effectiveness, stigmatisation and criminalisation, information and training and healthcare system capacity; (5) programmatic considerations: user eligibility, communication strategy, cost, distribution, medication and HIV testing compliance and (6) early versus late implementation: participants were divided as to whether they would support an early introduction of PrEP in their country or would prefer to wait until it has been successfully implemented in other countries, with around half of those we spoke to supporting each option. Very few said they would not support PrEP at all. Despite the multiple challenges identified, there was general willingness to support the introduction of PrEP. Yet, strengthening existing HIV prevention efforts was also deemed necessary. Our results suggest that an effective PrEP programme would be delivered in healthcare facilities and involve non-governmental organisations and the community and consider the needs of mobile populations. Comprehensive information packages and training for users and providers would be critical. The cost of PrEP would be affordable and

  4. Views of policymakers, healthcare workers and NGOs on HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP): a multinational qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Eisingerich, Andreas B; Gomez, Gabriela B; Gray, Emily; Dybul, Mark R; Piot, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To examine policymakers and providers' views on pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and their willingness to support its introduction, to inform policy and practice in this emerging field. Design Semistructured qualitative interview study. Setting Peru, Ukraine, India, Kenya, Uganda, Botswana and South Africa. Participants 35 policymakers, 35 healthcare workers and 21 non-governmental organisation representatives involved in HIV prevention. Results Six themes emerged from the data: (1) perceived HIV prevention landscape: prevention initiatives needed to be improved and expanded; (2) PrEP awareness: 50 of 91 participants had heard of PrEP; (3) benefits of PrEP: one component of the combination prevention arsenal that could help prioritise HIV prevention, empower key populations and result in economic gains; (4) challenges of PrEP: regimen complexity, cost and cost-effectiveness, risk compensation, efficacy and effectiveness, stigmatisation and criminalisation, information and training and healthcare system capacity; (5) programmatic considerations: user eligibility, communication strategy, cost, distribution, medication and HIV testing compliance and (6) early versus late implementation: participants were divided as to whether they would support an early introduction of PrEP in their country or would prefer to wait until it has been successfully implemented in other countries, with around half of those we spoke to supporting each option. Very few said they would not support PrEP at all. Conclusions Despite the multiple challenges identified, there was general willingness to support the introduction of PrEP. Yet, strengthening existing HIV prevention efforts was also deemed necessary. Our results suggest that an effective PrEP programme would be delivered in healthcare facilities and involve non-governmental organisations and the community and consider the needs of mobile populations. Comprehensive information packages and training for users and providers

  5. 16 CFR 502.101 - Introductory offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... FAIR PACKAGING AND LABELING ACT Retail Sale Price Representations § 502.101 Introductory offers. (a... retail sale at a price lower than the anticipated ordinary and customary retail sale price. (b) The... duration in excess of 6 months. (4) At the time of making the introductory offer promotion, the...

  6. 16 CFR 238.2 - Initial offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Initial offer. 238.2 Section 238.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES AGAINST BAIT ADVERTISING § 238.2 Initial offer. (a) No statement or illustration should be used in any advertisement...

  7. 7 CFR 3560.656 - Incentives offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Incentives offers. 3560.656 Section 3560.656 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Housing Preservation § 3560.656 Incentives offers....

  8. Athletic Offerings in Private Junior Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Adam; Modica, Jonathon; Miller, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Little has been done to profile or describe private junior colleges, their role in the higher education landscape, their practices, and in particular, how these institutions use and offer athletic programming. The current study was designed to profile the athletic program offerings of private junior colleges and to describe the extent of their…

  9. 5 CFR 536.104 - Reasonable offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... position before the action resulting in the grade or pay retention entitlement; (4) The offered position... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS GRADE AND PAY RETENTION General Provisions § 536.104 Reasonable offer. (a) For the purpose of determining whether grade retention...

  10. Should Student Affairs Offer Remedial Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burley, Hansel E.; Butner, Bonita K.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the opinions of 108 community college chief student affairs officers regarding whether student affairs offices should offer remedial instruction. Through examination of personal and institutional variables, two opposing opinions emerged - one for student affairs offering remediation and the other against. Few characteristics significantly…

  11. 48 CFR 12.205 - Offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Offers. 12.205 Section 12.205 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION PLANNING ACQUISITION OF COMMERCIAL ITEMS Special Requirements for the Acquisition of Commercial Items 12.205 Offers....

  12. 48 CFR 12.205 - Offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Offers. 12.205 Section 12.205 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION PLANNING ACQUISITION OF COMMERCIAL ITEMS Special Requirements for the Acquisition of Commercial Items 12.205 Offers....

  13. 48 CFR 12.205 - Offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Offers. 12.205 Section 12.205 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION PLANNING ACQUISITION OF COMMERCIAL ITEMS Special Requirements for the Acquisition of Commercial Items 12.205 Offers....

  14. 48 CFR 12.205 - Offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Offers. 12.205 Section 12.205 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION PLANNING ACQUISITION OF COMMERCIAL ITEMS Special Requirements for the Acquisition of Commercial Items 12.205 Offers....

  15. 7 CFR 3560.656 - Incentives offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Incentives offers. 3560.656 Section 3560.656... AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Housing Preservation § 3560.656 Incentives offers. (a....653(d), incentives to agree to the restrictive-use period in § 3560.662 if the following conditions...

  16. Distance Learning Offered in Rural Montana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullard, Julie; Gilliard, Jennifer L.

    2004-01-01

    Due to increasing demands from the field, the University of Montana-Western (UM-W) recently began to offer a bachelor's degree in Early Childhood Education that builds upon the associate degree. Students complete their general education credits, early childhood specialty courses, and an area of special emphasis. Courses are offered online or…

  17. 32 CFR 536.64 - Final offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Final offers. 536.64 Section 536.64 National... UNITED STATES Investigation and Processing of Claims § 536.64 Final offers. (a) When claims personnel... timely. Note to § 536.64: For further discussion see DA Pam 27-162, paragraph 2-74. ...

  18. 32 CFR 536.64 - Final offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Final offers. 536.64 Section 536.64 National... UNITED STATES Investigation and Processing of Claims § 536.64 Final offers. (a) When claims personnel... timely. Note to § 536.64: For further discussion see DA Pam 27-162, paragraph 2-74. ...

  19. 32 CFR 536.64 - Final offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Final offers. 536.64 Section 536.64 National... UNITED STATES Investigation and Processing of Claims § 536.64 Final offers. (a) When claims personnel... timely. Note to § 536.64: For further discussion see DA Pam 27-162, paragraph 2-74. ...

  20. 32 CFR 536.64 - Final offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Final offers. 536.64 Section 536.64 National... UNITED STATES Investigation and Processing of Claims § 536.64 Final offers. (a) When claims personnel... timely. Note to § 536.64: For further discussion see DA Pam 27-162, paragraph 2-74. ...

  1. 32 CFR 536.64 - Final offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Final offers. 536.64 Section 536.64 National... UNITED STATES Investigation and Processing of Claims § 536.64 Final offers. (a) When claims personnel... timely. Note to § 536.64: For further discussion see DA Pam 27-162, paragraph 2-74. ...

  2. 17 CFR 230.252 - Offering statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., language and pagination. The requirements for offering statements are the same as those specified in § 230... security holder shall sign the offering statement. If a signature is by a person on behalf of any other person, evidence of authority to sign shall be filed, except where an executive officer signs for...

  3. 17 CFR 230.252 - Offering statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., language and pagination. The requirements for offering statements are the same as those specified in § 230... security holder shall sign the offering statement. If a signature is by a person on behalf of any other person, evidence of authority to sign shall be filed, except where an executive officer signs for...

  4. 17 CFR 230.252 - Offering statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., language and pagination. The requirements for offering statements are the same as those specified in § 230... Officer, a majority of the members of its board of directors or other governing body, and each selling... that contains the following language: This offering statement shall become qualified on the 20th...

  5. Athletic Offerings in Private Junior Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Adam; Modica, Jonathon; Miller, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Little has been done to profile or describe private junior colleges, their role in the higher education landscape, their practices, and in particular, how these institutions use and offer athletic programming. The current study was designed to profile the athletic program offerings of private junior colleges and to describe the extent of their…

  6. 48 CFR 2825.203 - Evaluating offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Evaluating offers. 2825.203 Section 2825.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Socioeconomic Programs FOREIGN ACQUISITION Buy American Act-Construction Materials 2825.203 Evaluating offers. The HCA,...

  7. Distance Learning Offered in Rural Montana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullard, Julie; Gilliard, Jennifer L.

    2004-01-01

    Due to increasing demands from the field, the University of Montana-Western (UM-W) recently began to offer a bachelor's degree in Early Childhood Education that builds upon the associate degree. Students complete their general education credits, early childhood specialty courses, and an area of special emphasis. Courses are offered online or…

  8. Multiple homicides.

    PubMed

    Copeland, A R

    1989-09-01

    A study of multiple homicides or multiple deaths involving a solitary incident of violence by another individual was performed on the case files of the Office of the Medical Examiner of Metropolitan Dade County in Miami, Florida, during 1983-1987. A total of 107 multiple homicides were studied: 88 double, 17 triple, one quadruple, and one quintuple. The 236 victims were analyzed regarding age, race, sex, cause of death, toxicologic data, perpetrator, locale of the incident, and reason for the incident. This article compares this type of slaying with other types of homicide including those perpetrated by serial killers. Suggestions for future research in this field are offered.

  9. Undocumented Immigrants and Higher Education Policy: The Policymaking Environment of New York State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nienhusser, H. Kenny

    2015-01-01

    This research presents findings of the policymaking environment in the area of postsecondary education benefits for undocumented immigrants in New York. In addition to describing the response to ever-changing federal, state, and local actions, this investigation also identifies five political forces (power of the governor, pressure of advocacy…

  10. Unlocking the Potential of the "What Works" Approach to Policymaking and Practice: Improving Impact Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granger, Robert C.; Maynard, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Despite bipartisan support in Washington, DC, which dates back to the mid-1990s, the "what works" approach has yet to gain broad support among policymakers and practitioners. One way to build such support is to increase the usefulness of program impact evaluations for these groups. We describe three ways to make impact evaluations more…

  11. Undocumented Immigrants and Higher Education Policy: The Policymaking Environment of New York State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nienhusser, H. Kenny

    2015-01-01

    This research presents findings of the policymaking environment in the area of postsecondary education benefits for undocumented immigrants in New York. In addition to describing the response to ever-changing federal, state, and local actions, this investigation also identifies five political forces (power of the governor, pressure of advocacy…

  12. Promoting Children's Public Participation in Policy-Making through Achievement-Oriented Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gwandure, Calvin; Mayekiso, Thokozile

    2013-01-01

    This theoretical paper looked at the possibility of incorporating the social learning concept of achievement-oriented behaviour in promoting children's public participation in policy-making in the educational system. The paper highlighted how the concepts of public participation and achievement-oriented education could be used in the governance of…

  13. Determinants of health policy impact: comparative results of a European policymaker study.

    PubMed

    Rütten, Alfred; Lüschen, Günther; von Lengerke, Thomas; Abel, Thomas; Kannas, Lasse; Rodríguez Diaz, Josep A; Vinck, Jan; van der Zee, Jouke

    2003-01-01

    This article will use a new theoretical framework for the analysis of health policy impact introduced by Rütten et al. (2003). In particular, it will report on a comparative European study of policymakers' perception and evaluation of specific determinants of the policy impact, both in terms of output (implemented measures) and outcome (health behaviour change). Policy determinants investigated are goals, resources, obligations and opportunities as related to the policymaking process. Theory is applied to a comparative analysis of prevention and health promotion policy in Belgium, Finland, Germany. The Netherlands, Spain and Switzerland. The study is MED2-part of a project that has developed a Methodology for the Analysis of the Rationality and Effectiveness of Prevention and Health Promotion Strategies (MAREPS) within the EU-BIO-program. A mail survey of 719 policymakers on the executive and administrative level selected by a focused sample procedure was conducted. This survey used policymakers' experience and evaluative expertise to analyse determinants of policy output and outcome. Regression analyses reveal differential predictive power of policy goals, resources, obligations, as well as of political, organisational and public opportunities. For instance, whereas resources, concreteness of goals, and public opportunities have significant importance for health outcome of policy, obligations and organisational opportunities significantly predict policy output. Results are discussed in terms of rationality and effectiveness of health policy. They indicate that six sensitising constructs derived from the theoretical framework represent equivalent structures across nations. They comprise a validated instrument that can be used for further comparative health policy research.

  14. School and District Intervention: A Decision-Making Framework for Policymakers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowles, Susan A.; Churchill, Andrew M.; Effrat, Andrew; McDermott, Kathryn A.

    This paper seeks to help state policymakers understand their relatively new role in improving the academic performance of local schools and districts. The first section, "Intervention Decision-Making Framework," focuses on the intervention decision making framework model, performance criteria, strategic criteria, diagnostic…

  15. Framing research for state policymakers who place a priority on cancer.

    PubMed

    Brownson, Ross C; Dodson, Elizabeth A; Kerner, Jon F; Moreland-Russell, Sarah

    2016-08-01

    Despite the potential for reducing the cancer burden via state policy change, few data exist on how best to disseminate research information to influence state legislators' policy choices. We explored: (1) the relative importance of core framing issues (source, presentation, timeliness) among policymakers who prioritize cancer and those who do not prioritize cancer and (2) the predictors of use of research in policymaking. Cross-sectional data were collected from US state policymakers (i.e., legislators elected to state houses or senates) from January through October 2012 (n = 862). One-way analysis of variance was performed to investigate the association of the priority of cancer variable with outcome variables. Multivariate logistic regression models examined predictors of the influence of research information. Legislators who prioritized cancer tended to rate characteristics that make research information useful higher than those who did not prioritize cancer. Among differences that were statistically significant were three items in the "source" domain (relevance, delivered by someone respected, supports one's own position), one item in the "presentation" domain (telling a story related to constituents) and two items in the "timeliness" domain (high current state priority, feasible when information is received). Participants who prioritized cancer risk factors were 80 % more likely to rate research information as one of their top reasons for choosing an issue on which to work. Our results suggest the importance of narrative forms of communication and that research information needs to be relevant to the policymakers' constituents in a brief, concise format.

  16. Building Skills for the New Economy: A Policymaker's Handbook. Policy Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Robert D.

    This paper presents specific steps elected officials, program managers, and other policymakers can take to craft a more effective workforce development system intended to give workers the tools they need to succeed in the new economy. First, the new labor market and work systems are discussed. The paper then lays out eight principles for all…

  17. All Together Now? Some Egalitarian Concerns about Deliberation and Education Policy-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Deliberative theory has served two purposes in recent studies of education policy-making at the community level in the US: as a lens through which to examine existing practices, and as an ideal toward which to strive. These studies, though, overlook a prior and important theoretical question: "should" deliberative theory be applied to education…

  18. Children's Mental Health: From Parenting to Policymaking. A Wiskids Count Special Report, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyson, Terry; Weidel, Carol; Cranley, M. Martha

    This Wiskid special report, the third in a series focusing on areas of child well-being in Wisconsin, focuses on issues related to childrens mental health. The first part of the report features the following articles: (1) Infant Mental Health: From Parenting to Policymaking (Raquel L. Reyes), introducing the concept of infant mental health and…

  19. Empowering Parents and Communities through Quality Public Reporting: A Brief for State Policymakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Data Quality Campaign, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Publicly reporting timely, actionable, and comprehensible data is one of the most powerful ways states can promote transparency, strengthen accountability, and ensure that everyone with a stake in education--parents, educators, policymakers, researchers, and members of the public and press-- has access to the information they need to make good…

  20. What Criteria Should Policymakers Use for Assisting Households with Educational Expenditure? The Case of Urban Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafiq, M. Najeeb

    2010-01-01

    Low household expenditure on education compromises the learning and future labor market prospects of children. This study provides an empirical framework for determining the criteria that South Asian policymakers can use for assisting households with educational expenditure. A case study of urban Bangladesh using tobit and hurdle regression…

  1. Pharmaceutical companies' role in state vaccination policymaking: the case of human papillomavirus vaccination.

    PubMed

    Mello, Michelle M; Abiola, Sara; Colgrove, James

    2012-05-01

    We sought to investigate roles that Merck & Co Inc played in state human papillomavirus (HPV) immunization policymaking, to elicit key stakeholders' perceptions of the appropriateness of these activities, and to explore implications for relationships between health policymakers and industry. We used a series of state case studies combining data from key informant interviews with analysis of media reports and archival materials. We interviewed 73 key informants in 6 states that were actively engaged in HPV vaccine policy deliberations. Merck promoted school-entry mandate legislation by serving as an information resource, lobbying legislators, drafting legislation, mobilizing female legislators and physician organizations, conducting consumer marketing campaigns, and filling gaps in access to the vaccine. Legislators relied heavily on Merck for scientific information. Most stakeholders found lobbying by vaccine manufacturers acceptable in principle, but perceived that Merck had acted too aggressively and nontransparently in this case. Although policymakers acknowledge the utility of manufacturers' involvement in vaccination policymaking, industry lobbying that is overly aggressive, not fully transparent, or not divorced from financial contributions to lawmakers risks undermining the prospects for legislation to foster uptake of new vaccines.

  2. At a Glance: ADHD and IDEA 1997. A Guide for State and Local Policymakers. Policy Briefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregg, Soleil

    This policy brief summarizes the literature and identifies responsibilities of state and local policymakers in meeting legal obligations to provide educational services for students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). Presented in a general question-and-answer format,…

  3. Ethnography: A Research Tool for Policymakers in the Drug and Alcohol Fields. Symposium Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akins, Carl, Ed.; Beschner, George, Ed.

    This monograph contains papers and workshop summaries from a two-day symposium for ethnographers and drug abuse policymakers. An introductory paper outlines the background and purpose of the symposium, followed by papers that provide a definition of ethnography, present a history of illicit drug ethnographies, and examine state problems and the…

  4. Starting a Second Chance Home: A Guide for Policymakers and Practitioners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reich, Kathy; Kelly, Lisa M.

    This guide outlines 10 basic steps for policymakers and practitioners interested in creating Second Chance Homes in their areas. Second Chance Homes provide stable, nurturing environments for teen families with access to child care, education, job training, counseling, and advice on parenting and life skills. The guide is based on interviews with…

  5. Myths and Facts Regarding Second Language Acquisition in Early Childhood: Recommendations for Policymakers, Administrators, and Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Soonhyang; Plotka, Raquel

    2016-01-01

    Early childhood teachers play a key role in addressing the needs of young English Language Learners, and a vast body of research is dedicated to assessing best practices for teachers. However, less research addressing the role of policymakers, program directors and administrators is available. Although teachers can make a difference in the lives…

  6. The Structure of Educational Policy-making in Hungary in the 1960s and 1970s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halasz, Gabor

    1986-01-01

    Explains a theoretical framework for interpreting educational policy-making and, on the basis of that framework, identifies educational policy makers and policy changes in Hungary in the 1960s and 1970s. Tests the theory by examining controversies about secondary education and the structure of the educational system. (JHZ)

  7. The Role of Social and Behavioral Science in Policymaking for Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rand Corp., Santa Monica, CA.

    An analysis of the present system of American television broadcasting reveals that social and behavioral science has had very limited influence on its regulatory policymaking. The television advertisement and its potential adverse effect on children have come to the attention of federal regulatory bodies, as well as consumer and children advocacy…

  8. No More Free Lunch for Education Policymakers and Researchers. Evidence Speaks Reports, Vol 1, #20

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chingos, Matthew M.

    2016-01-01

    The federal Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA), like No Child Left Behind before it, requires states to report information on the academic achievement of students in each of their schools, both overall and for various subgroups of students. A subgroup of particular interest to policymakers and researchers is economically disadvantaged students,…

  9. Understanding China's Telecommunications Policymaking and Reforms: A Tale of Transition toward Liberalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Bing

    2002-01-01

    Analyzes China's telecommunications policymaking mechanism by drawing on institutional theory and bargaining theory. Highlights include the telecommunications industry; implementation of telecommunications policy, including competition and foreign direct investment; and the impact of China's entry into the World Trade Organization on its…

  10. Challenges and Opportunities in After-School Programs: Lessons for Policymakers and Funders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Jean Baldwin; Walker, Karen; Raley, Rebecca

    This report describes program realities that policymakers must consider when shaping after-school initiatives in impoverished neighborhoods. Information comes from the multi-year evaluation of the Extended-Service Schools Adaptation Initiative, which is examining 60 after-school programs in 17 cities nationwide. Each initiative is adapting one of…

  11. Advice to Advocates: What Leads to Effective Advocacy? State Policymakers Share the inside Scoop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassi, Suzanne; DeHoff, Randy; Hopson, Elaine

    2004-01-01

    In hopes of shedding light on how public school leaders can better advocate on the state level for the needs of their schools and their students, The School Administrator turned to policymakers in different settings and with different political leanings. They invited a trio--a Republican state legislator from the Chicago suburbs, a rural…

  12. A Policy Playbook for Personalized Learning: Ideas for State and Local Policymakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chuong, Carolyn; Mead, Sara

    2014-01-01

    This report is designed to help state and local policymakers identify the policy changes needed to expand access to quality personalized learning in their states and communities, and to give them the tools to make those changes. Each of the 15 policy ideas, or "plays," in this playbook provides background context on the challenges it is…

  13. Using Data to Improve Teacher Effectiveness: A Primer for State Policymakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Data Quality Campaign, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Policymakers across the nation are leading efforts to ensure that every classroom has an effective teacher. Faced with the need to dramatically improve student outcomes, states have embraced a policy agenda that promotes and supports teacher quality in many ways, including developing evaluation and compensation policies, targeting professional…

  14. A Research Agenda for the Common Core State Standards: What Information Do Policymakers Need?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rentner, Diane Stark; Ferguson, Maria

    2014-01-01

    This report looks specifically at the information and data needs of policymakers related to the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) and the types of research that could provide this information. The ideas in this report were informed by a series of meetings and discussions about a possible research agenda for the Common Core, sponsored by the…

  15. The National Grid for Learning: A Case Study of New Labour Education Policy-Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selwyn, Neil; Fitz, John

    2001-01-01

    The costly National Grid for Learning initiative embodies the fast-growing influence of both market and technological forces in UK education. An initial study reveals that the NGFL does not represent a radical shift toward business-dominated educational policy-making, but reflects New Labour's "healthy pragmatism" toward policy…

  16. Teacher Education Research and Education Policy-Makers: An Australian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Simone

    2016-01-01

    As teacher educators, we want our research to be influential in contributing to educational policy and practice, but there remains little understanding about ways in which teacher educators might more productively engage with each other and policy-makers so as to maximise their research impact. Drawing on an empirical study and policy document…

  17. Using Laboratory Experiments for Policymaking: An Example from the Georgia Irrigation Reduction Auction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Ronald G.; Holt, Charles A.; Laury, Susan K.

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, interest has been growing in policy applications of different auction systems. This paper reports a series of experiments that were used to design and implement an auction in a unique policymaking environment. In April 2000, the Georgia legislature passed a law that mandated that the state hold an auction in drought years to pay…

  18. Perceptions of policymakers in Nigeria toward unsafe abortion and maternal mortality.

    PubMed

    Okonofua, Friday E; Hammed, Afolabi; Nzeribe, Emily; Saidu, Buba; Abass, Tajudeen; Adeboye, Gabriel; Adegun, Temi; Okolocha, Chike

    2009-12-01

    In Nigeria, abortion is permitted only to save the life of a woman. Unsafe abortion is common and is a major cause of maternal mortality, yet policymakers have done little to address the problem. In-depth interviews were conducted in 2008 with 49 Nigerian politicians and officials to assess their awareness of unsafe abortion and its role in maternal mortality, and to determine their perceptions of the policies and actions needed to address these problems. Participants had poor knowledge of Nigeria's abortion law and the number of abortions and abortion-related deaths, though many knew of women who had died or nearly died from unsafe abortion. Policymakers were guided by moral and religious considerations rather than by evidence-based approaches. About one-third of informants felt that abortion should not be legal under any circumstances, one-fifth supported liberalization on medical grounds and a similar proportion believed that abortion should be legal in cases of rape and incest. Strategies recommended by respondents to reduce maternal mortality included facilitating access to contraceptives, providing sexuality education, improving the health care system, empowering women and providing free pregnancy care. Intense public health education and advocacy targeting policymakers is needed to increase political will for reducing abortion-related maternal deaths in Nigeria. Presenting statistics on unsafe abortion together with compelling personal stories will likely resonate with policymakers and contribute to an informed public debate on abortion law reform.

  19. No More Free Lunch for Education Policymakers and Researchers. Evidence Speaks Reports, Vol 1, #20

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chingos, Matthew M.

    2016-01-01

    The federal Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA), like No Child Left Behind before it, requires states to report information on the academic achievement of students in each of their schools, both overall and for various subgroups of students. A subgroup of particular interest to policymakers and researchers is economically disadvantaged students,…

  20. Protest and Policymaking: Explaining Fluctuation in Congressional Attention to Rights Issues, 1960-1986

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Brayden G.; Bentele, Keith G.; Soule, Sarah A.

    2007-01-01

    Although past research has failed to establish a link between protest and policy change, we reexamine the relationship at the agenda-setting stage of policymaking. We assert that protestors compete for attention among lawmakers at the agenda-setting stage. An issue receives more attention when the frequency of protest activity around a particular…

  1. Building Skills for the New Economy: A Policymaker's Handbook. Policy Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Robert D.

