Science.gov

Sample records for offshore liquefied natural

  1. Offshore LNG (liquefied natural gas) production and storage systems

    SciTech Connect

    Barden, J.K.

    1982-01-01

    A barge, outfitted with gas liquefaction processing equipment and liquefied natural gas (LNG) storage tanks, is suggested as a possible way to exploit remote offshore gas production. A similar study with a barge-mounted methanol plant was conducted several years ago, also using remote offshore feed gas. This barge-mounted, LNG system is bow-moored to a single point mooring through which feed gas is piped via seafloor pipeline from a nearby gas production facility. The barge is arranged with personnel accommodation forward, LNG storage midships, and gas liquefaction processing equipment aft. A flare boom is cantilevered off the barge's stern. The basis of design stipulates feed gas properties, area environmental data, gas liquefaction process, LNG storage tank type plus other parameters desirable in a floating process plant. The latter were concerned with safety, low maintenance characteristics, and the fact that the process barge also would serve as an offshore port where LNG export tankers would moor periodically. A brief summary of results for a barge-mounted methanol plant from an earlier study is followed then by a comparison of LNG and methanol alternatives.

  2. 75 FR 13644 - TORP Terminal LP, Bienville Offshore Energy Terminal Liquefied Natural Gas Deepwater Port License...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...) for the TORP Terminal LP, Bienville Offshore Energy Terminal (BOET) Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port amended license application. The amended application describes an LNG deepwater port project...

  3. Visual simulation of offshore liquefied natural gas (lng) terminals in a decision-making context

    Treesearch

    Brian E. Baird; Stephen R. J. Sheppard; Richard C. Smardon

    1979-01-01

    Due to legislation passed in 1977, the Coastal Commission tock part in a study analyzing potential offshore Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) sites and the types of terminals that might occupy those sites. The study had to evaluate the engineering feasibility of siting an LNG receiving terminal offshore in relation to the maximum protection of coastal resource provisions...

  4. Thermoacoustic natural gas liquefier

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, G.; Gardner, D.; Hayden, M.; Radebaugh, R.; Wollan, J.

    1996-07-01

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project sought to develop a natural-gas-powered natural-gas liquefier that has absolutely no moving parts and requires no electrical power. It should have high efficiency, remarkable reliability, and low cost. The thermoacoustic natural-gas liquefier (TANGL) is based on our recent invention of the first no-moving-parts cryogenic refrigerator. In short, our invention uses acoustic phenomena to produce refrigeration from heat, with no moving parts. The required apparatus comprises nothing more than heat exchangers and pipes, made of common materials, without exacting tolerances. Its initial experimental success in a small size lead us to propose a more ambitious application: large-energy liquefaction of natural gas, using combustion of natural gas as the energy source. TANGL was designed to be maintenance-free, inexpensive, portable, and environmentally benign.

  5. Thermoacoustic natural gas liquefier

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, G.W.

    1997-05-01

    Cryenco and Los Alamos are collaborating to develop a natural-gas-powered natural-gas liquefier that will have no moving parts and require no electrical power. It will have useful efficiency, remarkable reliability, and low cost. The liquefaction of natural gas, which occurs at only 115 Kelvin at atmospheric pressure, has previously required rather sophisticated refrigeration machinery. The 1990 invention of the thermoacoustically driven orifice pulse-tube refrigerator (TA-DOPTR) provides cryogenic refrigeration with no moving parts for the first time. In short, this invention uses acoustic phenomena to produce refrigeration from heat. The required apparatus consists of nothing more than helium-filled heat exchangers and pipes, made of common materials, without exacting tolerances. In the Cryenco-Los Alamos collaboration, the authors are developing a version of this invention suitable for use in the natural-gas industry. The project is known as acoustic liquefier for short. The present program plans call for a two-phase development. Phase 1, with capacity of 500 gallon per day (i.e., approximately 40,000 scfd, requiring a refrigeration power of about 7 kW), is large enough to illuminate all the issues of large-scale acoustic liquefaction without undue cost, and to demonstrate the liquefaction of 60--70% of input gas, while burning 30--40%. Phase 2 will target versions of approximately 10{sup 6} scfd = 10,000 gallon per day capacity. In parallel with both, they continue fundamental research on the technology, directed toward increased efficiency, to build scientific foundations and a patent portfolio for future acoustic liquefiers.

  6. 77 FR 38128 - Withdrawal of TORP Terminal LP, Bienville Offshore Energy Terminal Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port Application AGENCY: Maritime Administration, DOT. ACTION: Deepwater port... under docket number USCG-2006-24644, or in person at the U.S. Department of Transportation, Docket...

  7. Thermoacoustic natural gas liquefier

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    In collaboration with Cryenco Inc. and NIST-Boulder, we intend to develop a natural gas-powered natural-gas liquefier which has absolutely no moving parts and requires no electrical power. It will have high efficiency, remarkable reliability, and low cost. Progress on the liquefier to be constructed at Cryenco continues satisfactorily. The thermoacoustic driver is still ahead of the pulse tube refrigerator, because of NIST`s schedule. We completed the thermoacoustics design in the fall of 1994, with Los Alamos providing physics input and checks of all aspects, and Cryenco providing engineering to ASME code, drafting, etc. Completion of this design represents a significant amount of work, especially in view of the many unexpected problems encountered. Meanwhile, Cryenco and NIST have almost completed the design of the pulse tube refrigerator. At Los Alamos, we have assembled a half-size scale model of the thermoacoustic portion of the 500 gal/day TANGL. This scale model will enable easy experimentation in harmonic suppression techniques, new stack geometries, new heat-exchanger geometries, resonator coiling, and other areas. As of March 1995, the scale model is complete and we are performing routine debugging tests and modifications.

  8. Liquefied Natural Gas Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Chicago Bridge & Iron Company's tanks and associated piping are parts of system for transferring liquefied natural gas from ship to shore and storing it. LNG is a "cryogenic" fluid meaning that it must be contained and transferred at very low temperatures, about 260 degrees below Fahrenheit. Before the LNG can be pumped from the ship to the storage tanks, the two foot diameter transfer pipes must be cooled in order to avoid difficulties associated with sharp differences of temperature between the supercold fluid and relatively warm pipes. Cooldown is accomplished by sending small steady flow of the cryogenic substance through the pipeline; the rate of flow must be precisely controlled or the transfer line will be subjected to undesirable thermal stress.

  9. Foam production as a side effect of an offshore liquefied natural gas terminal: how do plankton deal with it?

    PubMed

    Franzo, Annalisa; Karuza, Ana; Celussi, Mauro; Fornasaro, Daniela; Beran, Alfred; Di Poi, Elena; Del Negro, Paola

    2015-06-01

    The future growing demand of fossil fuels likely will lead to an increased deployment of liquefied natural gas terminals. However, some concerns exist about their possible effects on the marine environment and biota. Such plants showed to cause the production of foam, as occurred at the still operative terminal of Porto Viro (northern Adriatic Sea). Here, we present results from two microcosm experiments focused on the effects of such foam on microbially mediated degradation processes and its consequent incorporation within the pelagic food web. Such material could be considered as a heterogeneous matrix of both living and non-living organic matter, which constitutes an important substrate for exoenzymes as suggested by the faster hydrolytic rates measured in the treatment microcosms. In the second experiment, a quite immediate and efficient carbon transfer to planktonic biomass through prokaryotic incorporation and consequent predation by heterotrophic flagellates was highlighted. Although no negative effect was evidenced on the overall microbes' growth and foam-derived C seemed to be easily reworked and transferred to higher trophic levels, an important reduction in biodiversity was evidenced for microalgae. Among them, mixotrophic organisms seemed to be favoured suggesting that the addition of foam could cause a modification of the microbial community structure.

  10. Development of a thermoacoustic natural gas liquefier.

    SciTech Connect

    Wollan, J. J.; Swift, G. W.; Backhaus, S. N.; Gardner, D. L.

    2002-01-01

    . The liquefier development program is divided into two components: Thermoacoustically driven refrigerators and linear motor driven refrigerators (LOPTRs). LOPTR technology will, for the foreseeable future, be limited to natural gas liquefaction capacities on the order of hundreds of gallons per day. TASHE-OPTR technology is expected to achieve liquefaction capacities of tens of thousands of gallons per day. This paper will focus on the TASHE-OPTR technology because its natural gas liquefaction capacity has greater market opportunity. LOPTR development will be mentioned briefly. The thermoacoustically driven refrigerator development program is now in the process of demonstrating the technology at a capacity of about 500 gallon/day (gpd) i.e., approximately 42,000 standard cubic feet/day, which requires about 7 kW of refrigeration power. This capacity is big enough to illuminate the issues of large-scale acoustic liquefaction at reasonable cost and to demonstrate the liquefaction of about 70% of an input gas stream, while burning about 30%. Subsequent to this demonstration a system with a capacity of approximately 10{sup 6} standard cubic feet/day (scfd) = 10,000 gpd with a projected liquefaction rate of about 85% of the input gas stream will be developed. When commercialized, the TASHE-OPTRs will be a totally new type of heat-driven cryogenic refrigerator, with projected low manufacturing cost, high reliability, long life, and low maintenance. A TASHE-OPTR will be able to liquefy a broad range of gases, one of the most important being natural gas (NG). Potential NG applications range from distributed liquefaction of pipeline gas as fuel for heavy-duty fleet and long haul vehicles to large-scale liquefaction at on-shore and offshore gas wellheads. An alternative to the thermoacoustic driver, but with many similar technical and market advantages, is the linear motor compressor. Linear motors convert electrical power directly into oscillating linear, or axial, motion

  11. Bibliography on Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ordin, P. M.

    1976-01-01

    Approximately 600 citations concerning safety of liquefied natural gas and liquid methane are presented. Each entry includes the title, author, abstract, source, description of figures, key references, and major descriptors for retrieving the document. An author index is provided as well as an index of descriptors.

  12. Global Liquefied Natural Gas Market: Status and Outlook, The

    EIA Publications

    2003-01-01

    The Global Liquefied Natural Gas Market: Status & Outlook was undertaken to characterize the global liquefied natural gas (LNG) market and to examine recent trends and future prospects in the LNG market.

  13. Liquefied Natural Gas for Trucks and Buses

    SciTech Connect

    James Wegrzyn; Michael Gurevich

    2000-06-19

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is being developed as a heavy vehicle fuel. The reason for developing LNG is to reduce our dependency on imported oil by eliminating technical and costs barriers associated with its usage. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has a program, currently in its third year, to develop and advance cost-effective technologies for operating and refueling natural gas-fueled heavy vehicles (Class 7-8 trucks). The objectives of the DOE Natural Gas Vehicle Systems Program are to achieve market penetration by reducing vehicle conversion and fuel costs, to increase consumer acceptance by improving the reliability and efficiency, and to improve air quality by reducing tailpipe emissions. One way to reduce fuel costs is to develop new supplies of cheap natural gas. Significant progress is being made towards developing more energy-efficient, low-cost, small-scale natural gas liquefiers for exploiting alternative sources of natural gas such as from landfill and remote gas sites. In particular, the DOE program provides funds for research and development in the areas of; natural gas clean up, LNG production, advanced vehicle onboard storage tanks, improved fuel delivery systems and LNG market strategies. In general, the program seeks to integrate the individual components being developed into complete systems, and then demonstrate the technology to establish technical and economic feasibility. The paper also reviews the importance of cryogenics in designing LNG fuel delivery systems.

  14. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) market and Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Firoz; Alam, Quamrul; Reza, Suman; Khurshid-ul-Alam, S. M.; Saleque, Khondkar; Ahsan, Saifuddin

    2017-06-01

    As low carbon-emitting fossil fuel, the natural gas is mainly used for power generation and industrial applications. It is also used for heating and cooling in commercial and residential buildings as well as in transport industry. Although the natural gas reaches the end-user mainly through pipelines (if gas is available locally), the liquefied form is the most viable alternative to transport natural gas from far away location to the end user. The economic progress in Asia and other parts of the world creates huge demand for energy (oil, gas and coal). As low carbon-emitting fuel, the demand for gas especially in liquefied form is progressively rising. Having 7th largest shale gas reserve (437 trillion cubic feet recoverable), Australia has become one of the world's major natural gas producers and exporters and is expected to continue a dominating role in the world gas market in foreseeable future. This paper reviews Australia's current gas reserve, industries, markets and LNG production capabilities.

  15. Risk management of liquefied natural gas installations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fedor, O. H.; Parsons, W. N.; Coutinho, J. De C.

    1976-01-01

    In connection with the construction of four major liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities in New York City, the New York City Fire Commissioner has asked NASA for assistance. It was decided that the Kennedy Space Center should develop a risk management system (RMS) for the use of the New York Fire Department (NYFD). The RMS provides for a published set of safety regulations by the NYFD. A description of the RMS is presented as an example of an application of aerospace technology to a civilian sector, namely LNG facilities.

  16. Fuel tank for liquefied natural gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLay, Thomas K. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A storage tank is provided for storing liquefied natural gas on, for example, a motor vehicle such as a bus or truck. The storage tank includes a metal liner vessel encapsulated by a resin-fiber composite layer. A foam insulating layer, including an outer protective layer of epoxy or of a truck liner material, covers the composite layer. A non-conducting protective coating may be painted on the vessel between the composite layer and the vessel so as to inhibit galvanic corrosion.

  17. Lightweight Tanks for Storing Liquefied Natural Gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLay, Tom

    2008-01-01

    Single-walled, jacketed aluminum tanks have been conceived for storing liquefied natural gas (LNG) in LNG-fueled motor vehicles. Heretofore, doublewall steel tanks with vacuum between the inner and outer walls have been used for storing LNG. In comparison with the vacuum- insulated steel tanks, the jacketed aluminum tanks weigh less and can be manufactured at lower cost. Costs of using the jacketed aluminum tanks are further reduced in that there is no need for the vacuum pumps heretofore needed to maintain vacuum in the vacuum-insulated tanks.

  18. Risk management of liquefied natural gas installations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fedor, O. H.; Parsons, W. N.; Coutinho, J. De C.

    1976-01-01

    In connection with the construction of four major liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities in New York City, the New York City Fire Commissioner has asked NASA for assistance. It was decided that the Kennedy Space Center should develop a risk management system (RMS) for the use of the New York Fire Department (NYFD). The RMS provides for a published set of safety regulations by the NYFD. A description of the RMS is presented as an example of an application of aerospace technology to a civilian sector, namely LNG facilities.

  19. Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) dispenser verification device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Maotao; Yang, Jie-bin; Zhao, Pu-jun; Yu, Bo; Deng, Wan-quan

    2013-01-01

    The composition of working principle and calibration status of LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) dispenser in China are introduced. According to the defect of weighing method in the calibration of LNG dispenser, LNG dispenser verification device has been researched. The verification device bases on the master meter method to verify LNG dispenser in the field. The experimental results of the device indicate it has steady performance, high accuracy level and flexible construction, and it reaches the international advanced level. Then LNG dispenser verification device will promote the development of LNG dispenser industry in China and to improve the technical level of LNG dispenser manufacture.

  20. 77 FR 2126 - Pipeline Safety: Implementation of the National Registry of Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-13

    ... Registry of Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas Operators AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety... registry of pipeline and liquefied natural gas operators. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jamerson Pender... 72878), titled: ``Pipeline Safety: Updates to Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas Reporting...

  1. Risk management technique for liquefied natural gas facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fedor, O. H.; Parsons, W. N.

    1975-01-01

    Checklists have been compiled for planning, design, construction, startup and debugging, and operation of liquefied natural gas facilities. Lists include references to pertinent safety regulations. Methods described are applicable to handling of other hazardous materials.

  2. Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Import Terminals: Siting, Safety and Regulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-05-27

    Regulation Summary Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is a hazardous fuel frequently shipped in large tankers to U.S. ports from overseas. While LNG has... gas (LNG) has long played a role in U.S. energy markets, but concerns about rising natural gas prices, current price volatility, and the possibility of...changes in U.S. energy policy legislation to reduce the nation’s demand for natural gas . Scope and Limitations This report focuses on industry and

  3. Levels of financial responsibility for liquefied-natural-gas and liquefied-petroleum-gas facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-05-30

    Pursuant to Section 7(a) of the Pipeline Safety Act of 1979, a study was conducted of the risks associated with liquefied natural gas (LNG) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) facilities, and of methods of assuring adequate levels of financial responsibility for those who own and/or operate facilities. The main purpose of the study is to provide a basis for determining general levels of financial responsibility for LNG and LPG facilities, as measured by the risk they represent to the public. It must be emphasized that the quantification of risk is a complicated subject. As used in this study, risk is defined as the occurrence of a maximum credible accident and the consequences that would result from such an accident. Part I of the study describes in detail the methodology used in the report to estimate the magnitude of the financial responsibility requirements associated with nine major facility types - e.g., tankships, pipelines, barges, rail tank car, tank truck, etc. - used to store and transport LNG and LPG under 48 separate operational and storage containment modes. Parts II and III of the study, in addition to providing estimates of the risks and corresponding levels of financial responsibility, contain information on the historical safety record and structure of the LNG facilities and LPG facilities.

  4. 76 FR 4417 - Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License... should be addressed to: Department of Transportation, Docket Management Facility, West Building, Ground...

  5. Control method for mixed refrigerant based natural gas liquefier

    DOEpatents

    Kountz, Kenneth J.; Bishop, Patrick M.

    2003-01-01

    In a natural gas liquefaction system having a refrigerant storage circuit, a refrigerant circulation circuit in fluid communication with the refrigerant storage circuit, and a natural gas liquefaction circuit in thermal communication with the refrigerant circulation circuit, a method for liquefaction of natural gas in which pressure in the refrigerant circulation circuit is adjusted to below about 175 psig by exchange of refrigerant with the refrigerant storage circuit. A variable speed motor is started whereby operation of a compressor is initiated. The compressor is operated at full discharge capacity. Operation of an expansion valve is initiated whereby suction pressure at the suction pressure port of the compressor is maintained below about 30 psig and discharge pressure at the discharge pressure port of the compressor is maintained below about 350 psig. Refrigerant vapor is introduced from the refrigerant holding tank into the refrigerant circulation circuit until the suction pressure is reduced to below about 15 psig, after which flow of the refrigerant vapor from the refrigerant holding tank is terminated. Natural gas is then introduced into a natural gas liquefier, resulting in liquefaction of the natural gas.

  6. 75 FR 70350 - Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License... Transportation, Docket Management Facility, West Building, Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE...

  7. 33 CFR 165.110 - Safety and Security Zone; Liquefied Natural Gas Carrier Transits and Anchorage Operations, Boston...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...; Liquefied Natural Gas Carrier Transits and Anchorage Operations, Boston, Massachusetts. 165.110 Section 165... Limited Access Areas First Coast Guard District § 165.110 Safety and Security Zone; Liquefied Natural Gas... ahead and one mile astern, and 500 yards on each side of any liquefied natural gas carrier (LNGC) vessel...

  8. 33 CFR 165.110 - Safety and Security Zone; Liquefied Natural Gas Carrier Transits and Anchorage Operations, Boston...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...; Liquefied Natural Gas Carrier Transits and Anchorage Operations, Boston, Massachusetts. 165.110 Section 165... Limited Access Areas First Coast Guard District § 165.110 Safety and Security Zone; Liquefied Natural Gas... ahead and one mile astern, and 500 yards on each side of any liquefied natural gas carrier (LNGC) vessel...

  9. 33 CFR 165.110 - Safety and Security Zone; Liquefied Natural Gas Carrier Transits and Anchorage Operations, Boston...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...; Liquefied Natural Gas Carrier Transits and Anchorage Operations, Boston, Massachusetts. 165.110 Section 165... Limited Access Areas First Coast Guard District § 165.110 Safety and Security Zone; Liquefied Natural Gas... ahead and one mile astern, and 500 yards on each side of any liquefied natural gas carrier (LNGC) vessel...

  10. 33 CFR 165.110 - Safety and Security Zone; Liquefied Natural Gas Carrier Transits and Anchorage Operations, Boston...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...; Liquefied Natural Gas Carrier Transits and Anchorage Operations, Boston, Massachusetts. 165.110 Section 165... Limited Access Areas First Coast Guard District § 165.110 Safety and Security Zone; Liquefied Natural Gas... ahead and one mile astern, and 500 yards on each side of any liquefied natural gas carrier (LNGC) vessel...

  11. 33 CFR 165.110 - Safety and Security Zone; Liquefied Natural Gas Carrier Transits and Anchorage Operations, Boston...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...; Liquefied Natural Gas Carrier Transits and Anchorage Operations, Boston, Massachusetts. 165.110 Section 165... Limited Access Areas First Coast Guard District § 165.110 Safety and Security Zone; Liquefied Natural Gas... ahead and one mile astern, and 500 yards on each side of any liquefied natural gas carrier (LNGC) vessel...

  12. 77 FR 64964 - Cheniere Marketing, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ... Cheniere Marketing, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas Produced... Liquefied Natural Gas by Vessel from the Proposed Corpus Christi Liquefaction Project to Free Trade... Project site, natural gas will be liquefied into LNG and stored in three 160,000 cubic meters full...

  13. 77 FR 72837 - Golden Pass Products LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ... Pass Products LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas Produced... to export domestically produced liquefied natural gas (LNG) in an amount up to the equivalent of 740... Liquefied Natural Gas by Vessel from the Golden Pass LNG Terminal to Free Trade Agreement Nations, DOE/FE...

  14. 40 CFR 1048.620 - What are the provisions for exempting large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas? 1048.620 Section 1048.620 Protection of... exempting large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas? (a) If an engine meets all the... natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas. (2) The engine must have maximum engine power at or above 250...

  15. 40 CFR 1048.620 - What are the provisions for exempting large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas? 1048.620 Section 1048.620 Protection of... exempting large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas? (a) If an engine meets all the... natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas. (2) The engine must have maximum engine power at or above 250...

  16. 40 CFR 1048.620 - What are the provisions for exempting large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas? 1048.620 Section 1048.620 Protection of... exempting large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas? (a) If an engine meets all the... natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas. (2) The engine must have maximum engine power at or above 250...

  17. 40 CFR 1048.620 - What are the provisions for exempting large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas? 1048.620 Section 1048.620 Protection of... exempting large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas? (a) If an engine meets all the... natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas. (2) The engine must have maximum engine power at or above 250...

  18. 40 CFR 1048.620 - What are the provisions for exempting large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas? 1048.620 Section 1048.620 Protection of... exempting large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas? (a) If an engine meets all the... natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas. (2) The engine must have maximum engine power at or above 250...

  19. Developments in non-utility uses of liquefied natural gas (LNG)

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, P.J.

    1988-01-01

    The development uses, and market for liquefied natural gas (LNG) is addressed. Applications discussed include aircraft fuel, rocket fuel, diesel locomotive fuel, and as a refrigeration source for a shrimp boat in a demonstration program. 3 figs. (CBS)

  20. 40 CFR Table W - 5 of Subpart W-Default Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage W Table W Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Natural Gas Systems Definitions. Pt. 98, Subpt. W, Table W-5 Table W-5 of Subpart W—Default Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage LNG storage Emission factor (scf/hour/component...

  1. 33 CFR 165.502 - Safety and Security Zone; Cove Point Liquefied Natural Gas Terminal, Chesapeake Bay, Maryland.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety and Security Zone; Cove Point Liquefied Natural Gas Terminal, Chesapeake Bay, Maryland. 165.502 Section 165.502 Navigation and... Areas Fifth Coast Guard District § 165.502 Safety and Security Zone; Cove Point Liquefied Natural...

  2. 33 CFR 165.502 - Safety and Security Zone; Cove Point Liquefied Natural Gas Terminal, Chesapeake Bay, Maryland.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety and Security Zone; Cove Point Liquefied Natural Gas Terminal, Chesapeake Bay, Maryland. 165.502 Section 165.502 Navigation and... Areas Fifth Coast Guard District § 165.502 Safety and Security Zone; Cove Point Liquefied Natural...

  3. 33 CFR 165.502 - Safety and Security Zone; Cove Point Liquefied Natural Gas Terminal, Chesapeake Bay, Maryland.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Safety and Security Zone; Cove Point Liquefied Natural Gas Terminal, Chesapeake Bay, Maryland. 165.502 Section 165.502 Navigation and... Areas Fifth Coast Guard District § 165.502 Safety and Security Zone; Cove Point Liquefied Natural...

  4. 33 CFR 165.502 - Safety and Security Zone; Cove Point Liquefied Natural Gas Terminal, Chesapeake Bay, Maryland.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety and Security Zone; Cove Point Liquefied Natural Gas Terminal, Chesapeake Bay, Maryland. 165.502 Section 165.502 Navigation and... Areas Fifth Coast Guard District § 165.502 Safety and Security Zone; Cove Point Liquefied Natural...

  5. 33 CFR 165.1709 - Security Zones: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. 165.1709 Section...: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. (a... navigable waters within a 1000-yard radius of the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) tankers during their...

  6. 33 CFR 165.502 - Safety and Security Zone; Cove Point Liquefied Natural Gas Terminal, Chesapeake Bay, Maryland.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety and Security Zone; Cove Point Liquefied Natural Gas Terminal, Chesapeake Bay, Maryland. 165.502 Section 165.502 Navigation and... Areas Fifth Coast Guard District § 165.502 Safety and Security Zone; Cove Point Liquefied Natural...

  7. 75 FR 60095 - Sempra LNG Marketing, LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-29

    ... LNG Marketing, LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas AGENCY..., by Sempra LNG Marketing, LLC (Sempra), requesting blanket authorization to export up to a total of..., Louisiana. Sempra is engaged in the business of purchasing and marketing supplies of LNG. Sempra is a...

  8. Some insights in novel risk modeling of liquefied natural gas carrier maintenance operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nwaoha, T. C.; John, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    This study discusses the analysis of various modeling approaches and maintenance techniques applicable to the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) carrier operations in the maritime environment. Various novel modeling techniques are discussed; including genetic algorithms, fuzzy logic and evidential reasoning. We also identify the usefulness of these algorithms in the LNG carrier industry in the areas of risk assessment and maintenance modeling.

  9. 49 CFR 191.15 - Transmission systems; gathering systems; and liquefied natural gas facilities: Incident report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Transmission systems; gathering systems; and liquefied natural gas facilities: Incident report. 191.15 Section 191.15 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...

  10. 49 CFR 191.15 - Transmission systems; gathering systems; and liquefied natural gas facilities: Incident report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Transmission systems; gathering systems; and liquefied natural gas facilities: Incident report. 191.15 Section 191.15 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...

  11. 49 CFR 191.17 - Transmission systems; gathering systems; and liquefied natural gas facilities: Annual report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Transmission systems; gathering systems; and liquefied natural gas facilities: Annual report. 191.17 Section 191.17 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...

  12. 77 FR 16471 - Pipeline Safety: Implementation of the National Registry of Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... and liquefied natural gas (LNG) operators. New operators use the national registry to obtain an... LNG Facilities. Subject: Implementation of the National Registry of Pipeline and LNG Operators...

  13. 49 CFR 191.15 - Transmission systems; gathering systems; and liquefied natural gas facilities: Incident report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Transmission systems; gathering systems; and liquefied natural gas facilities: Incident report. 191.15 Section 191.15 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...

  14. 49 CFR 191.17 - Transmission systems; gathering systems; and liquefied natural gas facilities: Annual report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Transmission systems; gathering systems; and liquefied natural gas facilities: Annual report. 191.17 Section 191.17 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...

  15. 49 CFR 191.15 - Transmission systems; gathering systems; and liquefied natural gas facilities: Incident report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Transmission systems; gathering systems; and liquefied natural gas facilities: Incident report. 191.15 Section 191.15 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...

  16. 49 CFR 191.17 - Transmission systems; gathering systems; and liquefied natural gas facilities: Annual report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Transmission systems; gathering systems; and liquefied natural gas facilities: Annual report. 191.17 Section 191.17 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...

  17. 75 FR 53371 - Liquefied Natural Gas Facilities: Obtaining Approval of Alternative Vapor-Gas Dispersion Models

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Safety Administration (PHMSA) issues federal safety standards for siting liquefied natural gas (LNG... an LNG facility to protect the public from the adverse effects of thermal radiation and flammable...

  18. 49 CFR 191.17 - Transmission systems; gathering systems; and liquefied natural gas facilities: Annual report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Transmission systems; gathering systems; and liquefied natural gas facilities: Annual report. 191.17 Section 191.17 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF A THERMOACOUSTIC NATURAL GAS LIQUEFIER-UPDATE

    SciTech Connect

    J. WOLLAN; G. SWIFT

    2001-05-01

    Thermoacoustic heat engines and refrigerators are being developed for liquefaction of natural gas. This is the only technology capable of producing refrigeration power at cryogenic temperatures with no moving parts. A prototype, with a projected natural gas liquefaction capacity of 500 gallons/day, has been built and tested. The power source is a natural gas burner. Systems are developed with liquefaction capacities up to 10,000 to 20,000 gallons per day. The technology, the development project, accomplishments and applications are discussed.

  20. Epoxidized natural rubber toughened aqueous resole type liquefied EFB resin: Physical and chemical characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amran, Umar Adli; Zakaria, Sarani; Chia, Chin Hua

    2013-11-01

    A preliminary study on the reaction between aqueous resole type resinified liquefied palm oil empty fruit bunches fibres (RLEFB) with epoxidized natural rubber (ENR). Liquefaction of empty fruit bunches (EFB) is carried out at different ratio of phenol to EFB (P:EFB). Resole type phenolic resin is prepared using sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as the catalyst with the ratio of liquefied EFB (LEFB) to formaldehyde (LEFB:F) of 1:1.8. 50% epoxidation of epoxidized natural rubber (ENR-50) is used to react with resole resin by mixing with ENR with aqueous resole resin. The cured resin is characterized with FT-IR and SEM. Aqueous system have been found to be unsuitable medium in the reaction between resin and ENR. This system produced a highly porous product when RLEFB/ENR resin is cured.

  1. Liquefied natural gas as a transportation fuel for heavy-duty trucks: Volume I

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    This document contains Volume 1 of a three-volume manual designed for use with a 2- to 3-day liquefied natural gas (LNG) training course. Transportation and off-road agricultural, mining, construction, and industrial applications are discussed. This volume provides a brief introduction to the physics and chemistry of LNG; an overview of several ongoing LNG projects, economic considerations, LNG fuel station technology, LNG vehicles, and a summary of federal government programs that encourage conversion to LNG.

  2. On the application of computational fluid dynamics codes for liquefied natural gas dispersion.

    PubMed

    Luketa-Hanlin, Anay; Koopman, Ronald P; Ermak, Donald L

    2007-02-20

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes are increasingly being used in the liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry to predict natural gas dispersion distances. This paper addresses several issues regarding the use of CFD for LNG dispersion such as specification of the domain, grid, boundary and initial conditions. A description of the k-epsilon model is presented, along with modifications required for atmospheric flows. Validation issues pertaining to the experimental data from the Burro, Coyote, and Falcon series of LNG dispersion experiments are also discussed. A description of the atmosphere is provided as well as discussion on the inclusion of the Coriolis force to model very large LNG spills.

  3. On the application of computational fluid dynamics codes for liquefied natural gas dispersion.

    SciTech Connect

    Luketa-Hanlin, Anay Josephine; Koopman, Ronald P.; Ermak, Donald

    2006-02-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes are increasingly being used in the liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry to predict natural gas dispersion distances. This paper addresses several issues regarding the use of CFD for LNG dispersion such as specification of the domain, grid, boundary and initial conditions. A description of the k-{var_epsilon} model is presented, along with modifications required for atmospheric flows. Validation issues pertaining to the experimental data from the Burro, Coyote, and Falcon series of LNG dispersion experiments are also discussed. A description of the atmosphere is provided as well as discussion on the inclusion of the Coriolis force to model very large LNG spills.

  4. Analysis of temperature and pressure changes in liquefied natural gas (LNG) cryogenic tanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Q.-S.; Wegrzyn, J.; Prasad, V.

    2004-10-01

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is being developed as a transportation fuel for heavy vehicles such as trucks and transit buses, to lessen the dependency on oil and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The LNG stations are properly designed to prevent the venting of natural gas (NG) from LNG tanks, which can cause evaporative greenhouse gas emissions and result in fluctuations of fuel flow and changes of fuel composition. Boil-off is caused by the heat added into the LNG fuel during the storage and fueling. Heat can leak into the LNG fuel through the shell of tank during the storage and through hoses and dispensers during the fueling. Gas from tanks onboard vehicles, when returned to LNG tanks, can add additional heat into the LNG fuel. A thermodynamic and heat transfer model has been developed to analyze different mechanisms of heat leak into the LNG fuel. The evolving of properties and compositions of LNG fuel inside LNG tanks is simulated. The effect of a number of buses fueled each day on the possible total fuel loss rate has been analyzed. It is found that by increasing the number of buses, fueled each day, the total fuel loss rate can be reduced significantly. It is proposed that an electric generator be used to consume the boil-off gas or a liquefier be used to re-liquefy the boil-off gas to reduce the tank pressure and eliminate fuel losses. These approaches can prevent boil-off of natural gas emissions, and reduce the costs of LNG as transportation fuel.

  5. [Ecological/hygienic and toxicological evaluation of combustion products of aviation kerosene and liquefied natural gas].

    PubMed

    Afanas'ev, R V; Berezin, G I; Raznoschikov, V V

    2006-01-01

    Products of kerosene combustion in the present-day aeroengines contain more than 200 compounds of incomplete combustion, partial oxidation, and thermal decomposition of fuel and oil. Most of these are strong toxicants for humans. Increase of temperature in the turbine engine combustion chamber led to production of very toxic nitrogen oxides. In search for the ecologically safe and less toxic alternative attention of fuel engineers was drawn to liquefied natural gas which compares well and even excels kerosene in ecological, economic and many other respects.

  6. Development of a Small-Scale Natural Gas Liquefier. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kountz, K.; Kriha, K.; Liss, W.; Perry, M.; Richards, M.; Zuckerman, D.

    2003-04-30

    This final report describes the progress during the contract period March 1, 1998 through April 30, 2003, on the design, development, and testing of a novel mixed-refrigerant-based 1000 gal/day natural gas liquefier, together with the associated gas cleanup equipment. Based on the work, it is concluded that a cost-effective 1000 gal/day liquefaction system is technically and economically feasible. A unit based on the same developed technology, with 5000 gal/day capacity, would have much improved economics.

  7. Clean air program: Liquefied natural gas safety in transit operations. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, D.M.; Malcosky, N.D.

    1996-03-01

    The report examines the safety issues relating to the use of Liquefied natural Gas (LNG) in transit service. The surveys consisted of: (1) extensive interviews; (2) review of recrods, procedures, and plans relating to safety; (3) examination of facilities and equipment; (4) observations of operations including fueling, maintenance, morning start-up, and revenue service; (5) measurement of methane concentrations in the air where the buses are being fueled or stored. Interviews included all job categories associated with management, operations, safety, maintenance, acquisition, and support. The surveys also included an examination of the occupational hygiene aspects of LNG use.

  8. Breach and safety analysis of spills over water from large liquefied natural gas carriers.

    SciTech Connect

    Hightower, Marion Michael; Luketa-Hanlin, Anay Josephine; Attaway, Stephen W.

    2008-05-01

    In 2004, at the request of the Department of Energy, Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) prepared a report, ''Guidance on the Risk and Safety Analysis of Large Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Spills Over Water''. That report provided framework for assessing hazards and identifying approaches to minimize the consequences to people and property from an LNG spill over water. The report also presented the general scale of possible hazards from a spill from 125,000 m3 o 150,000 m3 class LNG carriers, at the time the most common LNG carrier capacity.

  9. Effect of Increased Levels of Liquefied Natural Gas Exports on U.S. Energy Markets

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    This report responds to a May 29, 2014 request from the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Fossil Energy (DOE/FE) for an update of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) January 2012 study of liquefied natural gas (LNG) export scenarios. This updated study, like the prior one, is intended to serve as an input to be considered in the evaluation of applications to export LNG from the United States under Section 3 of the Natural Gas Act, which requires DOE to grant a permit to export domestically produced natural gas unless it finds that such action is not consistent with the public interest. Appendix A provides a copy of the DOE/FE request letter.

  10. 40 CFR Table W - 5 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage W Table W Protection of Environment... Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Definitions. Pt. 98, Subpt. W, Table W-5 Table W-5 of Subpart W of Part 98—Default Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage LNG storage Emission factor (scf...

  11. 40 CFR Table W - 5 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage W Table W Protection of Environment... Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Definitions. Pt. 98, Subpt. W, Table W-5 Table W-5 of Subpart W of Part 98—Default Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage LNG storage Emission factor (scf...

  12. 76 FR 2093 - Eni USA Gas Marketing LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ... Gas Marketing LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas AGENCY... November 30, 2010, by Eni USA Gas Marketing LLC (Eni USA), requesting blanket authorization to export... purchasing and marketing supplies of natural gas and LNG. Eni USA is a customer of the Cameron Terminal in...

  13. Study on Solidification of CO2 by using Cold Energy of Liquefied Natural Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Yoshiyuki; Fujiwara, Atsushi

    In conventional natural gas combustion power plants, vaporization heat of liquefied natural gas (LNG) has been supplied by sea water and/or air. In the plants, cold vaporization energy has been lost without any effective utilization. An advanced technology has been developed in which carbon dioxide in the flue gas is solidified and separated as dry-ice. Carbon dioxide in the flue gas of a LNG combined cycle is cooled and solidified by the evaporation of LNG. Fundamental studies on fluidized bed heat exchanger were carried out to analyze heat transfer phenomena at low temperature. And the fluidized bed type heat exchanger was confirmed that they had high efficiency by striping off frost solidified on the surface of heat exchanger tube. The heat transfer coefficient at -135°C was calculated about 330-370 (W/m2•K) at the condition where C02 gas was solidified.

  14. Impacts of Imported Liquefied Natural Gas on Residential Appliance Components: Literature Review

    SciTech Connect

    Lekov, Alex; Sturges, Andy; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle

    2009-12-09

    An increasing share of natural gas supplies distributed to residential appliances in the U.S. may come from liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports. The imported gas will be of a higher Wobbe number than domestic gas, and there is concern that it could produce more pollutant emissions at the point of use. This report will review recently undertaken studies, some of which have observed substantial effects on various appliances when operated on different mixtures of imported LNG. While we will summarize findings of major studies, we will not try to characterize broad effects of LNG, but describe how different components of the appliance itself will be affected by imported LNG. This paper considers how the operation of each major component of the gas appliances may be impacted by a switch to LNG, and how this local impact may affect overall safety, performance and pollutant emissions.

  15. Semi-analytical models of hydroelastic sloshing impact in tanks of liquefied natural gas vessels.

    PubMed

    Ten, I; Malenica, Š; Korobkin, A

    2011-07-28

    The present paper deals with the methods for the evaluation of the hydroelastic interactions that appear during the violent sloshing impacts inside the tanks of liquefied natural gas carriers. The complexity of both the fluid flow and the structural behaviour (containment system and ship structure) does not allow for a fully consistent direct approach according to the present state of the art. Several simplifications are thus necessary in order to isolate the most dominant physical aspects and to treat them properly. In this paper, choice was made of semi-analytical modelling for the hydrodynamic part and finite-element modelling for the structural part. Depending on the impact type, different hydrodynamic models are proposed, and the basic principles of hydroelastic coupling are clearly described and validated with respect to the accuracy and convergence of the numerical results.

  16. The influence of liquefied natural gas composition on its behavior as a coolant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbano, A.; Nasuti, F.

    2013-03-01

    Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) is a suitable propellant to be used, together with liquid oxygen as oxidizer, in a liquid rocket engine, because of possible advantages with respect to hydrogen in specific applications. Often approximated as pure methane, LNG is a mixture of methane, other heavier hydrocarbons and nitrogen. If LNG is to be used in a regeneratively cooled liquid rocket engine, the knowledge of the thermodynamic and heat transfer characteristics when it flows in the cooling channels is of primary importance. The aim of the present work is to understand how the composition of LNG can influence the flow in the cooling channels. A parametric study is carried out considering different LNG compositions and heat flux levels. Attention is devoted to the pressure drop and cooling capabilities, which are the aspects that have to be controlled in a regenerative cooling system.

  17. Characterization of liquefied natural gas tanker steel from cryogenic to fire temperatures.

    SciTech Connect

    Dempsey, J. Franklin; Wellman, Gerald William; Antoun, Bonnie R.; Connelly, Kevin; Kalan, Robert J.

    2010-03-01

    The increased demand for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) as a fuel source in the U.S. has prompted a study to improve our capability to predict cascading damage to LNG tankers from cryogenic spills and subsequent fire. To support this large modeling and simulation effort, a suite of experiments were conducted on two tanker steels, ABS Grade A steel and ABS Grade EH steel. A thorough and complete understanding of the mechanical behavior of the tanker steels was developed that was heretofore unavailable for the span of temperatures of interest encompassing cryogenic to fire temperatures. This was accomplished by conducting several types of experiments, including tension, notched tension and Charpy impact tests at fourteen temperatures over the range of -191 C to 800 C. Several custom fixtures and special techniques were developed for testing at the various temperatures. The experimental techniques developed and the resulting data will be presented, along with a complete description of the material behavior over the temperature span.

  18. Comments on Potential Geologic and Seismic Hazards Affecting Proposed Liquefied Natural Gas Site in Santa Monica Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, Stephanie L.; Lee, Homa J.; Parsons, Tom E.; Beyer, Larry A.; Boore, David M.; Conrad, James E.; Edwards, Brian D.; Fisher, Michael A.; Frankel, Arthur D.; Geist, Eric L.; Hudnut, Kenneth W.; Hough, Susan E.; Kayen, Robert E.; Lorenson, T.D.; Luco, Nicolas; McCrory, Patricia A.; McGann, Mary; Nathenson, Manuel; Nolan, Michael; Petersen, Mark D.; Ponti, Daniel J.; Powell, Charles L.; Ryan, Holly F.; Tinsley, John C.; Wills, Chris J.; Wong, Florence L.; Xu, Jingping

    2008-01-01

    In a letter to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) dated March 25, 2008, Representative Jane Harman (California 36th district) requested advice on geologic hazards that should be considered in the review of a proposed liquefied natural gas (LNG) facility off the California coast in Santa Monica Bay. In 2004, the USGS responded to a similar request from Representative Lois Capps, regarding two proposed LNG facilities offshore Ventura County, Calif., with a report summarizing potential geologic and seismic hazards (Ross and others, 2004). The proposed LNG Deepwater Port (DWP) facility includes single point moorings (SPMs) and 35 miles of underwater pipelines. The DWP submersible buoys, manifolds, and risers would be situated on the floor of the southern Santa Monica Basin, in 3,000 feet of water, about 23 miles offshore of the Palos Verdes Peninsula. Twin 24-inch diameter pipelines would extend northeastward from the buoys across the basin floor, up the basin slope and across the continental shelf, skirting north around the Santa Monica submarine canyon. Figure 1 provides locations of the project and geologic features. Acronyms are defined in table 1. This facility is being proposed in a region of known geologic hazards that arise from both the potential for strong earthquakes and geologic processes related to sediment transport and accumulation in the offshore environment. The probability of a damaging earthquake (considered here as magnitude 6.5 or greater) in the next 30 years within about 30 miles (50 km) of the proposed pipeline ranges from 16% at the pipeline's offshore end to 48% where it nears land (Petersen, 2008). Earthquakes of this magnitude are capable of producing strong shaking, surface fault offsets, liquefaction phenomena, landslides, underwater turbidity currents and debris flow avalanches, and tsunamis. As part of the DWP license application for the Woodside Natural Gas proposal in Santa Monica Bay (known as the OceanWay Secure Energy Project), Fugro

  19. 33 CFR 165.1709 - Security Zones: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. 165.1709 Section...: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. (a... and outbound transits through Cook Inlet, Alaska between the Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, 60°40′43″...

