Science.gov

Sample records for offshore production platforms

  1. Caisson shield for arctic offshore production platform

    SciTech Connect

    Clinton, J. D.; Reusswig, G. H.

    1985-03-12

    A caisson shield for the protection of an offshore production platform and, more particularly, a caisson shield for use in an arctic environment for the protection of the offshore structure in iceberg-infested waters which is capable of absorbing the destructive forces of an impact produced by a large iceberg. The caisson shield consists of an essentially annular concrete structure encircling at least the submerged support section of the offshore production platform including vertically upstanding concentrically spaced, annular side walls, a horizontal slab base resting on the marine bottom on which the side walls are supported, and a slab top supported on the side walls, and including annularly spaced internal radial partition walls whereby the entire overall caisson shield structure provides a generally toroidal configuration incorporating a plurality of closed compartments. In one embodiment of the invention, located along the outer annular wall is a plurality of arcuate wall sections forming a series of arches and enclosed compartments between each arcuate wall section and the outer annular wall, which impart a ''scallop-like'' configuration to the outer circumference of the caisson shield. The ''scallop-like'' outer walls are capable of resisting and absorbing extremely high ice loads by being adapted to progressively crush the leading edge of an impacting iceberg and to thereby minimize the crush of the iceberg against the caisson shield before coming to rest against the shield.

  2. Gravity base of offshore production platform with ice-penetrating peripheral nose sections

    SciTech Connect

    Gerwick, B.C.; Price, E.B.; Taylor, T.P.

    1983-12-27

    A gravity base offshore production platform structure and, more particularly, a production platform for use in an arctic environment, including an encircling structure having a predetermined configuration the protection of the offshore structure in iceberg-infested waters which are capable of resisting the destructive forces of an impact produced by a large iceberg. The gravity base offshore production platform structure consists of a monolithic, massive concrete structure of a configuration providing a plurality or horizontal array of upright, mostly cylindrical compartments, which is supported on a concrete or slab foundation nesting on the marine floor. Generally, although not necessarily, the compartmented structure rises above the marine surface and is covered by a concrete slab or similar covering structure to thereby form closed compartments within the monolithic structure. The circumference of the concrete structure incorporates a plurality of ice-deflecting nose portions which are integrally formed with the wall structure of the exteriorly located compartments of the array, and are reinforced to withstand large iceberg forces upon impact. These reinforced nose portions impart either a ''scallop-like'' configuration to the circumference of the structure, or when in the shape of substantially pointed wall sections, a ''starpoint'' form capable of resisting and absorbing extremely high energy of large, fast moving and strong icebergs by progressively crushing the leading edge of an impacting iceberg.

  3. Design features of offshore oil production platforms influence their susceptibility to biocorrosion.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Kathleen E; Davidova, Irene A; Nunn, Heather S; Stamps, Blake W; Stevenson, Bradley S; Souquet, Pierre J; Suflita, Joseph M

    2017-08-01

    Offshore oil-producing platforms are designed for efficient and cost-effective separation of oil from water. However, design features and operating practices may create conditions that promote the proliferation and spread of biocorrosive microorganisms. The microbial communities and their potential for metal corrosion were characterized for three oil production platforms that varied in their oil-water separation processes, fluid recycling practices, and history of microbially influenced corrosion (MIC). Microbial diversity was evaluated by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and numbers of total bacteria, archaea, and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) were estimated by qPCR. The rates of (35)S sulfate reduction assay (SRA) were measured as a proxy for metal biocorrosion potential. A variety of microorganisms common to oil production facilities were found, but distinct communities were associated with the design of the platform and varied with different locations in the processing stream. Stagnant, lower temperature (<37 °C) sites in all platforms had more SRB and higher SRA compared to samples from sites with higher temperatures and flow rates. However, high (5 mmol L(-1)) levels of hydrogen sulfide and high numbers (10(7) mL(-1)) of SRB were found in only one platform. This platform alone contained large separation tanks with long retention times and recycled fluids from stagnant sites to the beginning of the oil separation train, thus promoting distribution of biocorrosive microorganisms. These findings tell us that tracking microbial sulfate-reducing activity and community composition on off-shore oil production platforms can be used to identify operational practices that inadvertently promote the proliferation, distribution, and activity of biocorrosive microorganisms.

  4. Offshore platform cathodic protection retrofits

    SciTech Connect

    Turnipseed, S.P.

    1996-10-01

    Cathodic protection (CP) is the primary technique used for underwater corrosion control on the majority of offshore steel structures. Offshore platforms are often kept in service far beyond their original design life. Refurbishment of the CP system is required when adequate protection can no longer be maintained. Various offshore platform CP retrofit designs are discussed.

  5. Reassessment of offshore platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Nair, V.V.D.; Kuhn, J.M. )

    1993-05-01

    Data from Hurricane Andrew demonstrated that the systems and procedures in place for evacuating offshore workers and minimizing oil spills and environmental damage functioned as planned. While the vast majority of the platforms survived the storm with no damage, a few of the older platforms (installed prior to 1972) either collapsed or suffered severe damage. The collapsed platforms were designed with insufficient deck height to clear the storm waves. In recent years, the API RP 2A has introduced guidance for minimum air gap, minimum structures, platform inspection and platform reuse. These provisions, coupled with natural attribution of the older platforms, will significantly improve the performance of platforms in the future. The reliability of NDT techniques to detect major structural defects should be improved through continued research. While flooded member detection is used by several operators as a screening tool to detect major defects underwater, its reliability is not always good and further research is needed in this area. Another area of high priority research is related to the use of Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROV) to perform underwater inspection of structures. 51 refs., 7 figs.

  6. Sediment porewater toxicity assessment studies in the vicinity of offshore oil and gas production platforms in the Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, R.S.; Chapman, D.C.; Presley, B.J.; Biedenbach, J.M.; Robertson, L.; Boothe, P.; Kilada, R.; Wade, T.; Montagna, P.

    1996-01-01

    As part of a multidisciplinary program to assess the potential long-term impacts of offshore oil and gas exploration and production activities in the Gulf of Mexico, sediment chemical analyses and porewater toxicity tests were conducted in the vicinity of five offshore platforms. Based on data from sea urchin fertilization and embryological development assays, toxicity was observed near four of the five platforms sampled; the majority of the toxic samples were collected within 150 m of a platform. There was excellent agreement among the results of porewater tests with three different species (sea urchin embryological development, polychaete reproduction, and copepod nauplii survival). The sediment concentrations of several metals were well in excess of sediment quality assessment guidelines at a number of stations, and good agreement was observed between predicted and observed toxicity. Porewater metal concentrations compared with EC50, LOEC, and NOEC values generated for water-only exposures indicated that the porewater concentrations for several metals were high enough to account for the observed toxicity. Results of these studies utilizing highly sensitive toxicity tests suggest that the contaminant-induced impacts from offshore platforms are limited to a localized area in the immediate vicinity of the platforms. ?? 1996 NRC.

  7. Arctic offshore platform

    SciTech Connect

    Bhula, D.N.

    1984-01-24

    An offshore structure is disclosed for use in drilling and producing wells in arctic regions having a conical shaped lower portion that extends above the surface of the water and a cylindrical upper section. The conical portion is provided with a controlled stiffness outer surface for withstanding the loads produced by ice striking the structure. The stiffness properties of the outer shell and flexible members are designed to distribute the load and avoid high local loads on the inner parts of the structure.

  8. Recent developments in high-toughness welding for the construction of offshore production platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, D.S.; Garland, J.G.; Yates, D.

    1983-05-01

    Research work into the fundamental aspects of the design of high toughness welding consumables is outlined with particular emphasis on the role of changing steel technology. The benefits of the work to date are described including the development of a new range of SMA and submerged arc consumable combinations capable of producing high toughness, high productivity joints at the levels of moisture resistance required for fabricating thick steel sections for critical offshore applications.

  9. Offshore drilling platform protection device

    SciTech Connect

    Magill, J.M.

    1981-12-15

    A description is given of an offshore drilling platform protection device for use on an offshore oil well drilling vessel including a drilling platform supportable on a plurality of extendable legs wherein each leg is moved by a rack gear assembly. The rack gear assembly includes an otherwise exposed first gear which engages a second gear positioned in a housing having a rectangular corner opening through which the first gear extends, the protection device including first and second protective sections adapted for mounting over the first gear adjacent to the rectangular corner of the housing for the second gear, the first and second protective sections cooperating to provide an l-shaped opening which communicates with the opening at the second gear housing for protecting the first gear while allowing the first gear to mesh with the second gear.

  10. Offshore drilling and production structure

    SciTech Connect

    Crockett, R.K.; Palmer, H.E.; Stenning, D.G.

    1982-02-09

    The invention relates to an off-shore marine structure that provides an elevated support for a drilling and/or production platform. A structure comprised of three interlocking components is provided, the first component being a large foundation base installed on the sea bed; the second being a conical shaped support component which is engagable with the foundation base and which, releasably carries the third platform supporting component. In the preferred form, the platform supporting component comprises a centrally-disposed vertical column, means being provided to facilitate engagement of the column with the platform and the second component and to subsequently elevate the platform to an operating height above sea level.

  11. Analysis of bacterial diversity and metals in produced water, seawater and sediments from an offshore oil and gas production platform.

    PubMed

    Yeung, C William; Law, Brent A; Milligan, Tim G; Lee, Kenneth; Whyte, Lyle G; Greer, Charles W

    2011-10-01

    Produced water is one of the largest waste products routinely discharged into the ocean from offshore oil and gas platforms. This study analyzed bacterial communities and metals in the produced water, surrounding seawater, and sediment around the Thebaud platform. The bacterial community within the produced water was different from the seawater (SAB=13.3), but the discharge had no detectable effect on the bacterial communities in the seawater (SAB>97). In contrast, genomic analysis of sediments revealed that the bacterial community from 250 m was different (SAB=70) from other locations further from the discharge, suggesting that the produced water had a detectable effect on the bacterial community in the sediment closest to the discharge. These near-field sediments contained elevated concentrations of manganese and iron that are associated with the produced water effluent. The results suggested that the discharge of produced water has influenced the bacterial community structure of sediments adjacent to the platform. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Model refinement for offshore platforms: Experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Min; Chen, Zongli; Wu, Yanjian

    2017-08-01

    Offshore jacket platforms are widely used in offshore oil and gas exploitation. Finite element models of such structures need to have many degrees of freedom (DOFs) to represent the geometrical detail of complex structures, thereby leading to incompatibility in the number of DOFs of experimental models. To bring them both to the same order while ensuring that the essential eigen- properties of the refined model match those of experimental models, an extended model refinement procedure is presented in this paper. Vibration testing of an offshore jacket platform model is performed to validate the applicability of the proposed approach. A full-order finite element model of the platform is established and then tuned to meet the measured modal properties identified from the acceleration signals. Both model reduction and modal expansion methods are investigated, as well as various scenarios of sensor arrangements. Upon completion of the refinement, the updated jacket platform model matches the natural frequencies of the measured model well.

  13. Fire-resistant wellhead equipment for offshore platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M.R.; Keene, K.

    1984-02-01

    A new generation of fire-resistant wellhead equipment has been developed for offshore platforms. This paper presents the design concepts and principles of operation of this new equipment, and it describes the engineering approach taken during its development. These new wellheads and christmas trees have survived numerous laboratory fire tests which simulated offshore platform fire conditions. No leakage was permissible during the test burns nor during the subsequent cooldown periods. The laboratory fire test results confirmed the performance predicted by computer Finite Element Analysis and verified the design procedures employed. This new fire resistant wellhead equipment promises to significantly reduce the fire hazard associated with the production of oil and gas from offshore platform wells.

  14. Issues in offshore platform research - Part 1: Semi-submersibles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, R.; Kim, Tae-Wan; Sha, O. P.; Misra, S. C.

    2010-09-01

    Availability of economic and efficient energy resources is crucial to a nation's development. Because of their low cost and advancement in drilling and exploration technologies, oil and gas based energy systems are the most widely used energy source throughout the world. The inexpensive oil and gas based energy systems are used for everything, i.e., from transportation of goods and people to the harvesting of crops for food. As the energy demand continues to rise, there is strong need for inexpensive energy solutions. An offshore platform is a large structure that is used to house workers and machinery needed to drill wells in the ocean bed, extract oil and/or natural gas, process the produced fluids, and ship or pipe them to shore. Depending on the circumstances, the offshore platform can be fixed (to the ocean floor) or can consist of an artificial island or can float. Semi-submersibles are used for various purposes in offshore and marine engineering, e.g. crane vessels, drilling vessels, tourist vessels, production platforms and accommodation facilities, etc. The challenges of deepwater drilling have further motivated the researchers to design optimum choices for semi-submersibles for a chosen operating depth. In our series of eight papers, we discuss the design and production aspects of all the types of offshore platforms. In the present part I, we present an introduction and critical analysis of semi-submersibles.

  15. Outbreak of Hepatitis A on an Offshore Petroleum Platform, Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Kosatsky, Tom; Middaugh, John P.; Hall, David

    1988-01-01

    An outbreak of 8 cases of hepatitis A among the 36-member crew of an offshore Alaska petroleum production platform was linked to a previous outbreak in an urban day-care center. Transmission of hepatitis A on the platform related most plausibly to refrigerated food items contaminated by a cook with mild disease. Control efforts included identifying and treating contacts of case patients who had traveled far from the platform before becoming ill. Early serologic confirmation of diagnosed cases and rapid reporting to public health authorities are essential to prevent disease transmission. Timely investigation can limit the administration of immune globulin to persons at high risk of contracting the disease. PMID:3348024

  16. Personnel evacuation apparatus for an offshore platform

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, A.F.

    1987-04-28

    An apparatus is described for evacuating personnel from an offshore platform in all weather conditions to a position on the ocean surface a safe distance from the platform the apparatus comprising: a boat launching ramp; flotation means; boat means adapted to be supported and launched by the ramp; means for releasably securing the boat means within the ramp means adjacent the entry end; means for releasing the latch means to permit the flotation means to move the launching ramp from its stowed position to a deployed position; and means for releasing the boat securing means, thereby permitting the boat means to slide down the ramp and be launched from the exit end of the ramp onto the surface of the ocean a safe distance from the platform.

  17. Response of wave excited offshore platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Shih-Jung; Hahn, G.D.

    1995-09-01

    A study of the resultants of inertia and drag force components induced by waves on offshore structures is made, and the relations between these resultants and the corresponding modal forces that govern the structural response are examined. The information and concepts reported elucidate the main factors that control such forces. Using the deep-water approximation of linear wave theory and the Morison equation, it is shown that the inertia and drag components of the modal forces can be expressed in terms of the sea surface kinematics. This treatment of the wave excitations advances the understanding of their characteristics and contributes to forming a basis for efficient, reliable evaluations of the response of wave- excited offshore platforms.

  18. Psychosocial burden among offshore drilling platform employees.

    PubMed

    Leszczyńska, Irena; Jeżewska, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Conditions of work on offshore drilling platforms are particularly hard due to extreme environmental situations created both by nature and technological processes. Oil drilling workers employed on the open sea are potentially exposed to permanently high stress. Apart from the obvious objective factors affecting drilling platform employees, a great role in the general work-related stress level is played by the working conditions and work-related psychosocial factors, defined according to Karask's concept as demands, control, and social support. A total of 184 drill platform workers were examined using objective and subjective research methods. The level of subjective stress among drilling platform workers is lower than the level of objective stress and the stress resulting from prognoses related with specificity of work in extremely hard conditions (audit). The examinations of drilling platform workers reveal a positive role of stress in psychological adaptation, being a special case of the "work ethos" and attachment to the firm. In such investigations of work-related stress on drilling platforms, which are very specific workplaces, a multi-aspect character, sociological and economic aspects, organizational culture conditions in the firm, and a tendency to conceal ailments and the stress experienced should be taken into account. It is important to apply measures referring to at least three different types of evidence (objective demands, subjective stress, health problems reported). Otherwise, the result reflecting work-related stress may not be objective and far from the truth.

  19. Semi-submerged modular offshore platform

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Y.T.

    1994-12-31

    A modular offshore platform which can be used in a deep sea oil exploration is introduced here. A hybrid of guyed tower and tension leg platforms will be studied. A double-layer dodecahedrous float will be stabilized by a series of guyed cables and clump weights that are anchored to the ocean floor. The platform is built on a dodecahedrous float, which can be fabricated onshore and transported to the job site by direct towing. Buoyancy of the dodecahedrous float will counteract the tremendous weight exerted on this offshore structure. With the help of the guy cables and clump weights anchored to the ocean floor, the structure can be column stabilized to a designated location ready for needed drilling operation. Dodecahedron is one of the natural crystal forms which can be built up by modular space components. It is an ideal structure for easy assembly in a hostile, physically restrictive sea environment. In this article only the major factors affecting the analysis is considered. Much more detailed considerations will be required in the final design, reflecting environmental forces in action, stresses during erection, and the fabrication details.

  20. Offshore platform structure for artic waters

    SciTech Connect

    Einstabland, T.

    1984-11-27

    An offshore platform structure of the gravity type intended to be installed on a sea bed in artic or corresponding waters. The platform structure comprises a substructure intended to be completely submerged and supported by the sea bed when in installed position, a superstructure extending up from the substructure and up above the sea bed and a deck superstructure supported by the superstructure above the sea level. A fender is provided intended to protect the superstructure against drifting ice and icebergs, the substructure being provided with a preferably horizontal top support slab supporting the fender, the fender being movably arranged on said support slab and comprising a preferably compartmented cylindrical ring-shaped body with a large weight resting preferably freely on the substructure, intended to be arranged apart from the superstructure when in normal position.

  1. Research on systematization and advancement of shipbuilding production management for flexible and agile response for high value offshore platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Young-Joo; Woo, Jong-Hun; Shin, Jong-Gye

    2011-09-01

    Recently, the speed of change related with enterprise management is getting faster than ever owing to the competition among companies, technique diffusion, shortening of product lifecycle, excessive supply of market. For the example, the compliance condition (such as delivery date, product quality, etc.) from the ship owner is getting complicated and the needs for the new product such as FPSO, FSRU are coming to fore. This paradigm shift emphasize the rapid response rather than the competitive price, flexibility and agility rather than effective and optimal perspective for the domestic shipbuilding company. So, domestic shipbuilding companies have to secure agile and flexible ship production environment that could respond change of market and requirements of customers in order to continue a competitive edge in the world market. In this paper, I'm going to define a standard shipbuilding production management system by investigating the environment of domestic major shipbuilding companies. Also, I'm going to propose a unified ship production management and system for the operation of unified management through detail analysis of the activities and the data flow of ship production management. And, the system functions for the strategic approach of ship production management are investigated through the business administration tools such as performance pyramid, VDT and BSC. Lastly, the research of applying strategic KPI to the digital shipyard as virtual execution platform is conducted.

  2. Safety off-shore drilling and pumping platform

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, B.H.

    1983-07-26

    A safety off-shore drilling, pumping and storage platform for oilwells is provided, wherein the structure has a first funnel like structure which floats near the ocean floor connected by a long tube to a second floating funnel platform which floats on the surface of the water.

  3. Evaluating alternatives for decommissioning California's offshore oil and gas platforms.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Brock B

    2015-10-01

    This paper introduces a series of 6 additional papers in this issue that describe an in-depth analysis of options for decommissioning oil and gas platforms offshore southern California. Although current leases require lessees in both state and federal waters to completely remove all production facilities and restore the seafloor to its pre-platform condition, other options have emerged since these leases were signed. Laws and regulations in other jurisdictions (particularly in federal waters) have evolved to allow a number of other uses such as aquaculture, alternative energy production, and artificial reefing. In response, the California Natural Resources Agency initiated an effort to investigate the issues associated with these and other decommissioning alternatives. The papers in this series are the result of the second phase in this process, a broad investigation of the engineering, economic, and environmental costs and benefits of the most feasible and likely options. In addition to the project's final report, the authors produced an interactive mathematical decision model, PLATFORM, that enables users to explore the implications of different decommissioning projects and options, as well as the effects of different approaches to valuing the associated costs and benefits. © 2015 SETAC.

  4. Earthquake alarm system for the Maui-A offshore platform, New Zealand

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, R.G.; Beck, J.L.

    1983-02-01

    Situated in the Tasman Sea, the Maui A offshore gas production platform has an earthquake alarm system that gives immediate warning when the seismic accelerations reach half the platform's design level. The system monitors only the response of the lower modes of the platform, as these make the major contribution to the stresses in the structure. In order to reduce the risk of false alarms, a radio link with similar detectors on shore confirms that an earthquake has occurred.

  5. Portable life support for instrumentation of an offshore platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mull, M. M.; Coffin, C. L.

    1972-01-01

    A compressor was used to supply air through a nylon hose to the offshore platform field engineer working at the bottom of the piling. Air quality in the pile was sampled periodically for carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide, and combustible gases by an universal tester and an explosion meter.

  6. Design of self-contained sensor for monitoring of deep-sea offshore platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yang; Yu, Yan; Zhang, Chunwei; Dong, Weijie; Ou, Jinping

    2013-04-01

    Offshore platform, which is the base of the production and living in the sea, is the most important infrastructure for developing oil and gas resources. At present, there are almost 6500 offshore platforms servicing in the 53 countries' sea areas around the world, creating great wealth for the world. In general, offshore platforms may work for 20 years, however, offshore platforms are expensive, complex, bulky, and so many of them are on extended active duty. Because of offshore platforms servicing in the harsh marine environment for a long time, the marine environment have a great impact on the offshore platforms. Besides, with the impact and erosion of seawater, and material aging, the offshore platform is possible to be in unexpected situations when a badly sudden situation happens. Therefore, it is of great significance to monitor the marine environment and offshore platforms. The self-contained sensor for deep-sea offshore platform with its unique design, can not only effectively extend the working time of the sensor with the capability of converting vibration energy to electrical energy, but also simultaneously collect the data of acceleration, inclination, temperature and humidity of the deep sea, so that we can achieve the purpose of monitoring offshore platforms through analyzing the collected data. The self-contained sensor for monitoring of deep-sea offshore platform includes sensing unit, data collecting and storage unit, the energy supply unit. The sensing unit with multi-variables, consists of an accelerometer LIS344ALH, an inclinometer SCA103T and a temperature and humidity sensor SHT11; the data collecting and storage unit includes the MSP430 low-power MCU, large capacity memory, clock circuit and the communication interface, the communication interface includes USB interface, serial ports and wireless interface; in addition, the energy supply unit, converting vibration to electrical energy to power the overall system, includes the electromagnetic

  7. Development of fast wireless detection system for fixed offshore platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhigang; Yu, Yan; Jiao, Dong; Wang, Jie; Li, Zhirui; Ou, Jinping

    2011-04-01

    Offshore platforms' security is concerned since in 1950s and 1960s, and in the early 1980s some important specifications and standards are built, and all these provide technical basis of fixed platform design, construction, installation and evaluation. With the condition that more and more platforms are in serving over age, the research about the evaluation and detection technology of offshore platform has been a hotspot, especially underwater detection, and assessment method based on the finite element calculation. For fixed platform structure detection, conventional NDT methods, such as eddy current, magnetic powder, permeate, X-ray and ultrasonic, etc, are generally used. These techniques are more mature, intuitive, but underwater detection needs underwater robot, the necessary supporting tools of auxiliary equipment, and trained professional team, thus resources and cost used are considerable, installation time of test equipment is long. This project presents a new kind of fast wireless detection and damage diagnosis system for fixed offshore platform using wireless sensor networks, that is, wireless sensor nodes can be put quickly on the offshore platform, detect offshore platform structure global status by wireless communication, and then make diagnosis. This system is operated simply, suitable for offshore platform integrity states rapid assessment. The designed system consists in intelligence acquisition equipment and 8 wireless collection nodes, the whole system has 64 collection channels, namely every wireless collection node has eight 16-bit accuracy of A/D channels. Wireless collection node, integrated with vibration sensing unit, embedded low-power micro-processing unit, wireless transceiver unit, large-capacity power unit, and GPS time synchronization unit, can finish the functions such as vibration data collection, initial analysis, data storage, data wireless transmission. Intelligence acquisition equipment, integrated with high

  8. Secondary capping beams for offshore drilling platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Albaugh, E. K.

    1985-08-13

    A pair of I-shaped elongated girders secured to, and extending outwardly from, the capping beams of a four pile platform, to form cantilever secondary capping beams which support modified self-contained drilling rigs of a size and weight normally installed on eight pile platforms. Rig modifications comprise separation of pump and engine packages, a pipe rack extension, and a novel skidding system.

  9. Cathodic protection on concrete offshore platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Heuze, B.

    1980-05-01

    Experience with five cathodically protected North Sea concrete platforms has demonstrated the value of interconnecting the concrete-reinforcement steel with cathodically protected metal items on the structure (rather than insulating the steel from them) as a means of bringing the entire structure under the protection of the corrosion-control system. Lessons learned from this experience point out the importance of the duct material in safeguarding the prestressing tendons, the limitations of cathodic protection in cases of coating cracking and disbondment, and the precautions to be taken against stray welding currents. An improved approach to corrosion prevention focuses on the design philosophy, the current required by the reinforcing bar and well casing, the corrosion protection inside piping shafts and risers, and the required monitoring systems.

  10. Suppression of resonance of offshore platform in irregular waves

    SciTech Connect

    Ishida, H.; Komura, T.

    1994-12-31

    A theoretical solution of the vibration of offshore platforms due to irregular waves has been presented by using the equivalent linearized method. This solution has been verified by comparison with the experimental data from the viewpoint of time variation and the spectrum analysis. In the case of irregular waves as well as periodic waves, the resonance can be suppressed by bringing the resonance point close to the cancellation point.

  11. Standardization of Meteorological Data from FINO Offshore Platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leiding, Tina; Bastigkeit, Ilona; Bégué, Friederike; Gates, Lydia; Herklotz, Kai; Müller, Stefan; Neumann, Thomas; Schwenk, Patrick; Senet, Christian; Tinz, Birger; Wilts, Friedrich

    2015-04-01

    In order to investigate conditions for offshore wind power generation in the German coastal waters, three research platforms were constructed in the North Sea (FINO1 and 3) and the Baltic Sea (FINO2). Measurement masts at each offshore platform are equipped with a range of meteorological sensors at heights of 30 to 100 m above sea level. Standardized analysis and interpretation of the data is necessary to compare the results of the different platforms and will improve the knowledge of the marine ambient conditions at the three locations. International Electrotechnical Commission Standards (IEC) cannot always be applied as some requirements are not applicable to offshore masts e.g. due to the wake of the structure. In the FINO-Wind project, therefore, a standardization method is developed. Recorded measurement data are checked automatically on the basis of a comprehensive quality control. The routine starts with a formal check, followed by climatological, temporal, repetition, and consistency checks. After successful completion of each sequence, the data are assigned standardized quality flags. By default, 10-minute data are processed. A special focus is on mast effects on the wind data of the three masts due to the different shapes of the construction (square or triangular shapes and different boom structures). These effects are investigated in comparison with wind tunnel measurements, LiDAR, Computational Fluid Dynamics calculations, and a 'uniform ambient flow mast correction' method. An adjustment for such effects will be applied to all wind data. The comparison of sensor equipment, its installation and orientation as well as of the mast constructions will lead to suggestions on how wind measurements at offshore platforms mast can be improved. The research project FINO-Wind is funded under the 'Wind Energy' initiative of the German Federal Ministry for the Economic Affairs and Energy for the period 2013 to 2015. For further information see www.dwd.de/fino-wind.

  12. Satellite data lift the veil on offshore platforms in the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongxue; Sun, Chao; Sun, Jiaqi; Li, Hongyi; Zhan, Wenfeng; Yang, Yuhao; Zhang, Siyu

    2016-09-19

    Oil and gas exploration in the South China Sea (SCS) has garnered global attention recently; however, uncertainty regarding the accurate number of offshore platforms in the SCS, let alone their detailed spatial distribution and dynamic change, may lead to significant misjudgment of the true status of offshore hydrocarbon production in the region. Using both fresh and archived space-borne images with multiple resolutions, we enumerated the number, distribution, and annual rate of increase of offshore platforms across the SCS. Our results show that: (1) a total of 1082 platforms are present in the SCS, mainly located in shallow-water; and (2) offshore oil/gas exploitation in the SCS is increasing in intensity and advancing from shallow to deep water, and even to ultra-deep-water. Nevertheless, our findings suggest that oil and gas exploration in the SCS may have been over-estimated by one-third in previous reports. However, this overestimation does not imply any amelioration of the potential for future maritime disputes, since the rate of increase of platforms in disputed waters is twice that in undisputed waters.

  13. Satellite data lift the veil on offshore platforms in the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yongxue; Sun, Chao; Sun, Jiaqi; Li, Hongyi; Zhan, Wenfeng; Yang, Yuhao; Zhang, Siyu

    2016-09-01

    Oil and gas exploration in the South China Sea (SCS) has garnered global attention recently; however, uncertainty regarding the accurate number of offshore platforms in the SCS, let alone their detailed spatial distribution and dynamic change, may lead to significant misjudgment of the true status of offshore hydrocarbon production in the region. Using both fresh and archived space-borne images with multiple resolutions, we enumerated the number, distribution, and annual rate of increase of offshore platforms across the SCS. Our results show that: (1) a total of 1082 platforms are present in the SCS, mainly located in shallow-water; and (2) offshore oil/gas exploitation in the SCS is increasing in intensity and advancing from shallow to deep water, and even to ultra-deep-water. Nevertheless, our findings suggest that oil and gas exploration in the SCS may have been over-estimated by one-third in previous reports. However, this overestimation does not imply any amelioration of the potential for future maritime disputes, since the rate of increase of platforms in disputed waters is twice that in undisputed waters.

  14. Satellite data lift the veil on offshore platforms in the South China Sea

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yongxue; Sun, Chao; Sun, Jiaqi; Li, Hongyi; Zhan, Wenfeng; Yang, Yuhao; Zhang, Siyu

    2016-01-01

    Oil and gas exploration in the South China Sea (SCS) has garnered global attention recently; however, uncertainty regarding the accurate number of offshore platforms in the SCS, let alone their detailed spatial distribution and dynamic change, may lead to significant misjudgment of the true status of offshore hydrocarbon production in the region. Using both fresh and archived space-borne images with multiple resolutions, we enumerated the number, distribution, and annual rate of increase of offshore platforms across the SCS. Our results show that: (1) a total of 1082 platforms are present in the SCS, mainly located in shallow-water; and (2) offshore oil/gas exploitation in the SCS is increasing in intensity and advancing from shallow to deep water, and even to ultra-deep-water. Nevertheless, our findings suggest that oil and gas exploration in the SCS may have been over-estimated by one-third in previous reports. However, this overestimation does not imply any amelioration of the potential for future maritime disputes, since the rate of increase of platforms in disputed waters is twice that in undisputed waters. PMID:27641542

  15. Ecological investigations of petroleum production platforms in the central Gulf of Mexico: volume II. Final report 1978

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    Surveys of biofouling macroepibiota and fishes were made in June 1978 at four production platforms offshore Louisiana and were supplemented by limited observations made at an additional 15 platforms in August and September of 1978. Biofouling communities of nearshore platforms were dominated by barnacles in terms of biomass, whereas the communities on offshore platforms were dominated by bivalves. Primary production was largely restricted to surface zones of nearshore platforms but at some offshore platforms primary producers were abundant to depths of 30 m.

  16. Trophic structure of polychaetes around an offshore gas platform.

    PubMed

    Punzo, E; Strafella, P; Scarcella, G; Spagnolo, A; De Biasi, A M; Fabi, G

    2015-10-15

    The distribution of polychaetes associated with an offshore gas platform built on a muddy-sandy bottom in the northern Adriatic Sea was investigated with emphasis on their feeding structure. Polychaete species were collected at different distances from the rig using a Van Veen grab. Assessment of the polychaete community and trophic groups for impacts related to the presence of the platform demonstrated significantly different abundances at rising distances from the rig. The present findings highlight an effect of the rig on the spatial distribution of polychaete assemblages. Even though the effects of gas platforms on surrounding benthic communities have been investigated in the Adriatic Sea, no studies have addressed the distribution of polychaete trophic groups along a gradient based on distance from the rig. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Ecology of Oil/Gas Platforms Offshore California

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, M.J.; Cowen, R.K.; Kauwling, R.J.; Mitchell, C.T.

    1987-02-01

    The report summarizes the ecology of fishes and attached epifauna that associate with offshore oil and gas platforms of California and an evaluation of actual and potential use of the platforms for mariculture. The attached invertebrate biota in the upper 35 m of the water column is dominated by bay (Mytilus edulis) or California (M. californianus) mussels, depending upon location and/or age of the structure, with other mollusks, barnacles and polychaetes being of secondary importance. The attached community may take up to five years to fully develop. The fish fauna at shallow (less than 45 m of water), nearshore platforms is dominated by surfperches and rockfishes; major species in this assemblage are about equally divided between those with relatively large mouths (which consume large organisms such as crabs and small fish) and those with relatively small mouths (which graze on small epifauna and planktonic organisms). The fish fauna may take two years to attain a relatively stable community structure. The fish fauna at nearshore platforms is similar to that at natural reefs and oil islands in the area, but is more diverse among common species. As opposed to these other structures, platforms lack fish which associated with algae.

  18. Proceedings of the 25th annual offshore technology conference. Volume 2 - Platform and marine system design

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    This is volume 2 of a 4 volume set of conference proceedings dealing with offshore development of mineral resources. This particular conference centers around the design, construction, and installation of offshore platforms and underwater pipelines. It contains papers which discuss retrofitting of various types of platforms to meet current safety standards. It also discusses design criteria used to minimize wave motion in offshore platforms, moorings, and various types of support facilities. Papers also describe methods for welding joints in both platforms and pipelines. Many papers specifically address economic aspects of offshore development and the cost of complying with increasing safety regulations and standards. A few papers also deal directly with engineered safety systems as they apply to offshore platforms.

  19. Federal offshore statistics: leasing - exploration - production - revenue

    SciTech Connect

    Essertier, E.P.

    1984-01-01

    Federal Offshore Statistics is a numerical record of what has happened since Congress gave authority to the Secretary of the Interior in 1953 to lease the Federal portion of the Continental Shelf for oil and gas. The publication updates and augments the first Federal Offshore Statistics, published in December 1983. It also extends a statistical series published annually from 1969 until 1981 by the US Geological Survey (USGS) under the title Outer Continental Shelf Statistics. The USGS collected royalties and supervised operation and production of minerals on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) until the Minerals Management Service (MMS) took over these functions in 1982. Statistics are presented under the following topics: (1) highlights, (2) leasing, (3) exploration and development, (4) production and revenue, (5) federal offshore production by ranking operator, 1983, (6) reserves and undiscovered recoverable resources, and (7) oil pollution in the world's oceans.

  20. Telemedicine via satellite to support offshore oil platforms.

    PubMed

    Mair, Fiona; Fraser, Susan; Ferguson, James; Webster, Karyn

    2008-01-01

    On any one day, approximately 15,000-28,000 oil industry personnel are employed in the North Sea oil and gas industry. First aid in this remote environment is provided by non-medical staff on the rigs. Remote specialist advice via videoconferencing should improve the quality of offshore health care and reduce avoidable medical evacuations. Satellite communications and videoconferencing equipment was installed on the 'Alwyn North' oil platform, with medical advice provided via a call centre in Milan. Over a nine-month period, trial telemedicine links were conducted approximately twice per week. The three onshore physicians were very satisfied on each occasion with communications and diagnostic data image quality, including the ultrasound screening carried out by the rig provider. Remote specialist advice via videoconferencing should reduce unnecessary and/or untimely patient evacuation to hospital or onshore for medical assessment.

  1. Ice-breaking off-shore drilling and production structure

    SciTech Connect

    Loire, R.

    1986-09-02

    An ice-breaking drilling and production structure is described for use with an off-shore vertically disposed well shaft and the like having one end extending downwardly toward a sea floor and having an opposite end extending upwardly to a point above sea level. The structure consists of: (a) a platform member having outer edges and a generally downwardly facing lower surface which slopes upwardly toward at least one outer edge thereof and adapted to be positioned on a shaft so that the sloping surface extends both above and below sea level; and (b) means for flexibly connecting the platform to a shaft in a manner which will allow the platform to lift and/or to tilt with respect to the shaft as ice moves under the sloping generally downwardly facing lower surface to transfer part of the weight of the platform to the ice and thereby break the same.

  2. Infrared inspection applied to offshore platforms: Petrobras experience at Campos Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdini, Edson A.; Veratti, Attilio B.

    2002-03-01

    Bacia de Campos (Rio de Janeiro - Brazil) is one of the biggest offshore petroleum fields in the world today. In June 2001, Bacia de Campos, having more than 490 oil wells, 34 offshore platforms and 7 modified ships in operation, reached 1,3 million barrels/day. If compared to OPEP countries only nine of them got an average production higher than 1 million barrels/day in 2000, which means it can be placed on the 10th position in the rank of oil producers. In this context this work aims not only to show the results achieved within the introduction of thermographic inspections in offshore oil production (platforms and ships), but also the financial results (ROI - Return of Investment) considering the use of this particular technique. Bacia de Campos got a ROI around 7 million dollars in the last 4 years, which means a hundred times higher than the total cost of thermographic services in the same period. As far as we know this is one of the best results already reported in the world. We also present the methodology applied to analyze thermal anomalies in electrical components and data management software, including advanced Digital Reports sent via Internet.

  3. [A survey of current status of noise hazard on offshore oil platforms].

    PubMed

    Ning, Y

    2016-08-20

    Objective: To investigate the noise distribution characteristics, workers' exposure to noise, and protective measures against noise on offshore oil platforms. Methods: Six offshore oil platforms with a similar scale of production from China National Offshore Oil Corporation were selected from June to October, 2015 to conduct a field investigation of occupational health and detection of risk factors for occupational diseases and to know the current status of noise hazard on offshore oil platforms. Results: Among the 373 sites for noise measurement, 69.7% had a noise level of ≥80 dB (A) ; among the 196 sites for noise measurement in the area with noisy equipment, 86.7% had a noise level of ≥80 dB (A) ; among the 177 sites for noise measurement in the area without noisy equipment, 50.8% had a noise level of ≥80 dB (A) . The actual sound attenuation of earplugs used on platforms was 18.6 dB (A) , and if they were worn correctly, they had a maximum value of noise protection of 103.6 dB (A) . The workers engaged in indoor operation were exposed to noise for 0.5~1.0 hour per day, and the 40 h/week equivalent sound level (weekly noise exposure, LEX, w) met the requirements in GBZ 2.2-2007 Occupational exposure limits for hazardous agents in the workplace Part 2: Physical agents[85 dB (A) ]. The workers engaged in outdoor operation were exposed to noise for 6.0~8.0 hours per day, and the over-standard rate of LEX, w was 53.7%. The noise exposure level showed a significant difference between the two groups, and indoor operation workers had a significantly lower noise exposure level than outdoor operation workers[ (69.8±3.4) dB (A) vs (85.5±3.5) dB (A) , P<0.05]. Conclusion: Noise sources on offshore oil platforms show the characteristic of centralized distribution, and noisy equipment have a great impact on the area without noisy equipment. The noise exposure level differs significantly between workers engaged in indoor and outdoor operation, and noise protection

  4. Experiments on an offshore platform model by FBG sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dongsheng; Li, Hongnan; Ren, Liang; Sun, Li; Zhou, Jing

    2004-07-01

    Optical fiber sensors show superior potential for structural health monitoring of civil structures to ensure their structural integrity, durability and reliability. Apparent advantages of applying fiber optic sensors to a marine structure include fiber optic sensors" immunity of electromagnetic interference and electrical hazard when used near metallic elements over a long distance. The strains and accelerations of the newly proposed model of a single post jacket offshore platform were monitored by fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors. These FBG sensors were attached to the legs and the top of the platform model in parallel with electric strain gauges or traditional piezoelectric accelerometers, respectively. Experiments were conducted under a variety of loading conditions, including underwater base earthquake simulation dynamic tests and static loading tests. Underwater seismic shaking table was utilized to provide the appropriate excitations. The natural frequencies measured by the FBG accelerometer agree well with those measured by piezo-electrical accelerometers. The monitoring network shows the availability of applying different fiber optic sensors in long-distance structural health monitoring with frequency multiplexing technology. Finally, the existing problems of packaging, strain transferring ratio between the bare fiber and the host structure on which the fiber embedded, and installation and protection of fiber optic sensors are emphasized.

  5. Probability based earthquake load and resistance factor design criteria for offshore platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Bea, R.G.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes a probability reliability based formulation to determine earthquake Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) parameters for conventional, steel, pile supported, tubular membered platforms that is proposed as a basis for earthquake design criteria and guidelines for offshore platforms that are intended to have worldwide applicability. The formulation is illustrated with application to platforms located in five areas: offshore California, Venezuela (Rio Caribe), the East Coast of Canada, in the Caspian Sea (Azeri), and the Norwegian sector of the North Sea.

  6. A risk assessment model for produced water discharge from offshore petroleum platforms-development and validation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lin; Chen, Zhi; Lee, Kenneth

    2008-11-01

    Produced water discharge accounts for the greater portion of wastes arising from offshore oil and gas production operations. Development and expansion of Canada's offshore oil and gas reserves has led to concerns over the potential long-term impacts of produced water discharges to the ocean. To examine this emerging environmental issue at a regional scale, an integrated risk assessment approach was developed in this study based on the princeton ocean model (POM), a random walk (RW) and Monte Carlo simulation. The use of water quality standards arrayed in a Monte Carlo design in the developed approach has served to reflect uncertainties and quantify environmental risks associated with produced water discharge. The model was validated against field data from a platform operating off Canada's east coast, demonstrating its usefulness in supporting effective management of future produced water discharge.

  7. Modeling and Simulation of Offshore Wind Power Platform for 5 MW Baseline NREL Turbine

    PubMed Central

    Roni Sahroni, Taufik

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the modeling and simulation of offshore wind power platform for oil and gas companies. Wind energy has become the fastest growing renewable energy in the world and major gains in terms of energy generation are achievable when turbines are moved offshore. The objective of this project is to propose new design of an offshore wind power platform. Offshore wind turbine (OWT) is composed of three main structures comprising the rotor/blades, the tower nacelle, and the supporting structure. The modeling analysis was focused on the nacelle and supporting structure. The completed final design was analyzed using finite element modeling tool ANSYS to obtain the structure's response towards loading conditions and to ensure it complies with guidelines laid out by classification authority Det Norske Veritas. As a result, a new model of the offshore wind power platform for 5 MW Baseline NREL turbine was proposed. PMID:26550605

  8. Modeling and Simulation of Offshore Wind Power Platform for 5 MW Baseline NREL Turbine.

    PubMed

    Roni Sahroni, Taufik

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the modeling and simulation of offshore wind power platform for oil and gas companies. Wind energy has become the fastest growing renewable energy in the world and major gains in terms of energy generation are achievable when turbines are moved offshore. The objective of this project is to propose new design of an offshore wind power platform. Offshore wind turbine (OWT) is composed of three main structures comprising the rotor/blades, the tower nacelle, and the supporting structure. The modeling analysis was focused on the nacelle and supporting structure. The completed final design was analyzed using finite element modeling tool ANSYS to obtain the structure's response towards loading conditions and to ensure it complies with guidelines laid out by classification authority Det Norske Veritas. As a result, a new model of the offshore wind power platform for 5 MW Baseline NREL turbine was proposed.

  9. Method for scale reduction in off-shore platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Ehlers, D.M.; Hopkins, D.N.

    1987-12-15

    A process for reducing scale formation wherein sea water, incompatible with connate water, is used as the flooding medium forming thereby a mixture with liquid hydrocarbonaceous fluids where the fluids are produced in off-shore platforms is described comprising: (a) producing the mixture of water and liquid hydrocarbonaceous fluids to the surface from the formation; (b) directing the mixture into a water/oil separator where the liquid hydrocarbonaceous fluids are substantially separated from the mixture and the remaining hydrocarbonaceous fluid is entrained in the form of oil droplets within the separated aqueous mixture; (c) removing the aqueous mixture with oil droplets therein from the water/oil separator and thereafter mixing the combination with additional sea water, or other aqueous solution having a similar concentration of sulfate ions, in a vessel containing a coalescing means which sea water upon contact with the connate water causes a precipitate to form thereby reducing the scale forming tendency of the water; and (d) collecting liquid hydrocarbons from step (b) and from the coalescing means, and disposing of the resultant water.

  10. Assembly of conductor guides for off-shore drilling platform

    SciTech Connect

    Campo, J. J.

    1985-12-31

    A conductor guide assembly for conductors of an off-shore well platform having a jacket with an interior pile for extending from a sea bed to above a water level which is over the sea bed. In accordance with one inventive feature, a first guide mechanism comprising a plurality of vertically spaced supports which hold the tubular conduits within the interior pile is assembled in a plurality of sections wherein the upper support of each section is provided with removable bolt-on units for supporting the first guide mechanism as successive sections are jointed thereto. In accordance with another inventive feature, a second guide mechanism comprises a pair of circular plates positioned to rotate within a lower deck opening and which are connected together and define a plurality of passages for receiving the plurality of conductors that extend in the interior pile. The connected plates are temporarily attached to the lower deck for transport so that the second guide mechanism can be detached and rotated to align the passages with the intended positions for the conductors whereafter the second guide mechanism is permanently attached to the lower deck. In accordance with another inventive feature, a third guide mechanism comprising a plurality of radially extending beams is supported on an upper deck. The second guide mechanism also has passages for access to the conductors and it too can be rotated into a position of alignment with the conductors and thereafter permanently fixed to the upper deck.

  11. 33 CFR 165.155 - Northville Industries Offshore Platform, Riverhead, Long Island, New York-safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northville Industries Offshore... Coast Guard District § 165.155 Northville Industries Offshore Platform, Riverhead, Long Island, New York...) The waters within a 500 yard radius of the Northville Industries Offshore Platform, Long Island, New...

  12. New Modeling Tool Analyzes Floating Platform Concepts for Offshore Wind Turbines (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-02-01

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed a new complex modeling and analysis tool capable of analyzing floating platform concepts for offshore wind turbines. The new modeling tool combines the computational methodologies used to analyze land-based wind turbines with the comprehensive hydrodynamic computer programs developed for offshore oil and gas industries. This new coupled dynamic simulation tool will enable the development of cost-effective offshore technologies capable of harvesting the rich offshore wind resources at water depths that cannot be reached using the current technology.

  13. Abundance of Corals on Offshore Oil and Gas Platforms in the Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Kolian, Stephan R; Sammarco, Paul W; Porter, Scott A

    2017-08-01

    Scleractinian, octocoral, and antipatharian corals have colonized many of the offshore oil and gas platforms in the northern Gulf of Mexico. We surveyed 25 offshore oil and gas platforms for these cnidarians. Few to no corals were detected on inshore, shallow-water structures at <25 m depth; however, the abundance of corals increased, ranging from 14 to 194/m(2), on platforms in waters deeper ≥25 m. The most common coral encountered were Tubastraea coccinea (Scleractinia) and Telesto spp. (Octocorallia). The data suggest that the offshore platforms located in waters of >25-30 m in the study area are often colonized by these corals. We recommend that structures located in deeper waters should be surveyed for coral and, if the populations are substantial, consider alternate uses for the retired platforms, and leaving them in place, when feasible.

  14. Abundance of Corals on Offshore Oil and Gas Platforms in the Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolian, Stephan R.; Sammarco, Paul W.; Porter, Scott A.

    2017-08-01

    Scleractinian, octocoral, and antipatharian corals have colonized many of the offshore oil and gas platforms in the northern Gulf of Mexico. We surveyed 25 offshore oil and gas platforms for these cnidarians. Few to no corals were detected on inshore, shallow-water structures at <25 m depth; however, the abundance of corals increased, ranging from 14 to 194/m2, on platforms in waters deeper ≥25 m. The most common coral encountered were Tubastraea coccinea (Scleractinia) and Telesto spp. (Octocorallia). The data suggest that the offshore platforms located in waters of >25-30 m in the study area are often colonized by these corals. We recommend that structures located in deeper waters should be surveyed for coral and, if the populations are substantial, consider alternate uses for the retired platforms, and leaving them in place, when feasible.

  15. 33 CFR 165.155 - Northville Industries Offshore Platform, Riverhead, Long Island, New York-safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Offshore Platform of LPG vessels via Marine Safety Information Radio Broadcast. ... (LPG) vessel is moored at the Offshore Platform. The safety zone remains in effect until the LPG vessel... Platform, Riverhead, Long Island, New York-safety zone. 165.155 Section 165.155 Navigation and...

  16. The ARGO Project: assessing NA-TECH risks on off-shore oil platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capuano, Paolo; Basco, Anna; Di Ruocco, Angela; Esposito, Simona; Fusco, Giannetta; Garcia-Aristizabal, Alexander; Mercogliano, Paola; Salzano, Ernesto; Solaro, Giuseppe; Teofilo, Gianvito; Scandone, Paolo; Gasparini, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    ARGO (Analysis of natural and anthropogenic risks on off-shore oil platforms) is a 2 years project, funded by the DGS-UNMIG (Directorate General for Safety of Mining and Energy Activities - National Mining Office for Hydrocarbons and Georesources) of Italian Ministry of Economic Development. The project, coordinated by AMRA (Center for the Analysis and Monitoring of Environmental Risk), aims at providing technical support for the analysis of natural and anthropogenic risks on offshore oil platforms. In order to achieve this challenging objective, ARGO brings together climate experts, risk management experts, seismologists, geologists, chemical engineers, earth and coastal observation experts. ARGO has developed methodologies for the probabilistic analysis of industrial accidents triggered by natural events (NA-TECH) on offshore oil platforms in the Italian seas, including extreme events related to climate changes. Furthermore the environmental effect of offshore activities has been investigated, including: changes on seismicity and on the evolution of coastal areas close to offshore platforms. Then a probabilistic multi-risk framework has been developed for the analysis of NA-TECH events on offshore installations for hydrocarbon extraction.

  17. Air emissions associated with decommissioning California's offshore oil and gas platforms.

    PubMed

    Cantle, Peter; Bernstein, Brock

    2015-10-01

    The 27 oil and gas platforms offshore southern California are nearing the end of their productive lives and will be decommissioned in the near future. Many are in deep water and are correspondingly large, with the largest, Harmony, in 1200 feet of water and weighing approximately 43,000 tons. Nearly 30% of California's platforms are in water depths that exceed those of any previous decommissioning project anywhere in the world. Decommissioning will involve the operation of diesel-powered heavy equipment for long periods in virtually all phases of the operation (e.g, at the platform, in transit to and from the platform, in port, at offloading, salvage, and recycling facilities) in a region where air quality is a crucial concern for state, federal, and local regulatory agencies, as well as the public. To support future decision making about the choice between decommissioning options, we consider potential air emissions generated under complete and partial (removal to 85 feet below water line) removal options. We describe major emissions categories, and the environmental and human health issues associated with each, and examine how the regulatory system would operate in specific projects. We then describe methods to estimate emissions for a worst-case example involving the largest platform, Harmony. We estimate that complete versus partial removal of Harmony would result, respectively, in 600 or 89 tons of NOx, 50 or 7 tons of carbon monoxide, 29,400 or 4400 tons of CO2 , 21 or 3 tons of PM10, and 20 or 3 tons of PM2.5. Complete removal of Harmony's jacket and topsides creates approximately 6.75 times more air pollution than partial removal down to 85 feet below the sea surface. We discuss how the Harmony estimate can be used as a baseline to roughly estimate emissions from decommissioning other platforms, using expected time on station for the major categories of decommissioning equipment. © 2015 SETAC.

  18. Federal offshore statistics: leasing, exploration, production, revenue

    SciTech Connect

    Essertier, E.P.

    1984-09-01

    This publication is a numerical record of what has happened since Congress gave authority to the Secretary of the Interior in 1953 to lease the federal portion of the Continental Shelf for oil and gas. The publication updates and augments the first Federal Offshore Statistics, published in December 1983. It also extends a statistical series published annually from 1969 until 1981 by the US Geological Survey (USGS) under the title Outer Continental Shelf Statistics. The USGS collected royalties and supervised operation and production of minerals on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) until the Minerals Management Service (MMS) took over these functions in 1982. Some of the highlights are: of the 329.5 million acres offered for leasing, 37.1 million acres were actually leased; total revenues for the 1954 to 1983 period were $68,173,112,563 and for 1983 $9,161,435,540; a total of 22,095 wells were drilled in federal waters and 10,145 wells were drilled in state waters; from 1954 through 1983, federal offshore areas produced 6.4 billion barrels of oil and condensate, and 62.1 trillion cubic feet of natural gas; in 1983 alone production was 340.7 million barrels of oil and condensate, and 3.9 trillion cubic feet of gas; and for the second straight year, no oil was lost in 1983 as a result of blowouts in federal waters. 8 figures, 66 tables.

  19. Computational methods. [Calculation of dynamic loading to offshore platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Maeda, H. . Inst. of Industrial Science)

    1993-02-01

    With regard to the computational methods for hydrodynamic forces, first identification of marine hydrodynamics in offshore technology is discussed. Then general computational methods, the state of the arts and uncertainty on flow problems in offshore technology in which developed, developing and undeveloped problems are categorized and future works follow. Marine hydrodynamics consists of water surface and underwater fluid dynamics. Marine hydrodynamics covers, not only hydro, but also aerodynamics such as wind load or current-wave-wind interaction, hydrodynamics such as cavitation, underwater noise, multi-phase flow such as two-phase flow in pipes or air bubble in water or surface and internal waves, and magneto-hydrodynamics such as propulsion due to super conductivity. Among them, two key words are focused on as the identification of marine hydrodynamics in offshore technology; they are free surface and vortex shedding.

  20. Analyzing the safety of removal sequences for piles of an offshore jacket platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Xin-Ying; Zhang, Zhao-De

    2009-12-01

    An inevitable consequence of the development of the offshore petroleum industry is the eventual obsolescence of large offshore structures. Proper methods for removal of decommissioned offshore platforms are becoming an important topic that the oil and gas industry must pay increasing attention to. While removing sections from a decommissioned jacket platform, the stability of the remaining parts is critical. The jacket danger indices D σ and D s defined in this paper are very useful for analyzing the safety of any procedure planned for disassembling a jacket platform. The safest piles cutting sequence can be determined easily by comparing every column of D σ and D s or simply analyzing the figures of every row of D σ and D s .

  1. Emissions of methane from offshore oil and gas platforms in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Nara, Hideki; Tanimoto, Hiroshi; Tohjima, Yasunori; Mukai, Hitoshi; Nojiri, Yukihiro; Machida, Toshinobu

    2014-09-30

    Methane is a substantial contributor to climate change. It also contributes to maintaining the background levels of tropospheric ozone. Among a variety of CH4 sources, current estimates suggest that CH4 emissions from oil and gas processes account for approximately 20% of worldwide anthropogenic emissions. Here, we report on observational evidence of CH4 emissions from offshore oil and gas platforms in Southeast Asia, detected by a highly time-resolved spectroscopic monitoring technique deployed onboard cargo ships of opportunity. We often encountered CH4 plumes originating from operational flaring/venting and fugitive emissions off the coast of the Malay Peninsula and Borneo. Using night-light imagery from satellites, we discovered more offshore platforms in this region than are accounted for in the emission inventory. Our results demonstrate that current knowledge regarding CH4 emissions from offshore platforms in Southeast Asia has considerable uncertainty and therefore, emission inventories used for modeling and assessment need to be re-examined.

  2. Cleaning of the ocean floor near offshore platforms in the Gulf coast

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, C.S.; Smith, S.A. Jr.

