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Sample records for official solid organ

  1. Evaluation of solid-phase microextraction as an alternative to the official method for the analysis of organic micro-pollutants in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Guillot, Sophie; Kelly, Mary T; Fenet, Hélène; Larroque, Michel

    2006-01-06

    The objective this study was to compare the official EU liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) method with solid-phase microextraction (SPME) for the analysis of compounds migrating from cross-linked polyethylene into water. A medium polarity polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB) 65 microm fibre proved most efficient for the SPME extraction of nine test compounds and the optimum extraction conditions were an immersion time of 30 min with heating to 60 degrees C. The repeatability of the SPME method was variable: RSD values ranged from approximately 4-18% depending on the individual compound, though correlation coefficients were greater than 0.999 in the concentration range 0.5-1000 microg/l. It would also seem that there is some competition amongst different compounds for sites on the fibre and this is a potential drawback of SPME when applied to unknown samples. However, when applied to water samples in contact with polyethylene, SPME proved to be immensely more sensitive and to have a greater extraction range than LLE. These factors coupled with the rapidity and ease of use of SPME mean that it could be developed for use as an alternative to the existing official method or as an alert system in the routine analysis of materials used to transport domestic water.

  2. Registry of Hospital Das Clínicas of the University of São Paulo Medical School: First Official Solid Organ and Tissue Transplantation Report – 2008

    PubMed Central

    Azeka, Estela; Auler Júnior, José Otavio Costa; Fernandes, Paulo Manuel Pego; Nahas, Willian Carlos; Fiorelli, Alfredo Inácio; Tannuri, Uenis; Cristofani, Lílian Maria; Caiero, Marcelo Tadeu; Dulley, Frederico Luiz; de Oliveira Paggiaro, André; Bacchella, Telesforo

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to report a single center experience of organ and tissue transplantation INTRODUCTION: This is the first report of organ and tissue transplantation at the Hospital das Clínicas of the University of Sao Paulo Medical School. METHODS: We collected data from each type of organ transplantation from 2002 to 2007. The data collected were patient characteristics and actuarial survival Kaplan-Meier curves at 30 days, one year, and five years RESULTS: There were a total of 3,321 transplants at our institution and the 5-year survival curve ranged from 53% to 88%. CONCLUSION: This report shows that solid organ and tissue transplants are feasible within the institution and allow us to expect that the quality of transplantation will improve in the future. PMID:19219318

  3. The Organic Solid State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Dwaine O.; Wlygul, Frank M.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews interesting and useful electrical, magnetic, and optical properties of the organic solid state. Offers speculation as to areas of fruitful research. Discusses organic superconductors, conducting organic polymers, organic metals, and traces recent history of creation of organic metals. (JM)

  4. The Organic Solid State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Dwaine O.; Wlygul, Frank M.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews interesting and useful electrical, magnetic, and optical properties of the organic solid state. Offers speculation as to areas of fruitful research. Discusses organic superconductors, conducting organic polymers, organic metals, and traces recent history of creation of organic metals. (JM)

  5. Application of Organic Solid Electrolytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekido, S.

    1982-01-01

    If ions are considered to be solid material which transport electric charges, polymer materials can then be considered as organic solid electrolytes. The role of these electrolytes is discussed for (1) ion concentration sensors; (2) batteries using lithium as the cathode and a charge complex of organic material and iodine in the anode; and (3) elements applying electrical double layer capability.

  6. HLA Population Genetics in Solid Organ Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kransdorf, Evan P; Pando, Marcelo J; Gragert, Loren; Kaplan, Bruce

    2017-09-01

    HLAs are fundamental to the adaptive immune response and play critical roles in the cellular and humoral response in solid organ transplantation. The genes encoding HLA proteins are the most polymorphic within the human genome, with thousands of different allelic variants known within the population. Application of the principles of population genetics to the HLA genes has resulted in the development of a numeric metric, the calculated panel-reactive antibody (CPRA) that predicts the likelihood of a positive crossmatch as a function of a transplant candidate's unacceptable HLA antigens. The CPRA is an indispensible measure of access to transplantation for sensitized candidates and is used as the official measure of sensitization for allocation of points in the US Kidney Allocation System and Eurotransplant. Here, we review HLA population genetics and detail the mathematical basis of the CPRA. An understanding of these principles by transplant clinicians will lay the foundation for continued innovation in the care of sensitized patients.

  7. 8 CFR 332.4 - Cooperation with official National and State organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooperation with official National and State organizations. 332.4 Section 332.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY NATIONALITY REGULATIONS NATURALIZATION ADMINISTRATION § 332.4 Cooperation with official National and...

  8. 8 CFR 332.4 - Cooperation with official National and State organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cooperation with official National and State organizations. 332.4 Section 332.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY NATIONALITY REGULATIONS NATURALIZATION ADMINISTRATION § 332.4 Cooperation with official National and...

  9. Conversion of organic solids to hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Greenbaum, E.

    1995-05-23

    A method of converting organic solids to liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons includes impregnating an organic solid with photosensitizing ions and exposing the impregnated solid to light in a non-oxidizing atmosphere for a time sufficient to photocatalytically reduce the solid to at least one of a liquid and a gaseous hydrocarbon. 5 Figs.

  10. Conversion of organic solids to hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Greenbaum, Elias

    1995-01-01

    A method of converting organic solids to liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons includes impregnating an organic solid with photosensitizing ions and exposing the impregnated solid to light in a non-oxidizing atmosphere for a time sufficient to photocatalytically reduce the solid to at least one of a liquid and a gaseous hydrocarbon.

  11. The View of Religious Officials on Organ Donation and Transplantation in the Zeytinburnu District of Istanbul.

    PubMed

    Tarhan, Merve; Dalar, Levent; Yildirimoglu, Huseyin; Sayar, Adnan; Altin, Sedat

    2015-12-01

    One of the obstacles to organ donation and transplantation in Turkey is that of religious beliefs and, at this point, religious officials constitute a key aspect of this problem. Positive or negative viewpoints held by religious officials regarding organ donation and transplantation are influential in guiding the public. This descriptive study was conducted for the purpose of describing religious officials' viewpoints on this subject. To determine the opinions of 40 religious officials from among the imams and muezzins working in Zeytinburnu District Mufti (Religious Officials Superior) Station who participated in a normal meeting in April and who fully completed the survey. A 27-question survey form was used that consisted of open-ended and closed questions, 5 of which were on socio-demographic characteristics, 13 on viewpoints on organ donation and transplantation, and 9 on the Islamic viewpoint regarding organ donation and transplantation. For the analysis of the results, Student's t test and one-way ANOVA tests were used. It was found that all of the religious officials believed in the importance of organ donation, 80 % considered donating their organs, and 5 % had made an organ donation. Of the religious officials who had not donated organs, 35 % gave an answer that there was no specific reason and 27.5 % stated that they had never considered the subject. While the number of those stating that they would donate the organs of a close associate who had died, 77.5 % of them who did not want to donate gave as their reason the idea that if it were him, he would perhaps not want to give his organs after death. Of the religious officials questioned, 92.5 % asserted that the religion of Islam looked positively on organ donation and transplantation, 55 % stated that the knowledge of religious officials in the country was inadequate regarding this subject, and 65 % said that for interest in organ donation to increase, religious officials should make speeches and raise

  12. The View of Religious Officials on Organ Donation and Transplantation in the Zeytinburnu District of Istanbul.

    PubMed

    Tarhan, Merve; Dalar, Levent; Yildirimoglu, Huseyin; Sayar, Adnan; Altin, Sedat

    2014-03-22

    One of the obstacles to organ donation and transplantation in Turkey is that of religious beliefs and, at this point, religious officials constitute a key aspect of this problem. Positive or negative viewpoints held by religious officials regarding organ donation and transplantation are influential in guiding the public. This descriptive study was conducted for the purpose of describing religious officials' viewpoints on this subject. To determine the opinions of 40 religious officials from among the imams and muezzins working in Zeytinburnu District Mufti (Religious Officials Superior) Station who participated in a normal meeting in April and who fully completed the survey. A 27-question survey form was used that consisted of open-ended and closed questions, 5 of which were on socio-demographic characteristics, 13 on viewpoints on organ donation and transplantation, and 9 on the Islamic viewpoint regarding organ donation and transplantation. For the analysis of the results, Student's t test and one-way ANOVA tests were used. It was found that all of the religious officials believed in the importance of organ donation, 80 % considered donating their organs, and 5 % had made an organ donation. Of the religious officials who had not donated organs, 35 % gave an answer that there was no specific reason and 27.5 % stated that they had never considered the subject. While the number of those stating that they would donate the organs of a close associate who had died, 77.5 % of them who did not want to donate gave as their reason the idea that if it were him, he would perhaps not want to give his organs after death. Of the religious officials questioned, 92.5 % asserted that the religion of Islam looked positively on organ donation and transplantation, 55 % stated that the knowledge of religious officials in the country was inadequate regarding this subject, and 65 % said that for interest in organ donation to increase, religious officials should make speeches and

  13. Solid organ transplant training objectives for residents.

    PubMed

    Masclans, J R; Vicente, R; Ballesteros, M A; Sabater, J; Roca, O; Rello, J

    2012-11-01

    With the aim of analyzing the current state of the educational objectives in the training of medical residents in solid organ transplantation (SOT), we conducted a review of the status of the official programs of the specialities involved in SOT, focusing particularly on lung transplantation. A survey of medical residents was also conducted to allow reflexion about the topic. We obtained 44 surveys from 4 University Hospitals with active programs in SOT, mainly from intensive care medicine and anesthesiology residents. We detected an important number of courses oriented to organ donation but very limited in terms of basic training in the management of the immediate postoperative period, principles of immunosuppression and updates on immunosuppressive therapy and complications (particularly rejection and infection). We also identified that these educational aspects should be directed not only to medical residents from specialities with a close retation to SOT, but also to all who may at some time have a relation to such patients. The use of information and communication techniques (ICTs), on-line courses and also simulations should be instruments to take into account in the biomedical training of medical residents. We conclude that we need a specific training program in complications of SOT, as well as fundamental principles in immunology and immunosuppressor pharmacology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  14. 31 CFR 560.539 - Official activities of certain international organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... international organizations. 560.539 Section 560.539 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money... TRANSACTIONS REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations and Statements of Licensing Policy § 560.539 Official activities of certain international organizations. (a) General license. Except as provided in paragraph...

  15. 31 CFR 560.539 - Official activities of certain international organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... international organizations. 560.539 Section 560.539 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money... TRANSACTIONS AND SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 560.539 Official activities of certain international organizations. (a) General license. Except as provided...

  16. 31 CFR 560.539 - Official activities of certain international organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... international organizations. 560.539 Section 560.539 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money... TRANSACTIONS AND SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 560.539 Official activities of certain international organizations. (a) General license. Except as provided...

  17. Histoplasmosis after solid organ transplant.

    PubMed

    Assi, Maha; Martin, Stanley; Wheat, L Joseph; Hage, Chadi; Freifeld, Alison; Avery, Robin; Baddley, John W; Vergidis, Paschalis; Miller, Rachel; Andes, David; Young, Jo-Anne H; Hammoud, Kassem; Huprikar, Shirish; McKinsey, David; Myint, Thein; Garcia-Diaz, Julia; Esguerra, Eden; Kwak, E J; Morris, Michele; Mullane, Kathleen M; Prakash, Vidhya; Burdette, Steven D; Sandid, Mohammad; Dickter, Jana; Ostrander, Darin; Antoun, Smyrna Abou; Kaul, Daniel R

    2013-12-01

    To improve our understanding of risk factors, management, diagnosis, and outcomes associated with histoplasmosis after solid organ transplant (SOT), we report a large series of histoplasmosis occurring after SOT. All cases of histoplasmosis in SOT recipients diagnosed between 1 January 2003 and 31 December 2010 at 24 institutions were identified. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were collected. One hundred fifty-two cases were identified: kidney (51%), liver (16%), kidney/pancreas (14%), heart (9%), lung (5%), pancreas (2%), and other (2%). The median time from transplant to diagnosis was 27 months, but 34% were diagnosed in the first year after transplant. Twenty-eight percent of patients had severe disease (requiring intensive care unit admission); 81% had disseminated disease. Urine Histoplasma antigen detection was the most sensitive diagnostic method, positive in 132 of 142 patients (93%). An amphotericin formulation was administered initially to 73% of patients for a median duration of 2 weeks; step-down therapy with an azole was continued for a median duration of 12 months. Ten percent of patients died due to histoplasmosis with 72% of deaths occurring in the first month after diagnosis; older age and severe disease were risk factors for death from histoplasmosis. Relapse occurred in 6% of patients. Although late cases occur, the first year after SOT is the period of highest risk for histoplasmosis. In patients who survive the first month after diagnosis, treatment with an amphotericin formulation followed by an azole for 12 months is usually successful, with only rare relapse.

  18. 31 CFR 542.513 - Official activities of certain international organizations authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Official activities of certain international organizations authorized. 542.513 Section 542.513 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY...

  19. 31 CFR 537.509 - Official activities of certain international organizations authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Official activities of certain international organizations authorized. 537.509 Section 537.509 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BURMESE...

  20. 78 FR 14437 - Government Employees Serving in Official Capacity in Nonprofit Organizations; Sector Unit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ... Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004, Public Law 108-458 (December 17, 2004). Then, on... 3209-AA09 Government Employees Serving in Official Capacity in Nonprofit Organizations; Sector Unit... of sector mutual funds to clarify that it applies to interests in the holdings of sector...

  1. [The first official organization of traditional Chinese medicine in modern China-TCM Improvement Research Association].

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Zhang, P F

    2016-07-28

    In modern China, most of the mass organizations of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) were civilian and established by the individuals with self support financially.The TCM Improvement Research Association of Shanxi Province was the first official TCM organization in modern China. For the purpose of ruling and recognition of TCM, Yan Xishan, the chief executive of Shanxi province, gave a full support to its creation, development, and operation of the Association with the military and political officials in the government served as part-time staff members of a few of important position in the Association. The Association was given funding and policy support by official ways. The local administrative departments cooperated with the Association affairs actively. Because of the stable organization and the abundant fund, the TCM Improvement Research Association developed quickly and steadily. As a result, the Association had been playing an important and increasing role in academic research, TCM education, medical and epidemic prevention and so on. It had become one of the great national TCM academic societies with prolonged existence. As an official Association, it was characterized with a dual property: a better foundation for development and little independency.

  2. Histoplasmosis After Solid Organ Transplant

    PubMed Central

    Assi, Maha; Martin, Stanley; Wheat, L. Joseph; Hage, Chadi; Freifeld, Alison; Avery, Robin; Baddley, John W.; Vergidis, Paschalis; Miller, Rachel; Andes, David; Young, Jo-Anne H.; Hammoud, Kassem; Huprikar, Shirish; McKinsey, David; Myint, Thein; Garcia-Diaz, Julia; Esguerra, Eden; Kwak, E. J.; Morris, Michele; Mullane, Kathleen M.; Prakash, Vidhya; Burdette, Steven D.; Sandid, Mohammad; Dickter, Jana; Ostrander, Darin; Antoun, Smyrna Abou; Kaul, Daniel R.

    2013-01-01

    Background. To improve our understanding of risk factors, management, diagnosis, and outcomes associated with histoplasmosis after solid organ transplant (SOT), we report a large series of histoplasmosis occurring after SOT. Methods. All cases of histoplasmosis in SOT recipients diagnosed between 1 January 2003 and 31 December 2010 at 24 institutions were identified. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were collected. Results. One hundred fifty-two cases were identified: kidney (51%), liver (16%), kidney/pancreas (14%), heart (9%), lung (5%), pancreas (2%), and other (2%). The median time from transplant to diagnosis was 27 months, but 34% were diagnosed in the first year after transplant. Twenty-eight percent of patients had severe disease (requiring intensive care unit admission); 81% had disseminated disease. Urine Histoplasma antigen detection was the most sensitive diagnostic method, positive in 132 of 142 patients (93%). An amphotericin formulation was administered initially to 73% of patients for a median duration of 2 weeks; step-down therapy with an azole was continued for a median duration of 12 months. Ten percent of patients died due to histoplasmosis with 72% of deaths occurring in the first month after diagnosis; older age and severe disease were risk factors for death from histoplasmosis. Relapse occurred in 6% of patients. Conclusions. Although late cases occur, the first year after SOT is the period of highest risk for histoplasmosis. In patients who survive the first month after diagnosis, treatment with an amphotericin formulation followed by an azole for 12 months is usually successful, with only rare relapse. PMID:24046304

  3. 31 CFR 595.508 - Official activities of certain international organizations; U.S. person employees of certain...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Official activities of certain international organizations; U.S. person employees of certain governments. 595.508 Section 595.508 Money and... Licensing Policy § 595.508 Official activities of certain international organizations; U.S. person...

  4. 31 CFR 595.508 - Official activities of certain international organizations; U.S. person employees of certain...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Official activities of certain international organizations; U.S. person employees of certain governments. 595.508 Section 595.508 Money and... Licensing Policy § 595.508 Official activities of certain international organizations; U.S. person...

  5. 25 CFR 900.225 - Does an Indian tribe or tribal organization get paid immediately if the awarding official decides...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Does an Indian tribe or tribal organization get paid immediately if the awarding official decides in its favor? 900.225 Section 900.225 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... § 900.225 Does an Indian tribe or tribal organization get paid immediately if the awarding official...

  6. 25 CFR 900.225 - Does an Indian tribe or tribal organization get paid immediately if the awarding official decides...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Does an Indian tribe or tribal organization get paid immediately if the awarding official decides in its favor? 900.225 Section 900.225 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... § 900.225 Does an Indian tribe or tribal organization get paid immediately if the awarding official...

  7. [Solid organ transplantation in the Czech Republic].

    PubMed

    Kuman, Milan

    2015-01-01

    Solid organ transplantation (heart, lung, liver, kidney, pancreas, small interesting and their combinations) are standard therapy of terminal organ failure. Czech Republic belongs to the states with developed transplantation program. The results correspond with current knowledge and results of leading centers in the world, as demostrated in this article. Organ donor shortage is major factor limiting development of organ transplantations as elsewhere in the Europe or in the world.

  8. Frustrated Organic Solids Display Unexpected Gas Sorption

    SciTech Connect

    Thallapally, Praveen K.; Dalgarno, Scott J.; Atwood, Jerry L.

    2006-11-27

    Calixarene based organic solid can hold guests such as toluene and other organic molecules we have discovered a new type of material which believe involves a frustration of the solvate lattice as it moves toward the thermodynamically stable desolvated state. The intermediated phase with partial solvent content unexpectedly sorbs gases such as carbon dioxide and highly explosive acetylene deep inside the crystal lattice.

  9. Amorphous Molecular Organic Solids for Gas Adsorption

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Jian; Thallapally, Praveen K.; Dalgarno, Scott J.; McGrail, B. Peter; Atwood, Jerry L.

    2009-07-06

    We show that molecular organic compounds with large accessible internal cavities, as part of their rigid molecular structure, display exceptional ability for gas storage and separation in the amorphous solid state. This finding suggests for the first time that long-range molecular order is not a prerequisite for organic molecules to be engineered as porous materials

  10. 31 CFR 597.506 - Official activities of certain international organizations; U.S. person employees of certain...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., and Statements of Licensing Policy § 597.506 Official activities of certain international... International Monetary Fund, the World Food Programme, and the World Health Organization. (c) The retention and...

  11. 31 CFR 594.510 - Official activities of certain international organizations; U.S. person employees of certain...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Licensing Policy § 594.510 Official activities of certain international organizations; U.S. person employees... Secretariat, specifically including, among others, the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, the World...

  12. 31 CFR 595.508 - Official activities of certain international organizations; U.S. person employees of certain...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Licensing Policy § 595.508 Official activities of certain international organizations; U.S. person employees... Secretariat, specifically including, among others, the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, the World...

  13. Fungal infections in solid organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Fernanda P; Husain, Shahid

    2007-06-01

    Fungal infections in solid organ transplant recipients continue to be a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Candida spp. and Aspergillus spp. account for most invasive fungal infections. The incidence of fungal infection varies with type of solid organ transplant. Liver transplant recipients have highest reported incidence of candida infections while lung transplant recipients have highest rate of Aspergillus infections. Recent epidemiological studies suggest the emergence of resistant strains of candida as well as mycelial fungi other than Aspergillus in these patients. The current review incorporates the recent changes in the epidemiology of fungal infections in solid organ transplant recipients and highlights the newer data on the diagnosis, prophylaxis and treatment of fungal infections in these patients.

  14. Sarcopenia in solid organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Carey, Elizabeth J

    2014-04-01

    Sarcopenia is a relatively new concept in the medical literature, initially intended to describe the loss of lean body mass that occurs with aging. More recently, sarcopenia has been described in various forms of chronic disease, including patients with end-stage organ disease awaiting transplantation. The presence of sarcopenia is an important marker in transplant patients, since it has been linked to poorer pre- and posttransplant outcomes compared with patients with preserved muscle mass. The mechanisms and natural history of sarcopenia in transplant patients are incompletely understood, and there are currently no therapies proven to mitigate or reverse the process. This article reviews the current understanding of the prevalence and clinical significance of sarcopenia in transplant patients and highlights important areas of future research.

  15. Transitional care in solid organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kerkar, Nanda; Annunziato, Rachel

    2015-04-01

    Pediatric solid organ transplantation has become an accepted modality of treatment in the last few decades. The number of childhood recipients of solid organ transplantation surviving to adulthood is correspondingly rising. This review examines the epidemiology of pediatric solid organ transplant recipients, and the challenges faced during transition to adult services, with suggestions for improvement in collaborative and coordinated care. Transition to adulthood has been established as a vulnerable period for recipients of a solid organ transplant. Assessment of readiness for transfer, allowing sufficient time for preparation before the actual transfer, involvement of all stakeholders, and inclusion of a transition coordinator are some of the components that can facilitate successful transition to the adult transplant program. This programmatic approach improves both quality of life and long-term graft and patient survival. Moreover, the economic benefits associated with avoiding frequent hospitalizations for graft dysfunction and preventing re-transplantation more than compensate for the costs related to establishing and maintaining a robust transition program.

  16. [Modern immunosuppression after solid organ transplantation].

    PubMed

    Beimler, J; Morath, C; Zeier, M

    2014-02-01

    The one common factor in solid organ transplantation is the need for lifelong maintenance immunosuppression. Drug regimens after organ transplantation typically comprise a combination of different immunosuppressive drugs. In most cases a triple drug regimen with different mechanisms of action is used. The aim is to improve both patient and graft survival while minimizing potential side effects of immunosuppressive medication. The basis of most immunosuppressive regimens is calcineurin inhibitors in combination with mycophenolic acid. There are various stages of immunosuppression after solid organ transplantation involving induction therapy, initial and long-term maintenance therapy. In each phase an individual combination of immunosuppressants is set up depending on the risk profile of the individual patient to prevent transplant rejection and organ loss. Based on these considerations, concepts of calcineurin inhibitor or steroid reduction have been established in transplant medicine in recent years. The key role in terms of development of new immunosuppressive strategies is taken by kidney transplantation, the most common solid organ transplantation performed.

  17. Growth following solid organ transplantation in childhood.

    PubMed

    Laster, M L; Fine, R N

    2014-03-01

    One of the ultimate goals of successful transplantation in pediatric solid organ transplant recipients is the attainment of optimal final adult height. This manuscript will discuss the attainment of height following solid organ transplantation in pediatric recipients of kidney, liver, heart, lung, and small bowel transplantation. Age is a primary factor with younger recipients exhibiting the greatest immediate catch up growth. Graft function is a significant contributory factor with a reduction in glomerular filtration rate correlating with poor growth in kidney recipients and the need for re-transplantation with impaired growth in liver recipients. The known adverse impact of steroids on growth has led to modification of steroid dosage and even to steroid withdrawal and steroid avoidance. In kidney and liver recipients, this has been associated with the development on occasion of acute rejection episodes. In infant heart transplantation, avoidance of maintenance corticosteroid immunosuppression is associated with normal growth velocity in the majority of patients. With marked improvement in patient and graft survival rates in pediatric organ graft recipients, it is timely that the quality of life issues, such as normal adult height, receive paramount attention. In general, normal growth post-transplantation should be an achievable goal that results in normal adult height for many solid organ transplantation recipients.

  18. 31 CFR 597.506 - Official activities of certain international organizations; U.S. person employees of certain...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... International Monetary Fund, the World Food Programme, and the World Health Organization. (c) The retention and... international organizations; U.S. person employees of certain governments. 597.506 Section 597.506 Money and..., and Statements of Licensing Policy § 597.506 Official activities of certain...

  19. 31 CFR 594.510 - Official activities of certain international organizations; U.S. person employees of certain...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Secretariat, specifically including, among others, the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, the World... international organizations; U.S. person employees of certain governments. 594.510 Section 594.510 Money and... Licensing Policy § 594.510 Official activities of certain international organizations; U.S. person...

  20. 31 CFR 597.506 - Official activities of certain international organizations; U.S. person employees of certain...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... International Monetary Fund, the World Food Programme, and the World Health Organization. (c) The retention and... international organizations; U.S. person employees of certain governments. 597.506 Section 597.506 Money and..., and Statements of Licensing Policy § 597.506 Official activities of certain...

  1. 31 CFR 537.509 - Official activities of the U.S. Government and certain international organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of the United States Government, the United Nations, the World Bank, or the International Monetary.... Government and certain international organizations. 537.509 Section 537.509 Money and Finance: Treasury....509 Official activities of the U.S. Government and certain international organizations....

  2. 31 CFR 594.510 - Official activities of certain international organizations; U.S. person employees of certain...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Secretariat, specifically including, among others, the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, the World... international organizations; U.S. person employees of certain governments. 594.510 Section 594.510 Money and... Licensing Policy § 594.510 Official activities of certain international organizations; U.S. person...

  3. 31 CFR 537.509 - Official activities of the U.S. Government and certain international organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of the United States Government, the United Nations, the World Bank, or the International Monetary.... Government and certain international organizations. 537.509 Section 537.509 Money and Finance: Treasury....509 Official activities of the U.S. Government and certain international organizations....

  4. 31 CFR 594.510 - Official activities of certain international organizations; U.S. person employees of certain...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Secretariat, specifically including, among others, the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, the World... international organizations; U.S. person employees of certain governments. 594.510 Section 594.510 Money and... Licensing Policy § 594.510 Official activities of certain international organizations; U.S. person...

  5. 31 CFR 537.509 - Official activities of the U.S. Government and certain international organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of the United States Government, the United Nations, the World Bank, or the International Monetary.... Government and certain international organizations. 537.509 Section 537.509 Money and Finance: Treasury....509 Official activities of the U.S. Government and certain international organizations....

  6. 31 CFR 595.508 - Official activities of certain international organizations; U.S. person employees of certain...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Secretariat, specifically including, among others, the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, the World... international organizations; U.S. person employees of certain governments. 595.508 Section 595.508 Money and... Licensing Policy § 595.508 Official activities of certain international organizations; U.S. person...

  7. 31 CFR 595.508 - Official activities of certain international organizations; U.S. person employees of certain...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Secretariat, specifically including, among others, the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, the World... international organizations; U.S. person employees of certain governments. 595.508 Section 595.508 Money and... Licensing Policy § 595.508 Official activities of certain international organizations; U.S. person...

  8. 31 CFR 594.510 - Official activities of certain international organizations; U.S. person employees of certain...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Secretariat, specifically including, among others, the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, the World... international organizations; U.S. person employees of certain governments. 594.510 Section 594.510 Money and... Licensing Policy § 594.510 Official activities of certain international organizations; U.S. person...

  9. 31 CFR 597.506 - Official activities of certain international organizations; U.S. person employees of certain...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... International Monetary Fund, the World Food Programme, and the World Health Organization. (c) The retention and... international organizations; U.S. person employees of certain governments. 597.506 Section 597.506 Money and..., and Statements of Licensing Policy § 597.506 Official activities of certain...

  10. 31 CFR 597.506 - Official activities of certain international organizations; U.S. person employees of certain...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... International Monetary Fund, the World Food Programme, and the World Health Organization. (c) The retention and... international organizations; U.S. person employees of certain governments. 597.506 Section 597.506 Money and..., and Statements of Licensing Policy § 597.506 Official activities of certain...

  11. Conservation Directory, 1979. 24th Edition. A List of Organizations, Agencies, and Officials Concerned with Natural Resource Use and Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Jeannette, Ed.

    This annual directory contains lists of organizations, agencies, and officials concerned with natural resource use and management. Five indexes are included in the first section of the directory: (1) U.S. Federal Departments, Agencies, and Offices; (2) International, National, Interstate Organizations, and Commissions; (3) State, Territorial…

  12. Food allergies developing after solid organ transplant.

    PubMed

    Needham, J M; Nicholas, S K; Davis, C M

    2015-12-01

    The development of food allergy is an increasingly recognized form of morbidity after solid organ transplant. It occurs more commonly in liver transplant recipients, although it has also been reported in heart, lung, kidney, and intestinal transplants. Pediatric transplant recipients are more likely to develop symptoms compared to adults, and reports of frequency vary widely from 5% to 38% in pediatric liver transplant recipients. Multiple mechanisms have been proposed in the literature, although no single mechanism can yet account for all reported observations. As food allergy can have at worst potentially fatal consequences, and at best require lifestyle adjustment through food avoidance, it is important for recipients to be aware of the donor's food allergies and particularly in pediatrics, the possibility of completely de novo allergies. This review explores the recent reports surrounding food allergy after solid organ transplant, including epidemiology, proposed mechanisms, and implications for practice.

  13. Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation after Solid Organ Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Doney, Kristine C; Mielcarek, Marco; Stewart, F Marc; Appelbaum, Frederick R

    2015-12-01

    Solid organ transplantation (SOT) followed by hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) has been used to treat a single disease with multiorgan involvement or 2 separate diseases, the first requiring SOT and the second often a possible complication of SOT. Results of such serial transplants have been reported sporadically in the literature, usually as single case studies. Thirteen autologous and 27 allogeneic HCTs after SOT published previously are summarized. A more detailed review is provided for an additional 16 patients transplanted at a single institution, 8 of whom had autologous and 8 of whom had allogeneic HCT after SOT. Five of 8 autologous transplant recipients are alive a median of 4.6 years after HCT. Four of 8 allogeneic HCT recipients are alive a median of 8.7 years after HCT. In carefully selected patients, HCT after SOT is feasible and associated with a low incidence of either solid organ or hematopoietic cell rejection.

  14. Thermodynamic modeling for organic solid precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, T.H.

    1992-12-01

    A generalized predictive model which is based on thermodynamic principle for solid-liquid phase equilibrium has been developed for organic solid precipitation. The model takes into account the effects of temperature, composition, and activity coefficient on the solubility of wax and asphaltenes in organic solutions. The solid-liquid equilibrium K-value is expressed as a function of the heat of melting, melting point temperature, solubility parameter, and the molar volume of each component in the solution. All these parameters have been correlated with molecular weight. Thus, the model can be applied to crude oil systems. The model has been tested with experimental data for wax formation and asphaltene precipitation. The predicted wax appearance temperature is very close to the measured temperature. The model not only can match the measured asphaltene solubility data but also can be used to predict the solubility of asphaltene in organic solvents or crude oils. The model assumes that asphaltenes are dissolved in oil in a true liquid state, not in colloidal suspension, and the precipitation-dissolution process is reversible by changing thermodynamic conditions. The model is thermodynamically consistent and has no ambiguous assumptions.

  15. Thermodynamic modeling for organic solid precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, T.H.

    1992-12-01

    A generalized predictive model which is based on thermodynamic principle for solid-liquid phase equilibrium has been developed for organic solid precipitation. The model takes into account the effects of temperature, composition, and activity coefficient on the solubility of wax and asphaltenes in organic solutions. The solid-liquid equilibrium K-value is expressed as a function of the heat of melting, melting point temperature, solubility parameter, and the molar volume of each component in the solution. All these parameters have been correlated with molecular weight. Thus, the model can be applied to crude oil systems. The model has been tested with experimental data for wax formation and asphaltene precipitation. The predicted wax appearance temperature is very close to the measured temperature. The model not only can match the measured asphaltene solubility data but also can be used to predict the solubility of asphaltene in organic solvents or crude oils. The model assumes that asphaltenes are dissolved in oil in a true liquid state, not in colloidal suspension, and the precipitation-dissolution process is reversible by changing thermodynamic conditions. The model is thermodynamically consistent and has no ambiguous assumptions.

  16. Neurological Complications of Solid Organ Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Pruitt, Amy A.; Graus, Francesc; Rosenfeld, Myrna R.

    2013-01-01

    Solid organ transplantation (SOT) is the preferred treatment for an expanding range of conditions whose successful therapy has produced a growing population of chronically immunosuppressed patients with potential neurological problems. While the spectrum of neurological complications varies with the type of organ transplanted, the indication for the procedure, and the intensity of long-term required immunosuppression, major neurological complications occur with all SOT types. The second part of this 2-part article on transplantation neurology reviews central and peripheral nervous system problems associated with SOT with clinical and neuroimaging examples from the authors’ institutional experience. Particular emphasis is given to conditions acquired from the donated organ or tissue, problems specific to types of organs transplanted and drug therapy-related complications likely to be encountered by hospitalists. Neurologically important syndromes such as immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS), posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES), and posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) are readdressed in the context of SOT. PMID:24167649

  17. 76 FR 76625 - Association of State and Territorial Solid Waste Management Officials; Denial of Petition for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-08

    ... potential sources of groundwater and surface water contamination. The ASTSWMO requested that the NRC revise... solid waste landfills where they become potential sources of groundwater and surface water contamination... become potential sources of groundwater and surface water contamination. The petitioner also claimed...

  18. The anaerobic digestion of organic solid wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Hartung, H.A.

    1996-09-01

    Anaerobic digestion offers many advantages in the processing of organic solid wastes, using a closed system to convert the waste to combustible gas and a stabilized organic residue.Odors are contained while digestion removes their source and gas is collected for energy recovery as heat or electricity. The stabilized residue is less than the starting waste by the mass of gas produced, and it can be disposed of by land application, land filling, incineration or composting. The stimulation of digesters and the phenomenon of co-digestion are two ways the performance of anaerobic digesters can be enhanced. Data from farm digesters and municipal wastewater treatment plants illustrate the present venue of the process; laboratory studies of the anaerobic digestion of a variety of solid wastes show that the process can be applied to these materials as well. About two thirds of municipal solid waste is shown to be amenable to anaerobic digestion in a substrate from an active municipal sewage plant digester.

  19. Growth following solid organ transplantation in childhood.

    PubMed

    Fine, Richard N

    2014-01-01

    One of the ultimate goals of successful solid organ transplantation in pediatric recipients is attaining an optimal final adult height. This manuscript will discuss growth following transplantation in pediatric recipients of kidney, liver, heart, lung or small bowel transplants. Remarkably similar factors impact growth in all of these recipients. Age is a primary factor, with younger recipients exhibiting the greatest immediate catch-up growth. Graft function is a significant contributing factor, with a reduced glomerular filtration rate correlating with poor growth in kidney recipients and the need for re-transplantation with impaired growth in liver recipients. The known adverse impact of steroids on growth has led to modification of the steroid dose and even steroid withdrawal and avoidance. In kidney and liver recipients, this strategy has been associated with the development of acute rejection. In infant heart transplantation, avoiding maintenance corticosteroid immunosuppression is associated with normal growth velocity in the majority of patients. With marked improvements in patient and graft survival rates in pediatric organ recipients, quality of life issues, such as normal adult height, should now receive paramount attention. In general, normal growth following solid organ transplantation should be an achievable goal that results in normal adult height.

  20. Factors Affecting Morbidity in Solid Organ Injuries.

    PubMed

    Baygeldi, Serdar; Karakose, Oktay; Özcelik, Kazım Caglar; Pülat, Hüseyin; Damar, Sedat; Eken, Hüseyin; Zihni, İsmail; Çalta, Alpaslan Fedai; Baç, Bilsel

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of demographic characteristics, biochemical parameters, amount of blood transfusion, and trauma scores on morbidity in patients with solid organ injury following trauma. Material and Method. One hundred nine patients with solid organ injury due to abdominal trauma during January 2005 and October 2015 were examined retrospectively in the General Surgery Department of Dicle University Medical Faculty. Patients' age, gender, trauma interval time, vital status (heart rate, arterial tension, and respiratory rate), hematocrit (HCT) value, serum area aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) values, presence of free abdominal fluid in USG, trauma mechanism, extra-abdominal system injuries, injured solid organs and their number, degree of injury in abdominal CT, number of blood transfusions, duration of hospital stay, time of operation (for those undergoing operation), trauma scores (ISS, RTS, Glasgow coma scale, and TRISS), and causes of morbidity and mortality were examined. In posttraumatic follow-up period, intra-abdominal hematoma infection, emboli, catheter infection, and deep vein thrombosis were monitored as factors of morbidity. Results. One hundred nine patients were followed up and treated due to isolated solid organ injury following abdominal trauma. There were 81 males (74.3%) and 28 females (25.7%), and the mean age was 37.6 ± 18.28 (15-78) years. When examining the mechanism of abdominal trauma in patients, the following results were obtained: 58 (53.3%) traffic accidents (22 out-vehicle and 36 in-vehicle), 27 (24.7%) falling from a height, 14 (12.9%) assaults, 5 (4.5%) sharp object injuries, and 5 (4.5%) gunshot injuries. When evaluating 69 liver injuries scaled by CT the following was detected: 14 (20.3%) of grade I, 32 (46.4%) of grade II, 22 (31.8%) of grade III, and 1 (1.5%) of grade IV. In 63 spleen injuries scaled by CT the following was present: grade I in 21

  1. Factors Affecting Morbidity in Solid Organ Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Baygeldi, Serdar; Karakose, Oktay; Özcelik, Kazım Caglar; Pülat, Hüseyin; Damar, Sedat; Eken, Hüseyin; Zihni, İsmail; Çalta, Alpaslan Fedai; Baç, Bilsel

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of demographic characteristics, biochemical parameters, amount of blood transfusion, and trauma scores on morbidity in patients with solid organ injury following trauma. Material and Method. One hundred nine patients with solid organ injury due to abdominal trauma during January 2005 and October 2015 were examined retrospectively in the General Surgery Department of Dicle University Medical Faculty. Patients' age, gender, trauma interval time, vital status (heart rate, arterial tension, and respiratory rate), hematocrit (HCT) value, serum area aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) values, presence of free abdominal fluid in USG, trauma mechanism, extra-abdominal system injuries, injured solid organs and their number, degree of injury in abdominal CT, number of blood transfusions, duration of hospital stay, time of operation (for those undergoing operation), trauma scores (ISS, RTS, Glasgow coma scale, and TRISS), and causes of morbidity and mortality were examined. In posttraumatic follow-up period, intra-abdominal hematoma infection, emboli, catheter infection, and deep vein thrombosis were monitored as factors of morbidity. Results. One hundred nine patients were followed up and treated due to isolated solid organ injury following abdominal trauma. There were 81 males (74.3%) and 28 females (25.7%), and the mean age was 37.6 ± 18.28 (15–78) years. When examining the mechanism of abdominal trauma in patients, the following results were obtained: 58 (53.3%) traffic accidents (22 out-vehicle and 36 in-vehicle), 27 (24.7%) falling from a height, 14 (12.9%) assaults, 5 (4.5%) sharp object injuries, and 5 (4.5%) gunshot injuries. When evaluating 69 liver injuries scaled by CT the following was detected: 14 (20.3%) of grade I, 32 (46.4%) of grade II, 22 (31.8%) of grade III, and 1 (1.5%) of grade IV. In 63 spleen injuries scaled by CT the following was present: grade I in

  2. Pyrogallol[4]arenes as frustrated organic solids.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Harshita; Erra, Loredana; Webb, Alicia C; Bhatt, Prashant; Barnes, Charles L; Deakyne, Carol A; Adams, John E; Barbour, Leonard J; Atwood, Jerry L

    2013-11-13

    Two forms of interdigitated layered arrangements of C-pentylpyrogallol[4]arene (PgC5) have been structurally elucidated and show variations in packing arrangements and host-guest interactions. Molecular dynamics simulations reveal a propensity for formation of self-included dimers, with or without incorporated solvent. Combined gas sorption and PXRD results show the presence of seven forms of PgC5, with and without CO2 (and their interconversions). This is the first CO2 gas sorption study of pyrogallol[4]arenes, and it provides evidence that pyrogallol[4]arenes may act as frustrated organic solids.

  3. 31 CFR 538.531 - Official activities of the United States Government and international organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the official business of the United States Government or the United Nations by contractors or grantees... conduct of the official business of the United Nations specialized agencies, programmes, and funds by... States Government or the United Nations, or its specialized agencies, programmes, and funds, to any...

  4. Infections in solid-organ transplant recipients.

    PubMed Central

    Patel, R; Paya, C V

    1997-01-01

    Solid-organ transplantation is a therapeutic option for many human diseases. Infections are a major complication of solid-organ transplantation. All candidates should undergo a thorough infectious-disease screening prior to transplantation. There are three time frames, influenced by surgical factors, the level of immunosuppression, and environmental exposures, during which infections of specific types most frequently occur posttransplantation. Most infections during the first month are related to surgical complications. Opportunistic infections typically occur from the second to the sixth month. During the late posttransplant period (beyond 6 months), transplantation recipients suffer from the same infections seen in the general community. Opportunistic bacterial infections seen in transplant recipients include those caused by Legionella spp., Nocardia spp., Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogenes. Cytomegalovirus is the most common cause of viral infections. Herpes simplex virus, varicella-zoster virus, Epstein-Barr virus and others are also significant pathogens. Fungal infections, caused by both yeasts and mycelial fungi, are associated with the highest mortality rates. Mycobacterial, pneumocystis, and parasitic diseases may also occur. PMID:8993860

  5. Innate immune receptors in solid organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Georgel, Philippe

    2016-11-01

    The discovery of Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs) followed by that of their role in the early detection of pathogens and the ignition of the innate immune response has been a formidable progress for immunological research in the past 15years. This has massively fueled investigations aiming at developing better strategies to fight off infectious diseases and/or to prevent their occurrence. However, infected individuals are for most part outliers in a given population and therefore, the primary function of these receptors should be considered in pathogen-free conditions. Our current understanding indicates that an important physiological function of PRRs resides in their capacity to maintain epithelial homeostasis in response to colonizing commensals. In addition, endogenous host-derived ligands, expressed under stressed, albeit sterile, conditions (called DAMPs for Danger-Associated Molecular Patterns) are also able to trigger PRR signaling. Solid organ transplantation represents a unique situation where both contributions of PRRs signaling can be studied. Indeed, dysbiosis (either caused by antibiotherapy preceding organ transplantation or simply due to the microbiota differences between the transplanted organ and the recipient host) is a characteristic feature of this situation, which is also marked by a massive synthesis and liberation of DAMPs as a result of hypoxia/reperfusion injury. Therefore, in the transplanted organ, at least two compartments (epithelial and that composed of immune cells) participate in graft rejection/acceptance depending on the activation status of expressed PRRs.

  6. Cryptosporidium infection in solid organ transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Florescu, Diana F; Sandkovsky, Uriel

    2016-01-01

    Diarrhea is a common complication in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients and may be attributed to immunosuppressive drugs or infectious organisms such as bacteria, viruses or parasites. Cryptosporidium usually causes self-limited diarrhea in immunocompetent hosts. Although it is estimated that cryptosporidium is involved in about 12% of cases of infectious diarrhea in developing countries and causes approximately 748000 cases each year in the United States, it is still an under recognized and important cause of infectious diarrhea in SOT recipients. It may run a protracted course with severe diarrhea, fluid and electrolyte depletion and potential for organ failure. Although diagnostic methodologies have improved significantly, allowing for fast and accurate identification of the parasite, treatment of the disease is difficult because antiparasitic drugs have modest activity at best. Current management includes fluid and electrolyte replacement, reduction of immunosuppression and single therapy with Nitazoxanide or combination therapy with Nitazoxanide and other drugs. Future drug and vaccine development may add to the currently poor armamentarium to manage the disease. The current review highlights key epidemiological, diagnostic and management issues in the SOT population. PMID:27683627

  7. Generic tacrolimus in solid organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Taube, D; Jones, G; O'Beirne, J; Wennberg, L; Connor, A; Rasmussen, A; Backman, L

    2014-05-01

    The availability of a wide range of immunosuppressive therapies has revolutionized the management of patients who have undergone solid organ transplantation (SOT). However, the cost of immunosuppressive drugs remains high. This situation has led to the development of generic equivalents, which are similar in quality, safety, and efficacy to their approved innovator drugs. There are data available for three generic brands, tacrolimus (Intas), tacrolimus (PharOS), and tacrolimus (Sandoz). Bioequivalence has been demonstrated for generic tacrolimus (Sandoz) within a narrow therapeutic range to its innovator tacrolimus drug (Prograf) in both healthy volunteers and kidney transplant patients. Clinical experience with this generic tacrolimus formulation has also been established in both de novo and conversion patients who have undergone kidney and liver transplantation, as well as in conversion of other SOT patients, including lung and heart recipients.

  8. Tobacco smoking and solid organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Corbett, Chris; Armstrong, Matthew J; Neuberger, James

    2012-11-27

    Smoking, both by donors and by recipients, has a major impact on outcomes after organ transplantation. Recipients of smokers' organs are at greater risk of death (lungs hazard ratio [HR], 1.36; heart HR, 1.8; and liver HR, 1.25), extended intensive care stays, and greater need for ventilation. Kidney function is significantly worse at 1 year after transplantation in recipients of grafts from smokers compared with nonsmokers. Clinicians must balance the use of such higher-risk organs with the consequences on waiting list mortality if the donor pool is reduced further by exclusion of such donors. Smoking by kidney transplant recipients significantly increases the risk of cardiovascular events (29.2% vs. 15.4%), renal fibrosis, rejection, and malignancy (HR, 2.56). Furthermore, liver recipients who smoke have higher rates of hepatic artery thrombosis, biliary complications, and malignancy (13% vs. 2%). Heart recipients with a smoking history have increased risk of developing coronary atherosclerosis (21.2% vs. 12.3%), graft dysfunction, and loss after transplantation. Self-reporting of smoking is commonplace but unreliable, which limits its use as a tool for selection of transplant candidates. Despite effective counseling and pharmacotherapy, recidivism rates after transplantation remain high (10-40%). Transplant services need to be more proactive in educating and implementing effective smoking cessation strategies to reduce rates of recidivism and the posttransplantation complications associated with smoking. The adverse impact of smoking by the recipient supports the requirement for a 6-month period of abstinence in lung recipients and cessation before other solid organs.

  9. Outcomes in pediatric solid-organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    LaRosa, Christopher; Baluarte, H Jorge; Meyers, Kevin E C

    2011-03-01

    LaR Pediatric solid-organ transplantation is an increasingly successful treatment for organ failure. Five- and 10-yr patient survival rates have dramatically improved over the last couple of decades, and currently, over 80% of pediatric patients survive into adolescence and young adulthood. Waiting list mortality has been a concern for liver, heart, and intestinal transplantation, illustrating the importance of transplant as a life-saving therapy. Unfortunately, the success of pediatric transplantation comes at the cost of long-term or late complications that arise as a result of allograft rejection or injury, immunosuppression-related morbidity, or both. As transplant recipients enter adolescence treatment, non-adherence becomes a significant issue, and the medical and psychosocial impacts transition to adulthood not only with regard to healthcare but also in terms of functional outcomes, economic potential, and overall QoL. This review addresses the clinical and psychosocial challenges encountered by pediatric transplant recipients in the current era. A better understanding of pediatric transplant outcomes and adult morbidity and mortality requires further ongoing assessment.

  10. Inorganic-organic composite solid polymer electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, K.M.; Koch, V.R.; Blakley, T.J.

    2000-04-01

    Inorganic-organic composite solid polymer electrolytes (CSPEs) have been prepared from the poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-like electrolytes of the general formula polyvinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene (PVdF-HFP)-PEO{sub n}-LiX and Li{sup +}-conducting ceramic powders. In the PEO-like electrolytes, PVdF-HFP is the copolymer of PVdF and HFP, PEO{sub n} is a nonvolatile oligomeric polyethylene oxide of {approximately}400 g/mol molecular weight, and LiX is lithium bis(trifluoroethylsulfonyl)imide. Two types of inorganic oxide ceramic powders were used: a highly Li{sup +}-conducting material of the composition 14 mol % Li{sub 2}O-9Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-38TiO{sub 2}-39P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and the poorly Li{sup +}-conducting Li-silicates Li{sub 4{minus}x}M{sub x}SiO{sub 4} where M is Ca or Mg and x is 0 or 0.05. The composite electrolytes can be prepared as thin membranes in which the Li{sup +} conductivity and good mechanical strength of the Li{sup +}-conducting inorganic ceramics are complemented by the structural flexibility and high conductivity of organic polymer electrolytes. Excellent electrochemical and thermal stabilities have been demonstrated for the electrolyte films. Li//composite electrolyte//LiCoO{sub 2} rechargeable cells have been fabricated and cycled at room temperature and 50 C.

  11. Cancer Risk After Pediatric Solid Organ Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Yanik, Elizabeth L; Smith, Jodi M; Shiels, Meredith S; Clarke, Christina A; Lynch, Charles F; Kahn, Amy R; Koch, Lori; Pawlish, Karen S; Engels, Eric A

    2017-05-01

    The effects of pediatric solid organ transplantation on cancer risk may differ from those observed in adult recipients. We described cancers in pediatric recipients and compared incidence to the general population. The US transplant registry was linked to 16 cancer registries to identify cancer diagnoses among recipients <18 years old at transplant. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were estimated by dividing observed cancer counts among recipients by expected counts based on the general population rates. Cox regression was used to estimate the associations between recipient characteristics and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) risk. Among 17 958 pediatric recipients, 392 cancers were diagnosed, of which 279 (71%) were NHL. Compared with the general population, incidence was significantly increased for NHL (SIR = 212, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 188-238), Hodgkin's lymphoma (SIR = 19, 95% CI = 13-26), leukemia (SIR = 4, 95% CI = 2-7), myeloma (SIR = 229, 95% CI = 47-671), and cancers of the liver, soft tissue, ovary, vulva, testis, bladder, kidney, and thyroid. NHL risk was highest during the first year after transplantation among recipients <5 years old at transplant (SIR = 313), among recipients seronegative for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) at transplant (SIR = 446), and among intestine transplant recipients (SIR = 1280). In multivariable analyses, seronegative EBV status, the first year after transplantation, intestine transplantation, and induction immunosuppression were independently associated with higher NHL incidence. Pediatric recipients have a markedly increased risk for many cancers. NHL constitutes the majority of diagnosed cancers, with the highest risk occurring in the first year after transplantation. NHL risk was high in recipients susceptible to primary EBV infection after transplant and in intestine transplant recipients, perhaps due to EBV transmission in the donor organ. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  12. Cryptococcosis in solid organ transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Henao-Martínez, Andrés F; Beckham, John David

    2015-08-01

    Cryptococcosis among solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients is a source of significant morbidity. Its pathogenesis, the etiology of immune reconstitution syndrome, and the optimal therapy in this setting are still not well defined. Herein, we review the epidemiology, the latest findings on pathogenesis, unique clinical manifestations, and the treatment of Cryptococcosis in this specific vulnerable population. Cryptococcosis is a common fungal complication among SOT recipients. It follows in frequency only to aspergillosis and candidiasis. Cryptococcal infection carries a high mortality, up to 27% during the first year posttransplantation. Host factors, environmental factors, medications, and the type of transplant all play a role in the clinical presentation and severity of infection. Clinical manifestations can be atypical among SOT recipients, and therefore, clinical suspicion and diagnostic evaluation must consider cryptococcal central nervous system disease. During meningitis treatment, measurement of Flucytosine levels is recommended to increase safety and optimize the therapeutic effect. Cryptococcosis among SOT recipients is an evolving field. Increased recognition and understanding of the disease pathogenesis, its uncommon clinical manifestations, complications and particular therapeutic strategies are the cornerstone for the optimal outcome of this often fatal condition.

  13. Extraction of organic compounds from solid samples

    SciTech Connect

    Junk, G.A.; Richard, J.J.

    1986-04-01

    Pyridine, benzene, cyclohexane, methylene chloride, dimethyl sulfoxide, dimethylformamide, and n-methylpyrrolidone have been compared for the extraction of polycyclic organic materials (POMs) from urban air, diesel, and stack particulate samples. Both sonic and Soxhlet techniques have been examined for both natural environmental particulates and particulates spiked with selected POMs. The extraction results vary for different polycyclic compounds adsorbed on different solid matrices, so no single solvent or extraction technique could be unambiguously recommended. However, comparative average results for 14 compounds spiked onto fly ash at 0.1, 0.25, and 1.0 ..mu..g/g showed pyridine to have 1.5 times more extraction efficiency than benzene. These and other reported results suggest that pyridine deserves more attention as an extractant for particulate samples. In separate tests, recoveries of POMs from fly ash were not improved by deactivation with aqueous solutions of ammonium hydroxide, thiocyanate and carbonate, and sodium nitrite prior to the extraction. 39 references, 5 tables.

  14. Prevention of infection in adult travelers after solid organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kotton, Camille Nelson; Ryan, Edward T; Fishman, Jay A

    2005-01-01

    Increasing numbers of solid organ transplant recipients are traveling to the developing world. Many of these individuals either do not seek or do not receive optimal medical care prior to travel. This review considers risks of international travel to adult solid organ transplant recipients and the use of vaccines and prophylactic agents in this population.

  15. Invasive Mold Infections in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Crabol, Yoann; Lortholary, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Invasive mold infections represent an increasing source of morbidity and mortality in solid organ transplant recipients. Whereas there is a large literature regarding invasive molds infections in hematopoietic stem cell transplants, data in solid organ transplants are scarcer. In this comprehensive review, we focused on invasive mold infection in the specific population of solid organ transplant. We highlighted epidemiology and specific risk factors for these infections and we assessed the main clinical and imaging findings by fungi and by type of solid organ transplant. Finally, we attempted to summarize the diagnostic strategy for detection of these fungi and tried to give an overview of the current prophylaxis treatments and outcomes of these infections in solid organ transplant recipients. PMID:25525551

  16. Brain death: epidemiology and quality control of solid organ donor generation.

    PubMed

    Mizraji, R; Pérez, S; Alvarez, I

    2004-01-01

    Successful solid organ transplant programs need effective organ procurement systems. Evaluating and maintaining the quality of an organ procurement system requires multilevel institutional coordination as well as reliable information regarding potential donors. The objective of this study was to analyze the potential to generate adult solid organ donors at a countrywide level as well as at individual hospital levels in Uruguay from 2000 to 2002. The analyzed factors included: encephalic deaths (brain deaths) officially registered by the National Bank of Organs and Tissues (BNOT), the distribution of these individuals among the intensive care units (ICUs) located at various hospitals, the number of Real Donors at each hospital, and the relation between the brain deaths and the number of ICU beds equipped with artificial respirators. The Uruguayan solid organ donation rate is relatively high among Latin American Countries, but low in relation to developed countries. The conversion of potential donors to actual donors is similar to that seen in developed countries. However, the registered incidence of brain deaths in relation to the number of ICU beds is surprisingly below the recognized standard figure. To approach the reasons for this difference, efficient quality control mechanisms are needed in the various ICUs as well as comprehensive medical case history reviews of all patient records.

  17. Solid organ fabrication: comparison of decellularization to 3D bioprinting.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jangwook P; Bhuiyan, Didarul B; Ogle, Brenda M

    2016-01-01

    Solid organ fabrication is an ultimate goal of Regenerative Medicine. Since the introduction of Tissue Engineering in 1993, functional biomaterials, stem cells, tunable microenvironments, and high-resolution imaging technologies have significantly advanced efforts to regenerate in vitro culture or tissue platforms. Relatively simple flat or tubular organs are already in (pre)clinical trials and a few commercial products are in market. The road to more complex, high demand, solid organs including heart, kidney and lung will require substantive technical advancement. Here, we consider two emerging technologies for solid organ fabrication. One is decellularization of cadaveric organs followed by repopulation with terminally differentiated or progenitor cells. The other is 3D bioprinting to deposit cell-laden bio-inks to attain complex tissue architecture. We reviewed the development and evolution of the two technologies and evaluated relative strengths needed to produce solid organs, with special emphasis on the heart and other tissues of the cardiovascular system.

  18. Co-pyrolysis of coal with organic solids

    SciTech Connect

    Straka, P.; Buchtele, J.

    1995-12-01

    The co-pyrolysis of high volatile A bituminous coal with solid organic materials (proteins, cellulose, polyisoprene, polystyrene, polyethylene-glycolterephtalate-PEGT) at a high temperature conditions was investigated. Aim of the work was to evaluate, firstly, the changes of the texture and of the porous system of solid phase after high temperature treatment in presence of different types of macromolecular solids, secondly, properties and composition of the tar and gas. Considered organic solids are important waste components. During their co-pyrolysis the high volatile bituminous coal acts as a hydrogen donor in the temperature rank 220-480{degrees}C. In the rank 500- 1000{degrees}C the solid phase is formed. The co-pyrolysis was carried out at heating rate 3 K/min. It was found that an amount of organic solid (5-10%) affects important changes in the optical texture forms of solid phase, in the pore distribution and in the internal surface area. Transport large pores volume decreases in presence of PEGT, polystyrene and cellulose and increases in presence of proteins and polyisoprene. (image analysis measurements show that the tendency of coal to create coarse pores during co-pyrolysis is very strong and increases with increasing amount of organic solid in blend). An addition of considered materials changes the sorption ability (methylene blue test, iodine adsorption test), moreover, the reactivity of the solid phase.

  19. Antiphospholipid syndrome, antiphospholipid antibodies and solid organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    González-Moreno, J; Callejas-Rubio, J L; Ríos-Fernández, R; Ortego-Centeno, N

    2015-11-01

    Antiphospholipid syndrome is considered a high risk factor for any kind of surgery. Considering that all solid organ transplants are critically dependent on the patency of vascular anastomosis, there is much concern about the consequences this pro-thrombotic condition may have on transplantation. Relatively little information is available in the literature assessing the real risk that antiphospholipid syndrome or the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies represent in solid organ transplantation. The aim of this article is to review the literature related to transplantation of solid organs in patients diagnosed with antiphospholipid syndrome or patients with positive antiphospholipid antibodies.

  20. Advanced solid-state NMR spectroscopy of natural organic matter

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Solid-state NMR is essential for the characterization of natural organic matter (NOM) and is gaining importance in geosciences and environmental sciences. This review is intended to highlight advanced solid-state NMR techniques, especially the systematic approach to NOM characterization, and their ...

  1. Organic Binder Developments for Solid Freeform Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Ken; Mobasher, Amir A.

    2003-01-01

    A number of rapid prototyping techniques are under development at Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) National Center for Advanced Manufacturing Rapid Prototyping Laboratory. Commercial binder developments in creating solid models for rapid prototyping include: 1) Fused Deposition Modeling; 2) Three Dimensional Printing; 3) Selective Laser Sintering (SLS). This document describes these techniques developed by the private sector, as well as SLS undertaken by MSFC.

  2. Opportunistic infections complicating solid organ transplantation with alemtuzumab induction.

    PubMed

    Helfrich, M; Ison, M G

    2015-10-01

    Opportunistic infections remain a common complication of solid organ transplantation. Despite significant changes in immunosuppression and infectious diseases prophylaxis, data are limited on the contemporary epidemiology and outcomes of opportunistic infections. Alemtuzumab, a potent lymphocyte-depleting antibody, has been used with increased frequency in solid organ transplant recipients in the last decade. A literature review was performed to summarize the current understanding of the epidemiology, risk factors, and outcomes of opportunistic infections complicating solid organ transplantation with and without alemtuzumab induction therapy. Areas where data are limited regarding opportunistic infections in solid organ transplantation with alemtuzumab induction are indicated. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Cadmium contents of oats (Avena sativa L.) in official variety, organic cultivation, and nitrogen fertilization trials during 1997-1999.

    PubMed

    Eurola, Merja; Hietaniemi, Veli; Kontturi, Markku; Tuuri, Hannu; Pihlava, Juha-Matti; Saastamoinen, Marketta; Rantanen, Olli; Kangas, Arjo; Niskanen, Markku

    2003-04-23

    The cadmium (Cd) contents of oats (Avena sativa L.) in Finland were examined over a 3 year period in three types of trials: official variety, organic vs conventional cultivation, and nitrogen fertilization trials. Large seasonal and regional variations were found in the Cd concentrations. In official variety trials, the mean Cd contents in 1997, 1998, and 1999 were 0.046, 0.029, and 0.052 mg kg(-1) dry weight (dw), respectively, ranging from 0.008 to 0.120 mg kg(-1) dw. The concentrations were generally well below the maximum permitted level of 0.100 mg kg(-1) fresh weight. No significant differences were found between the organic and the conventional cultivation techniques. Nitrogen (N) fertilization increased the Cd contents of oats especially at high nitrogen rates (160 kg N hectare(-1) (ha)). Significant cultivar differences (p < 0.001) were determined in all trials. Cultivars Salo and Kolbu had consistently higher contents, and Belinda and Roope had lower Cd contents among the different growing conditions. Hence, it is possible to cultivate and develop oat cultivars less likely to accumulate Cd.

  4. Anesthetic Considerations for the Parturient After Solid Organ Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Moaveni, Daria M; Cohn, Jennifer H; Hoctor, Katherine G; Longman, Ryan E; Ranasinghe, J Sudharma

    2016-08-01

    Over the past 40 years, the success of organ transplantation has increased such that female solid organ transplant recipients are able to conceive and carry pregnancies successfully to term. Anesthesiologists are faced with the challenge of providing anesthesia care to these high-risk obstetric patients in the peripartum period. Anesthetic considerations include the effects of the physiologic changes of pregnancy on the transplanted organ, graft function in the peripartum period, and the maternal side effects and drug interactions of immunosuppressive agents. These women are at an increased risk of comorbidities and obstetric complications. Anesthetic management should consider the important task of protecting graft function. Optimal care of a woman with a transplanted solid organ involves management by a multidisciplinary team. In this focused review article, we review the anesthetic management of pregnant patients with solid organ transplants of the kidney, liver, heart, or lung.

  5. Pregnancy in Women With Solid-Organ Transplants: A Review.

    PubMed

    Durst, Jennifer K; Rampersad, Roxane M

    2015-06-01

    Advances in solid-organ transplantation have allowed many women to reach reproductive potential, and pregnancy is no longer a rarity for these women. To identify (1) potential complications to allograft function posed by pregnancy, (2) expected perinatal outcomes in women with solid-organ transplants, (3) risks of potential immunosuppressant regimens, (4) safety of lactation, and (5) contraceptive options for women with solid-organ transplants. Single-center, registry data, and previous systematic reviews were evaluated in women with solid-organ transplants to identify the objectives of this review. In addition, recommendations from public health organizations were examined in regard to safety of medications and contraceptive methods. Women with solid-organ transplants are at risk for premature birth, low birth weight, cesarean delivery, and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Most immunosuppressant regimens are safe; however, mycophenolate mofetil should be avoided. Lactation with tacrolimus, cyclosporine, azathioprine, and prednisone appears safe. Long-acting reversible contraceptive methods are safe and effective for transplant recipients. Many successful pregnancies have been achieved in women following transplantation; however, optimal perinatal outcomes require stable allograft function. As more women are becoming pregnant after organ transplantation, a review of obstetric recommendations and perinatal outcome is warranted.

  6. 31 CFR 560.539 - Official activities of certain international organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., the International Labor Organization or the World Health Organization in or involving Iran by U.S..., but are not limited to: (1) The provision of services involving Iran necessary for carrying out the... from Iran are not routed through an account of an Iranian bank on the books of a U.S. financial...

  7. X-ray characterization of solid small molecule organic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Billinge, Simon; Shankland, Kenneth; Shankland, Norman; Florence, Alastair

    2014-06-10

    The present invention provides, inter alia, methods of characterizing a small molecule organic material, e.g., a drug or a drug product. This method includes subjecting the solid small molecule organic material to x-ray total scattering analysis at a short wavelength, collecting data generated thereby, and mathematically transforming the data to provide a refined set of data.

