Ryk, Małgorzata; Suwała, Magdalena; Żurakowska, Tatiana; Kosiak, Wojciech
Ultrasound, which is a safe and non-invasive diagnostic modality that uses more and more advanced imaging techniques, has become the first-choice examination in various diseases. It is more and more often used in the general practitioner's office to supplement physical examination and interview. Aim The aim of this paper is to review the Polish medical literature pertaining to the usage of ultrasound imaging in general practice as well as to present advantages, disadvantages and utility associated with conducting ultrasound examinations by general practitioners based on selected publications. Material and methods The analysis involved 15 articles found in Polish medical literature published in 1994–2013 in 9 medical journals. These publications were obtained using various data bases, such as Polish Medical Bibliography, Google Scholar as well as websites of “Lekarz Rodzinny” and “Ultrasonografia.” Results Of 15 available publications, 5 papers present the usage of ultrasound imaging by a primary care physician for general purposes, 4 discuss the usage of abdominal scans, 3 – imaging of the neck and lymph nodes, 1 – lungs, and 2 discuss its usage for specific disease entities. In over 70% of the papers, the financial aspect associated with the usage of this modality in general practice is mentioned. More than a half of the publications draw attention to the possibility of using point-of-care ultrasound examinations. Advantages of ultrasonography most often mentioned by the authors include: good effects of screening, safety, short duration and low cost. The authors of eight publications also indicate disadvantages associated with ultrasound imaging used by a general practitioner. Conclusions In the Polish literature, there are relatively few papers on the role of ultrasonography in the office of a primary care physician. This modality is more and more often becoming a tool that helps primary care physicians to establish diagnoses, accelerates the
Sommer, Isabelle; Brühl, Annette; Delsignore, Aba; Weidt, Steffi
Insomnia is the most frequent type of sleeping disorder and - following pain - the second most common symptom reported in the general practitioner's office. The prevalence of insomnia increases with age. Untreated, insomnia is regarded as risk factor for other comorbid somatic and mental disorders. Therefore, it is important to make a thorough diagnostic and differential diagnostic assessment. Particularly interventions aiming at improving sleep hygiene and therapy using sleep restriction can help alleviate insomnia. Pharmacologically, herbal drugs and antidepressants with sleep inducing effects can be used, for short-term treatment also benzodiazepine/gaba-ergic agonists.
Hounton, Sennen H; Newlands, David; Meda, Nicolas; De Brouwere, Vincent
Background The aim of this paper was to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of alternative training strategies for increasing access to emergency obstetric care in Burkina Faso. Methods Case extraction forms were used to record data on 2305 caesarean sections performed in 2004 and 2005 in hospitals in six out of the 13 health regions of Burkina Faso. Main effectiveness outcomes were mothers' and newborns' case fatality rates. The costs of performing caesarean sections were estimated from a health system perspective and Incremental Cost-Effectiveness Ratios were computed using the newborn case fatality rates. Results Overall, case mixes per provider were comparable. Newborn case fatality rates (per thousand) varied significantly among obstetricians, general practitioners and clinical officers, at 99, 125 and 198, respectively. The estimated average cost per averted newborn death (x 1000 live births) for an obstetrician-led team compared to a general practitioner-led team was 11 757 international dollars, and for a general practitioner-led team compared to a clinical officer-led team it was 200 international dollars. Training of general practitioners appears therefore to be both effective and cost-effective in the short run. Clinical officers are associated with a high newborn case fatality rate. Conclusion Training substitutes is a viable option to increase access to life-saving operations in district hospitals. The high newborn case fatality rate among clinical officers could be addressed by a refresher course and closer supervision. These findings may assist in addressing supply shortages of skilled health personnel in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:19371433
Dale, J.; Lang, H.; Roberts, J. A.; Green, J.; Glucksman, E.
OBJECTIVES--To compare outcome and costs of general practitioners, senior house officers, and registrars treating patients who attended accident and emergency department with problems assessed at triage as being of primary care type. DESIGN--Prospective intervention study which was later costed. SETTING--Inner city accident and emergency department in south east London. SUBJECTS--4641 patients presenting with primary care problems: 1702 were seen by general practitioners, 2382 by senior house officers, and 557 by registrars. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Satisfaction and outcome assessed in subsample of 565 patients 7-10 days after hospital attendance and aggregate costs of hospital care provided. RESULTS--Most patients expressed high levels of satisfaction with clinical assessment (430/562 (77%)), treatment (418/557 (75%)), and consulting doctor's manner (434/492 (88%)). Patients' reported outcome and use of general practice in 7-10 days after attendance were similar: 206/241 (85%), 224/263 (85%), and 52/59 (88%) of those seen by general practitioners, senior house officers, and registrars respectively were fully recovered or improving (chi2 = 0.35, P = 0.840), while 48/240 (20%), 48/268 (18%), and 12/57 (21%) respectively consulted a general practitioner or practice nurse (chi2 = 0.51, P = 0.774). Excluding costs of admissions, the average costs per case were 19.30 pounds, 17.97 pounds, and 11.70 pounds for senior house officers, registrars, and general practitioners respectively. With cost of admissions included, these costs were 58.25 pounds, 44.68 pounds, and 32.30 pounds respectively. CONCLUSION--Management of patients with primary care needs in accident and emergency department by general practitioners reduced costs with no apparent detrimental effect on outcome. These results support new role for general practitioners. PMID:8646050
General practice is likely to change greatly over the next few years. Increases in care in the community and day surgery will lead to more work, and the demand for better data on practice activity will mean the development of audit and epidemiological work. To make time general practitioners will have to learn to delegate work that does not require a doctor. Fundholding has already stimulated some practices to bring services to patients rather than send patients to hospital, and this trend seems set to continue. It is important to pool resources, not only within practices but among other practices in the area--joint action will increase the ability to improve the services for patients. If general practitioners take the opportunity to gain control of the changes the morale of the profession should improve. Images p513-a p514-a PMID:8136671
Croppi, Emanuele; Cioppi, Federica; Vitale, Corrado
Nephrolithiasis is a multifactorial disease the genesis of which is influenced by genetic, metabolic and environmental factors which determine a series of alterations in the urinary excretion of a number of substances, the cause of the disease itself. The general practitioner is often the first professional to be consulted as regards clinical and therapeutic treatment at the moment of the onset of nephrolithiasis, renal colic, inasmuch as contacted directly by the patient. His role however should not be limited to this initial phase but becomes of strategic importance throughout the subsequent diagnostic procedure; this is especially true with regard to relapses, in correctly placing the patient and, if necessary, referring him/her to the most appropriate specialist area. Running through the entire process which the lithiasic patient encounters from the onset of the disease until therapeutic treatment begins, it is clear how an appropriate initial approach can, in many cases, simplify and optimise such process. On the basis therefore of a complete medical record, and a few simple, biochemical and instrumental tests, the general practitioner is in a position to decide whether to treat the patient directly or to refer him/her to the most appropriate specialist field for investigation at a higher level. Over the last decades nephrolithiasis has progressively changed from being a disease of mainly surgical pertinence to being one of multidisciplinary medical interest in which the figure of the General Practitioner has a primary role, both during the initial diagnostic phase, by means of the correct physio-pathological identification of the problem, and in the subsequent phases as regards the choice and co-ordination of the various specialists involved. PMID:22460998
Price, M; Phillips, C I
After a short period of intensive training, a general practitioner successfully replaced a senior house officer (SHO) in the accident and emergency department of an eye hospital on one morning a week for a year. An unbiased observer compared the performance of the general practitioner after one year with that of a full-time SHO who had had 17 months' experience; their performances were about equal. Although a sessional general practitioner costs about 28% more than an SHO, the real cost is much less because undue length of service as an SHO or change to another specialty (because of the SHO surplus) delays achievement of a permanent grade. Continuity is a great advantage of the general practitioner. Replacement of some SHOs by general practitioners would reduce the surplus of SHOs with poor promotion prospects. The commonest diagnoses were Meibomian cysts (18%), corneal foreign bodies (20%), corneal abrasions (12%), and conjunctivitis (8%).
Cambron, L; Bruwier, G; De Bock, I; Poirrier, R
A complaint of insomnia has to be analysed, and differentiated from hypochondria and, overall, from hypersomnia. Once confirmed and assessed as acute or chronic, it is often considered a disorder of hyperarousal, that is an imbalance between a central nervous system activating and a central nervous system inhibiting system with subcontinuous overflow from the former. An acute insomnia is less than one month of duration. As a disease, insomnia has to be categorized as a secondary or a primary disorder. Thereafter, it remains to assess the extent of social, psychological and economical interactions. These factors intervene as consequences or perpetuating factors. The capacity to assess the whole situation is really the great strength of the general practitioner who, more than anybody else, is on home ground. Laboratory findings and specialist examination come only as supporting evidence for causal links. A polysomnography realized in a sleep disorder center provides data reinforcing or correcting the diagnosis. From a sound assessment of the disease, the treatment has to be deduced by following a rigorous reasoning, devoid of guilty feelings as they are suggested to patients by mass-media talking, as well as freed from fashionable non medical practices. Today, we know that chronic insomnia is a disease with potential severe consequences and that it does not heal spontaneously.
The author's purpose is to highlight the role differences between a general practitioner and a psychiatrist. She bases her review on the literature as well as on her personal experience which consists of 25 years as a general practitioner followed by 10 years as a psychiatrist. The colleagues' respective opinion of one another was assessed by means of two questionnaires. One was administered to a hundred psychiatrists and the other to a hundred general practitioners on the occasion of two separate medical meetings. The results of these questionnaires, statements found in the medical literature as well as the author's personal experience confirm that, even if the collaboration between general practitioners and psychiatrists is considered important, it remains very difficult and conditioned by numerous preconceived ideas. By clarifying the roles and specificities of each practitioner, this article aims at improving this collaboration which is pivotal for the patient's mental health progression.
Sodipo, Ibukunoluwa; Birdsall, Joanne
Orthodontic emergencies occasionally arise and although they can cause discomfort to the patient, they can usually be stabilized by a general dentist and then followed up by the orthodontist. CPD/Clinical Relevance: Patients undergoing orthodontic treatment may initially present to their general dental practitioner with an orthodontic emergency as opposed to their orthodontist. It is therefore important that general dental practitioners are aware of common orthodontic emergencies and their management.
Lewis, A P; Bolden, K J
Continuing medical education sessions are often poorly attended by general practitioners. One reason may be that these traditionally consist of lectures by hospital consultants with a strong theoretical bias which may have little relevance to the learning needs of general practitioners. To compare the learning styles of teachers and learners in general practice, learning style questionnaires were administered to 50 hospital clinical tutors, 78 general practitioner trainers, 63 trainees and 47 non-trainer principals. The questionnaire covered four different learning preferences: activist, reflector, theorist and pragmatist. The findings showed that the learning styles of hospital tutors and general practitioner trainers were statistically significantly different to those of non-trainer principals and trainees. The tutors and trainers scored much higher on theorist styles and to a lesser extent on reflector and pragmatist styles. There were no significant differences on activist scores. Since teachers tend to teach in their preferred learning style, which may not match the style of the recipients, these findings have implications for continuing medical education in general practice. These implications are discussed. PMID:2560001
Spaan, Nadia Roos; Dekker, Anne R. J.; van der Velden, Alike W.; de Groot, Esther
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to understand the influence of formal learning from a web-based training and informal (workplace) learning afterwards on the behaviour of general practitioners (GPs) with respect to prescription of antibiotics. Design/methodology/approach: To obtain insight in various learning processes, semi-structured…
Aydin, Berna; Kartal, Mehtap; Midik, Ozlem; Buyukakkus, Alper
We aimed to determine the violence against general practitioners (GPs) through their suggestions on its cause and prevention. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study based on self-administered questionnaire answered by a convenience study population consisting of 522 GPs between November and December 2006. Of the participating GPs, 82.8%…
Dowling, S.; Barrett, S.; West, R.
The boundaries between the work of doctors and that of nurses are changing, with nurses taking over important parts of junior hospital doctors' clinical work. In 1993 an exploratory study was carried out to identify the professional, educational, and management issues that such developments raise. Interviews were carried out with a range of stakeholders in three innovatory posts in which nurses were doing much of the clinical work of house officers. A complex picture of perceived benefits and problems for patients, junior doctors, and nurses emerged. These seemed to be associated with (a) the extent to which the contribution of professional nursing was valued in the new role and (b) the amount of clinical discretion which the postholder was allowed, this depending on the type of preparatory education provided and the management of the post. The study points to the need for strategic issues--such as the development of appropriate education and the professional recognition of these new clinical roles--to be addressed at a national and regional level. Images p312-a PMID:7633246
Knox, J D
Patients with rheumatic complaints are the subject of some 10% of the general practitioner's work. Approximately half of this work is related to the hitherto relatively neglected group of varied soft-tissue conditions, most of which are self-limiting and of a minor nature. Against a background of such diagnostic 'noise', the general practitioner has to remain alert for the fainter 'signal' of serious disease--rheumatic and non-rheumatic--at an early stage. Continuity of care calls on special qualities, behaviours and abilities in the doctor to boost and maintain morale, to coordinate management and to participate in team care. In addition to more traditional therapeutic measures, including analgesics, NSAIDs, disease-modifying drugs and physiotherapy, joint replacement is seen as a significant contribution. There is room for improvement in the structure process and outcomes of delivery of care as it may relate to rheumatic diseases. A simple illustration, based on a general practice audit of gout, is suggested as a possible model by which quality of care could be enhanced at the level of individual patients. While there is not a great deal of scope afforded to the general practitioner in the exercise of primary prevention of the rheumatic diseases, early diagnosis and timely support for carers of patients suffering from chronic rheumatic diseases are areas worth attention. Promotion of self-help is seen as a worthwhile activity in humanitarian and economic terms, though it calls for an appropriate balance to be struck.
Schnyder, Aurelia; Hüsler, Carina; Binet, Isabelle
Hyperkalemia can be a challenge for the general practitioner as it can prove to be benign as well as life-threatening. From a diagnostic point of view, four possibilities have to be differenciated: a pre-analytical cause, potassium release through cell lysis, a potassium shift, a reduced renal excretion of potassium. The first differential diagnosis can often be carried out by a thorough medical history, in particular the medication intake. Also, the first clinical and laboratory investigations can take place at the general practitioner's clinic. If the hyperkalemia proves to be a true hyperkalemia or cannot be explained by poly-medication and known diseases of the patient, not yet identified renal, endocrine or cardiac diseases should be searched for. If a serious condition is identified as the cause of hyperkalemia the patient should be referred to a specialized clinic.
Cavenagh, A J; Phillips, K M; Sheridan, B; Williams, E M
A postal survey of isolated general practitioner maternity units in England and Wales showed that just under 4% of deliveries take place in them. Eight per cent of general practitioners are on the staffs, and in 87% of units midwives are integrated with the community midwifery service. Sixty two per cent of units have visiting consultant cover. Fifty seven per cent of patients are booked and delivered in the unit, 28% are booked and deliberately delivered elsewhere, 5% are transferred in the antenatal period, and 10% transferred as emergencies. The perinatal mortality rate for cases booked and delivered in the units is 1.1 per 1000. The number of emergency transfers was appreciably less for those units that were prepared to do their own operations. Thirty five per cent of these units are liable to be cut off in bad weather, and they will continue to fulfil an essential role in the midwifery services. PMID:6426591
People with Down's syndrome form a heterogeneous group sharing a single constant feature--an extra chromosome. This paper reviews the many clinical problems associated with Down's syndrome and emphasizes the prevention of secondary handicapping conditions. Current policies on antenatal screening for Down's syndrome are discussed. The review draws attention to the need for general practitioners to see themselves as part of a network of community services providing support to people with Down's syndrome and their families. PMID:2560050
Wall, D. W.
A study was made of 869 personal cases of minor surgery performed in a cottage hospital over the seven years 1974-1980 inclusive. Results showed a wide range of procedures, little waiting time for patients, low infection rates and low referral to consultants subsequently. The cost benefits to the community and hospital services and the job satisfaction for the general practitioner are discussed. PMID:7131422
For patients suffering from allergic rhinitis (AR), general practitioners (GPs) are often their first source of medical advice. It is one of the top-ten reasons for a visit to the primary care clinics and AR was estimated to be 10-40% of the total patient visits in about 50% of the primary care clinics. The standard of management for AR among GPs is thus a key outcome assessment of AR management and implementation of international guidelines in general healthcare practice. PMID:23130327
... Civil Rights; the General Counsel; the Inspector General; the Chief Financial Officer; the Chief Information Officer; the Judicial Officer; the Director, Office of Budget and Program Analysis; the...
Morrison, Mark; Murphy, Tom; Nalder, Craig
This study focuses on segmenting the market for General Practitioner services in a regional setting. Using factor analysis, five main service attributes are identified. These are clear communication, ongoing doctor-patient relationship, same gender as the patient, provides advice to the patient, and empowers the patient to make his/her own decisions. These service attributes are used as a basis for market segmentation, using both socio-demographic variables and cluster analysis. Four distinct market segments are identified, with varying degrees of viability in terms of target marketing.
van Brussel, G.
In Amsterdam, a three-tiered program exists to deal with drug use and addiction. General practitioners form the backbone of the system, helping to deal with the majority of addicts, who are not criminals and many of whom desire to be free of addiction. Distinctions are made between drugs with "acceptable" and "unacceptable" risks, and between drug use and drug-related crime; patients who fall into the former categories are treated in a nonconfrontational, nonstigmatizing manner; such a system helps prevent the majority of patients from passing into unacceptable, criminalized categories. The overall program has demonstrated harm reduction both for patients and for the city of Amsterdam. PMID:10101375
Owen, P. A.; Allery, L. A.; Harding, K. G.; Hayes, T. M.
To study continuing medical education 96 out of 101 general practitioners chosen at random from the list held by a family practitioner committee were interviewed. The results provided little evidence of regular attendance at local postgraduate centre meetings, though practice based educational meetings were common. Thirty one of the general practitioners worked in practices that held one or more practice based educational meetings each month at which the doctors provided the main educational content. Performance review was undertaken in the practices of 51 of the general practitioners, and 80 of the doctors recognised its value. The general practitioners considered that the most valuable educational activities occurred within the practice, the most valued being contact with partners. They asked for increased contact with hospital doctors. The development of general practitioners' continuing medical education should be based on the content of the individual general practitioner's day to day work and entail contact with his or her professional colleagues. PMID:2504381
Amstutz, Ch; Thiel, M A; Kaufmann, Claude
Age-related cataracts are mainly caused by life-long accumulation of oxidative stress on the lens fibres. Symptoms include reduced visual acuity, requiring more light for reading, and glare. The only treatment that provides a cure for cataracts is surgery. Phacoemulsification represents the preferred method of lens removal. It involves fragmentation of the lens using ultrasound and insertion of an artificial intraocular lens. The preoperative assessment the general practitioner provides to surgeon and anesthesia team has an important share in the low complication rate of the procedure in the event of co-existing systemic disease. Growing patient expectation for spectacle independence following cataract surgery is met to some extent using techniques for astigmatism control and presbyo-pia-correcting intraocular lenses.
Bass del Campo, Germán Camilo
The public health system in Chile does not have a comprehensive development policy for physician resources in primary care, so there is currently a significant deficit of hours for medical care. The article contains a proposal for a "General Program for Primary Care Physicians", which aims to reduce the gap of general practitioners and specialists in primary care. The program proposes to integrate newly graduated physicians to work in the public medical offices with the subsequent possibility of applying for a scholarship specialty, and consecutively a return period as a specialist in the public health network. The immediate implementation of this program is perfectly feasible given the current availability of doctors, over 1400 medical graduates from universities.
Russell, M A H; Wilson, C; Taylor, C; Baker, C D
During four weeks all 2138 cigarette smokers attending the surgeries of 28 general practitioners (GPs) in five group practices in London were allocated to one of four groups: group 1 comprised non-intervention controls; group 2 comprised questionnaire-only controls; group 3 were advised by their GP to stop smoking; and group 4 were advised to stop smoking, given a leaflet to help them, and warned that they would be followed-up. Adequate data for follow-up were obtained from 1884 patients (88%) at one month and 1567 (73%) at one year. Changes in motivation and intention to stop smoking were evident immediately after advice was given. Of the people who stopped smoking, most did so because of the advice. This was achieved by motivating more people to try to stop smoking rather than increasing the success rate among those who did try. The effect was strongest during the first month but still evident over the next three months and was enhanced by the leaflet and warning about follow-up. An additional effect over the longer term was a lower relapse rate among those who stopped, but this was not enhanced by the leaflet and warning about follow-up. The proportions who stopped smoking during the first month and were still not smoking one year later were 0·3%, 1·6%, 3·3%, and 5·1% in the four groups respectively (P <0·001). The results suggest that any GP who adopts this simple routine could expect about 25 long-term successes yearly. If all GPs in the UK participated the yield would exceed half a million ex-smokers a year. This target could not be matched by increasing the present 50 or so special withdrawal clinics to 10 000. PMID:476401
Kirwan, M; Armstrong, D
BACKGROUND. Recent changes in the general practitioner contract have produced increased workload and stress, poorer mental health and reduced job satisfaction. These factors might combine to increase the level of 'burnout' among general practitioners. AIM. This study set out to examine the extent of burnout among general practitioners. METHOD. A questionnaire was sent to all 295 Northamptonshire general practitioners seeking demographic details and including the Maslach burnout inventory. The results for the inventory were compared with the results from a sample of physicians and nurses in North America. RESULTS. There was a significantly higher level of burnout among the Northamptonshire doctors compared with the North American sample. There was virtually no association between age and the level of burnout, although a small negative correlation was found between age and the depersonalization of others subscale. Part-time general practitioners showed lower levels of burnout than full-time general practitioners. CONCLUSION. This study highlights the need to look both at the extent of burnout in young doctors during their training and at those characteristics of part-time general practitioners which might prevent burnout. PMID:7619573
Higgins, Angela; Porter, Sam; O'Halloran, Peter
In this paper, we use qualitative research techniques to examine the role of general practitioners in the management of the long-term sickness absence. In order to uncover the perspectives of all the main agents affected by the actions of general practitioners, a case study approach focussing on one particular employment sector, the public health service, is adopted. The role of family physicians is viewed from the perspectives of health service managers, occupational health physicians, employees/patients, and general practitioners. Our argument is theoretically framed by Talcott Parsons's model of the medical contribution to the sick role, along with subsequent conceptualisations of the social role and position of physicians. Sixty one semi-structured interviews and three focus group interviews were conducted in three Health and Social Care Trusts in Northern Ireland between 2010 and 2012. There was a consensus among respondents that general practitioners put far more weight on the preferences and needs of their patients than they did on the requirements of employing organisations. This was explained by respondents in terms of the propinquity and longevity of relationships between doctors and their patients, and by the ideology of holistic care and patient advocacy that general practitioners viewed as providing the foundations of their approach to patients. The approach of general practitioners was viewed negatively by managers and occupational health physicians, and more positively by general practitioners and patients. However, there is some evidence that general practitioners would be prepared to forfeit their role as validators of sick leave. Given the imperatives of both state and capital to reduce the financial burden of long-term sickness, this preparedness puts into doubt the continued role of general practitioners as gatekeepers to legitimate long-term sickness absence.
Salisbury, Christopher J.; Tettersell, Monica J.
The work of a nurse practitioner was compared with that of a general practitioner. Both were equally available to the same patient population over the same period. The nurse practitioner saw a similar age and sex distribution of patients to the doctor but saw different types of problems. More of the patients she saw were for followup of chronic diseases, health advice and screening measures while fewer were acutely ill. The doctor dealt with four times as many patients. The nurse practitioner managed 78% of her consultations without referral to a doctor, and 89% without resorting to prescribed drugs. There was a high level of patient satisfaction with her work and 97% of the patients who saw the nurse would choose to consult her again. The role of the nurse practitioner in our practice has developed differently from a similar post in another setting, thus emphasizing the need for flexibility when defining the role. Nurse practitioners are a valuable extra resource for the development of new areas of care, rather than a cheaper substitute for a general practitioner. PMID:3255828
Damoiseaux, Roger A M J
The diagnosis of and therapy for ADHD is complex and should be done by experts in this field. In the Netherlands, a new guideline on ADHD for general practitioners has recently been issued. Although there is some room for general practitioners to start medication for this disorder, the main message is to exercise caution in starting medication in general practice. Many children with ADHD have psychiatric comorbidity and proper diagnosis by a specialist is recommended. The main task of the general practitioner is making the right choice concerning when to refer for further diagnosis. Children sometimes show behaviour which, although it is not always what adults want, does not necessarily require psychiatric intervention and this is what a general practitioner can determine.
Kovalchuk, L I; Prokopchuk, Y V; Naydyonova, O V
The article presents the experience of postgraduate training of general practitioners--family medicine. Identified current trends, forms and methods of pedagogical innovations that enhance the quality of learning and mastering the practical skills of primary professionals providing care.
Chambers, R; Wall, D; Campbell, I
BACKGROUND: There is concern about the morale of general practitioner registrars. There may be stress-provoking factors that could be avoided or minimized. AIMS: The aims of the study were to assess the sources of stress and job satisfaction of general practitioner registrars, to compare registrars' job satisfaction with that of established principals using a recently published survey and to identify registrars' usual responses to stress. METHOD: A postal questionnaire survey was sent to all 143 general practitioner registrars in the West Midlands Region. The main measures were: self-rating scales of stresses associated with work and training; the Warr, Cook and Wall job satisfaction scale; and self-reported responses to stress. RESULTS: A total of 118 (83%) general practitioner registrars responded. The most potent sources of stress were family-job conflict, working for the Membership of the Royal College of General Practitioners, patients' unrealistic expectations and disruption of social life. Registrars practised good coping responses to stress. Registrars in this study had significantly greater job satisfaction than general practitioner principals in a 1993 survey for three out of 10 items measured (responsibility given, hours of work and the job as a whole) and significantly worse scores for three items (recognition for good work, rate of pay and variety of work). CONCLUSIONS: Registrars have additional stresses to those of established principals because they need to study for examinations, learn new tasks in general practice and carry out their service commitments at a stage in life when many are newly married or have a young family. Training in stress management for general practitioner registrars is recommended. PMID:8983252
Westerman, R F; Hull, F M; Bezemer, P D; Gort, G
A random sample of referral letters from general practitioners to outpatient departments of general medicine, dermatology, neurology, and gastroenterology at an Amsterdam teaching hospital were analysed together with the specialists' replies for 144 referrals. The pairs of letters were judged by a panel of four general practitioners and four specialists. Letters were assessed according to quality and content, clarity, request for return to general practitioner care, time intervals between referral and consultation and between consultation and the specialist's reply. The judges were also asked to assess whether in their opinion the letters were of value in teaching or were discourteous. Though in general intraobserver agreement on what constitutes a good letter was low, deficiencies were revealed in the quality of letters and there were delays in transmission and missed educational opportunities. PMID:2271276
Phillips, A.; Morrison, J.; Davis, R. W.
The community general practitioner (GP) has a central role in the provision of primary health care to people with intellectual disability (ID) as an indirect result of deinstitutionalization in Australia. This population, however, continues to experience poor health care compared to the general population. The current paper describes results from…
Usherwood, V; Usherwood, T P
Fifty general practitioners replied to a survey of the advice that they would offer to a tourist planning a package holiday in western Turkey. The range of prophylactic immunizations and other medication recommended by the respondents was wide, suggesting that some tourists travel without adequate protection, while some receive unnecessary injections. Most of the doctors would offer little other health advice to the traveller. General practitioners receive conflicting guidance on prophylactics for travellers, and it is suggested that the disagreements should be resolved. Wider availability of written advice for the traveller would also be valuable. PMID:2559989
Karunaratne, S; Benbow, E W
AIMS: To study the views of general practitioners on the quality and utility of autopsy reports, and on autopsies in general. METHODS: For a period of six months, a questionnaire was enclosed with each autopsy report sent to a general practitioner from the mortuary at Manchester Royal Infirmary. RESULTS: Most (93.3%) general practitioners found the autopsy report useful, and many (66.7%) thought the bereaved relatives would do so too. However, only a minority (25.2%) would discuss the report with the relatives. A considerable proportion (20.0%) found the cause of death surprising, and a significant number (10.4%) felt the report would modify their future clinical practice. There was approval of autopsies in general, with most (88.6%) agreeing that autopsies reveal lesions not detected in life, and many (74.4%) indicating that loss of the autopsy would impair severely the monitoring of clinical standards. CONCLUSIONS: General practitioners appreciate autopsy reports, which may have a significant impact on clinical practice. Autopsy reports provide both case audit and information for relatives. PMID:9306932
Wilson, Coralie J.; Deane, Frank P.; Marshall, Kellie L.; Dalley, Andrew
Appropriate help-seeking is widely recognized as a protective factor, and vital for early treatment and prevention of mental health problems during adolescence. General medical practitioners (GPs), that is, family doctors, provide a vital role in the identification of adolescents with mental health problems and the provision of treatment as well…
Aoun, Samar; Johnson, Lyn
A project to promote rural men's health through diabetes education and screening in the workplace involved 446 men aged 40-65 in Western Australia. Of the 287 men identified at high risk of developing diabetes and referred to their general practitioner, 76 percent visited their physician. However, physician's advice on lifestyle changes was…
Schwartz, Robert H.; Shenoy, Sunil
A survey of 150 general practice dentists examined the relationship between 6 career interests (scientific, artistic, social, enterprising, conventional, technical) and career satisfaction. Results are presented and compared with findings of other studies of dental students and practitioners. Results suggest that satisfied dentists tended to like…
... supervision and control of the Secretary who is assisted by the following general officers: the Deputy... Assistant Secretary for Civil Rights; the General Counsel; the Inspector General; the Chief...
Van Dormael, M
The word ¿general practice¿ denotes different contents of work as we look at different contexts. General practitioners may provide first line care, function as secondary care providers at hospital level, take responsibility for the management of health care systems. These different roles can be seen as results from historical processes of division of work in the field of health care, which gave general practice its present shapes. During the first half of the 20th century, western general practitioners were gradually excluded from hospitals as well as from public health activities. When they started to react in order to increase their legitimacy they strived--with variable success--to gain recognition as curative first line care providers, as this had become the only place in the health care system they could claim for. They gradually defined their specificity in terms of polyvalence enabling them to deal with unselected problems, and in terms of global view allowing for adequate priority setting. In developing countries, the organisation of medical care was and remains influenced by western models. As in western countries, emphasis has been put on specialisation and hospital technology. General practice was not exported to developing countries: general practitioners appear rather as cheap substitutes for specialists. The most typical workplace for general practitioners in developing countries remains the rural hospital. But their role model refers to the hospital based specialist: they tend to focus on patient care for hospital users rather than on dynamising health care delivery to the whole community in the district. In urban areas, the recent expansion of (mostly private) first line medical care is also not specific to general practice and tends to be in favour of specialists. What is the common denominator to these different roles, if any? A possible answer lies in the primary health care approach. It allows to define the specificity of general practitioners
Linden, G J
This study investigated the extent of and reasons for variation in the periodontal referral patterns of general dental practitioners in Northern Ireland. A questionnaire was circulated to all general dental practitioners in Northern Ireland. This questionnaire investigated the management of periodontal disease in the general dental service and referral for specialist periodontal advice and treatment. A usable return was made by 355 (68%) of those surveyed. The mean number of periodontal referrals by each respondent in the past year was 6.5 (SD 7.7), range 0 to 80. Backward stepwise logistic regression analysis indicated that independent predictors of high referral rate were practice location close to the referral centre (p<0.0001); dissatisfaction with ability to treat periodontal disease under the National Health Service (p=0.001); that previous refusals of referral had not dissuaded a dentist from continuing to offer referral (p=0.002); not offering root planing as a treatment (p=0.005); and perceived inadequate postgraduate education in periodontology (p=0.03). It is concluded that considerable variation exists between general dental practitioners working in Northern Ireland in relation to the referral of patients for specialist periodontal advice and treatment. It is further concluded that in many cases non-disease factors, such as the accessibility of the specialist service, have powerful effects on the decisions made by dentists and patients in relation to periodontal referral.
Parker, Julie; Gay, Martyn
A 12-month prospective survey was undertaken of all 239 problem drug users known to general practitioners in Bristol and the doctors' attitudes towards them. The drug users were predominantly young, aged 15-35 years, and males outnumbered females by approximately two to one. Seventy-eight per cent had problems associated with opiates, almost invariably heroin, 10% had problems with stimulants (mainly amphetamine powder), and others had problems with hallucinogens, cannabis, barbiturates and solvents. Opiate dependence was the commonest single problem but ill health, hepatitis, psychiatric illnesses, relationship problems, work and financial difficulties were also frequently mentioned. There was a wide variation in the numbers of problem drug users seen by individual practices, which related both to the situation of the practice and the widely varying attitudes of the partners towards drug users and drug problems. General practitioners were aware of the grapevine that transmits news of their treatment to other users, and individual practices had typically evolved a general strategy for all drug users, to minimize arguments. General practitioners were asked their views about specialist services: they thought that services in the area for drug users were inadequate to help them and their patients in 58% of cases. Several suggestions were made for additional services which were needed. PMID:3448214
Holte, Jon Helgheim; Sivey, Peter; Abelsen, Birgit; Olsen, Jan Abel
This paper tests for the existence of nonlinearity and reference dependence in income preferences for general practitioners. Confirming the theory of reference dependent utility within the context of a discrete choice experiment, we find that losses loom larger than gains in income for Norwegian general practitioners, i.e. they value losses from their current income level around three times higher than the equivalent gains. Our results are validated by comparison with equivalent contingent valuation values for marginal willingness to pay and marginal willingness to accept compensation for changes in job characteristics. Physicians' income preferences determine the effectiveness of 'pay for performance' and other incentive schemes. Our results may explain the relative ineffectiveness of financial incentive schemes that rely on increasing physicians' incomes. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
de Vries, Corlien J H; de Witt-de Jong, Anne W F; Dirven-Meijer, Pauline C; Burgers, Jako S; Opstelten, Wim
The Dutch College of General Practitioners practice guideline 'Eczema' provides recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of common types of eczema: atopic dermatitis, contact dermatitis, acro-vesicular eczema, nummular eczema, hypostatic eczema, and asteatotic eczema. Age is an important factor when determining the type of eczema. According to the guideline, patient history and physical examination are sufficient in the diagnosis of eczema; additional investigations are rarely indicated. Moisturizing the skin with neutral emollients is the cornerstone of treatment for patients with eczema. If treatment with glucocorticoids is indicated, it is recommended that patients should start with short-term twice daily application, decreasing to once daily application. The guideline advises not to treat eczema patients with tar preparations. General practitioners are also advised not to prescribe calcineurin inhibitors. How work may affect eczema, or how eczema may affect work, should be considered in adult patients.
Holden, J D
In recent years the number of general practitioners who have worked in the third world before entering general practice has fallen. The reasons for this are not clear but may include worries about future career prospects. Ninety four doctors who had entered general practice since 1984, after previously working in the third world, completed a questionnaire about their career experience and views about the value of such work. They were generally widely experienced and well-qualified and work abroad had not apparently harmed their careers, rather, many believed it had enhanced it. Work in the usually arduous conditions of poor countries was often considered by the respondents to lead to a wider perspective, increased maturity, confidence, self-reliance, adaptability and initiative. Doctors who are interested and suitable for work in the third world prior to entering general practice should be encouraged to pursue this possibility.
Hemphill, Elizabeth; Kulik, Carol T
Recruitment is an ongoing challenge in the health industry with general practitioner (GP) shortages in many areas beyond rural and Indigenous communities. This paper suggests a marketing solution that identifies different segments of the GP market for recruitment strategy development. In February 2008, 96 GPs in Australia responded to a mail questionnaire (of which 85 questionnaires were useable). A total of 350 GPs were sent the questionnaire. Respondents considered small sets of attributes in the decision to accept a new job at a general practice and selected the most and least important attribute from each set. We identified latent class clusters (cohorts) of GPs from the most-least important data. Three cohorts were found in the GP market, distinguishing practitioners who emphasised job, family or practice attributes in their decision to join a practice. Few significant demographic differences exist between the cohorts. A segmented GP market suggests two alternative recruitment strategies. One option is for general practices to target members of a single cohort (family-, job-, or practice-focussed GPs). The other option is for general practices to diversify their recruitment strategies to target all three cohorts (family-, job- and practice-focussed GPs). A single brand (practice) can have multiple advertising strategies with each strategy involving advertising activities targeting a particular consumer segment.
O'Brien, James G; Riain, Ailis Ni; Collins, Claire; Long, V; O'Neill, Desmond
The objective of this study was to survey general practitioners (GPs) in Ireland regarding their experience with elder abuse. A random sample of 800 GPs were mailed a survey in March 2010, with a reminder in May 2010, yielding a 24% response rate. The majority, 64.5%, had encountered elder abuse, with 35.5% encountering a case in the previous year. Most were detected during a home visit. Psychological abuse and self-neglect were most common. Most GPs in Ireland have encountered cases of elder abuse, most were willing to get involved beyond medical treatment, and 76% cited a need for more education.
VanNieuwenborg, Lena; Goossens, Martine; De Lepeleire, Jan; Schoenmakers, Birgitte
Introduction Our current knowledge-based society and the many actualisations within the medical profession require a great responsibility of physicians to continuously develop and refine their skills. In this article, we reflect on some recent findings in the field of continuing education for professional doctors (continuing medical education, CME). Second, we describe the development of a CME from the Academic Center for General Practice (ACHG) of the KU Leuven. Methods First, we performed a literature study and we used unpublished data of a need assessment performed (2013) in a selected group of general practitioners. Second, we describe the development of a proposal to establish a CME programme for general practitioners. Results CME should go beyond the sheer acquisition of knowledge, and also seek changes in practice, attitudes and behaviours of physicians. The continuing education offerings are subject to the goals of the organising institution, but even more to the needs and desires of the end user. Conclusions Integrated education is crucial to meet the conditions for efficient and effective continuing education. The ACHG KU Leuven decided to offer a postgraduate programme consisting of a combination of teaching methods: online courses (self-study), contact courses (traditional method) and a materials database. PMID:26850504
Chappell, B; Smithson, H
Epilepsy care in general practice has been criticized, but what do GPs feel they deal with most and complete satisfactorily? If criticism is justified, education should be useful in improving epilepsy care, but what do general practitioners want to learn and how do they want to learn it? Questionnaires about these issues were sent to randomly chosen general practitioners throughout the United Kingdom. One hundred and twenty-four out of 200 (62%) responded. They were not biased by age, sex, type of practice or previous interest in epilepsy. Drug treatment and regular review were the two areas of care GPs said they dealt with most, but only half felt they dealt with them well. Sixty-six percent wanted to learn more about drug treatment, 46% about lifestyle advice, 45% about non-drug treatment, 44% about diagnosis and only 16% did not want to learn more about any aspect of care. Weekdays and evenings were the preferred times for study. Courses up to one full day away from practices were popular, distance learning and personal education plans were not, except for a group of younger GPs. When attending courses multi-disciplinary lectures rated highly and nearly three-quarters preferred to attend courses where epilepsy was covered in conjunction with other conditions. Future epilepsy education for GPs should recognize these findings if attendance and positive outcomes are to be maximized.
Di Bernardo, S; Guihard, B; Wartel, G; Sissoko, D
Malaria has been officially eradicated from the Reunion Island since 1979. However, a potentially active vector of the disease - Anopheles arabiensis - persists on the island. The risk of resurgence is quite significant. More than 90%of the patients presenting a malarial infection in Reunion Island after a stay in Madagascar or in the Comoros had followed a chemoprophylaxis that was not in accordance with the guidelines. A survey, that included 100 general practitioners, wasconducted in the Reunion Island regarding their practices concerning the malaria prevention. The upshot of all this is that these doctors themselves do not follow the optimal malaria prevention practices during journeys, and neglect their protection against mosquito bites. Travelers' consultations with the doctors before a journey represent only a modest part of their activity. However, the general practitioner is considered to be the interlocutor of choice for these patients. During these consultations, they do not refer enough to the national references which, according to a number of practitioners, are difficult to obtain. On the contrary, they refer too much to the information delivered by the pharmaceutical industry. With regard to the prescriptions of prophylactic treatments, only 40% of the doctors respect the official recommendations. This gap in the recommendations is sometimes deliberate and justified by the very high cost of a number of treatments. However, a lack of up-to-date knowledge cannot be excluded. Finally, the promotion of the protection against mosquito bites remains very poor. According to these data, it seems important to promote networking between the doctors and the reference centers, which would enhance optimal practices concerning chemoprophylaxis and protection against mosquito bites, especially targeting the "at risk" patients.
Looseleaf, 123 pp. Managers, Your Accounting System Can Do a Lot for You. Guidelines and illustrative case studies for managers in using accounting systems...AD-AlOe 538 GENERAL ACCOUNTING OUICE WASHINGTON DC F/G 5/2 JIUN 81UNITED STATES GENERAL ACCOUNTING OFFICE PUSLICATIONS LIST.(U) UNCLASSIFIED N...Publications ............................................... 79 General ................................................... 79 Accounting and Auditing
Farthing, Michael J G
Nicholas Culpeper is often regarded as an ill-disciplined, maverick, mid-17th century herbalist and the father of contemporary alternative medicine. There are elements of this statement that have some truth but to dismiss his contribution to the development of health provision in London at the time would be a great injustice. Culpeper did not complete his apprenticeship as an apothecary and was not a formally trained physician, but he developed a clinical practice for the poor of London, indistinguishable from the role of the present day general practitioner. Observers at the time recognised his concern and compassion and his commitment to treat the whole patient and not just the disease. His enduring contribution was his translation from Latin of the physicians' Pharmacopoeia Londinensis which could be regarded as the first major step towards the demystification of medicine. Culpeper's London Dispensatory and the many other medical treatises that followed were affordable and widely available to the common man. Culpeper antagonised both apothecaries and physicians because he breached the regulations of the day by accepting patients directly. So perhaps Culpeper was, de facto, London's first general practitioner, at least 150 years before the role was formally recognised in the Apothecaries Act 1815.
This comparative quantitative study explored General Practitioners' (GPs) attitudes to homeopathy in Dumfries and Galloway, a predominantly rural area in South West Scotland where there is a local British Homeopathic Association Funded Homeopathic Clinic. It aimed to determine whether there was an association between expressed attitudes to homeopathy and a number of variables. Issues arising from the House of Lords Report on CAM were also explored. A self-administered questionnaire was addressed to all 135 GPs within Dumfries and Galloway. Descriptive statistics were used in the data analysis. The response rate was 75%. The NHS GP clinic accounted for 47% of total referrals for homeopathy. A total of 86.1% of GPs within Dumfries and Galloway were in favour of a local NHS Homeopathic Specialist Clinic. Forms of evidence most influential to GPs regarding homeopathy were: randomised controlled trials; audit data on patient outcomes; safety and patient satisfaction.
A summary of the progress and problems encountered by the Office of the Inspector General during 1980 is presented. Information on such administrative matters as the IG office organization, staffing, affirmative action, and training is reported. Planning and policy matters and expectations for the future are discussed. Important work done by the audit, inspection, and investigative staffs is summarized. Summaries of significant findings, recommendations, and actions taken in response are included. (MCW)
Elad, S; Marshall, J; Meyerowitz, C; Connolly, G
Currently, 4 novel Direct Oral Anticoagulants (DOACs) were approved by the FDA. This review focuses on these agents and proposes a matrix for the general dentists to assess bleeding risk in dental management of patient on DOACs. The outline covers the pharmacology of DOACs (rivaroxaban, apixaban, edoxaban and dabigatran), bleeding complications, risk associated with discontinuation, monitoring/reversal, and implications for the dental practitioners. A total of 18 randomized controlled trials were identified with mixed results in regards to the risk for bleeding. Considering the pharmacology of DOACs and challenges in monitoring and reversing their effect, the dentist should consider carefully the management of patients on DOACs as it may differ from patients on conventional anticoagulants. Based on the type of dental procedure and the medical risk assessment, several general treatment approaches can be considered: continue DOACs, time dental treatment as late as possible after the last DOACs dose, discontinue DOACs for 24hrs, or discontinue DOACs for 48hrs. Based on the current reported dental literature, limited dental surgery may benefit from the first 2 conservative options. However, this needs to be proven in comparative clinical trials.
KHOSRAVAN, SHAHLA; KARIMI MOONAGHI, HOSSEIN; YAZDANI, SHAHRAM; AHMADI, SOLEIMAN; MANSOORIAN, MOHAMMAD REZA
Introduction Leadership and management are two expected features and competencies for general practitioners (GPs). The purpose of this study was leadership and management curriculum planning for GPs which was performed based on Kern’s curriculum planning cycle. Methods This study was conducted in 2011- 2012 in Iran using an explanatory mixed-methods approach. It was conducted through an initial qualitative phase using two focus group discussions and 28 semi-structured interviews with key informants to capture their experiences and viewpoints about the necessity of management courses for undergraduate medical students, goals, objectives, and educational strategies according to Kern’s curriculum planning cycle. The data was used to develop a questionnaire to be used in a quantitative written survey. Results of these two phases and that of the review of medical curriculum in other countries and management curriculum of other medical disciplines in Iran were used in management and leadership curriculum planning. In the qualitative phase, purposeful sampling and content analysis with constant comparison based on Strauss and Corbin’s method were used; descriptive and analytic tests were used for quantitative data by SPSS version 14. Results In the qualitatively stage of this research, 6 main categories including the necessity of management course, features and objectives of management curriculum, proper educational setting, educational methods and strategies, evolutionary method and feedback result were determined. In the quantitatively stage of the research, from the viewpoints of 51.6% of 126 units of research who filled out the questionnaire, ranked high necessary of management courses. The coordination of care and clinical leadership was determined as the most important role for GPs with a mean of 6.2 from sample viewpoint. Also, team working and group dynamics had the first priority related to the principles and basics of management with a mean of 3
Genc, Alicja; Ryk, Małgorzata; Suwała, Magdalena; Żurakowska, Tatiana; Kosiak, Wojciech
Ultrasonografia, będąca bezpieczną i nieinwazyjną metodą diagnostyczną, wykorzystującą coraz bardziej udoskonalone techniki obrazowania, stała się badaniem pierwszego wyboru w wielu schorzeniach. Coraz częściej stosowana jest w gabinecie lekarza rodzinnego jako metoda uzupełniająca badania podmiotowe i przedmiotowe.
Brown, D. J.
OBJECTIVE--To examine the beliefs of general practitioners concerning intrapartum care. DESIGN--Postal questionnaire survey. SUBJECTS--All general practitioners with patients in Nottinghamshire Family Health Services Authority in September 1993. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--General practitioners' current involvement in maternity care, and beliefs on intrapartum care. RESULTS--Of 694 general practitioners sent questionnaires, 550 (79.2%) replied. 529 of these were on the obstetric list; 437 had not attended a delivery in the past 12 months; 36 had attended two or more; 358 general practitioners did not wish to provide more intrapartum care; 349 did not feel competent to do so. Reasons for not wanting to provide intrapartum care included current workload (453), disruption to personal life (407), and the fear of litigation (377). General practitioners who already booked women for home delivery were more likely to wish to do more deliveries (62/42 v 61/316, chi 2 = 85.3; P < 0.0001) and to have more positive attitudes towards increasing women's choice in maternity care (90/22 v 195/151, chi 2 = 227; P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS--The involvement of general practitioners in intrapartum care in Nottinghamshire is low, and most general practitioners are unwilling to increase their role. However, general practitioners who already book for home delivery are keen to do more. PMID:7950566
Hackl, Franz; Hummer, Michael; Pruckner, Gerald J
We analyzed the impact of social networks on general practitioners' (GPs) referral behavior based on administrative panel data from 2,684,273 referrals to specialists made between 1998 and 2007. For the definition of social networks, we used information on the doctors' place and time of study and their hospital work history. We found that GPs referred more patients to specialists within their personal networks and that patients referred within a social network had fewer follow-up consultations and less inpatient days thereafter. The effects on patient outcomes (e.g. waiting periods, days in hospital) of referrals within personal networks and affinity-based networks differed. Specifically, whereas empirical evidence showed a concentration on high-quality specialists for referrals within the personal network, suggesting that referrals within personal networks overcome information asymmetry with respect to specialists' abilities, the empirical evidence for affinity-based networks was different and less clear. Same-gender networks tended to refer patients to low-quality specialists.
Heponiemi, Tarja; Manderbacka, Kristiina; Vänskä, Jukka; Elovainio, Marko
In many countries, public sector has major difficulties in recruiting and retaining physicians to work as general practitioners (GPs). We examined the effects of taking up a public sector GP position and leaving public sector GP work on the changes of job satisfaction, job involvement and turnover intentions. In addition, we examined whether organizational justice in the new position would moderate these associations. This was a four-year prospective questionnaire study including two measurements among 1581 (948 women, 60%) Finnish physicians. A change to work as a public GP was associated with a substantial decrease in job satisfaction and job involvement when new GPs experienced that their primary care organization was unfair. However, high organizational justice was able to buffer against these negative effects. Those who changed to work as public GPs had 2.8 times and those who stayed as public GPs had 1.6 times higher likelihood of having turnover intentions compared to those who worked in other positions. Organizational justice was not able to buffer against this effect. Primary care organizations should pay more attention to their GPs - especially to newcomers - and to the fairness how management behaves towards employees, how processes are determined, and how rewards are distributed.
Bloy, Géraldine; Rigal, Laurent
General practitioners (GPs) do not provide enough preventive care. Nonetheless, without a detailed understanding of the logical processes that underlie their practices, it remains difficult to develop effective means of improvement. Their relationship to knowledge is one of three elements that strongly structure GPs' preventive work (together with the doctor-patient relationship and the organisation of their professional space).The objective of this article was to explore the question of GPs' relationship to knowledge about prevention. In 2010-2011, semi-directive interviews with a diverse sample of 100 GPs practising in the Paris metropolitan area were conducted. These interviews were coded according a reading grid that was developed collectively and analysed in the framework of grounded theory. The cognitive universe of GPs is neither homogeneous nor stable. It is composed of biomedical knowledge (delivered via guidelines, the professional press, opinion leaders and pharmaceutical companies), clinical knowledge (fed by individual situations from their daily experience and often conflicting with epidemiologic reasoning and data) and lay knowledge (from folk culture). Plunged into this complex cognitive universe that is difficult for them to master, doctors construct their own idiosyncratic preventive style by themselves, mostly in isolation. Two types of actions emerged as likely to help GPs better appropriate preventive knowledge: clarification of scientific data (especially from epidemiology and the social sciences) but also development of a collective analysis of the cognitive work required to integrate the different types of knowledge mobilised daily in their preventive practices.
Nixon, Michael Simon; Vendelø, Morten Thanning
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to investigate how general practitioners' (GPs) decisions about discontinuation of medication are influenced by their institutional context. Design/methodology/approach - In total, 24 GPs were interviewed, three practices were observed and documents were collected. The Gioia methodology was used to analyse data, drawing on a theoretical framework that integrate the sensemaking perspective and institutional theory. Findings - Most GPs, who actively consider discontinuation, are reluctant to discontinue medication, because the safest course of action for GPs is to continue prescriptions, rather than discontinue them. The authors conclude that this is in part due to the ambiguity about the appropriateness of discontinuing medication, experienced by the GPs, and in part because the clinical guidelines do not encourage discontinuation of medication, as they offer GPs a weak frame for discontinuation. Three reasons for this are identified: the guidelines provide dominating triggers for prescribing, they provide weak priming for discontinuation as an option, and they underscore a cognitive constraint against discontinuation. Originality/value - The analysis offers new insights about decision making when discontinuing medication. It also offers one of the first examinations of how the institutional context embedding GPs influences their decisions about discontinuation. For policymakers interested in the discontinuation of medication, the findings suggest that de-stigmatising discontinuation on an institutional level may be beneficial, allowing GPs to better justify discontinuation in light of the ambiguity they experience.
Buijs, P.; van Amstel, R.; van Dijk, F.
OBJECTIVES: To investigate cooperation between occupational physicians (OPs) and general practitioners (GPs). METHODS: Literature review; structured interviews; questionnaires sent to randomised samples of OPs (n = 232) and GPs (n = 243). RESULTS: Actual cooperation is poor. However, more than 80% of both groups responded that they want to improve their cooperation, aiming at better quality of care. Obstacles identified by OPs include insufficient knowledge among GPs about occupational health services (OHSs) (57%) and their patients' working conditions (52%). OPs also consider that GPs suspect them of serving employers more than employees (44%) and of verifying reasons of absence, with information from GPs (34%). Responses from GPs confirm these two suspicions (48%, response 58%), adding obstacles like commercialisation of OHS, lack of financial incentives, etc. Both groups are unanimous about prerequisites for improvement, especially guaranteeing the professional autonomy of OPs (OPs 86%, GPs 76%). CONCLUSION: As a first step to overcome obstacles to cooperation, OPs must clarify their position to GP colleagues. Initiatives have been taken after presenting this study. PMID:10658552
Keijsers, Carolina J P W; Leendertse, Anne J; Faber, Adrianne; Brouwers, Jacobus R B J; de Wildt, Dick J; Jansen, Paul A F
Understanding differences in the pharmacology knowledge and pharmacotherapy skills of pharmacists and physicians is vital to optimizing interprofessional collaboration and education. This study investigated these differences and the potential influence of work experience. The pharmacology knowledge and pharmacotherapy skills of pharmacists, general practitioners (GPs), and trainees were compared, using a written assessment; 294 participants were included. Overall scores (mean ± SD) ranged from 69.3% ± 6.5% to 76.5% ± 9.5% for basic knowledge, 70.3% ± 10.8% to 79.7% ± 8.4% for applied knowledge, and 66.3% ± 21.1% to 84.7% ± 20.7% for pharmacotherapy skills (analysis of variance all P < .05). The pharmacists had the highest scores for all domains (P < .05), with the exception of pharmacist trainees, who had comparable scores for basic knowledge and pharmacotherapy skills (both P > .05). The GPs scored the lowest for pharmacotherapy skills (P < .05). More work experience was associated with better knowledge of applied pharmacology among pharmacists (by 2% per 10 work-years), but with poorer pharmacotherapy skills among pharmacists and GPs (by 3% and 4% per 10 work-years, respectively). In conclusion, pharmacists and GPs differ in their knowledge and skills, and these differences become more pronounced with more work experience. In general, pharmacists outperform pharmacist trainees, whereas GP trainees outperform GPs. These differences could be important for interdisciplinary collaboration and education.
