Science.gov

Sample records for offers policymakers multiple

  1. Exercising their influence. As policymakers struggle in battle against obesity, providers and insurers are offering their own solutions.

    PubMed

    McKinney, Maureen; Zigmond, Jessica; Evans, Melanie; Kutscher, Beth; Robeznieks, Andis

    2013-03-18

    Policymakers aren't making much progress in their battle against obesity, with New York Mayor Michael Bloomberg, left, suffering a big blow last week when a judge invalidated limits on sugary drinks. But providers and insurers are using their influence to offer a different range of solutions.

  2. Negotiating for more: the multiple equivalent simultaneous offer.

    PubMed

    Heller, Richard E

    2014-02-01

    Whether a doctor, professional baseball manager, or a politician, having successful negotiation skills is a critical part of being a leader. Building upon prior journal articles on negotiation strategy, the author presents the concept of the multiple equivalent simultaneous offer (MESO). The concept of a MESO is straightforward: as opposed to making a single offer, make multiple offers with several variables. Each offer alters the different variables, such that the end result of each offer is equivalent from the perspective of the party making the offer. Research has found several advantages to the use of MESOs. For example, using MESOs, an offer was more likely to be accepted, and the counterparty was more likely to be satisfied with the negotiated deal. Additional benefits have been documented as well, underscoring why a prepared radiology business leader should understand the theory and practice of MESO.

  3. Multiple Streams Approach to Tobacco Control Policymaking in a Tobacco-Growing State

    PubMed Central

    Mamudu, Hadii M.; Dadkar, Sumati; Veeranki, Sreenivas P.; He, Yi; Barnes, Richard; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2014-01-01

    Smokefree policies (SFPs) have diffused throughout the US and worldwide. However, the development of SFPs in the difficult policy environment of tobacco-producing states and economies worldwide has not been well-explored. In 2007, Tennessee, the third largest tobacco producer in the US, enacted the Non-Smoker Protection Act (NSPA). This study utilizes the multiple streams model to provide understanding of why and how this policy was developed by triangulating interviews with key stakeholders and legislative debates with archival documents. In June 2006, the Governor unexpectedly announced support for SFP, which created a window of opportunity for policy change. The Campaign for Healthy and Responsible Tennessee, a health coalition, seized this opportunity and worked with the administration and the Tennessee Restaurant Association to negotiate a comprehensive SFP, however, a weaker bill was used by the legislative leadership to develop the NSPA. Although the Governor and the Tennessee Restaurant Association’s support generated an environment for 100 % SFP, health groups did not fully capitalize on this environmental change and settled for a weak policy with several exemptions. This study suggests the importance for proponents of policy change to understand changes in their environment and be willing and able to capitalize on these changes. PMID:24370600

  4. 48 CFR 538.270 - Evaluation of multiple award schedule (MAS) offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evaluation of multiple... and Administering Federal Supply Schedules 538.270 Evaluation of multiple award schedule (MAS) offers... determining the Government's price negotiation objectives, consider the following factors: (1)...

  5. Communication: Influencing policymakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jiaying

    2017-02-01

    Policymakers play a critical role in the global response to climate change. Now, research reveals an effective visual strategy for communicating climate science to policymakers and climate negotiators.

  6. Does NASA's Constellation Architecture Offer Opportunities to Achieve Multiple Additional Goals in Space?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronson, Harley A.; Lester, Daniel F.

    2008-01-01

    Every major NASA human spaceflight program in the last four decades has been modified to achieve goals in space not incorporated within the original design goals: the Apollo Applications Program, Skylab, Space Shuttle, and International Space Station. Several groups in the US have been identifying major future science goals, the science facilities necessary to investigate them, as well as possible roles for augmented versions of elements of NASA's Constellation program. Specifically, teams in the astronomy community have been developing concepts for very capable missions to follow the James Webb Space Telescope that could take advantage of - or require - free-space operations by astronauts and/or robots. Taking as one example, the Single-Aperture Far-InfraRed (SAFIR) telescope with a approx.10+ m aperture proposed for operation in the 2020 timeframe. According to current NASA plans, the Ares V launch vehicle (or a variant) will be available about the same time, as will the capability to transport astronauts to the vicinity of the Moon via the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle and associated systems. [As the lunar surface offers no advantages - and major disadvantages - for most major optical systems, the expensive system for landing and operating on the lunar surface is not required.] Although as currently conceived, SAFIR and other astronomical missions will operate at the Sun-Earth L2 location, it appears trivial to travel for servicing to the more accessible Earth-Moon L1,2 locations. Moreover, as the recent Orbital Express and Automated Transfer Vehicle missions have demonstrated, future robotic capabilities should offer capabilities that would (remotely) extend human presence far beyond the vicinity of the Earth. In addition to multiplying the value of NASA's architecture for future human spaceflight to achieve the goals multiple major stakeholders, if humans one day travel beyond the Earth-Moon system - say, to Mars - technologies and capabilities for operating

  7. Does NASA's Constellation Architecture Offer Opportunities to Achieve Multiple Additional Goals in Space?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronson, Harley; Lester, Daniel F.

    2008-01-01

    Every major NASA human spaceflight program in the last four decades has been modified to achieve goals in space not incorporated within the original design goals: the Apollo Applications Program, Skylab, Space Shuttle, and International Space Station. Several groups in the US have been identifying major future science goals, the science facilities necessary to investigate them, as well as possible roles for augmented versions of elements of NASA's Constellation program. Specifically, teams in the astronomy community have been developing concepts for very capable missions to follow the James Webb Space Telescope that could take advantage of - or require - free-space operations by astronauts and/or robots. Taking as one example, the Single-Aperture Far-InfraRed (SAFIR) telescope with a approx. 10+ m aperture proposed for operation in the 2020 timeframe. According to current NASA plans, the Ares V launch vehicle (or a variant) will be available about the same time, as will the capability to transport astronauts to the vicinity of the Moon via the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle and associated systems. [As the lunar surface offers no advantages - and major disadvantages - for most major optical systems, the expensive system for landing and operating on the lunar surface is not required.] Although as currently conceived, SAFIR and other astronomical missions will operate at the Sun-Earth L2 location, it appears trivial to travel for servicing to the more accessible Earth-Moon L1,2 locations. Moreover. as the recent Orbital Express and Automated Transfer Vehicle missions have demonstrated, future robotic capabilities should offer capabilities that would (remotely) extend human presence far beyond the vicinity of the Earth. In addition to multiplying the value of NASA's architecture for future human spaceflight to achieve the goals multiple major stakeholders. if humans one day travel beyond the Earth-Moon system - say, to Mars - technologies and capabilities for operating

  8. Family Participation in Policymaking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caplan, Elizabeth, Ed.; Blankenship, Kelly, Ed.; McManus, Marilyn, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This bulletin focuses on family participation in mental health policymaking and highlights state efforts to increase family involvement. Articles include: (1) "Promoting Family Member Involvement in Children's Mental Health Policy Making Bodies," which describes how different states are promoting family member involvement in various statutory and…

  9. Does the NASA Constellation Architecture Offer Opportunities to Achieve Multiple Additional Goals in Space?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronson, Harley; Lester, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Every major NASA human spaceflight program in the last four decades has been modified to achieve goals in space not incorporated within the original design goals: the Apollo Applications Program, Skylab, Space Shuttle, and International Space Station. Several groups in the U.S. have been identifying major future science goals, the science facilities necessary to investigate them, as well as possible roles for augmented versions of elements of NASA's Constellation program. Specifically, teams in the astronomy community have been developing concepts for very capable missions to follow the James Webb Space Telescope that could take advantage of - or require - free-space operations by astronauts and/or robots. Taking as one example, the Single-Aperture Far-InfraRed (SAFIR) telescope with a 10+ m aperture proposed for operation in the 2020 timeframe. According to current NASA plans, the Ares V launch vehicle (or a variant) will be available about the same time, as will the capability to transport astronauts to the vicinity of the Moon via the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle and associated systems. [As the lunar surface offers no advantages - and major disadvantages - for most major optical systems, the expensive system for landing and operating on the lunar surface is not required.] Although as currently conceived, SAFIR and other astronomical missions will operate at the Sun-Earth L2 location, it appears trivial to travel for servicing to the more accessible Earth-Moon L1,2 locations. Moreover, as the recent Orbital Express and Automated Transfer Vehicle Missions have demonstrated, future robotic capabilities should offer capabilities that would (remotely) extend human presence far beyond the vicinity of the Earth.

  10. British nuclear policymaking

    SciTech Connect

    Bowie, C.J.; Platt, A.

    1984-01-01

    This study analyzes the domestic political, economic, and bureaucratic factors that affect the nuclear policymaking process in Great Britain. Its major conclusion is that, although there have been changes in that process in recent years (notably the current involvement of a segment of the British public in the debate about the deployment of intermediate-range nuclear forces), future British nuclear policymaking will remain much what it has been in the past. Three ideas are central to understanding British thinking on the subject: (1) Britain's long-standing resolve to have her own national nuclear force is largely traceable to her desire to maintain first-rank standing among the nations of the world in spite of loss of empire. (2) Financial considerations have always been important--so much so that they have usually dominated issues of nuclear policy. (3) The executive branch of government dominates the nuclear policymaking process but does not always present a united front. The United States heavily influences British nuclear policy through having supplied Britain since the late 1950s with nuclear data and components of nuclear weapon systems such as Polaris and Trident. The relationship works both ways since the U.S. depends on Britain as a base for deployment of both conventional and nuclear systems.

  11. 29 CFR 2520.101-2 - Annual reporting by multiple employer welfare arrangements and certain other entities offering or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Annual reporting by multiple employer welfare arrangements... and Disclosure Requirements § 2520.101-2 Annual reporting by multiple employer welfare arrangements... annual reporting by MEWAs that provide benefits that consist of medical care and by certain entities...

  12. Advising Policymakers through the Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Klaus F.

    2004-01-01

    In the information age, an exchange with the media is part of the duties the economics profession has to deliver to educate the public. A key issue is the education of policymakers through the media. It is the silver bullet of policy advice in comparison to commissioned research and face-to-face advice provided to the politician. It also pleases…

  13. Can Qualitative Researchers Answer Policymakers' What-Works Question?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donmoyer, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The article asks whether constructivist qualitative researchers have anything to offer policymakers who expect researchers to tell them what works. The first part of the article addresses philosophical objections to characterizing the social world in cause/effect terms. Specifically, it considers whether it is legitimate for qualitative…

  14. Teacher Data Literacy: It's about Time. A Brief for State Policymakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Data Quality Campaign, 2014

    2014-01-01

    One element of quality teaching for improving student outcomes is effective data use. To date, however, policies have not gone far enough to promote the skills teachers need to be data literate. This brief for state policymakers offers a proposed definition of data literacy along with recommendations for state and federal policymakers. [The…

  15. Interpretation and use of evidence in state policymaking: a qualitative analysis

    PubMed Central

    Apollonio, Dorie E; Bero, Lisa A

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Researchers advocating for evidence-informed policy have attempted to encourage policymakers to develop a greater understanding of research and researchers to develop a better understanding of the policymaking process. Our aim was to apply findings drawn from studies of the policymaking process, specifically the theory of policy windows, to identify strategies used to integrate evidence into policymaking and points in the policymaking process where evidence was more or less relevant. Methods Our observational study relied on interviews conducted with 24 policymakers from the USA who had been trained to interpret scientific research in multiple iterations of an evidence-based workshop. Participants were asked to describe cases where they had been involved in making health policy and to provide examples in which research was used, either successfully or unsuccessfully. Interviews were transcribed, independently coded by multiple members of the study team and analysed for content using key words, concepts identified by participants and concepts arising from review of the texts. Results Our results suggest that policymakers who focused on health issues used multiple strategies to encourage evidence-informed policymaking. The respondents used a strict definition of what constituted evidence, and relied on their experience with research to discourage the use of less rigorous research. Their experience suggested that evidence was less useful in identifying problems, encouraging political action or ensuring feasibility and more useful in developing policy alternatives. Conclusions Past research has suggested multiple strategies to increase the use of evidence in policymaking, including the development of rapid-response research and policy-oriented summaries of data. Our findings suggest that these strategies may be most relevant to the policymaking stream, which develops policy alternatives. In addition, we identify several strategies that policymakers and

  16. A State Policymaker's STEM Playbook. Promising Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinth, Jennifer; Goetz, Tami

    2016-01-01

    Science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) has captured the attention of state policymakers who are concerned about equitable access to high-quality educational experiences and preparing and inspiring students to pursue STEM careers. Yet in many states, STEM policymaking efforts have not achieved their intended return on investment…

  17. Modelers and policymakers : improving the relationships.

    SciTech Connect

    Karas, Thomas H.

    2004-06-01

    On April 22 and 23, 2004, a diverse group of 14 policymakers, modelers, analysts, and scholars met with some 22 members of the Sandia National Laboratories staff to explores ways in which the relationships between modelers and policymakers in the energy and environment fields (with an emphasis on energy) could be made more productive for both. This report is not a transcription of that workshop, but draws very heavily on its proceedings. It first describes the concept of modeling, the varying ways in which models are used to support policymaking, and the institutional context for those uses. It then proposes that the goal of modelers and policymakers should be a relationship of mutual trust, built on a foundation of communication, supported by the twin pillars of policy relevance and technical credibility. The report suggests 20 guidelines to help modelers improve the relationship, followed by 10 guidelines to help policymakers toward the same goal.

  18. Mitigating Evidentiary Bias in Planning and Policy-Making

    PubMed Central

    Parkhurst, Justin

    2017-01-01

    The field of cognitive psychology has increasingly provided scientific insights to explore how humans are subject to unconscious sources of evidentiary bias, leading to errors that can affect judgement and decision-making. Increasingly these insights are being applied outside the realm of individual decision-making to the collective arena of policy-making as well. A recent editorial in this journal has particularly lauded the work of the World Bank for undertaking an open and critical reflection on sources of unconscious bias in its own expert staff that could undermine achievement of its key goals. The World Bank case indeed serves as a remarkable case of a global policy-making agency making its own critical reflections transparent for all to see. Yet the recognition that humans are prone to cognitive errors has been known for centuries, and the scientific exploration of such biases provided by cognitive psychology is now well-established. What still remains to be developed, however, is a widespread body of work that can inform efforts to institutionalise strategies to mitigate the multiple sources and forms of evidentiary bias arising within administrative and policy-making environments. Addressing this gap will require a programme of conceptual and empirical work that supports robust development and evaluation of institutional bias mitigation strategies. The cognitive sciences provides a scientific basis on which to proceed, but a critical priority will now be the application of that science to improve policy-making within those agencies taking responsibility for social welfare and development programmes.

  19. Fluorofenidone Offers Improved Renoprotection at Early Interventions during the Course of Diabetic Nephropathy in db/db Mice via Multiple Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Xuan; Mei, Wenjuan; Xie, Yanyun; Liu, Jishi; Lu, Miaomiao; Peng, Xiongqun; Yang, Congyin; Zhang, Xin; Xie, Mingyan; Luo, Renna; Yuan, Xiangning; Huang, Ling; Wu, Lin; Qin, Jiao; Peng, Yu; Jia, Xiujie; Hu, Gaoyun; Tang, Damu; Tao, Lijian

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) remains the leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), a situation that is in part attributable to the lack of effective treatments. Fluorofenidone is a newly developed reagent with anti-fibrotic activity. While fluorofenidone was previously demonstrated to possess renoprotection from DN pathogenesis in db/db mice, the protective process and its underlying mechanisms have not been well studied. To characterize fluorofenidone-derived renoprotection, we treated 5, 8, or 12-week old db/db mice with daily doses of placebo, fluorofenidone, or losartan until 24 weeks of age; the time at which diabetes and DN were fully developed in placebo-treated animals. In comparison to db/db mice receiving fluorofenidone at 12-weeks old, those treated at 5-weeks had less glomerular expansion and better preservation of renal functions, judged by serum creatinine levels, albumin to creatinine ratio, and urinary albumin excretion (mg/24 hours). These benefits of early treatment were associated with significant reductions of multiple DN-promoting events, such as decreased expression of TGF-β1 and the p22phox subunit of NADPH oxidase as well as downregulated activation of protein kinase C-zeta (ζ), ERK and AKT. This improvement in renoprotection following early interventions is not a unique property of DN pathogenesis, as losartan does not apparently offer the same benefits and is not more renoprotective than fluorofenidone. Additionally, the enhanced renoprotection provided by fluorofenidone did not affect the diabetic process, as it did not alter serum levels of glycated serum proteins, glucose, triglyceride or cholesterol. Collectively, we provide evidence that fluorofenidone offers improved renoprotection at early stages of DN pathogenesis. PMID:25347392

  20. Factors that encourage and discourage policy-making to prevent childhood obesity: Experience in the United States.

    PubMed

    Rutkow, Lainie; Jones-Smith, Jesse; Walters, Hannah J; O'Hara, Marguerite; Bleich, Sara N

    2016-09-09

    Policy-makers throughout the world seek to address childhood obesity prevention, yet little is known about factors that influence policy-makers' decisions on this topic. From September 2014 to April 2015, we conducted 43 semi-structured interviews about factors that encourage and discourage policy-makers' support for childhood obesity prevention policies. We interviewed policy-makers (n = 12) and two other groups engaged with childhood obesity prevention policies: representatives of non-governmental organizations (n = 24) and academics (n = 7). Factors that encourage policy-makers' support for childhood obesity prevention policies included: positive impact on government finances, an existing evidence base, partnerships with community-based collaborators, and consistency with policy-makers' priorities. Factors that discourage policy-makers' support included the following: perceptions about government's role, food and beverage industry opposition, and policy-makers' beliefs about personal responsibility. As public health practitioners, advocates, and others seek to advance childhood obesity prevention in the U.S. and elsewhere, the factors we identified offer insights into ways to frame proposed policies and strategies to influence policy-makers.

  1. Factors that encourage and discourage policy-making to prevent childhood obesity: Experience in the United States.

    PubMed

    Rutkow, Lainie; Jones-Smith, Jesse; Walters, Hannah J; O'Hara, Marguerite; Bleich, Sara N

    2016-12-01

    Policy-makers throughout the world seek to address childhood obesity prevention, yet little is known about factors that influence policy-makers' decisions on this topic. From September 2014 to April 2015, we conducted 43 semi-structured interviews about factors that encourage and discourage policy-makers' support for childhood obesity prevention policies. We interviewed policy-makers (n = 12) and two other groups engaged with childhood obesity prevention policies: representatives of non-governmental organizations (n = 24) and academics (n = 7). Factors that encourage policy-makers' support for childhood obesity prevention policies included: positive impact on government finances, an existing evidence base, partnerships with community-based collaborators, and consistency with policy-makers' priorities. Factors that discourage policy-makers' support included the following: perceptions about government's role, food and beverage industry opposition, and policy-makers' beliefs about personal responsibility. As public health practitioners, advocates, and others seek to advance childhood obesity prevention in the U.S. and elsewhere, the factors we identified offer insights into ways to frame proposed policies and strategies to influence policy-makers.

  2. SUPPORT Tools for evidence-informed health Policymaking (STP) 1: What is evidence-informed policymaking?

    PubMed

    Oxman, Andrew D; Lavis, John N; Lewin, Simon; Fretheim, Atle

    2009-12-16

    This article is part of a series written for people responsible for making decisions about health policies and programmes and for those who support these decision makers. In this article, we discuss the following three questions: What is evidence? What is the role of research evidence in informing health policy decisions? What is evidence-informed policymaking? Evidence-informed health policymaking is an approach to policy decisions that aims to ensure that decision making is well-informed by the best available research evidence. It is characterised by the systematic and transparent access to, and appraisal of, evidence as an input into the policymaking process. The overall process of policymaking is not assumed to be systematic and transparent. However, within the overall process of policymaking, systematic processes are used to ensure that relevant research is identified, appraised and used appropriately. These processes are transparent in order to ensure that others can examine what research evidence was used to inform policy decisions, as well as the judgements made about the evidence and its implications. Evidence-informed policymaking helps policymakers gain an understanding of these processes.

  3. Education Policy-Making and Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Greg; Cook, Ian

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the global policy convergence toward high-stakes testing in schools and the use of test results to "steer at a distance", particularly as it applies to policy-makers' promise to improve teacher quality. Using Deleuze's three syntheses of time in the context of the Australian policy blueprint Quality Education, this…

  4. Formative Assessment: Guidance for Early Childhood Policymakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley-Ayers, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    This policy report provides a guide and framework to early childhood policymakers considering formative assessment. The report defines formative assessment and outlines its process and application in the context of early childhood. The substance of this document is the issues for consideration in the implementation of the formative assessment…

  5. Increasing Charter School Accountability through Interventions and Closures: A Guide For State Policymakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafson, Joey; Keller, Eric; LaVallee, Robert E.; Stewart, Nichole H.

    2010-01-01

    A basic premise of charter school reform in public education is offering more autonomy in the use of funds and the design of curriculum in exchange for greater accountability in academic and financial outcomes. This premise poses a significant policy challenge for state policymakers to establish an appropriate level of regulation; charter schools…

  6. A Policymaker's Guide to Scaling Home Energy Upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    LeBaron, Robin; Saul-Rinaldi, Kara

    2015-09-01

    There has never been a better time to launch initiatives to promote residential energy efficiency savings. Over the past several decades, residential retrofit programs have demonstrated that energy efficiency measures contribute to achieving multiple benefits, including but not limited to reductions in home energy consumption, stabilization improvements for the grid by shaving peak loads, saving consumers millions on utility bills, and significantly reducing carbon emissions. Although a number of barriers to widespread uptake of home energy upgrades persist, the lessons learned as a result of the 2009 stimulus funding1 have resulted in a set of policy approaches that create new strategies for taking residential energy efficiency to scale.2 The identification of these approaches is well timed; energy efficiency is often the least expensive and most cost effective way to comply with a variety of federal, state and local policies. This Guide is designed to help state and local policymakers to take full advantage of new policy developments by providing them with a comprehensive set of tools to support launching or accelerating residential energy efficiency programs. It is written primarily for state and local policymakers, including state and local executives, legislators, public utility commissioners, and the staff who advise them.

  7. Cloning expression and analysis of phytochelatin synthase (pcs) gene from Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 offering multiple stress tolerance in Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Chaurasia, Neha; Mishra, Yogesh; Rai, Lal Chand

    2008-11-07

    Phytochelatin synthase (PCS) is involved in the synthesis of phytochelatins (PCs), plays role in heavy metal detoxification. The present study describes for first time the functional expression and characterization of pcs gene of Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 in Escherichia coli in terms of offering protection against heat, salt, carbofuron (pesticide), cadmium, copper, and UV-B stress. The involvement of pcs gene in tolerance to above abiotic stresses was investigated by cloning of pcs gene in expression vector pGEX-5X-2 and its transformation in E. coli BL21 (DE3). The E. coli cells transformed with pGEX-5X-pcs showed better growth than control cells (pGEX-5X-2) under temperature (47 deg. C), NaCl (6% w/v), carbofuron (0.025 mg ml{sup -1}), CdCl{sub 2} (4 mM), CuCl{sub 2} (1 mM), and UV-B (10 min) exposure. The enhanced expression of pcs gene revealed by RT-PCR analysis under above stresses at different time intervals further advocates its role in tolerance against above abiotic stresses.

  8. Offer/Acceptance Ratio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Mimi

    1997-01-01

    Explores how human resource professionals, with above average offer/acceptance ratios, streamline their recruitment efforts. Profiles company strategies with internships, internal promotion, cooperative education programs, and how to get candidates to accept offers. Also discusses how to use the offer/acceptance ratio as a measure of program…

  9. Policymaking and the Uses of History. Review Essay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuban, Larry

    1991-01-01

    Praises Harold Silver's book "Education, Change, and the Policy Process" for its complex, thoughtful essays justifying the use of history to make informed educational policy. Questions Silver's strong focus on top policymakers and his failure to acknowledge policymakers' usual reliance on intuition and ordinary knowledge, not scholarly studies.…

  10. What Policymakers Can Do to Make Education Inclusive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pijl, Sip Jan; Frissen, Paul H. A.

    2009-01-01

    Inclusive education challenges all schools to cater for a wider range of students. This implies that schools and teachers have to change. This literature study analyses how, if at all, policymakers can bring about changes in schools. Specific steering concepts of policymakers, whose interventions seem to address schools as "machine" bureaucracies,…

  11. HRD Policymaking in Companies: An Interpretation of the Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wognum, Ida

    1998-01-01

    Usable responses from 106 of 199 Dutch human resources practitioners in industry, transportation, and banking revealed significant differences in human resource policymaking and strategic choices among these sectors. Better interaction between policymakers and human resource departments is needed to align personnel practices with company needs.…

  12. POLICYMAKING UNDER UNCERTAINTY: ROUTINE SCREENING FOR INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE

    PubMed Central

    Dagher, Rada K.; Garza, Mary A.; Kozhimannil, Katy Backes

    2013-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant public health issue affecting around 3 million U.S. women during their lifetimes; this paper provides guidance to policymakers on addressing IPV. In 2011, an Institute of Medicine panel recommended routine IPV screening for women and adolescents as part of comprehensive preventive care services, which is in conflict with the 2004 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendations. The current evidence base for policymaking suffers weaknesses related to study design which should be addressed in future research. Meanwhile, policymakers should consider available evidence in their settings, assess local needs, and make recommendations where appropriate. PMID:25011677

  13. Top priorities of Canadian and American policymakers for conservation science

    EPA Science Inventory

    We summarize the content of America's "top 40" conservation research questions and how they can inform policy and management needs that emerged from informal interviews with senior policymakers and other decision makers

  14. NREL Geothermal Policymakers' Guidebooks Web site (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-10-01

    This document highlights the NREL Geothermal Policymakers' Guidebooks Web site, including the five steps to effective geothermal policy development for geothermal electricity generation and geothermal heating and cooling technologies.

  15. Using systems thinking in state health policymaking: an educational initiative.

    PubMed

    Minyard, Karen J; Ferencik, Rachel; Ann Phillips, Mary; Soderquist, Chris

    2014-06-01

    In response to limited examples of opportunities for state policymakers to learn about and productively discuss the difficult, adaptive challenges of our health system, the Georgia Health Policy Center developed an educational initiative that applies systems thinking to health policymaking. We created the Legislative Health Policy Certificate Program - an in-depth, multi-session series for lawmakers and their staff - concentrating on building systems thinking competencies and health content knowledge by applying a range of systems thinking tools: behavior over time graphs, stock and flow maps, and a system dynamics-based learning lab (a simulatable model of childhood obesity). Legislators were taught to approach policy issues from the big picture, consider changing dynamics, and explore higher-leverage interventions to address Georgia's most intractable health challenges. Our aim was to determine how we could improve the policymaking process by providing a systems thinking-focused educational program for legislators. Over 3 years, the training program resulted in policymakers' who are able to think more broadly about difficult health issues. The program has yielded valuable insights into the design and delivery of policymaker education that could be applied to various disciplines outside the legislative process.

  16. Public Schools as Partners in Rural Development: Considerations for Policymakers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmon, Hobart L.

    This paper describes four considerations for policymakers who wish to have public schools serve as viable partners in the rural development efforts of their communities. First, schools are a community resource. When rural students are given opportunities to engage in community-based learning, they develop responsible citizenship and leadership…

  17. Policymaking in Education: Understanding Influences on the Reading Excellence Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmondson, Jacqueline

    2005-01-01

    Educators and researchers are being called to participate in language and literacy policy making (Roller & Long, 2001). In order to do so, however, there needs to be an understanding of how policy is made. Although policymaking often appears to be an irrational process, there are theories that exist to explain the influences and mechanisms…

  18. Strategic Planning in Education: A Guide for Policymakers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Harry A.

    As defined in chapter I of this guide for policymakers, strategic planning is the method by which an organization identifies relevant trends in its environment, analyzes their potential implications, and projects an integrated strategy to address these future events and their contingencies. This process differs from formalized planning, based on…

  19. Researching Community-Based Support Networks: What Policymakers Should Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dadich, Ann

    2009-01-01

    Self-help support groups (SHSGs) have a valuable role in civic society. However, it is difficult to measure their value through sole use of the positivist approaches that interest policymakers. This is because SHSGs are consumer-driven and voluntary. Thus, they cannot be regulated by research agendas or prescribed like treatment. Although social…

  20. Political and Academic Linkages in Public Sector Policymaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, LaVerne Williamson

    2006-01-01

    Decision making in the public sector encompasses many topics of interest to the academic researcher--environmental issues, health and human services, budget planning, and so on. Expertise in data collection and analysis is critical to the policy-making process and can be provided by academic researchers. But the "real world" policymaker…

  1. FCC Broadcast Content Regulation: Policymaking in a Vacuum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Todd; And Others

    The history of the Federal Communications Commission's content regulation of broadcasting is a history of policymaking in a vacuum. A review of the literature reveals that no one has yet attempted to show whether the Fairness Doctrine results in poorer or better broadcast journalism. To remedy this, content regulation should be explored from…

  2. Remaking Teacher Evaluation: A Heavy Lift for State Education Policymakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuinn, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The "Race to the Top" competitive grant program initiated a wave of teacher evaluation reform, which scholars and policymakers have long identified as critical to improving teacher quality and student performance. State boards of education (SBEs) and state education agencies (SEAs) took different approaches to these reforms, and as a…

  3. Education Hubs and Talent Development: Policymaking and Implementation Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jack T.

    2014-01-01

    The discourse on the internationalization of higher education emphasizes revenue generation while neglecting other diverse rationales pursued by governments and institutions. For countries that are seeking to venture into a knowledge economy or accrue greater competitive advantages under globalization, many policymakers view cross-border higher…

  4. Enhancing health policymakers' information literacy knowledge and skill for policymaking on control of infectious diseases of poverty in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Ezeoha, Abel Ebeh; Uro-Chukwu, Henry; Ezeonu, Chinonyelum Thecla; Ogbu, Ogbonnaya; Onwe, Friday; Edoga, Chima

    2015-01-01

    Background In Nigeria, one of the major challenges associated with evidence-to-policy link in the control of infectious diseases of poverty (IDP), is deficient information literacy knowledge and skill among policymakers. There is need for policymakers to acquire the skill to discover relevant information, accurately evaluate retrieved information and to apply it correctly. Objectives To use information literacy tool of International Network for Availability of Scientific Publications (INASP) to enhance policymakers' knowledge and skill for policymaking on control of IDP in Nigeria. Methods Modified "before and after" intervention study design was used in which outcomes were measured on target participants both before the intervention is implemented and after. This study was conducted in Ebonyi State, south-eastern Nigeria and participants were career health policy makers. A two-day health-policy information literacy training workshop was organized to enhance participants" information literacy capacity. Topics covered included: introduction to information literacy; defining information problem; searching for information online; evaluating information; science information; knowledge sharing interviews; and training skills. Results A total of 52 policymakers attended the workshop. The pre-workshop mean rating (MNR) of knowledge and capacity for information literacy ranged from 2.15-2.97, while the post-workshop MNR ranged from 3.34-3.64 on 4-point scale. The percentage increase in MNR of knowledge and capacity at the end of the workshop ranged from 22.6%-55.3%. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that through information literacy training workshop policy makers can acquire the knowledge and skill to identify, capture and share the right kind of information in the right contexts to influence relevant action or a policy decision. PMID:26284149

  5. SUPPORT Tools for evidence-informed health Policymaking (STP) 3: Setting priorities for supporting evidence-informed policymaking.

    PubMed

    Lavis, John N; Oxman, Andrew D; Lewin, Simon; Fretheim, Atle

    2009-12-16

    This article is part of a series written for people responsible for making decisions about health policies and programmes and for those who support these decision makers. Policymakers have limited resources for developing--or supporting the development of--evidence-informed policies and programmes. These required resources include staff time, staff infrastructural needs (such as access to a librarian or journal article purchasing), and ongoing professional development. They may therefore prefer instead to contract out such work to independent units with more suitably skilled staff and appropriate infrastructure. However, policymakers may only have limited financial resources to do so. Regardless of whether the support for evidence-informed policymaking is provided in-house or contracted out, or whether it is centralised or decentralised, resources always need to be used wisely in order to maximise their impact. Examples of undesirable practices in a priority-setting approach include timelines to support evidence-informed policymaking being negotiated on a case-by-case basis (instead of having clear norms about the level of support that can be provided for each timeline), implicit (rather than explicit) criteria for setting priorities, ad hoc (rather than systematic and explicit) priority-setting process, and the absence of both a communications plan and a monitoring and evaluation plan. In this article, we suggest questions that can guide those setting priorities for finding and using research evidence to support evidence-informed policymaking. These are: 1. Does the approach to prioritisation make clear the timelines that have been set for addressing high-priority issues in different ways? 2. Does the approach incorporate explicit criteria for determining priorities? 3. Does the approach incorporate an explicit process for determining priorities? 4. Does the approach incorporate a communications strategy and a monitoring and evaluation plan?

  6. Practical Guidelines for Educating Policymakers: The Family Impact Seminar as an Approach to Advancing the Interests of Children and Families in the Policy Arena

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Brian L.; Weisz, P. Victoria; Miller, Monica K.

    2005-01-01

    Psychologists are well positioned to contribute to policymaking on issues affecting the well-being of children, youth, and families. A good deal of psychological research is relevant to policy issues such as child mental health services, child care, adoption and foster care, and children's media. In this article we offer an alternative to direct…

  7. Uncertainty in macroeconomic policy-making: art or science?

    PubMed

    Aikman, David; Barrett, Philip; Kapadia, Sujit; King, Mervyn; Proudman, James; Taylor, Tim; de Weymarn, Iain; Yates, Tony

    2011-12-13

    Uncertainty is pervasive in economic policy-making. Modern economies share similarities with other complex systems in their unpredictability. But economic systems also differ from those in the natural sciences because outcomes are affected by the state of beliefs of the systems' participants. The dynamics of beliefs and how they interact with economic outcomes can be rich and unpredictable. This paper relates these ideas to the recent crisis, which has reminded us that we need a financial system that is resilient in the face of the unpredictable and extreme. It also highlights how such uncertainty puts a premium on sound communication strategies by policy-makers. This creates challenges in informing others about the uncertainties in the economy, and how policy is set in the face of those uncertainties. We show how the Bank of England tries to deal with some of these challenges in its communications about monetary policy.