  8. Current practices and evaluation of screening solid organ donors for West Nile virus.

    PubMed

    Nett, R J; Kuehnert, M J; Ison, M G; Orlowski, J P; Fischer, M; Staples, J E

    2012-06-01

    The first cases of West Nile virus (WNV) transmitted through solid organ transplantation (SOT) were identified in 2002. Subsequently, 5 additional clusters have been reported to public health officials in the United States. Based upon a limited number of known cases, patients who acquire WNV from infected donor organs might be at higher risk for severe neurologic disease and death, compared with patients infected through mosquito bites. In response, some organ procurement organizations (OPOs) have instituted pre-transplant screening of organ donors for WNV infection. We evaluated the current practices, concerns, and challenges related to screening organ donors for WNV in the United States by reviewing the relevant medical literature and interviewing key stakeholders. Screening organ donors for WNV is not required by national policy. In 2008, 11 (19%) of 58 OPOs performed WNV screening using nucleic acid amplification testing (NAT). These OPOs differ in their screening strategies, NAT performed, and logistical challenges. Concerns of delays in receiving NAT results before transplant and potential false-positive results leading to organ wasting are limitations to more widespread screening. Furthermore, it is unknown if WNV screening practices decrease SOT-related morbidity and mortality, or if screening is cost-effective. Additional data are needed to assess and improve transplant outcomes related to WNV.

  9. B Cell Immunity in Solid Organ Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Karahan, Gonca E.; Claas, Frans H. J.; Heidt, Sebastiaan

    2017-01-01

    The contribution of B cells to alloimmune responses is gradually being understood in more detail. We now know that B cells can perpetuate alloimmune responses in multiple ways: (i) differentiation into antibody-producing plasma cells; (ii) sustaining long-term humoral immune memory; (iii) serving as antigen-presenting cells; (iv) organizing the formation of tertiary lymphoid organs; and (v) secreting pro- as well as anti-inflammatory cytokines. The cross-talk between B cells and T cells in the course of immune responses forms the basis of these diverse functions. In the setting of organ transplantation, focus has gradually shifted from T cells to B cells, with an increased notion that B cells are more than mere precursors of antibody-producing plasma cells. In this review, we discuss the various roles of B cells in the generation of alloimmune responses beyond antibody production, as well as possibilities to specifically interfere with B cell activation. PMID:28119695

  10. Beyond the Officially Sacred, Donor and Believer: Religion and Organ Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Messina, E

    2015-09-01

    Religious concerns might represent an important issue when donation for transplantation is discussed. Even if no religious tradition formally forbids organ donation and transplantation, members of the same religious group may have differing and often conflicting opinions in their own interpretation of how their religion encourages and/or supports organ donation and transplantation, as discussed in this article. It also should be considered that even if a religion refuses to define concrete rules about organ donation and transplantation, there are a great number of factors that may influence the decision-making process. Examples may include negative perceptions of the cutting and removal of organs or ignorance about the transplantation system, both of which would influence the decision-making process concerning transplantation. Knowledge of these facts may provide useful information, perhaps increasing transplant numbers.

  11. Contraception and Fertility Awareness Among Women With Solid Organ Transplants

    PubMed Central

    French, Valerie A.; Davis, John S.; Sayles, Harlan S.; Wu, Serena S.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the contraception and fertility counseling provided to women with solid organ transplants. METHODS A telephone survey of 309 women aged 19–49 years who had received a solid organ transplant at the University of Nebraska Medical Center was performed. Of the 309 eligible women, 183 responded. Patients were asked 19 questions regarding pretransplant and posttransplant fertility awareness and contraception counseling. Data were summarized using descriptive statistics. RESULTS Patients had undergone a variety of solid organ transplantations: 40% kidney (n=73); 32% liver (n=59); 6% pancreas (n=11); 5% heart (n=9); 3% intestine (n=5); and 14% multiple organs (n=26). Before their transplantations, 79 women (44%) reported they were not aware that a woman could become pregnant after transplantation. Only 66 women aged 13 and older at the time of transplantation reported that a health care provider discussed contraception before transplantation. Approximately half of women surveyed were using a method of contraception. Oral contraceptive pills were the most commonly recommended method. Twenty-two of the 31 pregnancies after organ transplantation were planned, which is higher than that of the general population. CONCLUSION Few women with transplants are educated regarding the effect of organ transplantation on fertility and are not routinely counseled about contraception or the potential for posttransplant pregnancy. Health care providers should incorporate contraceptive and fertility counseling as part of routine care for women with solid organ transplants. PMID:24084538

  12. Contraception and fertility awareness among women with solid organ transplants.

    PubMed

    French, Valerie A; Davis, John S; Sayles, Harlan S; Wu, Serena S

    2013-10-01

    To assess the contraception and fertility counseling provided to women with solid organ transplants. A telephone survey of 309 women aged 19-49 years who had received a solid organ transplant at the University of Nebraska Medical Center was performed. Of the 309 eligible women, 183 responded. Patients were asked 19 questions regarding pretransplant and posttransplant fertility awareness and contraception counseling. Data were summarized using descriptive statistics. Patients had undergone a variety of solid organ transplantations: 40% kidney (n=73); 32% liver (n=59); 6% pancreas (n=11); 5% heart (n=9); 3% intestine (n=5); and 14% multiple organs (n=26). Before their transplantations, 79 women (44%) reported they were not aware that a woman could become pregnant after transplantation. Only 66 women aged 13 and older at the time of transplantation reported that a health care provider discussed contraception before transplantation. Approximately half of women surveyed were using a method of contraception. Oral contraceptive pills were the most commonly recommended method. Twenty-two of the 31 pregnancies after organ transplantation were planned, which is higher than that of the general population. Few women with transplants are educated regarding the effect of organ transplantation on fertility and are not routinely counseled about contraception or the potential for posttransplant pregnancy. Health care providers should incorporate contraceptive and fertility counseling as part of routine care for women with solid organ transplants. : II.

  13. Advanced solid-state NMR spectroscopy of natural organic matter.

    PubMed

    Mao, Jingdong; Cao, Xiaoyan; Olk, Dan C; Chu, Wenying; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus

    2017-05-01

    Solid-state NMR is essential for the characterization of natural organic matter (NOM) and is gaining importance in geosciences and environmental sciences. This review is intended to highlight advanced solid-state NMR techniques, especially a systematic approach to NOM characterization, and their applications to the study of NOM. We discuss some basics of how to acquire high-quality and quantitative solid-state (13)C NMR spectra, and address some common technical mistakes that lead to unreliable spectra of NOM. The identification of specific functional groups in NOM, primarily based on (13)C spectral-editing techniques, is described and the theoretical background of some recently-developed spectral-editing techniques is provided. Applications of solid-state NMR to investigating nitrogen (N) in NOM are described, focusing on limitations of the widely used (15)N CP/MAS experiment and the potential of improved advanced NMR techniques for characterizing N forms in NOM. Then techniques used for identifying proximities, heterogeneities and domains are reviewed, and some examples provided. In addition, NMR techniques for studying segmental dynamics in NOM are reviewed. We also briefly discuss applications of solid-state NMR to NOM from various sources, including soil organic matter, aquatic organic matter, organic matter in atmospheric particulate matter, carbonaceous meteoritic organic matter, and fossil fuels. Finally, examples of NMR-based structural models and an outlook are provided. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Semiconducting Lead-Sulfur-Organic Network Solids

    SciTech Connect

    Turner,D.; Vaid, T.; Stephens, P.; Stone, K.; DiPasquale, A.; Rheingold, A.

    2008-01-01

    The reactions of Pb(OAc)2 with 1, 2,4, 5-benzenetetrathiol, 1, 4-benzenedithiol, and benzenehexathiol in ethylenediamine yield bright yellow [Pb2(S2C6H2S2)(en)]n, orange-red [Pb3(SC6H4S)3(en)2]n, and brown [Pb3C6S6]n, respectively. The structures of [Pb2(S2C6H2S2)(en)]n and [Pb3C6S6]n were solved by synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction, while the structure of [Pb3(SC6H4S)3(en)2]n was solved by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The bonding in [Pb2(S2C6H2S2)(en)]n indicates the presence of 'molecular' units, while in [Pb3C6S6]n, the bonding most resembles that in an inorganic solid such as PbS. The differences in bonding are reflected in the optical and electrical properties of the materials; [Pb3C6S6]n is a semiconductor.

  15. Semiconducting lead-sulfur-organic network solids.

    PubMed

    Turner, Dayna L; Vaid, Thomas P; Stephens, Peter W; Stone, Kevin H; DiPasquale, Antonio G; Rheingold, Arnold L

    2008-01-09

    The reactions of Pb(OAc)2 with 1,2,4,5-benzenetetrathiol, 1,4-benzenedithiol, and benzenehexathiol in ethylenediamine yield bright yellow [Pb2(S2C6H2S2)(en)]n, orange-red [Pb3(SC6H4S)3(en)2]n, and brown [Pb3C6S6]n, respectively. The structures of [Pb2(S2C6H2S2)(en)]n and [Pb3C6S6]n were solved by synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction, while the structure of [Pb3(SC6H4S)3(en)2]n was solved by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The bonding in [Pb2(S2C6H2S2)(en)]n indicates the presence of "molecular" units, while in [Pb3C6S6]n, the bonding most resembles that in an inorganic solid such as PbS. The differences in bonding are reflected in the optical and electrical properties of the materials; [Pb3C6S6]n is a semiconductor.

  16. Toxicity of pulp and paper solid organic waste constituents to soil organisms.

    PubMed

    Fraser, D Scott; O'Halloran, Kathryn; van den Heuvel, Michael R

    2009-02-01

    This study examined the potential biological hazard of pulp and paper waste solids. The solids examined were chosen on the basis of the range of wood-related organic extractives and were either primary solids screened from the effluent stream before secondary treatment, or biosolids from aerated stabilisation lagoons. Acute effects were tested at the level of plants, invertebrates and soil microbes using an oat germination and growth test, earthworm survival and reproduction test, an enchytraeid worm survival and reproduction test, and standard measures of microbial respiration. This was further benchmarked against a marine bacteria toxicity test using extract of the waste solids. Resin acids and resin acid neutrals made up the greatest proportion of organic extractives measured in biosolids whereas resin acids and fatty acids were the main constituents detected in primary solids. Examination of the tissue of earthworms from the tests revealed no net bioconcentration of the organic extractives. The waste solids were not acutely toxic to any of the soil organisms as tested without any dilution. Conversely, extracts of the waste solids demonstrated toxicity in the marine bacteria. In some cases, the solid waste material enhanced the growth of plants, earthworm reproduction and microbial respiration. The only adverse affect was that reproduction of enchytraeids was reduced by some of the waste solid treatments. However these effects did not appear to be associated with concentrations of resin acid neutrals and resin acids in these materials. Overall pulp and paper wastes were relatively benign in terms of toxicity to the soil organisms tested.

  17. Solid organ transplants in HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Harbell, Jack; Terrault, Norah A; Stock, Peter

    2013-09-01

    There is a growing need for kidney and liver transplants in persons living with HIV. Fortunately, with the significant advances in antiretroviral therapy and management of opportunistic infections, HIV infection is no longer an absolute contraindication for solid organ transplantation. Data from several large prospective multi-center cohort studies have shown that solid organ transplantation in carefully selected HIV-infected individuals is safe. However, significant challenges have been identified including prevention of acute rejection, management of drug-drug interactions and treatment of recurrent viral hepatitis. This article reviews the selection criteria, outcomes, and special management considerations for HIV-infected patients undergoing liver or kidney transplantation.

  18. Travel medicine and the solid-organ transplant recipient.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Jessica

    2013-06-01

    More than a quarter of solid-organ transplant recipients are traveling to foreign regions where there are greater health risks than their home country. There may be higher risk of complications from typical travel-related illnesses and risk of opportunistic infections not faced by healthy travelers. Some vaccinations may be contraindicated after solid-organ transplant, and those that are safe may have decreased efficacy. Drug interactions between antirejection regimens and medications for malaria prophylaxis and traveler's diarrhea must be considered. This article discusses how providers can best advise and help protect these high-risk travelers.

  19. Emerging fungal infections in solid organ transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Shoham, Shmuel

    2013-06-01

    The most important emerging and rare fungal pathogens in solid organ transplant recipients are the Zygomycetes, Scedosporium, Fusarium, and the dark molds. Factors affecting the emergence of these fungi include the combination of intensive immunosuppressive regimens with increasingly widespread use of long-term azole antifungal therapy; employment of aggressive diagnostic approaches (eg, sampling of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid); and changes in patients' interactions with the environment. This article reviews the epidemiology, microbiology, and clinical impact of emerging fungal infections in solid organ transplant recipients, and provides up-to-date recommendations on their treatment.

  20. Porous organic molecular solids by dynamic covalent scrambling.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shan; Jones, James T A; Hasell, Tom; Blythe, Charlotte E; Adams, Dave J; Trewin, Abbie; Cooper, Andrew I

    2011-02-22

    The main strategy for constructing porous solids from discrete organic molecules is crystal engineering, which involves forming regular crystalline arrays. Here, we present a chemical approach for desymmetrizing organic cages by dynamic covalent scrambling reactions. This leads to molecules with a distribution of shapes which cannot pack effectively and, hence, do not crystallize, creating porosity in the amorphous solid. The porous properties can be fine tuned by varying the ratio of reagents in the scrambling reaction, and this allows the preparation of materials with high gas selectivities. The molecular engineering of porous amorphous solids complements crystal engineering strategies and may have advantages in some applications, for example, in the compatibilization of functionalities that do not readily cocrystallize.

  1. Experiences Spreading Organic Solid Wastes on Forest Land

    Treesearch

    J.H. Wilhoit; L.J. Samuelson

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews experiences spreading organic solid wastes on forest land over the past six years. Presented are some of the first-ever reported results on tree growth responses from fertilizing pine trees with poultry litter, spreader distribution pattern results for spreading in a pine plantation stand, and a discussion of equipment-related experiences spreading...

  2. Source Separation and Composting of Organic Municipal Solid Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Mark; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes a variety of composting techniques that may be utilized in a municipal level solid waste management program. Suggests how composting system designers should determine the amount and type of organics in the waste stream, evaluate separation approaches and assess collection techniques. Outlines the advantages of mixed waste composting and…

  3. SORPTION OF ORGANICS ON WASTEWATER SOLIDS: CORRELATION WITH FUNDAMENTAL PROPERTIES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sorption of toxic organic compounds on primary, mixed-liquor, and digested solids from municipal wastewater treatment plants has been correlated with octanol/water partition coefficients arid with modified Randic indexes. he correlations developed are useful for assessing the rol...

  4. Hepatitis E Virus Infection in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients, France

    PubMed Central

    Lhomme, Sebastien; Bardiaux, Laurent; Abravanel, Florence; Gallian, Pierre; Kamar, Nassim

    2017-01-01

    The rate of transfusion-transmitted hepatitis E virus (HEV) in transplant recipients is unknown. We identified 60 HEV-positive solid organ transplant patients and retrospectively assessed their blood transfusions for HEV. Seven of 60 patients received transfusions; 3 received HEV-positive blood products. Transfusion is not the major route of infection in this population. PMID:28098552

  5. SORPTION OF ORGANICS ON WASTEWATER SOLIDS: CORRELATION WITH FUNDAMENTAL PROPERTIES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sorption of toxic organic compounds on primary, mixed-liquor, and digested solids from municipal wastewater treatment plants has been correlated with octanol/water partition coefficients arid with modified Randic indexes. he correlations developed are useful for assessing the rol...

  6. Source Separation and Composting of Organic Municipal Solid Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Mark; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes a variety of composting techniques that may be utilized in a municipal level solid waste management program. Suggests how composting system designers should determine the amount and type of organics in the waste stream, evaluate separation approaches and assess collection techniques. Outlines the advantages of mixed waste composting and…

  7. Establishing a molecular relationship between chondritic and cometary organic solids

    PubMed Central

    Cody, George D.; Heying, Emily; Alexander, Conel M. O.; Nittler, Larry R.; Kilcoyne, A. L. David; Sandford, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    Multidimensional solid-state NMR spectroscopy is used to refine the identification and abundance determination of functional groups in insoluble organic matter (IOM) isolated from a carbonaceous chondrite (Murchison, CM2). It is shown that IOM is composed primarily of highly substituted single ring aromatics, substituted furan/pyran moieties, highly branched oxygenated aliphatics, and carbonyl groups. A pathway for producing an IOM-like molecular structure through formaldehyde polymerization is proposed and tested experimentally. Solid-state 13C NMR analysis of aqueously altered formaldehyde polymer reveals considerable similarity with chondritic IOM. Carbon X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy of formaldehyde polymer reveals the presence of similar functional groups across certain Comet 81P/Wild 2 organic solids, interplanetary dust particles, and primitive IOM. Variation in functional group concentration amongst these extraterrestrial materials is understood to be a result of various degrees of processing in the parent bodies, in space, during atmospheric entry, etc. These results support the hypothesis that chondritic IOM and cometary refractory organic solids are related chemically and likely were derived from formaldehyde polymer. The fine-scale morphology of formaldehyde polymer produced in the experiment reveals abundant nanospherules that are similar in size and shape to organic nanoglobules that are ubiquitous in primitive chondrites. PMID:21464292

  8. Interfacial Effects and Organization of Inorganic-Organic Composite Solids.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-05-20

    almost an amorphous calcium phosphate which transforms into a mixture of onented hydroxyapatite (HAP) and octacalcium phosphate (OCP). Subsequent growth...LIQUID- PRECURSOR PHASE IN CALCIUM CARBONATES: A NEW STRATEGY FOR BIOMIMETICS?, Laurie A. Gower, Univ of Massachusetts, .Polymer Science...Exquisite control over these organic precursors —in terms of their shape, size, uniformity, function, and chemical attributes — is based on the ability

  9. Website accessibility in the tourism industry: an analysis of official national tourism organization websites around the world.

    PubMed

    Domínguez Vila, Trinidad; Alén González, Elisa; Darcy, Simon

    2017-08-09

    To analyze the accessibility of official national tourism organization websites of countries around the world, in order to establish possible common patterns and rankings of those with exemplary practice through to those with the highest number of issues. The purpose for undertaking such an analysis is to provide a quasi-indicator of inclusive organizational practice for online accessibility for both destination managers and their accessible tourism consumers - domestic and overseas people with disability visiting the websites. The official tourism websites of 210 countries included in the latest World Tourism Organization report were analyzed. A website accessibility evaluation tool (website accessible test) was used in the analysis, according to AA and AAA levels of conformance to Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.0 requirements. Different patterns compliance to Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.0 were established for the clusters, which were rather similar for both AA and AAA conformance levels. The main issues in the least accessible websites were also identified, mainly focused on the following guidelines: navigable, compatible, adaptability, text alternatives and also referred to other assistive technologies. Once the main issues were established several alternatives are suggested to address them, such as implementing more prescriptive laws and regulations, complying with mandatory benchmark standards and/or having external agencies audit website designs. However, in addition to using benchmark standards, efforts to improve this situation should also be made by programmers, who should also rely on preexistent experiences and develop more dynamic knowledge. This knowledge may include text alternatives for any nontext content; creation of content that can be presented in different ways without losing information; provide ways to help users navigate, find content, determine where they are and navigate websites to maximize compatibility with assistive

  10. Outcomes of Solid Organ Transplants After Simultaneous Solid Organ and Vascularized Composite Allograft Procurements: A Nationwide Analysis.

    PubMed

    Aycart, Mario A; Alhefzi, Muayyad; Sharma, Gaurav; Krezdorn, Nicco; Bueno, Ericka M; Talbot, Simon G; Carty, Matthew J; Tullius, Stefan G; Pomahac, Bohdan

    2017-06-01

    Current knowledge of the impact of facial vascularized composite allograft (VCA) procurement on the transplantation outcomes of the concomitantly recovered solid organs is limited to isolated case reports and short-term results. Here we report on a nationwide analysis of facial allograft donor surgery experience and long-term outcomes of the concomitantly recovered solid organs and their recipients. There were 10 facial VCA procurements in organ donors between December 2008 and October 2014. We identified the population of subjects who received solid organs from these 10 donors using the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients. We retrospectively reviewed operative characteristics, intraoperative parameters, and postoperative outcomes. Six of 10 donor surgeries were performed at outside institutions, all on brain-dead donors. Mean operative duration for facial VCA recovery was 6.9 hours (range, 4-13.25 hours). A total of 36 solid organs were recovered and transplanted into 35 recipients. Survival rates for kidney and liver recipients were 100% and 90% at a median follow-up of 33 and 27.5 months, respectively (range, 6-72 months). Graft survival rates for kidneys and livers were 15 of 16 (94%) and 9 of 10 (90%), respectively. Recipient and graft survival rates for hearts and lungs were 75% (n = 4) and 100% (n = 3) at mean follow-up time of 14.75 and 16 months, respectively. A liver recipient died at 22 months from unknown causes and a heart recipient died of leukemia at 10 months. Facial VCA procurement does not appear to adversely affect the outcomes of transplant recipients of concomitantly recovered solid organ allografts.

  11. Transmission of Babesia microti Parasites by Solid Organ Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Herwaldt, Barbara L.; Kazmierczak, James J.; Weiss, John W.; Klein, Christina L.; Leith, Catherine P.; He, Rong; Oberley, Matthew J.; Tonnetti, Laura; Wilkins, Patricia P.; Gauthier, Gregory M.

    2016-01-01

    Babesia microti, an intraerythrocytic parasite, is tickborne in nature. In contrast to transmission by blood transfusion, which has been well documented, transmission associated with solid organ transplantation has not been reported. We describe parasitologically confirmed cases of babesiosis diagnosed ≈8 weeks posttransplantation in 2 recipients of renal allografts from an organ donor who was multiply transfused on the day he died from traumatic injuries. The organ donor and recipients had no identified risk factors for tickborne infection. Antibodies against B. microti parasites were not detected by serologic testing of archived pretransplant specimens. However, 1 of the organ donor’s blood donors was seropositive when tested postdonation and had risk factors for tick exposure. The organ donor probably served as a conduit of Babesia parasites from the seropositive blood donor to both kidney recipients. Babesiosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of unexplained fever and hemolytic anemia after blood transfusion or organ transplantation. PMID:27767010

  12. Transmission of Babesia microti Parasites by Solid Organ Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Meghan B; Herwaldt, Barbara L; Kazmierczak, James J; Weiss, John W; Klein, Christina L; Leith, Catherine P; He, Rong; Oberley, Matthew J; Tonnetti, Laura; Wilkins, Patricia P; Gauthier, Gregory M

    2016-11-01

    Babesia microti, an intraerythrocytic parasite, is tickborne in nature. In contrast to transmission by blood transfusion, which has been well documented, transmission associated with solid organ transplantation has not been reported. We describe parasitologically confirmed cases of babesiosis diagnosed ≈8 weeks posttransplantation in 2 recipients of renal allografts from an organ donor who was multiply transfused on the day he died from traumatic injuries. The organ donor and recipients had no identified risk factors for tickborne infection. Antibodies against B. microti parasites were not detected by serologic testing of archived pretransplant specimens. However, 1 of the organ donor's blood donors was seropositive when tested postdonation and had risk factors for tick exposure. The organ donor probably served as a conduit of Babesia parasites from the seropositive blood donor to both kidney recipients. Babesiosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of unexplained fever and hemolytic anemia after blood transfusion or organ transplantation.

  13. Management of febrile neutropenia in solid organ malignancies following chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Lakshmaiah, Kuntegowdanahalli C; Abhayakumar, S M; Shetty, Rachan; Loknath, D; Jayashree, R S; Govindbabu, K

    2014-01-01

    Febrile neutropenia is a medical emergency and it requires immediate hospitalization for evaluation and administration of empiric broad-spectrum antibiotics. The present study was undertaken to analyze the infectious agents, choice of empiric antibiotics, and outcome in high-risk febrile neutropenia in the solid organ malignancies. In this study, 92 high risk febrile neutropenic episodes were analyzed in 72 patients with solid organ malignancies. We used cefoperazone-sulbactum as an initial empiric antibiotic. Piperacillin/tazobactum or carbapenems were added to the patients who did not respond to initial antibiotic. Among the 92 episodes treated, most patients received first-line chemotherapy for locally advanced disease. Microbes were isolated in 25% of febrile neutropenic episodes. Gram-negative organism (61.70%) constituted the most common isolates. The most common microbes identified were E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus in blood, Klebsiella pneumonia in sputum and E. coli in urine culture. Patients who had been treated with cefoperazone-sulbactum improved clinically in 70.6% of febrile neutropenic episodes. Second- line antibiotics (piperacillin-tazobactum with amikacin) were required in 24% episodes, while another 5.4% episodes required third-line antibiotics (carbapenems). In this study, mortality was seen in 12% of febrile neutropenic episodes. Staphylococcus aureus was 100% sensitive to linezolid, teicoplanin, and vancomycin, whereas Gram-negative organisms were 100% sensitive to imepenem and meropenem. Cephaperazone-sulbactum is a reasonable initial choice for empirical therapy in high risk febrile neutropenic patients in solid organ malignancies.

  14. Long-term outcomes of children after solid organ transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jon Jin; Marks, Stephen D.

    2014-01-01

    Solid organ transplantation has transformed the lives of many children and adults by providing treatment for patients with organ failure who would have otherwise succumbed to their disease. The first successful transplant in 1954 was a kidney transplant between identical twins, which circumvented the problem of rejection from MHC incompatibility. Further progress in solid organ transplantation was enabled by the discovery of immunosuppressive agents such as corticosteroids and azathioprine in the 1950s and ciclosporin in 1970. Today, solid organ transplantation is a conventional treatment with improved patient and allograft survival rates. However, the challenge that lies ahead is to extend allograft survival time while simultaneously reducing the side effects of immunosuppression. This is particularly important for children who have irreversible organ failure and may require multiple transplants. Pediatric transplant teams also need to improve patient quality of life at a time of physical, emotional and psychosocial development. This review will elaborate on the long-term outcomes of children after kidney, liver, heart, lung and intestinal transplantation. As mortality rates after transplantation have declined, there has emerged an increased focus on reducing longer-term morbidity with improved outcomes in optimizing cardiovascular risk, renal impairment, growth and quality of life. Data were obtained from a review of the literature and particularly from national registries and databases such as the North American Pediatric Renal Trials and Collaborative Studies for the kidney, SPLIT for liver, International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation and UNOS for intestinal transplantation. PMID:24860856

  15. Long-term outcomes of children after solid organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jon Jin; Marks, Stephen D

    2014-01-01

    Solid organ transplantation has transformed the lives of many children and adults by providing treatment for patients with organ failure who would have otherwise succumbed to their disease. The first successful transplant in 1954 was a kidney transplant between identical twins, which circumvented the problem of rejection from MHC incompatibility. Further progress in solid organ transplantation was enabled by the discovery of immunosuppressive agents such as corticosteroids and azathioprine in the 1950s and ciclosporin in 1970. Today, solid organ transplantation is a conventional treatment with improved patient and allograft survival rates. However, the challenge that lies ahead is to extend allograft survival time while simultaneously reducing the side effects of immunosuppression. This is particularly important for children who have irreversible organ failure and may require multiple transplants. Pediatric transplant teams also need to improve patient quality of life at a time of physical, emotional and psychosocial development. This review will elaborate on the long-term outcomes of children after kidney, liver, heart, lung and intestinal transplantation. As mortality rates after transplantation have declined, there has emerged an increased focus on reducing longer-term morbidity with improved outcomes in optimizing cardiovascular risk, renal impairment, growth and quality of life. Data were obtained from a review of the literature and particularly from national registries and databases such as the North American Pediatric Renal Trials and Collaborative Studies for the kidney, SPLIT for liver, International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation and UNOS for intestinal transplantation.

  16. Approaches to Establishing the Chemical Structure of Extraterrestrial Organic Solids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cody, G. D.; Alexander, C. M. OD.; Wirick, Susan

    2003-01-01

    The majority of extraterrestrial organic matter in carbonaceous chondrites resides in a chemically complex, insoluble and perhaps macromolecular phase. We have been applying a series of independent solid state NMR experiments that are designed to provide a self consistent chemical characterization of this complex material. To date we have thoroughly analyzed 8 organic residues from different meteorites, including a CR2 (EET92042), CIl(Orgueil), CM2 (Murchison), Tagish Lake, CM2 (AlH83100), CM2 (Cold Bokkefeld), CM2 (Mighei), CM3 (Y86720). In fig 1. (1)H to (13)C cross polarization NMR spectra of four of these are shown. Note that there exists an enormous range in chemistry exhibited in organic solid [evident by the breadth of the spectral features both in the aliphatic region (sp(sup 3)) and the aromatic region (sp(sup 2))]. There is also considerable differences in the carbon chemistry across the meteorite groups.

  17. Rib fractures and their association With solid organ injury: higher rib fractures have greater significance for solid organ injury screening.

    PubMed

    Rostas, Jack W; Lively, Timothy B; Brevard, Sidney B; Simmons, Jon D; Frotan, Mohammad A; Gonzalez, Richard P

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify patients with rib injuries who were at risk for solid organ injury. A retrospective chart review was performed of all blunt trauma patients with rib fractures during the period from July 2007 to July 2012. Data were analyzed for association of rib fractures and solid organ injury. In all, 1,103 rib fracture patients were identified; 142 patients had liver injuries with 109 (77%) associated right rib fractures. Right-sided rib fractures with highest sensitivity for liver injury were middle rib segment (5 to 8) and lower segment (9 to 12) with liver injury sensitivities of 68% and 43%, respectively (P < .001); 151 patients had spleen injuries with 119 (79%) associated left rib fractures. Left middle segment rib fractures and lower segment rib fractures had sensitivities of 80% and 63% for splenic injury, respectively (P < .003). Rib fractures higher in the thoracic cage have significant association with solid organ injury. Using rib fractures from middle plus lower segments as indication for abdominal screening will significantly improve rib fracture sensitivity for identification of solid organ injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Role of the "National Reference Centre for Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) detection" in the official control of food and feed.

    PubMed

    Ciabatti, I; Marchesi, U; Froiio, A; Paternò, A; Ruggeri, M; Amaddeo, D

    2005-08-01

    The National Reference Centre for Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) detection was established in 2002 within the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale Lazio e Toscana, with the aim of providing scientific and technical support to the National Health System and to the Ministry of Health within the scope of the regulation of GMO use in food and feed.The recently adopted EU legislation on GMOs (Regulation CE no. 1829/2003 and no. 1830/2003) introduced more rigorous procedures for the authorisation, labelling and analytical control of food and feed consisting, containing or derived from GMOs. The National Reference Centre, besides its institutional tasks as one of the laboratories of the Italian National Health System, collects and analyses data and results of the national official control of GMOs; carries out scientific research aimed at developing, improving, validating and harmonising detection and quantification methods, in cooperation with other scientific institutions, the Community Reference Laboratory and within the European Network of GMOs laboratories (ENGL); collaborates with the Ministry of Health in the definition of control programmes and promotes educational and training initiatives. Objectives defined for 2004-2006, activities in progress and goals already achieved are presented.

  19. Biodegradation of organic compounds sequestered in organic solids or in nanopores within silica particles

    SciTech Connect

    Hatzinger, P.B.; Alexander, M.

    1997-11-01

    A study was conducted using model solids to determine whether the time-dependent decline in availability for biodegradation of organic pollutants in soil might result from the entrapment of these compounds in porous or nonporous solids. A strain of Pseudomonas mineralized phenanthrene in solid alkanes containing 18 to 32 carbons, three waxes, and low-molecular-weight polycaprolactone, polyethylene, and polypropylene. The rates were appreciably slower than when the substrate was not initially present within these nonporous solids. From 1.4 to 63.4% of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon added to the solids was mineralized in 90 d. The rates and extents of partitioning of phenanthrene varied markedly among the solids. The rates of partitioning and biodegradation of phenanthrene initially present in the alkanes were positively correlated. The bacterium rapidly and extensively mineralized phenanthrene provided in calcium alginate beads containing varying amounts of soluble soil organic matter. The rates and extents of phenanthrene mineralization declined as the percentage of the substrate in the nanopores within silica particles increased, but the reductions in rate, extent, or both were less pronounced than with nonporous solids. The rate of 4-nitrophenol biodegradation also declined with increasing percentages of the compound in these nanopores. The data are consistent with hypotheses that the sequestration and consequent decrease in bioavailability of organic compounds that persist in soil result from their partitioning into organic matter or their presence within nanopores in soil.

  20. Immunosuppression in Solid-Organ Transplantation: Essentials and Practical Tips.

    PubMed

    Jasiak, Natalia M; Park, Jeong M

    2016-01-01

    A multidisciplinary team approach is essential for successful management of patients with solid-organ transplant. Transplant nursing encompasses care and support of transplant recipients as well as caregivers and organ donors through all phases of transplantation, from pretransplant evaluation to posttransplant recovery and maintenance. The field of solid-organ transplantation has advanced rapidly, and new treatments continue to emerge. Nurses who are responsible for the care of transplant recipients should have a knowledge base in transplant immunology and pharmacology. This review discusses mechanism of action, indication, side effects, and drug interactions of commonly used immunosuppressive medications in solid-organ transplantation. Nonoral routes of drug administration, therapeutic drug monitoring, and patient monitoring strategies are also included as practical tips for bedside nurses who are responsible for delivery of direct patient care and education of patients and their caregivers. This review focuses on the following medications: antithymocyte globulins, basiliximab, alemtuzumab, corticosteroids, tacrolimus, cyclosporine, azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil/mycophenolate sodium, sirolimus, everolimus, belatacept, intravenous immunoglobulin, and rituximab.

  1. Risk of myeloid neoplasms after solid organ transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Lindsay M.; Gibson, Todd M.; Clarke, Christina A.; Lynch, Charles F.; Anderson, Lesley A.; Pfeiffer, Ruth; Landgren, Ola; Weisenburger, Dennis D.; Engels, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    Solid organ transplant recipients have elevated cancer risks, due in part to pharmacologic immunosuppression. However, little is known about risks for hematologic malignancies of myeloid origin. We linked the US Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients with 15 population-based cancer registries to ascertain cancer occurrence among 207,859 solid organ transplants (1987–2009). Solid organ transplant recipients had significantly elevated risk for myeloid neoplasms, with standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of 4.6 (95% confidence interval 3.8–5.6; N=101) for myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), 2.7 (2.2–3.2; N=125) for acute myeloid leukemia (AML), 2.3 (1.6–3.2; N=36) for chronic myeloid leukemia, and 7.2 (5.4–9.3; N=57) for polycythemia vera. SIRs were highest among younger individuals and varied by time since transplantation and organ type (Poisson regression P<0.05 for all comparisons). Azathioprine for initial maintenance immunosuppression increased risk for MDS (P=0.0002) and AML (2–5 years after transplantation, P=0.0163). Overall survival following AML/MDS among transplant recipients was inferior to that of similar patients reported to US cancer registries (log-rank P<0.0001). Our novel finding of increased risks for specific myeloid neoplasms after solid organ transplantation supports a role for immune dysfunction in myeloid neoplasm etiology. The increased risks and inferior survival should heighten clinician awareness of myeloid neoplasms during follow-up of transplant recipients. PMID:24727673

  2. The mechanisms of rejection in solid organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Cozzi, Emanuele; Colpo, Anna; De Silvestro, Giustina

    2017-08-01

    Organ transplantation represents the preferred treatment option for many patients in terminal organ failure. The half-life of transplanted organs, however, is still far from being satisfactory with the vast majority of the organs failing within the first two decades following transplantation. At this stage, it has become apparent that rejection (prevalently mediated by humoral events) remains the primary cause of graft loss after the first year. In this light, studies are underway to better comprehend the immune events underlying graft rejection and novel immunosuppressive strategies are being explored. In this context, therapeutic apheresis techniques, that include therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE), immunoadsorption (IA) and extracorporeal photochemotherapy (ECP), represent an important adjunct in the current immunosuppressive armamentarium. This article briefly reviews our current understanding of the immune process underlying rejection of a solid organ transplant and describes the principal areas of application of therapeutic apheresis techniques in transplantation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Assessment of anaerobic biodegradability of five different solid organic wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristanto, Gabriel Andari; Asaloei, Huinny

    2017-03-01

    The concept of waste to energy emerges as an alternative solution to increasing waste generation and energy crisis. In the waste to energy concept, waste will be used to produce renewable energy through thermochemical, biochemical, and physiochemical processes. In an anaerobic digester, organic matter brake-down due to anaerobic bacteria produces methane gas as energy source. The organic waste break-down is affected by various characteristics of waste components, such as organic matter content (C, N, O, H, P), solid contents (TS and VS), nutrients ratio (C/N), and pH. This research aims to analyze biodegradability and potential methane production (CH4) from organic waste largely available in Indonesia. Five solid wastes comprised of fecal sludge, cow rumen, goat farm waste, traditional market waste, and tofu dregs were analyzed which showed tofu dregs as waste with the highest rate of biodegradability compared to others since the tofu dregs do not contain any inhibitor which is lignin, have 2.7%VS, 14 C/N ratios and 97.3% organic matter. The highest cumulative methane production known as Biochemical Methane Potential was achieved by tofu dregs with volume of 77 ml during 30-day experiment which then followed by cow rumen, goat farm waste, and traditional market waste. Subsequently, methane productions were calculated through percentage of COD reduction, which showed the efficiency of 99.1% that indicates complete conversion of the high organic matter into methane.

  4. Central nervous system syndromes in solid organ transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Wright, Alissa J; Fishman, Jay A

    2014-10-01

    Solid organ transplant recipients have a high incidence of central nervous system (CNS) complications, including both focal and diffuse neurologic deficits. In the immunocompromised host, the initial clinical evaluation must focus on both life-threatening CNS infections and vascular or anatomic lesions. The clinical signs and symptoms of CNS processes are modified by the immunosuppression required to prevent graft rejection. In this population, these etiologies often coexist with drug toxicities and metabolic abnormalities that complicate the development of a specific approach to clinical management. This review assesses the multiple risk factors for CNS processes in solid organ transplant recipients and establishes a timeline to assist in the evaluation and management of these complex patients.

  5. Primary Care of the Solid Organ Transplant Recipient.

    PubMed

    Wong, Christopher J; Pagalilauan, Genevieve

    2015-09-01

    Solid organ transplantation (SOT) is one of the major advances in medicine. Care of the SOT recipient is complex and continued partnership with the transplant specialist is essential to manage and treat complications and maintain health. The increased longevity of SOT recipients will lead to their being an evolving part of primary care practice, with ever more opportunities for care, education, and research of this rewarding patient population. This review discusses the overall primary care management of adult SOT recipients.

  6. [Invasive yeast diseases in solid organ transplant recipients].

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Patricia; Aguado, José María

    2016-01-01

    Invasive yeast diseases are uncommon nowadays in solid organ transplant recipients. Invasive candidiasis (2%) usually presents during the first month after transplantation in patients with risk factors. Both common and transplant-specific risk factors have been identified, allowing very efficacious targeted prophylaxis strategies. The most common clinical presentations are fungaemia and local infections near the transplantation area. Cryptococcosis is usually a late infection. Its incidence remains stable and the specific risk factors have not been identified. When cryptococcosis is detected very early, transmission with the allograft should be considered. The most common clinical presentations include meningitis, pneumonia, and disseminated infection. Intracranial hypertension and immune reconstitution syndrome have to be considered. No therapeutic clinical trials have been conducted in solid organ transplant recipients, thus treatment recommendations are derived from data obtained from the general population. It is particularly important to consider the possibility of drug-drug interactions, mainly between azoles and calcineurin inhibitors. Both invasive candidiasis and cryptococcosis increase the mortality significantly in solid organ transplant recipients.

  7. Alcohol and substance abuse in solid-organ transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Parker, Richard; Armstrong, Matthew J; Corbett, Chris; Day, Edward J; Neuberger, James M

    2013-12-27

    This review focuses on alcohol and substance abuse in the context of solid-organ transplantation. Alcohol and substance abuse are common and may lead to a need for solid-organ transplantation and may also contribute to significant physical and psychologic problems that impact upon the recipient. Damaging levels of alcohol intake can occur in the absence of dependence. Alcohol or substance abuse after transplantation is associated with poor medication compliance and this may increase risk of graft loss. Intravenous drug use is associated with increased risk of infections (especially secondary to opportunistic organisms-bacterial, viral, protozoal, and others-and such infections may be more severe in the immunosuppressed), but there is only anecdotal evidence that such behavior has a worse outcome in transplant recipients. Whereas previous alcohol excess and drug use in kidney recipients are both associated with a small but statistically significantly increased risk of adverse outcomes (hazard ratio, 1.16-1.56), alcohol use within recommended guidelines after transplantation appears safe and possibly beneficial. Robust data are lacking for other organs, but those available suggest that heart transplantation is safe in individuals with a history of alcohol or substance abuse. Health specialists in drug or alcohol addiction should carefully screen all potential transplant candidates for these conditions, and where there is evidence of dependency or abuse, effective psychologic and physical treatment should be offered. Studies have shown that interventions such as psychologic intervention have improved alcohol behavior in the context of liver transplantation. Although there are no comparable studies with other solid-organ recipients, it is reasonable to expect transferable outcomes.

  8. Periocular Skin Cancer in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients.

    PubMed

    Perry, Julian D; Polito, Sara C; Chundury, Rao V; Singh, Arun D; Fritz, Michael A; Vidimos, Allison T; Gastman, Brian R; Koyfman, Shlomo A

    2016-01-01

    To determine the proportion of solid organ transplant recipients developing periocular nonmelanoma skin cancer and to describe the morbidity of these cancers in transplant recipients. Cohort study. Consecutive patients undergoing solid organ transplantation at the Cleveland Clinic between 1990 and 2008. The charts of all patients receiving a solid organ transplant from 1990-2008 evaluated in the dermatology department for a subsequent biopsy-proven head and neck malignancy through April 2015 were reviewed. Patients with a periocular region nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) or a nonperiocular NMSC causing a complication requiring eyelid surgery were included. Charts were reviewed for demographic data; transplant date, type, and source; immunosuppressive agents received at diagnosis; and type of NMSC, number of nonperiocular NMSCs, ophthalmologic findings, and periocular sequelae after the repair. Primary outcome measures included the type, location, final defect size, tumor-node-metastasis classification, presence of perineural invasion, and reconstruction technique(s) used for each periocular NMSC. Secondary outcome measures included the type and treatment of ocular sequelae due to nonperiocular facial NMSC. A total of 3489 patients underwent solid organ transplantation between 1990 and 2008. Of these, 420 patients were evaluated in the dermatology clinic for biopsy-proven NMSC of the head and neck during the study period, and 11 patients (15 malignancies) met inclusion criteria. Nine patients developed 12 periocular malignancies and 3 patients required eyelid surgery for facial malignancies outside the periocular zone. All 11 patients developed a squamous cell carcinoma (14 malignancies), and 1 patient (1 malignancy) also developed a periocular basal cell carcinoma. There was orbital invasion in 4 cases and paranasal and/or cavernous sinus invasion in 3 cases. Two patients underwent exenteration. Seven cases required reconstruction with a free flap or graft

  9. Risk for transmission of Naegleria fowleri from solid organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Roy, S L; Metzger, R; Chen, J G; Laham, F R; Martin, M; Kipper, S W; Smith, L E; Lyon, G M; Haffner, J; Ross, J E; Rye, A K; Johnson, W; Bodager, D; Friedman, M; Walsh, D J; Collins, C; Inman, B; Davis, B J; Robinson, T; Paddock, C; Zaki, S R; Kuehnert, M; DaSilva, A; Qvarnstrom, Y; Sriram, R; Visvesvara, G S

    2014-01-01

    Primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) caused by the free-living ameba (FLA) Naegleria fowleri is a rare but rapidly fatal disease of the central nervous system (CNS) affecting predominantly young, previously healthy persons. No effective chemotherapeutic prophylaxis or treatment has been identified. Recently, three transplant-associated clusters of encephalitis caused by another FLA, Balamuthia mandrillaris, have occurred, prompting questions regarding the suitability of extra-CNS solid organ transplantation from donors with PAM. During 1995-2012, 21 transplant recipients of solid organs donated by five patients with fatal cases of PAM were reported in the United States. None of the recipients developed PAM, and several recipients tested negative for N. fowleri by serology. However, historical PAM case reports and animal experiments with N. fowleri, combined with new postmortem findings from four patients with PAM, suggest that extra-CNS dissemination of N. fowleri can occur and might pose a risk for disease transmission via transplantation. The risks of transplantation with an organ possibly harboring N. fowleri should be carefully weighed for each individual recipient against the potentially greater risk of delaying transplantation while waiting for another suitable organ. In this article, we present a case series and review existing data to inform such risk assessments.

  10. Travel to High Altitude Following Solid Organ Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Luks, Andrew M

    2016-09-01

    Luks, Andrew M. Clinician's corner: travel to high altitude following solid organ transplantation. High Alt Med Biol. 17:147-156, 2016.-As they regain active lifestyles following successful organ transplantation, transplant recipients may travel to high altitude for a variety of activities, including skiing, climbing, and trekking. This review is intended to provide information for medical providers who may encounter transplant patients seeking advice before planned high altitude travel or care for medical issues that develop during the actual sojourn. There is currently limited information in the literature about outcomes during high-altitude travel following solid organ transplantation, but the available evidence suggests that the physiologic responses to hypobaric hypoxia are comparable to those seen in nontransplanted individuals and well-selected transplant recipients with no evidence of organ rejection can tolerate ascents as high as 6200 m. All transplant recipients planning high-altitude travel should undergo pretravel assessment and counseling with an emphasis on the recognition, prevention, and treatment of altitude illness, as well as the importance of preventing infection and limiting sun exposure. Transplant recipients can use the standard medications for altitude illness prophylaxis and treatment, but the choice and dose of medication should take into account the patient's preexisting medication regimen and current renal function. With careful attention to these and other details, the healthy transplant recipient can safely experience the rewards of traveling in the mountains.

  11. Continuous high-solids anaerobic co-digestion of organic solid wastes under mesophilic conditions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Hoon; Oh, Sae-Eun

    2011-01-01

    With increasing concerns over the limited capacity of landfills, conservation of resources, and reduction of CO(2) emissions, high-solids (dry) anaerobic digestion of organic solid waste (OSW) is attracting a great deal of attention these days. In the present work, two dry anaerobic co-digestion systems fed with different mixtures of OSW were continuously operated under mesophilic conditions. Dewatered sludge cake was used as a main seeding source. In reactor (I), which was fed with food waste (FW) and paper waste (PW), hydraulic retention time (HRT) and solid content were controlled to find the maximum treatability. At a fixed solid content of 30% total solids (TS), stable performance was maintained up to an HRT decrease to 40 d. However, the stable performance was not sustained at 30 d HRT, and hence, HRT was increased to 40 d again. In further operation, instead of decreasing HRT, solid content was increased to 40% TS, which was found to be a better option to increase the treatability. The biogas production rate (BPR), CH(4) production yield (MPY) and VS reduction achieved in this condition were 5.0m(3)/m(3)/d, 0.25 m(3) CH(4)/g COD(added), and 80%, respectively. Reactor (II) was fed with FW and livestock waste (LW), and LW content was increased during the operation. Until a 40% LW content increase, reactor (II) exhibited a stable performance. A BPR of 1.7 m(3)/m(3)/d, MPY of 0.26 m(3) CH(4)/g COD(added), and VS reduction of 72% was achieved at 40% LW content. However, when the LW content was increased to 60%, there was a significant performance drop, which was attributed to free ammonia inhibition. The performances in these two reactors were comparable to the ones achieved in the conventional wet digestion and thermophilic dry digestion processes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Bio-charcoal production from municipal organic solid wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AlKhayat, Z. Q.

    2017-08-01

    The economic and environmental problems of handling the increasingly huge amounts of urban and/or suburban organic municipal solid wastes MSW, from collection to end disposal, in addition to the big fluctuations in power supply and other energy form costs for the various civilian needs, is studied for Baghdad city, the ancient and glamorous capital of Iraq, and a simple control device is suggested, built and tested by carbonizing these dried organic wastes in simple environment friendly bio-reactor in order to produce low pollution potential, economical and local charcoal capsules that might be useful for heating, cooking and other municipal uses. That is in addition to the solve of solid wastes management problem which involves huge human and financial resources and causes many lethal health and environmental problems. Leftovers of different social level residential campuses were collected, classified for organic materials then dried in order to be supplied into the bio-reactor, in which it is burnt and then mixed with small amounts of sugar sucrose that is extracted from Iraqi planted sugar cane, to produce well shaped charcoal capsules. The burning process is smoke free as the closed burner’s exhaust pipe is buried 1m underground hole, in order to use the subsurface soil as natural gas filter. This process has proved an excellent performance of handling about 120kg/day of classified MSW, producing about 80-100 kg of charcoal capsules, by the use of 200 l reactor volume.

  13. CD4+ regulatory T cells in solid organ transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Issa, Fadi; Wood, Kathryn J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of review: Solid organ transplantation is the most effective treatment for end-stage organ failure, but the long-term outcomes remain suboptimal. CD4+ regulatory T cells (Treg) are emerging as a potential therapy to facilitate long-term allograft survival. This review provides a general overview of the biology of CD4+ Treg and then goes on to discuss the most relevant and recent experimental and clinical evidence for their therapeutic use in solid organ transplantation. Recent findings: There have been major advances in our understanding of Treg, including improvements in methods for their isolation and expansion. Experimental models are providing very important data on the in vitro and in vivo behaviour of Treg in transplantation, while recent clinical trials of Treg cellular therapy in graft-versus-host disease are offering a valuable insight into the efficacy of Treg adoptive cellular therapy. Summary: Data in favour of Treg cellular therapy in transplantation are mounting, and we predict that their use in clinical trials is on the horizon. PMID:20881492

  14. Cryptosporidial infections after solid organ transplantation in children.

    PubMed

    Gerber, D A; Green, M; Jaffe, R; Greenberg, D; Mazariegos, G; Reyes, J

    2000-02-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of moderate-to-severe diarrhea in solid organ transplant recipients is often a challenge because of the variety of infectious and non-infectious causes. The morbidity associated with this clinical condition is of particular significance in the pediatric population where malnutrition may lead to poor growth and development. Rarely, Cryptosporidium has been identified as the cause of clinically significant diarrhea in pediatric solid organ transplant patients. A retrospective review identified cases of cryptosporidiosis among the 1160 non-renal, abdominal organ transplant recipients cared for at the Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh between 1981 and June 1998. Four cases of clinically significant diarrhea were identified in three liver transplant recipients and one small bowel transplant recipient. Endoscopy and biopsy with histologic confirmation diagnosed three cases; ova and parasitic examination of stool specimens identified the fourth case. Therapy varied among the patients depending on when they had been diagnosed as, over the years, different and newer agents have been indicated for the treatment of cryptosporidiosis. All four patients resolved their infections. Hence, endoscopy and biopsy is recommended for pediatric transplant patients who present with chronic diarrhea of unknown etiology. The patients who may be at a higher risk for cryptosporidial infections include those with an increased immunosuppressive state (i.e. pre-existing immunodeficiency, malignancy, re-transplantation, and those receiving higher doses of immunosuppressive therapy). While cryptosporidiosis is a non-lethal complication, it allows the clinician to gain further insight into the degree of immunosuppression of their patient.

  15. [Neurological complications in patients receiving solid organ transplants].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Ramos, J A; López-Laso, E; Ordóñez-Díaz, M D; Camino-León, R; Ibarra-de la Rosa, I; Frías-Pérez, M A; Gilbert-Pérez, J J; Pérez-Navero, J L

    2013-03-01

    Neurological complications (NC) are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in paediatric patients receiving solid organ transplants. Our aim was to describe the experience of our hospital with NC in paediatric patients receiving heart, lung and liver transplants. A retrospective study was conducted on 140 paediatric patients who received a solid organ transplant during the period 2000-2011. A total of 23 paediatric solid organ transplant recipients (16.4% of cases), with a median age of 6 years, had NC. The symptoms were, in order of frequency: acute symptomatic seizures (12 patients); acute encephalopathy (11 patients); neuromuscular weakness (4 children), tremor (4 children), headache (2 children), neuropathic pain (2 children), and visual disturbances (2 children). The aetiologies of NC were: the neurotoxicity of the immunosuppressive drugs (12 patients), post-hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (6 patients), infections (2 cases), mechanical compression of peripheral nerve during surgery (2 cases), and a metabolic complication (1 case). The five patients who met the criteria of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome had a favourable outcome. Seven patients died, four of them due to hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. NC are common in paediatric patients receiving heart, liver, lung, and renal transplants, with acute symptomatic seizures and acute encephalopathy being the most common clinical signs. No differences were found in the NC with the different types of transplants. Neurotoxicity of the immunosuppressive drugs and hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy were the main causes of NC, having different management and outcomes. The prognosis was favourable in most of the patients, except for those who had moderate or severe post-hypoxic-ischaemic damage. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Diagnostic yields in solid organ transplant recipients admitted with diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Echenique, Ignacio A; Penugonda, Sudhir; Stosor, Valentina; Ison, Michael G; Angarone, Michael P

    2015-03-01

    Although diarrhea is a frequent complaint among solid organ transplant recipients, the contribution of infectious etiologies remains incompletely defined. We sought to define the etiologies of diarrhea and the yields of testing at our institution. We performed a retrospective analysis over an 18-month period of hospitalized solid organ transplant recipients. We stratified diarrhea by community onset vs hospital onset of diarrhea. We identified 422 admissions (representing 314 unique patients) with community-onset diarrhea, and 112 admissions (representing 102 unique patients) with hospital-onset diarrhea. The majority of community- and hospital-onset diarrheal episodes had no identified etiology (60.9% and 75.9%, respectively; P = .03), yet were also self-limited (91% and 91%, respectively; P = .894). Thereafter, the most frequently encountered infectious etiologies were Clostridium difficile infection (13.3% and 11.8%, respectively), norovirus enteritis (8.2% and 3%), cytomegalovirus disease or colitis (6.3% and 2.7%), and bacterial enterocolitis (0.9% and 0%) (P = .03). In aggregate, these entities represented 93.7% and 90.5% of the identified infectious etiologies, respectively. Protozoan causes were rarely seen. Coinfection, or the simultaneous detection of ≥2 pathogens, occurred in 8 (1.9%) and 2 (1.8%) community- and hospital-onset diarrheal admissions, respectively (P = .99). In solid organ transplant recipients who presented at our institution with diarrhea, approximately one-third had infectious etiologies identified, consisting predominantly of C. difficile, norovirus, cytomegalovirus, and bacterial enterocolitis. Other infectious etiologies were rare. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Diagnostic Yields in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients Admitted With Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Echenique, Ignacio A.; Penugonda, Sudhir; Stosor, Valentina; Ison, Michael G.; Angarone, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Although diarrhea is a frequent complaint among solid organ transplant recipients, the contribution of infectious etiologies remains incompletely defined. We sought to define the etiologies of diarrhea and the yields of testing at our institution. Methods. We performed a retrospective analysis over an 18-month period of hospitalized solid organ transplant recipients. We stratified diarrhea by community onset vs hospital onset of diarrhea. Results. We identified 422 admissions (representing 314 unique patients) with community-onset diarrhea, and 112 admissions (representing 102 unique patients) with hospital-onset diarrhea. The majority of community- and hospital-onset diarrheal episodes had no identified etiology (60.9% and 75.9%, respectively; P = .03), yet were also self-limited (91% and 91%, respectively; P = .894). Thereafter, the most frequently encountered infectious etiologies were Clostridium difficile infection (13.3% and 11.8%, respectively), norovirus enteritis (8.2% and 3%), cytomegalovirus disease or colitis (6.3% and 2.7%), and bacterial enterocolitis (0.9% and 0%) (P = .03). In aggregate, these entities represented 93.7% and 90.5% of the identified infectious etiologies, respectively. Protozoan causes were rarely seen. Coinfection, or the simultaneous detection of ≥2 pathogens, occurred in 8 (1.9%) and 2 (1.8%) community- and hospital-onset diarrheal admissions, respectively (P = .99). Conclusions. In solid organ transplant recipients who presented at our institution with diarrhea, approximately one-third had infectious etiologies identified, consisting predominantly of C. difficile, norovirus, cytomegalovirus, and bacterial enterocolitis. Other infectious etiologies were rare. PMID:25371488

  18. Generic immunosuppression in solid organ transplantation: a Canadian perspective.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Jennifer J; Schiff, Jeffrey R; Coursol, Christian J; Daley, Christopher J A; Dipchand, Anne I; Heywood, Norine M; Keough-Ryan, Tammy M; Keown, Paul A; Levy, Gary A; Lien, Dale C; Wichart, Jenny R; Cantarovich, Marcelo

    2012-04-15

    The introduction of generic immunosuppressant medications may present an opportunity for cost savings in solid organ transplantation if equivalent clinical outcomes to the branded counterparts can be achieved. An interprofessional working group of the Canadian Society of Transplantation was established to develop recommendations on the use of generic immunosuppression in solid organ transplant recipients (SOTR) based on a review of the available data. Under current Health Canada licensing requirements, a demonstration of bioequivalence with the branded formulation in healthy volunteers allows for bridging of clinical data. Cyclosporine, tacrolimus, and sirolimus are designated as "critical dose drugs" and are held to stricter criteria. However, whether this provides sufficient guarantee of therapeutic equivalence in SOTR remains controversial, and failure to maintain an appropriate balance of immunosuppression may have serious consequences, including rejection, graft loss, and death. Published evidence supporting therapeutic equivalence of generic formulations in SOTR is lacking. Moreover, in the setting of multiple generic formulations the potential for uncontrolled product switching is a major concern, since generic preparations are not required to demonstrate bioequivalence with each other. Although close monitoring is recommended with any change in formulation, drug product switches are likely to occur without prescriber knowledge and may pose a significant patient safety risk. The advent of generic immunosuppression will require new practices including more frequent therapeutic drug and clinical monitoring, and increased patient education. The additional workload placed on transplant centers without additional funding will create challenges and could ultimately jeopardize patient outcomes. Until more robust clinical data are available and adequate regulatory safeguards are instituted, caution in the use of generic immunosuppressive drugs in solid organ

  19. Peculiarities of holes injection into organic molecular solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Averkiev, N. S.; Zakrevskii, V. A.; Rozhansky, I. V.; Sudar, N. T.

    2009-06-01

    A microscopic mechanism of holes injection from metallic electrode into organic molecular solids (OMSs) in high electric field is proposed. A case is considered of ionization energy of the molecules exceeding work function of the metal. It is shown that the main contribution to the injection current comes from direct isoenergetic transitions (without interaction with phonons) from localized states in OMS to empty states in the metal. Strong dependence of the injection current on applied voltage originates from variation of the number of empty states available in the metal rather than by modification of the interface barrier shape.

  20. Invasive fungal infections in solid organ transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Shoham, Shmuel; Marr, Kieren A

    2014-01-01

    Invasive fungal infections are a major problem in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. Overall, the most common fungal infection in SOT is candidiasis, followed by aspergillosis and cryptococcosis, except in lung transplant recipients, where aspergillosis is most common. Development of invasive disease hinges on the interplay between host factors (e.g., integrity of anatomical barriers, innate and acquired immunity) and fungal factors (e.g., exposure, virulence and resistance to prophylaxis). In this article, we describe the epidemiology and clinical features of the most common fungal infections in organ transplantation. Within this context, we review recent advances in diagnostic modalities and antifungal chemotherapy, and their impact on evolving prophylaxis and treatment paradigms. PMID:22568718

  1. Prophylaxis of hepatitis B infection in solid organ transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Karin L.; Kotton, Camille N.; Hertl, Martin; Markmann, James F.; Cosimi, A. Benedict; Chung, Raymond T.

    2013-01-01

    Rates of transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection from organ donors with HBV markers to recipients along with reactivation of HBV during immunosuppression following transplantation have fallen significantly with the advent of hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIg) and effective antiviral therapy. Although the availability of potent antiviral agents and HBIg has highly impacted the survival rate of HBV-infected patients after transplantation, the high cost associated with this practice represents a major financial burden. The availability of potent antivirals with high genetic barrier to resistance and minimal side effects have made it possible to recommend an HBIg-free prophylactic regimen in selected patients with low viral burden prior to transplant. Significant developments over the last two decades in the understanding and treatment of HBV infection necessitate a re-appraisal of the guidelines for prophylaxis of HBV infection in solid organ transplant recipients. PMID:23814610

  2. High brightness diode-pumped organic solid-state laser

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Zhuang; Mhibik, Oussama; Nafa, Malik; Chénais, Sébastien; Forget, Sébastien

    2015-02-02

    High-power, diffraction-limited organic solid-state laser operation has been achieved in a vertical external cavity surface-emitting organic laser (VECSOL), pumped by a low-cost compact blue laser diode. The diode-pumped VECSOLs were demonstrated with various dyes in a polymer matrix, leading to laser emissions from 540 nm to 660 nm. Optimization of both the pump pulse duration and output coupling leads to a pump slope efficiency of 11% for a DCM based VECSOLs. We report output pulse energy up to 280 nJ with 100 ns long pump pulses, leading to a peak power of 3.5 W in a circularly symmetric, diffraction-limited beam.

  3. Challenging Issues in Tuberculosis in Solid Organ Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Horne, David J.; Narita, Masahiro; Spitters, Christopher L.; Parimi, Soumya; Dodson, Sherry; Limaye, Ajit P.

    2013-01-01

    Solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients are at risk for opportunistic infections including tuberculosis. Although guidelines on the management of latent tuberculosis and active tuberculosis are available, there remain a number of clinical areas with limited guidance. We discuss challenges in the diagnosis, management, and treatment of latent and active tuberculosis in SOT candidates and recipients who reside in low-tuberculosis-prevalence areas. We discuss the diagnosis of latent tuberculosis in SOT candidates/recipients using tuberculin skin tests and interferon-γ release assays and risk stratification of SOT candidates/recipients that would identify individuals at high risk for latent tuberculosis despite negative test results. Through a careful review of posttransplant tuberculosis cases, we identify a history of treated tuberculosis in SOT recipients as a risk factor for development of posttransplant active tuberculosis. Finally, we include comparisons of recommendations by several large transplant organizations and identify areas for future research. PMID:23899676

  4. Continuous high-solids anaerobic co-digestion of organic solid wastes under mesophilic conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dong-Hoon; Oh, Sae-Eun

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: > High-solids (dry) anaerobic digestion is attracting a lot of attention these days. > One reactor was fed with food waste (FW) and paper waste. > Maximum biogas production rate of 5.0 m{sup 3}/m{sup 3}/d was achieved at HRT 40 d and 40% TS. > The other reactor was fed with FW and livestock waste (LW). > Until a 40% LW content increase, the reactor exhibited a stable performance. - Abstract: With increasing concerns over the limited capacity of landfills, conservation of resources, and reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions, high-solids (dry) anaerobic digestion of organic solid waste (OSW) is attracting a great deal of attention these days. In the present work, two dry anaerobic co-digestion systems fed with different mixtures of OSW were continuously operated under mesophilic conditions. Dewatered sludge cake was used as a main seeding source. In reactor (I), which was fed with food waste (FW) and paper waste (PW), hydraulic retention time (HRT) and solid content were controlled to find the maximum treatability. At a fixed solid content of 30% total solids (TS), stable performance was maintained up to an HRT decrease to 40 d. However, the stable performance was not sustained at 30 d HRT, and hence, HRT was increased to 40 d again. In further operation, instead of decreasing HRT, solid content was increased to 40% TS, which was found to be a better option to increase the treatability. The biogas production rate (BPR), CH{sub 4} production yield (MPY) and VS reduction achieved in this condition were 5.0 m{sup 3}/m{sup 3}/d, 0.25 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/g COD{sub added}, and 80%, respectively. Reactor (II) was fed with FW and livestock waste (LW), and LW content was increased during the operation. Until a 40% LW content increase, reactor (II) exhibited a stable performance. A BPR of 1.7 m{sup 3}/m{sup 3}/d, MPY of 0.26 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/g COD{sub added}, and VS reduction of 72% was achieved at 40% LW content. However, when the LW content was increased to 60

  5. CT, MRI and DWI Features of a Solid Organizing Hepatic Abscess.

    PubMed

    Savastano, Sergio; Pellizzer, Giampiero; Di Grazia, Lorenzo; Giacomini, Dario; Beghetto, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Solid organizing hepatic abscess is a rare form of focal infection, which needs differentiation from benign and malignant solid masses. We report a case of a 30-year-old man with a solid organizing hepatic abscess, diagnosed by imaging and ex juvantibus criteria. CT and MRI findings are presented and role of DWI is outlined. Noninvasive diagnosis of a solid organizing hepatic abscess is possible in the appropriate clinical setting; percutaneous or surgical biopsy may be indicated in equivocal cases.