    This paper presents specific steps elected officials, program managers, and other policymakers can take to craft a more effective workforce development system intended to give workers the tools they need to succeed in the new economy. First, the new labor market and work systems are discussed. The paper then lays out eight principles for all…

  2. All Mixed Up? Instrumental and Emancipatory Learning toward a More Sustainable World: Considerations for EE Policymakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wals, Arjen E. J.; Geerling-Eijff, Floor; Hubeek, Francisca; van der Kroon, Sandra; Vader, Janneke

    2008-01-01

    World wide, policymakers are looking for ways to use education and communication strategies to create a world that is more sustainable than the one currently in prospect. They often find themselves trapped between instrumental (behavior change) and emancipatory (human development) uses of such strategies. This study sheds light on this apparent…

  3. Understanding China's Telecommunications Policymaking and Reforms: A Tale of Transition toward Liberalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Bing

    2002-01-01

    Analyzes China's telecommunications policymaking mechanism by drawing on institutional theory and bargaining theory. Highlights include the telecommunications industry; implementation of telecommunications policy, including competition and foreign direct investment; and the impact of China's entry into the World Trade Organization on its…

  4. Starting Early, Starting Now: A Policymaker's Guide to Early Care & Education and School Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauerz, Kristie

    The development of a high quality system of early care and education requires the attention, investment, and action of several groups, including parents, business leaders and philanthropists, teachers, media, and policymakers. This report, produced by the Education Commission of the States (ECS) as part of its Early Learning: Improving Results for…

  5. More than a Message of Hope: A District-Level Policymaker's Guide to Understanding Resiliency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berliner, BethAnn; Benard, Bonnie

    One of the greatest challenges facing today's district-level policymakers and educational leaders is helping America's youth avoid adverse outcomes such as school failure, substance abuse, teen pregnancy, and delinquency. This document describes an alternative policy approach to address these problems--the building of resiliency in youth. Rather…

  6. Unlocking the Potential of the "What Works" Approach to Policymaking and Practice: Improving Impact Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granger, Robert C.; Maynard, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Despite bipartisan support in Washington, DC, which dates back to the mid-1990s, the "what works" approach has yet to gain broad support among policymakers and practitioners. One way to build such support is to increase the usefulness of program impact evaluations for these groups. We describe three ways to make impact evaluations more…

  7. Convergent Institutional Logics in Public Higher Education: State Policymaking and Governing Board Activism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastedo, Michael N.

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the convergent institutional logics driving decision making at an activist governing board in higher education. Through a case study of policymaking by a state-level coordinating board in Massachusetts, the article identifies four primary logics of action: mission differentiation, student opportunity, managerialism, and…

  8. Ideas for Policymakers: Enhancing the Impact of Think Tanks. Policy Insight, Volume 1, Issue 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montoya, Silvia; Swanger, Rachel M.

    2007-01-01

    As think tanks have become more numerous, visible, and seemingly influential, scholars have begun to pay more attention to them--analyzing their characteristics, their modes of operation, and their roles in policymaking. This "Policy Insight" builds on this work and examines the role of think tanks in civil society, with an emphasis on…

  9. A Better Answer for Education: Reviving State and Local Policymaking Authority. Heritage Lectures. No. 994

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornyn, John; DeMint, Jim

    2007-01-01

    On the fifth anniversary of No Child Left Behind, Senators John Cornyn (R-TX) and Jim DeMint (R-SC) outline their alternative for restoring state and local ownership of education policymaking while ensuring transparency about results and accountability to parents and taxpayers. The A-PLUS Act of 2007 (Academic Partnerships Lead Us to Success) will…

  10. First Teachers: A Family Literacy Handbook for Parents, Policy-Makers, and Literacy Providers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbara Bush Foundation for Family Literacy, Washington, DC.

    This handbook presents annotated "snapshots" of 10 innovative family literacy programs, almost all of which were begun by an individual with a vision of a new way to solve a demanding educational problem. Profiles depict, in terms of background, characteristics, evidence of success, and advice to policymakers and practitioners, the: (1)…

  11. Public Policy to Promote Healthy Nutrition in Schools: Views of Policymakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Mat; Signal, Louise; Thomson, George

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to identify policy options to support nutrition promotion in New Zealand primary schools. In achieving this aim, the study sought to identify framing by policymakers regarding child diet and obesity; views on the role of schools in nutrition promotion; policy options and degree of support for these options. Issue…

  12. Accounting for Co-Teaching: A Guide for Policymakers and Developers of Value-Added Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isenberg, Eric; Walsh, Elias

    2015-01-01

    We outline the options available to policymakers for addressing co-teaching in a value-added model. Building on earlier work, we propose an improvement to a method of accounting for co-teaching that treats co-teachers as teams, with each teacher receiving equal credit for co-taught students. Hock and Isenberg (2012) described a method known as the…

  13. Creating and Sustaining High-Quality Charter School Governing Boards. A Guide for State Policymakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Elizabeth A.

    2008-01-01

    This guide for state policymakers examines the laws, policies, and programs that states are using to create and sustain high-quality charter school governing boards. In particular, the guide focuses on the two aspects of governing boards that interviews with state administrators revealed are most critical for a board's success: board composition…

  14. Involving Teachers in Charter School Governance: A Guide for State Policymakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sam, Cecilia

    2008-01-01

    This guide for state policymakers examines teacher involvement in charter school governance. Teacher involvement is defined to include the gamut of decision-making roles not typically afforded teachers in traditional public schools, including founding schools, serving on governing boards, and engaging in site-based collective bargaining. Different…

  15. Two (Very) Different Worlds: The Cultures of Policymaking and Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donmoyer, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This article brackets assumptions embedded in the framing of this special issue on "problematizing methodological simplicity in qualitative research" in a effort to understand why policymakers put pressure on all types of researchers, including those who use qualitative methods, to provide relatively simple, even somewhat mechanistic portrayals of…

  16. Public Policy to Promote Healthy Nutrition in Schools: Views of Policymakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Mat; Signal, Louise; Thomson, George

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to identify policy options to support nutrition promotion in New Zealand primary schools. In achieving this aim, the study sought to identify framing by policymakers regarding child diet and obesity; views on the role of schools in nutrition promotion; policy options and degree of support for these options. Issue…

  17. Persistent misunderstandings about evidence-based (sorry: informed!) policy-making.

    PubMed

    Bédard, Pierre-Olivier; Ouimet, Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    The field of research on knowledge mobilization and evidence-informed policy-making has seen enduring debates related to various fundamental assumptions such as the definition of 'evidence', the relative validity of various research methods, the actual role of evidence to inform policy-making, etc. In many cases, these discussions serve a useful purpose, but they also stem from serious disagreement on methodological and epistemological issues. This essay reviews the rationale for evidence-informed policy-making by examining some of the common claims made about the aims and practices of this perspective on public policy. Supplementing the existing justifications for evidence-based policy making, we argue in favor of a greater inclusion of research evidence in the policy process but in a structured fashion, based on methodological considerations. In this respect, we present an overview of the intricate relation between policy questions and appropriate research designs. By closely examining the relation between research questions and research designs, we claim that the usual points of disagreement are mitigated. For instance, when focusing on the variety of research designs that can answer a range of policy questions, the common critical claim about 'RCT-based policy-making' seems to lose some, if not all of its grip.

  18. Conclusion: Recommendations for How Practitioners, Researchers, and Policymakers Can Promote Youth Purpose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mariano, Jenni Menon

    2011-01-01

    Initially drawing from, yet then expanding on the research discussed in this volume, this article discusses specific measures that practitioners, researchers, and policymakers can take to support purpose among youth. Strategies for educators include utilizing practical purpose teaching tools, such as purpose interviews, purpose-related…

  19. Government and Educational Reform: Policy Networks in Policy-Making in Zimbabwe, 1980-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyo, Nathan; Modiba, Maropeng M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reflects on the key actors in education policy making in Zimbabwe. It looks at the contextual complexities that characterized policy-making in this country to make sense of the contestations that the state had to confront and accommodate. The policy network approach is employed as an analytical framework to clarify how, in particular…

  20. Science Does Not Speak for Itself: Translating Child Development Research for the Public and Its Policymakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shonkoff, Jack P.; Bales, Susan Nall

    2011-01-01

    Science has an important role to play in advising policymakers on crafting effective responses to social problems that affect the development of children. This article describes lessons learned from a multiyear, working collaboration among neuroscientists, developmental psychologists, pediatricians, economists, and communications researchers who…

  1. Ideas for Policymakers: Enhancing the Impact of Think Tanks. Policy Insight, Volume 1, Issue 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montoya, Silvia; Swanger, Rachel M.

    2007-01-01

    As think tanks have become more numerous, visible, and seemingly influential, scholars have begun to pay more attention to them--analyzing their characteristics, their modes of operation, and their roles in policymaking. This "Policy Insight" builds on this work and examines the role of think tanks in civil society, with an emphasis on…

  2. Pharmaceutical Companies’ Role in State Vaccination Policymaking: The Case of Human Papillomavirus Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Abiola, Sara; Colgrove, James

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to investigate roles that Merck & Co Inc played in state human papillomavirus (HPV) immunization policymaking, to elicit key stakeholders’ perceptions of the appropriateness of these activities, and to explore implications for relationships between health policymakers and industry. Methods. We used a series of state case studies combining data from key informant interviews with analysis of media reports and archival materials. We interviewed 73 key informants in 6 states that were actively engaged in HPV vaccine policy deliberations. Results. Merck promoted school-entry mandate legislation by serving as an information resource, lobbying legislators, drafting legislation, mobilizing female legislators and physician organizations, conducting consumer marketing campaigns, and filling gaps in access to the vaccine. Legislators relied heavily on Merck for scientific information. Most stakeholders found lobbying by vaccine manufacturers acceptable in principle, but perceived that Merck had acted too aggressively and nontransparently in this case. Conclusions. Although policymakers acknowledge the utility of manufacturers’ involvement in vaccination policymaking, industry lobbying that is overly aggressive, not fully transparent, or not divorced from financial contributions to lawmakers risks undermining the prospects for legislation to foster uptake of new vaccines. PMID:22420796

  3. Crossroads of Crisis: Forces at Play in the Policy-Making Arena

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Addison S.

    1976-01-01

    The following forces that play on policymaking are examined: Social and cultural influences, the caste system with its attendant anxiety to conform, warring between equals, the competitive spirit unleased. On the question of what should be incorporated in policy, the author states that vocational educators should look inwardly and seek to make…

  4. Teacher Education Research and Education Policy-Makers: An Australian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Simone

    2016-01-01

    As teacher educators, we want our research to be influential in contributing to educational policy and practice, but there remains little understanding about ways in which teacher educators might more productively engage with each other and policy-makers so as to maximise their research impact. Drawing on an empirical study and policy document…

  5. Spin as Symbolic Capital: The Fields of Journalism and Education Policy-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stack, Michelle L.

    2010-01-01

    How do policy-makers and journalists accumulate symbolic capital in terms of their strategic positioning in relation to policy making? How do they negotiate their impact on policy making across fields? How do they gain access to information, and how is this information constructed in terms of education and schooling? This paper focuses on…

  6. A Michigan School Money Primer for Policymakers, School Officials, Media and Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Ryan S.; LaFaive, Michael D.

    2007-01-01

    The system that finances Michigan's schools from kindergarten through 12th grade is a perennial topic of conversation among policymakers, parents, taxpayers and voters. A constructive discussion of this issue, however, requires a sound knowledge of the financial workings of Michigan's elementary and secondary school system. This knowledge is…

  7. The Politics of School Desegregation: Comparative Case Studies of Community Structure and Policy-Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crain, Robert L.

    An analysis of the political process by which school systems can be desegregated rests on thepremise that school desegregation is a community decision. The process is documented in Part I by studies of eight non-Southern, big city school systems. Part II presents an analysis of school policy-making. Part III is devoted to desegregation in New…

  8. Science Does Not Speak for Itself: Translating Child Development Research for the Public and Its Policymakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shonkoff, Jack P.; Bales, Susan Nall

    2011-01-01

    Science has an important role to play in advising policymakers on crafting effective responses to social problems that affect the development of children. This article describes lessons learned from a multiyear, working collaboration among neuroscientists, developmental psychologists, pediatricians, economists, and communications researchers who…

  9. Building and Using Coordinated State Early Care and Education Data Systems: A Framework for State Policymakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Early Childhood Data Collaborative (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    State policymakers are increasingly focused on closing the achievement gap and preparing all students to succeed in school and in life. However, college and career readiness begins long before students enter high school or even a classroom. Differences in children's abilities appear as early as the first year of life, and research has shown that…

  10. Two (Very) Different Worlds: The Cultures of Policymaking and Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donmoyer, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This article brackets assumptions embedded in the framing of this special issue on "problematizing methodological simplicity in qualitative research" in a effort to understand why policymakers put pressure on all types of researchers, including those who use qualitative methods, to provide relatively simple, even somewhat mechanistic portrayals of…

  11. Discourses, Decisions, Designs: "Special" Education Policy-Making in New South Wales, Scotland, Finland and Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chong, Pei Wen; Graham, Linda J.

    2017-01-01

    This comparative analysis investigates the influence of neo-liberal and inclusive discourses in "special" education policy-making in New South Wales, Scotland, Finland and Malaysia. The centrality of competition, selectivity and accountability in the discourses used in New South Wales and Malaysia suggests a system preference for…

  12. Protest and Policymaking: Explaining Fluctuation in Congressional Attention to Rights Issues, 1960-1986

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Brayden G.; Bentele, Keith G.; Soule, Sarah A.

    2007-01-01

    Although past research has failed to establish a link between protest and policy change, we reexamine the relationship at the agenda-setting stage of policymaking. We assert that protestors compete for attention among lawmakers at the agenda-setting stage. An issue receives more attention when the frequency of protest activity around a particular…

  13. Research, Public Policymaking, and Knowledge-Translation Processes: Canadian Efforts to Build Bridges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavis, John N.

    2006-01-01

    Public policymakers must contend with a particular set of institutional arrangements that govern what can be done to address any given issue, pressure from a variety of interest groups about what they would like to see done to address any given issue, and a range of ideas (including research evidence) about how best to address any given issue.…

  14. Using Laboratory Experiments for Policymaking: An Example from the Georgia Irrigation Reduction Auction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Ronald G.; Holt, Charles A.; Laury, Susan K.

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, interest has been growing in policy applications of different auction systems. This paper reports a series of experiments that were used to design and implement an auction in a unique policymaking environment. In April 2000, the Georgia legislature passed a law that mandated that the state hold an auction in drought years to pay…

  15. Using Knowledge of the Past to Improve Education Today: US Education History and Policy-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinovskis, Maris A.

    2015-01-01

    Early American historians provided the public and policy-makers with information about US history that provided both entertainment and policy suggestions. As American historians became more professionalised in the early twentieth century, they concentrated more on their own scholarly concerns and less on policy-relevant writings. In recent…

  16. Acceptability of financial incentives for health behaviour change to public health policymakers: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Giles, Emma L; Sniehotta, Falko F; McColl, Elaine; Adams, Jean

    2016-09-15

    Providing financial incentives contingent on healthy behaviours is one way to encourage healthy behaviours. However, there remains substantial concerns with the acceptability of health promoting financial incentives (HPFI). Previous research has studied acceptability of HPFI to the public, recipients and practitioners. We are not aware of any previous work that has focused particularly on the views of public health policymakers. Our aim was to explore the views of public health policymakers on whether or not HPFI are acceptable; and what, if anything, could be done to maximise acceptability of HPFI. We recruited 21 local, regional and national policymakers working in England via gatekeepers and snowballing. We conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews with participants exploring experiences of, and attitudes towards, HPFI. We analysed data using the Framework approach. Public health policymakers working in England acknowledged that HPFI could be a useful behaviour change tool, but were not overwhelmingly supportive of them. In particular, they raised concerns about effectiveness and cost-effectiveness, potential 'gaming', and whether or not HPFI address the underlying causes of unhealthy behaviours. Shopping voucher rewards, of smaller value, targeted at deprived groups were particularly acceptable to policymakers. Participants were particularly concerned about the response of other stakeholders to HPFI - including the public, potential recipients, politicians and the media. Overall, the interviews reflected three tensions. Firstly, a tension between wanting to trust individuals and promote responsibility; and distrust around the potential for 'gaming the system'. Secondly, a tension between participants' own views about HPFI; and their concerns about the possible views of other stakeholders. Thirdly, a tension between participants' personal distaste of HPFI; and their professional view that they could be a valuable behaviour change tool. There are aspects of

  17. Hospitalized Patients' Responses to Offers of Prayer.

    PubMed

    McMillan, Kathy; Taylor, Elizabeth Johnston

    2017-07-24

    Most Americans pray; many pray about their health. When they are hospitalized, however, do patients want an offer of prayer from a healthcare provider? This project allowed for the measurement of hospitalized patient's responses to massage therapists' offers of a colloquial prayer after a massage. After the intervention, 78 patients completed questionnaires that elicited quantitative data that were analyzed using uni- and bivariate statistical analyses. In this sample, 88% accepted the offer of prayer, 85% found it helpful, and 51% wanted prayer daily. Patients may welcome prayer, as long as the clinician shows "genuine kindness and respect."

  18. Validity and reliability of the Evidence Utilisation in Policymaking Measurement Tool (EUPMT).

    PubMed

    Imani-Nasab, M H; Yazdizadeh, B; Salehi, M; Seyedin, H; Majdzadeh, R

    2017-08-04

    As a well-known theory in studying the effective factors on behaviour, the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) is frequently used in evaluating the health behaviour of people and healthcare providers, but rarely applied in studying the behaviour of health policymakers. The aim of the present study is to design and validate a TPB-based measurement tool for evidence utilisation in health policymaking (the EUPMT) through a mixed approach using confirmatory factor analysis. The study population consisted of all the specialised units and their employees in the five deputies of Iran's Ministry of Health and Medical Education in 2013. All those eligible were invited to participate in the study, which comprised 373 persons. The reliability of the EUPMT was determined through test-retest and internal consistency. Additionally, its validity was determined by face, content, convergent, discriminant and construct validities. SPSS-20 and LISREL-8.8 were employed to analyse the data. To assess the fitness of the measurement models, three groups of indices were used, i.e. absolute, relative and parsimonious. The content and face validities of the tool were 83% and 67%, respectively. Cronbach's alpha of different constructs ranged from 0.7 to 0.9. In the test-retest method, the intra-class correlations were between 0.75 and 0.87. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the penta-factorial structure of the experimental data had acceptable fitness with the TPB (GFI = 0.86, NFI = 0.94, RSMEA = 0.075). TPB is able to explain the behaviour of evidence utilisation in health policymaking. The finalised TPB-based tool has relatively good reliability and validity to assess evidence utilisation in health policymaking. The EUPMT can be applied to determine the status quo of evidence utilisation in health policymaking, whilst designing interventions for its improvement and assessing their outcomes.

  19. Survey of Argentine Health Researchers on the Use of Evidence in Policymaking

    PubMed Central

    Corluka, Adrijana; Hyder, Adnan A.; Segura, Elsa; Winch, Peter; McLean, Robert K. D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective In this study, Argentine health researchers were surveyed regarding their perceptions of facilitators and barriers to evidence-based policymaking in Argentina, as well as their publication activities, and research environment satisfaction. Methods A self-administered online survey was sent to health researchers in Argentina. The survey questions were based on a preceding qualitative study of Argentine health researchers, as well as the scientific literature. Results Of the 647 researchers that were reached, 226 accessed the survey, for a response rate of 34.9%. Over 80% of researchers surveyed had never been involved in or contributed to decision-making, while over 90% of researchers indicated they would like to be involved in the decision-making process. Decision-maker self-interest was perceived to be the driving factor in the development of health and healthcare policies. Research conducted by a research leader was seen to be the most influential factor in influencing health policy, followed by policy relevance of the research. With respect to their occupational environment, researchers rated highest and most favourably the opportunities available to present, discuss and publish research results and their ability to further their education and training. Argentine researchers surveyed demonstrated a strong interest and willingness to contribute their work and expertise to inform Argentine health policy development. Conclusion Despite Argentina’s long scientific tradition, there are relatively few institutionalized linkages between health research results and health policymaking. Based on the results of this study, the disconnect between political decision-making and the health research system, coupled with fewer opportunities for formalized or informal researcher/decision-maker interaction, contribute to the challenges in evidence informing health policymaking in Argentina. Improving personal contact and the building of relationships between

  20. Whole-of-society approach for public health policymaking: a case study of polycentric governance from Quebec, Canada.

    PubMed

    Addy, Nii A; Poirier, Alain; Blouin, Chantal; Drager, Nick; Dubé, Laurette

    2014-12-01

    In adopting a whole-of-society (WoS) approach that engages multiple stakeholders in public health policies across contexts, the authors propose that effective governance presents a challenge. The purpose of this paper is to highlight a case for how polycentric governance underlying the WoS approach is already functioning, while outlining an agenda to enable adaptive learning for improving such governance processes. Drawing upon a case study from Quebec, Canada, we employ empirically developed concepts from extensive, decades-long work of the 2009 Nobel laureate Elinor Ostrom in the governance of policy in nonhealth domains to analyze early efforts at polycentric governance in policies around overnutrition, highlighting interactions between international, domestic, state and nonstate actors and processes. Using information from primary and secondary sources, we analyze the emergence of the broader policy context of Quebec's public health system in the 20th century. We present a microsituational analysis of the WoS approach for Quebec's 21st century policies on healthy lifestyles, emphasizing the role of governance at the community level. We argue for rethinking prescriptive policy analysis of the 20th century, proposing an agenda for diagnostic policy analysis, which explicates the multiple sets of actors and interacting variables shaping polycentric governance for operationalizing the WoS approach to policymaking in specific contexts.

  1. M.S. Offered in Industrial Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Describes graduate training geared specifically to prepare students for work in industry. Reports on schools offering such a program, and outlines the major characteristics of each school's curriculum. (GS)

  2. Offering Spiritual Support for Family or Friends

    MedlinePlus

    ... that are meaningful for me? b What books, music, prayers, readings, art are meaningful for me? It ... experience with the person, offer prayer, spiritual readings, music or sacred rituals as appropriate or requested. b ...

  3. 43 CFR 12.815 - Evaluating offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... COST PRINCIPLES FOR ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Buy American Requirements for Assistance Programs Buy American Act-Construction Materials § 12.815 Evaluating offers. (a) The restrictions of the Buy American Act do...

  4. 48 CFR 2825.203 - Evaluating offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Buy American Act-Construction Materials 2825.203 Evaluating offers. The HCA, or designee at a level not lower than the BPC, is the agency official authorized to make...

  5. 43 CFR 12.815 - Evaluating offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... COST PRINCIPLES FOR ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Buy American Requirements for Assistance Programs Buy American Act-Construction Materials § 12.815 Evaluating offers. (a) The restrictions of the Buy American Act do...

  6. 48 CFR 2825.203 - Evaluating offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Buy American Act-Construction Materials 2825.203 Evaluating offers. The HCA, or designee at a level not lower than the BPC, is the agency official authorized to make...

  7. 43 CFR 12.815 - Evaluating offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... COST PRINCIPLES FOR ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Buy American Requirements for Assistance Programs Buy American Act-Construction Materials § 12.815 Evaluating offers. (a) The restrictions of the Buy American Act do...

  8. An Evidence-Centered Approach to Using Assessment Data for Policymakers. Research Report. ETS RR-10-03

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Jody S.; Zapata-Rivera, Diego; VanWinkle, Waverely

    2010-01-01

    District-level policymakers are challenged to use evidence of student achievement to make policy decisions, such as professional development and other school improvement plans. They currently receive reports of student achievement data that are complex, difficult to read, and even harder to interpret. Using the research literature on policymakers'…

  9. Enhancing Evidence-Informed Decision Making: Strategies for Engagement between Public Health Faculty and Policymakers in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jessani, Nasreen; Kennedy, Caitlin; Bennett, Sara

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the complex interactions and strategies for engagement--both existing as well as desired--between academic Knowledge Brokers (KBs) and national health policymakers in Kenya. Based on semi-structured interviews with academic KBs and university leaders from six Schools of Public Health (SPHs) as well as national policymakers,…

  10. 34 CFR 370.42 - What access must the CAP be afforded to policymaking and administrative personnel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What access must the CAP be afforded to policymaking... What access must the CAP be afforded to policymaking and administrative personnel? The CAP must be... programs, projects, and community rehabilitation programs. One way in which the CAP may be provided that...

  11. Interrelations between Policymakers' Intentions and School Agents' Interpretation of Accountability Policy in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amdur, Lisa; Mero-Jaffe, Irit

    2017-01-01

    The study examined the interrelations between policymakers' intentions for test-based accountability policy and school agents' perceptions and actions with regard to this policy. Mixed methods were used and encompassed 24 policymakers, 80 school principals, 168 teachers and case studies of four schools. New institutional theory, including the…

  12. Cigarette promotional offers: who takes advantage?

    PubMed

    White, Victoria M; White, Martha M; Freeman, Karen; Gilpin, Elizabeth A; Pierce, John P

    2006-03-01

    Promotional offers on cigarettes (e.g., dollar-off, multipack discounts) composed the largest share of tobacco industry marketing expenditures, totaling $8.9 billion, or 72% of the total budget in 2002. Internal industry documents indicate that young adults, potential quitters, and other price-sensitive groups are the targets of these marketing tactics. How effective they are in actually reaching these groups in the general population of smokers has not yet been investigated. Data were from 4618 current smokers responding to the large, random-digit-dialed population-based 2002 California Tobacco Survey. The characteristics were identified of smokers who reported that they used these offers "every time I see one." Thirty-five percent of smokers used promotional offers every time they saw one. Multivariate analyses identified young adults, women, African Americans, those with higher daily cigarette consumption, and those worried about cigarette costs as more likely to use promotional offers at every opportunity. Smokers most committed to quitting were no more likely to use promotional offers than those with no intention to quit. Cigarette brand was highly correlated with age and race/ethnicity, and therefore was not included in the multivariate analysis. Those who smoked menthol cigarettes and Camels, more often young adults and African Americans, were much more likely than those of other brands to use promotional offers. With the exception of smokers intending to quit, cigarette promotional offers are effectively reaching most industry-targeted groups. Importantly, young adults, who have the greatest long-term customer potential, are responding.