  20. 33 CFR 165.1709 - Security Zones: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. 165.1709 Section...: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. (a... and outbound transits through Cook Inlet, Alaska between the Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, 60°40′43″...

  1. 33 CFR 165.1709 - Security Zones: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. 165.1709 Section...: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. (a... and outbound transits through Cook Inlet, Alaska between the Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, 60°40′43″...

  2. 33 CFR 165.1709 - Security Zones: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. 165.1709 Section...: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. (a... and outbound transits through Cook Inlet, Alaska between the Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, 60°40′43″...

  3. An investigation of the use of odorants in liquefied natural gas used as a vehicle fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Green, T.; Williams, T.

    1994-12-31

    Interest in liquefied natural gas (LNG) as an alternative vehicle fuel has increased significantly. Its greater storage density relative to compressed natural gas makes it an attractive option for both volume and weight constrained vehicle applications. The public transportation market, specifically transit bus properties, have been very aggressive in pursuing LNG as an alternative vehicle fuel. Naturally, when dealing with the general public and a new transportation fuel, the issue of safety must be addressed. With this in mind, the Gas Research Institute has initiated a number of safety related studies including an investigation of the use of odorants in LNG. This paper presents the preliminary results of an investigation performed by the Institute of Gas Technology to determine both the applicability and effectiveness of odorizing LNG. This includes an overview of the current state-of-the-art in LNG vehicle fueling and safety systems as well as a discussion of an LNG odorization program conducted by San Diego Gas & Electric in the mid 70`s. Finally, the paper discusses the results of the modeling effort to determine whether conventional odorants used in natural gas can be injected and remain soluble in LNG at temperatures and pressures encountered in LNG fueling and on-board storage systems.

  4. Seventh international conference on liquefied natural gas. Volume 2. Septieme congres international sur le gaz naturel liquefie. Tome 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    Four sessions of the conference included: (1) LNG and world wide energy supplies; (2) liquefaction of natural gas and vaporization of LNG; (3) LNG transport, handling and storage; and (4) legal, economic and financial aspects of LNG trade. This volume contains sessions three and four. Individual papers were abstracted separately. (DP)

  5. Seventh international conference on liquefied natural gas. Volume 1. Septieme Congres international sur le gaz naturel liquefie. Tome 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    Four sessions of the conference included: (1) LNG and woroldwide energy supplies; (2) liquefaction of natural gas and vaporization of LNG; (3) LNG transport, handling and storage; and (4) legal, economic and financial aspects of LNG trade. Two volumes were published. This volume contains the sessions one and two. Separate abstracts were prepared for individual papers. (DP)

  6. Implications of the US-Algerian liquefied natural gas price dispute and LNG imports

    SciTech Connect

    Staats, E.B.

    1980-12-16

    In early 1980 Algeria demanded a 200% increase in the price of its liquefied natural gas. When the US company involved refused to pay this price, Algeria stopped LNG deliveries. The Energy Department, which is now the primary US negotiator with Algeria, says it will not agree to the price demand. If it did Canada and Mexico, at least in the long run, would probably request equivalent prices for their gas. If their price requests were met, US natural gas import bills, at present import levels, would increase by about 79%, or $3.5 billion. However, as the prices increased, demand for imported gas would probably drop substantially. GAO does not believe importing large amounts of LNG from OPEC countries is in the national interest. LNG imports generally trade oil dependence for gas dependence. It makes little sense to increase US dependence on gas at a time when extraordinary steps are being taken to reduce dependence on oil. Current indications are, however, that not many more proposals for LNG from OPEC countries will be forthcoming in the next few years.

  7. Blanketing effect of expansion foam on liquefied natural gas (LNG) spillage pool.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Liu, Yi; Olewski, Tomasz; Vechot, Luc; Mannan, M Sam

    2014-09-15

    With increasing consumption of natural gas, the safety of liquefied natural gas (LNG) utilization has become an issue that requires a comprehensive study on the risk of LNG spillage in facilities with mitigation measures. The immediate hazard associated with an LNG spill is the vapor hazard, i.e., a flammable vapor cloud at the ground level, due to rapid vaporization and dense gas behavior. It was believed that high expansion foam mitigated LNG vapor hazard through warming effect (raising vapor buoyancy), but the boil-off effect increased vaporization rate due to the heat from water drainage of foam. This work reveals the existence of blocking effect (blocking convection and radiation to the pool) to reduce vaporization rate. The blanketing effect on source term (vaporization rate) is a combination of boil-off and blocking effect, which was quantitatively studied through seven tests conducted in a wind tunnel with liquid nitrogen. Since the blocking effect reduces more heat to the pool than the boil-off effect adds, the blanketing effect contributes to the net reduction of heat convection and radiation to the pool by 70%. Water drainage rate of high expansion foam is essential to determine the effectiveness of blanketing effect, since water provides the boil-off effect. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. 75 FR 72877 - Pipeline Safety: Updates to Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas Reporting Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-26

    ..., Northeast Gas Association (NEGas), Oklahoma Independent Petroleum Association (OKIPA) and five pipeline... release of gas from a pipeline, or of LNG, liquefied petroleum gas, refrigerant gas, or gas from an...

  9. Economic and environmental assessment of liquefied natural gas as a supplemental aircraft fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Withers, Mitch R.; Malina, Robert; Gilmore, Christopher K.; Gibbs, Jonathan M.; Trigg, Chris; Wolfe, Philip J.; Trivedi, Parthsarathi; Barrett, Steven R. H.

    2014-04-01

    In 2013, natural gas is 70-80% cheaper than jet fuel on an energy basis. As an alternative aviation fuel, natural gas may reduce operating costs. In this paper, we assess the use of liquefied natural gas (LNG) as a supplemental aircraft fuel in a military context, with detailed assessments of the Lockheed Martin C-130H and C-130J transport aircraft. We estimate the cost of retrofitting these aircraft to use LNG and the savings from reduced fuel expenses. We evaluate the societal impacts of LNG within a cost-benefit framework, taking into account resource consumption, human health impacts related to air quality, and climate damage. In order to compare alternative uses of natural gas in aviation, we include in our analysis Fischer-Tropsch (FT) jet fuel from natural gas as a drop-in alternative. Uncertainty analysis is performed with Monte Carlo simulations. We find that aircraft operators can save up to 14% on fuel expenses (retrofit costs included) by employing LNG retrofits, with a 95% confidence interval of 2-23%. Society can also benefit by 12% (3-20%) from LNG use as a result of improved surface air quality, lower resource consumption, and net climate neutrality. These results are highly dependent on fuel prices, the quantity and cost of the LNG retrofits, and the frequency and length of missions. FT jet fuel is not cost-competitive with conventional fuel and results in increased fuel expenses by 17%. FT fuel provides marginal societal benefits relative to jet fuel.

  10. Proposing a novel combined cycle for optimal exergy recovery of liquefied natural gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salimpour, M. R.; Zahedi, M. A.

    2012-08-01

    The effective utilization of the cryogenic exergy associated with liquefied natural gas (LNG) vaporization is important. In this paper, a novel combined power cycle is proposed which utilizes LNG in different ways to enhance the power generation of a power plant. In addition to the direct expansion in the appropriate expander, LNG is used as a low-temperature heat sink for a middle-pressure gas cycle which uses nitrogen as working fluid. Also, LNG is used to cool the inlet air of an open Brayton gas turbine cycle. These measures are accomplished to improve the exergy recovery of LNG. In order to analyze the performance of the system, the influence of several key parameters such as pressure ratio of LNG turbine, ratio of the mass flow rate of LNG to the mass flow rate of air, pressure ratio of different compressors, LNG pressure and inlet pressure of nitrogen compressor, on the thermal efficiency and exergy efficiency of the offered cycle is investigated. Finally, the proposed combined cycle is optimized on the basis of first and second laws of thermodynamics.

  11. Life-cycle greenhouse gas assessment of Nigerian liquefied natural gas addressing uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Safaei, Amir; Freire, Fausto; Henggeler Antunes, Carlos

    2015-03-17

    Natural gas (NG) has been regarded as a bridge fuel toward renewable sources and is expected to play a greater role in future global energy mix; however, a high degree of uncertainty exists concerning upstream (well-to-tank, WtT) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of NG. In this study, a life-cycle (LC) model is built to assess uncertainty in WtT GHG emissions of liquefied NG (LNG) supplied to Europe by Nigeria. The 90% prediction interval of GHG intensity of Nigerian LNG was found to range between 14.9 and 19.3 g CO2 eq/MJ, with a mean value of 16.8 g CO2 eq/MJ. This intensity was estimated considering no venting practice in Nigerian fields. The mean estimation can shift up to 25 g CO2 eq when considering a scenario with a higher rate of venting emissions. A sensitivity analysis of the time horizon to calculate GHG intensity was also performed showing that higher GHG intensity and uncertainty are obtained for shorter time horizons, due to the higher impact factor of methane. The uncertainty calculated for Nigerian LNG, specifically regarding the gap of data for methane emissions, recommends initiatives to measure and report emissions and further LC studies to identify hotspots to reduce the GHG intensity of LNG chains.

  12. Compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas conversions: The National Renewable Energy Laboratory`s experience

    SciTech Connect

    Motta, R.C.; Kelly, K.J.; Warnock, W.W.

    1996-04-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) contracted with conversion companies in six states to convert approximately 900 light-duty Federal fleet vehicles to operate on compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). The contracts were initiated in order to help the Federal government meet the vehicle acquisition requirements of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT) during a period of limited original equipment manufacturer (OEM) model availability. Approximately 90% of all conversions were performed on compact of full-size vans and pickups, and 90% of the conversions were to bi-fuel operation. With a positive response from the fleet managers, this program helped the Federal government meet the vehicle acquisition requirements of EPACT for fiscal years 1993 and 1994, despite limited OEM model availability. The conversions also helped to establish the infrastructure needed to support further growth in the use of alternative fuel vehicles. In conclusion, the program has been successful in helping the Federal government meet the vehicle acquisition requirements of EPACT, establishing infrastructure, increasing the displacement of imported oil, and evaluating the emissions performance of converted vehicles. With the relatively widespread availability of OEM vehicles in the 1996 model year, the program is now being phased out.

  13. LNG plants in the US and abroad. [Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)

    SciTech Connect

    Blazek, C.F.; Biederman, R.T.

    1992-01-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology recently conducted a comprehensive survey of LNG production and storage facilities in North America. This survey was performed as part of IGT's LNG Observer newsletter which covers both domestic and international LNG news, reports on LNG related economics and statistics, and routinely conducts interviews with key industry leaders. In addition to providing consulting services to the LNG industry, IGT has cosponsored the International Conference on Liquefied Natural Gas for the part 20 years. The objective of this paper is to present a summary of our recent survey results as well as provide an overview of world LNG trade. This information is important in assessing the potential near term availability of LNG for transportation applications. The IGT LNG Survey appraised the capacity and current market activity of LNG peak shaving, satellite storage, and import receiving facilities in the United States and Canada. Information was requested from facilities on three main topics: liquefaction, storage, and regasification. Additional questions were posed regarding the year of operation, designer/contractor for liquefaction cycle and storage, source of LNG (for storage-only facilities), plans for expansion, and level of interest in providing LNG as a vehicle fuel. The IGT LNG Survey has to date received information on 56 LNG peak shaving facilities, 28 satellite storage facilities, and 4 LNG import receiving terminals.

  14. Report on issues regarding the existing New York liquefied natural gas moratorium

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    The New York Energy Planning Board has prepared this study to provide the Governor and the Legislature with information necessary to determine the need for further extension or modification of the existing State moratorium on the siting of new liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities and intrastate transportation routes as required by Chapter 385 of the laws of 1997. The report examines existing laws and regulations that would affect new LNG facilities in New York and government initiatives in other states. It reviews existing use of LNG in New York, including safety issues and potential public concerns that may arise with lifting the moratorium. It also discusses the economic and environmental effects of increased LNG usage for New York State. The study concludes that there are economic and environmental advantages for allowing the construction of new LNG facilities as well as the intrastate transportation of LNG over new routes. Additionally, it concludes that safety concerns associated with these facilities are adequately addressed by existing Federal, State and local statutes and regulations.

  15. Experimental and numerical investigation of the roll motion behavior of a floating liquefied natural gas system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, WenHua; Yang, JianMin; Hu, ZhiQiang; Xiao, LongFei; Peng, Tao

    2013-03-01

    The present paper does an experimental and numerical investigation of the hydrodynamic interaction and the response of a single point turret-moored Floating Liquefied Natural Gas (FLNG) system, which is a new type of floating LNG (Liquid Natural Gas) platform that consists of a ship-type FPSO hull equipped with LNG storage tanks and liquefaction plants. In particular, this study focuses on the investigation of the roll response of FLNG hull in free-decay motions, white noise waves and also in irregular waves. Model tests of the FLNG system in 60%H filling condition excited by both white noise waves and irregular waves combined with steady wind and current have been carried out. Response Amplitude Operators (RAOs) and time histories of the responses are obtained for sway, roll and yaw motions. Obvious Low Frequency (LF) components of the roll motions are observed, which may be out of expectation. To facilitate the physical understanding of this phenomenon, we filter the roll motions at the period of 30 s into two parts: the Wave Frequency (WF) motions and the Low Frequency (LF) motions respectively. The results indicate that the LF motions are closely related to the sway and yaw motions. Possible reasons for the presence of the LF motions of roll have been discussed in detail, through the comparison with the sway and yaw motions. As for the numerical part, the simulation of the modeled case is conducted with the help of the software SESAM®. A good agreement between experiments and calculations is reported within the scope of trends. However, the numerical simulations should be further improved for the prediction of the FLNG system in the heading sea.

  16. AIR QUALITY IMPACTS OF LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS IN THE SOUTH COAST AIR BASIN OF CALIFORNIA

    SciTech Connect

    Carerras-Sospedra, Marc; Brouwer, Jack; Dabdub, Donald; Lunden, Melissa; Singer, Brett

    2011-07-01

    The effects of liquefied natural gas (LNG) on pollutant emission inventories and air quality in the South Coast Air Basin of California were evaluated using recent LNG emission measurements by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the Southern California Gas Company (SoCalGas), and with a state-of-the-art air quality model. Pollutant emissions can be affected by LNG owing to differences in composition and physical properties, including the Wobbe index, a measure of energy delivery rate. This analysis uses LNG distribution scenarios developed by modeling Southern California gas flows, including supplies from the LNG receiving terminal in Baja California, Mexico. Based on these scenarios, the projected penetratino of LNG in the South Coast Air Basin is expected to be limited. In addition, the increased Wobbe index of delivered gas (resulting from mixtures of LNG and conventional gas supplies) is expected to cause increases smaller than 0.05 percent in overall (area-wide) emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx). BAsed on the photochemical state of the South Coast Air Basin, any increase in NOx is expected to cause an increase in the highest local ozone concentrations, and this is reflected in model results. However, the magnitude of the increase is well below the generally accepted accuracy of the model and would not be discernible with the existing monitoring network. Modeling of hypothetical scenarios indicates that discernible changes to ambient ozone and particulate matter concentrations would occur only at LNG distribution rates that are not achievable with current or planned infrastructure and with Wobbe index vlaues that exceed current gas quality tariffs. Results of these hypothetical scenarios are presented for consideration of any proposed substantial expansion of LNG supply infrastructure in Southern California.

  17. Feasibility of landfill gas as a liquefied natural gas fuel source for refuse trucks.

    PubMed

    Zietsman, Josias; Bari, Muhammad Ehsanul; Rand, Aaron J; Gokhale, Bhushan; Lord, Dominique; Kumar, Sunil

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a methodology to evaluate the feasibility of using landfill gas (LFG) as a liquefied natural gas (LNG) fuel source for heavy-duty refuse trucks operating on landfills. Using LFG as a vehicle fuel can make the landfills more self-sustaining, reduce their dependence on fossil fuels, and reduce emissions and greenhouse gases. Acrion Technologies Inc. in association with Mack Trucks Inc. developed a technology to generate LNG from LFG using the CO2 WASH process. A successful application of this process was performed at the Eco Complex in Burlington County, PA. During this application two LNG refuse trucks were operated for 600 hr each using LNG produced from gases from the landfill. The methodology developed in this paper can evaluate the feasibility of three LFG options: doing nothing, electricity generation, and producing LNG to fuel refuse trucks. The methodology involved the modeling of several components: LFG generation, energy recovery processes, fleet operations, economic feasibility, and decision-making. The economic feasibility considers factors such as capital, maintenance, operational, and fuel costs, emissions and tax benefits, and the sale of products such as surplus LNG and food-grade carbon dioxide (CO2). Texas was used as a case study. The 96 landfills in Texas were prioritized and 17 landfills were identified that showed potential for converting LFG to LNG for use as a refuse truck fuel. The methodology was applied to a pilot landfill in El Paso, TX. The analysis showed that converting LFG to LNG to fuel refuse trucks proved to be the most feasible option and that the methodology can be applied for any landfill that considers this option.

  18. EXAMINE AND EVALUATE A PROCESS TO USE SALT CAVERNS TO RECEIVE SHIP BORNE LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Michael M. McCall; William M. Bishop; D. Braxton Scherz

    2003-04-24

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy cooperative research project is to define, describe, and validate, a process to utilize salt caverns to receive and store the cargoes of LNG ships. The project defines the process as receiving LNG from a ship, pumping the LNG up to cavern injection pressures, warming it to cavern compatible temperatures, injecting the warmed vapor directly into salt caverns for storage, and distribution to the pipeline network. The performance of work under this agreement is based on U.S. Patent 5,511,905, and other U.S. and Foreign pending patent applications. The cost sharing participants in the research are The National Energy Technology Laboratory (U.S. Department of Energy), BP America Production Company, Bluewater Offshore Production Systems (U.S.A.), Inc., and HNG Storage, L.P. Initial results indicate that a salt cavern based receiving terminal could be built at about half the capital cost, less than half the operating costs and would have significantly higher delivery capacity, shorter construction time, and be much more secure than a conventional liquid tank based terminal. There is a significant body of knowledge and practice concerning natural gas storage in salt caverns, and there is a considerable body of knowledge and practice in handling LNG, but there has never been any attempt to develop a process whereby the two technologies can be combined. Salt cavern storage is infinitely more secure than surface storage tanks, far less susceptible to accidents or terrorist acts, and much more acceptable to the community. The project team developed conceptual designs of two salt cavern based LNG terminals, one with caverns located in Calcasieu Parish Louisiana, and the second in Vermilion block 179 about 50 miles offshore Louisiana. These conceptual designs were compared to conventional tank based LNG terminals and demonstrate superior security, economy and capacity. The potential for the development of LNG receiving terminals

  19. Thermodynamic design of natural gas liquefaction cycles for offshore application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ho-Myung; Lim, Hye Su; Choe, Kun Hyung

    2014-09-01

    A thermodynamic study is carried out for natural gas liquefaction cycles applicable to offshore floating plants, as partial efforts of an ongoing governmental project in Korea. For offshore liquefaction, the most suitable cycle may be different from the on-land LNG processes under operation, because compactness and simple operation are important as well as thermodynamic efficiency. As a turbine-based cycle, closed Claude cycle is proposed to use NG (natural gas) itself as refrigerant. The optimal condition for NG Claude cycle is determined with a process simulator (Aspen HYSYS), and the results are compared with fully-developed C3-MR (propane pre-cooled mixed refrigerant) JT cycles and various N2 (nitrogen) Brayton cycles in terms of efficiency and compactness. The newly proposed NG Claude cycle could be a good candidate for offshore LNG processes.

  20. Risks to offshore installations in Europe due to natural hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Necci, Amos; Krausmann, Elisabeth

    2017-04-01

    Natural hazards, such as storms, earthquakes, or lightning are a major threat to industry. In particular, chemical plants, storage facilities, pipelines, and offshore oil and gas facilities are vulnerable to natural events which can cause hazardous materials releases and thereby endanger workers, the population and the environment. These technological accidents are commonly referred to as Natech accidents. Recent events have increased concerns about safety in the offshore oil and gas sector, and the need for improving knowledge on the matter has become evident. With those premises, we analyzed accidents, near misses and accident precursors at offshore facilities in Europe caused by natural events using both a statistical and a qualitative approach. For this purpose, we screened the World Offshore Accident Database (WOAD) to identify all incidents that featured natural events as causes or aggravating factors. A dataset of 1,085 global Natech events was built for the statistical analysis. Among those, a subset composed of 303 European records was selected. The results of the analysis showed that offshore Natech events in Europe are frequent; they resulted, however, in low consequences. The main threat to offshore facilities resulted from bad weather, such as strong winds and heavy seas. Storms can put intense loads on the structural parts of offshore installations, eventually exceeding design resistance specifications. Several incidents triggered by lightning strikes and earthquakes were also recorded. Substantial differences in terms of vulnerability, damage modality and consequences emerged between fixed and floating offshore structures. The main damage mode for floating structures was the failure of station keeping systems due to the rupture of mooring or anchors, mainly caused by adverse meteorological conditions. Most of the incidents at fixed offshore structures in Europe involved falling loads for both metal jacket and concrete base platforms due to storms. In

  1. 78 FR 65427 - Pipeline Safety: Reminder of Requirements for Liquefied Petroleum Gas and Utility Liquefied...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... Liquefied Petroleum Gas and Utility Liquefied Petroleum Gas Pipeline Systems AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous... owners and operators of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and utility liquefied petroleum gas (Utility LP-Gas.... Background 49 CFR 192.11 requires that each plant that supplies petroleum gas by pipeline to a natural...

  2. Risks in the transport and storage of liquefied natural gas. Sub-project 5-2: Investigation into building damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouwens, C.; Dragosavic, M.

    The large reserves and increasing use of natural gas as a source of energy have resulted in its storage and transport becoming an urgent problem. Since a liquid of the same mass occupies only a fraction of the volume of a gas, it is economical to store natural gas as a liquid. Liquefied natural gas is stored in insulated tanks and also carried by ship at a temperature of -160 C to 170 C. If a serious accident allows the LNG to escape, a gas cloud forms. The results of a possible explosion from such a gas cloud are studied. The development of a leak, escape and evaporation, size and propagation of the gas cloud, the explosive pressures to be expected and the results on the environment are investigated. Damage to buildings is examined making use of the preliminary conclusions of the other sub-projects and especially the explosive pressures.

  3. Analysis of Influence of Heat Insulation on the Thermal Regime of Storage Tanks with Liquefied Natural Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksimov, Vyacheslav I.; Nagornova, Tatiana A.; Glazyrin, Viktor P.; Shestakov, Igor A.

    2016-02-01

    Is numerically investigated the process of convective heat transfer in the reservoirs of liquefied natural gas (LNG). The regimes of natural convection in a closed rectangular region with different intensity of heat exchange at the external borders are investigated. Is solved the time-dependent system of energy and Navier-Stokes equations in the dimensionless variables "vorticity - the stream function". Are obtained distributions of the hydrodynamic parameters and temperatures, that characterize basic regularities of the processes. The special features of the formation of circulation flows are isolated and the analysis of the temperature distribution in the solution region is carried out. Is shown the influence of geometric characteristics and intensity of heat exchange on the outer boundaries of reservoir on the temperature field in the LNG storage.

  4. Guidance on risk analysis and safety implications of a large liquefied natural gas (LNG) spill over water.

    SciTech Connect

    Wellman, Gerald William; Melof, Brian Matthew; Luketa-Hanlin, Anay Josephine; Hightower, Marion Michael; Covan, John Morgan; Gritzo, Louis Alan; Irwin, Michael James; Kaneshige, Michael Jiro; Morrow, Charles W.

    2004-12-01

    While recognized standards exist for the systematic safety analysis of potential spills or releases from LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) storage terminals and facilities on land, no equivalent set of standards or guidance exists for the evaluation of the safety or consequences from LNG spills over water. Heightened security awareness and energy surety issues have increased industry's and the public's attention to these activities. The report reviews several existing studies of LNG spills with respect to their assumptions, inputs, models, and experimental data. Based on this review and further analysis, the report provides guidance on the appropriateness of models, assumptions, and risk management to address public safety and property relative to a potential LNG spill over water.

  5. Supply chain management and economic valuation of real options in the natural gas and liquefied natural gas industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mulan Xiaofeng

    My dissertation concentrates on several aspects of supply chain management and economic valuation of real options in the natural gas and liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry, including gas pipeline transportations, ocean LNG shipping logistics, and downstream storage. Chapter 1 briefly introduces the natural gas and LNG industries, and the topics studied in this thesis. Chapter 2 studies how to value U.S. natural gas pipeline network transport contracts as real options. It is common for natural gas shippers to value and manage contracts by simple adaptations of financial spread option formulas that do not fully account for the implications of the capacity limits and the network structure that distinguish these contracts. In contrast, we show that these operational features can be fully captured and integrated with financial considerations in a fairly easy and managerially significant manner by a model that combines linear programming and simulation. We derive pathwise estimators for the so called deltas and structurally characterize them. We interpret them in a novel fashion as discounted expectations, under a specific weighing distribution, of the amounts of natural gas to be procured/marketed when optimally using pipeline capacity. Based on the actual prices of traded natural gas futures and basis swaps, we show that an enhanced version of the common approach employed in practice can significantly underestimate the true value of natural gas pipeline network capacity. Our model also exhibits promising financial (delta) hedging performance. Thus, this model emerges as an easy to use and useful tool that natural gas shippers can employ to support their valuation and delta hedging decisions concerning natural gas pipeline network transport capacity contracts. Moreover, the insights that follow from our data analysis have broader significance and implications in terms of the management of real options beyond our specific application. Motivated by current developments

  6. 18 CFR 157.212 - Synthetic and liquefied natural gas facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... natural gas facilities. 157.212 Section 157.212 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES... 7 OF THE NATURAL GAS ACT Interstate Pipeline Blanket Certificates and Authorization Under Section 7...

  7. 18 CFR 157.212 - Synthetic and liquefied natural gas facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... natural gas facilities. 157.212 Section 157.212 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES... 7 OF THE NATURAL GAS ACT Interstate Pipeline Blanket Certificates and Authorization Under Section 7...

  8. 18 CFR 157.212 - Synthetic and liquefied natural gas facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... natural gas facilities. 157.212 Section 157.212 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES... 7 OF THE NATURAL GAS ACT Interstate Pipeline Blanket Certificates and Authorization Under Section 7...

  9. 18 CFR 157.212 - Synthetic and liquefied natural gas facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... natural gas facilities. 157.212 Section 157.212 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES... 7 OF THE NATURAL GAS ACT Interstate Pipeline Blanket Certificates and Authorization Under Section 7...

  10. 18 CFR 157.212 - Synthetic and liquefied natural gas facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... natural gas facilities. 157.212 Section 157.212 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES... 7 OF THE NATURAL GAS ACT Interstate Pipeline Blanket Certificates and Authorization Under Section 7...

  11. SEASAT economic assessment. Volume 3: Offshore oil and natural gas industry case study and generalization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The economic benefits of improved ocean condition, weather and ice forecasts by SEASAT satellites to the exploration, development and production of oil and natural gas in the offshore regions are considered. The results of case studies which investigate the effects of forecast accuracy on offshore operations in the North Sea, the Celtic Sea, and the Gulf of Mexico are reported. A methodology for generalizing the results to other geographic regions of offshore oil and natural gas exploration and development is described.

  12. In-use NOx emissions from diesel and liquefied natural gas refuse trucks equipped with SCR and TWC respectively.

    PubMed

    Misra, Chandan; Ruehl, Chris; Collins, John Francis; Chernich, Don; Herner, Jorn

    2017-02-07

    The California Air Resources Board (ARB) and the City of Sacramento undertook this study to characterize the in-use emissions from model year (MY) 2010 or newer diesel, liquefied natural gas (LNG) and hydraulic hybrid diesel engines during real-world refuse truck operation. Emissions from five trucks: two diesels equipped with selective catalytic reduction (SCR), two LNG's equipped with three-way catalyst (TWC) and one hydraulic hybrid diesel equipped with SCR were measured using a portable emissions measurement system (PEMS) in the Sacramento area. Results showed that the brake-specific NOx emissions for the LNG trucks equipped with the TWC catalyst were lowest of all the technologies tested. Results also showed that the brake specific NOx emissions from the conventional diesel engines were significantly higher despite the exhaust temperature being high enough for proper SCR function. Like diesel engines, the brake specific NOx emissions from the hydraulic hybrid diesel also exceeded certification although this can be explained on the basis of the temperature profile. Future studies are warranted to establish whether the below average SCR performance observed in this study is a systemic issue or is it a problem specifically observed during this work.

  13. LNG (liquefied natural gas) as a fuel and refrigerant for diesel powered shrimp boats

    SciTech Connect

    Acker, G. Jr.; Brett, C.E.; Schaetzle, W.J.; Song, Y.K.

    1988-01-01

    A 3406-B Caterpillar and a 4.236 Perkins have been converted from their standard diesel configuration to dual-fuel engines. These engines operate using an aspirated charge of natural gas and a pilot charge of diesel fuel. The pilot is injected for combustion initiation, performing the same task as a spark plug in a spark ignition engine. Natural gas supplies 80% of the total heat addition at full load for both engines. The diesel fuel provides ignition, performs the function of idling the engine, and acts as a coolant for the injector tips. The diesel pilot setting remains constant throughout the operating range and provides a regular repeatable idle for the engine during no-load operation. A shrimp boat is being used to evaluate the dual-fuel system. The vessel normally carries 16000 1 of diesel fuel giving it a trip length of 14-21 days. To operate on natural gas with similar trip length requires liquification and cryogenic storage at -163/sup 0/C. This type of storage provides the necessary energy density needed for on board fuel storage. A 22 m shrimp boat will carry approximately 17000 1 of LNG in insulated tanks. Urethane insulation is used as both an insulator against heat leak and as a partial tank support structure.

  14. Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions from U.S. liquefied natural gas exports: implications for end uses.

    PubMed

    Abrahams, Leslie S; Samaras, Constantine; Griffin, W Michael; Matthews, H Scott

    2015-03-03

    This study analyzes how incremental U.S. liquefied natural gas (LNG) exports affect global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. We find that exported U.S. LNG has mean precombustion emissions of 37 g CO2-equiv/MJ when regasified in Europe and Asia. Shipping emissions of LNG exported from U.S. ports to Asian and European markets account for only 3.5-5.5% of precombustion life cycle emissions, hence shipping distance is not a major driver of GHGs. A scenario-based analysis addressing how potential end uses (electricity and industrial heating) and displacement of existing fuels (coal and Russian natural gas) affect GHG emissions shows the mean emissions for electricity generation using U.S. exported LNG were 655 g CO2-equiv/kWh (with a 90% confidence interval of 562-770), an 11% increase over U.S. natural gas electricity generation. Mean emissions from industrial heating were 104 g CO2-equiv/MJ (90% CI: 87-123). By displacing coal, LNG saves 550 g CO2-equiv per kWh of electricity and 20 g per MJ of heat. LNG saves GHGs under upstream fugitive emissions rates up to 9% and 5% for electricity and heating, respectively. GHG reductions were found if Russian pipeline natural gas was displaced for electricity and heating use regardless of GWP, as long as U.S. fugitive emission rates remain below the estimated 5-7% rate of Russian gas. However, from a country specific carbon accounting perspective, there is an imbalance in accrued social costs and benefits. Assuming a mean social cost of carbon of $49/metric ton, mean global savings from U.S. LNG displacement of coal for electricity generation are $1.50 per thousand cubic feet (Mcf) of gaseous natural gas exported as LNG ($.028/kWh). Conversely, the U.S. carbon cost of exporting the LNG is $1.80/Mcf ($.013/kWh), or $0.50-$5.50/Mcf across the range of potential discount rates. This spatial shift in embodied carbon emissions is important to consider in national interest estimates for LNG exports.

  15. An assessment of air emissions from liquefied natural gas ships using different power systems and different fuels.

    PubMed

    Afon, Yinka; Ervin, David

    2008-03-01

    The shipping industry has been an unrecognized source of criteria pollutants: nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic compounds, coarse particulate matter (PM10), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and carbon monoxide (CO). Liquefied natural gas (LNG) has traditionally been transported via steam turbine (ST) ships. Recently, LNG shippers have begun using dual-fuel diesel engines (DFDEs) to propel and offload their cargoes. Both the conventional ST boilers and DFDE are capable of burning a range of fuels, from heavy fuel oil to boil-off-gas (BOG) from the LNG load. In this paper a method for estimating the emissions from ST boilers and DFDEs during LNG offloading operations at berth is presented, along with typical emissions from LNG ships during offloading operations under different scenarios ranging from worst-case fuel oil combustion to the use of shore power. The impact on air quality in nonattainment areas where LNG ships call is discussed. Current and future air pollution control regulations for ocean-going vessels (OGVs) such as LNG ships are also discussed. The objective of this study was to estimate and compare emissions of criteria pollutants from conventional ST and DFDE ships using different fuels. The results of this study suggest that newer DFDE ships have lower SO2 and PM2.5/PM10 emissions, conventional ST ships have lower NOx, volatile organic compound, and CO emissions; and DFDE ships utilizing shore power at berth produce no localized emissions because they draw their required power from the local electric grid.

  16. 78 FR 46581 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, and To Import Liquefied Natural Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ... Fossil Energy, Department of Energy (DOE). ACTION: Notice of orders. SUMMARY: The Office of Fossil Energy... in the attached appendix and may be found on the FE Web site at http://www.fossil.energy.gov/programs... of Fossil Energy, Office of Natural Gas Regulatory Activities, Docket Room 3E-033, Forrestal Building...

  17. Middle and upper Miocene natural gas sands in onshore and offshore Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Mink, R.M.; Mancini, E.A.; Bearden, B.L.; Smith, C.C.

    1988-09-01

    Thirty Miocene natural gas fields have been established in onshore and offshore Alabama since the discovery of Miocene gas in this area in 1979. These fields have produced over 16 bcf of natural gas from the middle Miocene Amos sand (24 fields) and upper Miocene Luce (3 fields), Escambia (1 field), and Meyer (3 fields) sands. Production from the Amos transgressive sands represents over 92% of the cumulative shallow Miocene natural gas produced in onshore and offshore Alabama. In addition, over 127 bcf of natural gas has been produced from upper Miocene sands in the Chandeleur area. The productive Miocene section in onshore and coastal Alabama is interpreted to present transgressive marine shelf and regressive shoreface sands. The middle Miocene Amos sand bars are the most productive reservoirs of natural gas in onshore and coastal Alabama, principally due to the porous and permeable nature of these transgressive sands and their stratigraphic relationship to the underlying basinal clays in this area. In offshore Alabama the upper Miocene sands become thicker and are generally more porous and permeable than their onshore equivalents. Because of their deeper burial depth in offshore Alabama, these upper Miocene sands are associated with marine clays that are thermally more mature. The combination of reservoir grade lithologies associated with moderately mature petroleum source rocks enhances the natural gas potential of the upper Miocene sands in offshore Alabama.

  18. A methodology for risk analysis based on hybrid Bayesian networks: application to the regasification system of liquefied natural gas onboard a floating storage and regasification unit.

    PubMed

    Martins, Marcelo Ramos; Schleder, Adriana Miralles; Droguett, Enrique López

    2014-12-01

    This article presents an iterative six-step risk analysis methodology based on hybrid Bayesian networks (BNs). In typical risk analysis, systems are usually modeled as discrete and Boolean variables with constant failure rates via fault trees. Nevertheless, in many cases, it is not possible to perform an efficient analysis using only discrete and Boolean variables. The approach put forward by the proposed methodology makes use of BNs and incorporates recent developments that facilitate the use of continuous variables whose values may have any probability distributions. Thus, this approach makes the methodology particularly useful in cases where the available data for quantification of hazardous events probabilities are scarce or nonexistent, there is dependence among events, or when nonbinary events are involved. The methodology is applied to the risk analysis of a regasification system of liquefied natural gas (LNG) on board an FSRU (floating, storage, and regasification unit). LNG is becoming an important energy source option and the world's capacity to produce LNG is surging. Large reserves of natural gas exist worldwide, particularly in areas where the resources exceed the demand. Thus, this natural gas is liquefied for shipping and the storage and regasification process usually occurs at onshore plants. However, a new option for LNG storage and regasification has been proposed: the FSRU. As very few FSRUs have been put into operation, relevant failure data on FSRU systems are scarce. The results show the usefulness of the proposed methodology for cases where the risk analysis must be performed under considerable uncertainty. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.

  19. Overview of U.S. Legislation and Regulations Affecting Offshore Natural Gas and Oil Activity

    EIA Publications

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a summary of the legislative and regulatory regime that affects natural gas and oil exploration and production in offshore regions of the United States. It discusses the role and importance of these areas as well as the competing interests surrounding ownership, production, exploration and conservation.

  20. Thermodynamic Processes Involving Liquefied Natural Gas at the LNG Receiving Terminals / Procesy termodynamiczne z wykorzystaniem skroplonego gazu ziemnego w terminalach odbiorczych LNG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Łaciak, Mariusz

    2013-06-01

    The increase in demand for natural gas in the world, cause that the production of liquefied natural gas (LNG) and in consequences its regasification becoming more common process related to its transportation. Liquefied gas is transported in the tanks at a temperature of about 111K at atmospheric pressure. The process required to convert LNG from a liquid to a gas phase for further pipeline transport, allows the use of exergy of LNG to various applications, including for electricity generation. Exergy analysis is a well known technique for analyzing irreversible losses in a separate process. It allows to specify the distribution, the source and size of the irreversible losses in energy systems, and thus provide guidelines for energy efficiency. Because both the LNG regasification and liquefaction of natural gas are energy intensive, exergy analysis process is essential for designing highly efficient cryogenic installations. Wzrost zapotrzebowania na gaz ziemny na świecie powoduje, że produkcja skroplonego gazu ziemnego (LNG), a w konsekwencji jego regazyfikacja, staje się coraz bardziej powszechnym procesem związanym z jego transportem. Skroplony gaz transportowany jest w zbiornikach w temperaturze około 111K pod ciśnieniem atmosferycznym. Przebieg procesu regazyfikacji niezbędny do zamiany LNG z fazy ciekłej w gazową dla dalszego transportu w sieci, umożliwia wykorzystanie egzergii LNG do różnych zastosowań, między innymi do produkcji energii elektrycznej. Analiza egzergii jest znaną techniką analizowania nieodwracalnych strat w wydzielonym procesie. Pozwala na określenie dystrybucji, źródła i wielkości nieodwracalnych strat w systemach energetycznych, a więc ustalić wytyczne dotyczące efektywnego zużycia energii. Ponieważ zarówno regazyfikacja LNG jak i skraplanie gazu ziemnego są energochłonne, proces analizy egzergii jest niezbędny do projektowania wysoce wydajnych instalacji kriogenicznych.

  1. A 1 kW-class multi-stage heat-driven thermoacoustic cryocooler system operating at liquefied natural gas temperature range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L. M.; Hu, J. Y.; Wu, Z. H.; Luo, E. C.; Xu, J. Y.; Bi, T. J.

    2015-07-01

    This article introduces a multi-stage heat-driven thermoacoustic cryocooler capable of reaching cooling capacity about 1 kW at liquefied natural gas temperature range without any moving mechanical parts. The cooling system consists of an acoustically resonant double-acing traveling wave thermoacoustic heat engine and three identical pulse tube coolers. Unlike other traditional traveling wave thermoacoustic heat engines, the acoustically resonant double-acting thermoacoustic heat engine is a closed-loop configuration consists of three identical thermoacoustic conversion units. Each pulse tube cooler is bypass driven by one thermoacoustic heat engine unit. The device is acoustically completely symmetric and therefore "self-matching" for efficient traveling-wave thermoacoustic conversion. In the experiments, with 7 MPa helium gas as working gas, when the heating temperature reaches 918 K, total cooling capacity of 0.88 kW at 110 K is obtained with a resonant frequency of about 55 Hz. When the heating temperature is 903 K, a maximum total cooling capacity at 130 K of 1.20 kW is achieved, with a thermal-to-cold exergy efficiency of 8%. Compared to previously developed heat-driven thermoacoustic cryocoolers, this device has higher thermal efficiency and higher power density. It shows a good prospect of application in the field of natural gas liquefaction and recondensation.

  2. 78 FR 34084 - Freeport-McMoRan Energy LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... AGENCY: Office of Fossil Energy, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: The Office of Fossil Energy... Natural Gas Regulatory Activities, Office of Fossil Energy, P.O. Box 44375, Washington, DC 20026-4375...), Office of Natural Gas Regulatory Activities, Office of Fossil Energy, Forrestal Building, Room 3E-042...

  3. 78 FR 75339 - Barca LNG LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas Produced...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ... Fossil Energy, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: The Office of Fossil Energy (FE) of the... Natural Gas Regulatory Activities, Office of Fossil Energy, P.O. Box 44375, Washington, DC 20026-4375...), Office of Natural Gas Regulatory Activities, Office of Fossil Energy, Forrestal Building, Room 3E-042...

  4. 78 FR 75337 - Eos LNG LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas Produced...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ... Natural Gas Resources to Non-Free Trade Agreement Countries for a 25-Year Period AGENCY: Office of Fossil Energy, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: The Office of Fossil Energy (FE) of the Department... Natural Gas Regulatory Activities, Office of Fossil Energy, P.O. Box 44375, Washington, DC 20026-4375...

  5. 76 FR 33746 - Freeport LNG Development, L.P.; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-09

    ... AGENCY: Office of Fossil Energy, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: The Office of Fossil Energy.... Department of Energy (FE-34), Office of Natural Gas Regulatory Activities, Office of Fossil Energy, P.O. Box....S. Department of Energy (FE-34), Office of Natural Gas Regulatory Activities, Office of Fossil...

  6. 76 FR 34212 - Lake Charles Exports, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-13

    ...: Office of Fossil Energy, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: The Office of Fossil Energy (FE) of... Natural Gas Regulatory Activities, Office of Fossil Energy, P.O. Box 44375, Washington, DC 20026-4375...), Office of Natural Gas Regulatory Activities, Office of Fossil Energy, Forrestal Building, Room 3E-042...

  7. 76 FR 76698 - Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP; Application To Export Domestic Liquefied Natural Gas to Non-Free...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-08

    ... Fossil Energy, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: The Office of Fossil Energy (FE) of the... Natural Gas Regulatory Activities, Office of Fossil Energy, P.O. Box 44375, Washington, DC 20026-4375...), Office of Natural Gas Regulatory Activities, Office of Fossil Energy, Forrestal Building, Room 3E-042...

  8. A conceptual demonstration of freeze desalination-membrane distillation (FD-MD) hybrid desalination process utilizing liquefied natural gas (LNG) cold energy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2012-09-01

    The severe global water scarcity and record-high fossil oil price have greatly stimulated the research interests on new desalination technologies which can be driven by renewable energy or waste energy. In this study, a hybrid desalination process comprising freeze desalination and membrane distillation (FD-MD) processes was developed and explored in an attempt to utilize the waste cold energy released from re-gasification of liquefied natural gas (LNG). The concept of this technology was demonstrated using indirect-contact freeze desalination (ICFD) and direct-contact membrane distillation (DCMD) configurations. By optimizing the ICFD operation parameters, namely, the usage of nucleate seeds, operation duration and feed concentration, high quality drinkable water with a low salinity ∼0.144 g/L was produced in the ICFD process. At the same time, using the optimized hollow fiber module length and packing density in the DCMD process, ultra pure water with a low salinity of 0.062 g/L was attained at a condition of high energy efficiency (EE). Overall, by combining FD and MD processes and adopting the optimized operation parameters, the hybrid FD-MD system has been successfully demonstrated. A high total water recovery of 71.5% was achieved, and the water quality obtained met the standard for drinkable water. In addition, with results from specific energy calculation, it was proven that the hybrid process is an energy-saving process and utilization of LNG cold energy could greatly reduce the total energy consumption.