    1986-03-01

    For decades in offshore drilling, the drill cuttings were separated from the circulating drilling fluid by the shale shaker and hydrocyclone, and discharged to the ocean. The drilling fluid itself was discharged to the ocean intermittently to maintain its required properties during the drilling process. These discharges contain many environmentally undesirable chemicals, such as hydrocarbons chemical additives and heavy metals. As a result, the ocean floor near some of the offshore platforms in the Gulf of Mexico are covered by contaminated sediment. Ocean current is not as effective in washing out the discarded ocean muds as previously believed. An attempt was made to clean some of the offshore platforms in the Gulf of Mexico. The quantity and characteristics of the drilling discharges are estimated the technology used to clean the ocean floor near platforms is described, and advanced treatments for hydrocarbon removal, chemical oxidation and activated carbon adsorption, are discussed. 8 references.

  3. Dynamic analysis of the reciprocating compressor package on the offshore platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Wang, W.; Zhou, Q.; Feng, J.; Jia, X.; Peng, X.

    2017-08-01

    Reciprocating compressor packages are key equipment for the offshore platforms which are used for the pressurization and transportation of natural gas. Dynamic analyses of high-speed and flexible supported offshore compressor packages are more complex than that of compressors on land. The dynamic analysis techniques of the offshore reciprocating compressor package were studied including numerical modelling, excitation forces calculation, support boundary determination of the compressor package and load transmission between the compressor package and the offshore platform. The finite element model of the compressor package with multiple types of elements such as the pipe, beam and shell elements were established. Excitation forces mainly including gas forces inside cylinders, crosshead forces, acoustic shaking forces and unbalanced inertia forces were calculated. In order to investigate the influence of the flexibility of the platform on dynamic characteristics of the compressor package and set reasonable boundaries for the support structure, three kinds of support boundaries were compared. The support points of columns and vertical beams on the layer of deck where the compressor package is installed were determined to be the most suitable ones. Super-element method was applied to implement the load transmission from the compressor package to the platform. The analysis techniques herein were successfully applied to the dynamic analysis of an offshore reciprocating compressor package in an engineering project.

  4. Federal Offshore Statistics, 1993. Leasing, exploration, production, and revenue as of December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Francois, D.K.

    1994-12-31

    This document contains statistical data on the following: federal offshore lands; offshore leasing activity and status; offshore development activity; offshore production of crude oil and natural gas; federal offshore oil and natural gas sales volume and royalties; revenue from federal offshore leases; disbursement of federal offshore revenue; reserves and resource estimates of offshore oil and natural gas; oil pollution in US and international waters; and international activities and marine minerals. A glossary is included.

  5. Model test of new floating offshore wind turbine platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Hyunkyoung; Dam, Pham Thanh; Jung, Kwang Jin; Song, inseob; Rim, Chaewhan; Chung, Taeyoung

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents the model test results of 3 new spar platforms which were developed based on the OC3-Hywind spar to support a 5-MW wind turbine. By changing the shape but keeping both volume and mass of OC3- Hywind spar platform, those platforms were expected to experience different hydrodynamic and hydrostatic loads. The scale models were built with a 1/128 scale ratio. The model tests were carried out in waves, including both rotating rotor effect and mean wind speed. The characteristic motions of the 3 new models were measured; Response Amplitude Operators (RAO) and significant motions were calculated and compared with those of OC3-Hywind.

  6. Workdays. A Day in the Life of...an Offshore Platform Worker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Hazel

    One of a series of work-based interviews about occupations in Australia, this booklet presents a personal interview with a mechanical engineer, who works on offshore platforms for an oil company, about his job. The following questions are answered: what the engineer does, why the person chose the field of employment, how the person found out about…

  7. Offshore underbalanced drilling system could revive field developments. Part 2: Making this valuable reservoir drilling/completion technique work on a conventional offshore drilling platform

    SciTech Connect

    Nessa, D.O.; Tangedahl, M.J.; Saponja, J.

    1997-10-01

    Part 1, presented in the July issue, discussed the emerging trend to move underbalanced drilling (UBD) operations into the offshore arena, following its successful application in many onshore areas. This concluding article delves into the details of applying UBD offshore. Starting with advantages the technique offers in many maturing or complex/marginal prospects, the UBD system for offshore platforms use is described. This involves conversion of the conventional rotary system, use of rotating diverters, design of the surface fluid separation system and the necessary gas (nitrogen or natural gas) injection system to lighten the fluid column. Commonly faced operational challenges for offshore UBD are listed along with recommended solutions.

  8. Crack detection in offshore platform structure based on structural intensity approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Xiaojie; Liu, Guijie; Gao, Zhiming; Chen, Pengfei; Mu, Weilei

    2017-02-01

    Structural intensity approach is introduced to study the crack detection for offshore platform in the paper. The Line Spring Model (LSM) of surface crack is proposed based on plate crack structure, and thus the relationship between the additional angle, displacement and crack relative depth is achieved. Besides, the concept of appended structure-borne sound intensity is introduced. The expression of appended structural intensity for crack damage is derived. By observing the input energy, distribution, transmission and vibration performance of structure intensity, evidence is provided for detection of crack location. Vibration analysis is conducted on the whole platform under multi environment load. Using the structural intensity approach, the crack is detected on the key point easily. Moreover, the K-shape welded pipe point is detected using structural intensity approach, and the crack can be detected accurately. Therefore, development structural intensity approach would be extremely useful to spread out technologies that can be applied for offshore platform crack detection accurately.

  9. Development of jacket platform tsunami risk rating system in waters offshore North Borneo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, H. E.; Liew, M. S.; Mardi, N. H.; Na, K. L.; Toloue, Iraj; Wong, S. K.

    2016-09-01

    This work details the simulation of tsunami waves generated by seaquakes in the Manila Trench and their effect on fixed oil and gas jacket platforms in waters offshore North Borneo. For this study, a four-leg living quarter jacket platform located in a water depth of 63m is modelled in SACS v5.3. Malaysia has traditionally been perceived to be safe from the hazards of earthquakes and tsunamis. Local design practices tend to neglect tsunami waves and include no such provisions. In 2004, a 9.3 M w seaquake occurred off the northwest coast of Aceh, which generated tsunami waves that caused destruction in Malaysia totalling US 25 million and 68 deaths. This event prompted an awareness of the need to study the reliability of fixed offshore platforms scattered throughout Malaysian waters. In this paper, we present a review of research on the seismicity of the Manila Trench, which is perceived to be high risk for Southeast Asia. From the tsunami numerical model TUNA-M2, we extract computer-simulated tsunami waves at prescribed grid points in the vicinity of the platforms in the region. Using wave heights as input, we simulate the tsunami using SACS v5.3 structural analysis software of offshore platforms, which is widely accepted by the industry. We employ the nonlinear solitary wave theory in our tsunami loading calculations for the platforms, and formulate a platform-specific risk quantification system. We then perform an intensive structural sensitivity analysis and derive a corresponding platform-specific risk rating model.

  10. Impact of offshore gas platforms on the structural and functional biodiversity of nematodes.

    PubMed

    Fraschetti, S; Guarnieri, G; Gambi, C; Bevilacqua, S; Terlizzi, A; Danovaro, R

    2016-04-01

    The Mediterranean Sea hosts hundreds of offshore gas platforms, whose activity represents a potential threat to marine ecosystems. Evidence from several studies indicates that nematodes can be highly sensitive to changes in the environmental quality. Here, we investigated the response of nematode assemblages to the presence of offshore gas platforms (located in the central Mediterranean Sea) in terms of spatial heterogeneity, structural and functional diversity. Since the effect of the investigated offshore platforms on macrofaunal assemblages were previously assessed by Terlizzi et al. (2008), the study provided also the opportunity to compare the response of different benthic compartments to the same impact related to fossil fuel extraction on marine environments. The platforms had a significant impact on nematode assemblages up to 1000 m distance from the structure. The effects were evident in term of: a) more homogeneous spatial distribution of nematode assemblages, b) increased trophic diversity of deposit feeders and c) changes in life strategies with an increase of opportunistic species in sediments closer to the platforms. Such effects seemed to be related to the dimension of the platform structures, rather than to chemical pollution or changes in food availability. These findings suggest that the platforms exert a physical alteration of the surrounding environment that is reflected by altered structural and functional traits of nematode biodiversity. The use of nematodes for monitoring the effects of the platforms only partially matched with the results obtained using macrofauna, providing further insights on potential outcomes on the functional response of marine assemblages to fossil fuel extraction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Bird interactions with offshore oil and gas platforms: review of impacts and monitoring techniques.

    PubMed

    Ronconi, Robert A; Allard, Karel A; Taylor, Philip D

    2015-01-01

    Thousands of oil and gas platforms are currently operating in offshore waters globally, and this industry is expected to expand in coming decades. Although the potential environmental impacts of offshore oil and gas activities are widely recognized, there is limited understanding of their impacts on migratory and resident birds. A literature review identified 24 studies and reports of bird-platform interactions, most being qualitative and half having been peer-reviewed. The most frequently observed effect, for seabirds and landbirds, is attraction and sometimes collisions associated with lights and flares; episodic events have caused the deaths of hundreds or even thousands of birds. Though typically unpredictable, anecdotally, it is known that poor weather, such as fog, precipitation and low cloud cover, can exacerbate the effect of nocturnal attraction to lights, especially when coincidental with bird migrations. Other effects include provision of foraging and roosting opportunities, increased exposure to oil and hazardous environments, increased exposure to predators, or repulsion from feeding sites. Current approaches to monitoring birds at offshore platforms have focused on observer-based methods which can offer species-level bird identification, quantify seasonal patterns of relative abundance and distribution, and document avian mortality events and underlying factors. Observer-based monitoring is time-intensive, limited in spatial and temporal coverage, and suffers without clear protocols and when not conducted by trained, independent observers. These difficulties are exacerbated because deleterious bird-platform interaction is episodic and likely requires the coincidence of multiple factors (e.g., darkness, cloud, fog, rain conditions, occurrence of birds in vicinity). Collectively, these considerations suggest a need to implement supplemental systems for monitoring bird activities around offshore platforms. Instrument-based approaches, such as radar

  12. System and method for positioning an off-shore platform on a support

    SciTech Connect

    Ninet, J.L.

    1983-11-08

    An off-shore platform is floated on a barge. A support structure is fixed to the sea bed and including a plurality of upstanding piles with at least two of said piles having platform-receiving guide means at their upper ends. The platform includes a plurality of legs for fixing to corresponding ones of the piles with at least two of the legs being hollow and being provided with respective plungers slideably mounted therein for co-operating with said platform-receiving guide means. Each plunger is associated with a releasable fastening capable of holding the plunger fixed in its leg, and of releasing it suddenly on command to drop into engagement with said platform-receiving guide means. The releasable fastenings of at least two of the plungers are arranged to release simultaneously on a common command.

  13. Development and application of a Shear Ram Tubing-Head System for increased offshore platform safety

    SciTech Connect

    Elkins, H.; Adamek, F.

    1984-09-01

    Concurrent drilling and production operations on offshore platforms increase the potential for blowouts and subsequent fires. Present wellhead and christmas tree designs address the potential for production equipment to resist flame impingement for limited exposure periods, but new technology is required to eliminate the source feeding the flame. Den Norske Stats Oljeselskap A/S (Statoil) has recently proposed a concept incorporating a BOP shear ram system permanently installed in the wellhead in order to shear and seal the tubing in the event of emergency. Gray Tool Company and Hydril have combined their expertise in wellhead equipment and blowout prevention systems to provide a tandem hanger system incorporating metal-tometal sealing and tubular support, tubular shearing, fish retrieval, and tie-back re-entry capability. This report details the design, manufacture, installation and full scale laboratory testing which successfully confirmed the ability of the Shear Ram Tubing Head system to suspend, tie back, shear and seal 7 in., 32 lb./ft. N-80 tubing at 5.000 psi MSP.

  14. An improved modal strain energy method for damage detection in offshore platform structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yingchao; Wang, Shuqing; Zhang, Min; Zheng, Chunmei

    2016-06-01

    The development of robust damage detection methods for offshore structures is crucial to prevent catastrophes caused by structural failures. In this research, we developed an Improved Modal Strain Energy (IMSE) method for detecting damage in offshore platform structures based on a traditional modal strain energy method (the Stubbs index method). The most significant difference from the Stubbs index method was the application of modal frequencies. The goal was to improve the robustness of the traditional method. To demonstrate the effectiveness and practicality of the proposed IMSE method, both numerical and experimental studies were conducted for different damage scenarios using a jacket platform structure. The results demonstrated the effectiveness of the IMSE method in damage location when only limited, spatially incomplete, and noise-polluted modal data is available. Comparative studies showed that the IMSE index outperformed the Stubbs index and exhibited stronger robustness, confirming the superiority of the proposed approach.

  15. Grid Simulator for Testing a Wind Turbine on Offshore Floating Platform

    SciTech Connect

    Gevorgian, V.

    2012-02-01

    An important aspect of such offshore testing of a wind turbine floating platform is electrical loading of the wind turbine generator. An option of interconnecting the floating wind turbine with the onshore grid via submarine power cable is limited by many factors such as costs and associated environmental aspects (i.e., an expensive and lengthy sea floor study is needed for cable routing, burial, etc). It appears to be a more cost effective solution to implement a standalone grid simulator on a floating platform itself for electrical loading of the test wind turbine. Such a grid simulator must create a stable fault-resilient voltage and frequency bus (a micro grid) for continuous operation of the test wind turbine. In this report, several electrical topologies for an offshore grid simulator were analyzed and modeled.

  16. Emissions of methane from offshore oil and gas platforms in Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Nara, Hideki; Tanimoto, Hiroshi; Tohjima, Yasunori; Mukai, Hitoshi; Nojiri, Yukihiro; Machida, Toshinobu

    2014-01-01

    Methane is a substantial contributor to climate change. It also contributes to maintaining the background levels of tropospheric ozone. Among a variety of CH4 sources, current estimates suggest that CH4 emissions from oil and gas processes account for approximately 20% of worldwide anthropogenic emissions. Here, we report on observational evidence of CH4 emissions from offshore oil and gas platforms in Southeast Asia, detected by a highly time-resolved spectroscopic monitoring technique deployed onboard cargo ships of opportunity. We often encountered CH4 plumes originating from operational flaring/venting and fugitive emissions off the coast of the Malay Peninsula and Borneo. Using night-light imagery from satellites, we discovered more offshore platforms in this region than are accounted for in the emission inventory. Our results demonstrate that current knowledge regarding CH4 emissions from offshore platforms in Southeast Asia has considerable uncertainty and therefore, emission inventories used for modeling and assessment need to be re-examined. PMID:25266041

  17. Seabirds at risk around offshore oil platforms in the north-west Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Wiese, F K; Montevecchi, W A; Davoren, G K; Huettmann, F; Diamond, A W; Linke, J

    2001-12-01

    Seabirds aggregate around oil drilling platforms and rigs in above average numbers due to night lighting, flaring, food and other visual cues. Bird mortality has been documented due to impact on the structure, oiling and incineration by the flare. The environmental circumstances for offshore hydrocarbon development in North-west Atlantic are unique because of the harsh climate, cold waters and because enormous seabird concentrations inhabit and move through the Grand Banks in autumn (storm-petrels, Oceanodroma spp), winter (dovekies, Alle alle, murres, Uria spp), spring and summer (shearwaters, Puffinus spp). Many species are planktivorous and attracted to artificial light sources. Most of the seabirds in the region are long-distance migrants, and hydrocarbon development in the North-west Atlantic could affect both regional and global breeding populations. Regulators need to take responsibility for these circumstances. It is essential to implement comprehensive, independent arm's length monitoring of potential avian impacts of offshore hydrocarbon platforms in the North-west Atlantic. This should include quantifying and determining the nature, timing and extent of bird mortality caused by these structures. Based on existing evidence of potential impacts of offshore hydrocarbon platforms on seabirds, it is difficult to understand why this has not been, and is not being, systematically implemented.

  18. Sea ice forces and the state of technology of offshore arctic platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Utt, M.E.

    1985-01-01

    Hydrocarbon exploration and production operations in offshore arctic regions are in their infancy. The oil industry learned to operate in ice conditions in the relatively mild environment of Cook Inlet in the 1960's and in the Arctic offshore Canada in the 1970's. Presently, there is no production from the offshore Arctic, only a handful of exploration systems with the capability of operating year-round in shallow water; there are no year-round systems for deeper water. As drilling and production activities are extended into deeper water and more hostile ice conditions, the industry will learn more about the Arctic, and some of the opinions expressed in this paper will, no doubt, become of no more than historical interest.

  19. Computationally Inexpensive Approach for Pitch Control of Offshore Wind Turbine on Barge Floating Platform

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Shan; Song, Y. D.; Wang, Lei; Song, Qing-wang

    2013-01-01

    Offshore floating wind turbine (OFWT) has gained increasing attention during the past decade because of the offshore high-quality wind power and complex load environment. The control system is a tradeoff between power tracking and fatigue load reduction in the above-rated wind speed area. In allusion to the external disturbances and uncertain system parameters of OFWT due to the proximity to load centers and strong wave coupling, this paper proposes a computationally inexpensive robust adaptive control approach with memory-based compensation for blade pitch control. The method is tested and compared with a baseline controller and a conventional individual blade pitch controller with the “NREL offshore 5 MW baseline wind turbine” being mounted on a barge platform run on FAST and Matlab/Simulink, operating in the above-rated condition. It is shown that the advanced control approach is not only robust to complex wind and wave disturbances but adaptive to varying and uncertain system parameters as well. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method performs better in reducing power fluctuations, fatigue loads and platform vibration as compared to the conventional individual blade pitch control. PMID:24453834

  20. Computationally inexpensive approach for pitch control of offshore wind turbine on barge floating platform.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Shan; Song, Y D; Wang, Lei; Song, Qing-wang

    2013-01-01

    Offshore floating wind turbine (OFWT) has gained increasing attention during the past decade because of the offshore high-quality wind power and complex load environment. The control system is a tradeoff between power tracking and fatigue load reduction in the above-rated wind speed area. In allusion to the external disturbances and uncertain system parameters of OFWT due to the proximity to load centers and strong wave coupling, this paper proposes a computationally inexpensive robust adaptive control approach with memory-based compensation for blade pitch control. The method is tested and compared with a baseline controller and a conventional individual blade pitch controller with the "NREL offshore 5 MW baseline wind turbine" being mounted on a barge platform run on FAST and Matlab/Simulink, operating in the above-rated condition. It is shown that the advanced control approach is not only robust to complex wind and wave disturbances but adaptive to varying and uncertain system parameters as well. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method performs better in reducing power fluctuations, fatigue loads and platform vibration as compared to the conventional individual blade pitch control.

  1. Proceedings: An international workshop on offshore lease abandonment and platform disposal: Technology, regulation, and environmental effects

    SciTech Connect

    Pulsipher, A.

    1997-03-01

    This Proceedings volume includes papers prepared for an international workshop on lease abandonment and offshore platform disposal. The workshop was held April 15, 16, and 17, 1996, in New Orleans, Louisiana. Included in the volume are several plenary speeches and issue papers. prepared by six working groups, who discussed: Abandoning Wells; Abandoning Pipelines; Removing Facilities; Site Clearance; Habitat Management, Maintenance, and Planning; and Regulation and Policy. Also included are an introduction, an afterword (reprinted with the permission of its author, John Lohrenz), and, as Appendix C, the complete report of the National Research Council Marine Boards An Assessment of Techniques for Removing Fixed Offshore Structures, around which much of the discussion at the workshop was organized. Short biographies of many speakers, organizers, and chairpersons are included as Appendix A. Appendix B is a list of conference participants. Selected papers have been processes separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology database.

  2. Vertical Structure of the Wind Speed Profile at the North Sea Offshore Measurement Platform FINO1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettle, A. J.

    2013-12-01

    The vertical wind speed profile in the lowest 100m of the marine atmospheric boundary layer has been characterized from data collected at the FINO1 offshore research platform in the German North Sea sector for 2005. Located in 30m of water, the platform has a dense vertical array of meteorological instrumentation to measure wind speed, air temperature, relative humidity, and atmospheric turbulence characteristics. Along measurements of the ocean temperature and surface waves, the platform is well-equipped to characterize wind properties in the near-surface boundary layer. Preliminary analysis reveals a high incidence of vertical wind speed profiles that deviate significantly from Monin-Obukhov similarity theory with wind speed inflections that suggest decoupled layers near the surface. The presentation shows how the properties of the vertical wind speed profile change mainly depending on the wind speed, wind direction, and time of year. The results are significant because there are few reports of inflections in the vertical wind speed profile over the ocean and there is an a priori assumption that the vertical wind speed profile varies smoothly according to similarity theory. There are possible consequences for the wind energy development in terms of understanding the forces acting on offshore wind turbines whose rotors sweep across heights 150-200m above the sea surface.

  3. Regional Patterns in Invertebrate Assemblages on Offshore Oil Platforms Along the Pacific Outer Continental Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaleski, S.; Page, H. M.; Miller, R. J.; Doheny, B.; Dugan, J. E.; Schroeder, D. M.

    2016-02-01

    Twenty-seven oil and gas platforms are arrayed offshore California from north of Point Conception south to San Pedro Bay (a coastline distance of >300 km). To test the hypothesis that variability in the structure of sessile invertebrate communities on the platforms is associated with regional differences in sea surface temperature, we sampled space-holding invertebrate taxa photographically on 23 platforms and compared the composition and cover of invertebrates among and within regions using multivariate analyses. To explore temporal variability in invertebrate assemblages, we also compared the cover and composition of invertebrates on a subset of platforms in the Santa Barbara Channel (SBC) where data were collected over ten years previously. The composition of invertebrate assemblages differed significantly among regions, and was driven by variation in the relative abundance of certain anemone, bryozoan, tubiferous annelid, sponge, and bivalve taxa. The presence of non-native bryozoan and anemone taxa on some platforms in the south (San Pedro Bay) and southeast SBC contributed to the distinction of these assemblages from the others. Comparison of survey data on the subset of platforms in the SBC surveyed over ten years apart revealed little change in the cover of major space-holding taxa (e.g., anemones Metridium, Corynactis) across platforms, although there was an increase in cover of the non-native bryozoan Watersipora subtorquata between surveys. The existence of geographical patterns in the composition of platform invertebrate assemblages suggests that these assemblages may be useful as barometers of short and longer-term environmental change. For biogeographic transition zones, such as the SBC, monitoring of platform invertebrate assemblages could permit an evaluation of the concept that these zones are particularly susceptible to shifts in the composition of marine species driven by ocean climate.

  4. [Relationship between occupational stress and mental health in offshore oil platform workers].

    PubMed

    Wu, Hongtao; Xiao, Taiqin; Zou, Jianfang; Shan, Yongle; Li, Zijian

    2014-02-01

    To investigate the relationship between occupational stress and mental health in offshore oil platform workers and to provide a scientific basis for protection of their mental health. A total of 768 workers on offshore oil platform were surveyed with the Occupational Stress Inventory Revised Edition and Symptom Check List-90 (SCL-90). The total score of Occupational Role Questionnaire (ORQ) for the workers (160.27±24.63) was significantly lower than the national norm (166.52±27.01) (P < 0.01); the total score of Personal Strain Questionnaire (PSQ) (101.96±19.8) was significantly higher than the national norm (92.45±17.33) (P < 0.01). The total score of Personal Resource Questionnaire (PRQ) for the workers was not significantly different from the national norm (P > 0.05), but the items of recreation, social support, and rational/cognitive found significant difference (P < 0.05). The total score of SCL-90 was positively correlated with all items of ORQ and PSQ (P < 0.01) and negatively correlated with all items of PRQ (P < 0.01). The multiple stepwise regression analysis showed that current work seniority, education background, drinking, role overload, role insufficiency, role ambiguity, responsibility, physical environment, and rational/cognitive conduct impacted the score of SCL-90 (P < 0.05). The mental health of workers on offshore oil platform is related to occupational stress, and role overload, role ambiguity, physical environment, and rational/cognitive conduct, etc, are closely associated with the workers' mental health.

  5. Offshore platform structure intended to be installed in arctic waters, subjected to drifting icebergs

    SciTech Connect

    Kure, G.; Jenssen, D.N.; Naesje, K.

    1984-09-11

    An offshore platform structure, particularly intended to be installed in waters where drifting iceberg frequently appear, the platform structure being intended to be founded in a sea bed and comprises a substructure, a superstructure rigidly affixed to the substructure and extending vertically up above the sea level supporting a deck superstructure at its upper end. The horizontal cross-sectional area of the substructure is substantially greater than tath of the superstructure. The substructure rigidly supports a fender structure, the fender structure comprising an outer peripherally arranged wall and an inner cylindrical wall the inner and outer wall being rigidly interconnected by means of a plurality of vertical and/or horizontal partition walls, dividing the fender structure into a plurality of cells or compartlents. The fender structure is arranged in spaced relation with respect to the superstructure.

  6. Intelligent system for start-up of a petroleum offshore platform.

    PubMed

    Campos, M C; Satuf, E; de Mesquita, M

    2001-01-01

    It is difficult to control and to manage the start-up of a petroleum offshore platform. In order to solve this problem an intelligent system can play an important role, since available qualitative operator and design knowledge can be easily implemented to assist the operator during start-up. This paper describes the integration of an expert system with a fuzzy controller applied to such a process. The intelligent system has many heuristic rules to implement the automation of the start-up procedures, like the opening of many on-off valves while simultaneously monitoring process variables. It also has a fuzzy controller to optimize the opening of the oil wells, in order to minimize the start-up time. This intelligent system is being implemented in the platform P-19 of Petrobras, the Brazilian oil company, in Campos Basin, Brazil. The prototype has been operating since October 1998.

  7. Venezuela offshore oil and gas production development: Past, present and future

    SciTech Connect

    Perez La Salvia, H.; Schwartz, E.; Contreras, M.; Rodriguez, J.I.; Febres, G.; Gajardo, E.

    1995-12-01

    This paper presents a short history of offshore oil and gas production in Venezuela starting in Lake Maracaibo in 1923. The main emphasis has been the results of the recent R and D and the exploratory offshore programs in areas like Orinoco Delta located in the Atlantic Ocean, Northeast and Northwest Venezuela in the Caribbean sea. In the R and D offshore program the main objectives were: (1) To establish the local environmental, oceanographical, geotechnical and seismicity conditions for the Venezuelan Continental Platform. (2) To give a technical support to the PDVSA Operating Affiliates during the exploratory programs including: (a) to develop accurate drilling vessel positioning systems; (b) evaluation of sea bottom geotechnical conditions for safely operating the jack-ups and drilling vessels involved in the exploratory wells and (c) to identify those areas which because of their special nature require further investigation to establish preliminary type of platforms required for the areas to be developed or to evaluate other solutions proposed by Foreign Consultant Engineering Companies to the PDVSA Operating Affiliated Companies. The main objective of PDVSA for the coming future will be to develop the North of Paria Gas Field through the initially named Christopher Columbus Project now Sucre Gas, S.A., a consortium conformed by LaGoven, S.A. Shell, Exxon and Mitsubishi. objective of this paper is to give an idea of the history of the Venezuelan Oil and Gas Offshore development giving emphasis to the results of the INTEVEP S.A. Red offshore program and to show some results of the particular characteristics of oceanographical, environmental, geotechnical and seismic conditions in the main areas evaluated during the exploratory program: Orinoco Delta, Gulf of Paria and North of Paria.

  8. The Ecology and Feeding Habits of Fish Assemblages Closely Associated with Offshore Oil and Gas Platforms in the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, T.

    2016-02-01

    Despite the large number of offshore oil and gas platforms currently installed in the North Sea, little is known about the role of such large fixed offshore structures in the ecology of fish populations in this region. This presentation reports the results of the first detailed study on feeding habits of fish assemblages closely associated with offshore oil/gas platforms in the North Sea. Multi-seasonal fish sampling was conducted at one of the oil platforms located in the Central North Sea (September 2010 - January 2014), and the results revealed that commercially important gadoids such as saithe (Pollachius virens), haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) and cod (Gadus morhua) were the most abundant species. Saithe fed predominantly on euphausiids and haddock consumed large proportion of ophiuroids, whereas cod were mainly piscivorous. Their prey compositions were significantly different between species, indicating individual offshore installations could provide unique feeding grounds for a variety of fish species and thereby allow for interspecific prey resource partitioning among those species closely associated with the structure. To further investigate possible links between the feeding habits of the most dominant fish species, saithe, and the physical presence of offshore platforms across the North Sea, a separate set of stomach data were collected during the 2012 Q3 International Bottom Trawl Survey. The multivariate analysis showed the observed spatio-temporal variability in saithe diet was significantly explained by proximity to the nearest offshore platforms and changes in water temperatures, which appear to reflect patterns of euphausiid availability over space and time. The physical presence of the offshore structures may affect the distribution/availability of euphausiids and thereby influence the feeding behaviour of saithe and possibly other marine populations that are interconnected to the dynamics of such trophic interactions in the North Sea.

  9. Screening of biosurfactant-producing bacteria from offshore oil and gas platforms in North Atlantic Canada.

    PubMed

    Cai, Qinhong; Zhang, Baiyu; Chen, Bing; Song, Xing; Zhu, Zhiwen; Cao, Tong

    2015-05-01

    From offshore oil and gas platforms in North Atlantic Canada, crude oil, formation water, drilling mud, treated produced water and seawater samples were collected for screening potential biosurfactant producers. In total, 59 biosurfactant producers belong to 4 genera, namely, Bacillus, Rhodococcus, Halomonas, and Pseudomonas were identified and characterized. Phytogenetic trees based on 16S ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid (16S rDNA) were constructed with isolated strains plus their closely related strains and isolated strains with biosurfactant producers in the literature, respectively. The distributions of the isolates were site and medium specific. The richness, diversity, and evenness of biosurfactant producer communities in oil and gas platform samples have been analyzed. Diverse isolates were found with featured properties such as effective reduction of surface tension, producing biosurfactants at high rate and stabilization of water-in-oil or oil-in-water emulsion. The producers and their corresponding biosurfactants had promising potential in applications such as offshore oil spill control, enhancing oil recovery and soil washing treatment of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated sites.

  10. Rotary cyclone will improve oily water treatment and reduce space requirement/weight on offshore platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Gay, J.C.; Triponey, G.; Bezard, C.; Schummer, P.

    1987-01-01

    A rotary hydrocyclone was developed for the treatment of the produced oily water on offshore platforms. The main advantages of this type of equipment consist in: a few second residence time resulting in a dramatic reduction in weight and volume; higher efficiency when comparing with conventional settling tanks or static cyclones; insensitivity to the platform motion; large flexibility in flow rate and oil concentration in the treated water; low pressure drop requirement; easily adaptable to changing field operating conditions; modular conception facilitating the offshore installation; reduced maintenance and power consumption resulting in a low operating cost. This paper outlines the results of laboratory work conducted initially on a static hydrocylcone and on a rotary cyclone scale model, with the reasons for the differences in performance of the both types of equipment. A field test of a 2 x 25 m/sup 3//h industrial rotary cyclone skid is presented and the field performance analyzed. Finally main features of the industrial units are presented and a comparison with a conventional treatment is made.

  11. Environmental effects of offshore oil production

    SciTech Connect

    Middletich, B.S.

    1981-01-01

    The papers deal with two major categories of oil field impacts: hydrocarbon and sulfur discharges from producing platforms; and the effects of the structures themselves in the marine environment. The studies can also be broken down into those that deal with the fate of the polluting discharges (dispersion, degradation, consumption); and those that deal with the affected organisms themselves. Some studies used control sites to compare effects near the platforms. Others analyzed composition, density, and quality of organisms throughout the field, offering comparisons between control sites and oil field sites. The presence of pollutants in particulates was studied and measured. Effectiveness of degradation of petro pollutants by bacteria is also examined. Biocides used in the working stream to control sulfur oxidizing bacteria were treated briefly. Effects of the structures and potential pollution was also described for the fouling community, i.e., barnacles, etc. Effects of the presence of the structures on migratory and resident birds are examined for hundreds of species constantly using the area as a fly-way or habitat.

  12. An air quality emission inventory of offshore operations for the exploration and production of petroleum by the Mexican oil industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villasenor, R.; Magdaleno, M.; Quintanar, A.; Gallardo, J. C.; López, M. T.; Jurado, R.; Miranda, A.; Aguilar, M.; Melgarejo, L. A.; Palmerín, E.; Vallejo, C. J.; Barchet, W. R.

    An air quality screening study was performed to assess the impacts of emissions from the offshore operations of the oil and gas exploration and production by Mexican industry in the Campeche Sound, which includes the states of Tabasco and Campeche in southeast Mexico. The major goal of this study was the compilation of an emission inventory (EI) for elevated, boom and ground level flares, processes, internal combustion engines and fugitive emissions. This inventory is so far the most comprehensive emission register that has ever been developed for the Mexican petroleum industry in this area. The EI considered 174 offshore platforms, the compression station at Atasta, and the Maritime Ports at Dos Bocas and Cayo Arcas. The offshore facilities identified as potential emitters in the area were the following: (1) trans-shipment stations, (2) a maritime floating port terminal, (3) drilling platforms, (4) crude oil recovering platforms, (5) crude oil production platforms, (6) linking platforms, (7) water injection platforms, (8) pumping platforms, (9) shelter platforms, (10) telecommunication platforms, (11) crude oil measurement platforms, and (12) flaring platforms. Crude oil storage tanks, helicopters and marine ship tankers were also considered to have an EI accurate enough for air quality regulations and mesoscale modeling of atmospheric pollutants. Historical ambient data measure at two onshore petroleum facilities were analyzed to measure air quality impacts on nearby inhabited coastal areas, and a source-receptor relationship for flares at the Ixtoc marine complex was performed to investigate health-based standards for offshore workers. A preliminary air quality model simulation was performed to observe the transport and dispersion patterns of SO 2, which is the main pollutant emitted from the offshore platforms. The meteorological wind and temperature fields were generated with CALMET, a diagnostic meteorological model that used surface observations and upper

  13. Summer and winter plankton fish assemblages around offshore oil and gas platforms in south-eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neira, Francisco J.

    2005-06-01

    Opportunistic plankton surveys were conducted within a 5-nmi radius of nine offshore oil and gas platforms in Bass Strait, south-eastern Australia, in February 1998 and 1999 (summer) and August 1998 (winter). The 108 day-night samples collected alongside (vertical tows) and nearby (surface and oblique tows) platforms yielded 1526 larval and early juvenile fishes representing 55 taxa from 45 families. Epipelagic/mesopelagic taxa dominated the catches, whereas hard/soft habitat-associated taxa were uncommon. Carangidae (36.2%) and Myctophidae (31.5%) dominated in summer and winter, respectively. The most abundant taxon was Trachurus declivis (Carangidae, 35.1%), followed by Bovichtus angustifrons (Bovichtidae, 8.7%), Scomberesox saurus (Scomberesocidae, 3.7%), Centroberyx affinis (Berycidae, 3.0%) and Arripis trutta (Arripidae, 1.7%). Fish concentrations (nos. per 100 m 3) alongside platforms did not differ significantly between day and night across all surveys. Likewise, concentrations nearby platforms in February 1999, including those of T. declivis, did not vary significantly by tow type (surface vs. oblique) or day vs. night. The far greater diversity and abundance recorded in February 1999 are likely the result of upwelling conditions over the eastern Bass Strait shelf during the sampling period, and which were not detected in February 1998. In the absence of data on adult fishes associated with the Bass Strait platforms, and given the limited availability of reefs directly around the area, it could be argued that some of the taxa caught may originate from spawning around neighboring natural reefs, particularly those off the Gippsland coastline and the south-east corner of mainland Australia. However, the prime position of the platforms almost right in the center of a productivity "hotspot" would have a confounding effect on the potential source(s) of larval fishes in that region of south-eastern Australia. The role of platforms as potential de-facto reefs for

  14. Effects of offshore platforms on soft-bottom macro-benthic assemblages: a case study in a Mediterranean gas field.

    PubMed

    Terlizzi, Antonio; Bevilacqua, Stanislao; Scuderi, Danilo; Fiorentino, Dario; Guarnieri, Giuseppe; Giangrande, Adriana; Licciano, Margherita; Felline, Serena; Fraschetti, Simonetta

    2008-07-01

    The exploitation of fossil fuels in the Mediterranean Sea will likely lead to an increase in the number of offshore platforms, a recognized threat for marine biodiversity. To date, in this basin, few attempts have been made to assess the impact of offshore gas and oil platforms on the biodiversity of benthic assemblages. Here, we adopted a structured experimental design coupled with high taxonomic resolution to outline putative effects of gas platforms on soft-bottom macrofauna assemblages in the North Ionian Sea. The analysis was based on a total of 20,295 specimens of 405 taxa, almost entirely identified at species level. Multivariate and univariate analyses showed idiosyncratic patterns of assemblage change with increasing distance from the platforms. Potential reasons underlying such inconsistency are analyzed and the view that structured experimental monitoring is a crucial tool to quantify the extent and magnitude of potential threats and to provide sound baseline information on biodiversity patterns is supported.

  15. J-configured offshore oil production riser

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, N.R.

    1987-11-03

    This patent describes an apparatus for use in transporting hydrocarbon fluids from subsea wellheads or a manifold to a movable production vessel comprising: a formed-in-place riser of rigid pipe and having a horizontal section, a sag bend section and an upright section. The horizontal section has means for attaching the riser to the subsea manifold. The upper end of the upright section having means for coupling the same to the production vessel. The sag bend section having only a single sag bend and defining a smooth transition between the horizontal section and the upright section. The horizontal section is adapted to frictionally engage the seabed. The sag bend section is free of any structure for connecting it to the seabed. The coupling means is the only means for connecting the upright section to the production vessel.

  16. Model Development and Loads Analysis of a Wind Turbine on a Floating Offshore Tension Leg Platform

    SciTech Connect

    Matha, D.; Fischer, T.; Kuhn, M.; Jonkman, J.

    2010-02-01

    This report presents results of the analysis of a 5-MW wind turbine located on a floating offshore tension leg platform (TLP) that was conducted using the fully coupled time-domain aero-hydro-servo-elastic design code FAST with AeroDyn and HydroDyn. Models in this code are of greater fidelity than most of the models that have been used to analyze floating turbines in the past--which have neglected important hydrodynamic and mooring system effects. The report provides a description of the development process of a TLP model, which is a modified version of a Massachusetts Institute of Technology design derived from a parametric linear frequency-domain optimization process. An extensive loads and stability analysis for ultimate and fatigue loads according to the procedure of the International Electrotechnical Commission offshore wind turbine design standard was performed with the verified TLP model. Response statistics, extreme event tables, fatigue lifetimes, and selected time histories of design-driving extreme events are analyzed and presented. Loads for the wind turbine on the TLP are compared to those of an equivalent land-based turbine in terms of load ratios. Major instabilities for the TLP are identified and described.

  17. On the effects of basic platform design characteristics on floating offshore wind turbine control and their mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olondriz, Joannes; Elorza, Iker; Trojaola, Ignacio; Pujana, Aron; Landaluze, Joseba

    2016-09-01

    Semi-submersible floating offshore wind turbines present significant advantages over other designs in terms of cost, deployment, maintenance and site-independence. However, these advantages are achieved by shifting a part of the burden of stabilising the platform pitch and roll motions to the turbine control system. A study is presented here of the effects of basic platform dimensions on the performance of a standard pitch controller and the possible methods for mitigating said effects.

  18. Microstructure Evolution and Mechanical Properties of Grade E690 Offshore Platform Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Shuai; Song, Renbo; Xiong, Wenming; Liu, Zhijun; Wang, Zhonghong; Guo, Ke

    The E690 grade offshore platform steel was obtained by top and bottom blowing converter, curved spray continuous casting machine and thermo-mechanical control processing (TMCP). The static continuous cooling transformation curves (CCT curves) of the rolled plate were drawn by adopting thermal expansion method and metallographic analysis. The microstructures at different cooling rates were observed by optical microscope (OM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Results showed that the super-cooled austenite in tested steel was relatively stable and there was little high temperature microstructure transformation at the cooling rate of 0.1°C/s. The regression model of phase transformation temperature and cooling rates were obtained. According to the results of orthogonal experiment, the most optimal heat treatment process was firstly heated at 890 °C, wind cooling and then tempered at 630 °C for 60 min.

  19. Considerations in evaluating potential socioeconomic impacts of offshore platform decommissioning in California.

    PubMed

    Kruse, Sarah A; Bernstein, Brock; Scholz, Astrid J

    2015-10-01

    The 27 oil and gas platforms offshore southern California will eventually reach the end of their useful lifetimes (estimated between 2015 and 2030) and will be decommissioned. Current state and federal laws and regulations allow for alternative uses in lieu of the complete removal required in existing leases. Any decommissioning pathway will create a complex mix of costs, benefits, opportunities, and constraints for multiple user groups. To assist the California Natural Resources Agency in understanding these issues, we evaluated the potential socioeconomic impacts of the 2 most likely options: complete removal and partial removal of the structure to 85 feet below the waterline with the remaining structure left in place as an artificial reef-generally defined as a manmade structure with some properties that mimic a natural reef. We estimated impacts on commercial fishing, commercial shipping, recreational fishing, nonconsumptive boating, and nonconsumptive SCUBA diving. Available data supported quantitative estimates for some impacts, semiquantitative estimates for others, and only qualitative approximations of the direction of impact for still others. Even qualitative estimates of the direction of impacts and of user groups' likely preferred options have been useful to the public and decision makers and provided valuable input to the project's integrative decision model. Uncertainty surrounds even qualitative estimates of the likely direction of impact where interactions between multiple impacts could occur or where user groups include subsets that would experience the same option differently. In addition, we were unable to quantify effects on ecosystem value and on the larger regional ecosystem, because of data gaps on the population sizes and dynamics of key species and the uncertainty surrounding the contribution of platforms to available hard substrate and related natural populations offshore southern California. © 2015 SETAC.

  20. Inadequate environmental monitoring around offshore oil and gas platforms on the Grand Bank of Eastern Canada: are risks to marine birds known?

    PubMed

    Burke, C M; Montevecchi, W A; Wiese, F K

    2012-08-15

    Petroleum exploration and production on the Grand Bank of eastern Canada overlaps with productive marine habitat that supports over 40 million marine birds annually. Environmental assessments for oil and gas projects in the region predict insignificant adverse effects on marine birds from oil spills, incineration in platform flares and collisions. Limited baseline data on seasonal occupancies and a failure to quantify the nature and extent of marine bird attraction to platforms and related mortality undermines these assessments. We conducted 22 surveys to offshore platforms on the Grand Bank during 1999-2003 to measure avian associations with platforms and to determine the level of monitoring needed to assess the risks to marine birds. We document seasonal shifts in marine bird occurrences and higher densities of auks (fall) and shearwaters (summer) around platforms relative to surrounding areas. The limited temporal and spatial coverage of our surveys is more robust than existing industry monitoring efforts, yet it is still inadequate to quantify the scale of marine bird associations with platforms or their associated mortality risks. Systematic observations by independent biologists on vessels and platforms are needed to generate reliable assessments of risks to marine birds. Instead, the regulatory body for offshore oil and gas in eastern Canada (Canada - Newfoundland and Labrador Offshore Petroleum Board; C-NLOPB) supports industry self-reporting as the accepted form of environmental monitoring. Conflicting responsibilities of oil and gas regulatory agencies for both energy development and environmental monitoring are major barriers to transparency, unbiased scientific inquiry and adequate environmental protection. Similar conflicts with the oil and gas regulatory body in the United States, the former Minerals and Management Service (MMS) were identified by the U.S. President as a major contributor to the Deepwater Horizon disaster in the Gulf of Mexico. The

  1. Offshore LNG (liquefied natural gas) production and storage systems

    SciTech Connect

    Barden, J.K.

    1982-01-01

    A barge, outfitted with gas liquefaction processing equipment and liquefied natural gas (LNG) storage tanks, is suggested as a possible way to exploit remote offshore gas production. A similar study with a barge-mounted methanol plant was conducted several years ago, also using remote offshore feed gas. This barge-mounted, LNG system is bow-moored to a single point mooring through which feed gas is piped via seafloor pipeline from a nearby gas production facility. The barge is arranged with personnel accommodation forward, LNG storage midships, and gas liquefaction processing equipment aft. A flare boom is cantilevered off the barge's stern. The basis of design stipulates feed gas properties, area environmental data, gas liquefaction process, LNG storage tank type plus other parameters desirable in a floating process plant. The latter were concerned with safety, low maintenance characteristics, and the fact that the process barge also would serve as an offshore port where LNG export tankers would moor periodically. A brief summary of results for a barge-mounted methanol plant from an earlier study is followed then by a comparison of LNG and methanol alternatives.

  2. A method of anchoring an offshore platform to the ocean floor

    SciTech Connect

    Saffrhan, R.W.

    1988-04-26

    A method of anchoring an offshore platform to the ocean floor in deepwater locations wherein the platform includes a skirt pile sleeves fixedly secured to the lower end of the platform around the periphery thereof, is described comprising: providing each pile sleeve with valved port means through the wall thereof to form concrete group injection port means, positioning the platform at a selected location on the ocean floor, driving a pile through each of a selected number of pile sleeves and into the ocean floor whereby an annular space is formed between each pile and its surrounding sleeve, providing grouting equipment including a group pump on a facility above the surface of the ocean, lowering through the water from the facility into the vicinity of the skirt pile sleeves one end of a grout hose, connecting the upper end of the grout hose to the grout pump at the surface and the lower end of the grout hose to the valved port means in the wall of one of the pile sleeves, pumping grout down the grout hose and through the port means in the sleeve and into the annular space between the sleeve and the pile therein until the annular space has been filled with grout with a selected minimum density, closing the port means of the sleeve into which grout was injected, disconnecting the discharge end of the grout hose from the port means and successively transferring the hose to the grout injection port means of each pile sleeve to be grouted, and pumping grout thereinto whereby a concrete bond is formed between each pile and its surrounding pile sleeve.

  3. Frequency variation and sensor contribution assessment: Application to an offshore platform in the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fushun; Li, Huajun; Wang, Weiying; Li, Wei; Wang, Bin

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, a time-frequency and multiple-sensor assessment method is presented and then applied to an offshore platform in the South China Sea with the goal of providing a more suitable time duration of measured signals and evaluating each sensor's contribution to mode shapes of interest. By processing all measured signals simultaneously, a series of linear parameters are used to fit the measured signals. A moving window in overlapping steps along the time record of a non-stationary signal is used for time-frequency analysis while a series of amplitude matrices are obtained for all sliced segments. These segments are then used to evaluate each sensor's contribution to some mode(s) of interest. Compared with the short-time Fourier transform (STFT) or S-transform method, the frequencies used in this time-frequency analysis are shared by the sensors involved so that the variations in the results due to the characteristics of different sensors are avoided. In addition, the approach requires only a short-duration segment to obtain high-frequency resolution, which will improve the computing efficiency of modal analysis using measured seat est data. The proposed method could also be used to estimate damping ratios and each sensor's contribution to modes of interest based on the analysis of the series of amplitude matrices; this could be used to guide the installation of sensors in field tests of offshore structures. To demonstrate the proposed method with a time-frequency analysis, a numerical example of a synthesized signal with five segments, each with its owns different frequency componentsincluding a relatively weaker component, is constructed; numerical results from the analysis of this example signal indicate that the approach could yield a sharper image with a good computing efficiency. The second example simulates three signals that represent multiple measurements; this example is used to study each sensor

  4. Molecular analysis of the bacterial communities in crude oil samples from two brazilian offshore petroleum platforms.

    PubMed

    Korenblum, Elisa; Souza, Diogo Bastos; Penna, Monica; Seldin, Lucy

    2012-01-01

    Crude oil samples with high- and low-water content from two offshore platforms (PA and PB) in Campos Basin, Brazil, were assessed for bacterial communities by 16S rRNA gene-based clone libraries. RDP Classifier was used to analyze a total of 156 clones within four libraries obtained from two platforms. The clone sequences were mainly affiliated with Gammaproteobacteria (78.2% of the total clones); however, clones associated with Betaproteobacteria (10.9%), Alphaproteobacteria (9%), and Firmicutes (1.9%) were also identified. Pseudomonadaceae was the most common family affiliated with these clone sequences. The sequences were further analyzed by MOTHUR, yielding 81 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) grouped at 97% stringency. Richness estimators also calculated by MOTHUR indicated that oil samples with high-water content were the most diverse. Comparison of bacterial communities present in these four samples using LIBSHUFF and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) indicated that the water content significantly influenced the community structure only of crude oil obtained from PA. Differences between PA and PB libraries were observed, suggesting the importance of the oil field as a driver of community composition in this habitat.

  5. The Feasibility of Wind and Solar Energy Application for Oil and Gas Offshore Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiong, Y. K.; Zahari, M. A.; Wong, S. F.; Dol, S. S.

    2015-04-01

    Renewable energy is an energy which is freely available in nature such as winds and solar energy. It plays a critical role in greening the energy sector as these sources of energy produce little or no pollution to environment. This paper will focus on capability of renewable energy (wind and solar) in generating power for offshore application. Data of wind speeds and solar irradiation that are available around SHELL Sabah Water Platform for every 10 minutes, 24 hours a day, for a period of one year are provided by SHELL Sarawak Sdn. Bhd. The suitable wind turbine and photovoltaic panel that are able to give a high output and higher reliability during operation period are selected by using the tabulated data. The highest power output generated using single wind energy application is equal to 492 kW while for solar energy application is equal to 20 kW. Using the calculated data, the feasibility of renewable energy is then determined based on the platform energy demand.

  6. Molecular Analysis of the Bacterial Communities in Crude Oil Samples from Two Brazilian Offshore Petroleum Platforms

    PubMed Central

    Korenblum, Elisa; Souza, Diogo Bastos; Penna, Monica; Seldin, Lucy

    2012-01-01

    Crude oil samples with high- and low-water content from two offshore platforms (PA and PB) in Campos Basin, Brazil, were assessed for bacterial communities by 16S rRNA gene-based clone libraries. RDP Classifier was used to analyze a total of 156 clones within four libraries obtained from two platforms. The clone sequences were mainly affiliated with Gammaproteobacteria (78.2% of the total clones); however, clones associated with Betaproteobacteria (10.9%), Alphaproteobacteria (9%), and Firmicutes (1.9%) were also identified. Pseudomonadaceae was the most common family affiliated with these clone sequences. The sequences were further analyzed by MOTHUR, yielding 81 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) grouped at 97% stringency. Richness estimators also calculated by MOTHUR indicated that oil samples with high-water content were the most diverse. Comparison of bacterial communities present in these four samples using LIBSHUFF and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) indicated that the water content significantly influenced the community structure only of crude oil obtained from PA. Differences between PA and PB libraries were observed, suggesting the importance of the oil field as a driver of community composition in this habitat. PMID:22319534

  7. A study on the seismic fortification level of offshore platform in Bohai Sea of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Y.

    2010-12-01

    The Chinese sea areas are important places of offshore petroleum resources, and at the same time they are also seismically active regions. Fixed offshore platforms (OPs) are the fundamental facilities for marine resource exploitation, and usually situated in a complex and severe environment as having to endure many environmental loads in their life span, therefore, the damage to their structures may result in serious disasters. Among these environmental loads the seismic load has tremendous destructive effect and is not predictable. In case of not overly severe wind, wave and current, seismic resistance dominates the strength design of platforms. Furthermore, strong earthquakes have occurred recently or in the history of all the sea areas of oil/gas exploitation in China. Therefore, seismic design of fixed OPs is a very important issue. With the development of marine exploration and earthquake researches in the sea area, extensive studies on the seismotectonic environment and seismicity characteristics of the sea areas of China have been performed, meanwhile, more and more experience and data have been accumulated from OP design practice, which laid a foundation for studying and establishing the seismic design standard of OPs. This paper first gives an overall understanding of the seismic environment of the sea areas of China, then taking the Bohai Sea seismic risk study as an example, introducing a so-called shape factor K to characterize the seismic risk distribution in sub-regions of the Bohai Sea. Based on the seismic design ground motions for 46 platforms in Bohai Sea, a statistic analysis was performed for different peak ground acceleration (PGA) ratios at two different probability levels. In accordance with the two-stage design method, a scheme of two seismic design levels is proposed, and two seismic design objectives are established respectively for the strength level earthquake and ductility level earthquake. By analogy with and comparison to the Chinese

  8. Federal offshore statistics: 1992. Leasing, exploration, production, and revenues as of December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Francois, D.K.

    1993-12-31

    The Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act, enacted in 1953 and amended several times, charges the Secretary of the Interior with the responsibility for administering and managing mineral exploration and development of the outer continental shelf, as well as for conserving its natural resources. This report documents the following: Federal offshore lands; offshore leasing activity and status; offshore development activity; offshore production of crude oil and natural gas; Federal offshore oil and natural gas sales volume and royalties; revenue from Federal offshore leases; disbursement of Federal offshore revenue; reserves and resource estimates of offshore oil and natural gas; oil pollution in US and international waters; and international activities and marine minerals. 11 figs., 83 tabs.

  9. The 2013 seismic sequence close to gas injection platform of the Castor project, offshore Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cesca, Simone; Grigoli, Francesco; Heimann, Sebastian; Gonzalez, Alvaro; Buforn, Elisa; Maghsoudi, Samira; Blanch, Estefania; Dahm, Torsten

    2014-05-01

    A spatially localized seismic sequence has originated few tens of kilometres offshore the Mediterranean coast of Spain, starting on September 5, 2013, and lasting at least until October 2013. The sequence culminated in a maximal moment magnitude Mw 4.3 earthquake, on October 1, 2013. The epicentral region is located near the offshore platform of the Castor project, where gas is conducted through a pipeline from mainland and where it was recently injected in a depleted oil reservoir, at about 2 km depth. We analyse the temporal evolution of the seismic sequence and use full waveform techniques to derive absolute and relative locations, estimate depths and focal mechanisms for the largest events in the sequence (with magnitude mbLg larger than 3), and compare them to a previous event (April 8, 2012, mbLg 3.3) taking place in the same region prior to the gas injection. Moment tensor inversion results show that the overall seismicity in this sequence is characterized by oblique mechanisms with a normal fault component, with a 30° low-dip angle plane oriented NNE-SSW and a sub- vertical plane oriented NW-SE. The combined analysis of hypocentral location and focal mechanisms could indicate that the seismic sequence corresponds to rupture processes along sub- horizontal shallow surfaces, which could have been triggered by the gas injection in the reservoir,. An alternative scenario includes the iterated triggering of a system of steep faults oriented NW-SE, which were identified by prior marine seismics investigations. The most relevant seismogenic feature in the area is the Fosa de Amposta fault system, which includes different strands mapped at different distances to the coast, with a general NE-SW orientation, roughly parallel to the coastline. No significant known historical seismicity has involved this fault in the past. Our both scenarios exclude its activation, as its known orientation is inconsistent with focal mechanism results.

  10. Development and application of a shear-ram tubing-head system for increased offshore platform safety

    SciTech Connect

    Elkins, H.L. ); Adamek, F.C. )

    1988-11-01

    Concurrent drilling and production operations on offshore platforms increase the potential for blowouts and subsequent fires. Present wellhead and Christmas tree designs address the potential for production equipment to resist flame impingement for limited exposure periods, but new technology is required to eliminate the source feeding the flame. A new concept incorporates a blowout preventer (BOP) shear-ram system permanently installed in the wellhead to shear and to seal the tubing in the event of an emergency. Wellhead equipment and BOP systems provide a tandem hanger system that incorporates metal-to-metal sealing and tubular support, tubular shearing, fish retrieval, and tieback re-entry capability. This report details the design, manufacture, installation, and full-scale laboratory testing that successfully confirmed the ability of the shear-ram tubing-head system to suspend, tie back, shear, and seal 7-in., 32-lbm/ft (17.8cm, 47.6-kg/m) N-80 tubing at 5,000-psi (34.47-MPa) maximum service pressure.

  11. Distribution, Abundance, and Potential Larval Connectivity of the Non-Native Bryozoan Watersipora on Offshore Oil Platforms and Natural Reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, M.; Zaleski, S.; Simons, R. D.; Miller, R. J.; Dugan, J.; Doheny, B.; Schroeder, D. M.