Greß, Stefan; Schäfer, Willemijn
Background. The participation of general practitioners (GPs) is essential in research on the performance of primary care. This paper describes the implementation of a large, multicountry study in primary care that combines a survey among GPs and a linked survey among patients that visited their practice (the QUALICOPC study). The aim is to describe the recruitment procedure and explore differences between countries in the participation rate of the GPs. Methods. Descriptive analyses were used to document recruitment procedures and to assess hypotheses potentially explaining variation in participation rates between countries. Results. The survey was implemented in 31 European countries. GPs were mainly selected through random sampling. The actual implementation of the study differed between countries. The median participation rate was 30%. Both material (such as the payment system of GPs in a country) and immaterial influences (such as estimated survey pressure) are related to differences between countries. Conclusion. This study shows that the participation of GPs may indeed be influenced by the context of the country. The implementation of complex data collection is difficult to realize in a completely uniform way. Procedures have to be tuned to the context of the country. PMID:27047689
Laure, P; Binsinger, C; Lecerf, T; Ayotte, C
Objectives: To examine the attitudes to, and knowledge of, doping in sport of French general practitioners (GPs), and their contact with drug taking athletes on an everyday basis. Methods: A total of 402 GPs were randomly selected from all over France and interviewed by telephone, using a prepared script. Results: The response rate was 50.5% (153 men and 49 women; mean (SD) age 45.6 (5.6) years). Of the respondents, 73% confirmed that they had the list of banned products, and only 34.5% stated that they were aware of the latest French law, brought into effect in March 1999, concerning the fight against doping. Some 11% had directly encountered a request for prescription of doping agents over the preceding 12 months (the requested substances were mainly anabolic steroids, stimulants, and corticosteroids), and 10% had been consulted by an athlete who was using doping drugs and was frightened of the health risks (the substances used were mainly anabolic steroids). Over half (52%) of the GPs favoured the prescription of drug substitutions to athletes who used doping agents. According to 87.5% of respondents, doping is a public health problem, and 80% stated that doping is a form of drug addiction. Most (89%) said that a GP has a role to play in doping prevention, but 77% considered themselves poorly prepared to participate in its prevention. Conclusion: The results suggest that (a) GPs have limited knowledge of doping and (b) are confronted with doping in their daily practice, at least occasionally. PMID:12893720
Spurling, Geoffrey; Mansfield, Peter
Background and objective Interaction between pharmaceutical sales representatives (PSRs) and general practitioners (GPs) may have an adverse impact on GP prescribing and therefore may be ethically questionable. This study aimed to evaluate the interactions between PSRs and GPs in an Australian general practice, and develop and evaluate a policy to guide the interaction. Methods Doctors' prescribing, diaries, practice promotional material and samples were audited and a staff survey undertaken. After receiving feedback, the staff voted on practice policy options. The resulting policy was evaluated 3 and 9 months. Results Prior to the intervention, GPs spent on average 40 min/doctor/month with PSRs. There were 239 items of promotional material in the practice and 4660 tablets in the sample cupboard. These were reduced by 32% and 59%, respectively, at 3 months after policy adoption and the reduction was sustained at 9 months. Vioxx was the most common drug name in promotional material. Staff adopted a policy of reduced access to PSRs including: reception staff not to make appointments for PSRs or accept promotional material; PSRs cannot access sample cupboards; GPs wishing to see PSRs may do so outside consulting hours. At 3 and 9 months, most staff were satisfied with the changes. Promotional items/room were not significantly reduced at 3 months (−4.0 items/room ; 95% CI −6.61 to −1.39; p = 0.066) or 9 months (−2.63 items/room; 95% CI −5.86 to 0.60; p = 0.24). Generic prescribing significantly increased at 3 months (OR 2.28, 95% CI 1.31 to 3.86; p = 0.0027) and 9 months (OR 2.07, 95% CI 1.13 to 3.82; p = 0.016). Conclusion There was a marked reduction in interactions with PSRs with majority staff satisfaction and improved prescribing practices. The new policy will form part of the practice's orientation package. Reception staff give PSRs a letter explaining the policy. It is hoped that the extra 40 min/doctor of
Ben Abdelaziz, Ahmed; Haddad, Sofiène; Harrabi, Imed; Ghannem, Hassen
A continuing medical education is an essential activity in the search for doctors' performance, provided it is adapted to the specificity of their medical practice. The objective of this work is to identify the needs of general practitioners in relation to continuing medical education. It is a structural descriptive and transversal survey of about 112 general practitioners among the 140 doctors in the Sousse region in 2000. Data have been collected through a questionnaire that develops the expectation of general practitioners concerning the themes, domains and specialties privileged in a continued training. This research shows that the diagnostic and therapeutic strategies of current affections were themes requested by 85% of general practitioners. The doctor-patient relation has been chosen by 71% of doctors. Emergency medicine was the specialty proposed by most of them. Thus, general practitioners expect a permanent training specific to their profile that could improve their clinical and relational competences.
GENERAL VIEW FROM EAST WITH BUILDING (OFFICE) ON RIGHT, BUILDINGS #24 & #26 ON LEFT, ROADWAY BETWEEN - Tyringham Shaker Settlement, Main House & Office, Jerusalem Road, Tyringham, Berkshire County, MA
Grembowski, David; And Others
Senior dental students and family dental practitioners were surveyed concerning their choice of pairs of alternative treatments and the technical and patient factors influencing their decisions. Greater agreement in clinical decision-making was found among dentists than among students for all four pairs of alternative services. (MSE)
Brown, S; Greenwood, M; Meechan, J G
There are a significant number of patients in society who have some form of psychiatric disorder. It is important that dental practitioners have an awareness of the more common psychiatric disorders and their potential implications as they are likely to encounter them in clinical practice.
Montalto, M; Dunt, D; Young, D
General practitioners have been part of multidisciplinary services in Victoria Community Health Centres (CHCs) for 20 years. This model institutionalizes a high degree of integration between general practitioners and other primary care and community service personnel. Of 51 eligible full-time general practitioners in Victorian CHCs, 46 were interviewed, using a structured questionnaire. General practitioners in CHCs were younger, less experienced and more likely to be female than other general practitioners. Nearly three-quarters were salaried. The philosophy of practice and the conditions of employment were the commonest reasons for entering CHC practice. Teamwork and the conditions of employment were felt to be the biggest advantages of CHC practice, while difficulties with management and the perceived loss of professional ownership and control were the commonest disadvantages. None reported interference from the CHC management in their clinical practice. Nearly a quarter of full-time CHC general practitioners do not undertake any formal community health promotion activities. Forty-five per cent of respondents intended to leave their CHC within the next five years. Universal health insurance has diminished the impact of CHC general practice. The philosophy of CHCs and the salaried nature of the employment continues to attract general practitioners. High staff turnover is a feature of CHC general practice, in part related to young doctors making an initial, but not long-term commitment to CHC practice. However, the loss of professional control and management difficulties should be addressed, as these may contribute to the high turnover.
Renier, W; Seys, B
The objective of this study was to introduce general practitioners (GPs) to the existing emergency medical services (EMS) system, in order to improve the response to emergency residential calls. The study was based in Brussels, which has 1 million residents. A GP dispatcher (GPD) was placed in the emergency dispatch centre, with a stand-by GP, together with adequate equipment, at his or her immediate disposal. A comparative evaluation was conducted in 1994 to measure the changes brought by the availability of a stand-by GP to the emergency medical dispatching performed by the GPD in an experimental zone (EZ) in comparison with a control zone (CZ). The evolution between a first period at the beginning of the year and a second period in September was also analysed. In total, 1059 residential emergency calls were included in the study. The amount of missing data in the filing cards, collaboration between the emergency medical dispatcher (EMD) and the GPD, and evaluation of the emergency levels were improved by training the GPD and the stand-by GP. Intervention times of the stand-by GP varied according to the level of the emergency. The sending of supplementary assistance after dispatching an EMS ambulance, a stand-by GP or a GP of an on-call service was significantly different in the EZ compared with the CZ. The percentage of EMS ambulances and GPs sent increased. The evolution between the two periods was characterized in the CZ by the disappearance of the supplementary assistance performed by the stand-by GP or by the GP of the on-call service and in the EZ by a slight but not significant increased use of the mobile intensive care units (MICUs) for initial assistance. A stand-by GP was used in about 10% of the cases as supplementary assistance. A large number of non-vital urgent complaints arrive at the dispatch centre. The availability of a stand-by GP does not cause an increase (rather a decrease) in MICU use in initial care and supplementary assistance. It causes
Ronalds, Clare; Vaughan, J. P.; Sprackling, P.
A matched control study was carried out to determine whether Asian immigrants in Nottingham made more or less use of the general-practitioner services than British-born white subjects. The study was limited to antenatal, postnatal, and infant care in one general practice, and information was collected from general-practitioner and health-visitor records and by an interview with the mother. The findings showed no difference between the two groups in the use of the general-practitioner or maternal and child welfare services. PMID:874935
Smith, L F
Maternity services in England are currently being reorganized. The success of the changes will be judged against the recommendations of the Changing Childbirth report. This paper describes the nature of maternity care and of general practice. It is argued that maternity care provision by general practitioners is a central and essential part of British general practice. Specifically, it is shown how general practitioners can help to achieve the objectives of the report, and thus, have a future role. It is suggested that all general practitioners who wish maternity care to remain an essential part of general practice need to argue the case with providers and purchasers. If they do not, then it is quite likely that general practitioners will be increasingly excluded as the commissioning and contracting mechanisms become more effective with midwives providing low-risk care and consultant obstetricians high-risk care. PMID:8703528
Park, Melissa; Cherry, Donald; Decker, Sandra L
The expansion of health insurance coverage through health care reform, along with the aging of the population, are expected to strain the capacity for providing health care. Projections of the future physician workforce predict declines in the supply of physicians and decreasing physician work hours for primary care. An expansion of care delivered by nurse practitioners (NPs), certified nurse midwives (CNMs), and physician assistants (PAs) is often cited as a solution to the predicted surge in demand for health care services and calls for an examination of current reliance on these providers. Using a nationally based physician survey, we have described the employment of NPs, CNMs, and PAs among office-based physicians by selected physician and practice characteristics.
Luijsterburg, Pim A J; Verhagen, Arianne P; Ostelo, Raymond W J G; van den Hoogen, Hans J M M; Peul, Wilco C; Avezaat, Cees J J; Koes, Bart W
A randomised clinical trial in primary care with a 12-months follow-up period. About 135 patients with acute sciatica (recruited from May 2003 to November 2004) were randomised in two groups: (1) the intervention group received physical therapy (PT) added to the general practitioners' care, and (2) the control group with general practitioners' care only. To assess the effectiveness of PT additional to general practitioners' care compared to general practitioners' care alone, in patients with acute sciatica. There is a lack of knowledge concerning the effectiveness of PT in patients with sciatica. The primary outcome was patients' global perceived effect (GPE). Secondary outcomes were severity of leg and back pain, severity of disability, general health and absence from work. The outcomes were measured at 3, 6, 12 and 52 weeks after randomisation. At 3 months follow-up, 70% of the intervention group and 62% of the control group reported improvement (RR 1.1; 95% CI 0.9-1.5). At 12 months follow-up, 79% of the intervention group and 56% of the control group reported improvement (RR 1.4; 95% CI 1.1; 1.8). No significant differences regarding leg pain, functional status, fear of movement and health status were found at short-term or long-term follow-up. At 12 months follow-up, evidence was found that PT added to general practitioners' care is only more effective regarding GPE, and not more cost-effective in the treatment of patients with acute sciatica than general practitioners' care alone. There are indications that PT is especially effective regarding GPE in patients reporting severe disability at presentation.
Coverdale, J H; Thomson, A N; White, G E
BACKGROUND. Doctor-patient social and sexual contact is increasingly acknowledged as an issue of importance for the medical profession. However, there is little research concerning general practitioners on this topic. AIM. A study was undertaken to obtain data on social and sexual contact between general practitioners and their patients. METHOD. An anonymous questionnaire was mailed to a nationwide randomized sample of 217 general practitioners in New Zealand. RESULTS. A response rate of 86% was obtained. Dating and sexual contact with patients was considered to be sometimes or usually acceptable to 35% and 10% of general practitioners, respectively. Of respondents, 6% reported having dated a patient, 4% reported having had sexual contact with a patient at some point during their career and 2% reported having engaged in sexual contact with a former patient. General practitioners who had personally known of a colleague who had engaged in sexual contact with a patient were more likely to believe this behaviour had negative consequences than general practitioners who themselves reported having engaged in sexual contact with a patient. CONCLUSION. The study results have implications for developing behavioural guidelines and educational interventions for general practitioners. PMID:7619570
Somerset, Maggie; Weiss, Marjorie; Fahey, Tom
Objectives To examine the interaction between general practitioners and pharmaceutical company representatives. Design Qualitative study of 13 consecutive meetings between general practitioner and pharmaceutical representatives. A dramaturgical model was used to inform analysis of the transcribed verbal interactions. Setting Practice in south west England. Participants 13 pharmaceutical company representatives and one general practitioner. Results The encounters were acted out in six scenes. Scene 1 was initiated by the pharmaceutical representative, who acknowledged the relative status of the two players. Scene 2 provided the opportunity for the representative to check the general practitioner's knowledge about the product. Scene 3 was used to propose clinical and cost benefits associated with the product. During scene 4, the general practitioner took centre stage and challenged aspects of this information. Scene 5 involved a recovery strategy as the representative fought to regain equilibrium. In the final scene, the representative tried to ensure future contacts. Conclusion Encounters between general practitioners and pharmaceutical representatives follow a consistent format that is implicitly understood by each player. It is naive to suppose that pharmaceutical representatives are passive resources for drug information. General practitioners might benefit from someone who can provide unbiased information about prescribing in a manner that is supportive and sympathetic to the demands of practice. What is already known on this topicPharmaceutical representatives influence physicians' prescribing in ways that are often unacknowledged by the physicians themselvesMeetings with pharmaceutical representatives are associated with increased prescribing costs and less rational prescribingWhat this study addsMeetings between pharmaceutical representatives and general practitioners follow a consistent format that is implicitly understood by each playerGeneral practitioners
... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Office of Inspector General. 221.3 Section 221.3 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION GENERAL ORGANIZATION § 221.3 Office of Inspector General. (a) Establishment. The Office of Inspector General (OIG) was established...
Macisco, Christopher A.
The NASA Office of Inspector General is the Federal Law Enforcement Agency at NASA which conducts criminal and regulatory investigations in which NASA is a victim. The OIG prevents and detects crime, fiaud, waste and abuse and assists NASA management in promoting economy, efficiency, and effectiveness in its programs and operations. Investigations (OI) and the Office of Audits (OA). The investigations side deals with criminal Investigations, administrative investigations, and civil investigations. The Audits side deals with inspections and assessments as well as the Auditing of NASA Programs and Activities. Our mission at the OIG is to conduct and supervise independent and objective audits and investigations relating to agency programs and operations; to promote economy, effectiveness and efficiency within the agency; to prevent and detect crime, fraud, waste and abuse in agency programs and operations; to review and make recommendations regarding existing and proposed legislation and regulations relating to agency programs and operations. We are also responsible for keeping the agency head and the Congress fully and currently informed of problems in agency programs and operations. deal with False Claims, False Statements, Conspiracy, Theft, Computer Crime, Mail Fraud, the Procurement Integrity Act, the Anti-Kickback Act, as well as noncompliance with NASA Management Instructions, the Federal Acquisition Regulations (FAR), and the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). Most of the casework that is dealt with in our office is generated through gum shoe work or cases that we generate on our own. These cases can come from Law Enforcement Referrals, GIDEP Reports, EPlMS (NASA Quality System), Defense Contract Audit Agency, Newspaper Articles, and Confidential Information. In many cases, confidentiality is the biggest factor to informants coming forward. We are able to maintain confidentiality because the 01 is independent of NASA Management and doesn t report to the Center
Masip, Jaume; Alonso, Hernán; Herrero, Carmen; Garrido, Eugenio
Deception detection research has shown that police officers are less truth-biased and make their veracity judgments with greater confidence than do nonofficers. Here we examined nonofficers, novice officers, and experienced officers' response bias, confidence, and generalized communicative suspicion. In Experiment 1, novice officers aligned with nonofficers in terms of both generalized communicative suspicion scores and confidence, with both these groups scoring lower than experienced officers. Generalized communicative suspicion scores and veracity judgments were not significantly related for either sample. However, novice officers aligned with experienced officers in terms of judgments: both police groups were lie-biased, whereas nonofficers were truth-biased. These findings suggest that unlike experienced officers, who have embraced the police culture to a greater degree, novice officers are not dispositionally suspicious (generalized communicative suspicion); however, they are able to mirror the prototypical police behavior (deception judgments) in police-related contexts. Experiment 2 supported these notions.
Vedsted, Peter; Sokolowski, Ineta; Olesen, Frede
Walk-in open access in general practice may influence the general practitioner's (GP's) work, but very little research has been done on the consequences. In this study from Danish general practice, we compare the prevalence of burnout between GPs with a walk-in open access and those without. In a questionnaire study (2004), we approached all 458 active GPs in the county of Aarhus, Denmark, and 376 (82.8%) GPs returned the questionnaire. Walk-in open access was defined as at least 30 minutes every weekday where patients could attend practice without an appointment. Burnout was measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Analyses using logistic regression were adjusted for gender, age, marital status, job satisfaction, minutes per consultation, practice organisation, working hours, number of listed patients per GP, number of contacts per GP, continuing medical education- (CME-) activities, and clusters of GPs. In all, 8% of GPs had open access and the prevalence of burnout was 24%. GPs with walk-in open access were more likely to suffer from burnout. Having open access was associated with a 3-fold increased likelihood of burnout (OR = 3.1 (95% CI: 1.1-8.8, P = 0.035)). Although the design cannot establish causality, it is recommended to closely monitor possible negative consequences of open access in general practice.
Professor Neil Carson, who is to retire as Chairman of Monash University's Department of Community Medicine at the end of this year, has completed a significant and successful term marked by many achievements. His energy, vision and ability to acquire and channel resources have helped develop a vibrant and productive department. His wise counsel and negotiating skills have led to important achievements for the cause of general practice in both the political sphere and in academic institutions. He was the founder and first president of the Australian Association for Academic General Practice. His impact on medical education, especially for general practice in Australia, has been far reaching.
O'Riordan, Margaret; Dahinden, André; Aktürk, Zekeriya; Ortiz, José Miguel Bueno; Dağdeviren, Nezih; Elwyn, Glyn; Micallef, Adrian; Murtonen, Mikko; Samuelson, Marianne; Struk, Per; Tayar, Danny; Thesen, Janecke
Many patients attending general practice do not have an obvious diagnosis at presentation. Skills to deal with uncertainty are particularly important in general practice as undifferentiated and unorganised problems are a common challenge for general practitioners (GPs). This paper describes the management of uncertainty as an essential skill which should be included in educational programmes for both trainee and established GPs. Philosophers, psychologists and sociologists use different approaches to the conceptualisation of managing uncertainty. The literature on dealing with uncertainty focuses largely on identifying relevant evidence and decision making. Existing models of the consultation should be improved in order to understand consultations involving uncertainty. An alternative approach focusing on shared decision making and understanding the consultation from the patient's perspective is suggested. A good doctor-patient relationship is vital, creating trust and mutual respect, developed over time with good communication skills. Evidence-based medicine should be used, including discussion of probabilities where available. Trainers need to be aware of their own use of heuristics as they act as role models for trainees. Expression of feelings by trainees should be encouraged and acknowledged by trainers as a useful tool in dealing with uncertainty. Skills to deal with uncertainty should be regarded as quality improvement tools and included in educational programmes involving both trainee and established GPs.
From the sight of a General Practitioner time and again certain indications for some interventions on patients in hospitals are questionable. Enough evidence-based studies are of great importance, so that the individual evidence of the patient including the view of his General Practitioner can be put in first place when making decisions for interventions. In order to generate as much data with as little time and effort possible, structures for patient-centered care have to be created over the whole therapeutic chain (GPs, specialists, hospitals), where the necessary data can be gathered. In an interview GP Dr. med. H.U. Blunier speaks his mind, about how he is persistently pursuing his goal to develop patient paths across all institutions to finally close the therapy chain in terms of an integrated health care.
Lawrence, A J; Wright, F A; D'Adamo, S P
Information regarding orthodontic service provision by general dental practitioners in Australia is limited. The aim of this survey was to determine the amount and variety of orthodontic services provided by general dental practitioners in the Melbourne Statistical Division, Victoria, Australia. A random sample of 307 dentists drawn from the Victorian Dentists Register was surveyed by mailed questionnaire: 218 (71%) replied. Data were collected using a fortnight log. During this time 59 per cent of the dentists saw at least one orthodontic patient; one dentist saw 66 orthodontic patients. Removable orthodontic appliances were used by 35 per cent of the dentists and fixed orthodontic appliances by 18 per cent. Twenty-six per cent provided comprehensive orthodontic treatment, 22 per cent aligned incisors, and 21 per cent corrected anterior crossbites. The general dental practitioners surveyed provided a wide range of preventive and interceptive orthodontic services to generally a small percentage of their patients.
Activities during the period January 1, 1979 through December 31, 1979 are reported. First, an overview of the progress and problems encountered by this office during the last calendar year is given. Next, certain matters of concern relating to the independence of the office and the ability to work effectively are discussed. Then progress being made and problems being met in forward planning are reviewed. The existing office organizational and staffing patterns are described in the subsequent section. Then weaknesses of the existing DOE overall audit system are discussed. Work done by the IG audit, inspection, and investigative staffs during 1979 is reviewed. Summaries of significant IG findings and recommendations, and of departmental responses thereto, are included. Finally, follow-through activities and certain developments during 1979 that were of importance to the office are described. (RWR)
Joore, Ivo K; van Roosmalen, Sanne Lc; van Bergen, Jan Eam; van Dijk, Nynke
European guidelines recommend offering an HIV test to individuals who display HIV indicator conditions (ICs). UK guidelines recommend performing a 'routine offer of HIV testing' in primary care where HIV prevalence exceeds 2 in 1000. Implementation of new provider-initiated HIV testing strategies in general practice is limited, while the numbers of undiagnosed and late for care HIV patients remain high. We have explored Dutch general practitioners' barriers to and facilitators of both strategies. We combined semi-structured in-depth interviews with focus groups. Nine general practitioners - key informants of sexually transmitted infection/HIV prevention and control - were selected for the interviews. Additionally, we organised focus groups with a broad sample of general practitioners (n = 81). Framework analysis was used to analyse the data. Various barriers were found, related to (1) the content of the guidelines (testing the right group and competing priorities in general practice), (2) their organisational implementation (lack of time, unclear when to repeat the HIV test and overlong list of ICs) and (3) the patient population (creating fear among patients, stigmatising them and fear regarding financial costs). Multiple general practitioners stated that performing a sexual risk assessment of patients is important before applying either strategy. Also, they recommended implementing the IC-guided approach only in high-prevalence areas and combining HIV tests with other laboratory blood tests. General practitioners tend to cling to old patterns of risk-based testing. Promoting awareness of HIV testing and educating general practitioners about the benefits of new provider-initiated HIV testing strategies is important for the actual uptake of HIV testing.
The paper presents general principles of rational cooperation of general practitioners and other specialists with nephrologist dedicate special attention concerning the slowing progression of renal failure and beneficts for patients as a result of early referral to nephrologist. The management of patients with chronic renal failure in the predialysis period and their preparation for renal replacement therapy was also described.
Booth, Barbara; Lawrance, Richard
A survey examined the continuing education needs of 706 rural general practitioners (GPs) across Australia. An inability to generalize findings across location indicates that regional identification by local service providers would be more effective. However, a set of topics broader than the traditional continuing medical education topics for…
Dawoud, B E S; Roberts, A; Yates, J M
The aim of this article is to explore the diverse and complex nature of pharmacological drug-drug interactions in the general dental practice setting. Using published NHS statistics, this article will highlight medications for common medical conditions that could interact with frequently prescribed drugs by the general dental practitioner.
Traver, M; Basagoiti, I; Martinez-Millana, A; Fernandez-Llatas, C; Traver, V
Digital Health Literacy (DHL) is a key element to promote patient empowerment. This position paper presents the lessons learnt from the daily activities of a General Practitioner interacting with patients. General Practitioners have a main role in each stage on individual digital health literacy process. They are the first meeting point between patients and the medical knowledge; in the search phase, they are who can prescribe and validate health information; in the comprehension phase, they lead to a full understanding; and in the adoption phase, they assist in the own personal application. Major conclusions are that General Practitioners need a set of tools, organizational resources and knowledge to acquire Digital Health Literacy skills to help patients on their way from the information to the empowerment. Some of these tools and knowledge are identified to draw the future roadmap to get people with Digital Health Literacy skills.
Aravind, B. S.; Joy, E. Tatu; Kiran, M. Shashi; Sherubin, J. Eugenia; Sajesh, S.; Manchil, P. Redwin Dhas
Aim and Objective: The aim and objective is to evaluate the level of awareness and attitude about radiation hazards and safety practices among general dental practitioners in Trivandrum District, Kerala, India. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 300 general dental practitioners in Trivandrum District, Kerala, India. Postanswering the questions, a handout regarding radiation safety and related preventive measures was distributed to encourage radiation understanding and protection. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis were done by assessing the results using Chi-square statistical test, t-test, and other software (Microsoft excel + SPSS 20.0 trail version). Results: Among 300 general practitioners (247 females and 53 males), 80.3% of the practitioners were found to have a separate section for radiographic examination in their clinics. Intraoral radiographic machines were found to be the most commonly (63.3%) used radiographic equipment while osteoprotegerin was the least (2%). Regarding the practitioner's safety measures, only 11.7% of them were following all the necessary steps while 6.7% clinicians were not using any safety measure in their clinic, and with respect to patient safety, only 9.7% of practitioners were following the protocol. Conclusion: The level of awareness of practitioners regarding radiation hazards and safety was found to be acceptable. However, implementation of their knowledge with respect to patient and personnel safety was found wanting. Insisting that they follow the protocols and take necessary safety measures by means of continuing medical education programs, pamphlets, articles, and workshops is strongly recommended. PMID:27829748
Springer, M P
With the publication of the Dutch College of General Practitioners' practice guideline 'Examination of the neonate', a discussion which has lasted several decades has been brought to an end. Up to now a second neonatal examination by the general practitioner on the third, fourth or fifth day after a midwife-assisted birth was recommended. The arguments in support of this recommendation were based on the following: (a) the limited expertise of midwives in the past, (b) the experience that general practitioners had in examining children, although this experience was not specifically related to the defects for which neonates should be checked, and (c) the government bodies' wish to restrict the number of hospital deliveries by giving greater structure to the organisation of midwife care, which in practice, did not lead to large changes. Based on three studies, the practice guideline recommends that a second examination is of no added value.
In the Netherlands and a number of other European countries general practitioners are the gatekeepers for specialist and hospital care. European health care systems with gatekeeping general practitioners, i.e. those with comprehensive, strong primary care, perform better on a number of health indicators and on equity. However, it is less clear if gatekeeping health care systems have lower health expenditure. There is ongoing debate on whether gatekeeping plays a role in diagnostic delay of cancers. At health care system level research is being hampered by small numbers and should be combined with in-depth research into health care mechanisms.
Johnson, Bridget; Thorogood, Margaret
A questionnaire was circulated to a sample of general practitioners in Oxfordshire enquiring about the supervision of women taking oral contraceptives. A high standard of care was being offered and the doctors believed that there was a wide range of conditions that should influence the prescription of oral contraceptives. We conclude that while suitably trained paramedical staff could provide the same standard of care as the general practitioners, this could not be achieved through the use of a package insert listing possible contraindications. PMID:894634
de Souza, S; Bansal, R K; Galloway, J
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a common chronic inflammatory autoimmune disorder which significantly impacts patients' lives and can lead to permanent disability. Inflammation in RA not only affects joints; but can affect organs including the heart and lungs. Early diagnosis, initiation of intensive drug therapy, and a multidisciplinary care approach have vastly improved the long-term prognosis for those living with the condition. However, RA patients often present with co-morbidities which add to the complexity of clinical management. Orofacial conditions associated with RA which dental professionals need to be aware of include periodontal disease, temporomandibular dysfunction and salivary gland dysfunction. In this article, we provide information on RA, oral health in RA and guidance on how best to manage patients with RA in general dental practice.
Background There is little published on provider continuity in Australian general practice and none on its effect on inequality of care for children. Method Questionnaire administered to parents of the ACT Kindergarten Health Screen asking the name of their child's usual GP and practice address between 2001 and 2008. Results Parents of 30,789 children named 433 GPs and 141 practices. In each year, an average of 77% of parents could name both the GP and the practice, an average of 11% of parents could name only the practice, and an average of 12% of parents could name neither. In each year, 25% of parents could not name a usual GP for children of Aboriginal or Torres Straight Islander descent, or children born outside of Australia, compared to 10% of all other children (p = < 0.0001). The frequency of GPs displaying continuity of care varied over time with 19% of GPs being present in the ACT in only one year and 39% of GPs being present in every year over the eight years of study. GPs displayed two different forms of transience either by working in more than one practice in each year (5% of GPs), or by not being present in the ACT region from one year to the next (15% of GPs). Fewer parents nominated transient GPs as their child's GP compared to choosing GPs who displayed continuity (p < 0.001). Conclusions Many GPs (39%) were reported to provide continuity of care for in the ACT region and some GPs (20%) displayed transient care. Indigenous children or children born outside of Australia had less equity of access to a nominated GP than all other children. Such inequity might disappear if voluntary registration of children was adopted in Australian general practice. PMID:21961728
Checkland, Kath; Harrison, Stephen; McDonald, Ruth; Grant, Suzanne; Campbell, Stephen; Guthrie, Bruce
In 2004 a new contract was introduced for General Practitioners in the UK, which introduced a significant element of 'pay-for-performance', including both clinical and organisational targets. The introduction of this contract has caused interest across the world, particularly amongst those responsible for commissioning primary care services. It can be argued that the clinical targets in the contract (known as the Quality and Outcomes Framework, QOF) represent a move towards a more biomedical model of health and illness, which is contrary to the ideal of providing holistic (or biopsychosocial) care that has been traditionally espoused by GPs. This paper reports results from two linked studies (in England and Scotland) investigating the early stages of the new contract. We describe the way in which four practices with different organisational approaches and espoused identities have all changed their practice structures, consultations and clinical care in response to QOF in ways which will result in patients receiving a more biomedical type of care. In spite of these observed changes, respondents continued to maintain discursive claims to holism. We discuss how this disconnection between rhetoric and reality can be maintained, and consider its implications for the future development of GPs' claims to a professional identity.
Urwin, Sean; Whittaker, William
Objective To test for differences in primary care family practitioner usage by sexual orientation. Design Multivariate logistic analysis of pooled cross-sectional postal questionnaire responses to family practitioner usage. Setting Patient-reported use and experience of primary care in England, UK. Data from several waves of a postal questionnaire (General Practice Patient Survey) 2012–2014. Population 2 807 320 survey responses of adults aged 18 years and over, registered with a family practitioner. Main outcome measures Probability of a visit to a family practitioner within the past 3 months. Results Lesbian women were 0.803 times (95% CI 0.755 to 0.854) less likely to have seen a family practitioner in the past 3 months relative to heterosexual women (bisexual women OR=0.887, 95% CI 0.817 to 0.963). Gay men were 1.218 times (95% CI 1.163 to 1.276) more likely to have seen a family practitioner relative to heterosexual men (bisexual men OR=1.084, 95% CI 0.989 to 1.188). Our results are robust to the timing of the family practitioner visit (0–3, 0–6, 0–12 months). Gay men were more likely to have seen a family practitioner than heterosexual men where the proportion of women practitioners in the practice was higher (OR=1.238, 95% CI 1.041 to 1.472). Conclusions Inequalities in the use of primary care across sexual orientation in England exist having conditioned on several measures of health status, demographic and family practitioner characteristics. The findings suggest these differences may be reduced by policies targeting a reduction of differences in patient acceptability of primary care. In particular, further research is needed to understand whether lower use among heterosexual men represents unmet need or overutilisation among gay men, and the barriers to practitioner use seemingly occurring due to the gender distribution of practices. PMID:27173816
Walimbe, Hrishikesh; Kontham, Ujjwal; Bijle, Mohammed Nadeem Ahmed; Wani, Vaibhav; Nankar, Meenakshi; Muchandi, Sneha
Background: This study aimed to analyze knowledge, attitude and practice of general dental practitioners regarding the use of devitalizing agents in their respective practice. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 practicing general dentists were randomly chosen as per the list of practitioners available to local state association. The questionnaire was designed to cover general information of the participating dentist and concerning different aspects of devitalizing agents. The collected data was subjected to statistical analysis using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) version 17.0 (IBM Statistics, Chicago, Illinois, USA). Descriptive statistics was drawn with respective percentages to have a comparative overview. Results: The response rate was 97%, of which the effective and complete replies received were 77% (75). 56% respondents used paraformaldehyde containing pastes. Majority of general practitioners (61%) did not observe any post-operative complication following the use of devitalising agent. 33% (25) of the respondents were not aware of the complications of devitalizing agents. Conclusion: Thus, it can be concluded that general dental practitioners in Pune and Nashik district of Maharashtra, India do use pulp devitalizing agents in spite of possessing knowledge related to the complications. PMID:26464546
Walimbe, Hrishikesh; Kontham, Ujjwal; Bijle, Mohammed Nadeem Ahmed; Wani, Vaibhav; Nankar, Meenakshi; Muchandi, Sneha
Background: This study aimed to analyze knowledge, attitude and practice of general dental practitioners regarding the use of devitalizing agents in their respective practice. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 practicing general dentists were randomly chosen as per the list of practitioners available to local state association. The questionnaire was designed to cover general information of the participating dentist and concerning different aspects of devitalizing agents. The collected data was subjected to statistical analysis using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) version 17.0 (IBM Statistics, Chicago, Illinois, USA). Descriptive statistics was drawn with respective percentages to have a comparative overview. Results: The response rate was 97%, of which the effective and complete replies received were 77% (75). 56% respondents used paraformaldehyde containing pastes. Majority of general practitioners (61%) did not observe any post-operative complication following the use of devitalising agent. 33% (25) of the respondents were not aware of the complications of devitalizing agents. Conclusion: Thus, it can be concluded that general dental practitioners in Pune and Nashik district of Maharashtra, India do use pulp devitalizing agents in spite of possessing knowledge related to the complications. PMID:25878471
Houwink, Elisa J.F.; Muijtjens, Arno M.M.; van Teeffelen, Sarah R.; Henneman, Lidewij; Rethans, Jan Joost; van der Jagt, Liesbeth E.J.; van Luijk, Scheltus J.; Dinant, Geert Jan; van der Vleuten, Cees; Cornel, Martina C.
Purpose: General practitioners are increasingly called upon to deliver genetic services and could play a key role in translating potentially life-saving advancements in oncogenetic technologies to patient care. If general practitioners are to make an effective contribution in this area, their genetics competencies need to be upgraded. The aim of this study was to investigate whether oncogenetics training for general practitioners improves their genetic consultation skills. Methods: In this pragmatic, blinded, randomized controlled trial, the intervention consisted of a 4-h training (December 2011 and April 2012), covering oncogenetic consultation skills (family history, familial risk assessment, and efficient referral), attitude (medical ethical issues), and clinical knowledge required in primary-care consultations. Outcomes were measured using observation checklists by unannounced standardized patients and self-reported questionnaires. Results: Of 88 randomized general practitioners who initially agreed to participate, 56 completed all measurements. Key consultation skills significantly and substantially improved; regression coefficients after intervention were equivalent to 0.34 and 0.28 at 3-month follow-up, indicating a moderate effect size. Satisfaction and perceived applicability of newly learned skills were highly scored. Conclusion: The general practitioner–specific training proved to be a feasible, satisfactory, and clinically applicable method to improve oncogenetics consultation skills and could be used as an educational framework to inform future training activities with the ultimate aim of improving medical care. PMID:23722870
... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Office of General Counsel. 1.31 Section 1.31 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND.... The office provides legal services to all organizational elements of the Agency with respect to...
... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Office of General Counsel. 1.31 Section 1.31 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND.... The office provides legal services to all organizational elements of the Agency with respect to...
Holley, Debbie; Santos, Patricia; Cook, John; Kerr, Micky
This paper responds to the Alpine Rendez-Vous "crisis" in technology-enhanced learning. It takes a contested area of policy as well as a rapid change in the National Health Service, and documents the responses to "information overload" by a group of general practitioners practices in the North of England. Located between the…
Rikkert, Marcel G. M.; Rigaud, Anne-Sophie
General practitioners (GPs) need advanced skills in geriatric assessment to be competent to treat the increasing number of elderly patients. Continuing medical education in geriatrics for GPs is heterogeneous, and not assessed for effectiveness. In this study we compared the educational effects of three geriatric post-graduate training methods on…
Introduction: To identify health website recommendation trends by Gold Coast (Australia) general practitioners (GPs) to their patients. Method: A mixed method approach to data collection and analysis was employed. Quantitative data were collected using a prepaid postal survey, consisting of 17 questions, mailed to 250 (61 per cent) of 410 GPs on…
Kirby, Amanda; Davies, Rhys; Bryant, Amy
In this article, Dr Amanda Kirby, medical director at the Dyscovery Centre in Cardiff, Rhys Davies, a researcher for the School of Education at the University of Wales, and Amy Bryant, a psychology student at Cardiff University, report on their investigations into teachers' and general practitioners' (GPs') knowledge of six specific learning…
Torr, J.; Iacono, T.; Graham, M. J.; Galea, J.
Background: In Australia, diagnosis and management of depression in adults with intellectual disability (ID) often occurs within the primary care setting. Few tools are available to assist general practitioners (GPs) in the diagnostic process. The study aim was to assess properties of carer and GP checklists developed to address this problem.…
Turk, V.; Kerry, S.; Corney, R.; Rowlands, G.; Khattran, S.
Background: This research identifies factors affecting why some adults with intellectual disability (AWIDs) consult their general practitioner (GP) more than others. Little is known about these factors, despite AWIDs having higher health needs and reduced longevity. Current barriers to accessing health care need to be understood and overcome to…
Godin, Gaston; Beaulieu, Dominique; Touchette, Jean-Sebastien; Lambert, Leo-Daniel; Dodin, Sylvie
The authors' goal was to identify factors explaining intention to encourage a patient to follow complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatment among general practitioners (GPs), fourth-year medical students, and residents in family medicine. They surveyed 500 GPs and 904 medical students via a self-administered mailed questionnaire that…
This study was undertaken to determine the level of understanding of Gold Coast general practitioners (GPs) pertaining to such criteria as reliability, interactive and usability components associated with health websites. These are important considerations due to the increased levels of computer and World Wide Web (WWW)/Internet use and health…
Rahbar, Mohammad Hossein; Ibrahim, Khalid; Assassi, Parisa
General practitioners (GPs) could have an important role in early diagnosis of autism. There have been no studies evaluating the knowledge of GPs regarding autism in Pakistan. We aimed to fill that gap by assessing knowledge and attitude of GPs in Karachi regarding autism. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 348 GPs; only 148 (44.6%) had…
Zambrano, Sofia C.; Barton, Christopher A.
A grounded theory study was undertaken to understand how general practitioners (GPs) experience the death of their patients. Eleven GPs participated in semi-structured interviews. The participants explained their experience of a patient's death using the "death journey" metaphor. This journey, the Journey with the Dying, could be…
Koritsas, Stella; Iacono, Teresa; Davis, Robert
In 2007 the Australian Commonwealth Government announced the Medicare Health Assessment for People with an Intellectual Disability as part of the Enhanced Primary Care (EPC) program (Department of Health and Ageing, 2008). The annual health assessment is a structured framework for general practitioners (GPs), which enables an annual comprehensive…
Dowrick, Christopher; Gask, Linda; Hughes, John G; Charles-Jones, Huw; Hogg, Judith A; Peters, Sarah; Salmon, Peter; Rogers, Anne R; Morriss, Richard K
Background The successful introduction of new methods for managing medically unexplained symptoms in primary care is dependent to a large degree on the attitudes, experiences and expectations of practitioners. As part of an exploratory randomised controlled trial of reattribution training, we sought the views of participating practitioners on patients with medically unexplained symptoms, and on the value of and barriers to the implementation of reattribution in practice. Methods A nested attitudinal survey and qualitative study in sixteen primary care teams in north-west England. All practitioners participating in the trial (n = 74) were invited to complete a structured survey. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with a purposive sub-sample of survey respondents, using a structured topic guide. Interview transcripts were used to identify key issues, concepts and themes, which were grouped to construct a conceptual framework: this framework was applied systematically to the data. Results Seventy (95%) of study participants responded to the survey. Survey respondents often found it stressful to work with patients with medically unexplained symptoms, though those who had received reattribution training were more optimistic about their ability to help them. Interview participants trained in reattribution (n = 12) reported that reattribution increased their confidence to practice in a difficult area, with heightened awareness, altered perceptions of these patients, improved opportunities for team-building and transferable skills. However general practitioners also reported potential barriers to the implementation of reattribution in routine clinical practice, at the level of the patient, the doctor, the consultation, diagnosis and the healthcare context. Conclusion Reattribution training increases practitioners' sense of competence in managing patients with medically unexplained symptoms. However, barriers to its implementation are considerable, and frequently
Assing Hvidt, Elisabeth; Søndergaard, Jens; Ammentorp, Jette; Bjerrum, Lars; Gilså Hansen, Dorte; Olesen, Frede; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Timm, Helle; Timmermann, Connie; Hvidt, Niels Christian
Objective The objective of this study is to identify points of agreement and disagreements among general practitioners (GPs) in Denmark concerning how the existential dimension is understood, and when and how it is integrated in the GP–patient encounter. Design A qualitative methodology with semi-structured focus group interviews was employed. Setting General practice setting in Denmark. Subjects Thirty-one GPs from two Danish regions between 38 and 68 years of age participated in seven focus group interviews. Results Although understood to involve broad life conditions such as present and future being and identity, connectedness to a society and to other people, the existential dimension was primarily reported integrated in connection with life-threatening diseases and death. Furthermore, integration of the existential dimension was characterized as unsystematic and intuitive. Communication about religious or spiritual questions was mostly avoided by GPs due to shyness and perceived lack of expertise. GPs also reported infrequent referrals of patients to chaplains. Conclusion GPs integrate issues related to the existential dimension in implicit and non-standardized ways and are hindered by cultural barriers. As a way to enhance a practice culture in which GPs pay more explicit attention to the patients’ multidimensional concerns, opportunities for professional development could be offered (courses or seminars) that focus on mutual sharing of existential reflections, ideas and communication competencies. Key pointsAlthough integration of the existential dimension is recommended for patient care in general practice, little is known about GPs’ understanding and integration of this dimension in the GP–patient encounter.The existential dimension is understood to involve broad and universal life conditions having no explicit reference to spiritual or religious aspects.The integration of the existential dimension is delimited to patient cases where life
Jans, Suze MPJ; de Jonge, Ank; Henneman, Lidewij; Cornel, Martina C; Lagro-Janssen, Antoinette LM
Haemoglobinopathies (HbP) are severe autosomal recessive disorders with high prevalence among certain ethnic groups. World Health Organisation (WHO) advises implementing screening programmes for risk groups. Research in the Netherlands has shown that general practitioners and midwives do not perceive ethnicity as a risk factor for HbP. Moreover, registration of ethnicity is a controversial societal issue, which may complicate the introduction of a national preconception or antenatal carrier screening programme. This study investigates attitudes, intention and behaviour of general practitioners and midwives towards ethnicity-based HbP-carrier screening in general. A structured questionnaire based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour was sent by mail to a random selection of 2100 general practitioners and 1800 primary care midwives. Response was 35% (midwives 44.2% GPs 27.6%). Although 45% of respondents thought that offering a carrier test on the basis of ethnicity alone should become national policy, it is currently not carried out. The main factor explaining lack of intention towards ethnicity-based HbP-carrier screening was subjective norm, the perception that their peers do not think they should offer screening (52.2% variance explained). If ethnicity-based HbP-carrier screening would become national policy, most professionals report that they would carry this out. Most respondents favoured ethnicity registration for health purposes. As most practitioners look for role models among peers, debate among general practitioners and midwives should be encouraged when new policy is to be developed, articulating the voices of colleagues who already actively offer HbP-carrier screening. Moreover, primary care professionals and professional organisations need support of policy at national level. PMID:22549405
Rohrer, James E; Angstman, Kurt B; Garrison, Gregory
The purpose of this study was to compare return visits made by patients within 2 weeks after using retail nurse practitioner clinics to return visits made by similar patients after using standard medical office clinics. Retail medicine clinics have become widely available. However, their impact on return visit rates compared to standard medical office visits for similar patients has not been extensively studied. Electronic medical records of adult primary care patients seen in a large group practice in Minnesota in 2009 were analyzed for this study. Patients who were treated for sinusitis were selected. Two groups of patients were studied: those who used one of 2 retail walk-in clinics staffed by nurse practitioners and a comparison group who used one of 4 regular office clinics. The dependent variable was a return office visit to any site within 2 weeks. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to adjust for case-mix differences between groups. Unadjusted odds of return visits were lower for retail clinic patients than for standard office care patients. After adjustment for case mix, patients with more outpatient visits in the previous 6 months had higher odds of return visits within 2 weeks (2-6 prior visits: odds ratio [OR]=1.99, P=0.00; 6 or more prior visits: OR=6.80, P=0.00). The odds of a return visit within 2 weeks were not different by clinic type after adjusting for propensity to use services (OR=1.17, P=0.28). After adjusting for case mix differences, return visit rates did not differ by clinic type.
Mulvey, G; Temple-Smith, M J; Keogh, L A
OBJECTIVE: To examine knowledge and practices in relation to sexually transmissible diseases (STDs) of general practitioners (GPs) in Victoria, Australia. METHOD: A questionnaire was distributed to 520 Victorian GPs randomly selected from the Australian Medical Publishing Company (AMPCo) database of Australian medical practitioners. RESULTS: A response rate of 85% was obtained. While sexual health consultations were common for Victorian GPs, STD caseloads were generally low. Knowledge of clinical features of symptomatic STDs and of important STD epidemiology was generally good although there was a lower awareness of the asymptomatic nature of the most prevalent STDs in Victoria. Diagnostic tests were generally selected appropriately although many GPs did not perform the gold standard combination of tests required for adequate differential diagnosis. Level of STD STD knowledge was related to frequency of advising about safe sex, diagnosing STDs, and younger practitioner age. Attendance at any of a number of postgraduate courses of relevance to the management of STDs was not related to better STD knowledge overall. CONCLUSIONS: Prevention and detection of STDs in general practice involve risk assessment and screening of asymptomatic patients as well as effective treatment of symptomatic patients and their contacts. Results presented here suggest that GPs have good knowledge and use appropriate investigations for patients presenting with symptoms of an STD. The low levels of awareness of the asymptomatic nature of many STDs and other particular aspects of STD knowledge and practice should be addressed in undergraduate and postgraduate medical education programmes. PMID:9582476
Increasing workload due to reduced numbers of general practitioners, a population boom and an aging population has increased the need for accessible distance learning for the UK's primary care doctors. The Royal College of General Practitioners is now in its eighth year of delivering high quality e-learning to 72,000 registered users via its…
2. July 1988 GENERAL VIEW, EAST END OF OFFICE, WITH INTERPRETIVE LOG AND PROTECTION ASSISTANT'S HOUSE (LEFT BACKGROUND) - Glacier Ranger Station, Washington State Route 542, Glacier, Whatcom County, WA
... United States Attorneys on all matters relating to the detection and prevention of fraud and abuse. The..., including GSA. Each office is headed by an Inspector General appointed by the President with the advice...
29. GENERAL VIEW OF VIVIANNA ERA WORKS LOOKING NORTH. OFFICE, STORAGE BUILDING RIGHT CENTER, ORE PLATFORM, ORE BIN LEFT CENTER, GENERATOR BUILDING BEHIND, AND ROTARY KILN AND CONDENSER PLATFORM BELOW. - Mariscal Quicksilver Mine & Reduction Works, Terlingua, Brewster County, TX
GENERAL VIEW OF VIVIANNA ERA WORKS LOOKING NORTH. OFFICE, STORAGE BUILDING RIGHT CENTER, ORE PLATFORM, ORE BIN LEFT CENTER, GENERATOR BUILDING BEHIND, AND ROTARY KILN AND CONDENSER PLATFORM BELOW. - Mariscal Quicksilver Mine & Reduction Works, Terlingua, Brewster County, TX
19. GENERAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHWEST TO NORTHEAST, SHOWING ENCLOSED OFFICE UNITS FLANKING OVERHEAD PORT AT NORTHEAST END OF BUILDING - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA
35. OFFICE OF THE QUARTERMASTER GENERAL; CONSTRUCTION DIVISION; PLAN NUMBER 800-196. MOBILIZATION BUILDINGS; STANDARD HEATING DETAILS; WARM AIR HEATING; SMOKE PIPES & VENT HOODS FOR RANGES. - Fort McCoy, Building T-1129, Sparta, Monroe County, WI
33. GENERAL VIEW OF SHOPS COMPLEX LOOKING EAST, PAYMASTER'S OFFICE IN FOREGROUND, LEFT; PUMPHOUSE, CENTER; SHOPS BUILDING TO RIGHT; SHEDS, FAR RIGHT - Soudan Iron Mine, Tower-Soudan State Park, Tower, St. Louis County, MN
1. GENERAL VIEW OF RAILROAD YARD LOOKING NORTH. Office and Car and Wheel Shops to left, Engine House No. 1 to right. Ebensburg Processing Plant and Powerhouse (Colver Mine) in far left background. - Cambria & Indiana Railroad, Colver, Cambria County, PA
Ahmedani, Muhammad Yakoob; Hashmi, Bella Z.; Ulhaque, Muhammad Saif
Background and aims: Fasting during Ramadan is obligatory for all Muslims across the world. Through literature review, it has been found out that there are various articles published for the awareness of patients and general population regarding safe fasting during Ramadan. But very few studies highlight the Ramadan specific knowledge of general practitioners engaged in providing care to people with diabetes. This study aims to describe the practice, knowledge and attitude of general practitioners regarding treatment and dietary modifications for people with diabetes during Ramadan across Pakistan. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was undertaken among a sample of 274 general practitioners. Data was collected by means of a questionnaire that consisted of 25 questions that were structured according to three categories i-e. Ramadan specific knowledge, diet and physical activity and treatment modification related knowledge and practices of GPs. Results: Out of the total population of GPs surveyed, 70% responded correctly to the questions while 30% responded incorrectly. 1/4th of GPs incorrectly responded to questions regarding basic concepts of diabetes and Ramadan. 1/3rd of GPs responded incorrectly regarding questions on diet. Almost 40% of the GPs responded incorrectly to the questions regarding drug dosage adjustment in people with diabetes during Ramadan. However, more than 80% responded in agreement regarding alteration in medication timings. Conclusion: Almost one third of the studied populations of general practitioners across Pakistan lack the knowledge of basic principles that are important to be employed in the management of diabetes during Ramadan. Hence there is need to promote educational programmes and CMEs to improve the knowledge of our GPs that should be reflected by their sound clinical practices in the field of diabetes. PMID:27648026
Longman, Christine; Temple-Smith, Meredith; Gilchrist, Gail; Lintzeris, Nicholas
Opioid substitution therapy (OST) is a well-recognised, evidence-based treatment for opioid dependence. Since the early 1990s, Australia has used a community-based general practitioner (GP) model ofprescribing, particularly within the state of Victoria, where over 85% of OST prescribing is undertaken by GPs in community settings. Yet the majority of GPs invited to complete the required OST training decline the offer, while of those who complete training, the majority prescribe to few or no patients. This study aimed to determine the reasons for this. Twenty-two in-depth interviews were conducted with Victorian GPs exploring the reasons why the majority declined training, and for trained GPs, why they prescribed to few or no patients in the first 12 months after training. General practitioners who declined to train were predominantly influenced by negative experiences with drug-seeking patients, although other secondary reasons also affected their decision. Some GPs who completed the training were prevented from prescribing by several structural and operational barriers, many of which could be addressed. Fear of deskilling with time became a further impediment. General practitioners who became regular prescribers were highly committed with lengthy general practice experience. Concerns exist about the recruitment process for OST prescriber training, where nearly all GPs decline the offer of training, and the barriers that prevent GPs prescribing after training. Action is needed to address barriers to GP OST training and prescribing, and further research is necessary to ascertain measures required to facilitate long-term prescribing.
Raoof, Maryam; Zeini, Negar; Haghani, Jahangir; Sadr, Saeedeh; Mohammadalizadeh, Sakineh
Introduction: The aim of this study was to gather information on the materials and methods employed in root canal treatment (RCT) by general dental practitioners (GDPs) in Iran. Methods and Materials: A questionnaire was distributed among 450 dentists who attended the 53th Iranian Dental Association congress. Participants were asked to consider demographic variables and answer the questions regarding the materials and methods commonly used in RCT. Descriptive statistics were given as absolute frequencies and valid percentages. The chi-square test was used to investigate the influence of gender and the years of professional activity for the employed materials and techniques. Results: The response rate was 84.88%. The results showed that 61.5% of the participants did not perform pulp sensitivity tests prior to RCT. Less than half of the general dental practitioners (47.4%) said that they would trace a sinus tract before starting the treatment. Nearly 16% of practitioners preferred the rubber dam isolation method. Over 36% of the practitioners reported using formocresol for pulpotomy. The combined approach of working length (WL) radiographs and electronic apex locators was used by 35.2% of the practitioners. Most of the respondents used K-file hand instruments for canal preparation and the technique of choice was step-back (43.5%), while 40.1% of respondents used NiTi rotary files, mostly ProTaper and RaCe. The most widely used irrigant was normal saline (61.8%). Calcium hydroxide was the most commonly used inter appointment medicament (84.6%). The most popular obturation technique was cold lateral condensation (81.7%) with 51% using zinc oxide-eugenol-based sealers. Conclusions: The majority of Iranian GDPs who participated in the present survey do not comply with quality guidelines of endodontic treatment. PMID:25834595
... also changed the name of HUD/OIG-6, Autoinvestigation of the Office of Inspector General to HUD/OIG-6... consolidation also updates routine use 9 due to legislation (IG Reform Act of 2008) enacted in 2008 changing the... changes. In accordance with section 5 U.S.C. 552a(r) and the Office of Management and Budget Circular...
Macneela, Pádraig; Gibbons, Andrea; McGuire, Brian; Murphy, Andrew
Although subject to considerable research from perspectives including general practitioners, patients, and perspective guidelines, chronic low back pain (CLBP) continues to be a common but contentious condition in primary care. We used medical consultation records, critical incident interviews, and a think-aloud problem-solving task to examine how general practitioners applied professional knowledge of the condition, especially in relation to psychosocial care. Using qualitative content analysis and thematic analysis, we identified a pragmatic, goal-focused approach to patients, a schema based on biomedical knowledge and tacit theories of motivation. The doctors' expectations for CLBP included uncertainty over symptoms and doubts over patient credibility, which helped to explain an autonomous rather than collaborative approach to managing back pain patients. The findings are discussed in light of social representations theory, self-determination, and research on the therapeutic relationship.
Luoto, Teemu M; Artsola, Minna; Helminen, Mika; Liimatainen, Suvi; Kosunen, Elise; Ohman, Juha
Patients with head injury constitute a large population treated in primary health care. It is essential to recognize patients with traumatic brain injury among this notable population to determine the need for more specific evaluation. General practitioners (n=331) in Pirkanmaa hospital district in Finland received an email link to answer the survey. The response rate was 54.1% (n=179). Mean survey score was 20.5 points (max. 25). Only acquaintance with the national traumatic brain injury practice guidelines was associated with greater survey scores. The general practitioners' level of knowledge in managing head injuries was good. Deficiencies were found in the questions dealt with post-traumatic amnesia and the definition of traumatic brain injury.