  6. [Involvement of endoplasmic reticulum stress in solid organ transplantation].

    PubMed

    Pallet, Nicolas; Bouvier, Nicolas; Beaune, Philippe; Legendre, Christophe; Anglicheau, Dany; Thervet, Eric

    2010-04-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a situation caused by the accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum, triggering an evolutionary conserved adaptive response termed the unfolded protein response. When adaptation fails, excessive and prolonged ER stress triggers cell suicide. Important roles for ER-initiated cell death pathways have been recognized for several diseases, including diabetes, hypoxia, ischemia/reperfusion injury, neurodegenerative and heart diseases. The implication of the ER stress is not well recognized in solid organ transplantation, but increasing evidence suggests its implication in mediating allograft injury. The purpose of this review is to summarize the mechanisms of ER stress and to discuss its implication during tissue injury in solid organ transplantation. The possible implications of the ER stress in the modifications of cell functional properties and phenotypic changes are also discussed beyond the scope of adaptation and cell death. Increasing the understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of acute and chronic allograft damages could lead to the development of new biomarkers and to the discovery of new therapeutic strategies to prevent the initiation of graft dysfunction or to promote the tissue regeneration after injury.

  7. Different indices to express biodegradability in organic solid wastes.

    PubMed

    Ponsá, Sergio; Gea, Teresa; Sánchez, Antoni

    2010-01-01

    Respiration indices are suggested in literature as the most suitable stability determination and are proposed as a biodegradability measure in this work. An improved dynamic respiration index methodology is described in this work. This methodology was applied to 58 samples of different types of waste including municipal solid wastes and wastewater sludge, both raw materials and samples collected in a mechanical-biological treatment plant at different stages of biodegradation. The information obtained allowed to establish a qualitative classification of wastes in three categories: highly biodegradable, moderately biodegradable, and wastes of low biodegradability. Results were analyzed in terms of long and short-term indices and index expression: dynamic respiration indices expressed as average oxygen uptake rate (mg O(2) g(-1) dry matter [DM] h(-1)) at 1 and 24 h of maximum activity (DRI(1h), DRI(24h)); and cumulative oxygen consumption in 24 h of maximum activity and 4 d (AT(24h), AT(4)). The statistical comparison of indices and wastes is also presented. Raw sludge presented the highest biodegradability followed by the organic fraction of municipal solid waste and anaerobically digested sludge. All indices correlated well but different correlations were found for the different wastes analyzed. The information in the dynamic respiration profile allows for the calculation of different indices that provide complementary information. The combined analysis of DRI(24h) and AT(4) is presented here as the best tool for biodegradable organic matter content characterization and process requirements estimation.

  8. Ectonucleotidases in solid organ and allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Chernogorova, Petya; Zeiser, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Extracellular nucleotides are ubiquitous signalling molecules which modulate distinct physiological and pathological processes. Nucleotide concentrations in the extracellular space are strictly regulated by cell surface enzymes, called ectonucleotidases, which hydrolyze nucleotides to the respective nucleosides. Recent studies suggest that ectonucleotidases play a significant role in inflammation by adjusting the balance between ATP, a widely distributed proinflammatory danger signal, and the anti-inflammatory mediator adenosine. There is increasing evidence for a central role of adenosine in alloantigen-mediated diseases such as solid organ graft rejection and acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). Solid organ and hematopoietic cell transplantation are established treatment modalities for a broad spectrum of benign and malignant diseases. Immunological complications based on the recognition of nonself-antigens between donor and recipient like transplant rejection and GvHD are still major challenges which limit the long-term success of transplantation. Studies in the past two decades indicate that purinergic signalling influences the severity of alloimmune responses. This paper focuses on the impact of ectonucleotidases, in particular, NTPDase1/CD39 and ecto-5'-nucleotidase/CD73, on allograft rejection, acute GvHD, and graft-versus-leukemia effect, and on possible clinical implications for the modulation of purinergic signalling after transplantation.

  9. Ectonucleotidases in Solid Organ and Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Chernogorova, Petya; Zeiser, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Extracellular nucleotides are ubiquitous signalling molecules which modulate distinct physiological and pathological processes. Nucleotide concentrations in the extracellular space are strictly regulated by cell surface enzymes, called ectonucleotidases, which hydrolyze nucleotides to the respective nucleosides. Recent studies suggest that ectonucleotidases play a significant role in inflammation by adjusting the balance between ATP, a widely distributed proinflammatory danger signal, and the anti-inflammatory mediator adenosine. There is increasing evidence for a central role of adenosine in alloantigen-mediated diseases such as solid organ graft rejection and acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). Solid organ and hematopoietic cell transplantation are established treatment modalities for a broad spectrum of benign and malignant diseases. Immunological complications based on the recognition of nonself-antigens between donor and recipient like transplant rejection and GvHD are still major challenges which limit the long-term success of transplantation. Studies in the past two decades indicate that purinergic signalling influences the severity of alloimmune responses. This paper focuses on the impact of ectonucleotidases, in particular, NTPDase1/CD39 and ecto-5′-nucleotidase/CD73, on allograft rejection, acute GvHD, and graft-versus-leukemia effect, and on possible clinical implications for the modulation of purinergic signalling after transplantation. PMID:23125523

  10. Generic maintenance immunosuppression in solid organ transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Ensor, Christopher R; Trofe-Clark, Jennifer; Gabardi, Steven; McDevitt-Potter, Lisa M; Shullo, Michael A

    2011-11-01

    Survival after solid organ transplantation has increased in the era of tacrolimus and mycophenolate. This increased survival could be due in part to the broad clinical use of these potent and specific agents for maintenance immunosuppression. These drugs have enhanced specificity and potency for T and B lymphocytes compared with their predecessors, cyclosporine and azathioprine. Between 2008 and 2010, the United States Food and Drug Administration approved several generic formulations of both tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil. Deciding whether generic products can be safely substituted for the innovator product is a clinical dilemma similar to that which occurred when generic formulations of cyclosporine became available. We describe the concerns regarding generic immunosuppression use, summarize expert opinion and consensus statements in transplantation, analyze the potential impact of generic substitution, and provide estimates of populations affected based on generic drug market penetration. Formulary considerations such as cost, availability, and potential drug ordering and drug selection errors are described, and transplant coordinator and patient perspectives are reviewed. Finally, general recommendations about the use of generic maintenance immunosuppression in solid organ transplant recipients are provided. Although more research is needed to confirm clinical and therapeutic equivalence and pharmacoeconomic benefit, generic immunosuppressants can be safely substituted for innovator products as long as patients consistently receive the same product, patients and clinicians are aware of when substitutions occur, and enhanced therapeutic drug monitoring is provided during the transition.

  11. Porous organic nanolayers for coating of solid-state devices.

    PubMed

    Vidyala, Sri D; Asghar, Waseem; Iqbal, Samir M

    2011-05-14

    Highly hydrophobic surfaces can have very low surface energy and such low surface energy biological interfaces can be obtained using fluorinated coatings on surfaces. Deposition of biocompatible organic films on solid-state surfaces is attained with techniques like plasma polymerization, biomineralization and chemical vapor deposition. All these require special equipment or harsh chemicals. This paper presents a simple vapor-phase approach to directly coat solid-state surfaces with biocompatible films without any harsh chemical or plasma treatment. Hydrophilic and hydrophobic monomers were used for reaction and deposition of nanolayer films. The monomers were characterized and showed a very consistent coating of 3D micropore structures. The coating showed nano-textured surface morphology which can aid cell growth and provide rich molecular functionalization. The surface properties of the obtained film were regulated by varying monomer concentrations, reaction time and the vacuum pressure in a simple reaction chamber. Films were characterized by contact angle analysis for surface energy and with profilometer to measure the thickness. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis revealed the chemical composition of the coated films. Variations in the FTIR results with respect to different concentrations of monomers showed the chemical composition of the resulting films. The presented approach of vapor-phase coating of solid-state structures is important and applicable in many areas of bio-nano interface development. The exposure of coatings to the solutions of different pH showed the stability of the coatings in chemical surroundings. The organic nanocoating of films can be used in bio-implants and many medical devices.

  12. An amorphous solid state of biogenic secondary organic aerosol particles.

    PubMed

    Virtanen, Annele; Joutsensaari, Jorma; Koop, Thomas; Kannosto, Jonna; Yli-Pirilä, Pasi; Leskinen, Jani; Mäkelä, Jyrki M; Holopainen, Jarmo K; Pöschl, Ulrich; Kulmala, Markku; Worsnop, Douglas R; Laaksonen, Ari

    2010-10-14

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles are formed in the atmosphere from condensable oxidation products of anthropogenic and biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs). On a global scale, biogenic VOCs account for about 90% of VOC emissions and of SOA formation (90 billion kilograms of carbon per year). SOA particles can scatter radiation and act as cloud condensation or ice nuclei, and thereby influence the Earth's radiation balance and climate. They consist of a myriad of different compounds with varying physicochemical properties, and little information is available on the phase state of SOA particles. Gas-particle partitioning models usually assume that SOA particles are liquid, but here we present experimental evidence that they can be solid under ambient conditions. We investigated biogenic SOA particles formed from oxidation products of VOCs in plant chamber experiments and in boreal forests within a few hours after atmospheric nucleation events. On the basis of observed particle bouncing in an aerosol impactor and of electron microscopy we conclude that biogenic SOA particles can adopt an amorphous solid-most probably glassy-state. This amorphous solid state should provoke a rethinking of SOA processes because it may influence the partitioning of semi-volatile compounds, reduce the rate of heterogeneous chemical reactions, affect the particles' ability to accommodate water and act as cloud condensation or ice nuclei, and change the atmospheric lifetime of the particles. Thus, the results of this study challenge traditional views of the kinetics and thermodynamics of SOA formation and transformation in the atmosphere and their implications for air quality and climate.

  13. Porous Organic Nanolayers for Coating of Solid-state Devices

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Highly hydrophobic surfaces can have very low surface energy and such low surface energy biological interfaces can be obtained using fluorinated coatings on surfaces. Deposition of biocompatible organic films on solid-state surfaces is attained with techniques like plasma polymerization, biomineralization and chemical vapor deposition. All these require special equipment or harsh chemicals. This paper presents a simple vapor-phase approach to directly coat solid-state surfaces with biocompatible films without any harsh chemical or plasma treatment. Hydrophilic and hydrophobic monomers were used for reaction and deposition of nanolayer films. The monomers were characterized and showed a very consistent coating of 3D micropore structures. Results The coating showed nano-textured surface morphology which can aid cell growth and provide rich molecular functionalization. The surface properties of the obtained film were regulated by varying monomer concentrations, reaction time and the vacuum pressure in a simple reaction chamber. Films were characterized by contact angle analysis for surface energy and with profilometer to measure the thickness. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis revealed the chemical composition of the coated films. Variations in the FTIR results with respect to different concentrations of monomers showed the chemical composition of the resulting films. Conclusion The presented approach of vapor-phase coating of solid-state structures is important and applicable in many areas of bio-nano interface development. The exposure of coatings to the solutions of different pH showed the stability of the coatings in chemical surroundings. The organic nanocoating of films can be used in bio-implants and many medical devices. PMID:21569579

  14. Lung Cancer Prognosis in Elderly Solid Organ Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Sigel, Keith; Veluswamy, Rajwanth; Krauskopf, Katherine; Mehrotra, Anita; Mhango, Grace; Sigel, Carlie; Wisnivesky, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Background Treatment-related immunosuppression in organ transplant recipients has been linked to increased incidence and risk of progression for several malignancies. Using a population-based cancer cohort, we evaluated whether organ transplantation was associated with worse prognosis in elderly patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results registry linked to Medicare claims we identified 597 patients age ≥65 with NSCLC who had received organ transplants (kidney, liver, heart or lung) prior to cancer diagnosis. These cases were compared to 114,410 untransplanted NSCLC patients. We compared overall survival (OS) by transplant status using Kaplan-Meier methods and Cox regression. To account for an increased risk of non-lung cancer death (competing risks) in transplant recipients, we used conditional probability function (CPF) analyses. Multiple CPF regression was used to evaluate lung cancer prognosis in organ transplant recipients while adjusting for confounders. Results Transplant recipients presented with earlier stage lung cancer (p=0.002) and were more likely to have squamous cell carcinoma (p=0.02). Cox regression analyses showed that having received a non-lung organ transplant was associated with poorer OS (p<0.05) while lung transplantation was associated with no difference in prognosis. After accounting for competing risks of death using CPF regression, no differences in cancer-specific survival were noted between non-lung transplant recipients and non-transplant patients. Conclusions Non-lung solid organ transplant recipients who developed NSCLC had worse OS than non-transplant recipients due to competing risks of death. Lung cancer-specific survival analyses suggest that NSCLC tumor behavior may be similar in these two groups. PMID:25839704

  15. Lung Cancer Prognosis in Elderly Solid Organ Transplant Recipients.

    PubMed

    Sigel, Keith; Veluswamy, Rajwanth; Krauskopf, Katherine; Mehrotra, Anita; Mhango, Grace; Sigel, Carlie; Wisnivesky, Juan

    2015-10-01

    Treatment-related immunosuppression in organ transplant recipients has been linked to increased incidence and risk of progression for several malignancies. Using a population-based cancer cohort, we evaluated whether organ transplantation was associated with worse prognosis in elderly patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Registry linked to Medicare claims, we identified 597 patients aged 65 years or older with NSCLC who had received organ transplants (kidney, liver, heart, or lung) before cancer diagnosis. These cases were compared to 114,410 untransplanted NSCLC patients. We compared overall survival (OS) by transplant status using Kaplan-Meier methods and Cox regression. To account for an increased risk of non-lung cancer death (competing risks) in transplant recipients, we used conditional probability function (CPF) analyses. Multiple CPF regression was used to evaluate lung cancer prognosis in organ transplant recipients while adjusting for confounders. Transplant recipients presented with earlier stage lung cancer (P = 0.002) and were more likely to have squamous cell carcinoma (P = 0.02). Cox regression analyses showed that having received a non-lung organ transplant was associated with poorer OS (P < 0.05), whereas lung transplantation was associated with no difference in prognosis. After accounting for competing risks of death using CPF regression, no differences in cancer-specific survival were noted between non-lung transplant recipients and nontransplant patients. Non-lung solid organ transplant recipients who developed NSCLC had worse OS than nontransplant recipients due to competing risks of death. Lung cancer-specific survival analyses suggest that NSCLC tumor behavior may be similar in these 2 groups.

  16. Effects of biochars produced from solid organic municipal waste on soil quality parameters

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    New, value-added uses for solid organic waste are needed for environmental and economic sustainability. Fortunately, value-added biochars can be produced from mixed organic solid waste, thereby addressing solid waste management issues, and enabling long-term carbon sequestration. We hypothesize that...

  17. Controlled Synthesis of Organic/Inorganic van der Waals Solid for Tunable Light-Matter Interactions.

    PubMed

    Niu, Lin; Liu, Xinfeng; Cong, Chunxiao; Wu, Chunyang; Wu, Di; Chang, Tay Rong; Wang, Hong; Zeng, Qingsheng; Zhou, Jiadong; Wang, Xingli; Fu, Wei; Yu, Peng; Fu, Qundong; Najmaei, Sina; Zhang, Zhuhua; Yakobson, Boris I; Tay, Beng Kang; Zhou, Wu; Jeng, Horng Tay; Lin, Hsin; Sum, Tze Chien; Jin, Chuanhong; He, Haiyong; Yu, Ting; Liu, Zheng

    2015-12-16

    High-quality organic and inorganic van der Waals (vdW) solids are realized using methylammonium lead halide (CH3 NH3 PbI3 ) as the organic part (organic perovskite) and 2D inorganic monolayers as counterparts. By stacking on various 2D monolayers, the vdW solids exhibit dramatically different light emissions. Futhermore, organic/h-BN vdW solid arrays are patterned for red-light emission.

  18. Nitrogen isotopic fractionation during abiotic synthesis of organic solid particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuga, Maïa; Carrasco, Nathalie; Marty, Bernard; Marrocchi, Yves; Bernard, Sylvain; Rigaudier, Thomas; Fleury, Benjamin; Tissandier, Laurent

    2014-05-01

    The formation of organic compounds is generally assumed to result from abiotic processes in the Solar System, with the exception of biogenic organics on Earth. Nitrogen-bearing organics are of particular interest, notably for prebiotic perspectives but also for overall comprehension of organic formation in the young Solar System and in planetary atmospheres. We have investigated abiotic synthesis of organics upon plasma discharge, with special attention to N isotope fractionation. Organic aerosols were synthesized from N2-CH4 and N2-CO gaseous mixtures using low-pressure plasma discharge experiments, aimed at simulating chemistry occurring in Titan's atmosphere and in the protosolar nebula, respectively. The nitrogen content, the N speciation and the N isotopic composition were analyzed in the resulting organic aerosols. Nitrogen is efficiently incorporated into the synthesized solids, independently of the oxidation degree, of the N2 content of the starting gas mixture, and of the nitrogen speciation in the aerosols. The aerosols are depleted in 15N by 15-25‰ relative to the initial N2 gas, whatever the experimental setup is. Such an isotopic fractionation is attributed to mass-dependent kinetic effect(s). Nitrogen isotope fractionation upon electric discharge cannot account for the large N isotope variations observed among Solar System objects and reservoirs. Extreme N isotope signatures in the Solar System are more likely the result of self-shielding during N2 photodissociation, exotic effect during photodissociation of N2 and/or low temperature ion-molecule isotope exchange. Kinetic N isotope fractionation may play a significant role in the Titan's atmosphere. On the Titan's night side, 15N-depletion resulting from electron driven reactions may counterbalance photo-induced 15N enrichments occurring on the day's side. We also suggest that the low δ15N values of Archaean organic matter (Beaumont and Robert, 1999) are partly the result of abiotic synthesis of

  19. Subcritical-Water Extraction of Organics from Solid Matrices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amashukeli, Xenia; Grunthaner, Frank; Patrick, Steven; Kirby, James; Bickler, Donald; Willis, Peter; Pelletier, Christine; Bryson, Charles

    2009-01-01

    An apparatus for extracting organic compounds from soils, sands, and other solid matrix materials utilizes water at subcritical temperature and pressure as a solvent. The apparatus, called subcritical water extractor (SCWE), is a prototype of subsystems of future instrumentation systems to be used in searching for organic compounds as signs of past or present life on Mars. An aqueous solution generated by an apparatus like this one can be analyzed by any of a variety of established chromatographic or spectroscopic means to detect the dissolved organic compound( s). The apparatus can be used on Earth: indeed, in proof-of-concept experiments, SCWE was used to extract amino acids from soils of the Atacama Desert (Chile), which was chosen because the dryness and other relevant soil conditions there approximate those on Mars. The design of the apparatus is based partly on the fact that the relative permittivity (also known as the dielectric constant) of liquid water varies with temperature and pressure. At a temperature of 30 C and a pressure of 0.1 MPa, the relative permittivity of water is 79.6, due to the strong dipole-dipole electrostatic interactions between individual molecular dipoles. As the temperature increases, increasing thermal energy causes increasing disorientation of molecular dipoles, with a consequent decrease in relative permittivity. For example, water at a temperature of 325 C and pressure of 20 MPa has a relative permittivity of 17.5, which is similar to the relative permittivities of such nonpolar organic solvents as 1-butanol (17.8). In the operation of this apparatus, the temperature and pressure of water are adjusted so that the water can be used in place of commonly used organic solvents to extract compounds that have dissimilar physical and chemical properties.

  20. Desensitization for solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Zachary, Andrea A; Leffell, Mary S

    2014-01-01

    Desensitization protocols are being used worldwide to enable kidney transplantation across immunologic barriers, i.e. antibody to donor HLA or ABO antigens, which were once thought to be absolute contraindications to transplantation. Desensitization protocols are also being applied to permit transplantation of HLA mismatched hematopoietic stem cells to patients with antibody to donor HLA, to enhance the opportunity for transplantation of non-renal organs, and to treat antibody-mediated rejection. Although desensitization for organ transplantation carries an increased risk of antibody-mediated rejection, ultimately these transplants extend and enhance the quality of life for solid organ recipients, and desensitization that permits transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells is life saving for patients with limited donor options. Complex patient factors and variability in treatment protocols have made it difficult to identify, precisely, the mechanisms underlying the downregulation of donor-specific antibodies. The mechanisms underlying desensitization may differ among the various protocols in use, although there are likely to be some common features. However, it is likely that desensitization achieves a sort of immune detente by first reducing the immunologic barrier and then by creating an environment in which an autoregulatory process restricts the immune response to the allograft. PMID:24517434

  1. The erosion of organic solids in combined sewers.

    PubMed

    Ahyerre, M; Oms, C; Chebbo, G

    2001-01-01

    Many studies undertaken on urban catchments show, thanks to indirect approaches, that the contribution of eroded sewer sediments to pollution of combined sewer overflows is significant and highly organic. An in situ study of the erosion of sewer sediments has been implemented to validate those results with a direct approach and to observe the processes of erosion. Two experiments have been carried out on a 150 m length of combined sewer in "Le Marais" catchment in Paris, in order to determine the rate of erosion and the nature of the particles eroded by an injection of drinking water in the sewer system. Hydraulic and quality parameters have been measured in situ. Those injections have shown that the rate of erosion is important (maximum rate of 146 g/s) at each stage of the injection, which has been conducted in three stages with a maximum flow of 370 m3/h. The erosion does not only occur locally but happens along the entire length of the section even at low shear stresses (0.5 N/m2). The eroded particles are highly organic (VS = 54-86%) and their loads in volatile solids, COD, BOD5 decrease as the flow increases. So, this work confirms, by direct measurements, that eroded sewer sediments are a significant source of organic matter that contribute to combined sewer overflow.

  2. Desensitization for solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Zachary, Andrea A; Leffell, Mary S

    2014-03-01

    Desensitization protocols are being used worldwide to enable kidney transplantation across immunologic barriers, i.e. antibody to donor HLA or ABO antigens, which were once thought to be absolute contraindications to transplantation. Desensitization protocols are also being applied to permit transplantation of HLA mismatched hematopoietic stem cells to patients with antibody to donor HLA, to enhance the opportunity for transplantation of non-renal organs, and to treat antibody-mediated rejection. Although desensitization for organ transplantation carries an increased risk of antibody-mediated rejection, ultimately these transplants extend and enhance the quality of life for solid organ recipients, and desensitization that permits transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells is life saving for patients with limited donor options. Complex patient factors and variability in treatment protocols have made it difficult to identify, precisely, the mechanisms underlying the downregulation of donor-specific antibodies. The mechanisms underlying desensitization may differ among the various protocols in use, although there are likely to be some common features. However, it is likely that desensitization achieves a sort of immune detente by first reducing the immunologic barrier and then by creating an environment in which an autoregulatory process restricts the immune response to the allograft. © 2014 The Authors. Immunological Reviews Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Everolimus and Malignancy after Solid Organ Transplantation: A Clinical Update.

    PubMed

    Holdaas, Hallvard; De Simone, Paolo; Zuckermann, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Malignancy after solid organ transplantation remains a major cause of posttransplant mortality. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor class of immunosuppressants exerts various antioncogenic effects, and the mTOR inhibitor everolimus is licensed for the treatment of several solid cancers. In kidney transplantation, evidence from registry studies indicates a lower rate of de novo malignancy under mTOR inhibition, with some potentially supportive data from randomized trials of everolimus. Case reports and small single-center series have suggested that switch to everolimus may be beneficial following diagnosis of posttransplant malignancy, particularly for Kaposi's sarcoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer, but prospective studies are lacking. A systematic review has shown mTOR inhibition to be associated with a significantly lower rate of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurrence versus standard calcineurin inhibitor therapy. One meta-analysis has concluded that patients with nontransplant HCC experience a low but significant survival benefit under everolimus monotherapy, so far unconfirmed in a transplant population. Data are limited in heart transplantation, although observational data and case reports have indicated that introduction of everolimus is helpful in reducing the recurrence of skin cancers. Overall, it can be concluded that, in certain settings, everolimus appears a promising option to lessen the toll of posttransplant malignancy.

  4. Influenza vaccination and humoral alloimmunity in solid organ transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Vermeiren, Pieter; Aubert, Vincent; Sugamele, Rocco; Aubert, John-David; Venetz, Jean-Pierre; Meylan, Pascal; Pascual, Manuel; Manuel, Oriol

    2014-09-01

    Annual influenza vaccination is recommended in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. However, concerns have been raised about the impact of vaccination on antigraft alloimmunity. We evaluated the humoral alloimmune responses to influenza vaccination in a cohort of SOT recipients between October 2008 and December 2011. Anti-HLA antibodies were measured before and 4-8 weeks after influenza vaccination using a solid-phase assay. Overall, 169 SOT recipients were included (kidney = 136, lung = 26, liver = 3, and combined = 4). Five (2.9%) of 169 patients developed de novo anti-HLA antibodies after vaccination, including one patient who developed donor-specific antibodies (DSA) 8 months after vaccination. In patients with pre-existing anti-HLA antibodies, median MFI was not significantly different before and after vaccination (P = 0.73 for class I and P = 0.20 for class II anti-HLA antibodies) and no development of de novo DSA was observed. Five episodes of rejection (2.9%) were observed within 12 months after vaccination, and only one patient had de novo anti-HLA antibodies. The incidence of development of anti-HLA antibodies after influenza vaccination in our cohort of SOT recipients was very low. Our findings indicate that influenza vaccination is safe and does not trigger humoral alloimmune responses in SOT recipients. © 2014 Steunstichting ESOT.

  5. Distributions of methyl group rotational barriers in polycrystalline organic solids

    SciTech Connect

    Beckmann, Peter A. E-mail: wangxianlong@uestc.edu.cn; Conn, Kathleen G.; Mallory, Clelia W.; Mallory, Frank B.; Rheingold, Arnold L.; Rotkina, Lolita; Wang, Xianlong E-mail: wangxianlong@uestc.edu.cn

    2013-11-28

    We bring together solid state {sup 1}H spin-lattice relaxation rate measurements, scanning electron microscopy, single crystal X-ray diffraction, and electronic structure calculations for two methyl substituted organic compounds to investigate methyl group (CH{sub 3}) rotational dynamics in the solid state. Methyl group rotational barrier heights are computed using electronic structure calculations, both in isolated molecules and in molecular clusters mimicking a perfect single crystal environment. The calculations are performed on suitable clusters built from the X-ray diffraction studies. These calculations allow for an estimate of the intramolecular and the intermolecular contributions to the barrier heights. The {sup 1}H relaxation measurements, on the other hand, are performed with polycrystalline samples which have been investigated with scanning electron microscopy. The {sup 1}H relaxation measurements are best fitted with a distribution of activation energies for methyl group rotation and we propose, based on the scanning electron microscopy images, that this distribution arises from molecules near crystallite surfaces or near other crystal imperfections (vacancies, dislocations, etc.). An activation energy characterizing this distribution is compared with a barrier height determined from the electronic structure calculations and a consistent model for methyl group rotation is developed. The compounds are 1,6-dimethylphenanthrene and 1,8-dimethylphenanthrene and the methyl group barriers being discussed and compared are in the 2–12 kJ mol{sup −1} range.

  6. Everolimus and Malignancy after Solid Organ Transplantation: A Clinical Update

    PubMed Central

    De Simone, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Malignancy after solid organ transplantation remains a major cause of posttransplant mortality. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor class of immunosuppressants exerts various antioncogenic effects, and the mTOR inhibitor everolimus is licensed for the treatment of several solid cancers. In kidney transplantation, evidence from registry studies indicates a lower rate of de novo malignancy under mTOR inhibition, with some potentially supportive data from randomized trials of everolimus. Case reports and small single-center series have suggested that switch to everolimus may be beneficial following diagnosis of posttransplant malignancy, particularly for Kaposi's sarcoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer, but prospective studies are lacking. A systematic review has shown mTOR inhibition to be associated with a significantly lower rate of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurrence versus standard calcineurin inhibitor therapy. One meta-analysis has concluded that patients with nontransplant HCC experience a low but significant survival benefit under everolimus monotherapy, so far unconfirmed in a transplant population. Data are limited in heart transplantation, although observational data and case reports have indicated that introduction of everolimus is helpful in reducing the recurrence of skin cancers. Overall, it can be concluded that, in certain settings, everolimus appears a promising option to lessen the toll of posttransplant malignancy. PMID:27807479

  7. Vascularized composite allografts and solid organ transplants: similarities and differences.

    PubMed

    Weissenbacher, Annemarie; Hautz, Theresa; Pratschke, Johann; Schneeberger, Stefan

    2013-12-01

    Vascularized composite allotransplantation (VCA) is a treatment for complex tissue injuries and defects of extremities and face. During the past thirteen years, more than 100 VCA cases have been reported. Form and function restored with VCA have exceeded the results achieved with conventional surgical techniques. The review summarized the development in VCA over the past 12 months with references of and comparison with solid organ transplantation. The highlights reported in the latest publications included a better understanding of topical immunosuppressants for prevention and treatment of VCA rejection, mechanisms of chronic rejection and minimization of immunosuppressive maintenance treatment using a cell-based protocol in human upper-extremity transplantation. We herein summarize the progress made in VCA in the last year with a focus on new clinical immunosuppressive strategies and novel targets for immunosuppression and immunomodulation including the application of mesenchymal stem cells for transplant tolerance.

  8. Solid-phase genotoxicity assay for organic compounds in soil

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, R.R.; Chung, N.; Alexander, M.

    1999-03-01

    A genotoxicity assay was developed for samples from environments in which toxic organic compounds are largely sorbed. The assay entails measurement of the rate of mutation of a strain of Pseudomonas putida to rifampicin resistance. The ratio of induced to spontaneous mutants was a function of the concentration of a test mutagen in soil. In studies of the utility of the assay in samples amended with 2-aminofluorene as a test mutagen, the ratio of induced to spontaneous mutants declined with time. The decline paralleled the disappearance of extractable 2-aminofluorene from the soil. The ratio of induced to spontaneous mutants also feel in four other soils with dissimilar properties. The authors suggest that this solid-phase assay is more appropriate for the estimation of genotoxicants sorbed in soil than assays involving extractants or suspensions of soil or sediment samples.

  9. Organic solid solution composed of two structurally similar porphyrins for organic solar cells.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Yonggang; Tanaka, Hideyuki; Harano, Koji; Okada, Satoshi; Matsuo, Yutaka; Nakamura, Eiichi

    2015-02-18

    A solid solution of a 75:25 mixture of tetrabenzoporphyrin (BP) and dichloroacenaphtho[q]tribenzo[b,g,l]porphyrin (CABP) forms when they are generated in a matrix of (dimethyl(o-anisyl)silylmethyl)(dimethylphenylsilylmethyl)[60]fullerene. This solid solution provides structural and optoelectronic properties entirely different from those of either pristine compounds or a mixture at other blending ratios. The use of this BP:CABP solid solution for organic solar cell (OSC) devices resulted in a power conversion efficiency (PCE) value higher by 16 and 300% than the PCE values obtained for the devices using the single donor BP and CABP, respectively, in a planar heterojunction architecture. This increase originates largely from the increase in short circuit current density, and hence by enhanced charge carrier separation at the donor/acceptor interface, which was probably caused by suitable energy level for the solid solution state, where electronic coupling between the two porphyrins occurred. The results suggest that physical and chemical modulation in solid solution is beneficial as an operationally simple method to enhance OSC performance.

  10. Solid organ transplantation following end-organ failure in recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in children.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, Kiran; Fine, Richard N

    2014-08-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is an accepted treatment modality for various malignant and non-malignant disorders of the lympho-hematopoietic system. Patient survival rate has increased significantly with the use of this procedure. However, with the increase in disease-free patient survival rates, complications including various organ toxicities are also common. Kidney, liver, lung, heart, and skin are among those solid organs that are commonly affected and frequently lead to organ dysfunction and eventually end-organ disease. Conservative measures may or may not be successful in managing the organ failure in these patients. Solid organ transplantation has been shown to be promising in those patients who fail conservative management. This review will summarize the causes of solid organ (kidney, liver, and lung) dysfunction and the available data on transplantation of these solid organs in post-HSCT recipients.

  11. Hepatitis C virus and nonliver solid organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Marco; Mutimer, David; Neuberger, James

    2013-03-27

    : Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is common in solid organ allograft recipients and is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality after transplantation, so effective management will improve outcomes. In this review, we discuss the extent of the problem associated with HCV infection in donors and kidney, heart, and lung transplant candidates and recipients and recommend follow-up and treatment.Patients with end-stage kidney disease without cirrhosis and selected patients with early-stage cirrhosis can be considered for kidney transplant alone. In HCV-infected kidney allograft recipients, the progression of fibrosis should be evaluated serially by Fibroscan or serologic measures of fibrosis. Transplantation of kidneys from HCV-positive donors should be restricted to HCV-positive recipients as it is associated with a reduced time waiting for a graft and does not affect posttransplant outcomes. Hepatitis C virus antiviral therapy should be considered for all HCV-RNA-positive kidney transplant candidates, irrespective of the baseline liver histopathology. Protease inhibitors have yet to be fully evaluated in patients with renal dysfunction and in the transplant population. As these agents may cause anemia in patients with normal renal function, tolerability may be a problem in patients with end-stage kidney disease.The impact of HCV infection on survival in heart and lung transplantation is unclear. Because of the shortage of organs, few HCV-infected patients are accepted for transplantation.Universal use of nucleic acid amplification testing (NAT) for the screening of potential organ donors should be reserved to high-risk donors. Assays that quantify HCV core antigen may become more cost-effective than NAT for the screening of potential organ donors.

  12. [Evaluation of viral hepatitis in solid organ transplantation].

    PubMed

    Mikolašević, Ivana; Sladoje-Martinović, Branka; Orlić, Lidija; Milić, Sandra; Lukenda, Vesna; Župan, Željko; Štimac, Davor; Rački, Sanjin

    2014-04-01

    Renal transplantation has significantly improved survival of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Transplantation is the best treatment in this population of patients. Despite the introduction of various preventive measures, viral hepatitis, i.e. hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections, are still a major problem because they are common in patients on renal replacement therapy as well as in allograft recipients. They are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in this patient population. In recent years, hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection has been added as an emergent cause of chronic hepatitis in solid organ transplantation, mainly in renal and liver allograft recipients. Most studies show higher mortality in renal transplant recipients (RTRs) infected with HBV, compared with RTRs without HBV infection, although this topic is still under debate. Furthermore, HCV infection in RTRs is associated with a significant reduction in patient and graft survival due to liver disease and septic complications related to cirrhosis and immunosuppressive therapy. The immunosuppressive therapy prescribed after transplantation modifies the natural history of chronic HCV infection. Given the high prevalence of HCV and HBV infections in RTRs, a growing incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma and the possible contribution of immunosuppression might be expected in these patients. Therefore, after renal transplantation, early screening with abdominal ultrasound (every 3 months in cirrhotic patients and every 6-12 months in non-cirrhotic RTRs) is necessary when the risk factors such as HBV and HCV are present. The European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) recommends that all HbsAg-positive patients who are candidates for solid organ transplantation should be treated with nucleoside analogs. The KDIGO guidelines recommend that all HbsAg-positive RTRs receive prophylaxis with tenofovir, entecavir or lamivudine; however, tenofovir and

  13. 7 CFR 37.10 - Official assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Official assessment. 37.10 Section 37.10 Agriculture... ASSESS ORGANIC CERTIFYING AGENCIES § 37.10 Official assessment. Official assessment of an applicant's... completion of an adequacy audit by the auditors. (b) Program assessment. Assessment of a certification...

  14. Antibody Subclass Repertoire and Graft Outcome Following Solid Organ Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Valenzuela, Nicole M.; Hickey, Michelle J.; Reed, Elaine F.

    2016-01-01

    Long-term outcomes in solid organ transplantation are constrained by the development of donor-specific alloantibodies (DSA) against human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and other targets, which elicit antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR). However, antibody-mediated graft injury represents a broad continuum, from extensive complement activation and tissue damage compromising the function of the transplanted organ, to histological manifestations of endothelial cell injury and mononuclear cell infiltration but without concurrent allograft dysfunction. In addition, while transplant recipients with DSA as a whole fare worse than those without, a substantial minority of patients with DSA do not experience poorer graft outcome. Taken together, these observations suggest that not all DSA are equally pathogenic. Antibody effector functions are controlled by a number of factors, including antibody concentration, antigen availability, and antibody isotype/subclass. Antibody isotype is specified by many integrated signals, including the antigen itself as well as from antigen-presenting cells or helper T cells. To date, a number of studies have described the repertoire of IgG subclasses directed against HLA in pretransplant patients and evaluated the clinical impact of different DSA IgG subclasses on allograft outcome. This review will summarize what is known about the repertoire of antibodies to HLA and non-HLA targets in transplantation, focusing on the distribution of IgG subclasses, as well as the general biology, etiology, and mechanisms of injury of different humoral factors. PMID:27822209

  15. Three-dimensional protonic conductivity in porous organic cage solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ming; Chen, Linjiang; Lewis, Scott; Chong, Samantha Y.; Little, Marc A.; Hasell, Tom; Aldous, Iain M.; Brown, Craig M.; Smith, Martin W.; Morrison, Carole A.; Hardwick, Laurence J.; Cooper, Andrew I.

    2016-09-01

    Proton conduction is a fundamental process in biology and in devices such as proton exchange membrane fuel cells. To maximize proton conduction, three-dimensional conduction pathways are preferred over one-dimensional pathways, which prevent conduction in two dimensions. Many crystalline porous solids to date show one-dimensional proton conduction. Here we report porous molecular cages with proton conductivities (up to 10-3 S cm-1 at high relative humidity) that compete with extended metal-organic frameworks. The structure of the organic cage imposes a conduction pathway that is necessarily three-dimensional. The cage molecules also promote proton transfer by confining the water molecules while being sufficiently flexible to allow hydrogen bond reorganization. The proton conduction is explained at the molecular level through a combination of proton conductivity measurements, crystallography, molecular simulations and quasi-elastic neutron scattering. These results provide a starting point for high-temperature, anhydrous proton conductors through inclusion of guests other than water in the cage pores.

  16. Three-dimensional protonic conductivity in porous organic cage solids.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ming; Chen, Linjiang; Lewis, Scott; Chong, Samantha Y; Little, Marc A; Hasell, Tom; Aldous, Iain M; Brown, Craig M; Smith, Martin W; Morrison, Carole A; Hardwick, Laurence J; Cooper, Andrew I

    2016-09-13

    Proton conduction is a fundamental process in biology and in devices such as proton exchange membrane fuel cells. To maximize proton conduction, three-dimensional conduction pathways are preferred over one-dimensional pathways, which prevent conduction in two dimensions. Many crystalline porous solids to date show one-dimensional proton conduction. Here we report porous molecular cages with proton conductivities (up to 10(-3) S cm(-1) at high relative humidity) that compete with extended metal-organic frameworks. The structure of the organic cage imposes a conduction pathway that is necessarily three-dimensional. The cage molecules also promote proton transfer by confining the water molecules while being sufficiently flexible to allow hydrogen bond reorganization. The proton conduction is explained at the molecular level through a combination of proton conductivity measurements, crystallography, molecular simulations and quasi-elastic neutron scattering. These results provide a starting point for high-temperature, anhydrous proton conductors through inclusion of guests other than water in the cage pores.

  17. Invasive candidiasis serological diagnosis in solid organ transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Sikora, Magdalena; Gołaś, Marlena; Dąbkowska, Maria; Pączek, Leszek; Swoboda-Kopeć, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Solid organ transplant recipients are at high risk of fungal infections, because of ongoing immunosuppressive treatment. There are three post organ transplant phases: early, intermediate, and late, all of them at risk of Candida infections. Since conventional tests are insufficient, specific secondary diagnostic tests are still being explored. Serological tests are currently the most common choice. The present study was to determine the usefulness of mannan antigen and anti-mannan antibody detection in diagnosing invasive candidiasis in liver or kidney transplant recipients. The levels of mannan and anti-mannan antibodies were assessed with Platelia Candida Ag Plus, and Platelia Candida Ab Plus (Biorad, Marne-la-Coquette, France) commercial tests, according to manufacturer's guidelines. Sixty six serum samples were obtained from 25 patients (9 liver transplant recipients, 7 kidney transplant recipients, and 9 patients prepared for a kidney transplant), 29 serum samples from 15 patients tested positive for mannan antigen. Serum samples were obtained from 14 patients tested positive for anti- mannan antibodies. Fungal antigen detection in blood serum in patients under immunosuppression, especially with neutropenia, suggests that antifungal treatment should be administered. Serological tests, especially mannan and anti-mannan ones, are very useful for confirmation or exclusion of invasive candidiasis in high-risk patients. PMID:26155122

  18. MicroRNAs as Biomarkers in Solid Organ Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Mas, Valeria R; Dumur, Catherine I.; Scian, Mariano J; Gehrau, Ricardo C.; Maluf, Daniel G

    2012-01-01

    Important progress has been made in improving short term outcomes in solid organ transplantation. However, long-term outcomes have not improved during the last decades. There is a critical need for biomarkers of donor quality, early diagnosis of graft injury and treatment response. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small single stranded noncoding RNAs that function through translational repression of specific target mRNAs. MiRNA expression has been associated with different diseases and physiological conditions. Moreover, miRNAs have been detected in different biological fluids and these circulating miRNAs can distinguish diseased individuals from healthy controls. The noninvasive nature of circulating miRNA detection, their disease specificity, and the availability of accurate techniques for detecting and monitoring these molecules has encouraged a pursuit of miRNA biomarker research and the evaluation of specific applications in the transplant field. miRNA expression might develop as excellent biomarkers of allograft injury and function. In this minireview, we summarize the main accomplishments of recently published reports focused on the identification of miRNAs as biomarkers in organ quality, ischemia-reperfusion injury, acute rejection, tolerance and chronic allograft dysfunction emphasizing their mechanistic and clinical potential applications and describing their methodological limitations. PMID:23136949

  19. Three-dimensional protonic conductivity in porous organic cage solids

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ming; Chen, Linjiang; Lewis, Scott; Chong, Samantha Y.; Little, Marc A.; Hasell, Tom; Aldous, Iain M.; Brown, Craig M.; Smith, Martin W.; Morrison, Carole A.; Hardwick, Laurence J.; Cooper, Andrew I.

    2016-01-01

    Proton conduction is a fundamental process in biology and in devices such as proton exchange membrane fuel cells. To maximize proton conduction, three-dimensional conduction pathways are preferred over one-dimensional pathways, which prevent conduction in two dimensions. Many crystalline porous solids to date show one-dimensional proton conduction. Here we report porous molecular cages with proton conductivities (up to 10−3 S cm−1 at high relative humidity) that compete with extended metal-organic frameworks. The structure of the organic cage imposes a conduction pathway that is necessarily three-dimensional. The cage molecules also promote proton transfer by confining the water molecules while being sufficiently flexible to allow hydrogen bond reorganization. The proton conduction is explained at the molecular level through a combination of proton conductivity measurements, crystallography, molecular simulations and quasi-elastic neutron scattering. These results provide a starting point for high-temperature, anhydrous proton conductors through inclusion of guests other than water in the cage pores. PMID:27619230

  20. Polarization properties of solid-state organic lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gozhyk, I.; Clavier, G.; Méallet-Renault, R.; Dvorko, M.; Pansu, R.; Audibert, J.-F.; Brosseau, A.; Lafargue, C.; Tsvirkun, V.; Lozenko, S.; Forget, S.; Chénais, S.; Ulysse, C.; Zyss, J.; Lebental, M.

    2012-10-01

    The polarization states of lasers are crucial issues both for practical applications and fundamental research. In general, they depend in a combined manner on the properties of the gain material and on the structure of the electromagnetic modes. In this paper, we address this issue in the case of solid-state organic lasers, a technology which enables one to vary independently gain and mode properties. Different kinds of resonators are investigated: in-plane microresonators with Fabry-Perot, square, pentagon, stadium, disk, and kite shapes, and external vertical resonators. The degree of polarization P is measured in each case. It is shown that although transverse electric modes prevail generally (P > 0), the kite-shaped microlaser generates negative values for P (i.e., a flip of the dominant polarization which becomes mostly transverse magnetic polarized). In general, we demonstrate that both the pump polarization and the resonator geometry can be used to tailor the polarization of organic lasers. With this aim in view, we, at last, investigate two other degrees of freedom, namely upon using resonant energy transfer and upon pumping the laser dye to a higher excited state. We then demonstrate that significantly lower P factors can be obtained.

  1. Zika Virus Infection and Solid Organ Transplantation: A New Challenge.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, M L; Estofolete, C F; Terzian, A C B; Mascarin do Vale, E P B; da Silva, R C M A; da Silva, R F; Ramalho, H J; Fernandes Charpiot, I M M; Vasilakis, N; Abbud-Filho, M

    2017-03-01

    Public health concerns exist surrounding the epidemic of the Zika virus (ZIKV) and the rapid growth of transplantation in developing countries, including endemic zones of active arbovirus transmission, as well as travel to such regions by potential organ donors and recipients. Few data exist regarding the clinical characteristics of ZIKV infection in immunocompromised hosts. Laboratory screening protocols for transplantation to differentiate ZIKV infections from other endemic viral diseases and for the detection of possible donor-derived infection have not been stated. The diagnosis of ZIKV infection remains a challenge, fueled by the lack of standardized commercially available diagnostic tests and validated reference diagnostic laboratories, as well as the limited duration of ZIKV viremia. In this small series, ZIKV infection in renal and liver recipients presented without rash, conjunctivitis, or neurological symptoms, and with abnormal graft function, thrombocytopenia, and bacterial superinfection. We report the first case series of ZIKV infection in solid organ recipients, with a description of clinical and laboratory features and therapeutic management.

  2. Clinical and immunological relevance of antibodies in solid organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Mehra, N K; Baranwal, A K

    2016-12-01

    The two important issues affecting recipients of solid organ transplants and of importance to immunologists are (i) sensitization of the recipient to HLA antigens and the resultant humoral immune response leading to the development of anti-HLA antibodies; and ii) development of robust assays for early detection of humoral rejection post-transplant. Evidence from several studies clearly indicates that presence of circulating anti-HLA antibodies especially donor specific leads to early graft loss and high titres of DSA may even lead to hyperacute or accelerated acute rejection. Long-term graft survival too is adversely affected by the presence of either pre- or post-transplant DSA. HLA matching status of the recipient - donor pair - is an important factor in the modulation of humoral response following transplantation and in a way affects de novo development of DSA. Data collected over the past decade clearly indicate significantly lower level of DSAs in optimally matched donor-recipient pairs. HLA mismatches especially those on HLA-DR and HLA-C loci have wider implications on post-transplant graft survival. The presence of circulating anti-HLA antibodies leads to endothelial damage in the newly grafted organ through complement dependent or independent pathways. Although detection of C4d deposition in renal biopsies serves as an important indicator of humoral rejection, its absence does not preclude the presence of DSAs and humoral rejection, and hence, it cannot be relied upon in every case. The emergence of epitope-based screening for anti-HLA antibodies on Luminex platform with high degree of sensitivity has revolutionized the screening for anti-HLA antibodies and DSAs. Studies indicate that humoral response to non-HLA antigens might also have a detrimental effect on allograft survival. High titres of such circulating antibodies may even lead to hyperacute rejection. Pre-emptive testing of solid organ recipients, especially kidney transplant recipients for anti

  3. Catalytic conversion of nonfood woody biomass solids to organic liquids.

    PubMed

    Barta, Katalin; Ford, Peter C

    2014-05-20

    This Account outlines recent efforts in our laboratories addressing a fundamental challenge of sustainability chemistry, the effective utilization of biomass for production of chemicals and fuels. Efficient methods for converting renewable biomass solids to chemicals and liquid fuels would reduce society's dependence on nonrenewable petroleum resources while easing the atmospheric carbon dioxide burden. The major nonfood component of biomass is lignocellulose, a matrix of the biopolymers cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. New approaches are needed to effect facile conversion of lignocellulose solids to liquid fuels and to other chemical precursors without the formation of intractable side products and with sufficient specificity to give economically sustainable product streams. We have devised a novel catalytic system whereby the renewable feedstocks cellulose, organosolv lignin, and even lignocellulose composites such as sawdust are transformed into organic liquids. The reaction medium is supercritical methanol (sc-MeOH), while the catalyst is a copper-doped porous metal oxide (PMO) prepared from inexpensive, Earth-abundant starting materials. This transformation occurs in a single stage reactor operating at 300-320 °C and 160-220 bar. The reducing equivalents for these transformations are derived by the reforming of MeOH (to H2 and CO), which thereby serves as a "liquid syngas" in the present case. Water generated by deoxygenation processes is quickly removed by the water-gas shift reaction. The Cu-doped PMO serves multiple purposes, catalyzing substrate hydrogenolysis and hydrogenation as well as the methanol reforming and shift reactions. This one-pot "UCSB process" is quantitative, giving little or no biochar residual. Provided is an overview of these catalysis studies beginning with reactions of the model compound dihydrobenzofuran that help define the key processes occurring. The initial step is phenyl-ether bond hydrogenolysis, and this is followed by

  4. A kinetic study of the formation of organic solids from formaldehyde: Implications for the origin of extraterrestrial organic solids in primitive Solar System objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kebukawa, Yoko; Cody, George D.

    2015-03-01

    Aqueous organic solid formation from formaldehyde via the formose reaction and subsequent reactions is a possible candidate for the origin of complex primitive chondritic insoluble organic matter (IOM) and refractory carbon in comets. The rate of formation of organic solids from formaldehyde was studied as a function of temperature and time, with and without ammonia, in order to derive kinetic expressions for polymer yield. The evolution in molecular structure as a function of time and temperature was studied using infrared spectroscopy. Using these kinetic expressions, the yield of organic solids is estimated for extended time and temperature ranges. For example, the half-life for organic solid formation is ∼5 days at 373 K, ∼200 days at 323 K, and ∼70 years at 273 K with ammonia, and ∼25 days at 373 K, ∼13 years at 323 K, and ∼2 × 104 years at 273 K without ammonia. These results indicate that organic solids could form during the aqueous alteration in meteorite parent bodies. If liquid water existed early in the interiors of Kuiper belt objects (KBOs), formaldehyde could convert into organic solids at temperatures close to 273 K, and possibly even below 273 K in the ammonia-water system.

  5. 12 CFR 1700.3 - Official logo and seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Official logo and seal. 1700.3 Section 1700.3... DEVELOPMENT OFHEO ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS § 1700.3 Official logo and seal. The..., and signage. The logo serves as the official seal to authenticate official documents of the Agency....

  6. Cumulative incidence of cancer after solid organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Hall, Erin C; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Segev, Dorry L; Engels, Eric A

    2013-06-15

    Solid organ transplantation recipients have elevated cancer incidence. Estimates of absolute cancer risk after transplantation can inform prevention and screening. The Transplant Cancer Match Study links the US transplantation registry with 14 state/regional cancer registries. The authors used nonparametric competing risk methods to estimate the cumulative incidence of cancer after transplantation for 2 periods (1987-1999 and 2000-2008). For recipients from 2000 to 2008, the 5-year cumulative incidence, stratified by organ, sex, and age at transplantation, was estimated for 6 preventable or screen-detectable cancers. For comparison, the 5-year cumulative incidence was calculated for the same cancers in the general population at representative ages using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data. Among 164,156 recipients, 8520 incident cancers were identified. The absolute cancer risk was slightly higher for recipients during the period from 2000 to 2008 than during the period from 1987 to 1999 (5-year cumulative incidence: 4.4% vs. 4.2%; P = .006); this difference arose from the decreasing risk of competing events (5-year cumulative incidence of death, graft failure, or retransplantation: 26.6% vs. 31.9%; P < .001). From 2000 to 2008, the 5-year cumulative incidence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma was highest at extremes of age, especially in thoracic organ recipients (ages 0-34 years: range, 1.74%-3.28%; aged >50 years; range, 0.36%-2.22%). For recipients aged >50 years, the 5-year cumulative incidence was higher for colorectal cancer (range, 0.33%-1.94%) than for the general population at the recommended screening age (aged 50 years: range, 0.25%-0.33%). For recipients aged >50 years, the 5-year cumulative incidence was high for lung cancer among thoracic organ recipients (range, 1.16%-3.87%) and for kidney cancer among kidney recipients (range, 0.53%-0.84%). The 5-year cumulative incidence for prostate cancer and breast cancer was similar or lower in

  7. Cumulative Incidence of Cancer After Solid Organ Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Erin C.; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Segev, Dorry L.; Engels, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Solid organ transplantation recipients have elevated cancer incidence. Estimates of absolute cancer risk after transplantation can inform prevention and screening. METHODS The Transplant Cancer Match Study links the US transplantation registry with 14 state/regional cancer registries. The authors used nonparametric competing risk methods to estimate the cumulative incidence of cancer after transplantation for 2 periods (1987–1999 and 2000–2008). For recipients from 2000 to 2008, the 5-year cumulative incidence, stratified by organ, sex, and age at transplantation, was estimated for 6 preventable or screen-detectable cancers. For comparison, the 5-year cumulative incidence was calculated for the same cancers in the general population at representative ages using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data. RESULTS Among 164,156 recipients, 8520 incident cancers were identified. The absolute cancer risk was slightly higher for recipients during the period from 2000 to 2008 than during the period from 1987 to 1999 (5-year cumulative incidence: 4.4% vs 4.2%; P =.006); this difference arose from the decreasing risk of competing events (5-year cumulative incidence of death, graft failure, or retransplantation: 26.6% vs 31.9%; P <.001). From 2000 to 2008, the 5-year cumulative incidence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma was highest at extremes of age, especially in thoracic organ recipients (ages 0–34 years: range, 1.74%–3.28%; aged >50 years; range, 0.36%–2.22%). For recipients aged >50 years, the 5-year cumulative incidence was higher for colorectal cancer (range, 0.33%–1.94%) than for the general population at the recommended screening age (aged 50 years: range, 0.25%–0.33%). For recipients aged >50 years, the 5-year cumulative incidence was high for lung cancer among thoracic organ recipients (range, 1.16%–3.87%) and for kidney cancer among kidney recipients (range, 0.53%–0.84%). The 5-year cumulative incidence for prostate cancer and breast

  8. Red cell antibodies arising from solid organ transplants.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, G

    1991-01-01

    RBC antibodies arising from transplanted organs and directed against recipient RBCs represent a well-established immunohematologic complication of solid organ transplantation. In ABO-unmatched organs, the frequency and severity of graft antibodies and hemolysis generally increase with the size (lymphoid content) of the organ, from kidney to liver to heart-lung transplants. In the cases reviewed here, the frequency of hemolysis increased in cyclosporine-treated kidney transplant recipients and O-to-A liver transplant recipients and decreased in group AB liver transplant recipients and kidney transplant recipients receiving azathioprine or low-dose postoperative graft irradiation. Available data cannot otherwise distinguish which cyclosporine-treated recipients of ABO-unmatched kidneys and livers (30-40% of total) will develop graft antibody. There has been no conclusive effect to date of the age, race, or gender of the donor or the recipient, of cadaver versus living kidney donors, or of patients' A2 or secretor status. In a few cases of living-donor kidney grafts, the donor was the patient's mother or wife who had been exposed to the recipient's RBC antigens via pregnancy. The ABO antibodies are typically IgG, appear 7 to 10 days after transplantation, and last for about a month. If immediate-spin crossmatching is done routinely, DATs are recommended in compatibility testing after ABO-unmatched transplants. Changes in the immunosuppressive regimen, such as a change from cyclosporine therapy, have not affected the duration of these antibodies. Most patients require only transfusions for this self-limited process, but six cases of hemolysis-induced acute renal failure have been reported, and one death was attributed to complications of hemolysis. RBC or plasma exchange has been performed in a few fulminant cases. RBCs of the donor's blood type are given when antibody appears. Some workers recommend such transfusion as prophylaxis at the time of surgery, although in

  9. [Lung cancer surgery in solid organ transplanted patients].

    PubMed

    Arame, A; Rivera, C; Borik, W; Mangiameli, G; Abdennahder, M; Pricopi, C; Bagan, P; Badia, A; Le Pimpec Barthes, F; Riquet, M

    2014-12-01

    The incidence of lung cancer is reputed to be higher and prognosis worse in solid organ transplant recipients than in the general population. Our purpose was to review the results of surgery in this group of patients. We retrospectively reviewed 49 male and 6 female patients; mean aged 60.6 years (38-85). Transplanted organ was heart (n = 37), kidney (n=12), liver (n = 5) and both-lungs (n = 1); 48 patients had smoking habits and 42 heavy comorbidities (76.4%). Lung cancer was diagnosed during surveillance (78.2%, n = 43) or because of symptoms (21.8%, n = 12). We reviewed TNM and other main characteristics, among them histology (squamous-cell-carcinoma n = 23, adenocarcinomas n = 24, others n = 8). Surgery consisted of: exploratory thoracotomy (n = 2), wedge resections (n = 6), segmentectomy (n = 1), lobectomy (n = 42), pneumonectomy (n = 4). Postoperative mortality was 7.4% (n = 4) and complication rate 34.5% (n = 19). Five-year survival rate was 46.4% (65.4% for stage I patients, n = 25). Among the 35 dead patients during follow-up, 14 died of their lung cancer (40%). Two had been re-operated from another lung cancer: one after 3 and 8 years who survived 16 years, and the other after 2 years who survived 70 months. Surgery results are good and postoperative events acceptable despite theoretically increased risks. This also supports performing a close follow-up of transplanted patients and particularly those with smoking history in view of detecting lung cancer appearing at an early stage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Capecitabine for skin cancer prevention in solid organ transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Jirakulaporn, Tanawat; Endrizzi, Bart; Lindgren, Bruce; Mathew, Josy; Lee, Peter K; Dudek, Arkadiusz Z

    2011-01-01

    Skin cancers are the most common malignancies in solid organ transplant recipients (SOTR). A case-observational, retrospective study was performed to determine the efficacy of low-dose capecitabine in the secondary prevention of skin cancers in SOTRs treated at a single institution. SOTRs with recurrent squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and/or basal cell carcinoma (BCC) were given low-dose capecitabine 1 g/m(2) daily, days 1-14 of a 21-d treatment cycle. Skin surveillance was performed by dermatologists every 1-3 months. Cumulative incidence rates of SCC, BCC, and actinic keratosis (AK) before and after treatment were scored and statistically compared for each patient using a non-parametric Wilcoxon signed rank test. Fifteen patients (13 men and two women) with a median age of 57 yr (range 40-73) were treated. Incidence rates as measured by mean number of events per month declined by 0.33 for SCC, 0.04 for BCC, and 2.45 for AK (p < 0.05). The most common grade 3 and 4 toxicities included fatigue (40.0%), hand-foot syndrome (20.0%), and diarrhea (20.0%). The discontinuation rate at one yr was approximately 33.3%. We conclude that oral capecitabine significantly decreases the incidence rates of recurrent SCC, BCC, and AK in SOTRs and is associated with manageable toxicity. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. Mental health disorders and solid-organ transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Corbett, Chris; Armstrong, Matthew J; Parker, Richard; Webb, Kerry; Neuberger, James M

    2013-10-15

    Depression affects up to 60% of solid-organ recipients and is independently associated with both mortality (hazard ratio for death of ~2) and de novo malignancy after transplantation, although the mechanism is not clear. Both pretransplantation psychosis and depression occurring more than 2 years after transplantation are associated with increased noncompliance and graft loss. It remains to be shown that effective treatment of depression is associated with improved outcomes and quality of life. Immunosuppressive drugs (especially corticosteroids and calcineurin inhibitors) and physiologic challenges can precipitate deterioration in mental health. All potential transplant candidates should be assessed for mental health problems and preexisting medical conditions that can mimic mental health problems, such as uremic, hepatic, or hypoxic encephalopathy, should be identified and treated appropriately. Expert mental health review of those with identified risk factors (such as previous suicide attempts, history of mental illness or noncompliance with medications) is advisable early in the transplant assessment process to mitigate risk and support the patient. Patients with mental health disorders, when adequately controlled and socially supported, have outcomes similar to the general transplant population. Therefore, exclusion from transplantation based on the diagnosis alone is neither ethically nor medically justified. However, it is ethically and clinically justifiable to deny access to transplantation to those who, despite full support, would have a quality of life that is unacceptable to the candidate or are likely to be noncompliant with treatment or follow-up, which would lead to graft loss.

  12. Infectious complications of antilymphocyte therapies in solid organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Issa, Nicolas C; Fishman, Jay A

    2009-03-15

    Antilymphocyte therapies are widely used for immunosuppression in solid organ transplantation. These agents have varied mechanisms of action, with resulting differences in the intensity and duration of immunosuppression and in associated infectious complications. Induction therapy with antithymocyte globulins is associated with a greater incidence of cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, and BK polyomavirus infections, compared with therapy with interleukin (IL)-2a receptor antagonists. However, long-term experience with the IL-2a receptor antagonists is lacking. By contrast, the treatment of graft rejection with T cell-depleting antibodies is associated with an increased risk of opportunistic infections. This is likely a reflection of the intensification of immunosuppression in the treatment of graft rejection and, often, a failure to link the use of antilymphocyte agents to prophylaxis for infection. The use of T cell-depleting agents, especially in the treatment of acute graft rejection, must be linked to monitoring and risk-adjusted prophylaxis for Pneumocystis, other fungi, Epstein-Barr virus, BK polyomavirus, and cytomegalovirus infection.

  13. Mobile Health in Solid Organ Transplant: The Time Is Now.

    PubMed

    Fleming, J N; Taber, D J; McElligott, J; McGillicuddy, J W; Treiber, F

    2017-09-01

    Despite being in existence for >40 years, the application of telemedicine has lagged significantly in comparison to its generated interest. Detractors include the immobile design of most historic telemedicine interventions and the relative lack of smartphones among the general populace. Recently, the exponential increase in smartphone ownership and familiarity have provided the potential for the development of mobile health (mHealth) interventions that can be mirrored realistically in clinical applications. Existing studies have demonstrated some potential clinical benefits of mHealth in the various phases of solid organ transplantation (SOT). Furthermore, studies in nontransplant chronic diseases may be used to guide future studies in SOT. Nevertheless, substantially more must be accomplished before mHealth becomes mainstream. Further evidence of clinical benefits and a critical need for cost-effectiveness analysis must prove its utility to patients, clinicians, hospitals, insurers, and the federal government. The SOT population is an ideal one in which to demonstrate the benefits of mHealth. In this review, the current evidence and status of mHealth in SOT is discussed, and a general path forward is presented that will allow buy-in from the health care community, insurers, and the federal government to move mHealth from research to standard care. © 2017 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  14. Measuring the electron affinity of organic solids: an indispensable new tool for organic electronics.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Hiroyuki

    2014-04-01

    Electron affinity is a fundamental energy parameter of materials. In organic semiconductors, the electron affinity is closely related to electron conduction. It is not only important to understand fundamental electronic processes in organic solids, but it is also indispensable for research and development of organic semiconductor devices such as organic light-emitting diodes and organic photovoltaic cells. However, there has been no experimental technique for examining the electron affinity of organic materials that meets the requirements of such research. Recently, a new method, called low-energy inverse-photoemission spectroscopy, has been developed. A beam of low-energy electrons is focused onto the sample surface, and photons emitted owing to the radiative transition to unoccupied states are then detected. From the onset of the spectral intensity, the electron affinity is determined within an uncertainty of 0.1 eV. Unlike in conventional inverse-photoemission spectroscopy, sample damage is negligible and the resolution is improved by a factor of 2. The principle of the method and several applications are reported.

  15. Molecular organization in perylene tetracarboxylic di-imide solid films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akers, K.; Aroca, R.; Hort, A. M.; Loutfy, R. O.

    The vibrational spectra of thin solid films of three perylene tetracarboxylic di-imide derivatives (phenyl, methyl, and unsubstituted) are reported. A preferred molecular orientation in the evaporated solid films emerged for all three perylene derivatives from the i.r. data. Raman spectra obtained in resonance with the absorption band were characteristic of scattering via a Herzberg—Teller mechanism.