  13. SUPPORT Tools for evidence-informed health Policymaking (STP) 13: Preparing and using policy briefs to support evidence-informed policymaking

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    This article is part of a series written for people responsible for making decisions about health policies and programmes and for those who support these decision makers. Policy briefs are a relatively new approach to packaging research evidence for policymakers. The first step in a policy brief is to prioritise a policy issue. Once an issue is prioritised, the focus then turns to mobilising the full range of research evidence relevant to the various features of the issue. Drawing on available systematic reviews makes the process of mobilising evidence feasible in a way that would not otherwise be possible if individual relevant studies had to be identified and synthesised for every feature of the issue under consideration. In this article, we suggest questions that can be used to guide those preparing and using policy briefs to support evidence-informed policymaking. These are: 1. Does the policy brief address a high-priority issue and describe the relevant context of the issue being addressed? 2. Does the policy brief describe the problem, costs and consequences of options to address the problem, and the key implementation considerations? 3. Does the policy brief employ systematic and transparent methods to identify, select, and assess synthesised research evidence? 4. Does the policy brief take quality, local applicability, and equity considerations into account when discussing the synthesised research evidence? 5. Does the policy brief employ a graded-entry format? 6. Was the policy brief reviewed for both scientific quality and system relevance? PMID:20018103

  14. SUPPORT Tools for evidence-informed health Policymaking (STP) 13: Preparing and using policy briefs to support evidence-informed policymaking.

    PubMed

    Lavis, John N; Permanand, Govin; Oxman, Andrew D; Lewin, Simon; Fretheim, Atle

    2009-12-16

    This article is part of a series written for people responsible for making decisions about health policies and programmes and for those who support these decision makers. Policy briefs are a relatively new approach to packaging research evidence for policymakers. The first step in a policy brief is to prioritise a policy issue. Once an issue is prioritised, the focus then turns to mobilising the full range of research evidence relevant to the various features of the issue. Drawing on available systematic reviews makes the process of mobilising evidence feasible in a way that would not otherwise be possible if individual relevant studies had to be identified and synthesised for every feature of the issue under consideration. In this article, we suggest questions that can be used to guide those preparing and using policy briefs to support evidence-informed policymaking. These are: 1. Does the policy brief address a high-priority issue and describe the relevant context of the issue being addressed? 2. Does the policy brief describe the problem, costs and consequences of options to address the problem, and the key implementation considerations? 3. Does the policy brief employ systematic and transparent methods to identify, select, and assess synthesised research evidence? 4. Does the policy brief take quality, local applicability, and equity considerations into account when discussing the synthesised research evidence? 5. Does the policy brief employ a graded-entry format? 6. Was the policy brief reviewed for both scientific quality and system relevance?

  15. The principles of Catholic social teaching: A guide for decision making from daily clinical encounters to national policy-making.

    PubMed

    Wright, Karen Shields

    2017-02-01

    Catholic social teaching (CST), a branch of moral theology, addresses contemporary issues within the political, economic, and cultural structures of society. The threefold cornerstone of CST contains the principles of human dignity, solidarity, and subsidiarity. It is the foundation on which to form our conscience in order to evaluate the framework of society and is the Catholic criteria for prudential judgment and direction in developing current policy-making. With knowledge of these social principles, in combination with our faith, we will be more armed and informed as to articulate the Catholic vision of reality, the truthful nature of the human person and society, to apply and integrate the social teachings in our everyday administrative and clinical encounters, and through the virtue of charity take action within the social, political, and economic spheres in which we have influence. Summary: The Church's social encyclicals are a reflection upon the issues of the day using the light of faith and reason. They offer commentary on the ways to evaluate and address particular social problems-also using natural law principles-in the areas of politics, economics, and culture. Quotes were selected from the encyclicals that define and expand upon the primary principles for the purpose of representing them for study, reflection, and use in everyday personal and business encounters and decision making for healthcare professionals.

  16. Amplified Policymaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince, Katherine; Woempner, Carolyn

    2010-01-01

    This brief examines the policy implications of two drivers of change presented in the "2020 Forecast: Creating the Future of Learning"-- Pattern Recognition and Amplified Organization. These drivers point toward a series of cultural shifts and illuminate how we are developing new ways of organizing, constructing, and managing knowledge.…

  17. The ultimatum game: Discrete vs. continuous offers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dishon-Berkovits, Miriam; Berkovits, Richard

    2014-09-01

    In many experimental setups in social-sciences, psychology and economy the subjects are requested to accept or dispense monetary compensation which is usually given in discrete units. Using computer and mathematical modeling we show that in the framework of studying the dynamics of acceptance of proposals in the ultimatum game, the long time dynamics of acceptance of offers in the game are completely different for discrete vs. continuous offers. For discrete values the dynamics follow an exponential behavior. However, for continuous offers the dynamics are described by a power-law. This is shown using an agent based computer simulation as well as by utilizing an analytical solution of a mean-field equation describing the model. These findings have implications to the design and interpretation of socio-economical experiments beyond the ultimatum game.

  18. Ocean Research Priorities: Similarities and Differences among Scientists, Policymakers, and Fishermen in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Julia G.; Rudd, Murray A.; Crowder, Larry B.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Understanding and solving complex ocean conservation problems requires cooperation not just among scientific disciplines but also across sectors. A recently published survey that probed research priorities of marine scientists, when provided to ocean stakeholders, revealed some agreement on priorities but also illuminated key differences. Ocean acidification, cumulative impacts, bycatch effects, and restoration effectiveness were in the top 10 priorities for scientists and stakeholder groups. Significant priority differences were that scientists favored research questions about ocean acidification and marine protected areas; policymakers prioritized questions about habitat restoration, bycatch, and precaution; and fisheries sector resource users called for the inclusion of local ecological knowledge in policymaking. These results quantitatively demonstrate how different stakeholder groups approach ocean issues and highlight the need to incorporate other types of knowledge in the codesign of solutions-oriented research, which may facilitate cross-sectoral collaboration. PMID:28533565

  19. Health Planning in the United States and the Decline of Public-interest Policymaking

    PubMed Central

    Melhado, Evan M

    2006-01-01

    In the 1960s and 1970s, health planning formed a major theme of American health policy. Planners aimed to improve health services and make them broadly available while using resources efficiently. This article provides a history, both intellectual and political, of the origins of planning, its rise, and—in the face of mounting problems—its decline. The story also illustrates broader changes in the culture of policymaking in American health care. From the Progressive Era through the 1960s, reform-minded experts in health worked to advance the public interest. Thereafter, they increasingly left behind public-interest ideals and their underlying extramarket values in favor of organizing and improving health care markets. Whatever the deficiencies of traditional policymaking may be, this study suggests the need to resurrect extramarket values in health policy. PMID:16771822

  20. Policymaking to preserve privacy in disclosure of public health data: a suggested framework.

    PubMed

    Mizani, Mehrdad A; Baykal, Nazife

    2015-03-01

    Health organisations in Turkey gather a vast amount of valuable individual data that can be used for public health purposes. The organisations use rigid methods to remove some useful details from the data while publishing the rest of the data in a highly aggregated form, mostly because of privacy concerns and lack of standardised policies. This action leads to information loss and bias affecting public health research. Hence, organisations need dynamic policies and well-defined procedures rather than a specific algorithm to protect the privacy of individual data. To address this need, we developed a framework for the systematic application of anonymity methods while reducing and objectively reporting the information loss without leaking confidentiality. This framework acts as a roadmap for policymaking by providing high-level pseudo-policies with semitechnical guidelines in addition to some sample scenarios suitable for policymakers, public health programme managers and legislators.

  1. Ocean Research Priorities: Similarities and Differences among Scientists, Policymakers, and Fishermen in the United States.

    PubMed

    Mason, Julia G; Rudd, Murray A; Crowder, Larry B

    2017-05-01

    Understanding and solving complex ocean conservation problems requires cooperation not just among scientific disciplines but also across sectors. A recently published survey that probed research priorities of marine scientists, when provided to ocean stakeholders, revealed some agreement on priorities but also illuminated key differences. Ocean acidification, cumulative impacts, bycatch effects, and restoration effectiveness were in the top 10 priorities for scientists and stakeholder groups. Significant priority differences were that scientists favored research questions about ocean acidification and marine protected areas; policymakers prioritized questions about habitat restoration, bycatch, and precaution; and fisheries sector resource users called for the inclusion of local ecological knowledge in policymaking. These results quantitatively demonstrate how different stakeholder groups approach ocean issues and highlight the need to incorporate other types of knowledge in the codesign of solutions-oriented research, which may facilitate cross-sectoral collaboration.

  2. Changing perceptions of oral health and its importance to general health: provider perceptions, public perceptions, policymaker perceptions.

    PubMed

    Pyle, Marsha A

    2002-01-01

    The first ever Surgeon General's Report on Oral Health emphasizes that oral health is essential to the general health and well-being of all Americans, and that oral health can be achieved. But it will require that we think about and approach oral health activities in a different manner. If we desire to influence the mind-set of health care providers, the public, policymakers, and institutions, how do we get from what we know about the relationship of oral health and general health to integrating the notion into everyday actions? The Surgeon General's Report on Oral Health has elevated this issue to the forefront of health care and provided us with an extraordinary opportunity. The challenge: Lead with action and catalyze integration into multiple forums-public, private, and professional-and engage in activities that will change how oral health is perceived broadly. Ultimately, geriatric oral health and the health of all access-limited populations should benefit. To continue preserving the oral health of the millions of older individuals who now enjoy it and to ensure it for those who lack it will require change on multiple societal levels: the health care providers, the neighborhood, the community; Federal, state, and local governments; and the nation as a whole. It means addressing and overcoming multiple barriers to oral health care, which may include problems or disparities in: education, economics, the environment, cultural and social issues, and the health care system itself. To change perceptions, we must remove the barriers to care, educate the stakeholders who can influence or benefit from training programs, conduct broader, population-based research, build public and private partnerships, develop a stronger health care infrastructure, and expand initiatives that target specific risks for declining oral health. In addition to seeking new answers to these problems, it is imperative that we apply what we already know.

  3. Using media to impact health policy-making: an integrative systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bou-Karroum, Lama; El-Jardali, Fadi; Hemadi, Nour; Faraj, Yasmine; Ojha, Utkarsh; Shahrour, Maher; Darzi, Andrea; Ali, Maha; Doumit, Carine; Langlois, Etienne V; Melki, Jad; AbouHaidar, Gladys Honein; Akl, Elie A

    2017-04-18

    Media interventions can potentially play a major role in influencing health policies. This integrative systematic review aimed to assess the effects of planned media interventions-including social media-on the health policy-making process. Eligible study designs included randomized and non-randomized designs, economic studies, process evaluation studies, stakeholder analyses, qualitative methods, and case studies. We electronically searched Medline, EMBASE, Communication and Mass Media Complete, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and the WHO Global Health Library. We followed standard systematic review methodology for study selection, data abstraction, and risk of bias assessment. Twenty-one studies met our eligibility criteria: 10 evaluation studies using either quantitative (n = 7) or qualitative (n = 3) designs and 11 case studies. None of the evaluation studies were on social media. The findings of the evaluation studies suggest that media interventions may have a positive impact when used as accountability tools leading to prioritizing and initiating policy discussions, as tools to increase policymakers' awareness, as tools to influence policy formulation, as awareness tools leading to policy adoption, and as awareness tools to improve compliance with laws and regulations. In one study, media-generated attention had a negative effect on policy advocacy as it mobilized opponents who defeated the passage of the bills that the media intervention advocated for. We judged the confidence in the available evidence as limited due to the risk of bias in the included studies and the indirectness of the evidence. There is currently a lack of reliable evidence to guide decisions on the use of media interventions to influence health policy-making. Additional and better-designed, conducted, and reported primary research is needed to better understand the effects of media interventions, particularly social media, on health policy-making processes, and

  4. Obesity prevention programs and policies: practitioner and policy-maker perceptions of feasibility and effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Cleland, Verity; McNeilly, Briohny; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie

    2013-09-01

    The aims of this study were to map obesity prevention activity being implemented by government, non-government, and community-based organizations; to determine practitioner and policy-maker perceptions of the feasibility and effectiveness of a range of evidence-based obesity prevention strategies; and to determine practitioner and policy-maker perceptions of preferred settings for obesity prevention strategies. This study involved a cross-sectional survey of 304 public health practitioners and policy-makers from government, non-government, and community organizations across Victoria, Australia. Participants reported their organizations' current obesity prevention programs and policies, their own perceptions of the feasibility and effectiveness of strategies to prevent obesity and their preferred settings for obesity prevention. Thirty-nine percent had an obesity prevention policy, and 92% were implementing obesity prevention programs. The most common programs focused on education, skill-building, and increasing access to healthy eating/physical activity opportunities. School curriculum-based initiatives, social support for physical activity, and family-based programs were considered the most effective strategies, whereas curriculum-based initiatives, active after-school programs, and providing access to and information about physical activity facilities were deemed the most feasible strategies. Schools were generally perceived as the most preferred setting for obesity prevention. Many organizations had obesity prevention programs, but far fewer had obesity prevention policies. Current strategies and those considered feasible and effective are often mismatched with the empirical literature. Systems to ensure better alignment between researchers, practitioners, and policy-makers, and identifying effective methods of translating empirical evidence into practice and policy are required. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  5. Special Report on Cocurricular Offerings and Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buser, Robert L.; Humm, William L., Ed.

    This report describes results of a study of secondary school student participation in extracurricular activities. The activity offerings were identified and classified into eleven groups: 1) class-related, 2) athletics, 3) music, 4) school services, 5) drama, 6) school publications, 7) personal interests, 8) honor, 9) student government, 10)…

  6. Education: National Labs Offer New Student Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haggin, Joseph

    1988-01-01

    Describes a program offered by the U.S. Department of Energy for undergraduate science and engineering students aimed at providing research experience during the academic year at the six national laboratories. Reviews the potential interest and benefits to students. (CW)

  7. 43 CFR 12.715 - Evaluating offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Evaluating offers. 12.715 Section 12.715 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior ADMINISTRATIVE AND AUDIT REQUIREMENTS AND COST PRINCIPLES FOR ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Buy American Requirements for Assistance Programs Buy American...

  8. 43 CFR 12.715 - Evaluating offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Evaluating offers. 12.715 Section 12.715 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior ADMINISTRATIVE AND AUDIT REQUIREMENTS AND COST PRINCIPLES FOR ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Buy American Requirements for Assistance Programs Buy American...

  9. 43 CFR 12.715 - Evaluating offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Evaluating offers. 12.715 Section 12.715 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior ADMINISTRATIVE AND AUDIT REQUIREMENTS AND COST PRINCIPLES FOR ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Buy American Requirements for Assistance Programs Buy American...

  10. Can Community Colleges Offer Opportunity and Excellence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Robert A.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Four community college presidents (i.e., Robert A. Anderson, New Mexico Junior College; Flora Mancuso Edwards, Hostos Community College (NY); D. Kent Sharples, Horry-Georgetown Technical College (SC); and George B. Vaughan, Piedmont Virginia Community College) offer explanations of how community colleges can maintain open-door admissions, provide…

  11. S.O.S.--Students Offering Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thralls, Sharon

    1989-01-01

    This newsletter describes the features and cites potential obstacles to implementation of high school student community volunteer services for credit programs. Specifically, it documents the genesis of the Students Offering Service (SOS) in the Pasadena (California) Unified School District for the purpose of demonstrating the importance of such…

  12. The Etiquette of Accepting a Job Offer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlmutter, David D.

    2013-01-01

    The academic job market is overcrowded, but departments are hiring, and each year thousands of graduate students and other candidates will get phone calls offering them tenure-track positions. It is typically a moment of mutual giddiness. The department heads are excited at the prospect of a terrific new colleague; the job applicants now know that…

  13. 16 CFR 502.101 - Introductory offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... FAIR PACKAGING AND LABELING ACT Retail Sale Price Representations § 502.101 Introductory offers. (a... retail sale at a price lower than the anticipated ordinary and customary retail sale price. (b) The... (either to the trade in the event such commodity is not sold at retail by the packager or labeler, or to...

  14. Can Community Colleges Offer Opportunity and Excellence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Robert A.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Four community college presidents (i.e., Robert A. Anderson, New Mexico Junior College; Flora Mancuso Edwards, Hostos Community College (NY); D. Kent Sharples, Horry-Georgetown Technical College (SC); and George B. Vaughan, Piedmont Virginia Community College) offer explanations of how community colleges can maintain open-door admissions, provide…

  15. S.O.S.--Students Offering Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thralls, Sharon

    1989-01-01

    This newsletter describes the features and cites potential obstacles to implementation of high school student community volunteer services for credit programs. Specifically, it documents the genesis of the Students Offering Service (SOS) in the Pasadena (California) Unified School District for the purpose of demonstrating the importance of such…

  16. Residential Schools Offer Students Deaf Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Edna

    1997-01-01

    Discusses a survey of 115 high school students who are deaf or hard of hearing, which examined the pros and cons of mainstreaming. Results found that center schools offered a stronger representation of deaf culture and that more residential students than mainstream students were satisfied with their school experience overall. (Author/CR)

  17. Colleges Offer Extra Aid to Strapped Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supiano, Beckie

    2009-01-01

    Among all the uncertainty colleges face in this recession, they are sure of one thing: Families are feeling less than confident about their ability to pay for higher education. In response, colleges are creating more student-aid programs or expanding existing ones. Others are offering students additional counseling or a grace period for paying…

  18. Five Reasons to Offer Online Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oblender, Thomas E.; Glass, Jane

    2004-01-01

    Everyone has heard about online courses, and how they are good for students because they offer schedule flexibility or opportunities to take courses that a school would not normally provide. After all, students can take and complete these courses anytime, anywhere. As their popularity grows, several states have added online learning to their…

  19. The Etiquette of Accepting a Job Offer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlmutter, David D.

    2013-01-01

    The academic job market is overcrowded, but departments are hiring, and each year thousands of graduate students and other candidates will get phone calls offering them tenure-track positions. It is typically a moment of mutual giddiness. The department heads are excited at the prospect of a terrific new colleague; the job applicants now know that…

  20. Residential Schools Offer Students Deaf Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Edna

    1997-01-01

    Discusses a survey of 115 high school students who are deaf or hard of hearing, which examined the pros and cons of mainstreaming. Results found that center schools offered a stronger representation of deaf culture and that more residential students than mainstream students were satisfied with their school experience overall. (Author/CR)

  1. Netherlands policy-making process on scenarios and projections for greenhouse gas emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkus, Henk; Iestra, Wim

    1996-01-01

    An important commitment in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) for so-called Annex I Parties (OECD plus Central and Eastern Europe) is the communication on climate change policies. A detailed description of policies and measures and specific estimates of their effects on projected anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks are crucial chapters in each Annex I Party communication. This article focuses on the Netherlands' climate change policy-making process with respect to projections of greenhouse gases (GHG). A main element of this process is the periodic monitoring of the progress of climate change policy, including assessment of effects of implemented measures, updating the validity of assumptions made, and analysis of structural economic changes. Another element of this policy-making process is analysis of the cost-effectiveness of possible mitigation options and evaluation of the impacts of these options. Several monitoring and analysis instruments and modeling tools used in this process are discussed, as is the broader framework. Attention is also given to the FCCC review process and its relevance for the Netherlands' policy-making process.

  2. Towards better metrics and policymaking for seed system development: Insights from Asia's seed industry.

    PubMed

    Spielman, David J; Kennedy, Adam

    2016-09-01

    Since the 1980s, many developing countries have introduced policies to promote seed industry growth and improve the delivery of modern science to farmers, often with a long-term goal of increasing agricultural productivity in smallholder farming systems. Public, private, and civil society actors involved in shaping policy designs have, in turn, developed competing narratives around how best to build an innovative and sustainable seed system, each with varying goals, values, and levels of influence. Efforts to strike a balance between these narratives have often played out in passionate discourses surrounding seed rules and regulations. As a result, however, policymakers in many countries have expressed impatience with the slow progress on enhancing the contribution of a modern seed industry to the overarching goal of increasing agricultural productivity growth. One reason for this slow progress may be that policymakers are insufficiently cognizant of the trade-offs associated with rules and regulations required to effectively govern a modern seed industry. This suggests the need for new data and analysis to improve the understanding of how seed systems function. This paper explores these issues in the context of Asia's rapidly growing seed industry, with illustrations from seed markets for maize and several other crops, to highlight current gaps in the metrics used to analyze performance, competition, and innovation. The paper provides a finite set of indicators to inform policymaking on seed system design and monitoring, and explores how these indicators can be used to inform current policy debates in the region.

  3. Coordinating Scientist and Policymaker Response Types and Times to Improve Watershed Management in Suburbanizing Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endreny, T. A.; Wolosoff, S.

    2001-05-01

    Watershed scientists and policymakers represent two separate professional cultures in the manner that they respond to new patterns of watershed land-use change. The lack of coordination between scientist and policymaker response types and times, which are the "how" and "when" of action, limit the water quality benefits of water resource management in suburbanizing watersheds. Science requires long-term experimentation to understand how suburbanization impacts the previously generalizable watershed relationships for undeveloped sites. Policy, on the other hand, must respond to constituents, in the form of clear watershed regulations, as soon as possible. As a result, management plans are often adopted that are not based on the best or latest scientific knowledge. Scientific investigations on pollutant loading mechanisms in New York City's suburbanized Croton water supply area and in Twin Cities suburbs indicate that policy makers would ideally provide spatially targeted guidelines that are sensitive to spatial heterogeneities in watershed features, such as soil types, terrain slopes, and seasonal watertable profiles. Examples of these spatially distributed policy guidelines include set back distances for septic systems and loading rates for fertilizer application. This research recommends that policymakers and scientists better coordinate to set future research agendas that spatially quantify how heterogeneities in watershed response can be used to spatially guide geo-political zoning and development decisions.

  4. The affordability of antiretroviral therapy in developing countries: what policymakers need to know.

    PubMed

    Forsythe, S S

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to assist policymakers in developing countries and international donors by providing an outline of economic information needed to make a decision regarding the purchase of drugs to provide highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The following paper: (i) reviews existing experiences of policymakers in developing countries regarding the purchase of drugs needed for HAART, (ii) identifies issues that would need to be addressed and data that would be required to make more informed decisions regarding this issue, (iii) develops a cost-benefit model that could be utilized in designing an economic research project evaluating the economic costs and benefits of HAART, and (iv) performs a preliminary test of this model with data from Costa Rica. A review of experiences with this issue reveals that there are growing political, legal and budgetary pressures for countries to make tenable decisions regarding the purchase of drugs for HAART. An economic model describing the costs and benefits of HAART is proposed, although much of the required data for using such a model is currently neither available or in the process of being collected. It is imperative that economic data be collected to better inform policymakers in developing countries about their decision regarding the purchase of these drugs. It is recommended that such economic data be collected as organizations such as the United Nations Joint Programme on HIV/ AIDS (UNAIDS) initiate their medical assessments of HAART in developing countries.

  5. Analysis of the policymaking process in Burkina Faso's health sector: case studies of the creation of two health system support units.

    PubMed

    Zida, Andre; Lavis, John N; Sewankambo, Nelson K; Kouyate, Bocar; Moat, Kaelan; Shearer, Jessica

    2017-02-13

    Burkina Faso has made a number of health system policy decisions to improve performance on health indicators and strengthen responsiveness to health-related challenges. These included the creation of a General Directorate of Health Information and Statistics (DGISS) and a technical unit to coordinate performance-based financing (CT-FBR). We analysed the policymaking processes associated with the establishment of these units, and documented the factors that influenced this process. We used a multiple-case study design based on Kingdon's agenda-setting model to investigate the DGISS and CT-FBR policymaking processes. Data were collected from interviews with key informants (n = 28), published literature, policy documents (including two strategic and 230 action plans), and 55 legal/regulatory texts. Interviews were analysed using thematic qualitative analysis. Data from the documentary analysis were triangulated with the qualitative interview data. Key factors influencing the policymaking processes associated with the two units involved the 'problem' (problem identification), 'policy' (formation of policy proposals), and 'politics' (political climate/change) streams, which came together in a way that resulted in proposals being placed on the decision agenda. A number of problems with Burkina Faso's health information and financing systems were identified. Policy proposals for the DGISS and CT-FBR units were developed in response to these problems, emerging from several sources including development partners. Changes in political and public service administrations (specifically the 2008 appointment of a new Minister of Health and the establishment of a new budget allocation system), with corresponding changes in the actors and interests involved, appeared key in elevating the proposals to the decision agenda. Efforts to improve performance on health indicators and strengthen responsiveness to health-related challenges need focus on the need for a compelling problem, a

  6. “Developing Good Taste in Evidence”: Facilitators of and Hindrances to Evidence-Informed Health Policymaking in State Government

    PubMed Central

    Jewell, Christopher J; Bero, Lisa A

    2008-01-01

    Context Policymaking is a highly complex process that is often difficult to predict or influence. Most of the scholarship examining the role of research evidence in policymaking has focused narrowly on characteristics of the evidence and the interactions between scientists and government officials. The real-life context in which policymakers are situated and make decisions also is crucial to the development of evidence-informed policy. Methods This qualitative study expands on other studies of research utilization at the state level through interviews with twenty-eight state legislators and administrators about their real-life experiences incorporating evidence into policymaking. The interviews were coded inductively into the following categories: (1) the important or controversial issue or problem being addressed, (2) the information that was used, (3) facilitators, and (4) hindrances. Findings Hindrances to evidence-informed policymaking included institutional features; characteristics of the evidence supply, such as research quantity, quality, accessibility, and usability; and competing sources of influence, such as interest groups. The policymakers identified a number of facilitators to the use of evidence, including linking research to concrete impacts, costs, and benefits; reframing policy issues to fit the research; training to use evidence-based skills; and developing research venues and collaborative relationships in order to generate relevant evidence. Conclusions Certain hindrances to the incorporation of research into policy, like limited budgets, are systemic and not readily altered. However, some of the barriers and facilitators of evidence-informed health policymaking are amenable to change. Policymakers could benefit from evidence-based skills training to help them identify and evaluate high-quality information. Researchers and policymakers thus could collaborate to develop networks for generating and sharing relevant evidence for policy. PMID

  7. The Development of Evidence Briefs to Transfer Knowledge About Advanced Practice Nursing Roles to Providers, Policymakers and Administrators.