Draijer, Willem; Eizenga, Wietze H; Sluiter, Alja; Opstelten, Wim; Goudswaard, A N Lex
Parkinson's disease is characterised by bradykinesia in combination with one or more of the following symptoms: rigidity, resting tremor and disorders of posture and balance. Refer a patient with suspected Parkinson's disease (or parkinsonism) for diagnosis and treatment preferably to a neurologist with expertise in movement disorders. The treatment of Parkinson's disease is symptomatic; to date, there is no treatment that slows disease progression. The treatment of patients with Parkinson's disease and its related disorders involves collaboration of the neurologist, Parkinson's disease nurse and general practitioner. In addition to recognizing the hypokinetic-rigid syndrome, the general practitioner has a role in diagnosing and treating associated symptoms and disorders, and in supporting and counseling the patient and their partner or caregiver.
Rethans, J J; Sturmans, F; Drop, R; van der Vleuten, C
A study was undertaken whereby a set of standardized (simulated) patients visited general practitioners without being detected, in a health care system where doctors had fixed patient lists. Thirty nine general practitioners were each visited during normal surgery hours by four standardized patients who were designed to be indistinguishable from real patients. The objective of the study was to see whether the actual performance of general practitioners, as assessed by standardized patients, met predetermined consensus standards of care for actual practice. The patients presented standardized accounts of headache, diarrhoea, shoulder pain and diabetes. The mean group scores of the doctors on the predefined standards of care for the different complaints ranged from 33 to 68%. The results show that standardized patients may be the method of choice in the assessment of the quality of actual care of doctors. It is hypothesized that the substandard scores of the doctors do not reflect inadequate competence, but are a result of the difference between competence and performance. PMID:2031767
PERSECHINO, Benedetta; FONTANA, Luca; BURESTI, Giuliana; RONDINONE, Bruna Maria; LAURANO, Patrizia; FORTUNA, Grazia; VALENTI, Antonio; IAVICOLI, Sergio
A good cooperation between occupational physicians and other healthcare professionals is essential in order to achieve an overall improvement of workers/patients’ well-being. Unfortunately, collaboration between occupational physicians and other physicians is often lacking or very poor. In this context, using a self-administered questionnaire, we investigated the cooperation of Italian occupational physicians with the National Health System (NHS) facilities and with the general practitioners in order to identify any potential critical issues that may hinder an effective and collaborative relationships between these professionals. The survey was conducted from October 2013 to January 2014. Nearly all of the interviewed occupational physicians have had contacts with colleagues of the Departments for Prevention and Occupational Health and Safety of the NHS. Regarding the relationship between occupational physicians and general practitioners findings showed that their cooperation is quite difficult and it would not seem a two-way collaboration. Cooperation between occupational physicians and NHS would benefit from the development of communication strategies and tools enhancing the support and assistance functions of the NHS facilities. The elaboration and subsequent application of operational guidelines and standardized procedures of communication would also improve collaboration between occupational physicians and general practitioners that is currently considered rather insufficient and incomplete. PMID:27733729
Fankhänel, Thomas; Rascher, Anja; Thiel, Carolin; Schulz, Katrin; Klement, Andreas
Only a few general practitioners (GPs) are committed to screen their patients for alcohol consumption and, in case of excessive alcohol consumption conduct by a brief intervention according to WHO recommendations. Apart from inadequate compensation and work load, another barrier identified by the GPs was their uncertainty about how to deal with affected patients. Most German universities presently spend no more than 90minutes lecture time on addiction medicine teaching. Our research aims to investigate the question whether medical studies and advanced medical education increases the role security of medical students and physicians and their commitment to implementing alcohol screening and brief intervention. Moreover, we will explore whether lack of therapeutic commitment can be related to lack of role security. Questionnaires were administered to pre-clinical and clinical medical students as well as senior house officers. Role security and therapeutic commitment of students and senior house officers were assessed using the Alcohol and Alcohol Problems Questionnaire (SAAPPQ) subscales "Role Security" and "Therapeutic Commitment". Analysis was based on 367 questionnaires. As expected, senior house officers reported more Role Security than clinical medical students who showed a higher level of Role Security than pre-clinical medical students. No differences could be found for Therapeutic Commitment. An association between Role Security and Therapeutic Commitment was only revealed for clinical medical students. Medical studies and advanced medical education can increase students' and senior house officers' Role Security to treat patients with excessive alcohol consumption, but not Therapeutic Commitment. Moreover, no association between Role Security and Therapeutic Commitment could be found for senior house officers. Hence, it may be assumed that educational activities aiming to increase Role Security do not promote the development of motivational aspects such as
Bashir, K; King, M; Ashworth, M
BACKGROUND: It is recommended that long-term users of benzodiazepines in general practice be withdrawn from their medication where possible. AIM: A study was undertaken to assess the effectiveness of minimal intervention delivered by general practitioners in helping chronic users of benzodiazepines to withdraw from their medication, and to determine the psychological sequelae on patients of such intervention. METHOD: Patients taking benzodiazepines regularly for at least one year were recruited by their general practitioner and allocated either to a group receiving brief advice during one consultation supplemented by a self-help booklet or to a control group who received routine care. The patients completed the 12-item general health questionnaire and a benzodiazepine withdrawal symptom questionnaire at the outset of the study and at three and six months after this. RESULTS: Eighteen per cent of patients in the intervention group (9/50) had a reduction in benzodiazepine prescribing recorded in the notes compared with 5% of the 55 patients in the control group (P < 0.05). In the intervention group, 63% of patients had a score of two or more on the general health questionnaire at baseline compared with 52% at six months. Of the 20 intervention patients reporting benzodiazepine reduction, 60% had a score of two or more at baseline compared with 40% at six months. Intervention patients had significantly more qualitative, but not quantitative, withdrawal symptoms at six months compared with baseline. Consultation rates were not increased in the intervention group. CONCLUSION: The study indicates that some chronic users can successfully reduce their intake of benzodiazepines with simple advice from the general practitioner and a self-help booklet. This type of intervention does not lead to psychological distress or increased consultation. PMID:8790654
AIMS--To determine the nature and magnitude of the histopathological workload generated by specimens received from general practitioners and to assess the trends in referral practice. METHODS--All material submitted by general practitioners to the Leicester district histopathology service from 1989 to January 1993 was identified from departmental records. All GP referrals from October to December 1992 were also analysed. Total numbers of referrals from all sources were used for comparison. Specimens were also analysed according to diagnostic categories. RESULTS--There has been a progressive rise, both in the absolute number and the proportion of specimens relative to other surgical specimens submitted by GPs. Most are skin biopsy specimens. There were clear changes over the study period in the relative proportion of different types of lesions received, with a substantial increase in samples of benign naevi and papillomas. There was some evidence of a corresponding decrease in the number of these lesions submitted by hospital practitioners. The number of malignant skin tumours from GPs was small and the proportion had not increased over the study period. CONCLUSIONS--Histopathological workload generated by GPs is increasing but it still represents a small proportion of the total. The major increase is in benign skin lesions. PMID:8254104
... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Office of Inspector General. 905.11 Section 905.11 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD ORGANIZATION AND... under the Inspector General Act include: (1) Conducting and supervising audits and...
Stegenga, B; de Bont, L G M
Dental practitioners as well as general practitioners are frequently confronted with patients complaining of pain in the orofacial region. Diagnosing these pains often poses a challenge to the clinician. Currently, the diagnosis of orofacial pains is biaxial. In determining a diagnosis, it is important to consider, in addition to the condition which is causing the pain (axis I-diagnosis), the impact of the pain on the patient's ability to function (axis II-diagnosis). The compilation of a thorough medical history represents the most important diagnostic tool and basis for clinical examination. Based on the axis I-diagnosis several treatment options are suggested; the strategy for managing the pain is, however, largely determined by the axis II-diagnosis.
Sarazin, Marianne; Roberton, Florence; Charles, Rodolphe; Falchi, Alessandra; Chiappe, Solange Gonzales; Blanchon, Thierry; Lucht, Frédéric; Hanslik, Thomas
Background To measure the frequency and nature of wounds in patients treated in general practice and to describe the patients’ tetanus vaccination status and the sources providing information about this status. Methods A descriptive, prospective, week-long, national electronic survey was conducted among general practitioners within the Sentinelles network. Results The participation rate was 12.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 10.6%–14.6%; 130 general practitioners): 197 patients with wounds were reported, and 175 of them were described. Wound frequency was 1.4 (95% CI, 1.2–1.6) per 100 consultations. These wounds had an acute character in 76 (95% CI, 69.7–82.3) of cases, were mostly of traumatic origin (54.8% of cases; 95% CI, 47.5%–62.1%), were more than 24 hours old (67.1%; 95% CI, 59.1%–75.1%), and were clean, without bone and/or muscle decay (94%; 95% CI, 90.5%–97.5%). Vaccination status was known for 71 (95% CI, 64–78) patients. According to the 2013 immunization schedule, 21% (95% CI, 13.9%–28.1%) of the patients had not updated their vaccinations, mostly among the patients older than 75 years. Conclusion This survey describes in detail the wounds treated in general practice in France and the associated patients’ immunization status. It also shows how difficult it is for general practitioners to assess the risk of contracting tetanus and the disease’s development. It highlights as well the fact that the ideal solution to assess tetanus risk is an up-to-date immunization schedule. PMID:26124675
Carter, Ava Elizabeth; Carter, Geoff; Abbey, Robyn
Objective. The differential diagnosis of pain in the mouth can be challenging for general medical practitioners (GMPs) as many different dental problems can present with similar signs and symptoms. This study aimed to create a treatment algorithm for GMPs to effectively and appropriately refer the patients and prescribe antibiotics. Design. The study design is comprised of qualitative focus group discussions. Setting and Subjects. Groups of GMPs within the Gold Coast and Brisbane urban and city regions. Outcome Measures. Content thematically analysed and treatment algorithm developed. Results. There were 5 focus groups with 8-9 participants per group. Addressing whether antibiotics should be given to patients with dental pain was considered very important to GMPs to prevent overtreatment and creating antibiotic resistance. Many practitioners were unsure of what the different forms of dental pains represent. 90% of the practitioners involved agreed that the treatment algorithm was useful to daily practice. Conclusion. Common dental complaints and infections are seldom surgical emergencies but can result in prolonged appointments for those GMPs who do not regularly deal with these issues. The treatment algorithm for referral processes and prescriptions was deemed easily downloadable and simple to interpret and detailed but succinct enough for clinical use by GMPs.
Carter, Geoff; Abbey, Robyn
Objective. The differential diagnosis of pain in the mouth can be challenging for general medical practitioners (GMPs) as many different dental problems can present with similar signs and symptoms. This study aimed to create a treatment algorithm for GMPs to effectively and appropriately refer the patients and prescribe antibiotics. Design. The study design is comprised of qualitative focus group discussions. Setting and Subjects. Groups of GMPs within the Gold Coast and Brisbane urban and city regions. Outcome Measures. Content thematically analysed and treatment algorithm developed. Results. There were 5 focus groups with 8-9 participants per group. Addressing whether antibiotics should be given to patients with dental pain was considered very important to GMPs to prevent overtreatment and creating antibiotic resistance. Many practitioners were unsure of what the different forms of dental pains represent. 90% of the practitioners involved agreed that the treatment algorithm was useful to daily practice. Conclusion. Common dental complaints and infections are seldom surgical emergencies but can result in prolonged appointments for those GMPs who do not regularly deal with these issues. The treatment algorithm for referral processes and prescriptions was deemed easily downloadable and simple to interpret and detailed but succinct enough for clinical use by GMPs. PMID:27462469
General practitioners are in a key position to provide advice to those travelling to malaria endemic areas. A study of at-risk travellers revealed that 54% visited their general practitioner before their intended trip overseas and of these 79% were given advice about antimalarial precautions. Of those advised 98% carried antimalarial tablets with them on their trip but only 46% had any knowledge of other methods of personal protection against malaria. Fewer non-white than white British residents received information from their general practitioners. It is suggested that general practitioners should be better informed about current malaria transmission and currently recommended chemoprophylactic drugs and dosages. It is also suggested that the major public health priority should be to stimulate a greater involvement of non-health service agencies in order to make the public aware of the risk of malaria and seek medical advice before travel. PMID:3668936
The law relating to patients' rights, published in 2002 in Belgium, could change communication and even relations between general practitioners and their patients. This law stipulates, among other things, the information to be communicated to the patient, the rules for file sharing and litigation procedure. In the field, this law should be applied more by the spirit rather than the letter so as to preserve trust, the source of a real partnership. Moreover, one could be surprised by the fact that a law on patients' rights is not followed by rules also defining their duties.
Howard, John; Sparrow, Nigel; Turnbull, Caroline Jane; Hydes, A Lemuel
Revalidation will be introduced in 2010; it will require general practitioners (GPs) to demonstrate they are fit to practise according to standards set by the Royal College of General Practitioners (RCGP). This will include the requirement to achieve 50 continuing professional development (CPD) credits per year. There has been no published analysis of GPs' current CPD. This paper describes a retrospective analysis of the learning logs kept by 71 practising GPs undertaking the interim Membership by Assessment of Performance (iMAP) programme, considering quantity of recorded learning, evidence of reflection on outcome and spread of content across the domains of the General Medical Council's Good Medical Practice (GMP). The average GP iMAP candidate undertook 87 hours of CPD over the year (range 21.5 hours to 293.5 hours); 16 (22.5%) undertook less than 50 hours while 22 recorded more than 100 hours. The GPs averaged five different types of CPD and 31 recorded outcomes across the year. Most GPs recorded outcomes in each domain of GMP. Those who logged more activities were also those more likely to record a wider spread of learning across the RCGP's curriculum. These results suggest that the RCGP's proposed managed CPD scheme is feasible based on the current CPD activity of this self-selected group.
Kotrashetti, Vijayalakshmi S; Kale, Alka D; Hebbal, Mamata; Hallikeremath, Seema R
The informed consent process allows the patient or legal guardian to participate in and retain autonomy over the medical service received. Obtaining informed consent may also decrease the practitioner's liability from claims associated with miscommunication. The aim of this study was to assess knowledge and practices of general dental practitioners (GDPs) regarding informed consent. 118 GDPs in Belgaum city, Karnataka, India, were given questionnaires asking for information on their knowledge and practices related to informed consent. The questions covered general information, treatment-specific issues and the consent process. 80 responses were received out of which 44 were complete. 63.6% of GDPs reported that they obtained written consent. All of them reported that they obtained only general consent. 4 of them obtained written consent in the local language. 37 said they gave a detailed explanation of the procedure. 3 said they did not inform their patients on radiation exposure. Dentists should upgrade their knowledge regarding legal jurisprudence and legal medicine to avoid any litigation.
Kristiansen, I S; Holtedahl, K
OBJECTIVE--To assess the influence of the remuneration system, municipality, doctor, and patient characteristics on general practitioners' choices between surgery and home visits. DESIGN--Prospective registration of patient contacts during one week for 116 general practitioners (GPs). SETTING--General practice in rural areas of northern Norway. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Type of GP visit (surgery v home visit). RESULTS--The estimated home visit rate was 0.14 per person per year. About 7% (range 0-39%) of consultations were home visits. Using multilevel analysis it was found that doctors paid on a "fee for service" basis tended to choose home visits more often than salaried doctors (adjusted odds ratio 1.90, 99% confidence interval 0.98, 3.69), but this was statistically significant for "scheduled" visits only (adjusted OR 4.50, 99% CI 1.67, 12.08). Patients who were older, male, and who were living in areas well served by doctors were more likely to receive home visits. CONCLUSION--In the choice between home visits and surgery consultations, doctors seem to be influenced by the nature of the remuneration when the patient's problem is not acute. Although home visiting is a function of tradition, culture, and organisational characteristics, the study indicates that financial incentives may be used to change behaviour and encourage home visiting. PMID:8120504
MacFarlane, Anne; Glynn, Liam G; Mosinkie, Phillip I; Murphy, Andrew W
Background Refugees and asylum seekers experience language barriers in general practice. Qualitative studies have found that responses to language barriers in general practice are ad hoc with use of both professional interpreters and informal interpreters (patients' relatives or friends). However, the scale of the issues involved is unknown. This study quantifies the need for language assistance in general practice consultations and examines the experience of, and satisfaction with, methods of language assistance utilized. Methods Data were collected by telephone survey with general practitioners in a regional health authority in Ireland between July-August 2004. Each respondent was asked a series of questions about consulting with refugees and asylum seekers, the need for language assistance and the kind of language assistance used. Results There was a 70% (n = 56/80) response rate to the telephone survey. The majority of respondents (77%) said that they had experienced consultations with refugees and asylum seekers in which language assistance was required. Despite this, general practitioners in the majority of cases managed without an interpreter or used informal methods of interpretation. In fact, when given a choice general practitioners would more often choose informal over professional methods of interpretation despite the fact that confidentiality was a significant concern. Conclusion The need for language assistance in consultations with refugees and asylum seekers in Irish general practice is high. General practitioners rely on informal responses. It is necessary to improve knowledge about the organisational contexts that shape general practitioners responses. We also recommend dialogue between general practitioners, patients and interpreters about the relative merits of informal and professional methods of interpretation so that general practitioners' choices are responsive to the needs of patients with limited English. PMID:19102735
20. OFFICE OF THE QUARTERMASTER GENERAL; CONSTRUCTION DIVISION; PLAN NUMBER 800-445. MOBILIZATION BUILDINGS; 74 & 63 MAN BARRACKS, TYPES BKS-74 & BKS-63; PRISON BARRACKS - GUARDS, TYPES PBG-74 & PBG-63; 29'-6' WIDE BUILDING; MISC. DETAILS. (modified at Fort McCoy). - Fort McCoy, Building T-1129, Sparta, Monroe County, WI
22. OFFICE OF THE QUARTERMASTER GENERAL; CONSTRUCTION DIVISION; PLAN NUMBER 800-447. MOBILIZATION BUILDINGS; 74 & 63 MAN BARRACKS, TYPES BKS-74 & BKS-63; PRISON BARRACKS - GUARDS, TYPES PBG-74 & PBG-63; 29'-6' WIDE BUILDING; HEATING. (modified at Fort McCoy). - Fort McCoy, Building T-1129, Sparta, Monroe County, WI
28. OFFICE OF THE QUARTERMASTER GENERAL; CONSTRUCTION DIVISION; PLAN NUMBER 800-154. MOBILIZATION BUILDINGS; STANDARD DOOR DETAILS; TYPES SCHEDULES & DETAILS. (This photograph was copied from a drawing at Fort McCoy. There is no negative of this drawing in the Military Construction 105mm. Negative Collection at Fort Belvoir.) - Fort McCoy, Building T-1129, Sparta, Monroe County, WI
18. OFFICE OF THE QUARTERMASTER GENERAL; CONSTRUCTION DIVISION; PLAN NUMBER 800-443. MOBILIZATION BUILDINGS; 74 & 63 MAN BARRACKS TYPES BKS-74 & BKS-63; PRISON BARRACKS - GUARDS TYPES PBG-74 & PBG-63; 29'-6' WIDE BUILDING; PLANS. (modified at Fort McCoy). - Fort McCoy, Building T-1129, Sparta, Monroe County, WI
21. OFFICE OF THE QUARTERMASTER GENERAL; CONSTRUCTION DIVISION; PLAN NUMBER 800-446. MOBILIZATION BUILDINGS; 74 & 63 MAN BARRACKS, TYPES BKS-74 & BKS-63; PRISON BARRACKS - GUARDS, TYPES PBG-74 & PBG-63; 29'-6' WIDE BUILDING; ELECTRICAL & PLUMBING. (modified at Fort McCoy). - Fort McCoy, Building T-1129, Sparta, Monroe County, WI
19. OFFICE OF THE QUARTERMASTER GENERAL; CONSTRUCTION DIVISION; PLAN NUMBER 800-444. MOBILIZATION BUILDINGS; 74 & 63 MAN BARRACKS, TYPES BKS-74 & BKS-63; PRISON BARRACKS - GUARDS, TYPES PBG-74 & PBG-63; 29'-6' WIDE BUILDING; FRAMING ELEVATIONS. (modified at Fort McCoy). - Fort McCoy, Building T-1129, Sparta, Monroe County, WI
Interior view, hallway outside of the attorney general's office (note murals by Henry Varnuum Poor illustrate themes associated with crime and the deliverance of justice) - United States Department of Justice, Constitution Avenue between Ninth & Tenth Streets, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC
Coastline Community Coll., Fountain Valley, CA.
Coastline Community College has developed a series of guides to assist adults who wish to obtain college credit or advanced standing in evaluating and verifying their non-college learning experiences. This guide lists the competency requirements of four courses within the General Office Practice program: Filing, Business Correspondence,…
1. GENERAL OFFICE BUILDING FOR THE HOMESTEAD WORKS, DESIGNED BY HOFFMAN & CRUMPTON OF PITTSBURGH. THE BUILDING WAS DESIGNED TO SHOWCASE THE ARCHITECTURAL POSSIBILITIES OF STEEL. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, Auxiliary Buildings & Shops, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA
... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Office of the Inspector General. 1.12 Section 1.12 Energy... and standards that govern NRC's financial and management audit program; (b) Plans, directs, and... impact on economy and efficiency in the administration of NRC's programs and operations; (g) Keeps...
BUILDING 122 CONTAINS THREE GENERAL AREAS: OFFICE AREAS, INTERNAL DOSIMETRY, AND MEDICAL/HEALTH. BUILDING 122 SHARES A COMMON WALL WITH BUILDING 121, THE PLANT SECURITY BUILDING. THE TWO-STORY BUILDING IN THE BACKGROUND IS BUILDING 111. (9/26/52) - Rocky Flats Plant, Emergency Medical Services Facility, Southwest corner of Central & Third Avenues, Golden, Jefferson County, CO
Mant, A; Eyland, E A; Pond, D C; Saunders, N A; Chancellor, A H
In a study of 226 elderly residents in a retirement village in Sydney, Australia, general practitioners' opinions about dementia status had high positive and negative predictive values and high specificity, but low sensitivity when evaluated against the mini-mental state examination and the Blessed dementia rating scale. General practitioners were found to disagree with these two measures more often when patients were in advanced old age, and when they considered the patients to be depressed. We conclude that the general practitioner can increase his or her sensitivity to dementia in the elderly by use of either measure.
A quantitative analysis was made over a fouryear period (1984-87) of the work and time involved for one rural general practitioner in caring for 42 elderly patients living in a private nursing home. The results were compared with those for the rest of the practice. The study showed that the consultation rate for nursing home patients was 50% higher than the rate for the remaining practice patients aged 65 years or over, and more than twice that for the whole practice. The prescribing rate in the nursing home was twice that of the 65+ years group and six times the rate for the whole practice. The hospital referral rate for nursing home patients was twice that of the 65-74 years group, and four times that for the whole practice. The time involved per year in looking after each nursing home patient was nearly twice that for the remaining practice patients aged 65-74 years, and three times that for practice patients aged under 65 years. From this study it would appear that concentrations of elderly patients in nursing homes in areas served by only a few general practitioners can cause considerable increases in workload. This could present problems in the organization of suitable care. PMID:3267743
When general practitioners and family physicians listen, reflect, and diagnose, we use 3 different theories of knowledge. This essay explores these theories to highlight an approach to clinical practice, inquiry, and learning that can do justice to the complex and uncertain world we experience. The following points are made: (1) A variety of approaches to research and audit are needed to illuminate the richness of experience witnessed by general medical practitioners. (2) Evidence about the past cannot predict the future except in simple, short-term, or slowly changing situations. (3) We consciously or unconsciously weave together evidence generated through 3 fundamental theories of knowledge, termed postpositivism, critical theory, and constructivism, to make sense of everyday experience. We call it listening, reflecting, and diagnosing. (4) These 3 fundamental theories of knowledge highlight different aspects within a world that is more complex, integrated, and changing than any single theory can reveal on its own; they frame what we see and how we act in everyday situations. (5) Moving appropriately between these different theories helps us to see a fuller picture and provides a framework for improving our skills as clinicians, researchers, and learners. (6) Narrative unity offers a way to bring together different kinds of evidence to understand the overall health of patients and of communities; evidence of all kinds provides discrete snapshots of more complex stories in evolution. (7) We need to understand these issues so we can create an agenda for clinical practice, inquiry, and learning appropriate to our discipline. PMID:17003147
When general practitioners and family physicians listen, reflect, and diagnose, we use 3 different theories of knowledge. This essay explores these theories to highlight an approach to clinical practice, inquiry, and learning that can do justice to the complex and uncertain world we experience. The following points are made: (1) A variety of approaches to research and audit are needed to illuminate the richness of experience witnessed by general medical practitioners. (2) Evidence about the past cannot predict the future except in simple, short-term, or slowly changing situations. (3) We consciously or unconsciously weave together evidence generated through 3 fundamental theories of knowledge, termed postpositivism, critical theory, and constructivism, to make sense of everyday experience. We call it listening, reflecting, and diagnosing. (4) These 3 fundamental theories of knowledge highlight different aspects within a world that is more complex, integrated, and changing than any single theory can reveal on its own; they frame what we see and how we act in everyday situations. (5) Moving appropriately between these different theories helps us to see a fuller picture and provides a framework for improving our skills as clinicians, researchers, and learners. (6) Narrative unity offers a way to bring together different kinds of evidence to understand the overall health of patients and of communities; evidence of all kinds provides discrete snapshots of more complex stories in evolution. (7) We need to understand these issues so we can create an agenda for clinical practice, inquiry, and learning appropriate to our discipline.
In 1899 the British Medical Journal enthusiastically announced that a new postgraduate teaching college was to open in London. The aim of the Medical Graduates’ College and Polyclinic (MGC) was to provide continuing education to general practitioners. It drew upon emerging specialisms and in so doing built upon the generalist training received at an undergraduate level. Courses were intended to refresh knowledge and to introduce general practitioners to new knowledge claims and clinical practices. The establishment of postgraduate institutions such as the MGC marked an important stage in the development of medical education in England. Yet these institutions, and the emergence of postgraduate medical education more broadly, have been largely overlooked by historians. Moreover the history of venereological training among medical undergraduates and postgraduates alike has been overlooked. The study of such special subjects characterised postgraduate study. This article examines the dissemination of venereological knowledge among subscribers to MGC as an important case study for the development of institutionalised postgraduate medical education in England at the turn of the twentieth century. PMID:25766540
Gordon, M D
The recent Report of The Medical Information Review Panel suggested that locally-produced abstracting bulletins are likely to be of great value in promoting continuing education; most notably by helping GPs to 'keep up with the literature'. The Report identified Current Medical Abstracts for Practitioners ( CMAP ), a publication produced by the S.E. Scotland Faculty of the Royal College of General Practitioners ( RCGP ), as an example of the kind of bulletin it had in mind. It further suggested that the role and effectiveness of this publication should be investigated. A survey of the readership of CMAP was therefore carried out. It was found that CMAP is regularly read by only 28% of those to whom it is sent (free of charge). More particularly, CMAP is read predominantly by those GPs who are already conscientious users of medical literature: they use the bulletin as a complement and supplement to their other professional reading. Those GPs who devote little time to journal reading, in general, tend to ignore CMAP . They do not seek to use it as a substitute for more extensive reading of medical journals. It therefore appears that CMAP does little to overcome the problem of GPs who do not keep up with the literature, and it is unlikely that similar publications will be initiated in other areas. Indeed, publication of CMAP may be ceased, at least in its present form.
Bos, Ingeborg B C Korthals-de; Hoving, Jan L; van Tulder, Maurits W; Mölken, Maureen P M H Rutten-van; Adèr, Herman J; de Vet, Henrica C W; Koes, Bart W; Vondeling, Hindrik; Bouter, Lex M
Objective To evaluate the cost effectiveness of physiotherapy, manual therapy, and care by a general practitioner for patients with neck pain. Design Economic evaluation alongside a randomised controlled trial. Setting Primary care. Participants 183 patients with neck pain for at least two weeks recruited by 42 general practitioners and randomly allocated to manual therapy (n=60, spinal mobilisation), physiotherapy (n=59, mainly exercise), or general practitioner care (n=64, counselling, education, and drugs). Main outcome measures Clinical outcomes were perceived recovery, intensity of pain, functional disability, and quality of life. Direct and indirect costs were measured by means of cost diaries that were kept by patients for one year. Differences in mean costs between groups, cost effectiveness, and cost utility ratios were evaluated by applying non-parametric bootstrapping techniques. Results The manual therapy group showed a faster improvement than the physiotherapy group and the general practitioner care group up to 26 weeks, but differences were negligible by follow up at 52 weeks. The total costs of manual therapy (€447; £273; $402) were around one third of the costs of physiotherapy (€1297) and general practitioner care (€1379). These differences were significant: P<0.01 for manual therapy versus physiotherapy and manual therapy versus general practitioner care and P=0.55 for general practitioner care versus physiotherapy. The cost effectiveness ratios and the cost utility ratios showed that manual therapy was less costly and more effective than physiotherapy or general practitioner care. Conclusions Manual therapy (spinal mobilisation) is more effective and less costly for treating neck pain than physiotherapy or care by a general practitioner. What is already known on this topicThe cost of treating neck pain is considerableMany conservative interventions are available, such as prescription drugs, yet their cost effectiveness has not been
The Réseau National Télé-informatique de surveillance et d'information sur les Maladies Transmissibles (RNTMT) (French communicable diseases computerised surveillance network) comprises a network of sentinel general practitioners (SGP). These benevolent volunteers are responsible for the weekly epidemiological surveillance. Since its creation, 1,700 SGPs have participated in the RNTMT, representing a total of more than 120,000 connections to the RNTMT telematic service center. The principal motivation of these benevolent SGPs was to 'actively participate in public health', although only a minority of them (17.6%) had any training in this field. Such a system, based on the benevolent and voluntary activity of SGPs, requires a good understanding of SGPs' attitudes towards epidemiological surveillance in general and the tool used, in order to quantitatively and qualitatively follow their participation and to provide regular and useful feedback to the surveillance actors.
Luning-Koster, Marleen N; Lucassen, Peter L B J; Boukes, Froukje S; Goudswaard, A N Lex
October 2010 the Dutch College of General Practitioners issued a revised version of their previous practice guideline of 1995 on food hypersensitivity in infants. If patients suspect either themselves or their child of having a food allergy, this is usually not demonstrated in subsequent investigation. Wrongly prescribed elimination diets may have adverse effects. Examination of serum specific IgE levels has no place in the diagnosis of food allergy in general practice. An open elimination challenge is especially suitable in order to exclude a food allergy. A sure diagnosis of food allergy can only be made by a double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge. There are no proven effective measures that can prevent food allergy.
Djalali, Sima; Frei, Anja; Rosemann, Thomas; Tandjung, Ryan
As many other European countries, Switzerland is facing a shortage of young general practitioners (GPs). This review summarizes and compares the different characteristics of vocational training programs in Switzerland and other European countries concerning their duration, learning objectives and setting. Countries with a GP-centered healthcare system offer highly structured training programs tailored to the everyday work in general practice, whereas vocational training programs in countries where patients have unlimited access to specialized care are less differentiated. Today, the vocational training of Swiss GPs lacks topically focused learning objectives and seems to be rather underdeveloped when compared to foreign programs. Particularly with regard to the duration and funding of practice-based training periods spent in GP surgeries, Switzerland still has a great development potential.
Proctoscopy and sigmoidoscopy are readily acquired skills and should be routine office procedures for general practitioners. Correct positioning of the patient is of utmost importance to a successful examination.
Hongoro, Charles; Funani, I Itumeleng N.; Chitha, Wezile; Godlimpi, Lizo
Low- and middle-income countries are striving towards universal health coverage in a variety of ways. Achieving this goal requires the participation of both public and the private sector providers. The study sought to assess existing capacity for independent general practitioner contracting in primary care, the reasons for the low uptake of government national contract and the expectations of general practitioners of such contractual arrangements. This was a case study conducted in a rural district of South Africa. The study employed both quantitative and qualitative data collection methods. Data were collected using a general practitioner and practice profiling tool, and a structured questionnaire. A total of 42 general practitioners were interviewed and their practices profiled. Contrary to observed low uptake of the national general practitioner contract, 90% of private doctors who had not yet subscribed to it were actually interested in it. Substantial evidence indicated that private doctors had the capacity to deliver quality care to public patients. However, low uptake of national contarct related mostly to lack of effective communication and consultation between them and national government which created mistrust and apprehension amongst local private doctors. Paradoxically, these general practitioners expressed satisfaction with other existing state contracts. An analysis of the national contract showed that there were likely to benefit more from it given the relatively higher payment rates and the guaranteed nature of this income. Proposed key requisites to enhanced uptake of the national contract related to the type of the contract, payment arrangements and flexibility of the work regime, and prospects for continuous training and clinical improvements. Low uptake of the national General Practitioner contract was due to variety of factors related to lack of understanding of contract details. Such misunderstandings between potential contracting parties
Dadich, Ann; Jarrett, Carmen; Robards, Fiona; Bennett, David
Primary care represents a fundamental component of the health system, particularly for young people. However, youth access to primary care is less than ideal. To optimize clinician capacity to promote youth health, an interactive training module was developed and tailored to the needs of general practitioners. As part of an exploratory study, 11 participants were interviewed to determine the perceived capacity of the module to promote youth-friendly primary care. Findings suggest the module can enhance clinician skills, knowledge, and confidence to promote youth health; however, it has a limited ability to inform how organizational capacity might be bolstered-this includes the development of interagency networks. In this epoch of primary care reform, these findings are important for two key reasons. First, they reveal the need to bolster clinicians' perceived ability to use youth healthcare skills; second, they highlight the complementary importance of organizational support to ensure and sustain youth-friendly practices. The article concludes with a discussion of key implications for policymakers, practitioners, and researchers.
Pink, F E; Minden, N J; Simmonds, S
This study was undertaken to analyze the current reasons practitioners in general practice settings choose to place amalgam and composite restorations. Data were gathered on individual restorations in the clinical setting to provide information on reasons practitioners state that restorations are placed, the type of material most often placed in different restoration classifications, and the age of restorations at the time of replacement. The results of this study indicate that approximately one-half of all restorations, both amalgam and composite, were placed to treat primary caries. One-half of the remaining restorations placed, i.e., not including those with primary caries, were placed to treat recurrent caries. With respect to restorative materials, amalgam was most often placed in class 1 and class 2 situations (88.9% of the amalgam restorations reported), while composite was most often placed in class 3, 4, or 5 situations (77.4% of the composite restorations reported). From the total data set returned for replaced restorations, only 20% of the data forms reported on verified longevity of the restoration being replaced. Analysis of these data gave a calculated median longevity for amalgam and composite restorations of 10 years and 5 years respectively.
Pérez-Farinós, Napoleón; Ordobás, María; García-Fernández, Cristina; García-Comas, Luis; Cañellas, Soledad; Rodero, Inmaculada; Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, Ángeles; García-Gutiérrez, Juan; Ramírez, Rosa
Background Varicella (chickenpox) is the primary disease caused by varicella-zoster virus. It is extremely contagious and is frequent in children. Indeed, in the absence of vaccination, a high proportion of the population is liable to contract it. Herpes zoster -more frequent among adults- is caused by reactivation of the latent virus. The objective of this study is to describe the status of and time trend for varicella and herpes zoster in the Madrid Autonomous Region prior to the introduction of the vaccine to the general population. Methods Data source: individualised varicella and herpes zoster case records kept by the Madrid Autonomous Region Sentinel General Practitioner Network for the period 1997–2004. Cumulative incidences, crude and standardised incidence rates, and age-specific rates of varicella and herpes zoster were calculated for each year. Kendall's Tau-b correlation coefficient was calculated to evaluate whether incidence displayed a time trend. Spectral density in the time series of weekly incidences was estimated using a periodogram. Results Standardised annual varicella incidence rates ranged from 742.5 (95% CI: 687.2 – 797.7) to 1239.6 (95% CI: 1164.5 – 1313.4) cases per 100 000 person-years. Most cases affected children, though complications were more frequent in adults. Varicella incidence displayed an annual periodicity but no trend over time. Most herpes zoster cases occurred at advanced ages, with incidence registering a rising annual trend but no seasonality factor. Conclusion In the absence of vaccination, no significant changes in varicella incidence were in evidence recent years, though these were observed in the incidence of herpes zoster. Sentinel general practitioner networks are a valid instrument for surveillance of diseases such as varicella. Further varicella vaccination-coverage and vaccine-efficacy studies are called for. PMID:17570859
Huss, Anke; Röösli, Martin
Background Five percent of the Swiss population attribute symptoms to electromagnetic fields (EMF). General practitioners (GPs) might play a key role in recognising an emerging health risk, since they are the first to observe and follow up persons who attribute symptoms to EMF. It is unclear to what extent EMFs have become an issue in general practice and which experiences GPs report from the consultations. Methods We conducted telephone interviews in a random sample of GPs in Switzerland in order to assess the frequency of consultations in primary care due to EMF and the GPs' experience with these patients. Results 342 general practitioners were interviewed, corresponding to a response rate of 28.2%. 69% of the GPs reported at least one consultation due to EMF, but GPs with a certificate in complementary medicine were much more likely to report EMF consultations. The median of EMF consultation numbers within one year was three. An overview of the most recent EMF-related consultation per GP yielded sleep disorders, headaches and fatigue as the most often reported symptoms and mobile phone base stations, power lines and the own use of mobile phones as the main EMF sources suspected to be associated to symptoms. GPs judged the association between EMF and the symptoms to be plausible in 54% of the cases. There was no combination of symptoms and EMF sources that was remarkably and consistently judged to be a plausible cause of the symptoms. Conclusion In our survey, GPs often judged the association between the health problems and the suspected exposure to be plausible. This plausibility assessment seems to be based on grounds of preventive positions in a situation of scientific uncertainty. More research effort is needed to obtain more insight on a potential association between long term EMF exposure and unspecific symptoms. PMID:17074080
Kacenelenbogen, N; Offermans, A M; Roland, M
The definition of burn-out the most often cited and proposed by Maslach and Jackson, clarifies the three cardinal symptoms affecting doctors, namely, emotional exhaustion, with depersonalization of their patients and reduction of the feeling of personal accomplishment. The causes of this phenomenon are relatively well-known: individual psychological factors, stressful factors intrinsic to the medical practice and finally extrinsic factors related to the professional environment and its organization. The purpose of this review is to estimate the prevalence of burnout within the population of Belgian family physicians and to understand both individual and societal consequences. About the method. This is a literature review using databases Medline, Cochrane Library, and the American Psychological Association from 2000 to 2011 with the keywords: primary health care, family practice, burnout, emotional exhaustion, psychological stressors, distress, fatigue, depersonalization, substance and alcohol abuse, depression, well-being, quality of life, job satisfaction, professional efficiency, patient care, physician-patient relations, medical errors, quality of health care, pharmaceutical/health expenditure/statistics-numerical data, obstacles to prevention, health system assessment, medical demography. Selecting of the most relevant articles through the reading of abstracts and then full text reading of 49 selected articles. In conclusion, the exact prevalence of burn-out amongst Belgian general practitioners is not known. From some works, it is estimated that about half of them would be achieved at least in terms of emotional exhaustion. The symptoms related to burn-out are potentially serious: ea depression, alcohol and tobacco abuse and cardiovascular complications. There are also arguments demonstrating the fact that this disorder amongst general practitioners influences negatively the quality of care, their cost, but also medical demography of primary care with as a
Background General Practitioners (GPs) employ strategies to identify and retrieve medical evidence for clinical decision making which take workload and time constraints into account. Optimal Foraging Theory (OFT) initially developed to study animal foraging for food is used to explore the information searching behaviour of General Practitioners. This study is the first to apply foraging theory within this context. Study objectives were: 1. To identify the sequence and steps deployed in identifiying and retrieving evidence for clinical decision making. 2. To utilise Optimal Foraging Theory to assess the effectiveness and efficiency of General Practitioner information searching. Methods GPs from the Wellington region of New Zealand were asked to document in a pre-formatted logbook the steps and outcomes of an information search linked to their clinical decision making, and fill in a questionnaire about their personal, practice and information-searching backgrounds. Results A total of 115/155 eligible GPs returned a background questionnaire, and 71 completed their information search logbook. GPs spent an average of 17.7 minutes addressing their search for clinical information. Their preferred information sources were discussions with colleagues (38% of sources) and books (22%). These were the two most profitable information foraging sources (15.9 min and 9.5 min search time per answer, compared to 34.3 minutes in databases). GPs nearly always accessed another source when unsuccessful (95% after 1st source), and frequently when successful (43% after 2nd source). Use of multiple sources accounted for 41% of searches, and increased search success from 70% to 89%. Conclusions By consulting in foraging terms the most 'profitable' sources of information (colleagues, books), rapidly switching sources when unsuccessful, and frequently double checking, GPs achieve an efficient trade-off between maximizing search success and information reliability, and minimizing searching
Elevated view of general office complex, looking southeast from the roof of the lower shops. Visible is the entire machine shop, with the northern section (square towr and gabled roof) completed in 1891, and the flat-roofed rear (southern) section added in 1924. Also visible is the original skylight in the roof of the drawing room and laying out floor building, subsequently covered over with tar paper. - Johnson Steel Street Rail Company, 525 Central Avenue, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA
USN 9707 970627 3 GENERAL/FLAG OFFICER WORLDWIDE ROSTER DATE DATE OF DUTY TITLE NAME RANK SERVICE ASSIGNED RANK DEP DIR J-8 CARTWRIGHT JAMES E BG* USMC...SIGNAL BRIGADE - SPARTANBURG,SC COMMANDER (RC) SIMPSON DARWIN H BG ARNG 9603 970303 263RD AIR DEFENSE ARTILLERY BRIGADE - ANDERSON,SC COMMANDER (RC...N ................. 27 CARSKADON BRUCE M ................. 28 CARTWRIGHT JAMES E ................ 04 CASCIANO JOHN P ................... 27 CASE
MONOGRAPH 25-05-2006 SEPT 2005-MAR 2006 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE German General Staff Officer Education abd Current...Competencies and Skills ...................................................................... 27 CHAPTER 4 THE GERMAN PRT IN KUNDUZ/AFGHANISTAN AND THE...of Defense, Defense Science Board 2004 Summer Study on Transition to and from Hostilities, Washington D.C., September 2, 2004 3 Ibid. 4 Note: The
Al-Fouzan, Khalid S.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the practice and depth of knowledge of root canal treatment by general dental practitioners working in private dental centers in different cities within the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A questionnaire was distributed to 400 general dental practitioners. Completed questionnaires were analyzed in term of simple summary statistics. A total of 252 (63%) practitioners responded. The majority of the respondents were Syrians (59%) and Egyptians (32%). Ninety-one per cent of the respondents indicated that they performed root canal treatment. Amongst those who carried out root canal treatment, only seven practitioners (3%) used rubber dam for isolation. More than half of the respondents (55%) used saline to irrigate canals during treatment. Forty-six per cent of practitioners used formocresol as an inter appointment medicament. The standardized and step-back preparation techniques were the method of choice for the majority of the respondents (91%). Ninety-seven per cent of the practitioners used stainless steel hand instruments to prepare root canals and the majority (92%) used gutta-percha for obturation. Seventy-four per cent of the respondent used cold lateral condensation. The average number of radiographs routinely taken for root canal treatment was four. Ninety-three per cent indicated that they usually completed a root canal treatment of molar teeth in three or more visits. Eighty-eight per cent of the practitioners preferred waiting for 1 or 2 weeks to restore the teeth permanently. Results of this study confirm that many general dental practitioners are not following quality guidelines for endodontic treatment. PMID:23960485
Thomas, K; Nicholl, J; Coleman, P
BACKGROUND. The government white paper, Promoting better health, suggested that primary health care services should be made more responsive to patient needs and that competition, brought about by the freer movement of patients between practices, could act as a mechanism for improving the quality of the services provided. Policy changes reflecting these aims were introduced with the 1990 contract for general practitioners. AIM. A study was carried out to estimate the volume of patient movement between practices not attributable to a patient's change of address or to a major change in the practice they had left, and to investigate which practice characteristics patients moved towards and which they moved away from when changing general practitioner. METHOD. Data on 2617 patient movements during June 1991 were collected from five family health services authorities. These patient movements were analysed in relation to data on practice characteristics obtained from family health services authority records. RESULTS. The estimated volume of movement of patients between practices was small (1.6% of the registered population per year). The majority of movements were between group practices; a quarter of the movements recorded were to single-handed general practitioners. However, the ratio of the number of movements from group practices to single-handed general practitioners compared with those from single-handed general practitioners to group practices was 1.37 (95% confidence interval 1.19 to 1.57). In choosing single-handed general practitioners these patients were willing to forgo access to a woman general practitioner, extended services and greater hours of general practitioner availability. Among the subset of movements between group practices, patients were more likely to gain access to a practice nurse, longer surgery hours and a woman general practitioner as a consequence of their move. CONCLUSION. The scale of patient movement observed did not indicate any
Bazex, Jacques; Cabanis, Emmanuel Alain
Air transport is seeing an increase in long-distance flights (12-16 hours average flight time), greater seating capacity, and a higher proportion of elderly, and hence more fragile, passengers. The French Academy of Medicine recommends that medical care be reinforced, particularly on long-distance flights, through the following measures: (i) passengers should be informed in advance of potential risks, through a Passenger's Guide, (ii) all future passengers should be encouraged to seek health advice and information from their general practitioner, (iii) flight crew members should receive training as "in-flight medical correspondents", and (iv) airlines and plane designers should reserve a "medical space" on the plane, equipped with appropriate medical materials.
Moen, Janne; Antonov, Karolina; Nilsson, J Lars G; Ring, Lena
Group interaction is put forward as the principal advantage for focus group research, although rarely reported on. The aim of the article is to contribute to the methodological knowledge regarding focus group research by providing an empirical example of the application of the Lehoux, Poland, and Daudelin template suggested for analysis of the interaction in focus groups. The data source was 18 focus groups' performance in Sweden: 12 with older patients and 6 with general practitioners (GPs). GPs found common ground in belonging to the same profession, whereas the older patients, instead of constituting a group in the word's real sense, started just sharing a common focus. We found the template easy to understand and use, except for identifying participants' explicit and implicit purposes for participating. Furthermore, adding an interaction analysis to the content analysis helped us appreciate and clarify the contexts from which these data were created.
Jamshed, Shazia Qasim; Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham Mohamed; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi Ahmad; Masood, Imran; Low, Bee Yean; Shafie, Asrul Akmal; Babar, Zaheer-ud-din
Objectives: In developing countries out-of-pocket payments (OOP) are as high as 80% of healthcare spending. Generic medicines can be instrumental in reducing this expenditure. The current study is aimed to explore the knowledge, perception, and attitude of general practitioners towards generic medicines in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods: This exploratory, descriptive study was conducted on a sample of 289 randomly selected general practitioners who were dispensing at their private clinics in Karachi, Pakistan. The questionnaires were distributed and collected by hand. Data was entered to SPSS version 17. Fischer’s exact test was applied to see the association between variables. Results: A total of 206 questionnaires were included in the study. A response rate of 71.3% was achieved. Out of 206 respondents, 139 (67.5%) were male while 67 (32.5%) respondents were female. Close to three quaters of the respondents (n= 148; 71.8%) showed correct knowledge about generic medicines being a ‘copy of the brand name medicines’ and ‘interchangeable with brand name medicines’ (n= 148; 71.8%). In terms of safety, the majority of respondents (n=85; 41.26%) incorrectly understood that the generic medicines are less safe than brand name medicines. The total percentage of correct responses was seen in 53% of the respondents. More than half of the respondents agreed that locally manufactured medicines are of the same effectiveness as brand name medicines (n=114; 55.4%). Male practitioners with practice experience of 11-15 years showed positive perception towards the quality of multinational products. The Majority of respondents believed that their prescribing decision is influenced by medical representatives (n=117; 56.8%). More than three-quarters of the respondents expressed their wish to prescribe low cost medicines in their practice (n=157; 76.2%). More than one third of the respondents expressed their uneasiness to prescribe products from all local manufacturers (n=72; 35
Azizi, Fereidoun; Mehran, Ladan; Amouzegar, Atieh; Alamdari, Shahram; Subetki, Imam; Saadat, Navid; Moini, Siamak; Sarvghadi, Farzaneh
Background: Maternal thyroid disease in pregnancy is associated with adverse impact on both mother and fetus. Both the American thyroid association and the endocrine society have recently published guidelines for the management of thyroid disease in pregnancy. Objectives: The objective of this survey was to assess and compare the current practices of various East-Asian physicians in the screening and management of thyroid disease in pregnancy. Materials and Methods: Completed survey questionnaires were collected from 112 physicians of six East-Asian countries. The survey was based on clinical case scenarios, asking questions about the clinical practices related to diagnosis and management of thyroid disease during pregnancy. Reponses from 76 endocrinologists and 33 internists and general practitioners (generalists) were analyzed. Results: There were minor differences in treatment preferences for Graves’ disease in pregnancy and tests to monitor antithyroid drugs between endocrinologists and generalists; the major difference being targeted free thyroxin, and also thyroxin, depicted in the upper end of normal range, by the majority of endocrinologist and within the normal range, by generalists. Compared to generalists, endocrinologists perform more targeted screening and are more familiar with its risk factors. Predominantly, endocrinologists increase levothyroxine dose in hypothyroid women, upon confirmation of pregnancy and also indicate full dose in a pregnant woman, diagnosed with overt hypothyroidism, and treat thyroid peroxidase antibody positive or negative pregnant women with thyroid stimulating hormone (2.5 - 5 mU/L), as compared to generalists. Conclusions: There is wide variation in the clinical practices of screening and management of thyroid disorders during pregnancy in East-Asia, with many clinicians, in particular general practitioners, not adhering to clinical practice guidelines, unfortunately. PMID:27274337
DEMARCO, Flávio Fernando; BALDISSERA, Rudimar Antonio; MADRUGA, Francine Cardozo; SIMÕES, Roberto Cuchiara; LUND, Rafael Guerra; CORREA, Marcos Britto; CENCI, Maximiliano Sergio
Objectives The aim of this study was to assess technical preferences of general dental practitioners when restoring anterior composite restorations. How the level of clinical experience or post-graduate training infuenced their options was also tested. Material and Methods A cross-sectional study was performed using a questionnaire with general dental practitioners (GDPs) (n=276) in Southern Brazil. Information regarding post graduation training (specialization, master's or PhD degree) and linical experience (years since completing graduation) were gathered. The options regarding anterior composite restorations (type of composite, adhesive system, light curing unit, polishing procedures and rubber dam use) were collected. Data were submitted to descriptive analysis and associations were tested. Results Response rate was 68% (187). GDPs selected microhybrid composite (52%) and 2-step total etch adhesive system (77%). LED was the preferred method of activation for 72.8%. Immediate polishing was preferred by 75%, using a combination of techniques. Most of the respondents (74.3%) did not use rubber dam. More experienced clinicians used more halogen lights (p<0.022), performed more light monitoring (p<0.001) and were resistant to use rubber dam (p<0.012). Dentists with post-graduation training used 3-etch-and-rinse system more frequently (p<0.04), usually monitored light intensity (p<0.014) and placed rubber dam more frequently (p<0.044). Conclusions Hybrid composite, simplifed adhesives, LED units and immediate polishing were preferred by Southern Brazilian dentists for anterior composite restorations. Few dentists used rubber dam to perform composite restorations in anterior teeth. Clinical experience and post-graduation training infuenced the dentists' choices. PMID:24473714
Brown, P A; Kernohan, N M; Smart, L M; Savargaonkar, P; Atkinson, P; Robinson, S; Russell, D; Kerr, K M
The introduction of new GP contracts in April 1990 incorporated a financial incentive to undertake minor surgical procedures. Previous reports have noted large increases in the number of GP-derived skin specimens after April 1990. Our present study intended to address whether similar changes have occurred in Grampian Region as well as, more specifically, noting whether there have been changes in the quality of practice following the 1st April 1990. A retrospective study of skin biopsies removed by general practitioners in Grampian Region was undertaken. Cases were selected from four periods of six months (1st April to end of September) in 1987, 1988, 1989 and 1990. All skin specimens sent by general practitioners to the Department of Pathology, Aberdeen Royal Infirmary, were included. Following April 1990 there was a two-fold increase in skin specimen numbers--an increase significantly greater than increases observed over previous years (p < 0.01). Of particular note was the contribution made to this increase by Aberdeen City GPs whose contribution rose five-fold (p < 0.0001). Non-benign lesions (ie malignant plus carcinoma-in-situ-) represented 6% of lesions excised. A non-benign clinical diagnosis or an indication of suspicion was written on only one third of request forms for histopathologically diagnosed non-benign lesions. The proportion of histologically incompletely excised lesions rose over the four years (p < 0.01); moreover the increase in total numbers of lesions resulted in a striking increase in the actual numbers of incompletely excised lesions after April 1990.