  8. Orchestrating Multiple Intelligences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Seana; Kornhaber, Mindy; Gardner, Howard

    2006-01-01

    Education policymakers often go astray when they attempt to integrate multiple intelligences theory into schools, according to the originator of the theory, Howard Gardner, and his colleagues. The greatest potential of a multiple intelligences approach to education grows from the concept of a profile of intelligences. Each learner's intelligence…

  9. Communicating space weather to policymakers and the wider public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Bárbara

    2014-05-01

    As a natural hazard, space weather has the potential to affect space- and ground-based technological systems and cause harm to human health. As such, it is important to properly communicate this topic to policymakers and the general public alike, informing them (without being unnecessarily alarmist) about the potential impact of space-weather phenomena and how these can be monitored and mitigated. On the other hand, space weather is related to interesting phenomena on the Sun such as coronal-mass ejections, and incorporates one of the most beautiful displays in the Earth and its nearby space environment: aurora. These exciting and fascinating aspects of space weather should be cultivated when communicating this topic to the wider public, particularly to younger audiences. Researchers have a key role to play in communicating space weather to both policymakers and the wider public. Space scientists should have an active role in informing policy decisions on space-weather monitoring and forecasting, for example. And they can exercise their communication skills by talking about space weather to school children and the public in general. This presentation will focus on ways to communicate space weather to wider audiences, particularly policymakers. It will also address the role researchers can play in this activity to help bridge the gap between the space science community and the public.

  10. Practical guidelines for educating policymakers: the family impact seminar as an approach to advancing the interests of children and families in the policy arena.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Brian L; Weisz, P Victoria; Miller, Monica K

    2005-12-01

    Psychologists are well positioned to contribute to policymaking on issues affecting the well-being of children, youth, and families. A good deal of psychological research is relevant to policy issues such as child mental health services, child care, adoption and foster care, and children's media. In this article we offer an alternative to direct policy advocacy as a means for psychologists' involvement in the policy arena. Policy education, a nonpartisan and nonadversarial approach to working with policymakers, is described and differentiated from child advocacy. We then present an example of 1 approach to policy education, the Family Impact Seminar. The article closes with a discussion of lessons we have learned regarding effectively communicating research to policymakers.

  11. Effective communications strategies: engaging the media, policymakers, and the public.

    PubMed

    Blake, Allison; Bonk, Kathy; Heimpel, Daniel; Wright, Cathy S

    2013-01-01

    Too often, strategic communication is too little, or comes too late, when involved with a child fatality or serious injury. This article explores the challenges arising from negative publicity around child safety issues and the opportunities for communications strategies that employ a proactive public health approach to engaging media, policymakers, and the public. The authors provide a case study and review methods by which child welfare agencies across the nation are building public engagement and support for improved outcomes in child safety while protecting legitimate confidentiality requirements. Finally, the piece articulates the rationale for agency investments in the resources necessary to develop and implement an effective communications plan.

  12. Implementation research evidence uptake and use for policy-making

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A major obstacle to the progress of the Millennium Development Goals has been the inability of health systems in many low- and middle-income countries to effectively implement evidence-informed interventions. This article discusses the relationships between implementation research and knowledge translation and identifies the role of implementation research in the design and execution of evidence-informed policy. After a discussion of the benefits and synergies needed to translate implementation research into action, the article discusses how implementation research can be used along the entire continuum of the use of evidence to inform policy. It provides specific examples of the use of implementation research in national level programmes by looking at the scale up of zinc for the treatment of childhood diarrhoea in Bangladesh and the scaling up of malaria treatment in Burkina Faso. A number of tested strategies to support the transfer of implementation research results into policy-making are provided to help meet the standards that are increasingly expected from evidence-informed policy-making practices. PMID:22748142

  13. Perspectives of Fijian Policymakers on the Obesity Prevention Policy Landscape

    PubMed Central

    Hendriks, Anna-Marie; Delai, Mere Y.; Thow, Anne-Marie; Gubbels, Jessica S.; De Vries, Nanne K.; Kremers, Stef P. J.; Jansen, Maria W. J.

    2015-01-01

    In Fiji and other Pacific Island countries, obesity has rapidly increased in the past decade. Therefore, several obesity prevention policies have been developed. Studies show that their development has been hampered by factors within Fiji's policy landscape such as pressure from industry. Since policymakers in the Fijian national government are primarily responsible for the development of obesity policies, it is important to understand their perspectives; we therefore interviewed 15 policymakers from nine Fijian ministries. By applying the “attractor landscape” metaphor from dynamic systems theory, we captured perceived barriers and facilitators in the policy landscape. A poor economic situation, low food self-sufficiency, power inequalities, inappropriate framing of obesity, limited policy evidence, and limited resource sharing hamper obesity policy developments in Fiji. Facilitators include policy entrepreneurs and policy brokers who were active when a window of opportunity opened and who strengthened intersectoral collaboration. Fiji's policy landscape can become more conducive to obesity policies if power inequalities are reduced. In Fiji and other Pacific Island countries, this may be achievable through increased food self-sufficiency, strengthened intersectoral collaboration, and the establishment of an explicit functional focal unit within government to monitor and forecast the health impact of policy changes in non-health sectors. PMID:26380307

  14. Presidential and bureaucratic policy-making: The case of Mexican oil policy

    SciTech Connect

    de la Luz Valverde Rocha, M.

    1991-01-01

    A close examination of the literature yielded two different, but vague models of Mexican policy-making: (1) closed presidential policy-making and (2) open presidential policy-making. These two models are tested by identifying the regime's policy-making structures and by explaining the manner in which they operated to produce oil policy in two presidential administrations. To attain these goals, the oil policy-making process was divided into several stages. The policy roles played by different actors in the various stages of policy-making were analyzed. The process they engaged in to produce oil policy was also examined. The findings lend strong support to the open presidential policy-making model. The most salient features of this model are: (1) the president and different members of the Mexican federal bureaucracy share policy-making functions, power, and influence; (2) policymakers engage in a political process of persuasion, coalition building, information functions, power, and influence; and (3) policymakers engage in these and other political techniques to produce government decisions and actions.

  15. Offer Versus Serve. Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Health and Drug Education and Services.

    A growing awareness about food supplies, food shortages, and conservation of natural resources has resulted in public concern over food waste within the National School Lunch Program. Prior to 1976, all participating students were required to take all five items offered on a planned menu. In October 1975, the Offer v. Serve Provision was enacted…

  16. Linguistic analysis of IPCC summaries for policymakers and associated coverage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkemeyer, Ralf; Dessai, Suraje; Monge-Sanz, Beatriz; Renzi, Barbara Gabriella; Napolitano, Giulio

    2016-03-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Summary for Policymakers (SPM) is the most widely read section of IPCC reports and the main springboard for the communication of its assessment reports. Previous studies have shown that communicating IPCC findings to a variety of scientific and non-scientific audiences presents significant challenges to both the IPCC and the mass media. Here, we employ widely established sentiment analysis tools and readability metrics to explore the extent to which information published by the IPCC differs from the presentation of respective findings in the popular and scientific media between 1990 and 2014. IPCC SPMs clearly stand out in terms of low readability, which has remained relatively constant despite the IPCC’s efforts to consolidate and readjust its communications policy. In contrast, scientific and quality newspaper coverage has become increasingly readable and emotive. Our findings reveal easy gains that could be achieved in making SPMs more accessible for non-scientific audiences.

  17. Student leadership in interprofessional education: benefits, challenges and implications for educators, researchers and policymakers.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Steven J; Rosenfield, Daniel; Gilbert, John H V; Oandasan, Ivy F

    2008-07-01

    Context Interprofessional collaboration is gaining increasing prominence as a team-based approach to health care delivery that synergistically maximises the strengths of each health professional to enhance patient care, decrease medical errors and optimise efficiency. The often neglected role that student leaders have in preparing their peers, as the health professionals of the future, for collaboration in health care should not be overlooked. Objective This paper offers the foundational arguments supporting the integral role that student leadership in interprofessional education (IPE) can play and its comparative advantages. Methods Evidence from previous literature and the National Health Science Students' Association in Canada was reviewed and a questionnaire on student-initiated IPE was administered among Canada's top student leaders in this area. Results Student leadership is essential to the success of IPE because it enhances students' willingness to collaborate and facilitates the longterm sustainability of IPE efforts. Student-initiated IPE, a subset of student leadership, is particularly important to achieving the aforementioned goals and offers a number of benefits, comparative advantages and associated challenges. Conclusions Successful student leadership in IPE will yield significant benefits for everyone in the years to come. However, it requires the support of educators, researchers and policymakers in fostering an enabling environment that will facilitate the efforts and contributions of student leaders.

  18. The Anatomy of Online Offerings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoskins, Barbara J.

    2014-01-01

    The perceptions about online teaching and learning are frequently different from the reality. Some students say they expected the online course to be easier than the traditional face-to-face course and are surprised by the rigor, while skeptics decry the quality of online offerings since students cannot possibly learn as well online as they do in…

  19. Offering Reflection to an Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faulkner, Ann; Gooding, Guy

    2010-01-01

    From 1998 to 2008, the Dallas County Community College District (DCCCD) offered its employees a variety of options for formation, a type of reflective practice. The district encompasses 10 locations, seven of them independently accredited colleges. Formation is based primarily on Parker Palmer's model for Circles of Trust as described in "A…

  20. Evaluating inspection and maintenance programs: a policy-making framework.

    PubMed

    Eisinger, Douglas S

    2005-02-01

    This article presents a new analysis approach to design and evaluate motor vehicle inspection and maintenance (I/M) programs. The new approach, called I/M-Design, uses real-world data to provide two resources not previously available: (1) a transparent framework to quantitatively illustrate the range of emission reductions available from I/M, and (2) a sensitivity analysis tool to evaluate how key variables affect I/M performance. In addition, the approach satisfies a policy-making information need--how to convey, in a logical and straightforward manner, the expected benefits from I/M without relying on modeling tools inaccessible to those outside the air quality field. The material presented in this article illustrates the new approach by estimating hydrocarbon (HC) emission reduction benefits available from enhanced I/M in southern California's South Coast Air Basin. I/M-Design estimates that enhanced I/M results in a 14-28% reduction in light-duty motor vehicle HC exhaust emissions; this estimate compares well to other California I/M program evaluations. Even more importantly, I/M-Design sensitivity analyses illustrate how I/M programs that implement stringent failure thresholds, motivate pre-test repair work, and improve repair effectiveness can provide emission reductions that substantially exceed the performance of existing programs.

  1. Policymaker's Guide to Feed-in Tariff Policy Design

    SciTech Connect

    Couture, T. D.; Cory, K.; Kreycik, C.; Williams, E.

    2010-07-01

    Feed-in tariffs (FITs) are the most widely used renewable energy policy in the world for driving accelerating renewable energy (RE) deployment, accounting for a greater share of RE development than either tax incentives or renewable portfolio standard (RPS) policies. FITs have generated significant RE deployment, helping bring the countries that have implemented them successfully to the forefront of the global RE industry. In the European Union (EU), FIT policies have led to the deployment of more than 15,000 MW of solar photovoltaic (PV) power and more than 55,000 MW of wind power between 2000 and the end of 2009. In total, FITs are responsible for approximately 75% of global PV and 45% of global wind deployment. Countries such as Germany, in particular, have demonstrated that FITs can be used as a powerful policy tool to drive RE deployment and help meet combined energy security and emissions reductions objectives. This policymaker's guide provides a detailed analysis of FIT policy design and implementation and identifies a set of best practices that have been effective at quickly stimulating the deployment of large amounts of RE generation. Although the discussion is aimed primarily at decision makers who have decided that a FIT policy best suits their needs, exploration of FIT policies can also help inform a choice among alternative renewable energy policies.

  2. Probability as Possibility Spaces: Communicating Uncertainty to Policymakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiso, C.

    2015-12-01

    One problem facing the sciences is communicating results and recommendations to policymakers. This is perhaps particularly difficult in the geosciences where results are often based on probabilistic models, as probability is often and unduly equated with a specific kind of uncertainty or unreliability in the results. This leads to a great deal of miscommunication and misguided policy decisions. It is, then, valid to ask how scientists should talk about probability, uncertainty, and models in a way that correctly conveys what the users of these models intend. What I propose is a new way to think and, importantly, talk about probability which will hopefully make this much more transparent to both users and policy makers. Rather than using a frequentist (prior percentages) or Bayesian (observer uncertainty) framework, we should talk about probability as a tool for defining a possibility space for measurements. This model is conceptually simple and makes probability a tool of refinement rather than a source of inaccuracy. A similar possibility-space model has proven useful in the climate sciences and there is good reason to believe it will have similar applications in hydrology.

  3. A Policymaker's Primer on Education Research: How to Understand, Evaluate and Use It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauer, Patricia A.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this primer is to help policymakers and other interested individuals answer three big questions: (1) What does the research say? (2) Is the research trustworthy? (3) How can the research be used to guide policy? Answering these questions will help policymakers: (1) make evidenced-based decisions about education policies; (2) gain a…

  4. Ideal-Oriented Policymaking: An Analysis of the 985 Project Policy Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xuefei, Chen

    2011-01-01

    Generally, there are two types of Chinese public educational policymaking: problem oriented and ideal oriented. The 985 Project policy clearly exhibits the characteristics of the latter. Usually, the goals of ideal-oriented policymaking are long-term and overarching, so they can play a role in propagating, directing, and encouraging people to…

  5. Educational Policymaking and the Methodology of Positive Economics: A Theoretical Critique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilead, Tal

    2014-01-01

    By critically interrogating the methodological foundations of orthodox economic theory, Tal Gilead challenges the growing conviction in educational policymaking quarters that, being more scientific than other forms of educational investigation, inquiries grounded in orthodox economics should provide the basis for educational policymaking. He…

  6. Policymakers Dependence on Evidence in Education Decision Making in Oyo State Ministry of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babalola, Joel B.; Gbolahan, Sowunmi

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated policymaker dependence on evidence in education decision making in Oyo State Ministry of Education. The study was conducted under a descriptive survey design, 44 out of the 290 policymakers of the Ministry and Board of Education across the State were purposively selected for the study. Descriptive statistics of frequency…

  7. Economic Development Policymaking Down the Global Commodity Chain: Attracting an Auto Industry to Silao, Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothstein, Jeffrey S.

    2005-01-01

    This article applies the global commodity chain approach to analyze the way policymakers encouraged an automotive commodity chain to touch down in Silao, Mexico. The article explains that the changing dynamics of the global auto industry have transformed it into an "assembler-driven" commodity chain. It notes how policymakers in the…

  8. The Policy-Making Process of the State University System of Florida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Sandra M.

    The policy-making process of the State University System of Florida is described using David Easton's model of a political system as the conceptual framwork. Two models describing the policy-making process were developed from personal interviews with the primary participants in the governance structure and from three case studies of policy…

  9. Media Literacy and the Policymaking Process: A Framework for Understanding Influences on Potential Educational Policy Outputs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Bradford L.

    This paper examines some of the key public policy implications of the media literacy movement using D. Easton's (1965) model of the policymaking process. The model has six elements: (1) demands and supports; (2) policymakers; (3) policy outputs; (4) policy outcomes; (5) feedback; and (6) environment. Each element is vital to understanding the…

  10. A Meeting Place for Policy-Makers and Researchers: The Transatlantic Forum on Inclusive Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peeters, Jan; Vandekerckhove, Ankie

    2015-01-01

    While policy-makers and researchers in the field of early childhood education and care (ECEC) often seem to speak different languages, overwhelming research evidence on how quality ECEC can play a key role in alleviating the effects of disadvantage can be extremely relevant for policy-makers. In this article, we focus on how philanthropic…

  11. How Do We Get More Effective Policies for Higher Education? Reflections of a Policymaker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Roger

    2008-01-01

    In this article the author, until recently Vice-Chancellor of Southampton Solent University, draws on his long experience of higher education policymaking to suggest how policies for higher education can be improved. His recommendations cover the structure of policymaking, with a reduced role for the Funding Councils and a more effective role for…

  12. A Policymaker's Guide to Higher Education in Ohio, 2004. Frequently Asked Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Board of Regents, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The Ohio Board of Regents has prepared this document to provide detailed but easy to use information about higher education and the role that it plays in shaping Ohio's economy. The document tries to anticipate questions that might be asked of policymakers by their constituents. Information needed by policymakers to answer those questions, has…

  13. The Employability Skills of Business Graduates in Syria: Do Policymakers and Employers Speak the Same Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayoubi, Rami M.; Alzarif, Kahla; Khalifa, Bayan

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to compare the desired employability skills of business graduates in Syria from the perspective of both higher education policymakers and employers in the private sector. Design/Methodology/Approach: Interviews were conducted with 12 higher education policymakers and managers from the business sector. Content…

  14. The Impact of School Culture on Schools' Pupil Well-Being Policy-Making Capacities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Gasse, Roos; Vanhoof, Jan; Van Petegem, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Pupil well-being has been an important topic in educational research for some time. Differences between schools in their influence on the well-being of their pupils are attributed to the policy-making capacities of the school. Little is known about schools' policy-making capacities with regard to pupil well-being, and the impact of school culture…

  15. Education Policymaking in Serbia through the Eyes of Teachers, Counselors, and Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teodorovic, Jelena; Stankovic, Dejan; Bodroža, Bojana; Milin, Vladeta; Ðeric, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    Numerous educational reforms have been initiated in Serbia since 2000. The aim of this study was to examine education policymaking in Serbia in order to provide policymakers and stakeholders with recommendations on how to minimize pitfalls and increase success of future educational endeavors. In the study, we utilized the education policy cycle…

  16. The Voice of Experience: How Social Scientists Communicate Family Research to Policymakers

    PubMed Central

    Friese, Bettina; Bogenschneider, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Because scientific understanding of communicating family research to policymakers is incomplete, qualitative interviews were conducted with social scientists experienced in bridging the gulf between research and family policy. In keeping with the tenets of two communities and community dissonance theories, the underutilization of research in policymaking was attributed, in part, to misperceptions and miscommunication between researchers and policymakers who operate in different cultures. Social scientists identified cultural barriers they encountered and rewards they experienced when communicating research to policymakers. Ten recommendations detail pragmatic strategies for communicating across conflicting cultures to promote greater use of research in family policy decisions. The findings suggest a paradigm shift away from simply disseminating research to policymakers and toward developing collaborative relationships with them. PMID:20407597

  17. Transport policy-making and planning Javanese cities

    SciTech Connect

    Dimitriou, H.

    1995-12-31

    Based on findings of field studies in five Javanese cities in Indonesia, this paper looks at a hierarchy of settlements and investigates what aspects of urban development and the transport sector most influences transport policy-making and planning in the country. The paper highlights the presence of a community hierarchy within these settlements with consonant trip-making patterns and the widespread mis-use of certain transport modes. The paper cross-relates observed transport problems and policy issues diagnosed from the five Javanese cities with an earlier prepared national agenda of urban transport policy issues and problems. This is done with a view to arriving at more sensitive policy and planning responses nationwide for cities of different kinds in Indonesia. The paper commences with an explanation of the settlement hierarchy and community structure employed by Indonesian government planners. An attempt is then made to relate this hierarchy and structure to the five cities studied. Within this context, factors affecting urban transport are discussed and tabulated against the above cities settlement hierarchy. These include aspects of: settlement size, structure and area; settlement development policy, urban for, density and topography; and travel and transport characteristics. An attempt is made to match this settlement hierarchy (and its constituent community structure) with a conceptualized hierarchy of transport modes, simultaneously investigating: the relationship between urban communities and assigned road hierarchies; community-based travel demand and trip-making characteristics; and the relationship between travel, speed and distance. From this an assessment is made of the performance and current use and mis-use of such transport modes.

  18. Ciclovía initiatives: engaging communities, partners and policymakers along the route to success

    PubMed Central

    Hipp, Aaron; Eyler, Amy A.; Kim, Mi-Sook

    2015-01-01

    Context Recent efforts to increase physical activity through changes to the built environment have led to strategies and programs that use existing public space including bicycle lanes, temporary parks and the ciclovia initiative (scheduled events in which streets are closed to motorized vehicles and opened for recreational activities) popularized in South America. Objective The current paper describes and compares the processes and structures involved in developing and implementing a ciclovia-type program in two U.S. urban contexts: San Francisco, California, and St. Louis, Missouri. Considering the current growth of and interest in ciclovia initiatives, important outcomes, lessons learned are offered for application in other, similar settings. Design Primary sources from both initiatives and from published research on ciclovias constitute the body of evidence and include: year-end reports, grant applications, meeting minutes, budgets, published ciclovia guidelines, evaluation studies and websites, media sources and interviews and personal communication with the organizers. Main Outcome Measures Primary source documents were reviewed and included in this analysis if they offered information on three grounded questions: What processes were used in developing the initiative? What are the current structures and practices used in implementation of initiatives? What are important lessons learned and best practices from initiatives for recommendations to stakeholders and policy-makers in other contexts? Results Among the categories compared, the structures and processes for implementation regarding buy-in and city department collaboration, route selection, programming, partnerships, media promotion, community outreach and merchant support were relatively similar among the two initiatives. The categories that differed included staffing and volunteer engagement and funding. Conclusion Buy-in from community partners, merchants, residents and city agencies are critical for

  19. Practice-based Research Networks (PBRNs) Bridging the Gaps between Communities, Funders, and Policymakers

    PubMed Central

    Gaglioti, Anne H.; Werner, James J.; Rust, George; Fagnan, Lyle J.; Neale, Anne Victoria

    2016-01-01

    In this commentary, we propose that practice-based research networks (PBRNs) engage with funders and policymakers by applying the same engagement strategies they have successfully used to build relationships with community stakeholders. A community engagement approach to achieve new funding streams for PBRNs should include a strategy to engage key stakeholders from the communities of funders, thought leaders, and policymakers using collaborative principles and methods. PBRNs that implement this strategy would build a robust network of engaged partners at the community level, across networks, and would reach state and federal policymakers, academic family medicine departments, funding bodies, and national thought leaders in the redesign of health care delivery. PMID:27613796

  20. 34 CFR 370.42 - What access must the CAP be afforded to policymaking and administrative personnel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What access must the CAP be afforded to policymaking... What access must the CAP be afforded to policymaking and administrative personnel? The CAP must be afforded reasonable access to policymaking and administrative personnel in State and local...

  1. How Can Policy Theory Have an Impact on Policymaking? The Role of Theory-Led Academic-Practitioner Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cairney, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Policymakers and academics often hold different assumptions about the policymaking world based on their different experiences. Academics may enjoy enough distance from the policy process to develop a breadth of knowledge and produce generalisable conclusions across governments, while policymakers/practitioners such as civil servants may develop…

  2. Summary for policymakers: Unlocking the sustainable potential of land resources. Evaluation systems, strategies and tools

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land evaluation can be used by national policymakers, international development organizations, farmers, and conservationists to increase productivity, biodiversity conservation success, and to promote innovation. Land evaluation helps make better decisions about how to use the land, and is therefore...

  3. Exploring health researchers’ perceptions of policymaking in Argentina: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Corluka, Adrijana; Hyder, Adnan A; Winch, Peter J; Segura, Elsa

    2014-01-01

    Much of the published research on evidence-informed health policymaking in low- and middle-income countries has focused on policymakers, overlooking the role of health researchers in the research-to-policy process. Through 20 semi-structured, in-depth qualitative interviews conducted with researchers in Argentina’s rural northwest and the capital of Buenos Aires, we explore the perspectives, experiences and attitudes of Argentine health researchers regarding the use and impact of health research in policymaking in Argentina. We find that the researcher, and the researcher’s function of generating evidence, is nested within a broader complex system that influences the researcher’s interaction with policymaking. This system comprises communities of practice, government departments/civil society organizations, bureaucratic processes and political governance and executive leadership. At the individual level, researcher capacity and determinants of research availability also play a role in contributing to evidence-informed policymaking. In addition, we find a recurrent theme around ‘lack of trust’ and explore the role of trust within a research system, finding that researchers’ distrust towards policymakers and even other researchers are linked inextricably to the sociopolitical history of Argentina, which contributes to shaping researchers’ identities in opposition to policymakers. For policymakers, national research councils and funders of national health research systems, this article provides a deeper understanding of researchers’ perceptions which can help inform and improve programme design when developing interventions to enhance research utilization and develop equitable and rational health policies. For donors and development agencies interested in health research capacity building and achieving development goals, this research demonstrates a need for investment in building research capacity and training health researchers to interact with the

  4. Exploring health researchers' perceptions of policymaking in Argentina: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Corluka, Adrijana; Hyder, Adnan A; Winch, Peter J; Segura, Elsa

    2014-09-01

    Much of the published research on evidence-informed health policymaking in low- and middle-income countries has focused on policymakers, overlooking the role of health researchers in the research-to-policy process. Through 20 semi-structured, in-depth qualitative interviews conducted with researchers in Argentina's rural northwest and the capital of Buenos Aires, we explore the perspectives, experiences and attitudes of Argentine health researchers regarding the use and impact of health research in policymaking in Argentina. We find that the researcher, and the researcher's function of generating evidence, is nested within a broader complex system that influences the researcher's interaction with policymaking. This system comprises communities of practice, government departments/civil society organizations, bureaucratic processes and political governance and executive leadership. At the individual level, researcher capacity and determinants of research availability also play a role in contributing to evidence-informed policymaking. In addition, we find a recurrent theme around 'lack of trust' and explore the role of trust within a research system, finding that researchers' distrust towards policymakers and even other researchers are linked inextricably to the sociopolitical history of Argentina, which contributes to shaping researchers' identities in opposition to policymakers. For policymakers, national research councils and funders of national health research systems, this article provides a deeper understanding of researchers' perceptions which can help inform and improve programme design when developing interventions to enhance research utilization and develop equitable and rational health policies. For donors and development agencies interested in health research capacity building and achieving development goals, this research demonstrates a need for investment in building research capacity and training health researchers to interact with the public policy

  5. Policy offers protection from harassment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNutt, Marcia

    We face a number of legal and ethical issues in our work as scientists and as AGU members. To uphold the highest ethical standards in our professional activities, the Council has adopted policies on free access to published material, ethics in publishing, and misconduct in science. But what about guidelines to govern the personal behavior that constitutes harassment, sexual or otherwise?For years the AGU headquarters staff has had a policy that offers protection from harassment and rules for dealing with it, but the membership went without one until 1994. That year the Council adopted a policy that extends to the membership as well as to the staff and the vendors they encounter at meetings. The law only requires a policy to prevent harassment in the workplace, but the Council felt that a harassment policy was particularly important for members because the subtle behavior that can constitute harassment is most likely to occur at events that combine work and social interaction, such as the meetings, conferences, and training seminars that AGU members attend.

  6. SUPPORT Tools for evidence-informed health Policymaking (STP) 14: Organising and using policy dialogues to support evidence-informed policymaking.

    PubMed

    Lavis, John N; Boyko, Jennifer A; Oxman, Andrew D; Lewin, Simon; Fretheim, Atle

    2009-12-16

    This article is part of a series written for people responsible for making decisions about health policies and programmes and for those who support these decision makers. Policy dialogues allow research evidence to be considered together with the views, experiences and tacit knowledge of those who will be involved in, or affected by, future decisions about a high-priority issue. Increasing interest in the use of policy dialogues has been fuelled by a number of factors: 1. The recognition of the need for locally contextualised 'decision support' for policymakers and other stakeholders 2. The recognition that research evidence is only one input into the decision-making processes of policymakers and other stakeholders 3. The recognition that many stakeholders can add significant value to these processes, and 4. The recognition that many stakeholders can take action to address high-priority issues, and not just policymakers. In this article, we suggest questions to guide those organising and using policy dialogues to support evidence-informed policymaking. These are: 1. Does the dialogue address a high-priority issue? 2. Does the dialogue provide opportunities to discuss the problem, options to address the problem, and key implementation considerations? 3. Is the dialogue informed by a pre-circulated policy brief and by a discussion about the full range of factors that can influence the policymaking process? 4. Does the dialogue ensure fair representation among those who will be involved in, or affected by, future decisions related to the issue? 5. Does the dialogue engage a facilitator, follow a rule about not attributing comments to individuals, and not aim for consensus? 6. Are outputs produced and follow-up activities undertaken to support action?

  7. From a “Perfect Storm” to “Smooth Sailing”: Policymaker Perspectives on Implementation and Sustainment of an Evidence-Based Practice in Two States

    PubMed Central

    Willging, Cathleen E.; Green, Amy E.; Gunderson, Lara; Chaffin, Mark; Aarons, Gregory A.

    2015-01-01

    Policymakers shape implementation and sustainment of evidence-based practices (EBPs), whether they are developing or responding to legislation and policies or negotiating public sector resource constraints. As part of a large mixed-method study, we conducted qualitative interviews with 24 policymakers involved in delivery of the same EBP in two U.S. states. We analyzed transcripts via open and focused coding techniques to identify the commonality, diversity, and complexity of implementation challenges; approaches to overcoming those challenges; and the importance of system-level contextual factors in ensuring successful implementation. Key findings centered on building support and leadership for EBPs; funding and contractual strategies; partnering with stakeholders; tackling challenges via proactive planning and problem solving; and the political, legal, and systemic pressures affecting EBP longevity. The policymaker perspectives offer guidance on nurturing system and organizational practice environments to achieve positive outcomes and for optimally addressing macro-level influences that bear upon the instantiation of EBPs in public sector child welfare systems. PMID:25125232

  8. Considering economic analyses in the revision of the preventive vaccination law: a new direction for health policy-making in Japan?

    PubMed

    Akazawa, Manabu; Yongue, Julia; Ikeda, Shunya; Satoh, Toshihiko

    2014-10-01

    Evidence of a significant vaccine policy shift can be witnessed not only in the number of new vaccines available in Japan but also in the way that vaccine policy is being formulated. In 2010, policy makers decided for the first time ever to commission economic analyses as a reference in their consideration of subsidy allocation. This research offers a first hand account of the recent changes in vaccine policies by examining the decision-making process from the perspective of the researchers commissioned to perform the economic evaluations. In order to understand the vaccine policy-making process, a review was made of all the documents that were distributed and discussed during the government committee meetings from February 2010 when the revision of the Preventive Vaccination Law was initially proposed to May 2012 when the final recommendations were made. Economic evaluations were conducted for seven vaccines under consideration in the routine immunization program (Haemophilus influenzae type b or Hib, pneumococcal disease for children and adults, human papillomavirus, varicella, mumps, and hepatitis B). All were cost-effective options, except the Hib and hepatitis B vaccines. Nonetheless, all the vaccines were recommended equally for inclusion in the routine immunization program. While it is significant that policy-makers decided to commission economic assessments at all, various issues remain regarding the influence of external pressure, the choice of evaluation methods and the implications of using cost-effectiveness analyses on the future of Japanese health policy-making.

  9. 75 FR 32840 - Securities Offering Disclosures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Securities Offering Disclosures AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS... on the following information collection. Title of Proposal: Securities Offering Disclosures. OMB... requirement: 12 CFR 563g. Description: The Securities Offering regulation provides necessary...

  10. A multistage crucible of revision and approval shapes IPCC policymaker summaries

    PubMed Central

    Mach, Katharine J.; Freeman, Patrick T.; Mastrandrea, Michael D.; Field, Christopher B.