  9. Magnetic liquefier for hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    1992-12-31

    This document summarizes work done at the Astronautics Technology Center of the Astronautics Corporation of America (ACA) in Phase 1 of a four phase program leading to the development of a magnetic liquefier for hydrogen. The project involves the design, fabrication, installation, and operation of a hydrogen liquefier providing significantly reduced capital and operating costs, compared to present liquefiers. To achieve this goal, magnetic refrigeration, a recently developed, highly efficient refrigeration technology, will be used for the liquefaction process. Phase 1 project tasks included liquefier conceptual design and analysis, preliminary design of promising configurations, design selection, and detailed design of the selected design. Fabrication drawings and vendor specifications for the selected design were completed during detailed design. The design of a subscale, demonstration magnetic hydrogen liquefier represents a significant advance in liquefaction technology. The cost reductions that can be realized in hydrogen liquefaction in both the subscale and, more importantly, in the full-scale device are expected to have considerable impact on the use of liquid hydrogen in transportation, chemical, and electronic industries. The benefits to the nation from this technological advance will continue to have importance well into the 21st century.

  10. Chemical and isotopic evidence of the origins of natural gases in offshore Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, D.D.

    1980-01-01

    The chemical and isotopic composition of natural gases from 55 fields in the offshore Gulf of Mexico province has been analyzed. The gases display a trend of more positive delta /sup 13/Cl values with increasing depth and age of producing reservoir. The mechanisms responsible for this fractionation are biogenic enrichment of /sup 12/Cl, thermal cracking, and mixing. Separate trends are present in Texas and Louisiana which suggest a higher geothermal gradient or different type of organic matter in offshore Texas. There is considerable scatter along the general trend because gases generated from deeper, thermally mature source rocks have commonly migrated to shallower immature reservoirs. Many gas fields in reservoirs of all ages are the result of separation-migration in which the gas phase was physically segregated from a petroleum accumulation. These gasses are similar in composition to gas associated with petroleum. 41 references.

  11. 77 FR 4028 - Orders Granting, Amending and Vacating Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-26

    ... Fossil Energy, Department of Energy (DOE). ACTION: Notice of orders. SUMMARY: The Office of Fossil Energy... are summarized in the attached appendix and may be found on the FE Web site at http://www.fossil... inspection and copying in the Office of Fossil Energy, Office of Natural Gas Regulatory Activities, Docket...

  12. 77 FR 55197 - LNG Development Company, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY LNG... From Canadian and Domestic Natural Gas Resources to Non-Free Trade Agreement Countries for a 25-Year Period AGENCY: Office of Fossil Energy, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: The Office of...

  13. 77 FR 63806 - Southern LNG Company, L.L.C.; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY... Produced From Domestic Natural Gas Resources to Non-Free Trade Agreement Countries for a 20- Year Period AGENCY: Office of Fossil Energy, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: The Office of Fossil...

  14. 77 FR 72840 - CE FLNG, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas Produced...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CE FLNG... Natural Gas Resources to Non-Free Trade Agreement Countries for a 30-Year Period AGENCY: Office of Fossil Energy, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: The Office of Fossil Energy (FE) of the...

  15. Thermal analysis elements of liquefied gas storage tanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanvarev, I. A.; Krupnikov, A. V.

    2017-08-01

    Tasks of solving energy and resource efficient usage problems, both for oil producing companies and for companies extracting and transporting natural gas, are associated with liquefied petroleum gas technology development. Improving the operation efficiency of liquefied products storages provides for conducting structural, functional, and appropriate thermal analysis of tank parks in the general case as complex dynamic thermal systems.

  16. Analysis of crack propagation and arrest in welded LNG (liquefied natural gas) storage tanks. Final report, March 1984-October 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Kanninen, M.F.; Dexter, R.J.; Polch, E.Z.; Popelar, C.H.

    1986-12-31

    The extensive safe-operating experience that has been accumulated in LNG storage tanks is strongly indicative of a high degree of structural integrity. Nevertheless, concern has arisen with regard to the presence of weld-induced fabrication flaws in these tanks. When such flaws exist, it may not be possible to preclude the initiation of unstable crack growth during operation. However, if it can be shown that the material has the ability to arrest a running crack, an adequate margin of safety can still be demonstrated. A comprehensive program of experimentation was undertaken in companion programs to develop the crack-arrest properties that are needed for such a demonstration. But, because the 9% nickel steel used for LNG tank materials is very ductile and tough, its fracture properties are not well characterized by the quasi-static linear elastic-fracture-mechanics techniques available to these researchers. The research was therefore aimed at assisting the experimental work by providing more-realistic dynamic and nonlinear fracture-mechanics analyses. These analyses were intended to enhance the experimental program and to help insure that the results of the research are appropriate for the assessment of LNG storage-tank integrity. Specifically, the application of these advanced analysis techniques has demonstrated the mildly anticonservative nature of conventional fracture-mechanics treatments for the materials and structural geometry of interest. Nevertheless, provided a defected region in a storage tank is not overly large, the tank materials examined in this research possess high-enough-crack arrest toughness values to preclude complete tank rupture.

  17. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ordin, P. M.

    1977-01-01

    Bibliography, assembled from computer search of NASA Aerospace Safety Data Bank, including title of report, author, abstract, source, description of figures, key references, and key words or subject terms. Publication is indexed by key subjects and by authors. Items are relevant to design engineers and safety specialists.

  18. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ordin, P. M.

    1977-01-01

    Bibliography, assembled from computer search of NASA Aerospace Safety Data Bank, including title of report, author, abstract, source, description of figures, key references, and key words or subject terms. Publication is indexed by key subjects and by authors. Items are relevant to design engineers and safety specialists.

  19. Biomarkers in Natural Fish Populations Indicate Adverse Biological Effects of Offshore Oil Production

    PubMed Central

    Balk, Lennart; Hylland, Ketil; Hansson, Tomas; Berntssen, Marc H. G.; Beyer, Jonny; Jonsson, Grete; Melbye, Alf; Grung, Merete; Torstensen, Bente E.; Børseth, Jan Fredrik; Skarphedinsdottir, Halldora; Klungsøyr, Jarle

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite the growing awareness of the necessity of a sustainable development, the global economy continues to depend largely on the consumption of non-renewable energy resources. One such energy resource is fossil oil extracted from the seabed at offshore oil platforms. This type of oil production causes continuous environmental pollution from drilling waste, discharge of large amounts of produced water, and accidental spills. Methods and principal findings Samples from natural populations of haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in two North Sea areas with extensive oil production were investigated. Exposure to and uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were demonstrated, and biomarker analyses revealed adverse biological effects, including induction of biotransformation enzymes, oxidative stress, altered fatty acid composition, and genotoxicity. Genotoxicity was reflected by a hepatic DNA adduct pattern typical for exposure to a mixture of PAHs. Control material was collected from a North Sea area without oil production and from remote Icelandic waters. The difference between the two control areas indicates significant background pollution in the North Sea. Conclusion It is most remarkable to obtain biomarker responses in natural fish populations in the open sea that are similar to the biomarker responses in fish from highly polluted areas close to a point source. Risk assessment of various threats to the marine fish populations in the North Sea, such as overfishing, global warming, and eutrophication, should also take into account the ecologically relevant impact of offshore oil production. PMID:21625421

  20. Biomarkers in natural fish populations indicate adverse biological effects of offshore oil production.

    PubMed

    Balk, Lennart; Hylland, Ketil; Hansson, Tomas; Berntssen, Marc H G; Beyer, Jonny; Jonsson, Grete; Melbye, Alf; Grung, Merete; Torstensen, Bente E; Børseth, Jan Fredrik; Skarphedinsdottir, Halldora; Klungsøyr, Jarle

    2011-01-01

    Despite the growing awareness of the necessity of a sustainable development, the global economy continues to depend largely on the consumption of non-renewable energy resources. One such energy resource is fossil oil extracted from the seabed at offshore oil platforms. This type of oil production causes continuous environmental pollution from drilling waste, discharge of large amounts of produced water, and accidental spills. Samples from natural populations of haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in two North Sea areas with extensive oil production were investigated. Exposure to and uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were demonstrated, and biomarker analyses revealed adverse biological effects, including induction of biotransformation enzymes, oxidative stress, altered fatty acid composition, and genotoxicity. Genotoxicity was reflected by a hepatic DNA adduct pattern typical for exposure to a mixture of PAHs. Control material was collected from a North Sea area without oil production and from remote Icelandic waters. The difference between the two control areas indicates significant background pollution in the North Sea. It is most remarkable to obtain biomarker responses in natural fish populations in the open sea that are similar to the biomarker responses in fish from highly polluted areas close to a point source. Risk assessment of various threats to the marine fish populations in the North Sea, such as overfishing, global warming, and eutrophication, should also take into account the ecologically relevant impact of offshore oil production.

  1. DEROCS: A computer program to simulate offshore oil and natural gas development scenarios and onshore service base requirements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marcus, Philip A.; Smith, E.T.; Robinson, S.R.; Wong, A.T.

    1977-01-01

    The FORTRAN IV (H) computer program, DEROCS, constructs Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) resource development scenarios and quantifies the requirements for and impacts of the operation of the onshore service bases necessary to support offshore oil and gas operations. The acronym DEROCS stands for 'Development of Energy Resources of the Outer Continental Shelf.' The user may specify the number, timing, and amounts of offshore oil and natural gas finds, onshore service base locations, and multiplier relationships between offshore development activities and onshore land, supply, labor and facility requirements. The program determines schedules of platform installation, development drilling, production from platforms, and well workover, and calculates on a yearly basis the requirements for and impacts of the operation of the onshore service bases demanded by offshore activities. We present two examples of program application.

  2. Active Magnetic Regenerative Liquefier

    SciTech Connect

    Barclay, John A.; Oseen-Send, Kathryn; Ferguson, Luke; Pouresfandiary, Jamshid; Cousins, Anand; Ralph, Heather; Hampto, Tom

    2016-01-12

    This final report for the DOE Project entitled Active Magnetic Regenerative Liquefier (AMRL) funded under Grant DE-FG36-08GO18064 to Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy (Heracles/Prometheus) describes an active magnetic regenerative refrigerator (AMRR) prototype designed and built during the period from July 2008 through May 2011. The primary goal of this project was to make significant technical advances toward highly efficient liquefaction of hydrogen. Conventional hydrogen liquefiers at any scale have a maximum FOM of ~0.35 due primarily to the intrinsic difficulty of rapid, efficient compression of either hydrogen or helium working gases. Numerical simulation modeling of high performance AMRL designs indicates certain designs have promise to increase thermodynamic efficiency from a FOM of ~0.35 toward ~0.5 to ~0.6. The technical approach was the use of solid magnetic working refrigerants cycled in and out of high magnetic fields to build an efficient active regenerative magnetic refrigeration module providing cooling power for AMRL. A single-stage reciprocating AMRR with a design temperature span from ~290 K to ~120 K was built and tested with dual magnetic regenerators moving in and out of the conductively-cooled superconducting magnet subsystem. The heat transfer fluid (helium) was coupled to the process stream (refrigeration/liquefaction load) via high performance heat exchangers. In order to maximize AMRR efficiency a helium bypass loop with adjustable flow was incorporated in the design because the thermal mass of magnetic refrigerants is higher in low magnetic field than in high magnetic field. Heracles/Prometheus designed experiments to measure AMRR performance under a variety of different operational parameters such as cycle frequency, magnetic field strength, heat transfer fluid flow rate, amount of bypass flow of the heat transfer fluid while measuring work input, temperature span, cooling capability as a function of cold temperature

  3. Generation and Migration of Natural Gas in Miocene Strata, Offshore Southeastern Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Byeong-Kook

    2016-04-01

    Natural gas and condensate are produced from Miocene strata of the Tertiary marine basin, called Ulleung Basin, which is located offshore southeastern Korea. Petroleum system in the basin has not been fully understood, because effective source rocks have not been identified in the area. However, 1-D petroleum system modelling and isotope data indicate that the source rock of the natural gas and condensate might be present at deeper strata than 5,000 m in the basin. In addition, the analysis of diamondoids in the condensate shows that the gas was transformed from type II kerogen. Based on this source rock information and other geological data, 2-D petroleum system modelling was conducted on two cross sections in the southwestern margin of the basin. The 2-D models show two phase generation and migration, which are caused by the geometry of source bed and the maturity level of each pod of the bed. In addition, the accumulation of hydrocarbon is constrained greatly by the timing of development of the regional seal. The first generation and migration of oil and gas begins with a high rate of sedimentation at a deeply and early buried pod of the source bed at 15 Ma. The hydrocarbon, however, migrates upward and diffuses toward the surface. The second generation and migration occurs at around 11 Ma from the other pod of the source bed. This hydrocarbon migrates updip toward anticlines and accumulates into the traps of anticlines. On the other hand, the model shows that the generation and migration is dominated by gas, rather than oil. This model indicates that the accumulation of hydrocarbon can be completed only by the proper and sophisticated combination of the geological elements and the timing of hydrocarbon migration in time and space. This 2-D feature of generation and migration is supported by additional 1-D models of two pseudo-wells drilled on the 2-D section.

  4. Distribution, Abundance, and Potential Larval Connectivity of the Non-Native Bryozoan Watersipora on Offshore Oil Platforms and Natural Reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, M.; Zaleski, S.; Simons, R. D.; Miller, R. J.; Dugan, J.; Doheny, B.; Schroeder, D. M.

    2016-02-01

    The invasion and spread of exotic species is considered one of the greatest threats to biological diversity and the functioning of aquatic ecosystems today. The non-native foliose bryozoan, Watersipora subtorquata (=W. subatra?), commonly reported from harbors and embayments, also occurs on offshore oil platforms in the southern California Bight. To better understand and manage the spread of Watersipora among platforms and other artificial and natural reef habitats, we are assessing the current distribution of this bryozoan and evaluating dispersal pathways using empirical and modeling results. We surveyed 23 oil and gas platforms offshore of California from San Pedro Bay in the south to Pt. Conception in the north and 27 natural reefs bordering the mainland coast and northern Channel Islands using photographic methods and diver searches. Watersipora occurred on approximately half (13) of the platforms, with most of those (11) located in the south (San Pedro Bay) or southeastern portion of the Santa Barbara Channel. Where present, Watersipora cover varied widely among platforms. Watersipora occurred on 6 of the 12 mainland natural reefs surveyed within the Santa Barbara Channel, but only 2 of 15 reefs on the northern Channel Islands. Where present on reefs, Watersipora cover was low and patchy. Preliminary particle tracking modeling using ROMS suggests potential larval connectivity of Watersipora among some platforms, but little connectivity between platforms and natural reefs due to the short planktonic larval duration of this bryozoan and the direction of prevailing currents. These preliminary results suggest that dispersal from harbors or through hull fouling is the most likely vector of dispersal to natural reefs. Our study will inform mitigation measures to manage the spread of Watersipora among offshore structures, including future renewable energy installations, and to natural habitat, as well as decisions on future Rigs-to-Reefs alternatives in California.

  5. 78 FR 26056 - Waterway Suitability Assessment for Expansion of Liquefied Gas Terminals; Nederland, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-03

    ... Management Facility (M-30), U.S. Department of Transportation, West Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200... Facility in Room W12-140 on the ground floor of the Department of Transportation West Building, 1200 New... Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) or Liquefied Hazardous Gas (LHG), where the construction, expansion, or...

  6. 78 FR 75359 - Waterway Suitability Assessment for Construction and Operation of Liquefied Gas Terminals; Orange...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ...: Docket Management Facility (M-30), U.S. Department of Transportation, West Building Ground Floor, Room... Management Facility in Room W12-140 on the ground floor of the Department of Transportation West Building... handling Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) OR Liquefied Hazardous Gas (LHG), where the construction, expansion...

  7. Mapping Porosity Structure Offshore Torrey Pines State Natural Reserve and Del Mar, California Using a Surface Towed EM System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Thomas Patrick

    Controlled source electromagnetic methods have been used in exploration of the offshore environment for over 50 years to map the resistivity structure of the earth. Developments in both instrumentation and computational power have lead to many advancements that have led to discoveries and insights about the subsurface. One of these advancements has been the development of towed EM acquisition systems. One system the Marine EM Lab at Scripps Institution of Oceanography has developed is a shallow water system, named Porpoise, can be used in water depths as shallow as 5m. In May of 2014, a one day field test of this new shallow water acquisition system took place offshore of Del Mar and Torrey Pines State Natural Reserve, California. The data from this field test corresponds with previous interpretations of paleochannels directly offshore modern day San Dieguito and Soledad Valley river outflows. With resistivity data, it is possible to indirectly map porosity in the near surface and to map geological features. The data dense and economical operation of the Porpoise acquisition system can be used to map resistivity and indirectly porosity in a variety of shallow water marine environments. This field test proves the viability and limitations of the Porpoise system.

  8. 49 CFR 173.336 - Nitrogen dioxide, liquefied, or dinitrogen tetroxide, liquefied.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nitrogen dioxide, liquefied, or dinitrogen....336 Nitrogen dioxide, liquefied, or dinitrogen tetroxide, liquefied. (a) Nitrogen dioxide, liquefied... with nitrogen dioxide. Each valve opening must be closed by a solid metal plug with tapered thread...

  9. 49 CFR 173.336 - Nitrogen dioxide, liquefied, or dinitrogen tetroxide, liquefied.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nitrogen dioxide, liquefied, or dinitrogen....336 Nitrogen dioxide, liquefied, or dinitrogen tetroxide, liquefied. (a) Nitrogen dioxide, liquefied... with nitrogen dioxide. Each valve opening must be closed by a solid metal plug with tapered...

  10. 49 CFR 173.336 - Nitrogen dioxide, liquefied, or dinitrogen tetroxide, liquefied.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nitrogen dioxide, liquefied, or dinitrogen....336 Nitrogen dioxide, liquefied, or dinitrogen tetroxide, liquefied. (a) Nitrogen dioxide, liquefied... with nitrogen dioxide. Each valve opening must be closed by a solid metal plug with tapered...

  11. 49 CFR 173.336 - Nitrogen dioxide, liquefied, or dinitrogen tetroxide, liquefied.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nitrogen dioxide, liquefied, or dinitrogen....336 Nitrogen dioxide, liquefied, or dinitrogen tetroxide, liquefied. (a) Nitrogen dioxide, liquefied... with nitrogen dioxide. Each valve opening must be closed by a solid metal plug with tapered...

  12. 49 CFR 173.336 - Nitrogen dioxide, liquefied, or dinitrogen tetroxide, liquefied.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nitrogen dioxide, liquefied, or dinitrogen....336 Nitrogen dioxide, liquefied, or dinitrogen tetroxide, liquefied. (a) Nitrogen dioxide, liquefied... with nitrogen dioxide. Each valve opening must be closed by a solid metal plug with tapered...

  13. The nature of scour development and scour protection at offshore windfarm foundations.

    PubMed

    Whitehouse, Richard J S; Harris, John M; Sutherland, James; Rees, Jon

    2011-01-01

    Analysis and interpretation of monitoring data for the seabed bathymetry local to offshore windfarm foundations has shown how the scour develops in time and highlighted variations between sites with different seabed sediment characteristics, i.e. sands and clays. Results from European offshore windfarms have generated a unique dataset for comparison with previously published data. Where surficial sediment is underlain by a marine clay the scour (to date) has been limited, whilst those with unconstrained depths of sandy sediments show scour as deep as 1.38 times the monopile diameter. Scour protection has been installed at some sites for structural stability of the foundation or for cable protection. The flow interaction with the protection causes edge scour or secondary scour in the seabed around the protection. In some cases this scour is deeper than the unprotected case. The analysis has resulted in an improved evidence base for scour in the marine environment.

  14. Hydrogen Production by Steam Reforming of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Over Nickel-Phosphorus-Alumina Xerogel Catalyst Prepared by a Carbon-Templating Epoxide-Driven Sol-Gel Method.

    PubMed

    Bang, Yongju; Park, Seungwon; Han, Seung Ju; Yoo, Jaekyeong; Choi, Jung Ho; Kang, Tae Hun; Lee, Jinwon; Song, In Kyu

    2016-05-01

    A nickel-phosphorus-alumina xerogel catalyst was prepared by a carbon-templating epoxide-driven sol-gel method (denoted as CNPA catalyst), and it was applied to the hydrogen production by steam reforming of liquefied natural gas (LNG). For comparison, a nickel-phosphorus-alumina xerogel catalyst was also prepared by a similar method in the absence of carbon template (denoted as NPA catalyst). The effect of carbon template addition on the physicochemical properties and catalytic activities of the catalysts in the steam reforming of LNG was investigated. Both CNPA and NPA catalysts showed excellent textural properties with well-developed mesoporous structure. However, CNPA catalyst retained a more reducible nickel aluminate phase than NPA catalyst. XRD analysis of the reduced CNPA and NPA catalysts revealed that nickel sintering on the CNPA catalyst was suppressed compared to that on the NPA catalyst. From H2-TPD and CH4-TPD measurements of the reduced CNPA and NPA catalysts, it was also revealed that CNPA catalyst with large amount of hydrogen uptake and strong hydrogen-binding sites showed larger amount of methane adsorption than NPA catalyst. In the hydrogen production by steam reforming of LNG, CNPA catalyst with large methane adsorption capacity showed a better catalytic activity than NPA catalyst.

  15. Greenhouse gases generated from the anaerobic biodegradation of natural offshore asphalt seepages in southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenson, Thomas D.; Wong, Florence L.; Dartnell, Peter; Sliter, Ray W.

    2014-06-01

    Significant offshore asphaltic deposits with active seepage occur in the Santa Barbara Channel offshore southern California. The composition and isotopic signatures of gases sampled from the oil and gas seeps reveal that the coexisting oil in the shallow subsurface is anaerobically biodegraded, generating CO2 with secondary CH4 production. Biomineralization can result in the consumption of as much as 60% by weight of the original oil, with 13C enrichment of CO2. Analyses of gas emitted from asphaltic accumulations or seeps on the seafloor indicate up to 11% CO2 with 13C enrichment reaching +24.8‰. Methane concentrations range from less than 30% up to 98% with isotopic compositions of -34.9 to -66.1‰. Higher molecular weight hydrocarbon gases are present in strongly varying concentrations reflecting both oil-associated gas and biodegradation; propane is preferentially biodegraded, resulting in an enriched 13C isotopic composition as enriched as -19.5‰. Assuming the 132 million barrels of asphaltic residues on the seafloor represent ~40% of the original oil volume and mass, the estimated gas generated is 5.0×1010 kg (~76×109 m3) CH4 and/or 1.4×1011 kg CO2 over the lifetime of seepage needed to produce the volume of these deposits. Geologic relationships and oil weathering inferences suggest the deposits are of early Holocene age or even younger. Assuming an age of ~1,000 years, annual fluxes are on the order of 5.0×107 kg (~76×106 m3) and/or 1.4×108 kg for CH4 and CO2, respectively. The daily volumetric emission rate (2.1×105 m3) is comparable to current CH4 emission from Coal Oil Point seeps (1.5×105 m3/day), and may be a significant source of both CH4 and CO2 to the atmosphere provided that the gas can be transported through the water column.

  16. Greenhouse gases generated from the anaerobic biodegradation of natural offshore asphalt seepages in southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorenson, T.D.; Wong, Florence L.; Dartnell, Peter; Sliter, Ray W.

    2014-01-01

    Significant offshore asphaltic deposits with active seepage occur in the Santa Barbara Channel offshore southern California. The composition and isotopic signatures of gases sampled from the oil and gas seeps reveal that the coexisting oil in the shallow subsurface is anaerobically biodegraded, generating CO2 with secondary CH4 production. Biomineralization can result in the consumption of as much as 60% by weight of the original oil, with 13C enrichment of CO2. Analyses of gas emitted from asphaltic accumulations or seeps on the seafloor indicate up to 11% CO2 with 13C enrichment reaching +24.8‰. Methane concentrations range from less than 30% up to 98% with isotopic compositions of –34.9 to –66.1‰. Higher molecular weight hydrocarbon gases are present in strongly varying concentrations reflecting both oil-associated gas and biodegradation; propane is preferentially biodegraded, resulting in an enriched 13C isotopic composition as enriched as –19.5‰. Assuming the 132 million barrels of asphaltic residues on the seafloor represent ~40% of the original oil volume and mass, the estimated gas generated is 5.0×1010 kg (~76×109 m3) CH4 and/or 1.4×1011 kg CO2 over the lifetime of seepage needed to produce the volume of these deposits. Geologic relationships and oil weathering inferences suggest the deposits are of early Holocene age or even younger. Assuming an age of ~1,000 years, annual fluxes are on the order of 5.0×107 kg (~76×106 m3) and/or 1.4×108 kg for CH4 and CO2, respectively. The daily volumetric emission rate (2.1×105 m3) is comparable to current CH4 emission from Coal Oil Point seeps (1.5×105 m3/day), and may be a significant source of both CH4 and CO2 to the atmosphere provided that the gas can be transported through the water column.

  17. Coyote series data report LLNL/NWC 1981 LNG spill tests dispersion, vapor burn, and rapid-phase-transition. Volume 1. [7 experiments with liquefied natural gas, 2 with liquid methane, and one with liquid nitrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Goldwire, H.C. Jr.; Rodean, H.C.; Cederwall, R.T.; Kansa, E.J.; Koopman, R.P.; McClure, J.W.; McRae, T.G.; Morris, L.K.; Kamppinen, L.; Kiefer, R.D.

    1983-10-01

    The Coyote series of liquefied natural gas (LNG) spill experiments was performed at the Naval Weapons Center (NWC), China Lake, California, during the summer and fall of 1981. These tests were a joint effort of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the NWC and were sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Gas Research Institute. There were ten Coyote experiments, five primarily for the study of vapor dispersion and burning vapor clouds, and five for investigating the occurrence of rapid-phase-transition (RPT) explosions. Each of the last four of the five RPT tests consisted of a series of three spills. Seven experiments were with LNG, two were with liquid methane (LCH/sub 4/), and one was with liquid nitrogen (LN/sub 2/). Three arrays of instrumentation were deployed. An array of RPT diagnostic instruments was concentrated at the spill pond and was operated during all of the tests, vapor burn as well as RPT. The wind-field array was operated during the last nine experiments to define the wind direction and speed in the area upwind and downwind of the spill pond. The gas-dispersion array was deployed mostly downwind of the spill pond to measure gas concentration, humidity, temperature, ground heat flux, infrared (IR) radiation, and flame-front passage during three of the vapor dispersion and burn experiments (Coyotes 3, 5, and 6). High-speed color motion pictures were taken during every test, and IR imagery (side and overhead) was obtained during some vapor-burn experiments. Data was obtained by radiometers during Coyotes 3, 6, and 7. This report presents a comprehensive selection of the data obtained. It does not include any data analysis except that required to determine the test conditions and the reliability of the data. Data analysis is to be reported in other publications. 19 references, 76 figures, 13 tables.

  18. Effect of SiO 2-ZrO 2 supports prepared by a grafting method on hydrogen production by steam reforming of liquefied natural gas over Ni/SiO 2-ZrO 2 catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Jeong Gil; Youn, Min Hye; Song, In Kyu

    SiO 2-ZrO 2 supports with various zirconium contents are prepared by grafting a zirconium precursor onto the surface of commercial Carbosil silica. Ni(20 wt.%)/SiO 2-ZrO 2 catalysts are then prepared by an impregnation method, and are applied to hydrogen production by steam reforming of liquefied natural gas (LNG). The effect of SiO 2-ZrO 2 supports on the performance of the Ni(20 wt.%)/SiO 2-ZrO 2 catalysts is investigated. SiO 2-ZrO 2 prepared by a grafting method serves as an efficient support for the nickel catalyst in the steam reforming of LNG. Zirconia enhances the resistance of silica to steam significantly and increases the interaction between nickel and the support, and furthermore, prevents the growth of nickel oxide species during the calcination process through the formation of a ZrO 2-SiO 2 composite structure. The crystalline structures and catalytic activities of the Ni(20 wt.%)/SiO 2-ZrO 2 catalysts are strongly influenced by the amount of zirconium grafted. The conversion of LNG and the yield of hydrogen show volcano-shaped curves with respect to zirconium content. Among the catalysts tested, the Ni(20 wt.%)/SiO 2-ZrO 2 (Zr/Si = 0.54) sample shows the best catalytic performance in terms of both LNG conversion and hydrogen yield. The well-developed and pure tetragonal phase of ZrO 2-SiO 2 (Zr/Si = 0.54) appears to play an important role in the adsorption of steam and subsequent spillover of steam from the support to the active nickel. The small particle size of the metallic nickel in the Ni(20 wt.%)/SiO 2-ZrO 2 (Zr/Si = 0.54) catalyst is also responsible for its high performance.

  19. Natural gas in Lake Erie: a reconnaissance survey of discharges from an offshore drilling rig

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrante, J.G.; Dettmann, E.H.; Parker, J.I.

    1980-10-01

    Field studies were conducted May 28-June 1, 1979, to determine the chemical composition and physical behavior of discharges from an offshore gas drilling rig in the central basin of Lake Erie. The drilling operation was observed for four days, from rig jackup to the circulation of mud through the borehole after drilling had been completed. Resuspension studies using nephelometry, supplemented with chemical analyses, indicated little resuspension of lake bottom materials or release of metals to the water column during rig jack-up. Portions of the turbidity plumes generated during drilling were buoyant. Three surface turbidity plumes were mapped with nephelometry to a point at which particulate concentrations reached background levels in the Lake. Detectable plumes were approx. 400 to 1500 m in length and had maximum widths < 230 m. A chemical survey conducted in the plume during early gas shows indicated that discharged inorganic chemical species were rapidly diluted to background concentrations and that methane and ethane concentrations were substantially reduced within 330 m of the rig. There was no evidence of carbon tetrachloride extractable hydrocarbons (CTEH) above background concentrations during this chemical plume survey. However, a pair of water samples taken within 100 m of the rig approximately 3 hours after drilling of the target zone was completed had CTEH concentrations that were a factor of 2.4 above background.

  20. Apparatus and method for gelling liquefied gasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, Adam (Inventor); DiSalvo, Roberto (Inventor); Shepherd, Phillip (Inventor); Kosier, Ryan (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method and apparatus for gelling liquid propane and other liquefied gasses includes a temperature controlled churn mixer, vacuum pump, liquefied gas transfer tank, and means for measuring amount of material entering the mixer. The apparatus and method are particularly useful for the production of high quality rocket fuels and propellants.

  1. A Natural Laboratory for Offshore Paleotsunami Studies: The Augusta Bay (Eastern Sicily-Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smedile, A.; Molisso, F.; Chague-Goff, C.; De Martini, P. M.; Pinzi, S.; Iorio, M.; Sagnotti, L.; Pantosti, D.

    2014-12-01

    The recent results obtained from a 6.7 m-long piston-core (MS06), collected 2.3 km offshore Augusta at a water depth of 72 m and made of an almost homogeneous dark gray mud dated back to the last 4500 yrs, stimulated our curiosity in searching for other similar signatures. In fact, quantitative micropaleontological analysis of benthic foraminifera assemblages highlighted 12 anomalous intervals, marked by peaks with high percentages of displaced epiphytic specimens and an increase in the sandy component. These anomalies were generally accompanied by a significant amount of Posidonia remnants, a localized concentration of molluscs and organic-rich bands. Thus, the twelve anomalous peaks were interpreted as the primary effect of tsunami waves (back-wash). Moreover, five out of the twelve anomalous layers were embedded in age intervals encompassing the dates of major tsunamis that hit eastern Sicily (1908, 1693, and 1169) and the broader Eastern Mediterranean (AD 365 Crete and Santorini at about BP 3600). Seven additional cores were sampled from the northern part of the Augusta Bay, along a transect 60 to 110 m of water depth, to retrieve the details of the MS06 sequence uppermost part. Four out of the seven new cores were selected and studied. Preliminary dating suggests that the sampled sequence spans ca. 400-500 yrs. Moreover, physical properties, ITRAX X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and grain size analyses point out the presence of a peculiar interval made of Posidonia remnants, coarse sand and shell debris on the two cores closer to the shore. The two far-off cores seem to be more homogenous but a few thin sandy lenses enriched of Posidonia remnant were also recognized. Further detailed micropaleontological analysis and corroboration with instrumental data are still in progress and will help in discriminating single events potentially related to tsunami back-wash.

  2. Technology of Gasification of Liquefied Natural Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonkonog, V. G.; Bayanov, I. M.; Tonkonog, M. I.; Mubarakshin, B. R.

    2016-07-01

    A flow diagram of gasification of a cryogenic liquid, which is based on the utilization of the liquid's internal energy to obtain a vapor phase, has been presented. The limiting steam fractions of the two-phase flow in a gasifier have been evaluated as applied to the problems of gasification of methane. Consideration has been given to the conditions of phase separation in the field of mass forces. A numerical scheme of solution of a system of gasdynamic equations for the two-phase flow in a cylindrical coordinate system in a three-dimensional formulation has been implemented. The results of numerical modeling of the conditions of precipitation of particles with a diameter of 2 to 10 μm from a swirling dispersed flow have been presented; the role of the particle size in the dynamics of the process of phase separation has been established.

  3. Tenth international conference on liquefied natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 73 individual papers presented. The conference was divided into four sessions: (1) LNG Market, (2) Liquefaction plants, (3) LNG receiving terminals and storage, and (4) LNG transportation, handling, safety and environmental issues.

  4. Biomarker chemistry and flux quantification methods for natural petroleum seeps and produced oils, offshore southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorenson, T.D.; Leifer, Ira; Wong, Florence L.; Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Campbell, Pamela L.; Lam, Angela; Hostettler, Frances D.; Greinert, Jens; Finlayson, David P.; Bradley, Eliza S.; Luyendyk, Bruce P.

    2011-01-01

    Sustained, natural oil seepage from the seafloor is common off southern California, and is of great interest to resource managers, who are tasked with distinguishing natural from anthropogenic oil sources. The major purpose of this study was to build upon the work previously funded by the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) that has refined the oil-fingerprinting process to enable differentiation of the highly similar Monterey Formation oils from Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) production and adjacent natural seeps. In these initial studies, biomarker and stable carbon isotope ratios were used to infer the age, lithology, organic-matter input, and depositional environment of the source rocks for 388 samples of produced crude oil, seep oil, and tarballs mainly from coastal California. The analysis resulted in a predictive model of oil source families that could be applied to samples of unknown origin.

  5. Nature of basement highs in ultra-distal ocean-continent transitions: on- and off-shore examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epin, Marie-Eva; Manatschal, Gianreto

    2016-04-01

    Despite the fact that many studies investigated magma-poor rifted margins, there are still questions that are related to the nature and the origin of basement highs in ultra-distal Ocean-Continent Transitions (OCT). Indeed it has been observed that the morphology of the OCT of magma-poor rifted margins is structured and complex. The aim of this study is to determine the nature of these basement highs, their 3D morphology, the processes associated to their creation, and the timing related to their formation. To do this, we focused on distal seismic lines with well data from the Iberia and Newfoundland margins and on field observations of the Platta nappe, which exposes an about 300 km² large, little overprinted remnant of a fossil OCT belonging to the Alpine Tethys, exposed in the area of Bivio in SE Switzerland. The first results are the establishment of criteria allowing the identification of the different types of basement highs or groups of basement highs using offshore and onshore data. The main criteria are: the top-basement morphology, seismic reflectivity patterns, rooting depth of basement highs, the size, the related sedimentary architecture, the relative location in the margin, and if possible to determine, the magmatic budget. These criteria allow us to define 4 different types of highs that are: 1) footwall crustal wedges, 2) hanging wall extensional allochthon blocks, 3) peridotite ridges, and 4) outer highs. The overall observations provide important information on the temporal and spatial organization of the structural and magmatic systems. These systems are at the origin of the creation of ultra-distal OCTs which are important for the understanding of the processes controlling the final rifting stage. The goal of this study is to use an observation driven approach and to create identification criteria that can be used to describe the nature of basement highs at not yet drilled distal magma-poor rifted margins.

  6. Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program: second status report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    The Assistant Secretary for Environment has responsibility for identifying, characterizing, and ameliorating the environmental, health, and safety issues and public concerns associated with commercial operation of specific energy systems. The need for developing a safety and environmental control assessment for liquefied gaseous fuels was identified by the Environmental and Safety Engineering Division as a result of discussions with various governmental, industry, and academic persons having expertise with respect to the particular materials involved: liquefied natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, hydrogen, and anhydrous ammonia. This document is arranged in three volumes and reports on progress in the Liquefied Gaseous Fuels (LGF) Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program made in Fiscal Year (FY)-1979 and early FY-1980. Volume 1 (Executive Summary) describes the background, purpose and organization of the LGF Program and contains summaries of the 25 reports presented in Volumes 2 and 3. Annotated bibliographies on Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Safety and Environmental Control Research and on Fire Safety and Hazards of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) are included in Volume 1.

  7. Federal Offshore Statistics, 1993. Leasing, exploration, production, and revenue as of December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Francois, D.K.

    1994-12-31

    This document contains statistical data on the following: federal offshore lands; offshore leasing activity and status; offshore development activity; offshore production of crude oil and natural gas; federal offshore oil and natural gas sales volume and royalties; revenue from federal offshore leases; disbursement of federal offshore revenue; reserves and resource estimates of offshore oil and natural gas; oil pollution in US and international waters; and international activities and marine minerals. A glossary is included.

  8. Natural variability of surface oceanographic conditions in the offshore Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller-Karger, Frank E.; Smith, Joseph P.; Werner, Sandra; Chen, Robert; Roffer, Mitchell; Liu, Yanyun; Muhling, Barbara; Lindo-Atichati, David; Lamkin, John; Cerdeira-Estrada, Sergio; Enfield, David B.

    2015-05-01

    important to interpret changes in ocean health due to episodic natural and anthropogenic events and long term climate changes or development activities. With this analysis we provide a baseline against which such changes can be measured.

  9. Frictional behavior of natural clay-rich fault gouges from ODP Leg 190, Nankai Trough, offshore Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKiernan, A.; Lockner, D.; Saffer, D. M.

    2005-12-01

    The decollement at subduction interfaces localizes within sediments carried by the subducting plate, and therefore understanding the frictional behavior of these sediments provides insight into the initiation of the decollement and the nature of slip along it. Variations in frictional behavior due to the conversion of smectite to illite may affect the strength of subduction interfaces and the updip limit of the seismogenic zone. Recent work has shown that illite exhibits velocity strengthening behavior, and this study expands on previous experimental conditions by testing saturated, intact, natural samples, which are sheared parallel to the incipient plate-boundary fault. Here we present results from a mineralogically-varied suite of intact samples from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 190, site 1174, offshore Japan. These samples range in bulk illite abundance from 21-35 wt. % and in total clay content from 45-67 wt. %. Thus our experiments provide a natural test of mineralogically-controlled frictional variability, and act as a pilot study into the role of depositional fabrics in shearing. Samples were prepared as ``wafers,'' where ODP cores were cut parallel to the depositional surface to produce thin, intact, rectangular layers, which were then sheared between Berea Sandstone and Westerly Granite driving blocks. Prepared layers of intact gouge were saturated at a controlled fluid pressure of 1 MPa, and sheared in a triaxial apparatus at normal stresses of 20, 50, 120, and 150 MPa. Initial sample thickness varied from ~1-7 mm, with maximum shear strains of ~1.5-10. Corrections were made primarily for displacement-based area change (contact area is decreased by ~40% at a maximum displacement of 10 mm) and jacket strength (linear increase in measured shear stress with displacement). Preliminary results show 1) values of μ (~0.25-0.4) similar to that previously reported for clay mixtures; 2) velocity strengthening behavior (a-b > 0) in all cases, consistent with

  10. Experimental helium liquefier with a GM cryocooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhury, Anup; Sahu, Santosh

    2017-06-01

    A helium liquefier has been developed with a Gifford-McMahon cryocooler using the cold enthalpy available at the first stage, the inter-stage, and the second stage of the cryocooler. Most of the enthalpy of the helium gas at 300 K is absorbed in the first stage by a coaxial heat exchanger and inter-stage region of the cryocooler. Pre-cooled helium gas is liquefied at the second stage heat exchanger where the final cooldown and condensation happens. The measured production capacity of the liquefier is 17.4 l/day at atmospheric pressure. The whole setup has been designed to work in a coaxial configuration where the two heat exchangers, the cryostat, and the dewar are symmetrically placed around the central axis.

  11. Apparatus and method for gelling liquefied gasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, Adam (Inventor); DiSalvo, Roberto (Inventor); Shepherd, Phillip (Inventor); Kosier, Ryan (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention is a method and apparatus for gelling liquid propane and other liquefied gasses. The apparatus includes a temperature controlled churn mixer, vacuum pump, liquefied gas transfer tank, and means for measuring amount of material entering the mixer. The method uses gelling agents such as silicon dioxide, clay, carbon, or organic or inorganic polymers, as well as dopants such as titanium, aluminum, and boron powders. The apparatus and method are particularly useful for the production of high quality rocket fuels and propellants.

  12. 40 CFR 1065.720 - Liquefied petroleum gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas. 1065.720... Standards § 1065.720 Liquefied petroleum gas. (a) Except as specified in paragraph (b) of this section, liquefied petroleum gas for testing must meet the specifications in the following table: Table 1 of § 1065...

  13. 46 CFR 188.10-43 - Liquefied flammable gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Liquefied flammable gas. 188.10-43 Section 188.10-43... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-43 Liquefied flammable gas. This term means any flammable gas having a Reid vapor pressure exceeding 40 p.s.i. which has been liquefied. ...

  14. 46 CFR 188.10-43 - Liquefied flammable gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Liquefied flammable gas. 188.10-43 Section 188.10-43... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-43 Liquefied flammable gas. This term means any flammable gas having a Reid vapor pressure exceeding 40 p.s.i. which has been liquefied. ...

  15. 46 CFR 188.10-43 - Liquefied flammable gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Liquefied flammable gas. 188.10-43 Section 188.10-43... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-43 Liquefied flammable gas. This term means any flammable gas having a Reid vapor pressure exceeding 40 p.s.i. which has been liquefied. ...

  16. 49 CFR 393.69 - Liquefied petroleum gas systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas systems. 393.69 Section... ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Fuel Systems § 393.69 Liquefied petroleum gas systems. (a) A fuel system that uses liquefied petroleum gas as a fuel for the operation of a motor vehicle or for...

  17. 49 CFR 393.69 - Liquefied petroleum gas systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas systems. 393.69 Section... ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Fuel Systems § 393.69 Liquefied petroleum gas systems. (a) A fuel system that uses liquefied petroleum gas as a fuel for the operation of a motor vehicle or for...

  18. 40 CFR 1065.720 - Liquefied petroleum gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas. 1065.720... Standards § 1065.720 Liquefied petroleum gas. (a) Except as specified in paragraph (b) of this section, liquefied petroleum gas for testing must meet the specifications in the following table: Table 1 of §...

  19. 30 CFR 57.4463 - Liquefied petroleum gas use underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas use underground. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4463 Liquefied petroleum gas use underground. Use of liquefied petroleum gases underground shall be limited to maintenance...

  20. 40 CFR 1065.720 - Liquefied petroleum gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas. 1065.720... Standards § 1065.720 Liquefied petroleum gas. (a) Except as specified in paragraph (b) of this section, liquefied petroleum gas for testing must meet the specifications in the following table: Table 1 of §...

  1. 49 CFR 393.69 - Liquefied petroleum gas systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas systems. 393.69 Section... ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Fuel Systems § 393.69 Liquefied petroleum gas systems. (a) A fuel system that uses liquefied petroleum gas as a fuel for the operation of a motor vehicle or for...

  2. 30 CFR 57.4463 - Liquefied petroleum gas use underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas use underground. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4463 Liquefied petroleum gas use underground. Use of liquefied petroleum gases underground shall be limited to maintenance...

  3. 40 CFR 1065.720 - Liquefied petroleum gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas. 1065.720... Standards § 1065.720 Liquefied petroleum gas. (a) Except as specified in paragraph (b) of this section, liquefied petroleum gas for testing must meet the specifications in the following table: Table 1 of §...