Zannini, Lucia; Cattaneo, Cesarina; Peduzzi, Paolo; Lopiccoli, Silvia; Auxilia, Francesco
Background Clinical governance is considered crucial in primary care. Since 2005, clinical pathways have been experimentally implemented at the Local Health Authority of Monza Brianza (ASLMB), Italy, to develop general practitioners’ (GPs) care of patients affected by some chronic diseases. The experimentation was aimed at introducing clinical governance in primary care, increasing GPs’ involvement in the care of their patients, and improving both patients’ and professionals’ satisfaction. In the period 2005-2006, 12% of the 763 employed GPs in the ASLMB were involved in the experiment, while this percentage increased to 15-20% in 2007-2008. Design and Methods Twenty-four GPs were purposively sampled, randomly divided into two groups and asked to participate in focus groups (FGs) held in 2008, aimed at evaluating their perception of the experiment. The FGs were audio-recorded, dialogues were typed out and undergone to a thematic analysis, according to the Interpretative Phenomenological Approach. Results Four major themes emerged: i) clinical pathways can result in GPs working in a more efficient and effective fashion; ii) they can assure higher levels of both patient and professional satisfaction, since they sustain a caring approach and strengthen the GPs’ role; iii) nevertheless, clinical pathways increase the bureaucratic workload and problems can arise in relationships among GPs and the LHA; iv) the implementation of clinical pathways can be improved, especially by reducing bureaucracy and by assuring their continuity. Conclusions Managerial aspects should be considered with care in order to experimentally introduce clinical pathways in general practice, and continuity of the experimentation should be guaranteed to improve GPs’ adherence and commitment. Acknowledgments the Authors thank Dr. AP. Cantù and Dr D. Cereda who participated in the two focus groups as observers. PMID:25181354
Wilson, Coralie Joy; Deane, Frank P.; Marshall, Kellie L.; Dalley, Andrew
The "Building Bridges to General Practice" (BBGP) program is an outreach initiative. It aims to reduce young peoples' perceived knowledge- and belief-based barriers to engaging in treatment and to increase their behavioral intentions to consult a general medical practitioner (GP) for physical and psychological problems. By increasing…
Thielmann, A; Sikora, M; Schnell, U; Gesenhues, S; Weltermann, B
Aim: The purpose of this study was to analyse vaccine refrigerator and vaccine management in primary care and to identify physician- and practice-related influencing factors. Background: Adequate cooling of vaccines in a temperature range of 2-8°C is essential to assure vaccine effectiveness. Studies from various countries have demonstrated cooling chain problems. We surveyed general practitioners about the quality of their vaccine refrigerator and vaccine management and aimed at identifying physician- and practice-related influencing factors. Methods: A cross-sectional, web-based questionnaire survey was performed among 3 physician populations in primary care: a 10% random sample of general practitioners (n=954), all teaching physicians of the Universities Duisburg-Essen (n=221) and Halle-Wittenberg (n=92). Surveyed were items on the following 6 aspects: (1) responsibilities within practice teams, (2) vaccine ordering and storing, (3) criteria for the vaccine pre-selection, (4) stocking system inside the refrigerator, (5) wrapping, and use of stocking boxes, (6) refrigerator and temperature control. The quality indicator "comprehensive refrigerator management" was defined to include 4 aspects: (1) separate refrigerator, (2) written temperature documentation (temperature-logbook), (3) regular storage control (wrapping, temperature and expiration date), and (4) storage in original wrappings. Results: A total of 278 physicians participated in the survey (22%). Of these, 80% had a separate refrigerator, 52% reported written temperature documentation, 93% documented regular storage control addressing vaccine wrappings, temperature and expiration dates, and 95% reported vaccine storage in original card box wrappings. A "comprehensive refrigerator management" was realised by 42% of the practices. This indicator was reached more frequently by practices with 3 or more physicians (p=0.01) and those with an additional qualification in travel medicine (p=0.036). Conclusion
Benabderrahmane, Mustapha; Pospait, Dan; Philip, Julie; Laouénan, Cédric
Background Patients do not often discuss anal symptoms, resulting in late diagnosis of proctological disorders and impacting health. Poor epidemiological knowledge is a contributing factor to this, which can be a significant problem in general medicine. Authors evaluated the role of family doctors in proctological disorders by assessing how many of these are spontaneously diagnosed and how many are diagnosed after questioning the patient. Methods Thirty-nine general practitioners completed a targeted questionnaire to assess all patients seen prospectively over 2.5 days of consultations. Results A total of 1079 questionnaires were completed, 621 (58%) for females and 458 (42%) for males with a median age of 54. Twenty-two patients (2%) were seen primarily for anal symptoms. Following questioning, an anal symptom was found in 153 patients (14%). Symptoms reported were: bleeding (32%), pain (31%), pruritus ani (22%), swelling (22%), oozing (14%), and anal discharge (14%). Physicians’ diagnoses were: haemorrhoids, anal fissure, anal discharge, dermatology disease, and functional disorder. In 35% of patients, questioning alone was used to make these diagnoses. Anal incontinence was the only factor associated with referral to a specialist (OR = 5; 95% CI: 1.4–17.8). Conclusion The role of proctology in the general population appears to be significant. In five out of six cases, patients conceal anal symptoms. The high proportion of unexamined patients with anal symptoms is probably multifactorial. Further studies are needed to identify these and put in place the improvement of diagnosis and treatment of anal disorder. PMID:24702041
Grogan, S; Conner, M; Willits, D; Norman, P
BACKGROUND. It is now a requirement that patients' satisfaction with the services obtained from their general practitioner should be surveyed. AIM. The aim of the study was to produce a reliable and valid multidimensional patient satisfaction questionnaire that could be used in general practice. METHOD. Items were originally derived from patients' responses to open-ended questions. The resulting 148-item Likert-scale questionnaire was completed by 1193 patients. General satisfaction items were removed from the set, and responses to remaining items underwent factor analysis. Subscales were produced from items representing each factor. Reliability and validity of each subscale were examined. RESULTS. Five subscales with a total of 40 items resulted from the factor analysis: doctors, access, nurses, appointments and facilities. Each subscale was internally reliable (Cronbach's alpha coefficient between 0.73 and 0.95), and initial tests of validity suggested that all subscales were valid. CONCLUSION. The study has resulted in a 40-item scale that has been found to be reliable and valid after initial tests. Further work to test the reliability and validity of the final version of the patient satisfaction questionnaire is described. PMID:7492421
Houwink, Elisa J.F.; Henneman, Lidewij; Westerneng, Myrte; van Luijk, Scheltus J.; Cornel, Martina C.; Dinant, Jan Geert; Vleuten, Cees van der
Purpose: General practitioners (GPs) are increasingly expected to deliver genetics services in daily patient care. Education in primary care genetics is considered suboptimal and in urgent need of revision and innovation. The aim of this study was to prioritize topics for genetics education for general practice. Methods: A Delphi consensus procedure consisting of three rounds was conducted. A purposively selected heterogeneous panel (n = 18) of experts, comprising six practicing GPs who were also engaged in research, five GP trainers, four clinical genetics professionals, and three representatives of patient organizations, participated. Educational needs regarding genetics in general practice in terms of knowledge, skills, and attitudes were rated and ranked in a top-10 list. Results: The entire panel completed all three rounds. Kendall's coefficient of concordance indicated significant agreement regarding the top 10 genetic education needs (P < 0.001). “Recognizing signals that are potentially indicative of a hereditary component of a disease” was rated highest, followed by “Evaluating indications for referral to a clinical genetics centre” and “Knowledge of the possibilities and limitations of genetic tests.” Conclusions: The priorities resulting from this study can inform the development of educational modules, including input for case-based education, to improve GP performance in genetic patient care. PMID:22241093
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Haesler, Emily; Elmitt, Nicholas; van Weel, Chris; Douglas, Kirsty
Objectives Internationally, general practitioners (GPs) are being encouraged to take an active role in the care of their patients with obesity, but as yet there are few tools for them to implement within their clinics. This study assessed the self-efficacy and confidence of GPs before and after implementing a weight management programme in their practice. Design Nested mixed methods study within a 6-month feasibility trial. Setting 4 urban general practices and 1 rural general practice in Australia. Participants All vocationally registered GPs in the local region were eligible and invited to participate; 12 GPs were recruited and 11 completed the study. Interventions The Change Programme is a structured GP-delivered weight management programme that uses the therapeutic relationship between the patient and their GP to provide holistic and person-centred care. It is an evidence-based programme founded on Australian guidelines for the management of obesity in primary care. Primary outcome measures Self-efficacy and confidence of the GPs when managing obesity was measured using a quantitative survey consisting of Likert scales in conjunction with pro forma interviews. Results In line with social cognitive theory, GPs who experienced performance mastery during the pilot intervention had an increase in their confidence and self-efficacy. In particular, confidence in assisting and arranging care for patients was improved as demonstrated in the survey and supported by the qualitative data. Most importantly from the qualitative data, GPs described changing their usual practice and felt more confident to discuss obesity with all of their patients. Conclusions A structured management tool for obesity care in general practice can improve GP confidence and self-efficacy in managing obesity. Enhancing GP ‘professional self-efficacy’ is the first step to improving obesity management within general practice. Trial registration number ACTRN12614001192673; Results. PMID:28132016
Background In Germany, there is a shortage of young physicians in several specialties, the situation of general practitioners (GP) being especially precarious. The factors influencing the career choice of German medical students are poorly understood. This study aims to identify factors influencing medical students' specialty choice laying a special focus on general practice. Methods The study was designed as a cross-sectional survey. In 2010, students at the five medical schools in the federal state of Baden-Wuerttemberg (Germany) filled out an online-questionnaire. On 27 items with 5-point Likert scales, the students rated the importance of specified individual and occupational aspects. Furthermore, students were asked to assign their intended medical specialty. Results 1,299 students participated in the survey. Thereof, 1,114 students stated a current choice for a specialty, with 708 students choosing a career in one of the following 6 specialties: internal medicine, surgery, gynaecology and obstetrics, paediatrics, anaesthetics and general practice. Overall, individual aspects ('Personal ambition', 'Future perspective', 'Work-life balance') were rated as more important than occupational aspects (i.e. 'Variety in job', 'Job-related ambition') for career choice. For students favouring a career as a GP individual aspects and the factor 'Patient orientation' among the occupational aspects were significantly more important and 'Job-related ambition' less important compared to students with other specialty choices. Conclusions This study confirms that future GPs differ from students intending to choose other specialties particularly in terms of patient-orientation and individual aspects such as personal ambition, future perspective and work-life balance. Improving job-conditions in terms of family compatibility and work-life balance could help to increase the attractiveness of general practice. Due to the shortage of GPs those factors should be made explicit at an
Mead, Nicola; Bower, Peter; Hann, Mark
The concept of patient-centredness is complex, but is generally seen as an approach that emphasises, on the part of the health professional, attention to patients' psychosocial (as well as physical) needs, the use of psychotherapeutic behaviours to convey a sense of partnership and positive regard, and active facilitation of patients' involvement in decision-making about their care. To date, there is little consistent evidence that doctors' use of a 'patient-centred' consulting style leads to better patient outcomes. However, previous studies have been limited by a lack of conceptual clarity and methodological consensus, and by the absence of a clear theoretical framework linking patient-centredness to outcomes. In this study, three specific, conceptually distinct dimensions of a patient-centred consulting style were operationalised: the 'biopsychosocial perspective', 'sharing power and responsibility' and the 'therapeutic alliance'. These dimensions were measured in terms of three 'socio-emotional' and two 'task-relevant' general practitioner (GP) behaviours using in-depth observational techniques applied to 173 videotaped GP consultations. Theoretically-derived hypotheses were tested concerning relationships between these patient-centred behaviours and two different consultation outcomes: patient satisfaction and enablement. Multivariate regression showed that GPs' patient-centred behaviours did not predict either outcome. The robustness of these findings is considered within the context of study strengths and weaknesses, and implications for future research are discussed.
The latest NHS reforms in England will require all general practices to become members of general practitioner (GP) consortia. These organisations will have responsibility for commissioning the majority of health care for their local populations. This article reviews the history and evidence on impact of the previous models of GP commissioning that have been introduced in the NHS with the aim of distilling key lessons for the design, implementation and evaluation of the latest reforms. GP commissioning has the potential to generate a variety of benefits for the NHS and patients, including lowering elective and non-elective referrals, reducing waiting times, improved coordination of primary and community support services and better financial risk management. GP commissioning has also the potential to reduce patient satisfaction, increase inequalities between geographical areas and may generate substantial management and transaction costs. The GP community will need to display strong directive leadership as well as nurture a culture of collaboration and group camaraderie among practices if the GP consortia model of commissioning is to deliver the desired improvements in quality and performance. The implementation of the new GP consortia model of commissioning needs to be monitored and evaluated to ensure that the benefits are maximized and any unintended and dysfunctional effects mitigated.
The literature on physician-induced demand (PID) suffers from an inability to distinguish between the effect of better access and the effect of patient shortage. Data from the Norwegian capitation trial in general practice give us an opportunity to make this distinction and hence, study whether service provision by physicians is partly income-motivated. In the capitation trial, each general practitioner (GP) has a personal list of patients. The payment system is a mix of a capitation fee and a fee for service. The data set has information on patient shortage, i.e. a positive difference between a GP's preferred and actual list size, at the individual practice level. From a model of a GP's optimal choice we derive the GP's optimal practice profile contingent on whether the GP experiences a shortage of patients or not. To what extent GPs, who experience a shortage, will undertake measures to attract patients or embark on a service-intensive practice style depends on the costs of the various measures relative to their expected benefit. The model classifies GPs into five types. In the empirical analysis a panel of GPs is followed for 5 years. Hence, transitory effects should have been exhausted. We show that GPs who experience a shortage of patients have a higher income per listed person than their unrationed colleagues.
Körner, Henrike; Newman, Christy E; Limin Mao; Kidd, Michael R; Saltman, Deborah C; Kippax, Susan
The data for this article are from a primary health care project on HIV and depression, in which the prevalence, nature, clinical management, and self-management of depression among homosexually active men attending high-HIV-caseload general practice clinics were investigated. One of the qualitative arms consisted of in-depth interviews with general practitioners (GPs) with high caseloads of gay men. The approach to discourse analysis was informed by Halliday's systemic functional linguistics. GPs constructed three discourses of depression: engaging with psychiatric discourse, engaging with the patient's world, and engaging with social structures. When GPs drew on the discourse of psychiatry, this discourse was positioned as only one possible construction of depression. This discourse was also contextualized in the social lives of gay men, and it was explicitly challenged and rejected. Engaging with their patients' social world was considered vital for recognizing depression in gay men. Finally, the GPs' construction of depression was inextricably linked to social disadvantage and marginalization. Depression is highly heterogeneous and constructed in terms of social relationships rather than as an independent entity that resides in the individual. There is a synergy between GPs' constructions of depression and men's experiences of depression, which differs from conventional medical views, and which enables GPs to be highly effective in dealing with the mental health issues of their gay patients.
Hansson, Anders; Friberg, Febe; Segesten, Kerstin; Gedda, Birgitta; Mattsson, Bengt
Multidisciplinary teamwork, defined as the collaboration between different professional groups to achieve a common purpose, is commonly regarded as a means to meet the complex tasks that medicine has to deal with today. However, many attempts to introduce the method in primary care have failed and this is supposed to be partly due to the fact that general practitioners (GPs) did not participate in the implementation of the method. The aim of this investigation was to get a deeper understanding of their attitude to teamwork by interviewing nine GPs at four Swedish health care centres, where successful teamwork had been ongoing since 1997. Themes and categories in the interviews were identified according to content analysis. Although the attitude in general was in favour of teamwork, four major themes: time-consuming versus time-saving; shared responsibility versus main responsibility; medical expert versus generalist; shared knowledge versus all knowing, could be identified, which all revealed ambivalence towards teamwork among the interviewees. It was concluded that, if teamwork is to be successfully introduced into primary care, the GPs' self-perception has to be taken into consideration as has the prestige and status associated with their traditional role and the benefits of teamwork to the profession of medicine. Apart from time, teamwork requires, professional supervision and doctors need to be trained in this method as early as in medical school.
Background It is often suggested that an effort must be made to increase awareness among consanguineous couples of their reproductive risk, and to refer them for genetic counseling if needed. Primary care professionals are considered most appropriate for addressing the subject and identifying couples at risk during consultations in their practice. This Dutch study aims to explore the experiences, attitudes and beliefs of such professionals regarding their care for consanguineous couples. Methods Sixteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with midwives and general practitioners. Results Although most primary care professionals considered it their task to inform couples about the risks of consanguinity, during consultations the topic was generally only briefly touched upon and quickly abandoned. Important reasons for this were professionals’ beliefs about religious and social values of couples, their low perception of the couples’ reproductive risk and expected limited feasibility of referral. Feelings of embarrassment regarding addressing consanguinity did not seem to play a significant role. Conclusions Primary care professional beliefs about their clients’ religious and social values, their attitudes toward the risk, and perceived limited options for referral seem to conflict with the professional norm to address the topic of consanguinity. PMID:23102514
Lynch, Marion; McFetridge, Nigel
This program focused on practice-level service change as a means of improving patient care and developing leadership skills of 19 general practitioners (GPs) and aimed to: promote and support change in leadership thinking and practice, facilitate practice-led service improvement, support career development, support continuing professional development, and contribute to the development of extended GP specialty training. Nineteen GPs, in Milton Keynes, United Kingdom, both new and experienced, volunteered to participate. Milton Keynes was selected on the basis of it being an area of relative social deprivation and underperformance in national quality indicators. New and experienced GPs took part in biweekly Action Learning Sets, individual coaching, and placements with the national and local health organizations. Each participant completed a project to improve the quality of patient care. The learning sets supported the process and 11 of the GPs chose to complete a postgraduate certificate in General Practice. Evaluation consisted of analysis of development of leadership competencies recorded through Medical Leadership Competency Framework pre- and postintervention assessment, analysis of learning recorded in participants' reflective diaries, analysis of learning process recorded through participant focus groups, and analysis of learning and project outcomes recorded in project reports. Outcomes showed statistically significant increases in leadership competencies, changes in services and care, improved confidence and changed culture. GPs expressed increased confidence to "have a go" and motivation to "make a difference." This innovative narrative, complex, neuroleadership-based program continues to inform educational policy and practice, increasing leadership competencies, and to improve the quality of patient care.
Yohannes, Abebaw Mengistu
Up to 40% of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) suffer from comorbid depression. However, there is little data available on the perceptions and experiences of general practitioners (GPs) on the management of depression in patients with COPD. The study investigated GPs' views about recognizing and treating depression in patients with COPD. A postal survey of 3957 GPs in England about their views on recognizing and treating depression in patients with COPD was conducted. Participants were drawn from the General Medical Services statistics database maintained by the Department of Health. A total of 3957 GPs were mailed. Of these, 857 (22%) complete responses were received. Seventy two percent of the GPs reported screening for depression regularly in patients with COPD. Over 95% of the GPs' views were that depression interferes with the self-management of COPD and 584 (67%) thought that it exacerbates the symptoms of COPD. However, over two-fifths of GPs were concerned that convincing COPD patients with comorbid depression to receive appropriate treatment was a challenge. Barriers for treatment of comorbid depression in patients with COPD include lack of adequate provision of psychological services and long waiting times for psychological treatment. It is encouraging that most GPs were vigilant and proactively screening for depression. However, there is limited immediate access and provision to psychological therapies to refer COPD patients for treatment in the primary care setting. Further study is required.
Campana, Marion; Bonin-Guillaume, Sylvie; Yagoubi, Ramzi; Berbis, Julie; Franqui, Caroline
s and related disorders (ADRD) remain a major public health issue. The progression of the disease is dominated by behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) which are frequent and burdensome for caregivers. The aim of our survey was to study how the general practionner managed these behavioral disturbances (particularly agitation and aggressiveness) in community living patients with ADRD and support of their main caregivers. We based our study on a medical survey sent to all general practitioners (GP) practicing in four districts in Marseille near from a secure unit. Ninety five out of 260 answered to the survey and 57 had already been exposed to patients' behavioral decompensation. For these BPSD management, atypical neuroleptics and benzodiazepines were mostly prescribed, and according to the literature and guidelines. Half of the GP's recognized the weak effectiveness of this strategy. Almost all of them are interested in having a document summarizing the main strategy to be set up or a possibility to call a specialized mobile team with doctors and professionals caregivers. A few dedicated consultations were devoted to informal caregivers whereas GP were aware of negative effects of these decompensations on them. This study point out difficulties for GP to provide appropriate management for their patients with ADRD living at home and for their informal caregivers, particularly during acute behavioral disturbance, despite their practical knowledges.
Del Mar, C B; Lowe, J B; Adkins, P; Arnold, E; Baade, P
BACKGROUND: Although good medical records have been associated with good care, there is considerable room for their improvement in general practice. AIM: To improve the quality of general practice medical records at minimal cost. METHOD: A total of 150 randomly sampled general practitioners (GPs) in suburban Brisbane, Australia, were randomized in a controlled trial to receive or not receive an intervention. The intervention consisted of 6 to 12 one-hour monthly meetings when the pairs of GPs assessed samples of each other's medical records using a 12-item instrument. This was developed previously by a process of consensus of general practice teachers. Mean scores of 10 medical records selected at random from before the intervention started and one year later were compared. RESULTS: After the intervention, the increase in the total score (for which the maximum possible was 18) for the intervention GPs (from a baseline of 11.5 to 12.3) was not significantly greater than for the controls (from 11.4 to 11.7). Legibility and being able to determine the doctor's assessment of the consultation were significantly improved. The post-intervention increase of 1.06 (9.3%) of the total scores of the 47% of intervention GPs who complied with the intervention was significantly greater than that for the controls. CONCLUSION: The quality assurance activity improved some components of the quality of GPs' clinical records. However, the improvement was small, and the search for activities for Australian GPs that demonstrate an improvement in the quality of their practice must continue. Images p1311-a PMID:9747547
The Office of Inspector General performed audits of the Small Disadvantaged Business Program at five management and operating contractors in FY 1994. The audits disclosed that none of the contractors fully met the intent of the Act and implementing regulations. The contractors awarded some subcontracts to firms of questionable program eligibility. Also, two of the contractors concentrated awards among a limited number of small disadvantaged businesses, and used procurement practices that precluded opportunities for many small disadvantaged businesses to participate. The objective of this audit was to determine whether Chicago was providing the maximum practicable opportunity for small disadvantaged businesses to participate in contract awards.
Background Depressive disorders are highly prevalent in primary care (PC) and are associated with considerable functional impairment and increased health care use. Research has shown that many patients prefer psychological treatments to pharmacotherapy, however, it remains unclear which treatment is most optimal for depressive patients in primary care. Methods/Design A randomized, multi-centre trial involving two intervention groups: one receiving brief cognitive behavioral therapy and the other receiving general practitioner care. General practitioners from 109 General Practices in Nijmegen and Amsterdam (The Netherlands) will be asked to include patients aged between 18-70 years presenting with depressive symptomatology, who do not receive an active treatment for their depressive complaints. Patients will be telephonically assessed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I) to ascertain study eligibility. Eligible patients will be randomized to one of two treatment conditions: either 8 sessions of cognitive behavioral therapy by a first line psychologist or general practitioner's care according to The Dutch College of General Practitioners Practice Guideline (NHG- standaard). Baseline and follow-up assessments are scheduled at 0, 6, 12 and 52 weeks following the start of the intervention. Primary outcome will be measured with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-17 (HDRS-17) and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Outcomes will be analyzed on an intention to treat basis. Trial Registration ISRCTN65811640 PMID:20939917
Poggi, M M; Smith, G J; Campbell, R S
U.S. Navy general medical officers (GMOs) are physicians serving as general practitioners. Although exceptions exist, most GMOs are not board-certified in a specialty. They are post-graduate year 1 (PGY-1)-trained, state-licensed physicians analogous to civilian general practitioners. We conducted a retrospective study using data generated from patient visits with active duty males and females from June 1 to 30, 1998, to describe diagnoses, demographics, and utilization of care patterns encountered by three PGY-1-trained GMOs at an ambulatory clinic. A total of 781 patient encounters with 123 diagnoses from a patient population of 3,178 were recorded. This is an average of 260 patient encounters per GMO, at a rate of 2.52 patients seen per patient-care hour. Fifty-seven consultations/referrals were requested (7.3% of encounters, 1.8% of the patient population). Personnel assigned to the clinic accounted for 4.2% of visits (2% of the patient population). Patient satisfaction was rated as "excellent" to "satisfactory," and no significant morbidity was observed at 1.5-year follow-up. With PGY-1 training, GMOs provide primary care to a substantial volume of prescreened patients and treat patients with a majority of diagnoses without referral or unacceptable complications. The role of GMOs, and perhaps other physicians without specialty training (i.e., general practitioners), in selected settings seems valid and may have advantageous medicoeconomic implications for military and civilian managed care systems.
Correa, Ana; Hinton, William; McGovern, Andrew; van Vlymen, Jeremy; Yonova, Ivelina; Jones, Simon; de Lusignan, Simon
Purpose The Royal College of General Practitioners Research and Surveillance Centre (RCGP RSC) is one of the longest established primary care sentinel networks. In 2015, it established a new data and analysis hub at the University of Surrey. This paper evaluates the representativeness of the RCGP RSC network against the English population. Participants and method The cohort includes 1 042 063 patients registered in 107 participating general practitioner (GP) practices. We compared the RCGP RSC data with English national data in the following areas: demographics; geographical distribution; chronic disease prevalence, management and completeness of data recording; and prescribing and vaccine uptake. We also assessed practices within the network participating in a national swabbing programme. Findings to date We found a small over-representation of people in the 25–44 age band, under-representation of white ethnicity, and of less deprived people. Geographical focus is in London, with less practices in the southwest and east of England. We found differences in the prevalence of diabetes (national: 6.4%, RCPG RSC: 5.8%), learning disabilities (national: 0.44%, RCPG RSC: 0.40%), obesity (national: 9.2%, RCPG RSC: 8.0%), pulmonary disease (national: 1.8%, RCPG RSC: 1.6%), and cardiovascular diseases (national: 1.1%, RCPG RSC: 1.2%). Data completeness in risk factors for diabetic population is high (77–99%). We found differences in prescribing rates and costs for infections (national: 5.58%, RCPG RSC: 7.12%), and for nutrition and blood conditions (national: 6.26%, RCPG RSC: 4.50%). Differences in vaccine uptake were seen in patients aged 2 years (national: 38.5%, RCPG RSC: 32.8%). Owing to large numbers, most differences were significant (p<0.00015). Future plans The RCGP RSC is a representative network, having only small differences with the national population, which have now been quantified and can be assessed for clinical relevance for specific studies. This
Williams, W O
Doctors who were general practitioners in the period 1973-88 and had written a successful MD or PhD thesis were identified. Of 96 doctorates, 64 were MDs and 32 PhDs. Fourteen doctors had obtained their MD before becoming general practitioners and the remaining 50 after becoming general practitioners. Twenty of the 64 doctors were full time or part time members of a university department of general practice; six of these were professors. In this 16 year study the mean annual number of MDs written by doctors while in general practice was three, compared with five in the previous 15 years. Of the PhDs, 11 were obtained before starting a medical course, six during the pre-clinical period, three after qualifying but before entry into general practice and 12 after entry into general practice. Ninety two per cent of the 50 doctors who obtained their MDs while in general practice and 84% of all the doctors with MDs continued to do research afterwards. Further research was carried out by 81% of doctors with a PhD. The best way of producing good researchers in general practice is to encourage doctors to accept the challenge of writing a PhD or an MD thesis. This study has shown that writing such a thesis encourages rather than discourages a doctor to undertake further research.
Abdel Wahab, Moataza M; Nofal, Laila M; Guirguis, Wafaa W; Mahdy, Nehad H
Referral of patients generates significant economic costs for both physician fees and diagnostic tests. Variation in referral rates between general practices and between individual GPs has long been the focus of attention for policy makers. The present study aimed to analyze the referrals by General Practitioners (GP) at Health Insurance Organization (HIO) clinics in Alexandria. The study was conducted at 18 Health Insurance Organization (HIO) comprehensive clinics in Alexandria, distributed in the 6 districts of Alexandria HIO. Retrospective analysis of records and cross sectional interview to 180 GPs were carried out. Male GPs comprised 82.2% of the sample. On the average, GPs received 6.6 +/- 4.5 patients per working hour. Over the year 2002, 8.4% of consultations were referred to specialists, 5.4% referred to laboratory and only 0.09% were referred to hospital. The highest percent of referrals from GP to specialist were directed to internal medicine followed by orthopedics, general surgery, E.N.T, dermatology, neuropsychiatry, chest then urology clinics. Referral rate from GPs to specialists was found to have a 6.6-fold variation among clinics, and a 54.8-fold variation among individual GPs. Moreover, there was no homogeneity in variations in referral rates of clinics within 3 of the 6 districts. Using multiple regression analysis, the only significant factor was the indirect relation with workload. Comparison of referral rates of GPs with the limits set by HIO (8-17%) revealed that, 48.9% of GPs were within limits, 37.2% were lower and 13.9% were higher than limits. GPs who had diploma or master were average referrers in 51.5%, low referrers in 30.3% and high referrers in 18.2%, compared to 45.6%, 50.6% and only 3.8%, respectively for those with bachelor degree; the difference was statistically significant.
Xing, Kai; Jiao, Mingli; Ma, Hongkun; Qiao, Hong; Hao, Yanhua; Li, Ye; Gao, Lijun; Sun, Hong; Kang, Zheng; Liang, Libo; Wu, Qunhong
Purpose The purpose of this study is to identify risk factors of physical violence in Chinese township hospitals. Methods A cross-sectional survey was used in a sample of 442 general practitioners and 398 general nurses from 90 township hospitals located in Heilongjiang province, China (response rate = 84.8%). Results A total of 106 of the 840 (12.6%) respondents reported being physically attacked in their workplace in the previous 12 months. Most perpetrators were the patients’ relatives (62.3%), followed by the patient (22.6%); 73.6% of perpetrators were aged between 20 and 40 years. Of the physical violence incidents, about 56.6% (n = 60) resulted in a physical injury, and 45.4% of respondents took two or three days of sick leave. Reporting workplace violence in hospitals to superiors or authorities was low (9.4%). Most respondents (62.8%) did not receive training on how to avoid workplace violence. Logistic regression analyses indicated that general nurses, aged 35 years or younger, and with a higher-level professional title were more likely to experience physical violence. Healthcare workers with direct physical contact (washing, turning, lifting) with patients had a higher risk of physical violence compared to other health care workers. Procedures for reporting workplace violence were a protective factor for physical violence; when in place, reporting after psychological violence (verbal abuse, bullying/mobbing, harassment, and threats) was more protective than waiting until an instance of physical violence (beating, kicking, slapping, stabbing, etc.). Conclusions Physical violence in Chinese township hospitals is an occupational hazard of rural public health concern. Policies, procedures, and intervention strategies should be undertaken to manage this issue. PMID:26571388
Cheney, Helen; Willetts, Juliet; Wilson, Erin
Historically, rural General Practitioners (GPs) in Australia tended to be male, Anglo, middle-class and in nuclear family structures, whereas the contemporary workforce demographic is increasingly female and of diverse ethnicity. Demographic trends and changing social values of university-educated professionals directly affect services in rural…
Atkin, Karl; Lunt, Neil
Interviews with 56 practice nurses, 29 general practitioners (GPs), 23 health administrators, and 1 government official revealed that nurses use a variety of education and training opportunities; GPs largely let nurses take responsibility for their continuing education. The informal nature of training opportunities and lack of funding were…
Gladman, Justin; Perkins, David
Context and Objective: Australian rural general practitioners (GPs) require public health knowledge. This study explored the suitability of teaching complex public health issues related to Aboriginal health by way of a hybrid problem-based learning (PBL) model within an intensive training retreat for GP registrars, when numerous trainees have no…
Gledhill, Julia; Kramer, Tami; Iliffe, Steven; Garralda, M. Elena
General practitioners (GPs) completed a checklist indicating recognition of psychopathology prior to and following GP training in the identification/management of adolescent depression. Psychiatric interviews with 38 adolescents with high depressive scores prior to and 44 following training identified 10 (26%) and 21 (48%), respectively, as…
Duncan, J C; Ross, M; Rhind, S; Clutton, E; Shaw, D J
Day One Skills (DOS) were introduced by the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons (RCVS) in 2006 as a guideline for minimum skills required by a veterinary graduate. However, the RCVS anaesthesia DOS are broad and do not specify differences in skills required for different species. The aims of this study were: (1) to determine which anaesthesia skills were considered essential for day one practice by UK-based veterinary practitioners (GPs) and anaesthetists; and (2) to explore current opinions on veterinary undergraduate anaesthesia training. Questionnaires for veterinary GPs (QGPs) and veterinary anaesthetists (QVAs) were developed which asked general information on expectations of anaesthesia skills as well as specific expectations for the common veterinary species. Fifty-five UK-based members of the Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists responded, with a random sample of veterinary practices stratified by UK county generating 234 responses and a convenience sample targeted at more specialist veterinary specialities in the UK generating 161 responses. There was close overall agreement between the two groups of GPs and anaesthetists on essential anaesthesia DOS. However, expectations varied with species-greatest in cats and dogs, lowest in exotics. Many respondents commented that new veterinary graduates lack practical skills and should not be expected to be omnicompetent across all species. In conclusion, anaesthesia undergraduate training should prioritise essential practical DOS.
Bourke, Jane; Roper, Stephen
An important element of the process by which new drugs achieve widespread use is their adoption by GPs. In this paper, we explore the factors that shape the timing of the first prescription of six new drugs by General Practitioners in Ireland. Our analysis is based on a dataset that matches prescription data with data on GP characteristics. We then use duration analysis to explore both equilibrium and non-equilibrium determinants of prescribing innovation. Our study highlights a range of commonalities across all of the drugs considered and suggests the importance of GP and practice characteristics in shaping prescribing decisions. We also find strongly significant, and consistently signed, stock and order effects across these drugs: GPs who have a track record of early adoption tend also to be early adopters of other new drugs; and, the larger the proportion of GPs which have already adopted a new drug the slower is subsequent adoption. Epidemic and learning effects are also evident with slower adoption by rural practices and among those GPs with narrower prescribing portfolios.
Loogman, Masja C M; Bouma, Margriet; Burgers, Jako S
The revised guideline on 'Acute diarrhoea' from the Dutch College of General Practitioners covers the diagnosis and management of suspected acute infectious diarrhoea. Acute diarrhoea resulting from infectious gastroenteritis is often caused by a virus and is usually self-limiting; stool testing is rarely indicated. The main complication of acute diarrhoea is dehydration, although this is rare in the Netherlands. Children under 2 years old and patients over 70 are at an increased risk of dehydration. Dehydration is a clinical diagnosis based on a combination of patient history and physical examination. DNA diagnostic methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are now available for stool testing, in addition to stool culture and the triple faeces test (TFT). PCR is preferred for its better test properties. Treatment with oral rehydration salts (ORS) is indicated for patients with dehydration and may also be useful in patients at an increased risk of this event. Acute diarrhoea after hospitalisation or after visiting the tropics or subtropics merits special attention on account of the risk of infection with unusual pathogens and the consequences with regard to management.
Popat, H; Thomas, K; Farnell, D J J
Objective To determine general dental practitioners' (GDPs) confidence in managing orthodontic emergencies.Design Cross-sectional study.Setting Primary dental care.Subjects and methods An online survey was distributed to dentists practicing in Wales. The survey collected basic demographic information and included descriptions of ten common orthodontic emergency scenarios.Main outcome measure Respondents' self-reported confidence in managing the orthodontic emergency scenarios on a 5-point Likert scale. Differences between the Likert responses and the demographic variables were investigated using chi-squared tests.Results The median number of orthodontic emergencies encountered by respondents over the previous six months was 1. Overall, the self-reported confidence of respondents was high with 7 of the 10 scenarios presented scoring a median of 4 indicating that GDPs were 'confident' in their management. Statistical analysis revealed that GDPs who saw more orthodontic emergencies in the previous six months were more confident when managing the presented scenarios. Other variables such as age, gender, geographic location of practice and number of years practising dentistry were not associated with self-reported confidence.Conclusions Despite GDPs encountering very few orthodontic emergencies in primary care, they appear to be confident in dealing with commonly arising orthodontic emergency situations.
Grover, Piyush; Butler, Rachael; Bye, Lynne; Sheridan, Janie
Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate general practitioners' (GPs) perceptions regarding access to medicines in New Zealand. Design Qualitative. Setting Primary care. Participants GPs. Main outcome measures GPs' views and perceptions. Results GPs were of the view that the current range of medicines available in New Zealand was reasonable; however, it was acknowledged that there were some drugs that patients were missing out on. When considering the range of subsidised medicines available in New Zealand, some GPs felt that there had been an improvement over recent years. It was highlighted that unexpected funding changes could create financial barriers for some patients and that administrative procedures and other complexities created barriers in receiving a subsidy for restricted medicines. GPs also reported problems with the availability and sole supply of certain medicines and claimed that switching from a branded medicine to its generic counterpart could be disruptive for patients. Conclusions The research concluded that although there were some issues with the availability of certain drugs, most GPs were satisfied with the broader access to medicines situation in New Zealand. This view is to contrary to the situation presented by the pharmaceutical industry. The issues around sole supply, the use of generic medicines and the administrative barriers regarding funding of medicines could be improved with better systems. The current work provides a solid account of what GPs see as the advantages and disadvantages of the current system and how they balance these demands in practice. PMID:22457477
Kjeldmand, Dorte; Holmström, Inger
PURPOSE General practitioners (GPs) occupy a central position in health care and often have demanding working situations. This corps shows signs of exhaustion, and many consider quitting their job or plan to retire early. It is therefore urgent to find ways of improving GP’s satisfaction with their work. One approach might be Balint group participation. The aim of this study was to explore GPs’ experience of participating in Balint groups and its influence on their work life. METHODS We conducted a descriptive, qualitative study. Nine GPs who had participated in Balint groups for 3 to 15 years were interviewed. A phenomenologic analysis was carried out to describe the phenomenon of Balint group participation. RESULTS The GPs perceived that their Balint group participation influenced their work life. Analyses revealed several interrelating themes: competence, professional identity, and a sense of security, which increased through parallel processes, creating a base of endurance and satisfaction, thus enabling the GPs to rediscover the joy of being a physician. CONCLUSIONS The GPs in this study described their Balint group participation as beneficial and essential to their work life as physicians in several ways. It seemed to increase their competence in patient encounters and enabled them to endure in their job and find joy and challenge in their relationships with patients. Balint groups might thus help GPs handle a demanding work life and prevent burnout. These groups might not suit all GPs, however, and additional ways to reduce stress and increase job satisfaction should be offered. PMID:18332406
Geoffroy, Pierre Alexis; Duhamel, Alain; Behal, Hélène; Zouitina-Lietaert, Nadia; Duthilleul, Julie; Marquette, Louise; Ducrocq, François; Vaiva, Guillaume; Rolland, Benjamin
Important discrepancies exist between physicians in deciding when to perform involuntary hospitalization measures (IHMs). The factors underlying these differences are poorly known.We conducted a two-year single-center retrospective study in France on patients who were referred to the emergency department (ED) with an IHM certificate written by a private-practice General Practitioner (GP). For each consultation, the official IHM motive was categorized into four groups: Suicide; Psychosis, Mania, or Melancholia (PMM); Agitation; and Other. The alcohol status of the patient was also noted. The factors underlying the ED psychiatrists' confirmation of the use of IHMs were determined using a logistic regression model. One hundred eighty-nine cases were found (165 patients; 44.2 ± 16 years, 41.3% women). The ED psychiatrists confirmed the use of IHMs in 123 instances (65.1% agreement rate). Multivariate analyses found that IHM disagreement was significantly associated with patient alcohol status and the reason for referral. Specifically, there was an increased risk of IHM disagreement when the patient had an alcohol-positive status (OR = 15.80; 95% CI [6.45-38.67]; p < 0.0001) and when the motive for IHM was "agitation" compared with "suicide" (OR = 11.44; 95% CI[3.38-38.78]; p < 0.0001). These findings reflect significant disparities between GPs and ED psychiatrists regarding the decision to proceed to an IHM.
Ashman, Freya; Sturgiss, Elizabeth; Haesler, Emily
Background. Obesity is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the Australian community, and general practitioners (GPs) are commonly approached by patients for assistance in losing weight. Previous studies have shown that GPs have low self-efficacy and low outcome expectation when it comes to managing overweight and obese patients, which affects their willingness to initiate and continue with weight counselling. This qualitative survey study aimed to explore the factors influencing confidence and behaviour in obesity management in GPs. Method. Twelve GPs recruited to deliver a pilot of an obesity management program participated in semistructured interviews, and interpretive analysis underpinned by social cognitive theory was performed on the transcripts. Results. Analysis identified five main themes: (1) perceived knowledge and skills, (2) structure to management approach, (3) the GP-patient relationship, (4) acknowledged barriers to weight loss and lifestyle change, and (5) prior experience and outcome expectation. Conclusions. GPs are likely to welcome tools which provide a more structured approach to obesity management. Shifting away from weight and BMI as sole yardsticks for success or failure and emphasising positive lifestyle changes for their own sake may improve GP self-efficacy and allow for a more authentic GP-patient interaction. PMID:27274872
van Tol, Donald; Rietjens, Judith; van der Heide, Agnes
'Unbearable suffering' is a pivotal criterion for lawful euthanasia in the Netherlands. The due-care criterion is not defined in the law and could refer to conditions varying from physical pain to psychological forms of suffering. It is unknown, however, what doctors consider 'unbearable suffering' and for what kind of suffering they are willing to grant a euthanasia request. We conducted a vignette-study among Dutch general practitioners (n=115, response 38%). We found high concordance between the classification of a patient's suffering as 'unbearable' and the willingness to grant a euthanasia request. Most doctors are only inclined to classify a patient's suffering as 'unbearable' when suffering is directly related to untreatable and actual pain or physical symptoms. Doctors' judgment of suffering varied strongly in cases in which physical symptoms are absent and a patient suffers from a combination of irreversible functional loss and 'existential' kinds of suffering. Although some doctors (17%) stick to the idea that physical symptoms are a necessary condition for 'unbearable suffering', a majority is willing to occasionally make an exception. When and for which case an individual doctor will make such an exception, is highly unpredictable. Various explanations for the findings are discussed.
Demant, Sune; Markvart, Merete; Bjørndal, Lars
There is a gap between the endodontic outcome that can be achieved and the outcome observed on the basis of worldwide general dental practitioner data. The quality of root canal treatment (RCT) is shaped by the dentist's knowledge, attitude, and skills, but it may also be influenced by the patient's demands and degree of satisfaction. The topic has only been sparsely investigated. Although dental health has increased over the years in Denmark, the number of performed root fillings has also increased, probably because the number of tooth extractions have declined and more molar teeth have been treated. Caries appears to be the main cause for performing RCT and a preventive approach by employing stepwise excavation may reduce RCT, but this strategy does not remove the gap. Factors influencing RCT quality could be the status on adoption of nickel-titanium rotary technology, more focus on infection control (rubber dam use, knowledge of factors important for prognosis), as dentists often think that they are good at doing RCT, but often perform inadequately, an alteration of clinician's awareness of their performance in the context of dental practices, seems warranted. Finally, the development of new preventive modalities for pulp and apical inflammation are crucial. PMID:22536241
Johannesdottir, Sigrun Alba; Mægbæk, Merete Lund; Hansen, Jens Georg; Lash, Timothy L; Pedersen, Lars; Ehrenstein, Vera
Epidemiologic studies often rely on drug dispensation records to measure medication intake. We aimed to estimate correspondence between general practitioner (GP)-reported treatment and timing of prescription dispensation. From seven GPs in northern Denmark, we obtained 317 prescription records for 286 patients treated with ten commonly prescribed medication types for chronic diseases. We linked the GP-reported information to the regional prescription database to retrieve patients' prescription records both prospectively and retrospectively in relation to the GP-reported date of treatment (index date, August 20, 2008 for all patients). We computed overall and medication-specific correspondence between GP-reported treatment and the timing of dispensation. We computed correspondence based on both exact medication and therapeutic subgroup agreement. The correspondence for dispensation within ±90 days of GP-reported treatment was 0.81 (95% confidence interval = 0.76-0.85) with variation by medication type, ranging from 0.55 for ACE-inhibitors to 1.00 for oral glucose-lowering agents. The correspondence was greater when analyzed within therapeutic groups than when analyzed for exact medications within these groups.
Dickmann, C; Habermeyer, E; Spitzer, K
WWW-based Continuing Medical Education (CME) is assumed to have the potential to make up for shortcomings in traditional lifelong learning of General Practitioners (GPs). This is obvious for CME systems with accreditation and control of the individual GP's CME activities but seems less clear for non-controlled CME systems like in several European countries, e.g. Germany. This paper reports results from the evaluation of a German CME website by 59 GPs (internet experience of 20 months on average) during a 4-months period. GPs mainly learned at home after work, with 46% of the GPs visiting the website at least once per month. Self-study and information seeking accounted for 58% of the activities, while communication and interaction were used infrequently. 77% of the GPs judged less but detailed information on selected topics more important than being able to access many but broad contents. GPs mostly prefer established means of learning and communication. It is concluded that the GPs' self-directed individual learning mainly needs high-quality information and well-structured collections of existing relevant WWW resources. Communication, virtual community building and sophisticated interactivity are of little importance at present. WWW-based CME complements existing CME activities, especially regarding individual information seeking on focused problems.
Mujtaba, Syed Hasnain; Ashraf, Tariq; Anjum, Qudsia
The objective of this study was to evaluate enhancement in the knowledge of general practitioners (GPs), from the urban cities in the province of Sindh, Pakistan, regarding blood pressure measurement through workshop. This was a quasi-experimental study that involved GPs from 5 cities of Sindh province, Pakistan. The GPs were required to complete a pretested self-administered questionnaire before and after the workshop session. The questionnaire included few demographic variables and 17 questions based on the American Heart Association recommendations. The mean pretest and posttest scores were compared using Student's t test. A total of 350 GPs returned completed questionnaires, with a preponderance of males (n = 264, 75.4%) than females (n = 86, 24.6%). The mean correct responses increased significantly after the workshop session from 8 ± 2.1 to 14 ± 2.5 (P = .01). The knowledge of GPs was almost doubled after the workshop and was significantly different for variables such as qualification, affiliation with teaching hospital, and number of years of practice (P = .001). This survey, a representation of GPs from the Sindh province, indicated a significant doubling in knowledge after the workshop, proving that continuing medical education sessions play an important role in increasing awareness and staying updated.
Liu, Ying; Ren, Wen; Qiu, Yan; Liu, Juanjuan; Yin, Pei
Background Mobile phones and mobile phone apps have expanded new forms of health professionals’ work. There are many studies on the use of mobile phone apps for different specialists. However, there are no studies on the current use of mobile phone apps among general practitioners (GPs). Objective The objective of the study was to investigate the extent to which GPs own smartphones with apps and use them to aid their clinical activities. Methods A questionnaire survey of GPs was undertaken in Hangzhou, Eastern China. Data probing GPs’ current use of medical apps in their clinical activities and factors influencing app use were collected and analyzed Results 125 GPs participated in the survey. 90.4% of GPs owned a mobile phone, with 48.7% owning an iPhone and 47.8% owning an Android phone. Most mobile phone owners had 1-3 medical-related apps, with very few owning more than 4. There was no difference in number of apps between iPhone and Android owners (χ2=1.388, P=0.846). 36% of GPs reported using medical-related apps on a daily basis. The majority of doctors reported using apps to aid clinical activities less than 30 minutes per day. Conclusions A high level of mobile phone ownership and usage among GPs was found in this study, but few people chose medical-related apps to support their clinical practice. PMID:27220417
McCotter, L; Douglas, P; Laur, C; Gandy, J; Fitzpatrick, L; Rajput-Ray, M; Ray, S
Objectives To (1) assess the hydration knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of doctors; (2) develop an evidence-based training package; and (3) evaluate the impact of the training package. Design Educational intervention with impact evaluation. Setting Cambridgeshire, UK. Participants General practitioners (GPs (primary care physicians)). Interventions Hydration and healthcare training. Main outcome measures Hydration KAP score before and immediately after the training session. Results Knowledge gaps of doctors identified before the teaching were the definition of dehydration, European Food Safety Authority water intake recommendations, water content of the human body and proportion of water from food and drink. A face-to-face teaching package was developed on findings from the KAP survey and literature search. 54 questionnaires were completed before and immediately after two training sessions with GPs. Following the training, total hydration KAP scores increased significantly (p<0.001; median (25th, 75th centiles); 32 (29, 34)). Attendees rated the session as excellent or good (90%) and reported the training was likely to influence their professional practice (100%). Conclusions The training package will continue to be developed and adapted, with increased focus on follow-up strategies as well as integration into medical curricula and standards of practice. However, further research is required in the area of hydration care to allow policymakers to incorporate hydration awareness and care with greater precision in local and national policies. PMID:27927656
Paz-Lourido, Berta; Kuisma, Raija M E
This paper explores the educational factors that underlie the poor collaboration between general practitioners (GPs) and physiotherapists (PTs) in Primary Health Care (PHC), from the GP's perspective. This study was conducted in Majorca, the Balearic Islands (Spain). Participants were nine GPs who graduated from different universities in mainland Spain. A discourse analysis study was developed employing the social-critical paradigm as theoretical framework and in-depth interviews for data collection. The perceived lack of knowledge about physiotherapy was considered by the interviewees as a major factor in the current poor communication between GPs and PTs. The individual learning during medical studies and poor interprofessional learning during clinical residency influenced their gatekeeper role, putting at risk the equity of the health system. Collaboration was considered beneficial for patients but challenging to improve in context due to multiple factors ranging from individual to systemic. The latter encompasses inadequate resources and organization for interprofessional learning. There is a need to further explore other factors influencing the poor collaboration, including PTs' views on this process.
Bertelsen, Pernille; Stub Petersen, Lone
This paper reports on selected findings from a Danish national survey of citizens' perception and use of information and communication technology (ICT) for their health care . Focus is on citizens' use of ICT and on communication with their General Practitioner (GP). It also focuses on citizens' experience of their GPs' ICT use and no use during medical consultations. The responsibility for medical service in Denmark is to a large extent handed over to the primary sector where the GP is the gatekeeper. Our data display that 65% of the adult citizens or their relatives have been using ICT to communicate with their GP. Twenty-two percent have experienced their GP use a computer screen to actively show them something while they have a consultation. Further, our data supports the assumption that the higher the education people have, the more likely they are to use ICT for their health care. The understanding of the use of ICT in communication with the GP is central to monitoring and developing an ICT that supports all citizens and considers new ways in which to enhance quality of care.
Häussler, Bertram; Fischer, Gisela C; Meyer, Sibylle; Sturm, Diethard
Objectives To evaluate the ability of general practitioners (GPs) in Germany to estimate the risk of patients with diabetes developing complications. Methods An interview study using a structured questionnaire to estimate risks of four case vignettes having diabetes‐specific complications within the next 10 years, risk reduction and life expectancy potential. A representative random sample of 584 GPs has been drawn, of which 150 could be interviewed. We compared GPs' estimates among each other (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Cohen's (multirater‐) κ) and with risks for long‐term complications generated by the multifactor disease model “Mellibase”, which is a knowledge‐based support system for medical decision management. Results The risk estimates by GPs varied widely (ICC 0.21 95% CI (0.13 to 0.36)). The average level of potential risk reduction was between 47% and 70%. Compared with Mellibase values, on average, the GPs overestimated the risk threefold. Mean estimates of potential prolongation of life expectancy were close to 10 years for each patient, whereas the Mellibase calculations ranged from 3 to 10 years. Conclusions Overestimation could lead to unnecessary care and waste of resources. PMID:17545348
Theodosiou, Anastasia A; Mitchell, Oliver R
Abortion legislation remains a contentious topic in the UK, which receives much attention from politicians, clinicians and professional bodies alike. In this study, the perspectives of general practitioners and obstetrics and gynaecology clinicians on the Abortion Act 1967 was explored. To this end, a short electronic questionnaire was distributed to all 211 GP and obstetrics and gynaecology clinicians affiliated with the University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine. Of the 100 anonymous responses collected, a significant majority felt that abortion law in Northern Ireland should be changed in line with the rest of the UK. The respondents' votes, however, were either opposed to or divided over any other changes to the Abortion Act, including altering the 24 week time limit, clarifying the legal definition of fetal abnormalities, introducing abortion purely on the woman's request, and modifying the requirement for two clinicians to approve any request for abortion. These perspectives were not entirely aligned with the recommendations of the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists and the House of Commons Science and Technology Committee, or with current medical evidence and demographic data.
Jing, Limei; Shu, Zhiqun; Sun, Xiaoming; Chiu, John F; Lou, Jiquan; Xie, Chunyan
The general practitioner (GP) system has been widely applied around the world and experimented with in Shanghai, China. To analyze some of the influencing factors on patient-GP contracts, we developed a questionnaire and conducted site investigations in 2011 and 2012 to 1200 patients by random sampling from 6 pilot community health service (CHS) centers in Pudong, Shanghai. The t test, χ(2) test, factor analysis, and logistic regression analysis were used to analyze the data. The factors influencing patients' contract behavior were age (OR = 1.03; 95%CI = 1.02-1.04), education level (OR = 0.83; 95% CI = 0.75-0.93), social interaction of social capital (OR = 1.34; 95% CI = 1.15-1.56), acceptance of first contact in community (OR = 3.25; 95% CI = 2.07-5.12), the year of investigation (OR = 2.58; 95% CI = 1.92-3.47), and the exposure to publicity (OR = 1.60; 95% CI = 1.39-1.85). Elderly patients formed a focus group to sign contracts with GPs. To increase trust in GPs by patients, it is recommended to improve the level of CHSs, strengthen publicity, and cultivate social capital among patients.
Bergmo, Trine Strand; Wangberg, Silje Camilla
Despite the common use of electronic communication in other aspects of everyday life, its use between patients and health care providers has been slow to diffuse. Possible explanations are security issues and lack of payment mechanisms. This study investigated how patients value secure electronic access to their general practitioner (GP). One hundred and ninety-nine patients were asked an open-ended willingness-to-pay (WTP) question as part of a randomised controlled trial. We compared the WTP values between two groups of respondents; one group had had the opportunity to communicate electronically with their GP for a year and the other group had not. Fifty-two percent of the total sample was willing to pay for electronic GP contact. The group of patients with access revealed a significantly lower WTP than the group without such access. Possible explanations are that the system had fewer benefits than expected, a presence of hypothetical bias or simply a preference for face-to-face encounters.
Background In the context of the high prevalence and impact of mental disorders worldwide, and less than optimal utilisation of services and adequacy of care, strengthening primary mental healthcare should be a leading priority. This article assesses the state of collaboration among general practitioners (GPs), psychiatrists and psychosocial mental healthcare professionals, factors that enable and hinder shared care, and GPs’ perceptions of best practices in the management of mental disorders. A collaboration model is also developed. Methods The study employs a mixed-method approach, with emphasis on qualitative investigation. Drawing from a previous survey representative of the Quebec GP population, 60 GPs were selected for further investigation. Results Globally, GPs managed mental healthcare patients in solo practice in parallel or sequential follow-up with mental healthcare professionals. GPs cited psychologists and psychiatrists as their main partners. Numerous hindering factors associated with shared care were found: lack of resources (either professionals or services); long waiting times; lack of training, time and incentives for collaboration; and inappropriate GP payment modes. The ideal practice model includes GPs working in multidisciplinary group practice in their own settings. GPs recommended expanding psychosocial services and shared care to increase overall access and quality of care for these patients. Conclusion As increasing attention is devoted worldwide to the development of optimal integrated primary care, this article contributes to the discussion on mental healthcare service planning. A culture of collaboration has to be encouraged as comprehensive services and continuity of care are key recovery factors of patients with mental disorders. PMID:23730332
Barikani, Ameneh; Beheshti, Akram; Javadi, Maryam; Yasi, Marzieh
Orientation of public and physicians to the complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is one of the most prominent symbols of structural changes in the health service system. The aim of his study was a determination of knowledge, attitude, and practice of general practitioners in complementary and alternative medicine. This cross- sectional study was conducted in Qazvin, Iran in 2013. A self-administered questionnaire was used for collecting data including four information parts: population information, physicians' attitude and knowledge, methods of getting information and their function. A total of 228 physicians in Qazvin comprised the population of study according to the deputy of treatment's report of Qazvin University of Medical Sciences. A total of 150 physicians were selected randomly, and SPSS Statistical program was used to enter questionnaires' data. Results were analyzed as descriptive statistics and statistical analysis. Sixty percent of all responders were male. About sixty (59.4) percent of participating practitioners had worked less than 10 years.96.4 percent had a positive attitude towards complementary and alternative medicine. Knowledge of practitioners about traditional medicine in 11 percent was good, 36.3% and 52.7% had average and little information, respectively. 17.9% of practitioners offered their patients complementary and alternative medicine for treatment. Although there was little knowledge among practitioners about traditional medicine and complementary approaches, a significant percentage of them had attitude higher than the lower limit.