    PubMed

    Kilpatrick, Kelley; Carter, Nancy; Bryant-Lukosius, Denise; Charbonneau-Smith, Renee; DiCenso, Alba

    2015-03-01

    The transfer of health-related research knowledge between producers and users is a complex, dynamic and iterative process. There has been little research describing the preferred knowledge transfer strategies used by different stakeholder groups, including healthcare providers, policymakers and administrators. The purpose of the survey was to gain an understanding of the content and preferred dissemination strategies of knowledge users of briefing notes about the effectiveness of advanced practice nursing (APN) roles in Canada. An on-line cross-sectional survey was conducted from December 2011 to January 2012. Purposeful sampling was used to identify the target audience. The questionnaire included six items. The response rate was 44% (n=75/170). Participants identified that the briefing note should concisely summarize definitions for APN roles and information about the safety, effectiveness, cost savings and effective role implementation strategies. Multiple approaches were favoured to disseminate the information. Preferred dissemination strategies included personalized emails, meeting with briefing note recipients, engaging nurse practitioners and clinical nurse specialists in organizations where APN roles have been successfully implemented, engaging the media and using social media. The use of briefing notes has shown promise. More research is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of tailored briefing notes.

  8. Efficiency and equity considerations in the preferences of health policy-makers in Israel.

    PubMed

    Shmueli, Amir; Golan, Ofra; Paolucci, Francesco; Mentzakis, Emmanouil

    2017-01-01

    There is a traditional tension in public policy between the maximization of welfare from given resources (efficiency) and considerations related to the distribution of welfare among the population and to social justice (equity). The aim of this paper is to measure the relative weights of the efficiency- and equity-enhancing criteria in the preferences of health policy-makers in Israel, and to compare the Israeli results with those of other countries. We used the criteria of efficiency and equity which were adopted in a previous international study, adapted to Israel. The equity criteria, as defined in the international study, are: severity of the disease, age (young vs. elderly), and the extent to which the poor are subsidized. Efficiency is represented by the criteria: the potential number of beneficiaries, the extent of the health benefits to the patient, and the results of economic assessments (cost per QALY gained). We contacted 147 policy-makers, 65 of whom completed the survey (a response rate of 44%). Using Discrete Choice Experiment (DCE) methodology by 1000Minds software, we estimated the relative weights of these seven criteria, and predicted the desirability of technologies characterized by profiles of the criteria. The overall weight attached to the four efficiency criteria was 46% and that of the three equity criteria was 54%. The most important criteria were "financing of the technology is required so that the poor will be able to receive it" and the level of individual benefit. "The technology is intended to be used by the elderly" criterion appeared as the least important, taking the seventh place. Policy-makers who had experience as members of the Basket Committee appear to prefer efficiency criteria more than those who had never participated in the Basket Committee deliberations. While the efficiency consideration gained preference in most countries studied, Israel is unique in its balance between the weights attached to equity and efficiency

  9. A systematic review of barriers to and facilitators of the use of evidence by policymakers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The gap between research and practice or policy is often described as a problem. To identify new barriers of and facilitators to the use of evidence by policymakers, and assess the state of research in this area, we updated a systematic review. Methods Systematic review. We searched online databases including Medline, Embase, SocSci Abstracts, CDS, DARE, Psychlit, Cochrane Library, NHSEED, HTA, PAIS, IBSS (Search dates: July 2000 - September 2012). Studies were included if they were primary research or systematic reviews about factors affecting the use of evidence in policy. Studies were coded to extract data on methods, topic, focus, results and population. Results 145 new studies were identified, of which over half were published after 2010. Thirteen systematic reviews were included. Compared with the original review, a much wider range of policy topics was found. Although still primarily in the health field, studies were also drawn from criminal justice, traffic policy, drug policy, and partnership working. The most frequently reported barriers to evidence uptake were poor access to good quality relevant research, and lack of timely research output. The most frequently reported facilitators were collaboration between researchers and policymakers, and improved relationships and skills. There is an increasing amount of research into new models of knowledge transfer, and evaluations of interventions such as knowledge brokerage. Conclusions Timely access to good quality and relevant research evidence, collaborations with policymakers and relationship- and skills-building with policymakers are reported to be the most important factors in influencing the use of evidence. Although investigations into the use of evidence have spread beyond the health field and into more countries, the main barriers and facilitators remained the same as in the earlier review. Few studies provide clear definitions of policy, evidence or policymaker. Nor are empirical data about

  10. Knowledge brokering between researchers and policymakers in Fiji to develop policies to reduce obesity: a process evaluation.

    PubMed

    Waqa, Gade; Mavoa, Helen; Snowdon, Wendy; Moodie, Marj; Schultz, Jimaima; McCabe, Marita; Kremer, Peter; Swinburn, Boyd

    2013-07-01

    The importance of using research evidence in decisionmaking at the policy level has been increasingly recognized. However, knowledge brokering to engage researchers and policymakers in government and non-government organizations is challenging. This paper describes and evaluates the knowledge exchange processes employed by the Translational Research on Obesity Prevention in Communities (TROPIC) project that was conducted from July 2009 to April 2012 in Fiji. TROPIC aimed to enhance: the evidence-informed decisionmaking skills of policy developers; and awareness and utilization of local and other obesity-related evidence to develop policies that could potentially improve the nation's food and physical activity environments. The specific research question was: Can a knowledge brokering approach advance evidence-informed policy development to improve eating and physical activity environments in Fiji. The intervention comprised: recruiting organizations and individuals; mapping policy environments; analyzing organizational capacity and support for evidence-informed policymaking (EIPM); developing EIPM skills; and facilitating development of evidence-informed policy briefs. Flexible timetabling of activities was essential to accommodate multiple competing priorities at both individual and organizational levels. Process diaries captured the duration, frequency and type of each interaction and/or activity between the knowledge brokering team and participants or their organizations. Partnerships were formalized with high-level officers in each of the six participating organization. Participants (n = 49) developed EIPM skills (acquire, assess, adapt and apply evidence) through a series of four workshops and applied this knowledge to formulate briefs with ongoing one-to-one support from TROPIC team members. A total of 55% of participants completed the 12 to18 month intervention, and 63% produced one or more briefs (total = 20) that were presented to higher

  11. CJEP will offer open science badges.

    PubMed

    Pexman, Penny M

    2017-03-01

    This editorial announces the decision of the Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology (CJEP) to offer Open Science Framework (OSF) Badges. The Centre for Open Science provides tools to facilitate open science practices. These include the OSF badges. The badges acknowledge papers that meet standards for openness of data, methods, or research process. They are now described in the CJEP Submission Guidelines, and are provided in the editorial. (PsycINFO Database Record

  12. What Interbehavioral Psychology Has To Offer Education--Now.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornwell, David; Hobbs, Sandy

    B. F. Skinner's influence on various applications of psychology in education has been greater than J. R. Kantor's, the founder of interbehaviorism. However, the field of education might benefit from a greater input of Kantorian, as opposed to Skinnerian, theory. Policymakers, administrators, and teachers have failed to totally adopt Skinner's…

  13. Evidence-to-policy gap on hepatitis A vaccine adoption in 6 countries: Literature vs. policymakers' beliefs.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Sachiko; Privor-Dumm, Lois A; Nanni, Angeline; Durden, Emily; Maiese, Brett A; Nwankwo, Chizoba U; Brodovicz, Kimberly G; Acosta, Camilo J; Foley, Kathleen A

    2014-07-07

    National vaccine adoption decisions may be better understood by linking multiple data sources. When examining countries' decisions to adopt the hepatitis A vaccine, applying multiple research methods can facilitate assessments of gaps between evidence and policy. We conducted a literature review on hepatitis A and stakeholder interviews about decisions to adopt the vaccine in six countries (Chile, India, South Korea, Mexico, Russia, and Taiwan). A systematic literature review was conducted across five literature databases. The review identified and abstracted 340 articles, supplemented by internet search. In addition, we interviewed 62 experts and opinion leaders on hepatitis A and/or vaccines. Data from the two sources were analyzed to identify gaps around epidemiologic data, economic data, and barriers/facilitators of hepatitis A vaccine adoption. Epidemiologic data gaps were found in Chile and Russia, where stakeholders believed data to be more solid than the literature documented. Economic data on hepatitis A was found to be weak across all countries despite stakeholders' agreement on its importance. Barriers and facilitators of vaccine adoption such as political will, prioritization among vaccines, and global or local recommendations were discussed more by stakeholders than the literature. Stakeholders in India and Mexico were not concerned with the lack of data, despite growing recognition in the literature of the epidemiological transition and threat of outbreaks. Triangulation of results from two methods captured a richer story behind vaccine adoption decisions for hepatitis A. The discrepancy between policymakers' beliefs and existing data suggest a decline in priority of hepatitis A or weak investment in data collection. Filling the confirmed data gaps in seroprevalence or economic data is important to help guide policy decisions. Greater communication of the risk of hepatitis A and the benefits of the vaccine may help countries undergoing the

  14. Digital Humanities: What Can Libraries Offer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Shun Han Rebekah

    2016-01-01

    The collaborative aspect of digital humanities is one of the core values of the field. Specialists and organizations involved in digital humanities partnerships may include individual scholars focusing on a particular area, multiple scholars across disciplines, computer scientists, or digital humanities centers. Through a quantitative analysis of…

  15. Digital Humanities: What Can Libraries Offer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Shun Han Rebekah

    2016-01-01

    The collaborative aspect of digital humanities is one of the core values of the field. Specialists and organizations involved in digital humanities partnerships may include individual scholars focusing on a particular area, multiple scholars across disciplines, computer scientists, or digital humanities centers. Through a quantitative analysis of…

  16. The Emergence of the Comprehensive Middle School in France: Educational Policy-Making in a Centralised System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaziel, Haim

    1989-01-01

    Examines the dynamic aspects and political nature of educational policymaking in France's centralized educational system. Considers the obstacles to the introduction and implementation of comprehensive middle schools, created in 1963 to permit social mobility through education. Contains 48 references. (SV)

  17. Family planning offered in local welfare offices.

    PubMed

    1998-04-01

    This article describes expanded access to family planning (FP) services through community welfare offices in Washington state, US. The government aim is to decrease unintended pregnancies and to help families achieve self-sufficiency. The staff must be sensitive and respectful of clients served. The team effort includes contacting clients in other community locations to offer FP education. The approach is characterized as "1-stop shopping" that includes FP, welfare, access to jobs, training, and medical coupons. Preventing unintended pregnancies is cost effective. A state (90%) investment of $40/person for contraceptives is good business compared to $400/person as a 50/50 state/federal investment in prenatal and delivery costs. The program began in 1992, by educating staff members in community services offices (CSOs) about FP issues. In 1994, the program hired registered nurses and nurse practitioners at CSOs to provide FP services. Almost all CSOs now have nurses, and there are 8 full exam clinics. A resource handbook for CSO workers and FP nurses was compiled by state and local FP personnel. CSOs typically assign 1 staff member to FP, usually on a part time basis. Close collaboration between nurses and CSO workers usually involves more creative strategies and outreach projects. For example, in 1 CSO in Washington, the FP worker offers contraceptive counseling, pregnancy tests, and sexually transmitted disease prevention. Contraceptives are provided at a separate time with local private providers or at health department clinics. CSOs continue to provide counseling regardless of referrals to private clinics. The project is growing and forming collaborations with other FP groups. These 1-stop sites offer accessible, familiar, and comfortable services.

  18. Albania, offshore subscribed, offering EOR opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-20

    This paper reports that Albania is starting a campaign to offer field development/enhanced recovery projects to foreign companies. The fields chosen for EOR projects and their producing lithologies are: Patos-Marinza, sandstone. Kucova-Arrza, sandstone. Gorisht-Kocul, limestone. Ballsh-Hekal, limestone. Cakran-Mollaj, limestone. Visoka, limestone. Delvina, limestone. Field locations mostly lie along Albania's Adriatic Sea coast. Oil production began in Albania in 1929, peaked at about 60,000 b/d in 1975 and has steadily fallen.

  19. Integrating intervention targets offered by homeostatic theory

    PubMed Central

    Annunziato, Rachel A; Grossman, Stephanie L

    2016-01-01

    Marks presents “homeostatic theory” which proposes that weight gain is fostered by a “Circle of Discontent” consisting of body dissatisfaction, negative affect, and overconsumption. This innovative framework offers potential intervention approaches, including victim-blaming, stigma, and discrimination, as well as devalorizing the thin-ideal. Our article discusses possible ways that clinical health psychologists based in university settings may be uniquely positioned to consider and implement large-scale programs that have shown great promise for addressing these core issues. PMID:28070390

  20. Turnkey offering a claimed sector 'first'.

    PubMed

    Law, Oliver

    2011-01-01

    Manufacturer and supplier of LED theatre lights, HD camera systems, video integration technologies, and ceiling support units, Trumpf Medical Systems UK, and "logistical services" company Canute International Medical Services (CIMS), one of whose specialities is providing mobile medical units for diagnostic imaging, have entered into a partnership that will see the two companies offer fully fitted out modular operating theatres and other medical/clinical buildings incorporating the latest technology and equipment, on a fully project-managed, "turnkey" basis. Oliver Law, Trumpf Medical Systems UK managing director, explains the background, and the new service's anticipated customer benefits.

  1. Influence of the support offered to breastfeeding by maternity hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Passanha, Adriana; Benício, Maria Helena D’Aquino; Venâncio, Sônia Isoyama; dos Reis, Márcia Cristina Guerreiro

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether the support offered by maternity hospitals is associated with higher prevalences of exclusive and predominant breastfeeding. METHODS This is a cross-sectional study including a representative sample of 916 infants less than six months who were born in maternity hospitals, in Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, 2011. The maternity hospitals were evaluated in relation to their fulfillment of the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding. Data were collected regarding breastfeeding patterns, the birth hospital and other characteristics. The individualized effect of the study factor on exclusive and predominant breastfeeding was analyzed using Poisson multiple regression with robust variance. RESULTS Predominant breastfeeding tended to be more prevalent when the number of fulfilled steps was higher (p of linear trend = 0.057). The step related to not offering artificial teats or pacifiers to breastfed infants and that related to encouraging the establishment of breastfeeding support groups were associated, respectively, to a higher prevalence of exclusive (PR = 1.26; 95%CI 1.04;1.54) and predominant breastfeeding (PR = 1.55; 95%CI 1.01;2.39), after an adjustment was performed for confounding variables. CONCLUSIONS We observed a positive association between support offered by maternity hospitals and prevalences of exclusive and predominant breastfeeding. These results can be useful to other locations with similar characteristics (cities with hospitals that fulfill the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding) to provide incentive to breastfeeding, by means of promoting, protecting and supporting breastfeeding in maternity hospitals. PMID:26759966

  2. Wind offering in energy and reserve markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, T.; Pinson, P.; Morais, H.

    2016-09-01

    The increasing penetration of wind generation in power systems to fulfil the ambitious European targets will make wind power producers to play an even more important role in the future power system. Wind power producers are being incentivized to participate in reserve markets to increase their revenue, since currently wind turbine/farm technologies allow them to provide ancillary services. Thus, wind power producers are to develop offering strategies for participation in both energy and reserve markets, accounting for market rules, while ensuring optimal revenue. We consider a proportional offering strategy to optimally decide upon participation in both markets by maximizing expected revenue from day-ahead decisions while accounting for estimated regulation costs for failing to provide the services. An evaluation of considering the same proportional splitting of energy and reserve in both day- ahead and balancing market is performed. A set of numerical examples illustrate the behavior of such strategy. An important conclusion is that the optimal split of the available wind power between energy and reserve strongly depends upon prices and penalties on both market trading floors.

  3. Practical lessons for bringing policy-makers on board in sexual and reproductive health research.

    PubMed

    Guieu, Aurore; Zhang, Wei-Hong; Lafort, Yves; Decat, Peter; De Meyer, Sara; Wang, Shuchen; Kerstens, Birgit; Duysburgh, Els

    2016-11-11

    The need to translate research into policy, i.e. making research findings a driving force in agenda-setting and policy change, is increasingly acknowledged. However, little is known about translation mechanisms in the field of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) outside North American or European contexts. This paper seeks to give an overview of the existing knowledge on this topic as well as to document practical challenges and remedies from the perspectives of researchers involved in four SRH research consortium projects in Latin America, sub-Saharan Africa, China and India. A literature review and relevant project documents were used to develop an interview guide through which researchers could reflect on their experiences in engaging with policy-makers, and particularly on the obstacles met and the strategies deployed by the four project consortia to circumvent them. Our findings confirm current recommendations on an early and steady involvement of policy-makers, however they also suggest that local barriers between researchers and policy-making spheres and individuals can represent major hindrances to the realization of translation objectives. Although many of the challenges might be common to different contexts, creating locally-adapted responses is deemed key to overcome them. Researchers' experiences also indicate that - although inevitable - recognizing and addressing these challenges is a difficult, time- and energy-consuming process for all partners involved. Despite a lack of existing knowledge on translation efforts in SRH research outside North American or European contexts, and more particularly in low and middle-income countries, it is clear that existing pressure on health and policy systems in these settings further complicates them. This article brings together literature findings and researchers' own experiences in translating research results into policy and highlights the major challenges research conducted on sexual and reproductive health

  4. Cross-sector cooperation in health-enhancing physical activity policymaking: more potential than achievements?

    PubMed

    Hämäläinen, Riitta-Maija; Aro, Arja R; Lau, Cathrine Juel; Rus, Diana; Cori, Liliana; Syed, Ahmed M

    2016-04-29

    The cooperation of actors across policy fields and the need for cross-sector cooperation as well as recommendations on how to implement cross-sector cooperation have been addressed in many national and international policies that seek to solve complex issues within societies. For such a purpose, the relevant governance structure between policy sectors is cross-sector cooperation. Therefore, cross-sector cooperation and its structures need to be better understood for improved implementation. This article reports on the governance structures and processes of cross-sector cooperation in health-enhancing physical activity (HEPA) policies in six European Union (EU) member states. Qualitative content analysis of HEPA policies and semi-structured interviews with key policymakers in six European countries. Cross-sector cooperation varied between EU member states within HEPA policies. The main issues of the cross-sector policy process can be divided into stakeholder involvement, governance structures and coordination structures and processes. Stakeholder involvement included citizen hearings and gatherings of stakeholders from various non-governmental organisations and citizen groups. Governance structures with policy and political discussions included committees, working groups and consultations for HEPA policymaking. Coordination structures and processes included administrative processes with various stakeholders, such as ministerial departments, research institutes and private actors for HEPA policymaking. Successful cross-sector cooperation required joint planning and evaluation, financial frameworks, mandates based on laws or agreed methods of work, communication lines, and valued processes of cross-sector cooperation. Cross-sector cooperation required participation with the co-production of goals and sharing of resources between stakeholders, which could, for example, provide mechanisms for collaborative decision-making through citizen hearing. Clearly stated

  5. What Guidance are Economists Given on How to Present Economic Evaluations for Policymakers? A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Shannon M; Wells, George; Coyle, Doug

    2015-09-01

    To systematically review health economic guidelines for information on how to present health economic evaluations and consider implications for nontechnical audiences such as policymakers. Electronic databases and supplementary sources were searched for economic evaluation guidelines. Guidelines were critically appraised. Descriptive characteristics, standard formats, supports for nontechnical audiences, presentation approaches, and common reporting recommendations were extracted. Frequencies were tabulated and trends identified. Thirty-one guidelines were included. Twenty-two guidelines include a standard reporting format with some sample tables and graphs. Common presentation approaches include well-cited tables of data sources, transparent model diagrams and descriptions, disaggregated results, and tabular and graphical displays of sensitivity analyses. Despite most guidelines being funded by policymakers, only five guidelines provided advice on presenting economic evaluations to noneconomists. However, 11 guidelines included a glossary of economic terminology for nontechnical readers. Common concepts that may require further explanation include differences in economic perspectives, appropriateness of time horizons, how economic outcomes such as quality-adjusted life-years relate to their component clinical outcomes, and choice of sensitivity analyses. Health economists have consistent presentation formats and common reporting elements that should be considered when developing user-friendly explanations for general audiences. These overlap with policymakers' informational needs but may not be sufficient for understanding by nontechnical audiences. Developing presentation formats and tools that incorporate viewpoints of both economists and noneconomists will allow for better application of the results of economic evaluations and enhance the transparency and legitimacy of decision-making processes that are informed by economic evaluations. Copyright © 2015

  6. Health Reporting in Print Media in Lebanon: Evidence, Quality and Role in Informing Policymaking

    PubMed Central

    El-Jardali, Fadi; Bou Karroum, Lama; Bawab, Lamya; Kdouh, Ola; El-Sayed, Farah; Rachidi, Hala; Makki, Malak

    2015-01-01

    Background Media plays a vital role in shaping public policies and opinions through disseminating health-related information. This study aims at exploring the role of media in informing health policies in Lebanon, identifying the factors influencing health reporting and investigating the role of evidence in health journalism and the quality of health reporting. It also identifies strategies to enhance the use of evidence in health journalism and improve the quality of health reporting. Methods Media analysis was conducted to assess the way media reports on health-related issues and the quality of reporting using a quality assessment tool. Semi-structured interviews were also conducted with 27 journalists, researchers and policymakers to explore their perception on the role of media in health policymaking and the factors influencing health reporting. In addition, a validation workshop was conducted. Results Out of 1,279 health-related news articles identified, 318 articles used certain type of evidence to report health issues 39.8% of which relied on experts’ opinions as their source of evidence while only 5.9% referenced peer-reviewed research studies. The quality of health reporting was judged to be low based on a quality assessment tool consisting of a set of ten criteria. Journalists raised concerns about issues impeding them from referring to evidence. Journalists also reported difficulties with the investigative health journalism. Policymakers and researchers viewed media as an important tool for evidence-informed health policies, however, serious concerns were voiced in terms of the current practice and capacities. Conclusion Our study provides a structured reflection on the role of media and the factors that influence health reporting including context-specific strategies that would enhance the quality and promote the use of evidence in health reporting. In the light of the political changes in many Middle Eastern countries, findings from this study can

  7. Structural analysis of health-relevant policy-making information exchange networks in Canada.

    PubMed

    Contandriopoulos, Damien; Benoît, François; Bryant-Lukosius, Denise; Carrier, Annie; Carter, Nancy; Deber, Raisa; Duhoux, Arnaud; Greenhalgh, Trisha; Larouche, Catherine; Leclerc, Bernard-Simon; Levy, Adrian; Martin-Misener, Ruth; Maximova, Katerina; McGrail, Kimberlyn; Nykiforuk, Candace; Roos, Noralou; Schwartz, Robert; Valente, Thomas W; Wong, Sabrina; Lindquist, Evert; Pullen, Carolyn; Lardeux, Anne; Perroux, Melanie

    2017-09-20

    Health systems worldwide struggle to identify, adopt, and implement in a timely and system-wide manner the best-evidence-informed-policy-level practices. Yet, there is still only limited evidence about individual and institutional best practices for fostering the use of scientific evidence in policy-making processes The present project is the first national-level attempt to (1) map and structurally analyze-quantitatively-health-relevant policy-making networks that connect evidence production, synthesis, interpretation, and use; (2) qualitatively investigate the interaction patterns of a subsample of actors with high centrality metrics within these networks to develop an in-depth understanding of evidence circulation processes; and (3) combine these findings in order to assess a policy network's "absorptive capacity" regarding scientific evidence and integrate them into a conceptually sound and empirically grounded framework. The project is divided into two research components. The first component is based on quantitative analysis of ties (relationships) that link nodes (participants) in a network. Network data will be collected through a multi-step snowball sampling strategy. Data will be analyzed structurally using social network mapping and analysis methods. The second component is based on qualitative interviews with a subsample of the Web survey participants having central, bridging, or atypical positions in the network. Interviews will focus on the process through which evidence circulates and enters practice. Results from both components will then be integrated through an assessment of the network's and subnetwork's effectiveness in identifying, capturing, interpreting, sharing, reframing, and recodifying scientific evidence in policy-making processes. Knowledge developed from this project has the potential both to strengthen the scientific understanding of how policy-level knowledge transfer and exchange functions and to provide significantly improved advice

  8. Systematically reviewing qualitative and quantitative evidence to inform management and policy-making in the health field.