  4. 49 CFR 393.69 - Liquefied petroleum gas systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas systems. 393.69 Section... ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Fuel Systems § 393.69 Liquefied petroleum gas systems. (a) A fuel system that uses liquefied petroleum gas as a fuel for the operation of a motor vehicle or for...

  5. 30 CFR 57.4463 - Liquefied petroleum gas use underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas use underground. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4463 Liquefied petroleum gas use underground. Use of liquefied petroleum gases underground shall be limited to maintenance...

  6. 40 CFR 1065.720 - Liquefied petroleum gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas. 1065.720... Standards § 1065.720 Liquefied petroleum gas. (a) Except as specified in paragraph (b) of this section, liquefied petroleum gas for testing must meet the specifications in the following table: Table 1 of §...

  7. 30 CFR 57.4463 - Liquefied petroleum gas use underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas use underground. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4463 Liquefied petroleum gas use underground. Use of liquefied petroleum gases underground shall be limited to maintenance...

  8. 49 CFR 393.69 - Liquefied petroleum gas systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas systems. 393.69 Section... ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Fuel Systems § 393.69 Liquefied petroleum gas systems. (a) A fuel system that uses liquefied petroleum gas as a fuel for the operation of a motor vehicle or for...

  9. 30 CFR 57.4463 - Liquefied petroleum gas use underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas use underground. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4463 Liquefied petroleum gas use underground. Use of liquefied petroleum gases underground shall be limited to maintenance...

  10. Natural Gas Hydrates in the Offshore Beaufort-Mackenzie Basin-Study of a Feasible Energy Source II

    SciTech Connect

    Majorowicz, J. A. Hannigan, P. K.

    2000-09-15

    In the offshore part of Beaufort-Mackenzie Basin depth of methane hydrate stability reaches more than 1.5 km. However, there are areas in the western part of the basin where there are no conditions of methane hydrate stability. Construction of the first contour maps displaying thickness of hydrate stability zones as well as hydrate stability zone thicknesses below permafrost in the offshore area, shows that these zones can reach 1200 m and 900 m, respectively. Depth to the base of ice-bearing relict permafrost under the sea (depth of the -1{sup o}C isotherm-ice-bearing permafrost base) and regional variations of geothermal gradient are the main controlling factors. Hydrostatic pressures in the upper 1500 m are the rule. History of methane hydrate stability zone is related mainly to the history of permafrost and it reached maximum depth in early Holocene. More recently, the permafrost and hydrate zone is diminishing because of sea transgression. Reevaluation of the location of possible gas hydrate occurrences is done from the analysis of well logs and other indicators in conjunction with knowledge of the hydrate stability zone. In the offshore Beaufort-Mackenzie Basin, methane hydrate occurs in 21 wells. Nine of these locations coincides with underlying conventional hydrocarbon occurrences. Previous analyses place some of the hydrate occurrences at greater depths than proposed for the methane hydrate-stability zone described in this study. Interpretation of geological cross sections and maps of geological sequences reveals that hydrates are occurring in the Iperk-Kugmallit sequence. Hydrate-gas contact zones, however, are possible in numerous situations. As there are no significant geological seals in the deeper part of the offshore basin (all hydrates are within Iperk), it is suggested that overlying permafrost and hydrate stability zone acted as the only trap for upward migrating gas during the last tens of thousand of years (i.e., Sangamonian to Holocene)

  11. Offshore medicine.

    PubMed

    Baker, D

    2001-03-01

    Offshore life can be refreshing for medics who are looking for a little change of pace; however, it is not for everyone. Working offshore can be the easiest or most boring job you'll ever have. It takes a specific type of medic to fit this mold. So, if you are considering a career in the offshore field, take all of the above into consideration. You are not just making a change in jobs, but a change in lifestyle. Once you become accustomed to this lifestyle, it will be hard to go back to the everyday hustle and bustle of the streets. For more information about working offshore, contact Acadian Contract Services at 800/259-333, or visit www.acadian.com.

  12. Offshore drilling, construction: Fortunes tied to stable gas prices

    SciTech Connect

    Pagano, S.S.; Marsh, T.

    1993-01-01

    Significantly improved US natural gas prices fueled an upswing in offshore drilling in the Gulf of Mexico in late 1992. Stabilized gas prices will be necessary to support both the off-shore drilling and construction markets in 1993 and beyond. The article discusses both these segments in detail: offshore drilling and offshore construction.

  13. Nature and distribution of potential heavy-mineral resources offshore of the Atlantic Coast of the United States.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grosz, A.E.

    1987-01-01

    The US is dependent on foreign imports of placer heavy minerals for a majority of its ilmenite and rutile, and virtually all of its monazite requirements. Although sand deposits in the SE US are important domestic sources of these heavy minerals (HM) and a number of other less well-known heavy-mineral species, global onshore reserves of placer minerals may fall short of demand in as few as 20 years. Insofar as they are important commodities for the future, offshore HM placers will become more important, but much research on them remains to be done. Results of recent offshore studies, based on surficial grab samples, indicate an average of about 2 weight percent HM in surficial Atlantic Continental Shelf (ACS) sediments, in strong contrast with previous estimates of an average of 0.16% HM. Although provocative, the information from these grab samples does not include the thickness of the HM deposits and thus their volume and tonnage cannot be estimated.-from Author

  14. Natural Offshore Oil Seepage and Related Tarball Accumulation on the California Coastline - Santa Barbara Channel and the Southern Santa Maria Basin: Source Identification and Inventory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorenson, T.D.; Hostettler, Frances D.; Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Peters, Kenneth E.; Dougherty, Jennifer A.; Kvenvolden, Keith A.; Gutmacher, Christina E.; Wong, Florence L.; Normark, William R.

    2009-01-01

    Oil spillage from natural sources is very common in the waters of southern California. Active oil extraction and shipping is occurring concurrently within the region and it is of great interest to resource managers to be able to distinguish between natural seepage and anthropogenic oil spillage. The major goal of this study was to establish the geologic setting, sources, and ultimate dispersal of natural oil seeps in the offshore southern Santa Maria Basin and Santa Barbara Basins. Our surveys focused on likely areas of hydrocarbon seepage that are known to occur between Point Arguello and Ventura, California. Our approach was to 1) document the locations and geochemically fingerprint natural seep oils or tar; 2) geochemically fingerprint coastal tar residues and potential tar sources in this region, both onshore and offshore; 3) establish chemical correlations between offshore active seeps and coastal residues thus linking seep sources to oil residues; 4) measure the rate of natural seepage of individual seeps and attempt to assess regional natural oil and gas seepage rates; and 5) interpret the petroleum system history for the natural seeps. To document the location of sub-sea oil seeps, we first looked into previous studies within and near our survey area. We measured the concentration of methane gas in the water column in areas of reported seepage and found numerous gas plumes and measured high concentrations of methane in the water column. The result of this work showed that the seeps were widely distributed between Point Conception east to the vicinity of Coal Oil Point, and that they by in large occur within the 3-mile limit of California State waters. Subsequent cruises used sidescan and high resolution seismic to map the seafloor, from just south of Point Arguello, east to near Gaviota, California. The results of the methane survey guided the exploration of the area west of Point Conception east to Gaviota using a combination of seismic instruments. The

  15. Clean air program: Design guidelines for bus transit systems using liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as an alternative fuel. Final report, July 1995-April 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Raj, P.K.; Hathaway, W.T.; Kangas, R.

    1996-09-01

    The Federal Transit Administration (FTA) has initiated the development of `Design Guidelines for Bus Transit Systems Using Alternative Fuels.` This report provides design guidelines for the safe uses of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG). It forms a part of the series of individual monographs being published by the FTA on (the guidelines for the safe use of) Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) and alcohol fuels (Methanol and Ethanol). Each report in this series describes for the subject fuel the important fuel properties, guidelines for the design and operation of bus fueling, storage and maintenance facilities, issues on personnel training and emergency preparedness.

  16. Canadian offshore oil production solution gas utilization alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, J.V.

    1999-07-01

    Oil and gas development in the Province of Newfoundland and Labrador is in its early stage and the offshore industry emphasis is almost exclusively on oil production. At the Hibernia field, the Gravity Base Structure (GBS) is installed and the first wells are in production. The Terra Nova project, based on a Floating Production Storage Offloading (FPSO) ship shaped concept, is in its engineering and construction stage and first oil is expected by late 2000. Several other projects, such as Husky's White Rose and Chevron's Hebron, have significant potential for future development in the same area. It is highly probably that these projects will employ the FPSO concept. It is also expected that the solution gas disposal issues of such second generation projects will be of more significance in their regulatory approval process and of such second generation projects will be of more significance in their regulatory approval process and the operators may be forced to look for alternatives to gas reinjection. Three gas utilization alternatives for a FPSO concept based project have been considered and evaluated in this paper: liquefied natural gas (LNG), compressed natural gas (CNG), and gas-to-liquids conversion (GTL). The evaluation and the relative ranking of these alternatives is based on a first pass screening type of study which considers the technical and economical merits of each alternative. Publicly available information and in-house data, compiled within Fluor Daniel's various offices, was used to establish the basic parameters.

  17. A helium liquefier using three 4 k pulse tube cryocoolers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao; Oviedo, Abner

    2012-06-01

    We have developed a helium liquefier which can be used for recondensing/reliquefying helium vapor in a helium cryostat or liquefying helium gas in a storage dewar. The helium liquefier employs three 4 K pulse tube cryocoolers, Cryomech model PT415. Each PT415 has remote motor/rotary valve assembly to minimize vibration, providing ≥ 1.5W at 4.2K. The liquefier can liquefy room temperature helium gas with a liquefaction rate of 62 Liter/day. When installing it in the cryostat, it can recondense and reliquefy helium vapor with a rate of 78 L/day. The liquefier will be installed in a gravitational wave detector in Brazil to recondense/reliquefy the helium boil off from the cryostat.

  18. Preparation and Characterization of Novolak Phenol Formaldehyde Resin from Liquefied Brown-Rotted Wood

    Treesearch

    Gai-Yun Li; Chung-Yun Hse; Te-Fu Qin

    2012-01-01

    The brown-rotted wood was liquefied in phenol with phosphoric acid as catalyst and the resulting liquefied products were condensed with formaldehyde to yield novolak liquefied wood-based phenol formaldehyde resin (LWPF). The results showed that brown-rotted wood could be more easily liquefied than sound wood in phenol. The residue content of liquefied wood decreased...

  19. Smarter offshoring.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Diana

    2006-06-01

    During the past 15 years, companies have flocked to a handful of cities in India and Eastern Europe for offshore service functions. As a result, the most popular sites are now overheating: Demand for young professionals is outstripping supply, wages and turnover are soaring, and overburdened infrastructure systems are struggling to serve the explosive growth. The happy news is that the tight labor markets in the well-known hot spots are the exceptions, not the rule. Many attractive alternatives are emerging around the world. According to a McKinsey Global Institute study, more than 90% of the vast and rapidly growing pool of university-educated people suitable for work in multinationals are located outside the current hot spot cities. For instance, Morocco is now home to offshore centers for French and Spanish companies requiring fluent speakers of their home languages. Neighboring Tunisia has used its modern infrastructure, business-friendly regulations, and stable, low-cost workforce to attract companies such as Siemens and Wanadoo. Vietnam offers university graduates who have strong mathematics skills; speak French, English, German, or Russian; and do not demand high wages. The problems facing the hot spots, coupled with the emergence of many more countries able and willing to provide offshore services, mean that picking a site has become more complicated. In choosing a location, companies will have to focus less on low wages and much more on other ways that candidate cities can fulfill their business needs. They will have to be much more rigorous in articulating precisely what they require from an offshore location. That means evaluating their unique needs on a range of dimensions and understanding how alternative locations can meet those needs for the foreseeable future.

  20. Simulation program for central helium liquefier

    SciTech Connect

    Kawamura, S.

    1984-02-20

    The computer program described here analyzes the performance of Fermilab Central Helium Liquefier (CHL) and predicts the values of the plant thermodynamic variables at all process points in the plant. To simulate CHL, this program is modified from the prototype program which was developed by Hitachi Ltd. a couple of years ago. This program takes care of only the steady state simulation and takes account of the change of the turbine efficiency, the pressure drops and the UA values of the heat exchangers. How to use the program is shown.

  1. Storage tank for cryogenic liquefied gas

    SciTech Connect

    Guilhem, J. R.

    1985-02-12

    The invention is related to a tank designed to contain a cryogenic liquefied gas and formed in addition to the main tank by two other tight walls. In the upper part of this tank an aperture duct connects the ceiling of the tank to the exterior of the tank, a holder supporting a device sensing in various areas wall temperatures of the tank, can be fitted into this aperture duct, a remote temperature sensor is actually hold by this support and is introduced into the tank. The invention finds an application as a means to easily localize leaking failures of the intermediate wall.

  2. A Liquefier for Mars Surface Propellant Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salerno, Lou J.; Helvensteijn, B. P. M.; Kittel, P.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    NASA's planned Mars exploration missions will require that cryogenic propellants be manufactured on the surface. The present scenario calls for oxygen and methane gases to he produced using the carbon dioxide atmosphere plus seed hydrogen brought from Earth. Gases will require liquefaction for both storage on the Martian surface and for use in the ascent vehicle. The planned liquefaction rates range from 12.6 g/hr of oxygen for the 2003 robotic mission to 2500 g/hr for the later human missions. This paper presents the results of a nitrogen liquefaction demonstration using a commercially available cryocooler. The experiment was set up to liquefy nitrogen gas instead of oxygen to limit laboratory safety concerns. A nitrogen gas condensor, attached to the cooler's cold tip, was sized to liquefy up to 42 gN2/hr at the intended storage pressure (0.2 MPa). The experiment was conducted inside an atmospheric, air-filled, refrigerated chamber simulating the average Martian daytime temperature (240 K). In this demonstration a liquefaction rate of 9.1 gN2/hr was realized, which is equivalent to 13 gO2/hr.

  3. 46 CFR 188.10-41 - Liquefied compressed gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Liquefied compressed gas. 188.10-41 Section 188.10-41... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-41 Liquefied compressed gas. This term means a gas which, under the charged pressure, is partially liquid at a temperature of 70 °F. ...

  4. 46 CFR 188.10-41 - Liquefied compressed gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Liquefied compressed gas. 188.10-41 Section 188.10-41... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-41 Liquefied compressed gas. This term means a gas which, under the charged pressure, is partially liquid at a temperature of 70 °F. ...

  5. 46 CFR 188.10-41 - Liquefied compressed gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Liquefied compressed gas. 188.10-41 Section 188.10-41... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-41 Liquefied compressed gas. This term means a gas which, under the charged pressure, is partially liquid at a temperature of 70 °F. ...

  6. Kinetic inhibition of natural gas hydrates in offshore drilling, production, and processing. Annual report, January 1--December 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    Natural gas hydrates are crystalline materials formed of natural gas and water at elevated pressures and reduced temperatures. Because natural gas hydrates can plug drill strings, pipelines, and process equipment, there is much effort expended to prevent their formation. The goal of this project was to provide industry with more economical hydrate inhibitors. The specific goals for the past year were to: define a rational approach for inhibitor design, using the most probable molecular mechanism; improve the performance of inhibitors; test inhibitors on Colorado School of Mines apparatuses and the Exxon flow loop; and promote sharing field and flow loop results. This report presents the results of the progress on these four goals.

  7. Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program: second status report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-10-01

    Volume 2 consists of 19 reports describing technical effort performed by Government Contractors in the area of LNG Safety and Environmental Control. Report topics are: simulation of LNG vapor spread and dispersion by finite element methods; modeling of negatively buoyant vapor cloud dispersion; effect of humidity on the energy budget of a liquefied natural gas (LNG) vapor cloud; LNG fire and explosion phenomena research evaluation; modeling of laminar flames in mixtures of vaporized liquefied natural gas (LNG) and air; chemical kinetics in LNG detonations; effects of cellular structure on the behavior of gaseous detonation waves under transient conditions; computer simulation of combustion and fluid dynamics in two and three dimensions; LNG release prevention and control; the feasibility of methods and systems for reducing LNG tanker fire hazards; safety assessment of gelled LNG; and a four band differential radiometer for monitoring LNG vapors.

  8. Comparison of concentrations and profiles of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites in bile of fishes from offshore oil platforms and natural reefs along the California coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gale, Robert W.; Tanner, Michael J.; Love, Milton S.; Nishimoto, Mary M.; Schroeder, Donna M.

    2012-01-01

    To determine the environmental consequences of decommissioning offshore oil platforms on local and regional fish populations, contaminant loads in reproducing adults were investigated at seven platform sites and adjacent, natural sites. Specimens of three species (Pacific sanddab, Citharichthys sordidus; kelp rockfish, Sebastes atrovirens; and kelp bass, Paralabrax clathratus) residing at platforms and representing the regional background within the Santa Barbara Channel and within the San Pedro Basin were collected. Some of the most important contaminant classes related to oil operations are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) because of their potential toxicity and carcinogenicity. However, acute exposure cannot be related directly to PAH tissue concentrations because of rapid metabolism of the parent chemicals in fish; therefore, PAH metabolites in bile were measured, targeting free hydroxylated PAHs (OH-PAHs) liberated by enzymatic hydrolysis of the bound PAH glucuronides and sulfates. An ion-pairing method was developed for confirmatory analysis that targeted PAH glucuronides and sulfates. Concentrations of hydroxylated PAHs in all samples (76 fish from platforms and 64 fish from natural sites) were low, ranging from less than the limits of detection (5 to 120 nanograms per milliliter bile; 0.03 to 42 nanograms per milligram protein) to a maximum of 320 nanograms per milliliter bile (32 nanograms per milligram protein). A previously proposed dosimeter of PAH exposure in fish, 1-hydroxypyrene, was not detected at any platform site. Low concentrations of 1-hydroxypyrene were detected in 3 of 12 kelp rockfish collected from a natural reef site off Santa Barbara. The most prevalent OH-PAH, 2-hydroxyfluorene, was detected at low concentrations in seven fish of various species; of these, four were from two of the seven platform sites. The greatest concentrations of 2-hydroxyfluorene were found in three fish of various species from Platform Holly and were only

  9. Kinetic inhibition of natural gas hydrates in offshore drilling, production, and processing. Annual report, January 1--December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Natural gas hydrates are crystalline materials formed of natural gas and water at elevated pressures and reduced temperatures. Because natural gas hydrates can plug drill strings, pipelines, and process equipment, there is much effort expended to prevent their formation. The goal of this project was to provide industry with more economical hydrate inhibitors. The specific goals for the past year were to: continue both screening and high pressure experiments to determine optimum inhibitors; investigate molecular mechanisms of hydrate formation/inhibition, through microscopic and macroscopic experiments; begin controlled tests on the Exxon pilot plant loop at their Houston facility; and continue to act as a forum for the sharing of field test results. Progress on these objectives are described in this report.

  10. Low capacity Linde-Hampson nitrogen liquefier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedegard, K.; Atkins, E.; Walker, G.

    1990-01-01

    A closed-cycle Linde-Hampson nitrogen liquefier was developed incorporating a new, non-clogging, demand flow Joule-Thomson nozzle. The flow area of the nozzle, a tapered annular orifice, is regulated by a very rugged load-sensitive differential thermal expansion scheme and by a manually adjustable micrometer mechanism. Labyrinth flow spoilers within the orifice provide turbulent voids which break up and clear contaminants from the flow. The system's four-stage compressor features sealed, oil-free compression spaces and a very compact nested piston configuration with a minimum of moving parts and drive complexity. The drive mechanism is a rolling Scotch yoke which minimizes piston side forces and seal wear for prolonged operating life. The closed-cycled system is controlled by an innovative load-responsive electronic feedback circuit which further reduces wear and input power.

  11. Low capacity Linde-Hampson nitrogen liquefier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedegard, K.; Atkins, E.; Walker, G.

    A closed-cycle Linde-Hampson nitrogen liquefier was developed incorporating a new, non-clogging, demand flow Joule-Thomson nozzle. The flow area of the nozzle, a tapered annular orifice, is regulated by a very rugged load-sensitive differential thermal expansion scheme and by a manually adjustable micrometer mechanism. Labyrinth flow spoilers within the orifice provide turbulent voids which break up and clear contaminants from the flow. The system's four-stage compressor features sealed, oil-free compression spaces and a very compact nested piston configuration with a minimum of moving parts and drive complexity. The drive mechanism is a rolling Scotch yoke which minimizes piston side forces and seal wear for prolonged operating life. The closed-cycled system is controlled by an innovative load-responsive electronic feedback circuit which further reduces wear and input power.

  12. 77 FR 70174 - Waterway Suitability Assessment for Expansion of Liquefied Gas Terminals; Houston and Texas City, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    .... Department of Transportation, West Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE... ground floor of the Department of Transportation West Building, 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE., Washington... modify marine terminal operations in an existing facility handling Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) or...

  13. Nature of the uppermost mantle below the Porcupine Basin, offshore Ireland: new insights from seismic refraction and gravity data modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prada, M.; Watremez, L.; Chen, C.; O'Reilly, B.; Minshull, T. A.; Reston, T. J.; Wagner, G.; Gaw, V.; Klaeschen, D.; Shannon, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Porcupine Basin is a tongue-shaped basin SW of Ireland formed during the opening of the North Atlantic Ocean. Its history of sedimentation reveals several rifting and subsidence phases during the Late Paleozoic and Cenozoic, with a particular major rift phase occurring in Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous times. Previous work, focused on seismic and gravity data, suggest the presence of major crustal faulting and uppermost mantle serpentinization in the basin. Serpentinization is a key factor in lithospheric extension since it reduces the strength of mantle rocks, and hence, influences the tectonics of the lithosphere. Besides reducing the seismic velocity of the rock, serpentinization decreases mantle rock density favoring isostatic rebound and basin uplift, thus affecting the tectonic and thermal evolution of the basin. Here we characterize the deep structure of the Porcupine Basin from wide-angle seismic (WAS) and gravity data, with especial emphasis on the nature of the underlying mantle. The WAS data used were acquired along a 300 km long transect across the northern region of the basin. We used a travel time inversion method to model the data and obtain a P-wave velocity (Vp) model of the crust and uppermost mantle, together with the geometry of the main geological interfaces. The crustal structure along the model reveals a maximum stretching factor of ~5-6. These values are well within the range of crustal extension at which the crust becomes entirely brittle allowing the formation of major crustal faulting and serpentinization of the mantle. To further constrain the seismic structure and hence the nature of the mantle we assess the Vp uncertainty of the model by means of a Monte Carlo analysis and perform gravity modeling to test different interpretations regarding mantle rock nature. This project is funded by the Irish Shelf Petroleum Studies Group (ISPSG) of the Irish Petroleum Infrastructure Programme Group 4.

  14. Multi-objective Optimization on Helium Liquefier Using Genetic Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H. R.; Xiong, L. Y.; Peng, N.; Meng, Y. R.; Liu, L. Q.

    2017-02-01

    Research on optimization of helium liquefier is limited at home and abroad, and most of the optimization is single-objective based on Collins cycle. In this paper, a multi-objective optimization is conducted using genetic algorithm (GA) on the 40 L/h helium liquefier developed by Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry of the Chinese Academy of Science (TIPC, CAS), steady solutions are obtained in the end. In addition, the exergy loss of the optimized system is studied in the case of with and without liquid nitrogen pre-cooling. The results have guiding significance for the future design of large helium liquefier.

  15. 46 CFR 58.16-7 - Use of liquefied petroleum gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of liquefied petroleum gas. 58.16-7 Section 58.16-7... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Liquefied Petroleum Gases for Cooking and Heating § 58.16-7 Use of liquefied petroleum gas. (a) Cooking equipment using liquefied petroleum gas on vessels of 100 gross tons or more...

  16. 29 CFR 779.360 - Classification of liquefied-petroleum-gas sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Classification of liquefied-petroleum-gas sales. 779.360... Establishments Liquefied-Petroleum-Gas and Fuel Oil Dealers § 779.360 Classification of liquefied-petroleum-gas... ultimate consumer of liquefied-petroleum-gas, whether delivered in portable cylinders or in bulk to...

  17. 29 CFR 779.360 - Classification of liquefied-petroleum-gas sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classification of liquefied-petroleum-gas sales. 779.360... Establishments Liquefied-Petroleum-Gas and Fuel Oil Dealers § 779.360 Classification of liquefied-petroleum-gas... ultimate consumer of liquefied-petroleum-gas, whether delivered in portable cylinders or in bulk to...

  18. 46 CFR 58.16-7 - Use of liquefied petroleum gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Use of liquefied petroleum gas. 58.16-7 Section 58.16-7... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Liquefied Petroleum Gases for Cooking and Heating § 58.16-7 Use of liquefied petroleum gas. (a) Cooking equipment using liquefied petroleum gas on vessels of 100 gross tons or more...

  19. 46 CFR 58.16-7 - Use of liquefied petroleum gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Use of liquefied petroleum gas. 58.16-7 Section 58.16-7... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Liquefied Petroleum Gases for Cooking and Heating § 58.16-7 Use of liquefied petroleum gas. (a) Cooking equipment using liquefied petroleum gas on vessels of 100 gross tons or more...

  20. 46 CFR 58.16-7 - Use of liquefied petroleum gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Use of liquefied petroleum gas. 58.16-7 Section 58.16-7... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Liquefied Petroleum Gases for Cooking and Heating § 58.16-7 Use of liquefied petroleum gas. (a) Cooking equipment using liquefied petroleum gas on vessels of 100 gross tons or more...

  1. 29 CFR 779.360 - Classification of liquefied-petroleum-gas sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Classification of liquefied-petroleum-gas sales. 779.360... Establishments Liquefied-Petroleum-Gas and Fuel Oil Dealers § 779.360 Classification of liquefied-petroleum-gas... ultimate consumer of liquefied-petroleum-gas, whether delivered in portable cylinders or in bulk to...

  2. 46 CFR 58.16-7 - Use of liquefied petroleum gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Use of liquefied petroleum gas. 58.16-7 Section 58.16-7... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Liquefied Petroleum Gases for Cooking and Heating § 58.16-7 Use of liquefied petroleum gas. (a) Cooking equipment using liquefied petroleum gas on vessels of 100 gross tons or more...

  3. 29 CFR 779.360 - Classification of liquefied-petroleum-gas sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Classification of liquefied-petroleum-gas sales. 779.360... Establishments Liquefied-Petroleum-Gas and Fuel Oil Dealers § 779.360 Classification of liquefied-petroleum-gas... ultimate consumer of liquefied-petroleum-gas, whether delivered in portable cylinders or in bulk to...

  4. 29 CFR 779.360 - Classification of liquefied-petroleum-gas sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Classification of liquefied-petroleum-gas sales. 779.360... Establishments Liquefied-Petroleum-Gas and Fuel Oil Dealers § 779.360 Classification of liquefied-petroleum-gas... ultimate consumer of liquefied-petroleum-gas, whether delivered in portable cylinders or in bulk to...

  5. Echo Particle Image Velocimetry in Pipeflow of Liquefied Lignocellulosic Biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demarchi, Nicholas; White, Chris

    2014-11-01

    Echo particle image velocimetry (EPIV) is used to acquire planar fields of velocity in pipeflow of liquefied biomass. The biomass used is acid washed corn stover liquefied by enzymatic hydrolysis. The liquefaction process produces a complex multiphase fluid suspension with a microstructure consisting of insoluble solid particles dispersed within a continuous liquid phase. The solid particles are generally heavier than the liquid phase, non-spherical, and distributed over a wide size range. Batches of liquefied biomass are produced at various mass loadings from 1.5% to 20%, from which samples are withdrawn and used to evaluate the rheology, microstructure, and solid particle settling velocities. Next, EPIV measurements are used to evaluate how the suspension rheology, microstructure, and particle sedimentation affects the flow of liquefied biomass under laminar pipeflow conditions.

  6. Kinetic inhibition of natural gas hydrates in offshore drilling, production, and processing operations. Annual report, January 1--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    1992-12-31

    Natural gas hydrates are solid crystalline compounds which form when molecules smaller than n-butane contact molecules of water at elevated pressures and reduced temperatures, both above and below the ice point. Because these crystalline compounds plug flow channels, they are undesirable. In this project the authors proposed an alternate approach of controlling hydrate formation by preventing hydrate growth into a sizeable mass which could block a flow channel. The authors call this new technique kinetic inhibition, because while it allows the system to exist in the hydrate domain, it prevents the kinetic agglomeration of small hydrate crystals to the point of pluggage of a flow channel. In order to investigate the kinetic means of inhibiting hydrate formation, they held two consortium meetings, on June 1, 1990 and on August 31, 1990. At subsequent meetings, the authors determined the following four stages of the project, necessary to reach the goal of determining a new hydrate field inhibitor: (1) a rapid screening method was to be determined for testing the hydrate kinetic formation period of many surfactants and polymer candidates (both individually and combined), the present report presents the success of two screening apparatuses: a multi-reactor apparatus which is capable of rapid, high volume screening, and the backup screening method--a viscometer for testing with gas at high pressure; (2) the construction of two high, constant pressure cells were to experimentally confirm the success of the chemicals in the rapid screening apparatus; (3) in the third phase of the work, Exxon volunteered to evaluate the performance of the best chemicals from the previous two stages in their 4 inch I.D. Multiphase flow loop in Houston; (4) in the final phase of the work, the intention was to take the successful kinetic inhibition chemicals from the previous three stages and then test them in the field in gathering lines and wells from member companies.

  7. The nature of porosity in organic-rich mudstones of the Upper Jurassic Kimmeridge Clay Formation, North Sea, offshore United Kingdom

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fishman, Neil S.; Hackley, Paul C.; Lowers, Heather; Hill, Ronald J.; Egenhoff, Sven O.; Eberl, Dennis D.; Blum, Alex E.

    2012-01-01

    Analyses of organic-rich mudstones from wells that penetrated the Upper Jurassic Kimmeridge Clay Formation, offshore United Kingdom, were performed to evaluate the nature of both organic and inorganic rock constituents and their relation to porosity in this world-class source rock. The formation is at varying levels of thermal maturity, ranging from immature in the shallowest core samples to mature in the deepest core samples. The intent of this study was to evaluate porosity as a function of both organic macerals and thermal maturity. At least four distinct types of organic macerals were observed in petrographic and SEM analyses and they all were present across the study area. The macerals include, in decreasing abundance: 1) bituminite admixed with clays; 2) elongate lamellar masses (alginite or bituminite) with small quartz, feldspar, and clay entrained within it; 3) terrestrial (vitrinite, fusinite, semifusinite) grains; and 4) Tasmanites microfossils. Although pores in all maceral types were observed on ion-milled surfaces of all samples, the pores (largely nanopores with some micropores) vary as a function of maceral type. Importantly, pores in the macerals do not vary systematically as a function of thermal maturity, insofar as organic pores are of similar size and shape in both the immature and mature Kimmeridge rocks. If any organic pores developed during the generation of hydrocarbons, they were apparently not preserved, possibly because of the highly ductile nature of much of the rock constituents of Kimmeridge mudstones (clays and organic material). Inorganic pores (largely micropores with some nanopores) have been observed in all Kimmeridge mudstones. These pores, particularly interparticle (i.e., between clay platelets), and intraparticle (i.e., in framboidal pyrite, in partially dissolved detrital K-feldspar, and in both detrital and authigenic dolomite) are noteworthy because they compose much of the observable porosity in the shales in both

  8. Liquefied after cataract and its surgical treatment

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharjee, Harsha; Bhattacharjee, Kasturi; Bhattacharjee, Pankaj; Das, Dipankar; Gogoi, Krishna; Arati, Diyali

    2014-01-01

    Aims: To describe liquefied after cataract (LAC) and its surgical management following an uneventful phacoemulsification with posterior chamber in-the-bag intraocular lens (IOL) implantation and continuous curvilinear capsulorrhexis (CCC). Design: Interventional case series. Materials and Methods: Eleven patients with LAC, following uneventful phacoemulsification with CCC and in-the-bag IOL implantation were enrolled. After the basic slit lamp examination, each case was investigated with Scheimpflug photography and ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM). Each case was treated with capsular lavage. Biochemical composition of the milky fluid was evaluated and ring of anterior capsular opacity (ACO) was examined under electron microscope. Results: All 11 cases presented with blurring of vision after 6-8 years of cataract surgery with IOL implantation. All cases had IOL microvacuoles, 360° anterior capsule, and anterior IOL surface touch along with ACO, ring of Soemmering, and posterior capsule distension filled with opalescent milky fluid with whitish floppy or crystalline deposits. Biochemically, the milky fluid contained protein (800 mg/dl), albumin (100 mg/dl), sugar (105 mg/dl), and calcium (0.13%) and was bacteriologically sterile. Histologically, the dissected ACO showed fibrous tissue. All cases were successfully treated with capsular lavage with good visual recovery and with no complication. There was no recurrence of LAC during 2 years postoperative follow-up in any of the cases. Conclusions: LAC is a late complication of standard cataract surgery. It may be a spectrum of capsular bag distension syndrome (CBDS) without shallow anterior chamber and secondary glaucoma. Capsular bag lavage is a simple and effective treatment for LAC and a safe alternative to neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd-YAG) capsulotomy. PMID:24881605

  9. Hazards Associated with the Importation of Liquefied Natural Gas,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-06-01

    Professor Fairley in hearings held by the FPC on the EIS pointed out that “the record , while consistent with very low values , does not prove that the...e two . Thus sabo tage could dominate the probability of tanker sinking at berth in an LNG terminal. Fairley refuses to speculate on the absolute...D. C., De cember 12 , 1973 , pp. 3178, 3208 , 3210 . 4. Fairley , William B., Assoc iate Pr ofessor , Kenned y School of Govern- ment , Harvard

  10. Liquefied natural gas-freon electricity generation system

    SciTech Connect

    Nozawa, R.

    1982-05-25

    The present invention relates to an electricity generation system, using freon as an agent to circulate between a warm heat source and a cold heat sink, recapturing electrical energy on one side and alleviating thermal pollution in the environment on the other side.

  11. Liquefied natural gas-freon electricity generation system

    SciTech Connect

    Nozawa, R.

    1983-12-27

    The present invention relates to an electricity generation system, using freon as an agent to circulate between a warm heat source and a cold heat sink, recapturing electrical energy on one side and alleviating thermal pollution in the environment on the other side.

  12. The Dissemination and Combustion of Unconfined Liquefied Natural Gas Clouds.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-05-01

    Addps M Work Unit No (TRAIS) 381 Elliot Street --- 1 -* . MASSACHUSETTS 02164 ..- 13. Type of Report and Period Covered 12. Sponsoring Agency Nam* and...America LNG Terminal and Safety Symposium, San Diego, California; October 12-13, 1978. 2. D. C. Bull, J. E. Elsworth, G. Hooper, C. P. Quinn , J. Physics D

  13. Seismarmara 2001: A Marine Seismic Survey and Offshore-onshore Artificial Source and Natural Earthquakes In The Seismogenic Region of The Sea of Marmara

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirn, A.; Singh, S.; Charvis, P.; Géli, L.; Laigle, M.; Lépine, J.-C.; de Voogd, B.; Saatcilar, R.; Taymaz, T.; Ozalaybey, S.; Shimamura, H.; Selvi, O.; Karabulut, H.; Murai, Y.; Nishimura, Y.; Yamada, A.; Vigner, A.; Bazin, S.; Tan, O.; Yolsal, S.; Aktar, M.; Galvé, A.; Sapin, M.; Marthelot, J.-M.; Imren, C.; Ergin, M.; Tapirdamaz, C.; Koçaoglu, A.; Tarancioglu, A.; Diaz, J.; Verhille, J.; Auffret, Y.; Cetin, S.; Oçakoglu, N.; Karakoç, F.; Klien, E.; Ricolleau, A.; Selvigen, V.; Demirbag, E.; Hakyemez, Y.; Sarikawak, K.

    SEISMARMARA is a Turkish-French survey carried out in July-October 2001 as a multi-method approach of seismic structure and activity of the Sea of Marmara. This is the segment of the North Anatolian Fault system that continues the one that produced the two destructive earthquakes in 1999 to the East, and is prone to future major earth- quakes as it has experienced in the past. Aims of the programme are to shed light on the regional tectonics and recent evolution at crustal scale, image faults by their structure and seismic activity, and provide a model and reference to improve loca- tion of earthquakes and focal mechanism studies. The programme bases on marine multichannel reflection seismics (MCS), ocean bottom seismometers (OBS) and land stations recording of wide-angle reflection-refraction from the same source, as well as recording of local earthquakes for tomography and stress/strain distribution. The French N/O Le Nadir acquired 4000 km of MCS profiles in the northern Sea of Mar- mara, using a 4.5 km long digital streamer with 360-channels and sources of 8100 cu. in., or 2900 cu. in., provided by a 12-airgun array in single-bubble mode. Navigation safety was provided by a vessel of the Turkish Coast Guards (Sahil Güvenlik), Leg 1 comprises 4 E-W lines and 30 cross-lines in the whole Marmara Trough, leg 2 has 1 been devoted to a very dense grid of lines in the Cinarcik basin and its margins, record- ing over 80 dip-lines at 0.6-0.9 km spacing At sea-bottom 38 OBS, with 3-component sensors and continuous recording over 1 to 2-month in order to also record natural earthquakes were deployed and collected by the Turkish ship MTA Sismik-1. On land the permanent array has been complemented by as many temporary stations, in par- ticular over 30 continuous recording 3-component 2 Hz stations. Refraction seismics from offshore to onshore was further implemented by short-duration deployments of vertical component lightweight instruments with short recording capacity. A

  14. Echo Particle Image Velocimetry in Pipeflow of Liquefied Lignocellulosic Biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demarchi, Nicholas; White, Christopher

    2016-11-01

    Echo particle image velocimetry (EPIV) is used to acquire planar fields of velocity in pipeflow of liquefied biomass. The biomass used is acid washed corn stover, liquefied through enzymatic hydrolysis. The liquefaction process produces a complex multiphase fluid suspension with a microstructure consisting of insoluble solid particles dispersed within a continuous liquid phase. The solid particles are generally heavier than the liquid phase, non-spherical, and distributed over a wide range of aspect ratios and sizes. Batches of liquefied biomass are produced at incremental mass loadings doubling from 1.5% to 12%, samples are withdrawn to evaluate the rheology, microstructure, and solid particle settling velocities. EPIV is used to experimentally determine the mean particle behaviour under laminar and turbulent pressure driven pipeflow conditions. Work presented in this study can be used to design pipeline infrastructure with respect to suspension transport.

  15. Offshore oil and gas activity impact. Hearings before the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, US Senate, One Hundred Sixth Congress, First Session, January 27, 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-07-01

    The purpose of this hearing is hear of the impacts of offshore exploration and production activities on coastal states and communities as it relates to Senate Bill 25. This bill would remedy current inequities by redistributing 50 percent of the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) revenues to three programs: coastal impact assistance, local park and recreation, and wildlife programs. Statements were heard from representatives from three of the Gulf Coast States, as well as Alaska.

  16. Thioredoxin liquefies and decreases the viscoelasticity of cystic fibrosis sputum.

    PubMed

    Rancourt, Raymond C; Tai, Shusheng; King, Malcolm; Heltshe, Sonya L; Penvari, Churee; Accurso, Frank J; White, Carl W

    2004-05-01

    The persistent and viscous nature of airway secretions in cystic fibrosis (CF) disease leads to airway obstruction, opportunistic infection, and deterioration of lung function. Thioredoxin (Trx) is a protein disulfide reductase that catalyzes numerous thiol-dependent cellular reductive processes. To determine whether Trx can alter the rheological properties of mucus, sputum obtained from CF patients was treated with TRX and its reducing system (0.1 microM thioredoxin reductase + 2 mM NADPH), and liquid phase-gel phase ratio (percent liquid phase) was assessed by compaction assay. Exposure to low Trx concentrations (1 microM) caused significant increases in the percentage of liquid phase of sputum. Maximal increases in percent liquid phase occurred with 30 microM Trx. Additional measurements revealed that sputum liquefaction by the Trx reducing system is dependent on NADPH concentration. The relative potency of the Trx reducing system also was compared with other disulfide-reducing agents. In contrast with Trx, glutathione and N-acetylcysteine were ineffective in liquefying sputum when used at concentrations <1 mM. Sputum viscoelasticity, measured by magnetic microrheometry, also was diminished significantly following 20-min treatment with 3, 10, or 30 microM Trx. Similarly, this reduction in viscoelasticty also was dependent on NADPH concentration. Further investigation has indicated that Trx treatment increases the solubility of high-molecular-weight glycoproteins and causes redistribution of extracellular DNA into the liquid phase of sputum. Recognizing that mucins are the major gel-forming glycoproteins in mucus, we suggest that Trx alters sputum rheology by enzymatic reduction of glycoprotein polymers present in sputum.

  17. Environmentally Safe SRM Strategies Using Liquefied Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massmann, M.; Layton, K.

    2010-12-01

    This presentation includes several SRM strategies to offset global warming using the large scale release of liquefied air (Lair). Lair could be used to cool large atmospheric volumes as it expands from a liquid below minus 300 degrees F (-184 degrees C) into ambient air, which could trigger new clouds or brighten existing clouds. It is hoped that the potential feasibility and benefits of this concept would be found to warrant further development through funded research. A key trait of Lair is its enormous expansion ratio in warming from a cold liquid into ambient air. At sea level, this expansion is about 900 times. At high altitudes such as 50,000 ft (15 km) the same amount of Lair would expand 5,000 times. One strategy for this concept would be to release Lair at 50,000 ft to super-cool existing water vapor into reflective droplets or ice particles. This could create very large clouds thick enough to be highly-reflective and high enough for long residence times. Another strategy to consider for this concept would be to release CCN’s (such as salt particulates) along with Lair. This might enable the formation of clouds where Lair alone is insufficient. Water vapor could also be added to assist in cloud development if necessary. The use of these elements would be non-polluting, enabling the concept to be safely scaled as large as necessary to achieve the desired results without harming the environment. This is extremely important, because it eliminates the risk of environmental damage that is a potential roadblock for most other SRM schemes. Further strategies of this concept would include formation of clouds near the equator to maximize reflected energy, creating clouds over ocean regions so as to minimize weather changes on land, and creating clouds over Arctic regions to minimize the melting of sea ice. Because this concept requires only existing technology to implement, research and implementation timelines could be minimized (unlike most proposed schemes

  18. Synthesis and cure kinetics of liquefied wood/phenol/formaldehyde resins

    Treesearch

    Hui Pan; Todd F. Shupe; Chung-Yun Hse

    2008-01-01

    Wood liquefaction was conducted at a 2/1 phenol/wood ratio in two different reactors: (1) an atmospheric three-necked flask reactor and (2) a sealed Parr reactor. The liquefied wood mixture (liquefied wood, unreacted phenol, and wood residue) was further condensed with formaldehyde under acidic conditions to synthesize two novolac-type liquefied wood/phenol/...

  19. 46 CFR 30.10-39 - Liquefied flammable gas-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Liquefied flammable gas-TB/ALL. 30.10-39 Section 30.10-39 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-39 Liquefied flammable gas—TB/ALL. The term liquefied flammable gas means any flammable...

  20. 46 CFR 30.10-39 - Liquefied flammable gas-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Liquefied flammable gas-TB/ALL. 30.10-39 Section 30.10-39 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-39 Liquefied flammable gas—TB/ALL. The term liquefied flammable gas means any flammable...

  1. 29 CFR 1910.110 - Storage and handling of liquefied petroleum gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Storage and handling of liquefied petroleum gases. 1910.110... Storage and handling of liquefied petroleum gases. (a) Definitions applicable to this section. As used in... vessels, such as tanks, cylinders, or drums, used for transportation or storing liquefied petroleum gases...