    2016-02-01

    The invasion and spread of exotic species is considered one of the greatest threats to biological diversity and the functioning of aquatic ecosystems today. The non-native foliose bryozoan, Watersipora subtorquata (=W. subatra?), commonly reported from harbors and embayments, also occurs on offshore oil platforms in the southern California Bight. To better understand and manage the spread of Watersipora among platforms and other artificial and natural reef habitats, we are assessing the current distribution of this bryozoan and evaluating dispersal pathways using empirical and modeling results. We surveyed 23 oil and gas platforms offshore of California from San Pedro Bay in the south to Pt. Conception in the north and 27 natural reefs bordering the mainland coast and northern Channel Islands using photographic methods and diver searches. Watersipora occurred on approximately half (13) of the platforms, with most of those (11) located in the south (San Pedro Bay) or southeastern portion of the Santa Barbara Channel. Where present, Watersipora cover varied widely among platforms. Watersipora occurred on 6 of the 12 mainland natural reefs surveyed within the Santa Barbara Channel, but only 2 of 15 reefs on the northern Channel Islands. Where present on reefs, Watersipora cover was low and patchy. Preliminary particle tracking modeling using ROMS suggests potential larval connectivity of Watersipora among some platforms, but little connectivity between platforms and natural reefs due to the short planktonic larval duration of this bryozoan and the direction of prevailing currents. These preliminary results suggest that dispersal from harbors or through hull fouling is the most likely vector of dispersal to natural reefs. Our study will inform mitigation measures to manage the spread of Watersipora among offshore structures, including future renewable energy installations, and to natural habitat, as well as decisions on future Rigs-to-Reefs alternatives in California.

  12. A multi-attribute decision analysis for decommissioning offshore oil and gas platforms.

    PubMed

    Henrion, Max; Bernstein, Brock; Swamy, Surya

    2015-10-01

    The 27 oil and gas platforms off the coast of southern California are reaching the end of their economic lives. Because their decommissioning involves large costs and potential environmental impacts, this became an issue of public controversy. As part of a larger policy analysis conducted for the State of California, we implemented a decision analysis as a software tool (PLATFORM) to clarify and evaluate decision strategies against a comprehensive set of objectives. Key options selected for in-depth analysis are complete platform removal and partial removal to 85 feet below the water line, with the remaining structure converted in place to an artificial reef to preserve the rich ecosystems supported by the platform's support structure. PLATFORM was instrumental in structuring and performing key analyses of the impacts of each option (e.g., on costs, fishery production, air emissions) and dramatically improved the team's productivity. Sensitivity analysis found that disagreement about preferences, especially about the relative importance of strict compliance with lease agreements, has much greater effects on the preferred option than does uncertainty about specific outcomes, such as decommissioning costs. It found a near-consensus of stakeholders in support of partial removal and "rigs-to-reefs" program. The project's results played a role in the decision to pass legislation enabling an expanded California "rigs-to-reefs" program that includes a mechanism for sharing cost savings between operators and the state.

  13. Biomarkers in Natural Fish Populations Indicate Adverse Biological Effects of Offshore Oil Production

    PubMed Central

    Balk, Lennart; Hylland, Ketil; Hansson, Tomas; Berntssen, Marc H. G.; Beyer, Jonny; Jonsson, Grete; Melbye, Alf; Grung, Merete; Torstensen, Bente E.; Børseth, Jan Fredrik; Skarphedinsdottir, Halldora; Klungsøyr, Jarle

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite the growing awareness of the necessity of a sustainable development, the global economy continues to depend largely on the consumption of non-renewable energy resources. One such energy resource is fossil oil extracted from the seabed at offshore oil platforms. This type of oil production causes continuous environmental pollution from drilling waste, discharge of large amounts of produced water, and accidental spills. Methods and principal findings Samples from natural populations of haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in two North Sea areas with extensive oil production were investigated. Exposure to and uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were demonstrated, and biomarker analyses revealed adverse biological effects, including induction of biotransformation enzymes, oxidative stress, altered fatty acid composition, and genotoxicity. Genotoxicity was reflected by a hepatic DNA adduct pattern typical for exposure to a mixture of PAHs. Control material was collected from a North Sea area without oil production and from remote Icelandic waters. The difference between the two control areas indicates significant background pollution in the North Sea. Conclusion It is most remarkable to obtain biomarker responses in natural fish populations in the open sea that are similar to the biomarker responses in fish from highly polluted areas close to a point source. Risk assessment of various threats to the marine fish populations in the North Sea, such as overfishing, global warming, and eutrophication, should also take into account the ecologically relevant impact of offshore oil production. PMID:21625421

  14. Biomarkers in natural fish populations indicate adverse biological effects of offshore oil production.

    PubMed

    Balk, Lennart; Hylland, Ketil; Hansson, Tomas; Berntssen, Marc H G; Beyer, Jonny; Jonsson, Grete; Melbye, Alf; Grung, Merete; Torstensen, Bente E; Børseth, Jan Fredrik; Skarphedinsdottir, Halldora; Klungsøyr, Jarle

    2011-01-01

    Despite the growing awareness of the necessity of a sustainable development, the global economy continues to depend largely on the consumption of non-renewable energy resources. One such energy resource is fossil oil extracted from the seabed at offshore oil platforms. This type of oil production causes continuous environmental pollution from drilling waste, discharge of large amounts of produced water, and accidental spills. Samples from natural populations of haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in two North Sea areas with extensive oil production were investigated. Exposure to and uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were demonstrated, and biomarker analyses revealed adverse biological effects, including induction of biotransformation enzymes, oxidative stress, altered fatty acid composition, and genotoxicity. Genotoxicity was reflected by a hepatic DNA adduct pattern typical for exposure to a mixture of PAHs. Control material was collected from a North Sea area without oil production and from remote Icelandic waters. The difference between the two control areas indicates significant background pollution in the North Sea. It is most remarkable to obtain biomarker responses in natural fish populations in the open sea that are similar to the biomarker responses in fish from highly polluted areas close to a point source. Risk assessment of various threats to the marine fish populations in the North Sea, such as overfishing, global warming, and eutrophication, should also take into account the ecologically relevant impact of offshore oil production.

  15. Joint Offshore Wind Field Monitoring with Spaceborne SAR and Platform-Based Doppler LIDAR Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsen, S.; Lehner, S.; Hieronimus, J.; Schneemann, J.; Kuhn, M.

    2015-04-01

    The increasing demand for renewable energy resources has promoted the construction of offshore wind farms e.g. in the North Sea. While the wind farm layout consists of an array of large turbines, the interrelation of wind turbine wakes with the remaining array is of substantial interest. The downstream spatial evolution of turbulent wind turbine wakes is very complex and depends on manifold parameters such as wind speed, wind direction and ambient atmospheric stability conditions. To complement and validate existing numerical models, corresponding observations are needed. While in-situ measurements with e.g. anemometers provide a time-series at the given location, the merits of ground-based and space- or airborne remote sensing techniques are indisputable in terms of spatial coverage. Active microwave devices, such as Scatterometer and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), have proven their capabilities of providing sea surface wind measurements and particularly SAR images reveal wind variations at a high spatial resolution while retaining the large coverage area. Platform-based Doppler LiDAR can resolve wind fields with a high spatial coverage and repetition rates of seconds to minutes. In order to study the capabilities of both methods for the investigation of small scale wind field structures, we present a direct comparison of observations obtained by high resolution TerraSAR-X (TS-X) X-band SAR data and platform-based LiDAR devices at the North Sea wind farm alpha ventus. We furthermore compare the results with meteorological data from the COSMO-DE model run by the German Weather Service DWD. Our study indicates that the overall agreement between SAR and LiDAR wind fields is good and that under appropriate conditions small scale wind field variations compare significantly well.

  16. Atmospheric metallic and arsenic pollution at an offshore drilling platform in the Bo Sea: A health risk assessment for the workers.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hong; Han, Suqin; Bi, Xiaohui; Zhao, Zhijing; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Wenjie; Zhang, Min; Chen, Jing; Wu, Jianhui; Zhang, Yufen; Feng, Yinchang

    2016-03-05

    To investigate the ambient metal pollution at the offshore drilling platform in the Bo Sea, which few studies have focused on, PM2.5 samples were collected and ten heavy metals, as well as As, were analyzed. High concentration levels of metals were observed, and the heavy metal pollution was quite serious compared to air quality standards and other marine areas. Back trajectories and wind dependent and PCA analyses showed that the marine sources included ship traffic emissions and corrosive stainless steels from the equipment at the platform as well as industrial emissions from stainless steel production and coal combustion sources, which were transported from the surrounding mainland. Both contributed greatly to the ambient metallic particles at the offshore platform. The Hazard Index values of the metals, which were much less than 1, the Carcinogenic Risk data, which were lower than the EPA's acceptable range, and the fact that the metal concentrations did not the exceed the permissible exposure limits of OSHA, indicated that the health risks from the ambient metallic particles for the oil-drilling workers were not significant.

  17. [Relationship of job stress with job burnout and quality of work life in workers for offshore oil platforms].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Liu, X L; Wei, T D; Lan, Y J

    2017-03-20

    Objective: To evaluate the current status of job burnout and qual ity of work life (QWL) in workers for offshore oil platforms, and to analyze the relationship of job stress with job burnout and QWL and the direct and indirect effects of job stress on QWL. Methods: Cluster random sampling was used to select 382 work-ers for 8 oil platforms of China National Offshore Oil Corporation in October 2015. A self-designed questionnaire was used to collect the individual characteristics of subjects. The Quality of Work Life Scale (QWL7-32) , Occupa-tional Stress Inventory-Revised Edition (OSI-R) , and Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS) were used to investigate the QWL, job stress, and job burnout of subjects. Results: Among all the workers for offshore oil platforms, 87.2% had mild job burnout. The total QWL score was 116.01 ± 16.73; 8.3% of the workers had poor QWL, and 68.5% had moderate QWL. QWL was reduced with heavier task, vaguer task, and increasing mental stress and physical stress (P<0.05) , and increased with more social support (P<0.05) . Job stress had di-rect and indirect effects on QWL; stress reaction had the most effect on QWL (total effect size -0.509) , followed by social support (total effect size 0.444) . Conclusion: Most workers for offshore oil platforms have mild job burn-out and moderate QWL. Job stress is associated with job burnout and QWL, and stress reaction and social support have relatively high influence on QWL.

  18. An Assessment of Wave and Wind Data for Use in Design of Tension Leg Platforms - U.S. Offshore Areas.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-01

    RD-Ai59 723 AN ASSESSMENT OF NAVE AND WIND DATA FOR USE IN DESIGN OF TENSION LEG PLAT (U) DAVID W TAYLOR NAVAL SHIP RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CENTER...CHART NATIOMAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS- 1963-A V. Us.Dsparvywit AD-A 159 723 oGw AJSUSMEN OF WAVE AND WIND DATA SUSE IN DESIGN -OF, TENSION LEG PLATFORM...Assessment of Wave and Wind data for July 1984 use in Design of Tension Leg Platform 6.P 0i.~,280grn,80.0~. Code % U.S. Offshore areas William H

  19. The Research and Development of a Cavitating Water Jet Cleaning System for Removing Marine Growth and Fouling from Offshore Platform Structures.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    AO-AO85 730 DAEOALEAN ASSOCIATES INC WOODBINE MD F/0 13/9 THE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT OF A CAVITATING WATER JET CLEANING--TC(U) DEC 79 J T PARKER, W...REPORT THE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT OF A CAVITATING WATER JET CLEANING SYSTEM FOR REMOVING MARINE GROWTH AND FOULING FROM OFFSHORE PLATFORM STRUCTURES...DEVELOPMENT OF A CAVITATING WATER JET CLEANING SYSTEM FOR REMOVING MARINE GROWTH AND FOULING FROM OFFSHORE PLATFORM STRUCTURES 1.0 INTRODUCTION Inspection of

  20. Low Cost Hydrogen Production Platform

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy M. Aaron, Jerome T. Jankowiak

    2009-10-16

    A technology and design evaluation was carried out for the development of a turnkey hydrogen production system in the range of 2.4 - 12 kg/h of hydrogen. The design is based on existing SMR technology and existing chemical processes and technologies to meet the design objectives. Consequently, the system design consists of a steam methane reformer, PSA system for hydrogen purification, natural gas compression, steam generation and all components and heat exchangers required for the production of hydrogen. The focus of the program is on packaging, system integration and an overall step change in the cost of capital required for the production of hydrogen at small scale. To assist in this effort, subcontractors were brought in to evaluate the design concepts and to assist in meeting the overall goals of the program. Praxair supplied the overall system and process design and the subcontractors were used to evaluate the components and system from a manufacturing and overall design optimization viewpoint. Design for manufacturing and assembly (DFMA) techniques, computer models and laboratory/full-scale testing of components were utilized to optimize the design during all phases of the design development. Early in the program evaluation, a review of existing Praxair hydrogen facilities showed that over 50% of the installed cost of a SMR based hydrogen plant is associated with the high temperature components (reformer, shift, steam generation, and various high temperature heat exchange). The main effort of the initial phase of the program was to develop an integrated high temperature component for these related functions. Initially, six independent concepts were developed and the processes were modeled to determine overall feasibility. The six concepts were eventually narrowed down to the highest potential concept. A US patent was awarded in February 2009 for the Praxair integrated high temperature component design. A risk analysis of the high temperature component was

  1. Offshore and arctic frontiers -structures, ocean mining

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, J.S.

    1985-05-01

    The systematic development of offshore technology is discussed. Today, this technology enables the production of approximately 14 million barrels of oil per day, or 26% of oil production worldwide. The evolution in offshore structures is examined with emphasis on jacket and jackup platforms. Challenges are explored. Microprocessors, data-base management, and artificial intelligence are mentioned as having an impact on the offshore and arctic oil industry.

  2. Do Offshore Wind Farms Influence Marine Primary Production?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tweddle, J. F.; Murray, R. B. O.; Gubbins, M.; Scott, B. E.

    2016-02-01

    Primary producers (phytoplankton) form the basis of marine food-webs, supporting production of higher trophic levels, and act as a sink of CO2. We considered the impact of proposed large scale offshore wind farms in moderately deep waters (> 45 m) off the east coast of Scotland on rates of primary production. A 2 stage modelling process was used, employing state-of-the-art 3-D hydrographic models with the ability to capture flow at the spatial resolution of 10 m combined with 1-D vertical modelling using 7 years of local forcing data. Through influencing the strength of stratification via changes in current flow, large (100 m) modelled wind turbine foundations had a significant effect on primary producers, consistently reducing total annual primary production, although within the range of natural interannual variability. The percentage reduction was largest over submarine banks less than 54 m in depth, and was outside the range of natural interannual variability. Smaller (10 m) turbine foundations had no discernible effect on total annual primary production. The results indicate that smaller foundations should be favored as a mitigation measure, in terms of effects on primary production, and this type of analysis should be considered within sectoral planning and licensing processes for future renewable energy developments.

  3. Tuned Liquid Column Damper based Reduction of Dynamic Responses of Scaled Offshore Platforms in Different Ocean Wave Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donnell, Deirdre; Murphy, Jimmy; Desmond, Cian; Jaksic, Vesna; Pakrashi, Vikram

    2017-05-01

    Control of dynamic responses of renewable energy device platforms is important for their performance, safe operation and efficiency over their lifetime under regular and extreme wave conditions. Tuned Liquid Column Dampers (TLCDs) have been recently considered as a viable passive control mechanism in this regard but limited information is available in relation to their experimental performance. This paper compares scaled experiments conducted in two different ocean wave basins where floating offshore platforms were retrofitted with multiple TLCDs (MTLCDs). Performance of such MTLCDs in these scaled ocean wave basins are evaluated and compared considering control of dynamic responses for a specific objective. This paper shows the potential of MTLCDs to reduce motions in offshore platforms for different designs and platforms of MTLCDs and provides a comparison of the levels of reduction of dynamic responses achieved. The performance of MTLCDs in different wave basins create an experimental evidence base behind the potential use of such solutions, the objectives of such use and highlight related challenges and limitations.

  4. Designing a year-round production system for offshore Labrador

    SciTech Connect

    Jozan, M.M.; Wetzel, V.F.

    1980-08-01

    Of the various production schemes under consideration for use in the iceberg-plagued Labrador Sea, two seem technically feasible in the medium term (5-10 years): a quick-disconnect floating platform equipped with an ice-cutting device and a fixed structure mounted on an artificial island or submerged mound. The first alternative would be a seasonal production system relying on a dynamically positioned platform that could be easily disconnected from the riser when threatened by an oncoming iceberg; smaller ice floes would be broken up by the platform's ice cutter. The most feasible fixed-structure plan is to build a conventional platform on an artificial island or, in deeper waters, on a submerged mound. This alternative offers the room needed for the processing and liquefaction facilities required for tanker transport of natural gas. Labrador Sea hydrocarbons will most likely be transported by tankers rather than pipelines until designers devise means of protecting the pipe from iceberg scour and crossing the deep marginal trough.

  5. Offshore platform sourced pollution monitoring using space-borne fully polarimetric C and X band synthetic aperture radar.

    PubMed

    Singha, Suman; Ressel, Rudolf

    2016-11-15

    Use of polarimetric SAR data for offshore pollution monitoring is relatively new and shows great potential for operational offshore platform monitoring. This paper describes the development of an automated oil spill detection chain for operational purposes based on C-band (RADARSAT-2) and X-band (TerraSAR-X) fully polarimetric images, wherein we use polarimetric features to characterize oil spills and look-alikes. Numbers of near coincident TerraSAR-X and RADARSAT-2 images have been acquired over offshore platforms. Ten polarimetric feature parameters were extracted from different types of oil and 'look-alike' spots and divided into training and validation dataset. Extracted features were then used to develop a pixel based Artificial Neural Network classifier. Mutual information contents among extracted features were assessed and feature parameters were ranked according to their ability to discriminate between oil spill and look-alike spots. Polarimetric features such as Scattering Diversity, Surface Scattering Fraction and Span proved to be most suitable for operational services. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. High-resolution onshore-offshore morpho-bathymetric records of modern chalk and granitic shore platforms in NW France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duperret, Anne; Raimbault, Céline; Le Gall, Bernard; Authemayou, Christine; van Vliet-Lanoë, Brigitte; Regard, Vincent; Dromelet, Elsa; Vandycke, Sara

    2016-07-01

    Modern shore platforms developed on rocky coasts are key areas for understanding coastal erosion processes during the Holocene. This contribution offers a detailed picture of two contrasted shore-platform systems, based on new high-resolution shallow-water bathymetry, further coupled with aerial LiDAR topography. Merged land-sea digital elevation models were achieved on two distinct types of rocky coasts along the eastern English Channel in France (Picardy and Upper-Normandy: PUN) and in a NE Atlantic area (SW Brittany: SWB) in NW France. About the PUN case, submarine steps, identified as paleo-shorelines, parallel the actual coastline. Coastal erosive processes appear to be continuous and regular through time, since mid-Holocene at least. In SWB, there is a discrepancy between contemporary coastline orientation and a continuous step extending from inland to offshore, identified as a paleo-shoreline. This illustrates a polyphased and inherited shore platform edification, mainly controlled by tectonic processes.

  7. Canadian offshore oil production solution gas utilization alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, J.V.

    1999-07-01

    Oil and gas development in the Province of Newfoundland and Labrador is in its early stage and the offshore industry emphasis is almost exclusively on oil production. At the Hibernia field, the Gravity Base Structure (GBS) is installed and the first wells are in production. The Terra Nova project, based on a Floating Production Storage Offloading (FPSO) ship shaped concept, is in its engineering and construction stage and first oil is expected by late 2000. Several other projects, such as Husky's White Rose and Chevron's Hebron, have significant potential for future development in the same area. It is highly probably that these projects will employ the FPSO concept. It is also expected that the solution gas disposal issues of such second generation projects will be of more significance in their regulatory approval process and of such second generation projects will be of more significance in their regulatory approval process and the operators may be forced to look for alternatives to gas reinjection. Three gas utilization alternatives for a FPSO concept based project have been considered and evaluated in this paper: liquefied natural gas (LNG), compressed natural gas (CNG), and gas-to-liquids conversion (GTL). The evaluation and the relative ranking of these alternatives is based on a first pass screening type of study which considers the technical and economical merits of each alternative. Publicly available information and in-house data, compiled within Fluor Daniel's various offices, was used to establish the basic parameters.

  8. Measurement of naphthenic acids in the receiving waters around an offshore oil platform by passive sampling.

    PubMed

    Harman, Christopher; Langford, Katherine; Sundt, Rolf C; Brooks, Steven

    2014-09-01

    Polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) were deployed in the vicinity of an offshore oil installation and analyzed for naphthenic acids (NAs). The POCIS accumulated a range of mono- to tetracyclic NAs, with different degrees of alkylation, with monocyclic acids being the most abundant. Currently, POCIS or similar polar samplers may be the only way to measure exposure to NAs from offshore discharges in situ. In addition, they may be a valuable tool for monitoring similar organic acids in general. © 2014 SETAC.

  9. Federal offshore statistics: 1995 - leasing, exploration, production, and revenue as of December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Gaechter, R.A.

    1997-07-01

    This report provides data on federal offshore operations for 1995. Information is included for leasing activities, development, petroleum and natural gas production, sales and royalties, revenue from federal offshore leasing, disbursement of federal revenues, reserves and resource estimates, and oil pollution in U.S. and international waters.

  10. Temporal variation in environmental conditions and the structure of fish assemblages around an offshore oil platform in the North Sea.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Toyonobu

    2015-07-01

    This study reports temporal variations in the environmental conditions and the structure of fish assemblages observed in the vicinity of an offshore oil platform and the surrounding seafloor in the North Sea. Multi-seasonal sampling was conducted at a typical large steel jacketed facility, using mid-water fish traps at three different depths (i.e., 10, 50 & 100 m). Commercially important gadoids such as saithe Pollachius virens, haddock Melanogrammus aeglefinus and cod Gadus morhua were the most abundant species, however, the species composition and the relative abundances of the species varied with depth, season and between years. Comparisons with a large-scale bottom trawl survey data suggested highly dynamic and species-specific interactions between fish movements, changing environmental conditions and the physical presence of an offshore platform. Given the number of platforms currently installed across the North Sea, there is a need to identify biological mechanisms behind such dynamic interactions. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Distribution patterns of larval and juvenile fishes at offshore petroleum platforms in the north-central Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindquist, David C.; Shaw, Richard F.; Hernandez, Frank J.

    2005-03-01

    Vertical and horizontal distribution patterns of larval and juvenile fishes were described from five offshore petroleum platforms in the north-central Gulf of Mexico. Light traps and passively-fished plankton nets were used nocturnally between 1995-2000 to collect fishes in surface and deep (15-23 m depth) waters within the platform structure, and light traps were also used in surface waters directly down-current of the platforms. Light traps fished at the surface, as opposed to at-depth, collected greater CPUEs and greater diversity of larval and juvenile fishes. Of the dominant taxa collected by light traps, clupeids, engraulids, synodontids, and presettlement blenniids were most common in surface waters within the platform, while postflexion scombrids and settlement-size blenniids and pomacentrids were most common in surface waters down-current of the platforms. Deep plankton nets collected greater densities of non-clupeiform larval fishes, although surface plankton nets collected greater numbers of taxa. The vertical distribution patterns described for dominant larval fish collected by plankton nets were generally consistent with those from other studies, i.e. clupeid, carangid, sciaenid and scombrid larvae more abundant in surface waters at platforms, and synodontid, bregmacerotid, gobiid and bothid larvae more abundant in deeper waters. Oil and gas platforms likely impact larval and juvenile fish populations, particularly considering their proliferation in the Gulf (i.e., over 4000 platforms). The results from this study provide valuable baseline information for future research investigating how platforms impact the life history stages of fish populations.

  12. Numerical Investigation into the Performance of a Rarefaction Shock Wave Cutter for Offshore Oil-Gas Platform Removal

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, J P; Glenn, L A; Antoun, T H; Lomov, I N

    2001-06-14

    The phase change in iron at 13 GPa results in the formation of rarefaction shock waves upon release. The interaction of multiple rarefaction shock waves induces high tensile stresses within a narrow zone, causing smooth spall. This effect can be exploited to sever cylindrical cross-section pipes, such as those supporting decommissioned offshore oil and gas platforms, using a minimal amount of explosive. Consequently, costs can be reduced and environmental impact minimized. They discuss the numerical techniques used to simulate rarefaction shock waves and the damage to steel resulting from the interaction of multiple rarefaction shock waves.

  13. A real-time health monitoring system of offshore platform structure based on fieldbus CAN and OPC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Lin; Ou, Jinping; Yao, Wei; Tang, Wei

    2005-05-01

    Using control area network (CAN) technique and open connectivity (OPC) method, a sensor fieldbus is developed to acquire and preprocess the data came from structure for monitoring the damage. The OPC interface is added in sensor bus for information sharing. The algorithm of distance of storing-strategy data is embedded in the sensor fieldbus. A system of data acquisition and preprocessing based on the sensor fieldbus is presented and simulated it on the offshore platform. The result shows that the speed and efficiency of sensor fieldbus are reliable and robust when the gigantic data stream into the monitoring system.

  14. Numerical Investigation into the Performance of a Rarefaction Shock Wave Cutter for Offshore Oil-Gas Platform Removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, J. P.; Glenn, L. A.; Antoun, T. H.; Lomov, I. N.

    2002-07-01

    The phase change in iron at 13 GPa results in the formation of rarefaction shock waves (RSWs) upon release. The interaction of multiple RSWs induces high tensile stresses within a narrow zone, causing smooth spall. This effect can be exploited to sever cylindrical cross-section pipes, such as those supporting decommissioned offshore oil and gas platforms, using a minimal amount of explosive. Consequently, costs can be reduced and environmental impact minimized. We discuss numerical techniques used to simulate RSWs and the damage to steel resulting from the interaction of multiple RSWs.

  15. Marine Fouling Assemblages on Offshore Gas Platforms in the Southern North Sea: Effects of Depth and Distance from Shore on Biodiversity.

    PubMed

    van der Stap, Tim; Coolen, Joop W P; Lindeboom, Han J

    2016-01-01

    Offshore platforms are known to act as artificial reefs, though there is on-going debate on whether this effect is beneficial or harmful for the life in the surrounding marine environment. Knowing what species exist on and around the offshore platforms and what environmental variables influence this species assemblage is crucial for a better understanding of the impact of offshore platforms on marine life. Information on this is limited for offshore platforms in the southern North Sea. This study aims to fill this gap in our knowledge and to determine how the composition and the abundance of species assemblages changes with depth and along a distance-from-shore gradient. The species assemblages on five offshore gas platforms in the southern North Sea have been inventoried using Remotely Operated Vehicles inspection footage. A total of 30 taxa were identified. A Generalised Additive Model of the species richness showed a significant non-linear relation with water depth (p = 0.001): from a low richness in shallow waters it increases with depth until 15-20 m, after which richness decreases again. Using PERMANOVA, water depth (p≤0.001), community age (p≤0.001) and the interaction between distance from shore and community age (p≤0.001) showed a significant effect on the species assemblages. Future research should focus on the effect additional environmental variables have on the species assemblages.

  16. Marine Fouling Assemblages on Offshore Gas Platforms in the Southern North Sea: Effects of Depth and Distance from Shore on Biodiversity

    PubMed Central

    van der Stap, Tim; Coolen, Joop W. P.; Lindeboom, Han J.

    2016-01-01

    Offshore platforms are known to act as artificial reefs, though there is on-going debate on whether this effect is beneficial or harmful for the life in the surrounding marine environment. Knowing what species exist on and around the offshore platforms and what environmental variables influence this species assemblage is crucial for a better understanding of the impact of offshore platforms on marine life. Information on this is limited for offshore platforms in the southern North Sea. This study aims to fill this gap in our knowledge and to determine how the composition and the abundance of species assemblages changes with depth and along a distance-from-shore gradient. The species assemblages on five offshore gas platforms in the southern North Sea have been inventoried using Remotely Operated Vehicles inspection footage. A total of 30 taxa were identified. A Generalised Additive Model of the species richness showed a significant non-linear relation with water depth (p = 0.001): from a low richness in shallow waters it increases with depth until 15–20 m, after which richness decreases again. Using PERMANOVA, water depth (p≤0.001), community age (p≤0.001) and the interaction between distance from shore and community age (p≤0.001) showed a significant effect on the species assemblages. Future research should focus on the effect additional environmental variables have on the species assemblages. PMID:26745870

  17. An evaluation of oil spill responses for offshore oil production projects in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada: Implications for seabird conservation.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Gail S; Racine, Vincent

    2016-06-15

    Seabirds are vulnerable to oil pollution, particularly in cold-water regions. We investigated the response of small spills (<7.95m(3)) at offshore production platforms in Newfoundland, a region recognized for seabird diversity and abundance. In three environmental assessments for oil production operations Environment Canada requested monitoring and mitigation of small spills potentially impacting seabird populations; suggestions supported by two independent reviews. An industry spill response plan states that operators would collect systematic observations on spills and deploy countermeasures where possible. Operators' spill reports were obtained under an Access to Information request. There were 220 daytime spills with sheens (out of 381 spills; 1997-2010). Of these, six reported time to oil dispersion and eleven the presence or absence of seabirds. Industry self-reporting has not permitted an evaluation of the impact of chronic oil spills on seabirds. We recommend that independent observers be placed on platforms to systematically collect data on spills and seabirds.

  18. Parametric study on the effects of pile inclination angle on the response of batter piles in offshore jacket platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aminfar, Ali; Ahmadi, Hamid; Aminfar, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-06-01

    Offshore jacket-type platforms are attached to the seabed by long batter piles. In this paper, results from a finite element analysis, verified against experimental data, are used to study the effect of the pile's inclination angle, and its interaction with the geometrical properties of the pile and the geotechnical characteristics of the surrounding soil on the behavior of the inclined piles supporting the jacket platforms. Results show that the inclination angle is one of the main parameters affecting the behavior of an offshore pile. We investigated the effect of the inclination angle on the maximum von Mises stress, maximum von Mises elastic strain, maximum displacement vector sum, maximum displacement in the horizontal direction, and maximum displacement in the vertical direction. The pile seems to have an operationally optimal degree of inclination of approximately 5°. By exceeding this value, the instability in the surrounding soil under applied loads grows extensively in all the geotechnical properties considered. Cohesive soils tend to display poorer results compared to grained soils.

  19. The U.S. Department of Energy's Reference Facility for Offshore Renewable Energy (RFORE): A New Platform for Research and Development (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, W. J.

    2013-12-01

    Offshore renewable energy represents a significant but essentially untapped electricity resource for the U.S. Offshore wind energy is attractive for a number of reasons, including the feasibility of using much larger and more efficient wind turbines than is possible on land. In many offshore regions near large population centers, the diurnal maximum in wind energy production is also closely matched to the diurnal maximum in electricity demand, easing the balancing of generation and load. Currently, however, the cost of offshore wind energy is not competitive with other energy sources, including terrestrial wind. Two significant contributing reasons for this are the cost of offshore wind resource assessment and fundamental gaps in knowledge of the behavior of winds and turbulence in the layer of the atmosphere spanned by the sweep of the turbine rotor. Resource assessment, a necessary step in securing financing for a wind project, is conventionally carried out on land using meteorological towers erected for a year or more. Comparable towers offshore are an order of magnitude more expensive to install. New technologies that promise to reduce these costs, such as Doppler lidars mounted on buoys, are being developed, but these need to be validated in the environment in which they will be used. There is currently no facility in the U.S. that can carry out such validations offshore. Research needs include evaluation and improvement of hub-height wind forecasts from regional forecast models in the marine boundary layer, understanding of turbulence characteristics that affect turbine loads and wind plant efficiency, and development of accurate representations of sea surface roughness and atmospheric thermodynamic stability on hub height winds. In response to these needs for validation and research, the U.S. Department of Energy is developing the Reference Facility for Offshore Renewable Energy (RFORE). The RFORE will feature a meteorological tower with wind, temperature

  20. NDSI products system based on Hadoop platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yan; Jiang, He; Yang, Xiaoxia; Geng, Erhui

    2015-12-01

    Snow is solid state of water resources on earth, and plays an important role in human life. Satellite remote sensing is significant in snow extraction with the advantages of cyclical, macro, comprehensiveness, objectivity, timeliness. With the continuous development of remote sensing technology, remote sensing data access to the trend of multiple platforms, multiple sensors and multiple perspectives. At the same time, in view of the remote sensing data of compute-intensive applications demand increase gradually. However, current the producing system of remote sensing products is in a serial mode, and this kind of production system is used for professional remote sensing researchers mostly, and production systems achieving automatic or semi-automatic production are relatively less. Facing massive remote sensing data, the traditional serial mode producing system with its low efficiency has been difficult to meet the requirements of mass data timely and efficient processing. In order to effectively improve the production efficiency of NDSI products, meet the demand of large-scale remote sensing data processed timely and efficiently, this paper build NDSI products production system based on Hadoop platform, and the system mainly includes the remote sensing image management module, NDSI production module, and system service module. Main research contents and results including: (1)The remote sensing image management module: includes image import and image metadata management two parts. Import mass basis IRS images and NDSI product images (the system performing the production task output) into HDFS file system; At the same time, read the corresponding orbit ranks number, maximum/minimum longitude and latitude, product date, HDFS storage path, Hadoop task ID (NDSI products), and other metadata information, and then create thumbnails, and unique ID number for each record distribution, import it into base/product image metadata database. (2)NDSI production module: includes

  1. BM platform, B Field, Offshore Northwest Java: A case history of multi-disciplinary integration including 3D seismic, reservoir simulation and horizontal drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, D.; Aziz, A.; Baldauff, J.; Diswarin, N.

    1996-12-31

    This case history describes how a multidisciplinary team used a 3D survey and reservoir simulation to review and revise the development plans for the BM platform, located in the B Field, Offshore Northwest Java, Indonesia. The case history starts with the collection of necessary parophysical, geologic and production data. These data are input to a reservoir simulation which shows there should be no problems with the new platform. However, this initial simulation has known problems with contradicting input structure maps and fluid contacts. Hopefully, these problems can be addressed with a new 3D seismic survey - if the seismic data can be acquired, processed, interpreted and input to the simulation before drilling starts at the BM platform. The seismic acquisition could not be done with the traditional towed seismic streamer cables - instead stationary ocean bottom cables with dual geophone-hydrophone sensors were used. Processing of the seismic data was done in a way that allowed interpretation of the critical area even before acquisition of the entire survey was finished. The new 3D structure maps changed the MDT`s opinion of what reservoir and what areas contained the bulk of the oil reserves. Unfortunately, the new maps were not available until after the jacket was set but before the wells drilled. The NMT updated the simulation with the new 3D data, which led to changes in development well bottom hole locations and an ambitious horizontal well.

  2. Recommendations for dealing with asphaltene or wax problems in offshore production facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Leontaritis, K.J.

    1996-09-01

    Many production facilities around the world suffer from either asphaltene or wax deposition. Asphaltene and wax problems are seriously threatening the economic production from many offshore reservoirs due to the high cost of remedial measures. Offshore production facilities are especially susceptible to asphaltene or wax deposition for a number of reasons. One indispensable requirement for dealing with these problems, that offshore production facilities usually lack, is extra storage capacity for temporarily storing asphaltene or wax cuttings and washings away from inflicted equipment. The cuttings and washings, even if temporary storage were available, need to be dealt with nearly on a daily basis. Providing equipment to process the slop offshore is expensive and messy (environmentally). Hence, the cuttings and washings, in many cases, must be carried away to onshore slop processing facilities. The above discussion assumes, of course, that the operator has already found the best technology (e.g., tools, chemicals, etc.) for removing the deposits from the offshore equipment, which in itself is another challenge that precedes the disposal problem. All of the above considerations underscore the fact that the best way of dealing with the asphaltene and wax problems is to prevent them, where possible. This paper presents ideas and methodologies on how to predict, diagnose, prevent, or mitigate problems caused by organic deposition in offshore production facilities. In one facility where these ideas were put to use, despite the debilitating magnitude of the asphaltene problems encountered, the field has been successfully produced for over 14 years with minimum environmental impact.

  3. Oxygen consumption and ventilation during simulated escape from an offshore oil platform.

    PubMed

    Ross, J A; Henderson, G D; Howie, R M

    1997-03-01

    Twenty-six male workers from the North Sea offshore oil industry took part in a simulated escape exercise at the Offshore Fire Training Centre. The course was 370 m long and had 19.4 m of vertical ascent and descent using the stairs on simulated offshore structures. Inspired ventilation and oxygen consumption were measured using the P. K. Morgan "Oxylog' and subjects breathed through the apparatus by mouthpiece and one-way valve assembly while wearing a nose clip. On comparison with anthropometric data from larger studies, this sample of the offshore work-force was thought to be representative. The mean duration of the exercise period was 371 s (SD = 24 s, range = 325-424 s). Mean oxygen consumption standing still at the start of the trial was 0.421 min-1 (SD = 0.101 min-1, max. = 0.611 min-1) and mean ventilation 12.351 min-1 (SD = 4.251 min-1, max. = 22.271 min-1). During exercise, the mean oxygen consumption rose to 2.711 min-1 (SD = 0.641 min-1, max = 4.051 min-1) and mean ventilation reached 46.341 min-1 (SD = 15.831 min-1, max = 87.361 min-1) during the fifth minute of exercise. At the end of the exercise period, oxygen consumption returned to resting values after 2 min and ventilation after 3 min. There was no indication of an oxygen debt. Oxygen consumption and ventilation were related to body weight and the maximum figures for ventilation and oxygen consumption were seen in individuals of over the 95th centile for weight who completed the exercise more quickly than other subjects. Draft standards for respiratory protective equipment for use during escape from fire do not specify the breathing volumes identified in this study, and which are considerably higher than those being currently considered. Additionally, the atmospheric conditions near a fire are likely to stimulate ventilation to considerably higher levels than those identified here. Accordingly, such equipment is likely to limit physical performance if a similar intensity of exercise is necessary

  4. Integrated use of biomarkers in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis for assessing off-shore gas platforms in the Adriatic Sea: results of a two-year biomonitoring program.

    PubMed

    Gomiero, Alessio; Da Ros, Luisa; Nasci, Cristina; Meneghetti, Francesca; Spagnolo, Alessandra; Fabi, Gianna

    2011-11-01

    Despite a large number of gas platforms existing in the Adriatic Sea, which is a semi-enclosed basin characterized by a slow turnover rate and increasing industrial as well as other anthropogenic activities, the effects of these structures on the aquatic ecosystem require further investigation. Since 1998, multidisciplinary studies have been performed by CNR-ISMAR to comply with legislation and to support the development of protocols for the monitoring of offshore activities in the Adriatic Sea. The present study was developed to implement a biomonitoring plan to assess the ecotoxicological effects of the extraction activities of an off-shore gas platform. Biomarkers were evaluated in mussels collected from the platform in relation to physiological stress, DNA damage, cellular damage, oxidative stress and exposure effects. Organic contaminants and trace element bioaccumulation were also assessed in the soft body of the mussels to correlate bioaccumulation of pollutants with biomarker responses. The results indicate an absence of platform-related environmental stress.

  5. Providing emergency medical care to offshore oil and gas platforms in the Gulf of Mexico using telemedicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouabene, Anis

    2002-08-01

    UTMB is developing with industrial partners the "24/7 telemedicine triage project" to provide emergency medical care to offshore oil and gas rigs and platforms in the Gulf of Mexico. The oil and gas industry is second only to the US department of defense in the number of employees stationed in remote areas. Providing medical care to such populations is logistically complex and expensive. In addition, emergency evacuation is often time-consuming and poses risks for both patients and medical crews. By utilizing high-resolution videoconferencing technology, through a satellite communication, patient visits will be conducted in real time and will provide more informed decisions about the need for more extensive treatment, thereby reducing unnecessary evacuations. In addition, patients who require evacuation will receive a higher standard of care while waiting for transport to a medical facility. UTMB physicians report that 39% of all patients from offshore facilities treated in the emergency department, could have been successfully treated through telemedicine without being evacuated to a hospital. The telemedicine project will employ standard procedures for medical triage, in which patients are directed to appropriate medical experts based on their symptoms or type of injury.

  6. The qualification of advanced composite pipe for use in fire water deluge systems on open type offshore oil platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Lea, R.H.; Stubblefield, M.A.; Pang, S.S.

    1996-12-01

    Different types of FIBERBOND{reg_sign} pipe in the dry condition and with a butt and strap joint were subjected to a controlled fire for fire endurance evaluation. Testing adheres to a modification of the ASTM 1173-95 guideline, which simulates the development of an actual hydrocarbon fire. For a fire water deluge system, the pipe is in the dry condition approximately one to three minutes during an actual hydrocarbon fire. Preliminary testing shows that composite pipe is able to withstand this exposure to fire for the five minute duration of the test. This is achieved with modifying the chemical composition of the composite pipe and in some cases, adding an additional structural component to the overall pipe. Therefore, composite pipe could be used for the deluge fire system of an offshore oil platform.

  7. Numerical Investigation into the Performance of a Rarefaction Shock Wave Cutter for Offshore Oil-Gas Platform Removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Joseph; Glenn, Lewis; Antoun, Tarabay; Lomov, Ilya

    2001-06-01

    The phase change in iron at 13 GPa results in the formation of rarefaction shock waves upon release. The interaction of multiple rarefaction shock waves induces high tensile stresses within a narrow zone, causing smooth spall. This effect can be exploited to sever cylindrical cross-section pipes, such as those supporting decommissioned offshore oil and gas platforms, using a minimal amount of explosive. Consequently, costs can be reduced and environmental impact minimized. We discuss the numerical techniques used to simulate rarefaction shock waves and the damage to steel resulting from the interaction of multiple rarefaction shock waves. Finally, we present a series of simulations investigating the performance of such a device under a range of conditions.

  8. The transgenic animal platform for biopharmaceutical production.

    PubMed

    Bertolini, L R; Meade, H; Lazzarotto, C R; Martins, L T; Tavares, K C; Bertolini, M; Murray, J D

    2016-06-01

    The recombinant production of therapeutic proteins for human diseases is currently the largest source of innovation in the pharmaceutical industry. The market growth has been the driving force on efforts for the development of new therapeutic proteins, in which transgenesis emerges as key component. The use of the transgenic animal platform offers attractive possibilities, residing on the low production costs allied to high productivity and quality of the recombinant proteins. Although many strategies have evolved over the past decades for the generation of transgenic founders, transgenesis in livestock animals generally faces some challenges, mainly due to random transgene integration and control over transgene copy number. But new developments in gene editing with CRISPR/Cas system promises to revolutionize the field for its simplicity and high efficiency. In addition, for the final approval of any given recombinant protein for animal or human use, the production and characterization of bioreactor founders and expression patterns and functionality of the proteins are technical part of the process, which also requires regulatory and administrative decisions, with a large emphasis on biosafety. The approval of two mammary gland-derived recombinant proteins for commercial and clinical use has boosted the interest for more efficient, safer and economic ways to generate transgenic founders to meet the increasing demand for biomedical proteins worldwide.

  9. Survival analysis of deep-water floating offshore platforms: Critical axis

    SciTech Connect

    Falzarano, J.M.; Kota, R.S.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the global dynamics of a typical Column Stabilized Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit (CS-MODU) about its critical, approximately quartering axis. It is well known that short and wide (i.e., small L/B ratio) twin hull vessels such as CS-MODU`s have minimum righting moment about an approximately quartering axis. This paper attempts to answer the question of whether this is also a critical rotational motion axis. In order to answer this question, a comparative global transient dynamical systems analysis is undertaken which compares the vessels response at all heading angles.

  10. An Overview of Coral Community Development on Offshore Platforms in the Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sammarco, P. W.

    2016-02-01

    Oil platforms in the N. Gulf of Mexico (GOM) number 1,750, providing hard substratum for settlement of marine fauna, including corals, where little existed in shallow water prior to the 1940s. The introduction of hard substratum has facilitated the biogeographic expansion of Caribbean reef corals. We surveyed scleractinian corals, hermatypic and ahermatypic, on 48 platforms around the Flower Garden Banks (FGB) and across the continental shelf, from Corpus Christi, Texas to Mobile, Alabama, USA. We also assessed coral populations on platforms and the FGB for genetic affinities using AFLPs. The western limit for hermatypes was the shelf edge off Corpus Christi. The highest hermatypic densities occurred at the shelf edge, 200 km from shore in the north-central GOM. Mobile was the eastern limit for some hermatypic corals. Ahermatypes (i.e., Tubastraea coccinea, Oculina diffusa, Phyllangia americana) were absent inshore and in the north-central GOM. Species richness of hermatypic corals peaked near the FGB. Genetic analyses revealed high self-recognition and site fidelity on the platforms and the FGB in Madracis decactis, particularly in the eastern GOM. Platform populations exhibited a strong genetic affinity to those on the FGB, indicating that the FGB are the likely larval source for many corals on the platforms. There was little or no genetic affinity of coral populations across the mouth of the Mississippi River, although in T. coccinea (invasive species), cross-recognition between populations was higher between platforms on a given side. The Mississippi is a strong geographic barrier to east-west dispersal. Brooders were found to be more effective at colonizing patchy habitats at this meso-scale than broadcasters (Diploria strigosa and Montastraea cavernosa). Broadcaster recruits were rarely found, indicating less effective dispersal capabilities. Oil/gas platforms have facilitated the development of coral communities across the northern GOM.

  11. Offshore Windfarm Impact on Pelagic Primary Production in the Southern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slavik, Kaela; Zhang, Wenyan; Lemmen, Carsten; Wirtz, Kai

    2016-04-01

    As society struggles to find solutions to mitigate global warming, the demand for renewable energy technology has increased. Especially investment in offshore wind energy has proliferated in the European Union, with projections over the next 15 years estimating an over 40 fold increase in total offshore wind electricity. Though built with the goal of reducing the environmental impacts associated with traditional energy production, the long-term ecological impacts of offshore windfarm structures is not yet well understood. The consequences are of particular importance in the southern North Sea, where the expansion of offshore windfarms is focused. Our study investigates how the gradual accumulation of epifaunal biomass on submerged substrate at offshore windfarms impacts ecosystem services in the southern North Sea. Biofouling is governed predominately by the filter feeder Mytilus edulis, which, as an ecological engineer, will further alter the surrounding benthic and pelagic environment. We reconstruct the distribution of benthic filter feeders in the SNS and generate scenarios of increased potential distribution based on available information of Mytilus edulis settlement at turbines and of turbine locations. These maps are coupled through the MOSSCO (Modular Coupling System for Shelves and Coasts) to state-of-the-art and high resolution hydrodynamic and ecosystem models. We find a substantial change in pelagic primary production as a result of additional Mytilus edulis growth at offshore windfarms.

  12. WHTSubmersible: a simulator for estimating transient circulation temperature in offshore wells with the semi-submersible platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xun-cheng; Liu, Yong-wang; Guan, Zhi-chuan

    2015-10-01

    Offshore wellbore temperature field is significant to drilling fluids program, equipment selection, evaluations on potential risks caused by casing thermal stress, etc. This paper mainly describes the theoretical basis, module structure and field verification of the simulator WHTSubmersible. This computer program is a useful tool for estimating transient temperature distribution of circulating drilling fluid on semi-submersible platform. WHTSubmersible is based on a mathematical model which is developed to consider radial and axial two-dimensional heat exchange of the inner drill pipe, the annulus, the drill pipe wall, the sea water and the formation in the process of drilling fluid circulation. The solution of the discrete equations is based on finite volume method with an implicit scheme. This scheme serves to demonstrate the numerical solution procedure. Besides, the simulator also considers the heating generated by drilling fluid circulation friction, drill bit penetrating rocks, friction between the drill column and the borehole wall, and the temperature effect on thermal physical properties and rheology of the drilling fluid. These measures ensure more accurate results. The simulator has been programmed as a dynamic link library using Visual C++, the routine interface is simple, which can be connected with other computer programs conveniently. The simulator is validated with an actual well temperature filed developed on a semi-submersible platform in South China, and the error is less than 5 %.

  13. Numerical Prediction of Experimentally Observed Behavior of a Scale Model of an Offshore Wind Turbine Supported by a Tension-Leg Platform: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Prowell, I.; Robertson, A.; Jonkman, J.; Stewart, G. M.; Goupee, A. J.

    2013-01-01

    Realizing the critical importance the role physical experimental tests play in understanding the dynamics of floating offshore wind turbines, the DeepCwind consortium conducted a one-fiftieth-scale model test program where several floating wind platforms were subjected to a variety of wind and wave loading condition at the Maritime Research Institute Netherlands wave basin. This paper describes the observed behavior of a tension-leg platform, one of three platforms tested, and the systematic effort to predict the measured response with the FAST simulation tool using a model primarily based on consensus geometric and mass properties of the test specimen.

  14. Comparative immune responses of corals to stressors associated with offshore reef-based tourist platforms

    PubMed Central

    van de Water, Jeroen A. J. M.; Lamb, Joleah B.; van Oppen, Madeleine J. H.; Willis, Bette L.; Bourne, David G.

    2015-01-01

    Unravelling the contributions of local anthropogenic and seasonal environmental factors in suppressing the coral immune system is important for prioritizing management actions at reefs exposed to high levels of human activities. Here, we monitor health of the model coral Acropora millepora adjacent to a high-use and an unused reef-based tourist platform, plus a nearby control site without a platform, over 7 months spanning a typical austral summer. Comparisons of temporal patterns in a range of biochemical and genetic immune parameters (Toll-like receptor signalling pathway, lectin–complement system, prophenoloxidase-activating system and green fluorescent protein-like proteins) among healthy, injured and diseased corals revealed that corals exhibit a diverse array of immune responses to environmental and anthropogenic stressors. In healthy corals at the control site, expression of genes involved in the Toll-like receptor signalling pathway (MAPK p38, MEKK1, cFos and ATF4/5) and complement system (C3 and Bf) was modulated by seasonal environmental factors in summer months. Corals at reef platform sites experienced additional stressors over the summer, as evidenced by increased expression of various immune genes, including MAPK p38 and MEKK1. Despite increased expression of immune genes, signs of white syndromes were detected in 31% of study corals near tourist platforms in the warmest summer month. Evidence that colonies developing disease showed reduced expression of genes involved in the complement pathway prior to disease onset suggests that their immune systems may have been compromised. Responses to disease and physical damage primarily involved the melanization cascade and GFP-like proteins, and appeared to be sufficient for recovery when summer heat stress subsided. Overall, seasonal and anthropogenic factors may have interacted synergistically to overwhelm the immune systems of corals near reef platforms, leading to increased disease prevalence in summer

  15. Comparative immune responses of corals to stressors associated with offshore reef-based tourist platforms.

    PubMed

    van de Water, Jeroen A J M; Lamb, Joleah B; van Oppen, Madeleine J H; Willis, Bette L; Bourne, David G

    2015-01-01

    Unravelling the contributions of local anthropogenic and seasonal environmental factors in suppressing the coral immune system is important for prioritizing management actions at reefs exposed to high levels of human activities. Here, we monitor health of the model coral Acropora millepora adjacent to a high-use and an unused reef-based tourist platform, plus a nearby control site without a platform, over 7 months spanning a typical austral summer. Comparisons of temporal patterns in a range of biochemical and genetic immune parameters (Toll-like receptor signalling pathway, lectin-complement system, prophenoloxidase-activating system and green fluorescent protein-like proteins) among healthy, injured and diseased corals revealed that corals exhibit a diverse array of immune responses to environmental and anthropogenic stressors. In healthy corals at the control site, expression of genes involved in the Toll-like receptor signalling pathway (MAPK p38, MEKK1, cFos and ATF4/5) and complement system (C3 and Bf) was modulated by seasonal environmental factors in summer months. Corals at reef platform sites experienced additional stressors over the summer, as evidenced by increased expression of various immune genes, including MAPK p38 and MEKK1. Despite increased expression of immune genes, signs of white syndromes were detected in 31% of study corals near tourist platforms in the warmest summer month. Evidence that colonies developing disease showed reduced expression of genes involved in the complement pathway prior to disease onset suggests that their immune systems may have been compromised. Responses to disease and physical damage primarily involved the melanization cascade and GFP-like proteins, and appeared to be sufficient for recovery when summer heat stress subsided. Overall, seasonal and anthropogenic factors may have interacted synergistically to overwhelm the immune systems of corals near reef platforms, leading to increased disease prevalence in summer at

  16. Underwater Blast Effects From Explosive Severance of Offshore Platform Legs and Well Conductors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-15

    pulse were comparable to one another. At 400 feet from the platform, the shock parameters were less than 10 percent of the values expected at the same...armed, and fired by DEMEX International under subcontract to OPI. Underwater explosion data were collected and analyzed to determine the underwater shock...charges were Composition B and were prepared, armed, and fired by DEMEX International-a subcontractor engaged by OPI. The well conductors were severed

  17. 26th Annual offshore technology conference: 1994 Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    This conference represents the world's largest and most comprehensive technical conference and exhibition on offshore resource development. The four proceedings volumes have been separated by major areas of interest with this volume containing papers relative to design of offshore platforms and marine riser systems. Papers deal with design, installation, fabrication, transport systems, mooring devices, repair methods, and development of satellite production facilities. Case histories on various offshore oil and gas fills are discussed along with economics of some applications and designs.

  18. Proceedings - annual offshore technology conference, 13th, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Anon

    1981-01-01

    The four volumes contain 183 papers presented at the meeting, all of which are indexed separately. Among the subjects covered are floating structure response, fatigue considerations in offshore systems, structural analysis and design, wave forces and hydroelastic response, offshore pipelines, ocean mining, tension leg platforms, oil terminals, geophysical data processing, seafloor surveying and mapping, subsea production systems, wind forces, towage of offshore structures, foundation performance, mooring and anchoring, and others.

  19. Chapter 21: Oceanographic Processes and Marine Productivity in Waters Offshore of Marbled Murrelet Breeding Habitat

    Treesearch

    Jr. Hunt

    1995-01-01

    Marbled Murrelets (Brachyramphus marmoratus) occupy nearshore waters in the eastern North Pacific Ocean from central California to the Aleutian Islands. The offshore marine ecology of these waters is dominated by a series of currents roughly parallel to the coast that determine marine productivity of shelf waters by influencing the rate of nutrient...

  20. Proceedings of the 25th annual offshore technology conference. Volume 4 - Field drilling and development systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    This is volume four of a four volume proceeding on the development of offshore oil, gas, and mineral resources. This particular volume concentrates on the actual drilling of offshore oil and gas wells and the equipment involved in these procedures; the design and placement of offshore oil and gas platforms; the development of better, corrosive resistant materials for pipelines, production equipment, and platform legs; the methods for selecting and positioning a good offshore development site with regards to platform siting; and development of new connecting and control devices for subsea facilities and equipment.

  1. Seismic Performance Evaluation of the Jacket Type Offshore Platforms through Incremental Dynamic Analysis considering Soil-Pile-Structure Interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Asgarian, Behrouz; Shokrgozar, Hamed R.; Talarposhti, Ali Shakeri

    2008-07-08

    Of great interest in Performance-Based Earthquake Engineering (PBEE) is the accurate estimation of the seismic performance of structures. A performance prediction and evaluation procedure is based on nonlinear dynamics and reliability theory. In this method, a full integration over the three key stochastic models is as follow: ground motion hazard curve, nonlinear dynamic displacement demand, and displacement capacity. Further, both epistemic and aleatory uncertainties are evaluated and carried through the analysis.In this paper, jacket and soil-pile system have been modeled using Finite Element program (OpenSees) and the incremental dynamic analysis (IDA) are performed to investigate nonlinear behavior of offshore platforms. The system demand is determined by performing time history response analyses of the jacket under a suite of FEMA/SAC uniform hazard ground motions. The system capacity in terms of the drift ratio against incipient collapse is generally difficult to predict since the structural response goes into nonlinear range before collapse. All the analyses are performed in two directions and the results are compared with each others. The confidence level of a jacket in each direction for a given hazard level is calculated using the procedure described.