    PubMed

    Mays, Nicholas; Pope, Catherine; Popay, Jennie

    2005-07-01

    Policy-makers and managers have always used a wide range of sources of evidence in making decisions about policy and the organization of services. However, they are under increasing pressure to adopt a more systematic approach to the utilization of the complex evidence base. Decision-makers must address complicated questions about the nature and significance of the problem to be addressed; the nature of proposed interventions; their differential impact; cost-effectiveness; acceptability and so on. This means that Cochrane-style reviews alone are not sufficient. Rather, they require access to syntheses of high-quality evidence that include research and non-research sources, and both qualitative and quantitative research findings. There is no single, agreed framework for synthesizing such diverse forms of evidence and many of the approaches potentially applicable to such an endeavour were devised for either qualitative or quantitative synthesis and/or for analysing primary data. This paper describes the key stages in reviewing and synthesizing qualitative and quantitative evidence for decision-making and looks at various strategies that could offer a way forward. We identify four basic approaches: narrative (including traditional 'literature reviews' and more methodologically explicit approaches such as 'thematic analysis', 'narrative synthesis', 'realist synthesis' and 'meta-narrative mapping'), qualitative (which convert all available evidence into qualitative form using techniques such as 'meta-ethnography' and 'qualitative cross-case analysis'), quantitative (which convert all evidence into quantitative form using techniques such as 'quantitative case survey' or 'content analysis') and Bayesian meta-analysis and decision analysis (which can convert qualitative evidence such as preferences about different outcomes into quantitative form or 'weights' to use in quantitative synthesis). The choice of approach will be contingent on the aim of the review and nature of

  9. Limits to evidence-based health policymaking: policy hurdles to structural HIV prevention in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Hunsmann, Moritz

    2012-05-01

    Despite the well-documented role of highly co-endemic biological cofactors in facilitating HIV transmission and the availability of comparatively inexpensive tools to control them, cofactor-related interventions are only hesitantly included into African HIV prevention strategies. Against this background, this study analyzes political obstacles to policy-uptake of evidence concerning structural HIV prevention. The data used stem from fieldwork conducted in Tanzania between 2007 and 2009. They include 92 in-depth interviews with key AIDS policymakers and observations of 8 national-level policy meetings. Adopting a political economy perspective, the study shows that 1) assuming cost-aversion as a spontaneous reflex of policymakers is empirically wrong and analytically misleading, 2) that political constituencies induce a path dependence of allocative decisions inconducive to structural prevention, 3) that interventions' political attractiveness depends on the nature of their outputs and the expected temporality of political returns, 4) that policy fragmentation entailed by vertical disease control disfavours the consideration of broader causalities, and 5) that cofactor-based measures are hampered by policymakers' perception of structural prevention as being excessively complex and ultimately tantamount to poverty eradication. Confronting the policy players' reading of the Tanzanian situation with recent and classical literature on evidence-based decision-making and the politics of public health, this paper shows that, far from being strictly evidence-driven, HIV prevention policies result from a politically negotiated aggregation of competing, frequently non-optimizing rationalities. A realistic appraisal of policy processes suggests that the failure to consider the invariably political nature of HIV-related policymaking hampers the formulation of effective, politically informed strategies for positive change. Consequently, developing policy practitioners

  10. 48 CFR 225.7703-3 - Evaluating offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Iraq or Afghanistan 225.7703-3 Evaluating offers. (a) Evaluate offers submitted in response to... Afghanistan, as follows: (1) If the low offer is an offer of a product or service from Iraq or Afghanistan, award on that offer. (2) If there are no offers of a product or service from Iraq or Afghanistan,...

  11. Factors affecting evidence-use in food policy-making processes in health and agriculture in Fiji.

    PubMed

    Waqa, Gade; Bell, Colin; Snowdon, Wendy; Moodie, Marj

    2017-01-09

    There is limited research on the use of evidence to inform policy-making in the Pacific. This study aims to identify and describe factors that facilitate or limit the use of evidence in food-related policy-making in the Health and Agriculture Ministries in Fiji. Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with selected policy-makers in two government ministries that were instrumental in the development of food-related policies in Fiji designed to prevent Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs). Snowball sampling was used to recruit, as key informants, senior policy-makers in management positions such as national advisors and directors who were based at either the national headquarters or equivalent. Interviewees were asked about their experiences in developing food-related or other policies, barriers or facilitators encountered in the policy development and implementation process and the use of evidence. Each interview lasted approximately 45-60 minutes, and was conducted in English. Audio-recorded interviews were transcribed, thematically coded and analyzed using N-Vivo 8.0 software. Thirty-one policy-makers from the Ministry of Health and Medical Services (MoHMS n = 18) and the Ministry of Agriculture (MoA n = 13) in Fiji participated in the study. Whilst evidence is sometimes used in food-related policy-making in both the Health and Agriculture Ministries (including formal evidence such as published research and informal evidence such as personal experiences and opinions), it is not yet embedded as an essential part of the process. Participants indicated that a lack of resources, poor technical support in terms of training, the absence of clear strategies for improving competent use of evidence, procedures regarding engagement with other stakeholders across sectors, varying support from senior managers and limited consultation across sectors were barriers to evidence use. The willingness of organizations to create a culture of using evidence was

  12. Virtual Reality System Offers a Wide Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Robot Systems Technology Branch engineers at Johnson Space Center created the remotely controlled Robonaut for use as an additional "set of hands" in extravehicular activities (EVAs) and to allow exploration of environments that would be too dangerous or difficult for humans. One of the problems Robonaut developers encountered was that the robot s interface offered an extremely limited field of vision. Johnson robotics engineer, Darby Magruder, explained that the 40-degree field-of-view (FOV) in initial robotic prototypes provided very narrow tunnel vision, which posed difficulties for Robonaut operators trying to see the robot s surroundings. Because of the narrow FOV, NASA decided to reach out to the private sector for assistance. In addition to a wider FOV, NASA also desired higher resolution in a head-mounted display (HMD) with the added ability to capture and display video.

  13. Biotechnology offers revolution to fish health management.

    PubMed

    Adams, Alexandra; Thompson, Kim D

    2006-05-01

    Biotechnology has many applications in fish health management. The application of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) provides a rapid means of pathogen identification; antibodies to immunoglobulins from different fish species can be used to monitor the host response following vaccination; and mAbs also have the potential for screening broodstock for previous exposure to pathogens. Luminex technology exemplifies a novel antibody-based method that can be applied to both pathogen detection and vaccine development. Molecular technologies, such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), real time PCR and nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA), have enabled detection, identification and quantification of extremely low levels of aquatic pathogens, and microarray technologies offer a new dimension to multiplex screening for pathogens and host response. Recombinant DNA technology permits large-scale, low-cost vaccine production, moreover DNA vaccination, proteomics, adjuvant design and oral vaccine delivery will undoubtedly foster the development of effective fish vaccines in the future.

  14. To offer or not to offer: the role of price in employers' health insurance decisions.

    PubMed Central

    Marquis, M S; Long, S H

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the effect of changes in price on employers' decisions to offer health insurance. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: A 1993 survey of 22,347 private employers in ten states was used. STUDY DESIGN: Probit regression was used to estimate the probability of offering insurance as a function of the price and employer characteristics. For employers who did not offer insurance, a price cannot be directly observed. We estimated price for nonofferors using reported quotes received by recent shoppers and a selection model to correct for differences between recent shoppers and nonshoppers. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Changes in price affect decisions to offer insurance; however, even a 40 percent reduction in premiums would lead to only a 2 to 3 percentage point increase in the share of employers offering insurance. Employers of low-wage workers are substantially less likely to offer health insurance than other employers. CONCLUSIONS: Policies to reduce the number of uninsured that focus on increasing the supply of employment-based insurance are unlikely to have the intended effect unless coupled with policies to help low-wage workers afford insurance. PMID:11666111

  15. Health policy and the policymaking system: A case study of primary care in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Niall; Garvey, John; Palcic, Dónal

    2016-08-01

    In 2001 the Irish government published a reforming policy intended to modernise and expand the delivery of primary care in Ireland. Fifteen years later, the Irish health system remains beset by problems indicative of a fragmented and underdeveloped primary care system. This case study examines the formation and implementation of the 2001 primary care policy and identifies key risk categories within the policymaking process itself that inhibited the timely achievement of policy objectives. Our methodology includes a directed content analysis of the policy formation and implementation documents and the influencing academic literature, as well as semi-structured interviews with key personnel involved in the process. We identify three broad risk categories - power, resources and capability - within the policymaking process that strongly influenced policy formation and implementation. We additionally show that the disjoint between policy formation and policy implementation was a contested issue among those involved in the policy process and provided space for these risks to critically undermine Ireland's primary care policy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Evidence-based health policy-making, hospital funding and health insurance.

    PubMed

    Palmer, G R

    2000-02-07

    An important goal of health services research is to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of health services through a quantitative and evidence-based approach. There are many limitations to the use of evidence in health policy-making, such as differences in what counts as evidence between the various disciplines involved, and a heavy reliance on theory in social science disciplines. Community and interest group values, ideological positions and political assessments inevitably intrude into government health policy-making. The importance of these factors is accentuated by the current absence of evidence on the impact of policy options for improving the health status of the community, and ensuring that efficiency and equity objectives for health services are also met. Analysis of recent hospital funding and private health insurance initiatives shows the limited role of evidence in the making of these decisions. Decision-making about health policy might be improved in the future by initiatives such as greater exposure of health professionals to educational inputs with a policy focus; increased contribution of doctors to health services research via special postgraduate programs; and establishing a national, multidisciplinary centre for health policy research and evaluation.

  17. Information flow and its significance in coherently integrated policymaking for promoting energy efficiency.

    PubMed

    Kua, Harn Wei

    2007-05-01

    Why do negative, unexpected outcomes occur in sustainable development policies? What can we learn from them? Studies have shown clearly that, to be effective, sustainable development policies must be as coherent and integrated as possible; however, policy integration should not evolve into a tool that restricts creativity and undermines the relevance of local policy initiatives. The Coherently Integrated Policymaking frameworks, based on the precept that information flow is pivotal to the success of policymaking, are proposed and then applied to design an integrated energy efficiency policy that coaddresses a set of indicators. These indicators are energy and greenhouse gas reduction, improvement of public's health, increase in material efficiency, enhancementof energy equity, provision of employment and education opportunities, improvement of workers' health, improvement of local economy, and reduction in derived costs for the business community. Our framework also provides guidance for the magnitude of change a policy should introduce at one time, guided by five distinct types of feedback loops that link the different stakeholders involved in the design, implementation, and monitoring of integrated policies.

  18. HIV/AIDS policy-making in Kyrgyzstan: a stakeholder analysis.

    PubMed

    Ancker, Svetlana; Rechel, Bernd

    2015-02-01

    Kyrgyzstan has adopted a number of policy initiatives to deal with an accelerating HIV/AIDS epidemic. This article explores the main actors in HIV/AIDS policy-making, their interests, support and involvement and their current ability to set the agenda and influence the policy-making process. Fifty-four semi-structured interviews were conducted in the autumn of 2011, complemented by a review of policy documents and secondary sources on HIV/AIDS in Kyrgyzstan. We found that most stakeholders were supportive of progressive HIV/AIDS policies, but that their influence levels varied considerably. Worryingly, several major state agencies exhibited some resistance or lack of initiative towards HIV/AIDS policies, often prompting international agencies and local NGOs to conceptualize and drive appropriate policies. We conclude that, without clear vision and leadership by the state, the sustainability of the national response will be in question. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2013; all rights reserved.

  19. Coastal residential waterways, science and policy-making: The Australian experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, Nick; Stocker, Laura

    2015-03-01

    Thousands of kilometres of coastal residential waterways have been constructed across the globe, mostly in estuaries. These have caused significant environmental impact demonstrating a need for proper management and planning informed by science. Additional potential impacts of climate change, specifically sea-level rise, make coastal residential waterway developments by their nature particularly vulnerable, with restricted options for adaptation. This paper analyses Australian policies on coastal residential waterways over the last 50 years and the extent to which science, including estuarine and climate change science, has been incorporated into policy decisions or policy formulation. This analysis is in the context of theories on the uptake of science in policy-making and against a background of Australian government and inter-governmental reports indicating the vulnerable nature of low-lying coastal development. This paper reveals that coastal residential waterways referred to as canal estates occur in all Australian mainland states but given the lack of any national coastal policy, the onus is on each individual state to formulate its own policies. These policies are on a continuum from explicit, detailed science-based policy guidelines in some states, through implicit scientific impacts informing political decisions in other states, to generic environmental assessment procedures without specific reference to canal estate development. This paper concludes that the extent to which science has been incorporated into policy-making for canal estates is variable across the Australian states and appears to be heavily influenced by politics.

  20. A Case Study of the Philadelphia Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Tax Policymaking Process: Implications for Policy Development and Advocacy.

    PubMed

    Purtle, Jonathan; Langellier, Brent; Lê-Scherban, Félice

    2017-03-01

    Policymakers are increasingly proposing sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) taxes as an evidence-based strategy to reduce chronic disease risk; and local health departments (LHDs) are well-positioned to play a role in SSB policy development and advocacy. However, most SSB tax proposals fail to become law and limited empiric guidance exists to inform advocacy efforts. In June 2016, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, passed an SSB tax. To identify features of the Philadelphia SSB tax policymaking process that contributed to the proposal's passage. Qualitative case study. Semistructured interviews were conducted with key informants closely involved with the policymaking process. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed. Local news media about the SSB tax proposal were analyzed to triangulate interview findings. Analysis was conducted in NVivo 10 using inductive qualitative content analysis. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, during the SSB tax policymaking in process. Nine key informants (2 city councilpersons, 4 city agency officials, 1 community-based advocate, 1 news reporter, and 1 researcher). The Philadelphia SSB tax proposal was introduced with the explicit goal of financing universal prekindergarten and deliberately not framed as a health intervention. This framing shifted contentious debates about government involvement in individual behavior toward discussions about how to finance universal prekindergarten, a goal for which broad support existed. The LHD played an important role in communicating research evidence about potential health benefits of the SSB tax proposal at the end of the policymaking process. During local SSB tax policy development processes, LHD officials and other advocates should encourage policymakers to design SSB tax policies so that revenue is directed toward community investments for which broad public support exists. When communicating with policymakers and the public, LHDs should consider emphasizing how SSB tax revenue will be used in addition

  1. Cycad mutualist offers more than pollen transport.

    PubMed

    Marler, Thomas E

    2010-05-01

    Specialist insects share obligate mutualisms with some contemporary cycad species whereby the insect's pollination services are rewarded with a nursery in which the insect's larvae consume the postdispersal male cone. I prevented visits of the pollinator moth Anatrachyntis sp. to male Cycas micronesica (Cycadaceae) cones to show that consumption of the cone tissue by the mutualist hastened initiation of the plant's subsequent reproductive event. This is the first documented case where removal of a postdispersal cycad pollination organ speeds up subsequent reproductive events, and the current paradigm that the offering of cone tissue as a nursery is a sacrifice by the plant in return for the pollination services is therefore inaccurate. In C. micronesica, the herbivory stage of pollination mutualism confers a cryptic benefit of cone tissue disposal, which translates into an increase in ultimate lifetime reproductive effort. The plant population relies on the pollinator for moving gametes, as well as for increasing the number of male coning events. The dual benefits afforded to the plant by associating with this pollinator shows that mutualism can operate simultaneously on very different traits.

  2. High School Physics Offerings by Socioeconomic Profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-12-01

    This fall we have been examining physics classes in U.S. high schools by the principal's assessment of the socioeconomic profile of each school. This month we turn our focus to the distribution of high school physics enrollment across the different types of physics offered. Not only do fewer students take physics at "worse off" schools (see the October issue), but the types of physics courses students take also differs by socioeconomic profile. About 10% of the students taking physics at "worse off" schools take AP and second-year physics; almost 20% of the students at "better off" schools take these courses. At "worse off" schools, a higher proportion of students are enrolled in conceptual courses, including Physics First and regular physics taught using a conceptual textbook. The data we have presented over the last four months suggests that differences in physics taking in high school by blacks and Hispanics are driven, in part, by underlying socioeconomic factors. Other factors, such as the availability of additional seats in physics classes and the ability of teachers to attract students to physics, also impact physics taking. It is unlikely that the racial and ethnic differences in physics taking in high school will decrease unless the underlying factors are addressed.

  3. Exploring governance learning: How policymakers draw on evidence, experience and intuition in designing participatory flood risk planning.

    PubMed

    Newig, Jens; Kochskämper, Elisa; Challies, Edward; Jager, Nicolas W

    2016-01-01

    The importance of designing suitable participatory governance processes is generally acknowledged. However, less emphasis has been put on how decision-makers design such processes, and how they learn about doing so. While the policy learning literature has tended to focus on the substance of policy, little research is available on learning about the design of governance. Here, we explore different approaches to learning among German policymakers engaged in implementing the European Floods Directive. We draw on official planning documents and expert interviews with state-level policymakers to focus on learning about the procedural aspects of designing and conducting participatory flood risk management planning. Drawing on the policy learning and evidence-based governance literatures, we conceptualise six types of instrumental 'governance learning' according to sources of learning (endogenous and exogenous) and modes of learning (serial and parallel). We empirically apply this typology in the context of diverse participatory flood risk management planning processes currently unfolding across the German federal states. We find that during the first Floods Directive planning cycle, policymakers have tended to rely on prior experience in their own federal states with planning under the Water Framework Directive to inform the design and carrying out of participatory processes. In contrast, policymakers only sporadically look to experiences from other jurisdictions as a deliberate learning strategy. We argue that there is scope for more coordinated and systematic learning on designing effective governance, and that the latter might benefit from more openness to experimentation and learning on the part of policymakers.

  4. Policy-makers' views on impact of specialist and advanced practitioner roles in Ireland: the SCAPE study.

    PubMed

    Begley, Cecily; Murphy, Kathy; Higgins, Agnes; Cooney, Adeline

    2014-05-01

    To ascertain and explore the views held by key healthcare policy-makers on the impact of clinical specialist and advanced practice nursing and midwifery roles. Specialist and advanced practice roles are common world-wide and were introduced in Ireland in 2000. After experiencing these roles for a decade, the views of healthcare policy-makers were sought as part of a national evaluation. A qualitative, descriptive design was used. Following ethical approval, 12 policy-makers were interviewed in 2010, using a six-part interview schedule. Policy-makers believed that specialist and advanced practice roles resulted in better continuity of care, improved patient/client outcomes and a more holistic approach. These clinicians were also said to be leading guideline development, new initiatives in care, education of staff, audit and policy development. They lacked administrative support and research time. Budget cuts and a government-applied recruitment moratorium were said to hamper the development of specialist/advanced practice roles. Healthcare policy-makers believe that specialists and advanced practitioners contribute to higher quality patient/client care, particularly at a strategic level. These roles could make an important contribution to future health service developments, particularly in relation to chronic-disease management and community care, where more advanced practitioner posts are required. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The remarkable robustness of the first-offer effect: across culture, power, and issues.

    PubMed

    Gunia, Brian C; Swaab, Roderick I; Sivanathan, Niro; Galinsky, Adam D

    2013-12-01

    The first-offer effect demonstrates that negotiators achieve better outcomes when making the first offer than when receiving it. The evidence, however, primarily derives from studies of Westerners without systematic power differences negotiating over one issue-contexts that may amplify the first-offer effect. Thus, the present research explored the effect across cultures, among negotiators varying in power, and in negotiations involving single and multiple issues. The first two studies showed that the first-offer effect remains remarkably robust across cultures and multi-issue negotiations. The final two studies demonstrated that low-power negotiators benefit from making the first offer across single- and multi-issue negotiations. The second and fourth studies used multi-issue negotiations with distributive, integrative, and compatible issues, allowing us to show that first offers operate through the distributive, not the integrative or compatible issues. Overall, these results reveal that moving first can benefit negotiators across many organizational and personal situations.

  6. Daily versus single-day offering of influenza vaccine in community pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Grabenstein, John D

    2009-01-01

    To assess the cumulative number of influenza vaccinations delivered per pharmacy in relation to number of days of offering vaccination per season. Automated records of pharmacies involved in a cohort study were queried for number of influenza vaccinations delivered in each of three influenza vaccination seasons between 1996 and 1998. Eleven pharmacies in Washington State were compared with 13 pharmacies in Oregon, contrasting years when nurses offered influenza vaccine 1 day per season with years when pharmacists offered influenza vaccine daily for several months. Pharmacies in which pharmacists offered influenza vaccination daily averaged 528 to 807 doses per pharmacy per season compared with 91 to 233 doses per pharmacy in seasons when nurses offered vaccination on a single day. Professionals dedicated to providing adult vaccination on any given day outperformed professionals who attended to both vaccination and other clinical duties, but the cumulative effect of offering vaccinations on multiple days can achieve a greater number of vaccinations over a several-month interval.

  7. What One Physicist Has to Offer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Marc

    2004-05-01

    I was a particle theorist. In the early 1970s I began to analyze energy and its use in society. My theme is: What can physicists offer on a societal issue like energy? I have four topics: 1) Traffic safety and vehicle mass. The measurements are the record of some 40,000 deaths per year, vehicle characterizations and registrations. The statistical record is good, but information is lacking on physical processes in serious crashes. Our insight: while driver behavior is critical to safety, so is vehicle quality and design. Although one cannot definitively separate the injury impacts associated with momentum transfer from those due to intrusion, mass as such is not critical to safety. 2) Prospects for improving the energy efficiency of industrial processes. Our "measurements" were planning documents and interviews enabling us to analyze which "energy projects" were undertaken and which not. Insight: capital for projects was not allocated according to textbook economics; instead it was rationed. 3) Energy use by cars. Based on dynamometer studies motivated by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, we created models of energy consumption that enable evaluation of modifications such as adopting a small engine while supplementing its capability for power. Insight: Vehicles could be designed to use much less fuel; but the gain for society is offset by low interest by new-car-buyers and manufacturers. 4) The effectiveness of automotive emissions controls. In addition to laboratory studies, we had surveys in "non-attainment" areas. Insight: Controls installed by original manufacturers are more robust and effective than repairs. Of the four, this is the one success for society. Conclusions: There are fascinating and solvable analytical challenges everywhere you look. But applications are hampered by the lack of a heritage and the close coupling between theorists and experimenters we know in physics.

  8. Policy entrepreneurs and structural influence in integrated community case management policymaking in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Shearer, Jessica C

    2015-12-01

    Policy entrepreneurs are individuals who attempt to influence the policy process and its outcomes through their opportunistic or incremental actions. Their success in the policy-making process has been associated with the convergence of four factors: behavioural traits; institutional factors; network position and political capital. Policy entrepreneurs have received little study in low- and middle-income country policy research despite observations of individualized decision-making, informal institutions and the unequal distribution and exercise of power in policymaking. This article aims to identify whether policy entrepreneurs were present in the policy process around integrated community case management (iCCM) in Burkina Faso, whether they were successful in achieving policy change, and whether success or failure can be explained using existing policy entrepreneur frameworks from high-income polities. This mixed methods policy study collected data from in-depth qualitative interviews and social network surveys of actors involved in iCCM policymaking [known locally as C-integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI)]; data were analysed based on the framework categories. Interview data pointed to one key individual who played a significant role in the inclusion of pneumonia treatment into the country's iCCM policy, an issue that had been a point of contention between government policy elites and development partners. Social network data confirmed that this actor was strategically located in the policy network to be able to reach the most other actors and to be able to control the flow of information. Although some development partner actors were as strategically located, none had the same level of authority or trust as was imbued by being a member of the government civil service. The entrepreneur's mid-level rank in the health ministry may have encouraged him/her to invest political capital and take risks that would not have been feasible or attractive to a

  9. Policy entrepreneurs and structural influence in integrated community case management policymaking in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Policy entrepreneurs are individuals who attempt to influence the policy process and its outcomes through their opportunistic or incremental actions. Their success in the policy-making process has been associated with the convergence of four factors: behavioural traits; institutional factors; network position and political capital. Policy entrepreneurs have received little study in low- and middle-income country policy research despite observations of individualized decision-making, informal institutions and the unequal distribution and exercise of power in policymaking. This article aims to identify whether policy entrepreneurs were present in the policy process around integrated community case management (iCCM) in Burkina Faso, whether they were successful in achieving policy change, and whether success or failure can be explained using existing policy entrepreneur frameworks from high-income polities. This mixed methods policy study collected data from in-depth qualitative interviews and social network surveys of actors involved in iCCM policymaking [known locally as C-integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI)]; data were analysed based on the framework categories. Interview data pointed to one key individual who played a significant role in the inclusion of pneumonia treatment into the country’s iCCM policy, an issue that had been a point of contention between government policy elites and development partners. Social network data confirmed that this actor was strategically located in the policy network to be able to reach the most other actors and to be able to control the flow of information. Although some development partner actors were as strategically located, none had the same level of authority or trust as was imbued by being a member of the government civil service. The entrepreneur’s mid-level rank in the health ministry may have encouraged him/her to invest political capital and take risks that would not have been feasible or attractive to

  10. Making road safety a public health concern for policy-makers in India.

    PubMed

    Dandona, Rakhi

    2006-01-01

    Road traffic injuries contribute substantially to the disease burden in India. This paper describes the road safety issues discussed by members of the Indian Parliament, and highlights the gaps that need to be addressed to make road safety visible as a public health problem to policy-makers in India. All questions asked to and information provided by the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways, and questions relating to accident asked to the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare of the Government of India were reviewed for the two Houses of the Indian Parliament for the years 2002 to 2004. Of the 1529 questions asked to the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways, only 140 (9.1%) were related to road safety, whereas 1076 (70.5%), 181 (11.8%), 51 (3.3%) and 81 (5.3%) were related to other aspects of the national highways, state roads, vehicles and other issues, respectively. Data on the magnitude of road crashes dealt only with the number of crashes and fatalities and not with the age, sex and type of road users affected by road traffic injuries. The parliamentarians were informed that human error was the main cause of road crashes in India; however, the robustness of this information is questionable. Strategies to prevent road crashes focused mainly on training of drivers with little attention to other factors that cause road crashes. The discussion on legislations also focused on drivers, ignoring other road users. Ten of the 4741 questions (0.2%) asked to Ministry of Health and Family Welfare were related to accident, the majority of which were about the setting up of trauma care services. An appropriate policy and intervention response by policy-makers is not possible with data that are presented in a manner that do not highlight the true nature of the problem, and are neither comprehensive nor robust. Majority of the proposed road safety interventions by the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways are based on the traditional view of human error as a major

  11. The HIV epidemic and sexual and reproductive health policy integration: views of South African policymakers.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Diane; Mantell, Joanne E; Moodley, Jennifer; Mall, Sumaya

    2015-03-04

    Integration of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) and HIV policies and services delivered by the same provider is prioritised worldwide, especially in sub-Saharan Africa where HIV prevalence is highest. South Africa has the largest antiretroviral treatment (ART) programme in the world, with an estimated 2.7 million people on ART, elevating South Africa's prominence as a global leader in HIV treatment. In 2011, the Southern African HIV Clinicians Society published safer conception guidelines for people living with HIV (PLWH) and in 2013, the South African government published contraceptive guidelines highlighting the importance of SRH and fertility planning services for people living with HIV. Addressing unintended pregnancies, safer conception and maternal health issues is crucial for improving PLWH's SRH and combatting the global HIV epidemic. This paper explores South African policymakers' perspectives on public sector SRH-HIV policy integration, with a special focus on the need for national and regional policies on safer conception for PLWH and contraceptive guidelines implementation. It draws on 42 in-depth interviews with national, provincial and civil society policymakers conducted between 2008-2009 and 2011-2012, as the number of people on ART escalated. Interviews focused on three key domains: opinions on PLWH's childbearing; the status of SRH-HIV integration policies and services; and thoughts and suggestions on SRH-HIV integration within the restructuring of South African primary care services. Data were coded and analysed according to themes. Participants supported SRH-HIV integrated policy and services. However, integration challenges identified included a lack of policy and guidelines, inadequately trained providers, vertical programming, provider work overload, and a weak health system. Participants acknowledged that SRH-HIV integration policies, particularly for safer conception, contraception and cervical cancer, had been neglected. Policymakers

  12. Marketing Digital Offerings Is Different: Strategies for Teaching about Digital Offerings in the Marketing Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Scott D.; Micken, Kathleen S.