  2. 40 CFR 86.157-98 - Refueling test procedures for liquefied petroleum gas-fueled vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... liquefied petroleum gas-fueled vehicles. 86.157-98 Section 86.157-98 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... test procedures for liquefied petroleum gas-fueled vehicles. (a) Equipment. (1) The sampling and... refueling test procedure for light-duty liquefied petroleum gas-fueled vehicles and trucks starts with...

  3. 40 CFR 86.157-98 - Refueling test procedures for liquefied petroleum gas-fueled vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... liquefied petroleum gas-fueled vehicles. 86.157-98 Section 86.157-98 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... test procedures for liquefied petroleum gas-fueled vehicles. (a) Equipment. (1) The sampling and... refueling test procedure for light-duty liquefied petroleum gas-fueled vehicles and trucks starts with...

  4. 40 CFR 86.157-98 - Refueling test procedures for liquefied petroleum gas-fueled vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... liquefied petroleum gas-fueled vehicles. 86.157-98 Section 86.157-98 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... test procedures for liquefied petroleum gas-fueled vehicles. (a) Equipment. (1) The sampling and... refueling test procedure for light-duty liquefied petroleum gas-fueled vehicles and trucks starts with...

  5. 40 CFR 86.157-98 - Refueling test procedures for liquefied petroleum gas-fueled vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... liquefied petroleum gas-fueled vehicles. 86.157-98 Section 86.157-98 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... test procedures for liquefied petroleum gas-fueled vehicles. (a) Equipment. (1) The sampling and... refueling test procedure for light-duty liquefied petroleum gas-fueled vehicles and trucks starts with...

  6. 40 CFR 86.157-98 - Refueling test procedures for liquefied petroleum gas-fueled vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... liquefied petroleum gas-fueled vehicles. 86.157-98 Section 86.157-98 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... test procedures for liquefied petroleum gas-fueled vehicles. (a) Equipment. (1) The sampling and... refueling test procedure for light-duty liquefied petroleum gas-fueled vehicles and trucks starts with...

  7. Characterization of novolac type liquefied wood/phenol/formaldehyde (LWPF) resin

    Treesearch

    Hui Pan; Todd F. Shupe; Chung-Yun Hse

    2009-01-01

    Novolac type liquefied wood/phenol/formaldehyde (LWPF) resins were synthesized from liquefied wood and formaldehyde. The average molecular weight of the LWPF resin made from the liquefied wood reacted in an atmospheric three neck flask increased with increasing P/W ratio. However, it decreased with increasing phenol/wood ratio when using a sealed Parr reactor. On...

  8. Preparation of polyurethane foams using fractionated products in liquefied wood

    Treesearch

    Junming Xu; Jianchun Jiang; Chung-Yun Hse; Todd F. Shupe

    2014-01-01

    Liquefaction of sawdust was studied using glycerol and methanol as mix solvents. A new bio-polyol product consisting of high purity multi-hydroxy compounds was obtained by precipitation of the hydrophobic organics from the liquefied product in an aqueous solution. As identified by GC-MS, the dominate components in bio-polyol were glycerol, glycerol derivatives, and...

  9. Federal offshore statistics: 1992. Leasing, exploration, production, and revenues as of December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Francois, D.K.

    1993-12-31

    The Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act, enacted in 1953 and amended several times, charges the Secretary of the Interior with the responsibility for administering and managing mineral exploration and development of the outer continental shelf, as well as for conserving its natural resources. This report documents the following: Federal offshore lands; offshore leasing activity and status; offshore development activity; offshore production of crude oil and natural gas; Federal offshore oil and natural gas sales volume and royalties; revenue from Federal offshore leases; disbursement of Federal offshore revenue; reserves and resource estimates of offshore oil and natural gas; oil pollution in US and international waters; and international activities and marine minerals. 11 figs., 83 tabs.

  10. Offshore oil in the Alaskan Arctic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weeks, W. F.; Weller, G.

    1984-01-01

    Oil and gas deposits in the Alaskan Arctic are estimated to contain up to 40 percent of the remaining undiscovered crude oil and oil-equivalent natural gas within U.S. jurisdiction. Most (65 to 70 percent) of these estimated reserves are believed to occuur offshore beneath the shallow, ice-covered seas of the Alaskan continental shelf. Offshore recovery operations for such areas are far from routine, with the primary problems associated with the presence of ice. Some problems that must be resolved if efficient, cost-effective, environmentally safe, year-round offshore production is to be achieved include the accurate estimation of ice forces on offshore structures, the proper placement of pipelines beneath ice-produced gouges in the sea floor, and the cleanup of oil spills in pack ice areas.

  11. Offshore oil in the alaskan arctic.

    PubMed

    Weeks, W F; Weller, G

    1984-07-27

    Oil and gas deposits in the Alaskan Arctic are estimated to contain up to 40 percent of the remaining undiscovered crude oil and oil-equivalent nature gas within U.S. jurisdiction. Most (65 to 70 percent) of these estimated reserves are believed to occur offshore beneath the shallow, ice-covered seas, of the Alaskan continental shelf. Offshore recovery operations for such areas are far from routine, with the primary problems associated with the presence of ice. Some problems that must be resolved if efficient, cost-effective, environmentally safe, year-round offshore production is to be achieved include the accurate estimation of ice forces on offshore structures, the proper placement of pipelines beneath ice-produced gouges in the sea floor, and the cleanup of oil spills in pack ice areas.

  12. Offshore oil in the Alaskan Arctic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weeks, W. F.; Weller, G.

    1984-01-01

    Oil and gas deposits in the Alaskan Arctic are estimated to contain up to 40 percent of the remaining undiscovered crude oil and oil-equivalent natural gas within U.S. jurisdiction. Most (65 to 70 percent) of these estimated reserves are believed to occuur offshore beneath the shallow, ice-covered seas of the Alaskan continental shelf. Offshore recovery operations for such areas are far from routine, with the primary problems associated with the presence of ice. Some problems that must be resolved if efficient, cost-effective, environmentally safe, year-round offshore production is to be achieved include the accurate estimation of ice forces on offshore structures, the proper placement of pipelines beneath ice-produced gouges in the sea floor, and the cleanup of oil spills in pack ice areas.

  13. Seismic assessment for offshore pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Bruschi, R.; Gudmestad, O.T.; Blaker, F.; Nadim, F.

    1995-12-31

    An international consensus on seismic design criteria for onshore pipelines has been established during the last thirty years. The need to assess seismic design for offshore pipelines has not been similarly recognized. In this paper, the geotechnical hazard for a pipeline routed across steep slopes and irregular terrains affected by earthquakes, is discussed. The integrity of both natural and artificial load bearing supports is assessed.d The response of the pipeline to direct excitation from soil or through discontinuous, sparsely distributed natural or artificial supports, is commented.

  14. Capacity enhancement of indigenous expansion engine based helium liquefier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doohan, R. S.; Kush, P. K.; Maheshwari, G.

    2017-02-01

    Development of technology and understanding for large capacity helium refrigeration and liquefaction at helium temperature is indispensable for coming-up projects. A new version of helium liquefier designed and built to provide approximately 35 liters of liquid helium per hour. The refrigeration capacity of this reciprocating type expansion engine machine has been increased from its predecessor version with continuous improvement and deficiency debugging. The helium liquefier has been built using components by local industries including cryogenic Aluminum plate fin heat exchangers. Two compressors with nearly identical capacity have been deployed for the operation of system. Together they consume about 110 kW of electric power. The system employs liquid Nitrogen precooling to enhance liquid Helium yield. This paper describes details of the cryogenic expander design improvements, reconfiguration of heat exchangers, performance simulation and their experimental validation.

  15. Residual oil aerosol measurements on refrigerators and liquefiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pflueckhahn, D.; Anders, W.; Hellwig, A.; Knobloch, J.; Rotterdam, S.

    2014-01-01

    The purity of the process gas is essential for the reliability of refrigerators and liquefiers. Filtration and adsorption of impurities like water, nitrogen, and oil result in a major effort, cost, and maintenance in the helium process. Expensive impurity monitors for moisture, nitrogen, and hydrocarbon contents are required to identify filter failures and leakage immediately during the operation. While water and nitrogen contaminants can be detected reliably, the measurement of oil aerosols at the ppb-level is challenging. We present a novel diagnostic oil aerosol measurement system able to measure particles in the sub-μm range. This unit enabled us to evaluate and improve the oil separation system on a LINDE TCF 50 helium liquefier.

  16. Attainable superheating of liquefied gases and their solutions (Review Article)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baidakov, V. G.

    2013-08-01

    This review addresses the kinetics of spontaneous boiling-up of liquefied gases and their solutions. It discusses the theories of thermal and quantum nucleation in metastable liquids. The experimental methods for studying the nucleation kinetics are outlined. The experimental data on the attainable superheating temperature for cryogenic liquids and solutions of liquefied gases are presented in a wide range of pressures, including negative ones. The properties of new-phase nuclei near the boundary of attainable superheating are discussed. The kinetics of initiated and heterogeneous nucleation is considered. The experimental data on detection of quantum tunneling of nuclei are presented. The experimental data are compared with the theories of thermal and quantum nucleation.

  17. Operations aspects of the Fermilab Central Helium Liquefier Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Geynisman, M.G.; Makara, J.N.

    1995-03-01

    The Fermilab Central Helium Liquefier (CHL) facility consists of helium and nitrogen reliquefier plants operated 24 hours-a-day to supply LHe at 4.6{degrees}K and LN{sub 2} for the Fermilab Tevatron superconducting proton-antiproton collider ring and to recover warm return gases. Operating aspects of CHL, including different equipment and systems reliability, availability, maintenance experience, safety concerns, and economics aspects are discussed.

  18. 49 CFR 191.27 - Filing offshore pipeline condition reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE; ANNUAL REPORTS, INCIDENT REPORTS, AND SAFETY-RELATED CONDITION REPORTS § 191.27 Filing offshore pipeline condition reports. (a) Each operator shall, within 60... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Filing offshore pipeline condition reports. 191.27...

  19. 49 CFR 191.27 - Filing offshore pipeline condition reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE; ANNUAL REPORTS, INCIDENT REPORTS, AND SAFETY-RELATED CONDITION REPORTS § 191.27 Filing offshore pipeline condition reports. (a) Each operator shall, within 60... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Filing offshore pipeline condition reports. 191.27...

  20. 49 CFR 191.27 - Filing offshore pipeline condition reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE; ANNUAL REPORTS, INCIDENT REPORTS, AND SAFETY-RELATED CONDITION REPORTS § 191.27 Filing offshore pipeline condition reports. (a) Each operator shall, within 60... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Filing offshore pipeline condition reports. 191.27...

  1. 49 CFR 191.27 - Filing offshore pipeline condition reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE; ANNUAL REPORTS, INCIDENT REPORTS, AND SAFETY-RELATED CONDITION REPORTS § 191.27 Filing offshore pipeline condition reports. (a) Each operator shall, within 60... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Filing offshore pipeline condition reports. 191.27...

  2. Liquefied Bleed for Stability and Efficiency of High Speed Inlets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, J. David; Davis, David; Barsi, Stephen J.; Deans, Matthew C.; Weir, Lois J.; Sanders, Bobby W.

    2014-01-01

    A mission analysis code was developed to perform a trade study on the effectiveness of liquefying bleed for the inlet of the first stage of a TSTO vehicle. By liquefying bleed, the vehicle weight (TOGW) could be reduced by 7 to 23%. Numerous simplifying assumptions were made and lessons were learned. Increased accuracy in future analyses can be achieved by: Including a higher fidelity model to capture the effect of rescaling (variable vehicle TOGW). Refining specific thrust and impulse models ( T m a and Isp) to preserve fuel-to-air ratio. Implementing LH2 for T m a and Isp. Correlating baseline design to other mission analyses and correcting vehicle design elements. Implementing angle-of-attack effects on inlet characteristics. Refining aerodynamic performance (to improve L/D ratio at higher Mach numbers). Examining the benefit with partial cooling or densification of the bleed air stream. Incorporating higher fidelity weight estimates for the liquefied bleed system (heat exchange and liquid storage versus bleed duct weights) could be added when more fully developed. Adding trim drag or 6-degree-of-freedom trajectory analysis for higher fidelity. Investigating vehicle optimization for each of the bleed configurations.

  3. Process Control Migration of 50 LPH Helium Liquefier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, U.; Mandal, A.; Das, A.; Behera, M.; Pal, Sandip

    2017-02-01

    Two helium liquefier/refrigerators are operational at VECC while one is dedicated for the Superconducting Cyclotron. The first helium liquefier of 50 LPH capacity from Air Liquide has already completed fifteen years of operation without any major trouble. This liquefier is being controlled by Eurotherm PC3000 make PLC. This PLC has become obsolete since last seven years or so. Though we can still manage to run the PLC system with existing spares, risk of discontinuation of the operation is always there due to unavailability of spare. In order to eliminate the risk, an equivalent PLC control system based on Siemens S7-300 was thought of. For smooth migration, total programming was done keeping the same field input and output interface, nomenclature and graphset. New program is a mix of S7-300 Graph, STL and LAD languages. One to one program verification of the entire process graph was done manually. The total program was run in simulation mode. Matlab mathematical model was also used for plant control simulations. EPICS based SCADA was used for process monitoring. As of now the entire hardware and software is ready for direct replacement with minimum required set up time.

  4. Reassessment of offshore platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Nair, V.V.D.; Kuhn, J.M. )

    1993-05-01

    Data from Hurricane Andrew demonstrated that the systems and procedures in place for evacuating offshore workers and minimizing oil spills and environmental damage functioned as planned. While the vast majority of the platforms survived the storm with no damage, a few of the older platforms (installed prior to 1972) either collapsed or suffered severe damage. The collapsed platforms were designed with insufficient deck height to clear the storm waves. In recent years, the API RP 2A has introduced guidance for minimum air gap, minimum structures, platform inspection and platform reuse. These provisions, coupled with natural attribution of the older platforms, will significantly improve the performance of platforms in the future. The reliability of NDT techniques to detect major structural defects should be improved through continued research. While flooded member detection is used by several operators as a screening tool to detect major defects underwater, its reliability is not always good and further research is needed in this area. Another area of high priority research is related to the use of Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROV) to perform underwater inspection of structures. 51 refs., 7 figs.

  5. Session: Offshore wind

    SciTech Connect

    Gaarde, Jette; Ram, Bonnie

    2004-09-01

    This session at the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats workshop consisted of two presentations. Due to time constraints, a discussion period was not possible. The session addressed the current state of offshore wind energy development. The first presentation ''Monitoring Program and Results: Horns Rev and Nysted'' by Jette Gaarde summarized selected environmental studies conducted to date at operating offshore wind turbine projects in Denmark and lessons from other offshore wind developments in Europe. Wildlife impacts studies from the Danish sites focused on birds, fish, and mammals. The second presentation ''What has the U.S. Wind Industry Learned from the European Example'' by Bonnie Ram provided an update on current permit applications for offshore wind developments in the U.S. as well as lessons that may be drawn from the European experience.

  6. Mathematical simulation of the process of condensing natural gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tastandieva, G. M.

    2015-01-01

    Presents a two-dimensional unsteady model of heat transfer in terms of condensation of natural gas at low temperatures. Performed calculations of the process heat and mass transfer of liquefied natural gas (LNG) storage tanks of cylindrical shape. The influence of model parameters on the nature of heat transfer. Defined temperature regimes eliminate evaporation by cooling liquefied natural gas. The obtained dependence of the mass flow rate of vapor condensation gas temperature. Identified the possibility of regulating the process of "cooling down" liquefied natural gas in terms of its partial evaporation with low cost energy.

  7. Task 1: Whole-body concentrations of elements in kelp bass (Paralabrax clathratus), kelp rockfish (Sebastes atrovirens), and Pacific sanddab (Citharichthys sordidus) from offshore oil platforms and natural areas in the Southern California Bight

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Love, Milton S.

    2009-01-01

    Resource managers are concerned that offshore oil platforms in the Southern California Bight may be contributing to environmental contaminants accumulated by marine fishes. To examine this possibility, 18 kelp bass (Paralabrax clathratus), 80 kelp rockfish (Sebastes atrovirens), and 98 Pacific sanddab (Citharichthys sordidus) were collected from five offshore oil platforms and 10 natural areas during 2005-2006 for whole-body analysis of 63 elements. The natural areas, which served as reference sites, were assumed to be relatively uninfluenced by contaminants originating from platforms. Forty-two elements were excluded from statistical comparisons for one of three reasons: they consisted of major cations that were unlikely to accumulate to potentially toxic concentrations under ambient exposure conditions; they were not detected by the analytical procedures; or they were detected at concentrations too low to yield reliable quantitative measurements. The remaining 21 elements consisted of aluminum, arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, gallium, iron, lead, lithium, manganese, mercury, nickel, rubidium, selenium, strontium, tin, titanium, vanadium, and zinc. Statistical comparisons of these 21 elements indicated that none consistently exhibited higher concentrations at oil platforms than at natural areas. Eight comparisons yielded significant interaction effects between total length (TL) of the fish and the two habitat types (oil platforms and natural areas). This indicated that relations between certain elemental concentrations (i.e., copper, rubidium, selenium, tin, titanium, and vanadium) and habitat type varied by TL of affected fish species. To better understand these interactions, we examined elemental concentrations in very small and very large individuals of affected species. Although significant interactions were detected for rubidium, tin, and selenium in kelp rockfish, the concentrations of these elements did not differ significantly between

  8. Offshore Wind Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Strach-Sonsalla, Mareike; Stammler, Matthias; Wenske, Jan; Jonkman, Jason; Vorpahl, Fabian

    2016-07-27

    In 1991, the Vindeby Offshore Wind Farm, the first offshore wind farm in the world, started feeding electricity to the grid off the coast of Lolland, Denmark. Since then, offshore wind energy has developed from this early experiment to a multibillion dollar market and an important pillar of worldwide renewable energy production. Unit sizes grew from 450 kW at Vindeby to the 7.5 MW-class offshore wind turbines (OWT ) that are currently (by October 2014) in the prototyping phase. This chapter gives an overview of the state of the art in offshore wind turbine (OWT) technology and introduces the principles of modeling and simulating an OWT. The OWT components -- including the rotor, nacelle, support structure, control system, and power electronics -- are introduced, and current technological challenges are presented. The OWT system dynamics and the environment (wind and ocean waves) are described from the perspective of OWT modelers and designers. Finally, an outlook on future technology is provided. The descriptions in this chapter are focused on a single OWT -- more precisely, a horizontal-axis wind turbine -- as a dynamic system. Offshore wind farms and wind farm effects are not described in detail in this chapter, but an introduction and further references are given.

  9. Getting offshoring right.

    PubMed

    Aron, Ravi; Singh, Jitendra V

    2005-12-01

    The prospect of offshoring and outsourcing business processes has captured the imagination of CEOs everywhere. In the past five years, a rising number of companies in North America and Europe have experimented with this strategy, hoping to reduce costs and gain strategic advantage. But many businesses have had mixed results. According to several studies, half the organizations that have shifted processes offshore have failed to generate the expected financial benefits. What's more, many of them have faced employee resistance and consumer dissatisfaction. Clearly, companies have to rethink how they formulate their offshoring strategies. A three-part methodology can help. First, companies need to prioritize their processes, ranking each based on two criteria: the value it creates for customers and the degree to which the company can capture some of that value. Companies will want to keep their core (highest-priority) processes in-house and consider outsourcing their commodity (low-priority) processes; critical (moderate-priority) processes are up for debate and must be considered carefully. Second, businesses should analyze all the risks that accompany offshoring and look systematically at their critical and commodity processes in terms of operational risk (the risk that processes won't operate smoothly after being offshored) and structural risk (the risk that relationships with service providers may not work as expected). Finally, companies should determine possible locations for their offshore efforts, as well as the organizational forms--such as captive centers and joint ventures--that those efforts might take. They can do so by examining each process's operational and structural risks side by side. This article outlines the tools that will help companies choose the right processes to offshore. It also describes a new organizational structure called the extended organization, in which companies specify the quality of services they want and work alongside providers

  10. Model refinement for offshore platforms: Experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Min; Chen, Zongli; Wu, Yanjian

    2017-08-01

    Offshore jacket platforms are widely used in offshore oil and gas exploitation. Finite element models of such structures need to have many degrees of freedom (DOFs) to represent the geometrical detail of complex structures, thereby leading to incompatibility in the number of DOFs of experimental models. To bring them both to the same order while ensuring that the essential eigen- properties of the refined model match those of experimental models, an extended model refinement procedure is presented in this paper. Vibration testing of an offshore jacket platform model is performed to validate the applicability of the proposed approach. A full-order finite element model of the platform is established and then tuned to meet the measured modal properties identified from the acceleration signals. Both model reduction and modal expansion methods are investigated, as well as various scenarios of sensor arrangements. Upon completion of the refinement, the updated jacket platform model matches the natural frequencies of the measured model well.

  11. The unsuspected killer: Liquefied petroleum gas overexposure in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Sampson, L W J; van der Schyff, N; Cupido, C

    2014-12-14

    A 21-year-old woman with no past medical history of note was found unconscious together with five of her family members after prolonged exposure to liquefied petroleum gas. She was admitted to the intensive care unit at Victoria Hospital, Wynberg, Cape Town, South Africa, following resuscitation for pulseless electrical activity. On examination the following was found: coma without focal neurology; shock requiring fluid resuscitation and adrenaline; probable pneumonitis or aspiration pneumonia; acute rhabdomyolysis with severe metabolic acidosis; and raised serum K+. A carboxyhaemoglobin test was unable to confirm or exclude carbon monoxide poisoning.

  12. Exposure of a liquefied gas container to an external fire.

    PubMed

    Raj, Phani K

    2005-06-30

    In liquefied gas, bulk-storage facilities and plants, the separation distances between storage tanks and between a tank and a line of adjoining property that can be built are governed by local regulations and/or codes (e.g. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 58, 2004). Separation distance requirements have been in the NFPA 58 Code for over 60 years; however, no scientific foundations (either theoretical or experimental) are available for the specified distances. Even though the liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) industry has operated safely over the years, there is a question as to whether the code-specified distances provide sufficient safety to LPG-storage tanks, when they are exposed to large external fires. A radiation heat-transfer-based model is presented in this paper. The temporal variation of the vapor-wetted tank-wall temperature is calculated when exposed to thermal radiation from an external, non-impinging, large, 30.5 m (100 ft) diameter, highly radiative, hydrocarbon fuel (pool) fire located at a specified distance. Structural steel wall of a pressurized, liquefied gas container (such as the ASME LP-Gas tank) begins to lose its strength, when the wall temperature approaches a critical temperature, 810 K (1000 degrees F). LP-Gas tank walls reaching close to this temperature will be a cause for major concern because of increased potential for tank failure, which could result in catastrophic consequences. Results from the model for exposure of different size ASME (LP-Gas) containers to a hydrocarbon pool fire of 30.5 m (100 ft) in diameter, located with its base edge at the separation distances specified by NFPA 58 [NFPA 58, Liquefied Petroleum Gas Code, Table 6.3.1, 2004 ed., National Fire Protection Association, Quincy, MA, 2004] indicate that the vapor-wetted wall temperature of the containers never reach the critical temperature under common wind conditions (0, 5 and 10 m/s), with the flame tilting towards the tank. This indicates that the

  13. Whole-body concentrations of elements in three fish species from offshore oil platforms and natural areas in the Southern California Bight, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Love, Milton S.; Saiki, Michael K.; May, Thomas W.; Yee, Julie L.

    2013-01-01

    elements. Forty-two elements were excluded from statistical comparisons as they (1) consisted of major cations that were unlikely to accumulate to potentially toxic concentrations; (2) were not detected by the analytical procedures; or (3) were detected at concentrations too low to yield reliable quantitative measurements. The remaining 21 elements consisted of aluminum, arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, gallium, iron, lead, lithium, manganese, mercury, nickel, rubidium, selenium, strontium, tin, titanium, vanadium, and zinc. Statistical comparisons of these elements indicated that none consistently exhibited higher concentrations at oil platforms than at natural areas. However, the concentrations of copper, selenium, titanium, and vanadium in Pacific sanddab were unusual because small individuals exhibited either no differences between oil platforms and natural areas or significantly lower concentrations at oil platforms than at natural areas, whereas large individuals exhibited significantly higher concentrations at oil platforms than at natural areas.

  14. Energy from Offshore Wind: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Musial, W.; Butterfield, S.; Ram, B.

    2006-02-01

    This paper provides an overview of the nascent offshore wind energy industry including a status of the commercial offshore industry and the technologies that will be needed for full market development.

  15. 33 CFR 165.1151 - Security Zones; liquefied hazardous gas tank vessels, San Pedro Bay, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Security Zones; liquefied hazardous gas tank vessels, San Pedro Bay, California. 165.1151 Section 165.1151 Navigation and Navigable... Bay, California. (a) Definition. “Liquefied Hazardous Gas” as used in this section means a...

  16. 30 CFR 75.1106-3 - Storage of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Fire Protection § 75.1106-3 Storage of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders... Transportation regulations. (2) Placed securely in storage areas designated by the operator for such purpose, and... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Storage of liquefied and...

  17. 30 CFR 75.1106-3 - Storage of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Fire Protection § 75.1106-3 Storage of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders... Transportation regulations. (2) Placed securely in storage areas designated by the operator for such purpose, and... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Storage of liquefied and...

  18. 30 CFR 75.1106-3 - Storage of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Fire Protection § 75.1106-3 Storage of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders... Transportation regulations. (2) Placed securely in storage areas designated by the operator for such purpose, and... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Storage of liquefied and...

  19. 30 CFR 75.1106-3 - Storage of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Fire Protection § 75.1106-3 Storage of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders... Transportation regulations. (2) Placed securely in storage areas designated by the operator for such purpose, and... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Storage of liquefied and...

  20. 30 CFR 75.1106-3 - Storage of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Fire Protection § 75.1106-3 Storage of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Storage of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders; requirements. 75.1106-3 Section 75.1106-3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND...

  1. 42 CFR 84.81 - Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.81 Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements. (a) Compressed breathing gas...

  2. 42 CFR 84.81 - Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.81 Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements. (a) Compressed breathing gas...

  3. 42 CFR 84.81 - Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.81 Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements. (a) Compressed breathing gas...

  4. 46 CFR 111.105-32 - Bulk liquefied flammable gas and ammonia carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bulk liquefied flammable gas and ammonia carriers. 111... gas and ammonia carriers. (a) Each vessel that carries bulk liquefied flammable gases or ammonia as a.... (2) The term “gas-dangerous” does not include the weather deck of an ammonia carrier. (c) Each...

  5. 46 CFR 111.105-32 - Bulk liquefied flammable gas and ammonia carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bulk liquefied flammable gas and ammonia carriers. 111... gas and ammonia carriers. (a) Each vessel that carries bulk liquefied flammable gases or ammonia as a.... (2) The term “gas-dangerous” does not include the weather deck of an ammonia carrier. (c) Each...

  6. 46 CFR 111.105-32 - Bulk liquefied flammable gas and ammonia carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bulk liquefied flammable gas and ammonia carriers. 111... gas and ammonia carriers. (a) Each vessel that carries bulk liquefied flammable gases or ammonia as a.... (2) The term “gas-dangerous” does not include the weather deck of an ammonia carrier. (c) Each...

  7. 46 CFR 111.105-32 - Bulk liquefied flammable gas and ammonia carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bulk liquefied flammable gas and ammonia carriers. 111... gas and ammonia carriers. (a) Each vessel that carries bulk liquefied flammable gases or ammonia as a.... (2) The term “gas-dangerous” does not include the weather deck of an ammonia carrier. (c) Each...

  8. 46 CFR 111.105-32 - Bulk liquefied flammable gas and ammonia carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bulk liquefied flammable gas and ammonia carriers. 111... gas and ammonia carriers. (a) Each vessel that carries bulk liquefied flammable gases or ammonia as a.... (2) The term “gas-dangerous” does not include the weather deck of an ammonia carrier. (c) Each...

  9. 42 CFR 84.81 - Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements. 84.81 Section 84.81 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE... liquefied breathing gas containers shall meet the minimum requirements of the Department of...

  10. 42 CFR 84.81 - Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements. 84.81 Section 84.81 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE... liquefied breathing gas containers shall meet the minimum requirements of the Department of...

  11. Polyols from microwave liquefied bagasse and its application to rigid polyurethane foam

    Treesearch

    Jiulong Xie; Xianglin Zhai; Chung Hse; Todd Shupe; Hui Pan

    2015-01-01

    Bagasse flour (BF) was liquefied using bi-component polyhydric alcohol (PA) as a solventand phosphoric acid as a catalyst in a microwave reactor. The effect of BF to solvent ratio andreaction temperatures on the liquefaction extent and characteristics of liquefied products wereevaluated. The results revealed that almost 75% of the...

  12. 29 CFR 1926.153 - Liquefied petroleum gas (LP-Gas).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas (LP-Gas). 1926.153 Section 1926.153... § 1926.153 Liquefied petroleum gas (LP-Gas). (a) Approval of equipment and systems. (1) Each system shall... petroleum gases. (b) Welding on LP-Gas containers. Welding is prohibited on containers. (c) Container...

  13. 29 CFR 1926.153 - Liquefied petroleum gas (LP-Gas).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas (LP-Gas). 1926.153 Section 1926.153... § 1926.153 Liquefied petroleum gas (LP-Gas). (a) Approval of equipment and systems. (1) Each system shall... petroleum gases. (b) Welding on LP-Gas containers. Welding is prohibited on containers. (c) Container...

  14. 29 CFR 1926.153 - Liquefied petroleum gas (LP-Gas).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas (LP-Gas). 1926.153 Section 1926.153... § 1926.153 Liquefied petroleum gas (LP-Gas). (a) Approval of equipment and systems. (1) Each system shall... petroleum gases. (b) Welding on LP-Gas containers. Welding is prohibited on containers. (c) Container...

  15. 29 CFR 1926.153 - Liquefied petroleum gas (LP-Gas).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas (LP-Gas). 1926.153 Section 1926.153... § 1926.153 Liquefied petroleum gas (LP-Gas). (a) Approval of equipment and systems. (1) Each system shall... petroleum gases. (b) Welding on LP-Gas containers. Welding is prohibited on containers. (c) Container...

  16. 29 CFR 1926.153 - Liquefied petroleum gas (LP-Gas).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas (LP-Gas). 1926.153 Section 1926.153... § 1926.153 Liquefied petroleum gas (LP-Gas). (a) Approval of equipment and systems. (1) Each system shall... petroleum gases. (b) Welding on LP-Gas containers. Welding is prohibited on containers. (c) Container...

  17. Offshore rectenna feasbility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, J. W.; Hervey, D.; Glaser, P.

    1980-01-01

    A preliminary study of the feasibility and cost of an offshore rectenna to serve the upper metropolitan east coast was performed. A candidate site at which to build a 5 GW rectenna was selected on the basis of proximity to load centers, avoidance of shipping lanes, sea floor terrain, and relocated conditions. Several types of support structures were selected for study based initially on the reference system rectenna concept of a wire mesh ground screen and dipoles each with its own rectifier and filter circuits. Possible secondary uses of an offshore rectenna were examined and are evaluated.

  18. Suspension Dynamics of Liquefied Lignocellulosic Biomass in Pipeflow using Echo Particle Image Velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demarchi, Nicholas; White, Christopher

    2015-11-01

    Echo particle image velocimetry (EPIV) is used to acquire planar fields of velocity in pipeflow of liquefied biomass. The biomass used is acid washed corn stover liquefied by enzymatic hydrolysis. The liquefaction process produces a complex multiphase fluid suspension with a microstructure consisting of insoluble solid particles dispersed within a continuous liquid phase. The solid particles are generally heavier than the liquid phase, non-spherical, and distributed over a wide range of aspect ratios and sizes. Batches of liquefied biomass are produced at incremental mass loadings doubling from 1.5% to 12%. The rheology, microstructure, and solid particle settling velocities of the liquefied biomass as a function of mass loading is first quantified. Next, EPIV is used to measure and quantify the flow dynamics of liquefied biomass suspensions under laminar pressure driven pipeflow conditions. Finally, Information gathered from the experimental data is used to simulate particle settling rates and predict the particle physics under the same pipeflow conditions.?

  19. Offshore platform cathodic protection retrofits

    SciTech Connect

    Turnipseed, S.P.

    1996-10-01

    Cathodic protection (CP) is the primary technique used for underwater corrosion control on the majority of offshore steel structures. Offshore platforms are often kept in service far beyond their original design life. Refurbishment of the CP system is required when adequate protection can no longer be maintained. Various offshore platform CP retrofit designs are discussed.

  20. 40 CFR 80.32 - Controls applicable to liquefied petroleum gas retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... petroleum gas retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers. 80.32 Section 80.32 Protection of Environment... Controls and Prohibitions § 80.32 Controls applicable to liquefied petroleum gas retailers and wholesale...,660 gallons of liquefied petroleum gas per month shall equip each pump from which liquefied...

  1. 40 CFR 80.32 - Controls applicable to liquefied petroleum gas retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... petroleum gas retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers. 80.32 Section 80.32 Protection of Environment... Controls and Prohibitions § 80.32 Controls applicable to liquefied petroleum gas retailers and wholesale...,660 gallons of liquefied petroleum gas per month shall equip each pump from which liquefied...

  2. 40 CFR 80.32 - Controls applicable to liquefied petroleum gas retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... petroleum gas retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers. 80.32 Section 80.32 Protection of Environment... Controls and Prohibitions § 80.32 Controls applicable to liquefied petroleum gas retailers and wholesale...,660 gallons of liquefied petroleum gas per month shall equip each pump from which liquefied...

  3. 40 CFR 80.32 - Controls applicable to liquefied petroleum gas retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... petroleum gas retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers. 80.32 Section 80.32 Protection of Environment... Controls and Prohibitions § 80.32 Controls applicable to liquefied petroleum gas retailers and wholesale...,660 gallons of liquefied petroleum gas per month shall equip each pump from which liquefied...

  4. 40 CFR 80.32 - Controls applicable to liquefied petroleum gas retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... petroleum gas retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers. 80.32 Section 80.32 Protection of Environment... Controls and Prohibitions § 80.32 Controls applicable to liquefied petroleum gas retailers and wholesale...,660 gallons of liquefied petroleum gas per month shall equip each pump from which liquefied...

  5. Offshore Wind Energy Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musgrove, P.

    1978-01-01

    Explores the possibility of installing offshore windmills to provide electricity and to save fuel for the United Kingdom. Favors their deployment in clusters to facilitate supervision and minimize cost. Discusses the power output and the cost involved and urges their quick development. (GA)

  6. The state of offshore

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, B.F.

    1991-01-01

    In this book, the author explains the factors behind state involvement in offshore petroleum activities. From his analysis of government workings in Great Britain and Norway, he concludes that state intervention is determined by complex interactions among government officials, economic interests, and environmental pressures.

  7. Offshore Space Center (offshore launch site)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, D. G.

    1980-01-01

    Any activity requiring the development of the HLLV can benefit by operations from an offshore space center (OSC) since operating near the equator provides a twenty percent increase in payload in an ecliptic plan orbit. Some OSC concepts considered include a moored floating (semisubmersible) design, a stationary design supported by fixed piles, and a combination of these two. The facility supports: a 15,000 foot long, 300 foot wide runway, designed to accommodate a two staged winged launch vehicle, with a one million pound payload capacity to low earth orbit; an industrial area for HLLV maintenance; an airport terminal, control and operation center, and observation tower; liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen production and storage, and fuel storage platforms; a power generation station, docks with an unloading area; two separate launch sites; and living accommodations for 10,000 people. Potential sites include the Paramount Seamount in the Pacific Ocean off the north coast of South America. Cost estimates are considered.

  8. Offshore Wind Research (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    This 2-page fact sheet describes NREL's offshore wind research and development efforts and capabilities. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory is internationally recognized for offshore wind energy research and development (R&D). Its experience and capabilities cover a wide spectrum of wind energy disciplines. NREL's offshore wind R&D efforts focus on critical areas that address the long-term needs of the offshore wind energy industry and the Department of Energy (DOE). R&D efforts include: (1) Developing offshore design tools and methods; (2) Collaborating with international partners; (3) Testing offshore systems and developing standards; (4) Conducting economic analyses; (5) Characterizing offshore wind resources; and (6) Identifying and mitigating offshore wind grid integration challenges and barriers. NREL has developed and maintains a robust, open-source, modular computer-aided engineering (CAE) tool, known as FAST. FAST's state-of-the-art capabilities provide full dynamic system simulation for a range of offshore wind systems. It models the coupled aerodynamic, hydrodynamic, control system, and structural response of offshore wind systems to support the development of innovative wind technologies that are reliable and cost effective. FAST also provides dynamic models of wind turbines on offshore fixed-bottom systems for shallow and transitional depths and floating-platform systems in deep water, thus enabling design innovation and risk reduction and facilitating higher performance designs that will meet DOE's cost of energy, reliability, and deployment objectives.

  9. FMS/FMI borehole imaging of carbonate gas reservoirs, Central Luconia Province, offshore Sarawak, Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, U.; Van der Baan, D. )

    1994-07-01

    The Central Luconia Province, offshore Sarawak, is a significant gas province characterized by extensive development of late Miocene carbonate buildups. Some 200 carbonate structures have been seismically mapped of which 70 have been drilled. FMS/FMI borehole images were obtained from three appraisal wells drilled in the [open quotes]M[close quotes] cluster gas fields situated in the northwestern part of the province. The [open quotes]M[close quotes] cluster fields are currently part of an upstream gas development project to supply liquefied natural gas. Log facies recognition within these carbonate gas reservoirs is problematic due mainly to the large gas effect. This problem is being addressed by (1) application of neural network techniques and (2) using borehole imaging tools. Cores obtained from the M1, M3, and M4 gas fields were calibrated with the FMS/FMI images. Reservoir characterization was obtained at two different scales. The larger scale (i.e., 1:40 and 1:200) involved static normalized images where the vertical stacking pattern was observed based on recognition of bed boundaries. In addition, the greater vertical resolution of the FMS/FMI images allowed recognition of thin beds. For recognition of specific lithofacies, dynamically normalized images were used to highlight lithofacies-specific sedimentary features, e.g., clay seams/stylolites, vugs, and breccia zones. In general, the FMS/FMI images allowed (1) easier recognition of reservoir features, e.g., bed boundaries, and (2) distinction between lithofacies that are difficult to characterize on conventional wireline logs.

  10. Development of a Liquefied Noble Gas Time Projection Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesser, Ezra; White, Aaron; Aidala, Christine

    2015-10-01

    Liquefied noble gas detectors have been used for various applications in recent years for detecting neutrinos, neutrons, photons, and potentially dark matter. The University of Michigan is developing a detector with liquid argon to produce scintillation light and ionization electrons. Our data collection method will allow high-resolution energy measurement and spatial reconstruction of detected particles by using multi-pixel silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) and a cylindrical time projection chamber (TPC) with a multi-wire endplate. We have already designed a liquid argon condenser and purification unit surrounded by an insulating vacuum, constructed circuitry for temperature and pressure sensors, and created software to obtain high-accuracy sensor readouts. The status of detector development will be presented. Funded through the Michigan Memorial Phoenix Project.

  11. Production and uses of liquefied atmosphere (CO2) on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldron, R. D.

    Carbon dioxide is universally accessible on Mars, and can be liquefied and separated from residual atmospheric gases by various compress-refrigeration cycles. Liquid CO2, stored under elevated pressures, can be used as a source of high pressure gas for nighttime power generation at a Martian base powered by solar energy during the daytime. Carbon dioxide can also be used for vehicular power. The extractable energy per unit mass of CO2 can exceed that of commercial lead-acid batteries for operating cycles without heat addition. Improved performance is possible using heat input from the ambient atmosphere or thermochemical agents. A unique vehicular application uses pressurized CO2 as a non-combustion low performance propellant for intermediate distance surface transportation. The thermodynamic properties of CO2 are presented with typical operating cycles for the application classes described above.

  12. Production and uses of liquefied atmosphere (CO2) on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waldron, R. D.

    1991-01-01

    Carbon dioxide is universally accessible on Mars, and can be liquefied and separated from residual atmospheric gases by various compress-refrigeration cycles. Liquid CO2, stored under elevated pressures, can be used as a source of high pressure gas for nighttime power generation at a Martian base powered by solar energy during the daytime. Carbon dioxide can also be used for vehicular power. The extractable energy per unit mass of CO2 can exceed that of commercial lead-acid batteries for operating cycles without heat addition. Improved performance is possible using heat input from the ambient atmosphere or thermochemical agents. A unique vehicular application uses pressurized CO2 as a non-combustion low performance propellant for intermediate distance surface transportation. The thermodynamic properties of CO2 are presented with typical operating cycles for the application classes described above.

  13. The preparation and characterization of liquefied wood based primary fibers.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jian; Shang, Jun-Bo; Zhao, Guang-Jie

    2013-01-02

    The preparation of primary fibers were performed from liquefied wood in phenol by melt-spinning with different spinnerettes of length/diameter ratio (L/D) (0, 2, and 4), to investigate the effect of the size of spinnerette on the thermal stability and structural properties of primary fibers. High thermal transition temperatures and small weight loss percentages of resultant primary fibers representing good thermal stability were obtained with L/D of spinnerette increasing. Besides, few defective structure occurred on cross section and surface of primary fibers in comparison with those prepared with spinnerette of L/D=0. We found that these improvements were caused by the formation of hydrogen bond among phenolic hydroxyl groups in the period of flow entering the cylindrical die of spinnerette. Thus, the precursor, with either porous structure for preparing activated carbon fibers or defect-free structure for preparing carbon fibers with high performance, can be probably prepared by controlling the spinnerette system.

  14. Development of a transferline connecting a helium liquefier coldbox and a liquid helium Dewar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menon, Rajendran S.; Rane, Tejas; Chakravarty, Anindya; Joemon, V.

    2017-02-01

    A helium liquefier with demonstrated capacity of 32 1/hr has been developed by BARC. Mumbai. A transferline for two way flow of helium between the helium liquefier coldbox and receiver Dewar has been developed in-house at BARC. Further, a functionally similar, but structurally improved transferline has been developed through a local fabricator. This paper describes and discusses issues related to the development of these cryogenic transferlines. The developed transferlines have been tested with a flow of liquid nitrogen and successfully utilised later in the helium liquefier plant.

  15. Arctic offshore platform

    SciTech Connect

    Bhula, D.N.

    1984-01-24

    An offshore structure is disclosed for use in drilling and producing wells in arctic regions having a conical shaped lower portion that extends above the surface of the water and a cylindrical upper section. The conical portion is provided with a controlled stiffness outer surface for withstanding the loads produced by ice striking the structure. The stiffness properties of the outer shell and flexible members are designed to distribute the load and avoid high local loads on the inner parts of the structure.

  16. Wind Energy: Offshore Permitting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    Technological advancements and tax incentives have driven a global expansion in the development of renewable energy resources. Wind energy , in...particular, is now often cited as the fastest growing commercial energy source in the world. Currently, all U.S. wind energy facilities are based on land...authority to permit and regulate offshore wind energy development within the zones of the oceans under its jurisdiction. The federal government and coastal

  17. Crustal nature and seismic structure of the geological provinces offshore the SW Iberia: Highlights of the NEAREST-SEIS wide-angle seismic survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Loriente, S.; Sallares, V.; Gailler, A.; Bartolome, R.; Gracia, E.; Gutscher, M.; Diaz, J.