  16. Metabolic consequences of modern immunosuppressive agents in solid organ transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Bamgbola, Oluwatoyin

    2016-01-01

    Among other factors, sophistication of immunosuppressive (IS) regimen accounts for the remarkable success attained in the short- and medium-term solid organ transplant (SOT) survival. The use of steroids, mycophenolate mofetil and calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) have led to annual renal graft survival rates exceeding 90% in the last six decades. On the other hand, attrition rates of the allograft beyond the first year have remained unchanged. In addition, there is a persistent high cardiovascular (CV) mortality rate among transplant recipients with functioning grafts. These shortcomings are in part due to the metabolic effects of steroids, CNI and sirolimus (SRL), all of which are implicated in hypertension, new onset diabetes after transplant (NODAT), and dyslipidemia. In a bid to reduce the required amount of harmful maintenance agents, T-cell-depleting antibodies are increasingly used for induction therapy. The downsides to their use are greater incidence of opportunistic viral infections and malignancy. On the other hand, inadequate immunosuppression causes recurrent rejection episodes and therefore early-onset chronic allograft dysfunction. In addition to the adverse metabolic effects of the steroid rescue needed in these settings, the generated proinflammatory milieu may promote accelerated atherosclerotic disorders, thus setting up a vicious cycle. The recent availability of newer agent, belatacept holds a promise in reducing the incidence of metabolic disorders and hopefully its long-term CV consequences. Although therapeutic drug monitoring as applied to CNI may be helpful, pharmacodynamic tools are needed to promote a customized selection of IS agents that offer the most benefit to an individual without jeopardizing the allograft survival. PMID:27293540

  17. Targeting the Monocyte–Macrophage Lineage in Solid Organ Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    van den Bosch, Thierry P. P.; Kannegieter, Nynke M.; Hesselink, Dennis A.; Baan, Carla C.; Rowshani, Ajda T.

    2017-01-01

    There is an unmet clinical need for immunotherapeutic strategies that specifically target the active immune cells participating in the process of rejection after solid organ transplantation. The monocyte–macrophage cell lineage is increasingly recognized as a major player in acute and chronic allograft immunopathology. The dominant presence of cells of this lineage in rejecting allograft tissue is associated with worse graft function and survival. Monocytes and macrophages contribute to alloimmunity via diverse pathways: antigen processing and presentation, costimulation, pro-inflammatory cytokine production, and tissue repair. Cross talk with other recipient immune competent cells and donor endothelial cells leads to amplification of inflammation and a cytolytic response in the graft. Surprisingly, little is known about therapeutic manipulation of the function of cells of the monocyte–macrophage lineage in transplantation by immunosuppressive agents. Although not primarily designed to target monocyte–macrophage lineage cells, multiple categories of currently prescribed immunosuppressive drugs, such as mycophenolate mofetil, mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors, and calcineurin inhibitors, do have limited inhibitory effects. These effects include diminishing the degree of cytokine production, thereby blocking costimulation and inhibiting the migration of monocytes to the site of rejection. Outside the field of transplantation, some clinical studies have shown that the monoclonal antibodies canakinumab, tocilizumab, and infliximab are effective in inhibiting monocyte functions. Indirect effects have also been shown for simvastatin, a lipid lowering drug, and bromodomain and extra-terminal motif inhibitors that reduce the cytokine production by monocytes–macrophages in patients with diabetes mellitus and rheumatoid arthritis. To date, detailed knowledge concerning the origin, the developmental requirements, and functions of diverse specialized monocyte

  18. Anticipated Transfusion Requirements and Mortality in Patients with Orthopedic and Solid Organ Injuries.

    PubMed

    Callahan, Devon S; Ashman, Zane; Kim, Dennis Y; Plurad, David S

    2016-10-01

    Long bone fractures are cited as an etiology for significant blood loss; however, there is scant supporting literature. We examined the relationship between long bone fractures, blood transfusions, and solid organ injuries. We hypothesize that transfusions are rare with long bone fractures in the absence of a liver or splenic injury. We performed a retrospective analysis of patients admitted with femur, tibia, and humerus fractures. Outcomes included transfusion requirements and mortality. A total of 1837 patients were included. There were 182 patients with at least one solid organ injury. A greater portion of patients with femur fractures and a lower proportion of patients with tibia fractures required transfusion. Adjusting for solid organ injuries, there was no difference in transfusions for any patient with these fractures compared with the group, or when grouped by organ injury severity. A solid organ injury significantly increases the risk of death among patients with long bone fractures. Blood loss requiring transfusion in patients with orthopedic and solid organ injuries should not be attributed to the presence of fractures alone. The need for transfusions in these patients should lower the threshold for reimaging or intervention for the solid organ injury. Further study is warranted to quantify blood loss by fracture type with or without solid organ.

  19. Folate and folic acid in the periconceptional period: recommendations from official health organizations in thirty-six countries worldwide and WHO.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Sandra; Lopes, Carla; Pinto, Elisabete

    2016-01-01

    To summarize the recommendations on folate intake and folic acid supplementation and fortification in the periconceptional period, aimed at prevention of neural tube defects (NTD), provided by official health organizations in different countries worldwide and WHO. Information on recommendations for folate and folic acid intake in the periconceptional period was gathered from the websites of official national health organizations of several countries worldwide and from the WHO website. WHO, selected developed countries and emerging economies, totalling thirty-six countries worldwide (some European, BRICS, G8, Asian Tiger/Asian Dragon and Australia). Recommendations differ between countries, although the majority (69·4 %) recommend a healthy diet plus a folic acid supplement of 400 µg/d from preconception (4-12 weeks) until the end of the first trimester of pregnancy (8-12 weeks). The same recommendation is issued by the WHO. Dosages for women at high risk of NTD are up to 4-5 mg/d (for 41·7 % of studied countries). The recommended intake for folate is in the range of 300-400 µg/d for women of childbearing age and 500-600 µg/d for pregnant women in different countries and WHO. Five countries emphasize the importance of a healthy diet rendering supplementation needless. By contrast, five others advise a healthy diet and supplementation plus mandatory fortification. Only one mentions the importance of ensuring an adequate folate status and refers to checking with a health-care provider on the need for supplements. Different recommendations regarding folate and folic acid, seeking NTD prevention, are available worldwide; however, most countries and WHO focus on a healthy diet and folic acid supplementation of 400 µg/d periconceptionally.

  20. A method for estimating solid organ donor potential by organ procurement region.

    PubMed Central

    Christiansen, C L; Gortmaker, S L; Williams, J M; Beasley, C L; Brigham, L E; Capossela, C; Matthiesen, M E; Gunderson, S

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study sought to develop a methodology for estimating potential solid organ donors and measuring donation performance in a geographic region based on readily available data on the hospitals in that region. METHODS: Medical records were reviewed in a stratified random sample of 89 hospitals from 3 regions to attain a baseline of donor potential. Data on a range of hospital characteristics were collected and tested as predictors of donor potential through the use of hierarchical Poisson regression modeling. RESULTS: Five hospital characteristics predicted donor potential: hospital deaths, hospital Medicare case-mix index, total hospital staffed beds, medical school affiliation, and trauma center certification. Regional estimates were attained by aggregating individual hospital estimates. Confidence intervals for these regional estimates indicated that actual donations represented from 28% to 44% of the potential in the regions studied. CONCLUSIONS: This methodology accurately estimates organ donor potential within 3 geographic regions and lays the foundation for evaluating organ donation effectiveness nationwide. Additional research is needed to test the validity of the model in other geographic regions and to further explore organ donor potential in hospitals with fewer than 50 beds. PMID:9807530

  1. Official launching of FRIPON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colas, François

    2016-02-01

    Tuesday May 31st, 2016 marks the official launch of FRIPON, a unique interconnected network to search for meteorites. Eventually comprising 100 cameras spread out all over France, FRIPON introduces a night and day 360° watch of the sky. Born from the joint scientific expertise of Observatoire de Paris, of Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, of Université Paris-Sud, of Université Aix-Marseille and of CNRS, this network aims to detect meteorite falls, measure their trajectories and estimate their strewnfields so that field search campaigns can be organized.

  2. 16 CFR 0.2 - Official address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Official address. 0.2 Section 0.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.2 Official address. The principal office of the Commission is at Washington, DC. All communications to the...

  3. 12 CFR 905.26 - Official logo and seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Official logo and seal. 905.26 Section 905.26... OPERATIONS DESCRIPTION OF ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS Miscellaneous § 905.26 Official logo and seal. This... as the official seal used to certify and authenticate official documents of the Board of...

  4. Modeling Organic Contaminant Desorption from Municipal Solid Waste Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knappe, D. R.; Wu, B.; Barlaz, M. A.

    2002-12-01

    Approximately 25% of the sites on the National Priority List (NPL) of Superfund are municipal landfills that accepted hazardous waste. Unlined landfills typically result in groundwater contamination, and priority pollutants such as alkylbenzenes are often present. To select cost-effective risk management alternatives, better information on factors controlling the fate of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) in landfills is required. The objectives of this study were (1) to investigate the effects of HOC aging time, anaerobic sorbent decomposition, and leachate composition on HOC desorption rates, and (2) to simulate HOC desorption rates from polymers and biopolymer composites with suitable diffusion models. Experiments were conducted with individual components of municipal solid waste (MSW) including polyvinyl chloride (PVC), high-density polyethylene (HDPE), newsprint, office paper, and model food and yard waste (rabbit food). Each of the biopolymer composites (office paper, newsprint, rabbit food) was tested in both fresh and anaerobically decomposed form. To determine the effects of aging on alkylbenzene desorption rates, batch desorption tests were performed after sorbents were exposed to toluene for 30 and 250 days in flame-sealed ampules. Desorption tests showed that alkylbenzene desorption rates varied greatly among MSW components (PVC slowest, fresh rabbit food and newsprint fastest). Furthermore, desorption rates decreased as aging time increased. A single-parameter polymer diffusion model successfully described PVC and HDPE desorption data, but it failed to simulate desorption rate data for biopolymer composites. For biopolymer composites, a three-parameter biphasic polymer diffusion model was employed, which successfully simulated both the initial rapid and the subsequent slow desorption of toluene. Toluene desorption rates from MSW mixtures were predicted for typical MSW compositions in the years 1960 and 1997. For the older MSW mixture, which had a

  5. Food safety for the solid organ transplant patient: preventing foodborne illness while on chronic immunosuppressive drugs.

    PubMed

    Obayashi, Patricia A C

    2012-12-01

    Issues regarding food safety are seen increasingly in the news; outbreaks of foodborne illness have been associated with public health concerns ranging from mild illness to death. For the solid organ transplant patient, immunosuppressive and antibacterial drugs, which maintain transplant organ function, can expose the transplant patient to increased risk of foodborne illness from bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. This review article describes the clinical consequences, sources of foodborne illness, and food safety practices needed to minimize risks to the solid organ transplant patient who must take lifelong immunosuppressive drugs. All members of the transplant team share responsibility for education of the solid organ transplant patient in preventing infections. The registered dietitian, as part of the transplant team, is the recognized expert in providing food safety education in the context of medical nutrition therapy to solid organ transplant patients, the patients' caregivers, and other healthcare providers.

  6. Advancement of mesenchymal stem cell therapy in solid organ transplantation (MISOT).

    PubMed

    Hoogduijn, Martin J; Popp, Felix C; Grohnert, Anja; Crop, Meindert J; van Rhijn, Marieke; Rowshani, Ajda T; Eggenhofer, Elke; Renner, Philipp; Reinders, Marlies E; Rabelink, Ton J; van der Laan, Luc J W; Dor, Frank J M F; Ijzermans, Jan N M; Genever, Paul G; Lange, Claudia; Durrbach, Antoine; Houtgraaf, Jaco H; Christ, Bruno; Seifert, Martina; Shagidulin, Murat; Donckier, Vincent; Deans, Robert; Ringden, Olle; Perico, Norberto; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Bartholomew, Amelia; Schlitt, Hans J; Weimar, Willem; Baan, Carla C; Dahlke, Marc H

    2010-07-27

    There is evolving interest in the use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in solid organ transplantation. Pre-clinical transplantation models show efficacy of MSC in prolonging graft survival and a number of clinical studies are planned or underway. At a recent meeting of the MISOT consortium (MSC In Solid Organ Transplantation) the advances of these studies were evaluated and mechanisms underlying the potential effects of MSC discussed. Continued discussion is required for definition of safety and eventually efficacy endpoints for MSC therapy in solid organ transplantation.

  7. Comparison of solid-phase and eluate assays to gauge the ecotoxicological risk of organic wastes on soil organisms.

    PubMed

    Domene, Xavier; Alcañiz, Josep M; Andrés, Pilar

    2008-02-01

    Development of methodologies to assess the safety of reusing polluted organic wastes in soil is a priority in Europe. In this study, and coupled with chemical analysis, seven organic wastes were subjected to different aquatic and soil bioassays. Tests were carried out with solid-phase waste and three different waste eluates (water, methanol, and dichloromethane). Solid-phase assays were indicated as the most suitable for waste testing not only in terms of relevance for real situations, but also because toxicity in eluates was generally not representative of the chronic effects in solid-phase. No general correlations were found between toxicity and waste pollutant burden, neither in solid-phase nor in eluate assays, showing the inability of chemical methods to predict the ecotoxicological risks of wastes. On the contrary, several physicochemical parameters reflecting the degree of low organic matter stability in wastes were the main contributors to the acute toxicity seen in collembolans and daphnids.

  8. [Combustion temperature measurement of solid propellant and the effect of organic compound on combustion temperature].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xue-tie; Li, Yan; Chen, Zuo-ru; Wang, Jun-de

    2003-06-01

    The FTIR emission spectra in the spectral range of 4,500-300 cm-1 for the solid propellants were measured by a remote sensing FTIR system. The P-branch of fine structure of HCl fundamental band lying at 3.46 microns was used for precise combustion temperature measurement of the solid propellant. The effect of the organic compound in the solid propellant on the combustion temperature was discussed.

  9. A Template-Controlled Solid-State Reaction for the Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friscic, Tomislav; Hamilton, Tamara D.; Papaefstathiou, Giannis S.; MacGillivray, Leonard R.

    2005-01-01

    An experiment for the organic chemistry laboratory that involves a template-controlled solid-state reaction is described. The experiment utilizes a template to direct the assembly of an olefin in the solid state that undergoes a [2 + 2] photodimerization.

  10. Inorganic-Organic Molecules and Solids with Nanometer-Sized Pores

    SciTech Connect

    Maverick, Andrew W

    2011-12-17

    We are constructing porous inorganic-organic hybrid molecules and solids, many of which contain coordinatively unsaturated metal centers. In this work, we use multifunctional ²-diketone ligands as building blocks to prepare extended-solid and molecular porous materials that are capable of reacting with a variety of guest molecules.

  11. Report Information for Project 2: Solid Organic Electrolytes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    C.M. Sulyma, C. Goia, D.Goia, D. Roy, “Electrochemical features of ball-milled lithium manganate spinel for rapid-charge cathodes of lithium ion...manganate spinel for rapid-charge cathodes of lithium ion batteries, J. Solid State Electrochem. 16 (2012) 2605- 2615. 8. J.P. Zheng, D.J. Crain and D. Roy

  12. Retinal changes in solid organ and bone marrow transplantation patients.

    PubMed

    Malerbi, Fernando Korn; Teixeira, Sergio Henrique; Hirai, Luis Gustavo Gondo; Matsudo, Nilson Hideo; Carneiro, Adriano Biondi Monteiro

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate retinal changes in patients who underwent solid organ or bone marrow transplantation. A retrospective analysis of medical records of patients evaluated from February 2009 to December 2016. All patients included underwent funduscopy. Clinical and demographic data regarding transplantation and ophthalmological changes were collected. A total of 126 patients were analyzed; of these, 108 underwent transplantation and 18 were in the waiting list. Transplantation modalities were heart, lung, kidney, liver, pancreas, combined pancreas and kidney and bone marrow transplantation. The main pre-transplantation comorbidities were diabetes and arterial hypertension. Of the 108 transplanted patients, 82 (76%) had retinal changes. All patients who underwent pancreas or combined pancreas and kidney transplantation had diabetic retinopathy. The main retinal changes found were diabetic retinopathy, hypertensive retinopathy, retinal vascular occlusions, chorioretinal infections and central serous chorioretinopathy. Retinal changes were either related to preexisting conditions, mainly diabetic retinopathy, or developed postoperatively as a complication of the surgical procedure, or as an infection related to the immunosuppressive status, or due to drug toxicity. These patients may present with complex ophthalmological changes and should be carefully evaluated prior to surgery and further followed by an ophthalmologist skilled in the management of diabetic retinopathy and posterior pole infections. Analisar as alterações retinianas de pacientes submetidos a transplantes de órgãos sólidos ou de medula óssea. Análise de prontuário dos pacientes avaliados no período de fevereiro de 2009 a dezembro de 2016. Todos os pacientes incluídos foram submetidos à avaliação fundoscópica. Foram coletados dados demográficos e clínicos, referentes ao transplante e às alterações oftalmológicas encontradas. Foram avaliados 126 pacientes, sendo 108 submetidos a transplantes

  13. Cytomegalovirus appendicitis in solid organ transplant patients, two cases and a review.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Todd P; Lee, Rachael A; Herfel, Barbara M; Pappas, Peter G

    2015-05-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease is a common complication following solid organ transplantation with a variety of gastrointestinal (GI) tract manifestations. CMV appendicitis, however, is a rare complication in a solid organ transplant patient, having been reported only once previously. We have recently seen two cases in solid organ transplant recipients at our institution, one a liver recipient and the other a heart recipient. Both patients underwent surgical resection. Pathologic evaluation of both resected appendices as well as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification for CMV from the serum revealed the virus as the etiology. Both patients received induction intravenous ganciclovir followed by oral valganciclovir and have done well post-operatively. Tissue-invasive CMV disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis for solid organ transplant patients with symptoms suggesting acute or chronic appendicitis. Both PCR testing as well as pathologic review of tissue specimens should be considered to ensure accurate diagnosis and management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Impact of solids retention time on dissolved organic nitrogen and its biodegradability in treated wastewater

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and its biodegradability in treated wastewater have recently gained attention because DON potentially causes oxygen depletion and/or eutrophication in receiving waters. Laboratory scale chemostat experiments were conducted at 9 different solids retention times (SRTs)...

  15. EVALUATION OF SOLID ADSORBENTS FOR THE COLLECTION AND ANALYSES OF AMBIENT BIOGENIC VOLATILE ORGANICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Micrometeorological flux measurements of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) usually require that large volumes of air be collected (whole air samples) or focused during the sampling process (cryogenic trapping or gas-solid partitioning on adsorbents) in order to achiev...

  16. EVALUATION OF SOLID ADSORBENTS FOR THE COLLECTION AND ANALYSES OF AMBIENT BIOGENIC VOLATILE ORGANICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Micrometeorological flux measurements of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) usually require that large volumes of air be collected (whole air samples) or focused during the sampling process (cryogenic trapping or gas-solid partitioning on adsorbents) in order to achiev...

  17. Solid-organ transplantation in childhood: transitioning to adult health care.

    PubMed

    LaRosa, Christopher; Glah, Caryle; Baluarte, H Jorge; Meyers, Kevin E C

    2011-04-01

    Pediatric solid-organ transplantation is an increasingly successful treatment for solid-organ failure. With dramatic improvements in patient survival rates over the last several decades, there has been a corresponding emergence of complications attributable to pretransplant factors, transplantation itself, and the management of transplantation with effective immunosuppression. The predominant solid-organ transplantation sequelae are medical and psychosocial. These sequelae have a substantial effect on transition to adult care; as such, hurdles to successful transition of care arise from the patients, their families, and pediatric and adult health care providers. Crucial to successful transitioning is the ongoing development of a sense of autonomy and responsibility for one's own care. In this article we address the barriers to transitioning that occur with long-term survival in pediatric solid-organ transplantation. Although a particular transitioning model is not promoted, practical tools and strategies that contribute to successful transitioning of pediatric patients who have received a transplant are suggested.

  18. No recurrence of Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia after solid organ transplantation regardless of secondary prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tark; Sung, Heungsup; Lee, Yu-Mi; Hong, Hyo-Lim; Kim, Sung-Han; Choi, Sang-Ho; Woo, Jun Hee; Kim, Yang Soo; Lee, Sang-Oh

    2012-11-01

    There are no data on the efficacy of secondary prophylaxis against Pneumocystis pneumonia after solid organ transplantation. Therefore, we investigated the rate of recurrence of Pneumocystis pneumonia after solid organ transplantation in a retrospective cohort study. Between 2005 and 2011, a total of 41 recipients recovered from Pneumocystis pneumonia. Of these, 22 (53.7%) received secondary prophylaxis. None of the 41 recipients experienced recurrence of Pneumocystis pneumonia during the follow-up, regardless of secondary prophylaxis.

  19. International consensus guidelines on the management of cytomegalovirus in solid organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kotton, Camille N; Kumar, Deepali; Caliendo, Angela M; Asberg, Anders; Chou, Sunwen; Snydman, David R; Allen, Upton; Humar, Atul

    2010-04-15

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) remains one of the most common infections after solid organ transplantation, resulting in significant morbidity, graft loss, and occasional mortality. Management of CMV varies considerably among transplant centers. A panel of experts on CMV and solid organ transplant was convened by The Infectious Diseases Section of The Transplantation Society to develop evidence and expert opinion-based consensus guidelines on CMV management including diagnostics, immunology, prevention, treatment, drug resistance, and pediatric issues.

  20. Biogas production from the mechanically pretreated, liquid fraction of sorted organic municipal solid wastes.

    PubMed

    Alvarado-Lassman, A; Méndez-Contreras, J M; Martínez-Sibaja, A; Rosas-Mendoza, E S; Vallejo-Cantú, N A

    2017-06-01

    The high liquid content in fruit and vegetable wastes makes it convenient to mechanically separate these wastes into mostly liquid and solid fractions by means of pretreatment. Then, the liquid fraction can be treated using a high-rate anaerobic biofilm reactor to produce biogas, simultaneously reducing the amount of solids that must be landfilled. In this work, the specific composition of municipal solid waste (MSW) in a public market was determined; then, the sorted organic fraction of municipal solid waste was treated mechanically to separate and characterize the mostly liquid and solid fractions. Then, the mesophilic anaerobic digestion for biogas production of the first fraction was evaluated. The anaerobic digestion resulted in a reduced hydraulic retention time of two days with high removal of chemical oxygen demand, that is, 88% on average, with the additional benefit of reducing the mass of the solids that had to be landfilled by about 80%.

  1. Sonolysis and ozonation as pretreatment for anaerobic digestion of solid organic waste.

    PubMed

    Cesaro, Alessandra; Belgiorno, Vincenzo

    2013-05-01

    This study aims to compare the efficiency of sonolysis and ozonation in improving anaerobic biodegradability of source sorted organic fraction of municipal solid waste, for the enhancing of biogas production and energy recovery as well. The methane yield of solid organic material anaerobic digestion is significantly affected by substrate availability, which can be favoured by pretreatments. In this investigation, both sonolysis and ozonation effects on substrate solubilisation and anaerobic biodegradability were evaluated under different treatment conditions. Results show that both pretreatments can significantly improve the solubilisation of organic solid waste. However, during ozonation experiments, no correlation was observed between increased solubilisation and biogas production: the application of higher ozone doses led to the formation of by-products less biodegradable than untreated substrate. This evidence makes the ultrasound process more efficient than ozonation and addresses further studies for sonolysis optimisation as pretreatment for solid waste anaerobic digestion.

  2. Concise NMR approach for molecular dynamics characterizations in organic solids.

    PubMed

    Aliev, Abil E; Courtier-Murias, Denis

    2013-08-22

    Molecular dynamics characterisations in solids can be carried out selectively using dipolar-dephasing experiments. Here we show that the introduction of a sum of Lorentzian and Gaussian functions greatly improve fittings of the "intensity versus time" data for protonated carbons in dipolar-dephasing experiments. The Lorentzian term accounts for remote intra- and intermolecular (1)H-(13)C dipole-dipole interactions, which vary from one molecule to another or for different carbons within the same molecule. Thus, by separating contributions from weak remote interactions, more accurate Gaussian decay constants, T(dd), can be extracted for directly bonded (1)H-(13)C dipole-dipole interactions. Reorientations of the (1)H-(13)C bonds lead to the increase of T(dd), and by measuring dipolar-dephasing constants, insight can be gained into dynamics in solids. We have demonstrated advantages of the method using comparative dynamics studies in the α and γ polymorphs of glycine, cyclic amino acids L-proline, DL-proline and trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline, the Ala residue in different dipeptides, as well as adamantane and hexamethylenetetramine. It was possible to distinguish subtle differences in dynamics of different carbon sites within a molecule in polymorphs and in L- and DL-forms. The presence of overall molecular motions is shown to lead to particularly large differences in dipolar-dephasing experiments. The differences in dynamics can be attributed to differences in noncovalent interactions. In the case of hexamethylenetetramine, for example, the presence of C-H···N interactions leads to nearly rigid molecules. Overall, the method allows one to gain insight into the role of noncovalent interactions in solids and their influence on the molecular dynamics.

  3. 39 CFR 262.2 - Officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Officials. 262.2 Section 262.2 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION RECORDS AND INFORMATION MANAGEMENT DEFINITIONS § 262.2 Officials. (a) Chief Privacy Officer. The Chief Privacy Officer (CPO) is responsible...

  4. Soft templating strategies for the synthesis of mesoporous materials: inorganic, organic-inorganic hybrid and purely organic solids.

    PubMed

    Pal, Nabanita; Bhaumik, Asim

    2013-03-01

    With the discovery of MCM-41 by Mobil researchers in 1992 the journey of the research on mesoporous materials started and in the 21st century this area of scientific investigation have extended into numerous branches, many of which contribute significantly in emerging areas like catalysis, energy, environment and biomedical research. As a consequence thousands of publications came out in large varieties of national and international journals. In this review, we have tried to summarize the published works on various synthetic pathways and formation mechanisms of different mesoporous materials viz. inorganic, organic-inorganic hybrid and purely organic solids via soft templating pathways. Generation of nanoscale porosity in a solid material usually requires participation of organic template (more specifically surfactants and their supramolecular assemblies) called structure-directing agent (SDA) in the bottom-up chemical reaction process. Different techniques employed for the syntheses of inorganic mesoporous solids, like silicas, metal doped silicas, transition and non-transition metal oxides, mixed oxides, metallophosphates, organic-inorganic hybrids as well as purely organic mesoporous materials like carbons, polymers etc. using surfactants are depicted schematically and elaborately in this paper. Moreover, some of the frontline applications of these mesoporous solids, which are directly related to their functionality, composition and surface properties are discussed at the appropriate places. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Patients with psychotic disorders in solid-organ transplant.

    PubMed

    Zimbrean, Paula; Emre, Sukru

    2015-12-01

    Psychotic disorders are considered a relative or absolute contraindication to organ transplant, but information about their impact on transplant is limited. To describe the clinical course of psychotic patients while they were on the waiting list and the outcomes of patients with psychotic disorders undergoing evaluation for organ transplant. Thirty-eight transplant candidates with a diagnosis of psychotic disorder were analyzed in this descriptive study. The following variables were collected before transplant: demographics, type of transplant, cause of organ failure, medical comorbid conditions, and psychiatric variables (diagnosis, hospitalizations, treatment, substance abuse, family history, suicide attempts). For transplant recipients, the following posttransplant variables were recorded: rejection, toxic effects of medication, nonadherence, psychotic episodes (number, time interval after transplant), and number of hospitalizations. Of the 38 transplant candidates, 34 had a history of psychotic disorder before transplant. Nineteen (56%) of the 34 were listed for transplant, and 10 (29%) underwent transplant. Median follow-up time was 1.9 (IQR, 0.16-17.9) years. Among organ recipients with a history of psychotic disorders, psychiatric hospitalizations were 0.42 per patient per year (PPY), psychotic episodes 0.68 PPY, rejection 0.21 PPY, and toxic effects of immunosuppressants 0.05 PPY. None of the recipients lost their graft. Patients with a history of psychotic disorder can do well after organ transplant. Further studies are needed with factor analyses including severity of psychosis, medication adherence, and associated comorbid conditions.

  6. International indicators of donation and solid organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Perez-Protto, S; Mizraji, R; Alvarez, I

    2009-10-01

    The main goal of any organ procurement organization (OPO) is to offer the greatest number of organs achievable with the goal of reducing mortality and the waiting list time of patients. Evaluation of OPO activity is mandatory to identify causes of missed potential donors seeking to implement changes in steps susceptible of improvement. In this review, we have presented the classical indicators of brain death along with new indicators. We observed that when the donor generation capacity is adjusted to the deaths, the indicator is more reliable for comparisons of countries with different mortality rates. We concluded that the indicators are complementary, because they measure different aspects of the process. To have a better understanding of the situation, country, institution, or hospital, one should simultaneously use all of the indicators.

  7. Solid Organ Transplant–associated Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis, United States, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Ströher, Ute; Farnon, Eileen; Campbell, Shelley; Cannon, Deborah; Paddock, Christopher D.; Drew, Clifton P.; Kuehnert, Matthew; Knust, Barbara; Gruenenfelder, Robert; Zaki, Sherif R.; Rollin, Pierre E.; Nichol, Stuart T.

    2012-01-01

    Three clusters of organ transplant–associated lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) transmissions have been identified in the United States; 9 of 10 recipients died. In February 2011, we identified a fourth cluster of organ transplant–associated LCMV infections. Diabetic ketoacidosis developed in the organ donor in December 2010; she died with generalized brain edema after a short hospitalization. Both kidneys, liver, and lung were transplanted to 4 recipients; in all 4, severe posttransplant illness developed; 2 recipients died. Through multiple diagnostic methods, we identified LCMV infection in all persons, including in at least 1 sample from the donor and 4 recipients by reverse transcription PCR, and sequences of a 396-bp fragment of the large segment of the virus from all 5 persons were identical. In this cluster, all recipients developed severe illness, but 2 survived. LCMV infection should be considered as a possible cause of severe posttransplant illness. PMID:22839997

  8. [Management of older patients following solid organ transplantation].

    PubMed

    Roller-Wirnsberger, Regina Elisabeth; Wirnsberger, Gerhard Hubert

    2016-01-01

    Due to a continuous expansion of transplantation registers, such as the old-for-old program in Europe, the number of older patients treated with transplantation is increasing. At the same time the perioperative survival rates show a clear increase even in this patient collective (older than 65 years); therefore, the probability that the care of older patients after organ transplantation will be undertaken in the routine practice increases. This article describes the medical characteristics of older patients following organ transplantation. Special emphasis is placed on the management of accompanying diseases as well as possible side effects and interactions of immunosuppressive therapy.

  9. Solid organ transplantation: the Italian experience in the international context.

    PubMed

    Nanni Costa, A; De Cillia, C; Di Ciaccio, P; Rizzato, L; Venettoni, S

    2011-01-01

    The Italian experience in the organization of transplantation procedures could represent a relevant example of an internal development at a national level, combined with a strengthening of international collaborations. These results can be attributed first to the creation of the Italian National Transplant Centre (Centro Nazionale Trapianti [CNT]), and then to an ongoing European process that is leading to a greater awareness of the importance of closer collaboration between the organizations already existing and operating in the field of transplantation. This article summarizes the role and the most significant achievements of the CNT. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Metal-organic frameworks: Shuttling in the solid state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, Mark A.

    2015-06-01

    Incorporating mechanically interlocked molecular shuttles within a metal-organic framework that has enough free space in the crystal lattice to permit volume-conserving translational motion sets the stage for defect-free molecular-electronic device fabrication and more.

  11. Solid organ transplants following hematopoietic stem cell transplant in children.

    PubMed

    Bunin, Nancy; Guzikowski, Virginia; Rand, Elizabeth R; Goldfarb, Samuel; Baluarte, Jorge; Meyers, Kevin; Olthoff, Kim M

    2010-12-01

    SOT may be indicated for a select group of pediatric patients who experience permanent organ failure following HSCT. However, there is limited information available about outcomes. We identified eight children at our center who received an SOT following an HSCT. Patients were six months to 18 yr at HSCT. Diseases for which children underwent HSCT included thalassemia, Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, Shwachman-Diamond/bone marrow failure, sickle cell disease (SCD), erythropoietic porphyria (EP), ALL, chronic granulomatous disease, and neuroblastoma. Time from HSCT to SOT was 13 days to seven yr (median, 27 months. Lung SOT was performed for two patients with BO, kidney transplants for three patients, and liver transplants for three patients (VOD, chronic GVHD). Seven patients are alive with functioning allografts 6-180 months from SOT. Advances in organ procurement, operative technique, immunosuppressant therapy, and infection control may allow SOT for a select group of patients post-HSCT. However, scarcity of donor organs available in a timely fashion continues to be a limiting factor. Children who have undergone HSCT and develop single organ failure should be considered for an SOT if there is a high likelihood of cure of the primary disease. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. Ceria-based solid catalysts for organic chemistry.

    PubMed

    Vivier, Laurence; Duprez, Daniel

    2010-06-21

    Ceria has been the subject of thorough investigations, mainly because of its use as an active component of catalytic converters for the treatment of exhaust gases. However, ceria-based catalysts have also been developed for different applications in organic chemistry. The redox and acid-base properties of ceria, either alone or in the presence of transition metals, are important parameters that allow to activate complex organic molecules and to selectively orient their transformation. Pure ceria is used in several organic reactions, such as the dehydration of alcohols, the alkylation of aromatic compounds, ketone formation, and aldolization, and in redox reactions. Ceria-supported metal catalysts allow the hydrogenation of many unsaturated compounds. They can also be used for coupling or ring-opening reactions. Cerium atoms can be added as dopants to catalytic system or impregnated onto zeolites and mesoporous catalyst materials to improve their performances. This Review demonstrates that the exceptional surface (and sometimes bulk) properties of ceria make cerium-based catalysts very effective for a broad range of organic reactions.

  13. From polymer to small organic molecules: a tight relationship between radical chemistry and solid-phase organic synthesis.

    PubMed

    Mirizzi, Danilo; Pulici, Maurizio

    2011-04-18

    Since Gomberg's discovery of radicals as chemical entities, the interest around them has increased through the years. Nowadays, radical chemistry is used in the synthesis of 75% of all polymers, inevitably establishing a close relationship with Solid-Phase Organic Synthesis. More recently, the interest of organic chemists has shifted towards the application of usual "in-solution" radical chemistry to the solid-phase, ranging from the use of supported reagents for radical reactions, to the development of methodologies for the synthesis of small molecules or potential libraries. The aim of this review is to put in perspective radical chemistry, moving it away from its origin as a synthetic means for solid supports, to becoming a useful tool for the synthesis of small molecules.

  14. Skin cancer in solid organ transplant recipients: advances in therapy and management: part II. Management of skin cancer in solid organ transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Zwald, Fiona O'Reilly; Brown, Marc

    2011-08-01

    The management of skin cancer in solid organ transplant recipients is a challenge to both the dermatologist and transplant physician. Part II of this continuing medical education review offers an approach to the management of this increasing problem. The importance of specialty dermatology clinics providing access to transplant patients, frequent skin cancer screening, patient education, and multidisciplinary care is discussed. The management of low risk squamous cell carcinoma with topical therapies, photodynamic therapy, systemic retinoids, and capecitabine is reviewed. Revision of immunosuppression in the management of high-risk patients is discussed in association with the potential role of sentinel lymph node biopsy for aggressive disease. Finally, management of in-transit and metastatic squamous cell carcinoma is reviewed, with a discussion of the role of more recent innovative therapies, including epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors in advanced squamous cell carcinoma in solid organ transplant recipients.

  15. Feasibility of using acoustic velocity meters for estimating highly organic suspended-solids concentrations in streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patino, Eduardo

    1996-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted at the Levee 4 canal site below control structure G-88 in the Everglades agricultural area in northwestern Broward County, Florida, to study the relation of acoustic attenuation to suspended-solids concentrations. Acoustic velocity meter and temperature data were obtained with concurrent water samples analyzed for suspended-solids concentrations. Two separate acoustic velocity meter frequencies were used, 200 and 500 kilohertz, to determine the sensitivity of acoustic attenuation to frequency for the measured suspended-solids concentration range. Suspended-solids concentrations for water samples collected at the Levee 4 canal site from July 1993 to September 1994 ranged from 22 to 1,058 milligrams per liter, and organic content ranged from about 30 to 93 percent. Regression analyses showed that attenuation data from the acoustic velocity meter (automatic gain control) and temperature data alone do not provide enough information to adequately describe the concentrations of suspended solids. However, if velocity is also included as one of the independent variables in the regression model, a satisfactory correlation can be obtained. Thus, it is feasible to use acoustic velocity meter instrumentation to estimate suspended-solids concentrations in streams, even when suspended solids are primarily composed of organic material. Using the most comprehensive data set available for the study (500 kiloherz data), the best fit regression model produces a standard error of 69.7 milligrams per liter, with actual errors ranging from 2 to 128 milligrams per liter. Both acoustic velocity meter transmission frequencies of 200 and 500 hilohertz produced similar results, suggesting that transducers of either frequency could be used to collect attenuation data at the study site. Results indicate that calibration will be required for each acoustic velocity meter system to the unique suspended-solids regime existing at each site. More robust solutions may

  16. Noria: A Highly Xe-Selective Nanoporous Organic Solid

    SciTech Connect

    Patil, Rahul S.; Banerjee, Debasis; Simon, Cory M.; Atwood, Jerry L.; Thallapally, Praveen K.

    2016-07-05

    The successful mass-implementation of nuclear energy requires reprocessing of used nuclear fuel (UNF) to mitigate harmful radioactive waste. Volatile radionuclides such as Xe and Kr evolve into off-gas streams of UNF reprocessing facilities in parts per million concentrations; their capture and successive safe handing is essential from a regulatory point of view. As radioactive Xe has a short half-life, this captured Xe could be sold in the chemical market. Energy-intensive, expensive, and hazardous cryogenic distillation is the current benchmark process to capture and separate radioactive Xe and Kr from air. Thus, a cost-effective, alternative technology for the separation of Xe and Kr and their capture from air is of significant importance. Thus far, nanoporous materials, such as aluminosilicate zeolites, metal organic frameworks (MOFs) and porous organic molecules have shown promise for an adsorption-based separation process at room temperature. Herein, we report the selective Xe uptake in a crystalline porous organic oligomeric molecule, noria, and its structural analogue, PgC-noria, under ambient conditions. The selectivity of noria towards Xe arises from its tailored pore size and small cavities, which allows a directed non-bonding interaction of Xe atoms with a large number of carbon atoms of the noria molecular wheel in a confined space.

  17. Pyrolysis-GCMS Analysis of Solid Organic Products from Catalytic Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Locke, Darren R.; Yazzie, Cyriah A.; Burton, Aaron S.; Niles, Paul B.; Johnson, Natasha M.

    2015-01-01

    Abiotic synthesis of complex organic compounds in the early solar nebula that formed our solar system is hypothesized to occur via a Fischer-Tropsch type (FTT) synthesis involving the reaction of hydrogen and carbon monoxide gases over metal and metal oxide catalysts. In general, at low temperatures (less than 200 C), FTT synthesis is expected to form abundant alkane compounds while at higher temperatures (greater than 200 C) it is expected to product lesser amounts of n-alkanes and greater amounts of alkene, alcohol, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Experiments utilizing a closed-gas circulation system to study the effects of FTT reaction temperature, catalysts, and number of experimental cycles on the resulting solid insoluble organic products are being performed in the laboratory at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These experiments aim to determine whether or not FTT reactions on grain surfaces in the protosolar nebula could be the source of the insoluble organic matter observed in meteorites. The resulting solid organic products are being analyzed at NASA Johnson Space Center by pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry (PY-GCMS). PY-GCMS yields the types and distribution of organic compounds released from the insoluble organic matter generated from the FTT reactions. Previously, exploratory work utilizing PY-GCMS to characterize the deposited organic materials from these reactions has been reported. Presented here are new organic analyses using magnetite catalyst to produce solid insoluble organic FTT products with varying reaction temperatures and number of experimental cycles.

  18. Electron Shuttling Capacity of Solid-Phase Organic Matter in Forest Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, A.; Zhao, Q.; Yang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Soil organic matter, as an electron shuttle, plays an important role in regulating the biogeochemical cycles of metals, especially the redox reactions for iron. Microorganisms can reduce soil organic matter under anaerobic conditions, and biotically-reduced soil organic matter can abiotically donate electrons to ferric oxides. Such soil organic matter-mediated electron transport can facilitate the interactions between microorganisms and insoluble terminal electron acceptors, i.e. iron minerals. Most previous studies have been focused on the electron shuttling processes through dissolved soil organic matter, and scant information is available for solid-phase soil organic matter. In this study, we aim to quantify the electron accepting capacity for solid-phase organic matter in soils collected from four different forests in the United States, including Truckee (CA), Little Valley (NV), Howland (ME) and Hart (MI). We used Shewanella oneidensisMR-1 to biotically reduce soil slurries, and then quantified the electrons transferred to solid-phase and solution-phase organic matter by reacting them with Fe(III)-nitrilotriacetic acid (Fe(III)-NTA). The generation of Fe(II) was measured by a ferrozine assay to calculate the electron accepting capacity of soil organic matter. Our preliminary results showed that the Truckee soil organic matter can accept 0.51±0.07 mM e-/mol carbon. We will measure the electron accepting capacity for four different soils and correlate them to the physicochemical properties of soils. Potential results will provide information about the electron accepting capacity of solid-phase soil organic matter and its governing factors, with broad implication on the coupled biogeochemical cycles of carbon and iron.

  19. Rechargeable quasi-solid state lithium battery with organic crystalline cathode

    PubMed Central

    Hanyu, Yuki; Honma, Itaru

    2012-01-01

    Utilization of metal-free low-cost high-capacity organic cathodes for lithium batteries has been a long-standing goal, but critical cyclability problems owing to dissolution of active materials into the electrolyte have been an inevitable obstacle. For practical utilisation of numerous cathode-active compounds proposed over the past decades, a novel battery construction strategy is required. We have designed a solid state cell that accommodates organic cathodic reactions in solid phase. The cell was successful at achieving high capacity exceeding 200 mAh/g with excellent cycleability. Further investigations confirmed that our strategy is effective for numerous other redox-active organic compounds. This implies hundreds of compounds dismissed before due to low cycleability would worth a re-visit under solid state design. PMID:22693655

  20. Impact of cytomegalovirus on early immunosenescence of CD8+ T lymphocytes after solid organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Cantisán, Sara; Torre-Cisneros, Julián; Lara, Rosario; Zarraga, Sofía; Montejo, Miguel; Solana, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    The increasing number of elderly people eligible for solid organ transplants has made it necessary to reevaluate how the decline in immune function associated to ageing (immunosenescence) affects solid organ transplants. Some immunosenescence biomarkers, such as the expansion of CD28(-)CD8+ T lymphocytes, have been associated to cytomegalovirus infection and are related to a form of accelerated immune senescence in transplant recipients. However, the impact of cytomegalovirus replication on downregulation of CD28 on total CD8+ T cells is independent of patients' age, whereas downregulation on cytomegalovirus-specific CD8+ T cells depends on patients' age, inducing early immunosenescence of cytomegalovirus-specific CD8+ T cells in young but not elderly solid organ transplants recipients. Although immunosenescence in transplant recipients should be considered a two-edged sword as it is a risk factor for the development of tumors after transplantation, it has a beneficial effect in attenuating acute allograft rejection and correlates with better clinical outcomes.

  1. Cyanine dyes in solid state organic heterojunction solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heier, Jakob; Peng, Chuyao; Véron, Anna C.; Hany, Roland; Geiger, Thomas; Nüesch, Frank A.; Vismara, Marcus V. G.; Graeff, Carlos F. O.

    2014-10-01

    Today numerous cyanine dyes that are soluble in organic solvents are available, driven by more than a century of research and development of the photographic industry. Several properties specific to cyanine dyes suggest that this material class can be of interest for organic solar cell applications. The main absorption wavelength can be tuned from the ultra-violet to the near-infrared. The unparalleled high absorption coefficients allow using very thin films for harvesting the solar photons. Furthermore, cyanines are cationic polymethine dyes, offering the possibility to modify the materials by defining the counteranion. We here show specifically how counterions can be utilized to tune the bulk morphology when blended with fullerenes. We compare the performance of bilayer heterojunction and bulk heterojunction solar cells for two different dyes absorbing in the visible and the near-infrared. Light-induced Electron Spin Resonance (LESR) was used to study the charge transfers of light induced excitons between cyanine dyes and the archetype fullerene C60. LESR results show good correlation with the cell performance.

  2. Palliative and end of life care in solid organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Wentlandt, Kirsten; Weiss, Andrea; O'Connor, Erin; Kaya, Ebru

    2017-10-04

    Palliative care is an interprofessional approach that focuses on quality of life of patients facing life-threatening illness. Palliative care is consistently associated with improvements in advance care planning, patient and caregiver satisfaction, quality of life, symptom burden, and lower health care utilization. Most transplant patients suffer from advanced chronic disease, significant symptom burden, and mortality awaiting transplant. Transplantation introduces new risks including perioperative death, organ rejection, infection, renal insufficiency, and malignancy. Numerous publications over the last decade identify that palliative care is well-suited to support these patients and their caregivers, yet access to palliative care and research within this population is lacking. This review describes palliative care and summarizes existing research supporting palliative intervention in advanced organ failure, and transplant populations. A proposed model to provide palliative care in parallel with disease directed therapy in a transplant program has potential to improve symptom burden, quality of life, and health care utilization. Further studies are needed to elucidate specific benefits of palliative care for this population. In addition, there is tremendous need for education, specifically for clinicians, patients, and families, to improve understanding of palliative care and its benefits for patients with advanced disease. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Solid- and solution-phase organics dictate copper distribution and speciation in multicomponent systems containing ferrihydrite, organic matter, and montmorillonite.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Villegas, Nadia; Martínez, Carmen Enid

    2008-04-15

    Copper retention by ferrihydrite, leaf compost, and montmorillonite was studied over 8 months in systems that emulate a natural soil where different solid phases compete for Cu through a common solution in a compartmentalized batch reactor. Copper speciation in solution (total dissolved, DPASV-labile, and free) and exchangeable and total Cu in individual solid phases were determined. Organic carbon in solution (DOC) and that retained by the mineral phases were also determined. Cu sorption reached steady-state after 4 months and accounted for 80% of the Cu initially added to the system (0.15 mg L(-1)). The remaining 20% stayed in solution as nonlabile (82.8%), labile (17%), and free (0.2%) Cu species. Copper sorption followed the order organic matter > silicate clays > iron oxides. Within each solid phase, exchangeable Cu was < or = 10% of the total Cu sorbed. DOC reached steady state (22 mg L(-1)) after 4 months and seemed to control Cu solubility and sorption behavior by the formation of soluble Cu-DOC complexes and by sorbing onto the mineral phases. DOC sorption onto ferrihydrite prevented Cu retention by this solid phase. Using a multicomponent system and 8 months equilibrations, we were able to capture some of the more important aspects of the complexity of soil environments bytaking into account diffusion processes and competition among solid- and solution-phase soil constituents in the retention of a metal cation.

  4. Cancer of the head and neck region in solid organ transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Rabinovics, Naomi; Mizrachi, Aviram; Hadar, Tuvia; Ad-El, Dean; Feinmesser, Raphael; Guttman, Dan; Shpitzer, Thomas; Bachar, Gideon

    2014-02-01

    Solid organ recipients are at an increased risk of developing various malignancies. We investigated the incidence, clinical features, and outcome of patients diagnosed with head and neck cancer after organ transplantation. A retrospective analysis was undertaken of patients who underwent solid organ transplantation (kidney, liver, lung, heart) treated at our institution from 1992 to 2010. Of 2817 organ recipients, 175 patients (6.1%) developed 391 head and neck malignancies. Cutaneous malignancies were the most common (93%): squamous cell carcinoma (SCC; 51%) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC; 42%). The average interval from transplantation to diagnosis of head and neck malignancy was 7.3 years, with liver recipients diagnosed earlier. Eighteen percent of patients presented with an aggressive pattern of head and neck cancer, including 24% of patients with cutaneous SCC. Organ transplantation recipients are at a higher risk to develop head and neck cancer with an aggressive behavior characterized by multiple recurrences and decreased survival. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Pediatric solid organ injury operative interventions and outcomes at Harborview Medical Center, before and after introduction of a solid organ injury pathway for pediatrics

    PubMed Central

    Dervan, Leslie A.; King, Mary A.; Cuschieri, Joseph; Rivara, Frederick P.; Weiss, Noel S.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although nonoperative management has become the standard of care for solid organ injury, variability exists in the care patients receive, and there are limited data regarding nonoperative management in patients with high grades of organ injury and substantial overall injury. We aimed to evaluate operative intervention frequency, including splenectomy, and patient outcomes before and after institution of the pediatric solid organ injury pathway at Harborview Medical Center (HMC) in 2005. METHODS This is a retrospective cohort study conducted at HMC for all pediatric solid organ injury patients from 2001 to 2012. Patients were identified in the Harborview Trauma Registry via DRG International Classification of Diseases—9th Rev. (ICD-9) codes for the presence of liver and spleen injuries. Demographic information, clinical characteristics, and ICD-9 procedure codes were also obtained from the trauma registry. Outcomes including splenectomy, a related abdominal surgery (exploratory laparotomy, spleen or liver repair, or splenectomy), mortality, and length of stay were compared between periods before and after 2005, adjusted for Injury Severity Score (ISS). RESULTS The pediatric solid organ injury population at HMC (n = 712) has a high frequency of high-grade injury (35% Grade IV or V) and a high level of overall injury severity (median ISS, 21). Splenectomy was rare and remained stable over time despite an increase in severity of injury (from 2.4% to 0.8%, p = 0.44, among patients with isolated injury and from 4.0% to 3.3%, p = 0.78, among patients with nonisolated injury). Other abdominal surgeries also remained stable over time. Mortality decreased among patients with nonisolated injury (from 11.2% to 4.8%, p = 0.01). Length of stay decreased among patients with isolated organ injury, from a median of 4 days (interquartile range, 3–5 days) to 2 days (interquartile range, 2–3 days) (p < 0.0005) as well as within the lower ISS strata among patients with

  6. Resin Capsules: Permeable Containers for Parallel/Combinatorial Solid-Phase Organic Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Bouillon, Isabelle; Soural, Miroslav; Krchňák, Viktor

    2009-01-01

    A resin capsule is a permeable container for resin beads designed for multiple/combinatorial solid-phase organic synthesis. Resin capsules consist of a high density polyethylene ring sealed with peek mesh on both sides. The cylindrical shape of resin capsules enabled space-saving packing into plastic column-like reaction vessels commonly used for solid-phase organic synthesis. Resin capsules have been evaluated for their use in combinatorial synthesis, and a set of model compounds with excellent purity was prepared. PMID:18656988

  7. Management strategies for cytomegalovirus infection and disease in solid organ transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Razonable, Raymund R

    2013-06-01

    Cytomegalovirus is the most common viral pathogen that affects solid organ transplant recipients. It directly causes fever, myelosuppression, and tissue-invasive disease, and indirectly, it negatively impacts allograft and patient survival. Nucleic acid amplification testing is the preferred method to confirm the diagnosis of CMV infection. Prevention of CMV disease using antiviral prophylaxis or preemptive therapy is critical in the management of transplant patients. Intravenous ganciclovir and oral valganciclovir are the first line drugs for antiviral treatment. This article provides a comprehensive review of the current epidemiology, diagnosis, prevention and treatment of CMV infection in solid organ transplant recipients.

  8. Treatment with sirolimus ameliorates tacrolimus-induced autoimmune cytopenias after solid organ transplant.

    PubMed

    Teachey, David T; Jubelirer, Tracey; Baluarte, H Jorge; Wade, Amanda; Manno, Catherine S

    2009-12-01

    The development of autoimmune blood cell cytopenias is a potentially life-threatening complication of solid organ transplantation, resulting from T-cell dysregulation from immunosuppressive medications. Conventional treatment with corticosteroids and IVIgG is often unsuccessful as these therapies are unlikely to overcome the T-cell dysregulation. We describe two patients who developed severe autoimmune cytopenias after solid organ transplantation. They had limited response to conventional medications, but had complete resolution of autoimmunity upon transition of immunosuppression from tacrolimus to sirolimus. Altering the immunosuppressive regimen to modify T-cell dysregulation may be beneficial for patients who develop post-transplant autoimmune disease and allow continued preservation of allograft.

  9. Detection of chiral defects in crystalline organic solids using solid-state NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Berendt, Robert T; Munson, Eric J

    2011-05-01

    The marketing of enantiopure pharmaceuticals has become more common due to regulatory and safety concerns surrounding the potential differences in biological activity of opposite enantiomers. However, achieving the desired enantiopurity can be a challenge, and low levels of the undesired enantiomer (chiral impurity) may be present in the final product. The location and nature of this impurity can potentially alter pharmaceutically relevant properties. In this article, we show that it is possible to identify and quantitate the crystallographic locations of small amounts of one enantiomer (l) in the presence of predominantly the opposite D-enantiomer using solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Proline was used as a model compound, and crystalline samples containing both D- and L-proline were prepared by solvent evaporation, lyophilization, spray drying, and cryogrinding. Isotopic labeling, (13)C cross polarization-magic angle spinning NMR spectral subtractions, and (1)H T(1) spin-lattice relaxation measurements allowed selective observation and characterization of the crystal environments into which the L-proline impurity was incorporated upon concurrent crystallization with D-proline. Results show that L-proline was incorporated in up to four different crystalline forms, including L-proline as a kinetically trapped substitutional chiral defect in the D-proline host crystal lattice.

  10. Mixed chimerism to induce tolerance for solid organ transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Wren, S.M.; Nalesnik, M.; Hronakes, M.L.; Oh, E.; Ildstad, S.T. )

    1991-04-01

    Chimerism, or the coexistence of tissue elements from more than one genetically different strain or species in an organism, is the only experimental state that results in the induction of donor-specific transplantation tolerance. Transplantation of a mixture of T-cell-depleted syngeneic (host-type) plus T-cell-depleted allogeneic (donor) bone marrow into a normal adult recipient mouse (A + B----A) results in mixed allogeneic chimerism. Recipient mice exhibit donor-specific transplantation tolerance, yet have full immunocompetence to recognize and respond to third-party transplantation antigens. After complete hematolymphopoietic repopulation at 28 days, animals accept a donor-specific skin graft but reject major histocompatibility complex (MHC) locus-disparate third-party grafts. We now report that permanent graft acceptance can also be achieved when the graft is placed at the time of bone marrow transplantation. Histologically, grafts were viable and had only minimal inflammatory changes. This model may have potential future clinical application for the induction of donor-specific transplantation tolerance.

  11. Overview of extended release tacrolimus in solid organ transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Neha; Cook, Abigail; Greenhalgh, Elizabeth; Rech, Megan A; Rusinak, Joshua; Heinrich, Lynley

    2016-01-01

    Tacrolimus (Prograf©, Astellas Pharma Europe Ltd, Staines, United Kingdom; referred to as tacrolimus-BID) is an immunosuppressive agent to prevent and treat allograft rejection in kidney transplant recipients in combination with mycophenolate mofetil, corticosteroids, with or without basiliximab induction. The drug has also been studied in liver, heart and lung transplant; however, these are currently off-label indications. An extended release tacrolimus formulation (Advagraf©, Astagraf XL©) allows for once-daily dosing, with the potential to improve adherence. Extended release tacrolimus has similar absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion to tacrolimus-BID. Phase I pharmacokinetic trials comparing extended release tacrolimus and tacrolimus-BID have demonstrated a decreased maximum concentration (Cmax) and delayed time to maximum concentration (tmax) with the extended release formulation; however, AUC0-24 was comparable between formulations. Overall extended release tacrolimus has a very similar safety and efficacy profile to tacrolimus-BID. It is not recommended in the use of liver transplant patient’s due to the increased risk of mortality in female recipients. There has been minimal data regarding the use of extended release tacrolimus in heart and lung transplant recipients. With the current data available for all organ groups the extended release tacrolimus should be dosed in a 1:1 fashion, the exception may be the cystic fibrosis population where their initial dose may need to be higher. PMID:27011912

  12. Inkjet-printed vertically emitting solid-state organic lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Mhibik, Oussama; Chénais, Sébastien; Forget, Sébastien; Defranoux, Christophe; Sanaur, Sébastien

    2016-05-07

    In this paper, we show that Inkjet Printing can be successfully applied to external-cavity vertically emitting thin-film organic lasers and can be used to generate a diffraction-limited output beam with an output energy as high as 33.6 μJ with a slope efficiency S of 34%. Laser emission shows to be continuously tunable from 570 to 670 nm using an intracavity polymer-based Fabry-Perot etalon. High-optical quality films with several μm thicknesses are realized, thanks to ink-jet printing. We introduce a new optical material where EMD6415 commercial ink constitutes the optical host matrix and exhibits a refractive index of 1.5 and an absorption coefficient of 0.66 cm{sup −1} at 550–680 nm. Standard laser dyes like Pyrromethene 597 and Rhodamine 640 are incorporated in solution to the EMD6415 ink. Such large size “printed pixels” of 50 mm{sup 2} present uniform and flat surfaces, with roughness measured as low as 1.5 nm in different locations of a 50 μm × 50 μm AFM scan. Finally, as the gain capsules fabricated by Inkjet printing are simple and do not incorporate any tuning or cavity element, they are simple to make, have a negligible fabrication cost, and can be used as fully disposable items. This work opens the way towards the fabrication of really low-cost tunable visible lasers with an affordable technology that has the potential to be widely disseminated.

  13. [Chronic rejection: Differences and similarities in various solid organ transplants].

    PubMed

    Suhling, H; Gottlieb, J; Bara, C; Taubert, R; Jäckel, E; Schiffer, M; Bräsen, J H

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, chronic rejections after transplantation of the lungs, heart, liver, and kidney are described. Chronic allograft dysfunction (CAD) plays an important role in all of these transplantations and has a significant influence on patient survival. The pathophysiological reasons for CAD varies greatly in the various organs.Chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) is the most important determinant of survival and quality of life after lung transplantation. Diagnosis is based on lung function, especially forced expiratory flow in 1 s (FEV1) decline. Prevention, early detection, and rapid treatment are extremely important. Azithromycin and extracorporeal photopheresis are commonly used for treatment because they usually positively influence the progression of lung remodeling.The expression for chronic rejection of the heart is cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV). Immunological and nonimmunological factors are important for its development. Due to limited therapeutic options, prevention is of utmost importance (administration of mTOR inhibitors and minimizing cardiovascular risk factors).The mid- and long-term survival rates after liver transplantation have hardly changed in recent decades, which is an indication of the difficulty in diagnosing chronic graft dysfunction. Chronic ductopenic rejection accounts for a small proportion of late graft dysfunction. Idiopathic posttransplant hepatitis and de novo autoimmune hepatitis are important in addition to recurrence of the underlying disease that led to transplantation.Chronic allograft nephropathy is the result of severe rejection which cumulates in increasing fibrosis with remodeling. The earliest possible diagnosis and therapy is currently the only option. Diagnosis is based on evidence of donor-specific antibodies and histological findings.

  14. 32 CFR 1605.59 - Signing official papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Signing official papers. 1605.59 Section 1605.59 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ORGANIZATION Local Boards § 1605.59 Signing official papers. Official papers issued by a local...

  15. 32 CFR 1605.28 - Signing official papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Signing official papers. 1605.28 Section 1605.28 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ORGANIZATION District Appeal Boards § 1605.28 Signing official papers. Official documents issued...

  16. 32 CFR 1605.28 - Signing official papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Signing official papers. 1605.28 Section 1605.28 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ORGANIZATION District Appeal Boards § 1605.28 Signing official papers. Official documents issued...

  17. 32 CFR 1605.28 - Signing official papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Signing official papers. 1605.28 Section 1605.28 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ORGANIZATION District Appeal Boards § 1605.28 Signing official papers. Official documents issued...

  18. 32 CFR 1605.28 - Signing official papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Signing official papers. 1605.28 Section 1605.28 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ORGANIZATION District Appeal Boards § 1605.28 Signing official papers. Official documents issued...

  19. 32 CFR 1605.59 - Signing official papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Signing official papers. 1605.59 Section 1605.59 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ORGANIZATION Local Boards § 1605.59 Signing official papers. Official papers issued by a local...

  20. 32 CFR 1605.59 - Signing official papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Signing official papers. 1605.59 Section 1605.59 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ORGANIZATION Local Boards § 1605.59 Signing official papers. Official papers issued by a local...

  1. 32 CFR 1605.59 - Signing official papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ORGANIZATION Local Boards § 1605.59 Signing official papers. Official papers issued by a local... compensated employee of the Selective Service System whose official duties require him to perform...

  2. 12 CFR 905.26 - Official logo and seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Official logo and seal. 905.26 Section 905.26... OPERATIONS DESCRIPTION OF ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS Miscellaneous § 905.26 Official logo and seal. This section describes and displays the logo adopted by the Board of Directors as the official...

  3. 12 CFR 905.26 - Official logo and seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Official logo and seal. 905.26 Section 905.26... OPERATIONS DESCRIPTION OF ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS Miscellaneous § 905.26 Official logo and seal. This section describes and displays the logo adopted by the Board of Directors as the official...

  4. 32 CFR 1605.28 - Signing official papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Signing official papers. 1605.28 Section 1605.28 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ORGANIZATION District Appeal Boards § 1605.28 Signing official papers. Official documents...

  5. 32 CFR 1605.59 - Signing official papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Signing official papers. 1605.59 Section 1605.59 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ORGANIZATION Local Boards § 1605.59 Signing official papers. Official papers issued by a...

  6. Biogas from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste: dealing with contaminants for a solid oxide fuel cell energy generator.

    PubMed

    Papurello, Davide; Lanzini, Andrea; Leone, Pierluigi; Santarelli, Massimo; Silvestri, Silvia

    2014-11-01

    The present work investigates electricity production using a high efficiency electrochemical generator that employs as fuel a biogas from the dry anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW). The as-produced biogas contains several contaminants (sulfur, halogen, organic silicon and aromatic compounds) that can be harmful for the fuel cell: these were monitored via an innovative mass spectrometry technique that enables for in-line and real-time quantification. A cleaning trap with activated carbons for the removal of sulfur and other VOCs contained in the biogas was also tested and monitored by observing the different breakthrough times of studied contaminants. The electrochemical generator was a commercial Ni anode-supported planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC), tested for more than 300 h with a simulated biogas mixture (CH4 60 vol.%, CO2 40 vol.%), directly fed to the anode electrode. Air was added to promote the direct internal conversion of CH4 to H2 and CO via partial oxidation (POx). The initial breakthrough of H2S from the cleaning section was also simulated and tested by adding ∼1 ppm(v) of sulfur in the anode feed; a full recovery of the fuel cell performance after 24h of sulfur exposure (∼1 ppm(v)) was observed upon its removal, indicating the reliable time of anode exposure to sulfur in case of exhausted guard bed.

  7. Donor-derived tuberculosis after solid organ transplantation in two patients and a staff member.

    PubMed

    Bucher, J N; Schoenberg, M B; Freytag, I; Lange, U; Hofmann-Thiel, S; Guba, M O; Werner, J; Eder, A; Schelling, G; Stangl, M

    2016-06-01

    Because of global mobility and migration resulting in a growing diversity of the donor pool, the risk for donor-derived tuberculosis in solid organ transplant recipients becomes more and more relevant, even in countries with a low overall tuberculosis incidence. Here, we describe a case series of donor-derived tuberculosis in 2 of 3 solid organ transplant recipients and one medical staff member in Germany resulting in the death of one recipient. This case series highlights the relevance of this topic to clinicians. It advocates for a better communication between organ procurement organizations and transplant centers regarding donor information and transplant recipient outcome. Furthermore, it underpins the necessity for a standardized critical incident reporting system in the german transplant system to improve short- and long-term recipient's safety, health and survival.