    2016-01-01

    Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) member governments approve each report’s summary for policymakers (SPM) by consensus, discussing and agreeing on each sentence in a plenary session with scientist authors. A defining feature of IPCC assessment, the governmental approval process builds joint ownership of current knowledge by scientists and governments. The resulting SPM revisions have been extensively discussed in anecdotes, interviews, and perspectives, but they have not been comprehensively analyzed. We provide an in-depth evaluation of IPCC SPM revisions, establishing an evidential basis for understanding their nature. Revisions associated with governmental review and approval generally expand SPMs, with SPM text growing by 17 to 53% across recent assessment reports. Cases of high political sensitivity and failure to reach consensus are notable exceptions, resulting in SPM contractions. In contrast to recent claims, we find that IPCC SPMs are as readable, for multiple metrics of reading ease, as other professionally edited assessment summaries. Across reading-ease metrics, some SPMs become more readable through governmental review and approval, whereas others do not. In an SPM examined through the entire revision process, most revisions associated with governmental review and approval occurred before the start of the government-approval plenary session. These author revisions emphasize clarity, scientific rigor, and explanation. In contrast, the subsequent plenary revisions place greater emphasis especially on policy relevance, comprehensiveness of examples, and nuances of expert judgment. Overall, the value added by the IPCC process emerges in a multistage crucible of revision and approval, as individuals together navigate complex science-policy terrain. PMID:27532046

  11. Health inequalities in European cities: perceptions and beliefs among local policymakers

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Joana; Pons-Vigués, Mariona; Bécares, Laia; Burström, Bo; Gandarillas, Ana; Domínguez-Berjón, Felicitas; Diez, Èlia; Costa, Giuseppe; Ruiz, Milagros; Pikhart, Hynek; Marinacci, Chiara; Hoffmann, Rasmus; Santana, Paula; Borrell, Carme

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe the knowledge and beliefs of public policymakers on social inequalities in health and policies to reduce them in cities from different parts of Europe during 2010 and 2011. Design Phenomenological qualitative study. Setting 13 European cities. Participants 19 elected politicians and officers with a directive status from 13 European cities. Main outcome Policymaker's knowledge and beliefs. Results Three emerging discourses were identified among the interviewees, depending on the city of the interviewee. Health inequalities were perceived by most policymakers as differences in life-expectancy between population with economic, social and geographical differences. Reducing health inequalities was a priority for the majority of cities which use surveys as sources of information to analyse these. Bureaucracy, funding and population beliefs were the main barriers. Conclusions The majority of the interviewed policymakers gave an account of interventions focusing on the immediate determinants and aimed at modifying lifestyles and behaviours in the more disadvantaged classes. More funding should be put towards academic research on effective universal policies, evaluation of their impact and training policymakers and officers on health inequalities in city governments. PMID:24871536

  12. Distance Education in European Higher Education--The Offer. Report 1 (of 3) of the IDEAL (Impact of Distance Education on Adult Learning) Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneller, Chripa; Holmberg, Carl

    2014-01-01

    This report is the first in a series published by the IDEAL (Impact of Distance Education on Adult Learning) project. The IDEAL project ran from October 2013 to September 2015 with financial support from the EU Lifelong Learning Programme. The project aims to: (1) offer insights on the needs of adult learners to both policymakers and distance…

  13. SUPPORT Tools for evidence-informed health Policymaking (STP) 2: Improving how your organisation supports the use of research evidence to inform policymaking

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    This article is part of a series written for people responsible for making decisions about health policies and programmes and for those who support these decision makers. In this article, we address ways of organising efforts to support evidence-informed health policymaking. Efforts to link research to action may include a range of activities related to the production of research that is both highly relevant to – and appropriately synthesised for – policymakers. Such activities may include a mix of efforts used to link research to action, as well as the evaluation of such efforts. Little is known about how best to organise the range of activity options available and, until recently, there have been relatively few organisations responsible for supporting the use of research evidence in developing health policy. We suggest five questions that can help guide considerations of how to improve organisational arrangements to support the use of research evidence to inform health policy decision making. These are: 1. What is the capacity of your organisation to use research evidence to inform decision making? 2. What strategies should be used to ensure collaboration between policymakers, researchers and stakeholders? 3. What strategies should be used to ensure independence as well as the effective management of conflicts of interest? 4. What strategies should be used to ensure the use of systematic and transparent methods for accessing, appraising and using research evidence? 5. What strategies should be used to ensure adequate capacity to employ these methods? PMID:20018109

  14. The role of geomatics in supporting sustainable development policy-making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Aining

    Sustainable development has been on national policy agendas since 1992 when Agenda 21, an international agreement on sustainable development, was signed by over 150 countries. A key to sustainable development policy-making is information. Spatial information is an integral part of this information pool given the spatial nature of sustainable development. Geomatics, a technology dealing specifically with spatial information, can play a major role in support of the policy-making process. This thesis is aimed at advancing this role. The thesis starts with a discussion of theories and methodologies for sustainable development. The policy process for sustainable development is characterized, followed by an analysis of the requirements of sustainable development policy-making for geomatics support. The current status of geomatics in meeting these requirements is then examined, and the challenges and potential for geomatics to further address the needs are identified. To deal with these challenges, an integrated solution, namely the development of an on-line national policy atlas for sustainable development, is proposed, with a focus to support policy action formulation. The thesis further addresses one of the major research topics required for the implementation of the proposed solution, namely the exploration of the feasibility of a spatial statistics approach to predictive modelling in support of policy scenario assessments. The study is based on the case of national climate change policy formulation, with a focus on the development of new light duty vehicle sales mix models in support of transportation fuel efficiency policy-making aimed at greenhouse gas reductions. The conceptual framework and methodology for the case study are followed by the presentation of outcomes including models and policy scenario forecasts. The case study has illustrated that a spatial statistics approach is not only feasible for the development of predictive models in support of policy-making

  15. The utilisation of health research in policy-making: concepts, examples and methods of assessment

    PubMed Central

    Hanney, Stephen R; Gonzalez-Block, Miguel A; Buxton, Martin J; Kogan, Maurice

    2003-01-01

    The importance of health research utilisation in policy-making, and of understanding the mechanisms involved, is increasingly recognised. Recent reports calling for more resources to improve health in developing countries, and global pressures for accountability, draw greater attention to research-informed policy-making. Key utilisation issues have been described for at least twenty years, but the growing focus on health research systems creates additional dimensions. The utilisation of health research in policy-making should contribute to policies that may eventually lead to desired outcomes, including health gains. In this article, exploration of these issues is combined with a review of various forms of policy-making. When this is linked to analysis of different types of health research, it assists in building a comprehensive account of the diverse meanings of research utilisation. Previous studies report methods and conceptual frameworks that have been applied, if with varying degrees of success, to record utilisation in policy-making. These studies reveal various examples of research impact within a general picture of underutilisation. Factors potentially enhancing utilisation can be identified by exploration of: priority setting; activities of the health research system at the interface between research and policy-making; and the role of the recipients, or 'receptors', of health research. An interfaces and receptors model provides a framework for analysis. Recommendations about possible methods for assessing health research utilisation follow identification of the purposes of such assessments. Our conclusion is that research utilisation can be better understood, and enhanced, by developing assessment methods informed by conceptual analysis and review of previous studies. PMID:12646071

  16. 17 CFR 230.253 - Offering circular.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... Repetition of information should be avoided; cross-referencing of information within the document is... COMPLETENESS OF ANY OFFERING CIRCULAR OR OTHER SELLING LITERATURE. THESE SECURITIES ARE OFFERED PURSUANT TO...

  17. 17 CFR 230.253 - Offering circular.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... Repetition of information should be avoided; cross-referencing of information within the document is... COMPLETENESS OF ANY OFFERING CIRCULAR OR OTHER SELLING LITERATURE. THESE SECURITIES ARE OFFERED PURSUANT TO...

  18. 17 CFR 230.253 - Offering circular.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... Repetition of information should be avoided; cross-referencing of information within the document is... COMPLETENESS OF ANY OFFERING CIRCULAR OR OTHER SELLING LITERATURE. THESE SECURITIES ARE OFFERED PURSUANT TO...

  19. 17 CFR 230.253 - Offering circular.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... Repetition of information should be avoided; cross-referencing of information within the document is... COMPLETENESS OF ANY OFFERING CIRCULAR OR OTHER SELLING LITERATURE. THESE SECURITIES ARE OFFERED PURSUANT TO...

  20. 17 CFR 230.253 - Offering circular.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... Repetition of information should be avoided; cross-referencing of information within the document is... COMPLETENESS OF ANY OFFERING CIRCULAR OR OTHER SELLING LITERATURE. THESE SECURITIES ARE OFFERED PURSUANT TO...

  1. 75 FR 17205 - Securities Offering Disclosures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-05

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Securities Offering Disclosures AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS... of Proposal: Securities Offering Disclosures. OMB Number: 1550-0035. Form Numbers: SEC Forms S-1, S-3... Securities Offering regulation provides necessary information, including financial disclosure, to persons...

  2. Protest and Policymaking: Explaining Fluctuation in Congressional Attention to Rights Issues, 1960-1986

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Brayden G.; Bentele, Keith G.; Soule, Sarah A.

    2007-01-01

    Although past research has failed to establish a link between protest and policy change, we reexamine the relationship at the agenda-setting stage of policymaking. We assert that protestors compete for attention among lawmakers at the agenda-setting stage. An issue receives more attention when the frequency of protest activity around a particular…

  3. Spin as Symbolic Capital: The Fields of Journalism and Education Policy-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stack, Michelle L.

    2010-01-01

    How do policy-makers and journalists accumulate symbolic capital in terms of their strategic positioning in relation to policy making? How do they negotiate their impact on policy making across fields? How do they gain access to information, and how is this information constructed in terms of education and schooling? This paper focuses on…

  4. Two (Very) Different Worlds: The Cultures of Policymaking and Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donmoyer, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This article brackets assumptions embedded in the framing of this special issue on "problematizing methodological simplicity in qualitative research" in a effort to understand why policymakers put pressure on all types of researchers, including those who use qualitative methods, to provide relatively simple, even somewhat mechanistic portrayals of…

  5. All Mixed Up? Instrumental and Emancipatory Learning toward a More Sustainable World: Considerations for EE Policymakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wals, Arjen E. J.; Geerling-Eijff, Floor; Hubeek, Francisca; van der Kroon, Sandra; Vader, Janneke

    2008-01-01

    World wide, policymakers are looking for ways to use education and communication strategies to create a world that is more sustainable than the one currently in prospect. They often find themselves trapped between instrumental (behavior change) and emancipatory (human development) uses of such strategies. This study sheds light on this apparent…

  6. More than a Message of Hope: A District-Level Policymaker's Guide to Understanding Resiliency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berliner, BethAnn; Benard, Bonnie

    One of the greatest challenges facing today's district-level policymakers and educational leaders is helping America's youth avoid adverse outcomes such as school failure, substance abuse, teen pregnancy, and delinquency. This document describes an alternative policy approach to address these problems--the building of resiliency in youth. Rather…

  7. Building Skills for the New Economy: A Policymaker's Handbook. Policy Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Robert D.

    This paper presents specific steps elected officials, program managers, and other policymakers can take to craft a more effective workforce development system intended to give workers the tools they need to succeed in the new economy. First, the new labor market and work systems are discussed. The paper then lays out eight principles for all…

  8. Teacher Education Research and Education Policy-Makers: An Australian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Simone

    2016-01-01

    As teacher educators, we want our research to be influential in contributing to educational policy and practice, but there remains little understanding about ways in which teacher educators might more productively engage with each other and policy-makers so as to maximise their research impact. Drawing on an empirical study and policy document…

  9. Children's Mental Health: From Parenting to Policymaking. A Wiskids Count Special Report, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyson, Terry; Weidel, Carol; Cranley, M. Martha

    This Wiskid special report, the third in a series focusing on areas of child well-being in Wisconsin, focuses on issues related to childrens mental health. The first part of the report features the following articles: (1) Infant Mental Health: From Parenting to Policymaking (Raquel L. Reyes), introducing the concept of infant mental health and…

  10. Conclusion: Recommendations for How Practitioners, Researchers, and Policymakers Can Promote Youth Purpose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mariano, Jenni Menon

    2011-01-01

    Initially drawing from, yet then expanding on the research discussed in this volume, this article discusses specific measures that practitioners, researchers, and policymakers can take to support purpose among youth. Strategies for educators include utilizing practical purpose teaching tools, such as purpose interviews, purpose-related…

  11. The National Grid for Learning: A Case Study of New Labour Education Policy-Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selwyn, Neil; Fitz, John

    2001-01-01

    The costly National Grid for Learning initiative embodies the fast-growing influence of both market and technological forces in UK education. An initial study reveals that the NGFL does not represent a radical shift toward business-dominated educational policy-making, but reflects New Labour's "healthy pragmatism" toward policy…

  12. A Michigan School Money Primer for Policymakers, School Officials, Media and Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Ryan S.; LaFaive, Michael D.

    2007-01-01

    The system that finances Michigan's schools from kindergarten through 12th grade is a perennial topic of conversation among policymakers, parents, taxpayers and voters. A constructive discussion of this issue, however, requires a sound knowledge of the financial workings of Michigan's elementary and secondary school system. This knowledge is…

  13. Ideas for Policymakers: Enhancing the Impact of Think Tanks. Policy Insight, Volume 1, Issue 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montoya, Silvia; Swanger, Rachel M.

    2007-01-01

    As think tanks have become more numerous, visible, and seemingly influential, scholars have begun to pay more attention to them--analyzing their characteristics, their modes of operation, and their roles in policymaking. This "Policy Insight" builds on this work and examines the role of think tanks in civil society, with an emphasis on…

  14. A Better Answer for Education: Reviving State and Local Policymaking Authority. Heritage Lectures. No. 994

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornyn, John; DeMint, Jim

    2007-01-01

    On the fifth anniversary of No Child Left Behind, Senators John Cornyn (R-TX) and Jim DeMint (R-SC) outline their alternative for restoring state and local ownership of education policymaking while ensuring transparency about results and accountability to parents and taxpayers. The A-PLUS Act of 2007 (Academic Partnerships Lead Us to Success) will…

  15. Starting a Second Chance Home: A Guide for Policymakers and Practitioners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reich, Kathy; Kelly, Lisa M.

    This guide outlines 10 basic steps for policymakers and practitioners interested in creating Second Chance Homes in their areas. Second Chance Homes provide stable, nurturing environments for teen families with access to child care, education, job training, counseling, and advice on parenting and life skills. The guide is based on interviews with…

  16. Crossroads of Crisis: Forces at Play in the Policy-Making Arena

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Addison S.

    1976-01-01

    The following forces that play on policymaking are examined: Social and cultural influences, the caste system with its attendant anxiety to conform, warring between equals, the competitive spirit unleased. On the question of what should be incorporated in policy, the author states that vocational educators should look inwardly and seek to make…

  17. Understanding China's Telecommunications Policymaking and Reforms: A Tale of Transition toward Liberalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Bing

    2002-01-01

    Analyzes China's telecommunications policymaking mechanism by drawing on institutional theory and bargaining theory. Highlights include the telecommunications industry; implementation of telecommunications policy, including competition and foreign direct investment; and the impact of China's entry into the World Trade Organization on its…

  18. Government and Educational Reform: Policy Networks in Policy-Making in Zimbabwe, 1980-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyo, Nathan; Modiba, Maropeng M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reflects on the key actors in education policy making in Zimbabwe. It looks at the contextual complexities that characterized policy-making in this country to make sense of the contestations that the state had to confront and accommodate. The policy network approach is employed as an analytical framework to clarify how, in particular…

  19. Public Policy to Promote Healthy Nutrition in Schools: Views of Policymakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Mat; Signal, Louise; Thomson, George

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to identify policy options to support nutrition promotion in New Zealand primary schools. In achieving this aim, the study sought to identify framing by policymakers regarding child diet and obesity; views on the role of schools in nutrition promotion; policy options and degree of support for these options. Issue…

  20. The Role of Social and Behavioral Science in Policymaking for Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rand Corp., Santa Monica, CA.

    An analysis of the present system of American television broadcasting reveals that social and behavioral science has had very limited influence on its regulatory policymaking. The television advertisement and its potential adverse effect on children have come to the attention of federal regulatory bodies, as well as consumer and children advocacy…

  1. The Structure of Educational Policy-making in Hungary in the 1960s and 1970s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halasz, Gabor

    1986-01-01

    Explains a theoretical framework for interpreting educational policy-making and, on the basis of that framework, identifies educational policy makers and policy changes in Hungary in the 1960s and 1970s. Tests the theory by examining controversies about secondary education and the structure of the educational system. (JHZ)

  2. A Policy Playbook for Personalized Learning: Ideas for State and Local Policymakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chuong, Carolyn; Mead, Sara

    2014-01-01

    This report is designed to help state and local policymakers identify the policy changes needed to expand access to quality personalized learning in their states and communities, and to give them the tools to make those changes. Each of the 15 policy ideas, or "plays," in this playbook provides background context on the challenges it is…

  3. Advice to Advocates: What Leads to Effective Advocacy? State Policymakers Share the inside Scoop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassi, Suzanne; DeHoff, Randy; Hopson, Elaine

    2004-01-01

    In hopes of shedding light on how public school leaders can better advocate on the state level for the needs of their schools and their students, The School Administrator turned to policymakers in different settings and with different political leanings. They invited a trio--a Republican state legislator from the Chicago suburbs, a rural…

  4. Using Data to Improve Teacher Effectiveness: A Primer for State Policymakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Data Quality Campaign, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Policymakers across the nation are leading efforts to ensure that every classroom has an effective teacher. Faced with the need to dramatically improve student outcomes, states have embraced a policy agenda that promotes and supports teacher quality in many ways, including developing evaluation and compensation policies, targeting professional…

  5. Accounting for Co-Teaching: A Guide for Policymakers and Developers of Value-Added Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isenberg, Eric; Walsh, Elias

    2015-01-01

    We outline the options available to policymakers for addressing co-teaching in a value-added model. Building on earlier work, we propose an improvement to a method of accounting for co-teaching that treats co-teachers as teams, with each teacher receiving equal credit for co-taught students. Hock and Isenberg (2012) described a method known as the…

  6. Creating and Sustaining High-Quality Charter School Governing Boards. A Guide for State Policymakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Elizabeth A.

    2008-01-01

    This guide for state policymakers examines the laws, policies, and programs that states are using to create and sustain high-quality charter school governing boards. In particular, the guide focuses on the two aspects of governing boards that interviews with state administrators revealed are most critical for a board's success: board composition…

  7. Involving Teachers in Charter School Governance: A Guide for State Policymakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sam, Cecilia

    2008-01-01

    This guide for state policymakers examines teacher involvement in charter school governance. Teacher involvement is defined to include the gamut of decision-making roles not typically afforded teachers in traditional public schools, including founding schools, serving on governing boards, and engaging in site-based collective bargaining. Different…

  8. What Criteria Should Policymakers Use for Assisting Households with Educational Expenditure? The Case of Urban Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafiq, M. Najeeb

    2010-01-01

    Low household expenditure on education compromises the learning and future labor market prospects of children. This study provides an empirical framework for determining the criteria that South Asian policymakers can use for assisting households with educational expenditure. A case study of urban Bangladesh using tobit and hurdle regression…

  9. No More Free Lunch for Education Policymakers and Researchers. Evidence Speaks Reports, Vol 1, #20

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chingos, Matthew M.

    2016-01-01

    The federal Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA), like No Child Left Behind before it, requires states to report information on the academic achievement of students in each of their schools, both overall and for various subgroups of students. A subgroup of particular interest to policymakers and researchers is economically disadvantaged students,…

  10. Research, Public Policymaking, and Knowledge-Translation Processes: Canadian Efforts to Build Bridges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavis, John N.

    2006-01-01

    Public policymakers must contend with a particular set of institutional arrangements that govern what can be done to address any given issue, pressure from a variety of interest groups about what they would like to see done to address any given issue, and a range of ideas (including research evidence) about how best to address any given issue.…

  11. Unlocking the Potential of the "What Works" Approach to Policymaking and Practice: Improving Impact Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granger, Robert C.; Maynard, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Despite bipartisan support in Washington, DC, which dates back to the mid-1990s, the "what works" approach has yet to gain broad support among policymakers and practitioners. One way to build such support is to increase the usefulness of program impact evaluations for these groups. We describe three ways to make impact evaluations more…

  12. Undocumented Immigrants and Higher Education Policy: The Policymaking Environment of New York State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nienhusser, H. Kenny

    2015-01-01

    This research presents findings of the policymaking environment in the area of postsecondary education benefits for undocumented immigrants in New York. In addition to describing the response to ever-changing federal, state, and local actions, this investigation also identifies five political forces (power of the governor, pressure of advocacy…

  13. Challenges and Opportunities in After-School Programs: Lessons for Policymakers and Funders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Jean Baldwin; Walker, Karen; Raley, Rebecca

    This report describes program realities that policymakers must consider when shaping after-school initiatives in impoverished neighborhoods. Information comes from the multi-year evaluation of the Extended-Service Schools Adaptation Initiative, which is examining 60 after-school programs in 17 cities nationwide. Each initiative is adapting one of…

  14. Empowering Parents and Communities through Quality Public Reporting: A Brief for State Policymakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Data Quality Campaign, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Publicly reporting timely, actionable, and comprehensible data is one of the most powerful ways states can promote transparency, strengthen accountability, and ensure that everyone with a stake in education--parents, educators, policymakers, researchers, and members of the public and press-- has access to the information they need to make good…

  15. At a Glance: ADHD and IDEA 1997. A Guide for State and Local Policymakers. Policy Briefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregg, Soleil

    This policy brief summarizes the literature and identifies responsibilities of state and local policymakers in meeting legal obligations to provide educational services for students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). Presented in a general question-and-answer format,…

  16. Using Laboratory Experiments for Policymaking: An Example from the Georgia Irrigation Reduction Auction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Ronald G.; Holt, Charles A.; Laury, Susan K.

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, interest has been growing in policy applications of different auction systems. This paper reports a series of experiments that were used to design and implement an auction in a unique policymaking environment. In April 2000, the Georgia legislature passed a law that mandated that the state hold an auction in drought years to pay…

  17. Using Knowledge of the Past to Improve Education Today: US Education History and Policy-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinovskis, Maris A.

    2015-01-01

    Early American historians provided the public and policy-makers with information about US history that provided both entertainment and policy suggestions. As American historians became more professionalised in the early twentieth century, they concentrated more on their own scholarly concerns and less on policy-relevant writings. In recent…

  18. School and District Intervention: A Decision-Making Framework for Policymakers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowles, Susan A.; Churchill, Andrew M.; Effrat, Andrew; McDermott, Kathryn A.

    This paper seeks to help state policymakers understand their relatively new role in improving the academic performance of local schools and districts. The first section, "Intervention Decision-Making Framework," focuses on the intervention decision making framework model, performance criteria, strategic criteria, diagnostic…

  19. Science Does Not Speak for Itself: Translating Child Development Research for the Public and Its Policymakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shonkoff, Jack P.; Bales, Susan Nall

    2011-01-01

    Science has an important role to play in advising policymakers on crafting effective responses to social problems that affect the development of children. This article describes lessons learned from a multiyear, working collaboration among neuroscientists, developmental psychologists, pediatricians, economists, and communications researchers who…

  20. Building and Using Coordinated State Early Care and Education Data Systems: A Framework for State Policymakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Early Childhood Data Collaborative (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    State policymakers are increasingly focused on closing the achievement gap and preparing all students to succeed in school and in life. However, college and career readiness begins long before students enter high school or even a classroom. Differences in children's abilities appear as early as the first year of life, and research has shown that…

  1. Survey of Argentine Health Researchers on the Use of Evidence in Policymaking

    PubMed Central

    Corluka, Adrijana; Hyder, Adnan A.; Segura, Elsa; Winch, Peter; McLean, Robert K. D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective In this study, Argentine health researchers were surveyed regarding their perceptions of facilitators and barriers to evidence-based policymaking in Argentina, as well as their publication activities, and research environment satisfaction. Methods A self-administered online survey was sent to health researchers in Argentina. The survey questions were based on a preceding qualitative study of Argentine health researchers, as well as the scientific literature. Results Of the 647 researchers that were reached, 226 accessed the survey, for a response rate of 34.9%. Over 80% of researchers surveyed had never been involved in or contributed to decision-making, while over 90% of researchers indicated they would like to be involved in the decision-making process. Decision-maker self-interest was perceived to be the driving factor in the development of health and healthcare policies. Research conducted by a research leader was seen to be the most influential factor in influencing health policy, followed by policy relevance of the research. With respect to their occupational environment, researchers rated highest and most favourably the opportunities available to present, discuss and publish research results and their ability to further their education and training. Argentine researchers surveyed demonstrated a strong interest and willingness to contribute their work and expertise to inform Argentine health policy development. Conclusion Despite Argentina’s long scientific tradition, there are relatively few institutionalized linkages between health research results and health policymaking. Based on the results of this study, the disconnect between political decision-making and the health research system, coupled with fewer opportunities for formalized or informal researcher/decision-maker interaction, contribute to the challenges in evidence informing health policymaking in Argentina. Improving personal contact and the building of relationships between

  2. Whole-of-society approach for public health policymaking: a case study of polycentric governance from Quebec, Canada.

    PubMed

    Addy, Nii A; Poirier, Alain; Blouin, Chantal; Drager, Nick; Dubé, Laurette

    2014-12-01

    In adopting a whole-of-society (WoS) approach that engages multiple stakeholders in public health policies across contexts, the authors propose that effective governance presents a challenge. The purpose of this paper is to highlight a case for how polycentric governance underlying the WoS approach is already functioning, while outlining an agenda to enable adaptive learning for improving such governance processes. Drawing upon a case study from Quebec, Canada, we employ empirically developed concepts from extensive, decades-long work of the 2009 Nobel laureate Elinor Ostrom in the governance of policy in nonhealth domains to analyze early efforts at polycentric governance in policies around overnutrition, highlighting interactions between international, domestic, state and nonstate actors and processes. Using information from primary and secondary sources, we analyze the emergence of the broader policy context of Quebec's public health system in the 20th century. We present a microsituational analysis of the WoS approach for Quebec's 21st century policies on healthy lifestyles, emphasizing the role of governance at the community level. We argue for rethinking prescriptive policy analysis of the 20th century, proposing an agenda for diagnostic policy analysis, which explicates the multiple sets of actors and interacting variables shaping polycentric governance for operationalizing the WoS approach to policymaking in specific contexts.

  3. An Evidence-Centered Approach to Using Assessment Data for Policymakers. Research Report. ETS RR-10-03

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Jody S.; Zapata-Rivera, Diego; VanWinkle, Waverely

    2010-01-01

    District-level policymakers are challenged to use evidence of student achievement to make policy decisions, such as professional development and other school improvement plans. They currently receive reports of student achievement data that are complex, difficult to read, and even harder to interpret. Using the research literature on policymakers'…

  4. SUPPORT Tools for evidence-informed health Policymaking (STP) 13: Preparing and using policy briefs to support evidence-informed policymaking.

    PubMed

    Lavis, John N; Permanand, Govin; Oxman, Andrew D; Lewin, Simon; Fretheim, Atle

    2009-12-16

    This article is part of a series written for people responsible for making decisions about health policies and programmes and for those who support these decision makers. Policy briefs are a relatively new approach to packaging research evidence for policymakers. The first step in a policy brief is to prioritise a policy issue. Once an issue is prioritised, the focus then turns to mobilising the full range of research evidence relevant to the various features of the issue. Drawing on available systematic reviews makes the process of mobilising evidence feasible in a way that would not otherwise be possible if individual relevant studies had to be identified and synthesised for every feature of the issue under consideration. In this article, we suggest questions that can be used to guide those preparing and using policy briefs to support evidence-informed policymaking. These are: 1. Does the policy brief address a high-priority issue and describe the relevant context of the issue being addressed? 2. Does the policy brief describe the problem, costs and consequences of options to address the problem, and the key implementation considerations? 3. Does the policy brief employ systematic and transparent methods to identify, select, and assess synthesised research evidence? 4. Does the policy brief take quality, local applicability, and equity considerations into account when discussing the synthesised research evidence? 5. Does the policy brief employ a graded-entry format? 6. Was the policy brief reviewed for both scientific quality and system relevance?

  5. Amplified Policymaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince, Katherine; Woempner, Carolyn

    2010-01-01

    This brief examines the policy implications of two drivers of change presented in the "2020 Forecast: Creating the Future of Learning"-- Pattern Recognition and Amplified Organization. These drivers point toward a series of cultural shifts and illuminate how we are developing new ways of organizing, constructing, and managing knowledge.…

  6. 16 CFR 502.101 - Introductory offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) The term introductory offer means any printed matter consisting of the words “introductory offer” or... significant and substantial respect, or is being introduced into a trade area for the first time. (2) The... “Introductory Offer.” (3) The packager or labeler does not sell any commodity so labeled in a trade area for...

  7. 48 CFR 12.205 - Offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Offers. 12.205 Section 12.205 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION PLANNING ACQUISITION OF COMMERCIAL ITEMS Special Requirements for the Acquisition of Commercial Items 12.205 Offers....

  8. 48 CFR 12.205 - Offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Offers. 12.205 Section 12.205 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION PLANNING ACQUISITION OF COMMERCIAL ITEMS Special Requirements for the Acquisition of Commercial Items 12.205 Offers....

  9. 48 CFR 12.205 - Offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Offers. 12.205 Section 12.205 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION PLANNING ACQUISITION OF COMMERCIAL ITEMS Special Requirements for the Acquisition of Commercial Items 12.205 Offers....

  10. 48 CFR 12.205 - Offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Offers. 12.205 Section 12.205 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION PLANNING ACQUISITION OF COMMERCIAL ITEMS Special Requirements for the Acquisition of Commercial Items 12.205 Offers....

  11. 5 CFR 536.104 - Reasonable offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... position before the action resulting in the grade or pay retention entitlement; (4) The offered position... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS GRADE AND PAY RETENTION General Provisions § 536.104 Reasonable offer. (a) For the purpose of determining whether grade retention...

  12. 16 CFR 502.101 - Introductory offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... FAIR PACKAGING AND LABELING ACT Retail Sale Price Representations § 502.101 Introductory offers. (a... retail sale at a price lower than the anticipated ordinary and customary retail sale price. (b) The... duration in excess of 6 months. (4) At the time of making the introductory offer promotion, the...

  13. Distance Learning Offered in Rural Montana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullard, Julie; Gilliard, Jennifer L.

    2004-01-01

    Due to increasing demands from the field, the University of Montana-Western (UM-W) recently began to offer a bachelor's degree in Early Childhood Education that builds upon the associate degree. Students complete their general education credits, early childhood specialty courses, and an area of special emphasis. Courses are offered online or…

  14. 7 CFR 3560.656 - Incentives offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Incentives offers. 3560.656 Section 3560.656 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Housing Preservation § 3560.656 Incentives offers....

  15. 48 CFR 2825.203 - Evaluating offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Evaluating offers. 2825.203 Section 2825.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Socioeconomic Programs FOREIGN ACQUISITION Buy American Act-Construction Materials 2825.203 Evaluating offers. The HCA,...

  16. 16 CFR 238.2 - Initial offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Initial offer. 238.2 Section 238.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES AGAINST BAIT ADVERTISING § 238.2 Initial offer. (a) No statement or illustration should be used in any advertisement...

  17. 17 CFR 230.252 - Offering statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., language and pagination. The requirements for offering statements are the same as those specified in § 230... security holder shall sign the offering statement. If a signature is by a person on behalf of any other person, evidence of authority to sign shall be filed, except where an executive officer signs for...

  18. 17 CFR 230.252 - Offering statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., language and pagination. The requirements for offering statements are the same as those specified in § 230... security holder shall sign the offering statement. If a signature is by a person on behalf of any other person, evidence of authority to sign shall be filed, except where an executive officer signs for...

  19. Athletic Offerings in Private Junior Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Adam; Modica, Jonathon; Miller, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Little has been done to profile or describe private junior colleges, their role in the higher education landscape, their practices, and in particular, how these institutions use and offer athletic programming. The current study was designed to profile the athletic program offerings of private junior colleges and to describe the extent of their…

  20. Health Planning in the United States and the Decline of Public-interest Policymaking

    PubMed Central

    Melhado, Evan M

    2006-01-01

    In the 1960s and 1970s, health planning formed a major theme of American health policy. Planners aimed to improve health services and make them broadly available while using resources efficiently. This article provides a history, both intellectual and political, of the origins of planning, its rise, and—in the face of mounting problems—its decline. The story also illustrates broader changes in the culture of policymaking in American health care. From the Progressive Era through the 1960s, reform-minded experts in health worked to advance the public interest. Thereafter, they increasingly left behind public-interest ideals and their underlying extramarket values in favor of organizing and improving health care markets. Whatever the deficiencies of traditional policymaking may be, this study suggests the need to resurrect extramarket values in health policy. PMID:16771822

  1. Policymaking to preserve privacy in disclosure of public health data: a suggested framework.

    PubMed

    Mizani, Mehrdad A; Baykal, Nazife

    2015-03-01

    Health organisations in Turkey gather a vast amount of valuable individual data that can be used for public health purposes. The organisations use rigid methods to remove some useful details from the data while publishing the rest of the data in a highly aggregated form, mostly because of privacy concerns and lack of standardised policies. This action leads to information loss and bias affecting public health research. Hence, organisations need dynamic policies and well-defined procedures rather than a specific algorithm to protect the privacy of individual data. To address this need, we developed a framework for the systematic application of anonymity methods while reducing and objectively reporting the information loss without leaking confidentiality. This framework acts as a roadmap for policymaking by providing high-level pseudo-policies with semitechnical guidelines in addition to some sample scenarios suitable for policymakers, public health programme managers and legislators.

  2. Limits to evidence-based health policymaking: policy hurdles to structural HIV prevention in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Hunsmann, Moritz

    2012-05-01

    Despite the well-documented role of highly co-endemic biological cofactors in facilitating HIV transmission and the availability of comparatively inexpensive tools to control them, cofactor-related interventions are only hesitantly included into African HIV prevention strategies. Against this background, this study analyzes political obstacles to policy-uptake of evidence concerning structural HIV prevention. The data used stem from fieldwork conducted in Tanzania between 2007 and 2009. They include 92 in-depth interviews with key AIDS policymakers and observations of 8 national-level policy meetings. Adopting a political economy perspective, the study shows that 1) assuming cost-aversion as a spontaneous reflex of policymakers is empirically wrong and analytically misleading, 2) that political constituencies induce a path dependence of allocative decisions inconducive to structural prevention, 3) that interventions' political attractiveness depends on the nature of their outputs and the expected temporality of political returns, 4) that policy fragmentation entailed by vertical disease control disfavours the consideration of broader causalities, and 5) that cofactor-based measures are hampered by policymakers' perception of structural prevention as being excessively complex and ultimately tantamount to poverty eradication. Confronting the policy players' reading of the Tanzanian situation with recent and classical literature on evidence-based decision-making and the politics of public health, this paper shows that, far from being strictly evidence-driven, HIV prevention policies result from a politically negotiated aggregation of competing, frequently non-optimizing rationalities. A realistic appraisal of policy processes suggests that the failure to consider the invariably political nature of HIV-related policymaking hampers the formulation of effective, politically informed strategies for positive change. Consequently, developing policy practitioners

  3. Towards better metrics and policymaking for seed system development: Insights from Asia's seed industry.

    PubMed

    Spielman, David J; Kennedy, Adam

    2016-09-01

    Since the 1980s, many developing countries have introduced policies to promote seed industry growth and improve the delivery of modern science to farmers, often with a long-term goal of increasing agricultural productivity in smallholder farming systems. Public, private, and civil society actors involved in shaping policy designs have, in turn, developed competing narratives around how best to build an innovative and sustainable seed system, each with varying goals, values, and levels of influence. Efforts to strike a balance between these narratives have often played out in passionate discourses surrounding seed rules and regulations. As a result, however, policymakers in many countries have expressed impatience with the slow progress on enhancing the contribution of a modern seed industry to the overarching goal of increasing agricultural productivity growth. One reason for this slow progress may be that policymakers are insufficiently cognizant of the trade-offs associated with rules and regulations required to effectively govern a modern seed industry. This suggests the need for new data and analysis to improve the understanding of how seed systems function. This paper explores these issues in the context of Asia's rapidly growing seed industry, with illustrations from seed markets for maize and several other crops, to highlight current gaps in the metrics used to analyze performance, competition, and innovation. The paper provides a finite set of indicators to inform policymaking on seed system design and monitoring, and explores how these indicators can be used to inform current policy debates in the region.