    2011-12-01

    The SW Iberian margin hosts the present day NW-SE plate convergence between the European and African Plates at a rate of 4.5 mm/yr causing seismic activity of moderate magnitude. During fall 2008 and in the frame of the EU-funded NEAREST project, was carried out a wide-angle seismic survey (NEAREST-SEIS cruise) consisting in 2 profiles. The main objectives of the survey were to gather information about the geometry of the crust-mantle boundary, identify the nature of the different geological provinces, obtain the physical properties of the crust, and unveil the deep geometry of the interfaces between main faults. A total of 30 OBS were deployed along profile P1, which is 356 km long and trends NW-SE running from the Tagus Abyssal Plain (TAP), Gorringe Bank (GB), Horseshoe Abyssal Plain (HAP), Coral Patch Ridge (CPR), and finally reaching the thrust-and-fold belt of the Seine Abyssal Plain (SAP). The inverted model shows four well-differentiated domains in terms of seismic structure. In the TAP there is a 3-4 km-thick sediment layer with low velocity, lying above a basement showing a remarkably high velocity (< 7 km/s), similar to that of the basement outcropping in the GB. In the HAP the sedimentary cover is thicker, showing an uppermost unit with very low velocity corresponding to the Upper Miocene Horseshoe Gravitational Unit, on top of a higher velocity lower unit, which corresponds to the Mesozoic sedimentary sequence, with a total thickness of 5 km. The basement shows the same velocity distribution as in TAP and GB, suggesting a common nature and origin. According to its seismic structure, we interpret this basement as very serpentinized, exhumed upper mantle. In contrast, the CPR and SAP show evidence for the presence of a well-developed, 6-7 km-thick oceanic crust, underlying the 2-3 km thick Mesozoic and Neogene sedimentary sequence. Profile P2 is 256 km long and trends N-S, across the Iberian margin shelf, Portimao Bank, Gulf of Cadiz imbricated wedge and

  18. Offshore underbalanced drilling system could revive field developments. Part 2: Making this valuable reservoir drilling/completion technique work on a conventional offshore drilling platform

    SciTech Connect

    Nessa, D.O.; Tangedahl, M.J.; Saponja, J.

    1997-10-01

    Part 1, presented in the July issue, discussed the emerging trend to move underbalanced drilling (UBD) operations into the offshore arena, following its successful application in many onshore areas. This concluding article delves into the details of applying UBD offshore. Starting with advantages the technique offers in many maturing or complex/marginal prospects, the UBD system for offshore platforms use is described. This involves conversion of the conventional rotary system, use of rotating diverters, design of the surface fluid separation system and the necessary gas (nitrogen or natural gas) injection system to lighten the fluid column. Commonly faced operational challenges for offshore UBD are listed along with recommended solutions.

  19. The Limits of Offshore Balancing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    UNITED STATES ARMY WAR COLLEGE PRESS Carlisle Barracks, PA ST R ENGTH-’W I SDOM THE LIMITS OF OFFSHORE BALANCING Hal Brands U.S. ARMY WAR...Offshore Balancing 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT...Strategic Studies Institute and U.S. Army War College Press THE LIMITS OF OFFSHORE BALANCING Hal Brands September 2015

  20. Thermal decomposition characteristics of microwave liquefied rape straw residues using thermogravimetric analysis

    Treesearch

    Xingyan Huang; Cornelis F. De Hoop; Jiulong Xie; Chung-Yun Hse; Jinqiu Qi; Yuzhu Chen; Feng Li

    2017-01-01

    The thermal decomposition characteristics of microwave liquefied rape straw residues with respect to liquefaction condition and pyrolysis conversion were investigated using a thermogravimetric (TG) analyzer at the heating rates of 5, 20, 50

  1. Study of a multi-strategy controller on a helium liquefier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, L. L.; Meng, Y. R.; Peng, N.; Xiong, L. Y.; Tang, J. C.; Dong, B.; Liu, L. Q.

    2017-02-01

    Helium liquefier is widely used in the fields of superconducting, nuclear fusion energy and high-energy physics. However, the present PID controlling system of the liquefier is not able to keep the compressor suction pressure, outlet pressure and turbine inlet pressure all in the expected range at the same time. Thus, a multi-strategy controller for a helium liquefier is proposed in this paper. A dynamic simulation model of this liquefier is also developed and shown. To study the control effect, an operation process including cool-down, steady-state and pulse of heat is described. The simulation result of this process is presented and compared with the result of the present PID controlling system.

  2. Two Heat-Transfer Improvements for Gas Liquefiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Jerry L.

    2005-01-01

    Two improvements in heat-transfer design have been investigated with a view toward increasing the efficiency of refrigerators used to liquefy gases. The improvements could contribute to the development of relatively inexpensive, portable oxygen liquefiers for medical use. A description of the heat-transfer problem in a pulse-tube refrigerator is prerequisite to a meaningful description of the first improvement. In a pulse-tube refrigerator in particular, one of in-line configuration heat must be rejected from two locations: an aftercooler (where most of the heat is rejected) and a warm heat exchanger (where a small fraction of the total input power must be rejected as heat). Rejection of heat from the warm heat exchanger can be problematic because this heat exchanger is usually inside a vacuum vessel. When an acoustic-inertance tube is used to provide a phase shift needed in the pulse-tube cooling cycle, another problem arises: Inasmuch as the acoustic power in the acoustic-inertance tube is dissipated over the entire length of the tube, the gas in the tube must be warmer than the warm heat exchanger in order to reject heat at the warm heat exchanger. This is disadvantageous because the increase in viscosity with temperature causes an undesired increase in dissipation of acoustic energy and an undesired decrease in the achievable phase shift. Consequently, the overall performance of the pulse-tube refrigerator decreases with increasing temperature in the acoustic-inertance tube. In the first improvement, the acoustic-inertance tube is made to serve as the warm heat exchanger and to operate in an approximately isothermal condition at a lower temperature, thereby increasing the achievable phase shift and the overall performance of the refrigerator. This is accomplished by placing the acoustic-inertance tube inside another tube and pumping a cooling fluid (e.g., water) in the annular space between the tubes. Another benefit of this improvement is added flexibility of

  3. 46 CFR 97.12-5 - Bulk solid cargoes that may liquefy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bulk solid cargoes that may liquefy. 97.12-5 Section 97... VESSELS OPERATIONS Bulk Solid Cargoes § 97.12-5 Bulk solid cargoes that may liquefy. If the information provided in § 97.12-3(a) or (b) indicates that the bulk solid cargo to be carried is prone to...

  4. Mathematical modeling of a Fermilab helium liquefier coldbox

    SciTech Connect

    Geynisman, M.G.; Walker, R.J.

    1995-12-01

    Fermilab Central Helium Liquefier (CHL) facility is operated 24 hours-a-day to supply 4.6{degrees}K for the Fermilab Tevatron superconducting proton-antiproton collider Ring and to recover warm return gases. The centerpieces of the CHL are two independent cold boxes rated at 4000 and 5400 liters/hour with LN{sub 2} precool. These coldboxes are Claude cycle and have identical heat exchangers trains, but different turbo-expanders. The Tevatron cryogenics demand for higher helium supply from CHL was the driving force to investigate an installation of an expansion engine in place of the Joule-Thompson valve. A mathematical model was developed to describe the thermo- and gas-dynamic processes for the equipment included in the helium coldbox. The model is based on a finite element approach, opposite to a global variables approach, thus providing for higher accuracy and conversion stability. Though the coefficients used in thermo- and gas-dynamic equations are unique for a given coldbox, the general approach, the equations, the methods of computations, and most of the subroutines written in FORTRAN can be readily applied to different coldboxes. The simulation results are compared against actual operating data to demonstrate applicability of the model.

  5. Domestic liquefied petroleum gas: are we using a kitchen bomb?

    PubMed

    Paliwal, G; Agrawal, K; Srivastava, R K; Sharma, S

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study is to understand the aetiological factors and pattern of burns caused by the use of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). This hospital based study was conducted on consecutive patients admitted with major burns from September 2011 to August 2012. The data was recorded on predesigned data sheet. Age, gender, mode of injury, its exact mechanism, place of incidence, extent of burn and inhalation injury were recorded for every patient. 182 patients with LPG related burn injury were admitted in one year. This is 11% of total burn patients received during the same period (182/1656). 147 incidents caused these burns due to gas leak from various parts of the LPG cooking system. Leakage was either from the cylinder, pipe or stove in 52%, 36% and 2% incidents respectively. Human error accounted for 3% incidents while in 7% the mechanism could not be ascertained. Leakage from 5kg cylinder with pipe was the commonest aetiological factor. There were 14 group casualties with more than one victim involved. LPG related burns are preventable to a large extent. There is a need to improve the safety standards in the LPG stove system. Public awareness needs to be improved. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  6. Modeling and Diagnostic Software for Liquefying-Fuel Rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poll, Scott; Iverson, David; Ou, Jeremy; Sanderfer, Dwight; Patterson-Hine, Ann

    2005-01-01

    A report presents a study of five modeling and diagnostic computer programs considered for use in an integrated vehicle health management (IVHM) system during testing of liquefying-fuel hybrid rocket engines in the Hybrid Combustion Facility (HCF) at NASA Ames Research Center. Three of the programs -- TEAMS, L2, and RODON -- are model-based reasoning (or diagnostic) programs. The other two programs -- ICS and IMS -- do not attempt to isolate the causes of failures but can be used for detecting faults. In the study, qualitative models (in TEAMS and L2) and quantitative models (in RODON) having varying scope and completeness were created. Each of the models captured the structure and behavior of the HCF as a physical system. It was noted that in the cases of the qualitative models, the temporal aspects of the behavior of the HCF and the abstraction of sensor data are handled outside of the models, and it is necessary to develop additional code for this purpose. A need for additional code was also noted in the case of the quantitative model, though the amount of development effort needed was found to be less than that for the qualitative models.

  7. A Closed Neon Liquefier System for Testing Superconducting Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchetti, M.; Al-Mosawi, M. K.; Yang, Y.; Beduz, C.; Giunchi, G.

    2006-04-01

    A Neon liquefier system has been developed by Southampton University (UK) and EDISON (Italy) with the aim to provide a facility for testing HTS superconducting devices using Magnesium Diboride materials, in the range 25-30K. The system consists of a liquid Neon cryostat coupled to a two stages cryocooler and a recovery system. The first stage of the cryocooler is connected to the thermal shield of the cryostat and a copper station positioned at mid point along the access neck to the liquid Neon bath to reduce heat leak and to provide pre-cooling of samples. The second stage, capable of 20W cooling power at 22K, is used to provide the cooling power for liquefaction and to refrigerate the liquid Neon bath and the superconducting device/sample during the steady state operation. The recovery system has been designed to automatically compress excess boil-off generated by a quench or a transient heating into a storage gas container. Transport measurement up to 900A can be carried out in the Ne cryostat using purposely build hybrid current leads. These leads have a copper upper section cooled by liquid Nitrogen and a superconducting lower section of Ag/AuBi2223 tapes. In this paper we report on the performance of the system and the initial measurement of superconducting samples.

  8. Burn injuries related to liquefied petroleum gas-powered cars.

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, Mehmet; Kulahci, Yalcin; Zor, Fatih; Kapi, Emin

    2008-01-01

    Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), which is used as a type of fuel, is stored as a liquid under high pressure in tanks. Immediate and sudden explosion of these tanks can release a large amount of gas and energy into the environment and can result in serious burns. In this study, the cases of 18 patients injured due to LPG burns in five incidents were examined, along with their epidemiologic features. The authors also investigated the causes of the LPG tank explosions. Inhalation injury was present in 11 cases with varying degrees of severity, and 7 patients subsequently required mechanical ventilation. The explosions resulted from weakening of the tank wall (n = 2), crash impact (n = 2), and gas leakage from the tank (n = 1). LPG-powered cars are becoming more popular because of their lower operational costs. However, LPG tanks can be hazardous in the event of a tank explosion. Burns caused by explosions of the LPG tanks in cars have significant mortality and morbidity. This danger must be taken into account and public awareness must be increased.

  9. Evaluation of burn injuries related to liquefied petroleum gas.

    PubMed

    Tarim, Mehmet Akin

    2014-01-01

    Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is a fuel that is widely used for domestic, agricultural, and industrial purposes. LPG is also commonly used in restaurants, industries, and cars; however, the home continues to be the main site for accidents. In Turkey, the increased usage of LPG as a cooking or heating fuel has resulted in many burn injuries from LPG mishaps. Between January 2000 and June 2011, 56 LPG-burned patients were compared with 112 flame-burned patients. There were no significant differences with respect to the mean age, sex, hospitalization time, and mortality in both groups. In the LPG-caused burn cases, 41 burns (73.2%) occurred at home, seven (12.5) were work-related mishaps, and eight (14.3) were associated with car accidents. The majority of the LPG burns (82%, 46 patients) resulted from a gas leak, and 18% of them were related to the failure to close LPG tubes in the patients' kitchens (10 patients). Burns to the face and neck (82 vs 67%, P = .039) and upper (62 vs 23%, P = .000) and lower (70 vs 45%, P = .002) extremities were significantly higher in LPG-caused burn cases than flame-burned cases. General awareness regarding the risk of LPG and first aid for burns appears to be lacking. The LPG delivery system should be standardized throughout countries that widely use LPG.

  10. Emissions of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) from motor vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Cheng-Hsun; Chang, Chih-Chung; Wang, Chieh-Heng; Shao, Min; Zhang, Yuanhang; Wang, Jia-Lin

    Continuous on-site measurements of 50 speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were conducted in downtown Guangzhou to characterize the sources and concentration profiles of ambient VOCs. The synchronicity in diurnal variation between the VOCs and NO suggests that traffic emissions were responsible for the observed VOCs in downtown Guangzhou. It was found that the three major constituent species of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), i.e., propane, iso-butane, and n-butane, together termed LPG alkanes, contributed, on average, 24% of the total VOCs (TVOCs). Their high correlation and synchronized diurnal variations between NO and the LPG alkanes suggest that their origin lies in LPG fueled car exhaust in Guangzhou. LPG buses and taxis were likely to be responsible for the bulk of ambient LPG species. Using propane and 3-methyl pentane (3MC5A) as the indicators for the LPG and gasoline emissions, respectively, the emissions of the LPG fleet were found to increase more than those of the gasoline fleet during the morning and evening rush hours, as well the noontime break in downtown Guangzhou. Although LPG alkanes account for 24% of the TVOC, their contribution to the total ozone forming potential (OFP) is only about 7%. Ethylene and propylene contribute about 26% to the total OFP despite their lower contribution of 16% to the TVOC.

  11. Marine and offshore corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, K.A.

    1985-01-01

    Until recently marine corrosion technology has been preoccupied with the corrosion of ships. Within the last ten years, however, the rapid expansion of oil and gas exploration has changed the course of corrosion research as well as the market for corrosion services and products. So complete has been the change that a new approach, dealing with ships, structures, and plant has been taken in this book. This introduction to the control of corrosion in marine environments will serve as a reference on topics ranging from coating systems to metallurgical considerations in the design of ships, offshore structure, plant and pipelines.

  12. Offshore Deepwater Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) Ports ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2017-04-10

    EPA received three National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit applications for wastewater discharges related to the construction and operation of deepwater LNG ports in state and federal waters of Massachusetts Bay. One was for construction-related discharges associated with the Northeast Gateway LNG deepwater port, one was for operations-related discharges associated with the Northeast Gateway LNG deepwater port, and the other was for both construction-related and operations-related discharges for the Neptune LNG deepwater port.

  13. Offshore Deepwater Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) Ports ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2017-04-10

    EPA received three National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit applications for wastewater discharges related to the construction and operation of deepwater LNG ports in state and federal waters of Massachusetts Bay. One was for construction-related discharges associated with the Northeast Gateway LNG deepwater port, one was for operations-related discharges associated with the Northeast Gateway LNG deepwater port, and the other was for both construction-related and operations-related discharges for the Neptune LNG deepwater port.

  14. U.S. Natural Gas Markets: Mid-Term Prospects for Natural Gas Supply

    EIA Publications

    2001-01-01

    This service report describes the recent behavior of natural gas markets with respect to natural gas prices, their potential future behavior, the potential future supply contribution of liquefied natural gas and increased access to federally restricted resources, and the need for improved natural gas data.

  15. Offshore outlook: the American Arctic

    SciTech Connect

    Jahns, M.O.

    1985-05-01

    Offshore areas in the American Arctic are highlighted and the development of the area is compared with other offshore areas where the required technology is more readily available. Principal areas are shown in which new concepts are being put to practice. Canada's east coast is examined. Several technological trends are reviewed to help operators accelerate the discovery and development of arctic petroleum reserves.

  16. Offshore Fish Community: Ecological Interactions

    EPA Science Inventory

    The offshore (>80 m) fish community of Lake Superior is made up of predominately native species. The most prominent species are deepwater sculpin, kiyi, cisco, siscowet lake trout, burbot, and the exotic sea lamprey. Bloater and shortjaw cisco are also found in the offshore zone...

  17. Offshore Fish Community: Ecological Interactions

    EPA Science Inventory

    The offshore (>80 m) fish community of Lake Superior is made up of predominately native species. The most prominent species are deepwater sculpin, kiyi, cisco, siscowet lake trout, burbot, and the exotic sea lamprey. Bloater and shortjaw cisco are also found in the offshore zone...

  18. Evidence of offshore lake trout reproduction in Lake Huron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeSorcie, Timothy J.; Bowen, Charles A.

    2003-01-01

    Six Fathom Bank-Yankee Reef, an offshore reef complex, was an historically important spawning area believed to represent some of the best habitat for the rehabilitation of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in Lake Huron. Since 1986, lake trout have been stocked on these offshore reefs to reestablish self-sustaining populations. We sampled with beam trawls to determine the abundance of naturally reproduced age-0 lake trout on these offshore reefs during May-July in 1994-1998 and 2000-2002. In total, 123 naturally reproduced lake trout fry were caught at Six Fathom Bank, and 2 naturally reproduced lake trout fry were caught at nearby Yankee Reef. Our findings suggest that this region of Lake Huron contains suitable habitat for lake trout spawning and offers hope that lake trout rehabilitation can be achieved in the main basin of Lake Huron.

  19. Pioneering offshore excellence

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, R.P.; Grattan, L.

    1996-11-01

    Hibernia Management and Development Company Ltd. (HMDC) was formed in 1990 by a consortium of oil companies to develop their interests in the Hibernia and Avalon reservoirs offshore Newfoundland in a safe and environmentally responsible manner. The reservoirs are located 315km ESE of St. John`s in the North Atlantic. The water depth is about 80m. The entire Hibernia field is estimated to contain more than three billion barrels of oil in place and the owners development plan area is estimated to contain two billion barrels. Recoverable reserves are estimated to be approximately 615 million barrels. The Hibernia reservoir, the principle reservoir, is located at an average depth of 3,700m. HMDC is building a large concrete gravity based structure (GBS) that which will support the platform drilling and processing facilities and living quarters for 280 personnel. In 1997 the platform will be towed to the production site and production will commence late 1997. Oil will be exported by a 2 km long pipeline to an offshore loading system. Dynamically positioned tankers will then take the oil to market. Average daily production is expected to plateau between 125,000 and 135,000 BOPD. It will be the first major development on the east coast of Canada and is located in an area that is prone to pack ice and icebergs.

  20. Geospatial characteristics of Florida's coastal and offshore environments: Administrative and political boundaries and offshore sand resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Demopoulos, Amanda W.J.; Foster, Ann M.; Jones, Michal L.; Gualtieri, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    The Geospatial Characteristics Geopdf of Florida's Coastal and Offshore Environments is a comprehensive collection of geospatial data describing the political and natural resources of Florida. This interactive map provides spatial information on bathymetry, sand resources, military areas, marine protected areas, cultural resources, locations of submerged cables, and shipping routes. The map should be useful to coastal resource managers and others interested in the administrative and political boundaries of Florida's coastal and offshore region. In particular, as oil and gas explorations continue to expand, the map may be used to explore information regarding sensitive areas and resources in the State of Florida. Users of this geospatial database will find that they have access to synthesized information in a variety of scientific disciplines concerning Florida's coastal zone. This powerful tool provides a one-stop assembly of data that can be tailored to fit the needs of many natural resource managers.

  1. Tests of cryogenic pigs for use in liquefied gas pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Hipple, D.L.; O'Neal, W.C.

    1982-09-09

    Pipeline pigs are a key element in the design of a proposed spill test facility whose purpose is to evaluate the hazards of large spills of liquefied gaseous fuels (LGFs). A long pipe will run from the LGF storage tanks to the spill point; to produce a rapid spill, the pipe will be filled with LGF and a pig will be pneumatically driven through the pipe to force out the LGF quickly and cleanly. Several pig designs were tested in a 6-inch-diameter, 420-foot-long pipe to evaluate their performance at liquid-nitrogen temperature and compare it with their performance at ambient temperature. For each test, the pig was placed in one end of the pipe and either water or liquid nitrogen was put into the pipe in front of the pig. Then pressurized drive gas, either nitrogen or helium, was admitted to the pipe behind the pig to push the pig and the fluid ahead of it out the exit nozzle. For some tests, the drive gas supply was shut off when the pig was part way through the pipe as a method of velocity control; in these cases, the pressurized gas trapped behind the pig continued to expand until it pushed the pig the remaining distance out of the pipe. The tests provided information on how the effectiveness and velocity of the pig and the flow rate of the expelled fluid changed with pressure and shutoff time of the drive gas and with temperature. The pig designs that left the least liquid during the water tests were a polyurethane foam pig and a cylindrical metal pig with flexible metal wipers. In the liquid nitrogen tests, the metal pig with wipers performed best. It removed all the liquid nitrogen and survived most of the tests well.

  2. Federal offshore statistics: 1995 - leasing, exploration, production, and revenue as of December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Gaechter, R.A.

    1997-07-01

    This report provides data on federal offshore operations for 1995. Information is included for leasing activities, development, petroleum and natural gas production, sales and royalties, revenue from federal offshore leasing, disbursement of federal revenues, reserves and resource estimates, and oil pollution in U.S. and international waters.

  3. Bahrain's offshore banking center

    SciTech Connect

    Gerakis, A.S.; Roncesvalles, O.

    1983-01-01

    The economic effects of Bahrain's schemes for licensing offshore banking units (OBUs) were the immediate response of major international banks and the financial services the banking center has rendered by improving regional money and exchange markets at a time when a Middle East link was needed to service the increasing demand for oil-wealth banking services. Bahrain's leadership also created a favorable climate. Aggressive competition from banks in Kuwait and Saudi Arabia have caused some friction, but informal supervision by the Bahrain Monetary Agency (BMA) should be able to avoid serious difficulty. Bahrain's success required a banking infrastructure, a free-enterprise system, a willingness to maintain banking standards, a country small enough to benefit directly from OBU income, and a gap in nearby competing centers. 39 references, 1 figure, 5 tables. (DCK)

  4. 78 FR 14784 - Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... Assessment for the Proposed Garner Lng Offloading Facilities and Utilization Project and Request for Comments... liquefied natural gas (LNG) Offloading Facilities and Utilization Project (Project) involving construction and operation of LNG offloading facilities by Northern Natural Gas Company (Northern) in...

  5. Novolak PF resins prepared from phenol liquefied Cryptomeria japonica and used in manufacturing moldings.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wen-Jau; Chen, Yi-Chun

    2008-10-01

    The wood of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) was liquefied in phenol with H2SO4 and HCl as catalysts. The liquefied wood was reacted with formalin to prepare the novolak PF resin. The results showed that the reaction of liquefied Japanese cedar with formalin was an exothermic reaction, and formed a solid-like resin without extra heating. Two novolak PF resins were prepared from the liquefied wood which were identified as SF and CF that using the liquefied wood with H2SO4 and HCl as catalyst respectively. The novolak PF powder displayed thermo-melting characteristic. The resins of SF and CF had weight average molecular weight of 3638 and 3941 respectively and melting temperature of 149.4 degrees C and 127.5 degrees C respectively. Both of the novolak resins could be used to make moldings with good performance by mixing the novolak resin with wood powder, hardener and zinc stearate at the weight ratio of 60:30:10:1 and hot-pressed under 200 degrees C for 10min.

  6. Extraction of PCBs and water from river sediment using liquefied dimethyl ether as an extractant.

    PubMed

    Oshita, Kazuyuki; Takaoka, Masaki; Kitade, Sin-ichiro; Takeda, Nobuo; Kanda, Hideki; Makino, Hisao; Matsumoto, Tadao; Morisawa, Shinsuke

    2010-02-01

    We investigated whether polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and water could be simultaneously removed from river sediment by solvent extraction using liquefied dimethyl ether (DME) as the extractant. DME exists in a gaseous state at normal temperature and pressure and can dissolve organic substances and some amount of water; therefore, liquefied DME under moderate pressure (0.6-0.8 MPa) at room temperature can be effectively used to extract PCBs and water from contaminated sediment, and it can be recovered from the extract and reused easily. First, we evaluated the PCB and water extraction characteristics of DME from contaminated sediment. We found that 99% of PCBs and 97% of water were simultaneously extracted from the sediment using liquefied DME at an extraction time of 4320 s and a liquefied DME/sediment ratio of 60 mL g(-1). The extraction rate of PCBs and water was expressed in terms of a pseudo-first-order reaction rate. Second, we estimated the amount of DME that was recovered after extraction. We found that 91-92% of DME could be recovered. In other words, approximately 5-10% of DME was lost during extraction and recovery. It is necessary to optimize this process in order to recover DME efficiently. The extraction efficiency of the recovered DME is similar to that of the pure DME. From the results, we conclude that solvent extraction using liquefied DME is suitable for extracting PCBs and water from contaminated sediment. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of thickness of liquefiable foundation on the seismic performance of earth dams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berhe, Tensay; Wu, Wei

    2010-05-01

    Earthquake induced liquefaction continues to be a major threat to many civil engineering structures on the earth. Among these structures are earthfill dams. There are two major causes for the seismically inadequacy of a statically stable earthfill dams around the world. These are the liquefaction of the foundation layer and shell of the dams. In order to gain a better understanding of the seismic performance of earthfill dams on liquefiable foundation layer, a numerical model of an earthfill dam with mixed clay core founded on a liquefiable foundation subjected to earthquake is being studied. The properties and thickness of the liquefiable layer are varied to determine the related effects on the overlying earthfill dam. In order to explore the effect of the varying depth and thickness of liquefiable layer on the seismic response of earthfill dams, the total foundation thickness is divided into three equal layers so that the properties of each layer can be varied and studied. A finite difference numerical code, FLAC3D is used during the study. Results and discussions related to the significance of the depth and thickness of liquefiable layer in the foundation and resulting damage to the earthfill dam and hence the seismic performance of earthfill dam are presented. Keywords: Earthquake, liquefaction, earthfill dams, seismic performance, varying depth.

  8. Ice interaction with offshore structures

    SciTech Connect

    Cammaert, A.B.; Muggeridge, D.B.

    1988-01-01

    Oil platforms and other offshore structures being built in the arctic regions must be able to withstand icebergs, ice islands, and pack ice. This reference explain the effect ice has on offshore structures and demonstrates design and construction methods that allow such structures to survive in harsh, ice-ridden environments. It analyzes the characteristics of sea ice as well as dynamic ice forces on structures. Techniques for ice modeling and field testing facilitate the design and construction of sturdy, offshore constructions. Computer programs included.

  9. WIND Toolkit Offshore Summary Dataset

    DOE Data Explorer

    Draxl, Caroline; Musial, Walt; Scott, George; Phillips, Caleb

    2017-08-18

    This dataset contains summary statistics for offshore wind resources for the continental United States derived from the Wind Integration National Datatset (WIND) Toolkit. These data are available in two formats: GDB - Compressed geodatabases containing statistical summaries aligned with lease blocks (aliquots) stored in a GIS format. These data are partitioned into Pacific, Atlantic, and Gulf resource regions. HDF5 - Statistical summaries of all points in the offshore Pacific, Atlantic, and Gulf offshore regions. These data are located on the original WIND Toolkit grid and have not been reassigned or downsampled to lease blocks. These data were developed under contract by NREL for the Bureau of Oceanic Energy Management (BOEM).

  10. Offshore search continues despite disappointments

    SciTech Connect

    Cornitius, T.

    1985-05-01

    Exploration drilling activity in Australia broke records onshore in 1984, but offshore it was a different story. A total of 373 wells were drilled, onshore and offshore, with 266 labeled as wildcats and appraisals. Out of 80 wells drilled offshore last year, 43 were exploratory compared with 49 in 1983; 48 were oil wells, seven were gas, and 25 were dusters. Offshore discoveries included the Talisman 1 off the coast of Western Australia, which tested around 6000 b/d, and Challis 1 in the Timor Sea, which flowed at 5000 b/d. The failure to establish Jabiru in the Timor Sea as a major oil province like Bass Strait was a major disappointment. However, the Challis 1 was a relief since it indicated the presence of a commercial field adjacent to Jabiru.

  11. Development of 1 L hr-1 scale hydrogen liquefier using Gifford-McMahon (GM) cryocooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baik, J. H.; Karng, S. W.; Garceau, N.; Jang, Y. H.; Lim, C. M.; Kim, S. Y.; Oh, I. H.

    2014-01-01

    Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST) and Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) have collaborated to develop a demonstration-scale hydrogen liquefier for future liquid hydrogen research in Korea. A 1 L hr-1 liquefaction rate, direct-cooling type hydrogen liquefier using a commercially available GM cryocooler has been designed, fabricated, and tested at KIST. The liquefier consists of a GM cryocooler, finned heat pipe, liquid nitrogen precooler, ortho-para hydrogen converter, and vacuum jacketed internal storage tank. The system successfully demonstrated more than 1 L hr-1 of hydrogen liquefaction rate from ambient temperature gas. A detailed design method, loss analysis, overview of component fabrication, and experimental results are discussed in this paper.

  12. DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR OF BURIED BEND WITH THRUST RESTRAINT IN LIQUEFYING GROUND

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawabata, Toshinori; Sawada, Yutaka; Mohri, Yoshiyuki; Ling, Hoe I.

    In this study, a shaking table test was carried out in order to discuss the dynamic behavior for the bend of pressure pipeline with a concrete block and thrust restraints using geogrids or gravels in liquefying ground. As a result, it was revealed that the concrete block was largely moved and the relative displacement between the bend and the adjacent pipe became large. On the other hand, it was proved that geogrids and gravels were very effective for the lateral resistance in liquefying ground. In addition, the relative displacement was small because of the same difference between the bend and the adjacent pipe.

  13. Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program: second status report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-10-01

    This document is arranged in three volumes and reports on progress in the Liquefied Gaseous Fuels (LGF) Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program made in fiscal Year (FY)-1979 and early FY-1980. Volume 3 contains reports from 6 government contractors on LPG, anhydrous ammonia, and hydrogen energy systems. Report subjects include: simultaneous boiling and spreading of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) on water; LPG safety research; state-of-the-art of release prevention and control technology in the LPG industry; ammonia: an introductory assessment of safety and environmental control information; ammonia as a fuel, and hydrogen safety and environmental control assessment.

  14. Evaluation of the accessibility of CCA metals in liquefied CCA-treated wood sludge for recovery and reuse

    Treesearch

    Hui Pan; Todd F. Shupe; Chung-Yun Hse

    2009-01-01

    CCA-treated wood was liquefied with polyethylene glycol/glycerin and sulfuric acid. The heavy metals were precipitated by Ca(OH)2 from liquefied CCA-treated wood. The original CCA-treated wood and precipitated wood sludge were fractionated by a modified BCR (Community Bureau of Reference) sequential extraction procedure. The purpose of the BCR...

  15. Bio-based rigid polyurethane foam from liquefied products of wood in the presence of polyhydric alcohols

    Treesearch

    Zhifeng Zheng; Hui Pan; Yuanbo Huang; Chung Y. Hse

    2011-01-01

    Rigid polyurethane foams were prepared from the liquefied wood polyols, which was obtained by the liquefaction of southern pine wood in the presence of polyhydric alcohols with sulfuric acid catalyst by using microwave-assistant as an energy source. The properties of liquefied biomass-based polyols and the rigid polyurethane foams were investigated. The results...

  16. Dilute alkali and hydrogen peroxide treatment of microwave liquefied rape straw residue for the extraction of cellulose nanocrystals

    Treesearch

    Xingyan Huang; Cornelis F. De Hoop; Feng Li; Jiulong Xie; Chung-Yun Hse; Jinqiu Qi; Yongze Jiang; Yuzhu Chen

    2017-01-01

    Microwave-assisted liquefaction of rape straw in methanol was conducted to collect the liquefied residues for the extraction of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs).The liquefied residue with content of 23.44% from 180∘C/7.5 min was used to fibrillate CNCs with dilute alkali (2% NaOH) and hydrogen peroxide (5% H2O2...

  17. 30 CFR 75.1106-5 - Maintenance and tests of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders; accessories and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders; accessories and equipment; requirements. (a) Hose lines... to maintain torches in a safe operating condition. (d) Tests for leaks on the hose valves or gages of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders shall only be made with a soft brush and soapy water or...

  18. 30 CFR 75.1106-5 - Maintenance and tests of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders; accessories and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders; accessories and equipment; requirements. (a) Hose lines... to maintain torches in a safe operating condition. (d) Tests for leaks on the hose valves or gages of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders shall only be made with a soft brush and soapy water or...

  19. 30 CFR 75.1106-5 - Maintenance and tests of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders; accessories and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders; accessories and equipment; requirements. (a) Hose lines... to maintain torches in a safe operating condition. (d) Tests for leaks on the hose valves or gages of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders shall only be made with a soft brush and soapy water or...

  20. 46 CFR 13.607 - Requirements to qualify for an STCW endorsement for advanced liquefied gas tanker cargo operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... operations must: (1) Qualify for a national endorsement as tankerman-PIC liquefied gas; (2) Meet the... tankerman-PIC (barge) liquefied gas; (2) Provide evidence of meeting the standards of competence identified... loading and three discharge operations. (e) Grandfathering. Seafarers holding valid...

  1. Analysis of Restricted Natural Gas Supply Cases

    EIA Publications

    2004-01-01

    The four cases examined in this study have progressively greater impacts on overall natural gas consumption, prices, and supply. Compared to the Annual Energy Outlook 2004 reference case, the no Alaska pipeline case has the least impact; the low liquefied natural gas case has more impact; the low unconventional gas recovery case has even more impact; and the combined case has the most impact.

  2. Hybrid offshore structure

    SciTech Connect

    Finn, L.D.; Maus, L.D.

    1986-09-09

    An articulated offshore structure is described for use in a body of water, the structure comprising: a substantially rigid lower section, the lower section extending upwardly from the bottom of the body of water to a pivot point located intermediate the bottom and the surface of the body of water; a compliant upper section extending upwardly from the pivot point to a position at or above the surface of the body of water; pivot means located proximate pivot point, the pivot means interposed between and connected to the lower section and upper section and adapted to permit the upper section to pivot laterally relative to the lower section; torsion means connected to the upper section and the lower section, the torsion means adapted to transmit torsional loads from the upper section to the lower section; the pivot means being positioned above the bottom of the body of water a distance of between about 10 percent and about 50 percent of the total depth of the body of water so as to substantially minimize the weight of the structure while maintaining the flexural vibration period of the structure at or below a preselected maximum flexural vibration period.

  3. Offshore well support miniplatform

    SciTech Connect

    Blandford, J.W.

    1987-07-14

    This patent describes a protective well support system installed on an offshore well having an upstanding conductor pipe extending above the seabed, the system comprising: (a) an upstanding conductor clamp (adapts to encircle the conductor pipe) formed by two upstanding facing members supported by a bottom engaging frame; (b) the frame including frame members joined together defining a substantially horizontal rectangular support frame for engaging the seabed; (c) angularly extending brace members secured at one end to the conductor clamp and at the other end to the frame; (d) the conductor clamp attaches to the frame and extending upright to enable the conductor clamp to fasten about the conductor pipe; (e) a boat landing mounts about the conductor pipe, the boat landing formed by at least two sectional components fixedly secured to semicircular clamp members adapted to encircle the conductor pipe for mounting the boat landing components; and (f) well platform means supported on bracket means adapted to encircle the conductor pipe for removably securing the well platform means.

  4. Sensitivity Analysis of Offshore Wind Cost of Energy (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Dykes, K.; Ning, A.; Graf, P.; Scott, G.; Damiami, R.; Hand, M.; Meadows, R.; Musial, W.; Moriarty, P.; Veers, P.

    2012-10-01

    No matter the source, offshore wind energy plant cost estimates are significantly higher than for land-based projects. For instance, a National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) review on the 2010 cost of wind energy found baseline cost estimates for onshore wind energy systems to be 71 dollars per megawatt-hour ($/MWh), versus 225 $/MWh for offshore systems. There are many ways that innovation can be used to reduce the high costs of offshore wind energy. However, the use of such innovation impacts the cost of energy because of the highly coupled nature of the system. For example, the deployment of multimegawatt turbines can reduce the number of turbines, thereby reducing the operation and maintenance (O&M) costs associated with vessel acquisition and use. On the other hand, larger turbines may require more specialized vessels and infrastructure to perform the same operations, which could result in higher costs. To better understand the full impact of a design decision on offshore wind energy system performance and cost, a system analysis approach is needed. In 2011-2012, NREL began development of a wind energy systems engineering software tool to support offshore wind energy system analysis. The tool combines engineering and cost models to represent an entire offshore wind energy plant and to perform system cost sensitivity analysis and optimization. Initial results were collected by applying the tool to conduct a sensitivity analysis on a baseline offshore wind energy system using 5-MW and 6-MW NREL reference turbines. Results included information on rotor diameter, hub height, power rating, and maximum allowable tip speeds.

  5. EPA and Dominion Cove Point Settle Violations at Natural Gas Distribution Facility in Maryland

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    PHILADELPHIA (March 16, 2015) - Dominion Cove Point, LNG will pay a $365,000 civil penalty to settle alleged violations of federal environmental regulations involving unreported releases of ammonia into the air from its liquefied natural gas distrib

  6. Assembly of cell-laden hydrogel fiber into non-liquefied and liquefied 3D spiral constructs by perfusion-based layer-by-layer technique.

    PubMed

    Sher, Praveen; Oliveira, Sara M; Borges, João; Mano, João F

    2015-01-06

    In this work, three-dimensional (3D) self-sustaining, spiral-shaped constructs were produced through a combination of ionotropic gelation, to form cell-encapsulated alginate fibers, and a perfusion-based layer-by-layer (LbL) technique. Single fibers were assembled over cylindrical molds by reeling to form spiral shapes, both having different geometries and sizes. An uninterrupted nanometric multilayer coating produced by a perfusion-based LbL technique, using alginate and chitosan, generated stable 3D spiral-shaped macrostructures by gripping and affixing the threads together without using any crosslinking/binding agent. The chelation process altered the internal microenvironment of the 3D construct from the solid to the liquefied state while preserving the external geometry. L929 cell viability by MTS and dsDNA quantification favor liquefied 3D constructs more than non-liquefied ones. The proposed technique setup helps us to generate complex polyelectrolyte-based 3D constructs for tissue engineering applications and organ printing.

  7. Fractionation of heavy metals in liquefied chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood sludge using a modified BCR-sequential extraction procedure

    Treesearch

    Hui Pan; Chung-Yun Hse; Robert Gambrell; Todd F. Shupe

    2009-01-01

    Chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood was liquefied with polyethylene glycol/glycerin and sulfuric acid. After liquefaction, most CCA metals (98% As, 92% Cr, and 83% Cu) were removed from liquefied CCA-treated wood by precipitation with calcium hydroxide. The original CCA-treated wood and liquefied CCA-treated wood sludge were fractionated by a modified...

  8. Offshore Wind Energy Market Overview (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Baring-Gould, I.

    2013-07-01

    This presentation describes the current international market conditions regarding offshore wind, including the breakdown of installation costs, how to reduce costs, and the physical siting considerations considered when planning offshore wind construction. The presentation offers several examples of international existing and planned offshore wind farm sites and compares existing international offshore resources with U.S. resources. The presentation covers future offshore wind trends and cites some challenges that the United States must overcome before it will be able to fully develop offshore wind sites.

  9. Submarine landslides hazard offshore Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Oded

    2016-04-01

    Submarine landslides pose significant natural hazards. They can damage seafloor infrastructure, such as that used to recover oil and gas or seafloor telecommunication cables, and even generate tsunamis. We recently mapped 447 submarine landslides across the east Mediterranean continental slope, offshore Israel (hereafter the studied area). The mapped landslides are found at water depths of 130 m to 1,000 m and their volume ranges 10-5 - 100 km3. Landslide scars are typically related to a critical slope angle of >4° . Landslides at the northern part of the studied area are spatially associated with fault scarps and are smaller than the ones on the southern part. In this work we evaluate the potential hazard to population and to on- and off- shore facilities posed by submarine landslides across the studied area. We integrate three independent probabilities: (1) the probability for a landslide event of a given volume, based on the size distribution of the mapped landslides; (2) the probability for a landslide event in a given time, based on the reoccurrence time of triggering earthquakes with M >7, and on a 50,000 years general time frame derived from submarine landslides identified across the Mediterranean Sea; (3) the probability for a landslide event in a given area, based on the distribution of slopes exceeding the critical angle. Overall, the fraction of potentially destructive landslides (size > 0.1 km3) is small, 0.05. Thus, considering typical planning time scales of less than 100 years, the calculated hazard is only moderate. The small fraction of landslides with tsunamogenic potential (size > 1 km3), suggests that the hazard for landslide-induced tsunamis along the open slope part of the studied area is small. Landslides in the southern part of the studied area are larger and thus present a somewhat bigger potential source of tsunami waves.

  10. Characterization of biobased polyurethane foams employing lignin fractionated from microwave liquefied switchgrass

    Treesearch

    Xingyan Huang; Cornelis F. De Hoop; Jiulong Xie; Chung-Yun Hse; Jinqiu Qi; Tingxing Hu

    2017-01-01

    Lignin samples fractionated from microwave liquefied switchgrass were applied in the preparation of semirigid polyurethane (PU) foamswithout purification.Theobjective of this study was to elucidate the influence of lignin in thePUmatrix on themorphological, chemical,mechanical, and thermal properties of thePUfoams.Thescanning electron microscopy (SEM) images revealed...

  11. 30 CFR 75.1106-4 - Use of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1106-4 Use of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders... than 10 feet from the worksite, and where the height of the coal seam permits, they shall be placed in...

  12. 30 CFR 75.1106-4 - Use of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1106-4 Use of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders... than 10 feet from the worksite, and where the height of the coal seam permits, they shall be placed in...

  13. 30 CFR 75.1106-4 - Use of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1106-4 Use of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders... than 10 feet from the worksite, and where the height of the coal seam permits, they shall be placed in...

  14. 30 CFR 75.1106-4 - Use of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1106-4 Use of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders... than 10 feet from the worksite, and where the height of the coal seam permits, they shall be placed in...

  15. Liquefaction of corn stover and preparation of polyester from the liquefied polyol.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fei; Liu, Yuhuan; Pan, Xuejun; Lin, Xiangyang; Liu, Chengmei; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2006-01-01

    This research investigated a novel process to prepare polyester from corn stover through liquefaction and crosslinking processes. First, corn stover was liquefied in organic solvents (90 wt% ethylene glycol and 10 wt% ethylene carbonate) with catalysts at moderate temperature under atmospheric pressure. The effect of liquefaction temperature, biomass content, and type of catalyst, such as H2SO4, HCl, H3PO4, and ZnCl2, was evaluated. Higher liquefaction yield was achieved in 2 wt% sulfuric acid, 1/4 (w/w) stover to liquefying reagent ratio; 160 degrees C temperature, in 2 h. The liquefied corn stover was rich in polyols, which can be directly used as feedstock for making polymers without further separation or purification. Second, polyester was made from the liquefied corn stover by crosslinking with multifunctional carboxylic acids and/or cyclic acid anhydrides. The tensile strength of polyester is about 5 MPa and the elongation is around 35%. The polyester is stable in cold water and organic solvents and readily biodegradable as indicated by 82% weight loss when buried in damp soil for 10 mo. The results indicate that this novel polyester could be used for the biodegradable garden mulch film production.