  8. Effect of solids retention time on the bioavailability of organic carbon in anaerobically digested swine waste.

    PubMed

    Kinyua, Maureen N; Cunningham, Jeffrey; Ergas, Sarina J

    2014-06-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) can be used to stabilize and produce energy from livestock waste; however, digester effluents may require further treatment to remove nitrogen. This paper quantifies the effects of varying solids retention time (SRT) methane yield, volatile solids (VS) reduction and organic carbon bioavailability for denitrification during swine waste AD. Four bench-scale anaerobic digesters, with SRTs of 14, 21, 28 and 42 days, operated with swine waste feed. Effluent organic carbon bioavailability was measured using anoxic microcosms and respirometry. Excellent performance was observed for all four digesters, with >60% VS removal and CH4 yields between 0.1 and 0.3(m(3)CH4)/(kg VS added). Organic carbon in the centrate as an internal organic carbon source for denitrification supported maximum specific denitrification rates between 47 and 56(mg NO3(-)-N)/(g VSS h). The digester with the 21-day SRT had the highest CH4 yield and maximum specific denitrification rates.

  9. High-resolution NMR of hydrogen in organic solids by DNP enhanced natural abundance deuterium spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Rossini, Aaron J; Schlagnitweit, Judith; Lesage, Anne; Emsley, Lyndon

    2015-10-01

    We demonstrate that high field (9.4 T) dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) at cryogenic (∼100 K) sample temperatures enables the rapid acquisition of natural abundance (1)H-(2)H cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS) solid-state NMR spectra of organic solids. Spectra were obtained by impregnating substrates with a solution of the stable DNP polarizing agent TEKPol in tetrachloroethane. Tetrachloroethane is a non-solvent for the solids, and the unmodified substrates are then polarized through spin diffusion. High quality natural abundance (2)H CPMAS spectra of histidine hydrochloride monohydrate, glycylglycine and theophylline were acquired in less than 2h, providing direct access to hydrogen chemical shifts and quadrupolar couplings. The spectral resolution of the (2)H solid-state NMR spectra is comparable to that of (1)H spectra obtained with state of the art homonuclear decoupling techniques. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. High-resolution NMR of hydrogen in organic solids by DNP enhanced natural abundance deuterium spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossini, Aaron J.; Schlagnitweit, Judith; Lesage, Anne; Emsley, Lyndon

    2015-10-01

    We demonstrate that high field (9.4 T) dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) at cryogenic (∼100 K) sample temperatures enables the rapid acquisition of natural abundance 1H-2H cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS) solid-state NMR spectra of organic solids. Spectra were obtained by impregnating substrates with a solution of the stable DNP polarizing agent TEKPol in tetrachloroethane. Tetrachloroethane is a non-solvent for the solids, and the unmodified substrates are then polarized through spin diffusion. High quality natural abundance 2H CPMAS spectra of histidine hydrochloride monohydrate, glycylglycine and theophylline were acquired in less than 2 h, providing direct access to hydrogen chemical shifts and quadrupolar couplings. The spectral resolution of the 2H solid-state NMR spectra is comparable to that of 1H spectra obtained with state of the art homonuclear decoupling techniques.

  11. Investigation of Self-Organized Nanoheterostructure Properties in InGaAsP Solid Solutions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-06-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADP012787 TITLE: Investigation of Self-Organized Nanoheterostructure ... nanoheterostructure properties in InGaAsP solid solutions I S. Tarasov, 1. N. Arsent’ev, N. A. Bert, L. S. Vavilova, V.A. Kapitonov, A. V. Murashova...organized InGaAsP nanoheterostructures grown on InP and GaAs substrates have been investigated by photoluminescence and transmission electron microscopy

  12. Non-Porous Organic Solids Capable of Dynamically Resolving Mixtures of Diiodoperfluoroalkanes (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-11

    equipped with UATR unit. Melting points were determined with a Reichert instrument by observing the melting and crystallizing process through an...Journal Article 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Non -Porous Organic Solids Capable of Dynamically...14. ABSTRACT A well-known class of organic non -porous compounds, polymethylene bismethonium iodides, undergoes selective capture and release of

  13. Composting: Dirty riches. [Composting organic wastes from the municiple solid waste stream

    SciTech Connect

    Sachs, A.

    1993-08-01

    Up to three-quarters of municiple solid waste (MSW) is organic, readily biodegradable material, such as food, leaves, and paper. If this waste were allowed to root properly, the solid waste crisis would be less serious. However, rotting isn't easy in a tightly packed mountain of garbage at a typical landfill. The last few years have at least established composing as a rising green industry, especially in the most populous regions of the developed world. However, the variety of composting programs is too inefficient to divert any more than a tiny fraction of the compostable waste stream away from landfills and incinerators. This article discusses the problems of mixed municiple solid wastes and composting organic wastes, and possible solutions.

  14. Self-Supporting Metal-Organic Layers as Single-Site Solid Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Cao, Lingyun; Lin, Zekai; Peng, Fei; Wang, Weiwei; Huang, Ruiyun; Wang, Cheng; Yan, Jiawei; Liang, Jie; Zhang, Zhiming; Zhang, Teng; Long, Lasheng; Sun, Junliang; Lin, Wenbin

    2016-04-11

    Metal-organic layers (MOLs) represent an emerging class of tunable and functionalizable two-dimensional materials. In this work, the scalable solvothermal synthesis of self-supporting MOLs composed of [Hf6O4(OH)4(HCO2)6] secondary building units (SBUs) and benzene-1,3,5-tribenzoate (BTB) bridging ligands is reported. The MOL structures were directly imaged by TEM and AFM, and doped with 4'-(4-benzoate)-(2,2',2''-terpyridine)-5,5''-dicarboxylate (TPY) before being coordinated with iron centers to afford highly active and reusable single-site solid catalysts for the hydrosilylation of terminal olefins. MOL-based heterogeneous catalysts are free from the diffusional constraints placed on all known porous solid catalysts, including metal-organic frameworks. This work uncovers an entirely new strategy for designing single-site solid catalysts and opens the door to a new class of two-dimensional coordination materials with molecular functionalities.

  15. Treatment of HEV Infection in Patients with a Solid-Organ Transplant and Chronic Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Kamar, Nassim; Lhomme, Sébastien; Abravanel, Florence; Marion, Olivier; Peron, Jean-Marie; Alric, Laurent; Izopet, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection can cause hepatic and extra-hepatic manifestations. Treatment of HEV infection has been thoroughly studied in solid-organ-transplant patients who have developed a chronic HEV infection. In this review, we report on our current knowledge regarding treatment of HEV infection. PMID:27537905

  16. Environmental Factors as Key Determinants for Visceral Leishmaniasis in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients, Madrid, Spain

    PubMed Central

    López-Medrano, Francisco; Fernández-Ruiz, Mario; Carrillo, Eugenia; Moreno, Javier; García-Reyne, Ana; Pérez-Ayala, Ana; Rodríguez-Ferrero, María Luisa; Lumbreras, Carlos; San-Juan, Rafael; Alvar, Jorge; Aguado, José María

    2017-01-01

    During a visceral leishmaniasis outbreak in an area of Madrid, Spain, the incidence of disease among solid organ transplant recipients was 10.3% (7/68). Being a black person from sub-Saharan Africa, undergoing transplantation during the outbreak, and residing <1,000 m from the epidemic focus were risk factors for posttransplant visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:28628447

  17. AMBIENT LEVEL VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND (VOC) MONITORING USING SOLID ADSORBANTS - RECENT U.S. EPA STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ambient air spiked with 1-10 ppbv concentrations of 41 toxic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) listed in U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Compendium Method TO-14A was monitored using solid sorbents for sample collection and a Varian Saturn 2000 ion trap mass spectrome...

  18. AMBIENT LEVEL VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND (VOC) MONITORING USING SOLID ADSORBANTS - RECENT U.S. EPA STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ambient air spiked with 1-10 ppbv concentrations of 41 toxic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) listed in U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Compendium Method TO-14A was monitored using solid sorbents for sample collection and a Varian Saturn 2000 ion trap mass spectrome...

  19. [De novo cancer after solid organ transplantation: Epidemiology, prognosis and management].

    PubMed

    Guillemin, Aude; Rousseau, Benoît; Neuzillet, Cindy; Joly, Charlotte; Boussion, Helene; Grimbert, Philippe; Compagnon, Philippe; Duvoux, Christophe; Tournigand, Christophe

    2017-03-01

    The risk of cancer after solid organ transplantation is increased by 2.6 compared to overall population. Cancer is currently the third leading cause of death in solid organ transplanted patients, making screening and early management of de novo cancers a major challenge. This increased risk of cancer in this population results from the combination of known environmental risk factors of cancer, comorbidities of transplanted patients, and exposure to chronic immunosuppression. The prognosis of cancer in these patients seems poorer as compared to other cancer patients owing to their comorbidities, the immunosuppression and patient's poorer tolerance to oncologic treatment. Moreover, interactions between immunosuppressive agents and antitumor therapies must be taken into account in the therapeutic strategy. Better knowledge of the specificities of solid organ transplanted patients with de novo cancer is required to improve cancer care in this patient population. This article aims to review the current data available on de novo cancers in solid organ transplanted patients, with a focus on epidemiology, risks factors of de novo cancers, impact of immunosuppressive drugs and oncologic prognosis.

  20. PTX3 Polymorphisms and Invasive Mold Infections After Solid Organ Transplant.

    PubMed

    Wójtowicz, Agnieszka; Lecompte, T Doco; Bibert, Stephanie; Manuel, Oriol; Rüeger, Sina; Berger, Christoph; Boggian, Katia; Cusini, Alexia; Garzoni, Christian; Hirsch, Hans; Khanna, Nina; Mueller, Nicolas J; Meylan, Pascal R; Pascual, Manuel; van Delden, Christian; Bochud, Pierre-Yves

    2015-08-15

    Donor PTX3 polymorphisms were shown to influence the risk of invasive aspergillosis among hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Here, we show that PTX3 polymorphisms are independent risk factors for invasive mold infections among 1101 solid organ transplant recipients, thereby strengthening their role in mold infection pathogenesis and patients' risk stratification.

  1. Hypercoagulability following blunt solid abdominal organ injury: when to initiate anticoagulation

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Brandon C.; Moore, Ernest E.; Barnett, Carlton; Stovall, Robert T.; Biffl, Walter L.; Burlew, Clay C.; Bensard, Denis D.; Jurkovich, Gregory J.; Pieracci, Fredric M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The optimal time to initiate venous thromboembolism pharmacoprophylaxis after blunt abdominal solid organ injury is unknown. Methods Postinjury coagulation status was characterized using thromboelastography (TEG) in trauma patients with blunt abdominal solid organ injuries; TEG was divided into 12-hour intervals up to 72 hours. Results Forty-two of 304 patients (13.8%) identified underwent multiple postinjury thromboelastographic studies. Age (P = .45), gender (P = .45), and solid organ injury grade (P = .71) were similar between TEG and non-TEG patients. TEG patients had higher Injury Severity Scores compared with non-TEG patients (33.2 vs 18.3, respectively, P < .01). Among the TEG patients, the shear elastic modulus strength and maximum amplitude values began in the normal range within the first 12-hour interval after injury, increased linearly, and crossed into the hypercoagulable range at 48 hours (15.1 ± 1.9 Kd/cs and 57.6 ± 1.6 mm, respectively; P < .01, analysis of variance). Conclusions Patients sustaining blunt abdominal solid organ injuries transition to a hypercoagulable state approximately 48 hours after injury. In the absence of contraindications, pharmacoprophylaxis should be considered before this time for effective venous thromboembolism prevention. PMID:24112665

  2. Dry-thermophilic anaerobic digestion of simulated organic fraction of municipal solid waste: process modeling.

    PubMed

    Fdez-Güelfo, L A; Álvarez-Gallego, C; Sales Márquez, D; Romero García, L I

    2011-01-01

    Solid retention time (SRT) is a very important operational variable in continuous and semicontinuous waste treatment processes since the organic matter removal efficiency--expressed in terms of percentage of Dissolved Organic Carbon (% DOC) or Volatile Solids (% VS) removed--and the biogas or methane production are closely related with the SRT imposed. Optimum SRT is depending on the waste characteristics and the microorganisms involved in the process and, hence, it should be determined specifically in each case. In this work a series of experiments were carried out to determine the effect of SRT, from 40 to 8 days, on the performance of the dry (30% Total Solids) thermophilic (55°C) anaerobic digestion of organic fraction of Municipal Solid Wastes (OFMSW) operating at semicontinuous regime of feeding. The experimental results show than 15days is the optimum SRT (the best between all proved) for this process. Besides, data of organic matter concentration and methane production versus SRT have been used to obtain the kinetic parameters of the kinetic model of Romero García (1991): the maximum specific growth rate of the microorganisms (μmax=0.580 days(-1)) and the fraction of substrate non-biodegradable (α=0.268).

  3. Recent advances in biomarker discovery in solid organ transplant by proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Sigdel, Tara K; Sarwal, Minnie M

    2012-01-01

    The identification and clinical use of more sensitive and specific biomarkers in the field of solid organ transplantation is an urgent need in medicine. Solid organ transplantation has seen improvements in the short-term survival of transplanted organs due to recent advancements in immunosuppressive therapy. However, the currently available methods of allograft monitoring are not optimal. Recent advancements in assaying methods for biomolecules such as genes, mRNA and proteins have helped to identify surrogate biomarkers that can be used to monitor the transplanted organ. These high-throughput ‘omic’ methods can help researchers to significantly speed up the identification and the validation steps, which are crucial factors for biomarker discovery efforts. Still, the progress towards identifying more sensitive and specific biomarkers remains a great deal slower than expected. In this article, we have evaluated the current status of biomarker discovery using proteomics tools in different solid organ transplants in recent years. This article summarizes recent reports and current status, along with the hurdles in efficient biomarker discovery of protein biomarkers using proteomics approaches. Finally, we will touch upon personalized medicine as a future direction for better management of transplanted organs, and provide what we think could be a recipe for success in this field. PMID:22087656

  4. What’s new in clinical solid organ transplantation by 2013

    PubMed Central

    Salvadori, Maurizio; Bertoni, Elisabetta

    2014-01-01

    Innovative and exciting advances in the clinical science in solid organ transplantation continuously realize as the results of studies, clinical trials, international conferences, consensus conferences, new technologies and discoveries. This review will address to the full spectrum of news in transplantation, that verified by 2013. The key areas covered are the transplantation activity, with particular regards to the donors, the news for solid organs such as kidney, pancreas, liver, heart and lung, the news in immunosuppressive therapies, the news in the field of tolerance and some of the main complications following transplantation as infections and cancers. The period of time covered by the study starts from the international meetings held in 2012, whose results were published in 2013, up to the 2013 meetings, conferences and consensus published in the first months of 2014. In particular for every organ, the trends in numbers and survival have been reviewed as well as the most relevant problems such as organ preservation, ischemia reperfusion injuries, and rejections with particular regards to the antibody mediated rejection that involves all solid organs. The new drugs and strategies applied in organ transplantation have been divided into new way of using old drugs or strategies and drugs new not yet on the market, but on phase Ito III of clinical studies and trials. PMID:25540734

  5. Organic and Hybrid Organic Solid-State Photovoltaic Materials and Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-06

    Microscopy Research, 2012, 7, 158-169. Organic photovoltaic materials, hybrid organic devices, solar cells 6 1 FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT 1... hybrids have potential applications in solar cells and may thus provide mobile energy sources for aircraft and soldier technologies. Modeling and...modeling and simulation developed in this project are encouraging further development. 2. Technical Activities Hybrid organic solar cells are an

  6. Subclinical cardiovascular changes in pediatric solid organ transplant recipients: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Al Nasser, Yasser; Moura, Marta C; Mertens, Luc; McCrindle, Brian W; Parekh, Rulan S; Ng, Vicky L; Church, Peter C; Mouzaki, Marialena

    2016-06-01

    CV disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality following solid organ transplantation in adults. While the prevalence of multiple cardiometabolic risk factors is increased in pediatric solid organ transplant recipients, it is not clear whether they have subclinical CV changes. cIMT, central pWV, and CAC are indicative of subclinical CV disease, and, in adults, predict future CV events. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate the prevalence of subclinical CV changes, as measured by cIMT, pWV, and CAC among pediatric solid organ transplant recipients. We searched MEDLINE(®) and EMBASE and conducted meta-analysis for studies that evaluated cIMT, central pWV, and CAC among pediatric solid organ transplant recipients (kidney, lung, intestine and liver). The search identified nine eligible studies that included a total of 259 patients and 685 healthy controls. Eight studies reported on kidney transplant recipients and one study on a combined cohort of kidney and liver transplant recipients. The mean cIMT of transplant recipients was significantly higher than that of healthy controls (mean difference = 0.05 mm, 95% CI 0.02-0.07; p < 0.0001) with an estimated pooled prevalence of elevated cIMT of 56.0% (95% CI 17.0-95.0). The one study that assessed pWV showed increased vascular stiffness in transplant recipients compared to healthy controls. No studies assessing for CAC were found. There were limited data regarding subclinical CV disease following pediatric solid organ transplantation. In conclusion, kidney transplantation in childhood is associated with a higher prevalence of subclinical CV changes compared to healthy children. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine whether children have increased CV morbidity and mortality after transplantation.

  7. Immobilizing Organic-Based Molecular Switches into Metal-Organic Frameworks: A Promising Strategy for Switching in Solid State.

    PubMed

    Gui, Bo; Meng, Yi; Xie, Yang; Du, Ke; Sue, Andrew C-H; Wang, Cheng

    2017-09-14

    Organic-based molecular switches (OMS) are essential components for the ultimate miniaturization of nanoscale electronics and devices. For practical applications, it is often necessary for OMS to be incorporated into functional solid-state materials. However, the switching characteristics of OMS in solution are usually not transferrable to the solid state, presumably because of spatial confinement or inefficient conversion in densely packed solid phase. A promising way to circumvent this issue is harboring the functional OMS within the robust and porous environment of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) as their organic components. In this feature article, recent research progress of OMS-based MOFs is briefly summarized. The switching behaviors of OMS under different stimuli (e.g., light, redox, pH, etc.) in the MOF state are first introduced. After that, the technological applications of these OMS-based MOFs in different areas, including CO2 adsorption, gas separation, drug delivery, photodynamic therapy, and sensing, are outlined. Finally, perspectives and future challenges are discussed in the conclusion. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Negotiations Between ABMA Officials and NASA Officials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1959-01-01

    In this picture, negotiations are under way between officials of the Army Ballistic Missile Agency (ABMA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) on August 11, 1959. Seated at the table with his back to the camera, is Dr. T. Keith Glernan, NASA Administrator. At the head of the table is Major General John Barclay, Commander of ABMA and at the right side of the table are Colonel John G. Zierdt of ABMA and Dr. von Braun.

  9. Negotiations Between ABMA Officials and NASA Officials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1959-01-01

    In this picture, negotiations are under way between officials of the Army Ballistic Missile Agency (ABMA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) on August 11, 1959. Seated at the table with his back to the camera, is Dr. T. Keith Glernan, NASA Administrator. At the head of the table is Major General John Barclay, Commander of ABMA and at the right side of the table are Colonel John G. Zierdt of ABMA and Dr. von Braun.

  10. Second sphere coordination of hybrid metal-organic materials: solid state reactivity.

    PubMed

    Guo, Fang; Martí-Rujas, Javier

    2016-09-21

    When compared to other hybrid metal organic materials such as metal-organic frameworks, hydrogen bonded materials self-assembled by metals and organic molecules using second sphere interactions have been poorly investigated. Consequently, their solid-sate properties are also scarce. In this perspective, earlier research mainly on host-guest chemistry and its evolution towards more extended structures by applying crystal engineering principles using second sphere coordination is described. Crystal-to-crystal guest exchange reactions, permanently porous hybrid metal organic materials, mechanochemical reactivity, thermally induced phase transformations as well as some examples of functional technological applications using second sphere adducts such as gas adsorption, separation and non-linear optical phenomena are also reported. Although some tutorial reviews on second sphere adducts have been conducted mainly in the solution state focusing on metal based anion receptors, to the best of our knowledge, an overview on relevant works that focus on the solid-state properties has not been carried out. The aim of this article is to highlight from some of the early fundamental work to the latest reports on hybrid metal-organic materials self-assembled via second sphere interactions with a focus on solid-state chemistry.

  11. Thermophilic anaerobic digestion of source-sorted organic fraction of municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Forster-Carneiro, T; Pérez, M; Romero, L I

    2008-10-01

    The influence of different organic fraction of municipal solid wastes during anaerobic thermophilic (55 degrees C) treatment of organic matter was studied in this work: food waste (FW), organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) and shredded OFMSW (SH_OFMSW). All digester operated at dry conditions (20% total solids content) and were inoculated with 30% (in volume) of mesophilic digested sludge. Experimental results showed important different behaviours patterns in these wastes related with the organic matter biodegradation and biogas and methane production. The FW reactor showed the smallest waste biodegradation (32.4% VS removal) with high methane production (0.18 LCH4/gVS); in contrast the SH_OFMSW showed higher waste biodegradation (73.7% VS removal) with small methane production (0.05 LCH4/g VS). Finally, OFMSW showed the highest VS removal (79.5%) and the methane yield reached 0.08 LCH4/g VS. Therefore, the nature of organic substrate has an important influence on the biodegradation process and methane yield. Pre-treatment of waste is not necessary for OFMSW.

  12. Resection of Abdominal Solid Organs Using High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Zderic, Vesna; O’Keefe, Grant E.; Foley, Jessica L.; Vaezy, Shahram

    2009-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) for minimizing blood loss during surgery by hemodynamically isolating large portions of solid organs before their resection. A high-power HIFU device (in-situ intensity of 9000 W/cm2, frequency of 3.3 MHz) was used to produce a wall of cautery for sealing of blood vessels along the resection line in surgically-exposed solid organs (liver lobes, spleen and kidneys) of eight adult pigs. Following HIFU application, the distal portion of the organ was excised using a scalpel. If any blood vessels were still bleeding, additional HIFU application was used to stop the bleeding. The resection was achieved in 6.0 ± 1.5 min (liver), 3.6 ± 1.1 min (spleen) and 2.8 ± 0.6 min (kidneys) of HIFU treatment time, with no occurrence of bleeding for up to 4 hours (until sacrifice). The coagulated region at the resection line had average width of 3 cm and extended through the whole thickness of the organ (up to 4 cm). Blood vessels of up to 1 cm in size were occluded. This method holds promise for future clinical applications in resection of solid tumors and hemorrhage control from high-grade organ injuries. PMID:17498864

  13. Solid state amorphization of organic molecular crystals using a vibrating mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukushi, Itaru; Yamamuro, Osamu; Matsuo, Takasuke

    1995-06-01

    The solid-state amorphization of organic molecular crystals was studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray powder diffraction. Two clathrate compounds of tri- O-methyl-β-cyclodextrin (TMCD) containing p-nitrobenzoic acid (NBA) and p-hydroxybenzoic acid (HBA), and seven other organic compounds, sucrose (SUC), salicin (SAL), phenolphthalein (PP), 1,3,5-tri-α-naphthylbenzene (TNB), p-quaterphenyl ( p-QP), p-terphenyl ( p-TP) and 1,3,5-triphenylbenzene (TPB) were ground for 2-16 h with a vibrating mill at room temperature. A halo diffraction pattern and exothermic effect due to the crystallization were observed in TMCD-NBA, TMCD-HBA, SUC, SAL, PP and TNB, indicating amorphization of these crystals. The ability of solid-state amorphization in organic molecular crystals was discussed from a thermodynamic point of view.

  14. [Using compost of agricultural solid waste to produce organic-inorganic compound fertilizer].

    PubMed

    Yang, Bo-jing; Wang, Hong-tao

    2006-07-01

    Techniques of compound fertilizer production from solid waste compost were studied. Different ratio of water moisture, proportion between organic and inorganic and infection of different granularity to the effect of granulation is separately determined through experiments at the pilot scale in the field. The optimal parameters of the techniques are determined. The moisture content is 35%-40%; the rate of organic matter is 80%-90%; granularity is 20 mu. According the data of the organism's concentration, height and weight in crop, the crop was fertilized compound fertilizer is batter than chemical fertilizer. And the ability of increasing the production of the compound fertilizer was testified.

  15. Asymptomatic pulmonary cryptococcosis in solid organ transplantation: report of four cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Mueller, N J; Fishman, J A

    2003-09-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is the third most common cause of invasive fungal infections in solid organ transplantation. The infection generally presents as disseminated disease, involving multiple sites including the central nervous system, lungs, and skin. An increase in the incidence of primary pulmonary cryptococcal infections has been reported recently in solid organ recipients; these infections were generally symptomatic with an accelerated clinical course. We report four cases of asymptomatic pulmonary cryptococcosis in solid organ recipients (kidney, n=2, heart, n=2). In each case, an incidental finding on a routine chest radiograph led to the microbiological or histopathological diagnosis of invasive pulmonary C. neoformans infection. In these patients, cryptococcosis occurred a median of 25 months (range 7-36 months) after organ transplantation. All patients had a calcineurin inhibitor, prednisone, and azathioprine or mycophenolate mofetil as part of their immunosuppressive therapy at the time of diagnosis. Serum cryptococcal antigen was available and positive in the three patients studied; assessment of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of all four patients revealed no organisms by smear or culture. Therapy consisted of oral fluconazole in all cases, with flucytosine in one case, combined with resection of lung tissue in two individuals. All patients have remained free of cryptococcal disease (follow-up median 42 months, from 18 to 88 months). Cryptococcal disease in solid organ recipients may present as asymptomatic, localized pulmonary disease. The natural history of such infections is unknown. New pulmonary radiographic findings should prompt an aggressive diagnostic evaluation including serum and CSF cryptococcal antigen assays, and a biopsy of pulmonary lesions. Prolonged therapy may be used to reduce the risk of progression and dissemination during periods of intensified immune suppression.

  16. Anaerobic digestion of organic solid poultry slaughterhouse waste--a review.

    PubMed

    Salminen, E; Rintala, J

    2002-05-01

    This work reviews the potential of anaerobic digestion for material recovery and energy production from poultry slaughtering by-products and wastes. First, we describe and quantify organic solid by-products and wastes produced in poultry farming and poultry slaughterhouses and discuss their recovery and disposal options. Then we review certain fundamental aspects of anaerobic digestion considered important for the digestion of solid slaughterhouse wastes. Finally, we present an overview of the future potential and current experience of the anaerobic digestion treatment of these materials.

  17. Self-organization of quantum dots in epitaxially strained solid films.

    PubMed

    Golovin, A A; Davis, S H; Voorhees, P W

    2003-11-01

    A nonlinear evolution equation for surface-diffusion-driven Asaro-Tiller-Grinfeld instability of an epitaxially strained thin solid film on a solid substrate is derived in the case where the film wets the substrate. It is found that the presence of a weak wetting interaction between the film and the substrate can substantially retard the instability and modify its spectrum in such a way that the formation of spatially regular arrays of islands or pits on the film surface becomes possible. It is shown that the self-organization dynamics is significantly affected by the presence of the Goldstone mode associated with the conservation of mass.

  18. 7 CFR 800.154 - Availability of official records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... officials. Each agency, contractor, and approved scale testing organization shall permit authorized...) Availability to the public—(1) Agency, contractor, and approved scale testing organization records. The... approved scale testing organization records. Records of agencies, contractors, and approved scale testing...

  19. Skin cancers associated with HIV infection and solid organ transplant among elderly adults

    PubMed Central

    Lanoy, Emilie; Costagliola, Dominique; Engels, Eric A.

    2009-01-01

    Immunosuppression may be etiologic for some skin cancers. We investigated the impact of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and solid organ transplantation on skin cancer risk. We conducted a population-based case-control study among elderly U.S. adults (non-Hispanic whites, age 67 years or older), using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Medicare linked data. The study comprised 29,926 skin cancer cases (excluding basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas) and 119,704 controls, frequency-matched by gender, age, and calendar year (1987–2002). Medicare claims identified solid organ transplantation or HIV infection before cancer diagnosis/control selection. As negative controls, we evaluated other medical conditions (e.g., hypertension, depression) and cancers (breast, colon, prostate) not linked to immunosuppression. Odds ratios (ORs) compared prevalence in cases and controls, adjusted for matching factors and number of prior physician claims. Risks of Kaposi sarcoma (N=602) and cutaneous non-Hodgkin lymphoma (N=1,836) were increased with solid organ transplantation (OR [95%CI]: 11.06 [5.27–23.23] and 2.27 [1.00–5.15], respectively) and HIV infection (21.58 [11.94–38.99] and 2.41 [1.05–5.52], respectively). Solid organ transplantation was also associated with increased risks of Merkel cell carcinoma (N=1286; OR [95%CI] 4.95 [2.62–9.34]) and other cutaneous sarcomas (N=972; 4.19 [1.83–9.56]). Solid organ transplantation was non-significantly associated with melanoma (N=23,974; (OR 1.36 [95%CI 0.98–1.88]). Null or weak associations were observed for negative control medical conditions and cancers. Solid organ transplantation and HIV infection were followed by increased risk for some skin cancer subtypes among elderly adults. These results highlight the potential role of immunity in development of skin cancers. PMID:19810102

  20. Thermodynamic analysis of the energy recovery from the aerobic bioconversion of solid urban waste organic fraction.

    PubMed

    Di Maria, Francesco; Benavoli, Manuel; Zoppitelli, Mirco

    2008-01-01

    Waste management is of the utmost importance for many countries and especially for highly developed ones due to its implications on society. In particular, proper treatment before disposal of the solid urban waste organic fraction is one of the main issues that is addressed in waste management. In fact, the organic fraction is particularly reactive and if disposed in sanitary landfills without previous adequate treatment, a large amount of dangerous and polluting gaseous, liquid and solid substances can be produced. Some waste treatment processes can also present an opportunity to produce other by-products like energy, recycled materials and other products with both economic and environmental benefits. In this paper, the aerobic treatment of the organic fraction of solid urban waste, performed in a biocell plant with the possibility of recovering heat for civil or industrial needs, was examined from the thermodynamic point of view. A theoretical model was proposed both for the biological process of the organic fraction, as well as for the heat recovery system. The most significant results are represented and discussed.

  1. Graft-versus-host disease in paediatric solid organ transplantation: A review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Green, Thomas; Hind, Jonathan

    2016-08-01

    GvHD is a rare and serious complication of organ transplantation. The literature is sparse following solid organ transplantation. The aim of this report was to review the literature of GvHD in paediatric solid organ transplantation. We searched PubMed for English-language full-text manuscripts between 1990 and 2015 for eligible studies. A total of 28 publications were found pertaining to paediatric GvHD following solid organ transplantation. GvHD had a mean incidence of 11% (range 8.3-13.4%) following SBTx and 1.5% following liver transplantation. Where described, the most common sites for presentation of GvHD were the skin (87%), the native GI tract (43%), the lungs (7%), the eyes (4%), HA (4%), and the kidneys (1%). Diagnosis was confirmed with biopsy (93%) and/or chimerism (41%). Treatments used include steroids (80%), of which 75% showed partial or complete resolution. Mortality was 33.3% (range 0-100%). Novel therapies include ECP and MSC therapy. GvHD is a rare but serious disease with high mortality. Novel therapies may offer hope in the future, but currently there is limited evidence for their efficacy in the context of intestinal or liver transplantation.

  2. Contraceptive options for women with a history of solid-organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Krajewski, Colleen M; Geetha, Duvuru; Gomez-Lobo, Veronica

    2013-05-27

    Women of reproductive age who have received a solid-organ transplant are at risk for unplanned pregnancy. Fertility can return as soon as 1 month after transplantation, and the baseline unplanned pregnancy rate in the United States is approximately 50%. Pregnancy, although not absolutely contraindicated in this population, carries risk greater than the general population and should be timed with regard to medication regimen and organ function. The Centers for Disease Control categorizes every form of contraception as Category 2-benefits outweigh risks-in women with an uncomplicated transplantation. There is a large range of contraceptive options, varying in drug formulation, route of delivery, and discrepancy between "perfect" and "typical" use. Long-acting reversible contraceptive methods include intrauterine devices (IUDs) and subdermal implants and show great promise for women with solid-organ transplant. These methods have excellent efficacy, eliminate user error, and, in the case of IUDs, have extremely low or no systemic drug absorption. Providers have historical concerns regarding the association of IUD and infection; however, modern studies have shown their safety in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. Women with a history of solid-organ transplantation can be safely offered a wide range of contraceptive options to suit their individualized needs.

  3. Solid organ transplant patients experience high rates of infection and other complications after total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Klatt, Brian A; Steele, G Daxton; Fedorka, Catherine J; Sánchez, Alvaro I; Chen, Antonia F; Crossett, Lawrence S

    2013-06-01

    Survival after solid organ transplants in the United States is increasing, and there is a need to understand the complications in knee arthroplasty patients who underwent organ transplantation. A retrospective study was conducted from 1993-2008 on 19 patients (23 knee arthroplasties) with previous successful solid organ transplants. Eleven knee arthroplasties were performed after renal transplantation, and 12 after nonrenal solid organ transplant (seven liver, four heart, one lung). Complications occurred in 9/23 patients (39.1%) and infections occurred in 4/23 patients (17.3%). Of the infected knees, two had MRSA, one had MSSA, and one Escherichia coli. Noninfectious complications (5/24, 21.7%) include aseptic loosening, quadriceps rupture, femoral fracture, hemarthrosis, and arthrofibrosis. All patients with complications were on immunosuppressant medications at the time of arthroplasty. There was a significantly higher rate of infection in the renal group compared to the non-renal group (P = 0.022). There was also a higher overall complication rate in the renal group however this did not reach significance.

  4. Nonsurgical management of solid abdominal organ injury in patients over 55 years of age.

    PubMed

    Falimirski, M E; Provost, D

    2000-07-01

    Age greater than 55 is often stated to be a contraindication to nonoperative management of intraperitoneal solid organ injury, based upon failures in early experiences of nonoperative therapy. Refinements in the criteria for nonoperative management of hepatic and splenic injuries have yielded improved success rates compared with those in initial reports, raising questions as to the validity of an age-related contraindication. A retrospective chart review of patients more than 55 years of age sustaining blunt hepatic and/or splenic injury at two urban Level I trauma centers was performed. Patients were stratified into three groups in which selection criteria could not consistently be determined: those managed nonoperatively, those managed operatively, and those who died within 24 hours. The purpose of this review is to identify whether age is a determinant for nonoperative management of abdominal solid organ injury. Eighty-eight patients were identified (mean age, 68.7 +/- 9.8), 17 of whom died in the emergency department or after operative intervention. Of the remaining 71 patients, 37 were originally managed nonoperatively (mean age 69.9 +/- 9.1, mean Injury Severity Score 19.9), 24 sustained hepatic injuries (grades I-IV), 12 sustained splenic injuries (grades I-III), and one patient sustained both organ injuries. Three patients with multisystem trauma died from complications unrelated to their solid organ injury (one brain death, one septic death, and one respiratory arrest). A single patient, with a grade I liver injury, required delayed exploration (for a persistent, unexplained metabolic acidosis) and underwent a nontherapeutic celiotomy. All but one of the 37 patients were successfully treated nonoperatively, for a 97 per cent success rate. We conclude that hemodynamically stable patients more than 55 years of age sustaining intra-abdominal injury can be observed safely. Age alone should no longer be considered an exclusion criterion for nonoperative

  5. Modelling the degradation of endogenous residue and 'unbiodegradable' influent organic suspended solids to predict sludge production.

    PubMed

    Spérandio, Mathieu; Labelle, Marc-André; Ramdani, Abdellah; Gadbois, Alain; Paul, Etienne; Comeau, Yves; Dold, Peter L

    2013-01-01

    Activated sludge models have assumed that a portion of organic solids in municipal wastewater influent is unbiodegradable. Also, it is assumed that solids from biomass decay cannot be degraded further. The paper evaluates these assumptions based on data from systems operating at higher than typical sludge retention times (SRTs), including membrane bioreactor systems with total solids retention (no intentional sludge wastage). Data from over 30 references and with SRTs of up to 400 d were analysed. A modified model that considers the possible degradation of the two components is proposed. First order degradation rates of approximately 0.007 d(-1) for both components appear to improve sludge production estimates. Factors possibly influencing these degradation rates such as wastewater characteristics and bioavailability are discussed.

  6. Achieving dynamic behaviour and thermal expansion in the organic solid state via co-crystallization.

    PubMed

    Hutchins, Kristin M; Groeneman, Ryan H; Reinheimer, Eric W; Swenson, Dale C; MacGillivray, Leonard R

    2015-08-01

    Thermal expansion involves a response of a material to an external stimulus that typically involves an increase in a crystallographic axis (positive thermal expansion (PTE)), although shrinking with applied heat (negative thermal expansion (NTE)) is known in rarer cases. Here, we demonstrate a means to achieve dynamic molecular motion and thermal expansions in organic solids via co-crystallizations. One co-crystal component is known to exhibit dynamic behaviour in the solid state while the second, when varied systematically, affords co-crystals with linear thermal expansion coefficients that range from colossal to nearly zero. Two co-crystals exhibit rare NTE. We expect the approach to guide the design of molecular solids that enable predesigned motion related to thermal expansion processes.

  7. Regional Differences in Communication Process and Outcomes of Requests for Solid Organ Donation.

    PubMed

    Traino, H M; Molisani, A J; Siminoff, L A

    2016-12-16

    Although federal mandate prohibits the allocation of solid organs for transplantation based on "accidents of geography," geographic variation of transplantable organs is well documented. This study explores regional differences in communication in requests for organ donation. Administrative data from nine partnering organ procurement organizations and interview data from 1339 family decision makers (FDMs) were compared across eight geographically distinct US donor service areas (DSAs). Authorization for organ donation ranged from 60.4% to 98.1% across DSAs. FDMs from the three regions with the lowest authorization rates reported the lowest levels of satisfaction with the time spent discussing donation and with the request process, discussion of the least donation-related topics, the highest levels of pressure to donate, and the least comfort with the donation decision. Organ procurement organization region predicted authorization (odds ratios ranged from 8.14 to 0.24), as did time spent discussing donation (OR = 2.11), the number of donation-related topics discussed (OR = 1.14), and requesters' communication skill (OR = 1.14). Standardized training for organ donation request staff is needed to ensure the highest quality communication during requests, optimize rates of family authorization to donation in all regions, and increase the supply of organs available for transplantation.

  8. Emission of volatile organic compounds from solid waste disposal sites and importance of heat management.

    PubMed

    Urase, Taro; Okumura, Hiroyuki; Panyosaranya, Samerjai; Inamura, Akihiro

    2008-12-01

    The emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from a solid waste disposal site for municipal solid wastes was quantified. The VOCs contained in the landfill gas taken at the site were benzene, toluene, xylenes, ethyl benzenes, and trimethyl benzenes, while the concentrations of chlorinated compounds were very low. The concentration of benzene in the landfill gas samples ranged from below the detection limit to 20 mg m(-3), and the ratio of benzene to toluene ranged from 0.2 to 8. The higher concentrations of VOCs in landfill gas and in leachates were observed with the samples taken at high temperature areas of the target site. Polystyrene plastic waste was identified as one of the sources of VOCs in solid waste disposal sites at a high temperature condition. The appropriate heat management in landfill sites is an important countermeasure to avoid unusually high emission of VOCs because the heat generated by the biodegradation of organic solid wastes may promote the release of VOCs, especially in the case of sites which receive both biodegradable and plastic wastes.

  9. Energy recovery from organic fractions of municipal solid waste: A case study of Hyderabad city, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Safar, Korai M; Bux, Mahar R; Aslam, Uqaili M; Ahmed, Memon S; Ahmed, Lashari I

    2016-04-01

    Non-renewable energy sources have remained the choice of the world for centuries. Rapid growth in population and industrialisation have caused their shortage and environmental degradation by using them. Thus, at the present rate of consumption, they will not last very long. In this prospective, this study has been conducted. The estimation of energy in terms of biogas and heat from various organic fractions of municipal solid waste is presented and discussed. The results show that organic fractions of municipal solid waste possess methane potential in the range of 3%-22% and their heat capacity ranges from 3007 to 20,099 kJ kg(-1) Also, theoretical biogas potential of different individual fruit as well as vegetable components and mixed food waste are analysed and estimated in the range of 608-1244 m(3) t(-1) Further, the share of bioenergy from municipal solid waste in the total primary energy supply in Pakistan has been estimated to be 1.82%. About 8.43% of present energy demand of the country could be met from municipal solid waste. The study leads us to the conclusion that the share of imported energy (i.e. 0.1% of total energy supply) and reduction in the amount of energy from fossil fuels can be achieved by adopting a waste-to-energy system in the country.

  10. Preconditioning, postconditioning, and remote conditioning in solid organ transplantation: basic mechanisms and translational applications.

    PubMed

    Selzner, Nazia; Boehnert, Markus; Selzner, Markus

    2012-04-01

    Ischemia and reperfusion (I/Rp) injury is inherent to solid organ transplantation and can result in primary nonfunction or delayed function of grafts, which is associated with a significant morbidity and mortality posttransplantation. It is also a major obstacle for the use of marginal grafts to increase the donor pool, as these grafts are prone to a higher degree of I/Rp injury. Pre-, post-, and remote conditioning are protective strategies against I/Rp injury, which can be applied in the transplant setting. These strategies hold the potential to reduce graft injury and to safely expand the donor pool. However, despite convincing experimental data, the protective effects of the "conditioning" protocols remain unclear, and only few have translated to clinical practice. This review summarizes pre-, post-, and remote conditioning strategies in clinical use in solid organ transplantation and discusses an overview of the mechanistic pathways involved in each strategy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Impact of Participation on a Solid Organ Transplant Team on Student Pharmacists’ Perceptions of Interprofessional Roles

    PubMed Central

    Bray, Brenda S.; Woodard, Lisa J.; Barbosa-Leiker, Celestina; Hardinger, Karen L.; Wu, Vivian; Hayney, Mary S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To examine student pharmacists’ perceptions of interprofessional roles before and after completing an advanced pharmacy practice experience on solid organ transplantation. Methods. Student pharmacists across the United States participating in an APPE on a solid organ transplant team completed an online pre- and post-APPE survey instrument examining perceptions of interprofessional roles, communication, and teamwork. Results. Student pharmacists’ scores on interprofessionalism increased significantly on 17 of 22 items. Positive changes were seen in the interprofessional education core competency areas of roles and responsibilities, interprofessional communication, and teams and teamwork. Conclusion. Student pharmacist participation in interprofessional clinical APPEs can positively influence their professional development as they prepare to become members of multi-disciplinary teams in the healthcare workforce. PMID:23716742

  12. Hydrothermal carbonization of off-specification compost: a byproduct of the organic municipal solid waste treatment.

    PubMed

    Basso, Daniele; Weiss-Hortala, Elsa; Patuzzi, Francesco; Castello, Daniele; Baratieri, Marco; Fiori, Luca

    2015-04-01

    The possibility to apply the hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) process to off-specification compost (EWC 19.05.03) at present landfilled was investigated in this work. The aim was to produce a carbonaceous solid fuel for energy valorization, with the perspective of using HTC as a complementary technology to common organic waste treatments. Thus, samples of EWC 19.05.03 produced by a composting plant were processed through HTC in a batch reactor. Analytical activities allowed to characterize the HTC products and their yields. The hydrochar was characterized in terms of heating value, thermal stability and C, H, O, N, S and ash content. The liquid phase was characterized in terms of total organic carbon and mineral content. The composition of the gas phase was measured. Results show that the produced hydrochar has a great potentiality for use as solid fuel.

  13. Management of cytomegalovirus infection in solid organ transplant recipients: SET/GESITRA-SEIMC/REIPI recommendations.

    PubMed

    Torre-Cisneros, J; Aguado, J M; Caston, J J; Almenar, L; Alonso, A; Cantisán, S; Carratalá, J; Cervera, C; Cordero, E; Fariñas, M C; Fernández-Ruiz, M; Fortún, J; Frauca, E; Gavaldá, J; Hernández, D; Herrero, I; Len, O; Lopez-Medrano, F; Manito, N; Marcos, M A; Martín-Dávila, P; Monforte, V; Montejo, M; Moreno, A; Muñoz, P; Navarro, D; Pérez-Romero, P; Rodriguez-Bernot, A; Rumbao, J; San Juan, R; Vaquero, J M; Vidal, E

    2016-07-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection remains a major complication of solid organ transplantation. Because of management of CMV is variable among transplant centers, in 2011 the Spanish Transplantation Infection Study Group (GESITRA) of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC) developed consensus guidelines for the prevention and treatment of CMV infection in solid organ transplant recipients. Since then, new publications have clarified or questioned the aspects covered in the previous document. For that reason, a panel of experts revised the evidence on CMV management, including immunological monitoring, diagnostics, prevention, vaccines, indirect effects, treatment, drug resistance, immunotherapy, investigational drugs, and pediatric issues. This document summarizes the recommendations. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. A closed loop for municipal organic solid waste by lactic acid fermentation.

    PubMed

    Probst, Maraike; Walde, Janette; Pümpel, Thomas; Wagner, Andreas Otto; Insam, Heribert

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the feasibility of producing lactic acid from municipal organic solid waste different pH values (4-7) and temperatures (37°C and 55°C) were tested. For the evaluation of fermentation conditions the chemical, physical, and microbial characters were monitored over a period of 7days. Quantitative real time PCR, PCR-DGGE, and next generation sequencing of a 16S rRNA gene library were applied to identify the key players of the lactic acid production and their association. Lactobacillus acidophilus and its closest relatives were found to be efficient lactic acid producers (>300mM) under most suitable fermentation conditions tested in this study: 37°C with either uncontrolled pH or at a pH of 5. These data provide the first step in the realization of the idea "reuse, reduce, and recycle" of municipal organic solid waste.

  15. Solid organ transplant recipients: clinical considerations in the application of exercise.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, K-J L; McKenzie, D C; Yoshida, E M

    2015-01-01

    Over 100 000 solid organ transplants are performed worldwide each year and this has a significant impact on physical function and quality of life. However, the capacity for exercise in solid-organ recipients is reduced. Regular physical activity improves most of the indices of fitness in these patients but, with few exceptions, they do not reach the values seen in healthy controls. The reason for the 40-60% reduction in maximal exercise capacity is not clear; the disease process, need for life long immunosuppression and sedentary lifestyle all contribute. The interaction between exercise and immunosuppressing medication merits research as does the specifics of the exercise prescription for these patients. This paper reviews important features of this rapidly expanding group of patients and suggests clinical considerations in the application of exercise in this population.

  16. Transition from Hospital to Home Following Pediatric Solid Organ Transplant: Qualitative Findings of Parent Experience

    PubMed Central

    Lerret, Stacee M.; Weiss, Marianne E; Stendahl, Gail; Chapman, Shelley; Neighbors, Katie; Amsden, Katie; Lokar, Joan; Voit, Ashley; Menendez, Jerome; Alonso, Estella M

    2014-01-01

    Transplant providers are challenged to determine appropriate interventions for patients and families due to limited published research regarding the context of the post-discharge experience from the perspective of parents of transplanted children. The purpose of this study is to describe the parent perspective of the transition from hospital to home following their child’s solid organ transplant. Within a mixed-methods design, 37 parents of pediatric heart, kidney and liver transplant recipients from three pediatric hospitals responded to qualitative interview questions on the day of hospital discharge and three weeks following hospital discharge. Insight to the discharge preparation process revealed necessary education components. Post-discharge themes were identified for coping, knowledge and adherence. The parents’ responses provide awareness as to specific stressors and concerns parents are faced with when their child is discharged from the hospital after solid organ transplant and opportunities for ways the transplant team can provide support. PMID:24814154

  17. Rhodium-Organic Cuboctahedra as Porous Solids with Strong Binding Sites.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Shuhei; Horike, Nao; Kondo, Mio; Hijikata, Yuh; Carné-Sánchez, Arnau; Larpent, Patrick; Louvain, Nicolas; Diring, Stéphane; Sato, Hiroshi; Matsuda, Ryotaro; Kawano, Ryuji; Kitagawa, Susumu

    2016-11-07

    The upbuilding of dirhodium tetracarboxylate paddlewheels into porous architectures is still challenging because of the inertness of equatorial carboxylates for ligand-exchange reaction. Here we demonstrate the synthesis of a new family of metal-organic cuboctahedra by connecting dirhodium units through 1,3-benzenedicarboxylate and assembling cuboctahedra as porous solids. Carbon monoxide and nitric oxide were strongly trapped in the internal cavity thanks to the strong affinity of unsaturated axial coordination sites of dirhodium centers.

  18. Use of hematopoietic cell transplants to achieve tolerance in patients with solid organ transplants.

    PubMed

    Strober, Samuel

    2016-03-24

    The goals of tolerance in patients with solid organ transplants are to eliminate the lifelong need for immunosuppressive (IS) drugs and to prevent graft loss due to rejection or drug toxicity. Tolerance with complete withdrawal of IS drugs has been achieved in recipients of HLA-matched and mismatched living donor kidney transplants in 3 medical centers using hematopoietic cell transplants to establish mixed or complete chimerism. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  19. Use of hematopoietic cell transplants to achieve tolerance in patients with solid organ transplants

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The goals of tolerance in patients with solid organ transplants are to eliminate the lifelong need for immunosuppressive (IS) drugs and to prevent graft loss due to rejection or drug toxicity. Tolerance with complete withdrawal of IS drugs has been achieved in recipients of HLA-matched and mismatched living donor kidney transplants in 3 medical centers using hematopoietic cell transplants to establish mixed or complete chimerism. PMID:26796362

  20. Complicated Outcomes After Emergent Lower Extremity Surgery in Patients With Solid Organ Transplants.

    PubMed

    Reid, Alexander T; Perdue, Aaron; Goulet, James A; Robbins, Christopher B; Pour, Aidin Eslam

    2016-11-01

    The complications of emergent or urgent surgery in solid organ transplant recipients are unclear. The goal of this nonrandomized retrospective case study, conducted at a large public university teaching hospital, was to determine the following: (1) 90-day postsurgical complications in solid organ transplant recipients who undergo fracture surgery of the lower extremities; (2) 90-day and 1-year mortality rates for this cohort; (3) correlation of particular postsurgical complications with the 90-day or 1-year mortality rate; and (4) correlation of body mass index with the 90-day or 1-year mortality rate. Subjects included 36 solid organ transplant recipients who underwent surgical treatment for 37 emergent or urgent lower extremity fractures within 72 hours of presentation to the emergency department. Patients were followed for all medical and surgical complications for 90 days and for all-cause mortality for 1 year. Within 90 days of surgery, patients had complications that included acute renal failure (15, 40.5%), deep venous thrombosis (3, 8.1%), pulmonary embolus (2, 5.4%), pneumonia (7, 18.9%), superficial surgical site infection (3, 8.1%), and nonorthopedic sepsis (4, 10.8%). In addition, 3 (8.1%) and 5 (13.9%) patients died within 90 days and 1 year, respectively. Hospital readmission correlated with a higher 1-year mortality rate (odds ratio, 14.000; P=.016). Higher body mass index correlated with higher 90-day (odds ratio, 1.425; P=.035) and 1-year (odds ratio, 1.334; P=.033) mortality rates. Solid organ transplant recipients with lower extremity fracture have high 90-day and 1-year mortality rates and may have multiple complications within 90 days of treatment. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(6):e1063-e1069.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  1. Opportunistic Pulmonary Infections in the Solid Organ Transplant Recipient: A Focus on Drug Therapy.

    PubMed

    Goetz, Megan E; Evans, Rickey A; Rendulic, TrisAnn

    Immunosuppression required to prevent allograft rejection in the solid organ transplant recipient increases vulnerability to infections. Given continuous environmental exposure, the lungs are increasingly susceptible to bacterial, viral, and fungal opportunistic infections. Drug therapy options for the treatment of opportunistic pulmonary infections are used infrequently. These medications are often classified as high risk with specific administration instructions, as well as a multitude of toxicities. Therefore, in this article, we will discuss select pulmonary opportunistic infections and their associated drug therapies.

  2. Tuberculosis of the central nervous system in immunocompromised patients: HIV infection and solid organ transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Christina A; Zunt, Joseph R

    2011-11-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) tuberculosis (TB) is a devastating infection with high rates of morbidity and mortality worldwide and may manifest as meningitis, tuberculoma, abscess, or other forms of disease. Immunosuppression, due to either human immunodeficiency virus infection or solid organ transplantation, increases susceptibility for acquiring or reactivating TB and complicates the management of underlying immunosuppression and CNS TB infection. This article reviews how immunosuppression alters the clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of TB infections of the CNS.

  3. Tuberculosis of the Central Nervous System in Immunocompromised Patients: HIV Infection and Solid Organ Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Christina A.

    2011-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) tuberculosis (TB) is a devastating infection with high rates of morbidity and mortality worldwide and may manifest as meningitis, tuberculoma, abscess, or other forms of disease. Immunosuppression, due to either human immunodeficiency virus infection or solid organ transplantation, increases susceptibility for acquiring or reactivating TB and complicates the management of underlying immunosuppression and CNS TB infection. This article reviews how immunosuppression alters the clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of TB infections of the CNS. PMID:21960714

  4. Gas-induced solid state transformation of an organic lattice: from nonporous to nanoporous

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Jian; Thallapally, Praveen K.; Liu, Jun; Exarhos, Gregory J.; Atwood, Jerry L.

    2011-01-14

    A well-known organic host, tris-o-phenylenedioxycyclotriphosphazene, exists in two polymorphic guest-free forms: the thermodynamic nonporous high-density phase and the kinetic porous low-density phase. Simple pressurization of the high density phase with CO2 brings a solid-state transformation to the low density phase. As a consequence, the crystal volume expands significantly by 23% with conformational change of the host molecules from Cs symmetry to D3h symmetry.

  5. Anaerobic co-digestion of solid waste: Effect of increasing organic loading rates and characterization of the solubilised organic matter.

    PubMed

    Ganesh, Rangaraj; Torrijos, Michel; Sousbie, Philippe; Steyer, Jean Philippe; Lugardon, Aurelien; Delgenes, Jean Philippe

    2013-02-01

    The impact of stepwise increase in OLR (up to 7.5kgVS/m(3)d) on methane production, reactor performance and solubilised organic matter production in a high-loading reactor were investigated. A reference reactor operated at low OLR (<2.0kgVS/m(3)d) was used solely to observe the methane potential of the feed substrate. Specific methane yield was 0.33lCH(4)/gVS at the lowest OLR and dropped by about 20% at the maximum OLR, while volumetric methane production increased from 0.35 to 1.38m(3)CH(4)/m(3)d. At higher loadings, solids hydrolysis was affected, with consequent transfer of poorly-degraded organic material into the drain solids. Biodegradability and size-fractionation of the solubilised COD were characterized to evaluate the possibility of a second stage liquid reactor. Only 18% of the organics were truly soluble (<1kD). The rest were in colloidal and very fine particulate form which originated from grass and cow manure and were non-biodegradable. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. 16 CFR 0.2 - Official address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Official address. 0.2 Section 0.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.2... 20580, unless otherwise specifically directed. The Commission's Web site address is www.ftc.gov....

  7. Free tissue transfer for head and neck reconstruction in solid organ transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Miller, Matthew W; Dean, Nichole R; Cannady, Steven B; Rosenthal, Eben L; Wax, Mark K

    2012-08-01

    Patients with head and neck malignancies who have had solid organ transplant and require free tissue transfer are a unique population. This study was performed to evaluate the effect of immunosuppression on the rate of perioperative complications and the success of free tissue transfer in the head and neck. Complications in solid organ transplant patients undergoing free tissue transfer for reconstruction of head and neck malignancies from 1998 to 2010 were evaluated. A total of 22 flaps in 17 patients were performed. Eight patients (11 of 22 flaps) had complications. The median hospital stay was 6 days (range, 4-26 days). The median length of follow-up was 13.5 months (range, 3.5-49.9 months). Solid organ transplant patients are at an increased risk of de novo malignancies due to chronic immunosuppression. This study demonstrates that free tissue transfer is a viable option in transplant patients with morbidity similar to nontransplant patients. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Does complete resection of melanoma metastatic to solid intra-abdominal organs improve survival?

    PubMed

    Wood, T F; DiFronzo, L A; Rose, D M; Haigh, P I; Stern, S L; Wanek, L; Essner, R; Morton, D L

    2001-09-01

    Patients with distant melanoma metastases have median survivals of 4 to 8 months. Previous studies have demonstrated improved survival after complete resection of pulmonary and hollow viscus gastrointestinal metastases. We hypothesized that patients with metastatic disease to intra-abdominal solid organs might also benefit from complete surgical resection. A prospectively acquired database identified patients treated for melanoma metastatic to the liver, pancreas, spleen, adrenal glands, or a combination of these from 1971 to 2000. The primary intervention was complete or incomplete surgical resection of intra-abdominal solid-organ metastases, and the main outcome measure was postoperative overall survival (OS). Disease-free survival (DFS) was a secondary outcome measure. Sixty patients underwent adrenalectomy, hepatectomy, splenectomy, or pancreatectomy. Median OS was significantly improved after complete versus incomplete resections, but median OS after complete resection was not significantly different for single-site versus synchronous multisite metastases. The 5-year survival in the group after complete resection was 24%, whereas in the incomplete resection group, there were no 5-year survivors. Median DFS after complete resection was 15 months. Of note, the 2-year DFS after complete resection was 53% for synchronous multi-site metastases versus 26% for single-site metastases. In highly selected patients with melanoma metastatic to intra-abdominal solid organs, aggressive attempts at complete surgical resection may improve OS. It is important that the number of metastatic sites does not seem to affect the OS after complete resection.

  9. Acute epidural-like appearance of an encapsulated solid non-organized chronic subdural hematoma.

    PubMed

    Prieto, Ruth; Pascual, José M; Subhi-Issa, Issa; Yus, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    We report the exceptional case of an encapsulated solid non-organized chronic subdural hematoma (SDH) in a 67-year-old woman that was admitted with acute hemiplegia followed by rapid deterioration in consciousness 5 months after a minor head trauma. Computed tomography (CT) showed an extracerebral biconvex shaped hyperdense mass that led to the misdiagnosis of an acute epidural hematoma. Urgent craniotomy revealed an encapsulated mass filled with solid fresh clot in the subdural space. Complete evacuation of this SDH, including both its inner and outer membranes, was achieved, and the patient recovered successfully. Histological analysis confirmed that the content of the hematoma corresponded to a newly formed clot that was enclosed between an inner membrane, composed of two collagen layers, and an outer membrane with a three layered structure. Chronic SDH may seldom present as an encapsulated solid non-organized lesion that consists of a fibrous capsule enclosing a fresh clot and lacking the thick fibrous septations that typically connect the inner and outer membranes of organized chronic SDH. This entity mimics the clinical course and radiological appearance of acute epidural hematomas and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of extracerebral hyperdense biconvex shaped lesions.

  10. Belatacept As an Alternative to Calcineurin Inhibitors in Patients with Solid Organ Transplants.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dhiren; LeCorchick, Spencer; Gupta, Gaurav

    2017-01-01

    The goal of immunosuppression in transplantation has shifted to improving long-term outcomes, reducing drug-induced toxicities while preserving the already excellent short-term outcomes. Long-term gains in solid organ transplantation have been limited at least partly due to the nephrotoxicity and metabolic side effects of calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs). The alloimmune response requires activation of the costimulatory pathway for T cell proliferation and amplification. Belatacept is a molecule that selectively blocks T cell costimulation. In June 2011, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved it for maintenance immunosuppression in kidney transplantation based on two open-label, randomized, phase III trials. Since its introduction, belatacept has shown promise in both short- and long-term renal transplant outcomes in several other trials. It exhibits a superior side effect profile compared to CNIs with a comparable efficacy. Across all solid organ transplants, the burden of chronic kidney disease, its associated cardiovascular morbidity, mortality, and inferior patient/allograft survival is a well-documented problem. In this review, we aim to discuss the evidence behind the use of belatacept in solid organ transplants as an effective alternative to CNIs for renal rescue in patients with acute and/or chronic kidney injury.

  11. The Impact of Repeated Mismatches in Kidney Transplantations Performed After Non-Renal Solid Organ Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Côté, J M; Zhang, X; Dahhou, M; Sapir-Picchadze, R; Foster, B; Cardinal, H

    2017-09-11

    The aim of this study was to determine whether kidney transplantations performed after previous non-renal solid organ transplants are associated with worse graft survival when there are repeated HLA mismatches (RMM) with the previous donor(s). We performed a retrospective cohort study using data from the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients. Our cohort comprised 6, 624 kidney transplantations performed between January 1(st) 1990 and January 1(st) , 2015. All patients had previously received one or more non-renal solid organ transplants. RMM were observed in 35.3% of kidney transplantations and 3, 012 grafts were lost over a median follow-up of 5.4 years. In multivariate Cox regression analyses, we found no association between overall graft survival and either RMM in class 1 (hazard ratio (HR): 0.97, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.89-1.07) or class 2 (HR: 0.95, 95% CI 0.85- 1.06). Results were similar for the associations between RMM, death-censored graft survival and patient survival. Our results suggest that the presence of RMM with previous donor(s) does not have an important impact on allograft survival in kidney transplant recipients who have previously received a non-renal solid organ transplant. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Long-term dietary habits and interventions in solid-organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Zeltzer, Stuart M; Taylor, David O; Tang, W H Wilson

    2015-11-01

    Diet and nutrition are moving to the forefront of modern primary and preventive care to help address the rising burden of chronic diseases among the general population. Such a movement has yet to occur formally across the field of transplantation. We therefore looked to establish the current base of knowledge regarding diet, nutrition and solid-organ transplantation. A limited number of focused studies looking into the dietary habits of solid-organ transplant patients have been performed and many of the available studies have detailed the nutritional status in the peri-operative period. Frequently described, however, is the heavy incidence of metabolic abnormalities, such as obesity, dyslipidemia and diabetes, occurring after solid-organ transplantation. Optimistically, several studies have noted improvement in several metabolic abnormalities with the use of dietary interventions in the post-transplant period. Despite these positive results, few consensus guidelines for post-transplant diet have been established and nutritional support among transplant programs remains limited. Although there are many hurdles to implementation of detailed dietary recommendations and nutritional support for transplant patients, creating such programs and guidelines could dramatically impact long-term outcomes and burden of chronic metabolic disease for transplant recipients.

  13. Voriconazole-Induced Periostitis & Enthesopathy in Solid Organ Transplant Patients: Case Reports

    PubMed Central

    Sircar, Monica; Kotton, Camille; Wojciechowski, David; Safa, Kassem; Gilligan, Hannah; Heher, Eliot; Williams, Winfred; Thadhani, Ravi; Tolkoff-Rubin, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Background Voriconazole is frequently used to treat fungal infections in solid organ transplant patients. Recently, there have been reports suggesting that prolonged voriconazole therapy may lead to periostitis. Aim Here we present two cases of voriconazole-induced periostitis in solid organ transplant patients. Case Presentation Voriconazole was given to two transplant patients-one with a liver transplant and the second with a heart transplant, to treat their fungal infections. Both developed voriconazole-induced toxicity. While undergoing voriconazole therapy, they had incapacitating bone pain. The liver transplant patient had to be taken off voriconazole, and the heart transplant patient succumbed to non-voriconazole related causes. Conclusions Voriconazole therapy in two solid organ transplant patients resulted in periostitis. We provide potential etiologies underlying voriconazole-induced periostitis, including fluoride toxicity, abnormalities in the pulmonary vascular bed leading to the production of downstream inflammatory mediators, and abnormal pharmacokinetics of hepatic drug metabolism. In addition to monitoring blood voriconazole trough levels, we suggest careful assessment for musculoskeletal pain in patients undergoing voriconazole treatment for two months or more, particularly if their daily dosages of voriconazole exceed 500 mg per day. Appropriate workup should include measurement of alkaline phosphatase, voriconazole trough and fluoride levels as well as a bone scan. Overall, early recognition of voriconazole-induced musculoskeletal toxicity is important for better morbidity outcomes. PMID:27990445

  14. Long-term Dietary Habits and Interventions in Solid Organ Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Zeltzer, Stuart M.; Taylor, David O.; Wilson Tang, W. H.