    2015-01-01

    Digital offerings represent different challenges for marketers than do traditional goods and services. After reviewing the literature, the authors suggest ways that the marketing of digital goods and services might be better presented to and better understood by students. The well-known four challenges of services marketing model (e.g.,…

  13. Marketing Digital Offerings Is Different: Strategies for Teaching about Digital Offerings in the Marketing Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Scott D.; Micken, Kathleen S.

    2015-01-01

    Digital offerings represent different challenges for marketers than do traditional goods and services. After reviewing the literature, the authors suggest ways that the marketing of digital goods and services might be better presented to and better understood by students. The well-known four challenges of services marketing model (e.g.,…

  14. Policy Building Blocks: Helping Policymakers Determine Policy Staging for the Development of Distributed PV Markets: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Doris, E.

    2012-04-01

    There is a growing body of qualitative and a limited body of quantitative literature supporting the common assertion that policy drives development of clean energy resources. Recent work in this area indicates that the impact of policy depends on policy type, length of time in place, and economic and social contexts of implementation. This work aims to inform policymakers about the impact of different policy types and to assist in the staging of those policies to maximize individual policy effectiveness and development of the market. To do so, this paper provides a framework for policy development to support the market for distributed photovoltaic systems. Next steps include mathematical validation of the framework and development of specific policy pathways given state economic and resource contexts.

  15. Communicating Scientific Findings to Lawyers, Policy-Makers, and the Public (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, W.; Velsko, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    This presentation will summarize the authors' collaborative research on inferential errors, bias and communication difficulties that have arisen in the area of WMD forensics. This research involves analysis of problems that have arisen in past national security investigations, interviews with scientists from various disciplines whose work has been used in WMD investigations, interviews with policy-makers, and psychological studies of lay understanding of forensic evidence. Implications of this research for scientists involved in nuclear explosion monitoring will be discussed. Among the issues covered will be: - Potential incompatibilities between the questions policy makers pose and the answers that experts can provide. - Common misunderstandings of scientific and statistical data. - Advantages and disadvantages of various methods for describing and characterizing the strength of scientific findings. - Problems that can arise from excessive hedging or, alternatively, insufficient qualification of scientific conclusions. - Problems that can arise from melding scientific and non-scientific evidence in forensic assessments.

  16. Maximizing quality and value in Medicaid: using return on investment forecasting to support effective policymaking.

    PubMed

    Hamblin, Allison; Shearer, Chad

    2009-04-01

    In order to serve increasing numbers of Medicaid beneficiaries, particularly during an economic recession, states must find ways to maximize the impact of available funds. Some states are identifying new ways of organizing, financing, and delivering health care in order to lower costs without sacrificing quality of care or enrollment capacity. An important tool for helping policymakers design such "value-added" strategies is return-on-investment (ROI) analysis. ROI forecasting has long been used to inform the allocation of limited resources in the private sector. This brief outlines what ROI can do, and in a few cases has already done, in the public sector, to improve quality and control costs in Medicaid.

  17. Coalition Policy-Making under Constraints: Examining the Role of Preferences and Institutions

    PubMed Central

    Schermann, Katrin; Ennser-Jedenastik, Laurenz

    2014-01-01

    While much has been written about the formation and termination of coalitions, comparatively little attention has been paid to the policy output of multiparty governments. The present study attempts to narrow this research gap by analysing policy-making in three Austrian coalition governments between 1999 and 2008. Drawing on the party mandate literature, a manually coded textual analysis of election manifestos is conducted that yields a dataset containing over 1,100 pledges. The fulfilment of these pledges is taken as the dependent variable in a multivariate analysis. The results indicate that institutional determinants (adoption in the coalition agreement, ministerial control, and policy status quo) significantly influence the chances of pledge fulfilment and thus present a powerful predictor of coalition policy output. By contrast, factors related to parties’ preferences (consensus between parties, policy distance, pledge saliency, and majority support in parliament) do not have an impact. PMID:26770004

  18. SUPPORT Tools for evidence-informed health Policymaking (STP) 17: Dealing with insufficient research evidence.

    PubMed

    Oxman, Andrew D; Lavis, John N; Fretheim, Atle; Lewin, Simon

    2009-12-16

    This article is part of a series written for people responsible for making decisions about health policies and programmes and for those who support these decision makers. In this article, we address the issue of decision making in situations in which there is insufficient evidence at hand. Policymakers often have insufficient evidence to know with certainty what the impacts of a health policy or programme option will be, but they must still make decisions. We suggest four questions that can be considered when there may be insufficient evidence to be confident about the impacts of implementing an option. These are: 1. Is there a systematic review of the impacts of the option? 2. Has inconclusive evidence been misinterpreted as evidence of no effect? 3. Is it possible to be confident about a decision despite a lack of evidence? 4. Is the option potentially harmful, ineffective or not worth the cost?

  19. Media ratings for violence and sex. Implications for policymakers and parents.

    PubMed

    Bushman, Brad J; Cantor, Joanne

    2003-02-01

    This article reviews research on the implementation of media-rating systems, parents' use and evaluation of them, and the impact of ratings on children. Although half or more of parents report using media-rating systems, understanding of various components of the systems is low, particularly for television ratings. A meta-analysis of national polls shows that parents overwhelmingly prefer that ratings specify content, rather than giving age recommendations. A second meta-analysis, of experiments testing the effects of ratings on children's interest in programs, shows that ratings indicating restricted or controversial content have a deterrent effect for children under age 8 but that, by age 11 and especially for boys, the ratings show a small enticement effect. This effect occurs for both age-based and content-based ratings. Implications for policymakers and parents are discussed.

  20. Welfare policymaking and intersections of race, ethnicity, and gender in U.S. state legislatures.

    PubMed

    Reingold, Beth; Smith, Adrienne R

    2012-01-01

    Welfare policy in the American states has been shaped profoundly by race, ethnicity, and representation. Does gender matter as well? Focusing on state welfare reform in the mid-1990s, we test hypotheses derived from two alternative approaches to incorporating gender into the study of representation and welfare policymaking. An additive approach, which assumes gender and race/ethnicity are distinct and independent, suggests that female state legislators—regardless of race/ethnicity—will mitigate the more restrictive and punitive aspects of welfare reform, much like their African American and Latino counterparts do. In contrast, an intersectional approach, which highlights the overlapping and interdependent nature of gender and race/ethnicity, suggests that legislative women of color will have the strongest countervailing effect on state welfare reform—stronger than that of other women or men of color. Our empirical analyses suggest an intersectional approach yields a more accurate understanding of gender, race/ethnicity, and welfare politics in the states.

  1. Evidence and policymaking: The introduction of MMR vaccine in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Blume, Stuart; Tump, Janneke

    2010-01-01

    Based on a case-study of the introduction of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine in the Netherlands two decades ago, using documentary and archival sources, this paper examines the way evidence is used in policymaking. Starting from the question of ‘what counts as evidence’, two central claims are developed. First, the decision to introduce MMR was not one but a series of decisions going back at least seven years, over the course of which the significance attached to various forms of evidence changed. Second, results of international studies were coming gradually to be of greater significance than evidence gathered from within the Netherlands itself. These developments had, and continue to have, major consequences for national scientific competences. PMID:20667640

  2. Public health policy-making in the presence of incomplete evidence.

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    In conclusion, when it can be demonstrated that the need is great, an action produces the desired benefits, the risks are not too high, the intervention is economically feasible, and there are no viable, more scientifically certain alternatives, then policy-makers should proceed even in the face of less than complete evidence. It should be remembered that scientific uncertainty may be exploited by special interest groups as a shield for opposition to the measure. Public policy decisions may be said to be made or not made on the basis of scientific uncertainty, but they may in actuality be driven by political or economic considerations. With respect to balancing individual rights and the public interest, it is clear that, in many instances, these two interests will be congruent. If they conflict, however, then weight should be given to the public interest in line with the principle that public health is social justice. PMID:2343972

  3. Conclusion: Recommendations for how practitioners, researchers, and policymakers can promote youth purpose.

    PubMed

    Mariano, Jenni Menon

    2011-01-01

    Initially drawing from, yet then expanding on the research discussed in this volume, this article discusses specific measures that practitioners, researchers, and policymakers can take to support purpose among youth. Strategies for educators include utilizing practical purpose teaching tools, such as purpose interviews, purpose-related discussions, whole classroom and school community games, and purpose survey methodologies. Research strategies include expanding the study of youth purpose to more diverse groups of young people, and developing more succinct tools to assess purpose in research. Finally, the article discusses policy measures to promote purpose, including modification of current academic testing practices, expanding the breadth of course and extracurricular experiences in schools to provide opportunities for purpose development, and integrating purpose promotion skill-building into existing teacher education programs.

  4. Navigating tissue banking regulation: conceptual frameworks for researchers, administrators, regulators and policy-makers.

    PubMed

    Lipworth, Wendy

    2005-11-01

    In the "post-genomic" age of biomedical research, researchers often wish to utilise collections of human tissue. This type of research raises many ethical and legal issues and anyone wishing to use such collections is faced with an enormously complex set of regulatory requirements, many of which are still ambiguous, reflecting ongoing ethical and legal debate. Whilst there is no way of entirely avoiding such regulatory complexity and ambiguity, conceptual frameworks can assist those who wish to use, administer, authorise and generate policy on tissue banking research. Two conceptual frameworks are described here: a taxonomy of tissue banking practices, aimed at assisting those who need to ensure that tissue banks meet ethical and legal requirements; and a "syncretic" approach to policy-making, for those who wish to generate new policy, or streamline existing policy relating to tissue banking research.

  5. Scientific advice and public policy: expert advisers' and policymakers' discourses on boundary work.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, Robert

    2009-08-01

    This article reports on considerable variety and diversity among discourses on their own jobs of boundary workers of several major Dutch institutes for science-based policy advice. Except for enlightenment, all types of boundary arrangements/work in the Wittrock-typology (Social knowledge and public policy: eight models of interaction. In: Wagner P (ed) Social sciences and modern states: national experiences and theoretical crossroads. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1991) do occur. 'Divergers' experience a gap between science and politics/policymaking; and it is their self-evident task to act as a bridge. They spread over four discourses: 'rational facilitators', 'knowledge brokers', 'megapolicy strategists', and 'policy analysts'. Others aspire to 'convergence'; they believe science and politics ought to be natural allies in preparing collective decisions. But 'policy advisors' excepted, 'postnormalists' and 'deliberative proceduralists' find this very hard to achieve.

  6. Science does not speak for itself: translating child development research for the public and its policymakers.

    PubMed

    Shonkoff, Jack P; Bales, Susan Nall

    2011-01-01

    Science has an important role to play in advising policymakers on crafting effective responses to social problems that affect the development of children. This article describes lessons learned from a multiyear, working collaboration among neuroscientists, developmental psychologists, pediatricians, economists, and communications researchers who are engaged in the iterative construction of a core story of development, using simplifying models (i.e., metaphors) such as "brain architecture,"toxic stress," and "serve and return" to explain complex scientific concepts to nonscientists. The aim of this article is to stimulate more systematic, empirical approaches to the task of knowledge transfer and to underscore the need to view the translation of science into policy and practice as an important academic endeavor in its own right.

  7. Balancing health care evidence and art to meet clinical needs: policymakers' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Parker, Louise E; Ritchie, Mona J; Kirchner, Joann E; Owen, Richard R

    2009-12-01

    Rationale, aims and objectives Although many believe that evidence-based practice (EBP) has great potential, critics have identified limitations including a focus on randomized clinical trial (RCT) evidence to the exclusion of other evidence types and a disregard for the art of medicine. Others have argued, however, that proper application of EBP involves reasoned consideration of a wide variety of information; thus, the dichotomy between medical science and art may be false. We explore the views of executive-level policymakers from the Veterans Health Administration, a leader in the EBP movement, regarding what constitutes evidence and the relative importance of evidence versus practical needs when determining clinical policy. Method We conducted 26 semi-structured qualitative interviews and performed a content analysis. Results Although informants generally believed in the value of EBP and the role of RCTs within it, they also valued other types of evidence. Further, they had concerns that were sometimes antithetical with strict adherence to an evidence-based approach. These included practical concerns, fit with organizational values and with local circumstances, resources, political pressures and patient needs. They were especially concerned about how to address medical conditions that affect many individuals or high-risk populations that have no evidence-based treatment. Conclusion When possible, health care practice should be evidence-based. When this is not possible, health care providers must turn to the art of medicine by using consensus-based best practices. Further, it is important for policymakers and researchers to work in concert to develop EBPs that are practical and meet needs.

  8. Voluntarism, public engagement and the role of geoscience in radioactive waste management policy-making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilham, Nic

    2014-05-01

    In the UK, as elsewhere in Europe, there has been a move away from previous 'technocratic' approaches to radioactive waste management (RWM). Policy-makers have recognised that for any RWM programme to succeed, sustained engagement with stakeholders and the public is necessary, and any geological repository must be constructed and operated with the willing support of the community which hosts it. This has opened up RWM policy-making and implementation to a wider range of (often contested) expert inputs, ranging across natural and social sciences, engineering and even ethics. Geoscientists and other technical specialists have found themselves drawn into debates about how various types of expertise should be prioritised, and how they should be integrated with diverse public and stakeholder perspectives. They also have a vital role to play in communicating to the public the need for geological disposal of radioactive waste, and the various aspects of geoscience which will inform the process of implementing this, from identifying potential volunteer host communities, to finding a suitable site, developing the safety case, construction of a repository, emplacement of waste, closure and subsequent monitoring. High-quality geoscience, effectively communicated, will be essential to building and maintaining public confidence throughout the many decades such projects will take. Failure to communicate effectively the relevant geoscience and its central role in the UK's radioactive waste management programme arguably contributed to West Cumbria's January 2013 decision to withdraw from the site selection process, and may discourage other communities from coming forward in future. Across countries needing to deal with their radioactive waste, this unique challenge gives an unprecedented urgency to finding ways to engage and communicate effectively with the public about geoscience.

  9. Off-patent drugs at brand-name prices: a puzzle for policymakers

    PubMed Central

    Tallapragada, Naren P.

    2016-01-01

    In August 2015, Turing Pharmaceuticals acquired the marketing rights to Daraprim (pyrimethamine), a drug used to treat parasitic infections like malaria and toxoplasmosis. Soon after, Turing caused an uproar when it announced that it would raise the price per tablet of Daraprim from \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$\\rm{\\$ 13.50\\ to\\ \\$ 750}$\\end{document}, a 5500% price hike for a drug that has been on the market for over 60 years and off patent since the 1970s. Old, off-patent drugs are becoming increasingly expensive; Daraprim is the archetypal example. Turing had the power to set a high price for Daraprim because the drug's limited patient population, the absence of competing manufacturers, and a lack of therapeutic alternatives all created an effective monopoly. Similar forces have driven up the prices of other off-patent drugs that treat diseases as diverse as heart failure and multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis. Thus, policymakers will have to consider how the high cost of off-patent drugs impacts public health as well as public spending. In this Note I outline the extent of the high-cost off-patent drug problem, drawing special attention to the problem's negative effects on both health outcomes and government budgets. After discussing some of the problem's underlying causes, I present several solutions to the problem that policymakers could consider, with a focus on proposals like reference pricing and expanded compounding that have received relatively little media attention. PMID:27774247

  10. Influenza vaccination policy-making processes in France and The Netherlands: Framework and determinants.

    PubMed

    Silva, Maria Laura; Perrier, Lionel; Paget, John W; Mosnier, Anne; Buthion, Valérie; Cohen, Jean Marie; Späth, Hans Martin

    2016-03-01

    Target groups for seasonal influenza vaccination are nationally defined based on several factors. However, few studies have explored the policy-making processes at the country-level. We investigated key differences in the policy-making process for the development of vaccination recommendations between France (FR) and The Netherlands (NL). This paper presents preliminary results on the evidence used in the decision-making process and focuses on the interactions between the experts and stakeholders. A documentary analysis identified the stakeholders of this process as governmental authorities, research institutions, associations, and manufacturers. This qualitative study included at least one expert from each stakeholder group. Thirty-three semi-structured interviews were performed in 2013 (16 FR, 17 NL). We used NVivo10® to perform a thematic content analysis on the data. National Immunization Technical Advisory Groups (NITAGs) were the key stakeholders in the development of recommendations. There was no systematic standard evaluation of evidence during the decision-making process in both countries. Likewise, voting was not systematic, although it did occur more often in FR. A declaration of interests was obligatory in both countries. Experts with no conflicts of interest were rare because many depend on private funding for their research on influenza vaccination. The transparency of the NITAGs' procedures for the development of recommendations should be improved. We believe improvements might be achieved by the systematic standard evaluation of evidence, consistent voting, clear declarations of interest, and increased public funding for vaccination research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Contestations and complexities of nurses' participation in policy-making in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ditlopo, Prudence; Blaauw, Duane; Penn-Kekana, Loveday; Rispel, Laetitia C

    2014-01-01

    There has been increased emphasis globally on nurses' involvement in health policy and systems development. However, there has been limited scholarly attention on nurses' participation in policy-making in South Africa. This paper analyses the dynamics, strengths, and weaknesses of nurses' participation in four national health workforce policies: the 2008 Nursing Strategy, revision of the Scope of Practice for nurses, the new Framework for Nursing Qualifications, and the Occupation-Specific Dispensation (OSD) remuneration policy. Using a policy analysis framework, we conducted in-depth interviews with 28 key informants and 73 frontline nurses in four South African provinces. Thematic content analysis was done using the Atlas.ti software. The study found that nurses' participation in policy-making is both contested and complex. The contestation relates to the extent and nature of nurses' participation in nursing policies. There was a disjuncture between nursing leadership and frontline nurses in their levels of awareness of the four policies. The latter group was generally unaware of these policies with the exception of the OSD remuneration policy as it affected them directly. There was also limited consensus on which nursing group legitimately represented nursing issues in the policy arena. Shifting power relationships influenced who participated, how the participation happened, and the degree to which nurses' views and inputs were considered and incorporated. The South African health system presents major opportunities for nurses to influence and direct policies that affect them. This will require a combination of proactive leadership, health policy capacity and skills development among nurses, and strong support from the national nursing association.

  12. Contestations and complexities of nurses’ participation in policy-making in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Ditlopo, Prudence; Blaauw, Duane; Penn-Kekana, Loveday; Rispel, Laetitia C.

    2014-01-01

    Background There has been increased emphasis globally on nurses’ involvement in health policy and systems development. However, there has been limited scholarly attention on nurses’ participation in policy-making in South Africa. Objective This paper analyses the dynamics, strengths, and weaknesses of nurses’ participation in four national health workforce policies: the 2008 Nursing Strategy, revision of the Scope of Practice for nurses, the new Framework for Nursing Qualifications, and the Occupation-Specific Dispensation (OSD) remuneration policy. Design Using a policy analysis framework, we conducted in-depth interviews with 28 key informants and 73 frontline nurses in four South African provinces. Thematic content analysis was done using the Atlas.ti software. Results The study found that nurses’ participation in policy-making is both contested and complex. The contestation relates to the extent and nature of nurses’ participation in nursing policies. There was a disjuncture between nursing leadership and frontline nurses in their levels of awareness of the four policies. The latter group was generally unaware of these policies with the exception of the OSD remuneration policy as it affected them directly. There was also limited consensus on which nursing group legitimately represented nursing issues in the policy arena. Shifting power relationships influenced who participated, how the participation happened, and the degree to which nurses’ views and inputs were considered and incorporated. Conclusions The South African health system presents major opportunities for nurses to influence and direct policies that affect them. This will require a combination of proactive leadership, health policy capacity and skills development among nurses, and strong support from the national nursing association. PMID:25537938

  13. Role of spatial tools in public health policymaking of Bangladesh: opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dohyeong; Sarker, Malabika; Vyas, Priyanka

    2016-02-27

    In spite of the increasing efforts to gather spatial data in developing countries, the use of maps is mostly for visualization of health indicators rather than informed decision-making. Various spatial tools can aid policymakers to allocate resources effectively, predict patterns in communicable or infectious diseases, and provide insights into geographical factors which are associated with utilization or adequacy of health services. In Bangladesh, the launch of District Health Information System 2, along with recent efforts to gather spatial data of facilities location, provides an interesting opportunity to study the current landscape and the potential barriers in advancing the use of spatial tools for informed decision making. This study assessed the current level of map usage and spatial tools for health sector planning in Bangladesh, focusing on investigating why map usage and spatial tools remained at a basic level for the purpose of health policy. The study design involved in-depth interviews, followed by an expert survey (n = 39) obtained through snowball sampling.Our survey revealed that assessing areas with shortage of community health workers emerged as the top most for basic map usage or primarily for visualization purpose, while planning for emergency and obstetric care services, and disease mapping was the most frequent category for intermediate and advanced map usage, respectively. Furthermore, we found lack of inter-institutional collaboration, lack of continuous availability of trained personnel, and lack of awareness on the use of geographic information system (GIS) as a decision-making tool as three most critical barriers in the current landscape. Our findings highlight the barriers in increasing the adoption of spatial tools for health policymaking and planning in Bangladesh.

  14. Knowledge and power in policy-making for child survival in Niger.

    PubMed

    Dalglish, Sarah L; Rodríguez, Daniela C; Harouna, Abdoutan; Surkan, Pamela J

    2017-03-01

    Calls to enhance the use of scientific evidence in international health and development policy have increased in recent years; however, analytic frameworks for understanding evidence use focus narrowly on scientific research and were created using data and observations nearly exclusively from Western countries. We examine processes of health policy development in a case study of Niger, a low-income West African country that adopted integrated community case management of childhood illness (iCCM) beginning in 2007, resulting in measurable declines in child mortality. Data collection included in-depth interviews with policy actors in Niger (N = 32), document review (N = 103) and direct observation of policy forums (N = 3). Data analysis used process tracing methodology and applied an Aristotelian definition of "knowledge" as 1) episteme (facts), 2) techne (skills) and 3) phronesis (practical wisdom), while also using a critical perspective to understand issues of power. We found sharp differentials in policy-makers' possession and use of codified forms of knowledge (episteme), with Nigerien policy officers' access highly mediated by actors at international agencies. Government policy-makers possessed skills and capacities (techne) to negotiate with donors and deliberate and weigh conflicting considerations; however they lacked capacity and resources to formally evaluate and document programs and thus reliably draw lessons from them. Practical wisdom (phronesis) emerged as key to the iCCM policy enterprise, particularly among Nigerien government actors, who used logical and ethical arguments to make decisions later found to be critical to iCCM's success. While codified knowledge confers power on members of policy discussions who can access it, this represents only one form of knowledge used in the policy process and perhaps not the most important. Future research on evidence-based policy should use broader definitions of evidence or knowledge, examine on how

  15. Constraining Multiple Grammars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopp, Holger

    2014-01-01

    This article offers the author's commentary on the Multiple Grammars (MG) language acquisition theory proposed by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roeper in the present issue. Multiple Grammars advances the claim that optionality is a constitutive characteristic of any one grammar, with interlanguage grammars being perhaps the clearest examples of a…

  16. Constraining Multiple Grammars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopp, Holger

    2014-01-01

    This article offers the author's commentary on the Multiple Grammars (MG) language acquisition theory proposed by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roeper in the present issue. Multiple Grammars advances the claim that optionality is a constitutive characteristic of any one grammar, with interlanguage grammars being perhaps the clearest examples of a…

  17. 17 CFR 230.802 - Exemption for offerings in connection with an exchange offer or business combination for the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... connection with an exchange offer or business combination for the securities of foreign private issuers. 230... Offers and Business Combinations § 230.802 Exemption for offerings in connection with an exchange offer or business combination for the securities of foreign private issuers. Offers and sales in...

  18. 12 CFR 192.395 - What other conditions apply when I offer conversion shares in a community offering, a public...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What other conditions apply when I offer conversion shares in a community offering, a public offering, or both? 192.395 Section 192.395 Banks and... Standard Conversions Offers and Sales of Stock § 192.395 What other conditions apply when I offer...

  19. Improving Nigerian health policymakers' capacity to access and utilize policy relevant evidence: outcome of information and communication technology training workshop.