Bless, Philipp J; Muela Ribera, Joan; Schmutz, Claudia; Zeller, Andreas; Mäusezahl, Daniel
Acute gastroenteritis (AG) is frequently caused by infectious intestinal diseases (IID) including food- and waterborne pathogens of public health importance. Among these pathogens, Campylobacter spp. plays a major role. Many European countries monitor selected IIDs within disease surveillance systems. In Switzerland, the information on IIDs is restricted to limited surveillance data, while no data is available for AG. We conducted a qualitative study among Swiss general practitioners (GPs) to investigate the case management of AG and campylobacteriosis patients, the associated disease burden and the determinants leading to registration in the National Notification System for Infectious Diseases (NNSID). Interviews were conducted with a semi-structured questionnaire and underwent inductive content analysis based on Grounded Theory. The questionnaire was repeatedly adapted to capture emerging themes until the point of theoretical saturation. GPs perceived AG and campylobacteriosis of little relevance to their daily work and public health in general. According to GP self-estimates each consults about two cases of AG per week and diagnoses a median of five campylobacteriosis cases per year. A large proportion of AG cases receives telephone consultations only and gets medical advice from the practice nurse. Antibiotic therapy is considered useful and stool diagnostics are performed for about a fifth of consulting AG patients. Stool diagnostics ("test") and antibiotic therapy ("treat") are interrelated and follow four strategies: "Wait & See", "Treat & See", "Treat & Test", and "Test & See". AG case management is diverse and includes different triage steps. A small proportion of AG patients have stool diagnostics performed and only positive tested patients are reported to the NNSID. As a result severe cases and cases with a history of travel abroad are overrepresented in the NNSID. The use of multiplex PCR panels in routine diagnostics likely leads to improved case
Bless, Philipp J.; Muela Ribera, Joan; Schmutz, Claudia; Zeller, Andreas; Mäusezahl, Daniel
Acute gastroenteritis (AG) is frequently caused by infectious intestinal diseases (IID) including food- and waterborne pathogens of public health importance. Among these pathogens, Campylobacter spp. plays a major role. Many European countries monitor selected IIDs within disease surveillance systems. In Switzerland, the information on IIDs is restricted to limited surveillance data, while no data is available for AG. We conducted a qualitative study among Swiss general practitioners (GPs) to investigate the case management of AG and campylobacteriosis patients, the associated disease burden and the determinants leading to registration in the National Notification System for Infectious Diseases (NNSID). Interviews were conducted with a semi-structured questionnaire and underwent inductive content analysis based on Grounded Theory. The questionnaire was repeatedly adapted to capture emerging themes until the point of theoretical saturation. GPs perceived AG and campylobacteriosis of little relevance to their daily work and public health in general. According to GP self-estimates each consults about two cases of AG per week and diagnoses a median of five campylobacteriosis cases per year. A large proportion of AG cases receives telephone consultations only and gets medical advice from the practice nurse. Antibiotic therapy is considered useful and stool diagnostics are performed for about a fifth of consulting AG patients. Stool diagnostics (“test”) and antibiotic therapy (“treat”) are interrelated and follow four strategies: “Wait & See”, “Treat & See”, “Treat & Test”, and “Test & See”. AG case management is diverse and includes different triage steps. A small proportion of AG patients have stool diagnostics performed and only positive tested patients are reported to the NNSID. As a result severe cases and cases with a history of travel abroad are overrepresented in the NNSID. The use of multiplex PCR panels in routine diagnostics likely
Taylor, D H; Quayle, J A; Roberts, C
BACKGROUND: The supply of general practitioners (GPs) in the National Health Service (NHS) is dynamic and there are fears that there will be an inadequate number of doctors to meet the needs of the NHS. There are particular concerns about changes in the career trajectory of young GPs and what they mean for overall supply. AIM: To identify predictors of retention among young, new entrant GPs entering the NHS between 1 October 1991 and 1 October 1992. METHOD: Two-year retention rates of young (35 years of age or less) new entrant GPs have been modelled using a multilevel logit model. Retention is defined as young, new entrant GPs remaining in their initial health authority for two years or more. RESULTS: Two hundred and fifty-two (13.0%) members of the study group left general practice within two years of entry (i.e. were not retained). Sex (females had lower retention [95% CI = 0.43-0.75]), practice size (young GPs in larger practices had higher retention [95% CI = 1.10-1.29]), and belonging to a practice in one of 16 Greater London Health Authorities (which had lower retention [95% CI = 0.39-0.82]) were identified as major predictors of retention. Deprivation, measured at the individual GP patient list level, had a very slight association with retention (P = 0.097; 95% CI = 1.00-1.02). Deprivation measured at the health authority level (95% CI = 0.99-1.01) was not found to be a statistically significant predictor of retention (P = 0.83). CONCLUSION: None of the statistically significant predictors of retention suggest any policy panacea to end this phenomenon. The challenge for policy is to learn to deal with the dynamic nature of the GP workforce with a non-crisis mentality. PMID:10736904
Sweeney, Leigh-Ann; Molloy, Gerard J.; Byrne, Molly; Murphy, Andrew W.; Morgan, Karen; Hughes, Carmel M.; Ingham, Roger
Background The oral contraceptive pill (OCP) remains the most popular form of prescription contraception in many countries, despite adherence difficulties for many. Uptake of long acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs), which are less reliant on user adherence, remains low. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of, and attitudes towards, prescription contraception amongst samples of contraception users, general practitioners (GPs) and pharmacists. Methodology and Findings We conducted a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews with 18 contraception users, 18 GPs and 9 pharmacists. The study took place in Galway, Republic of Ireland between June and September 2014. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Overall, contraception users were more familiar with the OCP, and all the women interviewed began their prescription contraception journey using this method. All participants identified episodes of poor adherence throughout the reproductive life course. The identified barriers for use of LARCs were lack of information, misconceptions, lack of access and high cost. In contrast, GPs believed that adherence to the OCP was good and stated they were more likely to prescribe the OCP than other methods, as they were most familiar with this option. Barriers to prescribing LARCSs were time, cost to practice, training and deskilling. Pharmacists also believed that adherence to the OCP was generally good and that their role was limited to dispensing medication and providing information when asked. Discussion and Conclusion There are contrasting perspectives between contraception service providers and contraceptive users. Training for healthcare providers is required to support informed contraceptive choice and adherence. It is necessary to address the practice barriers of cost and lack of time, to promote better communication around adherence issues and prescription contraception options. There is a need for more easily-accessible public
Greving, Jacoba P; Denig, Petra; van der Veen, Willem Jan; Beltman, Frank W; Sturkenboom, Miriam C J M; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M
Results of studies conducted 10-20 years ago show the prominence of commercial information sources in the adoption process of new drugs. Over the past decade, there has been a growing emphasis on practicing evidence-based medicine in drug prescribing. This raises the question whether professional information sources currently counterbalance the influence of commercial information sources in the adoption process. The aim of this study was to identify determinants influencing the adoption of a new drug class, the angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), by general practitioners (GPs) in The Netherlands. A retrospective study was conducted to assess prevalent ARB prescribing for hypertensive patients using the Integrated Primary Care Information (IPCI) database. We conducted a survey among all GPs who participated in the IPCI project in 2003 to assess their exposure to commercial and professional information sources, perceived benefits and risks of ARBs, perceived influences of the professional network, and general characteristics. Multilevel logistic regression was applied to identify determinants of ARB adoption while adjusting for patient characteristics. Data were obtained from 70 GPs and 9470 treated hypertensive patients. A total of 1093 patients received ARBs (12%). GPs who reported frequent use of commercial information sources were more likely to prescribe ARBs routinely in preference to other antihypertensives, whereas GPs who used a prescribing decision support system and those who were involved in pharmacotherapy education were less likely to prescribe ARBs. Other factors that were associated with higher levels of ARB adoption included a more positive perception of ARBs regarding their effectiveness in lowering blood pressure, and working in single-handed practices or in rural areas. Aside from determinants related to the patient population, adoption of a new drug class among Dutch GPs is still determined more by their reliance on promotional information
Waterston, T; San Lazaro, C
Parents' cooperation is essential to ensuring implementation of effective healthcare management of children, and complete openness should exist between paediatricians and parents. One method of achieving this is to send parents a copy of the outpatient letter to the general practitioner (GP) after the child's outpatient consultation. To determine the views of parents and GPs a pilot survey was conducted in two general children's outpatient clinics in hospitals in Newcastle upon Tyne. In March and April 1991 a postal questionnaire was sent to 57 parents of children attending the clinics, and a similar questionnaire to their GPs to elicit, respectively, parents' understanding of the letter and perception of its helpfulness, and GPs' views on the value of sending the letters to parents. Completed questionnaires were received from 34(60%) parents and 47(82%) GPs; 26(45%) respondents were matched pairs. 27(79%) parents said they understood all of the letter, 19(56%) that it helped their understanding, 32(94%) felt it was a good idea, and 31(91%) made positive comments. In all, 29(61%) GPs favoured the idea and six (13%) did not. Eleven (23%) said they would be concerned if this became routine practice, and 20(74%) of the 27 providing comments were doubtful or negative; several considered that they should communicate information to parents. The views in the matched pairs were dissimilar: parents were universally in favour whereas many GPs had reservations. The authors concluded that sending the letters improved parents' satisfaction with communication, and they recommend that paediatricians consider adopting this practice. PMID:10139411
Rodrigues, Ana Paula; Fonseca, Rita Carvalho; Matias-Dias, Carlos
Current strategies of European health advocate the strengthening of the role of public health, requiring from decision-makers the ability to defend and enhance the health of individuals and populations in all policies. In the pursuit of this objective, public health should be evidence-based and so public health surveillance, seen as an important tool of public health since the nineteenth century, plays a central role in public health practice through the production and dissemination of the health information necessary for health planning and for evaluation of public health actions. Within the practice of public health estimations of disease frequency are important for outbreak control, health assessment, health needs assessment and estimation of health gains, but unfortunately these estimations are not always available for the entire population. In those cases and for diseases with high prevalence sentinel surveillance based in sentinel networks have some advantages for specific groups, namely needed of scarce resources and obtainment of quick results.The central role of family doctors in chronic disease management, their knowledge on individuals and families and their responsibilities in the management of a clear defined patients list are characteristics that make general practice an appropriate context to develop a sentinel network. In fact, in Portugal there is a general practitioner sentinel network named Rede Médicos-Sentinela working since 1989 which estimated, for the last 25 years, incidence rates of several chronic diseases, some of them targeted on national priority health programs. Thus, we consider that Rede Médicos-Sentinela can be integrated in a national surveillance system for chronic diseases in Portugal.
Derouesne, C.; Salamon, R.
Ways in which teaching neurology can be simplified for the nonspecialist practitioner are addressed in this assessment of the state-of-the-art in France. The hypothesis implies simplifying both the diagnoses and symptomatology. (LBH)
Background The need for effective training of primary care physicians in the prevention, detection and handling of intimate partner violence (IPV) has been widely acknowledged, given its frequency in daily practice. The current intervention study aimed to measure changes in the actual IPV knowledge, perceived knowledge, perceived preparedness and detection ability of practicing general practitioners (GPs) and general practice residents, following an intensive IPV training program. Methods A pre/post-test design with a control group was employed to compare changes in baseline measures of IPV at the post intervention stage and at 12 months. A total of 40 participants provided full data; 25 GPs (11 in the intervention and 14 in the control) and 15 residents (intervention only). Three scales of the PREMIS survey were used to draw information on the study outcomes. Results The training program met high acceptance by both groups of participants and high practicality in clinical practice. The GPs in the intervention group performed better than the GPs in the control group on “Perceived preparedness” and “Perceived knowledge” in both the post-intervention (p = .012, r = .50 and p = .001, r = .68) and the 12-month follow-up (p = .024, r = .45 and p = .007, r = .54) as well as better than the residents in “Perceived preparedness” at post-intervention level (p = .037, r = .41). Residents on the other hand, performed better than the GPs in the intervention group on “Actual knowledge” at the 12-month follow-up (p = .012, r = .49). No significant improvements or between group differences were found in terms of the self-reported detection of IPV cases. Conclusion Further studies are needed to decide whether residency training could serve as an early intervention stage for IPV training. PMID:23537186
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Silcock, J; Ryan, M; Bond, C M; Taylor, R J
Prescribing costs in general practice continue to grow. Their importance is underlined by the amount of information concerned with costs that general practitioners (GPs) receive, and by the existence of target budgets. In 1986 and 1991, surveys showed that GPs agreed that cost should be borne in mind when choosing medicines, but that their knowledge of drug prices was often inaccurate. This study assessed the current knowledge and attitudes of GPs in the UK in respect of prescribing costs, and examined the influence of various developments in general practice since 1986 on the accuracy of drug price estimation. 1000 randomly selected GP principals (500 in Scotland and 125 in each of 4 English health regions) were sent a postal questionnaire. The GPs' level of agreement with 5 statements concerned with prescribing costs, and the accuracy of their estimates of the basic price of 31 drugs, were analysed. Most GPs (71%) agreed that prescribing costs should be taken into account when deciding on the best treatment for patients. Fundholders were more likely than non-fundholders: (i) to agree that prescribing costs could be reduced without affecting patient care; (ii) to agree that providing more information on costs would lower the cost of prescribing; and (iii) to comment that cost guidelines had changed their prescribing habits. Fundholders were less likely than non-fundholders to reject the principle of fixed limits on prescribing costs. Overall, one-third of the price estimates given were accurate (within 25% of the actual cost). For the most expensive drugs in the survey [those priced over 10 pounds sterling (Pound) per pack], half of the price estimates were accurate. There were significant differences between non-fundholders' and fundholders' estimates of the price of less expensive drugs (those priced at less than 10 pounds per pack). Use of a formulary or computer-displayed drug price information did not affect the accuracy of price estimates. It may be that GPs
Abdel Wahab, Moataza M; Nofal, Laila M; Guirguis, Wafaa W; Mahdy, Nehad H
Quality control is the application of statistical techniques to a process in an effort to identify and minimize both random and non-random sources of variation. The present study aimed at the application of Statistical Process Control (SPC) to analyze the referrals by General Practitioners (GP) at Health Insurance Organization (HIO) clinics in Alexandria. Retrospective analysis of records and cross sectional interview to 180 GPs were done. Using the control charts (p chart), the present study confirmed the presence of substantial variation in referral rates from GPs to specialists; more than 60% of variation was of the special cause, which revealed that the process of referral in Alexandria (HIO) was completely out of statistical control. Control charts for referrals by GPs classified by different GP characteristics or organizational factors revealed much variation, which suggested that the variation was at the level of individual GPs. Furthermore, the p chart for each GP separately; which yielded a fewer number of points out of control (outliers), with an average of 4 points. For 26 GPs, there was no points out of control, those GPs were slightly older than those having points out of control. Otherwise, there was no significant difference between them. The revised p chart for those 26 GPs together yielded a centerline of 9.7%, upper control limit of 12.0% and lower control limit of 7.4%. Those limits were in good agreement with the limits specified by HIO; they can be suggested to be the new specification limits after some training programs.
Lutringer-Magnin, D; Kalecinski, J; Barone, G; Leocmach, Y; Regnier, V; Jacquard, A C; Soubeyrand, B; Vanhems, P; Chauvin, F; Lasset, C
Acceptance of the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine by targeted populations will depend to a large extent on its acceptability among physicians. We examined the perceptions, attitudes and practices of general practitioners (GPs) in relation to HPV vaccination. From November 2007 to April 2008, a cross-sectional survey was carried out among a representative 5% sample of GPs in the large Rhône-Alpes region of France. Both quantitative (self-administered questionnaire) and qualitative (interview) approaches were used. During the month preceding the survey, 75.6% of the 279 GPs who responded had given at least one HPV vaccination and 47.6% had given a vaccination at the routine target age of 14 years. Overall, 80.8% of GPs reported a favourable opinion about HPV vaccination, 17.4% were uncertain and 1.8% were opposed. The main justification for a favourable opinion related to the public health benefits of the HPV vaccination (cited by 60% of those favouring vaccination). The main justification for an "opposed or uncertain" opinion was the too recent introduction of the vaccine (cited by 43.4%). The major difficulties in providing HPV vaccination were patients' concerns about potential side effects (cited by 37% of the respondents) and the target age of 14 years (28.9%). Interviews suggested that the concern about age may relate to the need, as perceived by GPs, to discuss sexually transmitted infections with adolescent patients. A favourable opinion about HPV vaccination was associated with seeing more female patients per week, younger age, and GPs' intention to recommend hepatitis B vaccination. This representative survey of GPs in a major region of France finds a favourable opinion about the HPV vaccine and widespread use of it, despite some concerns that the recent introduction of the vaccine means that we do not yet fully understand the potential for side effects and about the recommended target age of recipients.
Jiwa, Moyez; Meng, Xingqiong; O'Shea, Carolyn; Magin, Parker; Dadich, Ann; Pillai, Vinita
Objectives Determine how general practitioners (GPs) manage patients with cancer symptoms. Design GPs reviewed 24 video-vignettes and case notes on patients with cancer symptoms and indicated whether they would refer the patient and/or prescribe medication, and/or undertake further investigation. According to available guidelines, all cases warranted a referral to a specialist or further investigations. Setting Australian primary care sector. Participants 102 practising GPs participated in this study, including trainees. Interventions The research was part of a larger randomised controlled trial testing a referral pro forma; however, this paper reports on management decisions made throughout the study. Primary and secondary outcome measures This paper reports on how the participants would manage the patients depicted in each vignette. Results In more than one-in-eight cases, the patient was not investigated or referred. Patient management varied significantly by cancer type (p<0.001). For two key reasons, colorectal cancer was the chosen referent category. First, it represents a prevalent type of cancer. Second, in this study, colorectal cancer symptoms were managed in a similar proportion of options—that is, prescription, referral or investigation. Compared with vignettes featuring colorectal cancer participants were less likely to manage breast, bladder, endometrial, and lung cancers with a ‘prescription only’ or ‘referral only’ option. They were less likely to manage prostate cancer with a ‘prescription only’, yet more likely to manage it with a ‘referral with investigation’. With regard to pancreatic and cervical cancers, participants were more likely to manage these with a ‘referral only’ or a ‘referral with investigation’. Conclusions Some patients may receive a delayed cancer diagnosis, even when they present with typical cancer symptoms to a GP who can access relevant diagnostic tests. Trial registration number ACTRN12611000760976
Background Although general practitioners (GPs) and community pharmacists (CPs) are encouraged to collaborate, a true collaborative relationship does not exist between them. Our objective was to identify and analyze factors affecting GP-CP collaboration. Methods This was a descriptive-exploratory qualitative study carried out in two Spanish regions: Catalonia (Barcelona) and Balearic Islands (Mallorca). Face-to-face semi-structured interviews were conducted with GPs and CPs from Barcelona and Mallorca (January 2010-February 2011). Analysis was conducted using Colaizzi’s method. Results Thirty-seven interviews were conducted. The factors affecting the relationship were different depending on timing: 1) Before collaboration had started (prior to collaboration) and 2) Once the collaboration had been initiated (during collaboration). Prior to collaboration, four key factors were found to affect it: the perception of usefulness; the Primary Care Health Center (PCHC) manager’s interest; the professionals’ attitude; and geography and legislation. These factors were affected by economic and organizational aspects (i.e. resources or PCHC management styles) and by professionals’ opinions and beliefs (i.e. perception of the existence of a public-private conflict). During collaboration, the achievement of objectives and the changes in the PCHC management were the key factors influencing continued collaboration. The most relevant differences between regions were due to the existence of privately-managed PCHCs in Barcelona that facilitated the implementation of collaboration. In comparison with the group with experience in collaboration, some professionals without experience reported a skeptical attitude towards it, reporting that it might not be necessary. Conclusions Factors related to economic issues, management and practitioners’ attitudes and perceptions might be crucial for triggering collaboration. Interventions and strategies derived from these identified
Young, R; Leese, B
Recruitment and retention of general practitioners (GPs) has become an issue of major concern in recent years. However, much of the evidence is anecdotal and some commentators continue to question the scale of workforce problems. Hence, there is a need to establish a clear picture of those instabilities (i.e. imbalances between demand and supply) that do exist in the GP labour market in the UK. Based on a review of the published literature, we identify problems that stem from: (i) the changing social composition of the workforce and the fact that a large proportion of qualified GPs are significantly underutilized within traditional career structures; and (ii) the considerable differences in the ability of local areas to match labour demand and supply. We argue that one way to address these problems would be to encourage greater flexibility in a number of areas highlighted in the literature: (i) time commitment across the working day and week; (ii) long-term career paths; (iii) training and education; and (iv) remuneration and contract conditions. Overall, although the evidence suggests that the predicted 'crisis' has not yet occurred in the GP labour market as a whole, there is no room for lack of imagination in planning terms. Workforce planners continue to emphasize national changes to the medical school intake as the means to balance labour demand and supply between the specialities; however, better retention and deployment of existing GP labour would arguably produce more effective supply-side solutions. In this context, current policy and practice developments (e.g. Primary Care Groups and Primary Care Act Pilot Sites) offer a unique learning base upon which to move forward. PMID:10885092
McKenna, J.; Naylor, P. J.; McDowell, N.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the promotion of physical activity by general practitioners (GPs) and practice nurses (PNs). METHODS: A questionnaire that examined the types of barriers and the levels of their influence as well as stage of change for activity promotion and for personal behaviour was mailed to 846 subjects. RESULTS: The return rate exceeded 70% in each group with a high proportion (69%) of GPs and PNs reporting that they regularly promote physical activity with their patients. GPs were less likely to regularly promote physical activity with their patients if they indicated lack of time as a barrier (odds ratio (OR) = 0.73, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.58 to 0.93) or lack of incentives (OR = 0.74, 95% CI 0.59 to 0.94), and more likely to promote exercise if they themselves were regular exercisers (OR = 3.19, 95% CI 1.96 to 5.18). However, for PNs longer consultation times (by 1.5 to 2 minutes) had a higher likelihood of producing regular promotion of activity (OR = 1.61, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.62). For PNs personal physical activity stage was the strongest significant predictor of promotion level, but with a stronger effect (OR = 4.77, 95% CI 1.48 to 15.35) than in the GPs. CONCLUSION: The main finding is that GPs in the action or maintenance stage of changing their own physical activity are three times more likely to regularly promote the same behaviour in their patients than those in the other stages; for PNs the same difference quadruples the likelihood of them promoting physical activity. Professional readiness to change is influenced by known system barriers in GPs, and not in PNs, but is more strongly predicted by personal physical activity behaviour in both groups. PMID:9773175
Jakubovics, N; Greenwood, M; Meechan, J G
Infection control and knowledge of common infectious agents is a cornerstone of safe dental practice. This paper summarises the measures that need to be taken to control cross infection and discusses some of the infectious agents of concern to dental practitioners.
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Heads of Offices and Assistant General Counsels. 385.16 Section 385.16 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Functions to Staff Members § 385.16 Heads of Offices and Assistant General Counsels. The heads of...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Display of EPA Office of... Provisions and Clauses 1552.203-71 Display of EPA Office of Inspector General Hotline poster. As prescribed... all contract options. Display of EPA Office of Inspector General Hotline Poster (AUG 2000) (a) For...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Display of EPA Office of... Provisions and Clauses 1552.203-71 Display of EPA Office of Inspector General Hotline poster. As prescribed... all contract options. Display of EPA Office of Inspector General Hotline Poster (AUG 2000) (a) For...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Display of EPA Office of... Provisions and Clauses 1552.203-71 Display of EPA Office of Inspector General Hotline poster. As prescribed... all contract options. Display of EPA Office of Inspector General Hotline Poster (AUG 2000) (a) For...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Display of EPA Office of... Provisions and Clauses 1552.203-71 Display of EPA Office of Inspector General Hotline poster. As prescribed... all contract options. Display of EPA Office of Inspector General Hotline Poster (AUG 2000) (a) For...
This FY 1996 Office of Inspector General (OIG) Annual Work Plan is a summary and distillation of information contained in annual work plans, and includes audits and inspections that are carried over from FY 1995 as well as audits and inspections scheduled to start during FY 1996. Audits and inspections included in this consolidated OIG Annual Work Plan will be performed by OIG staff. Specialized expertise available through a Certified Public Accounting firm will be used to assist in auditing the Department`s financial statements. As part of the OIG Cooperative Audit Strategy, additional audit coverage of the Department`s programs is provided by internal auditors of the Department`s integrated contractors. Through the Cooperative Audit Strategy, the OIG ensures that the internal auditors satisfy audit standards, provides planning guidance to the internal auditors, coordinates work to avoid duplication, and tracks the work of internal auditors to ensure that needed audits are performed. Applicable portions of the four annual work plans issued for Fiscal Year 1996 by the Deputy/Assistant Inspectors General have been combined to form a major part of this overall OIG Annual Work Plan. Also included are portions of the most recent OIG Semiannual Reports to Congress to give an overview of the OIG`s mission/organization, resource status, and the environment in which the OIG currently operates. The OIG Annual Work Plan also lists ongoing and planned audits and inspections, and it presents investigative statistics which have been previously reported in the two OIG Semiannual Reports to Congress which cover Fiscal Year 1995. Furthermore, included in this work plan are descriptions of several innovations developed by the OIG to streamline its operations and to conserve as much efficiency and economy as possible in a time of resource reductions.
US studies have shown that a clinician's risk-taking propensity significantly predicts clinical behaviour. Other US studies examining relationships between family practice doctors' preferences for CME and their Kolb learning style have described conflicting findings. The aim of the present study was to investigate GPs' learning styles, risk-taking propensities and CME preferences, and to explore links between them. A descriptive confidential cross-sectional postal questionnaire survey of the 304 general practitioner principals within Portsmouth and South East Hampshire Health Authority was conducted. Two hundred and seventy-four GPs returned questionnaires, a response rate of 90.1%. The Kolb learning style types were assimilators 43.8% (predominant learning abilities watching and thinking), divergers 21.1% (feeling and watching), convergers 18.3% (doing and thinking), and accommodators 16.8% (doing and feeling). The Pearson risk-taking propensities were 65.8% risk neutral, 19.4% risk seeking and 14.8% risk averse. Risk-seeking GPs were significantly more likely to be accommodators or convergers than divergers or assimilators (p = 0.006). Majorities of 54.9% stated that the present PGEA system works well, 85% welcomed feedback from their peers, and 76.8% stated that learning should be an activity for all the practice team. Further majorities would welcome help to decide their learning needs (63.8%) and are looking to judge CME effectiveness by changes in GP performance or patient care (54.8%). Further significant correlations and cross-tabulations were found between learning style and risk-taking and CME attitudes, experiences and preferences. It is concluded that risk seekers and accommodators (doing and feeling) prefer feedback, interaction and practical hands-on learning, and assimilators (watching and thinking) and the risk averse tend towards lectures, theoretical learning formats and less interactive activities. Sharing feelings in groups may be difficult for
Bajwah, Sabrina; Higginson, Irene J
Background The role of the General Practitioner (GP) is central to community palliative care. Good liaison between the different professionals involved in a patient's care is extremely important in palliative care patients. In cases where GPs have previously been dissatisfied with palliative services, this may be seen as a barrier to referral when caring for other patients. The aim of this survey is to investigate the use and previous experiences of GPs of two palliative care services, with particular emphasis on barriers to referral and to explore issues surrounding the GP's role in caring for palliative patients. Methods Design: Descriptive postal survey of use and experience of palliative care services with particular emphasis on barriers to referral. Setting: One Primary Care Trust (PCT), south London, England, population 298,500. Subjects: 180 GPs in the PCT, which is served by two hospice services (A&B). Results An overall questionnaire response rate of 77% (138) was obtained, with 69% (124) used in analysis. Over 90% of GPs were satisfied with the palliative care services over the preceding two years. Two areas of possible improvement emerged; communication and prescribing practices. GPs identified some patients that they had not referred, most commonly when patients or carers were reluctant to accept help, or when other support was deemed sufficient. Over half of the GPs felt there were areas where improvement could be made; with clarification of the rules and responsibilities of the multi disciplinary team being the most common. The majority of GPs were working, and want to work with, the specialist services as part of an extended team. However, a greater number of GPs want to hand over care to the specialist services than are currently doing so. Conclusion A large number of GPs were happy with the service provision of the palliative care services in this area. They suggested that 3 out of 4 terminally ill patients needed specialist input. Views of
Eisinger, François; Pivot, Xavier; Coscas, Yvan; Viguier, Jérôme; Calazel-Benque, Anne; Blay, Jean-Yves; Roussel, Claire; Morère, Jean-François
Characteristics of primary-care providers have been associated with their patients' participation in breast cancer screening. A nationwide observational survey, 'EDIFICE', was conducted by telephone from December 2007 to January 2008 on a representative sample of 600 general practitioners (GPs) working in France, to investigate how a GP's characteristics may influence patient participation in screening for breast, colorectal and prostate cancer. For breast cancer screening, systematic recommendation was associated with female physicians [odds ratio (OR) =1.9; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-3.1]. This systematic recommendation was also correlated with systematic referral for colorectal cancer (OR=1.5; 95% CI=1.0-2.5) and prostate cancer screening (OR=2.7; 95% CI=1.8-4.1). For colorectal cancer screening, the sex of the GP had no significant impact. However, systematic recommendation for both breast and prostate cancer screening was shown to be associated with systematic recommendation for colorectal cancer screening (OR=2.7; 95% CI=1.6-4.7 and OR=1.8; 95% CI=1.1-3.0, respectively). For prostate cancer screening, there was no significant sex specificity. However, systematic recommendation for both breast and colorectal cancer screening was associated with an advice on prostate cancer screening (OR=2.9; 95% CI=2.0-4.4 and OR=2.0; 95% CI=1.3-3.2, respectively). The age of the GP was not associated with a higher rate of systematic recommendation for screening for the three types of cancer. Male GPs were more likely than female GPs to perform digital rectal examinations on male patients (69 vs. 54%; OR=1.86; 95% CI=1.31-2.63). There is a global pattern of physicians being screening-prone (as suggested by the cross impact of recommendations from one cancer type to another). Although the frequency of systematic recommendation for breast cancer screening is higher with female GPs, systematic recommendation for prostate cancer is not higher among male GPs. The factors
Petrén, Sofia; Bjerklin, Krister; Hedrén, Pontus; Ecorcheville, Agnes
The aim of the present study was to disclose the treatment procedures most frequently recommended by Swedish orthodontists for use by general practitioners and to determine whether these recommendations are reflected in the undergraduate dental program in orthodontics at Malmö University. Potential differences between the ortho- dontists' recommendations were also investigated. A questionnaire was sent to 169 consulting orthodontists, seeking their recommenda- tions for appliance therapy to be undertaken by general practitioners: 129 (63 males and 66 females) responded. The Quad Helix was the appliance most commonly recommended for correction of posterior crossbite, a plate with Z-springs for correction of anterior crossbite and the headgear activator for correction of Class II malocclusions. A significant gender difference was disclosed with respect to orthodontists' recommendations for treatment of Class II malocclusions by general practitioners, namely that female orthodontists recommended the headgear activator more frequently than males. However, this difference is most likely attributable to the gender distribution among orthodontists qualifying as specialists during the last five decades: more recently qualified orthodontists are predominantly female. The choice of appliances corresponded well with undergraduate training in orthodontics at the Faculty of Odontology in Malmö.
Sundqvist, Bertil; Magnusson, Tomas; Wenneberg, Bengt
Patients diagnosed with TMD at a specialist clinic were subgrouped as having muscular or mainly TMJ symptoms. The individual possibility to reach a significant improvement (improvement > 50%) was predicted as good, dubious or poor. The TMD treatment was performed by trained general practitioners following strict treatment routines comprising mainly occlusal appliances and/or occlusal adjustment. Treatment outcome was evaluated when a stable occlusion on the appliance and/or in the bite was established. Improvement was measured in per cent by using a Numeric Rating Scale. Agreement between predicted and actual treatment outcome was evaluated for 206 patients treated by the general practitioners. In patients with muscular symptoms and where the predicted treatment outcome was good, 89% of the treated patients reported an improvement of 50% or more. Among those with a dubious prognosis the figure was the same. In patients with mainly TMJ symptoms and where the treatment outcome was judged to be good, 97% fulfilled the criteria of a successful treatment outcome. Seventy-three per cent of those where the predicted treatment outcome was dubious, had an improvement of 50% or more. The possibility to predict individual treatment outcome, and the actual treatment outcome, in TMD patients treated by trained general practitioners, after examination and treatment planning by a TMD specialist, was good and comparable to the results obtained in patients treated by a TMD specialist.
Kaal, Suzanne E J; Kuijken, Noortje M J; Verhagen, Constant A H H V M; Jansen, Rosemarie; Servaes, Petra; van der Graaf, Winette T A
This study aims to analyze the experiences of Dutch bereaved parents and general practitioners (GPs) with palliative care of AYAs (18-35 years) in the terminal stage. Fifteen parents and nine GPs involved with nine deceased AYAs filled out questionnaires and were interviewed by telephone, respectively. In general, the parents were satisfied with the emotional care they themselves received and the medical care that their child received. The GPs were very satisfied with the cooperation with the palliative team. Gaps are present in the areas of symptom control, communication between hospital professionals and parents, aftercare, and transition between hospital and GP.
Al-Shayyab, Mohammad H; Ryalat, Soukaina; Dar-odeh, Najla; Alsoleihat, Firas
Purpose The study reported here aimed to identify current sedation practice among general dental practitioners (GDPs) and specialist dental practitioners (SDPs) in Jordan in 2010. Methods Questionnaires were sent by email to 1683 GDPs and SDPs who were working in Jordan at the time of the study. The contact details of these dental practitioners were obtained from a Jordan Dental Association list. Details on personal status, use of, and training in, conscious sedation techniques were sought by the questionnaires. Results A total of 1003 (60%) questionnaires were returned, with 748 (86.9%) GDPs and 113 (13.1%) SDPs responding. Only ten (1.3%) GDPs and 63 (55.8%) SDPs provided information on the different types of treatments related to their specialties undertaken under some form of sedation performed by specialist and/or assistant anesthetists. Approximately 0.075% of the Jordanian population received some form of sedation during the year 2010, with approximately 0.054% having been treated by oral and maxillofacial surgeons. The main reason for the majority of GDPs (55.0%) and many SDPs (40%) not to perform sedation was lack of training in this field. While some SDPs (26.0%) indicated they did not use sedation because of the inadequacy of sedative facilities. Conclusion Within the limitations of the present study, it can be concluded that the provision of conscious sedation services in general and specialist dental practices in Jordan is inconsistent and inadequate. This stresses the great need to train practitioners and dental assistants in Jordan to enable them to safely and effectively perform all forms of sedation. PMID:23700369
Houwink, Elisa J F; Muijtjens, Arno M M; van Teeffelen, Sarah R; Henneman, Lidewij; Rethans, Jan Joost; Jacobi, Florijn; van der Jagt, Liesbeth; Stirbu, Irina; van Luijk, Scheltus J; Stumpel, Connie T R M; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E; van der Vleuten, Cees; Cornel, Martina C; Dinant, Geert Jan
General practitioners (GPs) are increasingly called upon to identify patients at risk for hereditary cancers, and their genetic competencies need to be enhanced. This article gives an overview of a research project on how to build effective educational modules on genetics, assessed by randomized controlled trials (RCTs), reflecting the prioritized educational needs of primary care physicians. It also reports on an ongoing study to investigate long-term increase in genetic consultation skills (1-year follow-up) and interest in and satisfaction with a supportive website on genetics among GPs. Three oncogenetics modules were developed: an online Continuing Professional Development (G-eCPD) module, a live genetic CPD module, and a "GP and genetics" website (huisartsengenetica.nl) providing further genetics information applicable in daily practice. Three assessments to evaluate the effectiveness (1-year follow-up) of the oncogenetic modules were designed: 1.An online questionnaire on self-reported genetic competencies and changes in referral behaviour, 2.Referral rates from GPs to clinical genetics centres and 3.Satisfaction questionnaire and visitor count analytics of supportive genetics website. The setting was Primary care in the Netherlands and three groups of study participants were included in the reported studies:. Assessment 1. 168 GPs responded to an email invitation and were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group, evaluating the G-eCPD module (n = 80) or the live module (n = 88). Assessment 2. Referral rates by GPs were requested from the clinical genetics centres, in the northern and southern parts of the Netherlands (Amsterdam and Maastricht), for the two years before (2010 [n = 2510] and 2011 [n = 2940]) and the year after (2012 [n = 2875]) launch of the oncogenetics CPD modules and the website. Assessment 3. Participants of the website evaluation were all recruited online. When they visited the website during the month of February 2013, a
Houwink, Elisa J. F.; Muijtjens, Arno M. M.; van Teeffelen, Sarah R.; Henneman, Lidewij; Rethans, Jan Joost; Jacobi, Florijn; van der Jagt, Liesbeth; Stirbu, Irina; van Luijk, Scheltus J.; Stumpel, Connie T. R. M.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E.; van der Vleuten, Cees; Cornel, Martina C.; Dinant, Geert Jan
General practitioners (GPs) are increasingly called upon to identify patients at risk for hereditary cancers, and their genetic competencies need to be enhanced. This article gives an overview of a research project on how to build effective educational modules on genetics, assessed by randomized controlled trials (RCTs), reflecting the prioritized educational needs of primary care physicians. It also reports on an ongoing study to investigate long-term increase in genetic consultation skills (1-year follow-up) and interest in and satisfaction with a supportive website on genetics among GPs. Three oncogenetics modules were developed: an online Continuing Professional Development (G-eCPD) module, a live genetic CPD module, and a “GP and genetics” website (huisartsengenetica.nl) providing further genetics information applicable in daily practice. Three assessments to evaluate the effectiveness (1-year follow-up) of the oncogenetic modules were designed: 1.An online questionnaire on self-reported genetic competencies and changes in referral behaviour, 2.Referral rates from GPs to clinical genetics centres and 3.Satisfaction questionnaire and visitor count analytics of supportive genetics website. The setting was Primary care in the Netherlands and three groups of study participants were included in the reported studies:. Assessment 1. 168 GPs responded to an email invitation and were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group, evaluating the G-eCPD module (n = 80) or the live module (n = 88). Assessment 2. Referral rates by GPs were requested from the clinical genetics centres, in the northern and southern parts of the Netherlands (Amsterdam and Maastricht), for the two years before (2010 [n = 2510] and 2011 [n = 2940]) and the year after (2012 [n = 2875]) launch of the oncogenetics CPD modules and the website. Assessment 3. Participants of the website evaluation were all recruited online. When they visited the website during the month of February 2013
... Inspector General Hotline poster. 1552.203-71 Section 1552.203-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Provisions and Clauses 1552.203-71 Display of EPA Office of Inspector General Hotline poster. As prescribed... all contract options. Display of EPA Office of Inspector General Hotline Poster (AUG 2000) (a) For...
This plan is published pursuant to requirements of the Government Performance and Results Act of 1993. The plan outlines the goals, objectives, and strategies that the Office of Inspector General intends to implement and execute in FY 1999. The plan also includes the details of this office`s efforts to continually improve customer service.
information is the process to nominate officers for assignment to every O-9 and O-10 position. Such nomina - tions may or may not entail a promotion, as...are unclear about the data checks required for processing nomina - tions. DoDI 1320.4 specifically mentions EEO but not EO when it states “The...being included in a future nomina - tion package or being requested by the SASC in the event of a nomina - tion. Otherwise, senior officers may be reticent
Appel, Sherry; Otto, Simon J; Weese, J Scott
Cystotomy is a common surgical procedure in small animal veterinary medicine, yet common pre-, intra-, and post-operative practices have not been described. This survey evaluated cystotomy practices of 106 veterinarians in Ontario. The majority of respondents reported practices consistent with standard recommendations, but some deficiencies in antimicrobial and analgesic use, as well as intra- and post-operative practices, were identified. Some factors associated with the likelihood that practitioners reported recurrent urolithiasis or urinary tract infection are contrary to typical recommendations, such as the association of the use of absorbable, multifilament suture or a dorsal (versus ventral) incision and a lesser likelihood of reporting post-operative urinary tract infections. While care must be taken interpreting these statistical associations, the results suggest that objective assessment of common cystotomy recommendations (use of monofilament, absorbable suture) is required. Re-assessment of certain peri-operative practices, such as analgesic and antimicrobial administration, and post-operative testing, is required for a minority of practitioners.
SHAHIDI, FATEMEH; SAQEB, MOHAMMAD MEHDI; AMINI, MITRA; AVAND, ABOLGHASEM; DOWLATKHAH, HAMID REZA
Introduction The majority of countries have brought the quality of higher education into focus in the past few years. They have tried to improve the quality of their own higher education. The studies show that Iranian Universities are not at an accepted level in terms of quality. They have encountered several problems which have diminished their quality level. This study aimed at assessing the quality of medical education program as viewed by general practitioners graduated from Shiraz, Fasa and Jahrom Medical Universities. Methods This is a cross-sectional study. 215 subjects were selected based on a census of all the general practitioners graduated from Shiraz, Fasa and Jahrom Universities during 2011-2013. The questionnaire used for collecting the data was that of the Association of Graduates from American Medical Colleges. The collected data were then analyzed using SPSS 14 through which such descriptive and bivariate statistics as percentage, means, Standard Deviation and ANOVA were used. The level of significance was set to 0.05. Results The questionnaire return rate was 97%. As to the graduates' preclinical experiences, five indices were studied which were assessed as "average" in graduates' views. However, with respect to their clinical experiences five indices were equally studied, among which such indices as "Communication skills" and "The quality of medical apprenticeship" were evaluated as "desirable" in view of the graduates from the very three universities. On the contrary, the quality of clinical experiences and technological skills was evaluated as "almost weak"; furthermore, the integration of basic science with required clinical experience was also considered "weak". Conclusion It seems essential to set up an annual assessment of general practitioner education program and a review of the medical education program in Iran based on the global medical advancement and international standards. PMID:26269791
Rout, U; Rout, J K
In order to compare measures of job satisfaction, mental health and job stress among general practitioners (GPs), the results of a 1993 survey were compared with that obtained in the previous study in 1987. Eight-hundred and fifty GPs were selected at random by seven Family Health Service Authorities in England, 380 of whom returned questionnaires suitable for statistical analysis. There were significant differences between the 1987 and 1993 surveys. GPs experienced less job satisfaction, poorer mental health and more stress in 1993 than in 1987. These changes may have occurred as a result of the introduction of the new contract.
Farmer's son William Cooke completed his medical training at Barts before embarking on a 60-year career as a general practitioner in and around London. In 1819, he was a co-founder, and for 20 years secretary, of the Hunterian Society which continues to provide education to its members. He was the author of several books where his views on the importance of post-mortem examinations and the interrelationships of body and mind in disease were discussed. He was a prominent non-conformist and became a deacon in the Congregational Church. He died in 1873, aged 87.
Carmont, Sue-Ann; Mitchell, Geoffrey; Senior, Hugh; Foster, Michele
The general practitioner (GP) has a critical role in an integrated model of palliative care as they often know the patient and carer well, are experts in generalist care and have knowledge of health and social services in the community. Specialist palliative services have insufficient capacity to meet demand and those with non-cancer terminal conditions and those from rural and remote areas are underserved. Research has focused on improving access to palliative care by engaging the GP with specialist secondary services in integrated palliative care.
Building Clean. The Control of Crime, Corruption, and Racketeering in the Public Construction Markets of New York City. A Preliminary Assessment of Efforts Made by the Office of the Inspector General, New York City School Construction Authority.
Moore, Mark H.; Tumin, R. Zachary
The Office of the Inspector General of the New York City School Construction Authority (SCA) is attempting to secure the School Construction Authority and its building program from crime, corruption, and racketeering. This report is a preliminary assessment of this effort. It sets forth for practitioners and theorists the strategy that guided the…
Sinozić, Tamara; Kovacević, Jadranka
A number of healthcare professionals, specialists in different fields and with different levels of education, as well as non-healthcare professionals, are involved in the care of chronic wound patients, thus forming a multidisciplinary team that is not only responsible for the course and outcome of treatment, but also for the patient quality of life. Family doctor is also member of the team the task of which is to prevent, diagnose, monitor and anticipate complications and relapses, as well as complete recovery of chronic wound patients, with the overall care continuing even after the wound has healed, or is involved in palliative care. A family medicine practitioner with specialized education and their team of associates in the primary health care, along with material conditions and equipment improvement, can provide quality care for patients with peripheral cardiovascular diseases and chronic wounds, organized according to the holistic approach. It is essential that all professional associations of family medicine as well as professional associations of other specialties - fields that are involved in wound prevention and treatment - be included in developing the continuous medical education program. The benefits of modern information technology should be used to good advantage. The education should be adapted to the needs of family practitioners in terms of the form, place, time, volume, financial affordability and choice of topic. The interest shown in team education should be transformed into specialized programs in the creation of which it is essential to include both physicians and nurses and their respective professional associations. Special attention should be paid to education and training of young doctors/nurses, those with less work experience, those that have not yet been part of such education, those that lack experience in working with wound patients, those whose teams deal mostly with elderly patients, and also residents in family medicine and
3T CLOSE GEORGE F JR ............... 10 DANIEL EUGENE L .................. 6 CLOSNER JOHN J III ........... 26,28 DANTONE JOSEPH J...ALFRED J LTG USA 92, 7 920722 SUPRFME HEADQUARTERS, ALLIED POWERS, EUROPE (SHAPE) S11PREME ALLIED COICAMDER EUROPE JOULUAN GEORGE ALFRED GEN USA 9310... GEORGE ALFRED GEN USA 9310 901121 DEPUTY COMMANDER IN CHIEF BOYD CHARLES G GEN USAF 9212 921201 EXECUTIVE OFFICER TO DEPUTY COMMANDER IN CHIEF
... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Notification to CIA Office of General Counsel... INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PROCEDURES GOVERNING ACCEPTANCE OF SERVICE OF PROCESS § 1904.4 Notification to CIA Office of General Counsel. A CIA employee who receives or has reason to expect service of process in...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting to the Office of the Inspector General. 45.11 Section 45.11 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES § 45.11 Reporting to the Office of the Inspector General. Department of Justice employees have...
... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consultation with the DOE Office of the Inspector General. 733.6 Section 733.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ALLEGATIONS OF RESEARCH MISCONDUCT § 733.6 Consultation with the DOE Office of the Inspector General. Upon receipt of an allegation of research...
Leers, M P G; Keuren, J F W; Oosterhuis, W P
In patients with inflammatory conditions, diagnosing classic iron deficiency or anemia of chronic disease is challenging. In this study, we assessed the diagnostic value of the so-called Thomas'-plot [soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR)/log ferritin (sTfr/log Ferr) and the reticulocyte hemoglobin equivalent (Ret-HE)] in the anemia work up of patients referred by general practitioners. During July 2008-March 2009, 337 consecutive patients were included because of lowered Hb values. The laboratory results of the first 133 consecutive patients were used to determine the cut-off values for the diagnostic plot. The laboratory results of these patients were assessed and interpreted independently by two investigators, blinded from sTfR/log Ferr and Ret-HE values. The following 204 patients were used to test the plot in practice. In 32% of the first 133 patients, no indication of the cause of anemia could be found. However, when using the diagnostic plot in the following 204 patients, this fraction decreased to 14%. The 'Thomas'-plot is of diagnostic value for distinguishing functional iron deficiency from classic iron deficiency in a patient population referred by general practitioners.
van Dijk, Christel E.; Hooiveld, Mariette; Jentink, Anne; Isken, Leslie D.; Timen, Aura; Yzermans, C. Joris
Objectives Since few pandemics have occurred since the Spanish influenza pandemic, we should learn from every (mild) pandemic that occurs. The objective of this study was to report on general practitioners’ and practice assistants’ acceptance of the chosen national policy, and experiences in the Netherlands during the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic. Methods Data on experience and acceptance of the chosen national policy were obtained by structured questionnaires for general practitioners (n = 372) and practice assistants (n = 503) in April 2010. Results The primary policy chosen for general practice was not always accepted and complied with by general practitioners, although the communication (of changes) and collaboration with involved organisations were rated as positive. In particular, the advised personal protective measures were difficult to implement in daily work and thus not executed by 44% of general practitioners. Half of the general practitioners were not satisfied with the patient information provided by the government. The influenza A(H1N1) pandemic highly impacted on general practitioners’ and practice assistants’ workloads, which was not always deemed to be adequately compensated. Discussion Involvement of general practitioners in future infectious disease outbreaks is essential. This study addresses issues in the pandemic policy which might be critical in a more severe pandemic. PMID:26313147
Ferguson, H J M; Fitzgerald, J E F; Reilly, J; Beamish, A J; Gokani, V J
Objectives Increasing numbers of minor surgical procedures are being performed in the community. In the UK, general practitioners (family medicine physicians) with a specialist interest (GPwSI) in surgery frequently undertake them. This shift has caused decreases in available cases for junior surgeons to gain and consolidate operative skills. This study evaluated GPwSI's case-load, procedural training and perceptions of offering formalised operative training experience to surgical trainees. Design Prospective, questionnaire-based cross-sectional study. Setting/participants A novel, 13-item, self-administered questionnaire was distributed to members of the Association of Surgeons in Primary Care (ASPC). A total 113 of 120 ASPC members completed the questionnaire, representing a 94% response rate. Respondents were general practitioners practising or intending to practice surgery in the community. Results Respondents performed a mean of 38 (range 5–150) surgical procedures per month in primary care. 37% (42/113) of respondents had previously been awarded Membership or Fellowship of a Surgical Royal College; 22% (25/113) had completed a surgical certificate or diploma or undertaken a course of less than 1 year duration. 41% (46/113) had no formal British surgical qualifications. All respondents believed that surgical training in primary care could be valuable for surgical trainees, and the majority (71/113, 63%) felt that both general practice and surgical trainees could benefit equally from such training. Conclusions There is a significant volume of surgical procedures being undertaken in the community by general practitioners, with the capacity and appetite for training of prospective surgeons in this setting, providing appropriate standards are achieved and maintained, commensurate with current standards in secondary care. Surgical experience and training of GPwSI's in surgery is highly varied, and does not yet benefit from the quality assurance secondary care
... Inspector General to request information protected by the Privacy Act for a civil or criminal law... a civil or criminal law enforcement activity from the Inspector General to the FHFA-OIG Principal... Law 110-289, 122 Stat. 2654, 2913, abolished both the Federal Housing Finance Board (FHFB),...
Jové, Anna Maria; Fernández, Ana; Hughes, Carmel; Guillén-Solà, Mireia; Rovira, Marta; Rubio-Valera, Maria
According to the theory of reasoned action (TRA), collaboration is only possible when it is perceived as useful by the participants involved. This paper describes a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews to explore the preceived usefulness of general practitioner (GPs)-community pharmacists (CPs)' collaboration from these professionals' perspectives based in two Spanish regions. Thirty-seven interviews were conducted with GPs and CPs with and without previous experience of collaborating with the other groups of professionals. Analysis of the data indicated that the GPs and CPs considered that collaboration between practitioners and pharmacists to have different forms of usefulness, ranging from positive to negative perceptions of usefulness. Negative and neutral opinions (collaboration generates conflict and/or is not benefitial) could prevent practitioners from initiating collaboration with the other group of professionals, which is explained by the TRA. These perceptions were only found among those participants without experience in collaboration. When collaboration was perceived as advantageous, it could be beneficial on three levels: health system (i.e. provision of integrated care, increased efficiency of the system), GPs and CPs (i.e. increased job satisfaction and patient loyalty) and patients (i.e. improved patient safety). Although GPs and CPs with experience identified benefits using a range of examples, GPs and CPs who had never collaborated also believed that if collaboration was undertaken there would be benefits for the health system, patients and health professionals. These results should be considered when developing strategies to encourage and improve the implementation of collaborative working relationships between GPs and pharmacists in primary care.
... disciplinary proceedings; duty of practitioner to notify EOIR of conviction or discipline. 1003.103 Section 1003.103 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL PROVISIONS EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Professional Conduct for Practitioners-Rules...
... disciplinary proceedings; duty of practitioner to notify EOIR of conviction or discipline. 1003.103 Section 1003.103 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL PROVISIONS EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Professional Conduct for Practitioners-Rules...
... disciplinary proceedings; duty of practitioner to notify EOIR of conviction or discipline. 1003.103 Section 1003.103 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL PROVISIONS EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Professional Conduct for Practitioners-Rules...
Coordination Procedures between the Scientific Integrity Official and the Office of Inspector General regarding Scientific Misconduct Allegations written March 30, 2015 by the Office of the Science Advisor
Pivodic, Lara; Harding, Richard; Calanzani, Natalia; McCrone, Paul; Hall, Sue; Deliens, Luc; Higginson, Irene J; Gomes, Barbara
Background: Stronger generalist end-of-life care at home for people with cancer is called for but the quality of end-of-life care delivered by general practitioners has been questioned. Aim: To determine the degree of and factors associated with bereaved relatives’ satisfaction with home end-of-life care delivered by general practitioners to cancer patients. Design: Population-based mortality followback survey. Setting/participants: Bereaved relatives of people who died of cancer in London, United Kingdom (identified from death registrations in 2009–2010), were invited to complete a postal questionnaire surveying the deceased’s final 3 months of life. Results: Questionnaires were completed for 596 decedents of whom 548 spent at least 1 day at home in the last 3 months of life. Of the respondents, 55% (95% confidence interval: 51%–59%) reported excellent/very good home care by general practitioners, compared with 78% (95% confidence interval: 74%–82%) for specialist palliative care providers and 68% (95% confidence interval: 64%–73%) for district/community/private nurses. The odds of high satisfaction (excellent/very good) with end-of-life care by general practitioners doubled if general practitioners made three or more compared with one or no home visits in the patient’s last 3 months of life (adjusted odds ratio: 2.54 (95% confidence interval: 1.52–4.24)) and halved if the patient died at hospital rather than at home (adjusted odds ratio: 0.55 (95% confidence interval: 0.31–0.998)). Conclusion: There is considerable room for improvement in the satisfaction with home care provided by general practitioners to terminally ill cancer patients. Ensuring an adequate offer of home visits by general practitioners may help to achieve this goal. PMID:26036688
Li, Fan; Cai, Yingyun; Zhu, Yunxia; Chen, Xiaoli; Xu, Xun; Zhang, Xuemin; Yin, Weiwen; Zhu, Wanghui; Fu, Huanjuan; Shen, Chaoying; Zhuang, Qijun; Yin, Jianfeng
The aim of this study was to determine levels of awareness of basic knowledge concerning control and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) among general practitioners (GPs) in a Shanghai suburb and to evaluate adherence to GOLD (COPD) guidelines in primary care. All 593 practitioners, including rural and urban community GPs at 15 primary care centers in the Songjiang district of Shanghai, were questioned, comprising 331 from urban communities and 262 from rural. Only 115 GPs (19.4%) understood that COPD is categorized into acute exacerbation and stable stages, and 328 GPs (55.3%) recognized that treatment for COPD patients was still required during stable stages. A total of 235 GPs (39.6%) knew that oxygen therapy should be administered for >15 h/d as regular home therapy. In 97 cases of stage III and IV COPD, only 1 patient had accepted long-term home oxygen therapy. Prescriptions that conformed with the GOLD recommendations occurred in approximately 8% of patients according to GOLD COPD severity staging. Basic knowledge of prevention and treatment of COPD was seriously lacking in GPs. Additional training is clearly needed.