  2. Seismic Performance Evaluation of the Jacket Type Offshore Platforms through Incremental Dynamic Analysis considering Soil-Pile-Structure Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asgarian, Behrouz; Shokrgozar, Hamed R.; Talarposhti, Ali Shakeri

    2008-07-01

    Of great interest in Performance-Based Earthquake Engineering (PBEE) is the accurate estimation of the seismic performance of structures. A performance prediction and evaluation procedure is based on nonlinear dynamics and reliability theory. In this method, a full integration over the three key stochastic models is as follow: ground motion hazard curve, nonlinear dynamic displacement demand, and displacement capacity. Further, both epistemic and aleatory uncertainties are evaluated and carried through the analysis. In this paper, jacket and soil-pile system have been modeled using Finite Element program (OpenSees) and the incremental dynamic analysis (IDA) are performed to investigate nonlinear behavior of offshore platforms. The system demand is determined by performing time history response analyses of the jacket under a suite of FEMA/SAC uniform hazard ground motions. The system capacity in terms of the drift ratio against incipient collapse is generally difficult to predict since the structural response goes into nonlinear range before collapse. All the analyses are performed in two directions and the results are compared with each others. The confidence level of a jacket in each direction for a given hazard level is calculated using the procedure described.

  3. PAH assessment in the main Brazilian offshore oil and gas production area using semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMD) and transplanted bivalves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    André Lourenço, Rafael; Francisco de Oliveira, Fábio; Haddad Nudi, Adriana; Rebello Wagener, Ângela de Luca; Guadalupe Meniconi, Maria de Fátima; Francioni, Eleine

    2015-06-01

    The Campos Basin is Brazil's main oil and gas production area. In 2013, more than 50 million cubic meters of produced water (PW) was discharged into these offshore waters. Despite the large volumes of PW that are discharged in the Campos Basin each day, the ecological concern of the chemicals in the PW are not completely understood. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are the most important contributors to the ecological hazards that are posed by discharged PW. This study aimed to evaluate the potential bioaccumulation of PAH using transplanted bivalves (Nodipecten nodosus) and semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMD). The study was conducted in two platforms that discharge PW (P19 and P40). Another platform that does not discharge PW (P25) was investigated for comparison with the obtained results. Time-integrated hydrocarbon concentrations using SPMD and transplanted bivalves were estimated from the seawater near the three platforms. The bioaccumulation of the PAH in the transplanted bivalves at platforms P19 and P40 were up to fivefold greater than the bioaccumulation of the PAH at platform P25. The lowest PAH concentrations were estimated for platform P25 (4.3-6.2 ng L-1), and the highest PAH concentrations were estimated for platform P19 (9.2-37.3 ng L-1). Both techniques were effective for determining the bioavailability of the PAH and for providing time-integrated hydrocarbon concentrations regarding oil and gas production activities.

  4. Shifts in coral reef biogeochemistry and resulting acidification linked to offshore productivity

    PubMed Central

    Yeakel, Kiley L.; Andersson, Andreas J.; Bates, Nicholas R.; Noyes, Timothy J.; Collins, Andrew; Garley, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Oceanic uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) has acidified open-ocean surface waters by 0.1 pH units since preindustrial times. Despite unequivocal evidence of ocean acidification (OA) via open-ocean measurements for the past several decades, it has yet to be documented in near-shore and coral reef environments. A lack of long-term measurements from these environments restricts our understanding of the natural variability and controls of seawater CO2-carbonate chemistry and biogeochemistry, which is essential to make accurate predictions on the effects of future OA on coral reefs. Here, in a 5-y study of the Bermuda coral reef, we show evidence that variations in reef biogeochemical processes drive interannual changes in seawater pH and Ωaragonite that are partly controlled by offshore processes. Rapid acidification events driven by shifts toward increasing net calcification and net heterotrophy were observed during the summers of 2010 and 2011, with the frequency and extent of such events corresponding to increased offshore productivity. These events also coincided with a negative winter North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index, which historically has been associated with extensive offshore mixing and greater primary productivity at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) site. Our results reveal that coral reefs undergo natural interannual events of rapid acidification due to shifts in reef biogeochemical processes that may be linked to offshore productivity and ultimately controlled by larger-scale climatic and oceanographic processes. PMID:26553977

  5. Shifts in coral reef biogeochemistry and resulting acidification linked to offshore productivity.

    PubMed

    Yeakel, Kiley L; Andersson, Andreas J; Bates, Nicholas R; Noyes, Timothy J; Collins, Andrew; Garley, Rebecca

    2015-11-24

    Oceanic uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) has acidified open-ocean surface waters by 0.1 pH units since preindustrial times. Despite unequivocal evidence of ocean acidification (OA) via open-ocean measurements for the past several decades, it has yet to be documented in near-shore and coral reef environments. A lack of long-term measurements from these environments restricts our understanding of the natural variability and controls of seawater CO2-carbonate chemistry and biogeochemistry, which is essential to make accurate predictions on the effects of future OA on coral reefs. Here, in a 5-y study of the Bermuda coral reef, we show evidence that variations in reef biogeochemical processes drive interannual changes in seawater pH and Ωaragonite that are partly controlled by offshore processes. Rapid acidification events driven by shifts toward increasing net calcification and net heterotrophy were observed during the summers of 2010 and 2011, with the frequency and extent of such events corresponding to increased offshore productivity. These events also coincided with a negative winter North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index, which historically has been associated with extensive offshore mixing and greater primary productivity at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) site. Our results reveal that coral reefs undergo natural interannual events of rapid acidification due to shifts in reef biogeochemical processes that may be linked to offshore productivity and ultimately controlled by larger-scale climatic and oceanographic processes.

  6. Shifts in coral reef biogeochemistry and resulting acidification linked to offshore productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeakel, Kiley L.; Andersson, Andreas J.; Bates, Nicholas R.; Noyes, Timothy J.; Collins, Andrew; Garley, Rebecca

    2015-11-01

    Oceanic uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) has acidified open-ocean surface waters by 0.1 pH units since preindustrial times. Despite unequivocal evidence of ocean acidification (OA) via open-ocean measurements for the past several decades, it has yet to be documented in near-shore and coral reef environments. A lack of long-term measurements from these environments restricts our understanding of the natural variability and controls of seawater CO2-carbonate chemistry and biogeochemistry, which is essential to make accurate predictions on the effects of future OA on coral reefs. Here, in a 5-y study of the Bermuda coral reef, we show evidence that variations in reef biogeochemical processes drive interannual changes in seawater pH and Ωaragonite that are partly controlled by offshore processes. Rapid acidification events driven by shifts toward increasing net calcification and net heterotrophy were observed during the summers of 2010 and 2011, with the frequency and extent of such events corresponding to increased offshore productivity. These events also coincided with a negative winter North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index, which historically has been associated with extensive offshore mixing and greater primary productivity at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) site. Our results reveal that coral reefs undergo natural interannual events of rapid acidification due to shifts in reef biogeochemical processes that may be linked to offshore productivity and ultimately controlled by larger-scale climatic and oceanographic processes.

  7. Application of an elastic 2D tube-waveform tomography to estimate the shear modulus in the vicinity of the FINO3 offshore platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhn, D.; Wilken, D.; Rabbel, W.

    2012-04-01

    The FINO3 project is aimed at the construction of an offshore research platform in the north-sea, hosting research projects dealing with offshore wind energy topics. As part of FINO3 our sub-project deals with the development of new seismic acquisition and inversion concepts for offshore-building foundation soil analysis. We are focussed on the determination of seismic parameters and structural information of the building plot of the platform. Possible changes of the shear modulus of the sediments in the vicinity of the FINO3 monopile due to mechanic loads on the platform are estimated by a tube-waveform tomography. The tube-waves are excited by a hammer blow at the internal wall of the FINO3 monopile above the water line. The tube-waves are propagating through the water column and the sediments and are measured in situ by hydrophones at the external wall of the monopile. Homogenous long wavelength starting models for the waveform tomography are estimated using simple 2D finite difference models. Possible shear-wave velocity starting models range from 150-300 m/s. The resolution of the tube-waveform tomography is estimated by simple chequerboard and random media models. Additionally first results of the data application in the vicinity of the monopile are presented.

  8. Study on the general layout of semi-submersible offshore drilling platforms based on process flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Ji-Xiang; Qi, Yao-Guang; Xiao, Wen-Sheng; Yang, Lei; Yang, Yi-Pu

    2009-06-01

    The general layout of 6th generation semi-submersible drilling platforms is the main factor impacting the efficiency of their drilling operations. This paper provides a compound/integrated algorithm based on process flow that is aimed at improving efficiency, while giving attention to stability and safety at the same time. The paper describes the process flow of dual drilling centers and a hierarchical division of rigs based on the different modes of transportation of various drilling support systems. The general layout-centripetal overall arrangement spatially was determined based on drilling efficiency. We derived our modules according to drilling functionality; the modules became our basic layout units. We applied different layout algorithm to mark out the upper and lower decks. That is, the upper deck was designed based on the lowest transportation cost while the lower deck’s calculations were based on the best-fit scope. Storage configurations in columns and pontoons were also considered for the layout design. Finally the center of gravity was taken into consideration and the general layout was adjusted accordingly, to result in an optimal center of gravity. The methodology of the general layout can provide a reference for implementation of domestic designs of semi-submersible rigs.

  9. Geriatric infrastructure, BRAC, and ecosystem service markets? End-of-life decisions for dams, roads, and offshore platforms (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, M. W.

    2010-12-01

    US infrastructure expanded dramatically in the mid-20th century, and now includes more than 79,000 dams, 15,000 miles of levees, 3.7 million miles of roads, 600,000 miles of sewer pipe, 500,000 onshore oil wells, and over 4,000 offshore oil platforms. Many structures have been in place for 50 years or more, and an increasing portion of national infrastructure is approaching or exceeding its originally intended design life. Bringing national infrastructure to acceptable levels would cost nearly 10% of the US annual GDP. Decommissioning infrastructure can decrease public spending and increase public safety while facilitating economic expansion and ecological restoration. While most infrastructure remains critical to the national economy, a substantial amount is obsolete or declining in importance. Over 11,000 dams are abandoned, and of nearly 400,000 miles of road on its lands, the U.S. Forest Service considers one-fourth non-essential and often non-functional. Removing obsolete infrastructure allows greater focus and funding on maintaining or improving infrastructure most critical to society. Moreover, a concerted program of infrastructure decommissioning promises significant long-term cost savings, and is a necessary step before more substantial, systematic changes are possible, like those needed to address the new energy sources and shifting climate. One key challenge for infrastructure reform is how to prioritize and implement such a widespread and politically-charged series of decisions. Two approaches are proposed for different scales. For small, private infrastructure, emerging state and federal ecosystem service markets can provide an economic impetus to push infrastructure removal. Ecosystem market mechanisms may also be most effective at identifying those projects with the greatest ecological bang for the buck. Examples where this approach has proved successful include dam removal for stream mitigation under the Clean Water Act, and levee decommissioning on

  10. Design of Bee Products Quality Monitoringinformation Service Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yeping; Zhao, Jing; Liu, Shengping; E, Yue

    The bee products quality monitoring and tracing information service platform was researched and developed. This paper describes the design concept and critical technologies for the construction of the bee products quality monitoring and tracing information service platform. The system has functions of remote information collection, production-purchase-processing automatic coding, bar code generation and identification, product quality tracking and tracing, information release, origin evaluation, market prediction, and analysis based on Geographic Information System (GIS), providing information technology(IT) tools for bee products quality safety control and quality tracing in China.

  11. Measurement and Analysis of Extreme Wave and Ice Actions in the Great Lakes for Offshore Wind Platform Design

    SciTech Connect

    England, Tony; van Nieuwstadt, Lin; De Roo, Roger; Karr, Dale; Lozenge, David; Meadows, Guy

    2016-05-30

    This project, funded by the Department of Energy as DE-EE0005376, successfully measured wind-driven lake ice forces on an offshore structure in Lake Superior through one of the coldest winters in recent history. While offshore regions of the Great Lakes offer promising opportunities for harvesting wind energy, these massive bodies of freshwater also offer extreme and unique challenges. Among these challenges is the need to anticipate forces exerted on offshore structures by lake ice. The parameters of interest include the frequency, extent, and movement of lake ice, parameters that are routinely monitored via satellite, and ice thickness, a parameter that has been monitored at discrete locations over many years and is routinely modeled. Essential relationships for these data to be of use in the design of offshore structures and the primary objective of this project are measurements of maximum forces that lake ice of known thicknesses might exert on an offshore structure.

  12. Utilisation of the GMES Sentinel satellites for off-shore platform oil spills and gas flaring monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Erasmo, Daniele; Casadio, Stefano; Cardaci, Massimo; Del Frate, Fabio

    2013-04-01

    Oil spills and gas flaring are serious issues for ecosystem, economy and people working on the extraction sites. Oil spill is known. Gas Flaring is the disposal of poison waste gases generated in the oil extraction process. High volumes (every year gas flaring burns worldwide the equivalent of 25% of the overall gas burned in Europe), significantly contributing to the global carbon emission budget (0.5% of total, 2008). European and worldwide legislation pays an increasing attention to it. Our Sentinel1 and 3 SAR and SLSTR usage for this objective won the GMES Masters 2012 IDEAS Challenge. In this study, we use SAR and infrared/thermal (SLSTR) data to identify unexpected misbehaviours of oil platforms, like switch on of the flare and oil spill in the ocean. On one side, the detection and characterization of gas flaring is achieved by analysing the infrared/thermal radiances measured by the SLSTR instrument on-board SENTINEL-3. This technique has been developed and tested using the ENVISAT Along Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) dataset and proved to be adequate for long term monitoring of oil extraction for both off-shore and in-shore drilling stations. The spatial/temporal coverage provided by SENTINEL-3 will allow an unprecedented daily monitoring of the oil extraction platforms. On the other side, the detection of oil spills and ships can be performed using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). Both for oil spills and ships, many techniques have been published in the dedicated literature and validated to make the process of detection from SAR automatic. The extension of these techniques to the future SENTINEL-1 data is feasible. The service is mainly addressed to governments (in charge of controlling respect of the rules), civil protection authorities (to promote prevention of pollution damages), oil companies (that want to prove their respect of rules and attention to the environment), and ONGs (involved in the monitoring of the environment). The methodology applied

  13. Growth and demise of a Paleogene isolated carbonate platform of the Offshore Indus Basin, Pakistan: effects of regional and local controlling factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahzad, Khurram; Betzler, Christian; Ahmed, Nadeem; Qayyum, Farrukh; Spezzaferri, Silvia; Qadir, Anwar

    2017-06-01

    Based on high-resolution seismic and well datasets, this paper examines the evolution and drowning history of a Paleocene-Eocene carbonate platform in the Offshore Indus Basin of Pakistan. This study uses the internal seismic architecture, well log data as well as the microfauna to reconstruct factors that governed the carbonate platform growth and demise. Carbonates dominated by larger benthic foraminifera assemblages permit constraining the ages of the major evolutionary steps and show that the depositional environment was tropical within oligotrophic conditions. With the aid of seismic stratigraphy, the carbonate platform edifice is resolved into seven seismic units which in turn are grouped into three packages that reflect its evolution from platform initiation, aggradation with escarpment formation and platform drowning. The carbonate factory initiated as mounds and patches on a Cretaceous-Paleocene volcanic complex. Further, the growth history of the platform includes distinct phases of intraplatform progradation, aggradation, backstepping and partial drownings. The youngest succession as late-stage buildup records a shift from benthic to pelagic deposition and marks the final drowning in the Early Eocene. The depositional trend of the platform, controlled by the continuing thermal subsidence associated with the cooling of volcanic margin lithosphere, was the major contributor of the accommodation space which supported the vertical accumulation of shallow water carbonate succession. Other factors such as eustatic changes and changes in the carbonate producers as a response to the Paleogene climatic perturbations played secondary roles in the development and drowning of these buildups.

  14. Modeling fish production for southern California's petroleum platforms.

    PubMed

    Pondella, Daniel J; Zahn, Laurel A; Love, Milton S; Siegel, David; Bernstein, Brock B

    2015-10-01

    California's oil platforms are nearing the end of their productive lives and therefore will be decommissioned in the near future. These structures have been shown to be important habitats for both settlement and growth for reef fishes. Important information on the biological effects (i.e., loss of biomass and production) of different decommissioning options has not yet been explored in detail. An important step in the assessment of these different decommissioning options is to look at the potential loss of fish production and habitat under the different alternatives. Using the large amount of information available on fish abundances at these structures, we have created a model to estimate the standing stock of fishes and production that would be lost because of both partial (removal from surface to 85 ft) and complete removal (the 2 decommissioning options being considered). Complete removal of a platform will likely eliminate most of its fish biomass; however, this study has shown that for rockfishes, which settle predominantly below 85 feet (26 m) and move deeper as they age, partial removal through topping would leave more than 90% of the fish biomass at the deeper platforms. Modeling of larval dispersal suggests that platforms provide an important opportunity for recruitment of fish larvae and that many larvae produced near the platforms would settle elsewhere in the region. The results presented here indicate that, even if topped, the potential contribution of platform habitat to biological resources (e.g., fish production) in this region is significant. © 2015 SETAC.

  15. Model Development and Loads Analysis of an Offshore Wind Turbine on a Tension Leg Platform with a Comparison to Other Floating Turbine Concepts: April 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Matha, D.

    2010-02-01

    This report presents results of the analysis of a 5-MW wind turbine located on a floating offshore tension leg platform (TLP) that was conducted using the fully coupled time-domain aero-hydro-servo-elastic design code FAST with AeroDyn and HydroDyn. The report also provides a description of the development process of the TLP model. The model has been verified via comparisons to frequency-domain calculations. Important differences have been identified between the frequency-domain and time-domain simulations, and have generated implications for the conceptual design process. An extensive loads and stability analysis for ultimate and fatigue loads according to the procedure of the IEC 61400-3 offshore wind turbine design standard was performed with the verified TLP model. This report compares the loads for the wind turbine on the TLP to those of an equivalent land-based turbine. Major instabilities for the TLP are identified and described.

  16. Notes on the Incorporation of Third World Women into Wage-Labor Through Immigration and Off-Shore Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sassen-Koob, Saskia

    1984-01-01

    Immigration and off-shore production have evolved into mechanisms for the massive incorporation of Third World women into wage-labor. There is a systemic relation between this globalization and feminization of wage labor. (KH)

  17. Data Modeling, Development, Installation and Operation of the ACEX Offshore Drilling Information System for the Mission Specific Platform Expedition to the Lomonosov Ridge, Arctic Ocean.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conze, R.; Krysiak, F.; Wallrabe-Adams, H.; Graham, C. C.

    2004-12-01

    During August/September 2004, the Arctic Coring Expedition (ACEX) was used to trial a new Offshore Drilling Information System (OffshoreDIS). ACEX was the first Mission Specific Platform (MSP) expedition of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Programme (IODP), funded by the European Consortium for Ocean Research Drilling (ECORD). The British Geological Survey in conjunction with the University of Bremen and the European Petrophysics Consortium were the ECORD Science Operator (ESO) for ACEX. IODP MSP expeditions have very similar data management requirements and operate in similar working environments to the lake drilling projects conducted by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP), for example, the GLAD800, which has very restricted space on board and operates in difficult conditions. Both organizations require data capture and management systems that are mobile, flexible and that can be deployed quickly on small- to medium-sized drilling platforms for the initial gathering of data, and that can also be deployed onshore in laboratories where the bulk of the scientific work is conducted. ESO, therefore, decided that an adapted version of the existing Drilling Information System (DIS) used by ICDP projects would satisfy its requirements. Based on the existing DIS, an OffshoreDIS has been developed for MSP expeditions. The underlying data model is compatible with IODP(JANUS), the Bremen Core Repository, WDC-MARE/PANGAEA and the LacCore in Minneapolis. According to the specific expedition platform configuration and on-board workflow requirements for the Arctic, this data model, data pumps and user interfaces were adapted for the ACEX-OffshoreDIS. On the drill ship Vidar Viking the cores were catalogued and petrophysically logged using a GeoTek Multi-Sensor Core Logger System, while further initial measurements, lithological descriptions and biostratigraphic investigations were undertaken on the Oden, which provided laboratory facilities for the

  18. Holistic environmental assessment and offshore oil field exploration and production.

    PubMed

    Salter, E; Ford, J

    2001-01-01

    According to UK Government surveys, concern for the environment is growing. Environmental regulation of the industry is becoming wider in its scope and tougher in its implementation. Various techniques are available to assess how the industry can drive down its environmental impact and comply with environmental regulation. Environmental Assessments (EA) required by European law do not cover the whole life cycle of the project that they are analysing. Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) was developed to assess the environmental loadings of a product, process or activity over its entire life cycle. It was the first technique used in environmental analysis that adopted what was described as a holistic approach. It fails this approach by not assessing accidental emissions or environmental impacts other than those that are direct. Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) offers the opportunity to value environmental effects and appraise a project on the basis of costs and benefits. Not all environmental effects can be valued and of those that can there is considerable uncertainty in their valuation and occurrence. CBA cannot satisfactorily measure the total environmental risk of a project. Consequently there is a need for a technique that overcomes the failures of project-level EA, LCA and CBA, and assesses total environmental risk. Many organizations such as, the British Medical Association, the European Oilfield Speciality Chemicals Association, the Royal Ministry of Petroleum and Energy (Norway) and Shell Expro now recognize that a holistic approach is an integral part of assessing total risk. The Brent SPAR case study highlights the interdisciplinary nature required of any environmental analysis. Holistic Environmental Assessment is recommended as such an environmental analysis.

  19. Management of offshore wastes in the United States.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.

    1998-10-22

    During the process of finding and producing oil and gas in the offshore environment operators generate a variety of liquid and solid wastes. Some of these wastes are directly related to exploration and production activities (e.g., drilling wastes, produced water, treatment workover, and completion fluids) while other types of wastes are associated with human occupation of the offshore platforms (e.g., sanitary and domestic wastes, trash). Still other types of wastes can be considered generic industrial wastes (e.g., scrap metal and wood, wastes paints and chemicals, sand blasting residues). Finally, the offshore platforms themselves can be considered waste materials when their useful life span has been reached. Generally, offshore wastes are managed in one of three ways--onsite discharge, injection, or transportation to shore. This paper describes the regulatory requirements imposed by the government and the approaches used by offshore operators to manage and dispose of wastes in the US.

  20. Japan's builders study platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, R.G.

    1984-07-05

    This paper discusses the developing role of Japan as a major supplier of offshore drilling and production equipment. Different firms are discussed along with their capacity. The marketing areas, work experience, and plans for designs are also included. There is special attention payed on the potential for developing Arctic platforms.

  1. Pioneering offshore excellence

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, R.P.; Grattan, L.

    1996-11-01

    Hibernia Management and Development Company Ltd. (HMDC) was formed in 1990 by a consortium of oil companies to develop their interests in the Hibernia and Avalon reservoirs offshore Newfoundland in a safe and environmentally responsible manner. The reservoirs are located 315km ESE of St. John`s in the North Atlantic. The water depth is about 80m. The entire Hibernia field is estimated to contain more than three billion barrels of oil in place and the owners development plan area is estimated to contain two billion barrels. Recoverable reserves are estimated to be approximately 615 million barrels. The Hibernia reservoir, the principle reservoir, is located at an average depth of 3,700m. HMDC is building a large concrete gravity based structure (GBS) that which will support the platform drilling and processing facilities and living quarters for 280 personnel. In 1997 the platform will be towed to the production site and production will commence late 1997. Oil will be exported by a 2 km long pipeline to an offshore loading system. Dynamically positioned tankers will then take the oil to market. Average daily production is expected to plateau between 125,000 and 135,000 BOPD. It will be the first major development on the east coast of Canada and is located in an area that is prone to pack ice and icebergs.

  2. Comparison of concentrations and profiles of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites in bile of fishes from offshore oil platforms and natural reefs along the California coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gale, Robert W.; Tanner, Michael J.; Love, Milton S.; Nishimoto, Mary M.; Schroeder, Donna M.

    2012-01-01

    To determine the environmental consequences of decommissioning offshore oil platforms on local and regional fish populations, contaminant loads in reproducing adults were investigated at seven platform sites and adjacent, natural sites. Specimens of three species (Pacific sanddab, Citharichthys sordidus; kelp rockfish, Sebastes atrovirens; and kelp bass, Paralabrax clathratus) residing at platforms and representing the regional background within the Santa Barbara Channel and within the San Pedro Basin were collected. Some of the most important contaminant classes related to oil operations are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) because of their potential toxicity and carcinogenicity. However, acute exposure cannot be related directly to PAH tissue concentrations because of rapid metabolism of the parent chemicals in fish; therefore, PAH metabolites in bile were measured, targeting free hydroxylated PAHs (OH-PAHs) liberated by enzymatic hydrolysis of the bound PAH glucuronides and sulfates. An ion-pairing method was developed for confirmatory analysis that targeted PAH glucuronides and sulfates. Concentrations of hydroxylated PAHs in all samples (76 fish from platforms and 64 fish from natural sites) were low, ranging from less than the limits of detection (5 to 120 nanograms per milliliter bile; 0.03 to 42 nanograms per milligram protein) to a maximum of 320 nanograms per milliliter bile (32 nanograms per milligram protein). A previously proposed dosimeter of PAH exposure in fish, 1-hydroxypyrene, was not detected at any platform site. Low concentrations of 1-hydroxypyrene were detected in 3 of 12 kelp rockfish collected from a natural reef site off Santa Barbara. The most prevalent OH-PAH, 2-hydroxyfluorene, was detected at low concentrations in seven fish of various species; of these, four were from two of the seven platform sites. The greatest concentrations of 2-hydroxyfluorene were found in three fish of various species from Platform Holly and were only

  3. Onshore-offshore morpho-structural pattern of coastal rocky shore in SW Brittany (France): polyphased generation of rocky, shore and exhumed platforms.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raimbault, Celine; Duperret, Anne; Le Gall, Bernard; Wyns, Robert; Regard, Vincent; Authemayou, Christine; Molliex, Stephane

    2017-04-01

    A large granitic submarine and shore platform has been mapped in Western Brittany on 580 km2 surfaces with the aid of several high-resolution (<1 m) aerial and marine surveys: topographic and bathymetric LiDAR using Litto3D project (SHOM, IGN, IFREMER) mixed with marine interferometric echosounding sonar (R/V Haliotis) and low depth multibeam echosondeur with high resolution seismic reflection profiles (R/V Thalia). The structural and geomorphological study of this rocky platform allows understanding its formation on time scale between Paleocene to Quaternary. The marine rocky platform is composed of: (1) a tidal part (shore platform) with a very slight seaward mean slope and a maximal width of about 800 m, (2) a > 5 km-wide and weakly dipping subtidal part, labelled the rocky platform, (3) a rocky external part with varying mean slopes, rocky reefs and sedimentary deposits, corresponding to the continental shelf. The coastal continental domain is characterized by a low elevated (<10 m-high) and severely eroded area, ranging in width between 200 m to about 4 km, and referred to as marine terrace. Its continentward transition with granitic outcrops coincides with a 10 m-high scarp, assumed to represent a paleo-shoreline, hence allowing regarding the marine terrace as a presently exhumed paleo-shore platform. In order to estimate the timing of the denudation process recorded by the rocky platform during Quaternary, 10Be cosmogenic nucleides analyses were performed on submarine and offshore granitic samples. On the basis of 10Be contents, the conceptual evolutionary model applied to the rocky platform implies a polyphased history controlled by continental granitic weathering and high-stand sea level marine erosion. The present-day coastal morphology may be explained by the action of two highstand sea levels since mid-Pleistocene at least, favoring successive eustatic purges of previously weathered granitic rocks. Exposure ages deduced from 10Be content may be

  4. A simplified method in comparison with comprehensive interaction incremental dynamic analysis to assess seismic performance of jacket-type offshore platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolfaghari, M. R.; Ajamy, A.; Asgarian, B.

    2015-12-01

    The primary goal of seismic reassessment procedures in oil platform codes is to determine the reliability of a platform under extreme earthquake loading. Therefore, in this paper, a simplified method is proposed to assess seismic performance of existing jacket-type offshore platforms (JTOP) in regions ranging from near-elastic to global collapse. The simplified method curve exploits well agreement between static pushover (SPO) curve and the entire summarized interaction incremental dynamic analysis (CI-IDA) curve of the platform. Although the CI-IDA method offers better understanding and better modelling of the phenomenon, it is a time-consuming and challenging task. To overcome the challenges, the simplified procedure, a fast and accurate approach, is introduced based on SPO analysis. Then, an existing JTOP in the Persian Gulf is presented to illustrate the procedure, and finally a comparison is made between the simplified method and CI-IDA results. The simplified method is very informative and practical for current engineering purposes. It is able to predict seismic performance elasticity to global dynamic instability with reasonable accuracy and little computational effort.

  5. Radionuclides, Metals, and Hydrocarbons in Oil and Gas Operational Discharges and Environmental Samples Associated with Offshore Production Facilities on the Texas/Louisiana Continental Shelf with an Environmental Assessment of Metals and Hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Continental Shelf Associates, Inc.

    1999-08-16

    This report presents concentrations of radionuclides, metals, and hydrocarbons in samples of produced water and produced sand from oil and gas production platforms located offshore Texas and Louisiana. Concentrations in produced water discharge plume/receiving water, ambient seawater, sediment, interstitial water, and marine animal tissue samples collected in the vicinity of discharging platforms and reference sites distant from discharges are also reported and discussed. An environmental risk assessment is made on the basis of the concentrations of metals and hydrocarbons determined in the samples.

  6. Radionuclides, Metals, and Hydrocarbons in Oil and Gas Operational Discharges and Environmental Samples Associated with Offshore Production Facilities on the Texas/Louisiana Continental Shelf with an Environmental Assessment of Metals and Hydrocarbons.

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    This report presents concentrations of radionuclides, metals, and hydrocarbons in samples of produced water and produced sand from oil and gas production platforms located offshore Texas and Louisiana. concentrations in produced water discharge plume / receiving water, ambient seawater, sediment, interstitial water, and marine animal tissue samples collected in the vicinity of discharging platforms and reference sites distant from discharges are also reported and discussed. An environmental risk assessment is made on the basis of the concentration of metals and hydrocarbons determined in the samples.

  7. 4-Component seismic survey in the first offshore production test of methane hydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, T.; Saeki, T.; Fujii, T.; Aoki, N.; Inamori, T.; Asakawa, E.; Takahashi, H.; Fujii, Y.

    2016-12-01

    JOGMEC conducted a gas production test in the offshore field where methane hydrates exist in the first offshore production test in March 2013. 4-component seismic survey was carried out as geophysical monitoring to assess the dissociation behaviour of methane hydrates by comparing the characteristics of seismic data before and after the gas production test. The data acquisition was performed three times using an ocean bottom cable (OBC), which installed on the sea bottom of 1000m water depth around the gas production well, consists of 36 receiver devices at an interval of 26.5 meters. The first data acquisition was performed in August 2012 before the gas production test. The second and final data acquisitions were performed in April and August 2013 after the gas production test respectively. The shooting operations using air gun source were executed in 2D lines along OBC and in pseudo 3D layout. The OBC was not collected, a connection with a recording boat was disconnected, the terminal of the OBC was waterproofed, and it had been left in the survey area after the first and the second data acquisitions. The terminal of the OBC installing on the sea bottom was fished and the OBC was reconnected into the recording boat before the second and the final data acquisitions. The OBC had been left on the sea bottom for 8 months and 4 months respectively, but the OBC could work normally and provided high quality data. In the result of the analysis of the acquired data, the change in physical properties and the decrease in impedance were seen by the data comparison before and after the gas production test, and the result which suggests dissociation of methane hydrates was obtained. In addition, the increase phenomenon of impedance from the second to the final data acquisition was seen, which suggests a possibility of the regeneration of methane hydrates.

  8. Three Essays in the Public Economics of Offshore Hydrocarbon Investment and Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kearney, Owen P.

    Offshore sources, in both shallow and deep waters, are increasingly important contributors to global oil and natural gas production. As both resource owner and taxing authority, national governments play an important role in the production of these offshore hydrocarbons. How the policy choices of these governments affect firm behavior, however, is not necessarily well understood. This dissertation contributes to our knowledge of how public policy influences offshore hydrocarbon investment and production. In the first essay, I estimate the investment responses of hydrocarbon producers to the suspension of the royalty, a type of production tax levied on production from federal lands. I find that the potential for a royalty payments waiver: (1) increases the probability that an individual tract is acquired by an average of 193% (a mean increase of 5.6 percentage points); (2) decreases the probability that a lease is ever drilled during its observed lease term by an average of 14.5% (a mean decrease of 1.3 percentage points); and (3) increases the expected number of explored leases by 150%. The introduction of DWRRA also increases the average winning bid per lease by 60%. These estimates quantify the magnitudes of the discouraging effects of production taxation on oil and natural gas investment. In the second essay, I quantify the implied value of information spillovers in oil and natural gas exploration using an event study design. I find that 25 trading days after a discovery, firms that own leases adjacent to the discovery lease (but not the discovery lease, itself) realize an average abnormal return translating to 315 million in market capitalization. This effect is quantitatively large compared to costs for drilling an exploratory well. In the final essay, I measure how oil price affects water injection, a method for prolonging the productive lifetime of oil fields. I find that a 1 rise in price increases the water injected into the well's reservoir by

  9. Ice island creation, drift, recurrences, mechanical properties, and interactions with arctic offshore oil production structures

    SciTech Connect

    Sackinger, W.M.; Jeffries, M.O.; Li, Fucheng; Lu, Mingchi.

    1991-03-01

    Research and engineering studies on first-year sea ice for over two decades has resulted in the design, construction, and operation of jacket platforms, of artificial islands, and of massive gravity structures which routinely withstand moving sea ice of thickness up to 2 meters. However, the less-common interactions between such structures and moving multiyear ice ([ge]3 meters thick), and also moving ice islands (10 to 60 meters thick) remain as the unknown and potentially most serious hazard for Arctic offshore structures. In this study, research was addressed across the complete span of remaining questions regarding such features. Ice island components, thickness distributions, scenarios and models for the interactions of massive ice features with offshore structures, all were considered. Ice island morphology and calving studies were directed at the cluster of 19 ice islands produced in a calving from the Ward Hunt Ice Shelf on Ellesmere Island in 1983, and also at a calving from the Milne Ice Shelf in 1988. The statistics of ice island dynamics, on both a short-term small-scale basis and also on a long-term basis, were studied. Typical wind velocities of 5 to 7.5 meters per second led to ice island speeds of about 0.014 of the wind speed, at an angle of 20[degrees] to the right of the wind direction. Ice island samples were tested for their stress/strain characteristics. Compressive strength values ranged from 1.64 MPa at a strain rate of 2 [times] 10[sup [minus]7] s[sup [minus]1] to 6.75 MPa at a strain rate of 1 [times] 10[sup [minus]3] s[sup [minus]1]. Scenarios for ice island/structure interactions were developed, and protective countermeasures such as spray ice and ice rubble barriers were suggested. Additional computer modeling of structure/ice interactions for massive ice features is recommended.

  10. Acute and chronic toxicity of produced water from a North Sea oil production platform to the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa

    SciTech Connect

    Girling, A.E. )

    1989-08-01

    The routine operation of offshore oil production platforms results in the discharge to the sea of produced water after it has been separated from oil drawn from the reservoir. Discharge of produced water in the UK sector of the North Sea is given an exemption from the provisions of the 1971 Prevention of Oil Pollution Act providing the monthly average oil-in-water content measured twice per day does not exceed 40 mg kg{sup {minus}1}. To assess the toxic hazard to marine organisms of produced water discharged to the North Sea, within this exemption, Shell UK Exploration and Production has implemented a research program. Methods for determining the acute and chronic toxicity of produced water to the marine calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa have been established and applied at Shell's Sittingbourne Research Centre to samples from the Shell/Esso Dunlin A platform. This paper describes the methods used to assess acute and chronic toxicity and the results of tests performed on a sample of produced water collected in February 1986. Tests were performed on subsamples of the bulk sample which: (a) were untreated (b) had been filtered and (c) biodegraded (i.e., organic substances present in the produced water were degraded by micro-organisms) and then filtered. The results of the tests are discussed in relation to the likely patterns of dilution offshore in the North Sea.

  11. Microbial platform technology for recombinant antibody fragment production: A review.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sanjeev Kumar; Shukla, Pratyoosh

    2017-02-01

    Recombinant antibody fragments are being used for the last few years as an important therapeutic protein to cure various critical and life threatening human diseases. Several expression platforms now days employed for the production of these recombinant fragments, out of which bacterial system has emerged a promising host for higher expression. Since, a small antibody fragment unlike full antibody does not require human-like post-translational modification therefore it is potentially expressed in prokaryotic production system. Recently, small antibody fragments such as scFvs (single-chain variable fragments) and Fabs (antibody fragments) which does not require glycosylation are successfully produced in bacteria and have commercially launched for therapeutic use as these fragments shows better tissue penetration and less immunogenic to human body compared to full-size antibody. Recently developed Wacker's ESETEC secretion technology is an efficient technology for the expression and secretion of the antibody fragment (Fab) exceeded up to 4.0 g/L while scFv up to 3.5 g/L into the fermentation broth. The Pfenex system and pOP prokaryotic expression vector are another platform used for the considerably good amount of antibody fragment production successfully. In this review, we summarize the recent progress on various expression platforms and cloning approaches for the production of different forms of antibody fragments in E. coli.

  12. A Comparison of Platform Options for Deep-water Floating Offshore Vertical Axis Wind Turbines: An Initial Study.

    SciTech Connect

    Bull, Diana L; Fowler, Matthew; Goupee, Andrew

    2014-08-01

    This analysis utilizes a 5 - MW VAWT topside design envelope created by Sandia National Laborator ies to compare floating platform options fo r each turbine in the design space. The platform designs are based on two existing designs, the OC3 Hywind spar - buoy and Principal Power's WindFloat semi - submersible. These designs are scaled using Froude - scaling relationships to determine an appropriately sized spar - buoy and semi - submersible design for each topside. Both the physical size of the required platform as well as mooring configurations are considered. Results are compared with a comparable 5 - MW HAWT in order to identify potential differences in the platform and mooring sizing between the VAWT and HAWT . The study shows that there is potential for cost savings due to reduced platform size requirements for the VAWT.

  13. Offshore Space Center (offshore launch site)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, D. G.

    1980-01-01

    Any activity requiring the development of the HLLV can benefit by operations from an offshore space center (OSC) since operating near the equator provides a twenty percent increase in payload in an ecliptic plan orbit. Some OSC concepts considered include a moored floating (semisubmersible) design, a stationary design supported by fixed piles, and a combination of these two. The facility supports: a 15,000 foot long, 300 foot wide runway, designed to accommodate a two staged winged launch vehicle, with a one million pound payload capacity to low earth orbit; an industrial area for HLLV maintenance; an airport terminal, control and operation center, and observation tower; liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen production and storage, and fuel storage platforms; a power generation station, docks with an unloading area; two separate launch sites; and living accommodations for 10,000 people. Potential sites include the Paramount Seamount in the Pacific Ocean off the north coast of South America. Cost estimates are considered.

  14. Organizational sensemaking about risk controls: the case of offshore hydrocarbons production.

    PubMed

    Busby, J S; Collins, A M

    2014-09-01

    In the same way that individuals' risk perceptions can influence how they behave toward risks, how organizational members make sense of risk controls is an important influence on how they apply and maintain such controls. In this article, we describe an analysis of sensemaking about the control of risk in offshore hydrocarbons production, an industry that continues to produce disasters of societal significance. A field study of 80 interviews was conducted in five offshore oil and gas companies and the agency that regulates them. The interviews were analyzed using qualitative template analysis. This provided a categorization of the many ways of acting through which informants made sense of the risk control task, and indicated that the organizations placed substantially different emphases on different ways of acting. Nevertheless, this sensemaking fell into two broad classes: that which tended to limit or be pessimistic about organizational controls, and that which tended to extend or be optimistic about organizational controls. All the participating organizations collectively placed a balanced emphasis on these two classes. We argue that this balanced sensemaking is an adaptation rather than a deliberate choice, but that it is an important element of controlling risk in its own right. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.

  15. Eighteenth annual offshore technology conference. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    These sixty papers were given at a conference on offshore technology. Topics covered include friction effects of driving piles into sea beds of various compositions, wave forces on offshore platforms, stability, materials testing of various components such as plates, legs, wellheads, pipe joints, and protection of offshore platforms against ice and collision with icebergs.

  16. Local versus offshore production of ready-to-use therapeutic foods and small quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements.

    PubMed

    Segrè, Joel; Liu, Grace; Komrska, Jan

    2016-11-08

    Manufacturers on four continents currently produce ready-to-use therapeutic foods (RUTF). Some produce locally, near their intended users, while others produce offshore and ship their product long distances. Small quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements (SQ-LNS) such as Nutriset's Enov'Nutributter are not yet in widespread production. There has been speculation whether RUTF and SQ-LNS should be produced primarily offshore, locally, or both. We analyzed The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) Supply Division data, reviewed published literature, and interviewed local manufacturers to identify key benefits and challenges to local versus offshore manufacture of RUTF. Both prices and estimated costs for locally produced product have consistently been higher than offshore prices. Local manufacture faces challenges in taxation on imported ingredients, low factory utilization, high interest rates, long cash conversion cycle, and less convenient access to quality testing labs. Benefits to local economies are not likely to be significant. Although offshore manufacturers offer RUTF at lower cost, local production is getting closer to cost parity for RUTF. UNICEF, which buys the majority of RUTF globally, continues to support local production, and efforts are underway to narrow the cost gap further. Expansion of RUTF producers into the production of other ready-to-use foods, including SQ-LNS in order to reach a larger market and achieve a more sustainable scale, may further close the cost and price gap. Local production of both RUTF and SQ-LNS could be encouraged by a favorable tax environment, assistance in lending, consistent forecasts from buyers, investment in reliable input supply chains, and local laboratory testing.

  17. Potential Offshore Wind Energy Applications for Enhanced Resolution Scatterometer Products (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plagge, A. M.; Epps, B.

    2013-12-01

    The multi-decadal record of ocean surface vector winds provided by scatterometer measurements is a valuable resource that has been underutilized by the wind energy sector. Previously, these data were not considered applicable for offshore wind energy analysis; chiefly, the sensors' low resolution limited their desirability. Now, however, enhanced products provide high quality wind vectors at resolutions between 3 and 5km. Potential energy applications currently under investigation include (1) validation of existing commercial wind resource assessment models, (2) investigations of interactions between large existing wind farms and the atmospheric boundary layer including attempts to identify wakes, and (3) an extension of previous studies comparing SAR and scatterometer wind fields with regard to specific wind energy concerns, including wind spectra and Weibull parameters.

  18. The Bacterial Ghost platform system: production and applications.

    PubMed

    Langemann, Timo; Koller, Verena Juliana; Muhammad, Abbas; Kudela, Pavol; Mayr, Ulrike Beate; Lubitz, Werner

    2010-01-01

    The Bacterial Ghost (BG) platform technology is an innovative system for vaccine, drug or active substance delivery and for technical applications in white biotechnology. BGs are cell envelopes derived from Gram-negative bacteria. BGs are devoid of all cytoplasmic content but have a preserved cellular morphology including all cell surface structures. Using BGs as delivery vehicles for subunit or DNA-vaccines the particle structure and surface properties of BGs are targeting the carrier itself to primary antigen-presenting cells. Furthermore, BGs exhibit intrinsic adjuvant properties and trigger an enhanced humoral and cellular immune response to the target antigen. Multiple antigens of the native BG envelope and recombinant protein or DNA antigens can be combined in a single type of BG. Antigens can be presented on the inner or outer membrane of the BG as well as in the periplasm that is sealed during BG formation. Drugs or supplements can also be loaded to the internal lumen or periplasmic space of the carrier. BGs are produced by batch fermentation with subsequent product recovery and purification via tangential flow filtration. For safety reasons all residual bacterial DNA is inactivated during the BG production process by the use of staphylococcal nuclease A and/or the treatment with β-propiolactone. After purification BGs can be stored long-term at ambient room temperature as lyophilized product. The production cycle from the inoculation of the pre-culture to the purified BG concentrate ready for lyophilization does not take longer than a day and thus meets modern criteria of rapid vaccine production rather than keeping large stocks of vaccines. The broad spectrum of possible applications in combination with the comparably low production costs make the BG platform technology a safe and sophisticated product for the targeted delivery of vaccines and active agents as well as carrier of immobilized enzymes for applications in white biotechnology.

  19. Shallow waters require platform innovation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-11-01

    Conventional platform designs generally apply to production facilities for relatively shallow-water oil and gas fields and consequently do not attract much attention in the offshore industry. But although new designs relate largely to deeper waters, specific requirements of a particular field in shallow water may well force designers to search for unconventional designs to meet a need for lower costs and rapid development. A central production facility is planned offshore at the drilling location AWG-1, approximately 3 km offshore and in a water depth of about six meters. The choice is governed by the optimum interfield pipeline configuration available at the AWG-1 location, taking into account the other locations required for adequate subsea well coverage. The platform is described.

  20. Meals on Wheels? A Decade of Megafaunal Visual and Acoustic Observations from Offshore Oil & Gas Rigs and Platforms in the North and Irish Seas

    PubMed Central

    Todd, Victoria Louise Georgia; Todd, Ian Boyer

    2016-01-01

    A decade of visual and acoustic detections of marine megafauna around offshore Oil & Gas (O&G) installations in the North and Irish Seas are presented. Marine megafauna activity was monitored visually and acoustically by Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC) qualified and experienced Marine Mammal Observers (MMO) and Passive Acoustic Monitoring (PAM) Operators respectively, with real-time towed PAM in combination with industry standard software, PAMGuard. Monitoring was performed during routine O&G industrial operations for underwater noise mitigation purposes, and to ensure adherence to regulatory guidelines. Incidental sightings by off-effort MMOs and installation crew were also reported. Visual and acoustic monitoring spanned 55 non-consecutive days between 2004 and 2014. A total of 47 marine mammal sightings were recorded by MMOs on dedicated watch, and 10 incidental sightings of marine megafauna were reported over 10 years. Species included: harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), Atlantic white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus), white beaked dolphin (Lagenorhynchus albirostris), common dolphin (Delphinus delphis), minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), common seal (Phoca vitulina), grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) and, basking shark (Cetorhinus maximus). Passive Acoustic Monitoring was conducted on two occasions in 2014; 160 PAM hours over 12 days recorded a total of 308 individual clicks identified as harbour porpoises. These appear to be the first such acoustic detections obtained from a North Sea drilling rig whilst using a typically configured hydrophone array designed for towing in combination with real-time PAMGuard software. This study provides evidence that marine megafauna are present around mobile and stationary offshore O&G installations during routine operational activities. On this basis, Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) for decommissioning O&G platforms should be carried-out on a case-by-case basis, and must include provisions for

  1. Meals on Wheels? A Decade of Megafaunal Visual and Acoustic Observations from Offshore Oil & Gas Rigs and Platforms in the North and Irish Seas.

    PubMed

    Todd, Victoria Louise Georgia; Warley, Jane Clare; Todd, Ian Boyer

    2016-01-01

    A decade of visual and acoustic detections of marine megafauna around offshore Oil & Gas (O&G) installations in the North and Irish Seas are presented. Marine megafauna activity was monitored visually and acoustically by Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC) qualified and experienced Marine Mammal Observers (MMO) and Passive Acoustic Monitoring (PAM) Operators respectively, with real-time towed PAM in combination with industry standard software, PAMGuard. Monitoring was performed during routine O&G industrial operations for underwater noise mitigation purposes, and to ensure adherence to regulatory guidelines. Incidental sightings by off-effort MMOs and installation crew were also reported. Visual and acoustic monitoring spanned 55 non-consecutive days between 2004 and 2014. A total of 47 marine mammal sightings were recorded by MMOs on dedicated watch, and 10 incidental sightings of marine megafauna were reported over 10 years. Species included: harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), Atlantic white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus), white beaked dolphin (Lagenorhynchus albirostris), common dolphin (Delphinus delphis), minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), common seal (Phoca vitulina), grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) and, basking shark (Cetorhinus maximus). Passive Acoustic Monitoring was conducted on two occasions in 2014; 160 PAM hours over 12 days recorded a total of 308 individual clicks identified as harbour porpoises. These appear to be the first such acoustic detections obtained from a North Sea drilling rig whilst using a typically configured hydrophone array designed for towing in combination with real-time PAMGuard software. This study provides evidence that marine megafauna are present around mobile and stationary offshore O&G installations during routine operational activities. On this basis, Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) for decommissioning O&G platforms should be carried-out on a case-by-case basis, and must include provisions for

  2. Optimum geometry of tuned liquid column-gas damper for control of offshore jacket platform vibrations under seismic excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousavi, Seyed Amin; Zahrai, Seyed Mehdi; Bargi, Khosrow

    2012-12-01

    In this study, the effectiveness of a tuned liquid column-gas damper, TLCGD, on the suppression of seismicinduced vibrations of steel jacket platforms is evaluated. TLCGD is an interesting choice in the case of jacket platforms because it is possible to use the structural elements as the horizontal column of the TLCGD. The objective here is to find the optimum geometric parameters, namely orientation and configuration of vertical columns, length ratio, and area ratio of the TLCGD, considering nonlinear damping of the TLCGD and water-structure interaction between the jacket platform and sea water. The effects of different characteristics of ground motion such as PGA and frequency content on the optimum geometry are also investigated and it is observed that these features have some influence on the optimum area ratio. Finally it is observed that pulse arrangement of ground acceleration is one of the most important parameters affecting the efficiency of a TLCGD. In other words, it is found that the TLCGD's capability to reduce the RMS responses depends only on the frequency content of the ground acceleration, but its capability to reduce the maximum responses depends on both the frequency content and the pulse arrangement of the ground acceleration.

  3. Radiochemical characterization of produced water from two production offshore oilfields in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Kpeglo, D O; Mantero, J; Darko, E O; Emi-Reynolds, G; Faanu, A; Manjón, G; Vioque, I; Akaho, E H K; Garcia-Tenorio, R

    2016-02-01

    Produced water from two Ghanaian offshore production oilfields has been characterized using alpha spectrometry after radiochemical separation, non-destructive gamma spectrometry and ICP-MS and other complimentary analytical tools. The measured concentrations of main NORM components were in the range of 6.2-22.3 Bq.L(-1), 6.4-35.5 Bq.L(-1), and 0.7-7.0 Bq.L(-1) for (226)Ra, (228)Ra and (224)Ra respectively. A good correlation between several physico-chemical parameters and radium isotopes was observed in each production oilfield. The radium concentrations obtained in this study for produced water from the two oilfields of Ghana are of radiological importance and hence there may be the need to put in place measures for future contamination concerns due to their bioavailability in the media and bioaccumulation characteristics. The results will assist in critical decision making for future set up of appropriate national guidelines for the management of NORM waste from the emerging oil and gas industry in Ghana. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Distributed Processing of Sentinel-2 Products using the BIGEARTH Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacu, Victor; Stefanut, Teodor; Nandra, Constantin; Mihon, Danut; Gorgan, Dorian

    2017-04-01

    The constellation of observational satellites orbiting around Earth is constantly increasing, providing more data that need to be processed in order to extract meaningful information and knowledge from it. Sentinel-2 satellites, part of the Copernicus Earth Observation program, aim to be used in agriculture, forestry and many other land management applications. ESA's SNAP toolbox can be used to process data gathered by Sentinel-2 satellites but is limited to the resources provided by a stand-alone computer. In this paper we present a cloud based software platform that makes use of this toolbox together with other remote sensing software applications to process Sentinel-2 products. The BIGEARTH software platform [1] offers an integrated solution for processing Earth Observation data coming from different sources (such as satellites or on-site sensors). The flow of processing is defined as a chain of tasks based on the WorDeL description language [2]. Each task could rely on a different software technology (such as Grass GIS and ESA's SNAP) in order to process the input data. One important feature of the BIGEARTH platform comes from this possibility of interconnection and integration, throughout the same flow of processing, of the various well known software technologies. All this integration is transparent from the user perspective. The proposed platform extends the SNAP capabilities by enabling specialists to easily scale the processing over distributed architectures, according to their specific needs and resources. The software platform [3] can be used in multiple configurations. In the basic one the software platform runs as a standalone application inside a virtual machine. Obviously in this case the computational resources are limited but it will give an overview of the functionalities of the software platform, and also the possibility to define the flow of processing and later on to execute it on a more complex infrastructure. The most complex and robust

  5. Viral and flagellate control of prokaryotic production and community structure in offshore Mediterranean waters.

    PubMed

    Bonilla-Findji, Osana; Herndl, Gerhard J; Gattuso, Jean-Pierre; Weinbauer, Markus G

    2009-07-01

    A dilution and size fractionation approach was used to study the separate and combined effects of viruses and flagellates on prokaryotic production ([(3)H]leucine incorporation) and community composition (16S rRNA gene PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis [DGGE]) in the upper mixed layer and the deep chlorophyll maximum in the offshore Mediterranean Sea. Four experiments were established using differential filtration: a resource control without predators (C treatment), treatment in the presence of viruses (V treatment), treatment in the presence of flagellates (F treatment), and treatment in the presence of both predators (VF treatment). The V and VF treatments increased prokaryotic abundance (1.4- to 2.3-fold) and the number of DGGE bands (by up to 43%) and decreased prokaryotic production compared to the level for the C treatment (by 22 to 99%). For the F treatment, significant differences compared to the level for the C treatment were found as well, but trends were not consistent across experiments. The relative abundances of the high-nucleic-acid subgroups of prokaryotes with high scatter (HNAhs) in flow cytometer settings were lower in the V and VF treatments than in the C and F treatments. These differences were probably due to lysis of very active HNA prokaryotes in the V and VF treatments. Our results indicate that the presence of viruses or viruses plus flagellates sustains prokaryotic diversity and controls prokaryotic production by regulating the proportion of the highly active members of the community. Our data also suggest that lysis and grazing control influences the relationship between bacterial community composition and prokaryotic production.

  6. Complementary Microorganisms in Highly Corrosive Biofilms from an Offshore Oil Production Facility.

    PubMed

    Vigneron, Adrien; Alsop, Eric B; Chambers, Brian; Lomans, Bartholomeus P; Head, Ian M; Tsesmetzis, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    Offshore oil production facilities are frequently victims of internal piping corrosion, potentially leading to human and environmental risks and significant economic losses. Microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) is believed to be an important factor in this major problem for the petroleum industry. However, knowledge of the microbial communities and metabolic processes leading to corrosion is still limited. Therefore, the microbial communities from three anaerobic biofilms recovered from the inside of a steel pipe exhibiting high corrosion rates, iron oxide deposits, and substantial amounts of sulfur, which are characteristic of MIC, were analyzed in detail. Bacterial and archaeal community structures were investigated by automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis, multigenic (16S rRNA and functional genes) high-throughput Illumina MiSeq sequencing, and quantitative PCR analysis. The microbial community analysis indicated that bacteria, particularly Desulfovibrio species, dominated the biofilm microbial communities. However, other bacteria, such as Pelobacter, Pseudomonas, and Geotoga, as well as various methanogenic archaea, previously detected in oil facilities were also detected. The microbial taxa and functional genes identified suggested that the biofilm communities harbored the potential for a number of different but complementary metabolic processes and that MIC in oil facilities likely involves a range of microbial metabolisms such as sulfate, iron, and elemental sulfur reduction. Furthermore, extreme corrosion leading to leakage and exposure of the biofilms to the external environment modify the microbial community structure by promoting the growth of aerobic hydrocarbon-degrading organisms.