  4. Netherlands policy-making process on scenarios and projections for greenhouse gas emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkus, Henk; Iestra, Wim

    1996-01-01

    An important commitment in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) for so-called Annex I Parties (OECD plus Central and Eastern Europe) is the communication on climate change policies. A detailed description of policies and measures and specific estimates of their effects on projected anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks are crucial chapters in each Annex I Party communication. This article focuses on the Netherlands' climate change policy-making process with respect to projections of greenhouse gases (GHG). A main element of this process is the periodic monitoring of the progress of climate change policy, including assessment of effects of implemented measures, updating the validity of assumptions made, and analysis of structural economic changes. Another element of this policy-making process is analysis of the cost-effectiveness of possible mitigation options and evaluation of the impacts of these options. Several monitoring and analysis instruments and modeling tools used in this process are discussed, as is the broader framework. Attention is also given to the FCCC review process and its relevance for the Netherlands' policy-making process.

  5. Coordinating Scientist and Policymaker Response Types and Times to Improve Watershed Management in Suburbanizing Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endreny, T. A.; Wolosoff, S.

    2001-05-01

    Watershed scientists and policymakers represent two separate professional cultures in the manner that they respond to new patterns of watershed land-use change. The lack of coordination between scientist and policymaker response types and times, which are the "how" and "when" of action, limit the water quality benefits of water resource management in suburbanizing watersheds. Science requires long-term experimentation to understand how suburbanization impacts the previously generalizable watershed relationships for undeveloped sites. Policy, on the other hand, must respond to constituents, in the form of clear watershed regulations, as soon as possible. As a result, management plans are often adopted that are not based on the best or latest scientific knowledge. Scientific investigations on pollutant loading mechanisms in New York City's suburbanized Croton water supply area and in Twin Cities suburbs indicate that policy makers would ideally provide spatially targeted guidelines that are sensitive to spatial heterogeneities in watershed features, such as soil types, terrain slopes, and seasonal watertable profiles. Examples of these spatially distributed policy guidelines include set back distances for septic systems and loading rates for fertilizer application. This research recommends that policymakers and scientists better coordinate to set future research agendas that spatially quantify how heterogeneities in watershed response can be used to spatially guide geo-political zoning and development decisions.

  6. The Development of Evidence Briefs to Transfer Knowledge About Advanced Practice Nursing Roles to Providers, Policymakers and Administrators.

    PubMed

    Kilpatrick, Kelley; Carter, Nancy; Bryant-Lukosius, Denise; Charbonneau-Smith, Renee; DiCenso, Alba

    2015-03-01

    The transfer of health-related research knowledge between producers and users is a complex, dynamic and iterative process. There has been little research describing the preferred knowledge transfer strategies used by different stakeholder groups, including healthcare providers, policymakers and administrators. The purpose of the survey was to gain an understanding of the content and preferred dissemination strategies of knowledge users of briefing notes about the effectiveness of advanced practice nursing (APN) roles in Canada. An on-line cross-sectional survey was conducted from December 2011 to January 2012. Purposeful sampling was used to identify the target audience. The questionnaire included six items. The response rate was 44% (n=75/170). Participants identified that the briefing note should concisely summarize definitions for APN roles and information about the safety, effectiveness, cost savings and effective role implementation strategies. Multiple approaches were favoured to disseminate the information. Preferred dissemination strategies included personalized emails, meeting with briefing note recipients, engaging nurse practitioners and clinical nurse specialists in organizations where APN roles have been successfully implemented, engaging the media and using social media. The use of briefing notes has shown promise. More research is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of tailored briefing notes.

  7. M.S. Offered in Industrial Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Describes graduate training geared specifically to prepare students for work in industry. Reports on schools offering such a program, and outlines the major characteristics of each school's curriculum. (GS)

  8. Offering Spiritual Support for Family or Friends

    MedlinePlus

    ... that are meaningful for me? b What books, music, prayers, readings, art are meaningful for me? It ... experience with the person, offer prayer, spiritual readings, music or sacred rituals as appropriate or requested. b ...

  9. The Emergence of the Comprehensive Middle School in France: Educational Policy-Making in a Centralised System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaziel, Haim

    1989-01-01

    Examines the dynamic aspects and political nature of educational policymaking in France's centralized educational system. Considers the obstacles to the introduction and implementation of comprehensive middle schools, created in 1963 to permit social mobility through education. Contains 48 references. (SV)

  10. The ultimatum game: Discrete vs. continuous offers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dishon-Berkovits, Miriam; Berkovits, Richard

    2014-09-01

    In many experimental setups in social-sciences, psychology and economy the subjects are requested to accept or dispense monetary compensation which is usually given in discrete units. Using computer and mathematical modeling we show that in the framework of studying the dynamics of acceptance of proposals in the ultimatum game, the long time dynamics of acceptance of offers in the game are completely different for discrete vs. continuous offers. For discrete values the dynamics follow an exponential behavior. However, for continuous offers the dynamics are described by a power-law. This is shown using an agent based computer simulation as well as by utilizing an analytical solution of a mean-field equation describing the model. These findings have implications to the design and interpretation of socio-economical experiments beyond the ultimatum game.

  11. Health Reporting in Print Media in Lebanon: Evidence, Quality and Role in Informing Policymaking

    PubMed Central

    El-Jardali, Fadi; Bou Karroum, Lama; Bawab, Lamya; Kdouh, Ola; El-Sayed, Farah; Rachidi, Hala; Makki, Malak

    2015-01-01

    Background Media plays a vital role in shaping public policies and opinions through disseminating health-related information. This study aims at exploring the role of media in informing health policies in Lebanon, identifying the factors influencing health reporting and investigating the role of evidence in health journalism and the quality of health reporting. It also identifies strategies to enhance the use of evidence in health journalism and improve the quality of health reporting. Methods Media analysis was conducted to assess the way media reports on health-related issues and the quality of reporting using a quality assessment tool. Semi-structured interviews were also conducted with 27 journalists, researchers and policymakers to explore their perception on the role of media in health policymaking and the factors influencing health reporting. In addition, a validation workshop was conducted. Results Out of 1,279 health-related news articles identified, 318 articles used certain type of evidence to report health issues 39.8% of which relied on experts’ opinions as their source of evidence while only 5.9% referenced peer-reviewed research studies. The quality of health reporting was judged to be low based on a quality assessment tool consisting of a set of ten criteria. Journalists raised concerns about issues impeding them from referring to evidence. Journalists also reported difficulties with the investigative health journalism. Policymakers and researchers viewed media as an important tool for evidence-informed health policies, however, serious concerns were voiced in terms of the current practice and capacities. Conclusion Our study provides a structured reflection on the role of media and the factors that influence health reporting including context-specific strategies that would enhance the quality and promote the use of evidence in health reporting. In the light of the political changes in many Middle Eastern countries, findings from this study can

  12. Can Community Colleges Offer Opportunity and Excellence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Robert A.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Four community college presidents (i.e., Robert A. Anderson, New Mexico Junior College; Flora Mancuso Edwards, Hostos Community College (NY); D. Kent Sharples, Horry-Georgetown Technical College (SC); and George B. Vaughan, Piedmont Virginia Community College) offer explanations of how community colleges can maintain open-door admissions, provide…

  13. Colleges Offer Extra Aid to Strapped Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supiano, Beckie

    2009-01-01

    Among all the uncertainty colleges face in this recession, they are sure of one thing: Families are feeling less than confident about their ability to pay for higher education. In response, colleges are creating more student-aid programs or expanding existing ones. Others are offering students additional counseling or a grace period for paying…

  14. 43 CFR 12.715 - Evaluating offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 6-percent factor were applied, the head of the grantee organization or a designee at a level no... Act-Supplies § 12.715 Evaluating offers. (a) Unless the head of the grantee organization or a designee at a level no lower than the grantee's designated awarding official determines otherwise, the...

  15. Five Reasons to Offer Online Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oblender, Thomas E.; Glass, Jane

    2004-01-01

    Everyone has heard about online courses, and how they are good for students because they offer schedule flexibility or opportunities to take courses that a school would not normally provide. After all, students can take and complete these courses anytime, anywhere. As their popularity grows, several states have added online learning to their…

  16. The Etiquette of Accepting a Job Offer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlmutter, David D.

    2013-01-01

    The academic job market is overcrowded, but departments are hiring, and each year thousands of graduate students and other candidates will get phone calls offering them tenure-track positions. It is typically a moment of mutual giddiness. The department heads are excited at the prospect of a terrific new colleague; the job applicants now know that…

  17. Education: National Labs Offer New Student Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haggin, Joseph

    1988-01-01

    Describes a program offered by the U.S. Department of Energy for undergraduate science and engineering students aimed at providing research experience during the academic year at the six national laboratories. Reviews the potential interest and benefits to students. (CW)

  18. S.O.S.--Students Offering Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thralls, Sharon

    1989-01-01

    This newsletter describes the features and cites potential obstacles to implementation of high school student community volunteer services for credit programs. Specifically, it documents the genesis of the Students Offering Service (SOS) in the Pasadena (California) Unified School District for the purpose of demonstrating the importance of such…

  19. Residential Schools Offer Students Deaf Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Edna

    1997-01-01

    Discusses a survey of 115 high school students who are deaf or hard of hearing, which examined the pros and cons of mainstreaming. Results found that center schools offered a stronger representation of deaf culture and that more residential students than mainstream students were satisfied with their school experience overall. (Author/CR)

  20. Information flow and its significance in coherently integrated policymaking for promoting energy efficiency.

    PubMed

    Kua, Harn Wei

    2007-05-01

    Why do negative, unexpected outcomes occur in sustainable development policies? What can we learn from them? Studies have shown clearly that, to be effective, sustainable development policies must be as coherent and integrated as possible; however, policy integration should not evolve into a tool that restricts creativity and undermines the relevance of local policy initiatives. The Coherently Integrated Policymaking frameworks, based on the precept that information flow is pivotal to the success of policymaking, are proposed and then applied to design an integrated energy efficiency policy that coaddresses a set of indicators. These indicators are energy and greenhouse gas reduction, improvement of public's health, increase in material efficiency, enhancementof energy equity, provision of employment and education opportunities, improvement of workers' health, improvement of local economy, and reduction in derived costs for the business community. Our framework also provides guidance for the magnitude of change a policy should introduce at one time, guided by five distinct types of feedback loops that link the different stakeholders involved in the design, implementation, and monitoring of integrated policies.

  1. CJEP will offer open science badges.

    PubMed

    Pexman, Penny M

    2017-03-01

    This editorial announces the decision of the Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology (CJEP) to offer Open Science Framework (OSF) Badges. The Centre for Open Science provides tools to facilitate open science practices. These include the OSF badges. The badges acknowledge papers that meet standards for openness of data, methods, or research process. They are now described in the CJEP Submission Guidelines, and are provided in the editorial. (PsycINFO Database Record

  2. Digital Humanities: What Can Libraries Offer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Shun Han Rebekah

    2016-01-01

    The collaborative aspect of digital humanities is one of the core values of the field. Specialists and organizations involved in digital humanities partnerships may include individual scholars focusing on a particular area, multiple scholars across disciplines, computer scientists, or digital humanities centers. Through a quantitative analysis of…

  3. Exploring governance learning: How policymakers draw on evidence, experience and intuition in designing participatory flood risk planning.

    PubMed

    Newig, Jens; Kochskämper, Elisa; Challies, Edward; Jager, Nicolas W

    2016-01-01

    The importance of designing suitable participatory governance processes is generally acknowledged. However, less emphasis has been put on how decision-makers design such processes, and how they learn about doing so. While the policy learning literature has tended to focus on the substance of policy, little research is available on learning about the design of governance. Here, we explore different approaches to learning among German policymakers engaged in implementing the European Floods Directive. We draw on official planning documents and expert interviews with state-level policymakers to focus on learning about the procedural aspects of designing and conducting participatory flood risk management planning. Drawing on the policy learning and evidence-based governance literatures, we conceptualise six types of instrumental 'governance learning' according to sources of learning (endogenous and exogenous) and modes of learning (serial and parallel). We empirically apply this typology in the context of diverse participatory flood risk management planning processes currently unfolding across the German federal states. We find that during the first Floods Directive planning cycle, policymakers have tended to rely on prior experience in their own federal states with planning under the Water Framework Directive to inform the design and carrying out of participatory processes. In contrast, policymakers only sporadically look to experiences from other jurisdictions as a deliberate learning strategy. We argue that there is scope for more coordinated and systematic learning on designing effective governance, and that the latter might benefit from more openness to experimentation and learning on the part of policymakers.

  4. Family planning offered in local welfare offices.

    PubMed

    1998-04-01

    This article describes expanded access to family planning (FP) services through community welfare offices in Washington state, US. The government aim is to decrease unintended pregnancies and to help families achieve self-sufficiency. The staff must be sensitive and respectful of clients served. The team effort includes contacting clients in other community locations to offer FP education. The approach is characterized as "1-stop shopping" that includes FP, welfare, access to jobs, training, and medical coupons. Preventing unintended pregnancies is cost effective. A state (90%) investment of $40/person for contraceptives is good business compared to $400/person as a 50/50 state/federal investment in prenatal and delivery costs. The program began in 1992, by educating staff members in community services offices (CSOs) about FP issues. In 1994, the program hired registered nurses and nurse practitioners at CSOs to provide FP services. Almost all CSOs now have nurses, and there are 8 full exam clinics. A resource handbook for CSO workers and FP nurses was compiled by state and local FP personnel. CSOs typically assign 1 staff member to FP, usually on a part time basis. Close collaboration between nurses and CSO workers usually involves more creative strategies and outreach projects. For example, in 1 CSO in Washington, the FP worker offers contraceptive counseling, pregnancy tests, and sexually transmitted disease prevention. Contraceptives are provided at a separate time with local private providers or at health department clinics. CSOs continue to provide counseling regardless of referrals to private clinics. The project is growing and forming collaborations with other FP groups. These 1-stop sites offer accessible, familiar, and comfortable services.

  5. Albania, offshore subscribed, offering EOR opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-20

    This paper reports that Albania is starting a campaign to offer field development/enhanced recovery projects to foreign companies. The fields chosen for EOR projects and their producing lithologies are: Patos-Marinza, sandstone. Kucova-Arrza, sandstone. Gorisht-Kocul, limestone. Ballsh-Hekal, limestone. Cakran-Mollaj, limestone. Visoka, limestone. Delvina, limestone. Field locations mostly lie along Albania's Adriatic Sea coast. Oil production began in Albania in 1929, peaked at about 60,000 b/d in 1975 and has steadily fallen.

  6. Integrating intervention targets offered by homeostatic theory

    PubMed Central

    Annunziato, Rachel A; Grossman, Stephanie L

    2016-01-01

    Marks presents “homeostatic theory” which proposes that weight gain is fostered by a “Circle of Discontent” consisting of body dissatisfaction, negative affect, and overconsumption. This innovative framework offers potential intervention approaches, including victim-blaming, stigma, and discrimination, as well as devalorizing the thin-ideal. Our article discusses possible ways that clinical health psychologists based in university settings may be uniquely positioned to consider and implement large-scale programs that have shown great promise for addressing these core issues. PMID:28070390

  7. Turnkey offering a claimed sector 'first'.

    PubMed

    Law, Oliver

    2011-01-01

    Manufacturer and supplier of LED theatre lights, HD camera systems, video integration technologies, and ceiling support units, Trumpf Medical Systems UK, and "logistical services" company Canute International Medical Services (CIMS), one of whose specialities is providing mobile medical units for diagnostic imaging, have entered into a partnership that will see the two companies offer fully fitted out modular operating theatres and other medical/clinical buildings incorporating the latest technology and equipment, on a fully project-managed, "turnkey" basis. Oliver Law, Trumpf Medical Systems UK managing director, explains the background, and the new service's anticipated customer benefits.

  8. Influence of the support offered to breastfeeding by maternity hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Passanha, Adriana; Benício, Maria Helena D’Aquino; Venâncio, Sônia Isoyama; dos Reis, Márcia Cristina Guerreiro

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether the support offered by maternity hospitals is associated with higher prevalences of exclusive and predominant breastfeeding. METHODS This is a cross-sectional study including a representative sample of 916 infants less than six months who were born in maternity hospitals, in Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, 2011. The maternity hospitals were evaluated in relation to their fulfillment of the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding. Data were collected regarding breastfeeding patterns, the birth hospital and other characteristics. The individualized effect of the study factor on exclusive and predominant breastfeeding was analyzed using Poisson multiple regression with robust variance. RESULTS Predominant breastfeeding tended to be more prevalent when the number of fulfilled steps was higher (p of linear trend = 0.057). The step related to not offering artificial teats or pacifiers to breastfed infants and that related to encouraging the establishment of breastfeeding support groups were associated, respectively, to a higher prevalence of exclusive (PR = 1.26; 95%CI 1.04;1.54) and predominant breastfeeding (PR = 1.55; 95%CI 1.01;2.39), after an adjustment was performed for confounding variables. CONCLUSIONS We observed a positive association between support offered by maternity hospitals and prevalences of exclusive and predominant breastfeeding. These results can be useful to other locations with similar characteristics (cities with hospitals that fulfill the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding) to provide incentive to breastfeeding, by means of promoting, protecting and supporting breastfeeding in maternity hospitals. PMID:26759966

  9. Policy entrepreneurs and structural influence in integrated community case management policymaking in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Shearer, Jessica C

    2015-12-01

    Policy entrepreneurs are individuals who attempt to influence the policy process and its outcomes through their opportunistic or incremental actions. Their success in the policy-making process has been associated with the convergence of four factors: behavioural traits; institutional factors; network position and political capital. Policy entrepreneurs have received little study in low- and middle-income country policy research despite observations of individualized decision-making, informal institutions and the unequal distribution and exercise of power in policymaking. This article aims to identify whether policy entrepreneurs were present in the policy process around integrated community case management (iCCM) in Burkina Faso, whether they were successful in achieving policy change, and whether success or failure can be explained using existing policy entrepreneur frameworks from high-income polities. This mixed methods policy study collected data from in-depth qualitative interviews and social network surveys of actors involved in iCCM policymaking [known locally as C-integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI)]; data were analysed based on the framework categories. Interview data pointed to one key individual who played a significant role in the inclusion of pneumonia treatment into the country's iCCM policy, an issue that had been a point of contention between government policy elites and development partners. Social network data confirmed that this actor was strategically located in the policy network to be able to reach the most other actors and to be able to control the flow of information. Although some development partner actors were as strategically located, none had the same level of authority or trust as was imbued by being a member of the government civil service. The entrepreneur's mid-level rank in the health ministry may have encouraged him/her to invest political capital and take risks that would not have been feasible or attractive to a

  10. Policy entrepreneurs and structural influence in integrated community case management policymaking in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Policy entrepreneurs are individuals who attempt to influence the policy process and its outcomes through their opportunistic or incremental actions. Their success in the policy-making process has been associated with the convergence of four factors: behavioural traits; institutional factors; network position and political capital. Policy entrepreneurs have received little study in low- and middle-income country policy research despite observations of individualized decision-making, informal institutions and the unequal distribution and exercise of power in policymaking. This article aims to identify whether policy entrepreneurs were present in the policy process around integrated community case management (iCCM) in Burkina Faso, whether they were successful in achieving policy change, and whether success or failure can be explained using existing policy entrepreneur frameworks from high-income polities. This mixed methods policy study collected data from in-depth qualitative interviews and social network surveys of actors involved in iCCM policymaking [known locally as C-integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI)]; data were analysed based on the framework categories. Interview data pointed to one key individual who played a significant role in the inclusion of pneumonia treatment into the country’s iCCM policy, an issue that had been a point of contention between government policy elites and development partners. Social network data confirmed that this actor was strategically located in the policy network to be able to reach the most other actors and to be able to control the flow of information. Although some development partner actors were as strategically located, none had the same level of authority or trust as was imbued by being a member of the government civil service. The entrepreneur’s mid-level rank in the health ministry may have encouraged him/her to invest political capital and take risks that would not have been feasible or attractive to

  11. Wind offering in energy and reserve markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, T.; Pinson, P.; Morais, H.

    2016-09-01

    The increasing penetration of wind generation in power systems to fulfil the ambitious European targets will make wind power producers to play an even more important role in the future power system. Wind power producers are being incentivized to participate in reserve markets to increase their revenue, since currently wind turbine/farm technologies allow them to provide ancillary services. Thus, wind power producers are to develop offering strategies for participation in both energy and reserve markets, accounting for market rules, while ensuring optimal revenue. We consider a proportional offering strategy to optimally decide upon participation in both markets by maximizing expected revenue from day-ahead decisions while accounting for estimated regulation costs for failing to provide the services. An evaluation of considering the same proportional splitting of energy and reserve in both day- ahead and balancing market is performed. A set of numerical examples illustrate the behavior of such strategy. An important conclusion is that the optimal split of the available wind power between energy and reserve strongly depends upon prices and penalties on both market trading floors.

  12. Evidence and policymaking: The introduction of MMR vaccine in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Blume, Stuart; Tump, Janneke

    2010-01-01

    Based on a case-study of the introduction of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine in the Netherlands two decades ago, using documentary and archival sources, this paper examines the way evidence is used in policymaking. Starting from the question of ‘what counts as evidence’, two central claims are developed. First, the decision to introduce MMR was not one but a series of decisions going back at least seven years, over the course of which the significance attached to various forms of evidence changed. Second, results of international studies were coming gradually to be of greater significance than evidence gathered from within the Netherlands itself. These developments had, and continue to have, major consequences for national scientific competences. PMID:20667640

  13. Conclusion: Recommendations for how practitioners, researchers, and policymakers can promote youth purpose.

    PubMed

    Mariano, Jenni Menon

    2011-01-01

    Initially drawing from, yet then expanding on the research discussed in this volume, this article discusses specific measures that practitioners, researchers, and policymakers can take to support purpose among youth. Strategies for educators include utilizing practical purpose teaching tools, such as purpose interviews, purpose-related discussions, whole classroom and school community games, and purpose survey methodologies. Research strategies include expanding the study of youth purpose to more diverse groups of young people, and developing more succinct tools to assess purpose in research. Finally, the article discusses policy measures to promote purpose, including modification of current academic testing practices, expanding the breadth of course and extracurricular experiences in schools to provide opportunities for purpose development, and integrating purpose promotion skill-building into existing teacher education programs.

  14. Scientific advice and public policy: expert advisers' and policymakers' discourses on boundary work.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, Robert

    2009-08-01

    This article reports on considerable variety and diversity among discourses on their own jobs of boundary workers of several major Dutch institutes for science-based policy advice. Except for enlightenment, all types of boundary arrangements/work in the Wittrock-typology (Social knowledge and public policy: eight models of interaction. In: Wagner P (ed) Social sciences and modern states: national experiences and theoretical crossroads. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1991) do occur. 'Divergers' experience a gap between science and politics/policymaking; and it is their self-evident task to act as a bridge. They spread over four discourses: 'rational facilitators', 'knowledge brokers', 'megapolicy strategists', and 'policy analysts'. Others aspire to 'convergence'; they believe science and politics ought to be natural allies in preparing collective decisions. But 'policy advisors' excepted, 'postnormalists' and 'deliberative proceduralists' find this very hard to achieve.

  15. Policy Building Blocks: Helping Policymakers Determine Policy Staging for the Development of Distributed PV Markets: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Doris, E.

    2012-04-01

    There is a growing body of qualitative and a limited body of quantitative literature supporting the common assertion that policy drives development of clean energy resources. Recent work in this area indicates that the impact of policy depends on policy type, length of time in place, and economic and social contexts of implementation. This work aims to inform policymakers about the impact of different policy types and to assist in the staging of those policies to maximize individual policy effectiveness and development of the market. To do so, this paper provides a framework for policy development to support the market for distributed photovoltaic systems. Next steps include mathematical validation of the framework and development of specific policy pathways given state economic and resource contexts.

  16. Coalition Policy-Making under Constraints: Examining the Role of Preferences and Institutions

    PubMed Central

    Schermann, Katrin; Ennser-Jedenastik, Laurenz

    2014-01-01

    While much has been written about the formation and termination of coalitions, comparatively little attention has been paid to the policy output of multiparty governments. The present study attempts to narrow this research gap by analysing policy-making in three Austrian coalition governments between 1999 and 2008. Drawing on the party mandate literature, a manually coded textual analysis of election manifestos is conducted that yields a dataset containing over 1,100 pledges. The fulfilment of these pledges is taken as the dependent variable in a multivariate analysis. The results indicate that institutional determinants (adoption in the coalition agreement, ministerial control, and policy status quo) significantly influence the chances of pledge fulfilment and thus present a powerful predictor of coalition policy output. By contrast, factors related to parties’ preferences (consensus between parties, policy distance, pledge saliency, and majority support in parliament) do not have an impact. PMID:26770004

  17. Communicating Scientific Findings to Lawyers, Policy-Makers, and the Public (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, W.; Velsko, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    This presentation will summarize the authors' collaborative research on inferential errors, bias and communication difficulties that have arisen in the area of WMD forensics. This research involves analysis of problems that have arisen in past national security investigations, interviews with scientists from various disciplines whose work has been used in WMD investigations, interviews with policy-makers, and psychological studies of lay understanding of forensic evidence. Implications of this research for scientists involved in nuclear explosion monitoring will be discussed. Among the issues covered will be: - Potential incompatibilities between the questions policy makers pose and the answers that experts can provide. - Common misunderstandings of scientific and statistical data. - Advantages and disadvantages of various methods for describing and characterizing the strength of scientific findings. - Problems that can arise from excessive hedging or, alternatively, insufficient qualification of scientific conclusions. - Problems that can arise from melding scientific and non-scientific evidence in forensic assessments.

  18. Welfare policymaking and intersections of race, ethnicity, and gender in U.S. state legislatures.

    PubMed

    Reingold, Beth; Smith, Adrienne R

    2012-01-01

    Welfare policy in the American states has been shaped profoundly by race, ethnicity, and representation. Does gender matter as well? Focusing on state welfare reform in the mid-1990s, we test hypotheses derived from two alternative approaches to incorporating gender into the study of representation and welfare policymaking. An additive approach, which assumes gender and race/ethnicity are distinct and independent, suggests that female state legislators—regardless of race/ethnicity—will mitigate the more restrictive and punitive aspects of welfare reform, much like their African American and Latino counterparts do. In contrast, an intersectional approach, which highlights the overlapping and interdependent nature of gender and race/ethnicity, suggests that legislative women of color will have the strongest countervailing effect on state welfare reform—stronger than that of other women or men of color. Our empirical analyses suggest an intersectional approach yields a more accurate understanding of gender, race/ethnicity, and welfare politics in the states.

  19. Maximizing quality and value in Medicaid: using return on investment forecasting to support effective policymaking.

    PubMed

    Hamblin, Allison; Shearer, Chad

    2009-04-01

    In order to serve increasing numbers of Medicaid beneficiaries, particularly during an economic recession, states must find ways to maximize the impact of available funds. Some states are identifying new ways of organizing, financing, and delivering health care in order to lower costs without sacrificing quality of care or enrollment capacity. An important tool for helping policymakers design such "value-added" strategies is return-on-investment (ROI) analysis. ROI forecasting has long been used to inform the allocation of limited resources in the private sector. This brief outlines what ROI can do, and in a few cases has already done, in the public sector, to improve quality and control costs in Medicaid.

  20. Media ratings for violence and sex. Implications for policymakers and parents.

    PubMed

    Bushman, Brad J; Cantor, Joanne

    2003-02-01

    This article reviews research on the implementation of media-rating systems, parents' use and evaluation of them, and the impact of ratings on children. Although half or more of parents report using media-rating systems, understanding of various components of the systems is low, particularly for television ratings. A meta-analysis of national polls shows that parents overwhelmingly prefer that ratings specify content, rather than giving age recommendations. A second meta-analysis, of experiments testing the effects of ratings on children's interest in programs, shows that ratings indicating restricted or controversial content have a deterrent effect for children under age 8 but that, by age 11 and especially for boys, the ratings show a small enticement effect. This effect occurs for both age-based and content-based ratings. Implications for policymakers and parents are discussed.

  1. Science does not speak for itself: translating child development research for the public and its policymakers.

    PubMed

    Shonkoff, Jack P; Bales, Susan Nall

    2011-01-01

    Science has an important role to play in advising policymakers on crafting effective responses to social problems that affect the development of children. This article describes lessons learned from a multiyear, working collaboration among neuroscientists, developmental psychologists, pediatricians, economists, and communications researchers who are engaged in the iterative construction of a core story of development, using simplifying models (i.e., metaphors) such as "brain architecture,"toxic stress," and "serve and return" to explain complex scientific concepts to nonscientists. The aim of this article is to stimulate more systematic, empirical approaches to the task of knowledge transfer and to underscore the need to view the translation of science into policy and practice as an important academic endeavor in its own right.

  2. 48 CFR 225.7703-3 - Evaluating offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Iraq or Afghanistan 225.7703-3 Evaluating offers. (a) Evaluate offers submitted in response to... Afghanistan, as follows: (1) If the low offer is an offer of a product or service from Iraq or Afghanistan, award on that offer. (2) If there are no offers of a product or service from Iraq or Afghanistan,...

  3. Off-patent drugs at brand-name prices: a puzzle for policymakers

    PubMed Central

    Tallapragada, Naren P.

    2016-01-01

    In August 2015, Turing Pharmaceuticals acquired the marketing rights to Daraprim (pyrimethamine), a drug used to treat parasitic infections like malaria and toxoplasmosis. Soon after, Turing caused an uproar when it announced that it would raise the price per tablet of Daraprim from \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$\\rm{\\$ 13.50\\ to\\ \\$ 750}$\\end{document}, a 5500% price hike for a drug that has been on the market for over 60 years and off patent since the 1970s. Old, off-patent drugs are becoming increasingly expensive; Daraprim is the archetypal example. Turing had the power to set a high price for Daraprim because the drug's limited patient population, the absence of competing manufacturers, and a lack of therapeutic alternatives all created an effective monopoly. Similar forces have driven up the prices of other off-patent drugs that treat diseases as diverse as heart failure and multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis. Thus, policymakers will have to consider how the high cost of off-patent drugs impacts public health as well as public spending. In this Note I outline the extent of the high-cost off-patent drug problem, drawing special attention to the problem's negative effects on both health outcomes and government budgets. After discussing some of the problem's underlying causes, I present several solutions to the problem that policymakers could consider, with a focus on proposals like reference pricing and expanded compounding that have received relatively little media attention. PMID:27774247

  4. Knowledge and power in policy-making for child survival in Niger.

    PubMed

    Dalglish, Sarah L; Rodríguez, Daniela C; Harouna, Abdoutan; Surkan, Pamela J

    2017-03-01

    Calls to enhance the use of scientific evidence in international health and development policy have increased in recent years; however, analytic frameworks for understanding evidence use focus narrowly on scientific research and were created using data and observations nearly exclusively from Western countries. We examine processes of health policy development in a case study of Niger, a low-income West African country that adopted integrated community case management of childhood illness (iCCM) beginning in 2007, resulting in measurable declines in child mortality. Data collection included in-depth interviews with policy actors in Niger (N = 32), document review (N = 103) and direct observation of policy forums (N = 3). Data analysis used process tracing methodology and applied an Aristotelian definition of "knowledge" as 1) episteme (facts), 2) techne (skills) and 3) phronesis (practical wisdom), while also using a critical perspective to understand issues of power. We found sharp differentials in policy-makers' possession and use of codified forms of knowledge (episteme), with Nigerien policy officers' access highly mediated by actors at international agencies. Government policy-makers possessed skills and capacities (techne) to negotiate with donors and deliberate and weigh conflicting considerations; however they lacked capacity and resources to formally evaluate and document programs and thus reliably draw lessons from them. Practical wisdom (phronesis) emerged as key to the iCCM policy enterprise, particularly among Nigerien government actors, who used logical and ethical arguments to make decisions later found to be critical to iCCM's success. While codified knowledge confers power on members of policy discussions who can access it, this represents only one form of knowledge used in the policy process and perhaps not the most important. Future research on evidence-based policy should use broader definitions of evidence or knowledge, examine on how

  5. Voluntarism, public engagement and the role of geoscience in radioactive waste management policy-making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilham, Nic

    2014-05-01

    In the UK, as elsewhere in Europe, there has been a move away from previous 'technocratic' approaches to radioactive waste management (RWM). Policy-makers have recognised that for any RWM programme to succeed, sustained engagement with stakeholders and the public is necessary, and any geological repository must be constructed and operated with the willing support of the community which hosts it. This has opened up RWM policy-making and implementation to a wider range of (often contested) expert inputs, ranging across natural and social sciences, engineering and even ethics. Geoscientists and other technical specialists have found themselves drawn into debates about how various types of expertise should be prioritised, and how they should be integrated with diverse public and stakeholder perspectives. They also have a vital role to play in communicating to the public the need for geological disposal of radioactive waste, and the various aspects of geoscience which will inform the process of implementing this, from identifying potential volunteer host communities, to finding a suitable site, developing the safety case, construction of a repository, emplacement of waste, closure and subsequent monitoring. High-quality geoscience, effectively communicated, will be essential to building and maintaining public confidence throughout the many decades such projects will take. Failure to communicate effectively the relevant geoscience and its central role in the UK's radioactive waste management programme arguably contributed to West Cumbria's January 2013 decision to withdraw from the site selection process, and may discourage other communities from coming forward in future. Across countries needing to deal with their radioactive waste, this unique challenge gives an unprecedented urgency to finding ways to engage and communicate effectively with the public about geoscience.