    2015-01-01

    Diet and nutrition are moving to the forefront of modern primary and preventative care to help address the rising burden of chronic diseases amongst the general population. Such a movement has yet to occur formally across the field of transplantation. We therefore looked to establish the current base of knowledge regarding diet, nutrition and solid organ transplantation. A limited number of focused studies looking into the dietary habits of solid organ transplant patients have been performed and many of the available studies detail the nutritional status in the perioperative period. Frequently described, however, is the heavy incidence of metabolic abnormalities such as obesity, dyslipidemia and diabetes that occurs following solid organ transplantation. Optimistically, several studies noted improvement in several metabolic abnormalities with the use of dietary interventions in the posttransplant period. Despite these positive results, few consensus guidelines for posttransplant diet have been established and nutritional support amongst transplant programs remains limited. While there are many hurdles to implementation of detailed dietary recommendations and nutritional support for transplant patients, creating such programs and guidelines could dramatically impact long-term outcomes and burden of chronic metabolic disease for transplant recipients. PMID:26250965

  15. Antibody-mediated rejection across solid organ transplants: manifestations, mechanisms, and therapies.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela, Nicole M; Reed, Elaine F

    2017-06-30

    Solid organ transplantation is a curative therapy for hundreds of thousands of patients with end-stage organ failure. However, long-term outcomes have not improved, and nearly half of transplant recipients will lose their allografts by 10 years after transplant. One of the major challenges facing clinical transplantation is antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) caused by anti-donor HLA antibodies. AMR is highly associated with graft loss, but unfortunately there are few efficacious therapies to prevent and reverse AMR. This Review describes the clinical and histological manifestations of AMR, and discusses the immunopathological mechanisms contributing to antibody-mediated allograft injury as well as current and emerging therapies.

  16. Solid-state enzyme deactivation in air and in organic solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Toscano, G.; Pirozzi, D.; Maremonti, M.; Greco, G. Jr. . Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica)

    1994-09-05

    Thermal deactivation of solid-state acid phosphatase is analyzed, both in the presence and in the absence of organic solvents. The thermal deactivation profile departs from first order kinetics and shows an unusual, temperature-dependent, asymptotic value of residual activity. The process is described by a phenomenological equation, whose theoretical implications are also discussed. The total amount of buffer salts in the enzyme powder dramatically affects enzyme stability in the range 70 to 105 C. The higher salt/protein ratio increases the rate of thermal deactivation. The deactivation rate is virtually unaffected by the presence of organic solvents, independent of their hydrophilicity.

  17. Two-Step Enzymatic Modification of Solid-Supported Bergenin in Aqueous and Organic Media

    PubMed Central

    Akbar, Umar; Shin, Dong-Sik; Schneider, Elizabeth; Dordick, Jonathan S.; Clark, Douglas S.

    2010-01-01

    The natural flavonoid bergenin was directly immobilized onto carboxylic acid functionalized controlled pore glass (carboxy-CPG) at 95% yield. Immobilized bergenin was brominated via chloroperoxidase in aqueous solution and then transesterified with vinyl butyrate in diisopropyl ether by subtilisin carslberg (SC) extracted into the organic solvent via ion pairing. Enzymatic cleavage of 7-bromo-4-butyrylbergenin from carboxy-CPG (9.6% final yield) was accomplished using lipase B (LipB) in an aqueous/organic mixture (90/10 v/v of water/acetonitrile), demonstrating the feasibility of solid phase biocatalysis of a natural product in aqueous and non-aqueous media. PMID:20174610

  18. Gas-Induced Transformation and Expansion of a Non-Porous Organic Solid

    SciTech Connect

    Thallapally, Praveen K.; McGrail, B. Peter; Dalgarno, Scott J.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Tian, Jian; Atwood, Jerry L.

    2008-02-01

    At high pressure and temperature, it is possible to transform the high density thermodynamic form of a well known organic host (p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene) to the low density kinetic form and vice versa. This transformation involves converting a material that is effectively inactive with respect to gas sorption, into the form that has large lattice voids and that is sorptive under normal experimental conditions, despite the high density form being devoid of channels or porosity. Remarkably, particular gas molecules appear to diffuse through the solid into small lattice voids, and effect the transformation to the low density kinetic form, which involves significant expansion of the crystalline organic lattice.

  19. Literature survey and documentation on organic solid deposition problem. Status report

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Ting-Horng

    1993-12-01

    Organic solid deposition is often a major problem in petroleum production and processing. Recently, this problem has attracted more attention because operating costs have become more critical to the profit of oil production. Also, in miscible gas flooding, asphaltene deposition often occurs in the wellbore region after gas breakthrough and causes plugging. The organic deposition problem is particularly serious in offshore oil production. Cooling of crude oil when it flows through long-distance pipelines under sea water may cause organic deposition in the pipeline and result in plugging. NIPER`s Gas EOR Research Project has been devoted to the study of the organic solid deposition problem for three years. NIPER has received many requests for technical support. Recently, the DeepStar project committee on thermo-technology development and standardization has asked NIPER to provide them with NIPER`s expertise and experience. To assist the oil industry, NIPER is preparing a state-of-the-art review on the technical development for the organic deposition problem. In the first quarter, this project has completed a literature survey and documentation. total of 258 publications (114 for wax, 124 for asphaltene, and 20 for related subjects) were collected and categorized. This literature survey was focused on the two subjects: wax and asphaltene. The subjects of bitumen, asphalt, and heavy oil are not included. Also, the collected publications are mostly related to production problems.

  20. Regulatory T cells: first steps of clinical application in solid organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    van der Net, Jeroen B; Bushell, Andrew; Wood, Kathryn J; Harden, Paul N

    2016-01-01

    Solid organ transplantation is the treatment of choice for patients with end-stage organ failure. To prevent rejection of the transplanted organ continuous treatment with immunosuppressive medication is needed. Immunosuppression may be harmful to the transplant recipient, increasing the risk of cancer, infections and cardiovascular disease. To improve transplant and patient survival, there is a need for an immune-modulatory regimen that is not only potent in preventing rejection of the transplanted organ, but has less side effects compared to current immunosuppressive regimens. Increasingly, transplantation research focusses on regulatory T cell (Treg) therapy to achieve this aim, in which Treg are used as a strategy to allow reduction of immunosuppression. Currently, the first clinical trials are underway investigating the safety and feasibility of Treg therapy in renal transplantation. This review gives an overview of the rationale of using Treg therapy in transplantation, previous experience with Treg therapy in humans, and the expected safety, potential efficacy and cost-effectiveness of Treg therapy in solid organ transplantation.

  1. Aqueous liquid feed organic fuel cell using solid polymer electrolyte membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surampudi, Subbarao (Inventor); Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Vamos, Eugene (Inventor); Frank, Harvey A. (Inventor); Halpert, Gerald (Inventor); Olah, George A. (Inventor); Prakash, G. K. Surya (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A liquid organic fuel cell is provided which employs a solid electrolyte membrane. An organic fuel, such as a methanol/water mixture, is circulated past an anode of a cell while oxygen or air is circulated past a cathode of the cell. The cell solid electrolyte membrane is preferably fabricated from Nafion.TM.. Additionally, a method for improving the performance of carbon electrode structures for use in organic fuel cells is provided wherein a high surface-area carbon particle/Teflon.TM.-binder structure is immersed within a Nafion.TM./methanol bath to impregnate the electrode with Nafion.TM.. A method for fabricating an anode for use in a organic fuel cell is described wherein metal alloys are deposited onto the electrode in an electro-deposition solution containing perfluorooctanesulfonic acid. A fuel additive containing perfluorooctanesulfonic acid for use with fuel cells employing a sulfuric acid electrolyte is also disclosed. New organic fuels, namely, trimethoxymethane, dimethoxymethane, and trioxane are also described for use with either conventional or improved fuel cells.

  2. Municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash: Characterization and kinetic studies of organic matter

    SciTech Connect

    Dugenest, S.; Casabianca, H.; Grenier-Loustalot, M.F.; Combrisson, J.

    1999-04-01

    Bottom ash is the main solid residue which is produced by municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) facilities. To be reused in public works, it has to be stored previously a few months. This material is composed primarily of a mineral matrix but also contains unburnt organic matter. The mineral content and its change in the course of aging are relatively well-known, in contrast with the organic content. So in order to detect the phenomena responsible for changes in organic matter and their effects during aging, the concentrations of the main organic compounds previously characterized, the number of microorganisms, and the release of carbon dioxide were followed kinetically in model laboratory conditions. The results showed that the aging process led to the natural biodegradation of the organic matter available in bottom ash, composed essentially of carboxylic acids and n-alkanes (steroids and PAH`s to a lesser extent), and consequently that it would improve the bottom ash quality. Furthermore these results were confirmed by the study of aging conducted in conditions used in the industrial scale.

  3. Thermal effects in thin-film organic solid-state lasers.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhuang; Mhibik, Oussama; Leang, Tatiana; Forget, Sébastien; Chénais, Sébastien

    2014-12-01

    With the recent development of organic solid-state lasers (OSSLs) architectures enabling power scaling and progresses towards continuous-wave operation, the question of thermal effects now arises in OSSLs. In this paper, a Rhodamine 640-PMMA based vertical external cavity surface emitting organic laser is investigated. A thermal microscope is used to record temperature maps at the organic thin film surface during laser action; those maps are compared with time-resolved finite element thermal simulations. The measured and simulated peak temperature rises are in good accordance and are shown to remain below 10 K in standard operating conditions, showing a negligible impact on performance. The validated model is used to investigate typical OSSL structures from the literature, in a virtual high average power regime, and up to the CW regime. It is shown that whenever true CW organic lasing will be realized, significant thermal effects will have to be considered and properly managed.

  4. Organic and Hybrid Organic Solid-State Photovoltaic Materials and Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-19

    hybrids have potential applications in solar cells and may thus provide mobile energy sources for aircraft and soldier technologies. Modeling and...modeling and simulation developed in this project are encouraging further development. 2. Technical Activities Hybrid organic solar cells are an...between surface-modified semiconducting nanoparticles and polymers often contributes to the limited efficiency of hybrid photovoltaic cells and

  5. Blunt abdominal trauma: does the use of a second-generation sonographic contrast agent help to detect solid organ injuries?

    PubMed

    Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre; Platon, Alexandra; Becker, Christoph D; Mentha, Gilles; Vermeulen, Bernard; Buhler, Léo H; Terrier, François

    2004-11-01

    The objective of our study was to prospectively evaluate whether a second-generation sonography contrast agent (SonoVue) can improve the conspicuity of solid organ injuries (liver; spleen; or kidney, including adrenal glands) in patients with blunt abdominal trauma. Two hundred ten consecutive hemodynamically stable trauma patients underwent both abdominal sonography and CT at admission. The presence of solid organ injuries and the quality of sonography examinations were recorded. Patients with false-negative sonography findings for solid organ injuries in comparison with CT results underwent control sonography. If a solid organ injury was still undetectable, contrast-enhanced sonography was performed. Findings of admission, control, and contrast-enhanced sonograms were compared with CT results for their ability to depict solid organ injuries. Contrast-enhanced sonography was also performed in patients in whom a vascular injury (pseudoaneurysm) was shown on admission or control CT. CT findings were positive for 88 solid organ injuries in 71 (34%) of the 210 patients. Admission, control, and contrast-enhanced sonograms had a detection rate for solid organ injury of 40% (35/88), 57% (50/88), and 80% (70/88), respectively. The improvement in the detection rate between control and contrast-enhanced sonography was statistically significant (p = 0.001). After exclusion of low-quality examinations, contrast-enhanced sonography still missed 18% of solid organ injuries. Five vascular liver (n = 1) and spleen (n = 4) injuries (pseudoaneurysms) were detected on CT; all were visible on contrast-enhanced sonography. Contrast-enhanced sonography misses a large percentage of solid organ injuries and cannot be recommended to replace CT in the triage of hemodynamically stable trauma patients. However, contrast-enhanced sonography could play a role in the detection of pseudoaneurysms.

  6. Advanced solid-state carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic studies of sewage sludge organic matter: detection of organic "domains".

    PubMed

    Smernik, Ronald J; Oliver, Ian W; Merrington, Graham

    2003-01-01

    Two novel solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic techniques, PSRE (proton spin relaxation editing) and RESTORE [Restoration of Spectra via T(CH) and T(1rho)H (T One Rho H) Editing], were used to provide detailed chemical characterization of the organic matter from six Australian sewage sludges. These methods were used to probe the submicrometer heterogeneity of sludge organic matter, and identify and quantify spatially distinct components. Analysis of the T1H relaxation behavior of the sludges indicated that each sludge contained two types of organic domains. Carbon-13 PSRE NMR subspectra were generated to determine the chemical nature of these domains. The rapidly relaxing component of each sludge was rich in protein and alkyl carbon, and was identified as dead bacterial material. The slowly relaxing component of each sludge was rich in carbohydrate and lignin structures, and was identified as partly degraded plant material. The bacterial domains were shown, using the RESTORE technique, to also have characteristically rapid T(1rho)H relaxation rates. This rapid T(1rho)H relaxation was identified as the main cause of underrepresentation of these domains in standard 13C cross polarization (CP) NMR spectra of sludges. The heterogeneous nature of sewage sludge organic matter has implications for land application of sewage sludge, since the two components are likely to have different capacities for sorbing organic and inorganic toxicants present in sewage sludge, and will decompose at different rates.

  7. Effect of biochars produced from solid organic municipal waste on soil quality parameters.

    PubMed

    Randolph, P; Bansode, R R; Hassan, O A; Rehrah, Dj; Ravella, R; Reddy, M R; Watts, D W; Novak, J M; Ahmedna, M

    2017-05-01

    New value-added uses for solid municipal waste are needed for environmental and economic sustainability. Fortunately, value-added biochars can be produced from mixed solid waste, thereby addressing solid waste management issues, and enabling long-term carbon sequestration. We hypothesize that soil deficiencies can be remedied by the application of municipal waste-based biochars. Select municipal organic wastes (newspaper, cardboard, woodchips and landscaping residues) individually or in a 25% blend of all four waste streams were used as feedstocks of biochars. Three sets of pyrolysis temperatures (350, 500, and 750 °C) and 3 sets of pyrolysis residence time (2, 4 and 6 h) were used for biochar preparation. The biochar yield was in the range of 21-62% across all feedstocks and pyrolysis conditions. We observed variations in key biochar properties such as pH, electrical conductivity, bulk density and surface area depending on the feedstocks and production conditions. Biochar increased soil pH and improved its electrical conductivity, aggregate stability, water retention and micronutrient contents. Similarly, leachate from the soil amended with biochar showed increased pH and electrical conductivity. Some elements such as Ca and Mg decreased while NO3-N increased in the leachates of soils incubated with biochars. Overall, solid waste-based biochar produced significant improvements to soil fertility parameters indicating that solid municipal wastes hold promising potential as feedstocks for manufacturing value-added biochars with varied physicochemical characteristics, allowing them to not only serve the needs for solid waste management and greenhouse gas mitigation, but also as a resource for improving the quality of depleted soils.

  8. Quantitative analysis of impact of awareness-raising activities on organic solid waste separation behaviour in Balikpapan City, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Murase, Noriaki; Murayama, Takehiko; Nishikizawa, Shigeo; Sato, Yuriko

    2017-10-01

    Many cities in Indonesia are under pressure to reduce solid waste and dispose of it properly. In response to this pressure, the Japan International Cooperation Agency and the Indonesian Government have implemented a solid waste separation and collection project to reduce solid waste in the target area (810 households) of Balikpapan City. We used a cluster randomised controlled trial method to measure the impact of awareness-raising activities that were introduced by the project on residents' organic solid waste separation behaviour. The level of properly separated organic solid waste increased by 6.0% in areas that conducted awareness-raising activities. Meanwhile, the level decreased by 3.6% in areas that did not conduct similar activities. Therefore, in relative comparison, awareness-raising increased the level by 9.6%. A comparison among small communities in the target area confirmed that awareness-raising activities had a significant impact on organic solid waste separation. High frequencies of monitoring at waste stations and door-to-door visits by community members had a positive impact on organic solid waste separation. A correlation between the proximity of environmental volunteers' houses to waste stations and a high level of separation was also confirmed. The awareness-raising activities introduced by the project led to a significant increase in the separation of organic solid waste.

  9. A quasimechanism of melt acceleration in the thermal decomposition of crystalline organic solids

    SciTech Connect

    Henson, Bryan F

    2009-01-01

    It has been know for half a century that many crystalline organic solids undergo an acceleration in the rate of thermal decomposition as the melting temperature is approached. This acceleration terminates at the melting point, exhibiting an Arrhenius-like temperature dependence in the faster decomposition rate from the liquid phase. This observation has been modeled previously using various premelting behaviors based on e.g. freezing point depression induced by decomposition products or solvent impurities. These models do not, however, indicate a mechanism for liquid formation and acceleration which is an inherent function of the bulk thermodynamics of the molecule. Here we show that such an inherent thermodynamic mechanism for liquid formation exists in the form of the so-called quasi-liquid layer at the solid surface. We explore a kinetic mechanism which describes the acceleration of rate and is a function of the free energies of sublimation and vaporization. We construct a differential rate law from these thermodynamic free energies and a normalized progress variable. We further construct a reduced variable formulation of the model which is a simple function of the metastable liquid activity below the melting point, and show that it is applicable to the observed melt acceleration in several common organic crystalline solids. A component of the differential rate law, zero order in the progress variable, is shown to be proportional to the thickness of the quasiliquid layer predicted by a recent thermodynamic theory for this phenomenon. This work therefore serves not only to provide new insight into thermal decomposition in a broad class or organic crystalline solids, but also further validates the underlying thermodynamic nature of the phenomenon of liquid formation on the molecular surface at temperatures below the melting point.

  10. 18 CFR 701.57 - Official decisions of the Council.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Official decisions of the Council. 701.57 Section 701.57 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION Headquarters Organization § 701.57 Official decisions of the Council....

  11. 18 CFR 701.57 - Official decisions of the Council.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Official decisions of the Council. 701.57 Section 701.57 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION Headquarters Organization § 701.57 Official decisions of the Council....

  12. 18 CFR 701.57 - Official decisions of the Council.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Official decisions of the Council. 701.57 Section 701.57 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION Headquarters Organization § 701.57 Official decisions of the Council....

  13. 18 CFR 701.57 - Official decisions of the Council.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Official decisions of the Council. 701.57 Section 701.57 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION Headquarters Organization § 701.57 Official decisions of the Council....

  14. 18 CFR 701.57 - Official decisions of the Council.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Official decisions of the Council. 701.57 Section 701.57 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION Headquarters Organization § 701.57 Official decisions of the Council....

  15. Exploring the Potential Formation of Organic Solids in Chondrites and Comets through Polymerization of Interstellar Formaldehyde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kebukawa, Yoko; Kilcoyne, A. L. David; Cody, George D.

    2013-07-01

    Polymerization of interstellar formaldehyde, first through the formose reaction and then through subsequent condensation reactions, provides a plausible explanation for how abundant and highly chemically complex organic solids may have come to exist in primitive solar system objects. In order to gain better insight on the reaction, a systematic study of the relationship of synthesis temperature with resultant molecular structure was performed. In addition, the effect of the presence of ammonia on the reaction rate and molecular structure of the product was studied. The synthesized formaldehyde polymer is directly compared to chondritic insoluble organic matter (IOM) isolated from primitive meteorites using solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared, and X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy. The molecular structure of the formaldehyde polymer is shown to exhibit considerable similarity at the functional group level with primitive chondritic IOM. The addition of ammonia to the solution enhances the rate of polymerization reaction at lower temperatures and results in substantial incorporation of nitrogen into the polymer. Morphologically, the formaldehyde polymer exists as submicron to micron-sized spheroidal particles and spheroidal particle aggregates that bare considerable similarity to the organic nanoglobules commonly observed in chondritic IOM. These spectroscopic and morphological data support the hypothesis that IOM in chondrites and refractory organic carbon in comets may have formed through the polymerization of interstellar formaldehyde after planetesimal accretion, in the presence of liquid water, early in the history of the solar system.

  16. EXPLORING THE POTENTIAL FORMATION OF ORGANIC SOLIDS IN CHONDRITES AND COMETS THROUGH POLYMERIZATION OF INTERSTELLAR FORMALDEHYDE

    SciTech Connect

    Kebukawa, Yoko; Cody, George D.; David Kilcoyne, A. L. E-mail: yoko@ep.sci.hokudai.ac.jp

    2013-07-01

    Polymerization of interstellar formaldehyde, first through the formose reaction and then through subsequent condensation reactions, provides a plausible explanation for how abundant and highly chemically complex organic solids may have come to exist in primitive solar system objects. In order to gain better insight on the reaction, a systematic study of the relationship of synthesis temperature with resultant molecular structure was performed. In addition, the effect of the presence of ammonia on the reaction rate and molecular structure of the product was studied. The synthesized formaldehyde polymer is directly compared to chondritic insoluble organic matter (IOM) isolated from primitive meteorites using solid-state {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared, and X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy. The molecular structure of the formaldehyde polymer is shown to exhibit considerable similarity at the functional group level with primitive chondritic IOM. The addition of ammonia to the solution enhances the rate of polymerization reaction at lower temperatures and results in substantial incorporation of nitrogen into the polymer. Morphologically, the formaldehyde polymer exists as submicron to micron-sized spheroidal particles and spheroidal particle aggregates that bare considerable similarity to the organic nanoglobules commonly observed in chondritic IOM. These spectroscopic and morphological data support the hypothesis that IOM in chondrites and refractory organic carbon in comets may have formed through the polymerization of interstellar formaldehyde after planetesimal accretion, in the presence of liquid water, early in the history of the solar system.

  17. Effects of Exercise and Sport in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients: A Review.

    PubMed

    Neale, Jill; Smith, Alice C; Bishop, Nicolette C

    2017-04-01

    Solid organ transplantation is the criterion standard treatment for many with end-organ failure and can offer a new independence from the burden of disease. However solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs) remain at high risk of cardiovascular (CV) disease, and poor quality of life and physical functioning. Increasing physical activity and exercise can improve the health of the general population; however, the effects on those with a transplant remain unclear. Intensive exercise and sporting activity has the potential to be beneficial, although there remain concerns particularly around the effects on immune function and the CV system. This review summarizes what is known about the effects of exercise on determinants of health in SOTRs and then collates the available literature investigating the consequences of intensive exercise and sport on the health of SOTR. There is a paucity of high-quality research, with most evidence being case studies or anecdotal; this is understandable given the relatively few numbers of SOTRs who are performing sport and exercise at a high level. However, if suitable evidence-based guidelines are to be formed and SOTRs are to be given reassurances that their activity levels are not detrimental to their transplanted organ and overall health, then more high-quality studies are required.

  18. All-solid-state lithium organic battery with composite polymer electrolyte and pillar[5]quinone cathode.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhiqiang; Hong, Meiling; Guo, Dongsheng; Shi, Jifu; Tao, Zhanliang; Chen, Jun

    2014-11-26

    The cathode capacity of common lithium ion batteries (LIBs) using inorganic electrodes and liquid electrolytes must be further improved. Alternatively, all-solid-state lithium batteries comprising the electrode of organic compounds can offer much higher capacity. Herein, we successfully fabricated an all-solid-state lithium battery based on organic pillar[5]quinone (C35H20O10) cathode and composite polymer electrolyte (CPE). The poly(methacrylate) (PMA)/poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-LiClO4-3 wt % SiO2 CPE has an optimum ionic conductivity of 0.26 mS cm(-1) at room temperature. Furthermore, pillar[5]quinine cathode in all-solid-state battery rendered an average operation voltage of ∼2.6 V and a high initial capacity of 418 mAh g(-1) with a stable cyclability (94.7% capacity retention after 50 cycles at 0.2C rate) through the reversible redox reactions of enolate/quinonid carbonyl groups, showing favorable prospect for the device application with high capacity.

  19. Rheology of sludge from double phase anaerobic digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Battistoni, P; Pavan, P; Mata-Alvarez, J; Prisciandaro, M; Cecchi, F

    2000-01-01

    In this paper experimental results on the anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge and organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) by using a double phase process are reported. The long-term experiment has been carried out on a pilot scale plant, performed in different sets of operative conditions, during which granulometric distributions of particles in sludges and rheological properties of sludges were monitored. A significant fluidification of sludge was evidenced in the meso-thermo process, especially taking into account the variation in sludge behaviour from the first to the second phase. In the thermo-thermo process a fluidification higher than that shown in meso-thermo conditions is not observed, this suggesting that better results in terms of sludge conditioning can be obtained in a long time spent in thermophilic anaerobic digestion. Total volatile solids (TVS) and total fixed solids (TFS) become the most important parameters when mathematical modelling is applied to these processes. In the acidogenic phase, hydraulic retention time (HRT) and temperature are used to determine rigidity coefficient (RC), while only temperature is needed for yield stress (YC). Organic loading rate (OLR) and specific gas production (SGP) exert an important role in methanogenic phase description.

  20. Self-Supporting Metal-Organic Layers as Single-Site Solid Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Lingyun; Lin, Zekai; Peng, Fei; Wang, Weiwei; Huang, Ruiyun; Wang, Cheng; Yan, Jiawei; Liang, Jie; Zhang, Zhiming; Zhang, Teng; Long, Lasheng; Sun, Junliang; Lin, Wenbin

    2016-03-08

    Metal–organic layers (MOLs) represent an emerging class of tunable and functionalizable two-dimensional materials. In this work, the scalable solvothermal synthesis of self-supporting MOLs composed of [Hf6O4(OH)4(HCO2)6] secondary building units (SBUs) and benzene-1,3,5-tribenzoate (BTB) bridging ligands is reported. The MOL structures were directly imaged by TEM and AFM, and doped with 4'-(4-benzoate)-(2,2',2''-terpyridine)-5,5''-dicarboxylate (TPY) before being coordinated with iron centers to afford highly active and reusable single-site solid catalysts for the hydrosilylation of terminal olefins. MOL-based heterogeneous catalysts are free from the diffusional constraints placed on all known porous solid catalysts, including metal–organic frameworks. This work uncovers an entirely new strategy for designing single-site solid catalysts and opens the door to a new class of two-dimensional coordination materials with molecular functionalities.

  1. Clostridium difficile colitis: increasing incidence, risk factors, and outcomes in solid organ transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Boutros, Marylise; Al-Shaibi, Maha; Chan, Gabriel; Cantarovich, Marcelo; Rahme, Elham; Paraskevas, Steven; Deschenes, Marc; Ghali, Peter; Wong, Philip; Fernandez, Myriam; Giannetti, Nadia; Cecere, Renzo; Hassanain, Mazen; Chaudhury, Prosanto; Metrakos, Peter; Tchervenkov, Jean; Barkun, Jeffrey S

    2012-05-27

    Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) is an increasingly important diagnosis in solid organ transplant recipients, with rising incidence and mortality. We describe the incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of colectomy for CDAD after solid organ transplantation. Patients with CDAD were identified from a prospective transplant database. Complicated Clostridium difficile colitis (CCDC) was defined as CDAD associated with graft loss, total colectomy, or death. From 1999 to 2010, we performed solid organ transplants for 1331 recipients at our institution. The incidence of CDAD was 12.4% (165 patients); it increased from 4.5% (1999) to 21.1% (2005) and finally 9.5% (2010). The peak frequency of CDAD was between 6 and 10 days posttransplantation. Age more than 55 years (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.47, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.16-1.81), induction with antithymocyte globulin (HR: 1.43, 95% CI=1.075-1.94), and transplant other than kidney alone (liver, heart, pancreas, or combined kidney organ) (HR: 1.41, 95% CI=1.05-1.92) were significant independent risk factors for CDAD. CCDC occurred in 15.8% of CDAD cases. Independent predictors of CCDC were white blood cell count more than 25,000/μL (HR: 1.08, 95% CI=1.025-1.15) and evidence of pancolitis on computed tomography scan (HR: 2.52, 95% CI=1.195-5.35). Six patients with CCDC underwent colectomy with 83% patient survival and 20% graft loss. Of the medically treated patients with CCDC (n=20), the patient survival was 35% with 100% graft loss. We have identified significant risk factors for CDAD and predictors of progression to CCDC. Furthermore, we found that colectomy can be performed with excellent survival in selected patients.

  2. Method for the decontamination of soil containing solid organic explosives therein

    DOEpatents

    Radtke, Corey W.; Roberto, Francisco F.

    2000-01-01

    An efficient method for decontaminating soil containing organic explosives ("TNT" and others) in the form of solid portions or chunks which are not ordinarily subject to effective bacterial degradation. The contaminated soil is treated by delivering an organic solvent to the soil which is capable of dissolving the explosives. This process makes the explosives more bioavailable to natural bacteria in the soil which can decompose the explosives. An organic nutrient composition is also preferably added to facilitate decomposition and yield a compost product. After dissolution, the explosives are allowed to remain in the soil until they are decomposed by the bacteria. Decomposition occurs directly in the soil which avoids the need to remove both the explosives and the solvents (which either evaporate or are decomposed by the bacteria). Decomposition is directly facilitated by the solvent pre-treatment process described above which enables rapid bacterial remediation of the soil.

  3. Ethanol production from the organic fraction obtained after thermal pretreatment of municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros, Mercedes; Sáez, Felicia; Ballesteros, Ignacio; Manzanares, Paloma; Negro, Maria Jose; Martínez, Jose Maria; Castañeda, Rafael; Oliva Dominguez, Jose Miguel

    2010-05-01

    In this work, the use of organic fraction from municipal solid waste (MSW) as substrate for ethanol production based on enzymatic hydrolysis was evaluated. MSW was subjected to a thermal pretreatment (active hygienization) at 160 degrees C from 5 to 50 min. The organic fiber obtained after 30 min was used as substrate in a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) and fed-batch SSF process using cellulases and amylases. In a fed-batch mode with 25% (w/w) substrate loading, final ethanol concentration of 30 g/L was achieved (60% of theoretical). In these conditions, more than 160 L of ethanol per ton of dry matter could be produced from the organic fraction of MSW.

  4. A novel hybrid metal-organic framework-polymeric monolith for solid-phase microextraction.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chen-Lan; Lirio, Stephen; Chen, Ya-Ting; Lin, Chia-Her; Huang, Hsi-Ya

    2014-03-17

    This study describes the fabrication of a novel hybrid metal-organic framework- organic polymer (MOF-polymer) for use as a stationary phase in fritless solid-phase microextraction (SPME) for validating analytical methods. The MOF-polymer was prepared by using ethylene dimethacrylate (EDMA), butyl methacrylate (BMA), and an imidazolium-based ionic liquid as porogenic solvent followed by microwave-assisted polymerization with the addition of 25 % MOF. This novel hybrid MOF-polymer was used to extract penicillin (penicillin G, penicillin V, oxacillin, cloxacillin, nafcillin, dicloxacillin) under different conditions. Quantitative analysis of the extracted penicillin samples using the MOF-organic polymer for SPME was conducted by using capillary electrochromatography (CEC) coupled with UV analysis. The penicillin recovery was 63-96.2 % with high reproducibility, sensitivity, and reusability. The extraction time with the proposed fabricated SPME was only 34 min.

  5. Electricity production in membrane-less microbial fuel cell fed with livestock organic solid waste.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yunhee; Nirmalakhandan, Nagamany

    2011-05-01

    Two different MFC configurations designed for handling solid wastes as a feedstock were evaluated in batch mode: a single compartment combined membrane-electrodes (SCME) design; and a twin-compartment brush-type anode electrodes (TBE) design (reversed T-shape MFC with two-air cathode) without a proton exchange membrane (PEM). Cattle manure was tested as a model livestock organic solid waste feedstock. Under steady conditions, voltage of 0.38 V was recorded with an external resistance of 470Ω. When digested anaerobic sludge was used as the seed in the SCME design, a maximum power density of 36.6 mW/m(2) was recorded. When hydrogen-generating bacteria (HGB) were used as the seed used in the TBE design, a higher power density of 67 mW/m(2) was recorded.

  6. Solidified inorganic-organic hybrid electrolyte for all solid state flexible lithium battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Seung-Wook; Honma, Itaru; Kim, Jedeok; Rangappa, Dinesh

    2017-03-01

    Solidified lithium conducting hybrid electrolyte is designed and processed to realize the large scale and flexible solid state Li battery satisfying energy capability and safety issue. This paper presents a solidified inorganic-organic hybrid electrolyte to obtain commercially-acceptable ionic conductivity and a stable electrochemical window to prevent electrolyte decomposition in Li ion batteries. Li3PO4 coated with solidified [Li][EMI][TFSI] ionic liquid is developed as hybrid electrolyte material. The material has high electrochemical stability on a high-voltage cathode and metallic anode, and the solid electrolyte has high ionic conductivity. This Li3PO4-[Li][EMI][TFSI] hybrid electrolyte has the advantages of long-term operation, safety and flexibility, so it may be suitable for use in high-voltage cathodes and Li anode.

  7. Flexible, Luminescent Metal-Organic Frameworks Showing Synergistic Solid-Solution Effects on Porosity and Sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Si-Yang; Zhou, Dong-Dong; He, Chun-Ting; Liao, Pei-Qin; Cheng, Xiao-Ning; Xu, Yan-Tong; Ye, Jia-Wen; Zhang, Jie-Peng; Chen, Xiao-Ming

    2016-12-23

    Mixing molecular building blocks in the solid solution manner is a valuable strategy to obtain structures and properties in between the isostructural parent metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). We report nonlinear/synergistic solid-solution effects using highly related yet non-isostructural, phosphorescent Cu(I) triazolate frameworks as parent phases. Near the phase boundaries associated with conformational diversity and ligand heterogeneity, the porosity (+150 %) and optical O2 sensitivity (410 times, limit of detection 0.07 ppm) can be drastically improved from the best-performing parent MOFs and even exceeds the records hold by precious-metal complexes (3 ppm) and C70 (0.2 ppm).

  8. Tunable catalytic activity of solid solution metal-organic frameworks in one-pot multicomponent reactions.

    PubMed

    Aguirre-Díaz, Lina María; Gándara, Felipe; Iglesias, Marta; Snejko, Natalia; Gutiérrez-Puebla, Enrique; Monge, M Ángeles

    2015-05-20

    The aim of this research is to establish how metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) composed of more than one metal in equivalent crystallographic sites (solid solution MOFs) exhibit catalytic activity, which is tunable by virtue of the metal ions ratio. New MOFs with general formula [InxGa1-x(O2C2H4)0.5(hfipbb)] were prepared by the combination of Ga and In. They are isostructural with their monometal counterparts, synthesized with Al, Ga, and In. Differences in their behavior as heterogeneous catalysts in the three-component, one pot Strecker reaction illustrate the potential of solid solution MOFs to provide the ability to address the various stages involved in the reaction mechanism.

  9. Calculation of NMR chemical shifts in organic solids: accounting for motional effects.

    PubMed

    Dumez, Jean-Nicolas; Pickard, Chris J

    2009-03-14

    NMR chemical shifts were calculated from first principles for well defined crystalline organic solids. These density functional theory calculations were carried out within the plane-wave pseudopotential framework, in which truly extended systems are implicitly considered. The influence of motional effects was assessed by averaging over vibrational modes or over snapshots taken from ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. It is observed that the zero-point correction to chemical shifts can be significant, and that thermal effects are particularly noticeable for shielding anisotropies and for a temperature-dependent chemical shift. This study provides insight into the development of highly accurate first principles calculations of chemical shifts in solids, highlighting the role of motional effects on well defined systems.

  10. Solid waste containing persistent organic pollutants in Serbia: From precautionary measures to the final treatment (case study).

    PubMed

    Stevanovic-Carapina, Hristina; Milic, Jelena; Curcic, Marijana; Randjelovic, Jasminka; Krinulovic, Katarina; Jovovic, Aleksandar; Brnjas, Zvonko

    2016-07-01

    Sustainable solid waste management needs more dedicated attention in respect of environmental and human health protection. Solid waste containing persistent organic pollutants is of special concern, since persistent organic pollutants are persistent, toxic and of high risk to human health and the environment. The objective of this investigation was to identify critical points in the Serbian system of solid waste and persistent organic pollutants management, to assure the life cycle management of persistent organic pollutants and products containing these chemicals, including prevention and final destruction. Data were collected from the Serbian competent authorities, and led us to identify preventive actions for solid waste management that should reduce or minimise release of persistent organic pollutants into the environment, and to propose actions necessary for persistent organic pollutants solid waste. The adverse impact of persistent organic pollutants is multidimensional. Owing to the lack of treatment or disposal plants for hazardous waste in Serbia, the only option at the moment to manage persistent organic pollutants waste is to keep it in temporary storage and when conditions are created (primarily financial), such waste should be exported for destruction in hazardous waste incinerators. Meanwhile, it needs to be assured that any persistent organic pollutants management activity does not negatively impact recycling flows or disturb progress towards a more circular economy in Serbia. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Performance and kinetic study of semi-dry thermophilic anaerobic digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Sajeena Beevi, B.; Madhu, G.; Sahoo, Deepak Kumar

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Performance of the reactor was evaluated by the degradation of volatile solids. • Biogas yield at the end of the digestion was 52.9 L/kg VS. • Value of reaction rate constant, k, obtained was 0.0249 day{sup −1}. • During the digestion 66.7% of the volatile solid degradation was obtained. - Abstract: Anaerobic digestion (AD) of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) is promoted as an energy source and waste disposal. In this study semi dry anaerobic digestion of organic solid wastes was conducted for 45 days in a lab-scale batch experiment for total solid concentration of 100 g/L for investigating the start-up performances under thermophilic condition (50 °C). The performance of the reactor was evaluated by measuring the daily biogas production and calculating the degradation of total solids and the total volatile solids. The biogas yield at the end of the digestion was 52.9 L/kg VS (volatile solid) for the total solid (TS) concentration of 100 g/L. About 66.7% of the volatile solid degradation was obtained during the digestion. A first order model based on the availability of substrate as the limiting factor was used to perform the kinetic studies of batch anaerobic digestion system. The value of reaction rate constant, k, obtained was 0.0249 day{sup −1}.

  12. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Solid and Liquid Organic Fertilizers Applied to Lettuce.

    PubMed

    Toonsiri, Phasita; Del Grosso, Stephen J; Sukor, Arina; Davis, Jessica G

    2016-11-01

    Improper application of nitrogen (N) fertilizer and environmental factors can cause the loss of nitrous oxide (NO) to the environment. Different types of fertilizers with different C/N ratios may have different effects on the environment. The focus of this study was to evaluate the effects of environmental factors and four organic fertilizers (feather meal, blood meal, fish emulsion, and cyano-fertilizer) applied at different rates (0, 28, 56, and 112 kg N ha) on NO emissions and to track CO emissions from a lettuce field ( L.). The study was conducted in 2013 and 2014 and compared preplant-applied solid fertilizers (feather meal and blood meal) and multiple applications of liquid fertilizers (fish emulsion and cyano-fertilizer). Three days a week, NO and CO emissions were measured twice per day in 2013 and once per day in 2014 using a closed-static chamber, and gas samples were analyzed by gas chromatography. Preplant-applied solid fertilizers significantly increased cumulative NO emissions as compared with control, but multiple applications of liquid fertilizers did not. Emission factors for NO ranged from 0 to 0.1% for multiple applications of liquid fertilizers and 0.6 to 11% for preplant-applied solid fertilizers, which could be overestimated due to chamber placement over fertilizer bands. In 2014, solid fertilizers with higher C/N ratios (3.3-3.5) resulted in higher CO emissions than liquid fertilizers (C/N ratio, 0.9-1.5). Therefore, organic farmers should consider the use of multiple applications of liquid fertilizers as a means to reduce soil greenhouse gas emissions while maintaining high yields. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  13. Electrical and related properties of organic solids. Selected Papers from the 13th International Conference "Electrical and Related Properties of Organic Solids", ERPOS2014, July 6-10, 2014, Świeradów Zdrój, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samoć, Marek

    2015-07-01

    Conducting polymers, organic superconductors, organic light emitting diodes, organic field-effect transistors, solar cells made of polymers or sensitized with organic dyes: all of these are common knowledge now. It was not so when conferences of the ERPOS series were started 40 years ago from an initiative of Professor Juliusz Sworakowski of the Technical University of Wroclaw (currently Wroclaw University of Technology), Poland, whose intent was to bring together the researchers from the Eastern Europe and those from the West interested in the electrical properties of organic solids. The first meeting, held in 1974 was a great success and it started a series of conferences, which became known under the acronym "ERPOS" that stood for "Electrical and Related Properties of Organic Solids". Over the years the meetings evolved, at first they were organized only in Poland, but in the eighties they started to be organized alternatively in Poland and in other countries (including Italy, France, The Czech Republic, Lithuania).

  14. Disparities in solid organ transplantation for ethnic minorities: facts and solutions.

    PubMed

    Higgins, R S D; Fishman, J A

    2006-11-01

    The Diversity and Minority Affairs Committee of the American Society of Transplantation (AST) convened a symposium to examine organ transplantation in underserved and minority populations. The goals of the meeting included 'benchmarking' of solid organ transplantation among minority populations, review of the epidemiology of end-organ damage, exploration of barriers to transplantation services and development of approaches to eliminate disparities. Participants noted that minority populations were more likely to be adversely affected by limited preventive medical care, lack of counseling regarding transplant options, and delays in transplant referrals for organ transplantation. These features largely reflect economic disadvantage as well as the reduced presence of minority professionals with training in transplant-related specialties. Participants in the conference noted that recent changes in organ allocation policies had improved access to minority individuals once listed for renal transplantation. Similar advances will be needed for other organs to address inequities in pretransplant care and underrepresentation of minorities among transplant professionals. The biologic basis of differences in transplant outcomes for minority recipients has not been adequately studied. Research funds must be targeted to address biologic mechanisms underlying disparate transplant outcomes including the impacts of environment, education, poverty and lifestyle choices.

  15. Noncutaneous head and neck cancer in solid organ transplant patients: single center experience.

    PubMed

    Nelissen, Charlotte; Lambrecht, Maarten; Nevens, Frederik; Van Raemdonck, Dirk; Vanhaecke, Johan; Kuypers, Dirk; Pirenne, Jacques; Nuyts, Sandra

    2014-04-01

    We investigated the incidence and survival of non-cutaneous head and neck cancer (HNC) after solid organ transplantation and identified prognostic factors impacting the outcome after treatment. A retrospective analysis of patients who underwent solid organ transplantation in our institution between 1987 and 2012. Of 5255 organ transplant patients, 48 recipients (0.9%) developed HNC in the posttransplant follow-up period. Liver transplant recipients showed the highest risk. Median follow-up of cancer patients was 46.7 months (range 2.9-256.2 months). Three-year overall survival and disease free survival (DFS) were 70% and 53%. Locoregional control was 67% and 48% at 3 and 5 years, respectively. Smoking and initial AJCC stage were two significant prognostic factors influencing DFS. Non-cutaneous HNC is rare in transplant recipients, but slightly more common after liver transplantation. Outcome after treatment is poor with locoregional recurrence being the main problem. Screening of high risk groups might be relevant. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Hospital-Onset Clostridium difficile Infection among Solid Organ Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, John P.; Wang, Henry E.; Locke, Jayme E.; Mannon, Roslyn B.; Safford, Monika M.; Baddley, John W.

    2017-01-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a considerable health issue in the United States, and represents the most common healthcare-associated infection. Solid organ transplant recipients are at increased risk of CDI, which can impact graft as well as patient survival. However, little is known about the impact of CDI on health services utilization post-transplant. We examined hospital-onset CDI from 2012-2014 among transplant recipients in the University HealthSystem Consortium, which includes academic medical center-affiliated hospitals in the US. Infection was five times more common among transplant recipients compared to general inpatients (209 vs. 40 per 10,000 discharges) and factors associated with CDI among transplant recipients included transplant type, risk of mortality, comorbidities, and inpatient complications. Institutional risk-standardized CDI varied more than three-fold across high-volume hospitals (infection ratio 0.54-1.82; median 1.04; interquartile range 0.78-1.28). CDI was associated with increased 30-day readmission, transplant organ complications and cytomegalovirus infection, inpatient costs, and lengths of stay. Total observed inpatient days and direct costs for those with CDI were substantially higher than risk-standardized expected values (40,094 vs. 22,843 days; $198,728,368 vs. $154,020,528 costs). Further efforts to detect, prevent, and manage CDI among solid organ transplant recipients are warranted. PMID:26484839

  17. Health-related quality of life after solid organ transplantation: the role of sport activity.

    PubMed

    Cicognani, Elvira; Mazzoni, Davide; Totti, Valentina; Roi, Giulio Sergio; Mosconi, Giovanni; Nanni Costa, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of sport activity on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of solid organ transplant recipients participating in sports competitions. A group of 168 sportive transplanted patients (STP), a group of 97 nonsportive transplanted patients (NSTP), and a group of 152 sportive healthy controls (SHC) were compared on the eight scales of the SF-36 questionnaire. STP and NSTP reported significantly lower scores than SHC on the physical functioning scale. STP did not differ from SHC in the Role-Physical, General Health, and Vitality scales, while NSTP reported significantly lower scores. STP obtained higher scores than NSTP and SHC on Mental Health. Among STP, the effect of quantity of sport activity was significant on General Health and Role Emotional, with more sport activity associated with higher HRQoL. Organ failure and post-transplant therapies may have negative consequences on HRQoL. Sports activities and participation in sports competitions can reduce this impact, improving general and psychological functioning of solid organ transplant recipients.

  18. Outcomes of Pediatric Kidney Transplantation in Recipients of a Previous Non-Renal Solid Organ Transplant.

    PubMed

    Hamdani, G; Zhang, B; Liu, C; Goebel, J; Zhang, Y; Nehus, E

    2017-03-07

    Children who receive a non-renal solid organ transplant may develop secondary renal failure requiring kidney transplantation. We investigated outcomes of 165 pediatric kidney transplant recipients who previously received a heart, lung, or liver transplant using data from 1988 to 2012 reported to the United Network for Organ Sharing. Patient and allograft survival were compared with 330 matched primary kidney transplant (PKT) recipients. Kidney transplantation after solid organ transplant (KASOT) recipients experienced similar allograft survival: 5- and 10-year graft survival was 78% and 60% in KASOT recipients, compared to 80% and 61% in PKT recipients (p = 0.69). However, KASOT recipients demonstrated worse 10-year patient survival (75% KASOT vs. 97% PKT, p < 0.001). Competing risks analysis indicated that KASOT recipients more often experienced graft loss due to patient death (p < 0.001), whereas allograft failure per se was more common in PKT recipients (p = 0.01). To study more recent outcomes, kidney transplants performed from 2006 to 2012 were separately investigated. Since 2006, KASOT and PKT recipients had similar 5-year graft survival (82% KASOT vs. 83% PKT, p = 0.48), although 5-year patient survival of KASOT recipients remained inferior (90% KASOT vs. 98% PKT, p < 0.001). We conclude that despite decreased patient survival, kidney allograft outcomes in pediatric KASOT recipients are comparable to those of PKT recipients.

  19. Organic–inorganic supramolecular solid catalyst boosts organic reactions in water

    PubMed Central

    García-García, Pilar; Moreno, José María; Díaz, Urbano; Bruix, Marta; Corma, Avelino

    2016-01-01

    Coordination polymers and metal-organic frameworks are appealing as synthetic hosts for mediating chemical reactions. Here we report the preparation of a mesoscopic metal-organic structure based on single-layer assembly of aluminium chains and organic alkylaryl spacers. The material markedly accelerates condensation reactions in water in the absence of acid or base catalyst, as well as organocatalytic Michael-type reactions that also show superior enantioselectivity when comparing with the host-free transformation. The mesoscopic phase of the solid allows for easy diffusion of products and the catalytic solid is recycled and reused. Saturation transfer difference and two-dimensional 1H nuclear Overhauser effect NOESY NMR spectroscopy show that non-covalent interactions are operative in these host–guest systems that account for substrate activation. The mesoscopic character of the host, its hydrophobicity and chemical stability in water, launch this material as a highly attractive supramolecular catalyst to facilitate (asymmetric) transformations under more environmentally friendly conditions. PMID:26912294

  20. A risk-stratified approach to cytomegalovirus prevention in pediatric solid organ transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Suresh, Sneha; Lee, Bonita E; Robinson, Joan L; Akinwumi, Michael S; Preiksaitis, Jutta K

    2016-11-01

    Optimal strategies to prevent cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease following pediatric solid organ transplantation remain controversial. The purpose of this study was to review the outcomes of a risk-stratified strategy that uses a hybrid or prophylactic strategy for donor (D)+ recipient (R)- patients, a preemptive strategy for D+R+/D-R+, and clinical follow-up alone for D-R+ patients. A retrospective chart review was undertaken at the Stollery Children's Hospital in Edmonton, Alberta for pediatric solid organ transplants 2004 through 2010. Transplants were risk-stratified according to D/R CMV serostatus, organ group, and type of induction or rejection immunosuppression. The incidence of DNAemia and CMV disease and adverse effects from prophylaxis were analyzed. The study included 197 recipients. CMV DNAemia was detected in 49 of 197 recipients (24.8%), and CMV disease occurred in eight of 197 (4%) of which all but one were D+R-. All recovered. Seventeen of 142 recipients who received prophylaxis (12%) had hematologic toxicity. No other toxicities were identified. In conclusion, A risk-stratified approach resulted in very low rates of CMV disease with minimal adverse effects. Lowering the dosage rather than stopping antivirals in the face of neutropenia has the potential to further lower the rate of CMV disease. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Longitudinal impact of mindfulness meditation on illness burden in solid-organ transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Kreitzer, Mary Jo; Gross, Cynthia R; Ye, Xin; Russas, Valerie; Treesak, Charoen

    2005-06-01

    In 2001, more than 24000 solid-organ transplant surgeries were performed in the United States. Although survival rates have steadily risen over the past 2 decades, transplant recipients commonly experience a myriad of symptoms after transplantation that compromise quality of life. Anxiety, depression, and insomnia frequently occur despite excellent function of the transplanted organ. Use of complementary and alternative medicine has risen sharply over the past 10 years, particularly among people with chronic illnesses. Twenty solid-organ transplant recipients were enrolled in a clinical trial of mindfulness-based stress reduction. During the 8-week course, subjects learned various forms of meditation and gentle hatha yoga. Participants were given audiotapes for home practice and maintained practice diaries. Longitudinal analysis focused on the impact of mindfulness-based stress reduction on symptom management, illness intrusion, and transplant-related stressors. Significant improvements in the quality and duration of sleep continued for 6 months after completion of the mindfulness-based stress reduction course. Improvements after the completion of the course were also noted in self-report measures of anxiety and depression. Mindfulness-based stress reduction is an effective treatment in improving the quality and duration of sleep. Because sleep is highly correlated with positive mental health and overall well-being, these findings suggest that mindfulness-based stress reduction has the potential of being an effective, accessible and low-cost intervention that could significantly change transplant recipients' overall health and well-being.

  2. Immunosuppressant-driven de novo malignant neoplasms after solid-organ transplant.

    PubMed

    Billups, Kelsey; Neal, Jennifer; Salyer, Jeanne

    2015-06-01

    Solid-organ transplant recipients are at a 3- to 5-fold increased risk of a de novo malignant neoplasm developing compared with the general population. The most frequently developed virus-associated malignant neoplasms are Kaposi sarcoma (standardized incidence ratio [SIR], 208.0), nonmelanoma skin cancer (SIR, 28.6), and posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder, primarily non-Hodgkin lymphoma (SIR, 8.1). Immunosuppressive agents such as corticosteroids, antimetabolites, calcineurin inhibitors, and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors play a key role in either causing or preventing this complication. It is hypothesized that some of these regimens can impair cancer surveillance, facilitate the action of oncogenic viruses, and promote direct oncogenic activity. Evolving research has shown promising dual antitumor and immunosuppressive properties of the mTOR inhibitor class. The effective management of posttransplant neoplasms most likely involves the use of these medications among other preventative options. These measures include monitoring certain viral loads as well as immunosuppressant drug levels. Reducing these levels to as low as possible for healthy engraftment and altering regimens when appropriate are management strategies that could lessen this complication of solid-organ transplant. More studies examining the effects of therapeutic drug monitoring are needed to determine specific plasma drug concentrations that will ensure organ engraftment without the development of de novo malignant neoplasms.

  3. Hepatitis C in non-hepatic solid organ transplant candidates and recipients: A new horizon

    PubMed Central

    Belga, Sara; Doucette, Karen Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is estimated to affect 130-150 million people globally which corresponds to 2%-3% of the total world population. It remains the leading indication for liver transplant worldwide and has been demonstrated to negatively impact both patient and graft survival following non-hepatic organ transplantation. In the era of interferon-based therapy, although treatment and cure of HCV prior to non-hepatic transplant improved survival, tolerability and low cure rates substantially limited therapy. Interferon (IFN)-based therapy following non-hepatic solid organ transplant, due to the risk of allograft rejection, is generally contraindicated. Rapid advances in IFN-free therapy with direct acting antivirals (DAAs) in the last few years have completely changed the paradigm of hepatitis C therapy. Compared to IFN-based regimens, DAAs have less frequent and less severe adverse effects, shorter durations of therapy, and higher cure rates that are minimally impacted by historically negative predictors of response such as cirrhosis, ethnicity, and post-transplant state. Recent studies have shown that liver transplant (LT) recipients can be safely and effectively treated with DAA combination therapies; although data are limited, many of the principles of therapy in LT may be extrapolated to non-hepatic solid organ transplant recipients. Here we review the data on DAA combination therapies in transplantation, discuss the advantages and disadvantages of pre- vs post-transplant HCV therapy and future directions. PMID:26819530

  4. Some considerations on the current debate about typing resolution in solid organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Vogiatzi, Paraskevi

    2016-01-01

    The shortage of suitable organs and achieved tolerance are uncontested main concerns in transplantation. Long waiting lists for deceased donors and limited numbers of living donors are the current scenarios. Kidney grafts from living donors have better overall survival compared to cadaveric and require less aggressive immunosuppressive regimens. The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) labs have the key role to test the recipient and donors compatibility based on typing and antibody profile. The current standard molecular procedure in solid organ transplantation is low-resolution typing, at the antigen level. In this commentary, the merits of high versus low degree of typing resolution in solid organ transplantation are discussed. Critical questions and reasons to bring high-resolution typing as a routine test in health system are considered. Specifically, with the introduction of the next-generation sequencing (NGS) in HLA, the pros and cons in living donation and benefits after deceased donation are critically evaluated. NGS has the potential to improve the transplant rates and the overall graft survival. Alternative strategies to increase in demanding the number of transplants are briefly highlighted.

  5. Diversity-oriented synthesis and solid-phase organic synthesis under controlled microwave heating.

    PubMed

    Dai, Wei-Min; Shi, Jianyu

    2007-12-01

    Diversity-oriented organic synthesis (DOS) and solid-phase organic synthesis (SPOS) are proven technologies for generating small molecule libraries for chemical genetics studies. Integration of controlled microwave heating with DOS and SPOS not only speeds up the library preparation process but also offers unique opportunities in tackling issues which are hardly addressed by thermal heating. Microwave-assisted synthesis is illustrated for (a) highly regioselective Wittig olefination of cycloalkanones by accurate regulation of temperature; (b) tandem Wittig-IMDA sequence toward stereochemical diversity of gamma-butyrolactones; (c) one-pot alkylation-amidation approach toward appendage diversity through use of building blocks; and (d) one-pot U-4CR-annulation strategy toward skeletal diversity via careful reaction design. Microwave-assisted solid-phase organic synthesis (MASPOS) is highlighted by incorporating with split-pool combinatorial synthesis (SPCS) of indole sulfonamides via a key on-resin Cu(II)- or Pd(II)-catalyzed heteroannulation under microwave heating. Design and fabrication of a novel diglycine-derived catlinker are described and its role in facilitating on-resin reaction is evaluated. A traceless synthesis of indole sulfonamides via microwave-assisted Cu(II)-catalyzed heteroannulation of the catlinker-tethered substrates is also given.

  6. Pediatric solid organ transplantation and osteoporosis: a descriptive study on bone histomorphometric findings.

    PubMed

    Tamminen, Inari S; Valta, Helena; Jalanko, Hannu; Salminen, Sari; Mäyränpää, Mervi K; Isaksson, Hanna; Kröger, Heikki; Mäkitie, Outi

    2014-08-01

    Organ transplantation may lead to secondary osteoporosis in children. This study characterized bone histomorphometric findings in pediatric solid organ transplant recipients who were assessed for suspected secondary osteoporosis. Iliac crest biopsies were obtained from 19 children (7.6-18.8 years, 11 male) who had undergone kidney (n = 6), liver (n = 9), or heart (n = 4) transplantation a median 4.6 years (range 0.6-16.3 years) earlier. All patients had received oral glucocorticoids at the time of the biopsy. Of the 19 patients, 21 % had sustained peripheral fractures and 58 % vertebral compression fractures. Nine children (47 %) had a lumbar spine BMD Z-score below -2.0. Histomorphometric analyses showed low trabecular bone volume (< -1.0 SD) in 6 children (32 %) and decreased trabecular thickness in 14 children (74 %). Seven children (37 %) had high bone turnover at biopsy, and low turnover was found in 6 children (32 %), 1 of whom had adynamic bone disease. There was a great heterogeneity in the histological findings in different transplant groups, and the results were unpredictable using non-invasive methods. The observed changes in bone quality (i.e. abnormal turnover rate, thin trabeculae) rather than the actual loss of trabecular bone, might explain the increased fracture risk in pediatric solid organ transplant recipients.

  7. Vapor-phase infrared spectroscopy on solid organic compounds with a pulsed resonant photoacoustic detection scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlome, Richard; Fischer, Cornelia; Sigrist, Markus W.

    2005-08-01

    There is a great need for a low cost and sensitive method to measure infrared spectra of solid organic compounds in the gas phase. To record such spectra, we propose an optical parametric generator-based photoacoustic spectrometer, which emits in the mid-infrared fingerprint region between 3 and 4 microns. In this system, the sample is heated in a vessel before entering a home built photoacoustic cell, where the gaseous molecules are excited by a tunable laser source with a frequency repetition rate that matches the first longitudinal resonance frequency of the photocaoustic cell. In a first phase, we have focused on low-melting point stimulants such as Nikethamide, Mephentermine sulfate, Methylephedrine, Ephedrine and Pseudoephedrine. The vapor-phase spectra of these doping substances were measured between 2800 and 3100 cm-1, where fundamental C-H stretching vibrations take place. Our spectra show notable differences with commercially available condensed phase spectra. Our scheme enables to measure very low vapor pressures of low-melting point (<160 °C) solid organic compounds. Furthermore, the optical resolution of 8 cm-1 is good enough to distinguish closely related chemical structures such as the Ephedra alkaloids Ephedrine and Methylephedrine, but doesn't allow to differentiate diastereoisomeric pairs such as Ephedrine and Pseudoephedrine, two important neurotransmitters which reveal different biological activities. Therefore, higher resolution and a system capable of measuring organic compounds with higher melting points are required.

  8. Selecting suitable solid organ transplant donors: Reducing the risk of donor-transmitted infections.

    PubMed

    Jr, Christopher S Kovacs; Koval, Christine E; van Duin, David; de Morais, Amanda Guedes; Gonzalez, Blanca E; Avery, Robin K; Mawhorter, Steven D; Brizendine, Kyle D; Cober, Eric D; Miranda, Cyndee; Shrestha, Rabin K; Teixeira, Lucileia; Mossad, Sherif B

    2014-06-24

    Selection of the appropriate donor is essential to a successful allograft recipient outcome for solid organ transplantation. Multiple infectious diseases have been transmitted from the donor to the recipient via transplantation. Donor-transmitted infections cause increased morbidity and mortality to the recipient. In recent years, a series of high-profile transmissions of infections have occurred in organ recipients prompting increased attention on the process of improving the selection of an appropriate donor that balances the shortage of needed allografts with an approach that mitigates the risk of donor-transmitted infection to the recipient. Important advances focused on improving donor screening diagnostics, using previously excluded high-risk donors, and individualizing the selection of allografts to recipients based on their prior infection history are serving to increase the donor pool and improve outcomes after transplant. This article serves to review the relevant literature surrounding this topic and to provide a suggested approach to the selection of an appropriate solid organ transplant donor.

  9. Selecting suitable solid organ transplant donors: Reducing the risk of donor-transmitted infections

    PubMed Central

    Jr, Christopher S Kovacs; Koval, Christine E; van Duin, David; de Morais, Amanda Guedes; Gonzalez, Blanca E; Avery, Robin K; Mawhorter, Steven D; Brizendine, Kyle D; Cober, Eric D; Miranda, Cyndee; Shrestha, Rabin K; Teixeira, Lucileia; Mossad, Sherif B

    2014-01-01

    Selection of the appropriate donor is essential to a successful allograft recipient outcome for solid organ transplantation. Multiple infectious diseases have been transmitted from the donor to the recipient via transplantation. Donor-transmitted infections cause increased morbidity and mortality to the recipient. In recent years, a series of high-profile transmissions of infections have occurred in organ recipients prompting increased attention on the process of improving the selection of an appropriate donor that balances the shortage of needed allografts with an approach that mitigates the risk of donor-transmitted infection to the recipient. Important advances focused on improving donor screening diagnostics, using previously excluded high-risk donors, and individualizing the selection of allografts to recipients based on their prior infection history are serving to increase the donor pool and improve outcomes after transplant. This article serves to review the relevant literature surrounding this topic and to provide a suggested approach to the selection of an appropriate solid organ transplant donor. PMID:25032095

  10. 1H to 13C Energy Transfer in Solid State NMR Spectroscopy of Natural Organic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berns, Anne E.; Conte, Pellegrino

    2010-05-01

    Cross polarization (CP) magic angle spinning (MAS) 13C-NMR spectroscopy is a solid state NMR technique widely used to study chemical composition of organic materials with low or no solubility in the common deuterated solvents used to run liquid state NMR experiments. Based on the magnetization transfer from abundant nuclei (with spin of 1 -2) having a high gyromagnetic ratio (γ), such as protons, to the less abundant 13C nuclei with low γ values, 13C-CPMAS NMR spectroscopy is often applied in environmental chemistry to obtain quantitative information on the chemical composition of natural organic matter (NOM) (Conte et al., 2004), although its quantitative assessment is still matter of heavy debates. Many authors (Baldock et al., 1997; Conte et al., 1997, 2002; Dria et al., 2002; Kiem et al., 2000; Kögel-Knabner, 2000; Preston, 2001), reported that the application of appropriate instrument setup as well as the use of special pulse sequences and correct spectra elaboration may provide signal intensities that are directly proportional to the amount of nuclei creating a NMR signal. However, many other papers dealt with the quantitative unsuitability of 13C-CPMAS NMR spectroscopy. Among those, Mao et al. (2000), Smernik and Oades (2000 a,b), and Preston (2001) reported that cross-polarized NMR techniques may fail in a complete excitation of the 13C nuclei. In fact, the amount of observable carbons via 13C-CPMAS NMR spectroscopy appeared, in many cases, lower than that measured by a direct observation of the 13C nuclei. As a consequence, cross-polarized NMR techniques may provide spectra where signal distribution may not be representative of the quantitative distribution of the different natural organic matter components. Cross-polarization is obtained after application of an initial 90° x pulse on protons and a further spin lock pulse (along the y axis) having a fixed length (contact time) for both nuclei (1H and 13C) once the Hartmann-Hahn condition is matched

  11. The Official Knowledge and Adult Education Agents: An Ethnographic Study of the Adult Education Team of a Local Development-Oriented Nongovernmental Organization in the North of Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loureiro, Armando Paulo Ferreira; Cristovao, Artur Fernando Arede Correia

    2010-01-01

    Nongovernmental organizations, particularly those related to development work (local development-oriented nongovernmental organizations; LDNGO), and their agents have been assuming, in Portugal, an important role in the field of adult education. These organizations develop with the State, at the national level, and with supranational institutions…

  12. Kidney Transplant Outcomes After Primary, Repeat and Kidney After Nonrenal Solid Organ Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Sood, Puneet; Gao, Xiaotian; Mehta, Rajil; Landsittel, Douglas; Wu, Christine; Nusrat, Rabeeya; Puttarajappa, Chethan; Tevar, Amit D.; Hariharan, Sundaram

    2016-01-01

    Background Improvements in renal allograft outcomes have permitted kidney transplantation after prior kidney allograft failure as well as after nonrenal solid organ transplantation. This study compares renal allograft outcomes in the 3 groups, that is, primary, repeat, and kidney after nonrenal solid organ transplantation, where transplant group was coded as a time-dependent variable. Methods We retrospectively reviewed registry data for kidney transplant recipients at University of Pittsburgh Medical Center from January 2000 to December 2011. We compared overall graft survival between the 3 groups using Cox regression modeling. We calculated 1-, 3-, and 5-year graft survival and half-lives for each group where feasible. Results The study cohort (N = 2014) consisted of group A (primary kidney transplant, n = 1578, with 7923.2 years of follow-up time), group B (repeat kidney transplant, n = 314, with 1566.7 years of follow-up time) and group C (kidney post-nonrenal solid organ transplant, n = 176, with 844.8 years of follow-up time). Of the 1578 patients in the primary kidney transplant group, 74 later received a repeat transplant and thus also have follow-up counted in the repeat kidney transplant group. The median follow-up was 56, 53, and 55 months, respectively. The 5-year actuarial and death-censored graft survival was 68.69%, 68.79%, and 66.48% and 65.53%, 67.68%, and 62.92%, respectively (P = 0.70). There was no difference in overall graft survival in the Cox-adjusted analysis (group B: odds ratio, 1.02; 95% confidence interval, 0.84-1.26; P = 0.79; group C: odds ratio, 0.96; 95% confidence interval, 0.75-1.23; P = 0.76). Conclusions The adjusted kidney graft survivals in the 3 groups were similar. PMID:27500265

  13. Bipolar molecular composites: a new class of high-electron-mobility organic solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Liang-Bih; Jenekhe, Samson A.; Borsenberger, Paul M.