  7. Complementary Microorganisms in Highly Corrosive Biofilms from an Offshore Oil Production Facility

    PubMed Central

    Alsop, Eric B.; Chambers, Brian; Lomans, Bartholomeus P.; Head, Ian M.; Tsesmetzis, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Offshore oil production facilities are frequently victims of internal piping corrosion, potentially leading to human and environmental risks and significant economic losses. Microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) is believed to be an important factor in this major problem for the petroleum industry. However, knowledge of the microbial communities and metabolic processes leading to corrosion is still limited. Therefore, the microbial communities from three anaerobic biofilms recovered from the inside of a steel pipe exhibiting high corrosion rates, iron oxide deposits, and substantial amounts of sulfur, which are characteristic of MIC, were analyzed in detail. Bacterial and archaeal community structures were investigated by automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis, multigenic (16S rRNA and functional genes) high-throughput Illumina MiSeq sequencing, and quantitative PCR analysis. The microbial community analysis indicated that bacteria, particularly Desulfovibrio species, dominated the biofilm microbial communities. However, other bacteria, such as Pelobacter, Pseudomonas, and Geotoga, as well as various methanogenic archaea, previously detected in oil facilities were also detected. The microbial taxa and functional genes identified suggested that the biofilm communities harbored the potential for a number of different but complementary metabolic processes and that MIC in oil facilities likely involves a range of microbial metabolisms such as sulfate, iron, and elemental sulfur reduction. Furthermore, extreme corrosion leading to leakage and exposure of the biofilms to the external environment modify the microbial community structure by promoting the growth of aerobic hydrocarbon-degrading organisms. PMID:26896143

  8. Distortionary effects of a production-sharing fiscal system in a sequential modular offshore petroleum project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neves de Campos, Thiago

    This research examines the distortionary effects of a discovered and undeveloped sequential modular offshore project under five different designs for a production-sharing agreement (PSA). The model differs from previous research by looking at the effect of taxation from the perspective of a host government, where the objective is to maximize government utility over government revenue generated by the project and the non-pecuniary benefits to society. This research uses Modern Asset Pricing (MAP) theory, which is able to provide a good measure of the asset value accruing to various stakeholders in the project combined with the optimal decision rule for the development of the investment opportunity. Monte Carlo simulation was also applied to incorporate into the model the most important sources of risk associated with the project and to account for non-linearity in the cash flows. For a complete evaluation of how the fiscal system affects the project development, an investor's behavioral model was constructed, incorporating three operational decisions: investment timing, capacity size and early abandonment. The model considers four sources of uncertainty that affect the project value and the firm's optimal decision: the long run oil price and short-run deviations from that price, cost escalation and the reservoir recovery rate. The optimizations outcomes show that all fiscal systems evaluated produce distortion over the companies' optimal decisions, and companies adjust their choices to avoid taxation in different ways according to the fiscal system characteristics. Moreover, it is revealed that fiscal systems with tax provisions that try to capture additional project profits based on production profitability measures leads to stronger distortions in the project investment and output profile. It is also shown that a model based on a fixed percentage rate is the system that creates the least distortion. This is because companies will be subjected to the same

  9. Isopropanol production with engineered Cupriavidus necator as bioproduction platform.

    PubMed

    Grousseau, Estelle; Lu, Jingnan; Gorret, Nathalie; Guillouet, Stéphane E; Sinskey, Anthony J

    2014-05-01

    Alleviating our society's dependence on petroleum-based chemicals has been highly emphasized due to fossil fuel shortages and increasing greenhouse gas emissions. Isopropanol is a molecule of high potential to replace some petroleum-based chemicals, which can be produced through biological platforms from renewable waste carbon streams such as carbohydrates, fatty acids, or CO2. In this study, for the first time, the heterologous expression of engineered isopropanol pathways were evaluated in a Cupriavidus necator strain Re2133, which was incapable of producing poly-3-hydroxybutyrate [P(3HB)]. These synthetic production pathways were rationally designed through codon optimization, gene placement, and gene dosage in order to efficiently divert carbon flow from P(3HB) precursors toward isopropanol. Among the constructed pathways, Re2133/pEG7c overexpressing native C. necator genes encoding a β-ketothiolase, a CoA-transferase, and codon-optimized Clostridium genes encoding an acetoacetate decarboxylase and an alcohol dehydrogenase produced up to 3.44 g l(-1) isopropanol in batch culture, from fructose as a sole carbon source, with only 0.82 g l(-1) of biomass. The intrinsic performance of this strain (maximum specific production rate 0.093 g g(-1) h(-1), yield 0.32 Cmole Cmole(-1)) corresponded to more than 60 % of the respective theoretical performance. Moreover, the overall isopropanol production yield (0.24 Cmole Cmole(-1)) and the overall specific productivity (0.044 g g(-1) h(-1)) were higher than the values reported in the literature to date for heterologously engineered isopropanol production strains in batch culture. Strain Re2133/pEG7c presents good potential for scale-up production of isopropanol from various substrates in high cell density cultures.

  10. Isopropanol production with engineered Cupriavidus necator as bioproduction platform

    SciTech Connect

    Grousseau, E; Lu, JN; Gorret, N; Guillouet, SE; Sinskey, AJ

    2014-03-07

    Alleviating our society's dependence on petroleum-based chemicals has been highly emphasized due to fossil fuel shortages and increasing greenhouse gas emissions. Isopropanol is a molecule of high potential to replace some petroleum-based chemicals, which can be produced through biological platforms from renewable waste carbon streams such as carbohydrates, fatty acids, or CO2. In this study, for the first time, the heterologous expression of engineered isopropanol pathways were evaluated in a Cupriavidus necator strain Re2133, which was incapable of producing poly-3-hydroxybutyrate [P(3HB)]. These synthetic production pathways were rationally designed through codon optimization, gene placement, and gene dosage in order to efficiently divert carbon flow from P(3HB) precursors toward isopropanol. Among the constructed pathways, Re2133/pEG7c overexpressing native C. necator genes encoding a beta-ketothiolase, a CoA-transferase, and codon-optimized Clostridium genes encoding an acetoacetate decarboxylase and an alcohol dehydrogenase produced up to 3.44 g l(-1) isopropanol in batch culture, from fructose as a sole carbon source, with only 0.82 g l(-1) of biomass. The intrinsic performance of this strain (maximum specific production rate 0.093 g g(-1) h(-1), yield 0.32 Cmole Cmole(-1)) corresponded to more than 60 % of the respective theoretical performance. Moreover, the overall isopropanol production yield (0.24 Cmole Cmole(-1)) and the overall specific productivity (0.044 g g(-1) h(-1)) were higher than the values reported in the literature to date for heterologously engineered isopropanol production strains in batch culture. Strain Re2133/pEG7c presents good potential for scale-up production of isopropanol from various substrates in high cell density cultures.

  11. Development of biological platform for the autotrophic production of biofuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Nymul

    The research described herein is aimed at developing an advanced biofuel platform that has the potential to surpass the natural rate of solar energy capture and CO2 fixation. The underlying concept is to use the electricity from a renewable source, such as wind or solar, to capture CO 2 via a biological agent, such as a microbe, into liquid fuels that can be used for the transportation sector. In addition to being renewable, the higher rate of energy capture by photovoltaic cells than natural photosynthesis is expected to facilitate higher rate of liquid fuel production than traditional biofuel processes. The envisioned platform is part of ARPA-E's (Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy) Electrofuels initiative which aims at supplementing the country's petroleum based fuel production with renewable liquid fuels that can integrate easily with the existing refining and distribution infrastructure (http://arpae. energy.gov/ProgramsProjects/Electrofuels.aspx). The Electrofuels initiative aimed to develop liquid biofuels that avoid the issues encountered in the current generation of biofuels: (1) the reliance of biomass-derived technologies on the inefficient process of photosynthesis, (2) the relatively energy- and resource-intensive nature of agronomic processes, and (3) the occupation of large areas of arable land for feedstock production. The process proceeds by the capture of solar energy into electrical energy via photovoltaic cells, using the generated electricity to split water into molecular hydrogen (H2) and oxygen (O2), and feeding these gases, along with carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted from point sources such as a biomass or coal-fired power plant, to a microbial bioprocessing platform. The proposed microbial bioprocessing platform leverages a chemolithoautotrophic microorganism (Rhodobacter capsulatus or Ralstonia eutropha) naturally able to utilize these gases as growth substrates, and genetically modified to produce a triterpene hydrocarbon fuel

  12. A novel biochemical platform for fuels and chemicals production from cellulosic biomass

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The conventional biochemical platform for biofuels production featuring enzymatic hydrolysis involves five key steps: pretreatment, cellulase production, enzymatic hydrolysis, fermentation, and product recovery. Sugars are produced as reactive intermediates for subsequent fermentation to fuels and c...

  13. Clostridium ljungdahlii represents a microbial production platform based on syngas

    PubMed Central

    Köpke, Michael; Held, Claudia; Hujer, Sandra; Liesegang, Heiko; Wiezer, Arnim; Wollherr, Antje; Ehrenreich, Armin; Liebl, Wolfgang; Gottschalk, Gerhard; Dürre, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Clostridium ljungdahlii is an anaerobic homoacetogen, able to ferment sugars, other organic compounds, or CO2/H2 and synthesis gas (CO/H2). The latter feature makes it an interesting microbe for the biotech industry, as important bulk chemicals and proteins can be produced at the expense of CO2, thus combining industrial needs with sustained reduction of CO and CO2 in the atmosphere. Sequencing the complete genome of C. ljungdahlii revealed that it comprises 4,630,065 bp and is one of the largest clostridial genomes known to date. Experimental data and in silico comparisons revealed a third mode of anaerobic homoacetogenic metabolism. Unlike other organisms such as Moorella thermoacetica or Acetobacterium woodii, neither cytochromes nor sodium ions are involved in energy generation. Instead, an Rnf system is present, by which proton translocation can be performed. An electroporation procedure has been developed to transform the organism with plasmids bearing heterologous genes for butanol production. Successful expression of these genes could be demonstrated, leading to formation of the biofuel. Thus, C. ljungdahlii can be used as a unique microbial production platform based on synthesis gas and carbon dioxide/hydrogen mixtures. PMID:20616070

  14. Cambial meristematic cells: a platform for the production of plant natural products.

    PubMed

    Ochoa-Villarreal, Marisol; Howat, Susan; Jang, Mi Ok; Kim, Il Suk; Jin, Young-Woo; Lee, Eun-Kyong; Loake, Gary J

    2015-12-25

    Plant cell culture constitutes a sustainable, controllable and environmentally friendly tool to produce natural products for the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and industrial biotechnology industries. However, there are significant obstacles to the commercial synthesis of high value chemicals from plant culture including low yields, performance instability, slow plant cell growth, industrial scale-up and downstream processing. Cambial meristematic cells constitute a platform to ameliorate many of these potential problems enabling the commercial production of high value chemicals.

  15. Offshore Wind Research (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    This 2-page fact sheet describes NREL's offshore wind research and development efforts and capabilities. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory is internationally recognized for offshore wind energy research and development (R&D). Its experience and capabilities cover a wide spectrum of wind energy disciplines. NREL's offshore wind R&D efforts focus on critical areas that address the long-term needs of the offshore wind energy industry and the Department of Energy (DOE). R&D efforts include: (1) Developing offshore design tools and methods; (2) Collaborating with international partners; (3) Testing offshore systems and developing standards; (4) Conducting economic analyses; (5) Characterizing offshore wind resources; and (6) Identifying and mitigating offshore wind grid integration challenges and barriers. NREL has developed and maintains a robust, open-source, modular computer-aided engineering (CAE) tool, known as FAST. FAST's state-of-the-art capabilities provide full dynamic system simulation for a range of offshore wind systems. It models the coupled aerodynamic, hydrodynamic, control system, and structural response of offshore wind systems to support the development of innovative wind technologies that are reliable and cost effective. FAST also provides dynamic models of wind turbines on offshore fixed-bottom systems for shallow and transitional depths and floating-platform systems in deep water, thus enabling design innovation and risk reduction and facilitating higher performance designs that will meet DOE's cost of energy, reliability, and deployment objectives.

  16. Product competitiveness analysis for e-commerce platform of special agricultural products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Fucheng; Ma, Ning; Yang, Dongwei; Xiong, Zhangyuan

    2017-09-01

    On the basis of analyzing the influence factors of the product competitiveness of the e-commerce platform of the special agricultural products and the characteristics of the analytical methods for the competitiveness of the special agricultural products, the price, the sales volume, the postage included service, the store reputation, the popularity, etc. were selected in this paper as the dimensionality for analyzing the competitiveness of the agricultural products, and the principal component factor analysis was taken as the competitiveness analysis method. Specifically, the web crawler was adopted to capture the information of various special agricultural products in the e-commerce platform ---- chi.taobao.com. Then, the original data captured thereby were preprocessed and MYSQL database was adopted to establish the information library for the special agricultural products. Then, the principal component factor analysis method was adopted to establish the analysis model for the competitiveness of the special agricultural products, and SPSS was adopted in the principal component factor analysis process to obtain the competitiveness evaluation factor system (support degree factor, price factor, service factor and evaluation factor) of the special agricultural products. Then, the linear regression method was adopted to establish the competitiveness index equation of the special agricultural products for estimating the competitiveness of the special agricultural products.

  17. Productive reorganization, outsourcing, and work relations in the offshore oil industry in the Campos Basin, Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Marcelo; Alvarez, Denise; Athayde, Milton; Suarez, José Diego; Pereira, Renata; Soares, Leonardo

    2008-01-01

    This article analyzes the relationship between the intensive use of outsourcing and labor organizations on offshore oil platforms in the Campos Basin, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The theoretical and methodological framework applied in our research is based on Ergonomics of Activity and the Psychodynamics of Work, from an ergological perspective. In addition to the more general trend of increasing precariousness, we highlight the potential loss of formal and informal knowledge resulting from the fragmentation of work collectives, as we consider the cohesion of these collectives to be a crucial element contributing to reliability in process operations. Increasing precariousness of work contributes to this fragmentation and one of its main causes is the uncontrolled increase in outsourcing of work. This situation has had nefarious consequences for workers' health and safety, suggesting that those who have adopted outsourcing as a labor management tool have failed to consider these harmful consequences as rigorously as necessary.

  18. High-Ti basalt from the Abrolhos platform, offshore Brazil 18/sup 0/S: implications for mantle metasomatism and heterogeneity, South Atlantic region

    SciTech Connect

    Fodor, R.V.; Ragland, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    Surface and core samples of the Abrolhos islands and platform (30,000 km/sup 2/), offshore Brazil 18/sup 0/S, yields 35-65 Ma mafic flows and hypabyssal and cumulate rocks. (a) Basalt has very high TiO/sub 2/ attended by high FeO* but not proportionate amounts of incompatible elements; extreme Ti is shown by TiO/sub 2/ 5% at FeO*/MgOapprox. 2.5; LREE enrichment, La/sub (n)/ 80-110, La/Yb/sub (n)/approx. 8.5, Zr/Nbapprox. 6, Zr/Y approx. 7 are those of P-type MORB. (b) Cpx is transitional, Fs/sub 14-23/Wo/sub 42-36/, TiO/sub 2/ 1-2%, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ 2-5%. (c) Cumulates are clinopyroxenite and wehrlite, with cpx compositions like those of the basalts. The unusually high Ti, several trace elements, and mineral compositions correspond to certain high-TiO/sub 2/ flows and dikes in neighboring Serra Geral CFB province. Age differences and approx. 2 x higher P, Ba, and Sr in Serra Geral point to Abrolhos representing (re-)melting of an enriched CFB source-area similar to that for Serra Geral CFB but differing in metasomatic phases such as ap, amph, and mica. Extensive fractionation of enriched tholeiites with major-element compositions of certain S. Atlantic basin basalts accounts for Abrolhos compositions except for extreme Ti. Cumulates attest to the chamber environment necessary for fractionation, but high Ti must reflect the mantle source. Because Abrolhos rocks have compositional links to both continental and oceanic magmatism that occurred since Gondwanaland rifting, source-regions for each may have been similar throughout South Atlantic history, but with notable anomalies, due in part to localized Fe-Ti metasomatism.

  19. A QFD-based optimization method for a scalable product platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xinggang; Tang, Jiafu; Kwong, C. K.

    2010-02-01

    In order to incorporate the customer into the early phase of the product development cycle and to better satisfy customers' requirements, this article adopts quality function deployment (QFD) for optimal design of a scalable product platform. A five-step QFD-based method is proposed to determine the optimal values for platform engineering characteristics (ECs) and non-platform ECs of the products within a product family. First of all, the houses of quality (HoQs) for all product variants are developed and a QFD-based optimization approach is used to determine the optimal ECs for each product variant. Sensitivity analysis is performed for each EC with respect to overall customer satisfaction (OCS). Based on the obtained sensitivity indices of ECs, a mathematical model is established to simultaneously optimize the values of the platform and the non-platform ECs. Finally, by comparing and analysing the optimal solutions with different number of platform ECs, the ECs with which the worst OCS loss can be avoided are selected as platform ECs. An illustrative example is used to demonstrate the feasibility of this method. A comparison between the proposed method and a two-step approach is conducted on the example. The comparison shows that, as a kind of single-stage approach, the proposed method yields better average degree of customer satisfaction due to the simultaneous optimization of platform and non-platform ECs.

  20. Design and research on the platform of network manufacture product electronic trading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zude; Liu, Quan; Jiang, Xuemei

    2003-09-01

    With the rapid globalization of market and business, E-trading affects every manufacture enterprise. However, the security of network manufacturing products of transmission on Internet is very important. In this paper we discussed the protocol of fair exchange and platform for network manufacture products E-trading based on fair exchange protocol and digital watermarking techniques. The platform realized reliable and copyright protection.

  1. Mathematical analysis of the impact mechanism of information platform on agro-product supply chain and agro-product competitiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Qi-Jie; Jin, Mao-Zhu; Ren, Pei-Yu

    2017-04-01

    How to optimize agro-product supply chain to promote its operating efficiency so as to enhance the competitiveness of regional agricultural products has posed a problem to academic circles, business circles and governments of various levels. One way to solve this problem is to introduce an information platform into the supply chain, which this essay focuses on. Firstly, a review of existing research findings concerning the agro-product competitiveness, agro-product supply chain (ASC) and information platform was given. Secondly, we constructed a mathematical model to analyze the impact of information platform on the bullwhip effect in ASC. Thirdly, another mathematical model was constructed to help compare and analyze the impact of information platform on information acquisition of members in ASC. The research results show that the implantation of information platform can mitigate the bullwhip effect in ASC, and members can determine order amount or production more close to the actual market demand. And also the information platform can reduce the time for members in ASC to get information from other members. Besides, information platform can help ASC to alleviate information asymmetry among upstream and downstream members. Furthermore, researches about the operating mechanism and pattern, technical feature and running structure of the information platform, along with their impacts on agro-product supply chain and the competitiveness of agricultural products need to be advanced.

  2. An automated Genomes-to-Natural Products platform (GNP) for the discovery of modular natural products.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Chad W; Skinnider, Michael A; Wyatt, Morgan A; Li, Xiang; Ranieri, Michael R M; Yang, Lian; Zechel, David L; Ma, Bin; Magarvey, Nathan A

    2015-09-28

    Bacterial natural products are a diverse and valuable group of small molecules, and genome sequencing indicates that the vast majority remain undiscovered. The prediction of natural product structures from biosynthetic assembly lines can facilitate their discovery, but highly automated, accurate, and integrated systems are required to mine the broad spectrum of sequenced bacterial genomes. Here we present a genome-guided natural products discovery tool to automatically predict, combinatorialize and identify polyketides and nonribosomal peptides from biosynthetic assembly lines using LC-MS/MS data of crude extracts in a high-throughput manner. We detail the directed identification and isolation of six genetically predicted polyketides and nonribosomal peptides using our Genome-to-Natural Products platform. This highly automated, user-friendly programme provides a means of realizing the potential of genetically encoded natural products.

  3. An automated Genomes-to-Natural Products platform (GNP) for the discovery of modular natural products

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Chad W.; Skinnider, Michael A.; Wyatt, Morgan A.; Li, Xiang; Ranieri, Michael R. M.; Yang, Lian; Zechel, David L.; Ma, Bin; Magarvey, Nathan A.

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial natural products are a diverse and valuable group of small molecules, and genome sequencing indicates that the vast majority remain undiscovered. The prediction of natural product structures from biosynthetic assembly lines can facilitate their discovery, but highly automated, accurate, and integrated systems are required to mine the broad spectrum of sequenced bacterial genomes. Here we present a genome-guided natural products discovery tool to automatically predict, combinatorialize and identify polyketides and nonribosomal peptides from biosynthetic assembly lines using LC–MS/MS data of crude extracts in a high-throughput manner. We detail the directed identification and isolation of six genetically predicted polyketides and nonribosomal peptides using our Genome-to-Natural Products platform. This highly automated, user-friendly programme provides a means of realizing the potential of genetically encoded natural products. PMID:26412281

  4. Including impacts of particulate emissions on marine ecosystems in life cycle assessment: the case of offshore oil and gas production.

    PubMed

    Veltman, Karin; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Rye, Henrik; Hertwich, Edgar G

    2011-10-01

    Life cycle assessment is increasingly used to assess the environmental performance of fossil energy systems. Two of the dominant emissions of offshore oil and gas production to the marine environment are the discharge of produced water and drilling waste. Although environmental impacts of produced water are predominantly due to chemical stressors, a major concern regarding drilling waste discharge is the potential physical impact due to particles. At present, impact indicators for particulate emissions are not yet available in life cycle assessment. Here, we develop characterization factors for 2 distinct impacts of particulate emissions: an increased turbidity zone in the water column and physical burial of benthic communities. The characterization factor for turbidity is developed analogous to characterization factors for toxic impacts, and ranges from 1.4 PAF (potentially affected fraction) · m(3) /d/kg(p) (kilogram particulate) to 7.0 x 10³ [corrected] for drilling mud particles discharged from the rig. The characterization factor for burial describes the volume of sediment that is impacted by particle deposition on the seafloor and equals 2.0 × 10(-1) PAF · m(3) /d/kg(p) for cutting particles. This characterization factor is quantified on the basis of initial deposition layer characteristics, such as height and surface area, the initial benthic response, and the recovery rate. We assessed the relevance of including particulate emissions in an impact assessment of offshore oil and gas production. Accordingly, the total impact on the water column and on the sediment was quantified based on emission data of produced water and drilling waste for all oil and gas fields on the Norwegian continental shelf in 2008. Our results show that cutting particles contribute substantially to the total impact of offshore oil and gas production on marine sediments, with a relative contribution of 55% and 31% on the regional and global scale, respectively. In contrast, the

  5. Recent advances of packed column technology for gas dehydration and absorbent regeneration in arctic and off-shore gas production

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, G.K.

    1987-01-01

    In-depth revamp of dehydration and regeneration trayed columns with proprietary structured packings in arctic gas production will be presented in terms of throughput increase and mass transfer efficiency improvement achieved. Mathematical expressions that relate the column performance to operating variables such as absorbent temperature and concentration, ratio of absorbent to gas, degree of dehydration/regeneration and number of transfer units available are described. Equipment specification and performance between conventional tray design and packed column for off-shore application are also included. Initial capital investment versus subsequent net savings of numerous commercial installations are discussed.

  6. Military Use of Offshore Platforms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-04-09

    a 31 foot cabin area. The S-61N is signifi-- cantly longer than the Navy’s SH-3. The S-61N can also carry external loads of more than 7,000 pounds. At...using two external fuel tanks . In order to accomplish an ocean surveillance or radar flood/hold down mission with the helicopter’s LN-66 radar, radar...slashed from the FY-78 DOD budget. The vans which have dUi’eady been completed together with some that are partially completed, are presently in storage at

  7. Impact of offshore oil exploration and production on the Social Institutions of Coastal Louisiana. University research initiative. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Laska, S.; Baxter, V.K.; Seydlitz, R.; Thayer, R.E.; Brabant, S.

    1993-08-01

    The research contained in the report considers the relationship of oil production--a primary economic activity--to five social institutions: the family; poverty and social service provision; communities; government; and the political economy. Findings suggest a direct impact of offshore oil and gas production on these institutions. The impact is both positive and negative. It is long-term as well as short-term. It affects different institutions and sub-populations differently. The effects are on the entire state, not just the area directly involved with oil production. Mitigation recommendations range from research, data collection, impact monitoring, a national policy requiring the use of American contractors, the sharing of severance taxes with the affected area, the escrowing of monies by oil companies, and the expansion of government assistance to mitigate impacts.

  8. Experimental Study on a Tuned-Mass Damper of Offshore for Vibration Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qiong; Zhao, Xilu; Zheng, Rencheng

    2016-09-01

    With the development of industry, oceanic oil production is one of the most important energy resources. Normally, offshore platform, located in the hostile environment, is easily subjected to unstable environmental loading, such as wind, wave, ice, and earthquake, and it becomes a critical problem to ensure the stability of offshore platform for safely engineering operations. In recent years, tuned-mass damper (TMD) technology has been adopted to reduce vibrations from wind and earthquake influences. Due to the complexity of earthquake excitations, most of researchers were focused on controlling response of structures under wind loads; however, less attention has been put on controlling earthquake response. Therefore, this study concentrates on the seismic reduction of offshore platform by application of a TMD system, and a comprehensively experimental study was processed to validate its effectiveness exposed to different earthquake. A 4-column offshore platform was built according to the actual size of approximately 1:200 ratios, and a TMD system was prepared for the experiment. By the different performance analyses, experimental results indicated that the proposed TMD system can effectively suppress the earthquake stimulus and keep the stability of offshore platform.

  9. Ice island creation, drift, recurrences, mechanical properties, and interactions with arctic offshore oil production structures. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sackinger, W.M.; Jeffries, M.O.; Li, Fucheng; Lu, Mingchi

    1991-03-01

    Research and engineering studies on first-year sea ice for over two decades has resulted in the design, construction, and operation of jacket platforms, of artificial islands, and of massive gravity structures which routinely withstand moving sea ice of thickness up to 2 meters. However, the less-common interactions between such structures and moving multiyear ice ({ge}3 meters thick), and also moving ice islands (10 to 60 meters thick) remain as the unknown and potentially most serious hazard for Arctic offshore structures. In this study, research was addressed across the complete span of remaining questions regarding such features. Ice island components, thickness distributions, scenarios and models for the interactions of massive ice features with offshore structures, all were considered. Ice island morphology and calving studies were directed at the cluster of 19 ice islands produced in a calving from the Ward Hunt Ice Shelf on Ellesmere Island in 1983, and also at a calving from the Milne Ice Shelf in 1988. The statistics of ice island dynamics, on both a short-term small-scale basis and also on a long-term basis, were studied. Typical wind velocities of 5 to 7.5 meters per second led to ice island speeds of about 0.014 of the wind speed, at an angle of 20{degrees} to the right of the wind direction. Ice island samples were tested for their stress/strain characteristics. Compressive strength values ranged from 1.64 MPa at a strain rate of 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} s{sup {minus}1} to 6.75 MPa at a strain rate of 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} s{sup {minus}1}. Scenarios for ice island/structure interactions were developed, and protective countermeasures such as spray ice and ice rubble barriers were suggested. Additional computer modeling of structure/ice interactions for massive ice features is recommended.

  10. Production of platform chemical itaconic acid from pentose sugars

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In recent years, itaconic acid (IA), an unsaturated five carbon dicarboxylic acid, has gained importance as a fully sustainable building block chemical (platform chemical) for a wide range of applications in the manufacturing of various synthetic resins, coatings, and polymers. It is currently produ...

  11. Proceedings of the fifth international offshore mechanics and Arctic engineering (OMAE) symposium. Volume 4

    SciTech Connect

    Lunardini, V.J.; Wang, Y.S.; Ayorinde, O.A.; Sodhi, D.V.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a symposium on offshore platforms. Topics considered at the symposium included climates, Arctic regions, hydrate formation, the buckling of heated oil pipelines in frozen ground, icebergs, concretes, air cushion vehicles, mobile offshore drilling units, tanker ships, ice-induced dynamic loads, adfreeze forces on offshore platforms, and multiyear ice floe collision with a massive offshore structure.

  12. The acute and chronic effects of wastes associated with offshore oil and gas production on temperate and tropical marine ecological processes.

    PubMed

    Holdway, Douglas A

    2002-03-01

    A review of the acute and chronic effects of produced formation water (PFW), drilling fluids (muds) including oil-based cutting muds, water-based cutting muds, ester-based cutting muds and chemical additives, and crude oils associated with offshore oil and gas production was undertaken in relation to both temperate and tropical marine ecological processes. The main environmental effects are summarized, often in tabular form. Generally, the temporal and spatial scales of these studies, along with the large levels of inherent variation in natural environments, have precluded our ability to predict the potential long-term environmental impacts of the offshore oil and gas production industry. A series of critical questions regarding the environmental effects of the offshore oil and gas production industry that still remain unanswered are provided for future consideration.

  13. 75 FR 32803 - Certificate of Alternative Compliance for the Offshore Supply Vessel JONCADE

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    ... maneuver within close proximity of offshore platforms. The forward masthead light may be located on the top... highly susceptible to damage when working in close proximity to offshore platforms. Furthermore the...

  14. 75 FR 36106 - Certificate of Alternative Compliance for the Offshore Supply Vessel SOUTHERN CROSS

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-24

    ... maneuver within close proximity to offshore platforms. Placing the aft masthead light at the horizontal... the lights and allow maneuvering within close proximity to offshore platforms. The Certificate of...

  15. Bio-based production of C2-C6 platform chemicals.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yu-Sin; Kim, Byoungjin; Shin, Jae Ho; Choi, Yong Jun; Choi, Sol; Song, Chan Woo; Lee, Joungmin; Park, Hye Gwon; Lee, Sang Yup

    2012-10-01

    Platform chemicals composed of 2-6 carbons derived from fossil resources are used as important precursors for making a variety of chemicals and materials, including solvents, fuels, polymers, pharmaceuticals, perfumes, and foods. Due to concerns regarding our environment and the limited nature of fossil resources, however, increasing interest has focused on the development of sustainable technologies for producing these platform chemicals from renewable resources. The techniques and strategies for developing microbial strains for chemicals production have advanced rapidly, and it is becoming feasible to develop microbes for producing additional types of chemicals, including non-natural molecules. In this study, we review the current status of the bio-based production of major C2-C6 platform chemicals, focusing on the microbial production of platform chemicals that have been used for the production of chemical intermediates, building block compounds, and polymers. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Task 1: Whole-body concentrations of elements in kelp bass (Paralabrax clathratus), kelp rockfish (Sebastes atrovirens), and Pacific sanddab (Citharichthys sordidus) from offshore oil platforms and natural areas in the Southern California Bight

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Love, Milton S.

    2009-01-01

    Resource managers are concerned that offshore oil platforms in the Southern California Bight may be contributing to environmental contaminants accumulated by marine fishes. To examine this possibility, 18 kelp bass (Paralabrax clathratus), 80 kelp rockfish (Sebastes atrovirens), and 98 Pacific sanddab (Citharichthys sordidus) were collected from five offshore oil platforms and 10 natural areas during 2005-2006 for whole-body analysis of 63 elements. The natural areas, which served as reference sites, were assumed to be relatively uninfluenced by contaminants originating from platforms. Forty-two elements were excluded from statistical comparisons for one of three reasons: they consisted of major cations that were unlikely to accumulate to potentially toxic concentrations under ambient exposure conditions; they were not detected by the analytical procedures; or they were detected at concentrations too low to yield reliable quantitative measurements. The remaining 21 elements consisted of aluminum, arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, gallium, iron, lead, lithium, manganese, mercury, nickel, rubidium, selenium, strontium, tin, titanium, vanadium, and zinc. Statistical comparisons of these 21 elements indicated that none consistently exhibited higher concentrations at oil platforms than at natural areas. Eight comparisons yielded significant interaction effects between total length (TL) of the fish and the two habitat types (oil platforms and natural areas). This indicated that relations between certain elemental concentrations (i.e., copper, rubidium, selenium, tin, titanium, and vanadium) and habitat type varied by TL of affected fish species. To better understand these interactions, we examined elemental concentrations in very small and very large individuals of affected species. Although significant interactions were detected for rubidium, tin, and selenium in kelp rockfish, the concentrations of these elements did not differ significantly between

  17. Ice interaction with offshore structures

    SciTech Connect

    Cammaert, A.B.; Muggeridge, D.B.

    1988-01-01

    Oil platforms and other offshore structures being built in the arctic regions must be able to withstand icebergs, ice islands, and pack ice. This reference explain the effect ice has on offshore structures and demonstrates design and construction methods that allow such structures to survive in harsh, ice-ridden environments. It analyzes the characteristics of sea ice as well as dynamic ice forces on structures. Techniques for ice modeling and field testing facilitate the design and construction of sturdy, offshore constructions. Computer programs included.

  18. Impacts from Partial Removal of Decommissioned Oil and Gas Platforms on Fish Biomass and Production on the Remaining Platform Structure and Surrounding Shell Mounds

    PubMed Central

    Claisse, Jeremy T.; Pondella, Daniel J.; Love, Milton; Zahn, Laurel A.; Williams, Chelsea M.; Bull, Ann S.

    2015-01-01

    When oil and gas platforms become obsolete they go through a decommissioning process. This may include partial removal (from the surface to 26 m depth) or complete removal of the platform structure. While complete removal would likely eliminate most of the existing fish biomass and associated secondary production, we find that the potential impacts of partial removal would likely be limited on all but one platform off the coast of California. On average 80% of fish biomass and 86% of secondary fish production would be retained after partial removal, with above 90% retention expected for both metrics on many platforms. Partial removal would likely result in the loss of fish biomass and production for species typically found residing in the shallow portions of the platform structure. However, these fishes generally represent a small proportion of the fishes associated with these platforms. More characteristic of platform fauna are the primarily deeper-dwelling rockfishes (genus Sebastes). “Shell mounds” are biogenic reefs that surround some of these platforms resulting from an accumulation of mollusk shells that have fallen from the shallow areas of the platforms mostly above the depth of partial removal. We found that shell mounds are moderately productive fish habitats, similar to or greater than natural rocky reefs in the region at comparable depths. The complexity and areal extent of these biogenic habitats, and the associated fish biomass and production, will likely be reduced after either partial or complete platform removal. Habitat augmentation by placing the partially removed platform superstructure or some other additional habitat enrichment material (e.g., rock boulders) on the seafloor adjacent to the base of partially removed platforms provides additional options to enhance fish production, potentially mitigating reductions in shell mound habitat. PMID:26332384

  19. Impacts from Partial Removal of Decommissioned Oil and Gas Platforms on Fish Biomass and Production on the Remaining Platform Structure and Surrounding Shell Mounds.

    PubMed

    Claisse, Jeremy T; Pondella, Daniel J; Love, Milton; Zahn, Laurel A; Williams, Chelsea M; Bull, Ann S

    2015-01-01

    When oil and gas platforms become obsolete they go through a decommissioning process. This may include partial removal (from the surface to 26 m depth) or complete removal of the platform structure. While complete removal would likely eliminate most of the existing fish biomass and associated secondary production, we find that the potential impacts of partial removal would likely be limited on all but one platform off the coast of California. On average 80% of fish biomass and 86% of secondary fish production would be retained after partial removal, with above 90% retention expected for both metrics on many platforms. Partial removal would likely result in the loss of fish biomass and production for species typically found residing in the shallow portions of the platform structure. However, these fishes generally represent a small proportion of the fishes associated with these platforms. More characteristic of platform fauna are the primarily deeper-dwelling rockfishes (genus Sebastes). "Shell mounds" are biogenic reefs that surround some of these platforms resulting from an accumulation of mollusk shells that have fallen from the shallow areas of the platforms mostly above the depth of partial removal. We found that shell mounds are moderately productive fish habitats, similar to or greater than natural rocky reefs in the region at comparable depths. The complexity and areal extent of these biogenic habitats, and the associated fish biomass and production, will likely be reduced after either partial or complete platform removal. Habitat augmentation by placing the partially removed platform superstructure or some other additional habitat enrichment material (e.g., rock boulders) on the seafloor adjacent to the base of partially removed platforms provides additional options to enhance fish production, potentially mitigating reductions in shell mound habitat.

  20. EPA moves to control offshore emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-09

    This paper reports that except for most of the Gulf Coast, the Environmental Protection Agency proposes to hold all U.S. offshore rigs and platforms within about 28 miles from shore to the same standards as onshore facilities. EPA estimated compliance will cost the oil industry $2.2 million/year for all sources on the Outer Continental Shelf. The rule, the first EPA has proposed to control air pollution from OCS operations, covers drilling and production off Alaska, the Pacific coast states, the Atlantic coast states, and the Florida Gulf Coast. It does not affect OCS areas off Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama.

  1. Stress and accidents in the offshore oil and gas industry

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, V.J.; Cooper, C.L.

    1991-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive analysis of occupational stress and accidents among personnel working in the European offshore oil and gas industry. Identifies sources of stress and predicts stressor outcomes. Examines job dissatisfaction, mental well-being and their relation to accidents. Also explores the differences within occupational status (operator versus contractor) and type of installation (drilling rigs versus fixed production platforms). Conclusions presented include the growing need for extensive management involvement, responsibility, and understanding in this exceptionally high environmental stress industry.

  2. Offshore technology aims for reduced costs, greater safety

    SciTech Connect

    Dempsey, P.

    1985-04-01

    OFFSHORE TECHNOLOGY continued to make headway last year, although dramatic breakthroughs were few and far between. Major oil companies have been spending heavily on acquisitions and the service companies, which historically have done much innovative work, have been forced to curtail their engineering budgets. The Weir hydraulic pump has been vetted for offshore service and a production model is being installed on a North Sea platform. A CO/sub 2/ fire-control system has been developed for both offshore and onshore applications, and Drilco's Trans-Wate pipe promises to extend drillstring life. And, perhaps most significantly, the Poseidon project is healthy and flourishing. If successful, Poseidon could cut development costs by more than half.

  3. 76 FR 78938 - Carpinteria Offshore Field Redevelopment Project-Developmental Drilling Into the Carpinteria...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-20

    ... Drilling Into the Carpinteria Offshore Field Oil and Gas Reserves, California State Waters, From Federal... includes Federal and state leases. As many as 25 new production or injection wells would be drilled into existing state oil and gas leases from Platform Hogan. The exact number of wells to be drilled is...

  4. Platforms for Manufacturing Allogeneic, Autologous and iPSC Cell Therapy Products: An Industry Perspective.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Eytan; Ahmadian, Behnam Baghbaderani; Holderness, Kathryn; Levinson, Yonatan; McAfee, Erika

    2017-05-23

    As cell therapy processes mature from benchtop research protocols to industrial processes capable of manufacturing market-relevant numbers of doses, new cell manufacturing platforms are required. Here we give an overview of the platforms and technologies currently available to manufacture allogeneic cell products, such as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), and technologies for mass production of autologous cell therapies via scale-out. These technologies include bioreactors, microcarriers, cell separation and cryopreservation equipment, molecular biology tools for iPSC generation, and single-use controlled-environment systems for autologous cell production. These platforms address the challenges of manufacturing cell products in greater numbers while maintaining process robustness and product quality.

  5. Offshore Wind Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Strach-Sonsalla, Mareike; Stammler, Matthias; Wenske, Jan; Jonkman, Jason; Vorpahl, Fabian

    2016-07-27

    In 1991, the Vindeby Offshore Wind Farm, the first offshore wind farm in the world, started feeding electricity to the grid off the coast of Lolland, Denmark. Since then, offshore wind energy has developed from this early experiment to a multibillion dollar market and an important pillar of worldwide renewable energy production. Unit sizes grew from 450 kW at Vindeby to the 7.5 MW-class offshore wind turbines (OWT ) that are currently (by October 2014) in the prototyping phase. This chapter gives an overview of the state of the art in offshore wind turbine (OWT) technology and introduces the principles of modeling and simulating an OWT. The OWT components -- including the rotor, nacelle, support structure, control system, and power electronics -- are introduced, and current technological challenges are presented. The OWT system dynamics and the environment (wind and ocean waves) are described from the perspective of OWT modelers and designers. Finally, an outlook on future technology is provided. The descriptions in this chapter are focused on a single OWT -- more precisely, a horizontal-axis wind turbine -- as a dynamic system. Offshore wind farms and wind farm effects are not described in detail in this chapter, but an introduction and further references are given.

  6. Arctic and offshore research: Technology status report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This report describes the state of technology relative to the production of oil and gas in the Arctic. It discusses the technical issues that warrant investigation, and focuses on the current Department of Energy supported activities. Major accomplishments during the last year include the following: The Arctic and Offshore Research Information System (AORIS) was planned with industry survey recommendations incorporated. It contains a directory of 85 Arctic databases, a bibliographic component of over 7,000 citations, and a data component of about 300 data sets on sea ice characteristics. Seven position, pressure, and temperature buoys were deployed on ice islands (up to 3 by 6 miles in size) drifting off Ellesmere Island. Ice island movement, as much as 340 miles southwest of the Ward Hunt Ice Shelf during the last 4 years, represents a potential hazard to Arctic offshore structures in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea. The redesigned Seafloor Earthquake Measurement System (SEMS II) was deployed near Shell's Ellen-Elly platforms, about 10 miles offshore of Long Beach, California. The SEMS monitored the July 1986 southern California earthquakes. This was the first time earthquakes were simultaneouslly monitored by sensors located on land, aboard offshore platforms, and beneath the seafloor. Sea spray ice bond shear strength to various structural and protective coatings has been determined. The polyethylene coating demonstrated the most potential for rapid shedding of spray ice by gravity loading. Measurements of temperatures and salinities were completed as part of a pilot test to (1) detect seasonal conditions at the water-seabed interface, and (2) determine how they influence permafrost growth in the coastal waters of the Beaufort Sea. The temperatures and computed freezing point data suggest that seasonal seabed freezing can occur most of the winter. 13 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Offshore medicine.

    PubMed

    Baker, D

    2001-03-01

    Offshore life can be refreshing for medics who are looking for a little change of pace; however, it is not for everyone. Working offshore can be the easiest or most boring job you'll ever have. It takes a specific type of medic to fit this mold. So, if you are considering a career in the offshore field, take all of the above into consideration. You are not just making a change in jobs, but a change in lifestyle. Once you become accustomed to this lifestyle, it will be hard to go back to the everyday hustle and bustle of the streets. For more information about working offshore, contact Acadian Contract Services at 800/259-333, or visit www.acadian.com.

  8. Go to work or report sick? A focus group study on decisions of sickness presence among offshore catering section workers.

    PubMed

    Krohne, Kariann; Magnussen, Liv Heide

    2011-03-18

    To identify and explore the factors promoting sickness presenteeism among offshore catering section workers. Twenty men and women, working in the offshore catering section onboard three offshore oil and gas production platforms on the Norwegian Continental Shelf, participated in three focus groups. Data from the focus groups were analysed according to a phenomenological approach, and supported by theories on presenteeism. The results show that the decision to attend work despite illness, first and foremost, was based on the severity of the health complaint. Other factors identified were; the individual's location once the health complaint occurred, job satisfaction, the norms of the team, and experiences of how company policies on sickness absenteeism were implemented by the catering section leaders. Offshore working conditions may promote sickness presenteeism. The factors promoting sickness presenteeism onboard the platforms reflected experiences of a healthy work environment.

  9. DEROCS: A computer program to simulate offshore oil and natural gas development scenarios and onshore service base requirements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marcus, Philip A.; Smith, E.T.; Robinson, S.R.; Wong, A.T.

    1977-01-01

    The FORTRAN IV (H) computer program, DEROCS, constructs Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) resource development scenarios and quantifies the requirements for and impacts of the operation of the onshore service bases necessary to support offshore oil and gas operations. The acronym DEROCS stands for 'Development of Energy Resources of the Outer Continental Shelf.' The user may specify the number, timing, and amounts of offshore oil and natural gas finds, onshore service base locations, and multiplier relationships between offshore development activities and onshore land, supply, labor and facility requirements. The program determines schedules of platform installation, development drilling, production from platforms, and well workover, and calculates on a yearly basis the requirements for and impacts of the operation of the onshore service bases demanded by offshore activities. We present two examples of program application.

  10. Go to work or report sick? A focus group study on decisions of sickness presence among offshore catering section workers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To identify and explore the factors promoting sickness presenteeism among offshore catering section workers. Methods Twenty men and women, working in the offshore catering section onboard three offshore oil and gas production platforms on the Norwegian Continental Shelf, participated in three focus groups. Data from the focus groups were analysed according to a phenomenological approach, and supported by theories on presenteeism. Results The results show that the decision to attend work despite illness, first and foremost, was based on the severity of the health complaint. Other factors identified were; the individual's location once the health complaint occurred, job satisfaction, the norms of the team, and experiences of how company policies on sickness absenteeism were implemented by the catering section leaders. Conclusions Offshore working conditions may promote sickness presenteeism. The factors promoting sickness presenteeism onboard the platforms reflected experiences of a healthy work environment. PMID:21418561

  11. Retrievable jack-up production platform for hostile water

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-04-01

    This article describes Sea Plex Class 500-4, a drilling and production facility suited for up to 500 ft. water depths where environmental factors can make off-loading and resupply unpredictable for extended periods. The newly designed system consists of a jack-up rig with a rectangular hull configuration and 4 open truss type legs; a concrete caisson with a 500,000/bb. storage capacity; and all necessary equipment, ancillary hardware and systems for drilling, production, processing and off-loading. The system arrives on site completely outfitted for production operations, and when the field is depleted, the entire system can be moved to shore and modified for reuse.

  12. Production of levulinic acid and use as a platform chemical for derived products

    SciTech Connect

    Bozell, J.J.; Moens, L.; Elliott, D.C.; Wang, Y.; Neuenscwander, G.G.; Fitzpatrick, S.W.; Bilski, R.J.; Jarnefeld, J.L.

    1999-07-01

    Levulinic acid (LA) can be produced cost effectively and in high yield from renewable feedstocks in a new industrial process. The technology is being demonstrated on a one ton/day scale at a facility in South Glens Falls, New York. Low cost LA can be used as a platform chemical for the production of a wide range of value-added products. This research has demonstrated that LA can be converted to methyltetrahydrofuran (MTHF), a solvent and fuel extender. MTHF is produced in {gt}80% molar yield via a single stage catalytic hydrogenation process. A new preparation of {delta}-aminolevulinic acid (DALA), a broad spectrum herbicide from LA has also been developed. Each step in this new process proceeds in high ({gt}80%) yield and affords DALA (as the hydrochloride salt) in greater than 90% purity, giving a process that could be commercially viable. LA is also being investigated as a starting material for the production of diphenolic acid (DPA), a direct replacement for bisphenol A.

  13. Review of technology for Arctic offshore oil and gas recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Sackinger, W. M.

    1980-08-01

    The technical background briefing report is the first step in the preparation of a plan for engineering research oriented toward Arctic offshore oil and gas recovery. A five-year leasing schedule for the ice-prone waters of the Arctic offshore is presented, which also shows the projected dates of the lease sale for each area. The estimated peak production rates for these areas are given. There is considerable uncertainty for all these production estimates, since no exploratory drilling has yet taken place. A flow chart is presented which relates the special Arctic factors, such as ice and permafrost, to the normal petroleum production sequence. Some highlights from the chart and from the technical review are: (1) in many Arctic offshore locations the movement of sea ice causes major lateral forces on offshore structures, which are much greater than wave forces; (2) spray ice buildup on structures, ships and aircraft will be considerable, and must be prevented or accommodated with special designs; (3) the time available for summer exploratory drilling, and for deployment of permanent production structures, is limited by the return of the pack ice. This time may be extended by ice-breaking vessels in some cases; (4) during production, icebreaking workboats will service the offshore platforms in most areas throughout the year; (5) transportation of petroleum by icebreaking tankers from offshore tanker loading points is a highly probable situation, except in the Alaskan Beaufort; and (6) Arctic pipelines must contend with permafrost, making instrumentation necessary to detect subtle changes of the pipe before rupture occurs.

  14. Coherent Doppler Lidar Data Products from Space-Based Platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frehlich, Rod

    1999-01-01

    Coherent Doppler lidar is a promising technique for the global measurements of winds using a space-based platform. Doppler lidar produces estimates of the radial component of the velocity vector averaged over the resolution volume of the measurement. Profiles of the horizontal vector winds are produced by scanning the lidar beam or stepping the lidar beam through a sequence of different angles (step-stare). The first design for space-based measurements proposed a conical scan which requires a high power laser to produce acceptable signal levels for every laser pulse. Performance is improved by fixing the laser beam and accumulating the signal from many lidar pulses for each range-gate. This also improves the spatial averaging of the wind estimates and reduces the threshold signal energy required for a good estimate. Coherent Doppler lidar performance for space-based operation is determined using computer simulations and including the wind variability over the measurement volume as well as the variations of the atmospheric aerosol backscatter.

  15. Oil Platforms off California are among the Most Productive Marine Fish Habitats Globally

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pondella, D.; Claisse, J.; Love, M.; Zahn, L.; Williams, J.; Williams, C.; Bull, A. S.

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the conservation and fisheries value of active and decommissioned oil platforms, production of fishes on oil platforms (and natural rocky reefs for comparison) off of southern California, USA were modeled using fisheries independent empirically-collected manned submersible data. We found that these platforms have the highest secondary fish production per unit area of seafloor of any marine habitat where similar estimates have been made. The high rates of fish production ultimately result from high levels of recruitment and the subsequent growth of primarily rockfish (genus Sebastes) to the substantial amount of complex hardscape habitat created by the platform structure distributed throughout the water column. The platforms have a high ratio of structural surface area to seafloor surface area, resulting in large amounts of habitat for juvenile and adult demersal fishes over a relatively small footprint of seafloor. Understanding the biological implications of these structures will inform policy related to the decommissioning of existing (e.g., oil and gas platforms) and implementation of emerging (e.g., wind, marine hydrokinetic) energy technologies.

  16. Versatile microscale screening platform for improving recombinant protein productivity in Chinese hamster ovary cells

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Henning Gram; Nilsson, Claes Nymand; Lund, Anne Mathilde; Kol, Stefan; Grav, Lise Marie; Lundqvist, Magnus; Rockberg, Johan; Lee, Gyun Min; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam; Kildegaard, Helene Faustrup

    2015-01-01

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are widely used as cell factories for the production of biopharmaceuticals. In contrast to the highly optimized production processes for monoclonal antibody (mAb)-based biopharmaceuticals, improving productivity of non-mAb therapeutic glycoproteins is more likely to reduce production costs significantly. The aim of this study was to establish a versatile target gene screening platform for improving productivity for primarily non-mAb glycoproteins with complete interchangeability of model proteins and target genes using transient expression. The platform consists of four techniques compatible with 96-well microplates: lipid-based transient transfection, cell cultivation in microplates, cell counting and antibody-independent product titer determination based on split-GFP complementation. We were able to demonstrate growth profiles and volumetric productivity of CHO cells in 96-half-deepwell microplates comparable with those obtained in shake flasks. In addition, we demonstrate that split-GFP complementation can be used to accurately measure relative titers of therapeutic glycoproteins. Using this platform, we were able to detect target gene-specific increase in titer and specific productivity of two non-mAb glycoproteins. In conclusion, the platform provides a novel miniaturized and parallelisable solution for screening target genes and holds the potential to unravel genes that can enhance the secretory capacity of CHO cells. PMID:26657798

  17. Produced water extracts from North Sea oil production platforms result in cellular oxidative stress in a rainbow trout in vitro bioassay.

    PubMed

    Farmen, E; Harman, C; Hylland, K; Tollefsen, K-E

    2010-07-01

    Produced water (PW) discharged from offshore oil industry contains chemicals known to contribute to different mechanisms of toxicity. The present study aimed to investigate oxidative stress and cytotoxicity in rainbow trout primary hepatocytes exposed to the water soluble and particulate organic fraction of PW from 10 different North Sea oil production platforms. The PW fractions caused a concentration-dependent increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) after 1h exposure, as well as changes in levels of total glutathione (tGSH) and cytotoxicity after 96 h. Interestingly, the water soluble organic compounds of PW were major contributors to oxidative stress and cytotoxicity, and effects was not correlated to the content of total oil in PW. Bioassay effects were only observed at high PW concentrations (3-fold concentrated), indicating that bioaccumulation needs to occur to cause similar short term toxic effects in wild fish.

  18. EMS offshore. A new horizon for paramedics.

    PubMed

    Mallard, A S

    1991-10-01

    The difficulty in getting medical aid to offshore drilling platforms can be a source of life-threatening delays. Recently, some companies have charted new waters by actually stationing EMS crews on their rigs.

  19. Nicotiana benthamiana as a Production Platform for Artemisinin Precursors

    PubMed Central

    van Herpen, Teun W. J. M.; Cankar, Katarina; Nogueira, Marilise; Bosch, Dirk; Bouwmeester, Harro J.; Beekwilder, Jules

    2010-01-01

    Background Production of pharmaceuticals in plants provides an alternative for chemical synthesis, fermentation or natural sources. Nicotiana benthamiana is deployed at commercial scale for production of therapeutic proteins. Here the potential of this plant is explored for rapid production of precursors of artemisinin, a sesquiterpenoid compound that is used for malaria treatment. Methodology/Principal Findings Biosynthetic genes leading to artemisinic acid, a precursor of artemisinin, were combined and expressed in N. benthamiana by agro-infiltration. The first committed precursor of artemisinin, amorpha-4,11-diene, was produced upon infiltration of a construct containing amorpha-4,11-diene synthase, accompanied by 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase and farnesyl diphosphate synthase. Amorpha-4,11-diene was detected both in extracts and in the headspace of the N. benthamiana leaves. When the amorphadiene oxidase CYP71AV1 was co-infiltrated with the amorphadiene-synthesizing construct, the amorpha-4,11-diene levels strongly decreased, suggesting it was oxidized. Surprisingly, no anticipated oxidation products, such as artemisinic acid, were detected upon GC-MS analysis. However, analysis of leaf extracts with a non-targeted metabolomics approach, using LC-QTOF-MS, revealed the presence of another compound, which was identified as artemisinic acid-12-β-diglucoside. This compound accumulated to 39.5 mg.kg−1 fwt. Apparently the product of the heterologous pathway that was introduced, artemisinic acid, is further metabolized efficiently by glycosyl transferases that are endogenous to N. benthamiana. Conclusion/Significance This work shows that agroinfiltration of N. bentamiana can be used as a model to study the production of sesquiterpenoid pharmaceutical compounds. The interaction between the ectopically introduced pathway and the endogenous metabolism of the plant is discussed. PMID:21151979

  20. Proceedings of the 25th annual offshore technology conference. Volume 1: Geology, earth sciences and environment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    This conference proceedings represents volume 1 of a 4 volume conference relating to offshore operations in both energy and non-energy fields of resource development. This volume discusses the use of geophysical surveying techniques and equipment for mapping the seafloor; the design and use of offshore platforms; safety engineering systems; interpretation techniques for offshore survey data; environmental impacts from offshore operations; geology of offshore areas; and regulations pertaining to the development of offshore resources.

  1. Oil platforms off California are among the most productive marine fish habitats globally

    PubMed Central

    Claisse, Jeremy T.; Pondella, Daniel J.; Love, Milton; Zahn, Laurel A.; Williams, Chelsea M.; Williams, Jonathan P.; Bull, Ann S.

    2014-01-01

    Secondary (i.e., heterotrophic or animal) production is a main pathway of energy flow through an ecosystem as it makes energy available to consumers, including humans. Its estimation can play a valuable role in the examination of linkages between ecosystem functions and services. We found that oil and gas platforms off the coast of California have the highest secondary fish production per unit area of seafloor of any marine habitat that has been studied, about an order of magnitude higher than fish communities from other marine ecosystems. Most previous estimates have come from estuarine environments, generally regarded as one of the most productive ecosystems globally. High rates of fish production on these platforms ultimately result from high levels of recruitment and the subsequent growth of primarily rockfish (genus Sebastes) larvae and pelagic juveniles to the substantial amount of complex hardscape habitat created by the platform structure distributed throughout the water column. The platforms have a high ratio of structural surface area to seafloor surface area, resulting in large amounts of habitat for juvenile and adult demersal fishes over a relatively small footprint of seafloor. Understanding the biological implications of these structures will inform policy related to the decommissioning of existing (e.g., oil and gas platforms) and implementation of emerging (e.g., wind, marine hydrokinetic) energy technologies. PMID:25313050

  2. Oil platforms off California are among the most productive marine fish habitats globally.

    PubMed

    Claisse, Jeremy T; Pondella, Daniel J; Love, Milton; Zahn, Laurel A; Williams, Chelsea M; Williams, Jonathan P; Bull, Ann S

    2014-10-28

    Secondary (i.e., heterotrophic or animal) production is a main pathway of energy flow through an ecosystem as it makes energy available to consumers, including humans. Its estimation can play a valuable role in the examination of linkages between ecosystem functions and services. We found that oil and gas platforms off the coast of California have the highest secondary fish production per unit area of seafloor of any marine habitat that has been studied, about an order of magnitude higher than fish communities from other marine ecosystems. Most previous estimates have come from estuarine environments, generally regarded as one of the most productive ecosystems globally. High rates of fish production on these platforms ultimately result from high levels of recruitment and the subsequent growth of primarily rockfish (genus Sebastes) larvae and pelagic juveniles to the substantial amount of complex hardscape habitat created by the platform structure distributed throughout the water column. The platforms have a high ratio of structural surface area to seafloor surface area, resulting in large amounts of habitat for juvenile and adult demersal fishes over a relatively small footprint of seafloor. Understanding the biological implications of these structures will inform policy related to the decommissioning of existing (e.g., oil and gas platforms) and implementation of emerging (e.g., wind, marine hydrokinetic) energy technologies.