  6. Role of spatial tools in public health policymaking of Bangladesh: opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dohyeong; Sarker, Malabika; Vyas, Priyanka

    2016-02-27

    In spite of the increasing efforts to gather spatial data in developing countries, the use of maps is mostly for visualization of health indicators rather than informed decision-making. Various spatial tools can aid policymakers to allocate resources effectively, predict patterns in communicable or infectious diseases, and provide insights into geographical factors which are associated with utilization or adequacy of health services. In Bangladesh, the launch of District Health Information System 2, along with recent efforts to gather spatial data of facilities location, provides an interesting opportunity to study the current landscape and the potential barriers in advancing the use of spatial tools for informed decision making. This study assessed the current level of map usage and spatial tools for health sector planning in Bangladesh, focusing on investigating why map usage and spatial tools remained at a basic level for the purpose of health policy. The study design involved in-depth interviews, followed by an expert survey (n = 39) obtained through snowball sampling.Our survey revealed that assessing areas with shortage of community health workers emerged as the top most for basic map usage or primarily for visualization purpose, while planning for emergency and obstetric care services, and disease mapping was the most frequent category for intermediate and advanced map usage, respectively. Furthermore, we found lack of inter-institutional collaboration, lack of continuous availability of trained personnel, and lack of awareness on the use of geographic information system (GIS) as a decision-making tool as three most critical barriers in the current landscape. Our findings highlight the barriers in increasing the adoption of spatial tools for health policymaking and planning in Bangladesh.

  7. Improving Nigerian health policymakers' capacity to access and utilize policy relevant evidence: outcome of information and communication technology training workshop.

    PubMed

    Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Ezeoha, Abel Ebeh; Uro-Chukwu, Henry; Ezeonu, Chinonyelum Thecla; Ogbu, Ogbonnaya; Onwe, Friday; Edoga, Chima

    2015-01-01

    Information and communication technology (ICT) tools are known to facilitate communication and processing of information and sharing of knowledge by electronic means. In Nigeria, the lack of adequate capacity on the use of ICT by health sector policymakers constitutes a major impediment to the uptake of research evidence into the policymaking process. The objective of this study was to improve the knowledge and capacity of policymakers to access and utilize policy relevant evidence. A modified "before and after" intervention study design was used in which outcomes were measured on the target participants both before the intervention is implemented and after. A 4-point likert scale according to the degree of adequacy; 1 = grossly inadequate, 4 = very adequate was employed. This study was conducted in Ebonyi State, south-eastern Nigeria and the participants were career health policy makers. A two-day intensive ICT training workshop was organized for policymakers who had 52 participants in attendance. Topics covered included: (i). intersectoral partnership/collaboration; (ii). Engaging ICT in evidence-informed policy making; use of ICT for evidence synthesis; (iv) capacity development on the use of computer, internet and other ICT. The pre-workshop mean of knowledge and capacity for use of ICT ranged from 2.19-3.05, while the post-workshop mean ranged from 2.67-3.67 on 4-point scale. The percentage increase in mean of knowledge and capacity at the end of the workshop ranged from 8.3%-39.1%. Findings of this study suggest that policymakers' ICT competence relevant to evidence-informed policymaking can be enhanced through training workshop.

  8. Virtual Reality System Offers a Wide Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Robot Systems Technology Branch engineers at Johnson Space Center created the remotely controlled Robonaut for use as an additional "set of hands" in extravehicular activities (EVAs) and to allow exploration of environments that would be too dangerous or difficult for humans. One of the problems Robonaut developers encountered was that the robot s interface offered an extremely limited field of vision. Johnson robotics engineer, Darby Magruder, explained that the 40-degree field-of-view (FOV) in initial robotic prototypes provided very narrow tunnel vision, which posed difficulties for Robonaut operators trying to see the robot s surroundings. Because of the narrow FOV, NASA decided to reach out to the private sector for assistance. In addition to a wider FOV, NASA also desired higher resolution in a head-mounted display (HMD) with the added ability to capture and display video.

  9. Biotechnology offers revolution to fish health management.

    PubMed

    Adams, Alexandra; Thompson, Kim D

    2006-05-01

    Biotechnology has many applications in fish health management. The application of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) provides a rapid means of pathogen identification; antibodies to immunoglobulins from different fish species can be used to monitor the host response following vaccination; and mAbs also have the potential for screening broodstock for previous exposure to pathogens. Luminex technology exemplifies a novel antibody-based method that can be applied to both pathogen detection and vaccine development. Molecular technologies, such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), real time PCR and nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA), have enabled detection, identification and quantification of extremely low levels of aquatic pathogens, and microarray technologies offer a new dimension to multiplex screening for pathogens and host response. Recombinant DNA technology permits large-scale, low-cost vaccine production, moreover DNA vaccination, proteomics, adjuvant design and oral vaccine delivery will undoubtedly foster the development of effective fish vaccines in the future.

  10. Shock to the system: How catastrophic events and institutional relationships impact Japanese energy policymaking, resilience, and innovation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sklarew, Jennifer F.

    External shocks do not always generate energy system transformation. This dissertation examines how government relationships with electric utilities and the public impact whether shocks catalyze energy system change. The study analyzes Japanese energy policymaking from the oil crises through the Fukushima nuclear disaster. Findings reveal that policymakers' cooperation with and clout over electric utilities and the public can enable shocks to transform energy systems. When electric utilities wield clout, public trust in and influence on the government determine the existing system's resilience and the potential for a new system to emerge. Understanding this effect informs energy policy design and innovation.

  11. Cycad mutualist offers more than pollen transport.

    PubMed

    Marler, Thomas E

    2010-05-01

    Specialist insects share obligate mutualisms with some contemporary cycad species whereby the insect's pollination services are rewarded with a nursery in which the insect's larvae consume the postdispersal male cone. I prevented visits of the pollinator moth Anatrachyntis sp. to male Cycas micronesica (Cycadaceae) cones to show that consumption of the cone tissue by the mutualist hastened initiation of the plant's subsequent reproductive event. This is the first documented case where removal of a postdispersal cycad pollination organ speeds up subsequent reproductive events, and the current paradigm that the offering of cone tissue as a nursery is a sacrifice by the plant in return for the pollination services is therefore inaccurate. In C. micronesica, the herbivory stage of pollination mutualism confers a cryptic benefit of cone tissue disposal, which translates into an increase in ultimate lifetime reproductive effort. The plant population relies on the pollinator for moving gametes, as well as for increasing the number of male coning events. The dual benefits afforded to the plant by associating with this pollinator shows that mutualism can operate simultaneously on very different traits.

  12. High School Physics Offerings by Socioeconomic Profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-12-01

    This fall we have been examining physics classes in U.S. high schools by the principal's assessment of the socioeconomic profile of each school. This month we turn our focus to the distribution of high school physics enrollment across the different types of physics offered. Not only do fewer students take physics at "worse off" schools (see the October issue), but the types of physics courses students take also differs by socioeconomic profile. About 10% of the students taking physics at "worse off" schools take AP and second-year physics; almost 20% of the students at "better off" schools take these courses. At "worse off" schools, a higher proportion of students are enrolled in conceptual courses, including Physics First and regular physics taught using a conceptual textbook. The data we have presented over the last four months suggests that differences in physics taking in high school by blacks and Hispanics are driven, in part, by underlying socioeconomic factors. Other factors, such as the availability of additional seats in physics classes and the ability of teachers to attract students to physics, also impact physics taking. It is unlikely that the racial and ethnic differences in physics taking in high school will decrease unless the underlying factors are addressed.

  13. The remarkable robustness of the first-offer effect: across culture, power, and issues.

    PubMed

    Gunia, Brian C; Swaab, Roderick I; Sivanathan, Niro; Galinsky, Adam D

    2013-12-01

    The first-offer effect demonstrates that negotiators achieve better outcomes when making the first offer than when receiving it. The evidence, however, primarily derives from studies of Westerners without systematic power differences negotiating over one issue-contexts that may amplify the first-offer effect. Thus, the present research explored the effect across cultures, among negotiators varying in power, and in negotiations involving single and multiple issues. The first two studies showed that the first-offer effect remains remarkably robust across cultures and multi-issue negotiations. The final two studies demonstrated that low-power negotiators benefit from making the first offer across single- and multi-issue negotiations. The second and fourth studies used multi-issue negotiations with distributive, integrative, and compatible issues, allowing us to show that first offers operate through the distributive, not the integrative or compatible issues. Overall, these results reveal that moving first can benefit negotiators across many organizational and personal situations.

  14. Constraining Multiple Grammars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopp, Holger

    2014-01-01

    This article offers the author's commentary on the Multiple Grammars (MG) language acquisition theory proposed by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roeper in the present issue. Multiple Grammars advances the claim that optionality is a constitutive characteristic of any one grammar, with interlanguage grammars being perhaps the clearest examples of a…

  15. Local Adaptation of Central Policies: The Policymaking and Implementation of Compulsory Education for Migrant Children in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lihua

    2016-01-01

    This article looks at the central and local governments' policymaking and implementation of compulsory education for migrant children in China. Three distinct models of policy implementation were identified through a case study approach. They indicated a selective adaptation of central policy objective and principles by the local governments and…

  16. Supporting Data Use While Protecting the Privacy, Security and Confidentiality of Student Information: A Primer for State Policymakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Data Quality Campaign, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The education sector is beginning to embrace a culture that values, demands and uses data to support improved decisionmaking at every level--in classrooms, at kitchen tables and in state capitols. This shift is due in large part to state policymakers' leadership over the last six years in building statewide longitudinal data systems that collect…

  17. Crafting and Dismantling the Egalitarian Social Contract: The Changing State-Society Relations in Korea's Educational Policymaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Sang-Young

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the changing dynamics between the Korean state and society in the field of educational policymaking. From the 1960s to the 1980s, the Korean developmental state implemented a series of drastic egalitarian educational policies to address serious educational crises that were mainly driven by Korea's affluent middle class.…

  18. Building a Global Community of Policymakers, Researchers and Educators to Move Education Systems into the Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voogt, J.; Knezek, G.

    2013-01-01

    The EDUsummIT 2011 aimed to develop (a) recommendations for policy, practice and research that will help educational systems move into the digital age and (b) strategies to build a global community of researchers, policymakers and teachers in the field of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Education. Thematic working groups…

  19. Perceptions of the Educational Policy-Making Process in New York State: Educational Interest Group Leaders and State Legislators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milstein, Mike M.; Jennings, Robert E.

    This study compares the perceptions of the educational policymaking process held by education interest group staffs with those of State legislators. Structured interviews were held with executive officers in six major education organizations, and 207 legislators were surveyed by personal interviews during the 1969 legislative session. Categories…

  20. The Responsiveness of the Israeli National Educational Policy-Making System to Demands for Change, 1973-1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peri, Mordechai

    This study examines the responsiveness of the Israeli National Educational Policy-Making System (NEPS) to public demands for more civic education during the crisis period of 1973-75. Based on Easton's general theory, the author describes the political situation in terms of wants, demands, support, and regulation and observes NEPS output results.…

  1. Rejecting Exclusion, Embracing Inclusion: Conversation as Policy-Making at a US Baptist Conference on Sexuality and Covenant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner-Garcia, Shawn

    2016-01-01

    While much of the work on language, policy, and religion has focused on how discourse is influenced by policy, this article presents a case study of how discourse is used to construct policy itself. These policy-making discourses tend to occur in institutional settings; however, non-institutional discourse may also be instrumental in the…

  2. Why Policymakers Should Care about Children's Savings. Creating a Financial Stake in College: Report I of IV

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, William, III

    2012-01-01

    "Creating a Financial Stake in College" is a four-part series of reports that focuses on the relationship between children's savings and improving college success. This series examines: (1) why policymakers should care about savings, (2) the relationship between inequality and bank account ownership, (3) the connections between savings and college…

  3. The Discrepancy of Meaning of Citizenship between the State and Society in China: Implications for Citizenship Education and Policymaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Sicong

    2013-01-01

    Although citizenship education has received significant official attention in China in recent years, its aim remains vague. At a time when social demands increasingly influence policymaking by the state, this article examines the meaning of citizenship to the state and society in China. Data are derived from a content analysis of the use of…

  4. The 2015-16 Pro-Kid Policy Agenda for California: A Guide to Pro-Kid Policymaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children Now, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The 2015-16 Pro-Kid Policy Agenda for California is the only comprehensive roadmap at the state level for policymakers, stakeholders, and others who want all children--especially children of color and children from low-income families--to have the opportunity to reach their full potential. A plethora of research shows that investments in quality…

  5. From National Policy-Making to Global Edu-Business: Swedish Edu-Preneurs on the Move

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rönnberg, Linda

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the movements of some Swedish former education policy-makers that are currently active as commercial edu-business actors with the ambition to expand in the Global Education Industry (GEI). The aim is to map and analyze how a selection of Swedish edu-preneurs affiliated with a particular Swedish school chain enter the GEI and…

  6. Neo-Democracy in Educational Policy-Making: A Critical Case Study of Neoliberal Reform in Massachusetts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piazza, Peter

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores changes to the educational policy-making arena through case study analysis of a Massachusetts law passed in 2012 that limits seniority-based job protections for public K-12 teachers. I use data from interviews with policy stakeholders, observations of public meetings, and policy artifacts to explore struggles over democratic…

  7. The Influence of Overseas Examples on DES Policy-Making for the School System in England, 1985-1995

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, George; Exley, Sonia

    2006-01-01

    Claims are often made in British education about the extent to which policy reforms have been "borrowed" from overseas. Based on interviews with senior civil servants and HMI, this paper addresses the extent to which such claims apply to central government educational policy-making at school level in England between 1985 and 1995. This…

  8. Sound Arguments and Power in Evaluation Research and Policy-Making: A Measuring Instrument and Its Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Propper, Igno M. A. M.

    1993-01-01

    Proposes an instrument for assessing the extent to which either sound arguments or power are found in scientific and political discussions. Empirical research is described that investigated the relation between the quality of evaluation research and the quality of discussion in policy-making processes in which the research is used. (Contains 47…

  9. A Framework for Using Qualitative Research To Inform Policy-Makers and Empower Practitioners: Lessons from Madagascar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heneveld, Ward; Craig, Helen

    National education policy reforms often do not translate into changes at the classroom level. This paper presents a conceptual framework developed for Sub-Saharan Africa to assist policy-makers in bridging the gap between school practice and national policies. It also describes how the framework was applied to current school-improvement efforts in…

  10. Caesars and Rubicon: The Hesitations of French Policymakers in Identifying a Third Way in Education and Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derouet, Jean-Louis; Normand, Romuald

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the decisions made by French policymakers at a time when France was uncertain about which option to take. The purpose is to follow how actors chart their own course in an environment with plural justifications and how they mobilise resources in several spheres to set up ever-changing networks. The investigation will bear on all…

  11. Taking Stock of the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development: The Policy-Making Process in Flanders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Poeck, Katrien; Vandenabeele, Joke; Bruyninckx, Hans

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we address the implementation of the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) in Flanders, a sub-national entity of Belgium. Our analysis shows how the policy-making process in Flanders is inextricably intertwined with three developments in environmental and educational policy: the increasing impact of ESD policy and…

  12. Sustainability of Long-term Care: Puzzling Tasks Ahead for Policy-Makers

    PubMed Central

    Mosca, Ilaria; van der Wees, Philip J.; Mot, Esther S.; Wammes, Joost J.G.; Jeurissen, Patrick P.T.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The sustainability of long-term care (LTC) is a prominent policy priority in many Western countries. LTC is one of the most pressing fiscal issues for the growing population of elderly people in the European Union (EU) Member States. Country recommendations regarding LTC are prominent under the EU’s European Semester. Methods: This paper examines challenges related to the financial- and organizational sustainability of LTC systems in the EU. We combined a targeted literature review and a descriptive selected country analysis of: (1) public- and private funding; (2) informal care and externalities; and (3) the possible role of technology in increasing productivity. Countries were selected via purposive sampling to establish a cohort of country cases covering the spectrum of differences in LTC systems: public spending, private funding, informal care use, informal care support, and cash benefits. Results: The aging of the population, the increasing gap between availability of informal care and demand for LTC, substantial market failures of private funding for LTC, and fiscal imbalances in some countries, have led to structural reforms and enduring pressures for LTC policy-makers across the EU. Our exploration of national policies illustrates different solutions that attempt to promote fairness while stimulating efficient delivery of services. Important steps must be taken to address the sustainability of LTC. First, countries should look deeper into the possibilities of complementing public- and private funding, as well as at addressing market failures of private funding. Second, informal care externalities with spill-over into neighboring policy areas, the labor force, and formal LTC workers, should be properly addressed. Thirdly, innovations in LTC services should be stimulated to increase productivity through technology and process innovations, and to reduce costs. Conclusion: The analysis shows why it is difficult for EU Member State governments to

  13. Public, private and personal: Qualitative research on policymakers' opinions on smokefree interventions to protect children in 'private' spaces

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Governments use law to constrain aspects of private activities for purposes of protecting health and social wellbeing. Policymakers have a range of perceptions and beliefs about what is public or private. An understanding of the possible drivers of policymaker decisions about where government can or should intervene for health is important, as one way to better guide appropriate policy formation. Our aim was to identify obstacles to, and opportunities for, government smokefree regulation of private and public spaces to protect children. In particular, to seek policymaker opinions on the regulation of smoking in homes, cars and public parks and playgrounds in a country with incomplete smokefree laws (New Zealand). Methods Case study, using structured interviews to ask policymakers (62 politicians and senior officials) about their opinions on new smokefree legislation for public and private places. Supplementary data was obtained from the Factiva media database, on the views of New Zealand local authority councillors about policies for smokefree outdoor public places. Results Overall, interviewees thought that government regulation of smoking in private places was impractical and unwise. However, there were some differences on what was defined as 'private', particularly for cars. Even in public parks, smoking was seen by some as a 'personal' decision, and unlikely to be amenable to regulation. Most participants believed that educative, supportive and community-based measures were better and more practical means of reducing smoking in private places, compared to regulation. Conclusions The constrained view of the role of regulation of smoking in public and private domains may be in keeping with current political discourse in New Zealand and similar Anglo-American countries. Policy and advocacy options to promote additional smokefree measures include providing a better voice for childrens' views, increasing information to policymakers about the harms to

  14. Marketing Digital Offerings Is Different: Strategies for Teaching about Digital Offerings in the Marketing Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Scott D.; Micken, Kathleen S.

    2015-01-01

    Digital offerings represent different challenges for marketers than do traditional goods and services. After reviewing the literature, the authors suggest ways that the marketing of digital goods and services might be better presented to and better understood by students. The well-known four challenges of services marketing model (e.g.,…

  15. 17 CFR 230.802 - Exemption for offerings in connection with an exchange offer or business combination for the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... connection with an exchange offer or business combination for the securities of foreign private issuers. 230... Offers and Business Combinations § 230.802 Exemption for offerings in connection with an exchange offer or business combination for the securities of foreign private issuers. Offers and sales in...

  16. SUPPORT Tools for Evidence-informed Policymaking in health 18: Planning monitoring and evaluation of policies

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    This article is part of a series written for people responsible for making decisions about health policies and programmes and for those who support these decision makers. The term monitoring is commonly used to describe the process of systematically collecting data to inform policymakers, managers and other stakeholders whether a new policy or programme is being implemented in accordance with their expectations. Indicators are used for monitoring purposes to judge, for example, if objectives are being achieved, or if allocated funds are being spent appropriately. Sometimes the term evaluation is used interchangeably with the term monitoring, but the former usually suggests a stronger focus on the achievement of results. When the term impact evaluation is used, this usually implies that there is a specific attempt to try to determine whether the observed changes in outcomes can be attributed to a particular policy or programme. In this article, we suggest four questions that can be used to guide the monitoring and evaluation of policy or programme options. These are: 1. Is monitoring necessary? 2. What should be measured? 3. Should an impact evaluation be conducted? 4. How should the impact evaluation be done? PMID:20018108

  17. Global environmental change and human health: new challenges to scientist and policy-maker.

    PubMed

    McMichael, A J

    1994-01-01

    Human health may not remain sustainable if damage to the global environment continues. The argument is simple: Earth is essentially a closed system; humans are proliferating and commandeering more surface area, food and energy; the resultant accumulation of waste gases, depletion of soil and water, and loss of biodiversity is starting to overload Earth's carrying capacity. There are limits in any closed system and our species is now pressing against some of them. These are new problems and we cannot be certain of the consequences for human health. A warmer world will probably have more frequent heatwaves, unstable weather, increased spread of mosquito-borne infectious diseases, and disruptions to agriculture. Ozone depletion, if sustained, may cause moderate increases in skin cancer and cataracts, and may damage crop growth and marine stocks. Depletion of agricultural resources, overfishing, and loss of genetic resources from species extinction all entail potentially serious consequences for human health. The manifest uncertainties of these global change processes and the need for prediction, rather than empirical observation, create new challenges to health scientists. Likewise, policy-makers will have to deal with best estimates and long time-frames, informed by understanding of ecological realities.

  18. Bioenergy production and sustainable development: science base for policymaking remains limited.

    PubMed

    Robledo-Abad, Carmenza; Althaus, Hans-Jörg; Berndes, Göran; Bolwig, Simon; Corbera, Esteve; Creutzig, Felix; Garcia-Ulloa, John; Geddes, Anna; Gregg, Jay S; Haberl, Helmut; Hanger, Susanne; Harper, Richard J; Hunsberger, Carol; Larsen, Rasmus K; Lauk, Christian; Leitner, Stefan; Lilliestam, Johan; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Muys, Bart; Nordborg, Maria; Ölund, Maria; Orlowsky, Boris; Popp, Alexander; Portugal-Pereira, Joana; Reinhard, Jürgen; Scheiffle, Lena; Smith, Pete

    2017-03-01

    The possibility of using bioenergy as a climate change mitigation measure has sparked a discussion of whether and how bioenergy production contributes to sustainable development. We undertook a systematic review of the scientific literature to illuminate this relationship and found a limited scientific basis for policymaking. Our results indicate that knowledge on the sustainable development impacts of bioenergy production is concentrated in a few well-studied countries, focuses on environmental and economic impacts, and mostly relates to dedicated agricultural biomass plantations. The scope and methodological approaches in studies differ widely and only a small share of the studies sufficiently reports on context and/or baseline conditions, which makes it difficult to get a general understanding of the attribution of impacts. Nevertheless, we identified regional patterns of positive or negative impacts for all categories - environmental, economic, institutional, social and technological. In general, economic and technological impacts were more frequently reported as positive, while social and environmental impacts were more frequently reported as negative (with the exception of impacts on direct substitution of GHG emission from fossil fuel). More focused and transparent research is needed to validate these patterns and develop a strong science underpinning for establishing policies and governance agreements that prevent/mitigate negative and promote positive impacts from bioenergy production.

  19. Using knowledge brokering to promote evidence-based policy-making: The need for support structures.

    PubMed Central

    van Kammen, Jessika; de Savigny, Don; Sewankambo, Nelson

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge brokering is a promising strategy to close the "know-do gap" and foster greater use of research findings and evidence in policy-making. It focuses on organizing the interactive process between the producers and users of knowledge so that they can co-produce feasible and research-informed policy options. We describe a recent successful experience with this novel approach in the Netherlands and discuss the requirements for effective institutionalization of knowledge brokering. We also discuss the potential of this approach to assist health policy development in low-income countries based on the experience of developing the Regional East-African Health (REACH)-Policy Initiative. We believe that intermediary organizations, such as regional networks, dedicated institutional mechanisms and funding agencies, can play key roles in supporting knowledge brokering. We recommend the need to support and learn from the brokerage approach to strengthen the relationship between the research and policy communities and hence move towards a stronger culture of evidence-based policy and policy-relevant research. PMID:16917647

  20. Low-wage workers and health insurance coverage: can policymakers target them through their employers?

    PubMed

    Long, S H; Marquis, M S

    2001-01-01

    Many policy initiatives to increase health insurance coverage would subsidize employers to offer coverage or subsidize employees to participate in their employers' health plans. Using data from the 1997 Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Employer Health Insurance Survey, we contrast "low-wage employers" with all other employers. Employees in low-wage businesses have significantly worse access to employment-based insurance than other employees do; they are less likely to work for an employer that offers insurance, less likely to be eligible if working in a business that offers insurance, and less likely to be enrolled if eligible. Low-wage employers contribute lower shares of premiums and offer less generous benefits than other employers do. Policies that would target subsidies to selected employers to increase insurance offers to low-wage workers are difficult to design, however, because several commonly mentioned employer characteristics (including firm size) are found to be poor indicators of low-wage worker concentration. Programs that would set minimum standards for employer plans to be eligible for "buy-ins" need to base these standards on the less generous terms offered by low-wage employers in order to effectively reach low-wage workers and their dependents.

  1. 20 CFR 655.122 - Contents of job offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Contents of job offers. 655.122 Section 655... Employment in the United States (H-2A Workers) Prefiling Procedures § 655.122 Contents of job offers. (a) Prohibition against preferential treatment of aliens. The employer's job offer must offer to U.S. workers...

  2. 20 CFR 655.122 - Contents of job offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Contents of job offers. 655.122 Section 655... Employment in the United States (H-2A Workers) Prefiling Procedures § 655.122 Contents of job offers. (a) Prohibition against preferential treatment of aliens. The employer's job offer must offer to U.S. workers...

  3. 20 CFR 655.122 - Contents of job offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Contents of job offers. 655.122 Section 655... Employment in the United States (H-2A Workers) Prefiling Procedures § 655.122 Contents of job offers. (a) Prohibition against preferential treatment of aliens. The employer's job offer must offer to U.S. workers...

  4. 20 CFR 655.202 - Contents of job offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Contents of job offers. 655.202 Section 655...-H-2A Agricultural Employment § 655.202 Contents of job offers. (a) So that the employment of aliens... employer's job offer to U.S. workers must offer U.S. workers at least the same benefits which the...

  5. 20 CFR 655.202 - Contents of job offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contents of job offers. 655.202 Section 655...-H-2A Agricultural Employment § 655.202 Contents of job offers. (a) So that the employment of aliens... employer's job offer to U.S. workers must offer U.S. workers at least the same benefits which the...

  6. 20 CFR 655.202 - Contents of job offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Contents of job offers. 655.202 Section 655...-H-2A Agricultural Employment § 655.202 Contents of job offers. (a) So that the employment of aliens... employer's job offer to U.S. workers must offer U.S. workers at least the same benefits which the...

  7. 20 CFR 655.1304 - Contents of job offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Contents of job offers. 655.1304 Section 655... Employment in the United States (H-2A Workers) § 655.1304 Contents of job offers. (a) Preferential treatment of aliens prohibited. The employer's job offer must offer to U.S. workers no less than the...

  8. 20 CFR 655.202 - Contents of job offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Contents of job offers. 655.202 Section 655...-H-2A Agricultural Employment § 655.202 Contents of job offers. (a) So that the employment of aliens... employer's job offer to U.S. workers must offer U.S. workers at least the same benefits which the...

  9. 20 CFR 655.1304 - Contents of job offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Contents of job offers. 655.1304 Section 655... Employment in the United States (H-2A Workers) § 655.1304 Contents of job offers. (a) Preferential treatment of aliens prohibited. The employer's job offer must offer to U.S. workers no less than the...

  10. 20 CFR 655.1304 - Contents of job offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Contents of job offers. 655.1304 Section 655... Employment in the United States (H-2A Workers) § 655.1304 Contents of job offers. (a) Preferential treatment of aliens prohibited. The employer's job offer must offer to U.S. workers no less than the...

  11. 20 CFR 655.122 - Contents of job offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Contents of job offers. 655.122 Section 655... Employment in the United States (H-2A Workers) Prefiling Procedures § 655.122 Contents of job offers. (a) Prohibition against preferential treatment of aliens. The employer's job offer must offer to U.S. workers...

  12. 20 CFR 655.1304 - Contents of job offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Contents of job offers. 655.1304 Section 655... Employment in the United States (H-2A Workers) § 655.1304 Contents of job offers. (a) Preferential treatment of aliens prohibited. The employer's job offer must offer to U.S. workers no less than the...

  13. 12 CFR 563g.2 - Offering circular requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Offering circular requirement. 563g.2 Section 563g.2 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SECURITIES OFFERINGS...) Communications not deemed an offer. The following communications shall not be deemed an offer under this...

  14. 19 CFR 171.32 - Acceptance of offers in compromise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acceptance of offers in compromise. 171.32 Section... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) FINES, PENALTIES, AND FORFEITURES Offers in Compromise § 171.32 Acceptance of offers in compromise. An offer in compromise will be considered accepted only when the...

  15. 19 CFR 172.33 - Acceptance of offers in compromise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acceptance of offers in compromise. 172.33 Section... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) CLAIMS FOR LIQUIDATED DAMAGES; PENALTIES SECURED BY BONDS Offers in Compromise § 172.33 Acceptance of offers in compromise. An offer in compromise will be considered...

  16. 7 CFR 1410.31 - Acceptability of offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Administrator for the for the area offered. Acceptance or rejection of any offer, however, shall be in the sole... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptability of offers. 1410.31 Section 1410.31... Acceptability of offers. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, producers may submit...

  17. Leveraging Community Colleges in the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act: A Blueprint for State Policymakers. State-Federal Partnerships in Postsecondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Colleen; Love, Ivy

    2016-01-01

    The Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA) of 2014 offers multiple opportunities to align the workforce development efforts of these stakeholders through structural measures and targeted support. In this paper, the authors examine ways that WIOA can influence a state's job training environment and highlight the crucial role of community…

  18. Optimising reverse logistics network to support policy-making in the case of Electrical and Electronic Equipment.

    PubMed

    Achillas, Ch; Vlachokostas, Ch; Aidonis, D; Moussiopoulos, N; Iakovou, E; Banias, G

    2010-12-01

    Due to the rapid growth of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) volumes, as well as the hazardousness of obsolete electr(on)ic goods, this type of waste is now recognised as a priority stream in the developed countries. Policy-making related to the development of the necessary infrastructure and the coordination of all relevant stakeholders is crucial for the efficient management and viability of individually collected waste. This paper presents a decision support tool for policy-makers and regulators to optimise electr(on)ic products' reverse logistics network. To that effect, a Mixed Integer Linear Programming mathematical model is formulated taking into account existing infrastructure of collection points and recycling facilities. The applicability of the developed model is demonstrated employing a real-world case study for the Region of Central Macedonia, Greece. The paper concludes with presenting relevant obtained managerial insights.

  19. Identifying Trustworthy Experts: How Do Policymakers Find and Assess Public Health Researchers Worth Consulting or Collaborating With?

    PubMed Central

    Haynes, Abby S.; Derrick, Gemma E.; Redman, Sally; Hall, Wayne D.; Gillespie, James A.; Chapman, Simon; Sturk, Heidi

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports data from semi-structured interviews on how 26 Australian civil servants, ministers and ministerial advisors find and evaluate researchers with whom they wish to consult or collaborate. Policymakers valued researchers who had credibility across the three attributes seen as contributing to trustworthiness: competence (an exemplary academic reputation complemented by pragmatism, understanding of government processes, and effective collaboration and communication skills); integrity (independence, “authenticity”, and faithful reporting of research); and benevolence (commitment to the policy reform agenda). The emphases given to these assessment criteria appeared to be shaped in part by policymakers' roles and the type and phase of policy development in which they were engaged. Policymakers are encouraged to reassess their methods for engaging researchers and to maximise information flow and support in these relationships. Researchers who wish to influence policy are advised to develop relationships across the policy community, but also to engage in other complementary strategies for promoting research-informed policy, including the strategic use of mass media. PMID:22403693

  20. Policymakers' views on dengue fever/dengue haemorrhagic fever and the need for dengue vaccines in four southeast Asian countries.

    PubMed

    DeRoeck, Denise; Deen, Jacqueline; Clemens, John D

    2003-12-08

    A survey of policymakers and other influential professionals in four southeast Asian countries (Cambodia, Indonesia, Philippines and Vietnam) was conducted to determine policymakers' views on the public health importance of dengue fever and dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF), the need for a vaccine and the determinants influencing its potential introduction. The survey, which involved face-to-face interviews with policymakers, health programme managers, researchers, opinion leaders and other key informants, revealed an almost uniformly high level of concern about dengue fever/DHF and a high perceived need for a dengue vaccine. Several characteristics of the disease contribute to this high sense of priority, including its geographic spread, occurrence in outbreaks, the recurrent risk of infection each dengue season, its severity and the difficulty in diagnosis and management, its urban predominance, its burden on hospitals, and its economic toll on governments and families. Research felt to be key to future decision-making regarding dengue vaccine introduction include: disease surveillance studies, in-country vaccine trials or pilot projects, and studies on the economic burden of dengue and the cost-effectiveness of dengue vaccines. The results suggest favourable conditions for public and private sector markets for dengue vaccines and the need for creative financing strategies to ensure their accessibility to poor children in dengue-endemic countries.

  1. 17 CFR 230.135b - Materials not deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus. 230.135b Section 230.135b Commodity and Securities... § 230.135b Materials not deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus. Materials meeting the requirements of § 240.9b-1 of this chapter shall not be deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy a security...