Grandes, Gonzalo; Sanchez, Alvaro; Montoya, Imanol; Ortega Sanchez-Pinilla, Ricardo; Torcal, Jesús
Background We evaluate the effectiveness of a physical activity promotion programme carried out by general practitioners with inactive patients in routine care. Methods and Findings Pragmatic, cluster randomised clinical trial conducted in eleven public primary care centres in Spain. Fifty-six general practitioners (GPs) were randomly assigned to intervention (29) or standard care (27) groups. They assessed the physical activity level of a systematic sample of patients in routine practice and recruited 4317 individuals (2248 intervention and 2069 control) who did not meet minimum physical activity recommendations. Intervention GPs provided advice to all patients and a physical activity prescription to the subgroup attending an additional appointment (30%). A third of these prescriptions were opportunistically repeated. Control GPs provided standard care. Primary outcome measure was the change in self-reported physical activity from baseline to six, 12 and 24 months. Secondary outcomes included cardiorespiratory fitness and health-related quality of life. A total of 3691 patients (85%) were included in the longitudinal analysis and overall trends over the whole 24 month follow-up were significantly better in the intervention group (p<0.01). The greatest differences with the control group were observed at six months (adjusted difference 1.7 MET*hr/wk [95% CI, 0.8 to 2.6], 25 min/wk [95% CI, 11.3 to 38.4], and a 5.3% higher percentage of patients meeting minimum recommendations [95% CI: 2.1% to 8.8%] NNT = 19). These differences were not statistically significant at 12 and 24 months. No differences were found in secondary outcomes. A significant difference was maintained until 24 months in the proportion of patients achieving minimum recommendation in the subgroup that received a repeat prescription (adjusted difference 10.2%, 95% CI 1.5% to 19.4%). Conclusions General practitioners are effective at increasing the level of physical activity among their inactive
Reed, Derek D
The generalized matching equation is a robust and empirically supported means of analyzing relations between reinforcement and behavior. Unfortunately, no simple task analysis is available to behavior analysts interested in using the matching equation to evaluate data in clinical or applied settings. This technical article presents a task analysis for the use of Microsoft Excel to analyze and plot the generalized matching equation. Using a data-based case example and a step-by-step guide for completing the analysis, these instructions are intended to promote the use of quantitative analyses by researchers with little to no experience in quantitative analyses or the matching law.
Verhaak, Peter F. M.; van Dijk, Christel E.; Nuijen, Jasper; Verheij, Robert A.; Schellevis, Francois G.
Objective In the field of mental health care, a major role for general practice is advocated. However, not much is known about the treatment and referral of mental health problems in general practice. This study aims at the volume and nature of treatment of mental health problems in general practice; the degree to which treatment varies according to patients’ gender, age, and social economic status; and trends in treatment and referral between 2004 and 2008. Design/setting Descriptive study with trends in time in general practice in the Netherlands. Subjects 350,000 patients enlisted in general practice, whose data from the Netherlands Information Network of General Practice were routinely collected from 1 January 2004 to 31 December 2008. Main outcome measures For all episodes of mental health problems recorded by the GP, the proportion of patients receiving prolonged attention, medication, and referral during each year have been calculated. Results More than 75% of patients with a recorded mental health problem received some kind of treatment, most often medication. In 15–20% of cases medication was accompanied by prolonged attention; 9–13% of these patients were referred (given referrals), the majority to specialized mental health care. Age is the most important variable associated with treatment received. During the period 2004–2008, treatment with medication declined slightly and referrals increased slightly. Conclusion Treatment for psychological disorders is mostly delivered in general practice. Although in recent years restraint has been advocated in prescribing medication and collaboration between primary and secondary care has been recommended, these recommendations are only partially reflected in the treatment provided. PMID:22794194
..., or vacancy in office, the General Counsel is not available to exercise the powers or perform the... Counsel for the Department of Housing and Urban Development is not available to exercise the powers or... are hereby designated to exercise the powers and perform the duties of the Office. No individual...
Anson, Richard H.; Johnson, Bobby; Anson, Nancy W.
Reports the results of a comparison of police officers with prison guards regarding stress and job-related stressors. Data analysis reveals that police officers and guards do not differ significantly in magnitude either of "general" or of "occupation-specific" stress. The groups do differ on the sources of occupation-specific…
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Investigation by Office of Inspector General. 4.32 Section 4.32 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development HUD REFORM ACT Prohibition of Advance Disclosure of Funding Decisions §...
Violanti, John M.; Hartley, Tara A.; Gu, Ja K.; Fekedulegn, Desta; Andrew, Michael E.; Burchfiel, Cecil M.
Previous epidemiological research indicates that police officers have an elevated risk of death relative to the general population overall and for several specific causes. Despite the increased risk for mortality found in previous research, controversy still exists over the life expectancy of police officers. The goal of the present study was to compare life expectancy of male police officers from Buffalo New York with the U.S. general male population utilizing an abridged life table method. On average, the life expectancy of Buffalo police officers in our sample was significantly lower than the U.S. population (mean difference in life expectancy =21.9 years; 95% CI: 14.5-29.3; p<0.0001). Life expectancy of police officers was shorter and differences were more pronounced in younger age categories. Additionally, police officers had a significantly higher average probability of death than did males in the general population (mean difference= 0.40; 95% CI: 0.26,-0.54; p<0.0001). The years of potential life lost (YPLL) for police officers was 21 times larger than that of the general population (Buffalo male officers vs. U.S. males = 21.7, 95% CI: 5.8-37.7). Possible reasons for shorter life expectancy among police are discussed, including stress, shift work, obesity, and hazardous environmental work exposures. PMID:24707585
... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Notification to Office of General Counsel. 1702.4 Section 1702.4 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense OFFICE OF THE DIRECTOR OF NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE PROCEDURES GOVERNING THE ACCEPTANCE OF SERVICE OF PROCESS §...
... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Notification to Office of General Counsel. 1702.4 Section 1702.4 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense OFFICE OF THE DIRECTOR OF NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE PROCEDURES GOVERNING THE ACCEPTANCE OF SERVICE OF PROCESS §...
... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Notification to Office of General Counsel. 1702.4 Section 1702.4 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense OFFICE OF THE DIRECTOR OF NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE PROCEDURES GOVERNING THE ACCEPTANCE OF SERVICE OF PROCESS §...
... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Notification to Office of General Counsel. 1702.4 Section 1702.4 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense OFFICE OF THE DIRECTOR OF NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE PROCEDURES GOVERNING THE ACCEPTANCE OF SERVICE OF PROCESS §...
... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Notification to Office of General Counsel. 1702.4 Section 1702.4 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense OFFICE OF THE DIRECTOR OF NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE PROCEDURES GOVERNING THE ACCEPTANCE OF SERVICE OF PROCESS §...
... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Waiver requests and claims to the General Accounting Office. 179.205 Section 179.205 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS CLAIMS COLLECTION STANDARDS Salary Offset § 179.205 Waiver requests and claims to...
Voorham, Jaco; Denig, Petra
Objective This study evaluated a computerized method for extracting numeric clinical measurements related to diabetes care from free text in electronic patient records (EPR) of general practitioners. Design and Measurements Accuracy of this number-oriented approach was compared to manual chart abstraction. Audits measured performance in clinical practice for two commonly used electronic record systems. Results Numeric measurements embedded within free text of the EPRs constituted 80% of relevant measurements. For 11 of 13 clinical measurements, the study extraction method was 94%–100% sensitive with a positive predictive value (PPV) of 85%–100%. Post-processing increased sensitivity several points and improved PPV to 100%. Application in clinical practice involved processing times averaging 7.8 minutes per 100 patients to extract all relevant data. Conclusion The study method converted numeric clinical information to structured data with high accuracy, and enabled research and quality of care assessments for practices lacking structured data entry. PMID:17329733
Cape, J; Barker, C; Buszewicz, M; Pistrang, N
The majority of patients with common emotional or psychological problems are treated solely by general practitioners (GPs). Such treatment frequently includes some form of psychological management within the consultation, whether limited to listening and discussion or involving more specific techniques. This paper sets out a research agenda for the development of effective approaches to GP psychological management. Evidence is reviewed on three core components of all psychological treatments: establishing a positive therapeutic relationship, developing a shared understanding of the problem, and promoting change in behaviour, thoughts or emotions. The application of these components in GP psychological management is outlined and methodological issues in the development and evaluation of GP management approaches are discussed. Since the number of patients with emotional problems seen by each GP is so large, the population effects of even small improvements in psychological management would be sizeable. PMID:10897540
Johal, Sarbjit Singh; Mounsey, Zoe Rachel
This paper summarizes, elaborates upon, and contrasts the findings of two research projects that explored how general practitioners and nurses coped with the dual challenge of personal and work demands following the earthquakes in Canterbury, New Zealand, in 2010 and 2011. Qualitative data from two separate studies - the first with general practitioners and the second with nurses - are compared to identify the challenges faced during and following the earthquakes. Semi-structured interviews took place with eight general practitioners two years after the start of the earthquake sequence and 11 nurses a year later to enable exploration of the longer-term aspects of the recovery process. The interview transcripts were analyzed and coded using a constructivist grounded theory approach. The analysis identified that the earthquakes had a significant impact on nurses and general practitioners both in terms of their professional and personal lives. The nurses and general practitioners commented on the emotional impact and their support needs, as well as some of the longer-term recovery issues.
Al-Omari, Wael M
Background General dental practitioners provide the majority of endodontic treatment in Jordan. The aim of this study was to gather information on the methods, materials and attitudes employed in root canal treatment by dentists in North Jordan, in order to evaluate and improve the quality of current practice. Methods A questionnaire was posted to all registered general dental practitioners working in private practice in Irbid Governate in North Jordan (n = 181). The questionnaire included information on methods, materials and techniques used in endodontic treatment. Results Reply rate was 72% (n = 131). The results demonstrated that only five dentists used rubber dam occasionally and not routinely. The majority used cotton rolls for isolation solely or in combination with a high volume saliva ejector (n = 116). The most widely used irrigants were sodium hypochlorite and hydrogen peroxide, which were used by 32.9% (n = 43) and 33.6% (n = 44) of the respondents, respectively. Forty eight percent of the respondents (n = 61) used the cold lateral condensation technique for canal obturation, 31.3% (n = 41) used single cone, 9.9% (n = 13) used vertical condensation and 12.2% (n = 16) used paste or cement only for the obturation. The majority used zinc oxide eugenol as a sealer (72.5%). All, but one, respondents used hand instruments for canal preparation and the technique of choice was step back (52.7%). More than 50% (n = 70) of the dentists took one radiograph for determining the working length, whilst 22.9% (n = 30) did not take any radiograph at all. Most practitioners performed treatment in three visits for teeth with two or more root canals, and in two visits for teeth with a single root canal. Conclusions This study indicates that dentists practicing in North Jordan do not comply with international quality standards and do not use recently introduced techniques. Many clinicians never take a radiograph for determining the working length and never used rubber dam
GAO’S review was limited to two districts-the Central and Southern Districts of California-Justice’s Inspector General found similar problems...including inadequate separation of duties and improperly processed invoices, in a representative sample of districts. GAO believes that the Central and...1992 In investigating the Atlanta operations of the Banca Nazionale Del Lavoro and Iraq’s participation in export credit programs, GAO experienced
The effect of threshold amounts for reporting malpractice payments to the National Practitioner Data Bank: analysis using the closed claims data base of the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Health Affairs).
Metter, E J; Granville, R L; Kussman, M J
The study determines the extent to which payment thresholds for reporting malpractice claims to the National Practitioner Data Bank identifies substandard health care delivery in the Department of Defense. Relevant data were available on 2,291 of 2,576 medical malpractice claims reported to the closed medical malpractice case data base of the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Health Affairs). Amount paid was analyzed as a diagnostic test using standard of care assessment from each military Surgeon General office as the criterion. Using different paid threshold amounts per claim as a positive test, the sensitivity of identifying substandard care declined from 0.69 for all paid cases to 0.41 for claims over $40,000. Specificity increased from 0.75 for all paid claims to 0.89 for claims over $40,000. Positive and negative predictive values and likelihood ratio were similar at all thresholds. Malpractice case payment was of limited value for identifying substandard medical practice. All paid claims missed about 30% of substandard care, and reported about 25% of acceptable medical practice.
Dwarswaard, J; Hilhorst, M; Trappenburg, M
Society in the 21st century is in many ways different from society in the 1950s, the 1960s or the 1970s. Two of the most important changes relate to the level of education in the population and the balance between work and private life. These days a large percentage of people are highly educated. Partly as a result of economic progress in the 1950s and the 1960s and partly due to the fact that many women entered the labour force, people started searching for ways to combine their career with family obligations and a private life (including hobbies, outings and holidays). Medical professional ethics, more specifically: professional attitudes towards patients and colleagues, is influenced by developments such as these, but how much and in what way? It was assumed that surgery ethics would be more robust, resistant to change and that general practitioner (GP) ethics would change more readily in response to a changing society, because surgeons perform technical work in operating theatres in hospitals whereas GPs have their offices in the midst of society. The journals of Dutch surgeons and GPs from the 1950s onwards were studied so as to detect traces of change in medical professional ethics in The Netherlands. GP ethics turned out to be malleable compared with surgery ethics. In fact, GP medicine proved to be an agent of change rather than merely responding to it, both with regard to the changing role of patients and with regard to the changing work life balance.
Hoffmann, Kathryn; Wojczewski, Silvia; George, Aaron; Schäfer, Willemijn L. A.; Maier, Manfred
Aim To assess the workload of general practitioners (GPs) in Austria, with a focus on identifying the differences between GPs working in urban and rural areas. Methods Within the framework of the Quality and Costs of Primary Care in Europe (QUALICOPC) study, data were collected from a stratified sample of GPs using a standardized questionnaire between November 2011 and May 2012. Data analysis included descriptive statistics and regression analysis. Results The analysis included data from 173 GPs. GPs in rural areas reported an average of 49.3 working hours per week, plus 23.7 on-call duties per 3 months and 26.2 out-of-office care services per week. Compared to GPs working in urban areas, even in the fully adjusted regression model, rural GPs had significantly more working hours (B 7.00; P = 0.002) and on-call duties (B 18.91; P < 0.001). 65.8% of all GPs perceived their level of stress as high and 84.6% felt they were required to do unnecessary administrative work. Conclusion Our findings show a high workload among Austrian GPs, particularly those working in rural areas. Since physicians show a diminishing interest to work as GPs, there is an imperative to improve this situation. PMID:26321030
Kelly-Irving, Michelle; Delpierre, Cyrille; Schieber, Anne-Cécile; Lepage, Benoit; Rolland, Christine; Afrité, Anissa; Pascal, Jean; Cases, Chantal; Lombrail, Pierre; Lang, Thierry
This study sought to ascertain whether disagreement between patients and physicians on the patients' health status varies according to patients' education level. INTERMEDE is a cross-sectional multicentre study. Data were collected from both patients and doctors via pre- and post consultation questionnaires at the GP's office over a two-week period in October 2007 in 3 regions of France. The sample consists of 585 eligible patients (61% women) and 27 GPs. A significant association between agreement/disagreement between GP and patient on the patient's health status and patient's education level was observed: 75% of patients with a high education level agreed with their GP compared to 50% of patients with a low level of education. Patients and GPs disagreed where patients with the lowest education level said that their health was worse relative to their doctor's evaluation 37% of the time, versus 16% and 14% for those with a medium or high education level respectively. A multilevel multivariate analysis revealed that patients with a low educational level and medium educational level respectively were at higher risk of being overestimated by GP's in respect of self-reported health even if controlling for confounders. These findings suggest that people with a lower education level who consider themselves to have poor health are less reliably identified as such in the primary care system. This could potentially result in lack of advice and treatment for these patients and ultimately the maintenance of health inequalities.
The report summarizes significant audit, inspection, and investigative accomplishments for the reporting period which facilitated Department of Energy management efforts to improve management controls and ensure efficient and effective operation of its programs. Narratives of the Office`s most significant reports are grouped by measures which the Office of Inspector General uses to gauge its performance. The common thread tying the performance measures together is their emphasis on supporting the Department efforts to produce high quality products at the lowest possible cost to the taxpayer. During this reporting period, the Office of Inspection General issued 59 reports. These reports included recommendations than, when implemented by management, could result in $211.7 million being put to better use. Furthermore, management has committed to taking corrective actions which the Office of Inspector General estimates will result in a more efficient use of funds totaling $57 million. Office of Inspector General investigations led to 7 criminal convictions, as well as criminal and civil prosecutions which resulted in fines and recoveries of approximately $1.95 million. The Office of Inspector General also provided 9 investigative reports to management for recommending positive change.
Learn more about the Office of the Inspector General AutoAudit System, including who is covered in the system, the purpose of data collection, routine uses for the system's records, and other security procedures.
...: Office of Inspector General Investigation Management System. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION: Unclassified... numbers, Social Security numbers, account numbers and other personal identifiers. AUTHORITY FOR... Federal, state, local, tribal, territorial, foreign or international agency, or other public authority...
This Office of Inspector General Semiannual Report to the Congress covers the period from April 1 through September 30, 1995. The report summarizes significant audit, inspection, and investigative accomplishments for the reporting period, a large portion of which facilitated Department of Energy management efforts to improve management controls and ensure efficient and effective operation of its programs. Narratives of the most significant reports are grouped by six primary performance measures which the Office of Inspector General uses to gauge its attainment of the outcomes established in the Office of Inspector General Strategic Plan. The common thread that ties the performance measures together is their emphasis on supporting Department efforts to produce high quality products at the lowest possible cost to the taxpayer. The six performance measures present outcomes of Office of Inspector General work in terms of improvements in Department programs and operations.
... Inspector General of suspected fraud. 120.197 Section 120.197 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS... of Inspector General of suspected fraud. Lenders, CDCs, Borrowers, and others must notify the SBA Office of Inspector General of any information which indicates that fraud may have occurred in...
... Inspector General of suspected fraud. 120.197 Section 120.197 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS... of Inspector General of suspected fraud. Lenders, CDCs, Borrowers, and others must notify the SBA Office of Inspector General of any information which indicates that fraud may have occurred in...
... Inspector General of suspected fraud. 120.197 Section 120.197 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS... of Inspector General of suspected fraud. Lenders, CDCs, Borrowers, and others must notify the SBA Office of Inspector General of any information which indicates that fraud may have occurred in...
Saroj, Gyanendra; Sharma, Swati; Gupta, Basant
ABSTRACT Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and awareness among parents and general dental practitioners regarding rehabilitation with full coverage restoration in children following pulp therapy. Materials and methods: A multiple choice questionnaire was given to 1,000 parents and 400 general practitioners in this multicentric trial. The questionnaire assessed their beliefs, knowledge regarding care of primary teeth, assessment of treating children, and knowledge regarding importance of primary teeth. All the questionnaires were then compiled and statistically analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software. Results and discussion: 53% parents did not know the importance of primary teeth and 73% parents also thought that no treatment is possible for pulpally involved primary teeth. 20% parents believed that root canal treatment can be possible for children and only 10% knew about full coverage restorations. 40% of the general dentists felt that the best treatment in the case of primary necrotic teeth is extraction and only 13% knew about stainless steel crowns. 62% of general dental practitioners pointed out patients’ noninterest in providing crowns whereas 68% parents reported non-information by dentists. Conclusion: Both parents and general dental practitioners have incomplete and inadequate knowledge regarding full coverage restorations, and we need to improve the knowledge and dental awareness of the parents and the general dental practitioners. How to cite this article: Moda A, Saroj G, Sharma S, Gupta B. Knowledge and Awareness among Parents and General Dental Practitioners regarding Rehabilitation with Full Coverage Restoration in Children: A Multi-centric Trial. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):177-180. PMID:27365944
The General Counsel`s office provides legal counsel to all levels of WHC management; administers the intellectual property program; coordinates all WHC investigative activity and supports WHC activities to ensure compliance with all applicable federal, state, and local laws, DOE directives, contractual provisions, and other requirements. In so doing, the Office of General Counsel supports the Hanford site mission of transforming the Hanford site into an environmentally attractive and economically sustainable community. This document briefs the FY95 site support plan.
NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California THESIS A CLOSER LOOK AT THE A-76 PROCESS : ANALYSIS OF OPINIONS FROM THE GENERAL ACCOUNTING OFFICE by...AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Closer Look at the A-76 Process : Analysis of Opinions from the General Accounting Office 5...PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK ii Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited A CLOSER LOOK AT THE A-76 PROCESS : ANALYSIS OF OPINIONS FROM THE
Woof, W R; Carter, Y H
In part 1 of this review, published last month, literature exploring the psychological bereavement theories and the health consequences of bereavement are summarized. The second part builds on this to outline the debate surrounding the characteristics of abnormal bereavement, while also focusing on risk factors for this morbidity. This leads on to a summary of the literature on bereavement care, particularly from a general practice point of view. Finally, areas for further research are highlighted. PMID:9302794
Stewart, Ray E; Sanger, Roger G
The Pediatric Oral Health Access Program is a joint project of the California Dental Association and the California Society of Pediatric Dentistry. The results have been remarkable in terms of the number of underserved children who have received oral health services. What is less certain is the number of general dentists who, as a result of the training, have been able and willing to provide comprehensive care to more and younger children.
Zhao, Siqi; Qu, Lijun; Liu, He; Gao, Lijun; Jiao, Mingli; Liu, Jinghua; Liang, Libo; Zhao, Yanming; Wu, Qunhong
The study's objectives were to: 1) use social support theory to examine factors influencing healthcare workers' opinions about workplace violence (WPV) prevention strategies, and 2) to determine the types of support that general practitioners (GPs) and general nurses sought and expected to use after WPV exposure. A cross-sectional survey was used to assess a sample of 448 GPs and 412 general nurses from 90 township hospitals located in Heilongjiang province, China. Results revealed that workers exposed to physical, psychological or both WPV types had a strong opinion about the necessity of improving diagnosis/treatment competence, developing violence prevention guidelines and plans, using protective equipment, and reinforcing staff by providing back-up support. The last two strategies were also selected by tertiary hospital workers in our previous study. In addition, workers with high anxiety selected the following prevention strategies as most effective: improving doctor-patient communication skills; installing cameras on wards; keeping work areas bright; improvements in violence reporting, statistics, and interventions; security patrols in the key departments; reinforcing staff; and correcting inaccurate media perspectives and reports. The last four strategies were also selected by tertiary hospital workers. All respondents expected to receive organisational and social support. In conclusion, these prevention strategies should be tailored to the different requirements of specific populations. Furthermore, it is necessary for organisations, the public, and policymakers to provide powerful support in WPV prevention.
Liu, He; Gao, Lijun; Jiao, Mingli; Liu, Jinghua; Liang, Libo; Zhao, Yanming; Wu, Qunhong
The study’s objectives were to: 1) use social support theory to examine factors influencing healthcare workers’ opinions about workplace violence (WPV) prevention strategies, and 2) to determine the types of support that general practitioners (GPs) and general nurses sought and expected to use after WPV exposure. A cross-sectional survey was used to assess a sample of 448 GPs and 412 general nurses from 90 township hospitals located in Heilongjiang province, China. Results revealed that workers exposed to physical, psychological or both WPV types had a strong opinion about the necessity of improving diagnosis/treatment competence, developing violence prevention guidelines and plans, using protective equipment, and reinforcing staff by providing back-up support. The last two strategies were also selected by tertiary hospital workers in our previous study. In addition, workers with high anxiety selected the following prevention strategies as most effective: improving doctor-patient communication skills; installing cameras on wards; keeping work areas bright; improvements in violence reporting, statistics, and interventions; security patrols in the key departments; reinforcing staff; and correcting inaccurate media perspectives and reports. The last four strategies were also selected by tertiary hospital workers. All respondents expected to receive organisational and social support. In conclusion, these prevention strategies should be tailored to the different requirements of specific populations. Furthermore, it is necessary for organisations, the public, and policymakers to provide powerful support in WPV prevention. PMID:27326460
Greenhalgh, T; Douglas, H R
BACKGROUND: Clinical governance will require general practitioners (GPs) and practice nurses (PNs) to become competent in finding, appraising, and implementing research evidence--the skills of evidence-based health care (EBHC). AIM: To report the experiences of GPs and PNs in training in this area. METHOD: We held 30 in-depth, semi-structured interviews throughout North Thames region with three groups of informants: primary care practitioners recruited from the mailing lists of established EBHC courses; organizers and teachers on these courses; and educational advisers from Royal Colleges, universities, and postgraduate departments. Detailed qualitative analysis was undertaken to identify themes from each of these interview groups. RESULTS: At the time of the fieldwork for this study (late 1997), remarkably few GPs or PNs had attended any formal EBHC courses in our region. Perceived barriers to attendance on courses included inconsistency in marketing terminology, cultural issues (e.g. EBHC being perceived as one aspect of rapid and unwanted change in the workplace), lack of confidence in the subject matter (especially mathematics and statistics), lack of time, and practical and financial constraints. Our interviews suggested, however, that the principles and philosophy of EBHC are beginning to permeate traditional lecture-based continuing medical education courses, and consultant colleagues increasingly seek to make their advice 'evidence based'. CONCLUSION: We offer some preliminary recommendations for the organizers of EBHC courses for primary care. These include offering a range of flexible training, being explicit about course content, recognizing differences in professional culture between primary and secondary care and between doctors and nurses, and addressing issues of funding and accreditation at national level. Introducing EBHC through traditional topic-based postgraduate teaching programmes may be more acceptable and more effective than providing
Since 2003, the following tools have been implemented in Belgium for improving the access of general practioners to the EBM literature: the Digital Library for Health and the evidence-linker of the CEBAM, the portal EBMPracticeNet.be and the multidimensional electronic clinical decision support EBMeDS. The aim of this article is to show the progress achieved in the information dissemination toward the belgian general practioners, particularly the access from the electronic health record. From the literature published these last years, the opportunities cited by the users are for using EBM and the strong willingness for using these literature access in the future; the limits are the medical data coding, the irrelevance of the search results, the alerts fatigue induced by EBMeDS. The achievements done and planned for the new EBMPracticeNet guidelines portal and the EBMeDS system are explained in the aim of informing belgian healthcare professionals. These projects are claiming for lauching a participatory process in the production and dissemination of EBM information. The discussion is focused on the belgian healthcare system advantages, the solutions for a reasonable implementation of these projects and for increasing the place of an evidence-based information in the healthcare decision process. Finally the input of these projects to the continuing medical education and to the healthcare quality are discussed, in a context of multifactorial interaction healthcare design (complexity design).
Neville, R G; Clark, R C; Hoskins, G; Smith, B
OBJECTIVE--To describe the frequency and characteristics of asthma attacks in the United Kingdom and to compare actual management with recommended guidelines for the management of attacks. DESIGN--Correspondence survey. SETTING--218 general practices in the United Kingdom. SUBJECTS--1775 patients of all ages who had a total of 1805 asthma attacks over three months. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Patient characteristics, place of management of attacks, comparison of actual management with recommended guidelines. RESULTS--Of the 1805 attacks, 300 occurred in boys aged 0-9, 144 in girls aged 0-9, and 118 in women aged 20-29. The estimated frequency of attacks in the community was 14.3 per 1000 patients per year. 1546 (86%) patients with attacks were managed within general practice, 225 (12%) were admitted to hospital, and 34 (2%) were discharged from an accident and emergency department. Two patients died. On initial presentation, 248 (14%) patients were "not breathless," 900 (50%) were "moderately breathless," 535 (30%) were "breathless and distressed," 68 (4%) were "too breathless to talk," and 2 were "moribund." Recording of clinical data was variable. Underuse of nebulised bronchodilators and systemic steroid was apparent in all grades of clinical severity. Contrary to current guidelines for asthma management, "step up" in maintenance therapy after an attack was often not practised. CONCLUSION--Reported management was at variance with recommended guidelines. This has major implications for the design and distribution of future guidelines. PMID:8461773
Objective To explore reasons for attending a general emergency outpatient clinic versus a regular general practitioner (RGP). Design Cross-sectional study using a multilingual anonymous questionnaire. Setting Native and immigrant walk-in patients attending a general emergency outpatient clinic in Oslo (Monday–Friday, 08:00–23:00) during 2 weeks in September 2009. Subjects We included 1022 walk-in patients: 565 native Norwegians (55%) and 457 immigrants (45%). Main outcome measures Patients’ reasons for attending an emergency outpatient clinic versus their RGP. Results Among patients reporting an RGP affiliation, 49% tried to contact their RGP before this emergency encounter: 44% of native Norwegian and 58% of immigrant respondents. Immigrants from Africa [odds ratio (OR) = 2.55 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.46–4.46)] and Asia [OR = 2.32 (95% CI: 1.42–3.78)] were more likely to contact their RGP before attending the general emergency outpatient clinic compared with native Norwegians. The most frequent reason for attending the emergency clinic was difficulty making an immediate appointment with their RGP. A frequent reason for not contacting an RGP was lack of access: 21% of the native Norwegians versus 4% of the immigrants claimed their RGP was in another district/municipality, and 31% of the immigrants reported a lack of affiliation with the RGP scheme. Conclusions and implications Access to primary care provided by an RGP affects patients’ use of emergency health care services. To facilitate continuity of health care, policymakers should emphasize initiatives to improve access to primary health care services. Key points Access to immediate primary health care provided by a regular general practitioner (RGP) can reduce patients’ use of emergency health care services. The main reason for attending a general emergency outpatient clinic was difficulty obtaining an immediate appointment with an RGP. A frequent reason for native Norwegians
Schmidt, Debra; Anderson, Lynnette; Bingen, Kristin; Hoag, Jennifer; Kupst, Mary Jo; Warwick, Anne B
Childhood cancer survivorship is a national public health priority, with an increasing number of survivors who face late effects from both disease and treatment. As childhood cancer survivors are living into adulthood, care of the late effects associated with their diagnosis and treatment can become complex. Often these patients no longer have follow-up with the treating pediatric hospital and seek medical care from an adult primary care professional. Combining the results of current survivorship research with clinical experience, we describe common late effects that general internists and primary care professionals may encounter during routine visits with adult survivors of childhood cancer. Recommendations and resources are provided for identifying and managing late effects.
Quinn, Robert H; Randall, R Lor; Benevenia, Joseph; Berven, Sigurd H; Raskin, Kevin A
Metastatic bone disease has a significant effect on a patient's mortality and health-related quality of life. An aging US population and improved survival rates of patients with cancer have led to an increase in the incidence of symptomatic bony metastatic lesions that may require orthopaedic care. Skeletal-related events in neoplastic disease include pain, pathologic fracture, hypercalcemia, and neural compression, including spinal cord compression. The clinical evaluation and diagnostic study of a patient with a skeletal lesion of unknown etiology should be approached carefully. In patients with widespread metastatic disease, the treatment of a skeletal-related event may be limited to stabilization of the pathologic fracture or local disease control. The treatment of metastatic bone disease is guided by the nature of the skeletal-related event, the responsiveness of the lesion to adjuvant care, and the overall condition and survival expectations of the patient. Impending pathologic fractures are often more easily treated, with less morbidity and easier recovery for patients, than completed fractures. Quality of life is the most important outcome measure in these patients. When surgery is indicated, the approach, choice of fixation, and use of adjuvant should allow for immediate and unrestricted weight bearing. Because metastatic lesions to the skeleton have a limited capacity for spontaneous healing, surgical fixation should be durable for the life expectancy of the patient. In the epiphyseal region of long bones, replacement arthroplasty is generally preferred over internal fixation. Metaphyseal and diaphyseal regions can generally be addressed with intramedullary nailing or plate fixation with adjuvant. The specific treatment of acetabular lesions is dictated by the anatomy and the degree of bone loss. Spinal stability and neural compromise are important considerations in choosing a strategy for managing spine tumors. Effective surgical approaches to metastatic
Basarab, T; Munn, S E; Jones, R R
A study was undertaken of new referrals by GPs to a dermatology clinic in a district general hospital over a 6-month period. Six hundred and eighty-six consecutive referrals to one consultant were analysed for diagnostic accuracy and requirement for referral. Only 47% of referral letters contained the correct diagnosis. Viral warts and psoriasis were best diagnosed (82 and 78%, respectively), but seborrhoeic warts and dermatofibromas caused difficulty (22 and 19%, respectively). Cutaneous malignancy was correctly diagnosed in 45% of referrals, and eczema, the commonest condition referred, in 54% of cases. Sixty-eight percent of referrals required hospital-based facilities for diagnosis (31%) or treatment/management (37%). Twenty-one per cent of patients referred attended for once-only visits, requiring no specialized diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. Such referrals should decrease with improved GP education. Eleven percent of referrals were for minor surgical procedures such as curettage, shave biopsy, or cryotherapy and would become unnecessary if such facilities were available in the community. Our data demonstrate the potential for management of up to one-third of current dermatological referrals within the community by improving education of GPs and providing appropriate facilities within the community. However, over two-thirds of patients required hospital facilities, a finding of considerable relevance to the future location of dermatological services.
Hope, Mairi E; Farmer, Laura; McAllister, Kay F; Cumming, Grant P
Vaginismus is generally described as an involuntary contraction of the vaginal musculature, which usually results in the failure of penetration. Despite a lack of consensus as to the exact definition, prevalence rates vary between 4.2% and 42%. It is commonly diagnosed at both gynaecological and psychosexual clinics. The majority of studies and treatment options concentrate on the premenopausal age group. It is accepted that even within this age group, the diagnosis is often incorrect as symptoms can be confused with dyspareunia and other sexual pain disorders. There is no literature discussing vaginismus in the postmenopausal patient, despite evidence that an active sex life is important to the majority of women, irrespective of age. It is known that the majority of women do not report difficulties in their sex life and it may be that the older patient is more embarrassed at disclosing any such difficulties. This review aims to highlight the possible causes of vaginismus in this older age group and to aid the clinician in asking the appropriate questions, performing the appropriate examination and suggesting possible treatment options.
Chicoulaa, Bruno; Haas, Hervé; Viala, Jérôme; Salvetat, Maryline; Olives, Jean-Pierre
Background Recurrent respiratory tract infections (RRTIs) are the most common reason for children’s visits to primary care physicians in France; however, little is known about general practitioners’ (GPs) opinions and expectations concerning the management and prevention of these common and recurrent pathologies. Purpose To describe French GPs’ daily practice in the management of respiratory infections and the prevention of their recurrence in children. Methods A sample group of French GPs answered a structured questionnaire on risk factors, RRTI management, antibiotic use and prevention measures. Results A total of 358 GPs participated in the survey. Rhinopharyngitis, the most frequent respiratory infection, was considered to be recurrent if six or more episodes occurred in a year. Four risk factors were acknowledged as substantial: living in communities, passive smoking, pollution and allergies. Around 63% of GPs said that RRTIs are too often treated with antibiotics. More than 85% thought that prevention of RRTIs is possible. Smoking cessation, vaccination, allergen avoidance and hygiene were identified as the main preventive measures. A large majority of GPs (84%) prescribed products for prevention and ~90% would prescribe a product stimulating immunity if the efficacy and tolerability of these agents was proven and confirmed in their daily practice. Conclusions French GPs are well aware of the health and socioeconomic burdens resulting from RRTIs, as well as the risk of antibiotic overuse. They have a prevention-oriented approach, implement preventive measures when possible and prescribe products for prevention. PMID:28293116
Russell, Deborah J; McGrail, Matthew R; Humphreys, John S; Wakerman, John
The objectives of this study were to measure the relative strength, significance and contribution of factors associated with rural and remote medical workforce retention. Length of stay data from two Australian GP workforce datasets, the 2008 National Minimum Data Set (4223 GPs) and a subset of the 2008 Medicine in Australia: Balancing Employment and Life dataset (1189 GPs), were separately analysed using multiple linear regression models and the results compared. Length of employment in their current practice location was the outcome measure. Consistent results were obtained across both datasets. The most important factors associated with the retention of rural and remote GPs, after adjusting for GP age, were primary income source, registrar status, hospital work and restrictions on practice location (which are linked to geographic location). Practice ownership was associated with -70% higher retention than average, whilst undertaking hospital work in addition to routine general practice was associated with at least 18% higher retention compared with if no hospital work was undertaken. Less important factors included geographic location, procedural skills, annual leave, workload and practice size. Our findings quantify a range of financial and economic, professional and organisational, and geographic factors contributing to the retention of rural GPs. These findings have important implications for future medical workforce policy, providing an empirical evidence base to support the targeting and 'bundling' of retention initiatives in order to optimise the retention of rural GPs.
Hajat, S; Haines, A; Atkinson, R W; Bremner, S A; Anderson, H R; Emberlin, J
Few published studies have looked at the health effects of air pollution in the primary care setting, and most have concentrated on lower rather than upper respiratory diseases. The authors investigated the association of daily consultations with general practitioners for allergic rhinitis with air pollution in London, United Kingdom. Generalized additive models were used to regress time series of daily numbers of patients consulting for allergic rhinitis against 1992--1994 measures of air pollution, after control for possible confounders and adjustment for overdispersion and serial correlation. In children, a 10th--90th percentile increase in sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) levels 4 days prior to consultation (13-31 microg/m(3)) was associated with a 24.5% increase in consultations (95% confidence interval: 14.6, 35.2; p < 0.00001); a 10th--90th percentile increase in averaged ozone (O(3)) concentrations on the day of consultation and the preceding 3 days (6--29 parts per billion) was associated with a 37.6% rise (95% confidence interval: 23.3, 53.5; p < 0.00001). For adults, smaller effect sizes were observed for SO(2) and O(3). The association with SO(2) remained highly significant in the presence of other pollutants. This study suggests that air pollution worsens allergic rhinitis symptoms, leading to substantial increases in consultations. SO(2) and O(3) seem particularly responsible, and both seem to contribute independently.
Dolan, A; Koshy, E; Waker, M; Goble, C
Background: Availability of access to bone densitometry in the UK varies widely and there are concerns as to appropriate prescribing. Studies suggest inadequate use of osteoporosis prophylaxis in steroid users, despite recent guidelines. Objective: To examine in a case-control study whether access to bone densitometry affects GPs' osteoporosis prescribing in high risk steroid users. Method: 10 general practices were included, five from primary care trusts (PCTs) with access to bone densitometry and five with limited access. Patients receiving prednisolone for >3 months were identified by database search. Patients receiving no prophylaxis other than calcium and vitamin D (Ca/D) were subsequently included. Appropriate patients in five practices were offered DXA scan (cases) and review. Patients in practices without access to scans (controls) were reviewed. GPs' opinions leading to treatment were sought by structured questionnaire. Results: 132 (0.12%) patients were receiving prednisolone for ⩾3 months, but no osteoporosis prophylaxis other than Ca/D. Pre-study prophylaxis ranged from 18 to 36%. Of 48 patients scanned, 21 (44%) were abnormal and 18 (38%) received new treatment. 13/44 (30%) controls received new treatment. 10/21 (48%) with abnormal scans started a bisphosphonate, compared with 7/44 (16%) controls (RR = 3, p = 0.004). No difference in risk factors for fracture was found in treated and untreated controls. Conclusions: GPs were three times more likely to start potent osteoporosis treatment after abnormal scans than GPs relying on clinical information. In practice, risk factors were not adequately assessed. Database searches may identify patients needing osteoporosis prophylaxis; however, DXA enables more appropriate patient treatment. PMID:14722208
Hajat, S; Anderson, H; Atkinson, R; Haines, A; Seaton, A.
Objectives: Few published studies have examined the effect of air pollution on upper respiratory conditions. Furthermore, most epidemiological studies on air pollution focus on mortality or hospital admissions as the main health outcomes, but very rarely consider the effect in primary care. If pollution effects do exist then the public health impact could be considerable because of the many patient contacts involved. We investigated the relation between air pollution and upper respiratory disease as reflected in number of consultations made at family practices in London. Methods: The study used non-parametric methods of analysis of time series data, adjusting for seasonal factors, day of the week, holiday effects, influenza, weather, pollen concentrations, and serial correlation. Results: It was estimated that a 10–90th percentile change (13–31 µg/m3) in sulphur dioxide (SO2) measures resulted in a small increase in numbers of childhood consultation: 3.5% (95% confidence interval (95% CI 1.4% to 5.8%). Stronger associations were found in the case of a 10–90th percentile change (16–47 µg/m3) in fine particles (PM10) in adults aged 15–64 5.7% (2.9% to 8.6%), and in adults aged 65 and over: 10.2% (5.3% to 15.3%). In general, associations were strongest in elderly people, weakest in the children, and were largely found in the winter months for these two age groups, and in the summer months for adults aged 15–64. An apparent decrease in consultations was associated with ozone concentrations but this was most pronounced in colder months when ozone concentrations were at their lowest. Conclusions: The results suggest an adverse effect of air pollution on consultations for upper respiratory symptoms, in particular in the case of PM10 and SO2. The effects are relatively small; however, due to the many consultations made in primary care, the impact on demand for services could be considerable. PMID:11983844
Sastri, Murlidhar R; Tanpure, Vijaysinh Ramchandra; Palagi, Firoz Babu; Shinde, Sagar Kundlik; Ladhe, Kapil; Polepalle, Tejaswin
Background: General dental practitioners and non-orthodontic specialty can play an essential role of education and motivation of their patients about the principles and practice of orthodontic treatment; which can be very beneficial to the patient’s lifestyle. It is, therefore, important to identify their level of knowledge and attitude toward orthodontic treatment. This study was planned to study this aspect in the form of comparative analysis in general dental practitioners and other specialties (except orthodontia) in dentistry. Materials and Methods: The study was done on 78 dentists, which was divided into two groups. Group I consisted of 46 general dental practitioners and Group II consisted of 32 non-orthodontic specialties. The study was carried out with the help of 21 questionnaires, which consisted of 13 questions of orthodontic knowledge and 08 questions about the attitude toward orthodontic practice. The scores were calculated, and statistical analysis was done with the help of IBM SPSS statistics 20, using Student’s t-test. Results: The comparative analysis showed highly significant difference of knowledge and attitude score between general dental practitioners and non-orthodontic specialties (Student’s t-test, P < 0.001). Also the comparison was made between male and female practitioners, who showed more scores in case of male practitioners; but the difference was not significant statistically (Student’s t-test, P > 0.01). Conclusion: The results of the study were moderately satisfactory, and it showed the need for increased clinically oriented education of practice and concepts of orthodontic treatment. PMID:25878478
Gullbrå, Frøydis; Smith-Sivertsen, Tone; Graungaard, Anette Hauskov; Rortveit, Guri; Hafting, Marit
Objectives To explore significant experiences of adolescents as next of kin that the general practitioner (GP) should identify and recognize. Design Qualitative study with focus-group interviews. Subjects and setting Three focus-group interviews were conducted with a total of 15 Norwegian adolescents each with an ill or substance-abusing parent. The participants were recruited from existing support groups. Results The adolescents’ days were dominated by unpredictability in their family situation and their own exhausting efforts to keep up an ordinary youth life. Mostly, they consulted GPs for somatic complaints. In encounters with the GP, they wanted to be met both as a unique person and as a member of a family with burdens. Their expectations from the GP were partly negatively formed by their experiences. Some had experienced that both their own and their parent’s health problems were not addressed properly. Others reported that the GP did not act when he or she should have been concerned about their adverse life situation. The GP may contribute to better long-term psychosocial outcomes by ensuring that the adolescents receive information about the parent’s illness and have someone to talk to about their feelings and experiences. In addition, the GP may help by supporting their participation in relieving activities. Conclusion Burdened adolescents seek a GP most often for somatic complaints. The GP has a potential to support them by taking the initiative to talk about their life situation, and by recognizing their special efforts. Key pointsLittle is known about how a general practitioner can support adolescents with ill or substance-abusing parents.Adolescents experience unpredictability in life and strive to find balance between their own needs and the restrictions caused by parental illness.In encounters with adolescents having ill parents, the GP should take the initiative to talk about their family situation.The GP may help them by recognizing their
... administrative corrections relating to DFARS clause 252.203-7003, Agency Office of the Inspector General. DATES... the Inspector General, as required by FAR clause 52.203-13, Contractor Code of Business Ethics and...), the clause prescription did not include the title of the clause at 252.203-7003. This rule adds...
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Claims for settlement by Department of State or General Accounting Office. 23.5 Section 23.5 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE FEES AND FUNDS FINANCE AND ACCOUNTING § 23.5 Claims for settlement by Department of State or General Accounting...
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Claims for settlement by Department of State or General Accounting Office. 23.5 Section 23.5 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE FEES AND FUNDS FINANCE AND ACCOUNTING § 23.5 Claims for settlement by Department of State or General Accounting...
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Claims for settlement by Department of State or General Accounting Office. 23.5 Section 23.5 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE FEES AND FUNDS FINANCE AND ACCOUNTING § 23.5 Claims for settlement by Department of State or General Accounting...
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Claims for settlement by Department of State or General Accounting Office. 23.5 Section 23.5 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE FEES AND FUNDS FINANCE AND ACCOUNTING § 23.5 Claims for settlement by Department of State or General Accounting...
Hartley, Tara A.; Burchfiel, Cecil M.; Fekedulegn, Desta; Andrew, Michael E.; Violanti, John M.
Police officers have one of the poorest cardiovascular disease (CVD) health profiles of any occupation. The goal of this study was to determine if police officers in the Buffalo Cardio-Metabolic Occupational Police Stress (BCOPS) Study (between 2004 and 2009) had a more adverse CV profile than the general U.S. employed population. Nearly one-half (46.9%) of the officers worked a non-day shift compared to 9% of U.S. workers. The percent of officers with depression was nearly double (12.0% vs. 6.8%) and officers were nearly four times more likely to sleep less than six hours in a 24-hour period than the general population (33.0% vs. 8.0%). A higher percentage of officers were obese (40.5% vs. 32.1%), had the metabolic syndrome (26.7% vs. 18.7%), and had higher mean serum total cholesterol levels (200.8 mg/dL vs. 193.2 mg/dL) than the comparison employed populations. In addition to having higher levels of traditional CVD risk factors, police officers had higher levels of non-traditional CVD risk factors. These findings highlight the need for expanding the definition of a health disparity to include occupation. Future studies should expand this comparison to additional traditional and non-traditional CVD risk factors and to other occupational groups. PMID:22900455
Bonevski, Billie; Girgis, Afaf; Magin, Parker; Horton, Graeme; Brozek, Irena; Armstrong, Bruce
This study aimed to assess the attitudes, practices and knowledge of general practitioners (GPs) with regards to vitamin D. A cross-sectional survey of a random sample of GPs stratified by location of practice (rural/remote or metropolitan) and employment status (full-time or part-time) in New South Wales (NSW), Australia was conducted. Of 500 respondents, 58.1% (95% CI 53.8-62.4) reported that up to 39% of their tested patients showed vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency and a further 37.7% (95% CI 33.5-41.9) of respondents said that over 40% of their patients were vitamin D insufficient. Vitamin D supplementation and advice to receive more natural sunlight were the most common ways vitamin D insufficiency was managed (97.1%; 95% CI 95.6-98.6 and 82%, 95% CI 78.6-85.4, respectively). Some gaps in knowledge were identified. Most respondents (64%; 95% CI 59.8-68.2) believed that a person of average sun sensitivity required 10 min of direct sun exposure during summer in peak UV time and a further 21.6% (95% CI 18.0-25.2) believed that people required 30 min of direct sun. A third of respondents (33.1%; 95% CI 29.0-37.2) advised their patients to use sun protection at all times during winter. In general, the attitude items showed that respondents expressed greater concern about vitamin D deficiency than skin cancer. The results reveal some confusion in general practice regarding vitamin D, sun exposure, sun protection and skin cancer risk. Some of the advice that GPs are offering may needlessly increase their patients' risk for vitamin D insufficiency or skin cancer.
Casswell, S; McPherson, M
A postal survey of New Zealand general practitioners gathered information from a self-selected sample about their response to alcohol problems. Responses to a series of attitude statements measured the extent to which doctors held traditional beliefs about alcoholism as a disease, the management of which requires abstinence; emerging concepts of alcohol dependence and more moralistic attitudes. General practitioners who responded to the survey were found to be largely in sympathy with the disease concept of alcohol problems though some of the more recently emerging concepts were also widely accepted. The majority reported that they felt they did have an active role to play in connection with the alcohol problems of their patients, both in terms of treatment or advice giving, and referral to specialist agencies. Over half of the respondents requested guidelines for treatment and advice giving. Only a small proportion of general practitioners reported pessimism about their personal role in relation to their patients' alcohol problems. The results are discussed in the context of recent research evidence showing the relative efficacy of a structured advice-counseling session of the type in which general practitioners might engage.
Lin, Jin-Ding; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Yen, Chia-Feng; Chou, Ying-Ting; Wu, Chia-Ling; Chu, Cordia M.; Loh, Ching-Hui
Aims: The aims of the present study were to explore the perceptions of general practitioners (GPs) in the provision of health care services for people with intellectual disabilities and to analyse GPs' priorities in the delivery of health care services to this group of people in Taiwan. Methods: The study employed a cross-sectional design and was…
Luiz, John; Carmichael, Teresa; Peersman, Wim; Derese, Anselme
Background The South African government intends to contract with ‘accredited provider groups’ for capitated primary care under National Health Insurance (NHI). South African solo general practitioners (GPs) are unhappy with group practice. There is no clarity on the views of GPs in group practice on contracting to the NHI. Objectives To describe the demographic and practice profile of GPs in group practice in South Africa, and evaluate their views on NHI, compared to solo GPs. Methods This was a descriptive survey. The population of 8721 private GPs in South Africa with emails available were emailed an online questionnaire. Descriptive statistical analyses and thematic content analysis were conducted. Results In all, 819 GPs responded (568 solo GPs and 251 GPs in groups). The results are focused on group GPs. GPs in groups have a different demographic practice profile compared to solo GPs. GPs in groups expected R4.86 million ($0.41 million) for a hypothetical NHI proposal of comprehensive primary healthcare (excluding medicines and investigations) to a practice population of 10 000 people. GPs planned a clinical team of 8 to 12 (including nurses) and 4 to 6 administrative staff. GPs in group practices saw three major risks: patient, organisational and government, with three related risk management strategies. Conclusions GPs can competitively contract with NHI, although there are concerns. NHI contracting should not be limited to groups. All GPs embraced strong teamwork, including using nurses more effectively. This aligns well with the emergence of family medicine in Africa. PMID:27380785
Rieck, Allison Margaret
To improve collaboration in Australian primary health care, there is a need to understand aspects of the general practitioner (GP)/community pharmacist relationship, its influence on collaborative chronic disease management (CDM) and if this influence can be explained by a pre-existing theory or concept. Adopting a grounded theory approach, 22 GP and 22 community pharmacist semi-structured interviews were undertaken. Analysis of the transcripts identified common themes regarding the GP/community pharmacist relationship. Trustworthiness of the themes identified was tested through negative case analysis and member checking. Hofstede's (in 1980) phenomenon of power distance was employed to illuminate the nature of GP/community pharmacist relations. The majority of GPs and community pharmacists described the characteristics of this phenomenon. The power distance was based on knowledge and expertise and was shown to be a barrier to collaboration between GPs and community pharmacists because GPs perceived that community pharmacists did not have the required expertise to improve CDM above what the GP could deliver alone. Power distance exists within the GP/community pharmacist relationship and has a negative influence on GP/community pharmacist collaborative CDM. Understanding and improving GP awareness of community pharmacist expertise has important implications for the future success of collaborative CDM.
Fletcher-Lartey, Stephanie; Yee, Melissa; Gaarslev, Christina; Khan, Rabia
Objectives To describe the role patient expectations play in general practitioners (GPs) antibiotic prescribing for upper respiratory tract infections (URTI). Methods Concurrent explanatory mixed methods approach using a cross-sectional survey and semistructured interviews. Settings Primary care GPs in Australia. Participants 584 GPs (response rate of 23.6%) completed the cross-sectional survey. 32 GPs were interviewed individually. Outcome measure Prescribing of antibiotics for URTI. Results More than half the GP respondents to the survey in Australia self-reported that they would prescribe antibiotics for an URTI to meet patient expectations. Our qualitative findings suggest that ‘patient expectations’ may be the main reason given for inappropriate prescribing, but it is an all-encompassing phrase that includes other reasons. These include limited time, poor doctor–patient communication and diagnostic uncertainty. We have identified three role archetypes to explain the behaviour of GPs in reference to antibiotic prescribing for URTIs. The main themes emerging from the qualitative component was that many GPs did not think that antibiotic prescribing in primary care was responsible for the development of antibiotic resistance nor that their individual prescribing would make any difference in light of other bigger issues like hospital prescribing or veterinary use. For them, there were negligible negative consequences from their inappropriate prescribing. Conclusions There is a need to increase awareness of the scope and magnitude of antibiotic resistance and the role primary care prescribing plays, and of the contribution of individual prescribing decisions to the problem of antibiotic resistance. PMID:27798010
Kaczorowski, J.; Levitt, C.
OBJECTIVE: To determine provincial trends in provision of intrapartum care by general practitioners and family physicians (GP/FPs) for the 11 years from 1984 to 1995. DESIGN: Analyses of provincial Medical Care Fee-for-Service Utilization data for births from 1984-1985 to 1994-1995. SETTING: 10 provinces of Canada. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Proportion of vaginal births billed by GP/FPs (expressed as total number of vaginal births billed by GP/FPs divided by total number of vaginal births). RESULTS: In 1994-1995, the proportion of vaginal births billed by GP/FPs ranged from 77.2% in British Columbia and 70.8% in Nova Scotia to 28.9% in Ontario and 23.6% in Prince Edward Island. These proportions have remained relatively high and stable during the period studied in some provinces, such as British Columbia and Nova Scotia, and have declined steadily and notably in others. CONCLUSIONS: Data show that GP/FPs' involvement in vaginal births in most Canadian provinces is decreasing. This trend demonstrates a shift in GP/FPs' practice patterns and could indicate a coming shortage of obstetrical care providers. PMID:10751998
Aryankhesal, Aidin; Sheldon, Trevor
There is considerable international interest in the use of performance measurement and their public release in order to improve the quality of care. However, few studies have assessed stakeholders' awareness and use of performance data. Iranian hospitals have been graded annually since 1998 and hospital hotel charges vary by grade, but this system has never been evaluated. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 104 outpatients at eight Teheran hospitals and 103 general practitioners (GPs) to assess the awareness of and attitudes towards hospital grading system. Only 5.8% of patients (95% CI: 1.3-10.3%) and 11.7% of GPs (95% CI: 5.5-17.9%) were aware of grading results. Patients' awareness was positively associated with their education level (P = 0.016). No patient used the grading results for choosing a hospital and only one GP (1%, 95% CI: 0-2%) reported using hospital grade to influence referral decisions. Patients were more influenced by hospitals' public reputation and that of their specialists. GPs believed that the grading system did not reflect the quality of care in hospitals. When developing performance measurement systems, public release of data should be accompanied by evaluation of its impact on awareness and health-care choices.