  3. Toxicity evaluation of diethylene glycol and its combined effects with produced waters of off-shore gas platforms in the Adriatic Sea (Italy): bioassays with marine/estuarine species.

    PubMed

    Tornambè, Andrea; Manfra, Loredana; Mariani, Livia; Faraponova, Olga; Onorati, Fulvio; Savorelli, Federica; Cicero, Anna Maria; Virno Lamberti, Claudia; Magaletti, Erika

    2012-06-01

    Diethylene glycol (DEG) is commonly used to dehydrate natural gas in off-shore extraction plants and to prevent formation of gas hydrates. It may be released into the sea accidentally or in discharged produced waters (PWs). PWs samples from off-shore gas platforms in the Adriatic Sea (Italy) have been used in this study. The objectives of the study were: a) to evaluate the toxicity of DEG for marine organisms; b) to evaluate if a high DEG content in PWs may alter their toxicity; c) to verify whether the DEG threshold concentration established by the Italian legislation (3.5 g/l) for PWs discharged at sea is safe for marine environment. Ten different species (Vibrio fischeri, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Dunaliella tertiolecta, Brachionus plicatilis, Artemia franciscana, Tigropus fulvus, Mytilus galloprovincialis, Crassostrea gigas, Tapes philippinarum and Dicentrarchus labrax) have been exposed to DEG; four of these species were also exposed to PWs in combination with DEG. The results showed that: a) DEG is not toxic at levels normally detected in Adriatic PWs; b) DEG in combination with PW showed mainly additive or synergistic effects; c) short-term bioassays showed that the DEG limit of 3.5 g/l could be acceptable.

  4. Microarray platform affords improved product analysis in mammalian cell growth studies

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lingyun; Migliore, Nicole; Schaefer, Eugene; Sharfstein, Susan T.; Dordick, Jonathan S.; Linhardt, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    High throughput (HT) platforms serve as cost-efficient and rapid screening method for evaluating the effect of cell culture conditions and screening of chemicals. The aim of the current study was to develop a high-throughput cell-based microarray platform to assess the effect of culture conditions on Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Specifically, growth, transgene expression and metabolism of a GS/MSX CHO cell line, which produces a therapeutic monoclonal antibody, was examined using microarray system in conjunction with conventional shake flask platform in a non-proprietary medium. The microarray system consists of 60 nl spots of cells encapsulated in alginate and separated in groups via an 8-well chamber system attached to the chip. Results show the non-proprietary medium developed allows cell growth, production and normal glycosylation of recombinant antibody and metabolism of the recombinant CHO cells in both the microarray and shake flask platforms. In addition, 10.3 mM glutamate addition to the defined base media results in lactate metabolism shift in the recombinant GS/MSX CHO cells in the shake flask platform. Ultimately, the results demonstrate that the high-throughput microarray platform has the potential to be utilized for evaluating the impact of media additives on cellular processes, such as, cell growth, metabolism and productivity. PMID:24227746

  5. A droplet microfluidics platform for rapid microalgal growth and oil production analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Soo; Guzman, Adrian R; Thapa, Hem R; Devarenne, Timothy P; Han, Arum

    2016-08-01

    Microalgae have emerged as a promising source for producing future renewable biofuels. Developing better microalgal strains with faster growth and higher oil production rates is one of the major routes towards economically viable microalgal biofuel production. In this work, we present a droplet microfluidics-based microalgae analysis platform capable of measuring growth and oil content of various microalgal strains with single-cell resolution in a high-throughput manner. The platform allows for encapsulating a single microalgal cell into a water-in-oil emulsion droplet and tracking the growth and division of the encapsulated cell over time, followed by on-chip oil quantification. The key feature of the developed platform is its capability to fluorescently stain microalgae within microdroplets for oil content quantification. The performance of the developed platform was characterized using the unicellular microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and the colonial microalga Botryococcus braunii. The application of the platform in quantifying growth and oil accumulation was successfully confirmed using C. reinhardtii under different culture conditions, namely nitrogen-replete and nitrogen-limited conditions. These results demonstrate the capability of this platform as a rapid screening tool that can be applied to a wide range of microalgal strains for analyzing growth and oil accumulation characteristics relevant to biofuel strain selection and development. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1691-1701. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Natural Products as Platforms To Overcome Antibiotic Resistance.

    PubMed

    Rossiter, Sean E; Fletcher, Madison H; Wuest, William M

    2017-09-27

    Natural products have served as powerful therapeutics against pathogenic bacteria since the golden age of antibiotics of the mid-20th century. However, the increasing frequency of antibiotic-resistant infections clearly demonstrates that new antibiotics are critical for modern medicine. Because combinatorial approaches have not yielded effective drugs, we propose that the development of new antibiotics around proven natural scaffolds is the best short-term solution to the rising crisis of antibiotic resistance. We analyze herein synthetic approaches aiming to reengineer natural products into potent antibiotics. Furthermore, we discuss approaches in modulating quorum sensing and biofilm formation as a nonlethal method, as well as narrow-spectrum pathogen-specific antibiotics, which are of interest given new insights into the implications of disrupting the microbiome.

  7. 26th annual offshore technology conference, 1994 proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    This conference is the world's largest and most comprehensive technical conference and exhibition on offshore resource development. The four Proceedings volumes have been separated by major areas of interest, with relative sessions included in each volume. This Volume 3 contains information relative to offshore platforms and marine system designs. It describes both the installation and decommissioning of offshore platforms, retrofitting platforms to meet current safety standards, and technology assessments for both drilling and platform designs. Papers are also provided which describe maintenance and repair technologies for damages to platform.

  8. Whole-body concentrations of elements in three fish species from offshore oil platforms and natural areas in the Southern California Bight, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Love, Milton S.; Saiki, Michael K.; May, Thomas W.; Yee, Julie L.

    2013-01-01

    elements. Forty-two elements were excluded from statistical comparisons as they (1) consisted of major cations that were unlikely to accumulate to potentially toxic concentrations; (2) were not detected by the analytical procedures; or (3) were detected at concentrations too low to yield reliable quantitative measurements. The remaining 21 elements consisted of aluminum, arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, gallium, iron, lead, lithium, manganese, mercury, nickel, rubidium, selenium, strontium, tin, titanium, vanadium, and zinc. Statistical comparisons of these elements indicated that none consistently exhibited higher concentrations at oil platforms than at natural areas. However, the concentrations of copper, selenium, titanium, and vanadium in Pacific sanddab were unusual because small individuals exhibited either no differences between oil platforms and natural areas or significantly lower concentrations at oil platforms than at natural areas, whereas large individuals exhibited significantly higher concentrations at oil platforms than at natural areas.

  9. Tobacco as platform for a commercial production of cyanophycin.

    PubMed

    Nausch, Henrik; Hausmann, Tina; Ponndorf, Daniel; Hühns, Maja; Hoedtke, Sandra; Wolf, Petra; Zeyner, Annette; Broer, Inge

    2016-12-25

    Cyanophycin (CP) is a proteinogenic polymer that can be substituted for petroleum in the production of plastic compounds and can also serve as a source of valuable dietary supplements. However, because there is no economically feasible system for large-scale industrial production, its application is limited. In order to develop a low-input system, CP-synthesis was established in the two commercial Nicotiana tabacum (N. tabacum) cultivars 'Badischer Geudertheimer' (BG) and 'Virginia Golta' (VG), by introducing the cyanophycin-synthetase gene from Thermosynecchococcus elongatus BP-1 (CphATe) either via crossbreeding with transgenic N. tabacum cv. Petit Havana SR1 (PH) T2 individual 51-3-2 or by agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Both in F1 hybrids (max. 9.4% CP/DW) and T0 transformants (max. 8.8% CP/DW), a substantial increase in CP content was achieved in leaf tissue, compared to a maximum of 1.7% CP/DW in PH T0 transformants of Hühns et al. (2008). In BG CP, yields were homogenous and there was no substantial difference in the variation of the CP content between primary transformants (T0), clones of T0 individuals, T1 siblings and F1 siblings of hybrids. Therefore, BG meets the requirements for establishing a master seed bank for continuous and reliable CP-production. In addition, it was shown that the polymer is not only stable in planta but also during silage, which simplifies storage of the harvest prior to isolation of CP.

  10. Water treatment technology costs associated with offshore oil and gas production

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is collecting cost data related to its proposed waste water cleanliness regulations. The Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Dallas Field Office (DFO) agreed to help gather the data. The proposed EPA regulations will limit the oil and grease content of discharged water produced from oil and gas reservoirs. The current oil and grease content limit is 48 parts per million (p/m) and the proposed limit is 15 p/m. These regulations affect oil and gas well operators working in Federally-controlled waters off the coastlines of the United States. These coastlines include those of Alaska and California, but the bulk of the data comes from the Gulf of Mexico area. The focus of this report is on processes now available which are useful in reducing the volume of oil and grease in treated waste water. This water comes from oil and gas reservoirs, passing from wells into a surface process facility. The processes investigated include multimedia filtration, hydrocyclones, reinjection of produced water, pumping waste water to shore via pipelines and, as an adjunct, erection of platforms for the sole purpose of water treatment. This report presents the estimated cost of compliance with proposed EPA regulations by use of currently existing auxiliary processes. The desired reduction of oil residue in produced water may result from the addition of a single process or several processes. The order of the processes described in this report is significant. The most common type of treatment is the multimedia filter. The hydrocyclone, still proving itself to many operators, is gaining rapidly in popularity. The remaining options, which include reinjection of the water, pumping the water to shore installations, or erecting entirely new platforms for water treatment, are costlier and thus are less likely solutions.

  11. Water treatment technology costs associated with offshore oil and gas production

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is collecting cost data related to its proposed waste water cleanliness regulations. The Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Dallas Field Office (DFO) agreed to help gather the data. The proposed EPA regulations will limit the oil and grease content of discharged water produced from oil and gas reservoirs. The current oil and grease content limit is 48 parts per million (p/m) and the proposed limit is 15 p/m. These regulations affect oil and gas well operators working in Federally-controlled waters off the coastlines of the United States. These coastlines include those of Alaska and California, but the bulk of the data comes from the Gulf of Mexico area. The focus of this report is on processes now available which are useful in reducing the volume of oil and grease in treated waste water. This water comes from oil and gas reservoirs, passing from wells into a surface process facility. The processes investigated include multimedia filtration, hydrocyclones, reinjection of produced water, pumping waste water to shore via pipelines and, as an adjunct, erection of platforms for the sole purpose of water treatment. This report presents the estimated cost of compliance with proposed EPA regulations by use of currently existing auxiliary processes. The desired reduction of oil residue in produced water may result from the addition of a single process or several processes. The order of the processes described in this report is significant. The most common type of treatment is the multimedia filter. The hydrocyclone, still proving itself to many operators, is gaining rapidly in popularity. The remaining options, which include reinjection of the water, pumping the water to shore installations, or erecting entirely new platforms for water treatment, are costlier and thus are less likely solutions.

  12. Carrot cells: a pioneering platform for biopharmaceuticals production.

    PubMed

    Rosales-Mendoza, Sergio; Tello-Olea, Marlene Anahí

    2015-03-01

    Carrot (Daucus carota L.) is of importance in the molecular farming field as it constitutes the first plant species approved to produce biopharmaceuticals for human use. In this review, features that make carrot an advantageous species in the molecular farming field are analyzed and a description of the developments achieved with this crop thus far is presented. A guide for genetic transformation procedures is also included. The state of the art comprises ten vaccine prototypes against Measles virus, Hepatitis B virus, Human immunodeficiency virus, Yersinia pestis, Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, Corynebacterium diphtheria/Clostridium tetani/Bordetella pertussis, and Helicobacter pylori; as well as the case of the glucocerebrosidase, an enzyme used for replacement therapy, and other therapeutics. Perspectives for these developments are envisioned and innovations are proposed such as the use of transplastomic technologies-, hairy roots-, and viral expression-based systems to improve yields and develop new products derived from this advantageous plant species.

  13. Stabilized floating platforms

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, David G.

    1976-01-01

    The subject invention is directed to a floating platform for supporting nuclear reactors and the like at selected offshore sites. The platform is provided with a stabilizer mechanism which significantly reduces the effects of wave action upon the platform and which comprises a pair of relatively small floats attached by rigid booms to the platform at locations spaced therefrom for reducing wave pitch, acceleration, and the resonance period of the wave.

  14. A robotic platform for studying sea lion thrust production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leftwich, Megan; Patel, Rahi; Kulkarni, Aditya; Friedman, Chen

    California Sea Lions are agile swimmers and, uniquely, use their foreflippers (rather than hind flipper undulation) to generate thrust. Recently, a sea lion flipper from a deceased subject was externally scanned in high detail for fluid dynamics research. The flipper's geometry is used in this work to build an accurate scaled down flipper model (approximately 68% of the full size span). The flipper model is placed in a water flume to obtain lift and drag force measurements. The unique trailing edge features are then examined for their effect on the measured forces by comparing to similar flipper models with a smooth trailing edge, sinusoidal trailing edge, and a saw-tooth trailing edge. Additionally, a robotic flipper is being designed and built, replicating the sea lion foreflipper anatomical structure. The robot is actuated by a set of servo motors and replicates the sea lion flipper clap motion based on previously extracted kinematics. The flipper tip speed is designed to match typical full scale Reynolds numbers for an acceleration from rest maneuver. The model is tested in the water flume as well to obtain the forces and flow structures during the thrust production phase of the flipper motion.

  15. The business impact of an integrated continuous biomanufacturing platform for recombinant protein production.

    PubMed

    Walther, Jason; Godawat, Rahul; Hwang, Chris; Abe, Yuki; Sinclair, Andrew; Konstantinov, Konstantin

    2015-11-10

    The biotechnology industry primarily uses batch technologies to manufacture recombinant proteins. The natural evolution of other industries has shown that transitioning from batch to continuous processing can yield significant benefits. A quantitative understanding of these benefits is critical to guide the implementation of continuous processing. In this manuscript, we use process economic modeling and Monte Carlo simulations to evaluate an integrated continuous biomanufacturing (ICB) platform and conduct risk-based valuation to generate a probabilistic range of net-present values (NPVs). For a specific ten-year product portfolio, the ICB platform reduces average cost by 55% compared to conventional batch processing, considering both capital and operating expenses. The model predicts that these savings can further increase by an additional 25% in situations with higher-than-expected product demand showing the upward potential of the ICB platform. The ICB platform achieves these savings and corresponding flexibility mainly due to process intensification in both upstream and downstream unit operations. This study demonstrates the promise of continuous bioprocessing while also establishing a novel framework to quantify financial benefits of other platform process technologies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Biomass Program 2007 Program Peer Review - Biochemical and Products Platform Summary

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2009-10-27

    This document discloses the comments provided by a review panel at the U.S. Department of Energy Office of the Biomass Program Peer Review held on November 15-16, 2007 in Baltimore, MD and the Biochemical and Products Platform Review held on August 7-9, 2007 in Denver, Colorado.

  17. Disentangling the control of tectonics, eustasy, trophic conditions and climate on shallow-marine carbonate production during the Aalenian-Oxfordian interval: From the western France platform to the western Tethyan domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrieu, Simon; Brigaud, Benjamin; Barbarand, Jocelyn; Lasseur, Eric; Saucède, Thomas

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this work is to improve our understanding of the processes controlling changes in the architecture and facies of intracontinental carbonate platforms. We examined the facies and sequence stratigraphy of Aalenian to Oxfordian limestones of western France. Seventy-seven outcrop sections were studied and thirty-one sedimentary facies identified in five depositional environments ranging from lower offshore to backshore. Platform evolution was reconstructed along a 500 km cross-section. Twenty-two depositional sequences were identified on the entire western France platform and correlated with European third-order sequences at the biozone level, demonstrating that eustasy was the major factor controlling the cyclic trend of accommodation. The tectonic subsidence rate was computed from accommodation measurements from the Aalenian to the Oxfordian in key localities. Tectonism controlled the sedimentation rate and platform architecture at a longer time scale. Tectonic subsidence triggered the demise of carbonate production at the Bathonian/Callovian boundary while the uplift made possible the recovery of carbonate platform from Caen to Le Mans during the mid Oxfordian. Topography of the Paleozoic basement mainly controlled lateral variations of paleodepth within the western France platform until the mid Bathonian. A synthesis of carbonate production in the western Tethyan domain at that time was conducted. Stages of high carbonate production during the Bajocian/Bathonian and the middle to late Oxfordian are synchronous with low δ13C, high eccentricity intervals, and rather dry climate promoting (1) evaporation and carbonate supersaturation, and (2) oligotrophic conditions. Periods of low carbonate production during the Aalenian and from the middle Callovian to early Oxfordian correlate with high δ13C and low eccentricity intervals, characterized by wet climate and less oligotrophic conditions. Such conditions tend to diminish growth potential of carbonate

  18. Liverpool Bay project. LM6000 gas turbines go offshore

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    Liverpool Bay - comprising the North coast of Wales and the North West coast of England - has become one of the few sites for oil and natural gas extraction in the Irish Sea. Hamilton Oil Company Ltd, together with three UK partners, is now engaged in setting up the Liverpool Bay project. Power supply for the whole offshore project will be on the 8500 t Douglas production platform deck, using two LM6000 gas turbine generating sets. During normal operation, one unit providing 42 MW nominal power will be kept in service with the second in standby. Should the power demand exceed the capacity of one set, additional power can be supplied by the one-megawatt diesel generators installed on the accommodation platform, or by putting the second LM6000 unit into service. The main power loads will be four compressor sets, also installed on the Douglas production platform deck, including two for gas injection and two for gas compression. 5 figs.

  19. Micro-algae come of age as a platform for recombinant protein production

    PubMed Central

    Specht, Elizabeth; Miyake-Stoner, Shigeki

    2010-01-01

    A complete set of genetic tools is still being developed for the micro-alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Yet even with this incomplete set, this photosynthetic single-celled plant has demonstrated significant promise as a platform for recombinant protein expression. In recent years, techniques have been developed that allow for robust expression of genes from both the nuclear and plastid genome. With these advances, many research groups have examined the pliability of this and other micro-algae as biological machines capable of producing recombinant peptides and proteins. This review describes recent successes in recombinant protein production in Chlamydomonas, including production of complex mammalian therapeutic proteins and monoclonal antibodies at levels sufficient for production at economic parity with existing production platforms. These advances have also shed light on the details of algal protein production at the molecular level, and provide insight into the next steps for optimizing micro-algae as a useful platform for the production of therapeutic and industrially relevant recombinant proteins. PMID:20556634

  20. Micro-algae come of age as a platform for recombinant protein production.

    PubMed

    Specht, Elizabeth; Miyake-Stoner, Shigeki; Mayfield, Stephen

    2010-10-01

    A complete set of genetic tools is still being developed for the micro-alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Yet even with this incomplete set, this photosynthetic single-celled plant has demonstrated significant promise as a platform for recombinant protein expression. In recent years, techniques have been developed that allow for robust expression of genes from both the nuclear and plastid genome. With these advances, many research groups have examined the pliability of this and other micro-algae as biological machines capable of producing recombinant peptides and proteins. This review describes recent successes in recombinant protein production in Chlamydomonas, including production of complex mammalian therapeutic proteins and monoclonal antibodies at levels sufficient for production at economic parity with existing production platforms. These advances have also shed light on the details of algal protein production at the molecular level, and provide insight into the next steps for optimizing micro-algae as a useful platform for the production of therapeutic and industrially relevant recombinant proteins.

  1. Comparison of API & IEC Standards for Offshore Wind Turbine Applications in the U.S. Atlantic Ocean: Phase II; March 9, 2009 - September 9, 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Jha, A.; Dolan, D.; Gur, T.; Soyoz, S.; Alpdogan, C.

    2013-01-01

    This report compares two design guidelines for offshore wind turbines: Recommended Practice for Planning, Designing, and Constructing Fixed Offshore Platform Structures and the International Electrotechnical Commission 61400-3 Design Requirements for Offshore Wind Turbines.

  2. Plant virus expression vectors set the stage as production platforms for biopharmaceutical proteins.

    PubMed

    Hefferon, Kathleen Laura

    2012-11-10

    Transgenic plants present enormous potential as a cost-effective and safe platform for large-scale production of vaccines and other therapeutic proteins. A number of different technologies are under development for the production of pharmaceutical proteins from plant tissues. One method used to express high levels of protein in plants involves the employment of plant virus expression vectors. Plant virus vectors have been designed to carry vaccine epitopes as well as full therapeutic proteins such as monoclonal antibodies in plant tissue both safely and effectively. Biopharmaceuticals such as these offer enormous potential on many levels, from providing relief to those who have little access to modern medicine, to playing an active role in the battle against cancer. This review describes the current design and status of plant virus expression vectors used as production platforms for biopharmaceutical proteins.

  3. A platform for high-throughput bioenergy production phenotype characterization in single cells

    PubMed Central

    Kelbauskas, Laimonas; Glenn, Honor; Anderson, Clifford; Messner, Jacob; Lee, Kristen B.; Song, Ganquan; Houkal, Jeff; Su, Fengyu; Zhang, Liqiang; Tian, Yanqing; Wang, Hong; Bussey, Kimberly; Johnson, Roger H.; Meldrum, Deirdre R.

    2017-01-01

    Driven by an increasing number of studies demonstrating its relevance to a broad variety of disease states, the bioenergy production phenotype has been widely characterized at the bulk sample level. Its cell-to-cell variability, a key player associated with cancer cell survival and recurrence, however, remains poorly understood due to ensemble averaging of the current approaches. We present a technology platform for performing oxygen consumption and extracellular acidification measurements of several hundreds to 1,000 individual cells per assay, while offering simultaneous analysis of cellular communication effects on the energy production phenotype. The platform comprises two major components: a tandem optical sensor for combined oxygen and pH detection, and a microwell device for isolation and analysis of single and few cells in hermetically sealed sub-nanoliter chambers. Our approach revealed subpopulations of cells with aberrant energy production profiles and enables determination of cellular response variability to electron transfer chain inhibitors and ion uncouplers. PMID:28349963

  4. Turboexpanders with pressurized magnetic bearings for off-shore applications

    SciTech Connect

    Agahi, R.R.; Ershaghi, B.; Baudelocque, L.

    1995-12-31

    There are two primary parameters that encourage the use of magnetic bearings in turbomachinery: oil-free process and space requirements. For cryogenic processes such as hydrogen purification and ethylene plants, oil free process is the primary objective. In the case of off-shore platforms for oil and gas production, the occupied space and weight are of prime concern. In off-shore operations, the process gas density is usually higher than in normal process plants because the gas is untreated and at high pressure. High density process gas generates more windage loss and may also cause excessive radial load to journal bearings. The bearing assembly design should be suitable for sour gas environments as well. Furthermore, the thrust bearing system should withstand process fluctuations which are more severe due to high pressure. In this paper, the authors explain their experience of designing a turboexpander-compressor with magnetic bearings for an off-shore oil production platform. They will present side load analysis and their solutions for heat dissipation and coping with process fluctuations.

  5. Smarter offshoring.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Diana

    2006-06-01

    During the past 15 years, companies have flocked to a handful of cities in India and Eastern Europe for offshore service functions. As a result, the most popular sites are now overheating: Demand for young professionals is outstripping supply, wages and turnover are soaring, and overburdened infrastructure systems are struggling to serve the explosive growth. The happy news is that the tight labor markets in the well-known hot spots are the exceptions, not the rule. Many attractive alternatives are emerging around the world. According to a McKinsey Global Institute study, more than 90% of the vast and rapidly growing pool of university-educated people suitable for work in multinationals are located outside the current hot spot cities. For instance, Morocco is now home to offshore centers for French and Spanish companies requiring fluent speakers of their home languages. Neighboring Tunisia has used its modern infrastructure, business-friendly regulations, and stable, low-cost workforce to attract companies such as Siemens and Wanadoo. Vietnam offers university graduates who have strong mathematics skills; speak French, English, German, or Russian; and do not demand high wages. The problems facing the hot spots, coupled with the emergence of many more countries able and willing to provide offshore services, mean that picking a site has become more complicated. In choosing a location, companies will have to focus less on low wages and much more on other ways that candidate cities can fulfill their business needs. They will have to be much more rigorous in articulating precisely what they require from an offshore location. That means evaluating their unique needs on a range of dimensions and understanding how alternative locations can meet those needs for the foreseeable future.

  6. National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, John P.; Liu, Shu; Ibanez, Eduardo; Pennock, Ken; Reed, Greg; Hanes, Spencer

    2014-07-30

    The National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study (NOWEGIS) considers the availability and potential impacts of interconnecting large amounts of offshore wind energy into the transmission system of the lower 48 contiguous United States. A total of 54GW of offshore wind was assumed to be the target for the analyses conducted. A variety of issues are considered including: the anticipated staging of offshore wind; the offshore wind resource availability; offshore wind energy power production profiles; offshore wind variability; present and potential technologies for collection and delivery of offshore wind energy to the onshore grid; potential impacts to existing utility systems most likely to receive large amounts of offshore wind; and regulatory influences on offshore wind development. The technologies considered the reliability of various high-voltage ac (HVAC) and high-voltage dc (HVDC) technology options and configurations. The utility system impacts of GW-scale integration of offshore wind are considered from an operational steady-state perspective and from a regional and national production cost perspective.

  7. Potential Fish Production Impacts from Partial Removal of Decommissioned Oil and Gas Platforms off the Coast of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claisse, J.; Pondella, D.; Love, M.; Zahn, L.; Williams, C.; Bull, A. S.

    2016-02-01

    When oil and gas platforms become obsolete they go through a decommissioning process. This may include partial removal (from the surface to 26 m depth) or complete removal of the platform structure. While complete removal would likely eliminate most of the existing fish biomass and associated secondary production, we find that the potential impacts of partial removal would likely be limited on all but one platform off the coast of California. On average 80% of fish biomass and 86% of secondary fish production would be retained after partial removal, with above 90% retention expected for both metrics on many platforms. Partial removal would likely result in the loss of fish biomass and production for species typically found residing in the shallow portions of the platform structure. However, these fishes generally represent a small proportion of the fishes associated with these platforms. More characteristic of platform fauna are the primarily deeper-dwelling rockfishes (genus Sebastes). "Shell mounds" are biogenic reefs that surround some of these platforms resulting from an accumulation of mollusk shells that have fallen from the shallow areas of the platforms mostly above the depth of partial removal. We found that shell mounds are moderately productive fish habitats, similar to or greater than natural rocky reefs in the region at comparable depths. The complexity and areal extent of these biogenic habitats, and the associated fish biomass and production, will likely be reduced after either partial or complete platform removal. Habitat augmentation by placing the partially removed platform superstructure or some other additional habitat enrichment material (e.g., rock boulders) on the seafloor adjacent to the base of partially removed platforms provides additional options to enhance fish production, potentially mitigating reductions in shell mound habitat.

  8. Late Cenozoic tephrostratigraphy offshore the southern Central American Volcanic Arc: 2. Implications for magma production rates and subduction erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindlbeck, J. C.; Kutterolf, S.; Freundt, A.; Straub, S. M.; Vannucchi, P.; Alvarado, G. E.

    2016-11-01

    Pacific drill sites offshore Central America provide the unique opportunity to study the evolution of large explosive volcanism and the geotectonic evolution of the continental margin back into the Neogene. The temporal distribution of tephra layers established by tephrochonostratigraphy in Part 1 indicates a nearly continuous highly explosive eruption record for the Costa Rican and the Nicaraguan volcanic arc within the last 8 Myr. The widely distributed marine tephra layers comprise the major fraction of the respective erupted tephra volumes and masses thus providing insights into regional and temporal variations of large-magnitude explosive eruptions along the southern Central American Volcanic Arc (CAVA). We observe three pulses of enhanced explosive volcanism between 0 and 1 Ma at the Cordillera Central, between 1 and 2 Ma at the Guanacaste and at >3 Ma at the Western Nicaragua segments. Averaged over the long-term the minimum erupted magma flux (per unit arc length) is ˜0.017 g/ms. Tephra ages, constrained by Ar-Ar dating and by correlation with dated terrestrial tephras, yield time-variable accumulation rates of the intercalated pelagic sediments with four prominent phases of peak sedimentation rates that relate to tectonic processes of subduction erosion. The peak rate at >2.3 Ma near Osa particularly relates to initial Cocos Ridge subduction which began at 2.91 ± 0.23 Ma as inferred by the 1.5 Myr delayed appearance of the OIB geochemical signal in tephras from Barva volcano at 1.42 Ma. Subsequent tectonic re-arrangements probably involved crustal extension on the Guanacaste segment that favored the 2-1 Ma period of unusually massive rhyolite production.

  9. Ocean Colour Products from Remote Sensing Related to In-Situ Data for Supporting Management of Offshore Aquaculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fragoso, Bruno Dias Duarte; Icely, John; Moore, Gerald; Laanen, Marnix; Ghbrehiwot, Semhar

    2016-08-01

    The EU funded "AQUAculture USEr driven operational Remote Sensing information services project" (AQUA- USERS grant number 607325) is a user driven project for the aquaculture industry that aims at providing this industry with relevant and timely information based on the most recent satellite data and innovative optical in- situ measurements. The Water Insight Spectrometer (WISP-3) is a hand held instrument which can provide measurements of the optical parameters Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), Total Suspended Matter (TSM), Coloured Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM), and the Spectral Diffuse Attenuation Coefficient (Kd). Sampling campaigns were carried out between March 2014 and September 2015, to collect water samples at the same time as taking optical reading from the WISP-3 at an offshore aquaculture site off Sagres on the SW Portugal, operated by Finisterra Lda, one of the "users" in the project. The estimates from the WISP-3 for Chla and TSM have been compared with in-situ measurements from the water samples for these two variables, with the objective of calibrating the algorithms used by the WISP-3 for estimation of Chla and TSM. At a later stage in the project, it is expected that WISP-3 readings can be related to remote sensing products developed from the Ocean Land Coloured Instrument (OLCI) from the Sentinel-3 satellite. The key purpose of AQUA- Users is to develop, in collaboration with "users" from the aquaculture industry, a mobile phone application (app) that collates satellite information on optical water quality and temperature together with in-situ data of these variables to develop a decision support system for daily management of the aquaculture.

  10. Ecological and political issues surrounding decommissioning of offshore oil facilities in the Southern California Bight

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroeder, Donna M.; Love, Milton S.

    2004-01-01

    To aid legislators, resource managers, and the general public, this paper summarizes and clarifies some of the issues and options that the federal government and the state of California face in decommissioning offshore oil and gas production platforms, particularly as these relate to platform ecology. Both local marine ecology and political climate play a role in decommissioning offshore oil production platforms. Compared to the relatively supportive political climate in the Gulf of Mexico for “rigs-to-reefs” programs, conflicting social values among stakeholders in Southern California increases the need for understanding ecological impacts of various decommissioning alternatives (which range from total removal to allowing some or all of platform structure to remain in the ocean). Additional scientific needs in the decommissioning process include further assessment of platform habitat quality, estimation of regional impacts of decommissioning alternatives to marine populations, and determination of biological effects of any residual contaminants. The principal management need is a ranking of environmental priorities (e.g. species-of-interest and marine habitats). Because considerable numbers of economically important species reside near oil platforms, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries should consider the consequences of decommissioning alternatives in their overall management plans. Management strategies could include designating reefed platforms as marine protected areas. The overarching conclusion from both ecological and political perspectives is that decommissioning decisions should be made on a case-by-case basis.

  11. Floating Offshore Wind in California: Gross Potential for Jobs and Economic Impacts from Two Future Scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Speer, Bethany; Keyser, David; Tegen, Suzanne

    2016-04-18

    Construction of the first offshore wind farm in the United States began in 2015, using fixed platform structures that are appropriate for shallow seafloors, like those located off of the East Coast and mid-Atlantic. However, floating platforms, which have yet to be deployed commercially, will likely need to anchor to the deeper seafloor if deployed off of the West Coast. To analyze the employment and economic potential for floating offshore wind along the West Coast, the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) has commissioned the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to analyze two hypothetical, large-scale deployment scenarios for California: 16 GW of offshore wind by 2050 (Scenario A) and 10 GW of offshore wind by 2050 (Scenario B). The results of this analysis can be used to better understand the general scales of economic opportunities that could result from offshore wind development. Results show total state gross domestic product (GDP) impacts of $16.2 billion in Scenario B or $39.7 billion in Scenario A for construction; and $3.5 billion in Scenario B or $7.9 billion in Scenario A for the operations phases.

  12. Floating production platforms and their applications in the development of oil and gas fields in the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dagang; Chen, Yongjun; Zhang, Tianyu

    2014-03-01

    This paper studies the current available options for floating production platforms in developing deepwater oil fields and the potential development models of future oil and gas exploration in the South China Sea. A detailed review of current deepwater platforms worldwide was performed through the examples of industry projects, and the pros and cons of each platform are discussed. Four types of platforms are currently used for the deepwater development: tension leg platform, Spar, semi-submersible platform, and the floating production system offloading. Among these, the TLP and Spar can be used for dry tree applications, and have gained popularity in recent years. The dry tree application enables the extension of the drilling application for fixed platforms into floating systems, and greatly reduces the cost and complexity of the subsea operation. Newly built wet tree semi-submersible production platforms for ultra deepwater are also getting their application, mainly due to the much needed payload for deepwater making the conversion of the old drilling semi-submersible platforms impossible. These platforms have been used in different fields around the world for different environments; each has its own advantages and disadvantages. There are many challenges with the successful use of these floating platforms. A lot of lessons have been learned and extensive experience accumulated through the many project applications. Key technologies are being reviewed for the successful use of floating platforms for field development, and potential future development needs are being discussed. Some of the technologies and experience of platform applications can be well used for the development of the South China Sea oil and gas field.

  13. Synthetic biology and microbioreactor platforms for programmable production of biologics at the point-of-care

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Pinera, Pablo; Han, Ningren; Cleto, Sara; Cao, Jicong; Purcell, Oliver; Shah, Kartik A.; Lee, Kevin; Ram, Rajeev; Lu, Timothy K.

    2016-01-01

    Current biopharmaceutical manufacturing systems are not compatible with portable or distributed production of biologics, as they typically require the development of single biologic-producing cell lines followed by their cultivation at very large scales. Therefore, it remains challenging to treat patients in short time frames, especially in remote locations with limited infrastructure. To overcome these barriers, we developed a platform using genetically engineered Pichia pastoris strains designed to secrete multiple proteins on programmable cues in an integrated, benchtop, millilitre-scale microfluidic device. We use this platform for rapid and switchable production of two biologics from a single yeast strain as specified by the operator. Our results demonstrate selectable and near-single-dose production of these biologics in <24 h with limited infrastructure requirements. We envision that combining this system with analytical, purification and polishing technologies could lead to a small-scale, portable and fully integrated personal biomanufacturing platform that could advance disease treatment at point-of-care. PMID:27470089

  14. Monitoring the Methane Hydrate Dissociation by the Offshore Methane Hydrate Production Tests using Multi-component Seismic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asakawa, Eiichi; Hayashi, Tsutomu; Tsukahara, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Hiroo; Saeki, Tatsuo

    2013-04-01

    We developed a new OBC (Ocean Bottom Cable), named as 'DSS' (Deep-sea Seismic System). The sensor has 3-component accelerometer and a hydrophone applicable for four-component (4C) seismic survey. Using the DSS, the methane hydrate dissociation zone will be tried to be monitored at the water depth of around 1000m during JOGMEC offshore methane hydrate production test in early 2013. Before the DSS, we had developed the RSCS (Real-time Seismic Cable System) with 3-component gimbaled geophones, and carried out a reflection seismic survey in the Nankai Trough in 2006. Referring this successful survey, we improved the RSCS to the DSS. The receiver size is reduced to 2/3 and the receiver case has a protective metallic exterior and the cable is protected with steel-screened armouring, allowing burial usage using ROV for sub-seabed deployment at the water depth up to 2000m. It will realize a unique survey style that leaves the system on the seabed between pre-test baseline survey and post-test repeated surveys, which might be up to 6 months. The fixed location of the receiver is very important for time-lapse monitoring survey. The DSS has totally 36 sensors and the sensor spacing is 26.5m. The total length is about 1km. We carried out the pre-test baseline survey between off Atsumi and Shima-peninsula in August, 2012.We located the DSS close to the production test well. The nearest sensor is 63m apart from the well. A newly developed real-time 3-D laying simulation system consisting of ADCP (Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler), transponders attached to the DSS, and real-time 3-D plotting system for transponder locations have been adopted. After we laid the cable, we buried the DSS using ROV (Remotely Operated Vehicle). The baseline survey included 2D/3D seismic surveys with shooting vessel and cable laying/observation ship. The resultant 2D section and 3D volume shows the good quality to delineate the methane hydrate concentrated zone. After the baseline survey, we have left

  15. Offshore environmental concerns mitigated by onshore-based, extended-reach drilling

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-04

    Extended-reach drilling may alleviate California environmental concerns by targeting distant offshore plays using onshore localities adjacent to preexisting facilities. If successful, it may set a precedent for offshore development without the use of new offshore platforms, thereby reducing the risk of offshore spills. Politicians, environmentalists, and the industry will closely watch the Gaviota No. 7 well, an extended-reach well operated by Benton Oil and Gas Co. in partnership with Molino Energy Co. The companies aim to find sweet gas in the Gaviota structure, an anticline hemmed in by two faults, located abut 1 1/4 miles offshore in the Santa Barbara Channel. Frank Reiber, project manager for Benton, characterizes the technologies used in the Gaviota No. 7, as fairly routine. However, state officials hail this onshore-to-offshore technique as the only practical way to develop oil or gas in state waters, given the political and environmental constraints that have virtually closed all waters within the 3-mile limit for decades. The paper describes the drilling and production program.

  16. Automated DNA extraction platforms offer solutions to challenges of assessing microbial biofouling in oil production facilities

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of microbial assemblages in industrial, marine, and medical systems can inform decisions regarding quality control or mitigation. Modern molecular approaches to detect, characterize, and quantify microorganisms provide rapid and thorough measures unbiased by the need for cultivation. The requirement of timely extraction of high quality nucleic acids for molecular analysis is faced with specific challenges when used to study the influence of microorganisms on oil production. Production facilities are often ill equipped for nucleic acid extraction techniques, making the preservation and transportation of samples off-site a priority. As a potential solution, the possibility of extracting nucleic acids on-site using automated platforms was tested. The performance of two such platforms, the Fujifilm QuickGene-Mini80™ and Promega Maxwell®16 was compared to a widely used manual extraction kit, MOBIO PowerBiofilm™ DNA Isolation Kit, in terms of ease of operation, DNA quality, and microbial community composition. Three pipeline biofilm samples were chosen for these comparisons; two contained crude oil and corrosion products and the third transported seawater. Overall, the two more automated extraction platforms produced higher DNA yields than the manual approach. DNA quality was evaluated for amplification by quantitative PCR (qPCR) and end-point PCR to generate 454 pyrosequencing libraries for 16S rRNA microbial community analysis. Microbial community structure, as assessed by DGGE analysis and pyrosequencing, was comparable among the three extraction methods. Therefore, the use of automated extraction platforms should enhance the feasibility of rapidly evaluating microbial biofouling at remote locations or those with limited resources. PMID:23168231

  17. The High-Throughput Protein Sample Production Platform of the Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Rong; Anderson, Stephen; Aramini, James; Belote, Rachel; Buchwald, William A.; Ciccosanti, Colleen; Conover, Ken; Everett, John K.; Hamilton, Keith; Huang, Yuanpeng Janet; Janjua, Haleema; Jiang, Mei; Kornhaber, Gregory J.; Lee, Dong Yup; Locke, Jessica Y.; Ma, Li-Chung; Maglaqui, Melissa; Mao, Lei; Mitra, Saheli; Patel, Dayaban; Rossi, Paolo; Sahdev, Seema; Sharma, Seema; Shastry, Ritu; Swapna, G.V.T.; Tong, Saichu N.; Wang, Dongyan; Wang, Huang; Zhao, Li; Montelione, Gaetano T.; Acton, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    We describe the core Protein Production Platform of the Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium (NESG) and outline the strategies used for producing high-quality protein samples. The platform is centered on the cloning, expression and purification of 6X-His-tagged proteins using T7-based Escherichia coli systems. The 6X-His tag allows for similar purification procedures for most targets and implementation of high-throughput (HTP) parallel methods. In most cases, the 6X-His-tagged proteins are sufficiently purified (> 97% homogeneity) using a HTP two-step purification protocol for most structural studies. Using this platform, the open reading frames of over 16,000 different targeted proteins (or domains) have been cloned as > 26,000 constructs. Over the past nine years, more than 16,000 of these expressed protein, and more than 4,400 proteins (or domains) have been purified to homogeneity in tens of milligram quantities (see Summary Statistics, http://nesg.org/statistics.html). Using these samples, the NESG has deposited more than 900 new protein structures to the Protein Data Bank (PDB). The methods described here are effective in producing eukaryotic and prokaryotic protein samples in E. coli. This paper summarizes some of the updates made to the protein production pipeline in the last five years, corresponding to phase 2 of the NIGMS Protein Structure Initiative (PSI-2) project. The NESG Protein Production Platform is suitable for implementation in a large individual laboratory or by a small group of collaborating investigators. These advanced automated and/or parallel cloning, expression, purification, and biophysical screening technologies are of broad value to the structural biology, functional proteomics, and structural genomics communities. PMID:20688167

  18. The Hibernia platform

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, G.C.; Johnson, R.C.; Luther, D.C.; Woodhead, H.R.; Abel, W.

    1994-12-31

    The Hibernia offshore oil platform is the first major platform for the development of hydrocarbon reserves on the Grand Banks off the East Coast of Canada. The platform, a concrete gravity base structure supporting 60,000 tons of topsides, will be in 80 m of water and is designed to resist iceberg collisions. The paper describes the platform, environment and iceberg loads, geotechnical considerations and the structural analysis being performed. The platform is current under construction (Winter 1993) and will be completed in 1996.

  19. Selection of elite microalgae for biodiesel production in tropical conditions using a standardized platform.

    PubMed

    Ho, Shih-hsin; Lai, Yen-Ying; Chiang, Chun-Yu; Chen, Ching-Nen Nathan; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2013-11-01

    Four thermotolerant microalgae were isolated from tropical Taiwan and classified as members of Desmodesmus based on morphological and molecular studies. A platform was established to evaluate their biodiesel production-related traits, including thermotolerance, lipid productivity, lipid oxidative stability and auto-sedimentation. The findings demonstrated thermotolerance of all four species was at the same level, as all could live at 45 °C for 24 h and 50 °C for 8 h with mortality rates below 5% of cells. The lipid productivity of Desmodesmus sp. F2 reached 113 mg/L/d. Its saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids accounted for 75% of the FAMEs, and it required only 3.1 h to achieve 85% sedimentation. Comparing these traits to those of the other three Desmodesmus and microalgae in the literature, Desmodesmus sp. F2 is one of the best candidates for biodiesel production in tropical and subtropical areas. This platform effectively assessed traits of microalgae related to biodiesel production.

  20. Fed-batch microbioreactor platform for scale down and analysis of a plasmid DNA production process.

    PubMed

    Bower, Diana M; Lee, Kevin S; Ram, Rajeev J; Prather, Kristala L J

    2012-08-01

    The rising costs of bioprocess research and development emphasize the need for high-throughput, low-cost alternatives to bench-scale bioreactors for process development. In particular, there is a need for platforms that can go beyond simple batch growth of the organism of interest to include more advanced monitoring, control, and operation schemes such as fed-batch or continuous. We have developed a 1-mL microbioreactor capable of monitoring and control of dissolved oxygen, pH, and temperature. Optical density can also be measured online for continuous monitoring of cell growth. To test our microbioreactor platform, we used production of a plasmid DNA vaccine vector (pVAX1-GFP) in Escherichia coli via a fed-batch temperature-inducible process as a model system. We demonstrated that our platform can accurately predict growth, glycerol and acetate concentrations, as well as plasmid copy number and quality obtained in a bench-scale bioreactor. The predictive abilities of the micro-scale system were robust over a range of feed rates as long as key process parameters, such as dissolved oxygen, were kept constant across scales. We have highlighted plasmid DNA production as a potential application for our microbioreactor, but the device has broad utility for microbial process development in other industries as well. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Emerging biotechnologies for production of itaconic acid and its applications as a platform chemical.

    PubMed

    Saha, Badal C

    2017-02-01

    Recently, itaconic acid (IA), an unsaturated C5-dicarboxylic acid, has attracted much attention as a biobased building block chemical. It is produced industrially (>80 g L(-1)) from glucose by fermentation with Aspergillus terreus. The titer is low compared with citric acid production (>200 g L(-1)). This review summarizes the latest progress on enhancing the yield and productivity of IA production. IA biosynthesis involves the decarboxylation of the TCA cycle intermediate cis-aconitate through the action of cis-aconitate decarboxylase (CAD) enzyme encoded by the CadA gene in A. terreus. A number of recombinant microorganisms have been developed in an effort to overproduce it. IA is used as a monomer for production of superabsorbent polymer, resins, plastics, paints, and synthetic fibers. Its applications as a platform chemical are highlighted. It has a strong potential to replace petroleum-based methylacrylic acid in industry which will create a huge market for IA.

  2. Ocean colour products from geostationary platforms, opportunities with Meteosat Second and Third Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwiatkowska, E. J.; Ruddick, K.; Ramon, D.; Vanhellemont, Q.; Brockmann, C.; Lebreton, C.; Bonekamp, H. G.

    2015-12-01

    Ocean colour applications from medium-resolution polar-orbiting satellite sensors have now matured and evolved into operational services. The examples include the Sentinel-3 OLCI missions of the European Earth Observation Copernicus programme and the VIIRS missions of the US Joint Polar Satellite System programme. Key drivers for Copernicus ocean colour services are the national obligations of the EU member states to report on the quality of marine, coastal and inland waters for the EU Water Framework Directive and Marine Strategy Framework Directive. Further applications include CO2 sequestration, carbon cycle and climate, fisheries and aquaculture management, near-real-time alerting to harmful algae blooms, environmental monitoring and forecasting, and assessment of sediment transport in coastal waters. Ocean colour data from polar-orbiting satellite platforms, however, suffer from fractional coverage, primarily due to clouds, and inadequate resolution of quickly varying processes. Ocean colour remote sensing from geostationary platforms can provide significant improvements in coverage and sampling frequency and support new applications and services. EUMETSAT's SEVIRI instrument on the geostationary Meteosat Second Generation platforms (MSG) is not designed to meet ocean colour mission requirements, however, it has been demonstrated to provide valuable contribution, particularly in combination with dedicated ocean colour polar observations. This paper describes the ongoing effort to develop operational ocean colour water turbidity and related products and user services from SEVIRI. A survey of user requirements and a study of technical capabilities and limitations of the SEVIRI instruments are the basis for this development and are described in this paper. The products will support monitoring of sediment transport, water clarity, and tidal dynamics. Further products and services are anticipated from EUMETSAT's FCI instruments on Meteosat Third Generation

  3. The microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a platform for the production of human protein therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Rasala, Beth A

    2011-01-01

    Microalgae are a diverse group of eukaryotic photosynthetic microorganisms. While microalgae play a crucial role in global carbon fixation and oxygen evolution, these organisms have recently gained much attention for their potential role in biotechnological and industrial applications, such as the production of biofuels. We investigated the potential of the microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to be a platform for the production of human therapeutic proteins. C. reinhardtii is a unicellular freshwater green alga that has served as a popular model alga for physiological, molecular, biochemical and genetic studies. As such, the molecular toolkit for this microorganism is highly developed, including well-established methods for genetic transformation and recombinant gene expression. We transformed the chloroplast genome of C. reinhardtii with seven unrelated genes encoding for current or potential human therapeutic proteins and found that four of these genes supported protein accumulation to levels that are sufficient for commercial production. Furthermore, the algal-produced proteins were bioactive. Thus, the microalga C. reinhardtii has the potential to be a robust platform for human therapeutic protein production. PMID:21636988

  4. Completion design for high-capacity offshore gas wells

    SciTech Connect

    Hartley, R.

    1983-04-01

    The completion design is described for two Malaysian offshore gas fields producing from two relatively shallow carbonate reservoirs through deviated wells from a common production platform. The lean gas contains up to 7.3% CO/sub 2/ and 8 ppm H/sub 2/S and flows at a rate of 75 million SCF/day per well. To cope with the problems of safety, corrosion, and tubing stress, the completion uses 7-in. tubing, with 13% Cr steel at points where corrosion might be severe; continuous inhibitor injection; integral well-killing facilities; and a fire-resistant wellhead and Christmas tree.

  5. Comparison of aliphatic hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenylethers, and organochlorine pesticides in Pacific sanddab (Citharichthys sordidus) from offshore oil platforms and natural reefs along the California coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gale, Robert W.; Tanner, Michael J.; Love, Milton S.; Nishimoto, Mary M.; Schroeder, Donna M.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the relative exposure of Pacific sanddab (Citharichthys sordidus) to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at oil-production platforms was reported, indicating negligible exposure to PAHs and no discernible differences between exposures at platforms and nearby natural areas sites. In this report, the potential for chronic PAH exposure in fish is reported, by measurement of recalcitrant, higher molecular weight PAHs in tissues of fish previously investigated for PAH metabolites in bile. A total of 34 PAHs (20 PAHs, 11 alkylated PAHs, and 3 polycyclic aromatic thiophenes) were targeted. In addition, legacy contaminants—polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs),—and current contaminants, polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) linked to endocrine disruption, were measured by gas chromatography with electron-capture or mass spectrometric detection, to form a more complete picture of the contaminant-related status of fishes at oil production platforms in the Southern California Bight. No hydrocarbon profiles or unresolved complex hydrocarbon background were found in fish from platforms and from natural areas, and concentrations of aliphatics were low less than 100 nanograms per gram (ng/g) per component]. Total-PAH concentrations in fish ranged from 15 to 37 ng/g at natural areas and from 8.7 to 22 ng/g at platforms. Profiles of PAHs were similar at all natural and platform sites, consisting mainly of naphthalene and methylnaphthalenes, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, and pyrene. Total-PCB concentrations (excluding non-ortho-chloro-substituted congeners) in fish were low, ranging from 7 to 22 ng/g at natural areas and from 10 to 35 ng/g at platforms. About 50 percent of the total-PCBs at all sites consisted of 11 congeners: 153 > 138/163/164 > 110 > 118 > 15 > 99 > 187 > 149 > 180. Most OCPs, except dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)-related compounds, were not detectable or were at concentrations of less than 1 ng/g in fish. p

  6. Production of a Chikungunya Vaccine Using a CHO Cell and Attenuated Viral-Based Platform Technology.

    PubMed

    Eldi, Preethi; Cooper, Tamara H; Liu, Liang; Prow, Natalie A; Diener, Kerrilyn R; Howley, Paul M; Suhrbier, Andreas; Hayball, John D

    2017-10-04

    Vaccinia-based systems have been extensively explored for the development of recombinant vaccines. Herein we describe an innovative vaccinia virus (VACV)-derived vaccine platform technology termed Sementis Copenhagen Vector (SCV), which was rendered multiplication-defective by targeted deletion of the essential viral assembly gene D13L. A SCV cell substrate line was developed for SCV vaccine production by engineering CHO cells to express D13 and the VACV host-range factor CP77, because CHO cells are routinely used for manufacture of biologics. To illustrate the utility of the platform technology, a SCV vaccine against chikungunya virus (SCV-CHIK) was developed and shown to be multiplication-defective in a range of human cell lines and in immunocompromised mice. A single vaccination of mice with SCV-CHIK induced antibody responses specific for chikungunya virus (CHIKV) that were similar to those raised following vaccination with a replication-competent VACV-CHIK and able to neutralize CHIKV. Vaccination also provided protection against CHIKV challenge, preventing both viremia and arthritis. Moreover, SCV retained capacity as an effective mouse smallpox vaccine. In summary, SCV represents a new and safe vaccine platform technology that can be manufactured in modified CHO cells, with pre-clinical evaluation illustrating utility for CHIKV vaccine design and construction. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. An integrated cell-free metabolic platform for protein production and synthetic biology

    PubMed Central

    Jewett, Michael C; Calhoun, Kara A; Voloshin, Alexei; Wuu, Jessica J; Swartz, James R

    2008-01-01

    Cell-free systems offer a unique platform for expanding the capabilities of natural biological systems for useful purposes, i.e. synthetic biology. They reduce complexity, remove structural barriers, and do not require the maintenance of cell viability. Cell-free systems, however, have been limited by their inability to co-activate multiple biochemical networks in a single integrated platform. Here, we report the assessment of biochemical reactions in an Escherichia coli cell-free platform designed to activate natural metabolism, the Cytomim system. We reveal that central catabolism, oxidative phosphorylation, and protein synthesis can be co-activated in a single reaction system. Never before have these complex systems been shown to be simultaneously activated without living cells. The Cytomim system therefore promises to provide the metabolic foundation for diverse ab initio cell-free synthetic biology projects. In addition, we describe an improved Cytomim system with enhanced protein synthesis yields (up to 1200 mg/l in 2 h) and lower costs to facilitate production of protein therapeutics and biochemicals that are difficult to make in vivo because of their toxicity, complexity, or unusual cofactor requirements. PMID:18854819

  8. Cost analysis of cassava cellulose utilization scenarios for ethanol production on flowsheet simulation platform.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Fang, Zhenhong; Deng, Hongbo; Zhang, Xiaoxi; Bao, Jie

    2013-04-01

    Cassava cellulose accounts for one quarter of cassava residues and its utilization is important for improving the efficiency and profit in commercial scale cassava ethanol industry. In this study, three scenarios of cassava cellulose utilization for ethanol production were experimentally tested under same conditions and equipment. Based on the experimental results, a rigorous flowsheet simulation model was established on Aspen plus platform and the cost of cellulase enzyme and steam energy in the three cases was calculated. The results show that the simultaneous co-saccharification of cassava starch/cellulose and ethanol fermentation process (Co-SSF) provided a cost effective option of cassava cellulose utilization for ethanol production, while the utilization of cassava cellulose from cassava ethanol fermentation residues was not economically sound. Comparing to the current fuel ethanol selling price, the Co-SSF process may provide an important choice for enhancing cassava ethanol production efficiency and profit in commercial scale.

  9. Submerged tank aids platform stability

    SciTech Connect

    Compagnon, J.P.

    1985-05-01

    A new floating platform concept, proposed for the installation of a new lighthouse, 64 km off Ouessant Island, northwest France, in water 130 meters deep, is described. A series of model tests carried out in test tanks in 1983 demonstrated that this new concept is viable in the offshore business as an alternative for deep and rough seas. The key to the success of this design is primarily the location and shape of a large, submerged buoyancy tank - a floater sandwiched between a conventional rig topside and a rigid, vertically suspended counter-weight. The floater balanced by a counter-weight acts as a damper and minimizes the effect of most wave action. This configuration permits a considerable gain in structure weight, improves stability and allows the structure to support a very high deck load with or without storage facilities when used as a production platform.