  2. K-3 Policymakers' Guide to Action: Making the Early Years Count. Special Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atchison, Bruce; Diffey, Louisa; Workman, Emily

    2016-01-01

    High-quality early elementary years offer a critical opportunity for child development and academic learning for all children, regardless of their race, family-income level, or culture and home language. All students deserve access to high-quality teachers and leaders trained in how to effectively support their learning. They deserve to attend…

  3. Nebraska Work Based Learning Manual. Planning and Implementation Guides for Educators, Employers, Policymakers, and Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska State Dept. of Education, Lincoln.

    This manual contains a series of 10 detailed guides for school practitioners who are beginning to create work-based learning programs at their schools. Work-Based Learning Overview defines the different elements of work-based learning and describes the roles of program participants. Program Planning Guide offers suggestions about how to plan…

  4. Good Policy, Good Practice Improving Outcomes and Productivity in Higher Education: A Guide for Policymakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callan, Patrick M.; Ewell, Peter T.; Finney, Joni E.; Jones, Dennis P.

    2007-01-01

    This report describes a wide range of successful strategies that states can draw from to increase the educational attainment of their residents while holding down higher education costs. Part I offers examples of strategies, programs, and practices that the authors' research finds can raise educational productivity. Part II describes the levers…

  5. Publication Bias: The Antagonist of Meta-Analytic Reviews and Effective Policymaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, George C.; Kepes, Sven; Banks, Karen P.

    2012-01-01

    This article offers three contributions for conducting meta-analytic reviews in education research. First, we review publication bias and the challenges it presents for meta-analytic researchers. Second, we review the most recent and optimal techniques for evaluating the presence and influence of publication bias in meta-analyses. We then…

  6. Linking Costs and Postsecondary Degrees: Key Issues for Policymakers. Working Paper 2011-03

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Nate

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the author offers practical advice for decision-makers who are struggling to rein in college costs while improving productivity. He provides a step-by-step guide to different approaches for calculating costs, highlights the tremendous variability in cost across programs within institutions, and documents some of the "hidden costs" of…

  7. The global stock of research evidence relevant to health systems policymaking

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Policymakers and stakeholders need immediate access to many types of research evidence to make informed decisions about the full range of questions that may arise regarding health systems. Methods We examined all types of research evidence about governance, financial and delivery arrangements, and implementation strategies within health systems contained in Health Systems Evidence (HSE) (http://www.healthsystemsevidence.org). The research evidence types include evidence briefs for policy, overviews of systematic reviews, systematic reviews of effects, systematic reviews addressing other questions, systematic reviews in progress, systematic reviews being planned, economic evaluations, and health reform and health system descriptions. Specifically, we describe their distribution across health system topics and domains, trends in their production over time, availability of supplemental content in various languages, and the extent to which they focus on low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), as well as (for systematic reviews) their methodological quality and the availability of user-friendly summaries. Results As of July 2013, HSE contained 2,629 systematic reviews of effects (of which 501 are Cochrane reviews), 614 systematic reviews addressing other questions, 283 systematic reviews in progress, 186 systematic reviews being planned, 140 review-derived products (evidence briefs and overviews of systematic reviews), 1,669 economic evaluations, 1,092 health reform descriptions, and 209 health system descriptions. Most systematic reviews address topics related to delivery arrangements (n = 2,663) or implementation strategies (n = 1,653) with far fewer addressing financial (n = 241) or governance arrangements (n = 231). In addition, 2,928 systematic reviews have been quality appraised with moderate AMSTAR ratings found for reviews addressing governance (5.6/11), financial (5.9/11), and delivery (6.3/11) arrangements and implementation strategies (6.5/11); 1

  8. 48 CFR 619.804 - Evaluation, offering, and acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....804 Evaluation, offering, and acceptance. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evaluation, offering, and acceptance. 619.804 Section 619.804 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE...

  9. 48 CFR 19.804 - Evaluation, offering, and acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Program) 19.804 Evaluation, offering, and acceptance. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evaluation, offering, and acceptance. 19.804 Section 19.804 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION...

  10. 48 CFR 22.1203-4 - Method of job offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Method of job offer. 22.1203-4 Section 22.1203-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... Under Service Contracts 22.1203-4 Method of job offer. A job offer made by a successor contractor...

  11. 48 CFR 22.1203-4 - Method of job offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Method of job offer. 22.1203-4 Section 22.1203-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... Under Service Contracts 22.1203-4 Method of job offer. A job offer made by a successor contractor...

  12. 12 CFR 239.59 - Offers and sales of stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Offers and sales of stock. 239.59 Section 239... SYSTEM (CONTINUED) MUTUAL HOLDING COMPANIES (REGULATION MM) Conversions From Mutual to Stock Form § 239.59 Offers and sales of stock. (a) Purchase priorities. The mutual holding company must offer to...

  13. 12 CFR 239.59 - Offers and sales of stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Offers and sales of stock. 239.59 Section 239... SYSTEM (CONTINUED) MUTUAL HOLDING COMPANIES (REGULATION MM) Conversions From Mutual to Stock Form § 239.59 Offers and sales of stock. (a) Purchase priorities. The mutual holding company must offer to...

  14. 12 CFR 239.59 - Offers and sales of stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Offers and sales of stock. 239.59 Section 239... SYSTEM (CONTINUED) MUTUAL HOLDING COMPANIES (REGULATION MM) Conversions from Mutual to Stock Form § 239.59 Offers and sales of stock. (a) Purchase priorities. The mutual holding company must offer to...

  15. 12 CFR 16.4 - Communications not deemed an offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Communications not deemed an offer. 16.4 Section 16.4 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SECURITIES OFFERING DISCLOSURE RULES § 16.4 Communications not deemed an offer. (a) The OCC will not deem the...

  16. 26 CFR 601.203 - Offers in compromise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... penalty and the District Counsel concurs in the acceptance of the offer, or (iv) Recommend to the Regional Commissioner the acceptance of the offer if it involves a civil liability of $100,000 or over. (2)(i) If the... acceptance or rejection of the offer together with the examining officer's report of the investigation....

  17. 26 CFR 301.7430-7 - Qualified offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... conference. (5) Remains open. A qualified offer must, by its terms, remain open for acceptance by the United... that would have resulted from the acceptance of E's qualified offer is a reduction in that liability of... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Qualified offers. 301.7430-7 Section...

  18. 33 CFR 25.129 - Acceptance of offer of settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acceptance of offer of settlement. 25.129 Section 25.129 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL CLAIMS General § 25.129 Acceptance of offer of settlement. Claimant's acceptance of an offer...

  19. 7 CFR 1494.601 - Acceptance of offers by CCC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptance of offers by CCC. 1494.601 Section 1494... Program Operations § 1494.601 Acceptance of offers by CCC. (a) Establishment of acceptable sales prices... that becomes available to CCC. (b) Acceptance of offers for a CCC bonus on a competitive basis....

  20. 26 CFR 300.3 - Offer to compromise fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... taxpayer if the offer is accepted, rejected, withdrawn, or returned as nonprocessable after acceptance for... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Offer to compromise fee. 300.3 Section 300.3... ADMINISTRATION USER FEES § 300.3 Offer to compromise fee. (a) Applicability. This section applies to...

  1. 47 CFR 76.1621 - Equipment compatibility offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Equipment compatibility offer. 76.1621 Section... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Notices § 76.1621 Equipment compatibility offer. Cable system... offer to supply each subscriber with special equipment that will enable the simultaneous reception...

  2. 17 CFR 230.135 - Notice of proposed registered offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... issuer or a selling security holder (and any person acting on behalf of either of them) that publishes..., to be made by selling security holders; (iv) The anticipated timing of the offering; (v) A brief... offering. In a rights offering to existing security holders: (1) The class of security holders eligible...

  3. 17 CFR 230.135 - Notice of proposed registered offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... issuer or a selling security holder (and any person acting on behalf of either of them) that publishes..., to be made by selling security holders; (iv) The anticipated timing of the offering; (v) A brief... offering. In a rights offering to existing security holders: (1) The class of security holders eligible...

  4. 17 CFR 240.14d-11 - Subsequent offering period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... offering security holders a choice of different forms of consideration, there is no ceiling on any form of... of consideration to security holders in both the initial and the subsequent offering period. Note to... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Subsequent offering...

  5. 17 CFR 240.14d-11 - Subsequent offering period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... offering security holders a choice of different forms of consideration, there is no ceiling on any form of... of consideration to security holders in both the initial and the subsequent offering period. Note to... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Subsequent offering...

  6. 17 CFR 230.135 - Notice of proposed registered offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... issuer or a selling security holder (and any person acting on behalf of either of them) that publishes..., to be made by selling security holders; (iv) The anticipated timing of the offering; (v) A brief... offering. In a rights offering to existing security holders: (1) The class of security holders eligible...

  7. 17 CFR 240.14d-11 - Subsequent offering period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... offering security holders a choice of different forms of consideration, there is no ceiling on any form of... of consideration to security holders in both the initial and the subsequent offering period. Note to... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Subsequent offering...

  8. 17 CFR 240.14d-11 - Subsequent offering period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... offering security holders a choice of different forms of consideration, there is no ceiling on any form of... of consideration to security holders in both the initial and the subsequent offering period. Note to... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Subsequent offering...

  9. 17 CFR 240.14d-11 - Subsequent offering period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... offering security holders a choice of different forms of consideration, there is no ceiling on any form of... of consideration to security holders in both the initial and the subsequent offering period. Note to... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Subsequent offering...

  10. 17 CFR 230.135 - Notice of proposed registered offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... issuer or a selling security holder (and any person acting on behalf of either of them) that publishes..., to be made by selling security holders; (iv) The anticipated timing of the offering; (v) A brief... offering. In a rights offering to existing security holders: (1) The class of security holders eligible...

  11. 17 CFR 230.135 - Notice of proposed registered offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... issuer or a selling security holder (and any person acting on behalf of either of them) that publishes..., to be made by selling security holders; (iv) The anticipated timing of the offering; (v) A brief... offering. In a rights offering to existing security holders: (1) The class of security holders eligible...

  12. 7 CFR 1738.251 - Loan offer and loan closing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Loan offer and loan closing. 1738.251 Section 1738..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL BROADBAND ACCESS LOANS AND LOAN GUARANTEES Closing, Servicing, and Reporting § 1738.251 Loan offer and loan closing. The Agency will notify the applicant of the loan offer,...

  13. 7 CFR 1738.251 - Loan offer and loan closing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Loan offer and loan closing. 1738.251 Section 1738..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL BROADBAND ACCESS LOANS AND LOAN GUARANTEES Closing, Servicing, and Reporting § 1738.251 Loan offer and loan closing. The Agency will notify the applicant of the loan offer,...

  14. 12 CFR 563g.4 - Non-public offering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SECURITIES OFFERINGS § 563g.4 Non-public offering. Offers and sales of securities by an issuer that satisfy the conditions of paragraph (a... Securities Act and §§ 563g.3(b) and 563g.3(d) of this part. However, an issuer shall not be deemed to be...

  15. 12 CFR 563g.4 - Non-public offering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SECURITIES OFFERINGS § 563g.4 Non-public offering. Offers and sales of securities by an issuer that satisfy the conditions of paragraph (a... Securities Act and §§ 563g.3(b) and 563g.3(d) of this part. However, an issuer shall not be deemed to be...

  16. 12 CFR 197.4 - Non-public offering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SECURITIES OFFERINGS § 197.4 Non-public offering. Offers and sales of securities by an issuer that satisfy the conditions of paragraph (a... Securities Act and §§ 197.3(b) and 197.3(d) of this part. However, an issuer shall not be deemed to be not...

  17. 12 CFR 197.4 - Non-public offering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SECURITIES OFFERINGS § 197.4 Non-public offering. Offers and sales of securities by an issuer that satisfy the conditions of paragraph (a... Securities Act and §§ 197.3(b) and 197.3(d) of this part. However, an issuer shall not be deemed to be not...

  18. Ectopic Expression of Plant RNA Chaperone Offering Multiple Stress Tolerance in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Jabeen, Bushra; Naqvi, S M Saqlan; Mahmood, Tariq; Sultana, Tasawar; Arif, Madiha; Khan, Fariha

    2017-03-01

    Members of the plant glycine-rich RNA-binding proteins (GR-RBPs) family have been reported in flowering, development, circadian rhythms, biotic and abiotic stresses. Particularly, GR-RBPs are reported to function as RNA chaperones, promoting growth and acclimation during cold shock. It is indispensable to further question the efficacy and mechanism of GR-RBPs under various environmental strains. Monitoring the expression of stress-regulated proteins under stress conditions has been a beneficial strategy to study their functional roles. In an effort to elucidate the NtGR-RBP1 function, stress markers such as salinity, drought, low temperature and heat stresses were studied. The NtGR-RBP1 gene was expressed in E. coli followed by the exposure to stress conditions. Recombinant E. coli expressing NtGR-RBP1 were more tolerant to stresses, e.g., salinity, drought, cold and heat shock. Recombinants exhibited higher growth rates compared to control in spot assays. The tolerance was further confirmed by monitoring the growth in liquid culture assays. Cells expressing NtGR-RBP1 under salt (500 mM NaCl), drought (20% PEG), cold (4 and 20 °C) and heat stresses (50 °C) had enhanced growing ability and better endurance. Our study supports the notion that the protective role of NtGR-RBP1 may contribute to growth and survival during diverse environmental stresses.

  19. Disclosing Multiple Magma Degassing Sources Offers Unique Insights of What's Behind the Campi Flegrei Caldera Unrest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moretti, R.; Civetta, L.; Orsi, G.; Arienzo, I.; D'Antonio, M.; Di Renzo, V.

    2013-12-01

    The definition of the structure and evolution of the magmatic system of Campi Flegrei caldera (CFc), Southern Italy, has been a fundamental tool for the assessment of the short-term volcanic hazard. The ensemble of geophysical and petrologic data show that the CFc magmatic system has been -and still is- characterized by two major reservoirs at different depths. From the deep one (around 8 km), less evolved magmas crystallize and degas, supplying fluids and magmas to the shallow (3-4 km) reservoirs. A thorough reconstruction of processes occurring in magma chamber/s prior and/or during the CFc eruptions has shown that magmas entering shallow reservoirs mixed with resident and crystallized batches. Also the 1982-85 unrest episode has been related to a magma intrusion of 2.1 x 10^7 m^3 at 3-4 km depth, on the basis of geophysical data (ground deformation, gravimetry, seismic imaging) and their interpretation. Thermodynamic evaluation of magma properties, at the time of emplacement, suggests for such an intrusion a bulk density of 2.000 kg/m^3 . Such a value testifies the high amount of exsolved volatiles within the system. The available record of geochemical and isotopic data on surface fumaroles, coupled with melt inclusion data, has already shown that dual (deep and shallow) magma degassing from such two reservoirs, as well as their interaction with the hydrothermal system, allows explaining the relevant fluctuations observed at crater fumaroles after the 1982-85 magma intrusion. An important role was played by the rapid crystallization (around 30 years) of the shallow magma, such that in the recent years gas discharges should be fuelled mostly by the deep magma. Such a process is well recorded in the fumarolic gas composition of the last ~10 years, but has to be reconciled with the unrest dynamics which took place after year 2000, characterized by a slow but continuous ground uplift. All geochemical indicators (major species and noble gases) point to three possible scenarios: 1) only deep gases enter the hydrothermal system, because the shallow magmatic body is now fully crystallized and degassed. 2) The shallow magmatic body, invested by the arrival of deep gases, starts remelting and releasing gases into the hydrothermal system. 3) Magma from the deep reservoir slowly rises to shallow depths, well below the ductile-fragile transition for this area. These three scenarios carry contrasting implications for the volcanic hazard assessment, and demand a comprehensive treatment of geochemical and geophysical data in a way coherent with the knowledge that we have of the 1982-85 unrest

  20. Factors influencing the utilization of research findings by health policy-makers in a developing country: the selection of Mali's essential medicines

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Michael A; Fretheim, Atle; Maïga, Diadié

    2007-01-01

    Background Research findings are increasingly being recognized as an important input in the formation of health policy. There is concern that research findings are not being utilized by health policy-makers to the extent that they could be. The factors influencing the utilization of various types of research by health policy-makers are beginning to emerge in the literature, however there is still little known about these factors in developing countries. The object of this study was to explore these factors by examining the policy-making process for a pharmaceutical policy common in developing countries; an essential medicines list. Methods A study of the selection and updating of Mali's national essential medicines list was undertaken using qualitative methods. In-depth semi-structured interviews and a natural group discussion were held with national policy-makers, most specifically members of the national commission that selects and updates the country's list. The resulting text was analyzed using a phenomenological approach. A document analysis was also performed. Results Several factors emerged from the textual data that appear to be influencing the utilization of health research findings for these policy-makers. These factors include: access to information, relevance of the research, use of research perceived as a time consuming process, trust in the research, authority of those who presented their view, competency in research methods, priority of research in the policy process, and accountability. Conclusion Improving the transfer of research to policy will require effort on the part of researchers, policy-makers, and third parties. This will include: collaboration between researchers and policy-makers, increased production and dissemination of relevant and useful research, and continued and improved technical support from networks and multi-national organizations. Policy-makers from developing countries will then be better equipped to make informed decisions

  1. Pivotal Role of Policymakers as Leaders of P-20/Workforce Data Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    States are working to ensure that every citizen is prepared for the knowledge economy. Achieving this goal requires unprecedented alignment of policies and practices across the early childhood; elementary, secondary, and postsecondary education; and workforce sectors (P-20W). Consequently, many policy questions require data from multiple agencies…

  2. Policymaking ‘under the radar’: a case study of pesticide regulation to prevent intentional poisoning in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Melissa; Zwi, Anthony B; Buckley, Nicholas A; Manuweera, Gamini; Fernando, Ravindra; Dawson, Andrew H; McDuie-Ra, Duncan

    2015-01-01

    Background Suicide in Sri Lanka is a major public health problem and in 1995 the country had one of the highest rates of suicide worldwide. Since then reductions in overall suicide rates have been largely attributed to efforts to regulate a range of pesticides. The evolution, context, events and implementation of the key policy decisions around regulation are examined. Methods This study was undertaken as part of a broader analysis of policy in two parts—an explanatory case study and stakeholder analysis. This article describes the explanatory case study that included an historical narrative and in-depth interviews. Results A timeline and chronology of policy actions and influence were derived from interview and document data. Fourteen key informants were interviewed and four distinct policy phases were identified. The early stages of pesticide regulation were dominated by political and economic considerations and strongly influenced by external factors. The second phase was marked by a period of local institution building, the engagement of local stakeholders, and expanded links between health and agriculture. During the third phase the problem of self-poisoning dominated the policy agenda and closer links between stakeholders, evidence and policymaking developed. The fourth and most recent phase was characterized by strong local capacity for policymaking, informed by evidence, developed in collaboration with a powerful network of stakeholders, including international researchers. Conclusions The policy response to extremely high rates of suicide from intentional poisoning with pesticides shows a unique and successful example of policymaking to prevent suicide. It also highlights policy action taking place ‘under the radar’, thus avoiding policy inertia often associated with reforms in lower and middle income countries. PMID:24362640

  3. Evidence-informed policymaking in practice: country-level examples of use of evidence for iCCM policy.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Daniela C; Shearer, Jessica; Mariano, Alda R E; Juma, Pamela A; Dalglish, Sarah L; Bennett, Sara

    2015-12-01

    Integrated Community Case Management of Childhood Illness (iCCM) is a policy for providing treatment for malaria, diarrhoea and pneumonia for children below 5 years at the community level, which is generating increasing evidence and support at the global level. As countries move to adopt iCCM, it becomes important to understand how this growing evidence base is viewed and used by national stakeholders. This article explores whether, how and why evidence influenced policy formulation for iCCM in Niger, Kenya and Mozambique, and uses Carol Weiss' models of research utilization to further explain the use of evidence in these contexts. A documentary review and in-depth stakeholder interviews were conducted as part of retrospective case studies in each study country. Findings indicate that all three countries used national monitoring data to identify the issue of children dying in the community prior to reaching health facilities, whereas international research evidence was used to identify policy options. Nevertheless, policymakers greatly valued local evidence and pilot projects proved critical in advancing iCCM. World Health Organization and United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) functioned as knowledge brokers, bringing research evidence and experiences from other countries to the attention of local policymakers as well as sponsoring site visits and meetings. In terms of country-specific findings, Niger demonstrated both Interactive and Political models of research utilization by using iCCM to capitalize on the existing health infrastructure. Both Mozambique and Kenya exhibit Problem-Solving research utilization with different outcomes. Furthermore, the persistent quest for additional evidence suggests a Tactical use of research in Kenya. Results presented here indicate that while evidence from research studies and other contexts can be critical to policy development, local evidence is often needed to answer key policymaker questions. In the end, evidence may not

  4. Evidence-informed policymaking in practice: country-level examples of use of evidence for iCCM policy

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Daniela C; Shearer, Jessica; Mariano, Alda RE; Juma, Pamela A; Dalglish, Sarah L; Bennett, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Integrated Community Case Management of Childhood Illness (iCCM) is a policy for providing treatment for malaria, diarrhoea and pneumonia for children below 5 years at the community level, which is generating increasing evidence and support at the global level. As countries move to adopt iCCM, it becomes important to understand how this growing evidence base is viewed and used by national stakeholders. This article explores whether, how and why evidence influenced policy formulation for iCCM in Niger, Kenya and Mozambique, and uses Carol Weiss’ models of research utilization to further explain the use of evidence in these contexts. A documentary review and in-depth stakeholder interviews were conducted as part of retrospective case studies in each study country. Findings indicate that all three countries used national monitoring data to identify the issue of children dying in the community prior to reaching health facilities, whereas international research evidence was used to identify policy options. Nevertheless, policymakers greatly valued local evidence and pilot projects proved critical in advancing iCCM. World Health Organization and United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) functioned as knowledge brokers, bringing research evidence and experiences from other countries to the attention of local policymakers as well as sponsoring site visits and meetings. In terms of country-specific findings, Niger demonstrated both Interactive and Political models of research utilization by using iCCM to capitalize on the existing health infrastructure. Both Mozambique and Kenya exhibit Problem-Solving research utilization with different outcomes. Furthermore, the persistent quest for additional evidence suggests a Tactical use of research in Kenya. Results presented here indicate that while evidence from research studies and other contexts can be critical to policy development, local evidence is often needed to answer key policymaker questions. In the end, evidence may not

  5. Barriers, facilitators, strategies and outcomes to engaging policymakers, healthcare managers and policy analysts in knowledge synthesis: a scoping review protocol

    PubMed Central

    Tricco, Andrea C; Zarin, Wasifa; Rios, Patricia; Pham, Ba’; Straus, Sharon E; Langlois, Etienne V

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Engaging policymakers, healthcare managers and policy analysts in the conduct of knowledge synthesis can help increase its impact. This is particularly important for knowledge synthesis studies commissioned by decision-makers with limited timelines, as well as reviews of health policy and systems research. A scoping review will be conducted to assess barriers, facilitators, strategies and outcomes of engaging these individuals in the knowledge synthesis process. Methods and analysis We will follow the Joanna Briggs Institute guidance for scoping reviews. Literature searches of electronic databases (eg, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, ERIC, PsycINFO) will be conducted from inception onwards. The electronic search will be supplemented by searching for sources that index unpublished/difficult to locate studies (eg, GreyNet International database), as well as through scanning of reference lists of reviews on related topics. All study designs using either qualitative or quantitative methodologies will be eligible if there is a description of the strategies, barriers or facilitators, and outcomes of engaging policymakers, healthcare managers and policy analysts in the knowledge synthesis process. Screening and data abstraction will be conducted by 2 team members independently after a calibration exercise across the team. A third team member will resolve all discrepancies. We will conduct frequency analysis and thematic analysis to chart and characterise the literature, identifying data gaps and opportunities for future research, as well as implications for policy. Ethics and dissemination This project was commissioned by the Alliance for Health Policy and Systems Research, WHO. The results will be used by Alliance Review Centers of health policy and systems research in low-income and middle-income countries that are conducting knowledge synthesis to inform health policymaking and decision-making. Our results will also be disseminated through conference

  6. Iran's health policymakers' views on barriers and facilitators of nurse prescribing in their context: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Darvishpour, Azar; Joolaee, Soodabeh; Cheraghi, Mohammad Ali; Mokhtari-Lakeh, Nasrin

    2016-01-01

    Background: In most countries, one of the main reasons for developing more advanced roles for nurses is to improve access to care in the context of limited number of doctors. It is considered that the introduction of major policy initiatives, such as nurse prescribing, requires high-level discussion and policy development to ensure successful implementation. This study aimed to identify the barriers and facilitators of nurse prescribing based on policymakers' views in Iran. Materials and Methods: This qualitative study was based on conventional content analysis approach. A purposeful sample of 14 participants were recruited, including 6 members of the Nursing Board, 6 members of the Iranian Nursing Organization, and 2 senior employees of Iran's Ministry of Health and Medical Education. Data were gathered through in-depth semi-structured interviews. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Results: The four emerged categories as facilitators of nurse prescribing were labeled “positive views of health policymakers,” “human resources capabilities,” “non-medical prescribing experiences,” and “governmental and non-governmental organizational activities.” The four extracted categories as barriers of nurse prescribing were “socio-cultural factors,” “organizational factors,” “educational barriers,” and “human barriers.” Conclusions: Barriers and facilitating factors should be considered in order to bring about organizational policy changes and improve perspectives. Nurse prescribing requires the efforts of involved managers and authorities for development and modernization. The results of this study can serve as a compressed resource for policymakers and managers to identify the effective issues on nurse prescribing and can help them to plan for the implementation of nurse prescribing. PMID:27186208

  7. Multiple Grammars and MOGUL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truscott, John

    2014-01-01

    Optionality is a central phenomenon in second language acquisition (SLA), for which any adequate theory must account. Amaral and Roeper (this issue; henceforth A&R) offer an appealing approach to it, using Roeper's Multiple Grammars Theory, which was created with first language in mind but which extends very naturally to SLA. They include…

  8. SUPPORT Tools for evidence-informed health Policymaking (STP) 4: Using research evidence to clarify a problem

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    This article is part of a series written for people responsible for making decisions about health policies and programmes and for those who support these decision makers. Policymakers and those supporting them often find themselves in situations that spur them on to work out how best to define a problem. These situations may range from being asked an awkward or challenging question in the legislature, through to finding a problem highlighted on the front page of a newspaper. The motivations for policymakers wanting to clarify a problem are diverse. These may range from deciding whether to pay serious attention to a particular problem that others claim is important, through to wondering how to convince others to agree that a problem is important. Debates and struggles over how to define a problem are a critically important part of the policymaking process. The outcome of these debates and struggles will influence whether and, in part, how policymakers take action to address a problem. Efforts at problem clarification that are informed by an appreciation of concurrent developments are more likely to generate actions. These concurrent developments can relate to policy and programme options (e.g. the publication of a report demonstrating the effectiveness of a particular option) or to political events (e.g. the appointment of a new Minister of Health with a personal interest in a particular issue). In this article, we suggest questions that can be used to guide those involved in identifying a problem and characterising its features. These are: 1. What is the problem? 2. How did the problem come to attention and has this process influenced the prospect of it being addressed? 3. What indicators can be used, or collected, to establish the magnitude of the problem and to measure progress in addressing it? 4. What comparisons can be made to establish the magnitude of the problem and to measure progress in addressing it? 5. How can the problem be framed (or described) in a

  9. SUPPORT Tools for evidence-informed health Policymaking (STP) 4: Using research evidence to clarify a problem.

    PubMed

    Lavis, John N; Wilson, Michael G; Oxman, Andrew D; Lewin, Simon; Fretheim, Atle

    2009-12-16

    This article is part of a series written for people responsible for making decisions about health policies and programmes and for those who support these decision makers. Policymakers and those supporting them often find themselves in situations that spur them on to work out how best to define a problem. These situations may range from being asked an awkward or challenging question in the legislature, through to finding a problem highlighted on the front page of a newspaper. The motivations for policymakers wanting to clarify a problem are diverse. These may range from deciding whether to pay serious attention to a particular problem that others claim is important, through to wondering how to convince others to agree that a problem is important. Debates and struggles over how to define a problem are a critically important part of the policymaking process. The outcome of these debates and struggles will influence whether and, in part, how policymakers take action to address a problem. Efforts at problem clarification that are informed by an appreciation of concurrent developments are more likely to generate actions. These concurrent developments can relate to policy and programme options (e.g. the publication of a report demonstrating the effectiveness of a particular option) or to political events (e.g. the appointment of a new Minister of Health with a personal interest in a particular issue). In this article, we suggest questions that can be used to guide those involved in identifying a problem and characterising its features. These are: 1. What is the problem? 2. How did the problem come to attention and has this process influenced the prospect of it being addressed? 3. What indicators can be used, or collected, to establish the magnitude of the problem and to measure progress in addressing it? 4. What comparisons can be made to establish the magnitude of the problem and to measure progress in addressing it? 5. How can the problem be framed (or described) in a

  10. Mitigation/adaptation and health: health policymaking in the global response to climate change and implications for other upstream determinants.

    PubMed

    Wiley, Lindsay F

    2010-01-01

    The time is ripe for innovation in global health governance if we are to achieve global health and development objectives in the face of formidable challenges. Integration of global health concerns into the law and governance of other, related disciplines should be given high priority. This article explores opportunities for health policymaking in the global response to climate change. Climate change and environmental degradation will affect weather disasters, food and water security, infectious disease patterns, and air pollution. Although scientific research has pointed to the interdependence of the global environment and human health, policymakers have been slow to integrate their approaches to environmental and health concerns. A robust response to climate change will require improved integration on two fronts: health concerns must be given higher priority in the response to climate change and threats associated with climate change and environmental degradation must be more adequately addressed by global health law and governance. The mitigation/adaptation response paradigm developing within and beyond the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change provides a useful framework for thinking about global health law and governance with respect to climate change, environmental degradation, and possibly other upstream determinants of health as well.

  11. Accessing Secondary Markets as a Capital Source for Energy Efficiency Finance Programs: Program Design Considerations for Policymakers and Administrators

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, C.; Martin, E. Fadrhonc; Thompson, P.; Goldman, C.

    2015-02-01

    Estimates of the total opportunity for investment in cost-effective energy efficiency in the United States are typically in the range of several hundred billion dollars (Choi Granade, et al., 2009 and Fulton & Brandenburg, 2012).1,2 To access this potential, many state policymakers and utility regulators have established aggressive energy efficiency savings targets. Current levels of taxpayer and utility bill-payer funding for energy efficiency is only a small fraction of the total investment needed to meet these targets (SEE Action Financing Solutions Working Group, 2013). Given this challenge, some energy efficiency program administrators are working to access private capital sources with the aim of amplifying the funds available for investment. In this context, efficient access to secondary market capital has been advanced as one important enabler of the energy efficiency industry “at scale.”3 The question of what role secondary markets can play in bringing energy efficiency to scale is largely untested despite extensive attention from media, technical publications, advocates, and others. Only a handful of transactions of energy efficiency loan products have been executed to date, and it is too soon to draw robust conclusions from these deals. At the same time, energy efficiency program administrators and policymakers face very real decisions regarding whether and how to access secondary markets as part of their energy efficiency deployment strategy.

  12. Reducing the global burden of Preterm Birth through knowledge transfer and exchange: a research agenda for engaging effectively with policymakers.

    PubMed

    Yamey, Gavin; Horváth, Hacsi; Schmidt, Laura; Myers, Janet; Brindis, Claire D

    2016-03-18

    Preterm birth (PTB) is the world's leading cause of death in children under 5 years. In 2013, over one million out of six million child deaths were due to complications of PTB. The rate of decline in child death overall has far outpaced the rate of decline attributable to PTB. Three key reasons for this slow progress in reducing PTB mortality are: (a) the underlying etiology and biological mechanisms remain unknown, presenting a challenge to discovering ways to prevent and treat the condition; (ii) while there are several evidence-based interventions that can reduce the risk of PTB and associated infant mortality, the coverage rates of these interventions in low- and middle-income countries remain very low; and (c) the gap between knowledge and action on PTB--the "know-do gap"--has been a major obstacle to progress in scaling up the use of existing evidence-based child health interventions, including those to prevent and treat PTB.In this review, we focus on the know-do gap in PTB as it applies to policymakers. The evidence-based approaches to narrowing this gap have become known as knowledge transfer and exchange (KTE). In our paper, we propose a research agenda for promoting KTE with policymakers, with an ambitious but realistic goal of reducing the global burden of PTB. We hope that our proposed research agenda stimulates further debate and discussion on research priorities to soon bend the curve of PTB mortality.

  13. Experiences and attitudes towards evidence-informed policy-making among research and policy stakeholders in the Canadian agri-food public health sector.

    PubMed

    Young, I; Gropp, K; Pintar, K; Waddell, L; Marshall, B; Thomas, K; McEwen, S A; Rajić, A

    2014-12-01

    Policy-makers working at the interface of agri-food and public health often deal with complex and cross-cutting issues that have broad health impacts and socio-economic implications. They have a responsibility to ensure that policy-making based on these issues is accountable and informed by the best available scientific evidence. We conducted a qualitative descriptive study of agri-food public health policy-makers and research and policy analysts in Ontario, Canada, to understand their perspectives on how the policy-making process is currently informed by scientific evidence and how to facilitate this process. Five focus groups of 3-7 participants and five-one-to-one interviews were held in 2012 with participants from federal and provincial government departments and industry organizations in the agri-food public health sector. We conducted a thematic analysis of the focus group and interview transcripts to identify overarching themes. Participants indicated that the following six key principles are necessary to enable and demonstrate evidence-informed policy-making (EIPM) in this sector: (i) establish and clarify the policy objectives and context; (ii) support policy-making with credible scientific evidence from different sources; (iii) integrate scientific evidence with other diverse policy inputs (e.g. economics, local applicability and stakeholder interests); (iv) ensure that scientific evidence is communicated by research and policy stakeholders in relevant and user-friendly formats; (V) create and foster interdisciplinary relationships and networks across research and policy communities; and (VI) enhance organizational capacity and individual skills for EIPM. Ongoing and planned efforts in these areas, a supportive culture, and additional education and training in both research and policy realms are important to facilitate evidence-informed policy-making in this sector. Future research should explore these findings further in other countries and contexts.