    1997-10-01

    We describe high electron mobility in organic solids in the form of bipolar molecular composites of N,N'-bis(1,2-dimethylpropyl)-1,4,5,8-naphthalenetetracarboxylic diimide (NTDI) and tri-p-tolylaniine (TTA). The electron mobility in the NTDI/TTA composites is ~2 x 10 cm2/Vs, which is a factor of 4 to 6 higher than in pure NTDI and isone of the highest values reported for disordered organic solids. The field and temperature dependencies of the charge mobility can be described using the disorder formalism due to Bassler and co-workers, which provides an estimation of the energy width σ of the hopping site manifold. Analysis of the data gave σ=0.081 and 0.060 eV for the electron and hole mobilities in a NTDI/TTA composite of 0.5510.45 molar ratio. The energetic disorder for electron transport in the bipolar composites is substantially lower than for pure NTDI, which is 0.093 eV. The results suggest that the observed enhancement arises from a substantial reduction of energetic disorder in the electron transport manifold of the bipolar composites. The reduction of energetic disorder may be due to intermolecular charge transfer between NTDI and TTA. Such a charge transfer could stabilize the electron transport manifold by better charge delocalization, and consequently, less energetic disorder. Another possible reason for the observed enhanced electron mobility is the reduction of NTDI dimers that can act as carrier traps by the presence of TTA molecules in the bipolar composites. These results also suggest that bipolar composites represent a promising new class of high electron mobility organic solids.

  14. Race, Calcineurin Inhibitor Exposure, and Renal Function After Solid Organ Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Yessayan, L; Shafiq, A; Peterson, E; Wells, K; Hu, Y; Williams, L K; Lanfear, D

    2015-12-01

    Calcineurin-inhibitor (CNI)-induced nephrotoxicity frequently complicates transplantation. African-Americans are at a greater risk of renal failure than the general population. We investigated whether race was an effect modifier of the relationship between CNI exposure and kidney function after nonrenal solid organ transplantation. This is a retrospective cohort study of 1609 patients who underwent initial nonrenal solid organ transplantation between January 2000 and June 2012. A central repository administrative database was queried electronically for demographics, comorbidities, and serial levels of tacrolimus, cyclosporine, and serum creatinine. Predictors of interest were total drug exposure of tacrolimus and cyclosporine (area under the concentration-time curve) and self-reported race. The outcome of interest was cumulative change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR). There were 1109 patients treated with tacrolimus (271 African-Americans) and 500 patients treated with cyclosporine (113 African Americans). A decline in GFR over time was seen with total tacrolimus exposure (-1.3 mL/min/1.73 m(2) for every 5 ng/mL·year increase in tacrolimus) and total cyclosporine exposure (-1.1 mL/min/1.73 m(2) for every 50 ng/mL·year increase in cyclosporine). However, total CNI exposure effect on estimated GFR changes did not vary by race (P interaction was 0.9 for tacrolimus and 0.6 for cyclosporine). Total CNI exposure is associated with worsening kidney function among patients with nonrenal solid organ transplantation. However, African-American patients are not more vulnerable to chronic CNI-induced nephrotoxicity when compared to white patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A combined deuterium NMR and quantum chemical investigation of inequivalent hydrogen bonds in organic solids.

    PubMed

    Webber, Renee; Penner, Glenn H

    2012-01-01

    Deuterium magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations are used to investigate organic solids in which inequivalent hydrogen bonds are present. The use of (2)H MAS allows one to measure the chemical shift, δ, quadrupolar coupling constant, C(Q), and asymmetry in the quadrupolar interaction, η(Q), for each type of hydrogen bond present in the system. Quantum chemical calculations of the magnetic shielding (σ, which can be related to δ) and the electric field gradient (EFG, which can be related to C(Q)) are compared to the experimental results and are discussed with respect to the relative strengths of the hydrogen bonds within each system.

  16. Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy of Metal–Organic Framework Compounds (MOFs)

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Herbert C.; Debowski, Marta; Müller, Philipp; Paasch, Silvia; Senkovska, Irena; Kaskel, Stefan; Brunner, Eike

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a well-established method for the investigation of various types of porous materials. During the past decade, metal–organic frameworks have attracted increasing research interest. Solid-state NMR spectroscopy has rapidly evolved into an important tool for the study of the structure, dynamics and flexibility of these materials, as well as for the characterization of host–guest interactions with adsorbed species such as xenon, carbon dioxide, water, and many others. The present review introduces and highlights recent developments in this rapidly growing field.

  17. Canadian society of transplantation consensus workshop on cytomegalovirus management in solid organ transplantation final report.

    PubMed

    Preiksaitis, Jutta K; Brennan, Daniel C; Fishman, Jay; Allen, Upton

    2005-02-01

    The Canadian Society of Transplantation sponsored a Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Consensus Working Group that met on March 19, 2003. The objectives of this group were to determine the current burden of CMV-associated disease in the setting of solid organ transplantation in Canada, make recommendations regarding optimal strategies for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of CMV infection and disease, highlight gaps in knowledge and outline priorities for research and other initiatives that might further reduce the burden of CMV-associated effects in this setting. This report summarizes the recommendations of the working group including ratings of the strength of evidence supporting the recommendations.

  18. Dry-thermophilic anaerobic digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste: Methane production modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Fdez-Gueelfo, L.A.; Alvarez-Gallego, C.; Sales, D.; Romero Garcia, L.I.

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Methane generation may be modeled by means of modified product generation model of Romero Garcia (1991). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Organic matter content and particle size influence the kinetic parameters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Higher organic matter content and lower particle size enhance the biomethanization. - Abstract: The influence of particle size and organic matter content of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) in the overall kinetics of dry (30% total solids) thermophilic (55 Degree-Sign C) anaerobic digestion have been studied in a semi-continuous stirred tank reactor (SSTR). Two types of wastes were used: synthetic OFMSW (average particle size of 1 mm; 0.71 g Volatile Solids/g waste), and OFMSW coming from a composting full scale plant (average particle size of 30 mm; 0.16 g Volatile Solids/g waste). A modification of a widely-validated product-generation kinetic model has been proposed. Results obtained from the modified-model parameterization at steady-state (that include new kinetic parameters as K, Y{sub pMAX} and {theta}{sub MIN}) indicate that the features of the feedstock strongly influence the kinetics of the process. The overall specific growth rate of microorganisms ({mu}{sub max}) with synthetic OFMSW is 43% higher compared to OFMSW coming from a composting full scale plant: 0.238 d{sup -1} (K = 1.391 d{sup -1}; Y{sub pMAX} = 1.167 L CH{sub 4}/gDOC{sub c}; {theta}{sub MIN} = 7.924 days) vs. 0.135 d{sup -1} (K = 1.282 d{sup -1}; Y{sub pMAX} = 1.150 L CH{sub 4}/gDOC{sub c}; {theta}{sub MIN} = 9.997 days) respectively. Finally, it could be emphasized that the validation of proposed modified-model has been performed successfully by means of the simulation of non-steady state data for the different SRTs tested with each waste.

  19. The Development of Equipment for the Disposal of Solid Organic Waste and Optimization of Its Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadrtdinov, Almaz R.; Safin, Rushan G.; Timerbaev, Nail F.; Ziatdinova, Dilyara F.; Saprykina, Natalya A.

    2016-08-01

    The paper describes the developed system for the thermal utilization of solid organic waste, which can simultaneously process the paper, wood, rubber, plastic, etc. A method for improving the efficiency of the equipment, due to optimization of the gas extraction system was proposed. The influence of the characteristics of installed equipment and modes of their work on energy savings and efficiency of the gas extraction system was also determined. Optimization work which includes the introduction into the exhauster control system of the frequency converter, can save up to 70% of electricity and increases the life of the equipment.

  20. Principles and Applications of Solid Polymer Electrolyte Reactors for Electrochemical Hydrodehalogenation of Organic Pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Hua; Scott, Keith

    The ability to re-cycle halogenated liquid wastes, based on electrochemical hydrodehalogenation (EHDH), will provide a significant economic advantage and will reduce the environmental burden in a number of processes. The use of a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) reactor is very attractive for this purpose. Principles and features of electrochemical HDH technology and SPE EHDH reactors are described. The SPE reactor enables selective dehalogenation of halogenated organic compounds in both aqueous and non-aqueous media with high current efficiency and low energy consumption. The influence of operating conditions, including cathode material, current density, reactant concentration and temperature on the HDH process and its stability are examined.

  1. Balamuthia mandrillaris meningoencephalitis associated with solid organ transplantation--review of cases.

    PubMed

    LaFleur, Matthew; Joyner, David; Schlakman, Bruce; Orozco-Castillo, Ludwig; Khan, Majid

    2013-09-01

    We report the first identified transmission of Balamuthia mandrillaris through solid organ transplantation. Kidneys were transplanted from a donor with presumptive diagnosis of autoimmune encephalitis. Shortly after, the recipients developed neurologic symptoms. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the brain from the donor and both kidney recipients demonstrated multiple ring enhancing lesions with surrounding edema and adjacent leptomeningeal extension. In addition most of the lesions demonstrated signal changes suggesting central hemorrhagic foci. Specimens were tested locally and at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Histopathology revealed B. mandrillaris in either brain tissue and/or cerebral spinal fluid in the donor and recipients.

  2. Multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria in solid organ transplant recipients with bacteremias.

    PubMed

    Wan, Q Q; Ye, Q F; Yuan, H

    2015-03-01

    Bloodstream infections (BSIs) remain as life-threatening complications and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality among solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria can cause serious bacteremias in these recipients. Reviews have aimed to investigate MDR Gram-negative bacteremias; however, they were lacking in SOT recipients in the past. To better understand the characteristics of bacteremias due to MDR Gram-negative bacteria, optimize preventive and therapeutic strategies, and improve the outcomes of SOT recipients, this review summarize the epidemiology, clinical and laboratory characteristics, and explores the mechanisms, prevention, and treatment of MDR Gram-negative bacteria.

  3. Cryptococcosis in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients: Current State-of-the-Science

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Nina; Dromer, Francoise; Perfect, John R.; Lortholary, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    Cryptococcosis remains a significant opportunistic infection in solid organ transplant recipients. Disease presentation and outcomes in the current era may be affected amongst other factors by the use of calcineurin-inhibitor immunosuppressive agents. It is being increasingly recognized that rapid reversal of immunosuppression in transplant recipients treated for cryptococcosis incurs the risk of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome that mimics worsening disease or relapse. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding cryptococcosis in transplant recipients and highlights areas where future investigations are needed to further optimize outcomes in these patients. PMID:18840080

  4. Solid organ transplantation: referral, management, and outcomes in HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Roland, Michelle E; Carlson, Laurie L; Frassetto, Lynda A; Stock, Peter G

    2006-12-01

    Advances in HIV management make it difficult to deny solid organ transplantation to HIV-infected patients based on futility arguments. Preliminary studies suggest that both patient and graft survival are similar in HIV-negative and HIV-positive transplant recipients. While there has been no significant HIV disease progression, substantial interactions between immunosuppressants and antiretroviral drugs necessitate careful monitoring. The evaluation and management of HIV-infected transplant candidates and recipients require excellent communication among a multidisciplinary team, the primary HIV care provider, and the patient. Timely referral for transplant evaluation will prevent unnecessary mortality during the pre-transplant evaluation process.

  5. Guidelines for Local Governments on Solid Waste Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Counties, Washington, DC. Research Foundation.

    This document consists of ten guides on Solid Waste Management to assist local elected and appointed policy-making officials. They are entitled: Areawide Approaches; Legal Authority, Planning, Organization Design and Operation, Financing, Technical and Financial Assistance, Citizen Support, Personnel, and Action Plan and Bibliography. The guides…

  6. Determining the environmental training needs and training preferences of tribal officials on reservations in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxena, Jeeta Lakhani

    The problem of this research was to determine the priority environmental management training needs (drinking water, wastewater, and solid waste), classroom training system preferences and related cultural factors of Native American tribal officials with environmental responsibilities living on reservations in the United States. The researcher conducted telephone interviews with 18 tribal officials on reservations in diverse geographic areas of the United States to determine their classroom training preferences. These officials also responded to a mail/fax survey comprised of 28 statements describing their environmental responsibilities in the areas of drinking water, wastewater, and solid waste. Tribal officials indicated how important the statements were according to them on a scale of 1--5 (1 being low importance and 5 being high importance). Tribal officials also indicated their ability to perform in the stated areas on a scale of 1 to 5 (1 being low ability and 5 being high ability). It was found that tribal officials felt they needed training in the areas of: (1) Solid Waste: Awareness of conventional and alternative solid waste management strategies as well as assessing the reservation's need related to solid waste management. (2) Regional or Inter-Governmental Strategies : Working with the federal, and, state governments for enforcing and developing regulations. (3) Drinking water: Assessing the reservation's drinking water needs and awareness of conventional and alternative drinking water systems. (4) Training for environmental staff: Determining and planning training for environmental personnel is another area of need indicated by the responding tribal officials. (5) Wastewater : Assessing the reservations wastewater needs, compliance and liability issues and awareness of alternative and conventional wastewater systems. It was also found that tribal officials preferred: (1) Trainers who were knowledgeable about the subject matter and tribal culture

  7. NAGWS Volleyball Guide, 1989. Official Rules & Interpretations/Officiating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, Reston, VA. National Association for Girls and Women in Sport.

    This booklet contains the official rules and interpretations for officiating in volleyball competitions. Section 1 states the National Association for Girls and Women in Sport (NAGWS) interscholastic and collegiate volleyball rules for 1989-90. Section 2 presents a summary and descriptions of officiating techniques and mechanics. Study questions…

  8. Using porphyritic andesite as a new additive for improving hydrolysis and acidogenesis of solid organic wastes.

    PubMed

    Li, Dawei; Zhou, Tao; Chen, Ling; Jiang, Weizhong; Cheng, Fan; Li, Baoming; Kitamura, Yutaka

    2009-12-01

    The effects of porphyritic andesite on the hydrolysis and acidogenesis of solid organic wastes were investigated by batch and continuous experiments using a rotational drum fermentation system. The results of the batch experiment show that if porphyritic andesite (1%, 3%, and 5% reactants) is added initially, the pH level increases and hydrolysis and acidogenesis are accelerated. The highest surface based hydrolysis constant (26.4x10(-3) kgm(-2) d(-1)) and volatile solid degradation ratio (43.3%) were obtained at a 1% porphyritic andesite addition. In the continuous experiment, porphyritic andesite elevated the first order hydrolysis constant from 13.10x10(-3) d(-1) to 18.82x10(-3) d(-1). A particle mean diameter reduction rate of 33.05 microm/d and a volatile solid degradation rate of 3.53 g/L d(-1) were obtained under the hydraulic retention time of 4, 8, 12 and 16 d.

  9. A Highly Selective Sensor for Cyanide in Organic Media and on Solid Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Barare, Belygona; Babahan, Ilknur; Hijji, Yousef M.; Bonyi, Enock; Tadesse, Solomon; Aslan, Kadir

    2016-01-01

    The application of IR 786 perchlorate (IR-786) as a selective optical sensor for cyanide anion in both organic solution (acetonitrile (MeCN), 100%) and solvent-free solid surfaces was demonstrated. In MeCN, IR-786 was selective to two anions in the following order: CN− > OH−. A significant change in the characteristic dark green color of IR-786 in MeCN to yellow was observed as a result of nucleophilic addition of CN− to the fluorophore, i.e., formation of IR 786-(CN), which was also verified by a blue shift in the 775 nm absorbance peak to 430 nm. A distinct green fluorescence emission from the IR-786-(CN) in MeCN was also observed, which demonstrated the selectivity of IR-786 towards CN− in MeCN. Fluorescence emission studies of IR-786 showed that the lower detection limit and the sensitivity of IR-786 for CN− in MeCN was 0.5 μM and 0.5 to 8 μM, respectively. The potential use of IR-786 as a solvent-free solid state sensor for the selective sensing and monitoring of CN− in the environment was also demonstrated. On solvent-free solid state surfaces, the sensitivity of the IR-786 to CN− in water samples was in the range of 50–300 μM with minimal interference by OH−. PMID:26927099

  10. Biochemical methane potential tests of different autoclaved and microwaved lignocellulosic organic fractions of municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Pecorini, Isabella; Baldi, Francesco; Carnevale, Ennio Antonio; Corti, Andrea

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this research was to enhance the anaerobic biodegradability and methane production of two synthetic Organic Fractions of Municipal Solid Waste with different lignocellulosic contents by assessing microwave and autoclave pre-treatments. Biochemical Methane Potential assays were performed for 21days. Changes in the soluble fractions of the organic matter (measured by soluble chemical oxygen demand, carbohydrates and proteins), the first order hydrolysis constant kh and the cumulated methane production at 21days were used to evaluate the efficiency of microwaving and autoclaving pretreatments on substrates solubilization and anaerobic digestion. Microwave treatment led to a methane production increase of 8.5% for both the tested organic fractions while autoclave treatment had an increase ranging from 1.0% to 4.4%. Results showed an increase of the soluble fraction after pre-treatments for both the synthetic organic fractions. Soluble chemical oxygen demand observed significant increases for pretreated substrates (up to 219.8%). In this regard, the mediocre results of methane's production led to the conclusion that autoclaving and microwaving resulted in the hydrolysis of a significant fraction of non-biodegradable organic substances recalcitrant to anaerobic digestion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Bioreactor treatment of municipal solid waste landfill leachates: characterization of organic fractions.

    PubMed

    Pelaez, Ana Isabel; Sanchez, Jesus; Almendros, Gonzalo

    2009-01-01

    Quantitative and qualitative changes in organic matter were studied at different stages of treatment in a bioreactor designed to process leachates from a municipal solid waste landfill. The particulate matter (PM) and macromolecular fractions of the dissolved organic matter with solubility properties comparable to humic (acid-insoluble) and fulvic (acid-soluble) acid fractions (AI, AS, respectively) from the incoming black liquid, the bioreactor content, and the final processed effluent were isolated, quantified, and characterized by visible and infrared (IR) spectroscopies. The macromolecular signature either aliphatic (glycopeptides, carbohydrates) or aromatic (coinciding with infrared patterns of lignin, tannins etc.) enabled us to characterize the different organic fractions during the course of microbial transformation. The results reveal significant changes in the nitrogen speciation patterns within the different organic fractions isolated from the wastewater. The final increase in the relative proportions of nitrogen in the least aromatic AS fraction during microbial transformation could be related to protein formation inside the bioreactor. After biological treatment and ultrafiltration, the amount of organic matter was reduced by approximately 70%, whereas aromaticity increased in all fractions, indicating preferential elimination of aliphatic wastewater compounds. Most of the remaining fractions at the end of the process consisted of a yellow residue rich in low molecular weight AS fractions.

  12. Thermochemical Pretreatments of Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste from a Mechanical-Biological Treatment Plant

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez-Gallego, Carlos José; Fdez-Güelfo, Luis Alberto; Romero Aguilar, María de los Ángeles; Romero García, Luis Isidoro

    2015-01-01

    The organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) usually contains high lignocellulosic and fatty fractions. These fractions are well-known to be a hard biodegradable substrate for biological treatments and its presence involves limitations on the performance of anaerobic processes. To avoid this, thermochemical pretreatments have been applied on the OFMSW coming from a full-scale mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) plant, in order to pre-hydrolyze the waste and improve the organic matter solubilisation. To study the solubilisation yield, the increments of soluble organic matter have been measured in terms of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD), total volatile fatty acids (TVFA) and acidogenic substrate as carbon (ASC). The process variables analyzed were temperature, pressure and NaOH dosage. The levels of work for each variable were three: 160–180–200 °C, 3.5–5.0–6.5 bar and 2–3–4 g NaOH/L. In addition, the pretreatment time was also modified among 15 and 120 min. The best conditions for organic matter solubilisation were 160 °C, 3 g NaOH/L, 6.5 bar and 30 min, with yields in terms of DOC, sCOD, TVFA and ASC of 176%, 123%, 119% and 178% respectively. Thus, predictably the application of this pretreatment in these optimum conditions could improve the H2 production during the subsequent Dark Fermentation process. PMID:25671816

  13. Thermochemical pretreatments of organic fraction of municipal solid waste from a mechanical-biological treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Gallego, Carlos José; Fdez-Güelfo, Luis Alberto; de los Ángeles Romero Aguilar, María; Romero García, Luis Isidoro

    2015-02-09

    The organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) usually contains high lignocellulosic and fatty fractions. These fractions are well-known to be a hard biodegradable substrate for biological treatments and its presence involves limitations on the performance of anaerobic processes. To avoid this, thermochemical pretreatments have been applied on the OFMSW coming from a full-scale mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) plant, in order to pre-hydrolyze the waste and improve the organic matter solubilisation. To study the solubilisation yield, the increments of soluble organic matter have been measured in terms of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD), total volatile fatty acids (TVFA) and acidogenic substrate as carbon (ASC). The process variables analyzed were temperature, pressure and NaOH dosage. The levels of work for each variable were three: 160-180-200 °C, 3.5-5.0-6.5 bar and 2-3-4 g NaOH/L. In addition, the pretreatment time was also modified among 15 and 120 min. The best conditions for organic matter solubilisation were 160 °C, 3 g NaOH/L, 6.5 bar and 30 min, with yields in terms of DOC, sCOD, TVFA and ASC of 176%, 123%, 119% and 178% respectively. Thus, predictably the application of this pretreatment in these optimum conditions could improve the H2 production during the subsequent Dark Fermentation process.

  14. Cu Binding to Iron Oxide-Organic Matter Coprecipitates in Solid and Dissolved Phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vadas, T. M.; Koenigsmark, F.

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies indicate that Cu is released from wetlands following storm events. Assymetrical field flow field fractionation (AF4) analyses as well as total and dissolved metal concentration measurements suggest iron oxide-organic matter complexes control Cu retention and release. Coprecipitation products of Fe oxide and organic matter were prepared under conditions similar to the wetland to assess Cu partitioning to and availability from solid phases that settle from solution as well as phases remaining suspended. Cu coprecipitation and sorption to organomineral precipitation solids formed at different Fe:organic carbon (OC) ratios were compared for net Cu removal and extractability. As more humic acid was present during precipitation of Fe, TEM images indicated smaller Fe oxide particles formed within an organic matrix as expected. In coprecipitation reactions, as the ratio of Fe:OC decreased, more Cu was removed from solution at pH 5.5 and below. However, in sorption reactions, there was an inhibition of Cu removal at low OC concentrations. As the pH increased from 5.5 to 7 and as solution phase OC concentration increased, more Cu remained dissolved in both coprecipitation and sorption reactions. The addition of Ca2+, glycine, histidine and citric acid or lowering the pH resulted in more extractable Cu from the coprecipitation compared with the sorption reactions. The variations in Cu extraction were likely due to a combination of a more amorphous structure in CPT products, and the relative abundance of available Fe oxide or OC binding sites. Suspended Fe oxide-organic matter coprecipitates were assessed using AF4 coupled to online TOC analysis and ICP-MS. In laboratory prepared samples, Cu was observed in a mixture of small 1-5 nm colloids of Fe oxide-organic matter precipitates, but the majority was observed in larger organic matter colloids and were not UV absorbing, suggesting more aliphatic carbon materials. In field samples, up to 60% of the dissolved Cu

  15. Towards enhanced ligand-centred photoluminescence in inorganic-organic frameworks for solid state lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Furman, Joshua D; Melot, Brent C; Teat, Simon J; Mikhailovsky, Alexander A; Cheetham, Anthony K

    2011-11-17

    Three novel inorganic-organic framework compounds containing the organic chromophore ligand 9-fluorenone-2,7-dicarboxylic acid (abbreviated H2FDC) and barium (BaFDC), cadmium (CdFDC) and manganese (MnFDC), respectively, have been synthesized and evaluated for their use as phosphor materials for solid state lighting and other applications. The results are compared with two earlier reported structures containing the same ligand with calcium (CaFDC) and strontium (SrFDC). The barium- and cadmium-containing compounds both show blue excited, yellow photoluminescence, while the manganese structure does not. The trends in luminescent efficiency for the Ba, Cd, Ca, and Sr derivatives are discussed in relation to crystallographic, optical, and low-temperature specific heat considerations.

  16. Varicella zoster virus (VZV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV) in solid organ transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Zuckerman, R A; Limaye, A P

    2013-02-01

    Varicella zoster virus (VZV) and the two herpes simplex viruses (HSV) are human α-herpesviruses that establish life-long latency in neural ganglia after initial primary infection. In the solid organ transplant (SOT) population, manifestations of VZV or HSV may be seen in up to 70% of recipients if no prophylaxis is used, some of them life and organ threatening. While there are effective vaccines to prevent VZV primary infection and reactivation in immunocompetent adults, these vaccines are contraindicated after SOT because they are live-virus vaccines. For HSV, prevention has focused primarily on antiviral strategies because the immunologic correlates of protection and control are different from VZV, making vaccine development more challenging. Current antiviral therapy remains effective for the majority of clinical VZV and HSV infections. © Copyright 2013 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  17. Cryptococcus gattii infection in solid organ transplant recipients: description of Oregon outbreak cases.

    PubMed

    Forrest, G N; Bhalla, P; DeBess, E E; Winthrop, K L; Lockhart, S R; Mohammadi, J; Cieslak, P R

    2015-06-01

    Cryptococcus gattii was recognized as an emerging infection in the Pacific Northwest in 2004. Out of 62 total infections in Oregon since the outbreak, 11 were in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. SOT recipients were more likely to have disseminated disease and higher mortality than normal hosts, who mostly had isolated mass lesions. The median time from transplantation to C. gattii diagnosis was 17.8 months. The primary sites of infection were lung (n = 4), central nervous system (n = 3), or both (n = 4). The Oregon-endemic strain, VGII (subtypes IIa and IIc) was present in 10 of 11 patients; the median fluconazole minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was 12 μg/mL (range 2-32 μg/mL) for this strain. We found C. gattii infection among organ transplant recipients was disseminated at diagnosis, had low cerebrospinal fluid cryptococcal antigen titers, and was associated with an elevated fluconazole MIC and high attributable mortality.

  18. Surface chemistry of metal-organic frameworks at the liquid-solid interface.

    PubMed

    Zacher, Denise; Schmid, Rochus; Wöll, Christof; Fischer, Roland A

    2011-01-03

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a fascinating class of novel inorganic-organic hybrid materials. They are essentially based on classic coordination chemistry and hold much promise for unique applications ranging from gas storage and separation to chemical sensing, catalysis, and drug release. The evolution of the full innovative potential of MOFs, in particular for nanotechnology and device integration, however requires a fundamental understanding of the formation process of MOFs. Also necessary is the ability to control the growth of thin MOF films and the positioning of size- and shape-selected crystals as well as MOF heterostructures on a given surface in a well-defined and oriented fashion. MOFs are solid-state materials typically formed by solvothermal reactions and their crystallization from the liquid phase involves the surface chemistry of their building blocks. This Review brings together various key aspects of the surface chemistry of MOFs.

  19. Evaluation of thermophilic fungal consortium for organic municipal solid waste composting.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Mukesh Kumar; Pandey, Akhilesh Kumar; Khan, Jamaluddin; Bundela, Pushpendra Singh; Wong, Jonathan W C; Selvam, Ammaiyappan

    2014-09-01

    Influence of fungal consortium and different turning frequency on composting of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) was investigated to produce compost with higher agronomic value. Four piles of OFMSW were prepared: three piles were inoculated with fungal consortium containing 5l each spore suspensions of Trichoderma viride, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus and with a turning frequency of weekly (Pile 1), twice a week (Pile 2) and daily (Pile 3), while Pile 4 with weekly turning and without fungal inoculation served as control. The fungal consortium with weekly (Pile 1) turning frequency significantly affected temperature, pH, TOC, TKN, C/N ratio and germination index. High degradation of organic matter and early maturity was observed in Pile 1. Results indicate that fungal consortium with weekly turning frequency of open windrows were more cost-effective in comparison with other technologies for efficient composting and yield safe end products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Combination antiviral therapy for ganciclovir-resistant cytomegalovirus infection in solid-organ transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Mylonakis, Eleftherios; Kallas, Wendy M; Fishman, Jay A

    2002-05-15

    The resistance of cytomegalovirus (CMV) to ganciclovir is a factor in therapeutic failure and disease progression. The clinical significance of such resistance in solid-organ transplantation has not been completely established. Six patients who developed persistent infection due to ganciclovir-resistant CMV were treated with a combination of ganciclovir (50% of the therapeutic dose) and a daily dose of intravenous foscarnet that gradually increased to a maximum of 125 mg/kg. All patients responded clinically within 72-96 hours. Magnesium depletion occurred in all patients. No clinical or laboratory relapses have been observed in 6-30 months of follow-up. Gradually increasing doses of foscarnet combined with half-dose regimens of ganciclovir are safe and can be beneficial in organ transplant recipients with ganciclovir-resistant CMV infection. Larger studies are needed to identify the patients who are most likely to benefit from this regimen.

  1. Characteristics of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste and methane production: A review.

    PubMed

    Campuzano, Rosalinda; González-Martínez, Simón

    2016-08-01

    Anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) is a viable alternative for waste stabilization and energy recovery. Biogas production mainly depends on the type and amount of organic macromolecules. Based on results from different authors analysing OFMSW from different cities, this paper presents the importance of knowing the OFMSW composition to understand how anaerobic digestion can be used to produce methane. This analysis describes and discusses physical, chemical and bromatological characteristics of OFMSW reported by several authors from different countries and cities and their relationship to methane production. The main conclusion is that the differences are country and not city dependant. Cultural habits and OFMSW management systems do not allow a generalisation but the individual analysis for specific cities allow understanding the general characteristics for a better methane production. Not only are the OFMSW characteristics important but also the conditions under which the methane production tests were performed.

  2. Enhancing the bioavailability of organic compounds sequestered in soil and aquifer solids

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.C.; Alexander, M.; Pignatello, J.J.

    1999-02-01

    A study was conducted to find ways to increase the biodegradability of compounds that have aged in soil or aquifer material and become less bioavailable. Slurrying enhanced the rate and extent of biodegradation by individual bacterial strains of aged and unaged phenanthrene and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in soils and aquifer solids. After bacterial degradation of aged phenanthrene in unslurried soil had largely ceased, the residual compound was metabolized if the soil was slurried and reinoculated with a phenanthrene-degrading bacterium. The rate and extent of biodegradation of aged phenanthrene by Pseudomonas sp. were enhanced when anthracene or pyrene was added to the soil at the same time as the bacterium, although the organism could not metabolize anthracene or pyrene. Moreover, anthracene or pyrene increased the amount of aged phenanthrene removed from soil by a mild extractant. The data show that the bioavailability of organic compounds that become sequestered by aging can be altered by appropriate soil treatments.

  3. Formation of Organic Molecular Nanocrystals under Rigid Confinement with Analysis by Solid State NMR.

    PubMed

    Yang, X; Ong, T C; Michaelis, V K; Heng, S; Huang, J; Griffin, R G; Myerson, A S

    2014-10-21

    Crystallization in rigid confinement is a promising method to obtain organic molecular nanocrystals. However, the crystallization behavior and the related characterization methods are not well studied. Here we present a systematic study of the nucleation of organic molecular nanocrystals in rigid pores. Four different compounds were studied, ibuprofen, fenofibrate, griseofulvin, and indomethacin, which range from simple to complex molecules. Solid-state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) was employed to analyse the structure of these compounds inside pores which are difficult to characterize by other analytical methods. We successfully demonstrated the production of nano-crystalline ibuprofen, fenofibrate and griseofulvin in porous silica particles with ~ 40 nm pores. These nanocrystals showed significant enhancement in dissolution rates. These results help advance the fundamental understanding of nucleation under rigid confinement and may lead to potential applications in developing new formulations in the pharmaceutical industry.

  4. Formation of Organic Molecular Nanocrystals under Rigid Confinement with Analysis by Solid State NMR

    PubMed Central

    Yang, X.; Ong, T. C.; Michaelis, V. K.; Heng, S.; Huang, J.; Griffin, R. G.; Myerson, A. S.

    2014-01-01

    Crystallization in rigid confinement is a promising method to obtain organic molecular nanocrystals. However, the crystallization behavior and the related characterization methods are not well studied. Here we present a systematic study of the nucleation of organic molecular nanocrystals in rigid pores. Four different compounds were studied, ibuprofen, fenofibrate, griseofulvin, and indomethacin, which range from simple to complex molecules. Solid-state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) was employed to analyse the structure of these compounds inside pores which are difficult to characterize by other analytical methods. We successfully demonstrated the production of nano-crystalline ibuprofen, fenofibrate and griseofulvin in porous silica particles with ~ 40 nm pores. These nanocrystals showed significant enhancement in dissolution rates. These results help advance the fundamental understanding of nucleation under rigid confinement and may lead to potential applications in developing new formulations in the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:25258590

  5. Donor-Derived Coccidioides immitis Endocarditis and Disseminated Infection in the Setting of Solid Organ Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Joanna K.; Giraldeau, Genevieve; Montoya, Jose G.; Deresinski, Stan; Ho, Dora Y.; Pham, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background. Endocarditis is a rare manifestation of infection with Coccidioides. This is the first reported case of donor-derived Coccidioides endocarditis obtained from a heart transplant. Methods. We present a unique case of donor-derived Coccidioides immitis endocarditis and disseminated infection in a heart transplant patient. We also conducted a review of the literature to identify other cases of donor-derived coccidioidomycosis in solid organ transplant recipients and reviewed their clinical characteristics. Results. Fifteen prior cases of donor-derived coccidioidomycosis were identified. A majority of these cases were diagnosed by positive culture (83%). Mortality was high at 58%. Conclusions. Clinicians should maintain a high index of suspicion for disseminated coccidioidomycosis in patients who received transplants with organs from donors with a history of residing in endemic regions. PMID:27413765

  6. Direct conversion of radioactive and chemical waste containing metals, ceramics, amorphous solids, and organics to glass

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.W.; Beahm, E.C.; Parker, G.W.

    1994-05-02

    The Glass Material Oxidation and Dissolution System (CMODS) is a new process for direct conversion of radioactive, mixed, and chemical wastes to glass. The wastes can be in the chemical forms of metals, ceramics, amorphous solids, and organics. GMODS destroys organics and it incorporates heavy metals and radionuclides into a glass. Processable wastes may include miscellaneous spent fuels (SF), SF hulls and hardware, plutonium wastes in different forms, high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters, ion-exchange resins, failed equipment, and laboratory wastes. Thermodynamic calculations indicate theoretical feasibility. Small-scale laboratory experiments (< 100 g per test) have demonstrated chemical laboratory feasibility for several metals. Additional work is needed to demonstrate engineering feasibility.

  7. Native kidney function after renal transplantation combined with other solid organs in preemptive patients.

    PubMed

    Mosconi, G; Panicali, L; Persici, E; Conte, D; Cappuccilli, M L; Cuna, V; Capelli, I; Todeschini, P; D'Arcangelo, G Liviano; Stefoni, S

    2010-05-01

    Kidney transplantations combined with other solid organs are progressively increasing in number. There are no guidelines regarding the nephrologic indications for combined transplantations, namely liver-kidney (LKT), or heart-kidney (HKT), in preemptive patients with chronic kidney failure who are not on regular dialysis therapy. The objective of this study was to assess the functional contribution of the native kidneys after preemptive kidney transplantation combined with other solid organs. From 2004, 9 patients (aged 50.3 +/- 8.5 years) with chronic kidney failure (creatinine 2.5 +/- 1.0 mg/dL) caused by polycystic kidney disease (n = 4), vascular nephropathy (n = 2), interstitial nephropathy (n = 1), glomerulonephritis (n = 1), or end-stage kidney disease (n = 1), underwent combined transplantations (8 LKT, 1 HKT). A scintigraphic functional study (Tc-99DMSA or Tc-99mMAG3), was performed at 4 +/- 3 months after transplantation to evaluate the functional contribution of both the native kidneys and the graft. All patients were given immunosuppressive drugs, including a calcineurin inhibitor (tacrolimus/or cyclosporine). At the time of scintigraphy, renal function in all patients was 1.3 +/- 0.3 mg/dL. The functional contribution of the transplanted kidneys was on average 77 +/- 18%. Only in 1 patient was the contribution of the graft <50%. At follow-up after 36 months, patient and kidney survivals were 100%. The study confirmed a high risk of loss of native kidney function in the presence of organic nephropathy. In light of our experience, a creatinine clearance <30 mL/min in an appropriate cutoff for a combined transplantation. Close clinical and instrumental assessment pretransplant is essential before proceeding with a combined transplant program to exclude functional forms and to optimize the use of organs.

  8. Anaerobic digestion of pressed off leachate from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Nayono, Satoto E.; Winter, Josef; Gallert, Claudia

    2010-10-15

    A highly polluted liquid ('press water') was obtained from the pressing facility for the organic fraction of municipal solid waste in a composting plant. Methane productivity of the squeezed-off leachate was investigated in batch assays. To assess the technical feasibility of 'press water' as a substrate for anaerobic digestion, a laboratory-scale glass column reactor was operated semi-continuously at 37 {sup o}C. A high methane productivity of 270 m{sup -3} CH{sub 4} ton{sup -1} COD{sub added} or 490 m{sup -3} CH{sub 4} ton{sup -1} VS{sub added} was achieved in the batch experiment. The semi-continuously run laboratory-scale reactor was initially operated at an organic loading rate of 10.7 kg COD m{sup -3} d{sup -1}. The loading was increased to finally 27.7 kg COD m{sup -3} d{sup -1}, corresponding to a reduction of the hydraulic retention time from initially 20 to finally 7.7 days. During the digestion, a stable elimination of organic material (measured as COD elimination) of approximately 60% was achieved. Linearly with the increment of the OLR, the volumetric methane production of the reactor increased from 2.6 m{sup 3} m{sub reactor}{sup -3} d{sup -1} to 7.1 m{sup 3} m{sub reactor}{sup -3} d{sup -1}. The results indicated that 'press water' from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste was a suitable substrate for anaerobic digestion which gave a high biogas yield even at very high loading rates.

  9. Trinuclear Metal Chalcogenide Clusters as Precursors for Superatomic Solids and Cluster Organic Frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shott, Jessica Lauren

    Inorganic molecular clusters Ni3(mu3-I) 2(mu2-dppm)3 (1), Ni3(mu 3-Te)2(mu2-dppm)3 (2), Ni3(mu3-Se)2(mu2-dppm) 3 (3), Ni3(mu3-S)2(mu 2-dppm)3 (4), Co4(mu3-S) 4(PPri3)4 (5), and Mo3(mu3-S)2(mu2-S)3(PMe 3)6 (6) have been used as building block precursors in the formation of binary superatomic solids with fullerenes (1-6•C 60). These solids are crystallized from solution and charge transfer from the electron-rich molecular cluster precursors to fullerene was confirmed using infrared (IR) spectroscopy. Structural data for these superatomic solids was obtained using single-crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) experiments and suggests that their assembly is directed by noncovalent interactions. Close-contacts, reminiscent of halogen bonds, between cluster capping ligands and fulleride anions are observed in the solid state. Superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry and two-probe conductivity measurements indicate that compounds 1•C60 and 2•C 60 are paramagnetic and one hundred times more conductive than the constituent cluster precursors. Additionally, derivatives of molecular clusters 5 and 6 have been synthesized and investigated for use as superatomic secondary building units for 2D and 3D cluster organic frameworks. Characterization of these novel building blocks was accomplished using NMR spectroscopy as well as matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) and XRD analysis.

  10. Co-composting of faecal sludge and organic solid waste for agriculture: process dynamics.

    PubMed

    Cofie, Olufunke; Kone, Doulaye; Rothenberger, Silke; Moser, Daya; Zubruegg, Chris

    2009-10-01

    This paper presents the potentials and performance of combined treatment of faecal sludge (FS) and municipal solid waste (SW) through co-composting. The objectives were to investigate the appropriate SW type, SW/FS mixing ratio and the effect of turning frequency on compost maturity and quality. Solid waste (SW, as market waste, MW, or household waste, HW) was combined with dewatered FS in mixing ratios of 2:1 and 3:1 by volume and aerobically composted for 90 days. Four composting cycles were monitored and characterised to establish appropriate SW type and mixing ratio. Another set of five composting cycles were monitored to test two different turning frequencies: (i) once in 3-4 days during the thermophilic phase and 10 days during maturation phase and (ii) once in every 10 days throughout the composting period. Samples were taken at every turning and analysed for total solids (TS), total volatile solids (TVS), total organic carbon (TOC), electrical conductivity (EC), pH, ammonium and nitrate nitrogen (NH(4)-N and NO(3)-N) and total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN). Temperature, C/N ratio, NO(3)-N/NH(4)-N ratio and cress planting trials were chosen as maturity indicators. Result showed a preference of MW over HW and mixing ratio of 2:1 over 3:1. There was no significant effect of different turning frequencies on the temperature changes and the quality of mature compost. The final product contained C/N ratio of 13 and NO(3)/NH(4)-ratio of about 7.8, while TVS was about 21% TS and the NH(4)-N content was reduced to 0.01%. A co-composting duration of 12 weeks was indicated by the cress test to achieve a mature and stable product. The turning frequency of 10 days is recommended as it saves labour and still reaches safe compost with fairly high nutrient content.

  11. Mathematical model of organic substrate degradation in solid waste windrow composting.

    PubMed

    Seng, Bunrith; Kristanti, Risky Ayu; Hadibarata, Tony; Hirayama, Kimiaki; Katayama-Hirayama, Keiko; Kaneko, Hidehiro

    2016-01-01

    Organic solid waste composting is a complex process that involves many coupled physical, chemical and biological mechanisms. To understand this complexity and to ease in planning, design and management of the composting plant, mathematical model for simulation is usually applied. The aim of this paper is to develop a mathematical model of organic substrate degradation and its performance evaluation in solid waste windrow composting system. The present model is a biomass-dependent model, considering biological growth processes under the limitation of moisture, oxygen and substrate contents, and temperature. The main output of this model is substrate content which was divided into two categories: slowly and rapidly degradable substrates. To validate the model, it was applied to a laboratory scale windrow composting of a mixture of wood chips and dog food. The wastes were filled into a cylindrical reactor of 6 cm diameter and 1 m height. The simulation program was run for 3 weeks with 1 s stepwise. The simulated results were in reasonably good agreement with the experimental results. The MC and temperature of model simulation were found to be matched with those of experiment, but limited for rapidly degradable substrates. Under anaerobic zone, the degradation of rapidly degradable substrate needs to be incorporated into the model to achieve full simulation of a long period static pile composting. This model is a useful tool to estimate the changes of substrate content during composting period, and acts as a basic model for further development of a sophisticated model.

  12. International survey of cytomegalovirus management in solid organ transplantation after the publication of consensus guidelines.

    PubMed

    Le Page, Amelia K; Jager, Mischa M; Kotton, Camille N; Simoons-Smit, Alberdina; Rawlinson, William D

    2013-06-27

    The Transplantation Society published guidelines on cytomegalovirus (CMV) management after solid organ transplantation in 2010, which provide recommendations on prevention, treatment, diagnostics, and resistance. We aimed to survey international clinicians on their posttransplantation CMV management practices with reference to these guidelines to see if they altered the management of clinicians caring for transplant patients. The members of The Transplantation Society were emailed an electronic survey 12 months after the guideline publication. A total of 155 clinicians responded, representing 126 centers in 41 countries. Overall, there was a high uptake of usage of the guidelines. High rates of initial CMV prevention were used (93%), with 46% using only universal prophylaxis, 21% only preemptive therapy, and 33% a hybrid combination dependent on recipient risk for CMV. Socioeconomic and geographic influence was evident, with 26% of respondents from developing countries using no CMV prevention, and more preemptive therapy used in Asia. Valganciclovir was the most common antiviral used, with dosing often below recommendations (33% in infection). Molecular monitoring was used by 84% of clinicians. Management of antiviral-associated neutropenia commonly included antiviral dose reduction or withdrawal (51%). We conclude that there is significant geographic variation in CMV management after solid organ transplantation. Although the majority of clinicians adhere to consensus guidelines, opportunity exists to encourage better guideline uptake.

  13. Risk of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma after solid organ transplantation in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Todd M.; Engels, Eric A.; Clarke, Christina A.; Lynch, Charles F.; Weisenburger, Dennis D.; Morton, Lindsay M.

    2014-01-01

    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) arising in the context of immunosuppression is an important adverse outcome following solid organ transplantation. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most commonly diagnosed subtype of post-transplant NHL, but few studies of transplant recipients have examined subtype-specific risks. Therefore, we examined DLBCL risk in the Transplant Cancer Match Study, including registry-based cancer ascertainment among 96,615 solid organ transplants performed from 2000–2008. We determined standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) comparing DLBCL risk in transplant recipients to that in the general population, and used multivariable Poisson regression models to assess the impact of potential risk factors. We identified 321 incident cases of DLBCL, over 12 times more than expected based on general population rates (SIR=12.6, 95% CI=11.2–14.0). SIRs were highest in young recipients and those receiving a lung or pancreas/kidney-pancreas transplant, and were greatly elevated for extranodal DLBCLs at the site of the transplant compared to other sites. DLBCL risk was highest in the first year following transplant, and SIRs for early-onset DLBCL risk were elevated in association with EBV negative serostatus and use of polyclonal antibody induction therapy. In conclusion, associations between recipient and transplant factors and post-transplant DLBCL risk suggest a complicated interrelationship among multiple risk factors and timing of disease. PMID:24753070

  14. Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance does not affect outcomes in patients undergoing solid organ transplants.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Zepeda, Victor H; Heilman, Raymond L; Engel, Rodney A; Carey, Elizabeth J; Freeman, Ciara; Rakela, Jorge; Mulligan, David C; Fonseca, Rafael; Stewart, Alexander Keith

    2011-09-15

    Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) is an asymptomatic plasma cell proliferative disorder with a lifelong risk of progression to multiple myeloma or another plasma cell dyscrasia. Despite a high incidence in the general population and an increased relative risk for later malignancy, there are few reports about the clinical course of MGUS or risk profile in long-term immunosuppressed patients. We reviewed 1593 solid organ transplant patients and reported the frequency and outcomes of patients with MGUS identified pretransplant. Polyclonal gammopathy pretransplant is common with 17% of all patients and as many as 75% of liver transplant candidates having increased globulins.However, a monoclonal immunoglobulin was identified in only 3% of all solid organ transplant patients pretransplant (n=34). Importantly, in these 34 patients, no cases of progression to multiple myeloma, amyloid, or lymphoma were observed during immune suppression, and there was no association between posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders and pretransplant MGUS. Death in MGUS patients was not associated with progression of the monoclonal clone or development of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders or other malignancy. In conclusion, routine testing for MGUS before transplantation is not prognostic nor a contraindication to transplant, and therefore, it is not recommended.

  15. Could Sentinel Skin Transplants Have Some Utility in Solid Organ Transplantation?

    PubMed

    Ali, J M; Catarino, P; Dunning, J; Giele, H; Vrakas, G; Parmar, J

    2016-10-01

    Accurate diagnosis of allograft rejection can be hazardous and challenging. A strategy that has emerged from experience with vascularized composite allografts (VCAs) is the use of sentinel skin transplants (SSTs)-portions of donor skin transplanted synchronously to an allograft. Work in nonhuman animal models and experience with VCAs suggest concordance between rejection occurring in the primary allograft and the SST, and that appearance of rejection in the SST may precede rejection in the primary allograft, permitting early therapeutic intervention that may improve outcomes with lower rates of chronic rejection. The encouraging findings reported in VCA transplantation raise the possibility that SST may also be useful in solid organ transplantation. Some evidence is provided by experience with abdominal wall transplantation in some intestinal and multivisceral transplant recipients. Results from those reports raise the possibility that rejection may manifest in the skin component before emergence in the intestinal allograft, providing a "lead time" during which treatment of rejection of the abdominal wall could prevent the emergence of intestinal rejection. It is plausible that these findings may be extrapolated to other solid organ allografts, especially those for which obtaining an accurate diagnosis of acute rejection can be hazardous and challenging, such as the lung or pancreas. However, more data are required to support widespread adoption of this technique. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of organic loading rate during anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Hiya; Kumar, Pradeep; Kumar, Sunil; Mukherjee, Somnath; Vaidya, Atul N

    2016-10-01

    The effect of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and volatile solids (VS) on subsequent methane (CH4) production during anaerobic digestion (AD) of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) was studied in a laboratory-scale digester. The experiment was performed in 2L anaerobic digester under different experimental conditions using different input mass co-digested with inoculum and organic loading rate (OLR) for 27days at 38±2°C. Three digesters (digesters 1, 2 and 3) were operated at initial loading of 5.1, 10.4 and 15.2g/L CODS per batch which were reduced to 77.9% and 84.2%, respectively. Cumulative biogas productions were 9.3, 10.7 and 17.7L in which CH4 yields were 84.3, 101.0 and 168.4mL/gVS removal in digesters 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The observed COD removal was found to be influenced on variation in CH4 production. Co-efficient of determination (R(2)) was 0.67 and 0.74 in digesters 1 and 2, respectively.

  17. Systematic review of melanoma incidence and prognosis in solid organ transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Dahlke, Erin; Murray, Christian Alexander; Kitchen, Jessica; Chan, An-Wen

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous melanoma carries the potential for substantial morbidity and mortality in the solid organ transplant population. We systematically reviewed the literature published from January 1995 to January 2012 to determine the overall relative risk and prognosis of melanoma in transplant recipients. Our search identified 7,512 citations. Twelve unique non-overlapping studies reported the population-based incidence of melanoma in an inception cohort of solid organ transplant recipients. Compared to the general population, there is a 2.4-fold (95% confidence interval, 2.0 to 2.9) increased incidence of melanoma after transplantation. No population-based outcome data were identified for melanoma arising post-transplant. Data from non-population based cohort studies suggest a worse prognosis for late-stage melanoma developing after transplantation compared with the general population. For patients with a history of pre-transplant melanoma, one population-based study reported a local recurrence rate of 11% (2/19) after transplantation, although staging and survival information was lacking. There is a need for population-based data on the prognosis of melanoma arising pre- and post-transplantation. Increased incidence and potentially worse melanoma outcomes in this high-risk population have implications for clinical care in terms of prevention, screening and reduction of immunosuppression after melanoma development post-transplant, as well as transplantation decisions in patients with a history of pre-transplant melanoma.

  18. Systematic review of melanoma incidence and prognosis in solid organ transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous melanoma carries the potential for substantial morbidity and mortality in the solid organ transplant population. We systematically reviewed the literature published from January 1995 to January 2012 to determine the overall relative risk and prognosis of melanoma in transplant recipients. Our search identified 7,512 citations. Twelve unique non-overlapping studies reported the population-based incidence of melanoma in an inception cohort of solid organ transplant recipients. Compared to the general population, there is a 2.4-fold (95% confidence interval, 2.0 to 2.9) increased incidence of melanoma after transplantation. No population-based outcome data were identified for melanoma arising post-transplant. Data from non-population based cohort studies suggest a worse prognosis for late-stage melanoma developing after transplantation compared with the general population. For patients with a history of pre-transplant melanoma, one population-based study reported a local recurrence rate of 11% (2/19) after transplantation, although staging and survival information was lacking. There is a need for population-based data on the prognosis of melanoma arising pre- and post-transplantation. Increased incidence and potentially worse melanoma outcomes in this high-risk population have implications for clinical care in terms of prevention, screening and reduction of immunosuppression after melanoma development post-transplant, as well as transplantation decisions in patients with a history of pre-transplant melanoma. PMID:24834346

  19. Anaerobic fermentation of organic solid wastes: volatile fatty acid production and separation.

    PubMed

    Yesil, H; Tugtas, A E; Bayrakdar, A; Calli, B

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic fermentation of organic municipal solid waste was investigated using a leach-bed reactor (LBR) to assess the volatile fatty acid (VFA) production efficiency. The leachate recycle rate in the LBR affected the VFA composition of the leachate. A six-fold increase in the recycle rate resulted in an increase of the acetic acid fraction of leachate from 24.7 to 43.0%. The separation of VFAs via leachate replacement resulted in higher total VFA production. VFA separation from synthetic VFA mix and leachate of a fermented organic waste was assessed via a counter-current flow polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membrane contactor. Acetic and propionic acid permeation fluxes of 13.12 and 14.21 g/m(2).h were obtained at low feed pH values when a synthetic VFA mix was used as a feed solution. The highest selectivity was obtained for caproic acid compared to that of other VFAs when synthetic VFA mix or leachate was used as a feed solution. High pH values and the presence of suspended solids in the leachate adversely affected the permeation rate.

  20. Do NK-cell receptors and alloreactivity affect solid organ transplantation?

    PubMed

    Vilches, Carlos; Parham, Peter

    2006-12-01

    Although natural killer cells lyse targets without pre-sensitization, and in an MHC-unrestricted manner, they can also respond to healthy allogeneic cells of different MHC type. Such alloreactivity is a consequence of NK cells using clonally distributed, inhibitory MHC class I receptors to achieve tolerance to healthy autologous cells. Absence of an appropriate MHC class I ligand on an allogeneic cell erroneously informs the NK cell that the allogeneic cell has lost MHC class I expression and should be killed. Potential NK-cell allo-reactivities are common in non-HLA-identical hematopoietic cell transplants and can have both beneficial and detrimental effects. Less is known of NK-cell allo-reactivities in solid organ transplantation. In animal models NK cells are neither necessary nor sufficient for acute transplant rejection, but they can make a contribution by helping activate T cells. Genes encoding NK-cell receptors for polymorphic MHC class I molecules are also highly polymorphic, contributing to variability of the NK-cell repertoire and response in the human population. These receptors could represent intrinsic patient factors that influence the success of their transplanted solid organs.

  1. PRES in Children Undergoing Hematopoietic Stem Cell or Solid Organ Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Masetti, Riccardo; Cordelli, Duccio Maria; Zama, Daniele; Vendemini, Francesca; Biagi, Carlotta; Franzoni, Emilio; Pession, Andrea

    2015-05-01

    Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a clinical neuroradiologic entity that is becoming increasingly well known and documented in pediatrics. It is characterized by a variable association of seizures, headache, vomiting, altered mental status, visual disturbances, and seizures, as well as imaging suggesting white-gray matter edema involving the posterior regions of the central nervous system in most cases. The pathophysiology of PRES remains unclear. Although PRES has been associated with a widespread range of clinical conditions, namely infections, adverse drug events, autoimmune diseases, and many others, its onset after hematopoietic stem cell and solid organ transplantation remains the most commonly reported. Historically, PRES has proved to be generally reversible and associated with good clinical outcomes; however, severe complications, sometimes life-threatening, can also occur. Most reported cases of childhood PRES after hematopoietic stem cell or solid organ transplantation have been case reports or series across a broad spectrum of different transplant settings, and no clear consensus exists regarding how best to manage the syndrome. Thus, in this article, we provide a comprehensive review of the pathophysiological, clinical, and diagnostic aspects of PRES in children, with a specific focus on the transplant scenario. Differential diagnoses with other neurologic complications after pediatric transplantation are reviewed, and crucial issues in the management of PRES and the development of future research are ultimately addressed.

  2. Bacterial community analysis in upflow multilayer anaerobic reactor treating high-solids organic wastes.

    PubMed

    Cho, Si-Kyung; Jung, Kyung-Won; Kim, Dong-Hoon; Kwon, Joong-Chun; Ijaz, Umer Zeeshan; Shin, Seung Gu

    2017-08-25

    A novel anaerobic digestion configuration, the upflow multi-layer anaerobic reactor (UMAR), was developed to treat high-solids organic wastes. The UMAR was hypothesized to form multi-layer along depth due to the upflow plug flow; use of a recirculation system and a rotating distributor and baffles aimed to assist treating high-solids influent. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency and methane (CH4 ) production rate were 89% and 2.10 L CH4 /L/d, respectively, at the peak influent COD concentration (110.4 g/L) and organic loading rate (7.5 g COD/L/d). The 454 pyrosequencing results clearly indicated heterogeneous distribution of bacterial communities at different vertical locations (upper, middle, and bottom) of the UMAR. Firmicutes was the dominant (>70%) phylum at the middle and bottom parts, while Deltaproteobacteria and Chloroflexi were only found in the upper part. Potential functions of the bacteria were discussed to speculate on their roles in the anaerobic performance of the UMAR system. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2017. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  3. Medication adherence among adolescent solid-organ transplant recipients: A survey of healthcare providers.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Pooja; Steinberg, Elizabeth A; Kelly, Sarah L; Buchanan, Cindy; Rawlinson, Alana Resmini

    2017-07-02

    The aim of this study was to assess healthcare provider perspectives on barriers to medication adherence and to discover recommendations for interventions among providers of pediatric solid-organ transplant patients. An anonymous online survey was administered to a multidisciplinary pool of pediatric transplant providers from February 2015 to March 2016. It consisted of 15 questions regarding transplant providers' attitudes, clinical practice, and beliefs pertaining to medication adherence among teenage solid-organ transplant recipients. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Responses to open-ended questions were coded and categorized into themes. One hundred ten surveys were completed by providers specializing in pediatric heart, kidney, liver, lung, and/or intestinal transplantation. Commonly cited reasons for poor adherence were forgetting/poor planning (94%), the desire to be normal (86%), lack of support (86%), and poor parental monitoring (79%). Suggestions to improve adherence included increasing peer and family support, providing education, and incorporating technology into adherence regimens. Barriers to adherence in transplant patients are recognized by providers and are both similar to and disparate from patient and family identified barriers published in the literature. Providers recognize the importance of education, social support, and technologically driven interventions on improving outcomes in the transplant population. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Factors influencing mortality in solid organ transplant recipients with bloodstream infection.

    PubMed

    Oriol, I; Sabé, N; Melilli, E; Lladó, L; González-Costello, J; Soldevila, L; Carratalà, J

    2015-12-01

    Although bloodstream infection (BSI) is a major cause of mortality after solid organ transplantation, information regarding its prognostic factors is scarce. To identify risk factors for 30-day mortality in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients with BSI, we prospectively recorded all episodes of BSI occurring in adult SOT recipients from January 2007 to October 2014 at a university hospital. We identified 361 consecutive episodes of BSI involving 246 patients. The 30-day case-fatality rate from the onset of BSI was 11.4%. Factors independently associated with 30-day mortality in a logistic regression analysis were shock at presentation (OR 13.658; 95% CI 5.985-31.168), acute graft rejection in the previous 6 months (OR 3.681; 95% CI 1.059-12.795), and a platelet count of <50,000 × 10(9)/L (OR 3.070; 95% CI 1.173-8.038). Kidney recipients were the patients with the best prognosis (OR 0.375; 95% CI 0.156-0.900). Our findings may help to identify SOT recipients with BSI who are at the highest risk of death. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Contribution of natural organic matter to copper leaching from municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash.

    PubMed

    Van Zomeren, André; Comans, Rob N J

    2004-07-15

    The leaching of heavy metals, such as copper, from municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash is a concern in many countries and may inhibit the beneficial reuse of this secondary material. The enhanced leaching of copper from three MSWI bottom ash samples by dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was investigated with specific attention for the nature of the organic ligands. A competitive ligand exchange-solvent extraction (CLE-SE) method was used to measure Cu binding to DOC. Two types of binding sites for Cu were identified and geochemical modeling showed that the organically bound fraction varied from 82% to 100% between pH 6.6 and 10.6. Model calculations showed that complexation by previously identified aliphatic and aromatic acids was unable to explain the enhanced Cu leaching from the MSWI residues. High-performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) and the standard extraction procedure to isolate and purify natural organic matter revealed that about 0.5% of DOC consists of humic acids and 14.3-25.6% consists of fulvic acids. Calculated Cu binding isotherms based on these natural organic compounds, and the nonideal competitive adsorption-Donnan (NICA-Donnan) model, provide an adequate description of the organic Cu complexation in the bottom ash leachates. The results show that fulvic acid-type components exist in MSWI bottom ash leachates and are likely responsible for the generally observed enhanced Cu leaching from these residues. These findings enable the use of geochemical speciation programs, which include models and intrinsic parameters for metal binding to natural organic matter, to predict Cu leaching from this widely produced waste material under variable environmental conditions (e.g., pH, ionic strength, and concentrations of competing metals). The identified role of fulvic acids in the leaching of Cu and possibly other heavy metals can also be used in the development of techniques to improve the environmental quality of MSWI bottom ash.

  6. Hyperfine interaction and its effects on spin dynamics in organic solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Z. G.; Ding, Feizhi; Wang, Haobin

    2013-05-01

    Hyperfine interaction (HFI) and spin-orbit coupling are two major sources that affect electron spin dynamics. Here we present a systematic study of the HFI and its role in organic spintronic applications. For electron spin dynamics in disordered π-conjugated organics, the HFI can be characterized by an effective magnetic field whose modular square is a weighted sum of contact and dipolar contributions. We determine the effective HFI fields of some common π-conjugated organics studied in the literature via first-principles calculations. Most of them are found to be less than 2 mT. While the H atoms are the major source of the HFI in organics containing only the C and H atoms, many organics contain other nuclear spins, such as Al and N in tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum, that contribute to the total HFI. Consequently, the deuteration effect on the HFI in the latter may be much weaker than in the former. The HFI gives rise to multiple resonance peaks in electron spin resonance. In disordered organic solids, these individual resonances are unresolved, leading to a broad peak whose width is proportional to the effective HFI field. As electrons hop among adjacent organic molecules, they experience a randomly varying local HFI field, inducing electron spin relaxation and diffusion. This is analyzed rigorously based on master equations. Electron spin relaxation undergoes a crossover along the ratio between the electron hopping rate η¯ and the Larmor frequency Ω of the HFI field. The spin relaxation rate increases (decreases) with η¯ when η¯≪Ω (η¯≫Ω). A coherent beating of electron spin at Ω is possible when the external field is small compared to the HFI. In this regime, the magnetic field is found to enhance the spin relaxation.

  7. Contributions from transport, solid fuel burning and cooking to primary organic aerosols in two UK cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allan, J. D.; Williams, P. I.; Morgan, W. T.; Martin, C. L.; Flynn, M. J.; Lee, J.; Nemitz, E.; Phillips, G. J.; Gallagher, M. W.; Coe, H.