  10. Techno-economic analysis of a transient plant-based platform for monoclonal antibody production

    PubMed Central

    Nandi, Somen; Kwong, Aaron T.; Holtz, Barry R.; Erwin, Robert L.; Marcel, Sylvain; McDonald, Karen A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Plant-based biomanufacturing of therapeutic proteins is a relatively new platform with a small number of commercial-scale facilities, but offers advantages of linear scalability, reduced upstream complexity, reduced time to market, and potentially lower capital and operating costs. In this study we present a detailed process simulation model for a large-scale new “greenfield” biomanufacturing facility that uses transient agroinfiltration of Nicotiana benthamiana plants grown hydroponically indoors under light-emitting diode lighting for the production of a monoclonal antibody. The model was used to evaluate the total capital investment, annual operating cost, and cost of goods sold as a function of mAb expression level in the plant (g mAb/kg fresh weight of the plant) and production capacity (kg mAb/year). For the Base Case design scenario (300 kg mAb/year, 1 g mAb/kg fresh weight, and 65% recovery in downstream processing), the model predicts a total capital investment of $122 million dollars and cost of goods sold of $121/g including depreciation. Compared with traditional biomanufacturing platforms that use mammalian cells grown in bioreactors, the model predicts significant reductions in capital investment and >50% reduction in cost of goods compared with published values at similar production scales. The simulation model can be modified or adapted by others to assess the profitability of alternative designs, implement different process assumptions, and help guide process development and optimization. PMID:27559626

  11. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli: a sustainable industrial platform for bio-based chemical production.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xianzhong; Zhou, Li; Tian, Kangming; Kumar, Ashwani; Singh, Suren; Prior, Bernard A; Wang, Zhengxiang

    2013-12-01

    In order to decrease carbon emissions and negative environmental impacts of various pollutants, more bulk and/or fine chemicals are produced by bioprocesses, replacing the traditional energy and fossil based intensive route. The Gram-negative rod-shaped bacterium, Escherichia coli has been studied extensively on a fundamental and applied level and has become a predominant host microorganism for industrial applications. Furthermore, metabolic engineering of E. coli for the enhanced biochemical production has been significantly promoted by the integrated use of recent developments in systems biology, synthetic biology and evolutionary engineering. In this review, we focus on recent efforts devoted to the use of genetically engineered E. coli as a sustainable platform for the production of industrially important biochemicals such as biofuels, organic acids, amino acids, sugar alcohols and biopolymers. In addition, representative secondary metabolites produced by E. coli will be systematically discussed and the successful strategies for strain improvements will be highlighted. Moreover, this review presents guidelines for future developments in the bio-based chemical production using E. coli as an industrial platform.

  12. Enzymatic Specific Production and Chemical Functionalization of Phenylpropanone Platform Monomers from Lignin.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Yukari; Hasegawa, Ryoichi; Kurosawa, Kanako; Maeda, Allyn H; Koizumi, Toshio; Nishimura, Hiroshi; Okada, Hitomi; Qu, Chen; Saito, Kaori; Watanabe, Takashi; Hatada, Yuji

    2017-01-20

    Enzymatic catalysis is an ecofriendly strategy for the production of high-value low-molecular-weight aromatic compounds from lignin. Although well-definable aromatic monomers have been obtained from synthetic lignin-model dimers, enzymatic-selective synthesis of platform monomers from natural lignin has not been accomplished. In this study, we successfully achieved highly specific synthesis of aromatic monomers with a phenylpropane structure directly from natural lignin using a cascade reaction of β-O-4-cleaving bacterial enzymes in one pot. Guaiacylhydroxylpropanone (GHP) and the GHP/syringylhydroxylpropanone (SHP) mixture are exclusive monomers from lignin isolated from softwood (Cryptomeria japonica) and hardwood (Eucalyptus globulus). The intermediate products in the enzymatic reactions show the capacity to accommodate highly heterologous substrates at the substrate-binding sites of the enzymes. To demonstrate the applicability of GHP as a platform chemical for bio-based industries, we chemically generate value-added GHP derivatives for bio-based polymers. Together with these chemical conversions for the valorization of lignin-derived phenylpropanone monomers, the specific and enzymatic production of the monomers directly from natural lignin is expected to provide a new stream in "white biotechnology" for sustainable biorefineries.

  13. Enzymatic Specific Production and Chemical Functionalization of Phenylpropanone Platform Monomers from Lignin

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, Ryoichi; Kurosawa, Kanako; Maeda, Allyn H.; Koizumi, Toshio; Nishimura, Hiroshi; Okada, Hitomi; Qu, Chen; Saito, Kaori; Watanabe, Takashi; Hatada, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Enzymatic catalysis is an ecofriendly strategy for the production of high‐value low‐molecular‐weight aromatic compounds from lignin. Although well‐definable aromatic monomers have been obtained from synthetic lignin‐model dimers, enzymatic‐selective synthesis of platform monomers from natural lignin has not been accomplished. In this study, we successfully achieved highly specific synthesis of aromatic monomers with a phenylpropane structure directly from natural lignin using a cascade reaction of β‐O‐4‐cleaving bacterial enzymes in one pot. Guaiacylhydroxylpropanone (GHP) and the GHP/syringylhydroxylpropanone (SHP) mixture are exclusive monomers from lignin isolated from softwood (Cryptomeria japonica) and hardwood (Eucalyptus globulus). The intermediate products in the enzymatic reactions show the capacity to accommodate highly heterologous substrates at the substrate‐binding sites of the enzymes. To demonstrate the applicability of GHP as a platform chemical for bio‐based industries, we chemically generate value‐added GHP derivatives for bio‐based polymers. Together with these chemical conversions for the valorization of lignin‐derived phenylpropanone monomers, the specific and enzymatic production of the monomers directly from natural lignin is expected to provide a new stream in “white biotechnology” for sustainable biorefineries. PMID:27878983

  14. Damage to offshore infrastructure in the Gulf of Mexico by hurricanes Katrina and Rita

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, A. M.; Krausmann, E.

    2009-04-01

    The damage inflicted by hurricanes Katrina and Rita to the Gulf-of-Mexico's (GoM) oil and gas production, both onshore and offshore, has shown the proneness of industry to Natech accidents (natural hazard-triggered hazardous-materials releases). In order to contribute towards a better understanding of Natech events, we assessed the damage to and hazardous-materials releases from offshore oil and natural-gas platforms and pipelines induced by hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Data was obtained through a review of published literature and interviews with government officials and industry representatives from the affected region. We also reviewed over 60,000 records of reported hazardous-materials releases from the National Response Center's (NRC) database to identify and analyze the hazardous-materials releases directly attributed to offshore oil and gas platforms and pipelines affected by the two hurricanes. Our results show that hurricanes Katrina and Rita destroyed at least 113 platforms, and severely damaged at least 53 others. Sixty percent of the facilities destroyed were built 30 years ago or more prior to the adoption of the more stringent design standards that went into effect after 1977. The storms also destroyed 5 drilling rigs and severely damaged 19 mobile offshore drilling units (MODUs). Some 19 MODUs lost their moorings and became adrift during the storms which not only posed a danger to existing facilities but the dragging anchors also damaged pipelines and other infrastructure. Structural damage to platforms included toppling of sections, and tilting or leaning of platforms. Possible causes for failure of structural and non-structural components of platforms included loading caused by wave inundation of the deck. Failure of rigs attached to platforms was also observed resulting in significant damage to the platform or adjacent infrastructure, as well as damage to equipment, living quarters and helipads. The failures are attributable to tie-down components

  15. 1991 worldwide offshore contractors and equipment directory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This book is the information source-book for the international offshore oil industry. Within this single convenient reference you'll find addresses, phone numbers, telex, fax and cable listings for more than 3,500 companies and their key personnel in the drilling, workover, construction, service/supply/manufacturers, geophysical, diving and transportation segments of the offshore industry. Along with this vital contact information, the authors include such pertinent data as rig specifications, ownership, an equipment index, a company index and a current survey of offshore production systems from Offshore Incorporating the Oilman.

  16. Basin development and petroleum potential of offshore Otway basin, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, P.E.; O'Brien, G.W.; Swift, M.G.; Scherl, A.S.; Marlow, M.S.; Exon, N.F.; Falvey, D.A.; Lock, J.; Lockwood, K.

    1987-05-01

    The Bass Strait region in southeastern Australia contains three sedimentary basins, which are, from east to west, the Gippsland, Bass, and Otway basins. The offshore Gippsland basin is Australia's most prolific petroleum-producing province and supplies over 90% of the country's production. In contrast, exploration has been unsuccessful in the offshore portion of the Otway basin; 17 wells have been drilled, and although shows of oil and gas have been common, no commercial discoveries have been made. Many of these wells, drilled in the 1960s and 1970s, were sited using poor-quality seismic data and, as a consequence, were frequently off structure. Seismic data quality has, however, improved significantly in recent years. The present study by the Australian Bureau of Mineral Resources (BMR) involved the collection, in the offshore Otway basin, of 3700 km of high-quality, 48-channel seismic reflection data by the BMR research vessel R/V Rig Seismic. These data have been integrated with existing industry seismic data, well data, limited dredged material, and geohistory analyses in a framework study of basin development and hydrocarbon potential in this under-explored area. The offshore Otway basin extends 500 km along the southern coastline and is typically 50 km wide in water depths of less than 200 m. It contains up to 10 km of predominantly late Mesozoic to early Cenozoic sediments, which are overlain by a thin sequence of middle to late Tertiary shelf carbonates. It has been divided into three main structural elements: the Mussel Platform in the east, the central Voluta Trough, and the Crayfish Platform in the west. The basin was initiated at the end of the Jurassic as part of the Bassian rift. Up to 6 km of Lower Cretaceous sediments were deposited prior to breakup at the end of the Early Cretaceous and the onset of sea-floor spreading between Australia and Antarctica.

  17. Engineering oxidative stress defense pathways to build a robust lipid production platform in Yarrowia lipolytica.

    PubMed

    Xu, Peng; Qiao, Kangjian; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2017-07-01

    Microbially derived lipids have recently attracted renewed interests due to their broad applications in production of green diesels, cosmetic additives, and oleochemicals. Metabolic engineering efforts have targeted a large portfolio of biosynthetic pathways to efficiently convert sugar to lipids in oleaginous yeast. In the engineered overproducing strains, endogenous cell metabolism typically generates harmful electrophilic molecules that compromise cell fitness and productivity. Lipids, particularly unsaturated fatty acids, are highly susceptible to oxygen radical attack and the resulting oxidative species are detrimental to cell metabolism and limit lipid productivity. In this study, we investigated cellular oxidative stress defense pathways in Yarrowia lipolytica to further improve the lipid titer, yield, and productivity. Specifically, we determined that coupling glutathione disulfide reductase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase along with aldehyde dehydrogenase are efficient solutions to combat reactive oxygen and aldehyde stress in Y. lipolytica. With the reported engineering strategies, we were able to synchronize cell growth and lipid production, improve cell fitness and morphology, and achieved industrially-relevant level of lipid titer (72.7 g/L), oil content (81.4%) and productivity (0.97 g/L/h) in controlled bench-top bioreactors. The strategies reported here represent viable steps in the development of sustainable biorefinery platforms that potentially upgrade low value carbons to high value oleochemicals and biofuels. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 1521-1530. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Camelina sativa: An ideal platform for the metabolic engineering and field production of industrial lipids.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Sunil; Durrett, Timothy P

    2016-01-01

    Triacylglycerols (TAG) containing modified fatty acids with functionality beyond those found in commercially grown oil seed crops can be used as feedstocks for biofuels and bio-based materials. Over the years, advances have been made in transgenically engineering the production of various modified fatty acids in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. However, the inability to produce large quantities of transgenic seed has limited the functional testing of the modified oil. In contrast, the emerging oil seed crop Camelina sativa possesses important agronomic traits that recommend it as an ideal production platform for biofuels and industrial feedstocks. Camelina possesses low water and fertilizer requirements and is capable of yields comparable to other oil seed crops, particularly under stress conditions. Importantly, its relatively short growing season enables it to be grown as part of a double cropping system. In addition to these valuable agronomic features, Camelina is amenable to rapid metabolic engineering. The development of a simple and effective transformation method, combined with the availability of abundant transcriptomic and genomic data, has allowed the generation of transgenic Camelina lines capable of synthesizing high levels of unusual lipids. In some cases these levels have surpassed what was achieved in Arabidopsis. Further, the ability to use Camelina as a crop production system has allowed for the large scale growth of transgenic oil seed crops, enabling subsequent physical property testing. The application of new techniques such as genome editing will further increase the suitability of Camelina as an ideal platform for the production of biofuels and bio-materials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  19. High-throughput enzyme screening platform for the IPP-bypass mevalonate pathway for isopentenol production

    DOE PAGES

    Kang, Aram; Meadows, Corey W.; Canu, Nicolas; ...

    2017-04-05

    Isopentenol (or isoprenol, 3-methyl-3-buten-1-ol) is a drop-in biofuel and a precursor for commodity chemicals such as isoprene. Biological production of isopentenol via the mevalonate pathway has been optimized extensively in Escherichia coli, yielding 70% of its theoretical maximum. However, high ATP requirements and isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) toxicity pose immediate challenges for engineering bacterial strains to overproduce commodities utilizing IPP as an intermediate. To overcome these limitations, we developed an “IPP-bypass” isopentenol pathway using the promiscuous activity of a mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase (PMD) and demonstrated improved performance under aeration-limited conditions. However, relatively low activity of PMD toward the non-native substrate (mevalonatemore » monophosphate, MVAP) was shown to limit flux through this new pathway. By inhibiting all IPP production from the endogenous non-mevalonate pathway, we developed a high-throughput screening platform that correlated promiscuous PMD activity toward MVAP with cellular growth. Successful identification of mutants that altered PMD activity demonstrated the sensitivity and specificity of the screening platform. Strains with evolved PMD mutants and the novel IPP-bypass pathway increased titers up to 2.4-fold. Further enzymatic characterization of the evolved PMD variants suggested that higher isopentenol titers could be achieved either by altering residues directly interacting with substrate and cofactor or by altering residues on nearby α-helices. These altered residues could facilitate the production of isopentenol by tuning either kcat or Ki of PMD for the non-native substrate. The synergistic modification made on PMD for the IPP-bypass mevalonate pathway is expected to significantly facilitate the industrial scale production of isopentenol.« less

  20. Proceedings of the 6th international offshore mechanics and Arctic engineering symposium, Vol. 4

    SciTech Connect

    Lunardini, V.J.; Sinha, N.K.; Wang, Y.S.; Goff, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on offshore platforms. Topics considered at the conference included spray ice islands, arctic structures and operations, arctic thermal and permafrost engineering, ice properties, offshore drilling, foundations, offshore exploration, crude oil storage facilities, thermosyphons, heat transfer, concretes, wave forces, and soil mechanics.

  1. Marine and offshore corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, K.A.

    1985-01-01

    Until recently marine corrosion technology has been preoccupied with the corrosion of ships. Within the last ten years, however, the rapid expansion of oil and gas exploration has changed the course of corrosion research as well as the market for corrosion services and products. So complete has been the change that a new approach, dealing with ships, structures, and plant has been taken in this book. This introduction to the control of corrosion in marine environments will serve as a reference on topics ranging from coating systems to metallurgical considerations in the design of ships, offshore structure, plant and pipelines.

  2. Offshore well support miniplatform

    SciTech Connect

    Blandford, J.W.

    1987-07-14

    This patent describes a protective well support system installed on an offshore well having an upstanding conductor pipe extending above the seabed, the system comprising: (a) an upstanding conductor clamp (adapts to encircle the conductor pipe) formed by two upstanding facing members supported by a bottom engaging frame; (b) the frame including frame members joined together defining a substantially horizontal rectangular support frame for engaging the seabed; (c) angularly extending brace members secured at one end to the conductor clamp and at the other end to the frame; (d) the conductor clamp attaches to the frame and extending upright to enable the conductor clamp to fasten about the conductor pipe; (e) a boat landing mounts about the conductor pipe, the boat landing formed by at least two sectional components fixedly secured to semicircular clamp members adapted to encircle the conductor pipe for mounting the boat landing components; and (f) well platform means supported on bracket means adapted to encircle the conductor pipe for removably securing the well platform means.

  3. Monoclonal Antibodies Production Platforms: An Opportunity Study of a Non-Protein-A Chromatographic Platform Based on Process Economics.

    PubMed

    Grilo, António L; Mateus, Marília; Aires-Barros, Maria R; Azevedo, Ana M

    2017-09-13

    Monoclonal antibodies currently dominate the biopharmaceutical market with growing sales having reached 80 billion USD in 2016. As most top-selling mAbs are approaching the end of their patent life, biopharmaceutical companies compete fiercely in the biosimilars market. These two factors present a strong motivation for alternative process strategies and process optimization. In this work a novel purification strategy for monoclonal antibodies comprising phenylboronic acid multimodal chromatography for capture followed by polishing by ion-exchange monolithic chromatography and packed bed hydrophobic interaction chromatography is presented and compared to the traditional protein-A-based process. Although the capital investment is similar for both processes, the operation cost is 20% lower for the novel strategy. This study shows that the new process is worthwhile investing in and could present a viable alternative to the platform process used by most industrial players. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Risk perception and safety in the UK offshore oil and gas industry

    SciTech Connect

    Flin, R.H.; Mearns, K.; Gordon, R.P.E.; Fleming, M.T.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents a selection of the final results from a study of risk perception and safety attitudes in workers on UKCS offshore oil and gas platforms, which was sponsored by the HSE Offshore Safety Division, Amerada Hess, British Gas, BP, Conoco, Elf Enterprise and Total Oil Marine. The study was designed in conjunction with Dr Rundmo of Trondheim University who was carrying out a matched survey with Norwegian offshore workers for the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate`. A representative sample of 622 UKCS workers on six production platforms were surveyed about their job characteristics, perceived risks, safety attitudes, safety satisfaction, accidents and injuries and the Safety Case. The results indicate that the relative feelings of safety in relation to major hazards (e.g. explosion, blow-out) are aligned with QRA calculations. In general, the workforce feel safe but are aware of the hazards in their environment. Further analyses and statistical modelling indicates that organizational factors (e.g. management commitment to safety, safety attitudes) have the greatest direct effect on workers perception of risk and their satisfaction with safety measures. The British and Norwegian data sets are now being merged and preliminary findings will be mentioned. To explore the emerging issues further, a new study on human factors in UK offshore safety has just been launched with the support of OSD, OCA and six operating and contractor companies. A brief outline will be presented.

  5. Current and future offshore activities in Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Hnatiuk, J.

    1987-06-01

    The development of innovative exploratory drilling systems for Canada's harsh Arctic offshore areas over the past decade and future activity in these areas, including possible production concepts, are discussed. The results can be applied in other Arctic areas of the world, including offshore Alaska. This operating experience will advance technology and serve as a basis for the design of Arctic offshore production and transportation systems. Unique technology has been developed and successfully used in the discovery of major accumulations of hyrodcarbons. Continued technological advances are anticipated to have widespread Arctic applications in both exploratory and production operations.

  6. Underbalanced drilling benefits now available offshore

    SciTech Connect

    Vozniak, J.P.; Cuthbertson, B.; Nessa, D.O.

    1997-05-01

    Offshore underbalanced drilling (UBD) is a reality. Applications in older, partially depleted fields and new fields are being considered. However, low productivity reservoirs and fields with sub normal pressures causing drilling problems are currently the main targets for offshore UBD. With proper planning and the correct technique, both jointed pipe and coiled tubing UBD drilling operations have been carried out offshore with success. The main concerns for offshore UBD have been altered drilling practices and surface production system operation. These issues have been examined and equipment has been designed and tested to address them. Environmental, safety and health issues are paramount and have been studied carefully. Detailed well planning, engineering, and flow modeling have proven critical for successful offshore UBD operations. Examples are given from oil and gas fields.

  7. Microbial production of itaconic acid: developing a stable platform for high product concentrations.

    PubMed

    Kuenz, Anja; Gallenmüller, Yvonne; Willke, Thomas; Vorlop, Klaus-Dieter

    2012-12-01

    Biotechnologically produced itaconic acid (IA) is a promising organic acid with a wide range of applications and the potential to open up new application fields in the area of polymer chemistry, pharmacy, and agriculture. In this study, a systematic process optimization was performed with an own isolated strain of Aspergillus terreus and transferred from a 250-mL to a 15-L scale. An IA concentration of 86.2 g/L was achieved within 7 days with an overall productivity of 0.51 g/(L h), a maximum productivity of 1.2 g/(L h), and a yield of 86 mol%. A cultivation of other well-known A. terreus strains with the developed process showed no significant differences. Based on this, a process is developed providing a high final IA concentration independent of the used strain combined with high reproducibility.

  8. Structural option design in JZ20-2 offshore project

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Lianqi

    1993-12-31

    In the JZ20-2 Project, ice and earthquakes are the main loads which determine the member sizes of offshore structures. UQ and W platforms are located at same field. The vertical loads of an UQ platform are about two times as much as a W platform, but structural steel weight used by two platforms is about the same. This paper describes the results to be acquired and how to determine reasonably the standard of ice load and the resistance to earthquakes with less stiffness and large mass. This paper presents some useful principles and enlightenment for offshore engineering.

  9. In plant activation: an inducible, hyperexpression platform for recombinant protein production in plants.

    PubMed

    Dugdale, Benjamin; Mortimer, Cara L; Kato, Maiko; James, Tess A; Harding, Robert M; Dale, James L

    2013-07-01

    In this study, we describe a novel protein production platform that provides both activation and amplification of transgene expression in planta. The In Plant Activation (INPACT) system is based on the replication machinery of tobacco yellow dwarf mastrevirus (TYDV) and is essentially transient gene expression from a stably transformed plant, thus combining the advantages of both means of expression. The INPACT cassette is uniquely arranged such that the gene of interest is split and only reconstituted in the presence of the TYDV-encoded Rep/RepA proteins. Rep/RepA expression is placed under the control of the AlcA:AlcR gene switch, which is responsive to trace levels of ethanol. Transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv Samsun) plants containing an INPACT cassette encoding the β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter had negligible background expression but accumulated very high GUS levels (up to 10% total soluble protein) throughout the plant, within 3 d of a 1% ethanol application. The GUS reporter was replaced with a gene encoding a lethal ribonuclease, barnase, demonstrating that the INPACT system provides exquisite control of transgene expression and can be adapted to potentially toxic or inhibitory compounds. The INPACT gene expression platform is scalable, not host-limited, and has been used to express both a therapeutic and an industrial protein.

  10. In Plant Activation: An Inducible, Hyperexpression Platform for Recombinant Protein Production in Plants[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Dugdale, Benjamin; Mortimer, Cara L.; Kato, Maiko; James, Tess A.; Harding, Robert M.; Dale, James L.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we describe a novel protein production platform that provides both activation and amplification of transgene expression in planta. The In Plant Activation (INPACT) system is based on the replication machinery of tobacco yellow dwarf mastrevirus (TYDV) and is essentially transient gene expression from a stably transformed plant, thus combining the advantages of both means of expression. The INPACT cassette is uniquely arranged such that the gene of interest is split and only reconstituted in the presence of the TYDV-encoded Rep/RepA proteins. Rep/RepA expression is placed under the control of the AlcA:AlcR gene switch, which is responsive to trace levels of ethanol. Transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv Samsun) plants containing an INPACT cassette encoding the β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter had negligible background expression but accumulated very high GUS levels (up to 10% total soluble protein) throughout the plant, within 3 d of a 1% ethanol application. The GUS reporter was replaced with a gene encoding a lethal ribonuclease, barnase, demonstrating that the INPACT system provides exquisite control of transgene expression and can be adapted to potentially toxic or inhibitory compounds. The INPACT gene expression platform is scalable, not host-limited, and has been used to express both a therapeutic and an industrial protein. PMID:23839786

  11. A multi-service data management platform for scientific oceanographic products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Anca, Alessandro; Conte, Laura; Nassisi, Paola; Palazzo, Cosimo; Lecci, Rita; Cretì, Sergio; Mancini, Marco; Nuzzo, Alessandra; Mirto, Maria; Mannarini, Gianandrea; Coppini, Giovanni; Fiore, Sandro; Aloisio, Giovanni

    2017-02-01

    An efficient, secure and interoperable data platform solution has been developed in the TESSA project to provide fast navigation and access to the data stored in the data archive, as well as a standard-based metadata management support. The platform mainly targets scientific users and the situational sea awareness high-level services such as the decision support systems (DSS). These datasets are accessible through the following three main components: the Data Access Service (DAS), the Metadata Service and the Complex Data Analysis Module (CDAM). The DAS allows access to data stored in the archive by providing interfaces for different protocols and services for downloading, variables selection, data subsetting or map generation. Metadata Service is the heart of the information system of the TESSA products and completes the overall infrastructure for data and metadata management. This component enables data search and discovery and addresses interoperability by exploiting widely adopted standards for geospatial data. Finally, the CDAM represents the back-end of the TESSA DSS by performing on-demand complex data analysis tasks.

  12. Production of Phloroglucinol, a Platform Chemical, in Arabidopsis using a Bacterial Gene

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Ghany, Salah E.; Day, Irene; Heuberger, Adam L.; Broeckling, Corey D.; Reddy, Anireddy S.N.

    2016-01-01

    Phloroglucinol (1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene; PG) and its derivatives are phenolic compounds that are used for various industrial applications. Current methods to synthesize PG are not sustainable due to the requirement for carbon-based precursors and co-production of toxic byproducts. Here, we describe a more sustainable production of PG using plants expressing a native bacterial or a codon-optimized synthetic PhlD targeted to either the cytosol or chloroplasts. Transgenic lines were analyzed for the production of PG using gas and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectroscopy. Phloroglucinol was produced in all transgenic lines and the line with the highest PhlD transcript level showed the most accumulation of PG. Over 80% of the produced PG was glycosylated to phlorin. Arabidopsis leaves have the machinery to glycosylate PG to form phlorin, which can be hydrolyzed enzymatically to produce PG. Furthermore, the metabolic profile of plants with PhlD in either the cytosol or chloroplasts was altered. Our results provide evidence that plants can be engineered to produce PG using a bacterial gene. Phytoproduction of PG using a bacterial gene paves the way for further genetic manipulations to enhance the level of PG with implications for the commercial production of this important platform chemical in plants. PMID:27924918

  13. Experiences with Transitioning Science Data Production from a Symmetric Multiprocessor Platform to a Linux Cluster Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, R. J.; Protack, S. P.; Harris, C. J.; Caruthers, C.; Kusterer, J. M.

    2008-12-01

    NASA's Atmospheric Science Data Center at the NASA Langley Research Center performs all of the science data processing for the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument. MISR is one of the five remote sensing instruments flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. From the time of Terra launch in December 1999 until February 2008, all MISR science data processing was performed on a Silicon Graphics, Inc. (SGI) platform. However, dramatic improvements in commodity computing technology coupled with steadily declining project budgets during that period eventually made transitioning MISR processing to a commodity computing environment both feasible and necessary. The Atmospheric Science Data Center has successfully ported the MISR science data processing environment from the SGI platform to a Linux cluster environment. There were a multitude of technical challenges associated with this transition. Even though the core architecture of the production system did not change, the manner in which it interacted with underlying hardware was fundamentally different. In addition, there are more potential throughput bottlenecks in a cluster environment than there are in a symmetric multiprocessor environment like the SGI platform and each of these had to be addressed. Once all the technical issues associated with the transition were resolved, the Atmospheric Science Data Center had a MISR science data processing system with significantly higher throughput than the SGI platform at a fraction of the cost. In addition to the commodity hardware, free and open source software such as S4PM, Sun Grid Engine, PostgreSQL and Ganglia play a significant role in the new system. Details of the technical challenges and resolutions, software systems, performance improvements, and cost savings associated with the transition will be discussed. The Atmospheric Science Data Center in Langley's Science Directorate leads NASA's program for the processing, archival and distribution of Earth

  14. Genetically Modified Bacteria for Fuel Production: Development of Rhodobacteria as a Versatile Platform for Fuels Production

    SciTech Connect

    2010-07-01

    Electrofuels Project: Penn State is genetically engineering bacteria called Rhodobacter to use electricity or electrically generated hydrogen to convert carbon dioxide into liquid fuels. Penn State is taking genes from oil-producing algae called Botryococcus braunii and putting them into Rhodobacter to produce hydrocarbon molecules, which closely resemble gasoline. Penn State is developing engineered tanks to support microbial fuel production and determining the most economical way to feed the electricity or hydrogen to the bacteria, including using renewable sources of power like solar energy.

  15. Offshore Membrane Enclosures for Growing Algae (OMEGA: A System for Biofuel Production, Wastewater Treatment, and CO2 Sequestration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trent, Jonathan; Embaye, Tsegereda; Buckwalter, Patrick; Richardson, Tra-My; Kagawa, Hiromi; Reinsch, Sigrid; Martis, Mary

    2010-01-01

    We are developing Offshore Membrane Enclosures for Growing Algae (OMEGA). OMEGAs are closed photo-bioreactors constructed of flexible, inexpensive, and durable plastic with small sections of semi-permeable membranes for gas exchange and forward osmosis (FO). Each OMEGA modules is filled with municipal wastewater and provided with CO2 from coastal CO2 sources. The OMEGA modules float just below the surface, and the surrounding seawater provides structural support, temperature control, and mixing for the freshwater algae cultures inside. The salinit7 gradient from inside to outside drives forward osmosis through the patches of FO membranes. This concentrates nutrients in the wastewater, which enhances algal growth, and slowly dewaters the algae, which facilitates harvesting. Thy concentrated algal biomass is harvested for producing biofuels and fertilizer. OMEGA system cleans the wastewater released into the surrounding coastal waters and functions as a carbon sequestration system.

  16. Offshore Membrane Enclosure for Growing Algai (Omega) System for Biofuel Production, Wastewater Treatment, and CO2 Sequestration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trent, Jonathan; Embaye, Tsegereda; Buckwalter, Patrick; Richardson, Tra-My; Kagawa, Hiromi; Reinsch, Sigrid

    2010-01-01

    We are developing Offshore Membrane Enclosures for Growing Algae (OMEGA). OMEGAs are closed photo-bioreactors constructed of flexible, inexpensive, and durable plastic with small sections of semi-permeable membranes for gas exchange and forward osmosis (FO). Each OMEGA modules is filled with municipal wastewater and provided with CO2 from coastal CO2 sources. The OMEGA modules float just below the surface, and the surrounding seawater provides structural support, temperature control, and mixing for the freshwater algae cultures inside. The salinity gradient from inside to outside drives forward osmosis through the patches of FO membranes. This concentrates nutrients in the wastewater, which enhances algal growth, and slowly dewaters the algae, which facilitates harvesting. The concentrated algal biomass is harvested for producing biofuels and fertilizer. OMEGA system cleans the wastewater released into the surrounding coastal waters and functions as a carbon sequestration system.

  17. Scaling up ATLAS Event Service to production levels on opportunistic computing platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benjamin, D.; Caballero, J.; Ernst, M.; Guan, W.; Hover, J.; Lesny, D.; Maeno, T.; Nilsson, P.; Tsulaia, V.; van Gemmeren, P.; Vaniachine, A.; Wang, F.; Wenaus, T.; ATLAS Collaboration

    2016-10-01

    Continued growth in public cloud and HPC resources is on track to exceed the dedicated resources available for ATLAS on the WLCG. Examples of such platforms are Amazon AWS EC2 Spot Instances, Edison Cray XC30 supercomputer, backfill at Tier 2 and Tier 3 sites, opportunistic resources at the Open Science Grid (OSG), and ATLAS High Level Trigger farm between the data taking periods. Because of specific aspects of opportunistic resources such as preemptive job scheduling and data I/O, their efficient usage requires workflow innovations provided by the ATLAS Event Service. Thanks to the finer granularity of the Event Service data processing workflow, the opportunistic resources are used more efficiently. We report on our progress in scaling opportunistic resource usage to double-digit levels in ATLAS production.

  18. A High-Throughput Regeneration and Transformation Platform for Production of Genetically Modified Banana.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Jaindra N; Oduor, Richard O; Tripathi, Leena

    2015-01-01

    Banana (Musa spp.) is an important staple food as well as cash crop in tropical and subtropical countries. Various bacterial, fungal, and viral diseases and pests such as nematodes are major constraints in its production and are currently destabilizing the banana production in sub-Saharan Africa. Genetic engineering is a complementary option used for incorporating useful traits in banana to bypass the long generation time, polyploidy, and sterility of most of the cultivated varieties. A robust transformation protocol for farmer preferred varieties is crucial for banana genomics and improvement. A robust and reproducible system for genetic transformation of banana using embryogenic cell suspensions (ECS) has been developed in this study. Two different types of explants (immature male flowers and multiple buds) were tested for their ability to develop ECS in several varieties of banana locally grown in Africa. ECS of banana varieties "Cavendish Williams" and "Gros Michel" were developed using multiple buds, whereas ECS of "Sukali Ndiizi" was developed using immature male flowers. Regeneration efficiency of ECS was about 20,000-50,000 plantlets per ml of settled cell volume (SCV) depending on variety. ECS of three different varieties were transformed through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation using gusA reporter gene and 20-70 independent transgenic events per ml SCV of ECS were regenerated on selective medium. The presence and integration of gusA gene in transgenic plants was confirmed by PCR, dot blot, and Southern blot analysis and expression by histochemical GUS assays. The robust transformation platform was successfully used to generate hundreds of transgenic lines with disease resistance. Such a platform will facilitate the transfer of technologies to national agricultural research systems (NARS) in Africa.

  19. A High-Throughput Regeneration and Transformation Platform for Production of Genetically Modified Banana

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Jaindra N.; Oduor, Richard O.; Tripathi, Leena

    2015-01-01

    Banana (Musa spp.) is an important staple food as well as cash crop in tropical and subtropical countries. Various bacterial, fungal, and viral diseases and pests such as nematodes are major constraints in its production and are currently destabilizing the banana production in sub-Saharan Africa. Genetic engineering is a complementary option used for incorporating useful traits in banana to bypass the long generation time, polyploidy, and sterility of most of the cultivated varieties. A robust transformation protocol for farmer preferred varieties is crucial for banana genomics and improvement. A robust and reproducible system for genetic transformation of banana using embryogenic cell suspensions (ECS) has been developed in this study. Two different types of explants (immature male flowers and multiple buds) were tested for their ability to develop ECS in several varieties of banana locally grown in Africa. ECS of banana varieties “Cavendish Williams” and “Gros Michel” were developed using multiple buds, whereas ECS of “Sukali Ndiizi” was developed using immature male flowers. Regeneration efficiency of ECS was about 20,000–50,000 plantlets per ml of settled cell volume (SCV) depending on variety. ECS of three different varieties were transformed through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation using gusA reporter gene and 20–70 independent transgenic events per ml SCV of ECS were regenerated on selective medium. The presence and integration of gusA gene in transgenic plants was confirmed by PCR, dot blot, and Southern blot analysis and expression by histochemical GUS assays. The robust transformation platform was successfully used to generate hundreds of transgenic lines with disease resistance. Such a platform will facilitate the transfer of technologies to national agricultural research systems (NARS) in Africa. PMID:26635849

  20. Experimental trials on the feasibility of offshore seed production of the mussel Mytilus edulis in the German Bight: installation, technical requirements and environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buck, Bela Hieronymus

    2007-06-01

    near “Roter Sand” has the potential to become an offshore seed production site as well as being exploitable as a grow-out site for mussel production to market size. In light of the technical results, recommendations for mussel culture strategies using a polypropylene longline system are given.

  1. Polychaete/amphipod ratio as an indicator of environmental impact related to offshore oil and gas production along the Norwegian continental shelf.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Hector; Renaud, Paul E

    2011-12-01

    Benthic faunal data is regularly collected worldwide to assess the ecological quality of marine environments. Recently, there has been renewed interest in developing biological indices able to identify environmental status and potential anthropogenic impacts. In this paper we evaluate the performance of a general polychaete/amphipod ratio along the Norwegian continental shelf as an environmental indicator for offshore oil and gas impacts. Two main trends are apparent: first, a contamination gradient is discernible from where production takes place compared to stations 10,000 m away. Second, the quality of the marine environment has improved over time. These results are consistent with monitoring reports employing a combination of uni- and multi-variate statistics. Thus, we consider this ratio as a relatively simple, useful and potentially cost-effective complement to other more demanding assessment techniques. Because of its strong theoretical basis, it may also be useful for detecting ecological change as a result of other activities.

  2. Candida bombicola as a platform organism for the production of tailor-made biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Roelants, Sophie L K W; Saerens, Karen M J; Derycke, Thibaut; Li, Bing; Lin, Yao-Cheng; Van de Peer, Yves; De Maeseneire, Sofie L; Van Bogaert, Inge N A; Soetaert, Wim

    2013-09-01

    The yeast Candida bombicola is capable of producing high amounts (400 g/L) of the biosurfactant sophorolipids. The genetic makeup of this industrially important yeast has recently been uncovered and molecular manipulation techniques have been developed. Hence, all tools for the development of new bioprocesses with C. bombicola are now available. As a proof of concept, the production of two totally different molecules was aimed for: the bioplastic polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) and a new-to-nature cellobioselipid-biosurfactant. Integration of the new functionalities at genomic loci necessary for sophorolipid production safeguards the new biomolecules from sophorolipid contamination, while taking advantage of the regulation of the sophorolipid gene cluster. A maximum yield of 2.0% wt/dwt PHA was obtained; furthermore, this is the first time cellobioselipid synthesis by a non-natural producer is reported. We here provided proof of concept that C. bombicola can be transformed into a platform organism for the production of tailor-made biomolecules.

  3. Feasibility of Floating Platform Systems for Wind Turbines: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Musial, W.; Butterfield, S.; Boone, A.

    2003-11-01

    This paper provides a general technical description of several types of floating platforms for wind turbines. Platform topologies are classified into multiple- or single-turbine floaters and by mooring method. Platforms using catenary mooring systems are contrasted to vertical mooring systems and the advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Specific anchor types are described in detail. A rough cost comparison is performed for two different platform architectures using a generic 5-MW wind turbine. One platform is a Dutch study of a tri-floater platform using a catenary mooring system, and the other is a mono-column tension-leg platform developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Cost estimates showed that single unit production cost is $7.1 M for the Dutch tri-floater, and $6.5 M for the NREL TLP concept. However, value engineering, multiple unit series production, and platform/turbine system optimization can lower the unit platform costs to $4.26 M and $2.88 M, respectively, with significant potential to reduce cost further with system optimization. These foundation costs are within the range necessary to bring the cost of energy down to the DOE target range of $0.05/kWh for large-scale deployment of offshore floating wind turbines.

  4. Implementation of subsea system to monitor in-situ temperature and formation pressure in methane hydrates sediments for the production test in 2017, offshore Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimoto, K.

    2016-12-01

    The methane hydrates phase changes, from solid to fluid, is governed by pressure drop and heat transportation through a geological formation. For the world's first offshore production test of methane hydrates conducted in 2013, the MH21 research team installed distributed temperature sensing (DTS) cables and array type resistance temperature devices (RTD) behind the casings of the monitoring wells. The temperature monitoring was continued over the period of 18 months. As a result, the thermal response of the methane hydrate-bearing sediment during depressurization was observed, and the obtained data was used to evaluate the methane dissociation behavior and to estimate the dissociation front radius from a producer well. The second offshore production test is planned in the same area in 2017 with the extended period up to one month. Two sets of a pair of monitoring and producer well were drilled in 2016. A pair of monitoring and producer wells is only 20m apart. An improved monitoring system is prepared for the second test with additional pressure measurement capability with new features of subsea system. The planed formation pressure measurement is expected to contribute not only for the evaluation of methane hydrate phase changes and estimation of its areal distribution but also the analyzing the interference in the vicinity of the producer wells from the geo-mechanical point of view. The DTS resolution was improved with longer averaging time than the previously utilized system. To accomplish the continuous acquisition up running over longer than 18 months to cover pre-flow and post-flow periods, the subsea acquisition system was equipped with an exchangeable subsea batteries by ROV. As for the surface communication method, the acoustic transponder was added in the subsea system. In this technical presentation, the improvements on the monitoring system are discussed and the scientific objectives for new measurements such as formation pressure are presented.

  5. Wave loading on offshore structures: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Standing, R.G.

    1984-01-01

    Man has worked close to the sea for many centuries, exploiting its resources and sailing his ships across it. In the process he has experienced, and gained respect for, the enormous forces exerted by sea waves during a violent storm or tsunami. Occasionally a coastal village is devastated; more often ships, harbours, lighthouses and coastal defences are wrecked. The long-term damage may be less dramatic, but no less destructive: sea waves can gradually erode a structure or its foundations, and cause cracking, ultimately leading to failure. Offshore engineering for the oil and gas industry started before World War II, and progress since then has been rapid. Early steel jacket structures were in water depths of 5-15m. By the early 1960s the water depth had reached 100m, and in 1978 the Cognac platform was completed in the Gulf of Mexico at a depth exceeding 300m. Rapidly increasing costs, however, have forced designers to examine radically new methods of production for deeper waters. A range of compliant structures, including tethered buoyant platforms and guyed towers, has been proposed.

  6. Enhancing Alkane Production in Cyanobacterial Lipid Droplets: A ModeFl Platform for Industrially Relevant Compound Production

    PubMed Central

    Peramuna, Anantha; Morton, Ray; Summers, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    Cyanobacterial lipid droplets (LDs) are packed with hydrophobic energy-dense compounds and have great potential for biotechnological expression and the compartmentalization of high value compounds. Nostoc punctiforme normally accumulates LDs containing neutral lipids, and small amounts of heptadecane, during the stationary phase of growth. In this study, we further enhanced heptadecane production in N. punctiforme by introducing extrachromosomal copies of aar/adc genes, and report the discovery of a putative novel lipase encoded by Npun_F5141, which further enhanced alkane production. Extra copies of all three genes in high light conditions resulted in a 16-fold higher accumulation of heptadecane compared to the wild type strain in the exponential phase. LD accumulation during exponential phase also increased massively to accommodate the heptadecane production. A large number of small, less fluorescent LDs were observed at the cell periphery in exponential growth phase, whereas fewer number of highly fluorescent, much larger LDs were localized towards the center of the cell in the stationary phase. These advances demonstrate that cyanobacterial LDs are an ideal model platform to make industrially relevant compounds, such as alkanes, during exponential growth, and provide insight into LD formation in cyanobacteria. PMID:25821934

  7. Certification of offshore mooring steel wire ropes

    SciTech Connect

    Lohne, P.W.

    1996-12-31

    The trend to produce oil in increasingly deeper water has led to the development of floating production solutions for the exploitation of the energy resources in these areas. It is a fact that steel wire ropes have been used and are being proposed as line segments in the majority of the mooring systems of these units/ships. This paper specifies requirements for the materials, design, manufacture and testing of large diameter offshore mooring steel wire ropes and may serve as a technical reference document in contractual matters between the purchaser and the manufacturer. Typical applications covered are permanently moored floating production systems (FPS), offshore loading systems and mobile offshore units.

  8. Reasons for decision in the matter of Sable Offshore Energy Inc., application dated 9 June 1998 for approval of the plan, profile and book of reference respecting the detailed route of a subsea pipeline from the Thebaud platform to a landfall near Goldboro, Nova Scotia, and an onshore pipeline from the landfall point to the inlet of the gas processing plant located east of Goldboro, Nova Scotia: MH-4-98

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    The National Energy Board approved a natural gas pipeline to be built by the proponents of the Sable Offshore Energy Project within a specified 500-meter-wide corridor. The pipeline will run from an offshore platform near Sable Island to a gas plant on the Nova Scotia mainland. This report summarizes proceedings of hearings held to determine the detailed route of the pipeline within the specified corridor and to consider the most appropriate methods and timing of constructing the pipeline. Specific objections to the detailed route from holders of mineral rights licenses are noted and a Board decision on the detailed route is presented.

  9. The environmental issues of platform decommissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Susani, L.

    1996-12-31

    This paper provides a review of the environmental impacts of offshore platform disposal, based on past activities and technical and research studies. Environmental impacts are considered in relation to four main decommissioning options. The most significant effects stem from explosive cutting, sediment resuspension and release of contamination during initial production shut-down, well purging and removal of the jacket structure from the seabed. Any decommissioning option that minimizes movement of structures and avoids explosive cutting must therefore be viewed as preferable from an ecological viewpoint. Complete removal is preferred on the grounds of energy conservation, fisheries and navigational safety, and controlled disposal of potential contaminants.

  10. Integrated reservoir characterization for the gas hydrate-bearing sediments around the 2nd offshore production test site in the eastern Nankai Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamaki, M.; Fujii, T.; Suzuki, K.; Takayama, T.

    2016-12-01

    Following the 1st offshore production test from gas hydrate reservoir that was conducted in 2013, JOGMEC is planning to conduct the 2nd offshore production test in the eastern Nankai Trough. In May and Jun 2016, the pre-drilling survey was performed on ahead of the production test, and a total of 5 wells logging data were newly obtained around the test site: one well for geological survey, two wells for monitoring wells, and two production wells (only for the part shallower than the gas hydrate reservoir). In order to evaluate the reservoir potential around the test site, we conducted the integrated reservoir characterization using the latest new wells, existed wells, and 3D seismic data. In the present study, we focused on the following geological and geophysical evaluation results: 1) lateral continuity of the formation by well log correlation and gas hydrate-bearing conditions by the resistivity log data, 2) 3D internal reservoir architecture by integration of 3D seismic and well data. Based on the well log correlation between newly obtained 3 wells and existed wells, lateral continuities of dominant sand layers are fairly good and the formation beddings are stable without major structural gaps around the test site. However, petrophysical analysis from the resistivity log shows that the gas hydrate-bearing conditions are heterogeneous within each layer. Especially, in the upper unit of the reservoir, high resistivity layers are getting scarce for the structural up-dip side. In the lower unit of the reservoir, low resistivity zones associated with the low gas hydrate saturation are distributed in the reservoir, which do not exist at a same stratigraphic level. In order to comprehend the 3D internal reservoir architecture, we performed integrated analysis using 3D seismic and well log data. The RMS amplitude map generated from reservoir top horizon shows the northeast-southwest trending anomalies around the production test site. The relationship between the

  11. Extremely thermophilic microorganisms as metabolic engineering platforms for production of fuels and industrial chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Zeldes, Benjamin M.; Keller, Matthew W.; Loder, Andrew J.; Straub, Christopher T.; Adams, Michael W. W.; Kelly, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Enzymes from extremely thermophilic microorganisms have been of technological interest for some time because of their ability to catalyze reactions of industrial significance at elevated temperatures. Thermophilic enzymes are now routinely produced in recombinant mesophilic hosts for use as discrete biocatalysts. Genome and metagenome sequence data for extreme thermophiles provide useful information for putative biocatalysts for a wide range of biotransformations, albeit involving at most a few enzymatic steps. However, in the past several years, unprecedented progress has been made in establishing molecular genetics tools for extreme thermophiles to the point that the use of these microorganisms as metabolic engineering platforms has become possible. While in its early days, complex metabolic pathways have been altered or engineered into recombinant extreme thermophiles, such that the production of fuels and chemicals at elevated temperatures has become possible. Not only does this expand the thermal range for industrial biotechnology, it also potentially provides biodiverse options for specific biotransformations unique to these microorganisms. The list of extreme thermophiles growing optimally between 70 and 100°C with genetic toolkits currently available includes archaea and bacteria, aerobes and anaerobes, coming from genera such as Caldicellulosiruptor, Sulfolobus, Thermotoga, Thermococcus, and Pyrococcus. These organisms exhibit unusual and potentially useful native metabolic capabilities, including cellulose degradation, metal solubilization, and RuBisCO-free carbon fixation. Those looking to design a thermal bioprocess now have a host of potential candidates to choose from, each with its own advantages and challenges that will influence its appropriateness for specific applications. Here, the issues and opportunities for extremely thermophilic metabolic engineering platforms are considered with an eye toward potential technological advantages for high

  12. Extremely thermophilic microorganisms as metabolic engineering platforms for production of fuels and industrial chemicals.

    PubMed

    Zeldes, Benjamin M; Keller, Matthew W; Loder, Andrew J; Straub, Christopher T; Adams, Michael W W; Kelly, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    Enzymes from extremely thermophilic microorganisms have been of technological interest for some time because of their ability to catalyze reactions of industrial significance at elevated temperatures. Thermophilic enzymes are now routinely produced in recombinant mesophilic hosts for use as discrete biocatalysts. Genome and metagenome sequence data for extreme thermophiles provide useful information for putative biocatalysts for a wide range of biotransformations, albeit involving at most a few enzymatic steps. However, in the past several years, unprecedented progress has been made in establishing molecular genetics tools for extreme thermophiles to the point that the use of these microorganisms as metabolic engineering platforms has become possible. While in its early days, complex metabolic pathways have been altered or engineered into recombinant extreme thermophiles, such that the production of fuels and chemicals at elevated temperatures has become possible. Not only does this expand the thermal range for industrial biotechnology, it also potentially provides biodiverse options for specific biotransformations unique to these microorganisms. The list of extreme thermophiles growing optimally between 70 and 100°C with genetic toolkits currently available includes archaea and bacteria, aerobes and anaerobes, coming from genera such as Caldicellulosiruptor, Sulfolobus, Thermotoga, Thermococcus, and Pyrococcus. These organisms exhibit unusual and potentially useful native metabolic capabilities, including cellulose degradation, metal solubilization, and RuBisCO-free carbon fixation. Those looking to design a thermal bioprocess now have a host of potential candidates to choose from, each with its own advantages and challenges that will influence its appropriateness for specific applications. Here, the issues and opportunities for extremely thermophilic metabolic engineering platforms are considered with an eye toward potential technological advantages for high

  13. Offshore wind farm layout optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkinton, Christopher Neil

    Offshore wind energy technology is maturing in Europe and is poised to make a significant contribution to the U.S. energy production portfolio. Building on the knowledge the wind industry has gained to date, this dissertation investigates the influences of different site conditions on offshore wind farm micrositing---the layout of individual turbines within the boundaries of a wind farm. For offshore wind farms, these conditions include, among others, the wind and wave climates, water depths, and soil conditions at the site. An analysis tool has been developed that is capable of estimating the cost of energy (COE) from offshore wind farms. For this analysis, the COE has been divided into several modeled components: major costs (e.g. turbines, electrical interconnection, maintenance, etc.), energy production, and energy losses. By treating these component models as functions of site-dependent parameters, the analysis tool can investigate the influence of these parameters on the COE. Some parameters result in simultaneous increases of both energy and cost. In these cases, the analysis tool was used to determine the value of the parameter that yielded the lowest COE and, thus, the best balance of cost and energy. The models have been validated and generally compare favorably with existing offshore wind farm data. The analysis technique was then paired with optimization algorithms to form a tool with which to design offshore wind farm layouts for which the COE was minimized. Greedy heuristic and genetic optimization algorithms have been tuned and implemented. The use of these two algorithms in series has been shown to produce the best, most consistent solutions. The influences of site conditions on the COE have been studied further by applying the analysis and optimization tools to the initial design of a small offshore wind farm near the town of Hull, Massachusetts. The results of an initial full-site analysis and optimization were used to constrain the boundaries of

  14. The emerging potential of by-products as platforms for drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Joanitti, Graziella A; Silva, Luciano P

    2014-05-01

    Natural resources are widely used as raw materials by industries. In most cases, abundant byproducts with low economic interest are also generated from agro-industrial supply chains. There are several examples for the rational use of agro-industrial byproducts in the nanobiotechnology field aiming for the development of novel products and high value added processes. Such raw materials include carapaces, pelages, blood, bagasses, and straws. Molecules from such materials (e.g. chitosan, cellulose, and albumin) are used as scaffolds of unprecedented novel nanostructure. Research efforts comprising a combination of sustainability, nanobiotechnology, and nanomedicine have emerged. One major area in nano-biotechnological research of agro-industrial byproducts is represented by the field of drug delivery systems (DDS). Among the main advantages of agro-industrial byproducts used as drug carriers are their abundance; low price; high biocompatibility; good biodegradability; moderate bioresorbability, associated with reduced systemic toxicity or even no toxicity; and often bioactivity. The goal of these efforts includes not only the possibility to characterize and manipulate matter on the nanoscale, but also to develop sustainable products and processes, including the development of platforms for drug delivery aiming for the treatment of pathologies such as cancer and diabetes. Indeed, there is great hope that the use of agro-industrial byproducts in nanobiotechnology will increase not only agricultural and livestock productivity, but will also contribute to other areas such as the development of DDS with new properties and low production costs; and sustainable environmental management due to the reuse of industrial discharged byproducts. This review will compile current findings on the use of byproducts as building blocks for modern drug carrier systems, emphasizing the challenges and promising applications.

  15. Dedicated Industrial Oilseed Crops as Metabolic Engineering Platforms for Sustainable Industrial Feedstock Production.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Li-Hua; Krens, Frans; Smith, Mark A; Li, Xueyuan; Qi, Weicong; van Loo, Eibertus N; Iven, Tim; Feussner, Ivo; Nazarenus, Tara J; Huai, Dongxin; Taylor, David C; Zhou, Xue-Rong; Green, Allan G; Shockey, Jay; Klasson, K Thomas; Mullen, Robert T; Huang, Bangquan; Dyer, John M; Cahoon, Edgar B

    2016-02-26

    Feedstocks for industrial applications ranging from polymers to lubricants are largely derived from petroleum, a non-renewable resource. Vegetable oils with fatty acid structures and storage forms tailored for specific industrial uses offer renewable and potentially sustainable sources of petrochemical-type functionalities. A wide array of industrial vegetable oils can be generated through biotechnology, but will likely require non-commodity oilseed platforms dedicated to specialty oil production for commercial acceptance. Here we show the feasibility of three Brassicaceae oilseeds crambe, camelina, and carinata, none of which are widely cultivated for food use, as hosts for complex metabolic engineering of wax esters for lubricant applications. Lines producing wax esters >20% of total seed oil were generated for each crop and further improved for high temperature oxidative stability by down-regulation of fatty acid polyunsaturation. Field cultivation of optimized wax ester-producing crambe demonstrated commercial utility of these engineered crops and a path for sustainable production of other industrial oils in dedicated specialty oilseeds.

  16. Dedicated Industrial Oilseed Crops as Metabolic Engineering Platforms for Sustainable Industrial Feedstock Production

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Li-Hua; Krens, Frans; Smith, Mark A.; Li, Xueyuan; Qi, Weicong; van Loo, Eibertus N.; Iven, Tim; Feussner, Ivo; Nazarenus, Tara J.; Huai, Dongxin; Taylor, David C.; Zhou, Xue-Rong; Green, Allan G.; Shockey, Jay; Klasson, K. Thomas; Mullen, Robert T.; Huang, Bangquan; Dyer, John M.; Cahoon, Edgar B.