Prazeres, Filipe; Santiago, Luiz
Multimorbidity’s high prevalence and negative impact has made it a subject of worldwide interest. The main aim of this study was to access the Portuguese knowledge, awareness, and practices of general practitioners (GPs) regarding multimorbidity and its management, in order to aid in the development of interventions for improving outcomes in multimorbid patients in primary care. A web-based qualitative descriptive study was carried out in the first trimester of 2016 with primary care physicians working in two districts of the Centre region of Portugal. Open-ended questions were analysed via inductive thematic content analysis. GPs pointed out several difficulties and challenges while managing multimorbidity. Extrinsic factors were associated with the healthcare system logistics’ management (consultation time, organization of care teams, clinical information) and society (media pressure, social/family support). Intrinsic factors related to the GP, patient, and physician-patient relationship were also stated. The most significant conclusion to emerge from this study is that although GPs perceived difficulties and challenges towards multimorbidity, they also have the tools to deal with them: the fundamental characteristics of family medicine. Also, the complex care required by multimorbid patients needs adequate consultation time, multidisciplinary teamwork, and more education/training. PMID:27834818
Raaphorst, Nadine; Houtman, Dick
Against the background of studies about the domestication of complementary and alternative medicine into biomedical settings, this article studies how biomedicine is integrated into holistic settings. Data from 19 in-depth interviews with Dutch holistic general practitioners who combine complementary and alternative medicine with conventional treatments demonstrate that they do not believe that conventional biomedicine 'really' cures patients. They feel that it merely suppresses the physical symptoms of a disease, leaving the more fundamental and non-physical causes intact. As a consequence, they use conventional biomedicine for strictly practical and instrumental reasons. This is the case in life-threatening or acute situations, understood as non-physical causes of disease having been left untreated with complementary and alternative medicine for too long. More mundane reasons for its use are the need to take patients' demands for biomedical treatment seriously or to obey authoritative rules, regulations and protocols. The integration of biomedicine into complementary and alternative medicine, then, follows the same logic of domestication of complementary and alternative medicine into biomedicine: it is made subordinate to the prevailing model of health and illness and treated as a practical add-on that does not 'really' cure people.
Hinrichs, Timo; Brach, Michael
Positive influences of physical activity both on many chronic diseases and on preservation of mobility are well documented. But chronically ill or mobility restricted elderly living in their own homes are difficult to reach for interventions. The general practitioner's (GP) surgery offers one of the few opportunities to give advice for physical activity to those people. We used program theory to sound out knowledge on GP-centered physical activity counseling. The "conceptual theory" (evidence for training effects in old age) and the "implementation theory" (unique position of the GP) were reviewed narratively. The "action theory" (effects of GP counseling) was reviewed systematically. According to program theory, appropriate MeSH (Medical subject headings) concepts were Aged OR Aged, 80 and over (Target group), Physicians, Family OR Primary Health Care (Implementation/Setting), Counseling OR Patient Education as Topic OR Disease Management OR Health promotion (Intervention), Exercise OR Motor Activity OR Physical Fitness OR Sports (Determinants). The resulting six review papers (Pubmed, 2000-2009) were presented using the STARLITE mnemonic. Authors agree, that the GP plays a central role in the promotion of physical activity to elderly people, but there is conflicting evidence concerning counseling effectiveness. Utilizing behavioral change strategies and the collaboration between GPs and specialised professions are recommended and currently under research.
Hashemian, F; Emadi, F; Roohi, E
Collaboration between pharmacists and general practitioners (GPs) has been shown to enhance patient care and outcomes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the collaborative working relationship between pharmacists and GPs in terms of their attitudes, role perceptions, experience with collaborative practice, preferred method of communication, areas of current and further collaboration, and perceived barriers to interprofessional collaboration in a sample of the Iranian population. We distributed 318 questionnaires to community pharmacists and GPs in Tehran. Both groups had a positive attitude towards collaboration; however, about half the respondents reported only occasional collaborative practice. Both groups preferred communication by telephone or face-toface communication by fax or letter. Few current areas of collaboration were identified; however, an area favoured by both groups was "decision-making for patients' pharmacotherapy". The two groups expressed concern about possible fragmentation of patient care with the involvement of multiple health care providers, and perceived lack of face-to-face communication as a possible barrier to collaboration.
Hussein, Alaa S; Schroth, Robert J; Abu-Hassan, Mohamed I
This survey evaluated the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of general dental practitioners (GDPs) in Selangor regarding early childhood caries (ECC) prevention and the recommended timing of a child's first dental visit. A questionnaire was mailed to 521 licensed GDPs. Descriptive statistics were used, and bivariate and logistic regression analyses were performed. The response rate was 52.6%. Although 89.8% mentioned counseling parents and caregivers, only 44.2% were familiar with anticipatory guidance. Whereas 98.2% agreed that early examinations are important to prevent ECC, only 51.8% were aware of the recommendation for a first visit by 12 months of age. GDPs who recommended early dental visits were significantly more likely to be recent graduates, more familiar with professional guidelines, and less likely to be deterred by a child's crying or behavior. In conclusion, GDPs in Selangor are aware about the importance of early dental visits in ECC prevention. However, a considerable number of them are still not aware of the recommendation that children must first visit the dentist by 12 months of age. Furthermore, some of their current practices in ECC management and prevention do not match professional recommendations.
van Pinxteren, B; van Vliet, S M; Wiersma, T J; Goudswaard, A N
The 1999 practice guideline 'Urinary-tract infections' from the Dutch College of General Practitioners has been revised. Not only febrile urinary-tract infections are now regarded as 'complicated', but also all urinary-tract infections in men, pregnant women, children, and patients with kidney or urinary-tract disease, impaired immune response or an indwelling catheter. Under certain conditions, in women recognising the symptoms of an earlier uncomplicated urinary-tract infection, treatment may be instituted without performing supplementary urinalysis. The nitrite dipstick test and dipslide culturing are recommended for the diagnosis of urinary-tract infections; the value of the leukocyte esterase dipstick test is limited. A group-B streptococcal urinary-tract infection during pregnancy is an indication for intravenous antibiotic prophylaxis during the delivery. The recommended duration of treatment with nitrofurantoin is extended from three to five days. Both increased bacterial resistance to trimethoprim and the intention to reduce the use of fluoroquinolones in the treatment of uncomplicated urinary-tract infections were reasons for including phosphomycin in the guideline. In addition to antibiotic prophylaxis, cranberry products may be of value in the prevention of recurrent urinary-tract infections.
Janati, Ali; Amini, Abolgasem; Adham, Davoud; Naseriasl, Mansour
Establishing effective communication between general practitioners (GPs) and medical specialists is a key component of the referral system. Written communication between GPs and medical specialists is the most common communication tool. This study was conducted to evaluate quality (information content) of the referral letters written by GPs and addressed to gynecologists and cardiologists. We evaluated quality of the referral letters through a cross-sectional study in the villages of Sarab city, located in East Azerbaijan Province, Northwest Iran. The study was conducted during August and September 2015 in which a total of 400 referral letters were evaluated according to specific quality criteria. Cluster sampling was implemented and data were collected using an instrument designed by the Department of Family Medicine at the University of Manitoba, Canada. A specifically designed referral form was used to refer pregnant women to gynecologists. Referrals addressed to gynecologists showed better quality in comparison to cases referred to cardiologists. Legibility of referral letters was 73%. It is recommended that agreed-upon referral letters be designed cooperatively for different groups of diseases. Furthermore, primary health care providers should be trained to write proper referral letters.
Byrne, Jacqueline H; Ware, Robert S; Lennox, Nicholas G
People with intellectual disability experience inadequate health care and have unmet health needs that can go unidentified or be poorly managed. Health assessments have been shown to significantly increase short-term clinical activity for people with intellectual disability. The aim of this study was to more accurately quantify the effect of health assessments for people with intellectual disability by comparing health actions recorded in health assessment booklets to actions recorded in general practitioners' (GPs) records in the 12-month period following the health assessment. Participants were people with intellectual disability who had received a Comprehensive Health Assessment Program (CHAP), living in the community. The CHAP is a health assessment that is demonstrated to significantly increase health actions, compared with usual care, for people with intellectual disability. Data collected from three randomised controlled trials conducted in South-East Queensland, Australia, from 2000 to 2010 were pooled and analysed. The health assessment booklet contained significantly more information on health actions than GPs' records. Notably, hearing tests (risk ratio (RR) = 5.9; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 4.7-7.4), breast checks (RR = 3.9; 95% CI = 2.7-5.7), and skin examinations (RR = 7.9; 95% CI = 5.9-10.7) were more likely to be recorded in the CHAP booklet. Health assessments increase health actions for people with intellectual disability to a significantly greater extent than previously demonstrated.
Murphy, Andrea L; Gardner, David M; Kisely, Steve; Cooke, Charmaine A; Kutcher, Stanley P; Hughes, Jean
There are significant controversies regarding rising antipsychotic prescription trends in children and adolescents. Many pharmacoepidemiology trend studies have been published, and interpretations of these data are helpful in explaining what is happening in prescribing practices, but not why these patterns exist. There is a lack of qualitative data in this area, and the experience of prescribing antipsychotics to children and adolescents has not been adequately researched. We conducted a qualitative study using an interpretive phenomenological analysis of physicians’ experiences of antipsychotic prescribing to children and adolescents. Prescribers participated in individual interviews and a focus group. We used a staged approach for data analysis of transcriptions. In all, 11 physicians including psychiatrists and general practitioners participated in our study. We identified themes related to context, role and identity, and decision-making and filtering. Struggles with health system gaps were significant leading to the use of antipsychotics as substitutes for other treatments. Physicians prescribed antipsychotics to youth for a range of indications and had significant concerns regarding adverse effects. Our results provide knowledge regarding the prescribers’ experience of antipsychotics for children and adolescents. Important gaps exist within the health system that are creating opportunities for the initiation and continued use of these agents. PMID:26614572
Araújo, M T; Paiva, T; Jesuino, J C; Magalhães, M
Predicting attitudes towards teleconsultation systems and intentions of use is crucial at the beginning of the implementation phase, due to the critical role of human factors in its acceptance and continuous utilisation. The main objective of this study was to assess and understand GP's attitudes and intentions towards using the teleconsultation system in Neurology, implemented in Lisbon, between Hospital de Santa Maria/Neurology Outpatient Clinic and the Health Care Centers of its Health Unit. The final aim is the promotion of a wide acceptance and utilisation of the system, through the development of adequate communication strategies. A predictive model "Theory of Reasoned Action" was chosen as method. It was operated with the application of a questionnaire to a sample of 53 GP's, developed from the results of a content analysis of 10 interviews. A total of 44 GP's stated that, probably they will use the system, 5 were neutral and 4 probably will not use it. The responses were submitted to factor and multiple regression analysis. Attitude was determined by only one factor "Accessibility and Quality" (b = 0.486; p = 0.007) from the 5 factors obtained. The intention variance was explained in 26.9% by the attitude and subjective norm. However, only the attitudinal factor (b = 0.469; p = 0.002) contributes significantly to its explanation with no significant influence from the subjective norm. GP's intentions towards using the system are very positive. Nevertheless, there are significant differences between the centers that are participating and not participating in the project. Communication strategies envisaging dissemination and generalised acceptance and utilisation should focus on accessibility and quality of care aspects.
This Office of Inspector General Semiannual Report to the Congress covers the period from October 1, 1996, through March 31, 1997. The report summarizes significant audit, inspection, and investigative accomplishments for the reporting period which facilitated Department of Energy management efforts to improve management controls and ensure efficient and effective operation of its programs. Narratives of the most significant reports are grouped by measures which the Office of Inspector General uses to gauge its performance. The common thread that ties the performance measures together is their emphasis on supporting Department efforts to produce high quality products at the lowest possible cost to the taxpayer. Five such performance measures were used during this semiannual period to present outcomes of Office of Inspector General work in terms of improvements in Department programs and operations.
Wheat, Hannah C; Barnes, Rebecca K; Byng, Richard
Existing research indicates that many patients and doctors find the process of negotiating sickness certification for time off work to be a difficult one. This study examined how patients and general practitioners (GPs) managed these negotiations in a sample of UK primary care consultations. The study made use of an existing dataset of audio-recorded consultations between 13 GPs and 506 unselected adult patients in five general practices in London. Forty-nine consultations included discussions for both initial and repeat sickness certification across a wide range of conditions. Here we report our findings on doctor practices for recommending, as opposed to patient practices for advocating for, sickness certification (n = 26 cases). All cases were transcribed in detail and analysed using conversation analytic methods. Four main communication practices were observed: (1) declarative statements of need for sickness certification; (2) 'do you need' offers for sickness certification; (3) 'do you want' offers for sickness certification; and (4) conditional 'If X, Y' offers for sickness certification. These different communication practices indexed doctor agency, doctor endorsement and patient entitlement to varying degrees. In the main, recommendations to patients presenting with biomedical problems or a repeat occurrence of a psychosocial problem displayed stronger doctor endorsement and patient entitlement. Contrastingly, recommendations to patients presenting with new psychosocial and biopsychosocial problems, displayed weaker endorsement and patient entitlement. This study offers new evidence to support the Parsonian argument that becoming sick involves entering a social role with special rights and obligations. Through documenting doctors' orientations to their gatekeeping role as well as patients' orientations to differential rights vis à vis legitimacy, we demonstrate the contrasting stances of doctors in situ when giving sick notes for biomedical problems as
Saw, Pui San; Nissen, Lisa M; Freeman, Christopher; Wong, Pei Se; Mak, Vivienne
Background Pharmacists are considered medication experts but are underutilized and exist mainly at the periphery of the Malaysian primary health care team. Private general practitioners (GPs) in Malaysia are granted rights under the Poison Act 1952 to prescribe and dispense medications at their primary care clinics. As most consumers obtain their medications from their GPs, community pharmacists’ involvement in ensuring safe use of medicines is limited. The integration of a pharmacist into private GP clinics has the potential to contribute to quality use of medicines. This study aims to explore health care consumers’ views on the integration of pharmacists within private GP clinics in Malaysia. Methods A purposive sample of health care consumers in Selangor and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, were invited to participate in focus groups and semi-structured interviews. Sessions were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim and thematically analyzed using NVivo 10. Results A total of 24 health care consumers participated in two focus groups and six semi-structured interviews. Four major themes were identified: 1) pharmacists’ role viewed mainly as supplying medications, 2) readiness to accept pharmacists in private GP clinics, 3) willingness to pay for pharmacy services, and 4) concerns about GPs’ resistance to pharmacist integration. Consumers felt that a pharmacist integrated into a private GP clinic could offer potential benefits such as to provide trustworthy information on the use and potential side effects of medications and screening for medication misadventure. The potential increase in costs passed on to consumers and GPs’ reluctance were perceived as barriers to integration. Conclusion This study provides insights into consumers’ perspectives on the roles of pharmacists within private GP clinics in Malaysia. Consumers generally supported pharmacist integration into private primary health care clinics. However, for pharmacists to expand their capacity in
Ramsey, Imogen J; Tran, Ly Thi; Tsourtos, George; Baratiny, Genevieve; Manocha, Ramesh; Olver, Ian N
Objective This study aimed to investigate factors that inhibit and facilitate discussion about alcohol between general practitioners (GPs) and patients. Design Data analysis from a cross-sectional survey. Setting and participants 894 GP delegates of a national health seminar series held in five capital cities of Australia in 2014. Main outcome measures Likelihood of routine alcohol enquiry; self-assessed confidence in assessing and managing alcohol issues in primary healthcare. Results Most GPs (87%) reported that they were likely to routinely ask patients about their alcohol consumption and had sufficient skills to manage alcohol issues (74%). Potential barriers to enquiring about alcohol included perceptions that patients are not always honest about alcohol intake (84%) and communication difficulties (44%). ‘I usually ask about alcohol’ was ranked by 36% as the number one presentation likely to prompt alcohol discussion. Altered liver function test results followed by suspected clinical depression were most frequently ranked in the top three presentations. Suspicious or frequent injuries, frequent requests for sickness certificates and long-term unemployment were ranked in the top three presentations by 20% or less. Confidence in managing alcohol issues independently predicted likelihood to ‘routinely ask’ about alcohol consumption. Lack of time emerged as the single most important barrier to routinely asking about alcohol. Lack of time was predicted by perceptions of competing health issues in patients, fear of eliciting negative responses and lower confidence in ability to manage alcohol-related issues. Conclusions Improving GPs' confidence and ability to identify, assess and manage at-risk drinking through relevant education may facilitate greater uptake of alcohol-related enquiries in general practice settings. Routine establishment of brief alcohol assessments might improve confidence in managing alcohol issues, reduce the time burden in risk
Govender, Indiran; Hugo, Jannie
Abstract Background Sexual problems are common. Many patients with sexual health dysfunction use self-help literature or are often managed in general practice. However, many general practitioners (GPs) find it difficult to discuss sexual health issues because they feel uncomfortable with this and lack training in these matters. These GPs are now referring patients with sexual dysfunction to specialists. Aim We sought to explore how GPs working in the Mabopane and Ga-Rankuwa areas of handle sexual problems of their patients. Setting The setting was the Mabopane and Ga-Rankuwa areas of North-West Tshwane, in Gauteng Province. Methods A qualitative study comprising eight free attitude interviews with purposefully selected four male and four female GPs. All interviews were conducted in English and tape-recorded. Field notes in the form of a detailed diary was kept. The tapes were transcribed verbatim, and the transcriptions were checked against the tapes for omissions and inaccuracies. Results Six themes emerged from the interviews: causes of sexual problems; presentation of sexual problems to the doctor; management of sexual health problems; sex is a taboo topic; society's need for sexual health discussions, and these discussions have already begun; previous limited exposure and training, and a need for more sexual health training. Conclusion This study confirms earlier findings that patients could be either reluctant to discuss their problems or are open about them when presenting to doctors with sexual dysfunction. GPs were not exposed to sexual health training at medical school and, because of this shortcoming, felt that training in sexual medicine should be part of the curriculum. PMID:26842520
Lock, C A; Kaner, E F
Health research findings are of little benefit to patients or society if they do not reach the audience they are intended to influence. Thus, a dissemination strategy is needed to target new findings at its user group and encourage a process of consideration and adoption or rejection. Social marketing techniques can be utilized to aid successful dissemination of research findings and to speed the process by which new information reaches practice. Principles of social marketing include manipulating the marketing mix of product, price, place and promotion. This paper describes the development of a marketing approach and the outcomes from a trial evaluating the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of manipulating promotional strategies to disseminate actively a screening and brief alcohol intervention (SBI) programme to general practitioners (GPs). The promotional strategies consisted of postal marketing, telemarketing and personal marketing. The study took place in general practices across the Northern and Yorkshire Regional Health Authority. Of the 614 GPs eligible for the study, one per practice, 321 (52%) took the programme and of those available to use it for 3 months (315), 128 (41%) actively considered doing so, 73 (23%) actually went on to use it. Analysis of the specific impact of the three different promotional strategies revealed that while personal marketing was the most effective overall dissemination and implementation strategy, telemarketing was more cost-effective. The findings of our work show that using a marketing approach is promising for conveying research findings to GPs and in particular a focus on promotional strategies can facilitate high levels of uptake and consideration in this target group.
Dybdahl, Torben; Andersen, Morten; Kragstrup, Jakob; Kristiansen, Ivar Sønbø; Søndergaard, Jens
Aim To test the hypothesis that general practitioners (GPs) with high prescribing levels of certain drugs will adopt new drugs belonging to the same therapeutic group faster than those with low prescribing levels. Methods The adoption of four new drugs: esomeprazol, selective cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors, new triptans, and angiotensin-II receptor blockers were analysed using population-based prescription data. We used the preference proportion (prescriptions for new rather than older alternatives for the same indication) to measure GPs' adoption rate. Annual prescribing volume and prevalence were used to measure previous prescribing of older drug alternatives. We modelled the preference proportion using multiple linear regression analysis and the prescribing of older drugs as independent variables. We controlled for the GPs' general prescribing level and weighted for practice size. In the first three analyses, we dichotomized data using the median, lower and upper quartile as cut-off point. Next, we grouped data into quartiles and finally, we used continuous data. Results For esomeprazol and new triptans there was a higher preference for new drugs among ‘high prescribers’, but only when this term was defined as the upper quarter and the upper half of previous prescribing levels, respectively (mean difference in preference proportion: 10.2% (99% confidence interval = 1.3%, 19.1%) and 8.2% (0.2%, 16.2%)). For the remaining two drug classes the associations were weak and almost all statistically nonsignificant. Conclusion There is no consistent association between GPs' level of drug prescribing and their adoption of new drugs of the same therapeutic group. PMID:16236043
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[The general practitioner faced with memory problems in the aged patient in Luxembourg: a study of the management employed, the experience of the physicians and the perception of the specific treatment].
Gondoin, C; Lévy, F; Tirmarche, D
Memory impairments are common in elderly. General practitioners are in first line to detect and manage these troubles, for which many countries published recommendations. For Alzheimer disease there are currently four treatments, none of which is healing. Some countries limited the first prescription of those medicines to specialists whereas in Luxembourg, every practitioner is allowed to prescribe them, but has to ask health insurance first. Consequently, it is important that general practitioners know what to do. The aim of our paper is to study the management done by the general practitioners in Luxembourg, the way they feel about it and the way they see the specific medicines for Alzheimer disease. Therefore, we have sent a questionnaire to every general practitioner in Luxembourg. We found that 87% of the practitioners realize at least one cognitive impairment test. More than half of them check for depression and 22.6% also add an autonomy assessment scale, even though all these tests are done by the dependence insurance. The involvement of general practitioners in the diagnosis of dementia is important as more than half of them have a statistically adequate number of demented patients. About two third of the practitioners do systematically start a specific medicine for Alzheimer disease. The management of cognitive impairment is difficult for general practitioners of Luxembourg, particularly the disclosure of diagnosis and management of behavioural and psychological symptoms.
West, R J; Penfold, N
BACKGROUND: The early defibrillation of patients having a cardiac arrest and who are in ventricular fibrillation has been shown to increase survival and is recommended by the European Resuscitation Council (ERC) and the American Heart Association. General practitioners (GPs) may expect to encounter a cardiac arrest in 5% of patients they attend who have a suspected acute myocardial infarction. AIM: To establish whether GPs on call were equipped to treat a patient in ventricular fibrillation, and to investigate their knowledge of the early stages of the current ERC guidelines for this cardiac rhythm. METHOD: A postal questionnaire was sent to all the 175 GPs who regularly admit patients to the West Suffolk Hospital. It asked for details of equipment and drugs carried when on call, recognition of a cardiac rhythm strip of ventricular fibrillation, and treatment to be given for this rhythm. RESULTS: A total of 105 replies were returned (representing a 60% response rate). The distribution of practice size and location reflected primary health care in this area. Fourteen GPs (13%) had attended an advanced cardiac life-support course at some time, and 44 (41.9%) had read the current ERC guidelines. The majority of GPs (60%) carried advanced airway management equipment to allow endotracheal intubation, but only 37 (35%) would have been able to administer additional oxygen. Again, most (82%) would have been able to establish intravenous access, but only 39% carried 2 mg or more of adrenaline, the only recommended drug in the initial stages of resuscitation from ventricular fibrillation. A defibrillator was carried by 37 GPs (35%) when on call, but out of these only 14 had an integral monitor screen and 3 were semi-automatic defibrillators. Ninety-five GPs (91%) successfully identified ventricular fibrillation, but only 32 (31%) were able to state correctly the initial recommended treatment, and only 17 (16%) were able to quote the first two stages of the ERC guidelines of
Background Changing clinicians' behaviour is recognised as a major challenge. It is clear that behaviour change not only depends on demonstrating the proven effectiveness of clinical interventions; contextual and occupational factors, such as 'change readiness', may be central to their implementation. This paper highlights the context of behaviour change in relation to a healthcare innovation introduced within primary care, highlighting the importance of organisational and interpersonal factors that may help explain the dynamics of implementation. Methods Qualitative interviews were conducted with general practitioners (GPs) before (n = 32) and after (n = 9) the introduction of a subgrouping for targeted treatment system. GPs were offered an electronic six-item subgrouping tool, to identify patients according to their risk of poor outcome ('high', 'low') in order to help inform their decision making about treatment approaches. Recruitment was based on a 'maximum diversification sample', to obtain a wide representation of views across all five practices. A coding scheme was developed based on the emergent findings, and the data were analysed using 'constant comparison', drawing upon insights and developing connections between themes. We adopted the normalisation process theory (NPT) to explain the uptake of the new system and to examine the relevance of coherence for the implementation of innovations in organisations. Results GPs perceived back pain as a low clinical priority, and highlighted the importance of 'practical' and 'relational' coherence in decisions to adopt and engage with the new subgrouping for targeted treatment system. Health professionals often engage in 'sense making' about new innovations to 'road test' their applicability or relevance to daily clinical routines. Low back pain was generally perceived as an 'uninteresting' and clinically unchallenging health problem by GPs, which may partly explain their lack of engagement with the new subgrouping
Fullen, Brona M; Maher, Thomas; Bury, Gerard; Tynan, Aodan; Daly, Leslie E; Hurley, Deirdre A
There are no national low back pain (LBP) clinical guidelines in Ireland, and neither the level of adherence of General Practitioners (GPs) to the European guidelines, nor the cost of LBP to the patient and the state, have been investigated. A prospective pilot study was conducted on 54 consenting patients (18M, 36F: mean age (SD): 40.5 (14.3) years) with a new episode of acute LBP (<3 months) attending one of nine participating GPs. Baseline demographic, LBP classification [i.e. simple back ache (SBA), nerve root pain (NRP), serious spinal pathology (SSP)] and primary care management data were recorded over a three month period. Adherence and costs were estimated based on: medication prescription, referral for investigations, treatment or consultations, and wage replacement costs (time signed off work). For both SBA and NRP, medication prescriptions were consistent with European guideline recommendations, but not for referral for further treatment (39% of SBA patients were referred on first visit), secondary care (54% of NRP patients were referred on first visit), or discontinuation of work (50% NRP patients on first GP visit). The average total cost (direct and wage replacement) for a single episode of LBP over 12 weeks was 20,531 Euros (20,300-20,762). Direct costs accounted for 43% [8874.36 Euros, (8643.37-9105.37 Euros)] and wage replacement costs 57% (11,657 Euros). In conclusion, management of acute LBP in a cohort of GPs in Ireland was not consistent with European clinical guideline recommendations, and warrants higher levels of postgraduate education among GPs, as well as restructuring of primary care services, which should improve patient outcome and reduce costs.
Background In order to address the challenges of an ageing population the Belgian government decided to allocate resources to the creation of geriatric day hospitals (GDHs). Although GDHs are meant to be a strategy to support general practitioners (GPs) caring for the frail elderly, few Belgian GPs seem to refer to a GDH. This study aims to explore the barriers and facilitating factors of GPs' referral to GDHs. Methods A qualitative study using focus group discussions (FGDs) was conducted. Fifteen FGDs were organized in the different Belgian regions (Flanders, Wallonia, Brussels). Results Contextual factors such as the unsatisfactory cooperation between hospital and GPs and organizational barriers such as the lack of communication on referral procedures between hospital and primary health care (PHC) were identified. Lack of basic knowledge about the concept or the local organization of GDH seemed to be a problem. Unclear task descriptions, responsibilities and activities of a GDH formed prominent points of discussion in all FGDs. Nevertheless a lot of possible advantages and disadvantages of GDHs for the patient and for the GP were mentioned. Conclusions In the case of poor referral to GDHs, focusing on improving overall collaboration between primary and secondary health care is essential. This can be achieved by actively delivering adequate information, permanent communication and more involvement of PHC in the organization and functioning of GDHs. The absence of a transparent health care system with delineated role definitions, seems to hinder the integration of new initiatives like GDHs in the care process. Strategies to enhance referral to GDHs should use a comprehensive approach. PMID:20619001
Lock, C A; Kaner, E F; Heather, N; McAvoy, B R; Gilvarry, E
BACKGROUND: Research findings are of little benefit to patients or society if they do not reach the audience they are intended to influence. A dissemination strategy is needed to target new findings at its user group and encourage a process of consideration and adoption or rejection. AIM: To evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of different marketing strategies for the dissemination of a screening and brief alcohol intervention (SBI) programme to general practitioners (GPs). METHOD: Seven hundred and twenty-nine GPs, one per practice, from the former Northern and Yorkshire Regional Health Authority were randomly assigned to one of three marketing strategies: postal marketing (mailing a promotional brochure to GPs), telemarketing (following a script to market the programme over the telephone), and personal marketing (following the same script during face-to-face marketing at GPs' practices). GPs who took up the programme were asked if they would agree to use it. Outcome measures included the proportions of GPs who took up the programme and agreement to use it. RESULTS: Of the 614 GPs eligible for the study, 321 (52%) took the programme. There was a significant difference in the proportions of GPs from the three marketing strategies who took the programme (82% telemarketing, 68% personal marketing, and 22% postal marketing). Of the 315 GPs who took the programme and were eligible to use it, 128 (41%) agreed to use the programme for three months. GPs in the postal marketing group were more likely to agree to use the programme (55% postal marketing, 44% personal marketing, and 34% telemarketing). Personal marketing was the most effective overall dissemination strategy; however, economic analysis revealed that telemarketing was the most cost-effective strategy. Costs for dissemination per GP were: 13 Pounds telemarketing, 15 Pounds postal marketing, and 88 Pounds personal marketing. CONCLUSION: Telemarketing appeared to be the most cost-effective strategy
Kaner, E F; Lock, C A; McAvoy, B R; Heather, N; Gilvarry, E
BACKGROUND: Providing doctors with new research findings or clinical guidelines is rarely sufficient to promote changes in clinical practice. An implementation strategy is required to provide clinicians with the skills and encouragement needed to alter established routines. AIM: To evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of different training and support strategies in promoting implementation of screening and brief alcohol intervention (SBI) by general practitioners (GPs). METHOD: Subjects were 128 GPs, one per practice, from the former Northern and Yorkshire Regional Health Authority, who agreed to use the 'Drink-Less' SBI programme in an earlier dissemination trial. GPs were stratified by previous marketing conditions and randomly allocated to three intensities of training and support: controls (n = 43) received the programme with written guidelines only, trained GPs (n = 43) received the programme plus practice-based training in programme usage, trained and supported GPs (n = 42) received the programme plus practice-based training and a support telephone call every two weeks. GPs were requested to use the programme for three months. Outcome measures included proportions of GPs implementing the programme and numbers of patients screened and intervened with. RESULTS: Seventy-three (57%) GPs implemented the programme and screened 11,007 patients for risk drinking. Trained and supported GPs were significantly more likely to implement the programme (71%) than controls (44%) or trained GPs (56%); they also screened, and intervened with, significantly more patients. Costs per patient screened were: trained and supported GPs, 1.05 Pounds; trained GPs, 1.08 Pounds; and controls, 1.47 Pounds. Costs per patient intervened with were: trained and supported GPs, 5.43 Pounds; trained GPs, 6.02 Pounds; and controls, 8.19 Pounds. CONCLUSION: Practice-based training plus support telephone calls was the most effective and cost-effective strategy to encourage
Svendby, Heidi R; Løland, Beate F; Omtvedt, Marianne; Holmsen, Solveig T; Lagerløv, Per
Background Breastfeeding is considered the best infant-feeding method. Norway is one of the leading countries in terms of breastfeeding initiation and duration. To maintain this high breastfeeding rate, it is important to understand the factors that influence breastfeeding. A doctor s advice can improve the rates of breastfeeding initiation and duration, but not all doctors are competent in breastfeeding counselling. Objectives The aim of this study was to identify the knowledge and beliefs of general practitioners (GPs) about breastfeeding in Norway and to investigate how important they considered guidance about breastfeeding initiation and duration before and after birth. Design A questionnaire study about knowledge and beliefs according to predefined correct responses and about self-perceived competence as an advisor. Subjects 122 GPs engaged in apprenticeship for medical students. Results The response rate was 57%, 69 GPs participated. The questions were answered correctly according to national consensus for 49 % for the knowledge items and 64 % of the belief items. The GPs believed that their guidance was more important after than before birth. Female GPs had more confidence in their guidance ability than male GPs. Confidence in the GPs own guidance after birth was associated with knowledge about contraindications to breastfeeding. Conclusion Although the GPs expressed beliefs favouring breastfeeding they partly lacked basic knowledge. The GPs confidence in own guidance was better after than before birth and was higher among those with more knowledge. Improved knowledge and emphasis on guidance before birth should be promoted among GPs. Key pointsBreastfeeding is the best infant-feeding method. Doctors’ advice improves the rates of breastfeeding, but not all doctors have sufficient knowledge. This study mapped the knowledge and beliefs among Norwegian GPs. The study revealed that:GPs partly lacked basic knowledge to effectively promote breastfeeding.GPs had
Le Breton, Julien; Ferrat, Émilie; Attali, Claude; Bercier, Sandrine; Le Corvoisier, Philippe; Brixi, Zahida; Veerabudun, Kalaivani; Renard, Vincent; Bastuji-Garin, Sylvie
Reminders have been used in various settings, but failed to produce convincing evidence of benefits on patient adherence to colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of sending general practitioners (GPs) printed reminders about CRC screening. We conducted a cluster-randomized controlled trial involving 144 GPs in the Val-de-Marne district (France), who provided care for any reason to 20 778 patients eligible for CRC screening between June 2010 and November 2011. Data were collected from the main statutory health-insurance programme and local cancer screening agency. GPs were randomly assigned in a 1 : 1 proportion to the intervention or the control group. Every 4 months, intervention-group GPs received a computer-generated printed list of patients who had not performed scheduled faecal occult blood test (FOBT) screening. The primary outcome was patient adherence to FOBT screening or exclusion from CRC screening for medical reasons. The screening adherence rate was 31.2% [95% confidence interval (CI) 30.3-32.1] in the control group and 32.9% (95% CI 32.0-33.8) in the intervention group [crude relative risk, 1.05 (95% CI 1.01-1.09), P<0.01]. This rate was not significantly different between groups by multilevel modelling accounting for clustering and confounding variables [adjusted relative risk, 1.07 (95% CI 0.95-1.20), P=0.27]. Computer-generated printed reminders sent to GPs did not significantly improve patient adherence to organized CRC screening by the FOBT.
Laue, Johanna; Melbye, Hasse; Halvorsen, Peder A; Andreeva, Elena A; Godycki-Cwirko, Maciek; Wollny, Anja; Francis, Nick A; Spigt, Mark; Kung, Kenny; Risør, Mette Bech
Purpose To explore the decision-making of general practitioners (GPs) concerning treatment with antibiotics and/or oral corticosteroids and hospitalization for COPD patients with exacerbations. Methods Thematic analysis of seven focus groups with 53 GPs from urban and rural areas in Norway, Germany, Wales, Poland, Russia, the Netherlands, and Hong Kong. Results Four main themes were identified. 1) Dealing with medical uncertainty: the GPs aimed to make clear medical decisions and avoid unnecessary prescriptions and hospitalizations, yet this was challenged by uncertainty regarding the severity of the exacerbations and concerns about overlooking comorbidities. 2) Knowing the patient: contextual knowledge about the individual patient provided a supplementary framework to biomedical knowledge, allowing for more differentiated decision-making. 3) Balancing the patients’ perspective: the GPs considered patients’ experiential knowledge about their own body and illness as valuable in assisting their decision-making, yet felt that dealing with disagreements between their own and their patients’ perceptions concerning the need for treatment or hospitalization could be difficult. 4) Outpatient support and collaboration: both formal and informal caregivers and organizational aspects of the health systems influenced the decision-making, particularly in terms of mitigating potentially severe consequences of “wrong decisions” and concerning the negotiation of responsibilities. Conclusion Fear of overlooking severe comorbidity and of further deteriorating symptoms emerged as a main driver of GPs’ management decisions. GPs consider a holistic understanding of illness and the patients’ own judgment crucial to making reasonable decisions under medical uncertainty. Moreover, GPs’ decisions depend on the availability and reliability of other formal and informal carers, and the health care systems’ organizational and cultural code of conduct. Strengthening the
Pezzotti, Patrizio; Scalmana, Silvia; Mastromattei, Antonio; Di Lallo, Domenico
Background The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) has contributed to detecting cognitive impairment, yet few studies have evaluated its accuracy when used by general practitioners (GP) in an actual public-health setting. Objectives We evaluated the accuracy of MMSE scores obtained by GPs by comparing them to scores obtained by Alzheimer's Evaluation Units (UVA). Methods The study was observational in design and involved 59 voluntary GPs who, after having undergone training, administered the MMSE to patients with symptoms of cognitive disturbances. Individuals who scored ≤ 24 (adjusted by age and educational level) were referred to Alzheimer's Evaluation Units (UVA) for diagnosis (including the MMSE). UVAs were unblinded to the MMSE score of the GP. To measure interrater agreement, the weighted Kappa statistic was calculated. To evaluate factors associated with the magnitude of the difference between paired scores, a linear regression model was applied. To quantify the accuracy in discriminating no cognitive impairment from any cognitive impairment and from Alzheimer's disease (AD), the ROC curves (AUC) were calculated. Results For the 317 patients, the mean score obtained by GPs was significantly lower (15.8 vs. 17.4 for the UVAs; p < 0.01). However, overall concordance was good (Kappa = 0.86). Only the diagnosis made by the UVA was associated with the difference between paired scores: the adjusted mean difference was 3.1 for no cognitive impairment and 3.8 for mild cognitive impairment. The AUC of the scores for GPs was 0.80 (95%CI: 0.75–0.86) for discriminating between no impairment and any impairment and 0.89 (95%CI: 0.84–0.94) for distinguishing patients with AD, though the UVA scores discriminated better. Conclusion In a public-health setting involving patients with symptoms of cognitive disturbances, the MMSE used by the GPs was sufficiently accurate to detect patients with cognitive impairment, particularly those with dementia. PMID:18477390
Abstract Background Prescribed Minimum Benefits is a list of conditions that all medical schemes need to cover in full, and includes a select of chronic conditions. Chronic conditions affect people's lifestyles and require ongoing management over a period of years for long-term survival. Objectives This study examined the association between prevalence of selected chronic diseases and health service use, in particular visits to general practitioners (GPs) by medical scheme members. Method This was a retrospective study on medical schemes data. The median imputation method was employed to deal with missing and unreported chronic diseases prevalence. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was employed to assess effects of chronic disease prevalence, age stratum and scheme size on GP visits per annum. Results The study showed that prevalence of asthma was significantly associated with more than three GP visits (OR = 1.081; 95% CI = 1.008–1.159), as was prevalence of type 2 diabetes (OR = 1.087; 95% CI = 1.027–1.152), whilst prevalence of hyperlipidaemia (OR = 0.92; 95% CI = 0.875–0.97) was more likely to be associated with less than three GP visits. Prevalence of hypertension was associated with more than three GP visits per year (OR = 1.132; 95% CI = 1.017–1.26). Conclusion This study shows that scheme size, prevalence of chronic diseases such as asthma, type 2 diabetes, hyperlipidaemia and hypertension are related to GP visits. GPs and managed care programmes employed by schemes should give special attention to certain disease states with high prevalence rates in an effort to better manage them.
Rice, J A; Lynch, C D; McAndrew, R; Milward, P J
The aim of this project was to examine tooth preparations made by general dental practitioners (GDPs) for occlusal and cingulum rest seats for cobalt-chromium removable partial dentures (RPDs). Master casts and prescribed denture designs for cobalt-chromium RPDs produced by a commercial dental laboratory from impressions made by 45 GDPs across Wales were evaluated over a period of 5 months. Rest seats and associated interocclusal clearances were assessed using pre-determined criteria. A total of 68 casts were examined. Of these, 33 did not have rest seats included in their prescription. Of the remaining 35 casts, 81 rests had been prescribed of which only 24 (30%) had signs of tooth preparations for these rest seats. Using pre-determined criteria, 60% of rest seats were under-prepared in the mesio-distal plane and 30% were over-prepared in the bucco-lingual plane. In 17 cases where natural teeth opposed the rest seat, the mean interocclusal clearance was 1·5 mm (range 0·6-3·5 mm) with 6 of the 17 rests (35%) being less than the recommended thickness. In total, 18 of the 24 rests prepared did not meet the criteria, and 11 of the 21 rests prescribed had no obvious preparation and insufficient occlusal clearance. Where prescribed, the majority of rests did not meet the identified criteria. The rest seat preparations varied greatly in all planes including the interocclusal clearance. Further emphasis should be given to aspects of denture design in undergraduate and continuing education programmes for dentists.
Wildeman, Maarten A.; Fles, Renske; Adham, Marlinda; Mayangsari, Ika D.; Luirink, Ilse; Sandberg, Mara; Vincent, Andrew D.; Fardizza, Faiziah; Musa, Zanil; Armiyanto; Middeldorp, Jaap M.; Gerritsen, Geerten; Suwanto, Ronny; Tan, I. Bing
In Indonesia, Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma (NPC) is the most frequent cancer of the head and neck region. At first presentation in the hospital most patients already have advanced NPC. Our previous study showed that general practitioners (GPs) working in Yogyakarta, Indonesia lack the knowledge necessary for early detection of NPC. By providing training on early symptoms of NPC we hope that the diagnosis and referral will occur at an earlier stage. Here we assess the current NPC knowledge levels of GPs in Jakarta, evaluate improvement after training, compare the effectiveness of two training formats, and estimate the loss of recall over a two week period. Methods Two Indonesian GPs visited 31 Primary Health Care Centres (PHCCs) and provided a lecture on NPC. The alternative format consisted of a symposium at the Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, presented by local head and neck surgeons, with all GPs in the region being invited. To evaluate the effect of both formats a questionnaire was conducted before and after. Results The lecture in the PHCCs was attended by 130 GPs. Sixty-six GPs attended the training in the university hospital and 40 GPs attended both. Pre training the NPC knowledge level was poor with an average of 1.6 symptoms being correctly identified out of a potential maximum of 12, this was increased to 4.9 post training (p<0.0001). GPs attending the PHCC course recorded a greater increase in correct symptoms than those attending the symposium (3.8 vs. 2.8; p = 0.01). After a two week period the knowledge levels had declined slightly from 5.5 correctly identified symptoms to 4.2 (p = 0.25). Conclusion These results confirm our findings regarding GPs insufficient knowledge of NPC. Lectures in the PHCC and a symposium have both been proven to be effective training tools in the education of GPs. PMID:22431981
Simonis, M; Manocha, R; Ong, J J
Objective To explore general practitioner's (GP) knowledge, attitudes and practice regarding female genital cosmetic surgery (FGCS) in Australia. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting Australia. Sample GPs who attended a women's health seminar and GPs who subscribed to a non-governmental, national health professional organisation database that provides education to primary care professionals. Method A national online survey of GPs was conducted for the 10-week period, starting 1 week prior and 2 months after a Women's Health seminar was held in Perth on 8 August 2015. 31 questions prompted GPs' knowledge, attitudes and practice in managing patients asking about FGCS. Results The survey was fully completed by 443 GPs; 54% had seen patients requesting FGCS. Overall, 75% (95% CI 71% to 79%) of GPs rated their knowledge of FGCS as inadequate and 97% (95% CI 94% to 99%) had been asked by women of all ages about genital normality. Of those who had seen patients requesting FGCS, nearly half (44%, 95% CI 38% to 51%) reported they had insufficient knowledge of risks of FGCS procedures and 35% (95% CI 29% to 41%) reported seeing females younger than 18 years of age requesting FGCS. Just over half (56%, 95% CI 51% to 60%) of the GPs felt that women should be counselled before making a referral for FGCS. More than half the GPs suspected psychological disturbances in their patients requesting FGCS such as depression, anxiety, relationship difficulties and body dysmorphic disorder. Conclusions GPs see women of all ages presenting with genital anatomy concerns and in those who request FGCS, GPs often suspected a range of mental health difficulties. GPs require greater education to support their patients who request FGCS. PMID:27678547
Brothers, Timothy S.
Uses the U.S. General Land Office Survey as a source of data for reconstruction of local presettlement vegetation patterns in the United States. Data serve as a basis for an introductory biogeography course at Indiana University, Indianapolis. Includes field exercises, questions, and tables of frequency of witness-trees records. (NL)
Conn, Stephanie M.; Butterfield, Lee D.
This study used the Critical Incident Technique to examine the factors that helped, hindered, or might have helped 10 general duty police officers to cope with secondary traumatic stress. The data were best represented by 14 categories: self-care, family/significant other support, talking with co-workers, emotional engagement, work environment,…
This is a history of the General Register Office of England and Wales, presented on the occasion of its 150th anniversary. In addition to describing the development of the civil registration system of births, deaths, and marriages, the author considers the relationship between vital statistics and other sources of data, including censuses and surveys.
... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Notification to CIA Office of General Counsel. 1904.4 Section 1904.4 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PROCEDURES GOVERNING ACCEPTANCE OF SERVICE OF PROCESS § 1904.4 Notification to CIA...
... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Notification to CIA Office of General Counsel. 1904.4 Section 1904.4 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PROCEDURES GOVERNING ACCEPTANCE OF SERVICE OF PROCESS § 1904.4 Notification to CIA...
... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Notification to CIA Office of General Counsel. 1904.4 Section 1904.4 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PROCEDURES GOVERNING ACCEPTANCE OF SERVICE OF PROCESS § 1904.4 Notification to CIA...
... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Notification to CIA Office of General Counsel. 1904.4 Section 1904.4 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PROCEDURES GOVERNING ACCEPTANCE OF SERVICE OF PROCESS § 1904.4 Notification to CIA...
...) Criminal Law Enforcement—(1) Exemption. Under the authority granted by 5 U.S.C. 552a(j)(2), Ex-Im Bank... enforcement of criminal laws. “EIB-35—Office of Inspector General Investigative Records” is maintained by the... prevent detection of criminal activities, conceal evidence, or escape prosecution. (ii) Application of 5...
Krijgsman, Johan W; Brabers, Anne E; Jong, Judith D De; Friele, Roland D
Background Policy makers promote the use of eHealth to widen access to health care services and to improve the quality and safety of care. Nevertheless, the enthusiasm among policy makers for eHealth does not match its uptake and use. eHealth is defined in this study as “health services delivered or enhanced through the Internet and related information and communication technologies.” Objective The objective of this study was to investigate (1) the current use of eHealth in the Netherlands by general practitioners (GPs) and health care users, (2) the future plans of GPs to provide eHealth and the willingness of health care users to use eHealth services, and (3) the perceived positive effects and barriers from the perspective of GPs and health care users. Methods A cross-sectional survey of a sample of Dutch GPs and members of the Dutch Health Care Consumer Panel was conducted in April 2014. A pre-structured questionnaire was completed by 171 GPs (12% response) and by 754 health care users (50% response). In addition, two focus groups were conducted in June 2014: one group with GPs (8 participants) and one with health care users (10 participants). Results Three-quarters of Dutch GPs that responded to the questionnaire (67.3%, 115/171) offered patients the possibility of requesting a prescription via the Internet, and half of them offered patients the possibility of asking a question via the Internet (49.1%, 84/171). In general, they did intend to provide future eHealth services. Nonetheless, many of the GPs perceived barriers, especially concerning its innovation (eg, insufficient reliable, secure systems) and the sociopolitical context (eg, lack of financial compensation for the time spent on implementation). By contrast, health care users were generally not aware of existing eHealth services offered by their GPs. Nevertheless, half of them were willing to use eHealth services when offered by their GP. In general, health care users have positive attitudes
Murtagh, Madeleine J; Hepworth, Julie
Over the past two decades medical researchers and modernist feminist researchers have contested the meaning of menopause. In this article we examine various meanings of menopause in major medical and feminist literature and the construction of menopause in a semi-structured interview study of general practitioners in rural South Australia. Three discursive themes are identified in these interviews; (i) .the hormonal menopause - symptoms, risk, prevention; (ii). the informed menopausal woman; and (iii). decision-making and hormone replacement therapy. By using the discourse of prevention, general practitioners construct menopause in relation to women's health care choices, empowerment and autonomy. We argue that the ways in which these concepts are deployed by general practitioners in this study produces and constrains the options available to women. The implications of these general practitioner accounts are discussed in relation to the proposition that medical and feminist descriptions of menopause posit alternative but equally-fixed truths about menopause and their relationship with the range of responses available to women at menopause. Social and cultural explanations of disease causality (c.f. Germov 1998, Hardey 1998) are absent from the new menopause despite their being an integral part of the framework of the women's health movement and health promotion drawn on by these general practitioners. Further, the shift of responsibility for health to the individual woman reinforces practice claims to empower women, but oversimplifies power relations and constructs menopause as a site of self-surveillance. The use of concepts from the women's health movement and health promotion have nevertheless created change in both the positioning of women as having 'choices' and the positioning of some general practitioners in terms of greater information provision to women and an attention to the woman's autonomy. In conclusion, we propose that a new menopause has evolved
Alvarez, Irma J.
The Office Information Systems-International Program at Southwestern College, in California, was designed to provide Hispanic students with training for entry-level office employment. This model program guide stems from a project to improve curricula and delivery and focuses on changes in three intensive bilingual programs in general, medical, and…
... is a big part of the pediatric NP's role. Pediatric and family practice NPs can treat acute ( ... Nurse Practitioners (NAPNAP) and through local hospitals or nursing schools. Also, many doctors share office space with ...
Labrie, Nanon H M; Schulz, Peter J
In recent years, general practice consultation has often been characterized as an argumentative activity. It has been argued that, guided by the ethical and legal principle of informed consent and the ideal standards of participatory and evidence-based medicine, doctors should provide argumentative support for their recommendations in order to encourage patients to actively take part in the treatment decision-making discussion. Thus far, however, it has remained unclear what causal effect general practitioners' provision of argumentation may have on consultation outcomes, such as patients' perceptions of their doctors' decision-making style and credibility, their acceptance and recall of the medical advice, and subsequently their intention to adhere to the advice. In this study, therefore, the effect of general practitioners' argumentative support for their treatment recommendations is studied experimentally using scripted video-vignettes. Moreover, rather than focusing merely on the presence of argumentation, the role of the pragma-dialectical reasonableness of general practitioners' argumentation is also taken into account.
The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Albuquerque Operations Office (Albuquerque) owns seven aircraft that support defense programs, research and development efforts, emergency response programs, and official travel of Government and contractor employees. An Office of Inspector General (OIG) report, issued in 1994, identified concerns with Albuquerque`s cost for air service. Since that report, there have been reductions in cost and personnel indicating changes in air service requirements. This audit was conducted to determine (1) whether costs to operate Albuquerque`s aircraft were excessive and (2) if individual aircraft in the fleet were justified.
The Office of Inspector General's audit, investigation, and inspection activities are directed toward helping the Department improve its operations and to detect and prevent fraud, waste, and mismanagement. During this reporting period, we issued 196 audit reports. As a result of reviews of cost proposals and contract billings, we determined that $66.4 million in costs were either unallowable or unsupported. Investigations of wrongdoing led to 12 referrals for prosecution, 5 convictions, 3 indictments, and 7 disciplinary actions. Other initiatives by this Office have produced recommendations to improve the Department's operations to recover funds and to more efficiently use funds. These recommendations amounted to about $158 million.
Zahabiyoun, Sana; Sahabi, Mahasti; Kharazi, Mohammad Javad
Objectives: Cases of antimicrobial resistance are increasing, partly due to inappropriate prescribing practices by dentists. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prescribing practices and knowledge of dentists with regards to antibiotics. Moreover, this study aimed to determine whether the prescriptions comply with the recommended guidelines and whether clinical audit can alter the prescribing practices of dentists leading to better use of antibiotics in the dental service. Materials and Methods: A clinical audit (before/after non-controlled trial) was carried out in two dental clinics in the northeast of England. Retrospective data were collected from 30 antibiotic prescriptions, analysed and compared with the recommended guidelines. Data collected included age and gender of patients, type of prescribed antibiotics and their dosage, frequency and duration, clinical condition and reason for prescribing. The principles of appropriate prescribing based on guidance by the Faculty of General Dental Practice in the United Kingdom (UK), FGDP, were discussed with the dental clinicians. Following this, prospective data were collected and similarly managed. Pre and post audit data were then compared. Changes were tested for significance using McNemar’s test and P value<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: After intervention, data revealed that antibiotic prescribing practices of dentists improved, as there was an increase in the percentage of prescriptions that were in accordance with the FGDP (UK) guidelines. Conclusion: In view of the limited data collected, this study concludes that there are inappropriate antibiotic prescribing practices amongst general dental practitioners and that clinical audit can address this situation, leading to a more rational use of antibiotics in dental practice. PMID:26622268
Background General practitioners (GPs) have a key role in providing preventive care, particularly for elderly patients. However, various factors can inhibit or promote the implementation of preventive care. In the present study, we identified and examined factors that inhibit and promote preventive care by German GPs, particularly for elderly patients, and assessed changes in physicians' attitudes toward preventive care throughout their careers. Methods A qualitative, explorative design was used to identify inhibitors and promoters of preventive care in German general medical practice. A total of 32 GPs in Berlin and Hannover were surveyed. Questions about factors that promote or inhibit implementation of preventive care and changes in physicians' perceptions of promoting and inhibiting factors throughout their careers were identified. Episodic interviews, which encouraged the reporting of anecdotes regarding daily knowledge and experiences, were analyzed using ATLAS/ti. Socio-demographic data of GPs and structural information about their offices were collected using short questionnaires. The factors identified as inhibitory or promoting were classified as being related to patients, physicians, or the healthcare system. The changes in GP attitudes toward preventive care throughout their careers were classified as personal transitions or as social and health policy transitions. Results Most of the identified barriers to preventive care were related to patients, such as a lack of motivation for making lifestyle changes and a lack of willingness to pay for preventive interventions. In addition, the healthcare system seemed to inadequately promote preventive care, mainly due to poor reimbursement for preventive care and fragmentation of care. GPs own attitudes and health habits seemed to influence the implementation of preventive care. GPs recognized their own lack of awareness of effective preventive interventions, particularly for elderly patients. GPs were motivated
This Office of Inspector General (OIG) Semiannual Report to the Congress covers the period from October 1, 1997, through March 31, 1998. The report summarizes significant audit, inspection, and investigative accomplishments for the reporting period that facilitated Department of Energy (Department) efforts to improve management controls and ensure efficient and effective operation of its programs. This report highlights OIG accomplishments in support of its Strategic Plan. Narratives of the Office`s most significant reports are grouped by the strategic goals against which the OIG measures its performance. To put the OIG accomplishments for this reporting period in context, the following statistical information is provided: audit and inspection reports issued -- 47; recommendations that funds be put to better use -- $356,257,856; management commitment to taking corrective actions -- $289,106,445; criminal indictments/convictions -- 8; fines and recoveries -- $1,612,932; and investigative reports to management recommending positive change -- 21.