  14. 7 CFR 3431.17 - VMLRP service agreement offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., EDUCATION, AND EXTENSION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VETERINARY MEDICINE LOAN REPAYMENT PROGRAM Administration of the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program § 3431.17 VMLRP service agreement offer. The... provide veterinary services under the VMLRP. As part of the offer, successful VMLRP applicants will...

  15. Nonprofit Groups Offer Genetic Testing for Jewish Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supiano, Beckie

    2008-01-01

    This article describes how nonprofit organizations like Hillel are offering free genetic testing for Jewish college students. A growing number of colleges, including Pittsburgh, Brandeis University, and Columbia University are offering students free or reduced-cost screenings for diseases common to Jewish population. Genetic diseases common to…

  16. 40 CFR 303.32 - Pre-payment offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pre-payment offers. 303.32 Section 303.32 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY... SUPERFUND Criteria for Payment of Award § 303.32 Pre-payment offers. Prior to the actual payment of an...

  17. 40 CFR 303.32 - Pre-payment offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pre-payment offers. 303.32 Section 303.32 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY... SUPERFUND Criteria for Payment of Award § 303.32 Pre-payment offers. Prior to the actual payment of an...

  18. 40 CFR 303.32 - Pre-payment offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pre-payment offers. 303.32 Section 303.32 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY... SUPERFUND Criteria for Payment of Award § 303.32 Pre-payment offers. Prior to the actual payment of an...

  19. 17 CFR 230.155 - Integration of abandoned offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Integration of abandoned... GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 General § 230.155 Integration of abandoned offerings... from integration of private and registered offerings. Because of the objectives of Rule 155 and...

  20. 17 CFR 230.155 - Integration of abandoned offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Integration of abandoned... GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 General § 230.155 Integration of abandoned offerings... from integration of private and registered offerings. Because of the objectives of Rule 155 and...

  1. 17 CFR 230.155 - Integration of abandoned offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Integration of abandoned... GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 General § 230.155 Integration of abandoned offerings... from integration of private and registered offerings. Because of the objectives of Rule 155 and...

  2. 17 CFR 230.155 - Integration of abandoned offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Integration of abandoned... GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 General § 230.155 Integration of abandoned offerings... from integration of private and registered offerings. Because of the objectives of Rule 155 and...

  3. 48 CFR 53.301-33 - Solicitation, Offer and Award.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Solicitation, Offer and Award. 53.301-33 Section 53.301-33 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Illustrations of Forms 53.301-33 Solicitation, Offer and Award....

  4. 48 CFR 53.301-33 - Solicitation, Offer and Award.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Solicitation, Offer and Award. 53.301-33 Section 53.301-33 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Illustrations of Forms 53.301-33 Solicitation, Offer and Award....

  5. 48 CFR 53.301-33 - Solicitation, Offer and Award.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Solicitation, Offer and Award. 53.301-33 Section 53.301-33 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Illustrations of Forms 53.301-33 Solicitation, Offer and Award....

  6. 48 CFR 53.301-33 - Solicitation, Offer and Award.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Solicitation, Offer and Award. 53.301-33 Section 53.301-33 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Illustrations of Forms 53.301-33 Solicitation, Offer and Award....

  7. 48 CFR 53.301-33 - Solicitation, Offer and Award.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Solicitation, Offer and Award. 53.301-33 Section 53.301-33 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Illustrations of Forms 53.301-33 Solicitation, Offer and Award....

  8. Making It Count (First Offering). Course Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggert, John D.

    "Making It Count," a multimedia computer course designed to be offered on public television for college credit at the sophomore level, was offered by the State University of Nebraska in 1975. The course was developed by the Boeing Computer Services. The course enrollment was 79, with 64 enrolled for credit. The mean student age was 36.5,…

  9. Assuring Quality in Online Offerings: Insights from a University's Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budden, Connie B.; Budden, Heather L.; Hall, Michelle; Longman, Debbie G.

    2015-01-01

    As the growth of online education offered by universities accelerates and spreads, universities are increasingly grappling with concerns related to widespread availability and the maintenance of academic quality. The "Quality Matters at Southeastern" Program fosters quality through a peer review process and offers a certification process…

  10. 20 CFR 655.120 - Offered wage rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Offered wage rate. 655.120 Section 655.120 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TEMPORARY EMPLOYMENT OF... its obligation under § 655.122(l), an employer must offer, advertise in its recruitment, and pay...

  11. 47 CFR 76.1621 - Equipment compatibility offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Equipment compatibility offer. 76.1621 Section 76.1621 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Notices § 76.1621 Equipment compatibility offer. Cable...

  12. 47 CFR 76.1621 - Equipment compatibility offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equipment compatibility offer. 76.1621 Section 76.1621 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Notices § 76.1621 Equipment compatibility offer. Cable...

  13. 47 CFR 76.1621 - Equipment compatibility offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Equipment compatibility offer. 76.1621 Section 76.1621 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Notices § 76.1621 Equipment compatibility offer. Cable...

  14. 47 CFR 76.1621 - Equipment compatibility offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Equipment compatibility offer. 76.1621 Section 76.1621 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Notices § 76.1621 Equipment compatibility offer. Cable...

  15. 15 CFR 90.13 - Offer of hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Offer of hearing. 90.13 Section 90.13 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PROCEDURE FOR CHALLENGING CERTAIN POPULATION AND INCOME ESTIMATES § 90.13 Offer...

  16. 15 CFR 90.13 - Offer of hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Offer of hearing. 90.13 Section 90.13 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PROCEDURE FOR CHALLENGING CERTAIN POPULATION AND INCOME ESTIMATES § 90.13 Offer...

  17. 15 CFR 90.13 - Offer of hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Offer of hearing. 90.13 Section 90.13 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PROCEDURE FOR CHALLENGING CERTAIN POPULATION AND INCOME ESTIMATES § 90.13 Offer...

  18. 15 CFR 90.13 - Offer of hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Offer of hearing. 90.13 Section 90.13 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PROCEDURE FOR CHALLENGING CERTAIN POPULATION AND INCOME ESTIMATES § 90.13 Offer...

  19. 48 CFR 852.273-70 - Late offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Late offers. 852.273-70 Section 852.273-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 852.273-70 Late offers....

  20. 45 CFR 672.16 - Objections and offers of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Objections and offers of proof. 672.16 Section 672.16 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION... brief statement describing the nature of the evidence excluded. The offer of proof for...

  1. 45 CFR 672.16 - Objections and offers of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Objections and offers of proof. 672.16 Section 672.16 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION... brief statement describing the nature of the evidence excluded. The offer of proof for...

  2. 45 CFR 672.16 - Objections and offers of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Objections and offers of proof. 672.16 Section 672.16 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION... brief statement describing the nature of the evidence excluded. The offer of proof for...

  3. 45 CFR 672.16 - Objections and offers of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Objections and offers of proof. 672.16 Section 672.16 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION... brief statement describing the nature of the evidence excluded. The offer of proof for...

  4. 45 CFR 672.16 - Objections and offers of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Objections and offers of proof. 672.16 Section 672.16 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION... brief statement describing the nature of the evidence excluded. The offer of proof for...

  5. 12 CFR 16.4 - Communications not deemed an offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 16.4 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SECURITIES OFFERING...) Subsequent to the filing of a registration statement, any notice, circular, advertisement, letter, or other... CFR 230.134); (3) Subsequent to the filing of a registration statement, any oral offer of...

  6. 7 CFR 51.4 - Where inspection service is offered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Where inspection service is offered. 51.4 Section 51.4... STANDARDS) Regulations 1 Inspection Service § 51.4 Where inspection service is offered. Products will be... inspectors are available. (a) Shipping points. Inspection service is available in all areas covered...

  7. 48 CFR 452.211-71 - Equal Products Offered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... in solicitations seeking offers on a “brand name or equal” basis to allow offerors the opportunity to... furnish an “equal” product, in accordance with the “Brand Name or Equal” provision of this solicitation... any): Brand Name or Equal Product identified by the Government in this solicitation: Offered...

  8. 21 CFR 1316.60 - Objections; offer of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Objections; offer of proof. 1316.60 Section 1316.60 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ADMINISTRATIVE FUNCTIONS, PRACTICES, AND PROCEDURES Administrative Hearings § 1316.60 Objections; offer of proof. If any party in...

  9. 45 CFR 2544.115 - Who may offer a donation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Who may offer a donation? 2544.115 Section 2544... COMMUNITY SERVICE SOLICITATION AND ACCEPTANCE OF DONATIONS § 2544.115 Who may offer a donation? Anyone... donation to the Corporation....

  10. 20 CFR 655.1308 - Offered wage rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... Recruitment for this purpose begins when the job order is accepted by the SWA for posting. (d) Wage offer. The...-line Wage Library (OWL) found on the Foreign Labor Certification Data Center Web site (http://www... job offers for beginning level employees who have a basic understanding of the occupation....

  11. 20 CFR 655.1308 - Offered wage rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... Recruitment for this purpose begins when the job order is accepted by the SWA for posting. (d) Wage offer. The...-line Wage Library (OWL) found on the Foreign Labor Certification Data Center Web site (http://www... job offers for beginning level employees who have a basic understanding of the occupation....

  12. 20 CFR 655.1308 - Offered wage rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... Recruitment for this purpose begins when the job order is accepted by the SWA for posting. (d) Wage offer. The...-line Wage Library (OWL) found on the Foreign Labor Certification Data Center Web site (http://www... job offers for beginning level employees who have a basic understanding of the occupation....

  13. 20 CFR 655.1308 - Offered wage rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... Recruitment for this purpose begins when the job order is accepted by the SWA for posting. (d) Wage offer. The...-line Wage Library (OWL) found on the Foreign Labor Certification Data Center Web site (http://www... job offers for beginning level employees who have a basic understanding of the occupation....

  14. 20 CFR 655.1308 - Offered wage rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... Recruitment for this purpose begins when the job order is accepted by the SWA for posting. (d) Wage offer. The...-line Wage Library (OWL) found on the Foreign Labor Certification Data Center Web site (http://www... job offers for beginning level employees who have a basic understanding of the occupation....

  15. 48 CFR 219.804 - Evaluation, offering, and acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Business Administration (The 8(a) Program) 219.804 Evaluation, offering, and acceptance. When processing... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evaluation, offering, and acceptance. 219.804 Section 219.804 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION...

  16. 14 CFR 151.29 - Procedures: Offer, amendment, and acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... § 151.29 Procedures: Offer, amendment, and acceptance. (a) Upon approving a project, the Administrator... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedures: Offer, amendment, and acceptance. 151.29 Section 151.29 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...

  17. Student-Aid Offers May Be Too Generous, Study Suggests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, David

    2007-01-01

    Colleges may frequently be overspending by offering students larger financial-aid offers than are actually necessary to entice them to enroll, according to a working paper released in May by three economists. In a detailed examination of the admissions practices of two selective private colleges, the economists found that the colleges generally…

  18. NCEA Offers Ways to Help Improve Your Financial Picture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Momentum, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Discusses how NCEA offers financial planning support to members in a variety of ways, including tailored on-site consultation, regional workshops and sessions at the annual convention. Offers a list of publications that can be helpful in planning and conducting development programs and a directory of funding resources for Catholic activities. (MZ)

  19. University Offer Rates for Candidates from Different Ethnic Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noden, Philip; Shiner, Michael; Modood, Tariq

    2014-01-01

    Previous research suggested that candidates from some black and minority ethnic groups were less likely to receive an offer of a place from an "old" university. These findings were disputed in a re-analysis carried out for HEFCE which found that only Pakistani candidates were significantly less likely to receive offers (from both…

  20. Tips for a physician in getting the right job, part XVIII: rejections and offers.

    PubMed

    Harolds, Jay A

    2015-01-01

    If the candidate for a job is rejected, the individual should not necessarily be discouraged. It may be that the position was particularly competitive or that there were factors beyond the control of the applicant. However, it is important that the candidate carefully considers all aspects of the application and interview process for that position to see if anything could be learned from the process. If the applicant is not successful in being given a job offer for multiple positions, then there must be a careful analysis of the reasons. It could be caused by training, communication issues, a competitive job market-especially in that location, a problematic job record, and so on. If the job seeker is given an offer of employment, it is important to carefully consider all aspects of the offer and consider respectful, professional negotiations on some items.

  1. SUPPORT Tools for evidence-informed health Policymaking (STP) 5: Using research evidence to frame options to address a problem.

    PubMed

    Lavis, John N; Wilson, Michael G; Oxman, Andrew D; Grimshaw, Jeremy; Lewin, Simon; Fretheim, Atle

    2009-12-16

    This article is part of a series written for people responsible for making decisions about health policies and programmes and for those who support these decision makers. Policymakers and those supporting them may find themselves in one or more of the following three situations that will require them to characterise the costs and consequences of options to address a problem. These are: 1. A decision has already been taken and their role is to maximise the benefits of an option, minimise its harms, optimise the impacts achieved for the money spent, and (if there is substantial uncertainty about the likely costs and consequences of the option) to design a monitoring and evaluation plan, 2. A policymaking process is already underway and their role is to assess the options presented to them, or 3. A policymaking process has not yet begun and their role is therefore to identify options, characterise the costs and consequences of these options, and look for windows of opportunity in which to act. In situations like these, research evidence, particularly about benefits, harms, and costs, can help to inform whether an option can be considered viable. In this article, we suggest six questions that can be used to guide those involved in identifying policy and programme options to address a high-priority problem, and to characterise the costs and consequences of these options. These are: 1. Has an appropriate set of options been identified to address a problem? 2. What benefits are important to those who will be affected and which benefits are likely to be achieved with each option? 3. What harms are important to those who will be affected and which harms are likely to arise with each option? 4. What are the local costs of each option and is there local evidence about their cost-effectiveness? 5. What adaptations might be made to any given option and could they alter its benefits, harms and costs? 6. Which stakeholder views and experiences might influence an option

  2. Including safety-net providers in integrated delivery systems: issues and options for policymakers.

    PubMed

    Witgert, Katherine; Hess, Catherine

    2012-08-01

    Health care reform legislation has spurred efforts to develop integrated health care delivery systems that seek to coordinate the continuum of health services. These systems may be of particular benefit to patients who face barriers to accessing care or have multiple health conditions. But it remains to be seen how safety-net providers, including community health centers and public hospitals--which have long experience in caring for these vulnerable populations--will be included in integrated delivery systems. This issue brief explores key considerations for incorporating safety-net providers into integrated delivery systems and discusses the roles of state and federal agencies in sup­porting and testing models of integrated care delivery. The authors conclude that the most important principles in creating integrated delivery systems for vulnerable populations are: (1) an emphasis on primary care; (2) coordination of all care, including behavioral, social, and public health services; and (3) accountability for population health outcomes.

  3. Next stop, implementation: collaborative monitoring to inform adaptive policy-making and implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermans, L. M.; Haasnoot, M.; Kwakkel, J. H.

    2014-09-01

    Dynamic Adaptive Policy Pathways has been developed as an approach to deal with deep uncertainties and support robust decision-making for long-term planning. Given the unpredictable and uncertain futures, implementation of the resulting adaptive policies needs to be informed by regular monitoring. However, monitoring implementation in practice is complicated by the need to coordinate activities and share information among multiple actors. Here we present a first outline for an approach to organise collaborative monitoring to support adaptive implementation of long-term water policies. The analytical basis rests on an extension of Dynamic Adaptive Policy Pathways with actor analysis principles. Monitoring is to be organised around adaptation tipping points, for which a set of questions needs to be addressed that put societal actors central. Examples from two water management cases in the Netherlands suggest the usefulness of this approach.

  4. Firm offers 1.6bn lift into space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clery, Dan

    2008-02-01

    Researchers involved in Earth observation and atmospheric monitoring have been offered a tantalizing opportunity. The satellite-communications company Iridium, which is due to launch a flotilla of 66 satellites within the next decade, has offered to put remote-sensing instruments into each one, thus creating an Earth-observing constellation that would cost many billions of dollars to build from scratch. Such a huge project would have the ability to study fastchanging phenomena by viewing the same spot on Earth every few minutes. "It does offer something that is not available by any other means," says atmospheric chemist Paul Monks of Leicester University in the UK.

  5. 12 CFR 563g.4 - Non-public offering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... is a trustee) and not with a view to or for sale in connection with any distribution of the security... the offering circular requirement provided for by this section; and (3) Placement of a legend on...

  6. 43 CFR 4.840 - Offer of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Special Procedural Rules Applicable to Practice and Procedure for Hearings, Decisions, and Administrative... the Interior-Effectuation of Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 Hearing § 4.840 Offer of...

  7. Drug Offers Some Hope for A Deadly Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Drug Offers Some Hope for a Deadly Lung Cancer Immunotherapy may triple 5-year survival rate for certain ... oncology at the Johns Hopkins University Institute for Cancer Immunotherapy in Baltimore. Opdivo is an immunotherapy drug, which ...

  8. 31 CFR 352.0 - Offering of bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT OFFERING OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES HH § 352..., United States Savings Bonds of Series HH in exchange for eligible United States Savings Bonds of Series...

  9. Iowa State Offers to Help JC Journalism Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crook, James

    1972-01-01

    The Department of Journalism and Mass Communication at Iowa State University assists junior college publications programs throughout the state by offering annual workshops, helping in program design, and publishing a Transfer Tip Sheet.'' (RN)

  10. The Impact of a Staff Development Offering on Nursing Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foglesong, Dianne H.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a problem-focused audit used to measure the impact of a staff development offering on pain relief. Concludes that the audit provided concrete evidence that the class on pain did influence nursing practice and affected patients directly. (NRJ)

  11. Pediatricians Offer Heads-Up for Preventing Soccer Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163060.html Pediatricians Offer Heads-Up for Preventing Soccer Injuries Sprains and strains ... benefit from wearing heel cups or arch supports. Head injuries: Concussions are a common soccer-related injury. ...

  12. 20 CFR 655.120 - Offered wage rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... its obligation under § 655.122(l), an employer must offer, advertise in its recruitment, and pay a... prevailing wage, the agreed-upon collective bargaining wage, or the Federal or State minimum wage, in...

  13. New Therapies Offer Valuable Options for Patients with Melanoma

    Cancer.gov

    Two phase III clinical trials of new therapies for patients with metastatic melanoma presented in June at the 2011 ASCO conference confirmed that vemurafenib and ipilimumab (Yervoy™) offer valuable new options for the disease.

  14. Linking science more closely to policy-making: Global climate change and the national reorganization of science and technology policy

    SciTech Connect

    Glasser, R.D.

    1994-04-01

    This paper examines the national trends behind recent efforts to link science and technology more closely to policy-making. It describes the politics surrounding the establishment of the National Science and Technology Council and its committee on Environment and Natural Resources (of which the global change program is a part). It discusses the evolution of the ``assessments`` function within the climate change program in general, and within the Department of Energy, in particular, and how the Clinton Administration`s approach to climate change ``assessments`` function within the climate change program in general, and within the Department of Energy, in particular, and how the Clinton Administration`s approach to climate change ``assessments`` differs from that of its predecessor. The paper concludes with a critique both of the national reorganization of science and technology policy and of the assessments component of the climate change program.

  15. Policy-Making Theory as an Analytical Framework in Policy Analysis: Implications for Research Design and Professional Advocacy.

    PubMed

    Sheldon, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    Policy studies are a recent addition to the American Physical Therapy Association's Research Agenda and are critical to our understanding of various federal, state, local, and organizational policies on the provision of physical therapist services across the continuum of care. Policy analyses that help to advance the profession's various policy agendas will require relevant theoretical frameworks to be credible. The purpose of this perspective article is to: (1) demonstrate the use of a policy-making theory as an analytical framework in a policy analysis and (2) discuss how sound policy analysis can assist physical therapists in becoming more effective change agents, policy advocates, and partners with other relevant stakeholder groups. An exploratory study of state agency policy responses to address work-related musculoskeletal disorders is provided as a contemporary example to illustrate key points and to demonstrate the importance of selecting a relevant analytical framework based on the context of the policy issue under investigation.

  16. A typology of intellectual property management for public health innovation and access: design considerations for policymakers.

    PubMed

    Taubman, Antony

    2010-01-19

    This paper seeks to set the practical discipline of public interest intellectual property (IP) management in public health into its broader policy context. The most immediate and direct impact of IP systems on public welfare results not from international standards nor from national legislation - though these norms are fundamentally important - but rather from the accumulated impact of numerous practical choices whether or not to seek IP protection; where and where not; and how any exclusive rights are deployed, by whom, and to what end. IP management is the essentially practical exercise of limited exclusive rights over protected subject matter, the judicious use of those rights to leverage outcomes that advance an institution's or a firm's objectives. Exclusive rights are used to construct and define knowledge-based relationships, to leverage access to technology and other necessary resources, and to enhance market-based incentives. IP management choices range across a broad spectrum, spanning public domain strategies, open or exclusive licensing, and strong exclusivity. The idea of 'exclusive rights', as a specific legal mechanism, can run counter to expectations of greater openness and accessibility, but actual outcomes will depend very much on how these mechanisms are used in practice. For public interest or public sector institutions concerned with health research and development, particularly the development of new medicines, IP management choices can be just as critical as they are for private firms, although a predominant institutional concentration on advancing direct public interest objectives may lead to significantly different approaches in weighing and exercising practical choices for IP management: even so, a private sector approach should not be conflated with exclusivity as an end in itself, nor need public interest IP management eschew all leverage over IP. This paper offers a tentative framework for a richer typology of those choices, to give a

  17. Derisking Renewable Energy Investment. A Framework to Support Policymakers in Selecting Public Instruments to Promote Renewable Energy Investment in Developing Countries

    SciTech Connect

    Waissbein, Oliver; Glemarec, Yannick; Bayraktar, Hande; Schmidt, Tobias S.

    2013-03-15

    This report introduces an innovative framework to assist policymakers to quantitatively compare the impact of different public instruments to promote renewable energy. The report identifies the need to reduce the high financing costs for renewable energy in developing countries as an important task for policymakers acting today. The framework is structured in four stages: (i) risk environment, (ii) public instruments, (iii) levelised cost and (iv) evaluation. To illustrate how the framework can support decision-making in practice, the report presents findings from illustrative case studies in four developing countries. It then draws on these results to discuss possible directions for enhancing public interventions to scale-up renewable energy investment. UNDP is also releasing a financial tool for policymakers to accompany the framework. The financial tool is available for download on the UNDP website.

  18. Availability of websites offering to sell psilocybin spores and psilocybin.

    PubMed

    Lott, Jason P; Marlowe, Douglas B; Forman, Robert F

    2009-09-01

    This study assesses the availability of websites offering to sell psilocybin spores and psilocybin, a powerful hallucinogen contained in Psilocybe mushrooms. Over a 25-month period beginning in March 2003, eight searches were conducted in Google using the term "psilocybin spores." In each search the first 100 nonsponsored links obtained were scored by two independent raters according to standardized criteria to determine whether they offered to sell psilocybin or psilocybin spores. No attempts were made to procure the products offered for sale in order to ascertain whether the marketed psilocybin was in fact "genuine" or "counterfeit." Of the 800 links examined, 58% led to websites offering to sell psilocybin spores. Additionally, evidence that whole Psilocybe mushrooms are offered for sale online was obtained. Psilocybin and psilocybin spores were found to be widely available for sale over the Internet. Online purchase of psilocybin may facilitate illicit use of this potent psychoactive substance. Additional studies are needed to assess whether websites offering to sell psilocybin and psilocybin spores actually deliver their products as advertised.

  19. Multiple Sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    Multiple sclerosis Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a potentially disabling disease of the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system). In MS, the immune system attacks the protective ...

  20. Multiple Sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a nervous system disease that affects your brain and spinal cord. It damages the ... attacks healthy cells in your body by mistake. Multiple sclerosis affects women more than men. It often begins ...

  1. Multiple myeloma

    MedlinePlus

    Plasma cell dyscrasia; Plasma cell myeloma; Malignant plasmacytoma; Plasmacytoma of bone; Myeloma - multiple ... Multiple myeloma most commonly causes: Low red blood cell count ( anemia ), which can lead to fatigue and ...

  2. How can hydrology inform economic policymaking? An assessment of water stress at the county level for the Northeastern United States using two concepts of water availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Morales, C. A.; Nicoletti, C.; Hoover, J. H.; Voigt, B. G.; Vörösmarty, C.; Fekete, B. M.

    2010-12-01

    Motivated by the Dublin-Rio Principles for water management, there is a global call to recognize the economic dimension of the interaction between societies and water resources. As frequently stated in the scientific water literature, the complexity of this interaction demands conceptual integration among diverse disciplines to both understand the critical issues and to design a set of policies to regulate the use of this resource. Water economic policy, economists are frequently told, is to be based not only on sound economic principles and knowledge, but also on hydrological realities. This paper offers a contribution for such an integration by showing how the use of two hydrological concepts for available water changes the evaluation of water stress at the county level for the Northeastern US. The analysis further suggests patterns of source-dependency that are proposed as relevant for economic policy design. Using USGS estimations for water economic withdrawals for 1985 through 2005, and benefiting from runoff data for the same period obtained from the WBMplus hydrological model, two sets of county-specific water stress indicators (WSIs) are built as ratios of withdrawals to two concepts of available water: internal runoff generated within each county, and internal runoff plus incoming surface flows generated elsewhere. A vis-a-vis value comparison between these sets yields two main findings. First, changes in the values of WSIs higher than 50% are observed for almost 70% of the 433 counties considered, a fact that suggests that small-scale stress assessments are highly sensitive to the utilized concept of water supply. Second, counties’ dependence on water sources is heterogeneous and can be classified into three groups by whether they mainly depend on internal runoff, on incoming flows, or on the mining of groundwater. The classification criterion interprets counties as mainly depending on internal runoff or on groundwater when their pairs of WSIs are of

  3. Techno-economic analysis and decision making for PHEV benefits to society, consumers, policymakers and automakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Alawi, Baha Mohammed

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are an emerging automotive technology that has the capability to reduce transportation environmental impacts, but at an increased production cost. PHEVs can draw and store energy from an electric grid and consequently show reductions in petroleum consumption, air emissions, ownership costs, and regulation compliance costs, and various other externalities. Decision makers in the policy, consumer, and industry spheres would like to understand the impact of HEV and PHEV technologies on the U.S. vehicle fleets, but to date, only the disciplinary characteristics of PHEVs been considered. The multidisciplinary tradeoffs between vehicle energy sources, policy requirements, market conditions, consumer preferences and technology improvements are not well understood. For example, the results of recent studies have posited the importance of PHEVs to the future US vehicle fleet. No studies have considered the value of PHEVs to automakers and policy makers as a tool for achieving US corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards which are planned to double by 2030. Previous studies have demonstrated the cost and benefit of PHEVs but there is no study that comprehensively accounts for the cost and benefits of PHEV to consumers. The diffusion rate of hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) and PHEV technology into the marketplace has been estimated by existing studies using various tools and scenarios, but results show wide variations between studies. There is no comprehensive modeling study that combines policy, consumers, society and automakers in the U.S. new vehicle sales cost and benefits analysis. The aim of this research is to build a potential framework that can simulate and optimize the benefits of PHEVs for a multiplicity of stakeholders. This dissertation describes the results of modeling that integrates the effects of PHEV market penetration on policy, consumer and economic spheres. A model of fleet fuel economy and CAFE compliance for

  4. BUSINESS NEEDS AND GRADUATE BUSINESS SCHOOL OFFERINGS IN MARKETING.

    PubMed

    Thams, Meg; Glueck, Deborah

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a gap exists in the skill and knowledge businesses require of marketing employees and what the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) accredited schools actually provide. In this quantitative study, two set of data were collected and compared, and a gap analysis conducted. A questionnaire was used to obtain data from members of the Business Marketing Association (BMA) regarding course preferences that would best prepare students for positions in marketing. Records analysis was then undertaken of the marketing course offerings of AACSB accredited MBA programs offering an emphasis in Marketing. Gap analysis was conducted by applying a test of difference to the results of the two data collection efforts. Results of the study suggest that some misalignment between school offerings and business needs exists.

  5. BUSINESS NEEDS AND GRADUATE BUSINESS SCHOOL OFFERINGS IN MARKETING

    PubMed Central

    Thams, Meg; Glueck, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a gap exists in the skill and knowledge businesses require of marketing employees and what the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) accredited schools actually provide. In this quantitative study, two set of data were collected and compared, and a gap analysis conducted. A questionnaire was used to obtain data from members of the Business Marketing Association (BMA) regarding course preferences that would best prepare students for positions in marketing. Records analysis was then undertaken of the marketing course offerings of AACSB accredited MBA programs offering an emphasis in Marketing. Gap analysis was conducted by applying a test of difference to the results of the two data collection efforts. Results of the study suggest that some misalignment between school offerings and business needs exists. PMID:26726319

  6. Multiplicity Counting

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, William H.

    2015-12-01

    This set of slides begins by giving background and a review of neutron counting; three attributes of a verification item are discussed: 240Pueff mass; α, the ratio of (α,n) neutrons to spontaneous fission neutrons; and leakage multiplication. It then takes up neutron detector systems – theory & concepts (coincidence counting, moderation, die-away time); detector systems – some important details (deadtime, corrections); introduction to multiplicity counting; multiplicity electronics and example distributions; singles, doubles, and triples from measured multiplicity distributions; and the point model: multiplicity mathematics.

  7. How to Address Citizens' Practices and Policies on Sustainability? A Consultative Tool for Brokering Policy-Related Knowledge between the Worlds of Policymaking and Everyday

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espluga, Josep; Konrad, Wilfried; Mays, Claire; Oltra, Christian; Poumadére, Marc; Prades, Ana

    2016-01-01

    An innovative investigative approach (STAVE), combining elements of research, engagement and brokerage, was used to uncover policy assumptions and daily experiences related to energy use practices. Exploratory work within three policymaker institutions and eight reconvened focus groups were carried out in three different European countries…

  8. A Critical Discourse Analysis of the New Labour Discourse of Social and Emotional Learning (SEL) across Schools in England and Wales: Conversations with Policymakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emery, Carl

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on a critical discourse analysis (CDA) of the New Labour (1997-2010) discourse of Social and Emotional Learning (SEL) in schools, and how it was understood and enacted by policymakers in England and in Wales within the context of devolved government across the UK. By SEL I mean universal school-based programs, located in the…

  9. Globalization and Dual Modes of Higher Education Policymaking in France: Je T'aime Moi Non Plus. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.2.11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoareau, Cecile

    2011-01-01

    The French Government has had a paradoxical relationship with globalization. Globalization is perceived as both a threat to react against and a cradle for new policy ideas. French policymakers have a love-hate relationship with the European higher education reforms that started in the 1990s, a mixed sentiment that French singer Serge Gainsbourg…

  10. The Case for a New Approach to Sex Education Mounts; Will Policymakers Heed the Message? Guttmacher Policy Review. Volume 10, Number 2, Spring 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boonstra, Heather D.

    2007-01-01

    Abstinence-only-until-marriage education is a key component of social conservatives' global moral and religious agenda, and the cornerstone of the Bush administration's approach to reducing U.S. teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection (STI) rates. Fearful of being portrayed as anti-abstinence, policymakers have continued to support these…

  11. Unique Challenges in Special Education Teacher Induction--Why a New Model Is Needed. Induction Insights. Supporting Special Education Teachers - Policymakers [PII-7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center to Inform Policy and Practice in Special Education Professional Development, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Many mentoring policies do not differentiate between novice special education teachers and their general education counterparts. Although novice special education teachers may benefit in part from general induction practices, their experience is limited when there is little attention given to their unique instructional needs. Policymakers can…

  12. A Glance at Doctoral Preparation through Websites: How Do Education Policy Studies Programs Advertise Opportunities for Students to Engage with the Policymaking Process?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long-Genovese, Stacey

    2014-01-01

    Every year, potential graduate students hunt through websites and promotional materials searching for the perfect program to fit their needs. The search requires time and patience, especially for those future scholars who seek a doctoral program in Education Policy Studies (EPS) with a focus on interacting with the policymaking process. The…

  13. Vocations: The Link between Post-Compulsory Education and the Labour Market. What the Research Says For... Government & Policy-Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheelahan, Leesa; Buchanan, John; Yu, Serena

    2015-01-01

    This summary brings together the relevant key findings for government and policy-makers from the research program "Vocations: The Link between Post-Compulsory Education and the Labour Market." The program was comprised of three different strands: (1) pathways from VET in Schools, (2) pathways within and between vocational education and…

  14. Implications of Research for Nursing Practice, Education, and Policymaking. Proceedings of the Annual SCCEN Research Conference (2nd, Birmingham, Alabama, December 3-4, 1982).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Mary Colette, Ed.

    Proceedings are presented from a research conference to promote nursing research as a basis for policymaking in nursing practice, education, and health care services. The keynote address, by Patricia Jones, describes issues in health care financing in the 1980s and urges researchers to provide the kind of data and guidelines needed to support…

  15. The Career Education Policy Project (CEPP): Connecting Educators, Policymakers, and the Public. Annual Evaluation Report. Final Report, July 1, 1975-June 30, 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegal, Jane

    To inform and interconnect educational practitioners, knowledge-makers, policymakers, and the consuming public around the issues and potential of career education, the Career Education Policy Project (CEEP) collaborated with several existing programs to expose out-of-town leaders of the career education movement to the federal policymaking…

  16. 7 CFR 1494.501 - Submission of offers to CCC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... example, the information required by paragraphs (c)(1) and (c)(2) of this section could be stated as... Announced CCC Bonus. (7) The quantity, on a net weight basis, (less any dockage, if applicable) of the... offer to provide documentary evidence of such individual's authority to execute an Agreement with CCC...