    PubMed

    Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Ezeoha, Abel Ebeh; Uro-Chukwu, Henry; Ezeonu, Chinonyelum Thecla; Ogbu, Ogbonnaya; Onwe, Friday; Edoga, Chima

    2015-01-01

    Information and communication technology (ICT) tools are known to facilitate communication and processing of information and sharing of knowledge by electronic means. In Nigeria, the lack of adequate capacity on the use of ICT by health sector policymakers constitutes a major impediment to the uptake of research evidence into the policymaking process. The objective of this study was to improve the knowledge and capacity of policymakers to access and utilize policy relevant evidence. A modified "before and after" intervention study design was used in which outcomes were measured on the target participants both before the intervention is implemented and after. A 4-point likert scale according to the degree of adequacy; 1 = grossly inadequate, 4 = very adequate was employed. This study was conducted in Ebonyi State, south-eastern Nigeria and the participants were career health policy makers. A two-day intensive ICT training workshop was organized for policymakers who had 52 participants in attendance. Topics covered included: (i). intersectoral partnership/collaboration; (ii). Engaging ICT in evidence-informed policy making; use of ICT for evidence synthesis; (iv) capacity development on the use of computer, internet and other ICT. The pre-workshop mean of knowledge and capacity for use of ICT ranged from 2.19-3.05, while the post-workshop mean ranged from 2.67-3.67 on 4-point scale. The percentage increase in mean of knowledge and capacity at the end of the workshop ranged from 8.3%-39.1%. Findings of this study suggest that policymakers' ICT competence relevant to evidence-informed policymaking can be enhanced through training workshop.

  20. Processes of local alcohol policy-making in England: Does the theory of policy transfer provide useful insights into public health decision-making?

    PubMed

    Gavens, Lucy; Holmes, John; Buykx, Penny; de Vocht, Frank; Egan, Matt; Grace, Daniel; Lock, Karen; Mooney, John D; Brennan, Alan

    2017-06-13

    Recent years have seen a rise in new and innovative policies to reduce alcohol consumption and related harm in England, which can be implemented by local, as opposed to national, policy-makers. The aim of this paper is to explore the processes that underpin the adoption of these alcohol policies within local authorities. In particular, it aims to assess whether the concept of policy transfer (i.e. a process through which knowledge about policies in one place is used in the development of policies in another time or place) provides a useful model for understanding local alcohol policy-making. Qualitative data generated through in-depth interviews and focus groups from five case study sites across England were used to explore stakeholder experiences of alcohol policy transfer between local authorities. The purposive sample of policy actors included representatives from the police, trading standards, public health, licensing, and commissioning. Thematic analysis was used inductively to identify key features in the data. Themes from the policy transfer literature identified in the data were: policy copying, emulating, hybridization, and inspiration. Participants described a multitude of ways in which learning was shared between places, ranging from formal academic evaluation to opportunistic conversations in informal settings. Participants also described facilitators and constraints to policy transfer, such as the historical policy context and the local cultural, economic, and bureaucratic context, which influenced whether or not a policy that was perceived to work in one place might be transferred successfully to another context. Theories of policy transfer provide a promising framework for characterising processes of local alcohol policy-making in England, extending beyond debates regarding evidence-informed policy to account for a much wider range of considerations. Applying a policy transfer lens enables us to move beyond simple (but still important) questions of

  1. Shock to the system: How catastrophic events and institutional relationships impact Japanese energy policymaking, resilience, and innovation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sklarew, Jennifer F.

    External shocks do not always generate energy system transformation. This dissertation examines how government relationships with electric utilities and the public impact whether shocks catalyze energy system change. The study analyzes Japanese energy policymaking from the oil crises through the Fukushima nuclear disaster. Findings reveal that policymakers' cooperation with and clout over electric utilities and the public can enable shocks to transform energy systems. When electric utilities wield clout, public trust in and influence on the government determine the existing system's resilience and the potential for a new system to emerge. Understanding this effect informs energy policy design and innovation.

  2. Examining the use of health systems and policy research in the health policymaking process in Israel: views of researchers.

    PubMed

    Ellen, Moriah E; Lavis, John N; Shemer, Joshua

    2016-09-01

    All too often, health policy and management decisions are made without making use of or consulting with the best available research evidence, which can lead to ineffective and inefficient health systems. One of the main actors that can ensure the use of evidence to inform policymaking is researchers. The objective of this study is to explore Israeli health systems and policy researchers' views and perceptions regarding the role of health systems and policy research (HSPR) in health policymaking and the barriers and facilitators to the use of evidence in the policymaking process. A survey of researchers who have conducted HSPR in Israel was developed. The survey consisted of a demographics section and closed questions, which focused on support both within the researchers' organisations and the broader environment for KTE activities, perceptions on the policymaking process, and the potential influencing factors on the process. The survey was sent to all health systems and policy researchers in Israel from academic institutions, hospital settings, government agencies, the four health insurance funds, and research institutes (n = 107). All responses were analyzed using descriptive statistics. For close-ended questions about level of agreement we combined together the two highest categories (agree or strongly agree) for analysis. Thirty-seven respondents participated in the survey. While many respondents felt that the use of HSPR may help raise awareness on policy issues, the majority of respondents felt that the actual use of HSPR was hindered for many reasons. While facilitators do exist to support the use of research evidence in policymaking, numerous barriers hinder the process such as challenges in government/provider relations, policymakers lacking the expertise for acquiring, assessing, and applying HSPR and priorities in the health system drawing attention away from HSPR. Furthermore, it is perceived by a majority of respondents that the health insurance funds

  3. 20 CFR 655.122 - Contents of job offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contents of job offers. 655.122 Section 655... Employment in the United States (H-2A Workers) Prefiling Procedures § 655.122 Contents of job offers. (a) Prohibition against preferential treatment of aliens. The employer's job offer must offer to U.S. workers no...

  4. 7 CFR 1494.501 - Submission of offers to CCC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Submission of offers to CCC. 1494.501 Section 1494....501 Submission of offers to CCC. (a) Consideration of offers. Unless otherwise specified in the Invitation, CCC will consider offers on a daily basis from the date of issuance of the Invitation until such...

  5. 7 CFR 1494.501 - Submission of offers to CCC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Submission of offers to CCC. 1494.501 Section 1494....501 Submission of offers to CCC. (a) Consideration of offers. Unless otherwise specified in the Invitation, CCC will consider offers on a daily basis from the date of issuance of the Invitation until such...

  6. 7 CFR 1494.501 - Submission of offers to CCC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Submission of offers to CCC. 1494.501 Section 1494....501 Submission of offers to CCC. (a) Consideration of offers. Unless otherwise specified in the Invitation, CCC will consider offers on a daily basis from the date of issuance of the Invitation until such...

  7. 12 CFR 563g.2 - Offering circular requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Offering circular requirement. 563g.2 Section 563g.2 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SECURITIES OFFERINGS...) Communications not deemed an offer. The following communications shall not be deemed an offer under this...

  8. 20 CFR 655.202 - Contents of job offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Contents of job offers. 655.202 Section 655...-H-2A Agricultural Employment § 655.202 Contents of job offers. (a) So that the employment of aliens... employer's job offer to U.S. workers must offer U.S. workers at least the same benefits which the employer...

  9. 20 CFR 655.202 - Contents of job offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Contents of job offers. 655.202 Section 655...-H-2A Agricultural Employment § 655.202 Contents of job offers. (a) So that the employment of aliens... employer's job offer to U.S. workers must offer U.S. workers at least the same benefits which the employer...

  10. 31 CFR 342.0 - Offering of notes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Offering of notes. 342.0 Section 342.0..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT OFFERING OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS NOTES § 342.0 Offering of notes. The Secretary of the Treasury offered for sale to the people of the United States, United...

  11. 31 CFR 342.0 - Offering of notes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Offering of notes. 342.0 Section 342.0..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT OFFERING OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS NOTES § 342.0 Offering of notes. The Secretary of the Treasury offered for sale to the people of the United States, United...

  12. 31 CFR 342.0 - Offering of notes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Offering of notes. 342.0 Section 342.0..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT OFFERING OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS NOTES § 342.0 Offering of notes. The Secretary of the Treasury offered for sale to the people of the United States, United...

  13. 31 CFR 342.0 - Offering of notes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Offering of notes. 342.0 Section 342..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE FISCAL SERVICE OFFERING OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS NOTES § 342.0 Offering of notes. The Secretary of the Treasury offered for sale to the people of the United States...

  14. 19 CFR 172.33 - Acceptance of offers in compromise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acceptance of offers in compromise. 172.33 Section... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) CLAIMS FOR LIQUIDATED DAMAGES; PENALTIES SECURED BY BONDS Offers in Compromise § 172.33 Acceptance of offers in compromise. An offer in compromise will be considered...

  15. 7 CFR 1410.31 - Acceptability of offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Administrator for the for the area offered. Acceptance or rejection of any offer, however, shall be in the sole... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptability of offers. 1410.31 Section 1410.31... Acceptability of offers. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, producers may submit...

  16. 19 CFR 171.32 - Acceptance of offers in compromise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acceptance of offers in compromise. 171.32 Section... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) FINES, PENALTIES, AND FORFEITURES Offers in Compromise § 171.32 Acceptance of offers in compromise. An offer in compromise will be considered accepted only when the...

  17. Neo-Democracy in Educational Policy-Making: A Critical Case Study of Neoliberal Reform in Massachusetts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piazza, Peter

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores changes to the educational policy-making arena through case study analysis of a Massachusetts law passed in 2012 that limits seniority-based job protections for public K-12 teachers. I use data from interviews with policy stakeholders, observations of public meetings, and policy artifacts to explore struggles over democratic…

  18. Taking Stock of the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development: The Policy-Making Process in Flanders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Poeck, Katrien; Vandenabeele, Joke; Bruyninckx, Hans

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we address the implementation of the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) in Flanders, a sub-national entity of Belgium. Our analysis shows how the policy-making process in Flanders is inextricably intertwined with three developments in environmental and educational policy: the increasing impact of ESD policy and…

  19. From National Policy-Making to Global Edu-Business: Swedish Edu-Preneurs on the Move

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rönnberg, Linda

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the movements of some Swedish former education policy-makers that are currently active as commercial edu-business actors with the ambition to expand in the Global Education Industry (GEI). The aim is to map and analyze how a selection of Swedish edu-preneurs affiliated with a particular Swedish school chain enter the GEI and…

  20. Building a Global Community of Policymakers, Researchers and Educators to Move Education Systems into the Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voogt, J.; Knezek, G.

    2013-01-01

    The EDUsummIT 2011 aimed to develop (a) recommendations for policy, practice and research that will help educational systems move into the digital age and (b) strategies to build a global community of researchers, policymakers and teachers in the field of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Education. Thematic working groups…

  1. Neo-Democracy in Educational Policy-Making: A Critical Case Study of Neoliberal Reform in Massachusetts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piazza, Peter

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores changes to the educational policy-making arena through case study analysis of a Massachusetts law passed in 2012 that limits seniority-based job protections for public K-12 teachers. I use data from interviews with policy stakeholders, observations of public meetings, and policy artifacts to explore struggles over democratic…

  2. The Discrepancy of Meaning of Citizenship between the State and Society in China: Implications for Citizenship Education and Policymaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Sicong

    2013-01-01

    Although citizenship education has received significant official attention in China in recent years, its aim remains vague. At a time when social demands increasingly influence policymaking by the state, this article examines the meaning of citizenship to the state and society in China. Data are derived from a content analysis of the use of…

  3. Rejecting Exclusion, Embracing Inclusion: Conversation as Policy-Making at a US Baptist Conference on Sexuality and Covenant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner-Garcia, Shawn

    2016-01-01

    While much of the work on language, policy, and religion has focused on how discourse is influenced by policy, this article presents a case study of how discourse is used to construct policy itself. These policy-making discourses tend to occur in institutional settings; however, non-institutional discourse may also be instrumental in the…

  4. Sound Arguments and Power in Evaluation Research and Policy-Making: A Measuring Instrument and Its Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Propper, Igno M. A. M.

    1993-01-01

    Proposes an instrument for assessing the extent to which either sound arguments or power are found in scientific and political discussions. Empirical research is described that investigated the relation between the quality of evaluation research and the quality of discussion in policy-making processes in which the research is used. (Contains 47…

  5. The Influence of Overseas Examples on DES Policy-Making for the School System in England, 1985-1995

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, George; Exley, Sonia

    2006-01-01

    Claims are often made in British education about the extent to which policy reforms have been "borrowed" from overseas. Based on interviews with senior civil servants and HMI, this paper addresses the extent to which such claims apply to central government educational policy-making at school level in England between 1985 and 1995. This…

  6. Why Policymakers Should Care about Children's Savings. Creating a Financial Stake in College: Report I of IV

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, William, III

    2012-01-01

    "Creating a Financial Stake in College" is a four-part series of reports that focuses on the relationship between children's savings and improving college success. This series examines: (1) why policymakers should care about savings, (2) the relationship between inequality and bank account ownership, (3) the connections between savings and college…

  7. Local Adaptation of Central Policies: The Policymaking and Implementation of Compulsory Education for Migrant Children in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lihua

    2016-01-01

    This article looks at the central and local governments' policymaking and implementation of compulsory education for migrant children in China. Three distinct models of policy implementation were identified through a case study approach. They indicated a selective adaptation of central policy objective and principles by the local governments and…

  8. The Discrepancy of Meaning of Citizenship between the State and Society in China: Implications for Citizenship Education and Policymaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Sicong

    2013-01-01

    Although citizenship education has received significant official attention in China in recent years, its aim remains vague. At a time when social demands increasingly influence policymaking by the state, this article examines the meaning of citizenship to the state and society in China. Data are derived from a content analysis of the use of…

  9. Making Ends Meet: Six Programs That Help Working Families and Employers. A Guide for Business Leaders and Policymakers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Nisha; Greenberg, Mark; Savner, Steve; Turetsky, Vicki

    This document is intended to provide business leaders, policymakers, and others with information about the operation and value of six work support programs designed to help low-income parents obtain the assistance needed to enter a job, retain employment, and better provide for their families' needs. The six programs profiled are as follows: the…

  10. What Influences the Utilisation of Educational Research by Policy-Makers and Practitioners?: The Perspectives of Academic Educational Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherney, Adrian; Povey, Jenny; Head, Brian; Boreham, Paul; Ferguson, Michele

    2012-01-01

    In the field of education much has been made of the need for academics to engage more closely with policy-makers and practitioners in the process of knowledge production and research uptake. This paper reports results from a survey of academic educational researchers in Australia on their experience of research uptake and engagement with…

  11. Building a Global Community of Policymakers, Researchers and Educators to Move Education Systems into the Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voogt, J.; Knezek, G.

    2013-01-01

    The EDUsummIT 2011 aimed to develop (a) recommendations for policy, practice and research that will help educational systems move into the digital age and (b) strategies to build a global community of researchers, policymakers and teachers in the field of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Education. Thematic working groups…

  12. Getting farming on the agenda: Planning, policymaking, and governance practices of urban agriculture in New York City

    Treesearch

    Lindsay K. Campbell

    2016-01-01

    How and why is urban agriculture taken up into local food policies and sustainability plans? This paper uses a case study of urban agriculture policymaking in New York City from 2007 to 2011 to examine the power-laden operation of urban environmental governance. It explores several 'faces of power,' including overt authority, institutionalized 'rules of...

  13. The 2015-16 Pro-Kid Policy Agenda for California: A Guide to Pro-Kid Policymaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children Now, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The 2015-16 Pro-Kid Policy Agenda for California is the only comprehensive roadmap at the state level for policymakers, stakeholders, and others who want all children--especially children of color and children from low-income families--to have the opportunity to reach their full potential. A plethora of research shows that investments in quality…

  14. Caesars and Rubicon: The Hesitations of French Policymakers in Identifying a Third Way in Education and Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derouet, Jean-Louis; Normand, Romuald

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the decisions made by French policymakers at a time when France was uncertain about which option to take. The purpose is to follow how actors chart their own course in an environment with plural justifications and how they mobilise resources in several spheres to set up ever-changing networks. The investigation will bear on all…

  15. Local Adaptation of Central Policies: The Policymaking and Implementation of Compulsory Education for Migrant Children in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lihua

    2016-01-01

    This article looks at the central and local governments' policymaking and implementation of compulsory education for migrant children in China. Three distinct models of policy implementation were identified through a case study approach. They indicated a selective adaptation of central policy objective and principles by the local governments and…

  16. From National Policy-Making to Global Edu-Business: Swedish Edu-Preneurs on the Move

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rönnberg, Linda

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the movements of some Swedish former education policy-makers that are currently active as commercial edu-business actors with the ambition to expand in the Global Education Industry (GEI). The aim is to map and analyze how a selection of Swedish edu-preneurs affiliated with a particular Swedish school chain enter the GEI and…

  17. Crafting and Dismantling the Egalitarian Social Contract: The Changing State-Society Relations in Korea's Educational Policymaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Sang-Young

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the changing dynamics between the Korean state and society in the field of educational policymaking. From the 1960s to the 1980s, the Korean developmental state implemented a series of drastic egalitarian educational policies to address serious educational crises that were mainly driven by Korea's affluent middle class.…

  18. Improving Urban Student Achievement Through Early Childhood Reform: What State Policymakers Can Do. Issue Paper. Early Childhood Reform Issue Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kagan, Sharon Lynn

    2004-01-01

    For over four decades, American policymakers have focused their attention on readying young children for school. Despite noble policy efforts, durable investments and a persistent belief in the ability of early childhood education to offset social inequities, significant challenges exist for America's urban young children as they enter school.…

  19. Sustaining 21st Century Community Learning Centers: What Works for Programs and How Policymakers Can Help. Strategy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szekely, Amanda; Padgette, Heather Clapp

    2006-01-01

    This tool is part of a series of technical assistance resources on financing and sustaining out-of-school time and community school initiative. These tools and resources are intended to assist policymakers, program developers and community leaders in developing financing and sustainability strategies to support effective initiatives. For nearly a…

  20. The Responsiveness of the Israeli National Educational Policy-Making System to Demands for Change, 1973-1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peri, Mordechai

    This study examines the responsiveness of the Israeli National Educational Policy-Making System (NEPS) to public demands for more civic education during the crisis period of 1973-75. Based on Easton's general theory, the author describes the political situation in terms of wants, demands, support, and regulation and observes NEPS output results.…

  1. Perceptions of the Educational Policy-Making Process in New York State: Educational Interest Group Leaders and State Legislators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milstein, Mike M.; Jennings, Robert E.

    This study compares the perceptions of the educational policymaking process held by education interest group staffs with those of State legislators. Structured interviews were held with executive officers in six major education organizations, and 207 legislators were surveyed by personal interviews during the 1969 legislative session. Categories…

  2. Caesars and Rubicon: The Hesitations of French Policymakers in Identifying a Third Way in Education and Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derouet, Jean-Louis; Normand, Romuald

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the decisions made by French policymakers at a time when France was uncertain about which option to take. The purpose is to follow how actors chart their own course in an environment with plural justifications and how they mobilise resources in several spheres to set up ever-changing networks. The investigation will bear on all…

  3. Supporting Data Use While Protecting the Privacy, Security and Confidentiality of Student Information: A Primer for State Policymakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Data Quality Campaign, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The education sector is beginning to embrace a culture that values, demands and uses data to support improved decisionmaking at every level--in classrooms, at kitchen tables and in state capitols. This shift is due in large part to state policymakers' leadership over the last six years in building statewide longitudinal data systems that collect…

  4. A Framework for Using Qualitative Research To Inform Policy-Makers and Empower Practitioners: Lessons from Madagascar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heneveld, Ward; Craig, Helen

    National education policy reforms often do not translate into changes at the classroom level. This paper presents a conceptual framework developed for Sub-Saharan Africa to assist policy-makers in bridging the gap between school practice and national policies. It also describes how the framework was applied to current school-improvement efforts in…

  5. Taking Stock of the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development: The Policy-Making Process in Flanders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Poeck, Katrien; Vandenabeele, Joke; Bruyninckx, Hans

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we address the implementation of the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) in Flanders, a sub-national entity of Belgium. Our analysis shows how the policy-making process in Flanders is inextricably intertwined with three developments in environmental and educational policy: the increasing impact of ESD policy and…

  6. Sustainability of Long-term Care: Puzzling Tasks Ahead for Policy-Makers

    PubMed Central

    Mosca, Ilaria; van der Wees, Philip J.; Mot, Esther S.; Wammes, Joost J.G.; Jeurissen, Patrick P.T.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The sustainability of long-term care (LTC) is a prominent policy priority in many Western countries. LTC is one of the most pressing fiscal issues for the growing population of elderly people in the European Union (EU) Member States. Country recommendations regarding LTC are prominent under the EU’s European Semester. Methods: This paper examines challenges related to the financial- and organizational sustainability of LTC systems in the EU. We combined a targeted literature review and a descriptive selected country analysis of: (1) public- and private funding; (2) informal care and externalities; and (3) the possible role of technology in increasing productivity. Countries were selected via purposive sampling to establish a cohort of country cases covering the spectrum of differences in LTC systems: public spending, private funding, informal care use, informal care support, and cash benefits. Results: The aging of the population, the increasing gap between availability of informal care and demand for LTC, substantial market failures of private funding for LTC, and fiscal imbalances in some countries, have led to structural reforms and enduring pressures for LTC policy-makers across the EU. Our exploration of national policies illustrates different solutions that attempt to promote fairness while stimulating efficient delivery of services. Important steps must be taken to address the sustainability of LTC. First, countries should look deeper into the possibilities of complementing public- and private funding, as well as at addressing market failures of private funding. Second, informal care externalities with spill-over into neighboring policy areas, the labor force, and formal LTC workers, should be properly addressed. Thirdly, innovations in LTC services should be stimulated to increase productivity through technology and process innovations, and to reduce costs. Conclusion: The analysis shows why it is difficult for EU Member State governments to

  7. Sustainability of Long-term Care: Puzzling Tasks Ahead for Policy-Makers.

    PubMed

    Mosca, Ilaria; van der Wees, Philip J; Mot, Esther S; Wammes, Joost J G; Jeurissen, Patrick P T

    2016-08-17

    The sustainability of long-term care (LTC) is a prominent policy priority in many Western countries. LTC is one of the most pressing fiscal issues for the growing population of elderly people in the European Union (EU) Member States. Country recommendations regarding LTC are prominent under the EU's European Semester. This paper examines challenges related to the financial- and organizational sustainability of LTC systems in the EU. We combined a targeted literature review and a descriptive selected country analysis of: (1) public- and private funding; (2) informal care and externalities; and (3) the possible role of technology in increasing productivity. Countries were selected via purposive sampling to establish a cohort of country cases covering the spectrum of differences in LTC systems: public spending, private funding, informal care use, informal care support, and cash benefits. The aging of the population, the increasing gap between availability of informal care and demand for LTC, substantial market failures of private funding for LTC, and fiscal imbalances in some countries, have led to structural reforms and enduring pressures for LTC policy-makers across the EU. Our exploration of national policies illustrates different solutions that attempt to promote fairness while stimulating efficient delivery of services. Important steps must be taken to address the sustainability of LTC. First, countries should look deeper into the possibilities of complementing public- and private funding, as well as at addressing market failures of private funding. Second, informal care externalities with spill-over into neighboring policy areas, the labor force, and formal LTC workers, should be properly addressed. Thirdly, innovations in LTC services should be stimulated to increase productivity through technology and process innovations, and to reduce costs. The analysis shows why it is difficult for EU Member State governments to meet all their goals for sustainable LTC

  8. Public, private and personal: Qualitative research on policymakers' opinions on smokefree interventions to protect children in 'private' spaces

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Governments use law to constrain aspects of private activities for purposes of protecting health and social wellbeing. Policymakers have a range of perceptions and beliefs about what is public or private. An understanding of the possible drivers of policymaker decisions about where government can or should intervene for health is important, as one way to better guide appropriate policy formation. Our aim was to identify obstacles to, and opportunities for, government smokefree regulation of private and public spaces to protect children. In particular, to seek policymaker opinions on the regulation of smoking in homes, cars and public parks and playgrounds in a country with incomplete smokefree laws (New Zealand). Methods Case study, using structured interviews to ask policymakers (62 politicians and senior officials) about their opinions on new smokefree legislation for public and private places. Supplementary data was obtained from the Factiva media database, on the views of New Zealand local authority councillors about policies for smokefree outdoor public places. Results Overall, interviewees thought that government regulation of smoking in private places was impractical and unwise. However, there were some differences on what was defined as 'private', particularly for cars. Even in public parks, smoking was seen by some as a 'personal' decision, and unlikely to be amenable to regulation. Most participants believed that educative, supportive and community-based measures were better and more practical means of reducing smoking in private places, compared to regulation. Conclusions The constrained view of the role of regulation of smoking in public and private domains may be in keeping with current political discourse in New Zealand and similar Anglo-American countries. Policy and advocacy options to promote additional smokefree measures include providing a better voice for childrens' views, increasing information to policymakers about the harms to

  9. Public, private and personal: qualitative research on policymakers' opinions on smokefree interventions to protect children in 'private' spaces.

    PubMed

    Rouch, Gareth; Thomson, George; Wilson, Nick; Hudson, Sheena; Edwards, Richard; Gifford, Heather; Lanumata, Tolotea

    2010-12-31

    Governments use law to constrain aspects of private activities for purposes of protecting health and social wellbeing. Policymakers have a range of perceptions and beliefs about what is public or private. An understanding of the possible drivers of policymaker decisions about where government can or should intervene for health is important, as one way to better guide appropriate policy formation. Our aim was to identify obstacles to, and opportunities for, government smokefree regulation of private and public spaces to protect children. In particular, to seek policymaker opinions on the regulation of smoking in homes, cars and public parks and playgrounds in a country with incomplete smokefree laws (New Zealand). Case study, using structured interviews to ask policymakers (62 politicians and senior officials) about their opinions on new smokefree legislation for public and private places. Supplementary data was obtained from the Factiva media database, on the views of New Zealand local authority councillors about policies for smokefree outdoor public places. Overall, interviewees thought that government regulation of smoking in private places was impractical and unwise. However, there were some differences on what was defined as 'private', particularly for cars. Even in public parks, smoking was seen by some as a 'personal' decision, and unlikely to be amenable to regulation. Most participants believed that educative, supportive and community-based measures were better and more practical means of reducing smoking in private places, compared to regulation. The constrained view of the role of regulation of smoking in public and private domains may be in keeping with current political discourse in New Zealand and similar Anglo-American countries. Policy and advocacy options to promote additional smokefree measures include providing a better voice for childrens' views, increasing information to policymakers about the harms to children from secondhand smoke and the

  10. 17 CFR 230.135b - Materials not deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus. 230.135b Section 230.135b Commodity and Securities... § 230.135b Materials not deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus. Materials meeting the requirements of § 240.9b-1 of this chapter shall not be deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy a security for...