    2010-01-01

    Organic matter frequently represents the single largest fraction of fine particulates in urban environments and yet the exact contributions from different sources and processes remain uncertain, owing in part to its substantial chemical complexity. Positive Matrix Factorisation (PMF) has recently proved to be a powerful tool for the purposes of source attribution and profiling when applied to ambient organic aerosol data from the Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS). Here we present PMF analysis applied to AMS data from UK cities for the first time. Three datasets are analysed, with the focus on objectivity and consistency. The data were collected in London during the Regent's Park and Tower Environmental Experiment (REPARTEE) intensives and Manchester. These occurred during the autumn and wintertime, such that the primary fraction would be prominent. Ambiguities associated with rotationality within sets of potential solutions are explored and the most appropriate solution sets selected based on comparisons with external data. In addition to secondary organic aerosols, three candidate sources of primary organic aerosol (POA) were identified according to mass spectral and diurnal profiles; traffic emissions, cooking and solid fuel burning (for space heating). Traffic represented, on average, 40% of POA during colder conditions and exhibited a hydrocarbon-like mass spectrum similar to those previously reported. Cooking aerosols represented 34% of POA and through laboratory work, their profile was matched with that sampled from the heating of seed oils, rather than previously-published spectra derived from charbroiling. This suggests that in these locations, oil from frying may have contributed more to the particulate than the meat itself. Solid fuel aerosols represented 26% of POA during cold weather conditions but were not discernable during the first REPARTEE campaign, when conditions were warmer than the other campaigns. This factor showed features associated

  8. Contributions from transport, solid fuel burning and cooking to primary organic aerosols in two UK cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allan, J. D.; Williams, P. I.; Morgan, W. T.; Martin, C. L.; Flynn, M. J.; Lee, J.; Nemitz, E.; Phillips, G. J.; Gallagher, M. W.; Coe, H.

    2009-09-01

    Organic matter frequently represents the single largest fraction of fine particulates in urban environments and yet the exact contributions from different sources and processes remain uncertain, owing in part to its substantial chemical complexity. Positive Matrix Factorisation (PMF) has recently proved to be a powerful tool for the purposes of source attribution and profiling when applied to ambient organic aerosol data from the Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS). Here we present PMF analysis applied to AMS data from UK cities for the first time. Three datasets are analysed, with the focus on objectivity and consistency. The data were collected in London during the Regent's Park and Tower Environmental Experiment (REPARTEE) intensives and Manchester. These occurred during the autumn and wintertime, such that the primary fraction would be prominent. Ambiguities associated with rotationality within sets of potential solutions are explored and the most appropriate solution sets selected based on comparisons with external data. In addition to secondary organic aerosols, three candidate sources of primary organic aerosol (POA) were identified according to mass spectral and diurnal profiles; traffic emissions, cooking and solid fuel burning. Traffic represented, on average, 40% of POA during colder conditions and exhibited a hydrocarbon-like mass spectrum similar to those previously reported. Cooking aerosols represented 34% of POA and through laboratory work, their profile was matched with that sampled from the heating of seed oils, rather than previously-published spectra derived from charbroiling. This suggests that in these locations, oil from frying may have contributed more to the particulate than the meat itself. Solid fuel aerosols represented 26% of POA during cold weather conditions but were not discernable during the first REPARTEE experiment, when conditions were warmer than the other campaigns. This factor showed features associated with biomass

  9. Co-composting solid swine manure with pine sawdust as organic substrate.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yun; He, Yong

    2006-11-01

    The main objectives of this work were to investigate the evolution of the principal physicochemical properties, i.e., bulk temperature, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), moisture content, total organic matter, total nitrogen and total phosphorus, in co-composting pine sawdust with increasing percentages of fresh solid swine manure, and thus to evaluate the most desirable manure proportion for producing organic substrates in consideration of the quality of the resulted compost. The composting was in four identical 100.5l lab vessels, using 5% each tea leaves and herb residues as conditioners. The swine manure was added in the trials at 20%, 30%, 40%, respectively, and was substituted in the control with 30% lake sludge corrected by 0.5% urea. The initial humidity of each treatment was 60+/-2%. While being aerated actively at approximately 0.3m(3)/min at intervals of 10 min/h, the mixture was composted for 29 days. The results indicated that N and P decomposition primarily occurred in the mesophilic phase, while organic carbon decomposed in the thermophilic phase and 30% swine manure with initial C/N ratio of about 40 was more desirable for composting organic substrates.

  10. Organic-vapor-liquid-solid deposition with an impinging gas jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Daniel W.; Bufkin, Kevin; Baronov, Alexandr A.; Johnson, Brad L.; Patrick, David L.

    2012-04-01

    A method for rapid, mass-efficient deposition of highly crystalline organic films under near ambient conditions of pressure and temperature is reported based on delivery of an organic precursor via an impinging gas jet to a substrate coated by a thin liquid solvent layer. Films of the organic semiconductor tetracene were deposited by sublimation into a flow of argon carrier gas directed at an indium-tin-oxide/glass substrate coated by a thin layer of bis(2-ethylhexyl)sebecate, and growth was followed in situ with optical microscopy. A fluid dynamics model is applied to account for the gas phase transport and aggregation, and the results compared to experiment. The combination of gas jet delivery with an organic-vapor-liquid-solid growth mechanism leads to larger crystals and lower nucleation densities than on bare surfaces, with markedly different nucleation and growth kinetics. An explanation based on enhanced solution-phase diffusivity and a larger critical nucleus size in the liquid layer is proposed to account for the differences.

  11. PARTITION INFRARED METHOD FOR TOTAL GASOLINE RANGE ORGANICS IN WATER BASED ON SOLID PHASE MICROEXTRACTION. (R825343)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new method is described for determining total gasoline-range organics
    (TGRO) in water that combines solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and infrared
    (IR) spectroscopy. In this method, the organic compounds are extracted from
    250-mL of water into a small square (3....

  12. PARTITION INFRARED METHOD FOR TOTAL GASOLINE RANGE ORGANICS IN WATER BASED ON SOLID PHASE MICROEXTRACTION. (R825343)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new method is described for determining total gasoline-range organics
    (TGRO) in water that combines solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and infrared
    (IR) spectroscopy. In this method, the organic compounds are extracted from
    250-mL of water into a small square (3....

  13. Performance and kinetic study of semi-dry thermophilic anaerobic digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Sajeena Beevi, B; Madhu, G; Sahoo, Deepak Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) is promoted as an energy source and waste disposal. In this study semi dry anaerobic digestion of organic solid wastes was conducted for 45 days in a lab-scale batch experiment for total solid concentration of 100g/L for investigating the start-up performances under thermophilic condition (50 °C). The performance of the reactor was evaluated by measuring the daily biogas production and calculating the degradation of total solids and the total volatile solids. The biogas yield at the end of the digestion was 52.9L/kg VS (volatile solid) for the total solid (TS) concentration of 100g/L. About 66.7% of the volatile solid degradation was obtained during the digestion. A first order model based on the availability of substrate as the limiting factor was used to perform the kinetic studies of batch anaerobic digestion system. The value of reaction rate constant, k, obtained was 0.0249 day(-1).

  14. Solid-State ¹⁷O NMR studies of organic and biological molecules: Recent advances and future directions.

    PubMed

    Wu, Gang

    2016-02-01

    This Trends article highlights the recent advances published between 2012 and 2015 in solid-state (17)O NMR for organic and biological molecules. New developments in the following areas are described: (1) new oxygen-containing functional groups, (2) metal organic frameworks, (3) pharmaceuticals, (4) probing molecular motion in organic solids, (5) dynamic nuclear polarization, and (6) paramagnetic coordination compounds. For each of these areas, the author offers his personal views on important problems to be solved and possible future directions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. HTLV-1 in solid-organ transplantation: current challenges and future management strategies.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Matthew J; Corbett, Christopher; Rowe, Ian A; Taylor, Graham P; Neuberger, James M

    2012-12-15

    Human T-cell lymphotrophic virus (HTLV)-1 has been reported after solid-organ transplantation, with a related fatal outcome in less than five cases. The natural history of HTLV-1 transmission from donor to recipient is unknown in this setting, because available screening platforms are suboptimal in low-prevalence areas and there is a lack of long-term follow-up. Minimizing organ wastage due to false-positive screening and avoiding donor-derived HTLV-associated diseases remain the goal. To date, only six HTLV-naive organ recipients from four donors (only one had confirmed HTLV) have developed HTLV-associated disease after transplantation. All of these cases were described in countries or from donors from HTLV-endemic regions. To the best of our knowledge, there have been no reported cases of donor-derived HTLV-1-associated death after organ transplantation in the world. Based on data from low-prevalence countries (Europe and the United States) and the current shortage of donor organs, it appears plausible to authorize the decision to transplant an organ without the prior knowledge of the donor's HTLV-1 status. Currently, it is not possible to exclude such transmission and recipients should be informed of the possible inadvertent transmission of this (and other) infections at the time of consent. In those cases where HTLV-1 transmission does occur, there may be a therapeutic window in which use of antiviral agents (i.e., zidovudine and raltegravir) may be of benefit. The development of national/international registries should allow a greater understanding of the extent and consequences of transmission risk and so allow a more evidence-based approach to management.

  16. The Potential of Amorphous Solid Secondary Organic Aerosol to Form Mixed-Phase and Cirrus Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knopf, D. A.; Wang, B.; Lambe, A. T.; Massoli, P.; Onasch, T. B.; Davidovits, P.; Worsnop, D. R.

    2012-12-01

    Atmospheric ice formation by heterogeneous nucleation, which results in cirrus and mixed-phase cloud formation, is one of the least understood processes affecting the global radiation budget, the hydrological cycle, and water vapor distribution. It is commonly assumed that inorganic particles such as mineral dust and solid ammonium sulfate represent important atmospheric ice nuclei (IN). However, a growing body of evidence suggests that secondary organic aerosols (SOA), which are ubiquitous in the atmosphere, exist in a solid (glassy) state. This implies that SOA may also play a role in ice cloud formation by acting as IN, but has not previously been experimentally verified. Here, we report observations of water uptake and ice nucleation via condensation, immersion, and deposition modes initiated by amorphous SOA particles at temperatures from T = 200 - 250 K and relative humidity (RH) from subsaturation conditions up to water saturation. SOA particles with oxygen-to-carbon (O/C) ratios ranging from 0.3 to 1.0 are generated from gas-phase OH oxidation of naphthalene in a flow reactor. At T > 230 K, water uptake at subsaturation conditions is correlated with SOA oxidation level (O/C ratio). This initial water uptake is followed by a moisture-induced phase transition and subsequent immersion freezing. At T < 230 K, the SOA forms ice via deposition nucleation at RH with respect to ice 10-15% below the homogeneous ice nucleation limit, with no apparent dependence on oxidation level. The SOA glass transition temperature (Tg) is estimated as a function of RH, temperature, and SOA oxidation level from corresponding measurements of particle density, hygroscopicity, and bounced fraction, the latter indicating particle phase state. Above Tg, water uptake and immersion freezing is observed when the particles are liquid or semi-solid. Below Tg, deposition ice nucleation is observed when the particles are solid. The data show that particle phase and viscosity govern the

  17. Outcomes of Foot and Ankle Surgery in Diabetic Patients Who Have Undergone Solid Organ Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Zou, Richard H; Wukich, Dane K

    2015-01-01

    Foot and ankle problems are highly prevalent in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Increased rates of surgical site infections and noninfectious complications, such as malunion, delayed union, nonunion, and hardware failure, have also been more commonly observed in diabetic patients who undergo foot and ankle surgery. DM is a substantial contributor of perioperative morbidity in patients with solid organ transplantation. To the best of our knowledge, postoperative foot and ankle complications have not been studied in a cohort of diabetic patients who previously underwent solid organ transplantation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the outcomes of foot and ankle surgery in a cohort of diabetic transplant patients and to compare these outcomes with those of diabetic patients without a history of transplantation. We compared the rates of infectious and noninfectious complications after foot and ankle surgery in 28 diabetic transplant patients and 56 diabetic patients without previous transplantation and calculated the odds ratios (OR) for significant findings. The diabetic transplant patients who underwent foot and ankle surgery in the present cohort were not at an increased risk of overall complications (OR 0.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.33 to 2.08, p = .67), infectious complications (OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.09 to 3.09, p = .49), or noninfectious complications (OR 1.14, 95% CI 0.41 to 3.15, p = .81). Four transplant patients (14.3%) died of non-orthopedic surgery-related events during the follow-up period; however, no deaths occurred in the control group. Diabetic patients with previous solid organ transplantation were not at an increased risk of developing postoperative complications after foot and ankle surgery, despite being immunocompromised. The transplant patients had a greater mortality rate, but their premature death was unrelated to their foot and ankle surgery. Surgeons treating transplant patients can recommend foot and ankle surgery when

  18. EPICO 3.0. Antifungal prophylaxis in solid organ transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Zaragoza, Rafael; Aguado, José María; Ferrer, Ricard; Rodríguez, Alejandro H; Maseda, Emilio; Llinares, Pedro; Grau, Santiago; Muñoz, Patricia; Fortún, Jesús; Bouzada, Mercedes; Pozo, Juan Carlos Del; León, Rafael

    Although over the past decade the management of invasive fungal infection has improved, considerable controversy persists regarding antifungal prophylaxis in solid organ transplant recipients. To identify the key clinical knowledge and make by consensus the high level recommendations required for antifungal prophylaxis in solid organ transplant recipients. Spanish prospective questionnaire, which measures consensus through the Delphi technique, was conducted anonymously and by e-mail with 30 national multidisciplinary experts, specialists in invasive fungal infections from six national scientific societies, including intensivists, anesthetists, microbiologists, pharmacologists and specialists in infectious diseases that responded to 12 questions prepared by the coordination group, after an exhaustive review of the literature in the last few years. The level of agreement achieved among experts in each of the categories should be equal to or greater than 70% in order to make a clinical recommendation. In a second term, after extracting the recommendations of the selected topics, a face-to-face meeting was held with more than 60 specialists who were asked to validate the pre-selected recommendations and derived algorithm. Echinocandin antifungal prophylaxis should be considered in liver transplant with major risk factors (retransplantation, renal failure requiring dialysis after transplantation, pretransplant liver failure, not early reoperation, or MELD>30); heart transplant with hemodialysis, and surgical re-exploration after transplantation; environmental colonization by Aspergillus, or cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection; and pancreas and intestinal transplant in case of acute graft rejection, hemodialysis, initial graft dysfunction, post-perfusion pancreatitis with anastomotic problems or need for laparotomy after transplantation. Antifungal fluconazole prophylaxis should be considered in liver transplant without major risk factors and MELD 20-30, split or living

  19. Effect of alkalinity on the performance of a simulated landfill bioreactor digesting organic solid wastes.

    PubMed

    Ağdağ, Osman Nuri; Sponza, Delia Teresa

    2005-05-01

    This study investigated the effects of alkalinity on the anaerobic treatment of the organic solid wastes collected from the kitchen of Engineering Faculty in Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir, Turkey and the leachate characteristics treated in three simulated landfill anaerobic bioreactors. All of the reactors were operated with leachate recirculation. One reactor was operated without alkalinity addition. The second reactor was operated by the addition of 3 g l-1 d-1 of NaHCO3 alkalinity to the leachate and the third reactor was operated by the addition of 6 g l-1 d-1 NaHCO3 alkalinity to the leachate. After 65 d of anaerobic incubation, it was observed that the chemical oxygen demand (COD), volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentrations, and biochemical oxygen demand to chemical oxygen demand (BOD5/COD) ratios in the leachate samples produced from the alkalinity added reactors were lower than the control reactor while the pH values were higher than the control reactor. The COD values were measured as 18900, 3800 and 2900 mg l-1 while the VFA concentrations were 6900, 1400 and 1290 mg l-1, respectively, in the leachate samples of the control, and reactors containing 3 g l-1 NaHCO3 and 6 g l-1 NaHCO3 after 65 d of anaerobic incubation. The total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) and ammonium nitrogen (NH4-N) concentrations in organic solid waste (OSW) significantly reduced in the reactor containing 6 g l-1 NaHCO3 by d 65. The values of pH were 6.54, 7.19 and 7.31, after 65 d of anaerobic incubation, respectively, in the aforementioned reactors results in neutral environmental conditions in alkalinity added reactors. Methane percentage of the control, reactors containing 3 g l-1 NaHCO3 and 6 g l-1 NaHCO3 were 37%, 64% and 65%, respectively, after 65 d of incubation. BOD5/COD ratios of 0.27 and 0.25 were achieved in the 3 and 6 g l-1 NaHCO3 containing reactors, indicating a better OSW stabilization. Alkalinity addition reduced the waste quantity, the organic content of the

  20. Generic immunosuppression in solid organ transplantation: systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Molnar, Amber O; Fergusson, Dean; Tsampalieros, Anne K; Bennett, Alexandria; Fergusson, Nicholas; Ramsay, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the clinical efficacy and bioequivalence of generic immunosuppressive drugs in patients with solid organ transplants. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of all studies comparing generic with innovator immunosuppressive drugs. Data sources Medline and Embase from 1980 to September 2014. Review methods A literature search was performed for all studies comparing a generic to an innovator immunosuppressive drug in solid organ transplantation. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed quality of studies. Meta-analyses of prespecified outcomes were performed when deemed appropriate. Outcomes included patient survival, allograft survival, acute rejection, adverse events and bioequivalence. Results 1679 citations were screened, of which 50 studies met eligibility criteria (17 randomized trials, 15 non-randomized interventional studies, and 18 observational studies). Generics were compared with Neoral (cyclosporine) (32 studies), Prograf (tacrolimus) (12 studies), and Cellcept (mycophenolate mofetil) (six studies). Pooled analysis of randomized controlled trials in patients with kidney transplants that reported bioequivalence criteria showed that Neoral (two studies) and Prograf (three studies) were not bioequivalent with generic preparations according to criteria of the European Medicines Agency. The single Cellcept trial also did not meet bioequivalence. Acute rejection was rare but did not differ between groups. For Neoral, the pooled Peto odds ratio was 1.23 (95% confidence interval 0.64 to 2.36) for kidney randomized controlled trials and 0.66 (0.40 to 1.08) for observational studies. For kidney observational studies, the pooled Peto odds ratios were 0.98 (0.37 to 2.60) for Prograf and 0.49 (0.09 to 2.56) for Cellcept. Meta-analyses for non-renal solid organ transplants were not performed because of a lack of data.There were insufficient data reported on patient or graft survival. Pooling of results was limited by inconsistent

  1. Determination of Volatile Organic Compounds Content Using Novel Ash and Total Solids Analysis for Chemical Agent Resistant Coating Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-01

    Determination of Volatile Organic Compounds Content Using Novel Ash and Total Solids Analysis for Chemical Agent Resistant Coating Systems...Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005-5069 ARL-TR-4625 October 2008 Determination of Volatile Organic Compounds Content Using Novel Ash and...To) 25 November 2006–17 July 2008 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Determination of Volatile Organic Compounds

  2. Management of various organic fractions of municipal solid waste via recourse to VFA and biogas generation.

    PubMed

    Khardenavis, Anshuman Arun; Wang, Jing Yuan; Ng, Wun Jern; Purohit, Hemant J

    2013-01-01

    A hybrid anaerobic solid-liquid system was used for anaerobic digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) consisting of mixed food + fruit waste and vegetable waste. Hydrolysis and acidogenesis potential of the above wastes were evaluated with the aim of producing value-added products in the form of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and biogas recovery. Efficient hydrolysis and acidogenesis of mixed food + fruit waste was observed at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 1-3 d with a five-fold increase in soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) followed by VFA production consisting of 50-75% acetic acid. Longer time was required for hydrolysis of vegetable waste with optimum hydrolysis and SCOD generation at 9 d HRT followed by VFA synthesis consisting of 45% acetic acid. Higher inoculum:substrate ratios resulted in improved hydrolysis and acidogenesis rates for vegetable waste in shorter time of 6 d with higher VFA production and increase in acetic acid content to 70%. When acidogenic leachate was fed into methanogenic reactors, detectable biogas production was observed after 25 d with 37-53% SCOD removal from leachate from mixed food + fruit waste and methane production of 0.066-0.1 L g(-1) SCOD removed and methane content of 38%. Though biogas yield from acidogenic leachate from vegetable waste was lower, nearly 94% volatile solids (VS) removal was observed in the reactors thereby providing methane yield of 0.13-0.21 L g(-1) VS consumed. Thus, the study provided a method for generation of value-added products from an otherwise misplaced resource in the form of OFMSW.

  3. A Descriptive Analysis of 1251 Solid Organ Transplant Visits to the Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Unterman, Sarah; Zimmerman, Michael; Tyo, Carissa; Sterk, Ethan; Gehm, Lisa; Edison, Marcia; Benedetti, Enrico; Orsay, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Background As solid organ transplants become more common, recipients present more frequently to the emergency department (ED) for care. Methods We performed a retrospective medical record review of ED visits of all patients who received an organ transplant at our medical center from 2000–2004, and included all visits following the patients’ transplant surgery through December 2005 or until failed graft, lost to follow up, or death. Clinically relevant demographic variables, confounding and outcome variables were recorded. Kidney, liver and combined kidney with other organ transplant recipients were included. Results Five hundred ninety-three patients received kidney (395), liver (161), or combined renal (37) organ transplants during the study period, resulting in 1,251 ED visits. This represents 3.15 ED visits/patient followed over a mean of 30.8 months. Abdominal pain/gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms (31.3%) and infectious complaints (16.7%) were the most common presentations. The most common ED discharge diagnoses were fever/infection (36%), GI/Genitourinary (GU) pathology (20.4%) and dehydration (15%). Renal transplant recipients were diagnosed with infectious processes most often, despite time elapsed from transplant. Liver transplant patients had diagnoses of fever/infection most often in their first 30 days post transplant. Thereafter they were more likely to develop GI/GU pathology. After the first year of transplantation, cardiopulmonary and musculoskeletal pathology become more common in all transplant organ groups. Of the 1,251 ED visits, 762 (60.9%) resulted in hospitalization. Chief complaints of abdominal pain/GI symptoms, infectious complaints, cardiovascular and neurologic symptoms, and abnormal laboratory studies were significantly likely to result in hospitalization. Conclusions This study demonstrates a significant utilization of the ED by transplant recipients, presenting with a wide variety of symptoms and diagnoses, and with a high

  4. Epidemiology and outcome of invasive fungal infections in solid organ transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Neofytos, D; Fishman, J A; Horn, D; Anaissie, E; Chang, C-H; Olyaei, A; Pfaller, M; Steinbach, W J; Webster, K M; Marr, K A

    2010-06-01

    Contemporary epidemiology and outcomes of invasive fungal infections (IFIs) in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients are not well described. From March 2004 through September 2007, proven and probable IFIs were prospectively identified in 17 transplant centers in the United States. A total 429 adult SOT recipients with 515 IFIs were identified; 362 patients received a single and 67 patients received >or=2 organs. Most IFIs were caused by Candida species (59.0%), followed by Aspergillus species (24.8%), Cryptococcus species (7.0%), and other molds (5.8%). Invasive candidiasis (IC) was the most frequently observed IFI in all groups, except for lung recipients where invasive aspergillosis (IA) was the most common IFI (P<0.0001). Almost half of IC cases in liver, heart, and lung transplant recipients occurred during the first 100 days post transplant. Over half of IA cases in lung recipients occurred >1 year post transplant. Overall 12-week mortality was 29.6%; liver recipients had the highest mortality (P=0.05). Organ damage, neutropenia, and administration of corticosteroids were predictors of death. These results extend our knowledge on the epidemiology of IFI in SOT recipients, emphasizing the occurrence of IC early after non-lung transplant, and late complications with molds after lung transplant. Overall survival appears to have improved compared with historical reports.

  5. [Development of novel solid-phase polymeric catalysts for organic syntheses].

    PubMed

    Yamada, Yoichi M A

    2005-10-01

    Highly active and reusable polymeric catalysts were produced by a self-assembly process of non-cross-linked amphiphilic polymeric ligands with inorganic species. Thus a new insoluble tungsten polymeric catalyst PWAA 1 was prepared from H(3)PW(12)O(40) and poly[(N-isopropylacrylamide)-co-(acrylamide with ammonium salt)], which was suitable for the oxidation of alcohols, amines, and sulfides in aqueous hydrogen peroxide. A new insoluble palladium polymeric catalyst PdAS 2 was produced by self-organization of (NH(4))(2)PdCl(4) and poly[(N-isopropylacrylamide)(10)-co-diphenylphosphinostyrene], which is an excellent recyclable catalyst for the Suzuki-Miyaura reaction in water, water-organic solvents, and organic solvents. It is commercially available from Tokyo Kasei Kogyo (TCI). An improved insoluble palladium polymeric catalyst PdAS-V 3 was assembled from (NH(4))(2)PdCl(4) and poly[(N-isopropylacrylamide)(5)-co-diphenylphosphinostyrene], providing a reusable system for the Mizorogi-Heck reaction. A solid-phase titanium asymmetric polymeric catalyst TiSS 4 was made from Ti (O-i-Pr)(4) and poly(styryl-linked binaphtholate-co-styrene) which promotes an enantioselective carbonyl-ene reaction as a recyclable catalyst.

  6. Rationing life-saving resources--how should allocation policies be assessed in solid organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Neuberger, James

    2012-01-01

    Because the demand for solid organ transplantation exceeds the availability of donated grafts, there needs to be rationing for this life-saving procedures. Criteria for selection of patients to a national transplant list and allocation of donated organs should be transparent yet there is no consistent approach to the development of such guidelines. It is suggested that selection and allocation policies should comply with minimum standards including defining of aims of the allocation process and desired outcome (whether maximizing benefit or utility or ensuring equity of access), inclusion and exclusion criteria, criteria for futility and suspension and removal from the transplant list, appeals processes, arrangements for monitoring and auditing outcomes and processes for dealing with noncompliance. Furthermore, guidelines must be consistent with legislation even though this may compete with public preference. Guidelines must be supported by all stakeholders (including health-care professionals, donor families and potential transplant candidates). However, there must also be flexibility to allow for exceptions and to support innovation and development. © 2011 The Author. Transplant International © 2011 European Society for Organ Transplantation.

  7. Release of non-methane organic compounds during simulated landfilling of aerobically pretreated municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Yue, Dongbei; Liu, Jianguo; Lu, Peng; Wang, Ying; Liu, Jing; Nie, Yongfeng

    2012-06-30

    Characteristics of non-methane organic compounds (NMOCs) emissions during the anaerobic decomposition of untreated (APD-0) and four aerobically pretreated (APD-20, APD-39, APD-49, and APD-63) samples of municipal solid waste (MSW) were investigated in laboratory. The cumulative mass of the NMOCs of APD-20, APD-39, APD-49, and APD-63 accounted for 15%, 9%, 16%, and 15% of that of APD-0, respectively. The intensities of the NMOC emissions calculated by dividing the cumulative NMOC emissions by the quantities of organic matter removed (Q(VS)) decreased from 4.1 mg/kg Q(VS) for APD-0 to 0.8-3.4 mg/kg Q(VS) for aerobically pretreated MSW. The lipid and starch contents might have significant impact on the intensity of the NMOC emissions. Alkanes dominated the NMOCs released from the aerobically pretreated MSW, while oxygenated compounds were the chief component of the NMOCs generated from untreated MSW. Aerobic pretreatment of MSW prior to landfilling reduces the organic content of the waste and the intensity of the NMOC emissions, and increases the odor threshold, thereby reducing the environmental impact of landfills.

  8. Characterization of sewage sludge organic matter using solid-state carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Smernik, Ronald J; Oliver, Ian W; Merrington, Graham

    2003-01-01

    Six sewage sludges from five sewage treatment plants in Australia were characterized using solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Spectra were acquired both before and after removal of mineral components through treatment with hydrofluoric acid (HF). Carbon mass balance indicated that little organic matter was lost on HF treatment, which significantly improved NMR sensitivity and spectral resolution, and decreased acquisition time and hence cost of NMR analysis. Two NMR techniques were used, the standard cross polarization (CP) technique and Bloch decay (BD). The BD technique had not been applied previously to the analysis of sewage sludge. For each sludge sample, both before and after HF treatment, the BD spectrum contained significantly more alkyl carbon. Spin counting, another technique applied to sewage sludge here for the first time, showed that the BD spectra of the HF-treated sludges were quantitative, while approximately 30% of the CP NMR signal went undetected. The discrepancy between CP and BD spectra was attributed to the presence of alkyl carbon with such high molecular mobility that the efficiency of cross polarization is affected. This study shows that sewage sludge organic matter is significantly different in chemistry to soil organic matter and has implications for the application of sewage sludge to agricultural land.

  9. High-temperature solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells based on organic ionic plastic crystal electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing; Zhao, Jie; Sun, Baoquan; Lin, Bencai; Qiu, Lihua; Zhang, Yueguang; Chen, Xiaojian; Lu, Jianmei; Yan, Feng

    2012-02-14

    Organic ionic plastic crystal, 1-ethyl-1-methyl pyrrolidinium iodide (P(12) I), is employed as the solid-state electrolytes for dye-sensitized solar cells. The fabricated solid-state devices show an overall power conversion efficiency of ~5.8% under AM 1.5 radiation (50 mW/cm(2) ) and excellent long-term stability at 80 °C.

  10. Luminex® and Its Applications for Solid Organ Transplantation, Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation, and Transfusion†

    PubMed Central

    Lachmann, Nils; Todorova, Kremena; Schulze, Harald; Schönemann, Constanze

    2013-01-01

    Summary The detection of antibodies against the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex has become indispensable in every clinical practice. The development of solid-phase assays like the Luminex allows the standardized measurement of anti-HLA antibodies (HLAab) with high sensitivity, albeit the relevance for some clinical settings remains a matter of debate. In this review we aim to describe the principle of Luminex-based antibody detection, including two modifications that allow identifying solely complement-activating antibodies. We then describe three applications for Luminex: i) detection of HLAab preceding solid-organ transplantation and monitoring of donor-specific antibodies posttransplant as a risk factor for antibody-mediated rejection; ii) presence of HLAab in recipients as a risk for graft failure in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, especially in haploidentical or mismatched transplantations; iii) role of HLAab in blood transfusion including refractory thrombocytopenia and selection of suitable platelet donors, transfusion-related lung injury after plasma transfusion, and immunization against HLA after red blood cell transfusion despite leukodepletion. Although the Luminex platform constitutes a potent technology for HLA antibody detection, some drawbacks require the well-educated analysis and interpretation of data in critical cases. In addition, Luminex has become an important tool to identify clinically relevant antibodies. PMID:23922543

  11. Pyridinium ionic liquid-based liquid-solid extraction of inorganic and organic iodine from Laminaria.

    PubMed

    Peng, Li-Qing; Yu, Wen-Yan; Xu, Jing-Jing; Cao, Jun

    2018-01-15

    A simple, green and effective extraction method, namely, pyridinium ionic liquid- (IL) based liquid-solid extraction (LSE), was first designed to extract the main inorganic and organic iodine compounds (I(-), monoiodo-tyrosine (MIT) and diiodo-tyrosine (DIT)). The optimal extraction conditions were as follows: ultrasonic intensity 100W, IL ([EPy]Br) concentration 200mM, extraction time 30min, liquid/solid ratio 10mL/g, and pH value 6.5. The morphologies of Laminaria were studied by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The recovery values of I(-), MIT and DIT from Laminaria were in the range of 88% to 94%, and limits of detection were in the range of 59.40 to 283.6ng/g. The proposed method was applied to the extraction and determination of iodine compounds in three Laminaria. The results showed that IL-based LSE could be a promising method for rapid extraction of bioactive iodine from complex food matrices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Micro-scale anaerobic digestion of point source components of organic fraction of municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Chanakya, H.N. Sharma, Isha; Ramachandra, T.V.

    2009-04-15

    The fermentation characteristics of six specific types of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) were examined, with an emphasis on properties that are needed when designing plug-flow type anaerobic bioreactors. More specifically, the decomposition patterns of a vegetable (cabbage), fruits (banana and citrus peels), fresh leaf litter of bamboo and teak leaves, and paper (newsprint) waste streams as feedstocks were studied. Individual OFMSW components were placed into nylon mesh bags and subjected to various fermentation periods (solids retention time, SRT) within the inlet of a functioning plug-flow biogas fermentor. These were removed at periodic intervals, and their composition was analyzed to monitor decomposition rates and changes in chemical composition. Components like cabbage waste, banana peels, and orange peels fermented rapidly both in a plug-flow biogas reactor (PFBR) as well as under a biological methane potential (BMP) assay, while other OFMSW components (leaf litter from bamboo and teak leaves and newsprint) fermented slowly with poor process stability and moderate biodegradation. For fruit and vegetable wastes (FVW), a rapid and efficient removal of pectins is the main cause of rapid disintegration of these feedstocks, which left behind very little compost forming residues (2-5%). Teak and bamboo leaves and newsprint decomposed only to 25-50% in 30 d. These results confirm the potential for volatile fatty acids accumulation in a PFBR's inlet and suggest a modification of the inlet zone or operation of a PFBR with the above feedstocks.

  13. Co-digestion of the hydromechanically separated organic fraction of municipal solid waste with sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Borowski, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the anaerobic digestion of the hydromechanically sorted organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (HS-OFMSW) co-digested with sewage sludge (SS). Eight laboratory-scale experiments were conducted under semi-continuous conditions at 15 and 20 days of solids retention time (SRT). The biogas yield from the waste reached 309 to 315 dm(3)/kgVS and 320 to 361 dm(3)/kgVS under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions, respectively. The addition of SS to HS-OFMSW (1:1 by weight) improved the C/N balance of the mixture, and the production of biogas through anaerobic mesophilic digestion increased to 494 dm(3)/kgVS, which corresponded to 316 dm(3)CH4/kgVS. However, when SS and HS-OFMSW were treated under thermophilic conditions, methanogenesis was inhibited by volatile fatty acids and free ammonia, which concentrations reached 5744 gCH3COOH/m(3) and 1009 gNH3/m(3), respectively.

  14. Solid waste from leather industry as adsorbent of organic dyes in aqueous-medium.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Luiz C A; Gonçalves, Maraísa; Oliveira, Diana Q L; Guerreiro, Mário C; Guilherme, Luiz R G; Dallago, Rogério M

    2007-03-06

    The industrial tanning of leather usually produces considerable amounts of chromium-containing solid waste and liquid effluents and raises many concerns on its environmental effect as well as on escalating landfill costs. Actually, these shortcomings are becoming increasingly a limiting factor to this industrial activity that claims for alternative methods of residue disposals. In this work, it is proposed a novel alternative destination of the solid waste, based on the removal of organic contaminants from the out coming aqueous-residue. The adsorption isotherm pattern for the wet blue leather from the Aurea tanning industry in Erechim-RS (Brazil) showed that these materials present high activity on adsorbing the reactive red textile dye as well as other compounds. The adsorbent materials were characterized by IR spectroscopy and SEM and tested for the dye adsorption (reactive textile and methylene blue dyes). The concentrations of dyes were measured by UV-vis spectrophotometry and the chromium extraction from leather waste was realized by basic hydrolysis and determined by atomic absorption. As a low cost abundant adsorbent material with high adsorption ability on removing dye methylene blue (80mgg(-1)) and textile dye reactive red (163mgg(-1)), the leather waste is revealed to be a interesting alternative relatively to more costly adsorbent materials.

  15. Gas chromatographic analysis of organic marker compounds in fine particulate matter using solid-phase microextraction.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lin; Lee, Milton L; Eatough, Delbert J

    2007-01-01

    A gas chromatographic method that uses solid-phase microextraction for analysis of organic marker compounds in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is reported. The target marker compounds were selected for specificity toward emission from wood smoke, diesel or gasoline combustion, or meat cooking. Temperature-programmed volatilization analysis was used to characterize the thermal stabilities and volatile properties of the compounds of interest. The compounds were thermally evaporated from a quartz filter, sorbed to a solid phase microextraction (SPME) fiber, and thermally desorbed at 280 degrees C in a gas chromatograph injection port connected via a DB 1701 capillary separating column. Various experimental parameters (fiber type, time, and temperature of sorption) were optimized. It was found that high extraction yield could be achieved using a polyacrylate fiber for polar substances, such as levoglucosan, and a 7-microm polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-coated fiber for nonpolar compounds, such as hopanes and polyaromatic hydrocarbon. A compromise was made by selecting a carboxen/PDMS fiber, which can simultaneously extract all of the analytes of interest with moderate-to-high efficiency at 180 degrees C within a 30-min accumulation period. The optimized method was applied to the determination of levoglucosan in pine wood combustion emissions. The simplicity, rapidity, and selectivity of sample collection with a polymer-coated SPME coupled to capillary gas chromatography (GC) made this method potentially useful for atmospheric chemistry studies.

  16. The American Society of Transplantation Consensus Conference on the Use of Hepatitis C Viremic Donors in Solid Organ Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Levitsky, J; Formica, R N; Bloom, R D; Charlton, M; Curry, M; Friedewald, J; Friedman, J; Goldberg, D; Hall, S; Ison, M; Kaiser, T; Klassen, D; Klintmalm, G; Kobashigawa, J; Liapakis, A; O'Conner, K; Reese, P; Stewart, D; Terrault, N; Theodoropoulos, N; Trotter, J; Verna, E; Volk, M

    2017-05-29

    The availability of direct-acting antiviral agents for the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has resulted in a profound shift in the approach to the management of this infection. These changes have affected the practice of solid organ transplantation by altering the framework by which patients with end-stage organ disease are managed and receive organ transplants. The high level of safety and efficacy of these medications in patients with chronic HCV infection provides the opportunity to explore their use in the setting of transplanting organs from HCV-viremic patients into non-HCV-viremic recipients. Because these organs are frequently discarded and typically come from younger donors, this approach has the potential to save lives on the solid organ transplant waitlist. Therefore, an urgent need exists for prospective research protocols that study the risk versus benefit of using organs for hepatitis C-infected donors. In response to this rapidly changing practice and the need for scientific study and consensus, the American Society of Transplantation convened a meeting of experts to review current data and develop the framework for the study of using HCV viremic organs in solid organ transplantation. © 2017 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  17. Tacrolimus for the prevention and treatment of rejection of solid organ transplants.

    PubMed

    Scalea, Joseph R; Levi, Shoshana T; Ally, Winston; Brayman, Kenneth L

    2016-01-01

    Since its introduction to the antirejection armamentarium in 1994, tacrolimus has become the workhorse of transplant professionals for avoidance of solid organ transplant rejection. Not only does tacrolimus have potent immunosuppressive qualities that prevent rejection, but dosing is straight forward and it is generally well tolerated. However, in the long term, conditions such as calcineurin inhibitor nephrotoxicity can become a problem. A discussion of the compound, the pharmacokinetics, history, and current approved uses for tacrolimus is described. Indeed, tacrolimus is the most important drug for preventing transplant rejection. However, the increased appreciation for significant side effects, particularly in the long term, has led to building interest in new agents with different mechanisms of action and different metabolism.

  18. Fecal microbiota transplantation for refractory Clostridium difficile colitis in solid organ transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Friedman-Moraco, R J; Mehta, A K; Lyon, G M; Kraft, C S

    2014-02-01

    Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been shown to be safe and efficacious in individuals with refractory Clostridium difficile. It has not been widely studied in individuals with immunosuppression due to concerns about infectious complications. We describe two solid organ transplant recipients, one lung and one renal, in this case report that both had resolution of their diarrhea caused by C. difficile after FMT. Both recipients required two FMTs to achieve resolution of their symptoms and neither had infectious complications. Immunosuppressed individuals are at high risk for acquisition of C. difficile and close monitoring for infectious complications after FMT is necessary, but should not preclude its use in patients with refractory disease due to C. difficile. Sequential FMT may be used to achieve cure in these patients with damaged microbiota from antibiotic use and immunosuppression. © Copyright 2014 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  19. Coverage-mediated suppression of blinking in solid state quantum dot conjugated organic composite nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Nathan I; Early, Kevin T; Sill, Kevin; Odoi, Michael Y; Emrick, Todd; Barnes, Michael D

    2006-07-27

    Size-correlated single-molecule fluorescence measurements on CdSe quantum dots functionalized with oligo(phenylene vinylene) (OPV) ligands exhibit modified fluorescence intermittency (blinking) statistics that are highly sensitive to the degree of ligand coverage on the quantum dot surface. As evidenced by a distinct surface height signature, fully covered CdSe-OPV nanostructures (approximately 25 ligands) show complete suppression of blinking in the solid state on an integration time scale of 1 s. Some access to dark states is observed on finer time scales (100 ms) with average persistence times significantly shorter than those from ZnS-capped CdSe quantum dots. This effect is interpreted as resulting from charge transport from photoexcited OPV into vacant trap sites on the quantum dot surface. These results suggest exciting new applications of composite quantum dot/organic systems in optoelectronic systems.

  20. Supramolecular Assembly of Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Polyoxometalate Nanoclusters at Solid-liquid Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Na; Jing, Benxin; Zhu, Yingxi

    2013-03-01

    Polyoxometalate (POM) inorganic nanoclusters have recently emerged as building blocks for the design and synthesis of novel functional materials for broad applications ranging from catalysis to nanomedicines. Rather than taking the slow self-assembly of POMs in aqueous solutions, we have investigated the assembly of hybrid Anderson-type Mo-based POMs with organic ligands at a solid surface by Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) deposition and characterized the films by AFM, TEM, and X-ray diffraction. We have observed the formation of well-ordered monolayer or bilayer consisting of periodic arrangement of hybrid POM nanoclusters, showing a strong dependence on substrate chemistry and LB compression pressure. The controlled assembly of hybrid POM nanocluster films by LB deposition could be used as a template with stoichiometric crystalline nanostructure to the programmed assembly of novel multi-functional supramolecular complexes.

  1. Pyrolysis characteristics of organic components of municipal solid waste at high heating rates.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jiao; Jin, Yu-Qi; Chi, Yong; Wen, Jun-Ming; Jiang, Xu-Guang; Ni, Ming-Jiang

    2009-03-01

    The pyrolysis characteristics of six representative organic components of municipal solid waste (MSW) and their mixtures were studied in a specially designed thermogravimetric analysis apparatus with a maximum recorded heating rate of 864.8 degrees Cmin(-1). The pyrolysis behavior of individual components was described by the Avrami-Erofeev equation. The influence of final temperature on individual components was studied, and it was concluded that final temperature was a factor in reaction speed and intensity, but that it played only a limited role in determining the reaction mechanism. The interactions between different components were evaluated, and it was concluded that the interaction between homogeneous materials was minimal, whereas the interaction between polyethylene and biomass was significant.

  2. The start of the transplant journey: referral for pediatric solid organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Shellmer, Diana; Brosig, Cheryl; Wray, Jo

    2014-03-01

    The focus of the majority of the psychosocial transplant literature is on post-transplant outcomes, but the transplant journey starts much earlier than this, at the point when transplantation is first considered and a referral for transplant evaluation is made. In this review, we cover information regarding the meaning of the referral process for solid organ transplantation. We discuss various factors of the referral for transplantation including the impact of referral on the pediatric patient and the family, potential expectations and misconceptions held by pediatric patients and parents, the role of health literacy, decision-making factors, and the informational needs of pediatric patients and parents. We elucidate steps that providers can take to enhance transplant referral and provide suggestions for much needed research within this area.

  3. Tolerance to solid organ transplants through transfer of MHC class II genes

    PubMed Central

    Sonntag, Kai-C.; Emery, David W.; Yasumoto, Akihiko; Haller, Gary; Germana, Sharon; Sablinski, Tomasz; Shimizu, Akira; Yamada, Kazuhiko; Shimada, Hideaki; Arn, Scott; Sachs, David H.; LeGuern, Christian

    2001-01-01

    Donor/recipient MHC class II matching permits survival of experimental allografts without permanent immunosuppression, but is not clinically applicable due to the extensive polymorphism of this locus. As an alternative, we have tested a gene therapy approach in a preclinical animal model to determine whether expression of allogeneic class II transgenes (Tg’s) in recipient bone marrow cells would allow survival of subsequent Tg-matched renal allografts. Somatic matching between donor kidney class II and the recipient Tg’s, in combination with a short treatment of cyclosporine A, prolonged graft survival with DR and promoted tolerance with DQ. Class II Tg expression in the lymphoid lineage and the graft itself were sequentially implicated in this tolerance induction. These results demonstrate the potential of MHC class II gene transfer to permit tolerance to solid organ allografts. PMID:11134181

  4. The start of the transplant journey: Referral for pediatric solid organ transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Shellmer, Diana; Brosig, Cheryl; Wray, Jo

    2014-01-01

    The focus of the majority of the psychosocial transplant literature is on post-transplant outcomes but the transplant journey starts much earlier than this, at the point when transplantation is first considered and a referral for transplant evaluation is made. In this review we cover information regarding the meaning of the referral process for solid organ transplantation. We discuss various factors of the referral for transplantation including the impact of referral on the pediatric patient and the family, potential expectations and misconceptions held by pediatric patients and parents, the role of health literacy, decision making factors, and the informational needs of pediatric patients and parents. We elucidate steps that providers can take to enhance transplant referral and provide suggestions for much needed research within this area. PMID:24438194

  5. White organic light-emitting diodes for emotion solid-state lighting.

    PubMed

    Seo, Ji Hoon; Lee, Seok Jae; Koo, Ja Ryong; Shin, Hyun Su; Lee, Kum Hee; Yoon, Seung Soo; Kim, Young Kwan

    2012-05-01

    The authors have demonstrated white organic light-emitting diodes for emotion solid-state lighting (ESSL) by using hole modulating layer (HML), N,N'-diphenyl-N,N'-bis-[4-(phenyl-m-tolyl-amino)-phenyl]-biphenyl-4,4'-diamine and N,N'-bis-(1-naphyl)-N,N'-diphenyl-1,1'-biphenyl-4, 4'-diamine, and mixed spacer (MS), 4,4',4"-tris(N-carbazolyl)-triphenylamine and {9,9-dimethyl-7-[10-(naphthalen-2-yl)anthracen-9-yl]-9H-fluoren-2-yl}triphenylsilane, respectively. The HML and MS were used for unbalance of holes and electrons. The ESSL showed various white light chromaticities of Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage coordinates from (0.46,0.42) as warm white emission to (0.29, 0.36) as cold white emission.

  6. Spectroscopic characterization of water extractable organic matter during composting of municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaosong; Xi, Beidou; Wei, Zimin; Guo, Xujing; Li, Mingxiao; An, Da; Liu, Hongliang

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to characterize the evolution of water extractable organic matter (WEOM) during the composting of municipal solid waste (MSW), and investigate the correlation between maturity and WEOM characteristics. WEOM was extracted at different stages of MSW composting (0, 7, 14, 21, and 51 d) and characterized by FTIR, UV-Vis, and fluorescence spectroscopy. The results obtained show that the composting process decreased aliphatics, alcohols, polysaccharides, as well as protein-like materials, and increased aromatic polycondensation, humification, oxygen-containing functional groups, molecular weight, and humic-like materials. The maturity of MSW during composting was characterized by the presence of the peak with an excitation/emission wavelength pair of 289/421 nm in excitation-emission matrix spectra.

  7. Current Development in Treatment and Hydrogen Energy Conversion of Organic Solid Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Hang-Sik

    2008-02-01

    This manuscript summarized current developments on continuous hydrogen production technologies researched in Korea advanced institute of science and technology (KAIST). Long-term continuous pilot-scale operation of hydrogen producing processes fed with non-sterile food waste exhibited successful results. Experimental findings obtained by the optimization processes of growth environments for hydrogen producing bacteria, the development of high-rate hydrogen producing strategies, and the feasibility tests for real field application could contribute to the progress of fermentative hydrogen production technologies. Three major technologies such as controlling dilution rate depending on the progress of acidogenesis, maintaining solid retention time independently from hydraulic retention time, and decreasing hydrogen partial pressure by carbon dioxide sparging could enhance hydrogen production using anaerobic leaching beds reactors and anaerobic sequencing batch reactors. These findings could contribute to stable, reliable and effective performances of pilot-scale reactors treating organic wastes.

  8. Symptomatic chronic strongyloidiasis in children following treatment for solid organ malignancies: case reports and literature review.

    PubMed

    Norsarwany, M; Abdelrahman, Z; Rahmah, N; Ariffin, N; Norsyahida, A; Madihah, B; Zeehaida, M

    2012-09-01

    Strongyloidiasis is an infection caused by the intestinal nematode Strongyloides stercoralis. Infected healthy individuals are usually asymptomatic, however it is potentially fatal in immunocompromised hosts due to its capacity to cause an overwhelming hyperinfection. Strongyloidiasis could be missed during routine screening because of low and intermittent larval output in stool and variable manifestations of the symptoms. We present two cases of strongyloidiasis occurring in children with solid organ malignancies suspected to have the infection based on their clinical conditions and treatment history for cancer. Both patients were diagnosed by molecular and serological tests and were successfully treated. Thus, strongyloidiasis in patients undergoing intensive treatment for malignancies should be suspected, properly investigated and treated accordingly.

  9. Broadly tunable (440-670 nm) solid-state organic laser with disposable capsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mhibik, Oussama; Leang, Tatiana; Siove, Alain; Forget, Sébastien; Chénais, Sébastien

    2013-01-01

    An innovative concept of thin-film organic solid-state laser is proposed, with diffraction-limited output and a broad tuning range covering the visible spectrum under UV optical pumping. The laser beam is tunable over 230 nm, from 440 to 670 nm, with a 3 nm full width at half maximum typical spectral width. The structure consists of a compact fixed bulk optical cavity, a polymeric intracavity etalon for wavelength tuning, as well as five different disposable glass slides coated with a dye-doped polymer film, forming a very simple and low-cost gain medium. The use of interchangeable/disposable "gain capsules" is an alternative solution to photodegradation issues, since gain chips can be replaced without realignment of the cavity. The laser lifetime of a single chip in ambient conditions and without encapsulation was extrapolated to be around 107 pulses at a microjoule energy-per-pulse level.

  10. Methodological aspects of anti-human leukocyte antigen antibody analysis in solid organ transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Lobashevsky, Andrew L

    2014-01-01

    Donor human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-specific antibodies (DSA) play an important role in solid organ transplantation. Preexisting IgG isotype DSA are considered a risk factor for antibody mediated rejection, graft failure or graft loss. The post-transplant development of DSA depends on multiple factors including immunogenicity of mismatched antigens, HLA class II typing of the recipient, cytokine gene polymorphisms, and cellular immunoregulatory mechanisms. De novo developed antibodies require special attention because not all DSA have equal clinical significance. Therefore, it is important for transplant clinicians and transplant immunologists to accurately characterize DSA. In this review, the contemporary immunological techniques for detection and characterization of anti-HLA antibodies and their pitfalls are described. PMID:25346888

  11. An Examination of Immunity Statutes Regarding the Liability of Recreational Youth Sport Organizations for the Pedophilic Actions of Coaches, Administrators, and Officials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Thomas A., III; Connaughton, Daniel P.; Zhang, James J.

    2010-01-01

    Millions of children in the United States participate in youth sports. The literature demonstrates that sexual abuse is a problem in sports. This study examined voluntary immunity statutes for all 50 states and the District of Columbia with the purpose of determining potential liability for recreational youth sport organizations for the pedophilic…

  12. "Liquid-liquid-solid"-type superoleophobic surfaces to pattern polymeric semiconductors towards high-quality organic field-effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuchen; Su, Bin; Jiang, Lei; Heeger, Alan J

    2013-12-03

    Precisely aligned organic-liquid-soluble semiconductor microwire arrays have been fabricated by "liquid-liquid-solid" type superoleophobic surfaces directed fluid drying. Aligned organic 1D micro-architectures can be built as high-quality organic field-effect transistors with high mobilities of >10 cm(2) ·V(-1) ·s(-1) and current on/off ratio of more than 10(6) . All these studies will boost the development of 1D microstructures of organic semiconductor materials for potential application in organic electronics. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Organic Solid Matter as a Coloring Agent in Outer Solar System Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruikshank, D. P.; DalleOre, C. M.; Roush, T. L.; Khare, B. N.; Fonda, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Small bodies in the outer Solar System OSS, exhibit a range of color, or slope of the reflectance in the photovisual spectral region, ranging from neutral to very red, sometimes with and sometimes without distinct absorption bands. These objects range in geometric albedo from 0.03 to 1.0, with the higher albedo objects typically showing clear evidence of water ice. Water ice has also been found in a few objects with albedo 0. 1 or less. We explore here the identification of the material or materials that color these icy and non-icy surfaces through scattering models that incorporate minerals, meteoritic material, and organic solids (tholins) produced ID the laboratory by energy deposition in ices and gases. These models must match not only the color in the photovisual region, but the spectral reflectance properties throughout the near-infrared. Among some classes of objects, such as Kuiper Belt objects, the coloring agent may be a single material that is present in greater or lesser abundance, thus accounting for the range in color from neutral to very red. This may also apply to the Centaur objects, the Jovian Trojans, and the outer-main belt asteroids, each taken as a separate class. If so, each class may be colored to varying degrees by a different material, or they all might be colored by a common material that is widespread throughout the OSS, from 3 to 50 AU, and beyond. In this paper, we model the reflectances of "Kuiper Belt objects, Centaurs, Trojans, outer ARAB asteroids, and planetary satellites. Our models show that the reddest surfaces cannot be colored by minerals or meteoritic materials, but can be matched throughout the photovisual and near-infrared by organic solids, specifically certain tholins.

  14. Traumatic Abdominal Solid Organ Injury Patients Might Benefit From Thromboelastography-Guided Blood Component Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hao; Robinson, Richard D.; Phillips, Jessica L.; Ryon, Andrew; Simpson, Scott; Ford, Jonathan R.; Umejiego, Johnbosco; Duane, Therese M.; Putty, Bradley; Zenarosa, Nestor R.

    2017-01-01

    Background Thromboelastography (TEG) has been utilized for the guidance of blood component therapy (BCT). We aimed to investigate the association between emergent TEG-guided BCT and clinical outcomes in patients with traumatic abdominal solid organ (liver and/or spleen) injuries. Methods A single center retrospective study of patients who sustained traumatic liver and/or spleen injuries receiving emergent BCT was conducted. TEG was ordered in all these patients. Patient demographics, general injury information, outcomes, BCT, and TEG parameters were analyzed and compared in patients receiving TEG-guided BCT versus those without. Results A total of 166 patients were enrolled, of whom 52% (86/166) received TEG-guided BCT. A mortality of 12% was noted among patients with TEG-guided BCT when compared with 19% of mortality in patients with non-TEG-guided BCT (P > 0.05). An average of 4 units of packed red blood cell (PRBC) was received in patients with TEG-guided BCT when compared to an average of 9 units of PRBC received in non-TEG-guided BCT patients (P < 0.01). A longer hospital length of stay (LOS, 19 ± 16 days) was found among non-TEG-guided BCT patients when compared to the TEG-guided BCT group (14 ± 12 days, P < 0.05). TEG-guided BCT showed as an independent factor associated with hospital LOS after other variables were adjusted (coefficiency: 5.44, 95% confidence interval: 0.69 - 10.18). Conclusions Traumatic abdominal solid organ injury patients receiving blood transfusions might benefit from TEG-guided BCT as indicated by less blood products needed and less hospitalization stay among the cohort. PMID:28392864

  15. MRSA and VRE colonization in solid organ transplantation: a meta-analysis of published studies.

    PubMed

    Ziakas, P D; Pliakos, E E; Zervou, F N; Knoll, B M; Rice, L B; Mylonakis, E

    2014-08-01

    The burden of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE) colonization among the increasing number of solid organ transplant patients has not been systematically explored. We searched PubMed and EMBASE for pertinent articles, performed a meta-analysis of prevalence across eligible studies and estimated the risk of ensuing MRSA or VRE infections relative to colonization status. We stratified effects in the pretransplant and posttransplant period. Twenty-three studies were considered eligible. Seventeen out of 23 (74%) referred to liver transplants. Before transplantation, the pooled prevalence estimate for MRSA and VRE was 8.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.2–15.8) and 11.9% (95% CI 6.8–18.2), respectively. MRSA estimate was influenced by small studies and was lower (4.0%; 95% CI 0.4–10.2) across large studies (>200 patients). After transplantation, the prevalence estimates were 9.4% (95% CI 3.0–18.5) for MRSA and 16.2% (95% CI 10.7–22.6) for VRE. Pretransplant as well as posttransplant MRSA colonization significantly increased the risk for MRSA infections (pooled risk ratio [RR] 5.51; 95% CI 2.36–12.90 and RR 10.56; 95% CI 5.58–19.95, respectively). Pretransplant and posttransplant VRE colonization were also associated with significant risk of VRE infection (RR 6.65; 95% CI 2.54–17.41 and RR 7.93; 95% CI 2.36–26.67, respectively). Solid organ transplantation is a high-risk setting for MRSA and VRE colonization, and carrier state is associated with infection. Upgraded focus in prevention and eradication strategies is warranted.

  16. Organic Solid Matter as a Coloring Agent in Outer Solar System Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruikshank, D. P.; DalleOre, C. M.; Roush, T. L.; Khare, B. N.; Fonda, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Small bodies in the outer Solar System OSS, exhibit a range of color, or slope of the reflectance in the photovisual spectral region, ranging from neutral to very red, sometimes with and sometimes without distinct absorption bands. These objects range in geometric albedo from 0.03 to 1.0, with the higher albedo objects typically showing clear evidence of water ice. Water ice has also been found in a few objects with albedo 0. 1 or less. We explore here the identification of the material or materials that color these icy and non-icy surfaces through scattering models that incorporate minerals, meteoritic material, and organic solids (tholins) produced ID the laboratory by energy deposition in ices and gases. These models must match not only the color in the photovisual region, but the spectral reflectance properties throughout the near-infrared. Among some classes of objects, such as Kuiper Belt objects, the coloring agent may be a single material that is present in greater or lesser abundance, thus accounting for the range in color from neutral to very red. This may also apply to the Centaur objects, the Jovian Trojans, and the outer-main belt asteroids, each taken as a separate class. If so, each class may be colored to varying degrees by a different material, or they all might be colored by a common material that is widespread throughout the OSS, from 3 to 50 AU, and beyond. In this paper, we model the reflectances of "Kuiper Belt objects, Centaurs, Trojans, outer ARAB asteroids, and planetary satellites. Our models show that the reddest surfaces cannot be colored by minerals or meteoritic materials, but can be matched throughout the photovisual and near-infrared by organic solids, specifically certain tholins.

  17. Incidence and Risk Factors for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Following Solid Organ Transplantation1

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Christopher J.; Subramanian, Aruna K.; Cameron, Andrew M.; Engels, Eric A.

    2008-01-01

    Background Solid organ transplant recipients commonly are infected with hepatitis viruses, are immunosuppressed, and have other potential hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk factors. Methods We studied de novo HCC incidence arising after transplant using U.S. registry data (223,660 recipients, 1987–2005). We used proportional hazards regression to identify HCC risk factors and calculated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) to compare HCC risk to that in the general population. Results Based on 74 cases reported by transplant centers to the registry, HCC incidence was 6.5 per 100,000 person-years among kidney, heart, and lung (non-liver) recipients and 25 per 100,000 person-years among liver recipients. HCC incidence among non-liver recipients was independently associated with hepatitis B surface antigenemia (HBsAg) (hazard ratio [HR] 9.7, 95%CI 2.8–33), hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection (HR 6.9, 95%CI 2.5–19), and diabetes mellitus (HR 2.8, 1.2–6.6). Among liver recipients, HCC incidence was associated with advancing age (p<0.001), male sex (HR 4.6, 95%CI 1.4–16), HCV infection (HR 3.1, 1.3–7.2), and diabetes mellitus (HR 2.7, 1.2–6.2). Among non-liver recipients, overall HCC incidence was similar to the general population (SIR 0.8) but elevated among those with HCV (3.4) or HBsAg (6.5). HCC incidence among liver transplant recipients was elevated overall (SIR 3.4) and especially among those with HCV (5.0) or diabetes mellitus (6.2). Conclusions HCC incidence is elevated among liver transplant recipients and subsets of non-liver recipients. These risk factors indicate the need for improved control of viral hepatitis following solid organ transplantation. PMID:18813102

  18. All-Solution-Based Aggregation Control in Solid-State Photon Upconverting Organic Model Composites.

    PubMed

    Goudarzi, Hossein; Keivanidis, Panagiotis E

    2017-01-11

    Hitherto, great strides have been made in the development of organic systems that exhibit triplet-triplet annihilation-induced photon-energy upconversion (TTA-UC). Yet, the exact role of intermolecular states in solid-state TTA-UC composites remains elusive. Here we perform a comprehensive spectroscopic study in a series of solution-processable solid-state TTA-UC organic composites with increasing segregated phase content for elucidating the impact of aggregate formation in their TTA-UC properties. Six different states of aggregation are reached in composites of the 9,10-diphenylanthracene (DPA) blue emitter mixed with the (2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-octaethylporphyrinato)platinum(II) sensitizer (PtOEP) in a fixed nominal ratio (2 wt % PtOEP). Fine-tuning of the PtOEP and DPA phase segregation in these composites is achieved with a low-temperature solution-processing protocol when three different solvents of increasing boiling point are alternatively used and when the binary DPA:PtOEP system is dispersed in the optically inert polystyrene (PS) matrix (PS:DPA:PtOEP). Time-gated (in the nanosecond and microsecond time scales) photoluminescence measurements identify the upper level of PtOEP segregation at which the PtOEP aggregate-based networks favor PtOEP triplet exciton migration toward the PtOEP:DPA interfaces and triplet energy transfer to the DPA triplet manifold. The maximum DPA TTA-UC luminescence intensity is ensured when the bimolecular annihilation constant of PtOEP remains close to γTTA-PtOEP = 1.1 × 10(-13) cm(3) s(-1). Beyond this PtOEP segregation level, the DPA TTA-UC luminescence intensity decreases because of losses caused by the generation of PtOEP delayed fluorescence and DPA phosphorescence in the nanosecond and microsecond time scales, respectively.

  19. Quantifying the chemical composition of soil organic carbon with solid-state 13C NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldock, J. A.; Sanderman, J.

    2011-12-01

    The vulnerability of soil organic carbon (SOC) to biological decomposition and mineralisation to CO2 is defined at least partially by its chemical composition. Highly aromatic charcoal-like SOC components are more stable to biological decomposition than other forms of carbon including cellulose. Solid-state 13C NMR has gained wide acceptance as a method capable of defining SOC chemical composition and mathematical fitting processes have been developed to estimate biochemical composition. Obtaining accurate estimates depends on an ability to quantitatively detect all carbon present in a sample. Often little attention has been paid to defining the proportion of organic carbon present in a soil that is observable in solid-state 13C NMR analyses of soil samples. However, if such data is to be used to inform carbon cycling studies, it is critical that quantitative assessments of SOC observability be undertaken. For example, it is now well established that a significant discrimination exists against the detection of the low proton content polyaromatic structures typical of charcoal using cross polarisation 13C NMR analyses. Such discrimination does not exist where direct polarisation analyses are completed. In this study, the chemical composition of SOC as defined by cross polarisation and direct polarisation13C NMR analyses will be compared for Australian soils collected from under a diverse range of agricultural managements and climatic conditions. Results indicate that where significant charcoal C contents exist, it is highly under-represented in the acquired CP spectra. For some soils, a discrimination against alkyl carbon was also evident. The ability to derive correction factors to compensate for such discriminations will be assessed and presented.

  20. Co-digestion of organic solid waste and sludge from sewage treatment.

    PubMed

    Edelmann, W; Engeli, H; Gradenecker, M

    2000-01-01

    Solid organic wastes were codigested together with sludge of a sewage treatment plant (STP). In the practical part of the study, a plant to pretreat the organic solid wastes provided by local super markets was constructed at the STP of Frutigen, Switzerland. Up to more than 1 cubic metre of wastes was added to the fermenter of the STP every day. Data collected during 14 months of practical works, showed that for raw fruit and vegetable wastes a two step pretreatment is necessary: First the wastes were chopped and afterwards reduced to a size of 1-2 millimetres, in order to get a homogeneous suspension together with the primary sludge. The vegetable wastes showed excellent digestibility: They seemed to accelerate the digestion process as well as to increase the degree of the anaerobic degradation of the sludge. The energy demand for both, pretreatment and digestion, was 85 kWh/ton of fresh wastes. 20% of the energy was used for the hygienization, a step which does not seem to be necessary for this kind of waste in most of the cases, however. After using the gas for energy conversion, a net yield of 65 kWh/ton of electricity and 166 kWh/ton of heat was measured. Treating cooked kitchen wastes, the net energy production will be higher, because in this case a one step pretreatment will be sufficient. The pretreatment and treatment costs for codigestion on STP's were calculated to be in the range of 55 US$/ton treating half a ton per day and 39 US$/ton treating one ton, respectively. A theoretical feasibility study showed that in Switzerland there is a short term potential on STP's for the codigestion of about 120,000 tons of biogenic wastes per year without big investments. Economic studies about codigestion on agricultural biogas plants showed that the codigestion is a must at the current energy prices, which are far too low for agricultural AD without an additional income by treating solid wastes for third parties.