  16. 49 CFR 173.304 - Filling of cylinders with liquefied compressed gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... vehicle, rail car, or cargo-only aircraft. (b) Filling limits. Except for carbon dioxide; 1,1-Difluoroethylene (R-1132A); nitrous oxide; and vinyl fluoride, inhibited, the liquid portion of a liquefied gas may not completely fill the packaging at any temperature up to and including 55 °C (131 °F). The liquid...

  17. Bond quality of phenol-based adhesives containing liquefied creosote-treated wood

    Treesearch

    Chung-Yun Hse; Feng Fu; Hui Pan

    2009-01-01

    Liquefaction of spent creosote-treated wood was studied to determine the technological practicability of its application in converting treated wood waste into resin adhesives. A total of 144 plywood panels were fabricated with experimental variables included 2 phenol to wood (P/W) ratios in liquefaction, 6 resin formulations (3 formaldehyde/liquefied wood (F/...

  18. Polyols from Microwave Liquefied Bagasse and Its Application to Rigid Polyurethane Foam

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Jiulong; Zhai, Xianglin; Hse, Chung Yun; Shupe, Todd F.; Pan, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Bagasse flour (BF) was liquefied using bi-component polyhydric alcohol (PA) as a solvent and phosphoric acid as a catalyst in a microwave reactor. The effect of BF to solvent ratio and reaction temperatures on the liquefaction extent and characteristics of liquefied products were evaluated. The results revealed that almost 75% of the raw bagasse was converted into liquid products within 9 min at 150 °C with a BF to solvent ratio of 1/4. The hydroxyl and acid values of the liquefied bagasse (LB) varied with the liquefied conditions. High reaction temperature combining with low BF to solvent ratio resulted in a low hydroxyl number for the LB. The molecular weight and polydispersity of the LB from reactions of 150 °C was lower compared to that from 125 °C. Rigid polyurethane (PU) foams were prepared from LB and methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI), and the structural, mechanical and thermal properties of the PU foam were evaluated. The PU foams prepared using the LB from high reaction temperature showed better physical and mechanical performance in comparison to those from low reaction temperature. The amount of PA in the LB has the ability of increasing thermal stability of LB-PU foams. The results in this study may provide fundamental information on integrated utilizations of sugarcane bagasse via microwave liquefaction process. PMID:28793725

  19. 30 CFR 75.1106-4 - Use of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1106-4 Use of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders... inherent in the use of such gases in an underground coal mine. (b) Persons who perform welding, cutting, or... nonliquefied compressed gas is used regularly in underground shops or other underground structures, such shops...

  20. 46 CFR 61.15-10 - Liquefied-petroleum-gas piping for heating and cooking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Liquefied-petroleum-gas piping for heating and cooking. 61.15-10 Section 61.15-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PERIODIC TESTS AND INSPECTIONS Periodic Tests of Piping Systems § 61.15-10...

  1. 46 CFR 61.15-10 - Liquefied-petroleum-gas piping for heating and cooking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Liquefied-petroleum-gas piping for heating and cooking. 61.15-10 Section 61.15-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PERIODIC TESTS AND INSPECTIONS Periodic Tests of Piping Systems § 61.15-10...

  2. 46 CFR 61.15-10 - Liquefied-petroleum-gas piping for heating and cooking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Liquefied-petroleum-gas piping for heating and cooking. 61.15-10 Section 61.15-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PERIODIC TESTS AND INSPECTIONS Periodic Tests of Piping Systems § 61.15-10...

  3. 46 CFR 61.15-10 - Liquefied-petroleum-gas piping for heating and cooking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Liquefied-petroleum-gas piping for heating and cooking. 61.15-10 Section 61.15-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PERIODIC TESTS AND INSPECTIONS Periodic Tests of Piping Systems § 61.15-10...

  4. 46 CFR 61.15-10 - Liquefied-petroleum-gas piping for heating and cooking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Liquefied-petroleum-gas piping for heating and cooking. 61.15-10 Section 61.15-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PERIODIC TESTS AND INSPECTIONS Periodic Tests of Piping Systems § 61.15-10...

  5. 78 FR 26799 - Waterway Suitability Assessment for Expansion of Liquefied Gas Terminals; Beaumont, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-08

    ...-30), U.S. Department of Transportation, West Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200 New Jersey... W12-140 on the ground floor of the Department of Transportation West Building, 1200 New Jersey Avenue... Gas (LNG) OR Liquefied Hazardous Gas (LHG), where the construction, expansion, or modification would...

  6. Offshore Energy Knowledge Exchange Workshop Report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2012-04-12

    A report detailing the presentations and topics discussed at the Offshore Energy Knowledge Exchange Workshop, an event designed to bring together offshore energy industry representatives to share information, best practices, and lessons learned.

  7. 78 FR 27913 - Revision of Crane Regulation Standards for Mobile Offshore Drilling Units (MODUs), Offshore...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-13

    ... for Mobile Offshore Drilling Units (MODUs), Offshore Supply Vessels (OSVs), and Floating Outer... testing of cranes. These regulations apply to cranes installed on Mobile Offshore Drilling Units (MODUs... Maritime Organization MODU Mobile offshore drilling unit NFPA National Fire Protection Association NPRM...

  8. Development drilling problems offshore Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Osman, M.N.; Maung, M.

    1984-02-01

    This paper highlights the major drilling problems encountered in the field development programmes offshore Malaysia from 1978 to mid-1983. The major problems identified were pipe sticking which was common in all the areas and top hole drilling problems encountered in a few fields offshore Sabah and Sarawak. Generally, the problems were related to drilling deviated wells through the soft and unconsolidated formations common in this region. Preventive measures employed by the Contractors have been effective in overcoming these problems in the later years of the period under consideration.

  9. Offshore wind farm layout optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkinton, Christopher Neil

    Offshore wind energy technology is maturing in Europe and is poised to make a significant contribution to the U.S. energy production portfolio. Building on the knowledge the wind industry has gained to date, this dissertation investigates the influences of different site conditions on offshore wind farm micrositing---the layout of individual turbines within the boundaries of a wind farm. For offshore wind farms, these conditions include, among others, the wind and wave climates, water depths, and soil conditions at the site. An analysis tool has been developed that is capable of estimating the cost of energy (COE) from offshore wind farms. For this analysis, the COE has been divided into several modeled components: major costs (e.g. turbines, electrical interconnection, maintenance, etc.), energy production, and energy losses. By treating these component models as functions of site-dependent parameters, the analysis tool can investigate the influence of these parameters on the COE. Some parameters result in simultaneous increases of both energy and cost. In these cases, the analysis tool was used to determine the value of the parameter that yielded the lowest COE and, thus, the best balance of cost and energy. The models have been validated and generally compare favorably with existing offshore wind farm data. The analysis technique was then paired with optimization algorithms to form a tool with which to design offshore wind farm layouts for which the COE was minimized. Greedy heuristic and genetic optimization algorithms have been tuned and implemented. The use of these two algorithms in series has been shown to produce the best, most consistent solutions. The influences of site conditions on the COE have been studied further by applying the analysis and optimization tools to the initial design of a small offshore wind farm near the town of Hull, Massachusetts. The results of an initial full-site analysis and optimization were used to constrain the boundaries of

  10. On the impact of an offshore bathymetric anomaly on surf zone rip channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelle, B.; Marieu, V.; Coco, G.; Bonneton, P.; Bruneau, N.; Ruessink, B. G.

    2012-03-01

    We use a nonlinear morphodynamic model to demonstrate that the presence of a single persistent offshore bathymetric anomaly strongly affects the formation, nonlinear evolution and saturation of surf zone rip channels. In the case of an offshore bump or trough and waves with oblique incidence, a rip channel shoreward of the anomaly is enforced by the more seaward alongshore variability in depth. The degree of rip channel enforcement is controlled by the strength of the rotational nature of surf zone rip current circulations, which is, in turn, driven by differential broken wave energy dissipation induced by wave refraction across the offshore bathymetric anomaly. The alongshore location of this forced rip channel is more stable with increasing offshore anomaly amplitude, decreasing offshore wave obliquity and decreasing bathymetric anomaly distance to the shore. Simulations show that rip channel behavior downdrift and updrift of the offshore perturbation are different. In our numerical experiments, downdrift rip channels have systematically larger alongshore scales, smaller alongshore migration rates and more erosive megacusps than those updrift. Rip channels therefore self-organize into patterns of different alongshore scales and migration rates as a result of an alongshore perturbation in the wave forcing enforced by wave refraction across an offshore bathymetric anomaly. These simulations are qualitatively corroborated by video observations of sandbar behavior during a down-state sequence at a site with a persistent offshore trough.

  11. Eighteenth annual offshore technology conference. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    These sixty papers were given at a conference on offshore technology. Topics covered include friction effects of driving piles into sea beds of various compositions, wave forces on offshore platforms, stability, materials testing of various components such as plates, legs, wellheads, pipe joints, and protection of offshore platforms against ice and collision with icebergs.

  12. Semi-submerged modular offshore platform

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Y.T.

    1994-12-31

    A modular offshore platform which can be used in a deep sea oil exploration is introduced here. A hybrid of guyed tower and tension leg platforms will be studied. A double-layer dodecahedrous float will be stabilized by a series of guyed cables and clump weights that are anchored to the ocean floor. The platform is built on a dodecahedrous float, which can be fabricated onshore and transported to the job site by direct towing. Buoyancy of the dodecahedrous float will counteract the tremendous weight exerted on this offshore structure. With the help of the guy cables and clump weights anchored to the ocean floor, the structure can be column stabilized to a designated location ready for needed drilling operation. Dodecahedron is one of the natural crystal forms which can be built up by modular space components. It is an ideal structure for easy assembly in a hostile, physically restrictive sea environment. In this article only the major factors affecting the analysis is considered. Much more detailed considerations will be required in the final design, reflecting environmental forces in action, stresses during erection, and the fabrication details.

  13. Federal offshore statistics: leasing, exploration, production, revenue

    SciTech Connect

    Essertier, E.P.

    1984-09-01

    This publication is a numerical record of what has happened since Congress gave authority to the Secretary of the Interior in 1953 to lease the federal portion of the Continental Shelf for oil and gas. The publication updates and augments the first Federal Offshore Statistics, published in December 1983. It also extends a statistical series published annually from 1969 until 1981 by the US Geological Survey (USGS) under the title Outer Continental Shelf Statistics. The USGS collected royalties and supervised operation and production of minerals on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) until the Minerals Management Service (MMS) took over these functions in 1982. Some of the highlights are: of the 329.5 million acres offered for leasing, 37.1 million acres were actually leased; total revenues for the 1954 to 1983 period were $68,173,112,563 and for 1983 $9,161,435,540; a total of 22,095 wells were drilled in federal waters and 10,145 wells were drilled in state waters; from 1954 through 1983, federal offshore areas produced 6.4 billion barrels of oil and condensate, and 62.1 trillion cubic feet of natural gas; in 1983 alone production was 340.7 million barrels of oil and condensate, and 3.9 trillion cubic feet of gas; and for the second straight year, no oil was lost in 1983 as a result of blowouts in federal waters. 8 figures, 66 tables.

  14. Back-Barrier Water Level Response to Offshore Fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aretxabaleta, A.; Ganju, N. K.; Butman, B.; Defne, Z.

    2016-02-01

    Water level in semi-enclosed bays, landward of barrier islands, is mainly driven by offshore sea level fluctuations. Inlet geometry is the major factor that regulates the magnitude of the transfer between the two systems. Tides and short-period offshore oscillations tend to be more dampened in the bays than longer-lasting offshore fluctuations, such as storm surge and sea level rise. We compare observed and modeled water levels at stations in mid-Atlantic bays (Great South Bay, Jamaica Bay, and Barnegat Bay) with offshore water level proxies. The differences in the frequency-dependent transfer functions are associated with the size of the inlet and the area of the bays, with larger bays exhibiting smaller transfers. The magnitude of the fluctuations at a specific frequency is not a factor controlling the water level transfer into the bays. The observed water level response in Great South Bay is characterized by transfers between 80-100% in the storm band (2-5 days) and between 20-40% at tidal frequencies. The transfer into Jamaica Bay of offshore storm-related fluctuations is close to 100% and tides are enhanced inside the Bay resulting in water levels greater than the offshore tidal amplitude. In Barnegat Bay, the observed water levels are combined with model results using the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST) modeling system. The model water level transfers match the observed values at locations inside the Bay in the storm band (transfers raging 70-100%) and tidal frequencies (20-55%). The model provides transfer estimates for locations inside the Bay where observations were not available providing a complete spatial characterization and allowing for the study of the Bay response to alternative forcing scenarios (landscape changes, future storms and rising sea level). The approach can inform decisions on inlet management and contribute to the assessment of current and future natural hazards to back-barrier and mainland shorelines.

  15. Foundations for offshore wind turbines.

    PubMed

    Byrne, B W; Houlsby, G T

    2003-12-15

    An important engineering challenge of today, and a vital one for the future, is to develop and harvest alternative sources of energy. This is a firm priority in the UK, with the government setting a target of 10% of electricity from renewable sources by 2010. A component central to this commitment will be to harvest electrical power from the vast energy reserves offshore, through wind turbines or current or wave power generators. The most mature of these technologies is that of wind, as much technology transfer can be gained from onshore experience. Onshore wind farms, although supplying 'green energy', tend to provoke some objections on aesthetic grounds. These objections can be countered by locating the turbines offshore, where it will also be possible to install larger capacity turbines, thus maximizing the potential of each wind farm location. This paper explores some civil-engineering problems encountered for offshore wind turbines. A critical component is the connection of the structure to the ground, and in particular how the load applied to the structure is transferred safely to the surrounding soil. We review previous work on the design of offshore foundations, and then present some simple design calculations for sizing foundations and structures appropriate to the wind-turbine problem. We examine the deficiencies in the current design approaches, and the research currently under way to overcome these deficiencies. Designs must be improved so that these alternative energy sources can compete economically with traditional energy suppliers.

  16. China offshore has top priority

    SciTech Connect

    Cornitius, T.A.

    1983-11-01

    Joint venture development of offshore petroleum reserves has top priority in the mammoth effort to modernize the People's Republic of China. While the country works to overcome a critical shortage of skilled personnel, export of oil, coal, consumer goods, and metals will finance technological imports.

  17. The offshore benthic fish community

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lantry, Brian F.; Lantry, Jana R.; Weidel, Brian C.; Walsh, Maureen; Hoyle, James A.; Schaner, Teodore; Neave, Fraser B.; Keir, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The offshore benthic fish community will be composed of self-sustaining native fishes characterized by lake trout as the top predator, a population expansion of lake whitefish from northeastern waters to other areas of the lake, and rehabilitated native prey fishes.

  18. Proceedings of Offshore Europe 91

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    All papers in this volume were presented at Offshore Europe held in Aberdeen, Scotland, September 3--6, 1991. Included are the following papers: Low-damage-fluid-loss control for well completions; Isolation techniques for subsea gas pipelines; New water injection technology.

  19. Liquefied Natural Gas: A Potential for an Abundant Energy Supply or a Potential for Danger.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishman, Joseph

    This unit was designed to develop mathematical applications in relation to a community resource issue. It should both motivate mathematics learning and provide meaningful problems for reinforcing understanding of mathematics content and skills, including ratios and percentages, linear equations, exponential functions, graphing, and the reading and…

  20. 75 FR 38092 - The Dow Chemical Company; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... Fossil Energy, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: The Office of Fossil Energy (FE) of the... Gas Global Security and Supply, Office of Fossil Energy, Forrestal Building, Room 3E-042, 1000....S. Department of Energy (FE-34), Office of Oil and Gas Global Security and Supply, Office of Fossil...

  1. Experiments Involving Pool and Vapor Fires from Spills of Liquefied Natural Gas on Water

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-06-01

    Rapreoentatior of a Spectrometer A- 2 V LIST OF TABLES ?Mge 3.1 List of Measuring Instruments Used in the Tests 3- 6 4.1 Constituent Gases in the Atmosphere and...continuous has been discussed and a criterion has bean derived, A ipill is classified as "instantaneous" if: t t c(2.10) Duration of spill A critical...Spectral radiance - 2-OOO - 9 + 0.54 kW/m2 r ur (full scale) 213 0.54 4.4 ATMOSPlIERIC ABSORPTION The principal constituents of the atmosphere that absorb

  2. Experimental and numerical study of liquefied natural gas (LNG) pool spreading and vaporization on water.

    PubMed

    Gopalaswami, Nirupama; Kakosimos, Konstantinos; Zhang, Bin; Liu, Yi; Mentzer, R; Mannan, M Sam

    2017-07-15

    The investigation of pool spreading and vaporization phenomenon is an essential part of consequence analysis to determine the severity of LNG spills on water. In this study, release of LNG on water during marine operations is studied through experimental and numerical methods The study involves emulation of an LNG leak from transfer arms during side by side loading operations. The experimental part involves flow of LNG in a narrow trench filled with water and subsequent measurement of pool spreading and vaporization parameters. The numerical part involves CFD simulation using a three dimensional hybrid homogenous Eulerian multiphase solver to model the pool spreading and vaporization phenomenon. In this method, LNG is modeled as dispersed phase droplets which can interact with continuous phases - water and air through interphase models. The numerical study also employs a novel user-defined routine for capturing the LNG vaporization process. The CFD solver was capable of capturing the salient features of LNG pool spreading and vaporization phenomena. It was observed from experiment and CFD simulation that wind influenced both pool spreading and vaporization phenomenon through entrainment and convection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. 75 FR 19954 - Cheniere Marketing, LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ... previously had been imported into the United States from foreign sources in an amount up to the equivalent of... trade is not prohibited by U.S. law or policy, over a two year period commencing on the date of the..., 2009, (Orders 2651 and 2651-A) effective on the date of the proposed authorization. The...

  4. Safety aspects of liquefied natural gas in the marine environment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    This study evaluates the safety issues associated with the marine transportation, handling, and storage of LNG. The panel concluded that the first concern should be the prevention of an accident that would lead to a large, uncontrolled release of LNG in or near populated areas. This concern was addressed by reviewing the design principles of LNG transportation systems, the operational principles involved in the shipment of LNG, and other factors that might reasonably be expected to improve further the safety of the system. The panel concluded that the second concern was the development of ways to mitigate the consequences of potentially hazardous LNG releases in the event that, contrary to all expectations, measures to maintain tank integrity should fail. Development of these methods requires an understanding of the underlying physical and chemical principles governing large LNG release, including spill dynamics, dispersion on water as well as on land, ignition, and resulting fire and blast effects.

  5. National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, John P.; Liu, Shu; Ibanez, Eduardo; Pennock, Ken; Reed, Greg; Hanes, Spencer

    2014-07-30

    The National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study (NOWEGIS) considers the availability and potential impacts of interconnecting large amounts of offshore wind energy into the transmission system of the lower 48 contiguous United States. A total of 54GW of offshore wind was assumed to be the target for the analyses conducted. A variety of issues are considered including: the anticipated staging of offshore wind; the offshore wind resource availability; offshore wind energy power production profiles; offshore wind variability; present and potential technologies for collection and delivery of offshore wind energy to the onshore grid; potential impacts to existing utility systems most likely to receive large amounts of offshore wind; and regulatory influences on offshore wind development. The technologies considered the reliability of various high-voltage ac (HVAC) and high-voltage dc (HVDC) technology options and configurations. The utility system impacts of GW-scale integration of offshore wind are considered from an operational steady-state perspective and from a regional and national production cost perspective.

  6. Efficient liquefaction cycles for natural gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Musleh, Easa Ismail

    Natural Gas is liquefied for storage and transportation purposes. Large quantity of Natural Gas is liquefied on a daily basis. Therefore, there is a need for efficient refrigeration cycles to liquefy natural gas. Refrigeration cycles are energy intensive processes. In such systems, the compressors are the main power consumers. A given refrigeration task can be achieved by many configurations and use of refrigerant mediums. In principle, all possible configurations utilize vapor compression and/or expander cycles. However, identifying an energy efficient configuration along with the proper choice of refrigerants is not a straightforward technique. In the refrigeration literature, many methods have been proposed to identify efficient refrigeration configurations for a given task. However, these methods rely on detailed simulations and mathematical programming and do not provide much physical insights to design a good refrigeration process. As a result, our motivation is to develop physical insights through systematic evaluation of refrigerants and cycle configurations. We have identified key features of different refrigeration systems for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) applications. This was achieved through detailed simulations and thermodynamic analysis. Such features are essential to understand the limits of different configurations. Moreover, they can lead to process developments and improvements.

  7. The worldwide search for petroleum offshore; a status report for the quarter century, 1947-72

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berryhill, Henry L.

    1974-01-01

    At the end of 1972, offshore petroleum exploration was in progress on the submerged continental margins of 80 countries. Some 780 oil and gas fields had been discovered. Estimated worldwide volume of oil discovered offshore as of January 1, 1973, is 172.8 billion barrels of oil, or about 26 percent of the world total, and 168.4 trillion ft3 of natural gas. Present reserves of oil are 135.5 billion barrels, of which 70 percent is in the Persian Gulf. Some 90 percent of the oil discovered offshore has been found in 60 giant fields having reserves of 500 million or more barrels each.

  8. 49 CFR 173.304b - Additional requirements for shipment of liquefied compressed gases in UN pressure receptacles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... liquefied gases, the filling factor (maximum mass of contents per liter of water capacity) must be less than... pressure not exceeding 5 bar. (d) Fertilizer ammoniating solution with free ammonia, UN1043 is not...

  9. 49 CFR 173.304b - Additional requirements for shipment of liquefied compressed gases in UN pressure receptacles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... liquefied gases, the filling factor (maximum mass of contents per liter of water capacity) must be less than... pressure not exceeding 5 bar. (d) Fertilizer ammoniating solution with free ammonia, UN1043 is not...

  10. 49 CFR 173.304b - Additional requirements for shipment of liquefied compressed gases in UN pressure receptacles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... liquefied gases, the filling factor (maximum mass of contents per liter of water capacity) must be less than... pressure not exceeding 5 bar. (d) Fertilizer ammoniating solution with free ammonia, UN1043 is not...

  11. 49 CFR 173.304b - Additional requirements for shipment of liquefied compressed gases in UN pressure receptacles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... liquefied gases, the filling factor (maximum mass of contents per liter of water capacity) must be less than... pressure not exceeding 5 bar. (d) Fertilizer ammoniating solution with free ammonia, UN1043 is not...

  12. Nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinhorst, Sabine; Cannon, Gordon

    1997-01-01

    The fact that two of the original articles by this year's Nobel laureates were published in Nature bears witness to the pivotal role of this journal in documenting pioneering discoveries in all areas of science. The prize for Physiology or Medicine was awarded to immunologists Peter C. Doherty (University of Tennessee) and Rolf M. Zinkernagel (University of Zurich, Switzerland), honoring work that, in the 1970s, laid the foundation for our current understanding of the way in which our immune system differentiates between healthy cells and virus-infected ones that are targeted for destruction (p 465 in the October 10 issue of vol. 383). Three researchers share the Chemistry award for their discovery of C60 buckminsterfullerenes. The work by Robert Curl, Richard Smalley (both at Rice University), and Harry Kroto (University of Sussex, UK) has led to a burst of new approaches to materials development and in carbon chemistry (p 561 of the October 17 issue of vol. 383). This year's Nobel prize in physics went to three U.S. researchers, Douglas Osheroff (Stanford University) and David M. Lee and Robert C. Richardson (Cornell University), who were honored for their work on superfluidity, a frictionless liquid state, of supercooled 3He (p 562 of the October 17 issue of vol. 383).

  13. The effect of parasitic refrigeration on the efficiency of magnetic liquefiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barclay, J. A.; Stewart, W. F.

    Efficiency losses incurred by the operation of a small magnetic refrigerator stage to maintain cryogenic temperatures from the primary cold temperature to 4.2 K in a magnetic gas liquefier are calculated. The primary refrigeration is supplied by a helium cooled superconducting magnet, which does not require a continued current input once the field is established. The efficiency is modeled as the ratio of the real performance coefficient to the ideal coefficient, and is formulated by adding a term for irreversible entropy production to the second law of thermodynamics to make it an equality. A low limit is obtained for the size of magnetic liquefiers, e.g., 1 W at 4.2 K and 1 kW at 280 K. The necessity of providing adequate insulation against radiation and structural support heat leaks is emphasized.

  14. An experimental study on dynamic response for MICP strengthening liquefiable sands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Zhiguang; Cheng, Xiaohui; Ma, Qiang

    2016-12-01

    The technology of bio-grouting is a new technique for soft ground improvement. Many researchers have carried out a large number of experiments and study on this topic. However, few studies have been carried out on the dynamic response of solidified sand samples, such reducing liquefaction in sand. To study this characteristic of microbial-strengthened liquefiable sandy foundation, a microorganism formula and grouting scheme is applied. After grouting, the solidified samples are tested via dynamic triaxial testing to examine the cyclic performance of solidified sand samples. The results indicate that the solidified sand samples with various strengths can be obtained to meet different engineering requirements, the use of bacteria solution and nutritive salt is reduced, and solidified time is shortened to 1-2 days. Most importantly, in the study of the dynamic response, it is found that the MICP grouting scheme is effective in improving liquefiable sand characteristic, such as liquefaction resistance.

  15. [Fluorescence spectroscopy characterization of asphaltene liquefied from coal and study of its association structure].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-Cai; Cui, Xue-Ping; Shui, Heng-Fu; Wang, Zu-Shan; Lei, Zhi-Ping; Kang, Shi-Gang

    2010-06-01

    Structure and association of asphaltenes from coal direct hydroliquefaction were studied by fluorescence spectrometry and UV-Vis absorption spectrometry in this paper. The results indicate that asphaltene is aromatic mixtures mainly containing naphthalene nucleus and shows strong fluorescent characteristic. The forming of exciplex between asphaltene and solvent results in the red shift of fluorescence peak and fluorescence quenching of asphaltene that increases with the polarity and electron acceptability. The self-aggregation of asphaltene is formed by non-covalent bond interaction, so that the asphaltene liquefied at higher temperture that shows high aromaticity has stronger association than that liquefied at lower temperature. Aggregation of asphaltene has been found to be a gradual process, in which there is no critical aggregation constant observed, and the inflection point of the plot of apparent fluorescence intensity as a function of asphaltene concentration varies with the excitation wavelength.

  16. FIRST OPERATING RESULTS OF A DYNAMIC GAS BEARING TURBINE IN AN INDUSTRIAL HYDROGEN LIQUEFIER

    SciTech Connect

    Bischoff, S.; Decker, L.

    2010-04-09

    Hydrogen has been brought into focus of industry and public since fossil fuels are depleting and costs are increasing dramatically. Beside these issues new high-tech processes in the industry are in need for hydrogen at ultra pure quality. To achieve these requirements and for efficient transportation, hydrogen is liquefied in industrial plants. Linde Gas has commissioned a new 5.5 TPD Hydrogen liquefier in Leuna, Germany, which has been engineered and supplied by Linde Kryotechnik. One of the four expansion turbines installed in the liquefaction process is equipped with dynamic gas bearings. Several design features and operational characteristics of this application will be discussed. The presentation will include results of efficiency and operational reliability that have been determined from performance tests. The advantages of the Linde dynamic gas bearing turbine for future use in hydrogen liquefaction plants will be shown.

  17. Characterization of microwave liquefied bamboo residue and its potential use in the generation of nanofibrillated cellulosic fiber

    Treesearch

    Jiulong Xie; Chung Hse; Chunjie Li; Todd F. Shupe; Tingxing Hu; Jinqiu Qi; Cornelis F. De Hoop

    2016-01-01

    Bamboo raw feedstocks with large particle size (20−80 mesh) were subjected to a microwave liquefaction system, and the liquefied products were separated into biopolyols and liquefied residues. Biopolyols were first analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC−MS), and the main components were sugar derivatives with 2−4 hydroxyl groups and phenolic compounds...

  18. Feasibility Analysis of Liquefying Oxygen Generated from Water Electrolysis Units on Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeng, Frank F.

    2009-01-01

    Concepts for liquefying oxygen (O2) generated from water electrolysis subsystems on the Lunar surface were explored. Concepts for O2 liquefaction units capable of generating 1.38 lb/hr (0.63 kg/hr) liquid oxygen (LOX) were developed. Heat and mass balance calculations for the liquefaction concepts were conducted. Stream properties, duties of radiators, heat exchangers and compressors for the selected concepts were calculated and compared.

  19. Physical and mechanical properties of bio-composites from wood particles and liquefied wood resin

    Treesearch

    Hui Pan; Todd F. Shupe; Chung-Yun Hse

    2009-01-01

    Compression molded composites were made from wood particles and a liquefied wood/phenol/formaldehyde co-condensed resin. Based on our previous research, a phenol to wood (P/W) ratio of 2/1 was chosen for this study. The two experimental variables selected were: 1) liquefaction temperature (150o and 180oC) and 2) cooking method (atmospheric and sealed). Panels were...

  20. The optimization on flow scheme of helium liquefier with genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H. R.; Xiong, L. Y.; Peng, N.; Liu, L. Q.

    2017-01-01

    There are several ways to organize the flow scheme of the helium liquefiers, such as arranging the expanders in parallel (reverse Brayton stage) or in series (modified Brayton stages). In this paper, the inlet mass flow and temperatures of expanders in Collins cycle are optimized using genetic algorithm (GA). Results show that maximum liquefaction rate can be obtained when the system is working at the optimal parameters. However, the reliability of the system is not well due to high wheel speed of the first turbine. Study shows that the scheme in which expanders are arranged in series with heat exchangers between them has higher operation reliability but lower plant efficiency when working at the same situation. Considering both liquefaction rate and system stability, another flow scheme is put forward hoping to solve the dilemma. The three configurations are compared from different aspects, they are respectively economic cost, heat exchanger size, system reliability and exergy efficiency. In addition, the effect of heat capacity ratio on heat transfer efficiency is discussed. A conclusion of choosing liquefier configuration is given in the end, which is meaningful for the optimal design of helium liquefier.

  1. Four barges mobilized for job: Indian offshore pipeline work demands comprehensive coordination

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, J. )

    1994-02-01

    This paper describes the design, installation, and commissioning timeframe developed for the Oil and Natural Gas Commission of India. Offshore Hyundai International Inc. and Offshore Pipelines International have completed the installation of 47 pipelines, six platforms, and a single-point mooring system in the Arabian Sea. The coordination and work scheduling problems are described along with the engineered placement of the pipelines in an already congested area.

  2. Quantifying the Benefits of Combining Offshore Wind and Wave Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoutenburg, E.; Jacobson, M. Z.

    2009-12-01

    For many locations the offshore wind resource and the wave energy resource are collocated, which suggests a natural synergy if both technologies are combined into one offshore marine renewable energy plant. Initial meteorological assessments of the western coast of the United States suggest only a weak correlation in power levels of wind and wave energy at any given hour associated with the large ocean basin wave dynamics and storm systems of the North Pacific. This finding indicates that combining the two power sources could reduce the variability in electric power output from a combined wind and wave offshore plant. A combined plant is modeled with offshore wind turbines and Pelamis wave energy converters with wind and wave data from meteorological buoys operated by the US National Buoy Data Center off the coast of California, Oregon, and Washington. This study will present results of quantifying the benefits of combining wind and wave energy for the electrical power system to facilitate increased renewable energy penetration to support reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, and air and water pollution associated with conventional fossil fuel power plants.

  3. Issues in offshore platform research - Part 1: Semi-submersibles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, R.; Kim, Tae-Wan; Sha, O. P.; Misra, S. C.

    2010-09-01

    Availability of economic and efficient energy resources is crucial to a nation's development. Because of their low cost and advancement in drilling and exploration technologies, oil and gas based energy systems are the most widely used energy source throughout the world. The inexpensive oil and gas based energy systems are used for everything, i.e., from transportation of goods and people to the harvesting of crops for food. As the energy demand continues to rise, there is strong need for inexpensive energy solutions. An offshore platform is a large structure that is used to house workers and machinery needed to drill wells in the ocean bed, extract oil and/or natural gas, process the produced fluids, and ship or pipe them to shore. Depending on the circumstances, the offshore platform can be fixed (to the ocean floor) or can consist of an artificial island or can float. Semi-submersibles are used for various purposes in offshore and marine engineering, e.g. crane vessels, drilling vessels, tourist vessels, production platforms and accommodation facilities, etc. The challenges of deepwater drilling have further motivated the researchers to design optimum choices for semi-submersibles for a chosen operating depth. In our series of eight papers, we discuss the design and production aspects of all the types of offshore platforms. In the present part I, we present an introduction and critical analysis of semi-submersibles.

  4. Prestressed concrete for the storage of liquefied gases

    SciTech Connect

    Bruggeling, A.S.G.

    1981-01-01

    Both concrete and prestressing-steel materials retain their strengths at cryogenic temperatures, making them ideal for LNG storage tanks and similar structures. Prestressed concrete lends itself to a wide variety of configurations, from containment dikes to integrated tank systems in which the steel, insulation, and concrete must interact efficiently. Of major importance in building prestressed-concrete storage tanks are the design loads and load factors to be adopted, especially the so-called special loads that depend on the nature and quantity of the product to be stored, the type of installation involved, the siting of the storage facilities, and the tank construction (flexible or rigid).

  5. How dangerous is offshore drilling

    SciTech Connect

    McIntosh, T.S.

    1981-08-01

    As concluded by the National Research Council, the frequency of injuries during oil and gas operations on the outer continental shelf is comparable to that in other industries such as mining, maritime service, and heavy construction. Although an area of concern, offshore safety is not easily improved by legislation or detailed regulation. The industry itself must be committed to providing the safest possible workplace for the job and the environment. At Zapata Off-Shore Co., for example, top management recognizes the value of safety-trained personnel in terms of not only decreased downtime and lower insurance costs but also improved crew morale and productivity. The key operatives of Zapata's program are the rig representatives who provide full-time, rig-based safety, training, administrative, and employee-relations assistance to the crews.

  6. Offshore drilling platform protection device

    SciTech Connect

    Magill, J.M.

    1981-12-15

    A description is given of an offshore drilling platform protection device for use on an offshore oil well drilling vessel including a drilling platform supportable on a plurality of extendable legs wherein each leg is moved by a rack gear assembly. The rack gear assembly includes an otherwise exposed first gear which engages a second gear positioned in a housing having a rectangular corner opening through which the first gear extends, the protection device including first and second protective sections adapted for mounting over the first gear adjacent to the rectangular corner of the housing for the second gear, the first and second protective sections cooperating to provide an l-shaped opening which communicates with the opening at the second gear housing for protecting the first gear while allowing the first gear to mesh with the second gear.

  7. Analyzing seismic imagery in the time-amplitude and time-frequency domains to determine fluid nature and migration pathways: A case study from the Queen Charlotte Basin, offshore British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duchesne, Mathieu J.; Halliday, E. Julie; Barrie, J. Vaughn

    2011-02-01

    Combining time-amplitude and time-frequency information from seismic reflection data sets of different resolutions allows the analysis of anomalous reflections from very-shallow to great subsurface depths. Thus, it can enhance the imaging of subsurface features which have a frequency-dependent reflectivity such as gas. Analysing seismic data of different resolution in the time-amplitude and time-frequency domains is a powerful method to determine hydrocarbon migration pathways from deep reservoirs to the seafloor. This interpretation method has been applied to the formerly-glaciated offshore Queen Charlotte Basin hosting several seafloor pockmarks and mounds associated with the leakage of underlying hydrocarbon reservoirs. Low-frequency shadows observed in the time-frequency domain provide evidence of different resolutions that several anomalous reflection amplitudes may be attributed to the occurrence of gas. The seismic imagery shows that gas uses a fault to migrate from deep reservoirs included in Upper Mesozoic strata towards secondary reservoirs located along the fault plane into Neogene layers. Once gas reaches a porous cut-and-fill succession, migration changes from structurally- to stratigraphically-controlled before gas leaks through unconsolidated Quaternary sediments forming the shallow subsurface to eventually seep at the seafloor where pockmarks and carbonate mounds are formed.

  8. Fatigue handbook: Offshore steel structures

    SciTech Connect

    Almarnaess, A.

    1985-01-01

    The contents of this book are: Overview of Offshore Steel Structures; Loads on Ocean Structures; Fracture Mechanics As a Tool in Fatigue Analysis; Basic Fatigue Properties of Welded Joints; Significance of Defects; Improving the Fatigue Strength of Welded Joints; Effects of Marine Environment and Cathodic Protection on Fatigue of Structural Steels Fatigue of Tubular Joints; Unstable Fracture; Fatigue Life Calculations; and Fatigue in Building Codes Background and Applications.

  9. Pipelaying in artic offshore waters

    SciTech Connect

    Langner, C. G.

    1985-11-19

    The present invention provides a method and apparatus for constructing pipelines in Arctic offshore waters by a directional drilling technique, thereby minimizing exposure to ice gouging and eliminating the hazards associated with unstable permafrost. A special drilling-pipe-line construction vessel is also provided which has a conical shape with reinforced outer walls to resist ice forces, which vessel includes means to install deep underground pipeline segments and means to connect and protect the pipe ends.

  10. Two offshore Australian crudes assayed

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, A.K.

    1994-05-09

    Two light, sweet crudes from offshore Australia have been assayed. Gippsland crude, also called Bass Strait, is produced off the coast of Victoria, in southeastern Australia. The 47 API, 0.09% sulfur crude was analyzed in mid-1993. Skua, a 42 API, 0.06 wt % sulfur crude, is produced in the Timor Sea. Data are given on the whole crude and fractions for both deposits. Both chemical and physical properties are listed.

  11. Offshore sand and gravel mining

    SciTech Connect

    Pandan, J.W.

    1983-05-01

    This paper reviews the status of mining offshore for sand and gravel on a world-wide basis. It discusses the technology for exploration and evaluation of sea floor mineral targets, as well as mining, transportation, and processing. Large operations in Japan and Europe are described, based upon personal observations of the author. The U.S. situation is outlined and opinions offered as to the outlook for the future.

  12. The ARGO Project: assessing NA-TECH risks on off-shore oil platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capuano, Paolo; Basco, Anna; Di Ruocco, Angela; Esposito, Simona; Fusco, Giannetta; Garcia-Aristizabal, Alexander; Mercogliano, Paola; Salzano, Ernesto; Solaro, Giuseppe; Teofilo, Gianvito; Scandone, Paolo; Gasparini, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    ARGO (Analysis of natural and anthropogenic risks on off-shore oil platforms) is a 2 years project, funded by the DGS-UNMIG (Directorate General for Safety of Mining and Energy Activities - National Mining Office for Hydrocarbons and Georesources) of Italian Ministry of Economic Development. The project, coordinated by AMRA (Center for the Analysis and Monitoring of Environmental Risk), aims at providing technical support for the analysis of natural and anthropogenic risks on offshore oil platforms. In order to achieve this challenging objective, ARGO brings together climate experts, risk management experts, seismologists, geologists, chemical engineers, earth and coastal observation experts. ARGO has developed methodologies for the probabilistic analysis of industrial accidents triggered by natural events (NA-TECH) on offshore oil platforms in the Italian seas, including extreme events related to climate changes. Furthermore the environmental effect of offshore activities has been investigated, including: changes on seismicity and on the evolution of coastal areas close to offshore platforms. Then a probabilistic multi-risk framework has been developed for the analysis of NA-TECH events on offshore installations for hydrocarbon extraction.

  13. Offshore oil: Correctness of perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, R.F.

    1993-05-01

    Except for the Gulf of Mexico, the offshore oil industry has been virtually banned from the US Exclusive Economic Zone for ten years. The oil potential in Alaska's Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) is also off limits. The Gulf of Mexico is the only place with prospects for future success and a number of companies both large and small are determined to move forward. The depressed price of oil does not encourage development but recently gas prices in the US have increased, making offshore gas development more feasible. Perhaps most significant is development and application of new technology and more intense management to make sure it works. The offshore oil companies and support industries have made significant technological advances, expending over and above the dollars paid in taxes, lease fees, and royalties. The ocean industries harbor a great reservoir of high technology knowledge. They have demonstrated the ability to successfully meet a vast array of challenges in exploring for, drilling, and producing oil and gas in extreme conditions. These facts beg the question as to the rational basis of each and every regulation and the ban on drilling.

  14. An Overview of Potential Ecological Consequences of Habitat Modification from Offshore Energy Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, D. M.; Bull, A. S.

    2016-02-01

    In the future, offshore environments may host an increasing amount of energy infrastructure, including offshore wind and wave farms, ocean thermal conversion installations, and liquid natural gas terminals. Using studies compiled from offshore oil and gas facilities and other emplaced infrastructure around the world, we review the potential ecological consequences of prospective rigs-to-reefs programs. Offshore energy installations establish fixed, hard substrate in surface waters, where current flow is generally greater when compared to nearshore environments. Depending upon the biogeography, this can create productive habitat for filter-feeding sessile invertebrates and results in a thick biotic layer on the infrastructure. In some instances, non-indigenous species may prevail as the primary space-holders on the novel surface habitat. Through cleaning, storm activities, or simple sloughing, large amounts of organic material fall to the seabed, transforming soft sediments into extensive "shell mound" habitat. These novel surface and benthic habitats have been observed to act as nurseries for many fish species found offshore. If unconsolidated, soft sediments dominate the regional seafloor character, offshore energy installations may enhance the ecological connectivity of once isolated hard substrate habitats, and subsequently modify regional population dynamics of some marine species. Finally, we outline how the management of human activities such as fishing and shipping plays an important role in determining the magnitude and direction of potential ecological consequences, and suggest that coastal and marine spatial planning efforts will play an important role in the offshore environment.

  15. Anatomy of La Jolla submarine canyon system; offshore southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paull, C.K.; Caress, D.W.; Lundsten, E.; Gwiazda, R.; Anderson, K.; McGann, M.; Conrad, J.; Edwards, B.; Sumner, E.J.

    2013-01-01

    An autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) carrying a multibeam sonar and a chirp profiler was used to map sections of the seafloor within the La Jolla Canyon, offshore southern California, at sub-meter scales. Close-up observations and sampling were conducted during remotely operated vehicle (ROV) dives. Minisparker seismic-reflection profiles from a surface ship help to define the overall geometry of the La Jolla Canyon especially with respect to the pre-canyon host sediments. The floor of the axial channel is covered with unconsolidated sand similar to the sand on the shelf near the canyon head, lacks outcrops of the pre-canyon host strata, has an almost constant slope of 1.0° and is covered with trains of crescent shaped bedforms. The presence of modern plant material entombed within these sands confirms that the axial channel is presently active. The sand on the canyon floor liquefied during vibracore collection and flowed downslope, illustrating that the sediment filling the channel can easily fail even on this gentle slope. Data from the canyon walls help constrain the age of the canyon and extent of incision. Horizontal beds of moderately cohesive fine-grained sediments exposed on the steep canyon walls are consistently less than 1.232 million years old. The lateral continuity of seismic reflectors in minisparker profiles indicate that pre-canyon host strata extend uninterrupted from outside the canyon underneath some terraces within the canyon. Evidence of abandoned channels and point bar-like deposits are noticeably absent on the inside bend of channel meanders and in the subsurface of the terraces. While vibracores from the surface of terraces contain thin (< 10 cm) turbidites, they are inferred to be part of a veneer of recent sediment covering pre-canyon host sediments that underpin the terraces. The combined use of state of the art seafloor mapping and exploration tools provides a uniquely detailed view of the morphology within an active submarine canyon.

  16. Sand Needs and Resources Offshore New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lashley, J. M.; Flood, R. D.; White, M.; Bokuniewicz, H.; Hinrichs, C.; Wilson, R. E.