  11. 17 CFR 230.135b - Materials not deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus. 230.135b Section 230.135b Commodity and Securities... § 230.135b Materials not deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus. Materials meeting the requirements of § 240.9b-1 of this chapter shall not be deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy a security for...

  12. 17 CFR 230.135b - Materials not deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus. 230.135b Section 230.135b Commodity and Securities... § 230.135b Materials not deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus. Materials meeting the requirements of § 240.9b-1 of this chapter shall not be deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy a security for...

  13. 17 CFR 230.135b - Materials not deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus. 230.135b Section 230.135b Commodity and Securities... § 230.135b Materials not deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus. Materials meeting the requirements of § 240.9b-1 of this chapter shall not be deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy a security for...

  14. 17 CFR 230.135b - Materials not deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus. 230.135b Section 230.135b Commodity and Securities... § 230.135b Materials not deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus. Materials meeting the requirements of § 240.9b-1 of this chapter shall not be deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy a security...

  15. Multiple Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Multiple Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs Multiple Pregnancy Page ... Multiple Pregnancy FAQ188, July 2015 PDF Format Multiple Pregnancy Pregnancy How does multiple pregnancy occur? What are ...

  16. Bioenergy production and sustainable development: science base for policymaking remains limited.

    PubMed

    Robledo-Abad, Carmenza; Althaus, Hans-Jörg; Berndes, Göran; Bolwig, Simon; Corbera, Esteve; Creutzig, Felix; Garcia-Ulloa, John; Geddes, Anna; Gregg, Jay S; Haberl, Helmut; Hanger, Susanne; Harper, Richard J; Hunsberger, Carol; Larsen, Rasmus K; Lauk, Christian; Leitner, Stefan; Lilliestam, Johan; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Muys, Bart; Nordborg, Maria; Ölund, Maria; Orlowsky, Boris; Popp, Alexander; Portugal-Pereira, Joana; Reinhard, Jürgen; Scheiffle, Lena; Smith, Pete

    2017-03-01

    The possibility of using bioenergy as a climate change mitigation measure has sparked a discussion of whether and how bioenergy production contributes to sustainable development. We undertook a systematic review of the scientific literature to illuminate this relationship and found a limited scientific basis for policymaking. Our results indicate that knowledge on the sustainable development impacts of bioenergy production is concentrated in a few well-studied countries, focuses on environmental and economic impacts, and mostly relates to dedicated agricultural biomass plantations. The scope and methodological approaches in studies differ widely and only a small share of the studies sufficiently reports on context and/or baseline conditions, which makes it difficult to get a general understanding of the attribution of impacts. Nevertheless, we identified regional patterns of positive or negative impacts for all categories - environmental, economic, institutional, social and technological. In general, economic and technological impacts were more frequently reported as positive, while social and environmental impacts were more frequently reported as negative (with the exception of impacts on direct substitution of GHG emission from fossil fuel). More focused and transparent research is needed to validate these patterns and develop a strong science underpinning for establishing policies and governance agreements that prevent/mitigate negative and promote positive impacts from bioenergy production.

  17. Environmental policy-making networks and the future of the Amazon.

    PubMed

    Lemos, Maria Carmen; Roberts, J Timmons

    2008-05-27

    This article examines four periods of environmental policy-making in the Amazon region of Brazil. It specifically analyses the role of pro-environment and pro-development policy networks in affecting policy design and implementation. It argues that the efforts of environmentalist networks trying to advocate or block relative developmentalist policies in the Amazon depend on three critical factors-whether they are able to attract the support of elites (or at least block their developmentalist policy initiatives); the type and level of international support they have; and the organizational and financial resources that they are able to mobilize. In analysing the four periods, this article finds that while international influences and resources have been substantial in enabling environmentalist networks to flourish and influence the policy, their effectiveness has been nearly always outweighed by Brazilian developmentalist interests. The outcome in each phase has been a different form of stalemate on environmental protection, and the deforestation continued each time, albeit at slower rates. These findings suggest that the key for significantly lower rates of deforestation on the Amazon may be in the ability of pro-environment networks to neutralize opposition by creating an incentive structure that 'compensates' potential losers of policies that promote conservation.

  18. Managing health services: how the Population Health Information System (POPULIS) works for policymakers.

    PubMed

    Roos, N P; Black, C; Roos, L L; Frohlich, N; DeCoster, C; Mustard, C; Brownell, M D; Shanahan, M; Fergusson, P; Toll, F; Carriere, K C; Burchill, C; Fransoo, R; MacWilliam, L; Bogdanovic, B; Friesen, D

    1999-06-01

    University-based researchers in Manitoba, Canada, have used administrative data routinely collected as part of the national health insurance plan to design an integrated database and population-based health information system. This information system is proving useful to policymakers for answering such questions as: Which populations need more physician services? Which need fewer? Are high-risk populations poorly served? or do they have poor health outcomes despite being well served? Does high utilization represent overuse? or is it related to high need? More specifically, this system provides decision makers with the capability to make critical comparisons across regions and subregions of residents' health status, socioeconomic risk characteristics and use of hospitals, nursing homes, and physicians. The system permits analyses of demographic changes, expenditure patterns, and hospital performance in relation to the population served. The integrated database has also facilitated outcomes research across hospitals and countries, utilization review within a single hospital, and longitudinal research on health reform. The discussion highlights the strengths of integrated population-based information in analyzing the health care system and raising important questions about the relationship between health care and health.

  19. Global Environmental Leadership and Sustainability: High School Students Teaching Environmental Science to Policymakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, S.; Tamsitt, V. M.

    2016-02-01

    A two week high school course for high-achieving 10th-12th graders was developed through the combined efforts of Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) Graduate Students and UC San Diego Academic Connections. For the high school students involved, one week was spent at SIO learning basic climate science and researching climate-related topics, and one week was spent in Washington D.C. lobbying Congress for an environmental issue of their choosing. The specific learning goals of the course were for students to (1) collect, analyze and interpret scientific data, (2) synthesize scientific research for policy recommendations, (3) craft and deliver a compelling policy message, and (4) understand and experience change. In this first year, 10 students conducted research on two scientific topics; sea level rise using pier temperature data and California rainfall statistics using weather stations. Simultaneous lessons on policy messaging helped students learn how to focus scientific information for non-scientists. In combining the importance of statistics from their Science lessons with effective communication from their Policy lessons, the students developed issue papers which highlighted an environmental problem, the solution, and the reason their solution is most effective. The course culminated in two days of meetings on Capitol Hill, where they presented their solutions to their Congressional and Senate Members, conversed with policymakers, and received constructive feedback. Throughout the process, the students effectively defined arguments for an environmental topic in a program developed by SIO Graduate Students.

  20. Using rapid reviews: an example from a study conducted to inform policy-making.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Denise F; Casey, Mary; O'Connor, Laserina; Stokes, Diarmuid; Fealy, Gerard M; O'Brien, Denise; Smith, Rita; McNamara, Martin S; Egan, Claire

    2017-03-01

    A discussion of the potential use of rapid review approaches in nursing and midwifery research which presents a worked example from a study conducted to inform policy decision-making. Rapid reviews, which can be defined as outputs of a knowledge synthesis approach that involves modifying or omitting elements of a systematic review process due to limited time or resources, are becoming increasingly popular in health research. This paper provides guidance on how a rapid review can be undertaken and discusses the strengths and challenges of the approach. Data from a rapid review of the literature undertaken in 2015 is used as a worked example to highlight one method of undertaking a rapid review. Seeking evidence to inform health policy-making or evidence based practice is a process that can be limited by time constraints, making it difficult to conduct comprehensive systematic reviews. Rapid reviews provide a solution as they are a systematic method of synthesizing evidence quickly. There is no single best way to conduct a rapid review but researchers can ensure they are adhering to best practice by being systematic, having subject and methodological expertise on the review team, reporting the details of the approach they took, highlighting the limitations of the approach, engaging in good evidence synthesis and communicating regularly with end users, other team members and experts. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Barriers to optimizing investments in the built environment to reduce youth obesity: policy-maker perspectives.

    PubMed

    Grant, Jill L; MacKay, Kathryn C; Manuel, Patricia M; McHugh, Tara-Leigh F

    2010-01-01

    To identify factors which limit the ability of local governments to make appropriate investments in the built environment to promote youth health and reduce obesity outcomes in Atlantic Canada. Policy-makers and professionals participated in focus groups to discuss the receptiveness of local governments to introducing health considerations into decision-making. Seven facilitated focus groups involved 44 participants from Atlantic Canada. Thematic discourse analysis of the meeting transcripts identified systemic barriers to creating a built environment that fosters health for youth aged 12-15 years. Participants consistently identified four categories of barriers. Financial barriers limit the capacities of local government to build, maintain and operate appropriate facilities. Legacy issues mean that communities inherit a built environment designed to facilitate car use, with inadequate zoning authority to control fast food outlets, and without the means to determine where schools are built or how they are used. Governance barriers derive from government departments with distinct and competing mandates, with a professional structure that privileges engineering, and with funding programs that encourage competition between municipalities. Cultural factors and values affect outcomes: people have adapted to car-oriented living; poverty reduces options for many families; parental fears limit children's mobility; youth receive limited priority in built environment investments. Participants indicated that health issues have increasing profile within local government, making this an opportune time to discuss strategies for optimizing investments in the built environment. The focus group method can foster mutual learning among professionals within government in ways that could advance health promotion.

  2. SUPPORT Tools for Evidence-informed Policymaking in health 18: Planning monitoring and evaluation of policies

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    This article is part of a series written for people responsible for making decisions about health policies and programmes and for those who support these decision makers. The term monitoring is commonly used to describe the process of systematically collecting data to inform policymakers, managers and other stakeholders whether a new policy or programme is being implemented in accordance with their expectations. Indicators are used for monitoring purposes to judge, for example, if objectives are being achieved, or if allocated funds are being spent appropriately. Sometimes the term evaluation is used interchangeably with the term monitoring, but the former usually suggests a stronger focus on the achievement of results. When the term impact evaluation is used, this usually implies that there is a specific attempt to try to determine whether the observed changes in outcomes can be attributed to a particular policy or programme. In this article, we suggest four questions that can be used to guide the monitoring and evaluation of policy or programme options. These are: 1. Is monitoring necessary? 2. What should be measured? 3. Should an impact evaluation be conducted? 4. How should the impact evaluation be done? PMID:20018108

  3. Global environmental change and human health: new challenges to scientist and policy-maker.

    PubMed

    McMichael, A J

    1994-01-01

    Human health may not remain sustainable if damage to the global environment continues. The argument is simple: Earth is essentially a closed system; humans are proliferating and commandeering more surface area, food and energy; the resultant accumulation of waste gases, depletion of soil and water, and loss of biodiversity is starting to overload Earth's carrying capacity. There are limits in any closed system and our species is now pressing against some of them. These are new problems and we cannot be certain of the consequences for human health. A warmer world will probably have more frequent heatwaves, unstable weather, increased spread of mosquito-borne infectious diseases, and disruptions to agriculture. Ozone depletion, if sustained, may cause moderate increases in skin cancer and cataracts, and may damage crop growth and marine stocks. Depletion of agricultural resources, overfishing, and loss of genetic resources from species extinction all entail potentially serious consequences for human health. The manifest uncertainties of these global change processes and the need for prediction, rather than empirical observation, create new challenges to health scientists. Likewise, policy-makers will have to deal with best estimates and long time-frames, informed by understanding of ecological realities.

  4. Using knowledge brokering to promote evidence-based policy-making: The need for support structures.

    PubMed Central

    van Kammen, Jessika; de Savigny, Don; Sewankambo, Nelson

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge brokering is a promising strategy to close the "know-do gap" and foster greater use of research findings and evidence in policy-making. It focuses on organizing the interactive process between the producers and users of knowledge so that they can co-produce feasible and research-informed policy options. We describe a recent successful experience with this novel approach in the Netherlands and discuss the requirements for effective institutionalization of knowledge brokering. We also discuss the potential of this approach to assist health policy development in low-income countries based on the experience of developing the Regional East-African Health (REACH)-Policy Initiative. We believe that intermediary organizations, such as regional networks, dedicated institutional mechanisms and funding agencies, can play key roles in supporting knowledge brokering. We recommend the need to support and learn from the brokerage approach to strengthen the relationship between the research and policy communities and hence move towards a stronger culture of evidence-based policy and policy-relevant research. PMID:16917647

  5. Assessing the evaluability of complex public health interventions: five questions for researchers, funders, and policymakers.

    PubMed

    Ogilvie, David; Cummins, Steven; Petticrew, Mark; White, Martin; Jones, Andy; Wheeler, Kathryn

    2011-06-01

    Evidence to support government programs to improve public health often is weak. Recognition of this "knowledge gap" has led to calls for more and better evaluation, but decisions about priorities for evaluation also need to be addressed in regard to financial restraint. Using England's Healthy Community Challenge Fund as a case study, this article presents a set of questions to stimulate and structure debate among researchers, funders, and policymakers and help make decisions about evaluation within and between complex public health interventions as they evolve from initial concept to dissemination of full-scale intervention packages. This approach can be used to identify the types of knowledge that might be generated from any evaluation, given the strength of evidence available in response to each of five questions, and to support a more systematic consideration of resource allocation decisions, depending on the types of knowledge required. The principles of this approach may be generalizable, and should be tested and refined for other complex public health and wider social interventions. © 2011 Milbank Memorial Fund. Published by Wiley Periodicals Inc.

  6. A Critical Analysis of the Cultural and Linguistic Distinctions between Policymakers and Research: A Case Study of Policy Development in Florida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leslie, David W.; Routh, Dorothy K.

    1991-01-01

    Posits policymakers' and researchers' mutual inability to communicate in compatible language and imagery. Explores several rationales for the divergence between two separate cultures (the academic and the political), referring to an "ecology of games." Illuminates gaps with case material from policymaking in Florida, and develops…

  7. Social contacts and Ecstasy offers: findings of a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Smirnov, Andrew; Najman, Jake M; Legosz, Margot; Wells, Helene; Kemp, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Ecstasy (MDMA) use is relatively common among young adults in many developed countries. However, little is known about how young non-users are first introduced to Ecstasy, including the relative contribution of peer networks and individual risk factors. We assess the role of social contact with Ecstasy-using peers in regard to young adults' exposure to offers of Ecstasy, using data from the Natural History Study, a population-based study conducted in Australia. Population screening of young adults (19- to 23-year-olds) identified a sample of young Ecstasy users (N = 315) and a comparison group of Ecstasy-naïve participants (N = 199). Two outcomes are considered: being exposed to any Ecstasy offers and being exposed to > 3 offers. Extensive social contact with Ecstasy users was defined as knowing > 10 Ecstasy users. Of the Ecstasy-naïve young adults, > 40% had ever received Ecstasy offers. Extensive social contact with Ecstasy users independently predicted exposure to multiple (> 3) Ecstasy offers for Ecstasy-naïve young adults. These findings indicate that Ecstasy offers are widespread among users and non-users of Ecstasy. For non-users, exposure to Ecstasy offers occurs through social contact with drug-using peers independently of individual risk factors. The pervasiveness of Ecstasy offers suggests that universal education concerning Ecstasy use is required.

  8. 20 CFR 655.122 - Contents of job offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Prohibition against preferential treatment of aliens. The employer's job offer must offer to U.S. workers no... are explained in more detail in 29 CFR part 531. (q) Disclosure of work contract. The employer must...

  9. 20 CFR 655.122 - Contents of job offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Prohibition against preferential treatment of aliens. The employer's job offer must offer to U.S. workers no... are explained in more detail in 29 CFR part 531. (q) Disclosure of work contract. The employer must...

  10. 20 CFR 655.122 - Contents of job offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Prohibition against preferential treatment of aliens. The employer's job offer must offer to U.S. workers no... are explained in more detail in 29 CFR part 531. (q) Disclosure of work contract. The employer must...

  11. 43 CFR 3110.4 - Requirements for offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 3110.3-3(c) of this title. (c) An offer shall be limited to either public domain minerals or acquired...) Compliance with subpart 3102 shall be required. (e) All offers for leases should name the United States...

  12. 32 CFR 644.87 - Preparation and execution of offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... authority, a draft of the offer will be prepared, with particular attention to the following instructions... Engineer will notify the using service, in the case of military acquisition, that the Offer to Sell has...

  13. 32 CFR 644.87 - Preparation and execution of offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... authority, a draft of the offer will be prepared, with particular attention to the following instructions... Engineer will notify the using service, in the case of military acquisition, that the Offer to Sell has...

  14. 32 CFR 644.87 - Preparation and execution of offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... authority, a draft of the offer will be prepared, with particular attention to the following instructions... Engineer will notify the using service, in the case of military acquisition, that the Offer to Sell has...

  15. 48 CFR 19.804 - Evaluation, offering, and acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Program) 19.804 Evaluation, offering, and acceptance. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evaluation, offering, and acceptance. 19.804 Section 19.804 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION...

  16. 48 CFR 619.804 - Evaluation, offering, and acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....804 Evaluation, offering, and acceptance. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evaluation, offering, and acceptance. 619.804 Section 619.804 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE...

  17. Low-wage workers and health insurance coverage: can policymakers target them through their employers?

    PubMed

    Long, S H; Marquis, M S

    2001-01-01

    Many policy initiatives to increase health insurance coverage would subsidize employers to offer coverage or subsidize employees to participate in their employers' health plans. Using data from the 1997 Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Employer Health Insurance Survey, we contrast "low-wage employers" with all other employers. Employees in low-wage businesses have significantly worse access to employment-based insurance than other employees do; they are less likely to work for an employer that offers insurance, less likely to be eligible if working in a business that offers insurance, and less likely to be enrolled if eligible. Low-wage employers contribute lower shares of premiums and offer less generous benefits than other employers do. Policies that would target subsidies to selected employers to increase insurance offers to low-wage workers are difficult to design, however, because several commonly mentioned employer characteristics (including firm size) are found to be poor indicators of low-wage worker concentration. Programs that would set minimum standards for employer plans to be eligible for "buy-ins" need to base these standards on the less generous terms offered by low-wage employers in order to effectively reach low-wage workers and their dependents.

  18. Conflicts of interest and critiques of the use of systematic reviews in policymaking: an analysis of opinion articles

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Strong opinions for or against the use of systematic reviews to inform policymaking have been published in the medical literature. The purpose of this paper was to examine whether funding sources and author financial conflicts of interest were associated with whether an opinion article was supportive or critical of the use of systematic reviews for policymaking. We examined the nature of the arguments within each article, the types of disclosures present, and whether these articles are being cited in the academic literature. Methods We searched for articles that expressed opinions about the use of systematic reviews for policymaking. We included articles that presented opinions about the use of systematic reviews for policymaking and categorized each article as supportive or critical of such use. We extracted all arguments regarding the use of systematic reviews from each article and inductively coded each as internal or external validity argument, categorized disclosed funding sources, conflicts of interest, and article types, and systematically searched for undisclosed financial ties. We counted the number of times each article has been cited in the “Web of Science.” We report descriptive statistics. Results Articles that were critical of the use of systematic reviews (n = 25) for policymaking had disclosed or undisclosed industry ties 2.3 times more often than articles that were supportive of the use (n = 34). We found that editorials, comments, letters, and perspectives lacked published disclosures nearly twice as often (60% v. 33%) as other types of articles. We also found that editorials, comments, letters, and perspectives were less frequently cited in the academic literature than other article types (median number of citations = 5 v. 19). Conclusions It is important to consider whether an article has industry ties when evaluating the strength of the argument for or against the use of systematic reviews for policymaking. We found that journal

  19. 7 CFR 1738.251 - Loan offer and loan closing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Loan offer and loan closing. 1738.251 Section 1738..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL BROADBAND ACCESS LOANS AND LOAN GUARANTEES Closing, Servicing, and Reporting § 1738.251 Loan offer and loan closing. The Agency will notify the applicant of the loan offer,...

  20. 7 CFR 1738.251 - Loan offer and loan closing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Loan offer and loan closing. 1738.251 Section 1738..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL BROADBAND ACCESS LOANS AND LOAN GUARANTEES Closing, Servicing, and Reporting § 1738.251 Loan offer and loan closing. The Agency will notify the applicant of the loan offer,...

  1. 32 CFR 644.87 - Preparation and execution of offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Acquisition Acquisition by Purchase, Donation, and Transfer § 644.87 Preparation and execution of offers. (a) Fee acquisition offer form. The use of the latest revision of ENG....84(d) are authorized to accept offers to sell for the acquisition of land or interests in land and...

  2. 12 CFR 563g.4 - Non-public offering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SECURITIES OFFERINGS § 563g.4 Non-public offering. Offers and sales of securities by an issuer that satisfy the conditions of paragraph (a... Securities Act and §§ 563g.3(b) and 563g.3(d) of this part. However, an issuer shall not be deemed to be...

  3. 12 CFR 563g.4 - Non-public offering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SECURITIES OFFERINGS § 563g.4 Non-public offering. Offers and sales of securities by an issuer that satisfy the conditions of paragraph (a... Securities Act and §§ 563g.3(b) and 563g.3(d) of this part. However, an issuer shall not be deemed to be...

  4. 12 CFR 197.4 - Non-public offering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SECURITIES OFFERINGS § 197.4 Non-public offering. Offers and sales of securities by an issuer that satisfy the conditions of paragraph (a... Securities Act and §§ 197.3(b) and 197.3(d) of this part. However, an issuer shall not be deemed to be not...

  5. 12 CFR 197.4 - Non-public offering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SECURITIES OFFERINGS § 197.4 Non-public offering. Offers and sales of securities by an issuer that satisfy the conditions of paragraph (a... Securities Act and §§ 197.3(b) and 197.3(d) of this part. However, an issuer shall not be deemed to be not...

  6. 31 CFR 352.0 - Offering of bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offering of bonds. 352.0 Section 352.0 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE....0 Offering of bonds. The Secretary of the Treasury offered to the people of the United States...

  7. 31 CFR 342.0 - Offering of notes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offering of notes. 342.0 Section 342.0 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT OFFERING OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS NOTES § 342.0 Offering...

  8. 47 CFR 76.1621 - Equipment compatibility offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Equipment compatibility offer. 76.1621 Section... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Notices § 76.1621 Equipment compatibility offer. Cable system... offer to supply each subscriber with special equipment that will enable the simultaneous reception of...

  9. 12 CFR 16.4 - Communications not deemed an offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Communications not deemed an offer. 16.4 Section 16.4 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SECURITIES OFFERING DISCLOSURE RULES § 16.4 Communications not deemed an offer. (a) The OCC will not deem the...

  10. 48 CFR 22.1203-4 - Method of job offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Method of job offer. 22.1203-4 Section 22.1203-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... Under Service Contracts 22.1203-4 Method of job offer. A job offer made by a successor contractor must...

  11. 48 CFR 22.1203-4 - Method of job offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Method of job offer. 22.1203-4 Section 22.1203-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... Under Service Contracts 22.1203-4 Method of job offer. A job offer made by a successor contractor must...

  12. 31 CFR 375.13 - What requirements apply to offers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What requirements apply to offers? 375.13 Section 375.13 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued... offers. There is no limit on the number of offers you may make for each eligible security. There is also...

  13. 7 CFR 3560.657 - Processing and closing incentive offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Processing and closing incentive offers. 3560.657... § 3560.657 Processing and closing incentive offers. (a) Borrower responsibilities. If a borrower accepts the Agency's offer of incentives, the borrower must complete the following actions: (1) Subject to the...

  14. 12 CFR 239.59 - Offers and sales of stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Offers and sales of stock. 239.59 Section 239... SYSTEM (CONTINUED) MUTUAL HOLDING COMPANIES (REGULATION MM) Conversions From Mutual to Stock Form § 239.59 Offers and sales of stock. (a) Purchase priorities. The mutual holding company must offer to...

  15. 12 CFR 239.59 - Offers and sales of stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Offers and sales of stock. 239.59 Section 239... SYSTEM (CONTINUED) MUTUAL HOLDING COMPANIES (REGULATION MM) Conversions From Mutual to Stock Form § 239.59 Offers and sales of stock. (a) Purchase priorities. The mutual holding company must offer to...

  16. 12 CFR 239.59 - Offers and sales of stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Offers and sales of stock. 239.59 Section 239... SYSTEM (CONTINUED) MUTUAL HOLDING COMPANIES (REGULATION MM) Conversions from Mutual to Stock Form § 239.59 Offers and sales of stock. (a) Purchase priorities. The mutual holding company must offer to...

  17. Leveraging Community Colleges in the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act: A Blueprint for State Policymakers. State-Federal Partnerships in Postsecondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Colleen; Love, Ivy

    2016-01-01

    The Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA) of 2014 offers multiple opportunities to align the workforce development efforts of these stakeholders through structural measures and targeted support. In this paper, the authors examine ways that WIOA can influence a state's job training environment and highlight the crucial role of community…

  18. 42 CFR 417.153 - Offer of HMO alternative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Offer of HMO alternative. 417.153 Section 417.153... § 417.153 Offer of HMO alternative. (a) Basic rule. An employing entity that is subject to this subpart and that elects to include one or more qualified HMOs must offer the HMO alternative in accordance...

  19. 48 CFR 452.211-71 - Equal Products Offered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Equal Products Offered... Equal Products Offered. As prescribed in 411.171, insert the following or substantially the same clause... characteristics requirements of the Government. Equal Products Offered (NOV 1996) (a) Offerors proposing to...

  20. 48 CFR 452.211-71 - Equal Products Offered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Equal Products Offered... Equal Products Offered. As prescribed in 411.171, insert the following or substantially the same clause... characteristics requirements of the Government. Equal Products Offered (NOV 1996) (a) Offerors proposing to...