  17. 7 CFR 1494.501 - Submission of offers to CCC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... example, the information required by paragraphs (c)(1) and (c)(2) of this section could be stated as... Announced CCC Bonus. (7) The quantity, on a net weight basis, (less any dockage, if applicable) of the... offer to provide documentary evidence of such individual's authority to execute an Agreement with CCC...

  18. Unique Refresher Course Offered in U.K.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1979

    1979-01-01

    The Advanced Diploma in Chemical Sciences is a new course being offered at the University of East Anglia in Norwich, England. It is billed as a refresher course in modern organic chemistry for senior industrial scientists and is aimed at Ph.D.'s out of school for at least ten years. (Author/BB)

  19. 40 CFR 305.32 - Objections and offers of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... LIABILITY ACT (CERCLA) ADMINISTRATIVE HEARING PROCEDURES FOR CLAIMS AGAINST THE SUPERFUND Hearing Procedure... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Objections and offers of proof. 305.32 Section 305.32 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND,...

  20. 40 CFR 305.32 - Objections and offers of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... LIABILITY ACT (CERCLA) ADMINISTRATIVE HEARING PROCEDURES FOR CLAIMS AGAINST THE SUPERFUND Hearing Procedure... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Objections and offers of proof. 305.32 Section 305.32 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND,...

  1. 40 CFR 305.32 - Objections and offers of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... LIABILITY ACT (CERCLA) ADMINISTRATIVE HEARING PROCEDURES FOR CLAIMS AGAINST THE SUPERFUND Hearing Procedure... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Objections and offers of proof. 305.32 Section 305.32 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND,...

  2. 40 CFR 305.32 - Objections and offers of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... LIABILITY ACT (CERCLA) ADMINISTRATIVE HEARING PROCEDURES FOR CLAIMS AGAINST THE SUPERFUND Hearing Procedure... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Objections and offers of proof. 305.32 Section 305.32 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND,...

  3. 40 CFR 305.32 - Objections and offers of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... LIABILITY ACT (CERCLA) ADMINISTRATIVE HEARING PROCEDURES FOR CLAIMS AGAINST THE SUPERFUND Hearing Procedure... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Objections and offers of proof. 305.32 Section 305.32 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND,...

  4. 9 CFR 592.22 - Where service is offered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Where service is offered. 592.22 Section 592.22 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF EGG PRODUCTS General § 592.22 Where service is...

  5. 9 CFR 592.22 - Where service is offered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Where service is offered. 592.22 Section 592.22 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF EGG PRODUCTS General § 592.22 Where service is...

  6. 9 CFR 592.22 - Where service is offered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Where service is offered. 592.22 Section 592.22 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF EGG PRODUCTS General § 592.22 Where service is...

  7. 9 CFR 592.22 - Where service is offered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Where service is offered. 592.22 Section 592.22 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF EGG PRODUCTS General § 592.22 Where service is...

  8. 9 CFR 592.22 - Where service is offered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Where service is offered. 592.22 Section 592.22 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF EGG PRODUCTS General § 592.22 Where service is...

  9. Offers and Requests: Performance by Japanese Learners of English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fukushima, Saeko

    1990-01-01

    A comparison of native and nonnative (Japanese) English speakers' expressions for offers and requests found that Japanese subjects were typically too direct in most situations and sounded rude, even when they intended to be polite. This suggests that the pragmatic competence of Japanese learners of English needs to be reinforced in language…

  10. Contrastive Pragmatics of English and Japanese Offers and Requests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christianson, Kiel

    This paper analyzes a study by Fukushima (1990) of the English offers and responses of Japanese English as a foreign language (EFL) college students and reports on an experiment designed to address the perceived weaknesses of Fukushima's work. Fukushima's study found that many Japanese EFL learners could not use appropriate levels of politeness in…

  11. 48 CFR 252.215-7008 - Only One Offer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... regulation establishing the price offered. If the price is controlled under law by periodic rulings, reviews... accordance with the instructions contained in Table 15-2 of FAR 15.408, which is incorporated by reference with the same force and effect as though it were inserted here in full text. The instructions in...

  12. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Selected Continuing Education Offerings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deets, Carol; Blume, Dorothy

    1977-01-01

    This paper presented at the 1976 National Conference on Continuing Education in Nursing describes evaluation methodology used to determine the effectiveness of different continuing education offerings in nursing. The evaluation design, workshops for inservice directors, findings and problems, and examples of three evaluation forms used are…

  13. 7 CFR 91.5 - Where services are offered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... offered to applicants at the Science and Technology laboratories and facilities as listed below. (1) Science and Technology Programs National Science Laboratory. A variety of proximate for composition..., honey, meat and meat products, fiber products and processed foods are performed at the Science...

  14. 7 CFR 91.5 - Where services are offered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... offered to applicants at the Science and Technology laboratories and facilities as listed below. (1) Science and Technology Programs National Science Laboratory. A variety of proximate for composition..., honey, meat and meat products, fiber products and processed foods are performed at the Science...

  15. 7 CFR 91.5 - Where services are offered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and meat products, fiber products and processed foods are performed at the Science and Technology... offered to applicants at the Science and Technology laboratories and facilities as listed below. (1) Science and Technology Programs National Science Laboratory. A variety of proximate,...

  16. 40 CFR 303.32 - Pre-payment offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pre-payment offers. 303.32 Section 303.32 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS CITIZEN AWARDS FOR INFORMATION ON CRIMINAL VIOLATIONS...

  17. 16 CFR 802.23 - Amended or renewed tender offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Amended or renewed tender offers. 802.23 Section 802.23 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF 1976 EXEMPTION RULES § 802.23 Amended...

  18. 16 CFR 802.23 - Amended or renewed tender offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Amended or renewed tender offers. 802.23 Section 802.23 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF 1976 EXEMPTION RULES § 802.23 Amended...

  19. 16 CFR 802.23 - Amended or renewed tender offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Amended or renewed tender offers. 802.23 Section 802.23 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF 1976 EXEMPTION RULES § 802.23 Amended...

  20. 16 CFR 802.23 - Amended or renewed tender offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amended or renewed tender offers. 802.23 Section 802.23 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF 1976 EXEMPTION RULES § 802.23 Amended...

  1. 16 CFR 802.23 - Amended or renewed tender offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Amended or renewed tender offers. 802.23 Section 802.23 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF 1976 EXEMPTION RULES § 802.23 Amended...

  2. 22 CFR 229.415 - Access to course offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., including health, physical education, industrial, business, vocational, technical, home economics, music... EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 229.415 Access to course offerings. (a) A...

  3. 41 CFR 101-4.415 - Access to course offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., music, and adult education courses. (b)(1) With respect to classes and activities in physical education... EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 101-4.415 Access to course offerings. (a)...

  4. 22 CFR 229.415 - Access to course offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., including health, physical education, industrial, business, vocational, technical, home economics, music... EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 229.415 Access to course offerings. (a) A...

  5. 49 CFR 25.415 - Access to course offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... health, physical education, industrial, business, vocational, technical, home economics, music, and adult... Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION... Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 25.415 Access to course offerings. (a) A recipient shall...

  6. 22 CFR 229.415 - Access to course offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., including health, physical education, industrial, business, vocational, technical, home economics, music... EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 229.415 Access to course offerings. (a) A...

  7. 22 CFR 146.415 - Access to course offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., including health, physical education, industrial, business, vocational, technical, home economics, music... EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 146.415 Access to course offerings. (a) A...

  8. 22 CFR 146.415 - Access to course offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., including health, physical education, industrial, business, vocational, technical, home economics, music... EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 146.415 Access to course offerings. (a) A...

  9. 22 CFR 146.415 - Access to course offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., including health, physical education, industrial, business, vocational, technical, home economics, music... EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 146.415 Access to course offerings. (a) A...

  10. 41 CFR 101-4.415 - Access to course offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., music, and adult education courses. (b)(1) With respect to classes and activities in physical education... EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 101-4.415 Access to course offerings. (a)...

  11. 28 CFR 54.415 - Access to course offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., music, and adult education courses. (b)(1) With respect to classes and activities in physical education... SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 54.415 Access to course offerings. (a)...

  12. 41 CFR 101-4.415 - Access to course offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., music, and adult education courses. (b)(1) With respect to classes and activities in physical education... EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 101-4.415 Access to course offerings. (a)...

  13. 28 CFR 54.415 - Access to course offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., music, and adult education courses. (b)(1) With respect to classes and activities in physical education... SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 54.415 Access to course offerings. (a)...

  14. 49 CFR 25.415 - Access to course offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... health, physical education, industrial, business, vocational, technical, home economics, music, and adult... Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION... Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 25.415 Access to course offerings. (a) A recipient shall...

  15. 10 CFR 1042.415 - Access to course offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... health, physical education, industrial, business, vocational, technical, home economics, music, and adult... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION... Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 1042.415 Access to course offerings. (a) A recipient shall...

  16. 10 CFR 1042.415 - Access to course offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... health, physical education, industrial, business, vocational, technical, home economics, music, and adult... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION... Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 1042.415 Access to course offerings. (a) A recipient shall...

  17. 31 CFR 50.13 - Offer, purchase, and renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 50.13 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE... than the time the insurer first formally offers to provide insurance coverage or renew a policy for a... the final terms of terrorism insurance coverage, at the time the transaction is completed....

  18. 7 CFR 1450.210 - Acceptability of offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acceptability of offers. 1450.210 Section 1450.210 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOMASS CROP ASSISTANCE PROGRAM...

  19. 7 CFR 1450.210 - Acceptability of offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Acceptability of offers. 1450.210 Section 1450.210 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOMASS CROP ASSISTANCE PROGRAM...

  20. 7 CFR 1450.210 - Acceptability of offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Acceptability of offers. 1450.210 Section 1450.210 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOMASS CROP ASSISTANCE PROGRAM...

  1. 7 CFR 1450.210 - Acceptability of offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Acceptability of offers. 1450.210 Section 1450.210 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOMASS CROP ASSISTANCE PROGRAM...

  2. Challenges of Offering a MOOC from an LMIC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasha, Aamna; Abidi, Syed Hani; Ali, Syed

    2016-01-01

    Massive open online courses (MOOCs) were initiated in the early 2000s by certain leading American and European universities. An integral part of the MOOC philosophy has been to provide open access to online learning. Despite their potential advantages to local audiences, faculty and institutions, the number of MOOCs offered from low and middle…

  3. 48 CFR 452.211-71 - Equal Products Offered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Equal Products Offered. 452.211-71 Section 452.211-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses...

  4. Social media offers many ways to grow business

    SciTech Connect

    Madison, Alison L.

    2011-03-13

    Facebook and Twitter and YouTube, oh my! For some of us the added communications channels offered by social media can feel overwhelming in a hurry. But whether we like it or not, they’re proving to be valuable marketing tools that small and large companies alike are jumping on board to explore.

  5. 31 CFR 50.13 - Offer, purchase, and renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Offer, purchase, and renewal. 50.13 Section 50.13 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE... the final terms of terrorism insurance coverage, at the time the transaction is completed....

  6. 31 CFR 50.13 - Offer, purchase, and renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Offer, purchase, and renewal. 50.13 Section 50.13 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE... the final terms of terrorism insurance coverage, at the time the transaction is completed....

  7. 31 CFR 50.13 - Offer, purchase, and renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Offer, purchase, and renewal. 50.13 Section 50.13 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE... the final terms of terrorism insurance coverage, at the time the transaction is completed....

  8. 7 CFR 52.4 - Where inspection service is offered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Where inspection service is offered. 52.4 Section 52.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE...

  9. Classroom "Cupcake" Celebrations: Observations of Foods Offered and Consumed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isoldi, Kathy K.; Dalton, Sharron; Rodriguez, Desiree P.; Nestle, Marion

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To describe food and beverage types offered and consumed during classroom celebrations at an elementary school in a low-income, urban community. In addition, to report student intake of fresh fruit provided alongside other party foods. Methods: Observations held during 4 classroom celebrations. Food and beverage items were measured and…

  10. Creative State Pre-K Policies Offer Smart Federal Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pew Center on the States, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act offers an opportunity to invest in programs with the greatest educational and economic benefits. Members of Congress should look to states for flexible, innovative, bipartisan strategies to gradually grow pre-k programs. This brief highlights some of the most promising state efforts to…

  11. 48 CFR 52.247-51 - Evaluation of Export Offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...: Evaluation of Export Offers (JAN 2001) (a) Port handling and ocean charges—other than DOD water terminals. Port handling and ocean charges in tariffs on file with the Bureau of Domestic Regulation, Federal... at the port of loading, and ocean shipping costs from the United States port of loading...

  12. 48 CFR 52.247-51 - Evaluation of Export Offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...: Evaluation of Export Offers (JAN 2001) (a) Port handling and ocean charges—other than DOD water terminals. Port handling and ocean charges in tariffs on file with the Bureau of Domestic Regulation, Federal... at the port of loading, and ocean shipping costs from the United States port of loading...

  13. 48 CFR 52.247-51 - Evaluation of Export Offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...: Evaluation of Export Offers (JAN 2001) (a) Port handling and ocean charges—other than DOD water terminals. Port handling and ocean charges in tariffs on file with the Bureau of Domestic Regulation, Federal... at the port of loading, and ocean shipping costs from the United States port of loading...

  14. What serious video games can offer child obesity prevention.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Debbe

    2014-07-16

    Childhood obesity is a worldwide issue, and effective methods encouraging children to adopt healthy diet and physical activity behaviors are needed. This viewpoint addresses the promise of serious video games, and why they may offer one method for helping children eat healthier and become more physically active. Lessons learned are provided, as well as examples gleaned from personal experiences.

  15. 21 CFR 1270.42 - Human tissue offered for import.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Human tissue offered for import. 1270.42 Section 1270.42 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION HUMAN TISSUE...

  16. 21 CFR 1270.42 - Human tissue offered for import.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Human tissue offered for import. 1270.42 Section 1270.42 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION HUMAN TISSUE...

  17. 21 CFR 1270.42 - Human tissue offered for import.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Human tissue offered for import. 1270.42 Section 1270.42 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION HUMAN TISSUE...

  18. Negotiating compensation packages. Bargaining to get the best offer.

    PubMed

    Cejka, S

    2001-01-01

    You worked hard to search for a job--sending out resumes, networking with your peers and contacting recruiters. But when the offer finally comes, your work isn't done. Now it's time to negotiate the best salary and employment contract. Take a look at today's standard compensation packages, including bonuses, stock options, relocation expenses and other features. What's negotiable and what's not?

  19. What serious video games can offer child obesity prevention

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Childhood obesity is a worldwide issue, and effective methods encouraging children to adopt healthy diet and physical activity behaviors are needed. This viewpoint addresses the promise of serious video games, and why they may offer one method for helping children eat healthier and become more physi...

  20. Recent Additions to the General College Career Development Program Offerings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hixson, Bruce, Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Recent additions to the career development offerings at the University of Minnesota's General College are described. The aviation training program, which is described by Thomas Brothen, is designed to prepare students for licensure testing through the Federal Aviation Administration. Background information on aviation training at the University of…

  1. 7 CFR 91.5 - Where services are offered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... offered to applicants at the Science and Technology laboratories and facilities as listed below. (1) Science and Technology Programs National Science Laboratory. A variety of proximate for composition... Technology Programs (S&T) laboratory located at: USDA, AMS, Science and Technology Programs, National...

  2. 14 CFR 406.155 - Offer of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Offer of proof. 406.155 Section 406.155 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROCEDURE INVESTIGATIONS, ENFORCEMENT, AND ADMINISTRATIVE REVIEW Rules of Practice in FAA...

  3. 14 CFR 406.155 - Offer of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Offer of proof. 406.155 Section 406.155 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROCEDURE INVESTIGATIONS, ENFORCEMENT, AND ADMINISTRATIVE REVIEW Rules of Practice in FAA...

  4. 14 CFR 406.155 - Offer of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Offer of proof. 406.155 Section 406.155 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROCEDURE INVESTIGATIONS, ENFORCEMENT, AND ADMINISTRATIVE REVIEW Rules of Practice in FAA...

  5. 14 CFR 406.155 - Offer of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Offer of proof. 406.155 Section 406.155 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROCEDURE INVESTIGATIONS, ENFORCEMENT, AND ADMINISTRATIVE REVIEW Rules of Practice in FAA...

  6. 14 CFR 406.155 - Offer of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Offer of proof. 406.155 Section 406.155 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROCEDURE INVESTIGATIONS, ENFORCEMENT, AND ADMINISTRATIVE REVIEW Rules of Practice in FAA...

  7. 45 CFR 86.34 - Access to course offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 86.34 Access to course offerings... activity separately on the basis of sex, or require or refuse participation therein by any of its...

  8. 43 CFR 41.415 - Access to course offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 41.415 Access to course offerings... activity separately on the basis of sex, or require or refuse participation therein by any of its...

  9. 28 CFR 54.415 - Access to course offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 54.415 Access to course offerings. (a) A... separately on the basis of sex, or require or refuse participation therein by any of its students on...

  10. 7 CFR 51.4 - Where inspection service is offered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Where inspection service is offered. 51.4 Section 51.4... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) Regulations 1 Inspection Service § 51.4 Where inspection service is... all areas covered by cooperative agreements entered into on behalf of the Department with...

  11. 17 CFR 230.419 - Offerings by blank check companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... companies. 230.419 Section 230.419 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION... check companies. (a) Scope of the rule and definitions. (1) The provisions of this section shall apply to every registration statement filed under the Act relating to an offering by a blank check...

  12. 17 CFR 230.419 - Offerings by blank check companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... companies. 230.419 Section 230.419 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION... check companies. (a) Scope of the rule and definitions. (1) The provisions of this section shall apply to every registration statement filed under the Act relating to an offering by a blank check...

  13. 17 CFR 230.419 - Offerings by blank check companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... companies. 230.419 Section 230.419 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION... check companies. (a) Scope of the rule and definitions. (1) The provisions of this section shall apply to every registration statement filed under the Act relating to an offering by a blank check...

  14. 17 CFR 230.419 - Offerings by blank check companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... companies. 230.419 Section 230.419 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION... check companies. (a) Scope of the rule and definitions. (1) The provisions of this section shall apply to every registration statement filed under the Act relating to an offering by a blank check...

  15. 17 CFR 230.419 - Offerings by blank check companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... companies. 230.419 Section 230.419 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION... check companies. (a) Scope of the rule and definitions. (1) The provisions of this section shall apply to every registration statement filed under the Act relating to an offering by a blank check...

  16. 43 CFR 2546.1 - Offers of lands for sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Offers of lands for sale. 2546.1 Section 2546.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) COLOR-OF-TITLE AND OMITTED LANDS...

  17. 43 CFR 2546.1 - Offers of lands for sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Offers of lands for sale. 2546.1 Section 2546.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) COLOR-OF-TITLE AND OMITTED LANDS...

  18. 43 CFR 2546.1 - Offers of lands for sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Offers of lands for sale. 2546.1 Section 2546.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) COLOR-OF-TITLE AND OMITTED LANDS...

  19. 43 CFR 2546.1 - Offers of lands for sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Offers of lands for sale. 2546.1 Section 2546.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) COLOR-OF-TITLE AND OMITTED LANDS...

  20. U. S. Colleges and Universities Offering Training for Translators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Translators Association, Croton-on-Hudson, NY.

    Twenty-four U.S. institutions and six Canadian institutions offering training for translators are listed here. Each citation contains the name and address of the school, the director's name, and a brief description of the program or courses. (PMP)

  1. 21 CFR 1270.42 - Human tissue offered for import.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Human tissue offered for import. 1270.42 Section 1270.42 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION HUMAN TISSUE...

  2. 21 CFR 1270.42 - Human tissue offered for import.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Human tissue offered for import. 1270.42 Section 1270.42 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION HUMAN TISSUE...

  3. Meal Pattern Requirements and Offer versus Serve Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Food and Nutrition Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This manual contains information on federal policy regarding meal-pattern requirements for school-nutrition programs. It also describes the Offer Versus Serve (OVS) provision, which allows students to decline either one or two food items they do not intend to eat in order to reduce food waste. The manual explains food components, gives examples of…

  4. What Does (E)pistemology Have To Offer Feminists?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thayer-Bacon, Barbara J.

    Since traditional epistemology has not been able to present a generality but rather has represented a male perspective as if it is general, neutral, and inclusive of women, then there is the possibility of offering a feminist epistemology. Thus, the critique of the tradition has to come first, to create a space where feminists can begin to…

  5. General Education in Occupational Education Programs Offered by Junior Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiegman, Robert R.

    This report, directed toward junior college board members, presidents, deans, department heads, and teachers, as well as legislators, attempts to stimulate thought and action to improve general education in occupational programs offered by junior colleges. Following a review of the unsatisfactory status of present curricula, a rationale and…

  6. Are Universities Reaping the Available Benefits Internship Programs Offer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weible, Rick

    2010-01-01

    Many research studies have examined the benefits student internships offer students and employers, but few looked at the benefits internships might lend to educational institutions. A survey instrument was developed and sent to 619 deans of all U.S. business programs. In all, 29% replied. The results indicate some institutions are gaining the…

  7. Museum Showcase: Museums Offer Classrooms the Treasures of Many Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Punske, Lori

    1992-01-01

    Describes resources that museums make available to classrooms nationwide, particularly multicultural exhibits and educational programs. Describes specific offerings at 14 museums that include inservice teacher training, educational tours, and curriculum materials in Chicano culture, African diversity, Western stereotypes, art, the Holocaust,…

  8. 48 CFR 19.804-2 - Agency offering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Agency offering. 19.804-2 Section 19.804-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC... following information applicable to each prospective contract: (1) A description of the work to be...

  9. 48 CFR 19.804-2 - Agency offering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Agency offering. 19.804-2 Section 19.804-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC... following information applicable to each prospective contract: (1) A description of the work to be...

  10. Daring to dream: reactions to tobacco endgame ideas among policy-makers, media and public health practitioners

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Tobacco control strategies have mainly targeted reducing demand. Supply-side focused measures, though less familiar, deserve consideration, particularly to achieve 'endgame' tobacco control aims (e.g. achieving close to zero smoking prevalence). We explored attitudes towards supply-side focused 'endgame' tobacco control approaches and how they can be best communicated with senior policymakers, journalists, and public health practitioners. Methods We identified five supply-side focused approaches which could potentially lead to the tobacco endgame: two structural models and three discrete actions. The structural models were: (i) a Nicotine Authority to coordinate tobacco control activities and regulate the nicotine/tobacco market for public health aims; and (ii) a Tobacco Supply Agency acting as a monopoly purchaser of tobacco products and controlling the tobacco supply for public health aims. The actions were: (a) allocating progressively reducing tobacco product import quotas (the 'sinking lid') until importation and commercial sale of tobacco products ceased; (b) making tobacco companies responsible for reducing smoking prevalence with stringent financial penalties if targets were missed; and (c) new laws to facilitate litigation against tobacco companies. These approaches were presented as means to achieve a tobacco free New Zealand by 2020 to 19 senior policymakers, journalists, and public health physicians in two focus groups and eight interviews, and their reactions sought. Results The tobacco-free vision was widely supported. Participants engaged fully with the proposed tobacco control approaches, which were viewed as interesting or even intriguing. Most supported increasing the focus on supply-side measures. Views differed greatly about the desirability, feasibility and likely effectiveness of each approach. Participants identified a range of potential barriers to implementation and challenges to successfully advocating and communicating these

  11. Health Benefits Offer Rates: Is There a Nonresponse Bias?

    PubMed Central

    Pickreign, Jeremy D; Gabel, Jon R

    2005-01-01

    Objective To determine whether a nonresponse bias exists in the offer rate for health benefits in firms with fewer than 50 workers and to present a simple adjustment to correct for observed bias. Data Sources The 2003 Employer Health Benefits Survey (EHBS) conducted by the Kaiser Family Foundation and Health Research and Educational Trust, and a follow-up survey of nonrespondents to the 2003 EHBS. Study Design We conducted a follow-up survey to the 2003 EHBS to collect health benefits offering data from firms with fewer than 50 workers. We used McNemar's test to verify that the follow-up survey provided results comparable to the EHBS, and t-tests were used to determine nonresponse bias. We applied a simple weighting adjustment to the EHBS. Data Collection The data for both the EHBS and the follow-up survey were collected by the same survey research firm. The EHBS interviews the person most knowledgeable about the firm's health benefits, while the follow-up survey interviews the first person who answers the telephone whether they are the most knowledgeable or not. Principal Findings Firms with 3–9 workers were more likely to exhibit a bias than were firms with 10–24 workers and 25–49 workers. Although the calculated bias for each size category was not significant, there is sufficient evidence to warrant caution when reporting offer rates. Conclusions Survey nonresponse in the EHBS produces an upward bias on estimates for the offer rates of small firms. Although not significant, this upward bias is because of nonresponse by small firms that do not offer health benefits. Our research is limited in that we only control for differences in the size of the firm. PMID:15762899

  12. Computer Adaptive Language Tests (CALT) Offer a Great Potential for Functional Testing. Yet Why Don't They?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meunier, Lydie E.

    1994-01-01

    Computer adaptive language testing (CALT) offers a variety of advantages; however, since CALT cannot test the multidimensional nature of language, it does not assess communicative/functional language. This article proposes to replace multiple choice and cloze formats and to apply CALT to live-action simulations. (18 references) (LB)

  13. SUPPORT Tools for evidence-informed health Policymaking (STP) 12: Finding and using research evidence about resource use and costs

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    This article is part of a series written for people responsible for making decisions about health policies and programmes and for those who support these decision makers. In this article, we address considerations about resource use and costs. The consequences of a policy or programme option for resource use differ from other impacts (both in terms of benefits and harms) in several ways. However, considerations of the consequences of options for resource use are similar to considerations related to other impacts in that policymakers and their staff need to identify important impacts on resource use, acquire and appraise the best available evidence regarding those impacts, and ensure that appropriate monetary values have been applied. We suggest four questions that can be considered when assessing resource use and the cost consequences of an option. These are: 1. What are the most important impacts on resource use? 2. What evidence is there for important impacts on resource use? 3. How confident is it possible to be in the evidence for impacts on resource use? 4. Have the impacts on resource use been valued appropriately in terms of their true costs? PMID:20018102

  14. A Spatio-Temporal Algorithmic Procedure for Environmental Policymaking in the Municipality of Arkalochori in the Greek Island of Crete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batzias, F. A.; Sidiras, D. K.; Giannopoulos, Ch.; Spetsidis, I.

    2009-08-01

    This work deals with a methodological framework designed/developed under the form of a spatio-temporal algorithmic procedure for environmental policymaking at local level. The procedure includes 25 activity stages and 9 decision nodes, putting emphasis on (i) mapping on GIS layers water supply/demand and modeling of aquatic pollution coming from point and non-point sources, (ii) environmental monitoring by periodically measuring the main pollutants in situ and in the laboratory, (iii) design of environmental projects, decomposition of them into sub-projects and combination of the latter to form attainable alternatives, (iv) multicriteria ranking of alternatives, according to a modified Delphi method, by using as criteria the expected environmental benefit, the attitude of inhabitants, the priority within the programme of regional development, the capital required for the investment and the operating cost, and (v) knowledge Base (KB) operation/enrichment, functioning in combination with a data mining mechanism to extract knowledge/information/data from external Bases. An implementation is presented referring to the Municipality of Arkalochori in the Greek island of Crete.

  15. Perceptions and Attitudes of Egyptian Health Professionals and Policy-Makers towards Pharmaceutical Sales Representatives and Other Promotional Activities

    PubMed Central

    Kamal, Susan; Holmberg, Christine; Russell, Jean; Bochenek, Tomasz; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Fischer, Christiane; Tinnemann, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background Pharmaceutical promotion activities in low and middle-income countries are often neither regulated nor monitored. While Egypt has the highest population and per capita use of medicines in the Arab world, we know very little about pharmaceutical companies promotional activities in the country. Aim To explore and analyze the perceptions of physicians towards promotional and marketing activities of pharmaceutical companies among physicians and pharmacists in Egypt. Methodology Perspectives of different healthcare system stakeholders were explored through semi-structured, in-depth interviews conducted in 2014 in Cairo, Egypt. Interviewees were chosen via purposive sampling and snowball technique. Each interview was recorded and transcribed. Then qualitative, thematic analysis was conducted with the help of NVIVO software. Findings The majority of physicians and pharmacists acknowledged exposure to pharmaceutical promotion. It was commonly believed that interaction with the pharmaceutical industry is necessary and both associated risks and benefits were acknowledged. The interviewed physicians considered themselves competent enough to minimize risks and maximize benefits to their prescribing habits. Views diverged on the extent and magnitude of the risks and benefits of pharmaceutical promotion, especially in regard to the influence on patients’ health. Conclusions Pharmaceutical promotion in Egypt is intensely directed at prescribers and dispensers. Physicians, pharmacists and policymakers expressed little skepticism to the influence of promotion towards their individual prescribing. Raising awareness of the pitfalls of pharmaceutical promotion is necessary, especially among the less experienced physicians. PMID:26473484

  16. Corporate coalitions and policymaking in the European Union: How and why British American Tobacco promoted ‘Better Regulation’

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Katherine E.; Fooks, Gary; Gilmore, Anna B.; Collin, Jeff; Weishaar, Heide

    2015-01-01

    Over the past fifteen years, an inter-connected set of regulatory reforms, known as Better Regulation, has been adopted across Europe, marking a significant shift in the way European Union (EU) policies are developed. There has been little exploration of the origins of these reforms, which include mandatory ex-ante impact assessment. Drawing on documentary and interview data, this paper discusses how and why large corporations, notably British American Tobacco (BAT), worked to influence and promote these reforms. Our analysis highlights: (i) how policy entrepreneurs with sufficient resources (such as large corporations) can shape the membership and direction of advocacy coalitions; (ii) the extent to which ‘think tanks’ may be prepared to lobby on behalf of commercial clients; and (iii) why regulated industries (including tobacco) may favour the use of ‘evidence-tools’, such as impact assessments, in policymaking. We argue a key aspect of BAT’s ability to shape regulatory reform involved the deliberate construction of a vaguely defined idea that could be strategically adapted to appeal to diverse constituencies. We discuss the theoretical implications of this finding for the ‘Advocacy Coalition Framework’, as well as the practical implications of the findings for efforts to promote ‘transparency’ and public health in the EU. PMID:25646389

  17. Applying behavioural economics to health systems of low- and middle-income countries: what are policymakers' and practitioners' views?

    PubMed

    Trujillo, Antonio J; Glassman, Amanda; Fleisher, Lisa K; Nair, Divya; Duran, Denizhan

    2015-07-01

    Interest in behavioural economics has soared in recent years, particularly because of its application to several areas of public policy, now including international development, education, and health. Yet, little is known about how the policy and political implications of behavioural economics are perceived among stakeholders. Using an innovative vignette-based online survey, we assessed the opinions of 520 policymakers and practitioners around the world about health policy recommendations emanating from behavioural economics principles that are relevant to low- and middle-income country settings. We also determined the sources of disagreement among the respondents. The results suggest that there is strong support for health policies based on the concepts of framing choices to overcome present bias, providing periodic information to form habits, and messaging to promote social norms. There is less support for policies which use cash rewards as extrinsic motivators either to change individual behaviour related to the management of chronic conditions or to mitigate risky sexual behaviour. The sources of disagreement for these policy prescriptions derive mainly from normative concerns and perceived lack of effectiveness of such interventions. Addressing these disagreements may require developing a broader research agenda to explore the policy and political implications of these prescriptions.

  18. 17 CFR 230.802 - Exemption for offerings in connection with an exchange offer or business combination for the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 Exemptions for Cross-Border Rights Offerings, Exchange... completion of the business combination. (2) Equal treatment. The offeror must permit U.S. holders to... document, including any amendments thereto, in English, to the Commission on Form CB (§ 239.800 of...

  19. Who is Offering and How Often? Gender Differences in Drug Offers among American Indian Adolescents of the Southwest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayle, Andrea Dixon; Kulis, Stephen; Okamoto, Scott K.; Tann, Sheila S.; LeCroy, Craig Winston; Dustman, Patricia; Burke, Aimee M.

    2006-01-01

    This exploratory study examined gender differences in the patterns of drug offers among a sample of 71 American Indian middle school students. Participants responded to an inventory of drug-related problem situations specific to the cultural contexts of Southwestern American Indian youth. They were asked to consider the frequency of drug offers…

  20. Unique Offerings of the ISS as an Earth Observing Platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooley, Victor M.

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station offers unique capabilities for earth remote sensing. An established Earth orbiting platform with abundant power, data and commanding infrastructure, the ISS has been in operation for twelve years as a crew occupied science laboratory and offers low cost and expedited concept-to-operation paths for new sensing technologies. Plug in modularity on external platforms equipped with structural, power and data interfaces standardizes and streamlines integration and minimizes risk and start up difficulties. Data dissemination is also standardized. Emerging sensor technologies and instruments tailored for sensing of regional dynamics may not be worthy of dedicated platforms and launch vehicles, but may well be worthy of ISS deployment, hitching a ride on one of a variety of government or commercial visiting vehicles. As global acceptance of the urgent need for understanding Climate Change continues to grow, the value of ISS, orbiting in Low Earth Orbit, in complementing airborne, sun synchronous polar, geosynchronous and other platform remote sensing will also grow.