    2016-02-01

    "Superstorm" Sandy (October, 2012) accentuated the persistent problem of coastal erosion on New York's ocean coast. The New York state Department of State in cooperation with the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management has initiated further identification and assessment of marine sand reserves required to improve the resiliency of coastal communities and the maintenance of coastal habitats. The historical demand for beach nourishment has been about 1.5 million cubic meters per year, but sea level rise and the occurrence of extreme conditions may increase the demand to over 5 million cubic meters annually. Forty-four historical and proposed borrow sites have been delineated. This inner shelf is both sand rich and data rich. Geophysical and geological data has been compiled and reassessed to support identification, characterization, and delineation of sand resources for potential use in future coastal restoration, beach nourishment, and/or wetland restoration efforts. The South Shore of Long Island is composed in part by the Fire Island National Seashore. Holocene sand ridges extending at an oblique angle to the cross shore in the seaward direction. Borrow pits among the sand ridges, excavated were apparent in the most recent surveys and it appears that natural replenishment of offshore borrow areas has been occurring although the rates need to be determined in order to assess their sustainability. Not only is the area one of intense societal attention, but the use of this resource for coastal resilience must fit into a diverse framework marine spatial planning including not only traditional components, like commercial fishing, but also new factors like the siting of offshore wind-farms. To extend this assessment will include a recent survey, sponsored by the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management and the New York Department of State, providing approximately 700 km of geophysical survey lines located between 3 and 9 nautical miles offshore, and 46 geotechnical samples

  17. Offshore and arctic frontiers -structures, ocean mining

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, J.S.

    1985-05-01

    The systematic development of offshore technology is discussed. Today, this technology enables the production of approximately 14 million barrels of oil per day, or 26% of oil production worldwide. The evolution in offshore structures is examined with emphasis on jacket and jackup platforms. Challenges are explored. Microprocessors, data-base management, and artificial intelligence are mentioned as having an impact on the offshore and arctic oil industry.

  18. 1991 worldwide offshore contractors and equipment directory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This book is the information source-book for the international offshore oil industry. Within this single convenient reference you'll find addresses, phone numbers, telex, fax and cable listings for more than 3,500 companies and their key personnel in the drilling, workover, construction, service/supply/manufacturers, geophysical, diving and transportation segments of the offshore industry. Along with this vital contact information, the authors include such pertinent data as rig specifications, ownership, an equipment index, a company index and a current survey of offshore production systems from Offshore Incorporating the Oilman.

  19. Effects of Second-Order Hydrodynamic Forces on Floating Offshore Wind Turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Duarte, T.; Sarmento, A. J. N. A.; Jonkman, J.

    2014-04-01

    Relative to first-order, second-order wave-excitation loads are known to cause significant motions and additional loads in offshore oil and gas platforms. The design of floating offshore wind turbines was partially inherited from the offshore oil and gas industry. Floating offshore wind concepts have been studied with powerful aero-hydro-servo-elastic tools; however, most of the existing work on floating offshore wind turbines has neglected the contribution of second-order wave-excitation loads. As a result, this paper presents a computationally efficient methodology to consider these loads within FAST, a wind turbine computer-aided engineering tool developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The method implemented was verified against the commercial OrcaFlex tool, with good agreement, and low computational time. A reference floating offshore wind turbine was studied under several wind and wave load conditions, including the effects of second-order slow-drift and sum-frequency loads. Preliminary results revealed that these loads excite the turbine's natural frequencies, namely the surge and pitch natural frequencies.

  20. 77 FR 19277 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas During...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... SUPPLY, LLC 12-17-NG AGENCY: Office of Fossil Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of orders. SUMMARY: The Office of Fossil Energy (FE) of the Department of Energy gives notice that during February....fossil.energy.gov/programs/gasregulation/authorizations/Orders-2012.html . They are also available for...

  1. 77 FR 31838 - Notice of Orders Granting Authority to Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-30

    ... 2012 AGENCY: Office of Fossil Energy, Department of Energy (DOE). ACTION: Notice of orders. FE Docket... SUMMARY: The Office of Fossil Energy (FE) of the Department of Energy gives notice that during April 2012... Orders are summarized in the attached appendix and may be found on the FE Web site at http://www.fossil...

  2. 77 FR 12274 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas During...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ... AGENCY: Office of Fossil Energy, Department of Energy (DOE). ACTION: Notice of orders. FE Docket Nos... SUMMARY: The Office of Fossil Energy (FE) of the Department of Energy gives notice that during January....fossil.energy.gov/programs/gasregulation/authorizations/Orders-2012.html . They are also available for...

  3. 78 FR 21351 - Orders Granting Authority to Import and Export Natural Gas, To Import Liquefied Natural Gas, To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ... PARTNERSHIP 13-22-NG OMIMEX CANADA, LTD 13-23-NG AGENCY: Office of Fossil Energy, Department of Energy (DOE). ACTION: Notice of orders. SUMMARY: The Office of Fossil Energy (FE) of the Department of Energy gives... appendix and may be found on the FE Web site at http://www.fossil.energy.gov/programs/gasregulation...

  4. 78 FR 35014 - Orders Granting Authority to Import and Export Natural Gas, and to Import Liquefied Natural Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    ... ENERGY INC 13-45-LNG CENTRA GAS MANITOBA INC 13-46-NG AGENCY: Office of Fossil Energy, Department of Energy (DOE). ACTION: Notice of orders. SUMMARY: The Office of Fossil Energy (FE) of the Department of... may be found on the FE Web site at http://www.fossil.energy.gov/programs/gasregulation/authorizations...

  5. 78 FR 19696 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, To Import Liquefied Natural Gas, To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-02

    ... COMMODITIES MERCHANT TRADING L.P 12-177-NG AGENCY: Office of Fossil Energy, Department of Energy (DOE). ACTION: Notice of orders. SUMMARY: The Office of Fossil Energy (FE) of the Department of Energy gives notice that... be found on the FE Web site at http://www.fossil.energy.gov/programs/gasregulation/authorizations...

  6. 78 FR 21349 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, To Export Liquefied Natural Gas, To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ... PROGAS USA INC 13-03-NG AGENCY: Office of Fossil Energy, Department of Energy (DOE). ACTION: Notice of orders. SUMMARY: The Office of Fossil Energy (FE) of the Department of Energy gives notice that during... found on the FE Web site at http://www.fossil.energy.gov/programs/gasregulation/authorizations/Orders...

  7. Offshore drilling and production structure

    SciTech Connect

    Crockett, R.K.; Palmer, H.E.; Stenning, D.G.

    1982-02-09

    The invention relates to an off-shore marine structure that provides an elevated support for a drilling and/or production platform. A structure comprised of three interlocking components is provided, the first component being a large foundation base installed on the sea bed; the second being a conical shaped support component which is engagable with the foundation base and which, releasably carries the third platform supporting component. In the preferred form, the platform supporting component comprises a centrally-disposed vertical column, means being provided to facilitate engagement of the column with the platform and the second component and to subsequently elevate the platform to an operating height above sea level.

  8. Bundled pipe speeds offshore laying

    SciTech Connect

    Brockbank, J. )

    1990-05-07

    Technology which allows pipelines to be installed in bundles is expediting pipelay operations in the North Sea. This paper reports how the piggyback system was recently used on 60 km of North Sea gas pipelines for three major projects. For 7 years the practice of installing two or more pipelines in one operation has become an established practice for North Sea offshore oil and gas projects. The technique, commonly referred to as a piggyback operation, reduces installation costs, improves operation reliability, and cuts maintenance time.

  9. Wave slamming on offshore structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, B. L.

    1980-03-01

    Experimental and theoretical work on the slamming of circular cylinders is surveyed. Data are included from controlled drop tests. The influence of inclined impact and beam dynamics on the resulting stresses is calculated for a wide range of wave conditions. The statistical distributions of the estimated stresses are analyzed to provide data for the calculation of slamming loads on fixed offshore structures using simple formulas in which the slamming coefficients incorporate both the member dynamics and the sea wave statistics. Slamming coefficients and associated stress calculation methods are presented for extreme values and fatigue damage. These may also be used for slamming during jacket launching. A film of wave slam was also produced.

  10. Experimental investigation of mobile small-scale liquefier for 10000 NM3/D of coal bed methane gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhaohu; Wu, J. F.; Gong, Maoqiong; Guo, Ping

    2012-06-01

    There is a growing recognition that unconventional sources of gas, such as shale gas, coal bed methane (CBM) and deep tight gas will contribute a significant component of future gas supplies as technologies evolve. In recent years, the interest in such source of gas utilization technologies based on small-scale LNG production has been rising steeply. In this paper, a mobile liquefier prototype for 10000 Nm3/d of CBM has been designed, constructed and tested. It has two cascade refrigeration systems. The high-temperature refrigeration system will pre-cool the resource gas to 5oC, and the low-temperature refrigeration system will continue to cool the resource gas to the liquefied point with a Mixed Refrigerant Cycle (MRC). The kernel compressor is a conventional oil-lubricated air-conditioning compressor with the discharge pressure of 2.0 MPa. The main heat exchanger is plate-fin heat exchanger with four passages. A series of experiments have been done on the prototype liquefier at different resource gas pressures and environmental temperatures. It is less than one hour from the start of the equipment to the existence of LNG. The maximum production of LNG is about 20 m3/d when a stream of about 12500 Nm3/d of pure CBM at a process pressure of 1.3 MPa is liquefied. The energy consumption of liquefying 1 Nm3 methane is 0.612 kWh.

  11. Numerical experiments in ringing of offshore systems under viscous loads

    SciTech Connect

    Gurley, K.R.; Kareem, A.

    1996-12-31

    A phenomenon which has recently received much attention in offshore engineering is the ringing response of structures. This high frequency transient type response has been observed in nature, particularly in tension leg platforms (TLPs). Given the implications of this behavior on the fatigue life of tendons, it is important that it be considered for response analysis. Significant progress has been made in recent years in identifying the nonlinear mechanisms that induce ringing in complex offshore structural systems. This introductory study-uses a simple model to numerically demonstrates several of the more salient features that are commonly cited in current literature, and shows that viscous loads may result in inducing ringing type response of members under certain conditions. Ringing response in pitch due to viscous loading is simulated on a column piercing the surface, and the significant contributing force mechanisms are identified. System characteristics are altered to ameliorate the performance of these systems.

  12. Large-Scale Wireless Temperature Monitoring System for Liquefied Petroleum Gas Storage Tanks

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Guangwen; Shen, Yu; Hao, Xiaowei; Yuan, Zongming; Zhou, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Temperature distribution is a critical indicator of the health condition for Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) storage tanks. In this paper, we present a large-scale wireless temperature monitoring system to evaluate the safety of LPG storage tanks. The system includes wireless sensors networks, high temperature fiber-optic sensors, and monitoring software. Finally, a case study on real-world LPG storage tanks proves the feasibility of the system. The unique features of wireless transmission, automatic data acquisition and management, local and remote access make the developed system a good alternative for temperature monitoring of LPG storage tanks in practical applications. PMID:26393596

  13. Large >60 gallon/day ‘pulse-tube’ oxygen liquefier for aircraft carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spoor, P. S.

    2015-12-01

    An oxygen liquefier using a large ‘pulse-tube’ or acoustic-Stirling cryocooler is described, which has a liquefaction rate in excess of 60 gallons per day (227 liters per day) as measured by the increase in weight of a storage dewar, from <20 kWe input. Several of these systems will be deployed on U.S. Navy aircraft carriers to provide shipboard liquid oxygen. Paths to improvement in future systems are identified, although it is noted that since the present system exceeds the required specifications, these improvements may not be implemented in the near term.

  14. Large-Scale Wireless Temperature Monitoring System for Liquefied Petroleum Gas Storage Tanks.

    PubMed

    Fan, Guangwen; Shen, Yu; Hao, Xiaowei; Yuan, Zongming; Zhou, Zhi

    2015-09-18

    Temperature distribution is a critical indicator of the health condition for Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) storage tanks. In this paper, we present a large-scale wireless temperature monitoring system to evaluate the safety of LPG storage tanks. The system includes wireless sensors networks, high temperature fiber-optic sensors, and monitoring software. Finally, a case study on real-world LPG storage tanks proves the feasibility of the system. The unique features of wireless transmission, automatic data acquisition and management, local and remote access make the developed system a good alternative for temperature monitoring of LPG storage tanks in practical applications.

  15. Urban leakage of liquefied petroleum gas and its impact on Mexico City air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, D.R.; Rowland, F.S.

    1995-08-18

    Alkane hydrocarbons (propane, isobutane, and n-butane) from liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) are present in major quantities throughout Mexico City air because of leakage of the unburned gas from numerous urban sources. These hydrocarbons, together with olefinic minor LPG components, furnish substantial amounts of hydroxyl radical reactivity, a major precursor to formation of the ozone component of urban smog. The combined processes of unburned leakage and incomplete combustion of LPG play significant role in causing the excessive ozone characteristic of Mexico City. Reductions in ozone levels should be possible through changes in LPG composition and lowered rates of leakage. 23 refs., 3 tabs.

  16. Domestic Options to Offshore Oil and Gas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kash, Don E.

    1983-01-01

    The continuing controversey over offshore oil/gas has given impetus to searching for domestic energy alternatives. The need for and types of several alternative sources are discussed. Indicates that the United States needs to pursue both offshore and other domestic liquid-fuel sources if it is to avoid becoming increasingly dependent on imports.…

  17. U.S. Offshore Wind Port Readiness

    SciTech Connect

    C. Elkinton, A. Blatiak, H. Ameen

    2013-10-13

    This study will aid decision-makers in making informed decisions regarding the choice of ports for specific offshore projects, and the types of investments that would be required to make individual port facilities suitable to serve offshore wind manufacturing, installation and/or operations.

  18. Domestic Options to Offshore Oil and Gas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kash, Don E.

    1983-01-01

    The continuing controversey over offshore oil/gas has given impetus to searching for domestic energy alternatives. The need for and types of several alternative sources are discussed. Indicates that the United States needs to pursue both offshore and other domestic liquid-fuel sources if it is to avoid becoming increasingly dependent on imports.…

  19. 31 CFR 547.406 - Offshore transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 547.406 Section 547.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... REGULATIONS Interpretations § 547.406 Offshore transactions. The prohibitions in § 547.201 on transactions or...

  20. Structural features offshore northern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yicheng Yang, Eason; Liu, Char-Shine; Chang, Jih-Hsin; Chiu, Chien-Hsuan

    2016-04-01

    The area offshore northern Taiwan is the place where East China Sea Shelf extends into the Southern Okinawa Trough, and where pre-Pleistocene arc-continental collision had occurred. Comparison between fault distribution in the area with previously published results suggests that the fault distribution and regional structural framework are still controversial. Using marine multichannel seismic reflection data collected in 3 marine geophysical survey cruises, we remapped the fault distribution in the northern offshore area of Taiwan. By analyzing all the seismic profiles using the KINGDOM suite (a seismic interpretation software), a new fault distribution map is presented, and a subsurface unconformity PRSB (Pliocene reflection sequence boundary) is identified. Six major NE-SW trending high-angle normal faults cut the PRSB can be traced to the fault systems on land northernmost Taiwan. These normal faults are located between the Southern Okinawa Trough and the East China Sea continental shelf basin, and have been suggested to be reactivated from pre-existing reverse faults. The offsets of fault ramps in PRSB increase toward southeast. The isopach map of the study area compiled shows that sediment strata overlying PRSB thin toward northwest.

  1. Underbalanced drilling benefits now available offshore

    SciTech Connect

    Vozniak, J.P.; Cuthbertson, B.; Nessa, D.O.

    1997-05-01

    Offshore underbalanced drilling (UBD) is a reality. Applications in older, partially depleted fields and new fields are being considered. However, low productivity reservoirs and fields with sub normal pressures causing drilling problems are currently the main targets for offshore UBD. With proper planning and the correct technique, both jointed pipe and coiled tubing UBD drilling operations have been carried out offshore with success. The main concerns for offshore UBD have been altered drilling practices and surface production system operation. These issues have been examined and equipment has been designed and tested to address them. Environmental, safety and health issues are paramount and have been studied carefully. Detailed well planning, engineering, and flow modeling have proven critical for successful offshore UBD operations. Examples are given from oil and gas fields.

  2. Offshore Wind Market and Economic Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Bruce Duncan

    2014-08-27

    This report is the third annual assessment of the U.S. offshore wind market. It includes the following major sections: Section 1: key data on developments in the offshore wind technology sector and the global development of offshore wind projects, with a particular focus on progress in the United States; Section 2: analysis of policy developments at the federal and state levels that have been effective in advancing offshore wind deployment in the United States; Section 3: analysis of actual and projected economic impact, including regional development and job creation; Section 4: analysis of developments in relevant sectors of the economy with the potential to affect offshore wind deployment in the United States

  3. Influence of collector heat capacity and internal conditions of heat exchanger on cool-down process of small gas liquefier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saberimoghaddam, Ali; Bahri Rasht Abadi, Mohammad Mahdi

    2017-07-01

    Joule-Thomson cooling systems are commonly used in gas liquefaction. In small gas liquefiers, transient cool-down time is high. Selecting suitable conditions for cooling down process leads to decrease in time and cost. In the present work, transient thermal behavior of Joule-Thomson cooling system including counter current helically coiled tube in tube heat exchanger, expansion valve, and collector was studied using experimental tests and simulations. The experiments were performed using small gas liquefier and nitrogen gas as working fluid. The heat exchanger was thermally studied by experimental data obtained from a small gas liquefier. In addition, the simulations were performed using experimental data as variable boundary conditions. A comparison was done between presented and conventional methods. The effect of collector heat capacity and convection heat transfer coefficient inside the tubes on system performance was studied using temperature profiles along the heat exchanger.

  4. Novel in situ liquefying antimicrobial wrap for preventing tissue expander infections following breast reconstructive surgeries.

    PubMed

    Rosenblatt, Joel; Viola, George M; Reitzel, Ruth A; Jamal, Mohamed A; Crosby, Melissa A; Raad, Issam

    2016-02-01

    Breast reconstruction surgeries using tissue expanders (TEs) have highly reported infection rates. To decrease this, we developed a method for disinfecting TEs and surgical pockets, where an antimicrobial solution was applied as a solid film at implantation that subsequently liquefied in situ to provide extended prophylaxis. Silicone discs cut from TEs were covered with gelatin-based films containing minocycline (M) and rifampin (R). Discs and films soaked in saline were subsequently challenged with pathogen at days 1, 3, 7, and 10 and quantified for potential biofilm formation. Discs that were not harvested at each specific time points were refreshed with sterile saline. The discs were challenged with clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE), and multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MDR-PA). Recoveries of adherent organisms from uncovered silicone discs and gelatin-wrapped discs without added antimicrobial agents were >5 × 10(4) CFU/disc for each organism at each time point. Experimental 0.1%M/0.05%R gelatin films completely inhibited all challenge organisms from attaching to the silicone (p < 0.05) at each time point through day 10. Cytotoxicity was assessed by incubating films with HEK-293T human fibroblasts. There were no significant differences in HEK-293T cell survival between controls and any of the antimicrobial films. The in situ liquefying, bioabsorable, antimicrobial wrap prevented biofilm formation by microorganisms on silicone surfaces in vitro with minimal cytotoxicity.

  5. Extraction of Fucoxanthin from Raw Macroalgae excluding Drying and Cell Wall Disruption by Liquefied Dimethyl Ether

    PubMed Central

    Kanda, Hideki; Kamo, Yuichi; Machmudah, Siti; Wahyudiono; Goto, Motonobu

    2014-01-01

    Macroalgae are one of potential sources for carotenoids, such as fucoxanthin, which are consumed by humans and animals. This carotenoid has been applied in both the pharmaceutical and food industries. In this study, extraction of fucoxanthin from wet brown seaweed Undaria pinnatifida (water content was 93.2%) was carried out with a simple method using liquefied dimethyl ether (DME) as an extractant in semi-continuous flow-type system. The extraction temperature and absolute pressure were 25 °C and 0.59 MPa, respectively. The liquefied DME was passed through the extractor that filled by U. pinnatifida at different time intervals. The time of experiment was only 43 min. The amount of fucoxanthin could approach to 390 μg/g dry of wet U. pinnatifida when the amount of DME used was 286 g. Compared with ethanol Soxhlet and supercritical CO2 extraction, which includes drying and cell disruption, the result was quite high. Thus, DME extraction process appears to be a good method for fucoxanthin recovery from U. pinnatifida with improved yields. PMID:24796299

  6. Effect of adding sodium hexametaphosphate liquefier on basic properties of calcium phosphate cements.

    PubMed

    Hesaraki, S; Zamanian, A; Moztarzadeh, F

    2009-02-01

    Sodium hexametaphosphate (Na-HMP) is a common liquefying agent widely used in the ceramics industry for modifying the rheological behavior of ceramic slurries. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of Na-HMP on several properties of calcium phosphate cements (CPCs). Various types of CPCs were prepared by mixing the same powder, namely, a mixture of tetracalcium phosphate and dicalcium phosphate anhydrate, with various liquids, namely, distilled water, Na(2)HPO(4) solutions, and Na-HMP solutions. The setting time, mechanical strength, rheological properties, and injectability of the cement pastes were examined in this work. Also, X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques were employed for phase analysis and morphological evaluations, respectively. The results showed that, compared to CPCs made with water and Na(2)HPO(4) solutions, the CPC pastes made with Na-HMP solutions had improved stability and injectability but prolonged setting times. The XRD and SEM studies showed that Na-HMP inhibited the growth of apatite crystals during soaking of the cements in Ringer's solution. Thus, the CPC made with Na-HMP solution had lower compressive strength than those made with water or Na(2)HPO(4) solutions. Although Na-HMP could improve the injectability and stability of the CPC paste, it impaired other basic properties of the cement. Thus, it is not an appropriate liquefier additive.

  7. The Gas to Liquids Industry and Natural Gas Markets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-11-08

    LNG will earn the natural gas consumption price, and natural gas used for GTL will earn the diesel , or more generally, middle distillate product... diesel fuel and home heating fuel. The GTL industry might become an important competitor to the liquefied natural gas industry (LNG) in the effort to...9 1 GTL uses natural gas as a raw material to produce liquid petroleum products, specifically middle distillates, which include diesel fuel

  8. Comparison of aliphatic hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenylethers, and organochlorine pesticides in Pacific sanddab (Citharichthys sordidus) from offshore oil platforms and natural reefs along the California coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gale, Robert W.; Tanner, Michael J.; Love, Milton S.; Nishimoto, Mary M.; Schroeder, Donna M.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the relative exposure of Pacific sanddab (Citharichthys sordidus) to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at oil-production platforms was reported, indicating negligible exposure to PAHs and no discernible differences between exposures at platforms and nearby natural areas sites. In this report, the potential for chronic PAH exposure in fish is reported, by measurement of recalcitrant, higher molecular weight PAHs in tissues of fish previously investigated for PAH metabolites in bile. A total of 34 PAHs (20 PAHs, 11 alkylated PAHs, and 3 polycyclic aromatic thiophenes) were targeted. In addition, legacy contaminants—polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs),—and current contaminants, polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) linked to endocrine disruption, were measured by gas chromatography with electron-capture or mass spectrometric detection, to form a more complete picture of the contaminant-related status of fishes at oil production platforms in the Southern California Bight. No hydrocarbon profiles or unresolved complex hydrocarbon background were found in fish from platforms and from natural areas, and concentrations of aliphatics were low less than 100 nanograms per gram (ng/g) per component]. Total-PAH concentrations in fish ranged from 15 to 37 ng/g at natural areas and from 8.7 to 22 ng/g at platforms. Profiles of PAHs were similar at all natural and platform sites, consisting mainly of naphthalene and methylnaphthalenes, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, and pyrene. Total-PCB concentrations (excluding non-ortho-chloro-substituted congeners) in fish were low, ranging from 7 to 22 ng/g at natural areas and from 10 to 35 ng/g at platforms. About 50 percent of the total-PCBs at all sites consisted of 11 congeners: 153 > 138/163/164 > 110 > 118 > 15 > 99 > 187 > 149 > 180. Most OCPs, except dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)-related compounds, were not detectable or were at concentrations of less than 1 ng/g in fish. p

  9. 49 CFR 192.1015 - What must a master meter or small liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) operator do to implement this...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What must a master meter or small liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) operator do to implement this subpart? 192.1015 Section 192.1015 Transportation Other... a master meter or small liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) operator do to implement this subpart? (a...

  10. 49 CFR 192.1015 - What must a master meter or small liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) operator do to implement this...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What must a master meter or small liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) operator do to implement this subpart? 192.1015 Section 192.1015 Transportation Other... a master meter or small liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) operator do to implement this subpart? (a...

  11. 49 CFR 192.1015 - What must a master meter or small liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) operator do to implement this...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What must a master meter or small liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) operator do to implement this subpart? 192.1015 Section 192.1015 Transportation Other... a master meter or small liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) operator do to implement this subpart? (a...

  12. 49 CFR 192.1015 - What must a master meter or small liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) operator do to implement this...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What must a master meter or small liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) operator do to implement this subpart? 192.1015 Section 192.1015 Transportation Other... a master meter or small liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) operator do to implement this subpart? (a...

  13. 49 CFR 192.1015 - What must a master meter or small liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) operator do to implement this...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What must a master meter or small liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) operator do to implement this subpart? 192.1015 Section 192.1015 Transportation Other... a master meter or small liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) operator do to implement this subpart? (a...

  14. Final report on EURAMET.QM-S6/1195: Bilateral comparison of liquefied hydrocarbon mixtures in constant pressure (piston) cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Andrew S.; Downey, Michael L.; Milton, Martin J. T.; van der Veen, Adriaan M. H.; Zalewska, Ewelina T.; Li, Jianrong

    2013-01-01

    Traceable liquid hydrocarbon mixtures are required in order to underpin measurements of the composition and other physical properties of LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) and LNG (liquefied natural gas), thus meeting the needs of an increasingly large European industrial market. The development of traceable liquid hydrocarbon standards by National Measurement Institutes (NMIs) was still at a relatively early stage at the time this comparison was proposed in 2011. NPL and VSL, who were the only NMIs active in this area, had developed methods for the preparation and analysis of such standards in constant pressure (piston) cylinders, but neither laboratory had Calibration and Measurement Capabilities (CMCs) for these mixtures. This report presents the results of EURAMET 1195, the first comparison of liquid hydrocarbon mixtures between NMIs, which assessed the preparation and analytical capabilities of NPL and VSL for these mixtures. The comparison operated between August 2011 and January 2012. Each laboratory prepared a liquid hydrocarbon standard with nominally the same composition and these standards were exchanged for analysis. The results of the comparison show a good agreement between the laboratories' results and the comparison reference values for the six components with amount fractions greater than 1.0 cmol/mol (propane, propene, iso-butene, n-butane, iso-butane and 1-butene). Measurement of the three components with lower amount fractions (1,3-butadiene, iso-pentane and n-pentane) proved more challenging. In all but one case, the differences from the comparison reference values for these three components were greater than the expanded measurement uncertainty. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by EURAMET, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual

  15. Offshore Wind Energy Systems Engineering Curriculum Development

    SciTech Connect

    McGowan, Jon G.; Manwell, James F.; Lackner, Matthew A.

    2012-12-31

    Utility-scale electricity produced from offshore wind farms has the potential to contribute significantly to the energy production of the United States. In order for the U.S. to rapidly develop these abundant resources, knowledgeable scientists and engineers with sound understanding of offshore wind energy systems are critical. This report summarizes the development of an upper-level engineering course in "Offshore Wind Energy Systems Engineering." This course is designed to provide students with a comprehensive knowledge of both the technical challenges of offshore wind energy and the practical regulatory, permitting, and planning aspects of developing offshore wind farms in the U.S. This course was offered on a pilot basis in 2011 at the University of Massachusetts and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), TU Delft, and GL Garrad Hassan have reviewed its content. As summarized in this report, the course consists of 17 separate topic areas emphasizing appropriate engineering fundamentals as well as development, planning, and regulatory issues. In addition to the course summary, the report gives the details of a public Internet site where references and related course material can be obtained. This course will fill a pressing need for the education and training of the U.S. workforce in this critically important area. Fundamentally, this course will be unique due to two attributes: an emphasis on the engineering and technical aspects of offshore wind energy systems, and a focus on offshore wind energy issues specific to the United States.

  16. NREL Offshore Balance-of-System Model

    SciTech Connect

    Maness, Michael; Maples, Benjamin; Smith, Aaron

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has investigated the potential for 20% of nationwide electricity demand to be generated from wind by 2030 and, more recently, 35% by 2050. Achieving this level of wind power generation may require the development and deployment of offshore wind technologies. DOE (2008) has indicated that reaching these 2030 and 2050 scenarios could result in approximately 10% and 20%, respectively, of wind energy generation to come from offshore resources. By the end of 2013, 6.5 gigawatts of offshore wind were installed globally. The first U.S. project, the Block Island Wind Farm off the coast of Rhode Island, has recently begun operations. One of the major reasons that offshore wind development in the United States is lagging behind global trends is the high capital expenditures required. An understanding of the costs and associated drivers of building a commercial-scale offshore wind plant in the United States will inform future research and help U.S. investors feel more confident in offshore wind development. In an effort to explain these costs, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has developed the Offshore Balance-of-System model.

  17. Offshore Fish Community: Ecological Interactions | Science ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The offshore (>80 m) fish community of Lake Superior is made up of predominately native species. The most prominent species are deepwater sculpin, kiyi, cisco, siscowet lake trout, burbot, and the exotic sea lamprey. Bloater and shortjaw cisco are also found in the offshore zone. Bloater is abundant in the offshore zone but appears restricted to depths shallower than 150 m (Selgeby and Hoff 1996; Stockwell et al. 2010), although it occuppied greater depths several decades ago (Dryer 1966; Peck 1977). Shortjaw is relatively rare in the offshore zone (Hoff and Todd 2004; Gorman and Hoff 2009; Gorman and Todd 2007). Lake whitefish is also known to frequent bathymetric depths >100 m (Yule et al. 2008b). In this chapter, we develop a conceptual model of the offshore food web based on data collected during 2001-2005 and on inferences from species interactions known for the nearshore fish community. We then develop a framework for examination of energy and nutrient movements within the pelagic and benthic habitats of the offshore zone and across the offshore and nearshore zones. To document research results.

  18. Installation of an offshore structure

    SciTech Connect

    Will, S.A.; Young, C.E.

    1981-04-07

    In the installation of a jacket or substructure component of an offshore platform on the sea floor over an underwater fixture containing one or more wellheads, a jacket is first ballasted to rest in a vertical orientation on the sea floor. Power winches are mounted atop the jacket above the water line and anchored mooring lines are connected to the winches via fairlead sheaves which define points of attachment for the mooring lines to the jacket. The jacket is deballasted to float with a near sea bottom clearance and is maneuvered horizontally with the power winches toward the underwater fixture. Docking guides carried by the jacket engage vertical guideposts driven drilled into the sea floor at preselected locations relative to the underwater fixture to align the jacket with the underwater fixture. The jacket is then lowered into the desired on-bottom position during controlled ballasting procedures. Finally, piles are driven through hollow jacket columns to anchor the jacket to the sea bottom.

  19. Geology of offshore central California

    SciTech Connect

    McCulloch, D.S.; Lewis, S.D.

    1988-03-01

    The offshore central California margin records Mesozoic and Cenozoic events attributable to continental and oceanic plate interactions. Terranes, some carried thousands of kilometers northward on the Kula and/or Farallon plates, were accreted to North America by late Eocene. Following accretion to North America, terranes along the margin were silvered and redistributed by strike-slip motion along the San Andreas and related faults. During Oligocene global low sea level, much of the coastal margin was subareal and erosion stripped Upper Cretaceous and Eocene strata from elevated basement blocks. These basement blocks subsequently subsided along large-displacement near-coastal faults, and shallow-water marine upper Oligocene and/or lower Miocene volcanics on the present shelf were covered by hemipelagic sediment at bathyal to mid-bathyal depths. This subsidence coincided with tectonism and significant changes in water depth elsewhere around the Pacific margin, and may have been related to a change in Pacific and North American plate relative motion that produced transtensional motion along the California margin. Transtension may have initiated both rupture and volcanism along the San Andreas fault system at about 23 Ma and wrench tectonic deformation on the shelf. During the late Miocene, growing structural highs on the shelf edge formed elongate shelf basins. A compressional component in Pacific and North America plate relative motion, which began between 5 and 3 Ma, produced strike-parallel folds and compressional faults that now dominate the structural grain of the offshore basins. Continued compressive deformation along coastal California is documented by active thrust faults, rapid coastal uplift, and earthquake focal mechanism solutions indicative of northeast-southwest compression.

  20. 47 CFR 22.1037 - Application requirements for offshore stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Offshore Radiotelephone Service § 22.1037 Application requirements for offshore stations. Applications for new Offshore Radiotelephone Service stations must contain an... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application requirements for offshore stations...

  1. Offshore drilling to increase in 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-05-01

    A mid-year report presents a worldwide overview of offshore drilling operations. The Gulf of Mexico and the North Sea are posting substantial gains as companies rush to drill the millions of acres acquired in those sectors both last year and in previous offerings. The Middle East, Latin America and the Asia/Pacific offshore theaters will see only slight increases. The Mediterranean and African regions are expected to sustain declines. A region-by-region summary of the 1984 offshore forecast is presented showing exploration and appraisal activities, as well as development for all of these areas.

  2. Certification of offshore mooring steel wire ropes

    SciTech Connect

    Lohne, P.W.

    1996-12-31

    The trend to produce oil in increasingly deeper water has led to the development of floating production solutions for the exploitation of the energy resources in these areas. It is a fact that steel wire ropes have been used and are being proposed as line segments in the majority of the mooring systems of these units/ships. This paper specifies requirements for the materials, design, manufacture and testing of large diameter offshore mooring steel wire ropes and may serve as a technical reference document in contractual matters between the purchaser and the manufacturer. Typical applications covered are permanently moored floating production systems (FPS), offshore loading systems and mobile offshore units.

  3. Current and future offshore activities in Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Hnatiuk, J.

    1987-06-01

    The development of innovative exploratory drilling systems for Canada's harsh Arctic offshore areas over the past decade and future activity in these areas, including possible production concepts, are discussed. The results can be applied in other Arctic areas of the world, including offshore Alaska. This operating experience will advance technology and serve as a basis for the design of Arctic offshore production and transportation systems. Unique technology has been developed and successfully used in the discovery of major accumulations of hyrodcarbons. Continued technological advances are anticipated to have widespread Arctic applications in both exploratory and production operations.

  4. Psychosocial burden among offshore drilling platform employees.

    PubMed

    Leszczyńska, Irena; Jeżewska, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Conditions of work on offshore drilling platforms are particularly hard due to extreme environmental situations created both by nature and technological processes. Oil drilling workers employed on the open sea are potentially exposed to permanently high stress. Apart from the obvious objective factors affecting drilling platform employees, a great role in the general work-related stress level is played by the working conditions and work-related psychosocial factors, defined according to Karask's concept as demands, control, and social support. A total of 184 drill platform workers were examined using objective and subjective research methods. The level of subjective stress among drilling platform workers is lower than the level of objective stress and the stress resulting from prognoses related with specificity of work in extremely hard conditions (audit). The examinations of drilling platform workers reveal a positive role of stress in psychological adaptation, being a special case of the "work ethos" and attachment to the firm. In such investigations of work-related stress on drilling platforms, which are very specific workplaces, a multi-aspect character, sociological and economic aspects, organizational culture conditions in the firm, and a tendency to conceal ailments and the stress experienced should be taken into account. It is important to apply measures referring to at least three different types of evidence (objective demands, subjective stress, health problems reported). Otherwise, the result reflecting work-related stress may not be objective and far from the truth.

  5. 30 CFR 75.1106-5 - Maintenance and tests of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders; accessories and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... cylinders, cylinder accessories, torches, and other welding, cutting, and burning equipment shall be labeled “defective” and taken out of service. (c) Each qualified person assigned to perform welding, cutting, or burning with liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas shall be equipped with a wrench specifically...

  6. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 180 - Internal Self-closing Stop Valve Emergency Closure Test for Liquefied Compressed Gases

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Internal Self-closing Stop Valve Emergency Closure Test for Liquefied Compressed Gases A Appendix A to Part 180 Transportation Other Regulations Relating... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) CONTINUING QUALIFICATION AND MAINTENANCE OF PACKAGINGS Pt. 180, App. A Appendix A to...

  7. 49 CFR 173.304a - Additional requirements for shipment of liquefied compressed gases in specification cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., toxic & mixtures or solution thereof filled w/nitrogen, carbon dioxide, or air (see Notes 7 and 8). Not... specification cylinders. (a) Detailed filling requirements. Liquefied gases (except gas in solution) must be... that no DOT 4E or 39 packaging may be filled and shipped with a mixture containing a pyrophoric...

  8. Acetaminophen Versus Liquefied Ibuprofen for Control of Pain During Separation in Orthodontic Patients: A Randomized Triple Blinded Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Hosseinzadeh Nik, Tahereh; Shahsavari, Negin; Ghadirian, Hannaneh; Ostad, Seyed Nasser

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this randomized clinical study was to investigate the effectiveness of acetaminophen 650 mg or liquefied ibuprofen 400 mg in pain control of orthodontic patients during separation with an elastic separator. A total of 101 patients with specific inclusion criteria were divided randomly into three groups (acetaminophen, liquefied ibuprofen, and placebo). They were instructed to take their drugs one hour before separator placement and every six hours afterward (five doses in total). They recorded their discomfort on visual analog scales immediately after separator placement, 2 hours later, 6 hours later, at bedtime, and 24 hours after separator placement. Repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare the mean pain scores between the three groups. Data were collected from 89 patients. The pain increased with time in all groups. Pain scores were statistically lower in the analgesic groups compared with the placebo group (P.value<0.001), but no statistically significant difference was found in mean pain scores between the two drug groups (acetaminophen and liquefied ibuprofen) (P.value=1). Acetaminophen and liquefied ibuprofen have similar potential in pain reduction during separation.

  9. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 180 - Internal Self-closing Stop Valve Emergency Closure Test for Liquefied Compressed Gases

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Internal Self-closing Stop Valve Emergency Closure..., App. A Appendix A to Part 180—Internal Self-closing Stop Valve Emergency Closure Test for Liquefied Compressed Gases 1. In performing this test, all internal self-closing stop valves must be opened. Each...

  10. EMS offshore. A new horizon for paramedics.

    PubMed

    Mallard, A S

    1991-10-01

    The difficulty in getting medical aid to offshore drilling platforms can be a source of life-threatening delays. Recently, some companies have charted new waters by actually stationing EMS crews on their rigs.

  11. Civil engineering in the Arctic offshore

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, F.L.; Machemehl, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the current state of practice and theory in the civil engineering aspects of offshore development in the Arctic. It also covers the emerging concepts and requirements, research and development needs, and a critique of present undergraduate programmes.

  12. Engineering Challenges for Floating Offshore Wind Turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Butterfield, S.; Musial, W.; Jonkman, J.; Sclavounos, P.

    2007-09-01

    The major objective of this paper is to survey the technical challenges that must be overcome to develop deepwater offshore wind energy technologies and to provide a framework from which the first-order economics can be assessed.

  13. Offshore fresh groundwater reserves as a global phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, Vincent E. A.; Groen, Jacobus; Kooi, Henk; Person, Mark; Ge, Shemin; Edmunds, W. Mike

    2013-12-01

    The flow of terrestrial groundwater to the sea is an important natural component of the hydrological cycle. This process, however, does not explain the large volumes of low-salinity groundwater that are found below continental shelves. There is mounting evidence for the global occurrence of offshore fresh and brackish groundwater reserves. The potential use of these non-renewable reserves as a freshwater resource provides a clear incentive for future research. But the scope for continental shelf hydrogeology is broader and we envisage that it can contribute to the advancement of other scientific disciplines, in particular sedimentology and marine geochemistry.

  14. Offshore fresh groundwater reserves as a global phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Post, Vincent E A; Groen, Jacobus; Kooi, Henk; Person, Mark; Ge, Shemin; Edmunds, W Mike

    2013-12-05

    The flow of terrestrial groundwater to the sea is an important natural component of the hydrological cycle. This process, however, does not explain the large volumes of low-salinity groundwater that are found below continental shelves. There is mounting evidence for the global occurrence of offshore fresh and brackish groundwater reserves. The potential use of these non-renewable reserves as a freshwater resource provides a clear incentive for future research. But the scope for continental shelf hydrogeology is broader and we envisage that it can contribute to the advancement of other scientific disciplines, in particular sedimentology and marine geochemistry.

  15. New perspectives in offshore wind energy.

    PubMed

    Failla, Giuseppe; Arena, Felice

    2015-02-28

    The design of offshore wind turbines is one of the most fascinating challenges in renewable energy. Meeting the objective of increasing power production with reduced installation and maintenance costs requires a multi-disciplinary approach, bringing together expertise in different fields of engineering. The purpose of this theme issue is to offer a broad perspective on some crucial aspects of offshore wind turbines design, discussing the state of the art and presenting recent theoretical and experimental studies.

  16. New perspectives in offshore wind energy

    PubMed Central

    Failla, Giuseppe; Arena, Felice

    2015-01-01

    The design of offshore wind turbines is one of the most fascinating challenges in renewable energy. Meeting the objective of increasing power production with reduced installation and maintenance costs requires a multi-disciplinary approach, bringing together expertise in different fields of engineering. The purpose of this theme issue is to offer a broad perspective on some crucial aspects of offshore wind turbines design, discussing the state of the art and presenting recent theoretical and experimental studies. PMID:25583869

  17. Arctic offshore drilling: a new challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Wetmore, S.B.

    1985-11-01

    The arctic offshore environment provides the drilling industry with its greatest challenge yet. Problems due to sea ice, high wind, extreme cold and poor bottom soil have required the design of special structures appropriate only for arctic offshore drilling. The challenge lies not just in the obvious factors of temperature and ice, but also the basic physics of ice problems are not well understood. The arctic environment and the petroleum industry are discussed.

  18. 2014 Offshore Wind Market and Economic Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Bruce

    2014-08-25

    The objective of this report is to provide a comprehensive annual assessment of the U.S. offshore wind market.This 3rd annual report focuses on new developments that have occurred in 2014. The report provides stakeholders with a reliable and consistent data source addressing entry barriers and U.S. competitiveness in the offshore wind market. Available for download are both the full report and the report's underlying data.

  19. Engineering the Big Chill: The story of JLab’s Central Helium Liquefier

    SciTech Connect

    Westfall, Catherine

    2014-03-29

    This article tells the story of the Central Helium Liquefier (CHL) at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab), one of the US National Laboratories. JLab’s successful superconducting radio frequency accelerator was only possible because a group of JLab engineers successfully tackled a complex of difficulties to build a cryogenic system that included the CHL, a task that required advancing the frontier of cryogenic technology. Ultimately, these cryogenic advances were applied far beyond JLab to the benefit of cutting-edge programs at other US national laboratories (Oak Ridge, Brookhaven, and the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams at MSU) as well as NASA. In addition, this innovation story dramatizes the sort of engineer-driven technological problem solving that allows the successful launch and operation of experimental projects. Along the way, the CHL story also provides an important addition to our understanding of the role played by engineers and industry in creating knowledge at physics laboratories.

  20. Au sensitized ZnO nanorods for enhanced liquefied petroleum gas sensing properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakate, U. T.; Bulakhe, R. N.; Lokhande, C. D.; Kale, S. N.

    2016-05-01

    The zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods have grown on glass substrate by spray pyrolysis deposition (SPD) method using zinc acetate solution. The phase formation, surface morphology and elemental composition of ZnO films have been investigated using X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) techniques. The liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) sensing response was remarkably improved by sensitization of gold (Au) surface noble metal on ZnO nanorods film. Maximum LPG response of 21% was observed for 1040 ppm of LPG, for pure ZnO nanorods sample. After Au sensitization on ZnO nanorods film sample, the LPG response greatly improved up to 48% at operating temperature 623 K. The improved LPG response is attributed Au sensitization with spill-over mechanism. Proposed model for LPG sensing mechanism discussed.