Background Although end-of-life care has become an issue of great clinical and public health concern in Europe and beyond, we lack population-based nationwide data that monitor and compare the circumstances of dying and care received in the final months of life in different countries. The European Sentinel GP Networks Monitoring End of Life Care (EURO SENTIMELC) study was designed to describe and compare the last months of life of patients dying in different European countries. We aim to describe how representative GP networks in the EURO SENTIMELC study operate to monitor end of life care in a country, to describe used methodology, research procedures, representativity and characteristics of the population reached using this methodology. Methods Nationwide representative Networks of General Practitioners (GPs) – ie epidemiological surveillance systems representative of all GPs in a country or large region of a country – in Belgium, the Netherlands, Italy and Spain continuously registered every deceased patient (>18 year) in their practice, using weekly standardized registration forms, during two consecutive years (2009–2010). All GPs were asked to identify patients who had died “non-suddenly”. The last three months of these patients’ lives was surveyed retrospectively. Several quality control measures were used to ensure data of high scientific quality. Results A total of 6858 deaths were registered of which two thirds died non-suddenly (from 62% in the Netherlands to 69% in Spain), representative for the GP populations in the participating countries. Of all non-sudden deaths, between 32% and 44% of deaths were aged 85 or older; between 46% and 54% were female, and between 23% and 49% died at home. Cancer was cause of death in 37% to 53% of non-sudden death cases in the four participating countries. Conclusion Via the EURO SENTI-MELC methodology, we can build a descriptive epidemiological database on end-of-life care provision in several EU countries
Grassineau, Dominique; Balique, Hubert; Loundou, Anderson; Sambuc, Roland; Daguzan, Alexandre; Gentile, Gaetan; Gentile, Stéphanie
Objectives To analyse the views of general practitioners (GPs) about how they can provide care to homeless people (HP) and to explore which measures could influence their views. Design Mixed-methods design (qualitative –> quantitative (cross-sectional observational) → qualitative). Qualitative data were collected through semistructured interviews and through questionnaires with closed questions. Quantitative data were analysed with descriptive statistical analyses on SPPS; a content analysis was applied on qualitative data. Setting Primary care; views of urban GPs working in a deprived area in Marseille were explored by questionnaires and/or semistructured interview. Participants 19 GPs involved in HP's healthcare were recruited for phase 1 (qualitative); for phase 2 (quantitative), 150 GPs who provide routine healthcare (‘standard’ GPs) were randomised, 144 met the inclusion criteria and 105 responded to the questionnaire; for phase 3 (qualitative), data were explored on 14 ‘standard’ GPs. Results In the quantitative phase, 79% of the 105 GPs already treated HP. Most of the difficulties they encountered while treating HP concerned social matters (mean level of perceived difficulties=3.95/5, IC 95 (3.74 to 4.17)), lack of medical information (mn=3.78/5, IC 95 (3.55 to 4.01)) patient's compliance (mn=3.67/5, IC 95 (3.45 to 3.89)), loneliness in practice (mn=3.45/5, IC 95 (3.18 to 3.72)) and time required for the doctor (mn=3.25, IC 95 (3 to 3.5)). From qualitative analysis we understood that maintaining a stable follow-up was a major condition for GPs to contribute effectively to the care of HP. Acting on health system organisation, developing a medical and psychosocial approach with closer relation with social workers and enhancing the collaboration between tailored and non-tailored programmes were also other key answers. Conclusions If we adapt the conditions of GPs practice, they could contribute to the improvement of HP's health. These results will
Dumesnil, Hélène; Cortaredona, Sébastien; Verdoux, Hélène; Sebbah, Rémy; Paraponaris, Alain; Verger, Pierre
Background In developed countries, primary care physicians manage most patients with depression. Relatively few studies allow a comprehensive assessment of the decisions these doctors make in these cases and the factors associated with these decisions. We studied how general practitioners (GPs) manage the acute phase of a new episode of non-comorbid major depression (MD) and the factors associated with their decisions. Methodology/Principal Findings In this cross-sectional telephone survey, professional investigators interviewed an existing panel of randomly selected GPs (1249/1431, response rate: 87.3%). We used case-vignettes about new MD episodes in 8 versions differing by patient gender and socioeconomic status (blue/white collar) and disease intensity (mild/severe). GPs were randomized to receive one of these 8 versions. Overall, 82.6% chose pharmacotherapy; among them GPs chose either an antidepressant (79.8%) or an anxiolytic/hypnotic alone (18.5%). They rarely recommended referral for psychotherapy alone, regardless of severity, but 38.2% chose it in combination with pharmacotherapy. Antidepressant prescription was associated with severity of depression (OR = 1.74; 95%CI = 1.33–2.27), patient gender (female, OR = 0.75; 95%CI = 0.58–0.98), GP personal characteristics (e.g. history of antidepressant treatment: OR = 2.31; 95%CI = 1.41–3.81) and GP belief that antidepressants are overprescribed in France (OR = 0.63; 95%CI = 0.48–0.82). The combination of antidepressants and psychotherapy was associated with severity of depression (OR = 1.82; 95%CI = 1.31–2.52), patient's white-collar status (OR = 1.58; 95%CI = 1.14–2.18), and GPs' dissatisfaction with cooperation with mental health specialists (OR = 0.63; 95%CI = 0.45–0.89). These choices were not associated with either GPs' professional characteristics or psychiatrist density in the GP's practice areas. Conclusions/Significance GPs' choices
Cain, Rebecca; Neailey, Kevin; Hooberman, Lucy
Background Patient feedback websites or doctor rating websites are increasingly being used by patients to give feedback about their health care experiences. There is little known about why patients in England may give Web-based feedback and what may motivate or dissuade them from giving Web-based feedback. Objective The aim of this study was to explore patients’ views toward giving Web-based feedback and ratings to general practitioners (GPs), within the context of other feedback methods available in primary care in England, and in particular, paper-based feedback cards. Methods A descriptive exploratory qualitative approach using face-to-face semistructured interviews was used in this study. Purposive sampling was used to recruit 18 participants from different age groups in London and Coventry. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using applied thematic analysis. Results Half of the participants in this study were not aware of the opportunity to leave feedback for GPs, and there was limited awareness about the methods available to leave feedback for a GP. The majority of participants were not convinced that formal patient feedback was needed by GPs or would be used by GPs for improvement, regardless of whether they gave it via a website or on paper. Some participants said or suggested that they may leave feedback on a website rather than on a paper-based feedback card for several reasons: because of the ability and ease of giving it remotely; because it would be shared with the public; and because it would be taken more seriously by GPs. Others, however, suggested that they would not use a website to leave feedback for the opposite reasons: because of accessibility issues; privacy and security concerns; and because they felt feedback left on a website may be ignored. Conclusions Patient feedback and rating websites as they currently are will not replace other mechanisms for patients in England to leave feedback for a GP. Rather, they may motivate a
Schmiemann, Guido; Blase, Lena; Seeber, Christoph; Joos, Stefanie; Steinhäuser, Jost; Ernst, Stefanie; Großhennig, Anika; Hummers-Pradier, Eva; Lingner, Heidrun
Background Nonspecific low back pain (LBP) is a common reason for accessing primary care. Manual therapy (MT) may be an effective treatment, but data from clinical studies including relevant subgroups and clinical settings are sparse. The objective of this article is to describe the protocol of a study that will measure whether an MT protocol provided by general medical practitioners will lead to a faster pain reduction in patients with nonspecific LBP than does standard medical care. Methods/Design The study is an experimental pre-/postintervention design. The intervention consists of add-on MT treatment by general medical practitioners who have received MT training but are otherwise inexperienced in mobilization techniques. Participating general medical practitioners (n = 10) will consecutively recruit and treat patients before and after their training, serving as their own internal controls. The primary end point is a combined outcome assessing change in pain score over days 0 to 3 and time until pain is reduced by 2 points on an 11-point numeric pain scale and painkiller use is stopped. Secondary outcomes are patients’ functional capacities assessed using a questionnaire, amount of sick leave taken, patient satisfaction, and referrals for further treatment. Trial registration German clinical trials register: DRKS-ID DRKS00003240. PMID:26693216
As a result of recommendations in the 1994 report, Making Contracting Work Better and Cost Less, the Department of Energy (Department) has adopted performance-based contracting for the management and operation of its major facilities. Under this approach, contractor performance is to be evaluated against performance measures which are clearly stated, results-oriented, and established prior to performance. The performance measures, which reflect the Department`s expectations of the contractor, are the basis for rewarding superior contractor performance through the use of incentive fees. The purpose of the audit was to determine whether performance-based contracting, as incorporated in the Bechtel Nevada Corporation (Bechtel) contract for the management of the Department`s Nevada Test Site and associated activities, conformed to these principles. The audit disclosed that the performance measures associated with the Bechtel contract did not conform to requirements set forth in the Contract Reform Team report and the Bechtel contract. The Nevada Operations Office (Nevada) established measurement milestones after the work had actually been completed by Bechtel. Further, many of the performance measures were vague and non-specific and, as a result, Nevada rewarded performance that could not be objectively validated. These problems were attributable to the general difficulties in transitioning to the new contracting concept. As a result, the success of the effort to implement performance-based contracting at Nevada was at risk.
Background Evidence suggests that continuing medical education improves the clinical competence of general practitioners and the quality of health care services. Thus, we evaluated the relative impact of two educational strategies, critical reading (CR) and problem based learning (PBL), on the clinical competence of general practitioners in a healthcare system characterized by excessive workload and fragmentation into small primary healthcare centers. Methods Clinical competence was evaluated in general practitioners assigned to three groups based on the educational interventions used: 1) critical reading intervention; 2) problem based learning intervention; and 3) no intervention (control group, which continued clinical practice as normal). The effect on the clinical competence of general practitioners was evaluated in three dimensions: the cognitive dimension, via a self-administered questionnaire; the habitual behavioral dimension, via information from patient’s medical records; and the affective dimension, through interviews with patients. A paired Student´s t-test was used to evaluate the changes in the mean clinical competence scores before and after the intervention, and a 3 x 2 ANOVA was used to analyze groups, times and their interaction. Results Nine general practitioners participated in the critical reading workshop, nine in the problem-based learning workshop, and ten were assigned to the control group. The participants exhibited no significant differences in clinical competence measures at baseline, or in socio-demographic or job characteristics (p > 0.05). Significant improvements in all three dimensions (cognitive, 45.67 vs 54.89; habitual behavioral, 53.78 vs 82.33; affective, 4.16 vs 4.76) were only observed in the problem-based learning group after the intervention (p > 0.017). Conclusions While no differences in post-intervention scores were observed between groups, we conclude that problem-based learning can be effective, particularly in a
Remember that computer software is designed for accrual accounting, whereas your business operates and reports income on a cash basis. The rules of tax law stipulate that professional practices may use the cash method of accounting, but if accrual accounting is ever used to report taxable income the government may not permit a switch back to cash accounting. Therefore, always consider the computer as a bookkeeper, not a substitute for a qualified accountant. (Your accountant will have readily accessible payroll and general ledger data available for analysis and tax reports, thanks to the magic of computer processing.) Accounts Payable reports are interfaced with the general ledger and are of interest for transaction detail, open invoice and cash flow analysis, and for a record of payments by vendor. Payroll reports, including check register and withholding detail are provided and interfaced with the general ledger. The use of accounting software expands the use of in-office computers to areas beyond professional billing and insurance form generation. It simplifies payroll recordkeeping; maintains payables details; integrates payables, receivables, and payroll with general ledger files; provides instantaneous information on all aspects of the business office; and creates a continuous "audit-trail" following the entering of data. The availability of packaged accounting software allows the professional business office an array of choices. The person(s) responsible for bookkeeping and accounting should choose carefully, ensuring that any system is easy to use, has been thoroughly tested, and provides at least as much control over office records as has been outlined in this article.
Augestad, Knut Magne; Norum, Jan; Dehof, Stefan; Aspevik, Ranveig; Ringberg, Unni; Nestvold, Torunn; Vonen, Barthold; Skrøvseth, Stein Olav; Lindsetmo, Rolv-Ole
Objective To assess whether colon cancer follow-up can be organised by general practitioners (GPs) without a decline in the patient's quality of life (QoL) and increase in cost or time to cancer diagnoses, compared to hospital follow-up. Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting Northern Norway Health Authority Trust, 4 trusts, 11 hospitals and 88 local communities. Participants Patients surgically treated for colon cancer, hospital surgeons and community GPs. Intervention 24-month follow-up according to national guidelines at the community GP office. To ensure a high follow-up guideline adherence, a decision support tool for patients and GPs were used. Main outcome measures Primary outcomes were QoL, measured by the global health scales of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer QoL Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ C-30) and EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D). Secondary outcomes were cost-effectiveness and time to cancer diagnoses. Results 110 patients were randomised to intervention (n=55) or control (n=55), and followed by 78 GPs (942 follow-up months) and 70 surgeons (942 follow-up months), respectively. Compared to baseline, there was a significant improvement in postoperative QoL (p=0.003), but no differences between groups were revealed (mean difference at 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21 and 24-month follow-up appointments): Global Health; Δ−2.23, p=0.20; EQ-5D index; Δ−0.10, p=0.48, EQ-5D VAS; Δ−1.1, p=0.44. There were no differences in time to recurrent cancer diagnosis (GP 35 days vs surgeon 45 days, p=0.46); 14 recurrences were detected (GP 6 vs surgeon 8) and 7 metastases surgeries performed (GP 3 vs surgeon 4). The follow-up programme initiated 1186 healthcare contacts (GP 678 vs surgeon 508), 1105 diagnostic tests (GP 592 vs surgeon 513) and 778 hospital travels (GP 250 vs surgeon 528). GP organised follow-up was associated with societal cost savings (£8233 vs £9889, p<0.001). Conclusions GP-organised follow-up was associated with no
Political Appointee at the / Environmental Protection Agency was Exercising -. Pqntrol over the Office of the Inspector General , (AFMD-81-77). This letter...and are commonly referred to as political appointments. 2 B-203744 that time there was neither an Inspector General nor a Deputy Inspector General . l...AD-AI07 190 GENERAL ACCOUNTING OFFICE WASHINGTON DC ACCOUNTING A--ETC FIG 5/4 ALLEGATIONS THAT A POLITI CAL APPOINTEE AT THE ENV IRONMENTAL PRO--ETC
...). The activities concern oversight of the annual audit of the Universal Service Administrative... its jurisdiction. DATES: Effective December 4, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Office of..., among other things, whether * * * is properly administering the universal service support mechanisms...
Sundqvist, Bertil; Wenneberg, Bengt; Magnusson, Tomas
The aim of this study was to investigate if a TMD-trained general dental practitioner could individually predict actual treatment outcome in selected patients diagnosed with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) with similar results as a TMD specialist. The patients were examined, individually predicted, treatment planned, treated and had their treatment outcome evaluated by the therapist, respectively. Out of 2618 patients referred to a TMD specialist clinic, 1086 patients started treatment. They were all divided into Muscle or Mainly TMJ symptoms. Prediction of the treatment outcome as Good or Dubious was based on the patient's history, the clinical and, sometimes, radiological findings. The degree of improvement was graded using a Numeric Rating Scale 0-100. A clinical important improvement, defined as an improvement of initial complaints of 50% or more, was judged as a correct prediction of Good treatment outcome. Seven-hundred-sixty-nine patients treated by the TMD specialist (Sample 1) was compared with 164 patients treated by the TMD-trained general dental practitioner (Sample 2). For patients with Muscle symptoms in Sample 1, a 50% improvement or more was reached by 93% of those predicted Good and 57% of those predicted Dubious. The corresponding figures in Sample 2 were 100% and 82%, respectively. In Sample 1, patients with Mainly TMJ symptoms reached a 50% improvement or more in 94% of those with prediction Good and 73% of those predicted Dubious. In Sample 2 the figures were 100% and 87%, respectively. ATMD-trained general dental practitioner could individually predict treatment outcome with similar results as a TMD specialist in selected patients diagnosed with TMD. Whether the method is possible to generalize has to be investigated further.
Harase, Tadahiro; Nishida, Wataru; Hamakawa, Tomohiro; Hino, Satoshi; Shigematsu, Kenji; Kobayashi, Satoru; Sako, Hirofumi; Ito, Shirou; Murakami, Hajime; Nishida, Kei; Inoue, Hiroshi; Fujisawa, Masahito; Yoshizu, Hiroshi; Kawamura, Ryoichi; Takata, Yasunori; Onuma, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Keita; Hamakawa, Hiroyuki; Osawa, Haruhiko
Objective We examined whether general dentists can contribute to the detection of patients with undiagnosed diabetes and prediabetes by monitoring blood glucose in dental clinics. Research design and methods A total of 716 patients who visited clinics for dental treatment were enrolled and classified into 3 groups (mild, moderate, and severe) according to Kornman's criteria for periodontitis. The correlations between the casual blood glucose level, presence or absence of the history of diabetes, and/or severity of periodontitis were evaluated. Results 68 patients (9.5%) had hyperglycemia (blood glucose ≥200 mg/dL). Of these patients, 20 (29.4%) did not have a history of diabetes. Blood glucose tended to be higher with greater periodontitis severity. Of the 3 groups, the severe periodontitis group had the highest proportion of patients with hyperglycemia (p<0.0001). Conclusions Patients with dental problems could be screened for diabetes, especially undiagnosed diabetes. General dentists could function as practitioners to screen for diabetes. Trial registration number UMIN-CTR 000014877. PMID:26629348
de Jong, J C
The main value of the new guideline on influenza and influenza vaccination developed by the Dutch College of General Practitioners is that it provides an update of the old version from 1993. Developments in the fields of vaccination and treatment are adequately described and clearly explained in more detail in numerous notes to the main text. Notable updates include the fact that vaccination will be recommended for people aged more than 60 years rather than 65 years in the coming season, and the introduction ofneuraminidase inhibitors. The complex virological aspects of influenza are well covered.
In 1994 the Department of Energy (Department) obtained the services of Rocky Mountain BankCard System, through the use of a General Services Administration contract, as a means for the Department and its contractors to make small purchases. The use of credit cards was expected to simplify small purchase procedures and improve cash management. The Ohio Field Office (Field Office) uses the credit card system and oversees usage by its area offices. Contractors under the Field Office also use the credit card system to make small purchases. The Office of Inspector General (OIG) has issued one audit report concerning the use of credit cards. In April 1996, the OIG issued Report WR-B-96-06, Audit of Bonneville Power Administration`s Management of Information Resources. The audit concluded that improvements could be made in implementing credit card and property procedures in Bonneville`s management of computer-related equipment. Specifically, many credit card purchases were made by employees whose authority to buy was not properly documented, and the purchasing files often lacked invoices that would show what was purchased. Additionally, some cardholders split purchases to avoid credit card limits. The objective of this audit was to determine whether the Field Office, Fernald and Miamisburg Environmental Management Projects, Fluor Daniel, and B and W were using credit cards for the appropriate purposes and within the limitations established by Federal and Departmental regulations.
Fuchs, Ivo; Gerber, Bernhard; Samaras, Panagiotis
A monoclonal gammopathy is a common finding in the general practitioner’s office. An active search for a paraproteinemia is indicated in case of suspected malignancy, evidence of end organ damage (e.g. anemia, renal insufficiency) or in case of recurrent infections or prolonged fatigue. Plasma cell myeloma is an important differential diagnosis of a monoclonal gammopathy and implies a broad spectrum of diagnostic as well as therapeutic consequences for the patient. Plasma cell myeloma is still being considered an incurable disease, but its prognosis could be significantly improved with the introduction of new drugs.
Duane, Sinead; Beatty, Paula; Murphy, Andrew W.; Vellinga, Akke
“Delayed or back up” antibiotic prescriptions and “symptomatic” treatment may help to reduce inappropriate antibiotic prescribing for Urinary Tract Infections (UTI) in the future. However, more research needs to be conducted in this area before these strategies can be readily promoted in practice. This study explores General Practitioner (GP) and patient attitudes and experiences regarding the use of delayed or back-up antibiotic and symptomatic treatment for UTI. Qualitative face to face interviews with General Practitioners (n = 7) from one urban and one rural practice and telephone interviews with UTI patients (n = 14) from a rural practice were undertaken. Interviews were analysed using framework analysis. GPs believe that antibiotics are necessary when treating UTI. There was little consensus amongst GPs regarding the role of delayed prescribing or symptomatic treatment for UTI. Delayed prescribing may be considered for patients with low grade symptoms and a negative dipstick test. Patients had limited experience of delayed prescribing for UTI. Half indicated they would be satisfied with a delayed prescription the other half would question it. A fear of missing a serious illness was a significant barrier to symptomatic treatment for both GP and patient. The findings of this research provide insight into antibiotic prescribing practices in general practice. It also highlights the need for further empirical research into the effectiveness of alternative treatment strategies such as symptomatic treatment of UTI before such strategies can be readily adopted in practice. PMID:27537922
This Semiannual Report to Congress covers the period April 1 to September 30, 1998. The report summarizes significant Office of Inspector General (OIG) audit, inspection, and investigative accomplishments for the reporting period.These OIG efforts facilitated Department of Energy (DOE) efforts to improve the overall management of its programs. The OIG has developed a Strategic Plan which sets out its overall goals and objectives. The Office`s significant accomplishments are grouped by the strategic goals against which the OIG measures its performance. Highlights are presented on the following items: prime contractor fees policy strengthening; low-level and low-level mixed waste management program improvement; hazardous waste training agreement cost $6 million more than necessary; controls over architect-engineering costs improvement; funds expended contrary to Congressional direction and internal budget execution guidelines; company mischarges costs on several federal contracts; year 2000 computer issues; Qui Tam investigations; task force investigations; financial assistance grantees; DOE suspect/counterfeit items information trending and analysis; and management information systems.
... / Friday, January 13, 2012 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Executive Office for... of Department of Homeland Security Practitioner Disciplinary Cases AGENCY: Executive Office for... technical amendments to the Executive Office for Immigration Review's (EOIR) practitioner...
... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What are my responsibilities generally as an administrative agreements officer for a TIA? 37.1100 Section 37.1100 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT...
... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What are my responsibilities generally as an administrative agreements officer for a TIA? 37.1100 Section 37.1100 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT...
This document contains four papers presented at a symposium on practitioner states moderated by Kay Bull at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development (AHRD). "The Effect of Locus of Control and Performance-Contingent Incentives on Productivity and Job Satisfaction in Self-Managing Teams" (Bonnie E. Garson, Douglas…
... towing vessels; (ix) Radio officer; (x) Assistant engineer (limited oceans); or (xi) Designated duty... original officer's endorsement, raises of grade, extensions of route, or STCW endorsements must be...
Scheele, Christian Elling; Vrangbæk, Karsten
The issue of integrated care and inter-sectoral collaboration is on the health policy agenda in many countries. Yet, there is limited knowledge about the effects of the different policy instruments used to achieve this. This paper studies co-location as a driver for cross-sectoral collaboration with general practitioners (GPs) acting as coordinators in a municipal health centre. The purpose of the health centre, which is staffed by health professionals from municipal, regional and private sectors, is to provide primary health services to the citizens of the municipality. Co-locating these professionals is supposed to benefit e.g., elder citizens and patients with chronic diseases who frequently require services from health professionals across administrative sectors. Methodologically, the analysis is based on qualitative data in the form of semi-structured interviews with the health professionals employed at the health centre and with administrative managers from municipal and regional government levels. The study finds that co-location does not function as a driver for cross-sectoral collaboration in a health centre when GPs act as coordinators. Cross-sectoral collaboration is hampered by the general practitioners' work routines and professional identity, by organisational factors and by a lack of clarity concerning the content of collaboration with regard to economic and professional incentives.
Krippaehne, J A; Montgomery, M T
Morbidity and mortality (M&M) statistics have been used to determine the safety of pharmacosedation and general anesthesia for dental procedures. Although relevant, these data often do not describe what actually caused the problems. Descriptive data are needed to understand etiologic factors and to accurately set malpractice insurance rates, establish legislative regulations, and determine means of prevention. The purpose of this study was to characterize the factors involved in causing M&M in a national data base of dental patients who received either pharmacosedation or general anesthesia. Letters were sent to all state dental boards requesting detailed information on cases associated with M&M during the last 15 years. Follow-up letters and telephone contacts were made with noncompliant boards. Forty-three cases were reported from nine states, with mortality comprising 81.4% of the cases. The mean patient age was 18 years, with a range from 2 to 42 years. Seventy-five percent of the cases were classified as American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class I, 21% as ASA II, and 4% as ASA III. The mean number of pharmacological agents used was three, with a range from one to seven. In 32% of the cases heart rate was monitored, in 23% respiration was monitored, in 23% blood pressure was monitored, in 8% tissue oxygen saturation was monitored, and in 4% heart rhythm was monitored. Fifty-nine percent of the practitioners performed basic life support as a part of resuscitative efforts, 21% performed some measure of advanced cardiac life support, and in 45% of the cases narcotic reversal was attempted.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Van Sickels, J E; Tiner, B D
The cases of twenty-four patients who underwent genioplasties either under deep intravenous (IV) sedation in a dental office or under general anesthesia in a surgical center were reviewed. A cost comparison of this operation in these two environments showed that it was twice as expensive to have the same procedure done in an outpatient surgical suite under general anesthesia as it was in a private office under IV sedation.
This article examines the practice among general practitioners in Scotland of keeping shops for dispensary and retail purposes in the late nineteenth century. It demonstrates that while doctors kept such open shops in these areas in order to subsidize their income in a crowded medical market, they argued that shopkeeping allowed them to provide medical care in communities where the population was otherwise too poor to pay for such care. The article compares shopkeeping to medical "covering" and assesses the medical hierarchy's reactions to shopkeeping doctors via disciplinary actions taken against some of these doctors by the General Medical Council (GMC). These actions provoked an organized protest among hundreds of doctors (some of it channeled through the British Medical Association), which challenged the methods of the GMC in determining acceptable professional medical standards.
Hackeling, Joan, Comp.
This list of print and electronic resources is designed to act as a springboard to assist practitioners in finding information to start implementing sustainability efforts on their campuses. The resources are listed in the following categories: general, international, K-12, policy/partnerships, campus environmental assessments, green building,…
Background The non-pharmacological approach to cholesterol control in patients with hyperlipidemia is based on the promotion of a healthy diet and physical activity. Thus, to help patients change their habits, it is essential to identify the most effective approach. Many efforts have been devoted to explain changes in or adherence to specific health behaviors. Such efforts have resulted in the development of theories that have been applied in prevention campaigns, and that include brief advice and counseling services. Within this context, Motivational Interviewing has proven to be effective in changing health behaviors in specific cases. However, more robust evidence is needed on the effectiveness of Motivational Interviewing in treating chronic pathologies -such as dyslipidemia- in patients assisted by general practitioners. This article describes a protocol to assess the effectiveness of MI as compared with general practice (brief advice), with the aim of improving lipid level control in patients with dyslipidemia assisted by a general practitioner. Methods/Design An open, two-arm parallel, multicentre, cluster, controlled, randomized, clinical trial will be performed. A total of 48-50 general practitioners from 35 public primary care centers in Spain will be randomized and will recruit 436 patients with dyslipidemia. They will perform an intervention based either on Motivational Interviewing or on the usual brief advice. After an initial assessment, follow-ups will be performed at 2, 4, 8 and 12 months. Primary outcomes are lipid levels (total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides) and cardiovascular risk. The study will assess the degree of dietary and physical activity improvement, weight loss in overweight patients, and adherence to treatment guidelines. Discussion Motivational interview skills constitute the primary strategies GPs use to treat their patients. Having economical, simple, effective and applicable techniques is essential
The mission of the Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (Richland) is to safely manage legacy wastes, develop and deploy science and technology, and provide stewardship of the Hanford Site (Site). To accomplish its mission, Richland employs five prime contractors: Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc. (Fluor Daniel); Bechtel Hanford, Inc. (Bechtel); Battelle-Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (Battelle); Hanford Environmental Health Foundation; and BNFL, Inc. Some of these contractors, in turn, have multiple subcontractors. To operate the Site, contractors need to use numerous services, such as telecommunications, copying, and photography. Richland directed certain contractors to provide these and other services, called site services, for the benefit of all contractors and assigned responsibility for optimal utilization of these services to its Site Infrastructure Division (SID). In the past, the Office of Inspector General (OIG) audited several site services, including groundwater monitoring, protective forces, personnel security clearances, railroad services, and fleet management. These audits disclosed that the services were not always efficiently and effectively coordinated. Therefore, the objective of this audit was to examine other site services, principally those provided at least in part by Fluor Daniel, to determine if contractors were acquiring services already available.
Chilvers, C E; Pike, M C; Taylor, C N; Hermon, C; Crossley, B; Smith, S J
STUDY OBJECTIVE--The UK National Case-Control Study was carried out to investigate the relationship between oral contraceptive use and breast cancer risk. This study investigates whether general practitioner notes could be used as the sole data source for epidemiological studies of young women and what the effect would be on non-response and recall bias. DESIGN--Case-control study with data on gynaecological, obstetric, and contraceptive history collected at interview and from general practitioners' notes. Information from these two sources was compared. SETTING--This was a population-based study. PARTICIPANTS--Altogether 755 women with breast cancer aged under 36 years at diagnosis, each with an age-matched control, participated in the study. Response rates at interview were 72% and 89% for cases and controls but GP data were available for 90% of the 1049 case and first-selected control pairs. MAIN RESULTS--There was generally good agreement between the two data sources with respect to obstetric history and gynaecological procedures (hysterectomy, oophorectomy, and tubal ligation). The use of intra-uterine devices, or diaphragm, and partner's vasectomy were not reliably recorded in the GP's notes. The overall results of the UK study would have been qualitatively the same with respect to the relationship between oral contraceptive use and breast cancer risk if GP notes only had been used, in spite of the fact that only about half of all oral contraceptive usage was recorded in the notes. Response rates would have been higher, recall bias eliminated, and the cost of the study halved. CONCLUSIONS--When planning case-control studies in young women, the possibility of using GP notes as the primary data source should be considered. Lack of data on potential confounding factors is a possible drawback to such use. The practice of destroying GP's notes shortly after the death of patients seriously restricts the possibility of using these notes when studying rapidly fatal
Report #08-P-0123, March 31, 2008. Both program offices and the Office of the Chief Financial Officer, in its oversight role, can do more to monitor the audit followup process and ensure that timely and appropriate corrective actions are taking place.
This paper presents the emerging context of integrated service networks (ISN), clarifies the concept of ISN, and highlights some of the key factors in the successful implementation of ISNs. The Quebec healthcare reform illustrates the current state of development of integrated care. The main targets of the reform are the consolidation of primary care and the development of collaborative models of mental health care (or shared care). Since they are very complex to operate (insofar as they require major system changes), ISNs are not widely developed. General practitioners are at the heart of the current reforms since they have a key role to play in the successful implementation of integrated care models, including ISN models.
McKenzie, A; Grylls, J
This paper describes the addition of diabetic retinal screening using retinal photography to an existing immunisation audit by a General Practitioner (GP) Network in a semi-rural area 60-min drive from central Wellington, New Zealand. The employment of a nurse-facilitator who visited practices to assist the setting up of diabetic registers and the subsequent auditing of patterns of referral for retinal photography was seen as a first step in a process that would lead to audit of the care of diabetic patients by GPs in the Network. This should lead to a measurable improvement in health-care delivery to diabetic patients in this area and is a model that could be adapted by any group of rural or semirural GPs within a defined geographical area.
Scalvini, Simonetta; Zanelli, Emanuela; Paletta, Laura; Benigno, Massimo; Domeneghini, Diego; De Giuli, Federica; Giordano, Amerigo; Glisenti, Fulvio
A group of patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) were followed by general practitioners (GPs) with a telecardiology system, and a second group of patients were followed by a home-based telemonitoring (HBT) protocol with medical and nursing supervision. The 212 GP patients were older than the 226 HBT patients, mostly women, with CHF secondary to chronic hypertension, less self-sufficient and with a non-optimized therapy. The mean number of telephone calls was 2.6 per patient in the GP group and 16.6 per patient in the HBT group (P<0.001). These preliminary data suggest the applicability and the efficacy of both management models for CHF patients.
PaTz groups for primary palliative care: reinventing cooperation between general practitioners and district nurses in palliative care: an evaluation study combining data from focus groups and a questionnaire
Background PaTz (an acronym for ‘PAlliatieve Thuis Zorg’; palliative care at home) is an intervention to improve palliative care provision and strengthen the generalist knowledge of palliative care. In PaTz general practitioners and district nurses meet on a regular basis to identify patients with palliative care needs and to discuss care for these patients. This study explores experiences with regard to collaboration between general practitioners and district nurses, and perceived benefits of and barriers for implementation of PaTz. Methods This study is conducted within the primary care setting. Participants were 24 general practitioners who filled in a questionnaire, and seven general practitioners, five district nurses and two palliative care consultants who attended one of two focus groups. Results PaTz led to improved collaboration. Participants felt informational and emotional support from other PaTz participants. Also they felt that continuity of care was enhanced by PaTz. Practical recommendations for implementation were: meetings every 6 to 8 weeks, regular attendance from both general practitioners and district nurses, presence of a palliative care consultant, and a strong chairman. Conclusions PaTz is successful in enhancing collaboration in primary palliative care and easy to implement. Participants felt it improved continuity of care and knowledge on palliative care. Further research is needed to investigate whether patient and carer outcomes improve. PMID:24444024
... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Asbestos in General Industry; Extension of the Office of... requirements specified in its Standard on Asbestos in General Industry (29 CFR 1910.1001). DATES: Comments must... workers with protection from hazardous asbestos exposure. Asbestos exposure results in asbestosis,...
... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Asbestos in General Industry; Extension of the Office of...) approval of the information collection requirements specified in the Standard on Asbestos in General... providing their workers with protection from exposure to hazardous asbestos. Asbestos exposure results...
... in severe cases of lead toxicity. The standard specifies the following requirements that impose... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Lead in General Industry Standard; Extension of the Office of...) approval of the information collection requirements specified in the Lead in General Industry Standard...
Anvik, Tor; Holtedahl, Knut A; Mikalsen, Hege
Background The role of the general practitioner (GP) in cancer follow-up is poorly defined. We wanted to describe and analyse the role of the GP during initial follow-up of patients with recently treated cancer, from the perspective of patients, their relatives and their GPs. Methods One focus group interview with six GPs from the city of Bodø and individual interviews with 17 GPs from the city of Tromsø in North Norway. Text analysis of the transcribed interviews and of free text comments in two questionnaires from 91 patients with cancer diagnosed between October 1999 and September 2000 and their relatives from Tromsø. Results The role of the GP in follow-up of patients with recently treated cancer is discussed under five main headings: patient involvement, treating the cancer and treating the patient, time and accessibility, limits to competence, and the GP and the hospital should work together. Conclusion The GP has a place in the follow-up of many patients with cancer, also in the initial phase after treatment. Patients trust their GP to provide competent care, especially when they have more complex health care needs on top of their cancer. GPs agree to take a more prominent role for cancer patients, provided there is good access to specialist advice. Plans for follow-up of individual patients could in many cases improve care and cooperation. Such plans could be made preferably before discharge from in-patient care by a team consisting of the patient, a carer, a hospital specialist and a general practitioner. Patients and GPs call on hospital doctors to initiate such collaboration. PMID:16549036
Zanone Poma, S; Vicentini, S; Siviero, F; Grossi, A; Toniolo, E; Cocchio, S; Baldo, V; De Leo, Diego
A survey about history of non-fatal suicidal behaviour was performed on 1,171 subjects in the waiting room of general practitioners' practices in the territory of Rovigo (Northern Italy). The mean age of interviewed subjects was 52.9 ± 17.0, with a majority of female individuals. Two and two percent admitted previous experience of non-suicidal self-injury, 4.7 % admitted having had serious suicidal thoughts/plans, and 1.8 % reported at least one suicide attempt. Compared to the rest of the sample, people with history of suicidal behaviours resulted to be of younger age (p < .05), whilst their level of well-being was poorer (p < .001). When compared to the results of the Italian arm of the European Study of the Epidemiology of Mental Disorders, carried out on general population samples, the present study produces higher rates of suicidality, despite the much higher mean age of the interviewed subjects compared to the general population.
al-Bashir, M M; Armstrong, D
Seven hundred and sixty patients from four general practices in an urban health centre were asked to evaluate the relative importance of 20 statements describing different aspects of general practice. Significant differences were observed between sub-groups of the patients, in particular those who would be likely to make greater use of the general practitioner--the elderly and the ill. Patients who reported not good or poor health status were more likely to value second opinions and, conversely, undervalue efficient prescribing, and an emphasis on vaccinations, cervical smears and check ups. Elderly patients placed greater emphasis on second opinions, protection in their relationship with the hospital, routine visits to the elderly and friendly staff, and similarly undervalued an emphasis on vaccinations, cervical smears and check ups. This means that practices which increase their list size to benefit from higher capacitation payments might, depending on their characteristics, attract predominantly healthy people and increase patient numbers without a commensurate increase in workload. Other facets of the payment system, in particular fees for health promotion work, further support this bias against ill patients.
Hanna, Lisa; Fairhurst, Karen
Information and communication technologies such as email, text messaging and video messaging are commonly used by the general population. However, international research has shown that they are not used routinely by GPs to communicate or consult with patients. Investigating Victorian GPs' perceptions of doing so is timely given Australia's new National Broadband Network, which may facilitate web-based modes of doctor-patient interaction. This study therefore aimed to explore Victorian GPs' experiences of, and attitudes toward, using information and communication technologies to consult with patients. Qualitative telephone interviews were carried out with a maximum variation sample of 36GPs from across Victoria. GPs reported a range of perspectives on using new consultation technologies within their practice. Common concerns included medico-legal and remuneration issues and perceived patient information technology literacy. Policy makers should incorporate GPs' perspectives into primary care service delivery planning to promote the effective use of information and communication technologies in improving accessibility and quality of general practice care.
Officers ( RETO ) study did little to increase the amount of FM-related Core curriculum, although it did stress heavily the importance of officers...Staff School (CAS3), which began in 1981 and continued until 2004. RETO determined that all officers, regardless of branch, required staff skills and...that CAS3 would meet this need. According to RETO , all majors would be sent to this 297-hour 10 course (an additional 120 hours would be
Los Alamos` Environmental Restoration Program is charged with cost effectively remediating contaminated sites. To monitor progress toward this goal, the University of California, the contractor operating Los Alamos, and the Department negotiated eight performance measures. The objective of this audit was to determine whether the contract performance criteria were reasonable, measurable, and complete, thereby allowing the Department to determine if Los Alamos had expeditiously and cost effectively remediated contaminated sites. The audit determined that Los Alamos did not generate the information needed to assess the cost effectiveness of remediation on a site-by-site basis. This situation occurred because the performance criteria used to evaluate cost effectiveness were not always reasonable, measurable, and complete. As a result, neither Los Alamos nor the Department could evaluate the cost effectiveness or progress of the remediation program or accurately budget for upcoming remediation activities. The audit also determined that Los Alamos` sample validation procedures were too costly because Los Alamos validated more samples than called for by Federal and New Mexico standard practices. While the Office of Inspector General recognizes the importance of prudent sample validation, Los Alamos paid $540,000 more than necessary to validate sample results. These funds could have been used to remediate contaminated sites.
The Office of Inspector General has not reviewed maintenance activities at the Y-12 Plant in recent years. However, an audit was performed of maintenance activities at the East Tennessee Technology Park (formerly the K-25 Site) in February 1994. The audit concluded that Lockheed Martin (formerly Martin Marietta Energy Systems) had not effectively used engineered performance standards to estimate maintenance hours, and had not adequately analyzed variances between actual and estimated hours to identify and correct maintenance inefficiencies. The objective of this audit was to determine whether Lockheed Martin used performance measures to identify and correct inefficiencies in its maintenance program. Lockheed Martin did not adequately use performance measures to identify and correct inefficiencies in its maintenance program. Specifically, Lockheed Martin did not adequately apply engineered time standards in estimating jobs, nor did it use variance analysis to resolve deviations from job plans. This condition occurred because Lockheed Martin did not fully implement Departmental guidelines. As a result, Lockheed martin missed opportunities to improve its performance and cost-effectiveness.
Ford, Elizabeth; Campion, Alice; Chamles, Darleen Aixora; Habash-Bailey, Haniah; Cooper, Maxwell
Objectives Anxiety is a common condition usually managed in general practice (GP) in the UK. GP patient records can be used for epidemiological studies of anxiety as well as clinical audit and service planning. However, it is not clear how general practitioners (GPs) conceptualise, diagnose and document anxiety in these records. We sought to understand these factors through an interview study with GPs. Setting UK National Health Service (NHS) General Practice (England and Wales). Participants 17 UK GPs. Primary and secondary outcome measures Semistructured interviews used vignettes to explore the process of diagnosing anxiety in primary care and investigate influences on recording. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic analysis. Results GPs chose 12 different codes for recording anxiety in the 2 vignettes, and reported that history, symptoms and management would be recorded in free text. GPs reported on 4 themes representing influences on recording of anxiety: ‘anxiety or a normal response’, ‘granularity of diagnosis’, ‘giving patients a label’ and ‘time as a tool’; and 3 themes about recording in general: ‘justifying the choice of code’, ‘usefulness of coding’ and ‘practice-specific pressures’. GPs reported using only a regular selection of codes in patient records to help standardise records within the practice and as a time-saving measure. Conclusions We have identified a coding culture where GPs feel confident recognising anxiety symptoms; however, due to clinical uncertainty, a long-term perspective and a focus on management, they are reluctant to code firm diagnoses in the initial stages. Researchers using GP patient records should be aware that GPs may prefer free text, symptom codes and other general codes rather than firm diagnostic codes for anxiety. PMID:27338879
The objective of the audit was to determine whether Energy Research had established performance expectations, including performance criteria and metrics, and used these expectations to monitor progress for basic and applied research performed at the Department`s national laboratories. Congressional and Departmental initiatives envision improved contract and program performance by requiring program managers to set measurable performance expectations. Even though research outcomes are inherently unpredictable, performance expectations can and should be established for scopes of work, milestones, resource limits and deliverables. However, Energy Research generally did not clearly specify--at either an aggregated program or individual task level--such expectations for research at the Department`s national laboratories. While information was available in the contractor`s research proposals, Energy Research essentially relied on the contractors to initiate and execute the research without agreement on expectations. This practice provided the Department with little basis to measure and evaluate contractor performance. Energy Research agreed in part with the finding and will take action on the recommendations in the report.
... appeals under the Freedom of Information Act, 5 U.S.C. 552, except appeals from decisions of the Office of... certify that a copy of any book, paper, microfilm, or other document is a true copy of that in the files... upon appeals emanating from Headquarters or Regional Offices under the Freedom of Information...
Aakvik, Arild; Holmås, Tor Helge; Kamrul Islam, M
In Norway, as in many countries, the national insurance system is under economic stress from demographic change impacting on the pensions versus contributions balance, and an increasing number of disability and sickness benefit claimants. The general practitioner (GP) is responsible for assessing work capacity and issuing certificates for sick leave based on an evaluation of the patient. Although many studies have analyzed certified sickness absence and predictive factors, no studies assess its variation between patients, GPs or geographical areas within a multilevel framework. Using a rich Norwegian matched patient-GP data set and employing a multilevel random intercept model, the study attempts to disentangle patient, GP and municipality-level variation in the certified sickness absence length for Norwegian workers in 2003. We find that most observed patient and GP characteristics are significantly associated with the length of sick leave (LSL) and medical diagnosis is an important observed factor explaining certified sickness durations. However, 98% of the unexplained variation in the LSL is attributed to patient factors rather than influenced by variation in GP practice or differences in municipality-level characteristics. Our findings indicate that GPs practice variation does not matter much for the patients' LSL. Our results are compatible with a high degree of patient involvement in current general practice. Based on this understanding one may infer that GPs play an advocate role for their patients in Norway, where the patients' own wishes are important when decisions are made.
Rejtar, Marketa; Ranstrom, Lee; Allcox, Christina
Nurse practitioners (NPs) have been providing high-quality and safe patient care for a few decades, and evidence showing the extent of their impact is emerging. This article describes the implementation of a 24/7 NP patient care model on an inpatient pediatric general surgery service in a tertiary free-standing Children's Hospital in the Northeastern United States. The literature shows that there is limited evidence regarding NP models of care and their effect on patient outcomes. In response to policy changes leading to reduction of resident work hours and a more acute and complex inpatient pediatric general surgery patient population, our existing NP model evolved into a 24/7 NP Model in June 2011. The results from two quality improvement projects showed positive registered nurse and attending surgeon staff satisfaction with the 24/7 NP Model of care and a decreased trend of unplanned intensive care unit patient transfers after the 24/7 NP Model implementation. These findings further support the evidence in the literature that NPs provide safe and quality patient care.
The issue of integrated care and inter-sectoral collaboration is on the health policy agenda in many countries. Yet, there is limited knowledge about the effects of the different policy instruments used to achieve this. This paper studies co-location as a driver for cross-sectoral collaboration with general practitioners (GPs) acting as coordinators in a municipal health centre. The purpose of the health centre, which is staffed by health professionals from municipal, regional and private sectors, is to provide primary health services to the citizens of the municipality. Co-locating these professionals is supposed to benefit e.g., elder citizens and patients with chronic diseases who frequently require services from health professionals across administrative sectors. Methodologically, the analysis is based on qualitative data in the form of semi-structured interviews with the health professionals employed at the health centre and with administrative managers from municipal and regional government levels. The study finds that co-location does not function as a driver for cross-sectoral collaboration in a health centre when GPs act as coordinators. Cross-sectoral collaboration is hampered by the general practitioners’ work routines and professional identity, by organisational factors and by a lack of clarity concerning the content of collaboration with regard to economic and professional incentives. PMID:28316555
Goderis, Geert; Borgermans, Liesbeth; Mathieu, Chantal; Van Den Broeke, Carine; Hannes, Karen; Heyrman, Jan; Grol, Richard
Objective To evaluate the barriers and facilitators to high-quality diabetes care as experienced by general practitioners (GPs) who participated in an 18-month quality improvement program (QIP). This QIP was implemented to promote compliance with international guidelines. Methods Twenty out of the 120 participating GPs in the QIP underwent semi-structured interviews that focused on three questions: 'Which changes did you implement or did you observe in the quality of diabetes care during your participation in the QIP?' 'According to your experience, what induced these changes?' and 'What difficulties did you experience in making the changes?' Results Most GPs reported that enhanced knowledge, improved motivation, and a greater sense of responsibility were the key factors that led to greater compliance with diabetes care guidelines and consequent improvements in diabetes care. Other factors were improved communication with patients and consulting specialists and reliance on diabetes nurse educators. Some GPs were reluctant to collaborate with specialists, and especially with diabetes educators and dieticians. Others blamed poor compliance with the guidelines on lack of time. Most interviewees reported that a considerable minority of patients were unwilling to change their lifestyles. Conclusion Qualitative research nested in an experimental trial may clarify the improvements that a QIP may bring about in a general practice, provide insight into GPs' approach to diabetes care and reveal the program's limits. Implementation of a QIP encounters an array of cognitive, motivational, and relational obstacles that are embedded in a patient-healthcare provider relationship. PMID:19624848
Webb, Jill B; Khanna, A
INTRODUCTION This study was designed to: (i) determine if the priority of referral letters by general practitioners to a plastic surgery skin lesion clinic adhered to the national guidelines, what happened to these patients, and what was the histological diagnosis; and (ii) analyse whether the prognosis at diagnosis of malignant melanoma had improved since the introduction of the 2-week wait for patients with suspected cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study involved a prospective audit questionnaire, retrospective note review and histology report review in the Plastic Surgery Department in a district general hospital and their ‘bespoke’ out-patient clinics. RESULTS Of 202 referral letters, 58 (29%) were referred as 2-week cancer referrals of which 13 (22%) suggested diagnoses that did not fall within the guidelines, and 11 gave no diagnosis. In addition, 84 (42%) had no indication of priority, though the text may suggest the need for it, either explicitly or implied. The prognostic indices for malignant melanoma have not altered since the 2-week wait rule has been implemented. CONCLUSIONS The guidelines are not being adhered to, thus patients with benign lesions are being given undue priority. The history and examination of skin lesions given in the referral letters is insufficient to allow the consultant to prioritise. Since the 2-week rule has be implemented, malignant melanomas have not been diagnosed at an earlier stage. PMID:16460639
Parkin, D; Rice, N; Sutton, M
Patterns of self-reported morbidity and general practitioner (GP) utilization exhibit complex age, sex and time heterogeneity. Underlying patterns are often obscured by data which are overly 'rough' because of noise associated with adjacent year fluctuations. In this paper we describe methods to obtain smoothed estimates of age, time and birth-cohort effects using data from the General Household Survey (GHS), covering the period 1984-1995/6 inclusive. The methods outlined offer powerful analytic tools to research complex profiles or trends, particularly over age or time. The relationships of the morbidity and GP utilization measures with age, sex and survey year characteristics are estimated non-parametrically using roughness penalized least squares (RPLS). A semi-parametric extension of this model is used to estimate the effect of the morbidity variables on GP utilization. Tests are employed for various forms of age and time heterogeneity including birth-cohort effects. Linear age specifications are rejected for all variables and evidence is found of time heterogeneity in one of the morbidity measures--limiting long-standing illness (LS)--and GP utilization. The advantages of employing non- and semi-parametric estimations in the presence of complex relationships such as those observed for age and time profiles are discussed. Adoption of these techniques by applied econometricians working in health economics is encouraged.
Tomialoic, R; Stefanoff, P; Paradowska-Stankiewicz, I; Zasada, A; Sadkowska-Todys, M
Parapertussis leads to similar symptoms as pertussis, both being caused by bacteria from the genus Bordetella. Poland does not routinely diagnose nor conduct surveillance for parapertussis. We estimated parapertussis incidence and determined predictors of parapertussis diagnosis in the Polish population. Between July 2009 and April 2011, we conducted a prospective cohort study among patients attending 78 general practices. We included patients aged ≥ 3 years, with cough lasting >2 weeks, interviewed patients and collected a nasopharyngeal swab. We confirmed cases by real-time PCR. We estimated parapertussis incidence rates by dividing the number of cases by the summed person-time of observation in respective practices. We assessed predictors of PCR-confirmed parapertussis by comparing cases with patients testing negative. Using logistic regression, we calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). We identified 78 cases among 1,231 patients meeting inclusion criteria. The incidence rate was 39/100,000 person-years (95%CI 31-49). The highest rates (140/100,000; 95%CI 74-239), were among children 3-5 years of age and the lowest (24/100,000; 95%CI 13-40) among persons aged 20-39 years of age. Boys aged 3-5 years (7.1; 2.1-25.3) and women aged >40 years (4.1; 1.4-11.7) or living in crowded households (4.3; 1.4-12.9) or contacting persons with prolonged cough (2.3; 1.1-4.5) were more likely to be diagnosed. Our results suggest that laboratory diagnosis could be prioritized for children in the preschool age and women aged over 40 who were referred to their GP with prolonged cough. In the absence of vaccine, post-exposure prophylaxis for close contacts of parapertussis cases could an adequate preventative measure.
The Procurement and Assistance Data System (PADS) is the Department`s official computerized system maintained to collect, track, and report Department of Energy procurement and financial assistance actions. The system stores information used to (1) monitor procurement and financial assistance processes, awards, and administration; (2) provide required recurring reports to the Office of Management and Budget; General Services Administration, Department of Commerce, and Small Business Administration; and (3) satisfy Freedom of Information Act and congressional requests and other public inquiries. The objectives of this audit were to determine whether the system (1) contained accurate, complete, and current data; (2) met user needs and regulatory requirements; and (3) met generally accepted system practices for development and operation. The review was part of the Office of Inspector General`s continuing work with respect to the agency`s information systems and compliance with the Government and Performance Results Act of 1993.
Background Multimorbidity is a common phenomenon in primary care. Until now, no clinical guidelines for multimorbidity exist. For the development of these guidelines, it is necessary to know whether or not patients are aware of their diseases and to what extent they agree with their doctor. The objectives of this paper are to analyze the agreement of self-reported and general practitioner-reported chronic conditions among multimorbid patients in primary care, and to discover which patient characteristics are associated with positive agreement. Methods The MultiCare Cohort Study is a multicenter, prospective, observational cohort study of 3,189 multimorbid patients, ages 65 to 85. Data was collected in personal interviews with patients and GPs. The prevalence proportions for 32 diagnosis groups, kappa coefficients and proportions of specific agreement were calculated in order to examine the agreement of patient self-reported and general practitioner-reported chronic conditions. Logistic regression models were calculated to analyze which patient characteristics can be associated with positive agreement. Results We identified four chronic conditions with good agreement (e.g. diabetes mellitus κ = 0.80;PA = 0,87), seven with moderate agreement (e.g. cerebral ischemia/chronic stroke κ = 0.55;PA = 0.60), seventeen with fair agreement (e.g. cardiac insufficiency κ = 0.24;PA = 0.36) and four with poor agreement (e.g. gynecological problems κ = 0.05;PA = 0.10). Factors associated with positive agreement concerning different chronic diseases were sex, age, education, income, disease count, depression, EQ VAS score and nursing care dependency. For example: Women had higher odds ratios for positive agreement with their GP regarding osteoporosis (OR = 7.16). The odds ratios for positive agreement increase with increasing multimorbidity in almost all of the observed chronic conditions (OR = 1.22-2.41). Conclusions For multimorbidity research, the
... agency Office of the Inspector General as referenced in FAR clause 52.203-13, Contractor Code of Business... Federal Register on November 12, 2008, with an effective date of December 12, 2008. The contract clause... amended by adding paragraph (a) to read as follows: 203.1004 Contract clauses. (a) Use the clause at...
Office of Inspector General (ED), Washington, DC.
This report from the Department of Education's (ED) Office of Inspector General (OIG) examines information-systems technology, financial systems and controls, and postsecondary education in the ED. The review focuses on postsecondary schools, lenders, and guaranty agencies. Significant investigative efforts revealed that fraud had been committed…
... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Submission to Associate Attorney General by Director of Office of Alien Property of certain proposed allowances and disallowances. 0.167 Section 0.167 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Authority To Compromise and Close Civil Claims...
This is the General Counsel`s Office site support program plan for the US DOE Hanford site. The topics addressed in the program plan include a mission statement, description of activities, program objectives, planning assumptions, program constraints, work breakdown structure, milestone list, milestone description sheets, and activity detail.
This final rule amends the regulations relating to exclusion authorities under the authority of the Office of Inspector General (OIG) of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS or the Department). The final rule incorporates statutory changes, early reinstatement provisions, and policy changes, and clarifies existing regulatory provisions.
Comptroller General of the U.S., Washington, DC.
Amounts billed for teaching physician services and paid by Medicare carriers were reviewed by the General Accounting Office (GAO) to determine whether such payments had been made only where the physicians had satisfied the requirements of the Social Security Act. Attention was focused on the requirement that teaching physicians must provide a…
Office of Inspector General (ED), Washington, DC.
The Office of Inspector General (OIG) continues to focus its energies on some of the significant challenges facing the U.S. Department of Education. It completed implementation and end-to-end testing of its internal systems for Y2K compliance, though it could not ensure compliance of its trading partners. The OIG advised the Department as it…
... Management System--Change in Final Effective Date AGENCY: Office of the General Counsel, HUD. ACTION: Notice... of a new system of records for the OGC E-Discovery Management System until after the opportunity for... that announced OGC's intent to establish a new system of records for OGC's E-Discovery...
Office of Inspector General (ED), Washington, DC.
This report from the Department of Education's (ED) Office of Inspector General (OIG) focuses on ED's information technology and Year 2000 readiness. It also reviews elementary and secondary education and student financial-assistance programs to ensure that ED programs are administered with efficiency, effectiveness, and integrity. A review of…
Office of Inspector General (ED), Washington, DC.
The Office of Inspector General (OIG) works to assist the Department of Education in ensuring the integrity of its operations and improving its programs. During the 6 months this report covers, OIG issued 60 audit and inspection reports and memoranda, and closed 104 investigations. More specifically, OIG investigated purchase-card abuse and…
... Order No. 3239-2010] RIN 1105-AB22 Office of the Attorney General; Applicability of the Sex Offender... the Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act, title I of Public Law 109-248, apply to all sex offenders, including sex offenders convicted of the offense for which registration is required before...