    2016-01-01

    Feedstocks for industrial applications ranging from polymers to lubricants are largely derived from petroleum, a non-renewable resource. Vegetable oils with fatty acid structures and storage forms tailored for specific industrial uses offer renewable and potentially sustainable sources of petrochemical-type functionalities. A wide array of industrial vegetable oils can be generated through biotechnology, but will likely require non-commodity oilseed platforms dedicated to specialty oil production for commercial acceptance. Here we show the feasibility of three Brassicaceae oilseeds crambe, camelina, and carinata, none of which are widely cultivated for food use, as hosts for complex metabolic engineering of wax esters for lubricant applications. Lines producing wax esters >20% of total seed oil were generated for each crop and further improved for high temperature oxidative stability by down-regulation of fatty acid polyunsaturation. Field cultivation of optimized wax ester-producing crambe demonstrated commercial utility of these engineered crops and a path for sustainable production of other industrial oils in dedicated specialty oilseeds. PMID:26916792

  17. Efficient ethanol production from brown macroalgae sugars by a synthetic yeast platform.

    PubMed

    Enquist-Newman, Maria; Faust, Ann Marie E; Bravo, Daniel D; Santos, Christine Nicole S; Raisner, Ryan M; Hanel, Arthur; Sarvabhowman, Preethi; Le, Chi; Regitsky, Drew D; Cooper, Susan R; Peereboom, Lars; Clark, Alana; Martinez, Yessica; Goldsmith, Joshua; Cho, Min Y; Donohoue, Paul D; Luo, Lily; Lamberson, Brigit; Tamrakar, Pramila; Kim, Edward J; Villari, Jeffrey L; Gill, Avinash; Tripathi, Shital A; Karamchedu, Padma; Paredes, Carlos J; Rajgarhia, Vineet; Kotlar, Hans Kristian; Bailey, Richard B; Miller, Dennis J; Ohler, Nicholas L; Swimmer, Candace; Yoshikuni, Yasuo

    2014-01-09

    The increasing demands placed on natural resources for fuel and food production require that we explore the use of efficient, sustainable feedstocks such as brown macroalgae. The full potential of brown macroalgae as feedstocks for commercial-scale fuel ethanol production, however, requires extensive re-engineering of the alginate and mannitol catabolic pathways in the standard industrial microbe Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here we present the discovery of an alginate monomer (4-deoxy-L-erythro-5-hexoseulose uronate, or DEHU) transporter from the alginolytic eukaryote Asteromyces cruciatus. The genomic integration and overexpression of the gene encoding this transporter, together with the necessary bacterial alginate and deregulated native mannitol catabolism genes, conferred the ability of an S. cerevisiae strain to efficiently metabolize DEHU and mannitol. When this platform was further adapted to grow on mannitol and DEHU under anaerobic conditions, it was capable of ethanol fermentation from mannitol and DEHU, achieving titres of 4.6% (v/v) (36.2 g l(-1)) and yields up to 83% of the maximum theoretical yield from consumed sugars. These results show that all major sugars in brown macroalgae can be used as feedstocks for biofuels and value-added renewable chemicals in a manner that is comparable to traditional arable-land-based feedstocks.

  18. Acetylcholine esterase inhibitors in effluents from oil production platforms in the North Sea.

    PubMed

    Holth, T F; Tollefsen, K E

    2012-05-15

    Inhibition of acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activity is a biomarker for the exposure to neurotoxic compounds such as organophosphates and is intimately associated with the toxicity of several pesticides. In the present study, the AChE inhibiting potential of organic extracts of production water (produced water) from oil and gas production platforms in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea was determined in an in vitro bioassay based on commercially available purified AChE from the electric organ of Electrophorus electricus (L.). The results from the studies show that produced water contains a combination of AChE inhibiting compounds and compounds stimulating AChE enzymatic activity. The AChE inhibition was predominantly caused by unidentified aromatic compounds in the oil/particulate fraction of produced water, whereas polar compounds in both the water soluble and oil/particulate fraction of produced water caused an apparent stimulation of AChE activity. Substrate saturation studies with fixed concentrations of produced water extracts confirmed that the inhibition occurred in a non-destructive and competitive manner. The concentrations of AChE inhibitors (7.9-453 ng paraoxon-equivalents L⁻¹, 2.2-178 μg dichlorvos-equivalents L⁻¹) were in many cases found to be several orders of magnitude higher than background levels. The findings demonstrate that produced water contains potentially neurotoxic compounds and suggest that further laboratory studies with fish or field studies in the vicinity of oil production facilities are highly warranted. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Proceedings of the nineteenth annual offshore technology conference. Vol. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on offshore platforms. Topics considered at the conference included soil-structure interactions, foundations, hydrodynamics, remotely operated vehicles, wave forces, seismic surveys, morrings, marine risers, steel platform repairs, underwater welding, underwater inspections, wave equations, well completion, damping, anchors, field tests, mechanical vibrations, and hydraulic equipment.

  20. Comparison of microbial communities involved in souring and corrosion in offshore and onshore oil production facilities in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okoro, Chuma; Smith, Seun; Chiejina, Leo; Lumactud, Rhea; An, Dongshan; Park, Hyung Soo; Voordouw, Johanna; Lomans, Bart P; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2014-04-01

    Samples were obtained from the Obigbo field, located onshore in the Niger delta, Nigeria, from which oil is produced by injection of low-sulfate groundwater, as well as from the offshore Bonga field from which oil is produced by injection of high-sulfate (2,200 ppm) seawater, amended with 45 ppm of calcium nitrate to limit reservoir souring. Despite low concentrations of sulfate (0-7 ppm) and nitrate (0 ppm), sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and heterotrophic nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB) were present in samples from the Obigbo field. Biologically active deposits (BADs), scraped from corrosion-failed sections of a water- and of an oil-transporting pipeline (both Obigbo), had high counts of SRB and high sulfate and ferrous iron concentrations. Analysis of microbial community composition by pyrosequencing indicated anaerobic, methanogenic hydrocarbon degradation to be a dominant process in all samples from the Obigbo field, including the BADs. Samples from the Bonga field also had significant activity of SRB, as well as of heterotrophic and of sulfide-oxidizing NRB. Microbial community analysis indicated high proportions of potentially thermophilic NRB and near-absence of microbes active in methanogenic hydrocarbon degradation. Anaerobic incubation of Bonga samples with steel coupons gave moderate general corrosion rates of 0.045-0.049 mm/year, whereas near-zero general corrosion rates (0.001-0.002 mm/year) were observed with Obigbo water samples. Hence, methanogens may contribute to corrosion at Obigbo, but the low general corrosion rates cannot explain the reasons for pipeline failures in the Niger delta. A focus of future work should be on understanding the role of BADs in enhancing under-deposit pitting corrosion.

  1. Energy week `96: Conference papers. Book 3: Drilling and production economics

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    The papers of Section 1, Drilling Technology, relate to advanced materials for downhole tools, underbalanced drilling, horizontal drilling technology/new trajectory control device, horizontal drilling HP/HT well control, advances in drill bits, slim-hole drill bits and tubulars, novel/scientific drilling, and coiled tubing/slim-hole drilling/short radius. The topics of Section 2, Ocean Engineering, include marine pollution and diving equipment. Section 3, Petroleum Production Technology, relate to what`s new in regulations and standards in petroleum production. Papers in Section 4, Offshore and Arctic Operations, cover offshore platforms, floating production systems, offshore pipelines, offshore construction and installation, offshore facilities, and environmental and safety issues. Most papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  2. Systems metabolic engineering of Corynebacterium glutamicum for the production of the carbon-5 platform chemicals 5-aminovalerate and glutarate.

    PubMed

    Rohles, Christina Maria; Gießelmann, Gideon; Kohlstedt, Michael; Wittmann, Christoph; Becker, Judith

    2016-09-13

    The steadily growing world population and our ever luxurious life style, along with the simultaneously decreasing fossil resources has confronted modern society with the issue and need of finding renewable routes to accommodate for our demands. Shifting the production pipeline from raw oil to biomass requires efficient processes for numerous platform chemicals being produced with high yield, high titer and high productivity. In the present work, we established a de novo bio-based production process for the two carbon-5 platform chemicals 5-aminovalerate and glutarate on basis of the lysine-hyperproducing strain Corynebacterium glutamicum LYS-12. Upon heterologous implementation of the Pseudomonas putida genes davA, encoding 5-aminovaleramidase and davB, encoding lysine monooxygenase, 5-aminovalerate production was established. Related to the presence of endogenous genes coding for 5-aminovalerate transaminase (gabT) and glutarate semialdehyde dehydrogenase, 5-aminovalerate was partially converted to glutarate. Moreover, residual L-lysine was secreted as by-product. The issue of by-product formation was then addressed by deletion of the lysE gene, encoding the L-lysine exporter. Additionally, a putative gabT gene was deleted to enhance 5-aminovalerate production. To fully exploit the performance of the optimized strain, fed-batch fermentation was carried out producing 28 g L(-1) 5-aminovalerate with a maximal space-time yield of 0.9 g L(-1) h(-1). The present study describes the construction of a recombinant microbial cell factory for the production of carbon-5 platform chemicals. Beyond a basic proof-of-concept, we were able to specifically increase the production flux of 5-aminovalerate thereby generating a strain with excellent production performance. Additional improvement can be expected by removal of remaining by-product formation and bottlenecks, associated to the terminal pathway, to generate a strain being applicable as centerpiece for a bio

  3. PaRSEC: A Software Framework for Performance and Productivity on Hybrid, Manycore Platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Dongarra, Jack; Bosilca, George; Herault, Thomas; Boutellier, Aurelien; Genet, Damien

    2016-06-30

    As the era of computer architectures dominated by serial processors ends, the convergence of several unprecedented challenges suggests that closing the longstanding "application–architecture performance gap" will become more challenging than ever. To address this problem, the Parallel Runtime Scheduling and Execution Control (PaRSEC) project created a modular software framework that achieved two major objectives: first, it built a task-based runtime capable of delivering portable performance to a wide range of science and engineering applications at all levels of the platform pyramid, including the upcoming 100 Pflop/s systems and then exascale; and second, it supported and facilitated the work of developers in migrating their legacy codes and writing entirely new ones for the emerging hybrid and massively parallel manycore processor system designs. PaRSEC will support multiple domain-specific languages capable of increasing the developers' productivity while also providing the runtime with the constructs and flexibility necessary to exploit the maximal parallelism from parallel applications. Extensive preliminary research in dense linear algebra showed convincingly that a parameterized task graph representation that symbolically describes the algorithm content can achieve the project's twofold objective within that domain. The research also strongly suggested that this powerful method could be generalized to a far-wider variety of applications.

  4. Construction of bioengineered yeast platform for direct bioethanol production from alginate and mannitol.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Toshiyuki; Sasaki, Yusuke; Motone, Keisuke; Shibata, Toshiyuki; Tanaka, Reiji; Miyake, Hideo; Mori, Tetsushi; Kuroda, Kouichi; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi

    2017-07-24

    Brown macroalgae are a sustainable and promising source for bioethanol production because they are abundant in ocean ecosystems and contain negligible quantities of lignin. Brown macroalgae contain cellulose, hemicellulose, mannitol, laminarin, and alginate as major carbohydrates. Among these carbohydrates, brown macroalgae are characterized by high levels of alginate and mannitol. The direct bioconversion of alginate and mannitol into ethanol requires extensive bioengineering of assimilation processes in the standard industrial microbe Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we constructed an alginate-assimilating S. cerevisiae recombinant strain by genome integration and overexpression of the genes encoding endo- and exo-type alginate lyases, DEH (4-deoxy-L-erythro-5-hexoseulose uronic acid) transporter, and components of the DEH metabolic pathway. Furthermore, the mannitol-metabolizing capacity of S. cerevisiae was enhanced by prolonged culture in a medium containing mannitol as the sole carbon source. When the constructed strain AM1 was anaerobically cultivated in a fermentation medium containing 6% (w/v) total sugars (approximately 1:2 ratio of alginate/mannitol), it directly produced ethanol from alginate and mannitol, giving 8.8 g/L ethanol and yields of up to 32% of the maximum theoretical yield from consumed sugars. These results indicate that all major carbohydrates of brown macroalgae can be directly converted into bioethanol by S. cerevisiae. This strain and system could provide a platform for the complete utilization of brown macroalgae.

  5. The human rhabdomyosarcoma cell line TE671--Towards an innovative production platform for glycosylated biopharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Rosenlöcher, Julia; Weilandt, Constanze; Sandig, Grit; Reinke, Stefan O; Blanchard, Véronique; Hinderlich, Stephan

    2015-11-01

    The market of therapeutic glycoproteins (including coagulation factors, antibodies, cytokines and hormones) is one of the profitable, fast-growing and challenging sectors of the biopharmaceutical industry. Although mammalian cell culture is still expensive and technically complex, the ability to produce desired post-translational modifications, in particular glycosylation, is a major issue. Glycans can influence ligand binding, serum half-life as well as biological activity or product immunogenicity. Aiming to establish a novel production platform for recombinant glycoproteins, the human TE671 cell line was investigated. Since the initial analysis of cell membrane proteins showed a promising glycosylation of TE671 cells for biotechnological purposes, we focused on the recombinant expression of two model glycoproteins of therapeutical relevance. The optimization of the cell transfection procedure and serum-free expression succeeded for the human serine protease inhibitor alpha-1-antitrypsin (A1AT) and the hematopoietic cytokine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). N-glycan analyses of both purified proteins by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry provided first fundamental insights into the TE671 glycosylation potential. Besides protein specific pattern, strong distinctions - in particular for N-glycan fucosylation and sialylation - were observed depending on the medium conditions of the respective TE671 cell cultivations. The cell line's ability to synthesize complex and highly sialylated N-glycan structures has been shown. Our results demonstrate the TE671 cell line as a serious alternative to other existing human expression systems.

  6. Development of an antibiotic marker-free platform for heterologous protein production in Streptomyces.

    PubMed

    Sevillano, Laura; Díaz, Margarita; Santamaría, Ramón I

    2017-09-26

    The industrial use of enzymes produced by microorganisms is continuously growing due to the need for sustainable solutions. Nevertheless, many of the plasmids used for recombinant production of proteins in bacteria are based on the use of antibiotic resistance genes as selection markers. The safety concerns and legal requirements surrounding the increased use of antibiotic resistance genes have made the development of new antibiotic-free approaches essential. In this work, a system completely free of antibiotic resistance genes and useful for the production of high yields of proteins in Streptomyces is described. This system is based on the separation of the two components of the yefM/yoeBsl (antitoxin/toxin) operon; the toxin (yoeBsl) gene, responsible for host death, is integrated into the genome and the antitoxin gene (yefMsl), which inactivates the toxin, is located in the expression plasmid. To develop this system, the toxin gene was integrated into the genome of a strain lacking the complete operon, and the antibiotic resistance gene integrated along with the toxin was eliminated by Cre recombinase to generate a final host strain free of any antibiotic resistance marker. In the same way, the antibiotic resistance gene from the final expression plasmid was removed by Dre recombinase. The usefulness of this system was analysed by checking the production of two hydrolases from different Streptomyces. Production of both proteins, with potential industrial use, was high and stable over time after strain storage and after serial subcultures. These results support the robustness and stability of the positive selection system developed. The total absence of antibiotic resistance genes makes this system a powerful tool for using Streptomyces as a host to produce proteins at the industrial level. This work is the first Streptomyces antibiotic marker-free system to be described. Graphical abstract Antibiotic marker-free platform for protein expression in Streptomyces

  7. Evaluation of the reliability of a conventional platform installed in South Pass Block 47 of the Mississippi River delta

    SciTech Connect

    Bea, R.G.

    1996-12-31

    In August 1995, the Energy Development Corporation (EDC) installed a conventional drilling and production platform in South Pass Block 47 (SP 47). Due to its proximity to the delta of the Mississippi River, this platform will be subject to the environmental forces developed by hurricanes and movements of the sea floor. This paper summarizes results from probability based study of the reliability characteristics of a conventional platform installed in SP 47. Bases for evaluation of the acceptability of the reliability of the platform are developed. This paper shows how reliability methods can be used to help improve the efficiency of offshore platforms. Application of traditional engineering approaches indicated the need for a mudslide resistant platform. Given that a mudslide resistant platform was required, then the gas reserves could not have been developed.

  8. New perspectives in offshore wind energy.

    PubMed

    Failla, Giuseppe; Arena, Felice

    2015-02-28

    The design of offshore wind turbines is one of the most fascinating challenges in renewable energy. Meeting the objective of increasing power production with reduced installation and maintenance costs requires a multi-disciplinary approach, bringing together expertise in different fields of engineering. The purpose of this theme issue is to offer a broad perspective on some crucial aspects of offshore wind turbines design, discussing the state of the art and presenting recent theoretical and experimental studies.

  9. New perspectives in offshore wind energy

    PubMed Central

    Failla, Giuseppe; Arena, Felice

    2015-01-01

    The design of offshore wind turbines is one of the most fascinating challenges in renewable energy. Meeting the objective of increasing power production with reduced installation and maintenance costs requires a multi-disciplinary approach, bringing together expertise in different fields of engineering. The purpose of this theme issue is to offer a broad perspective on some crucial aspects of offshore wind turbines design, discussing the state of the art and presenting recent theoretical and experimental studies. PMID:25583869

  10. Offshore Wind Energy Systems Engineering Curriculum Development

    SciTech Connect

    McGowan, Jon G.; Manwell, James F.; Lackner, Matthew A.

    2012-12-31

    Utility-scale electricity produced from offshore wind farms has the potential to contribute significantly to the energy production of the United States. In order for the U.S. to rapidly develop these abundant resources, knowledgeable scientists and engineers with sound understanding of offshore wind energy systems are critical. This report summarizes the development of an upper-level engineering course in "Offshore Wind Energy Systems Engineering." This course is designed to provide students with a comprehensive knowledge of both the technical challenges of offshore wind energy and the practical regulatory, permitting, and planning aspects of developing offshore wind farms in the U.S. This course was offered on a pilot basis in 2011 at the University of Massachusetts and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), TU Delft, and GL Garrad Hassan have reviewed its content. As summarized in this report, the course consists of 17 separate topic areas emphasizing appropriate engineering fundamentals as well as development, planning, and regulatory issues. In addition to the course summary, the report gives the details of a public Internet site where references and related course material can be obtained. This course will fill a pressing need for the education and training of the U.S. workforce in this critically important area. Fundamentally, this course will be unique due to two attributes: an emphasis on the engineering and technical aspects of offshore wind energy systems, and a focus on offshore wind energy issues specific to the United States.

  11. The industrial RB211-24 gas engine: initial experience in service offshore

    SciTech Connect

    Soinne, P.E.

    1983-01-01

    The Industrial RB211 gas engine is derived from the RB211 turbofan aero engine which in its various marks powers all Lockheed Tristars and a proportion of Boeing 747 airliners. The design and development programme of the industrial engine commenced in 1972. It arose out of an earlier feasibility study for a second generation marine propulsion engine. The industrial programme was specifically aimed at the production of a gas-fuelled base load machine for gas pumping and transmission applications. The engine was designated the Industrial RB211-22, being derived from the RB211-22 aero engine, the single mark of engine available at that time. The first field trials gas generator entered service in late 1974 in a transmission pipeline gas pumping application in Canada. Since then the RB211-22 engine has accumulated over 140,000 hours of operation in twelve onshore installations. Design and development of an uprated version of the engine began in early 1976. This was designated RB211-24, since it utilized the improved turbine technology of the RB211-524 aero engine introduced for the Boeing 747 and later versions of Tristar. With offshore applications in mind, the validation of improved corrosion resistant turbine materials was an integral part of the development programme. In consequence of this, the engine was available for both offshore and onshore applications as released for production. The first RB211-24 engines entered service in late 1980 in offshore applications on the Leman AK platform and another North Sea Gas production platform. There are now a total of fifteen RB211-24 installations which have accumulated over 53,000 hours of operation both onshore and offshore.

  12. Ethanol production from modern biorefinery: Robotic platform for production of Saccharomyces cerevisiae engineered to convert pretreated lignocellulosic sugars to ethanol anaerobically

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Biorefineries to produce ethanol are becoming abundant but the future of ethanol requires that cellulosic ethanol paradigms are researched. A discussion of the existing ethanol production and biorefinery capacity will be made. The USDA, ARS, NCAUR, BBC group has developed a robotic platform to scr...

  13. Integrating syngas fermentation with the carboxylate platform and yeast fermentation to reduce medium cost and improve biofuel productivity.

    PubMed

    Richter, Hanno; Loftus, Sarah E; Angenent, Largus T

    2013-01-01

    To ensure economic implementation of syngas fermentation as a fuel-producing platform, engineers and scientists must both lower operating costs and increase product value. A considerable part of the operating costs is spent to procure chemicals for fermentation medium that can sustain sufficient growth of carboxydotrophic bacteria to convert synthesis gas (syngas: carbon monoxide, hydrogen, and carbon dioxide) into products such as ethanol. Recently, we have observed that wildtype carboxydotrophic bacteria (including Clostridium ljungdahlii) can produce alcohols with a longer carbon chain than ethanol via syngas fermentation when supplied with the corresponding carboxylic acid precursors, resulting in possibilities of increasing product value. Here, we evaluated a proof-of-concept system to couple syngas fermentation with the carboxylate platform to both lower medium costs and increase product value. Our carboxylate platform concept consists of an open culture, anaerobic fermentor that is fed with corn beer from conventional yeast fermentation in the corn kernel-to-ethanol industry. The mixed-culture anaerobic fermentor produces a mixture ofcarboxylic acids at dilute concentrations within the carboxylate platform effluent (CPE). Besides providing carboxylic acid precursors, this effluent may represent an inexpensive growth medium. An elemental analysis demonstrated that the CPE lacked certain essential trace metals, but contained ammonium, phosphate, sodium, chloride, potassium, magnesium, calcium, and sulphate at required concentrations. CPE medium with the addition of a trace metal solution supported growth and alcohol production of C. ljungdahlii at similar or better levels compared with an optimized synthetic medium (modified ATCC 1754 medium). Other expensive supplements, such as yeast extract or macro minerals (ammonium, phosphate), were not required. Finally, n-butyric acid and n-caproic acid within the CPE were converted into their corresponding medium

  14. Undersea fiber optic technology for the offshore community

    SciTech Connect

    Mariano, J.J.

    1994-12-31

    The explosive growth in demand for global communications has been met by a rapid evolution in the undersea fiber-optic technology, which in just a few years has become the predominant method of communication across the world`s oceans and seas. As the scope of applications has become broader, the technology has become more diverse, and now comprises a range of products capable of providing economical, reliable service in any subsea environment, from ocean depths to coastal lagoons. In this paper, the authors discuss how undersea lightwave technology is being applied to meet the communication and production control needs of the offshore oil and gas industry. They discuss the trends and technology developments that are changing the economics of undersea fiber-optic communication networks, as well as synergies in the offshore industry. They consider various applications for the industry and means of enhancing the profitability of platform operations through reduced downtime, reduced operating cost, and enhanced safety. Finally, they discuss extensions to exploratory drilling and land-based operations.

  15. SEASAT demonstration experiments with the offshore oil, gas and mining industries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mourad, A. G.; Robinson, A. C.; Balon, J. E.

    1979-01-01

    Despite its failure, SEASAT-1 acquired a reasonable volume of data that can be used by industrial participants on a non-real-time basis to prove the concept of microwave sensing of the world's oceans from a satellite platform. The amended version of 8 experimental plans are presented, along with a description of the satellite, its instruments, and the data available. Case studies are summarized for the following experiments: (1) Beaufort Sea oil, gas, and Arctic operations; (2) Labrador Sea oil, gas, and sea ice; (3) Gulf of Mexico pipelines; (4) U.S. East Coast offshore oil and gas; (5) worldwide offshore drilling and production operations; (6) Equatorial East Pacific Ocean mining; (7) Bering Sea ice project; and (8) North Sea oil and gas.

  16. Job stress, mental health, and accidents among offshore workers in the oil and gas extraction industries.

    PubMed

    Cooper, C L; Sutherland, V J

    1987-02-01

    Psychosocial and occupational stressors among 194 male employees on drilling rig and production platform installations in the United Kingdom and Dutch sectors of the North Sea were studied. Mental well-being and job satisfaction were also assessed, with attention to the incidence of accidents offshore. This occupational group were found to be much less satisfied with their jobs than their onshore counterparts. Although overall mental well-being compared favorably with that of the general population, levels of anxiety were significantly higher. Multivariate analysis showed "relationships at work and at home" to be a strong predictor of both job dissatisfaction and mental ill-health. Type A coronary-prone behavior was also found to be a significant predictor of reduced mental well-being and increased accident rates offshore.

  17. Offshore industry: medical emergency response in the offshore oil and gas industry.

    PubMed

    Ponsonby, Will; Mika, Frano; Irons, Greg

    2009-08-01

    The hunt for oil and gas has taken workers into new more distant locations including those offshore. The remoteness of the offshore platforms and vessels coupled with the potential risk of being cut off by bad weather presents particular challenges for medical emergency response (MER). Firstly to define the challenges for MER in terms of locations, population and epidemiology of injuries and illnesses in the offshore environment. Secondly to give examples of legal requirements and industry standards to manage MER. Thirdly to look at existing and emerging practice to manage these challenges. A review of published literature was supplemented with a summary of current practice in the industry. Medical professionals (medics) working offshore on installations and vessels are primarily responsible for the medical care of the workers. The medics have clinics with suitable medical equipment for managing emergencies as well as providing limited primary care. Some countries have legislation that stipulate minimum requirements. Where there is no national legislation, industry and company guidance is used to define the MER standards. Supervision of the offshore medics is often provided by doctors on shore via radio and phone links. These methods of communication are now being augmented with more sophisticated telemedicine solutions such as the Internet and live video links. These newer solutions allow for prompt high-quality care and provide the scope for a variety of new treatment options to be available for the offshore workforce.

  18. Offshore oil in the Alaskan Arctic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weeks, W. F.; Weller, G.

    1984-01-01

    Oil and gas deposits in the Alaskan Arctic are estimated to contain up to 40 percent of the remaining undiscovered crude oil and oil-equivalent natural gas within U.S. jurisdiction. Most (65 to 70 percent) of these estimated reserves are believed to occuur offshore beneath the shallow, ice-covered seas of the Alaskan continental shelf. Offshore recovery operations for such areas are far from routine, with the primary problems associated with the presence of ice. Some problems that must be resolved if efficient, cost-effective, environmentally safe, year-round offshore production is to be achieved include the accurate estimation of ice forces on offshore structures, the proper placement of pipelines beneath ice-produced gouges in the sea floor, and the cleanup of oil spills in pack ice areas.

  19. Offshore oil in the alaskan arctic.

    PubMed

    Weeks, W F; Weller, G

    1984-07-27

    Oil and gas deposits in the Alaskan Arctic are estimated to contain up to 40 percent of the remaining undiscovered crude oil and oil-equivalent nature gas within U.S. jurisdiction. Most (65 to 70 percent) of these estimated reserves are believed to occur offshore beneath the shallow, ice-covered seas, of the Alaskan continental shelf. Offshore recovery operations for such areas are far from routine, with the primary problems associated with the presence of ice. Some problems that must be resolved if efficient, cost-effective, environmentally safe, year-round offshore production is to be achieved include the accurate estimation of ice forces on offshore structures, the proper placement of pipelines beneath ice-produced gouges in the sea floor, and the cleanup of oil spills in pack ice areas.

  20. Offshore oil in the Alaskan Arctic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weeks, W. F.; Weller, G.

    1984-01-01

    Oil and gas deposits in the Alaskan Arctic are estimated to contain up to 40 percent of the remaining undiscovered crude oil and oil-equivalent natural gas within U.S. jurisdiction. Most (65 to 70 percent) of these estimated reserves are believed to occuur offshore beneath the shallow, ice-covered seas of the Alaskan continental shelf. Offshore recovery operations for such areas are far from routine, with the primary problems associated with the presence of ice. Some problems that must be resolved if efficient, cost-effective, environmentally safe, year-round offshore production is to be achieved include the accurate estimation of ice forces on offshore structures, the proper placement of pipelines beneath ice-produced gouges in the sea floor, and the cleanup of oil spills in pack ice areas.

  1. Cool episode and platform demise in the Early Aptian: New insights on the links between climate and carbonate production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonin, Aurélie; Pucéat, Emmanuelle; Vennin, Emmanuelle; Mattioli, Emanuela; Aurell, Marcos; Joachimski, Michael; Barbarin, Nicolas; Laffont, Rémi

    2016-01-01

    The Early Aptian encountered several crises in neritic and pelagic carbonate production, major perturbations in the carbon cycle, and an oceanic anoxic event (OAE1a). Yet the causal links between these perturbations and climate changes remain poorly understood, partly because temperature records spanning the Early Aptian interval are still scant. We present new δ18O data from well-preserved bivalves from a carbonate platform of the Galve subbasin (Spain) that document a major cooling event postdating most of OAE1a. Our data show that cooling postdates the global platform demise and cannot have triggered this event that occurred during the warmest interval. The warmest temperatures coincide with the time equivalent of OAE1a and with platform biotic assemblages dominated by microbialites at Aliaga as well as on other Tethyan platforms. Coral-dominated assemblages then replace microbialites during the subsequent cooling. Nannoconids are absent during most of the time equivalent of the OAE1a, probably related to the well-known crisis affecting this group. Yet they present a transient recovery in the upper part of this interval with an increase in both size and abundance during the cool interval portion that postdates OAE1a. An evolution toward cooler and drier climatic conditions may have induced the regional change from microbial to coral assemblages as well as nannoconids size and abundance increase by limiting continent-derived input of nutrients.

  2. How dangerous is offshore drilling

    SciTech Connect

    McIntosh, T.S.

    1981-08-01

    As concluded by the National Research Council, the frequency of injuries during oil and gas operations on the outer continental shelf is comparable to that in other industries such as mining, maritime service, and heavy construction. Although an area of concern, offshore safety is not easily improved by legislation or detailed regulation. The industry itself must be committed to providing the safest possible workplace for the job and the environment. At Zapata Off-Shore Co., for example, top management recognizes the value of safety-trained personnel in terms of not only decreased downtime and lower insurance costs but also improved crew morale and productivity. The key operatives of Zapata's program are the rig representatives who provide full-time, rig-based safety, training, administrative, and employee-relations assistance to the crews.

  3. Designing Australia's North West Shelf offshore pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Seymour, E.V.; Craze, D.J.; Ruinen, W.

    1984-05-07

    Design studies for the offshore pipeline system for the North West Shelf project in Australia commenced in the early 1970s. The trunkline from the North Rankin A platform to shore has recently been completed as the first part of the offshore pipeline system for the North West Shelf project. This pipeline originates from the platform in a water depth of 125 m (410 ft), enters the mouth of Mermaid Sound, and terminates just south of Withnell Bay on the Burrup Peninsula, on the North West coastline of Western Australia. The pipeline is 1,016 mm (40 in.) in diameter and 134.2 km (83.4 miles) long. It will operate in two-phase flow, bringing both gas and condensate to an onshore plant near its landfall. A slugcatcher has been constructed within the plant to receive liquidhydrocarbon slugs from the pipeline. The trunkline to shore will initially serve only the one offshore platform and operate at about 25% of its capacity to supply the Western Australian domestic gas market. The domestic gas plant on the Burrup Peninsula is being constructed by Woodside to produce pipeline-quality gas for delivery to the State Energy Commission and condensate for shipment by coastal tankers.

  4. Controls for offshore high pressure corrosive gas wells

    SciTech Connect

    Bailliet, R.M.

    1982-01-01

    In September 1981, Shell Oil Company began production from its first high-pressure corrosive gas well in the Gulf of Mexico. The extreme pressures and corrosive nature of the gas required the installation of a 20,000 psi low alloy steel christmas tree, equipped with 12 hydraulically operated safety and control valves. This study describes the instrumentation and control system developed to operate this complex well. Similar wells have been produced on shore, but the limited space available on an offshore platform has required the development of new techniques for operating these wells. The instrumentation system described utilizes conventional pneumatics and hydraulics for control plus intrinsically-safe electronics for data acquisition. The use of intrinsically-safe field wiring provided maximum safety while avoiding the need for explosion-proof conduit and wiring methods in division one hazardous areas.

  5. Low-smoke, halogenfree ship-offshore/onshore cables with improved flame retardance and fire resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, J. R.; Holte, T. A.; Johansen, E.

    Cables with improved fire resistance and flame retardance have been developed. They will continue to function at least 3 hours even at temperatures up to 1000 C and do not propagate fire when tested according to IEC 332 part 3 1982, category A. Made with halogenfree materials they give off no corrosive gases and very little visible smoke in cases of fire. Cables are made for power, signal and instrument installations in hospitals, high rise buildings, railroad cars, subways, on board ship, oil rigs and oil production platforms. The offshore cables are specially constructed to withstand the rugged climatic conditions in the North Sea area.

  6. PEaCH4 v.2.0: A modelling platform to predict early diagenetic processes in marine sediments with a focus on biogenic methane - Case study: Offshore Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arning, Esther T.; Häußler, Steffen; van Berk, Wolfgang; Schulz, Hans-Martin

    2016-07-01

    , ODP Leg 175, Site 1082. The application demonstrates that the modelling platform PEaCH4 v.2.0 provides a user-friendly, but complex scientific tool that delivers retraceable information about early diagenetic processes and products in marine sediments.

  7. Drilling and data acquisition programs for the methane hydrate offshore production test in the Eastern Nankai Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, K.; Fujii, T.

    2013-12-01

    Marine methane hydrates are a matter of scientific interests from various viewpoints such as a key player of global carbon cycle, effects on climate change, cause of seafloor instability, and a possible future energy resource. Under the Japanese national research program, the MH21 research consortium (Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation and National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology) has conducted survey operations and subsequent analyses of data and samples from methane hydrate-bearing sediments in the Eastern Nankai Trough. The goal of the project was a gas production test from a methane hydrate deposits in sandy intervals of Pleistocene turbidite sediments. The test location was set in Daini Atsumi Knoll that is a ridge between forearc basin and accretionary prism, and the sediments cover the flank of the knoll. The water depth at the test location is approximately 1000m, and 50m thick methane hydrate concentrated zone exists around 300m below seafloor. The main interest of the MH21 research team is to know physical (thermal, hydraulic, and mechanical) parameters of sediments that are necessary to understand gas hydrate dissociation processes during the production test. Core samples and geophysical logging data obtained during past surveys are utilized for this purpose. Sedimentation and tectono-geophysical conditions govern such material properties, so the samples were analyzed from those viewpoints, too. The first drilling at the location was done in 2004 with logging and coring operation including pressure-conserved core sampling. In 2011, shallow geotechnical survey holes were drilled in the area for geo-hazard assessment, and core samples were taken in the holes, along with some in-situ mechanical and hydraulic testings. In early 2012, a well construction operation for the gas production test was conducted with logging operations that contains neutron porosity data using pulse-neutron devices, magnetic resonance log, etc. A

  8. Metabarcoding monitoring analysis: the pros and cons of using co-extracted environmental DNA and RNA data to assess offshore oil production impacts on benthic communities.

    PubMed

    Laroche, Olivier; Wood, Susanna A; Tremblay, Louis A; Lear, Gavin; Ellis, Joanne I; Pochon, Xavier

    2017-01-01

    Sequencing environmental DNA (eDNA) is increasingly being used as an alternative to traditional morphological-based identification to characterize biological assemblages and monitor anthropogenic impacts in marine environments. Most studies only assess eDNA which, compared to eRNA, can persist longer in the environment after cell death. Therefore, eRNA may provide a more immediate census of the environment due to its relatively weaker stability, leading some researchers to advocate for the use of eRNA as an additional, or perhaps superior proxy for portraying ecological changes. A variety of pre-treatment techniques for screening eDNA and eRNA derived operational taxonomic units (OTUs) have been employed prior to statistical analyses, including removing singleton taxa (i.e., OTUs found only once) and discarding those not present in both eDNA and eRNA datasets. In this study, we used bacterial (16S ribosomal RNA gene) and eukaryotic (18S ribosomal RNA gene) eDNA- and eRNA-derived data from benthic communities collected at increasing distances along a transect from an oil production platform (Taranaki, New Zealand). Macro-infauna (visual classification of benthic invertebrates) and physico-chemical data were analyzed in parallel. We tested the effect of removing singleton taxa, and removing taxa not present in the eDNA and eRNA libraries from the same environmental sample (trimmed by shared OTUs), by comparing the impact of the oil production platform on alpha- and beta-diversity of the eDNA/eRNA-based biological assemblages, and by correlating these to the morphologically identified macro-faunal communities and the physico-chemical data. When trimmed by singletons, presence/absence information from eRNA data represented the best proxy to detect changes on species diversity for both bacteria and eukaryotes. However, assessment of quantitative beta-diversity from read abundance information of bacteria eRNA did not, contrary to eDNA, reveal any impact from the oil

  9. Metabarcoding monitoring analysis: the pros and cons of using co-extracted environmental DNA and RNA data to assess offshore oil production impacts on benthic communities

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Susanna A.; Tremblay, Louis A.; Lear, Gavin; Ellis, Joanne I.; Pochon, Xavier

    2017-01-01

    Sequencing environmental DNA (eDNA) is increasingly being used as an alternative to traditional morphological-based identification to characterize biological assemblages and monitor anthropogenic impacts in marine environments. Most studies only assess eDNA which, compared to eRNA, can persist longer in the environment after cell death. Therefore, eRNA may provide a more immediate census of the environment due to its relatively weaker stability, leading some researchers to advocate for the use of eRNA as an additional, or perhaps superior proxy for portraying ecological changes. A variety of pre-treatment techniques for screening eDNA and eRNA derived operational taxonomic units (OTUs) have been employed prior to statistical analyses, including removing singleton taxa (i.e., OTUs found only once) and discarding those not present in both eDNA and eRNA datasets. In this study, we used bacterial (16S ribosomal RNA gene) and eukaryotic (18S ribosomal RNA gene) eDNA- and eRNA-derived data from benthic communities collected at increasing distances along a transect from an oil production platform (Taranaki, New Zealand). Macro-infauna (visual classification of benthic invertebrates) and physico-chemical data were analyzed in parallel. We tested the effect of removing singleton taxa, and removing taxa not present in the eDNA and eRNA libraries from the same environmental sample (trimmed by shared OTUs), by comparing the impact of the oil production platform on alpha- and beta-diversity of the eDNA/eRNA-based biological assemblages, and by correlating these to the morphologically identified macro-faunal communities and the physico-chemical data. When trimmed by singletons, presence/absence information from eRNA data represented the best proxy to detect changes on species diversity for both bacteria and eukaryotes. However, assessment of quantitative beta-diversity from read abundance information of bacteria eRNA did not, contrary to eDNA, reveal any impact from the oil

  10. Decision framework for platform decommissioning in California.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Brock B

    2015-10-01

    This article describes the overall decision framework for eventual decisions about decommissioning the 27 operating oil and gas platforms offshore southern California. These platforms will eventually reach the end of their useful lifetimes (estimated between 2015 and 2030, although specific dates have not been determined). Current law and regulations allow for alternative uses in lieu of the complete removal required in existing leases. To prepare for eventual decommissioning, the California Natural Resources Agency initiated an in-depth process to identify and investigate issues surrounding possible decommissioning alternatives. The detailed evaluation of alternatives focused on 2-complete removal and artificial reefing that included partial removal to 85 feet below the waterline. These were selected after a comparison of the technical and economic feasibility of several potential alternatives, availability of a legal framework for implementation, degree of interest from proponents, and relative acceptance by state and federal decision makers. Despite California's history of offshore oil and gas production, only 7 decommissioning projects have been completed and these were all relatively small and close to shore. In contrast, nearly 30% of the California platforms are in water depths (as much as 1200 feet) that exceed any decommissioning project anywhere in the world. Most earlier projects considered an artificial reefing alternative but none were implemented and all platforms were completely removed. Future decisions about decommissioning must grapple with a more complex decision context involving greater technological and logistical challenges and cost, a wider range of viable options, tradeoffs among environmental impacts and benefits, and an intricate maze of laws, regulations, and authorities. The specific engineering differences between complete and partial removal provide an explicit basis for a thorough evaluation of their respective impacts. © 2015 SETAC.

  11. Installation of an offshore structure

    SciTech Connect

    Will, S.A.; Young, C.E.

    1981-04-07

    In the installation of a jacket or substructure component of an offshore platform on the sea floor over an underwater fixture containing one or more wellheads, a jacket is first ballasted to rest in a vertical orientation on the sea floor. Power winches are mounted atop the jacket above the water line and anchored mooring lines are connected to the winches via fairlead sheaves which define points of attachment for the mooring lines to the jacket. The jacket is deballasted to float with a near sea bottom clearance and is maneuvered horizontally with the power winches toward the underwater fixture. Docking guides carried by the jacket engage vertical guideposts driven drilled into the sea floor at preselected locations relative to the underwater fixture to align the jacket with the underwater fixture. The jacket is then lowered into the desired on-bottom position during controlled ballasting procedures. Finally, piles are driven through hollow jacket columns to anchor the jacket to the sea bottom.

  12. Repairing an offshore jacket structure proves cost effective

    SciTech Connect

    Still, J.R.; Blackwood, V.

    2000-05-01

    During inclement weather in the southern North Sea, an off-shore supply boat collided with a 25-year-old gas production platform. The impact occurred just over 2 m (5.56 ft) from the lowest annual tide and was sufficient to buckle, then shear, one end of a horizontal bracing from the jacket leg and to cause further damage at a node joint. Inspection personnel performed an initial examination of the damage to the eight-leg jacket structure using rope access techniques (abseiling), which offered substantial cost saving over erecting scaffolding. A structural analysis confirmed the jacket's integrity was not impaired and loss of the horizontal bracing would not significantly affect the structure. The analysis also confirmed repair of the node weld cracks and of the sheared area on the leg should be performed as soon as practical. In the end, the repair went smoothly. The repair area was above the waterline, and the weather cooperated perfectly. The repairs were done using rope access techniques, and using austenitic electrodes reduced the possibility of HAZ hydrogen cracking. Nondestructive examination confirmed no cracking had been experienced and no other defects existed. Indeed, this methodology is considered extremely practical, cost effective and ideal for use on offshore structures--with damage close to the waterline, and with the need to execute immediate repairs.

  13. Cloud Computing-based Platform for Drought Decision-Making using Remote Sensing and Modeling Products: Preliminary Results for Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivoni, E.; Mascaro, G.; Shupe, J. W.; Hiatt, C.; Potter, C. S.; Miller, R. L.; Stanley, J.; Abraham, T.; Castilla-Rubio, J.

    2012-12-01

    Droughts and their hydrological consequences are a major threat to food security throughout the world. In arid and semiarid regions dependent on irrigated agriculture, prolonged droughts lead to significant and recurring economic and social losses. In this contribution, we present preliminary results on integrating a set of multi-resolution drought indices into a cloud computing-based visualization platform. We focused our initial efforts on Brazil due to a severe, on-going drought in a large agricultural area in the northeastern part of the country. The online platform includes drought products developed from: (1) a MODIS-based water stress index (WSI) based on inferences from normalized difference vegetation index and land surface temperature fields, (2) a volumetric water content (VWC) index obtained from application of the NASA CASA model, and (3) a set of AVHRR-based vegetation health indices obtained from NOAA/NESDIS. The drought indices are also presented in terms of anomalies with respect to a baseline period. Since our main objective is to engage stakeholders and decision-makers in Brazil, we incorporated other relevant geospatial data into the platform, including irrigation areas, dams and reservoirs, administrative units and annual climate information. We will also present a set of use cases developed to help stakeholders explore, query and provide feedback that allowed fine-tuning of the drought product delivery, presentation and analysis tools. Finally, we discuss potential next steps in development of the online platform, including applications at finer resolutions in specific basins and at a coarser global scale.

  14. Foam production as a side effect of an offshore liquefied natural gas terminal: how do plankton deal with it?

    PubMed

    Franzo, Annalisa; Karuza, Ana; Celussi, Mauro; Fornasaro, Daniela; Beran, Alfred; Di Poi, Elena; Del Negro, Paola

    2015-06-01

    The future growing demand of fossil fuels likely will lead to an increased deployment of liquefied natural gas terminals. However, some concerns exist about their possible effects on the marine environment and biota. Such plants showed to cause the production of foam, as occurred at the still operative terminal of Porto Viro (northern Adriatic Sea). Here, we present results from two microcosm experiments focused on the effects of such foam on microbially mediated degradation processes and its consequent incorporation within the pelagic food web. Such material could be considered as a heterogeneous matrix of both living and non-living organic matter, which constitutes an important substrate for exoenzymes as suggested by the faster hydrolytic rates measured in the treatment microcosms. In the second experiment, a quite immediate and efficient carbon transfer to planktonic biomass through prokaryotic incorporation and consequent predation by heterotrophic flagellates was highlighted. Although no negative effect was evidenced on the overall microbes' growth and foam-derived C seemed to be easily reworked and transferred to higher trophic levels, an important reduction in biodiversity was evidenced for microalgae. Among them, mixotrophic organisms seemed to be favoured suggesting that the addition of foam could cause a modification of the microbial community structure.

  15. High-throughput process development of an alternative platform for the production of virus-like particles in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ladd Effio, Christopher; Baumann, Pascal; Weigel, Claudia; Vormittag, Philipp; Middelberg, Anton; Hubbuch, Jürgen

    2016-02-10

    The production of safe vaccines against untreatable or new diseases has pushed the research in the field of virus-like particles (VLPs). Currently, a large number of commercial VLP-based human vaccines and vaccine candidates are available or under development. A promising VLP production route is the controlled in vitro assembly of virus proteins into capsids. In the study reported here, a high-throughput screening (HTS) procedure was implemented for the upstream process development of a VLP platform in bacterial cell systems. Miniaturized cultivations were carried out in 48-well format in the BioLector system (m2p-Labs, Germany) using an Escherichia coli strain with a tac promoter producing the murine polyomavirus capsid protein (VP1). The screening procedure incorporated micro-scale cultivations, HTS cell disruption by sonication and HTS-compatible analytics by capillary gel electrophoresis. Cultivation temperatures, shaking speeds, induction and medium conditions were varied to optimize the product expression in E. coli. The most efficient system was selected based on an evaluation of soluble and insoluble product concentrations as well as on the percentage of product in the total soluble protein fraction. The optimized system was scaled up to cultivation 2.5L shaker flask scale and purified using an anion exchange chromatography membrane adsorber, followed by a size exclusion chromatography polishing procedure. For proof of concept, purified VP1 capsomeres were assembled under defined buffer conditions into empty capsids and characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The presented HTS procedure allowed for a fast development of an efficient production process of VLPs in E. coli. Under optimized cultivation conditions, the VP1 product totalled up to 43% of the total soluble protein fraction, yielding 1.63 mg VP1 per mL of applied cultivation medium. The developed production process strongly promotes the murine polyoma-VLP platform, moving towards

  16. Oil-production platform and method of assembling and installing the same on a sea bed

    SciTech Connect

    Pagezy, M.J.; Loire, R.

    1980-01-01

    The invention relates to a method of assembling and installing a device for exploiting an oil-field. Said device comprises an upper structure comprising two superposed platforms provided with a vertically slidable column, and a lower structure comprising at least two tanks connected to the upper structure by means of support legs. Such a device allows its elements i.e. each of the platforms and the tanks to be fabricated separately, and the assembly to be performed only in floating conditions and not in a dry dock. Furthermore the fabrication can therefore take place in a yard designed for constructions of small size compared with that of the completely assembled device. 8 claims.

  17. Session: Offshore wind

    SciTech Connect

    Gaarde, Jette; Ram, Bonnie

    2004-09-01

    This session at the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats workshop consisted of two presentations. Due to time constraints, a discussion period was not possible. The session addressed the current state of offshore wind energy development. The first presentation ''Monitoring Program and Results: Horns Rev and Nysted'' by Jette Gaarde summarized selected environmental studies conducted to date at operating offshore wind turbine projects in Denmark and lessons from other offshore wind developments in Europe. Wildlife impacts studies from the Danish sites focused on birds, fish, and mammals. The second presentation ''What has the U.S. Wind Industry Learned from the European Example'' by Bonnie Ram provided an update on current permit applications for offshore wind developments in the U.S. as well as lessons that may be drawn from the European experience.

  18. Effects of Geomechanical Mechanism on the Gas Production Behavior: A Simulation Study of Class-3 Type Four-Way-Closure Ridge Hydrate Deposit Offshore Southwestern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Cheng-Yueh; Chiu, Yung-Cheng; Huang, Yi-Jyun; Hsieh, Bieng-Zih

    2017-04-01

    The future energy police of Taiwan will heavily rely on the clean energy, including renewable energy and low-carbon energy, to meet the target of mitigating CO2 emission. In addition to developing the renewable energies like solar and wind resources, Taiwan will increase the natural gas consumption to obtain enough electrical power with low-carbon emission. The vast resources of gas hydrates recognized in southwestern offshore Taiwan makes a great opportunity for Taiwan to have own energy resources in the future. Therefore, Taiwan put significant efforts on the evaluation of gas hydrate reserves recently. Production behavior of natural gas dissociated from gas hydrate deposits is an important issue to the hydrate reserves evaluation. The depressurization method is a useful engineering recovery method for gas production from a class-3 type hydrate deposit. The dissociation efficiency will be affected by the pressure drawdown disturbance. However, when the pore pressure of hydrate deposits is depressurized for gas production, the rock matrix will surfer more stresses and the formation deformation might be occurred. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of geomechanical mechanism on the gas production from a class-3 hydrate deposit using depressurization method. The case of a class-3 type hydrate deposit of Four-Way-Closure Ridge was studied. In this study a reservoir simulator, STARS, was used. STARS is a multiphase flow, heat transfer, geo-chemical and geo-mechanical mechanisms coupling simulator which is capable to simulate the dissociation/reformation of gas hydrate and the deformation of hydrate reservoirs and overburdens. The simulating ability of STARTS simulator was validated by duplicating the hydrate comparison projects of National Energy Technology Lab. The study target, Four-Way-Closure (FWC) Ridge hydrate deposit, was discovered by the bottom simulating reflectors (BSRs). The geological parameters were collected from the geological and

  19. 76 FR 35200 - High Island Offshore System, L.L.C.; Notice of Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-16

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission High Island Offshore System, L.L.C.; Notice of Amendment Take notice that on June 6, 2011, High Island Offshore System, L.L.C. (HIOS), 1100 Louisiana St., Houston, Texas 77002... HIOS's request to abandon three compressor units on a platform at High Island Area Block 264, located...

  20. Loads Analysis of a Floating Offshore Wind Turbine Using Fully Coupled Simulation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Jonkman, J. M.; Buhl, M. L., Jr.

    2007-06-01

    This paper presents the use of fully coupled aero-hydro-servo-elastic simulation tools to perform a loads analysis of a 5-MW offshore wind turbine supported by a barge with moorings, one of many promising floating platform concepts.

  1. Challenges in Simulation of Aerodynamics, Hydrodynamics, and Mooring-Line Dynamics of Floating Offshore Wind Turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Matha, D.; Schlipf, M.; Cordle, A.; Pereira, R.; Jonkman, J.

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents the current major modeling challenges for floating offshore wind turbine design tools and describes aerodynamic and hydrodynamic effects due to rotor and platform motions and usage of non-slender support structures.

  2. Methane hydrate pore saturation evaluation from geophysical logging and pressure core analysis, at the first offshore production test site in the eastern Nankai Trough, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, T.; Suzuki, K.; Takayama, T.; Konno, Y.; Yoneda, J.; Egawa, K.; Ito, T.; Nagao, J.

    2013-12-01

    On March 2013, the first offshore production test form methane hydrate (MH) concentrated zone (MHCZ) was conducted by the Research Consortium for Methane Hydrate Resource Development in Japan (MH21) at the AT1 site located in the north-western slope of Daini-Atsumi Knoll in the eastern Nankai Trough, Japan. Before the production test, extensive geophysical logging and pressure coring using Hybrid Pressure Coring System were conducted in 2012 at monitoring well (AT1-MC) and coring well (AT1-C), in order to obtain basic information for the MH reservoir characterization. MH pore saturation (Sh) is one of the important basic parameters not only for reservoir characterization, but also the resource assessment. However, precise evaluation of Sh from geophysical logging is still challenging technical issue. The MHCZ confirmed by the geophysical logging at AT1-MC has a turbidite assemblage (from several tens of centimeters to a few meters) with 60 m of gross thickness; it is composed of lobe/sheet type sequences in the upper part, and relatively thick channel sand sequences in the lower part. In this study, the Sh evaluated from geophysical logging data were compared with those evaluated from pressure core analysis. Resistivity logs and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) log were used for the Sh evaluation by geophysical logging. Standard Archie equation was applied for Sh evaluation from resistivity log, while density magnetic resonance (DMR) method was used for Sh evaluation from NMR log. The Sh from pressure core samples were evaluated using the amount of dissociated gas volume, together with core sample bulk volume, measured porosity, net sand intervals, and assumed methane solubility in pore water. In the upper part of the MHCZ, Sh estimated from resistivity log showed distinct difference in value between sand and mud layers, compared to Sh from NMR log. Resistivity log has higher vertical resolution than NMR log, so it is favorable for these kinds of thin bed

  3. Current and future offshore activities in Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Hnatiuk, J.

    1984-05-01

    The development of innovative exploratory drilling systems for Canada's harsh Arctic offshore areas over the past decade is described. Future activity in these areas, including possible production concepts, is also discussed. The results of the experience in Canadian waters can be applied in other Arctic areas of the world including offshore Alaska. This operating experience will serve to further advance the drilling technology and will serve as a basis for the design of Arctic offshore production and transportation systems. Artificial islands, first commenced in 1972, are still being constructed but with improved designs and equipment. A step forward has been the use of subsea berms on which concrete or steel segmented caissons have been placed. Integrated-type steel caissons have also been adapted for placement on subsea berms, one of which is half of a crude oil tanker and a second, a purpose-built steel caisson to be placed this summer.

  4. Characterization of the microbial community structure and the physicochemical properties of produced water and seawater from the Hibernia oil production platform.

    PubMed

    Yeung, C William; Lee, Kenneth; Cobanli, Susan; King, Tom; Bugden, Jay; Whyte, Lyle G; Greer, Charles W

    2015-11-01

    Hibernia is Canada's largest offshore oil platform. Produced water is the major waste byproduct discharged into the ocean. In order to evaluate different potential disposal methods, a comprehensive study was performed to determine the impact from the discharge. Microorganisms are typically the first organisms to respond to changes in their environment. The objectives were to characterize the microbial communities and the chemical composition in the produced water and to characterize changes in the seawater bacterial community around the platform. The results from chemical, physicochemical, and microbial analyses revealed that the discharge did not have a detectable effect on the surrounding seawater. The seawater bacterial community was relatively stable, spatially. Unique microorganisms like Thermoanaerobacter were found in the produced water. Thermoanaerobacter-specific q-PCR and nested-PCR primers were designed, and both methods demonstrated that Thermoanaerobacter was present in seawater up to 1000 m from the platform. These methods could be used to track the dispersion of produced water into the surrounding ocean.

  5. Getting offshoring right.

    PubMed

    Aron, Ravi; Singh, Jitendra V

    2005-12-01

    The prospect of offshoring and outsourcing business processes has captured the imagination of CEOs everywhere. In the past five years, a rising number of companies in North America and Europe have experimented with this strategy, hoping to reduce costs and gain strategic advantage. But many businesses have had mixed results. According to several studies, half the organizations that have shifted processes offshore have failed to generate the expected financial benefits. What's more, many of them have faced employee resistance and consumer dissatisfaction. Clearly, companies have to rethink how they formulate their offshoring strategies. A three-part methodology can help. First, companies need to prioritize their processes, ranking each based on two criteria: the value it creates for customers and the degree to which the company can capture some of that value. Companies will want to keep their core (highest-priority) processes in-house and consider outsourcing their commodity (low-priority) processes; critical (moderate-priority) processes are up for debate and must be considered carefully. Second, businesses should analyze all the risks that accompany offshoring and look systematically at their critical and commodity processes in terms of operational risk (the risk that processes won't operate smoothly after being offshored) and structural risk (the risk that relationships with service providers may not work as expected). Finally, companies should determine possible locations for their offshore efforts, as well as the organizational forms--such as captive centers and joint ventures--that those efforts might take. They can do so by examining each process's operational and structural risks side by side. This article outlines the tools that will help companies choose the right processes to offshore. It also describes a new organizational structure called the extended organization, in which companies specify the quality of services they want and work alongside providers

  6. Understanding Potential Climate Variability Impacts on the Offshore Energy Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stear, J.

    2014-12-01

    Climate variability may have important implications for the offshore energy industry. Scenarios of increased storm activity and changes in sea level could require the retrofit of existing offshore platforms and coastal infrastructure, the decommissioning of facilities for which upgrade or relocation is not economically viable, and the development of new methods and equipment which are removed from or less sensitive to environmental loads. Over the past years the energy industry has been actively involved in collaborative research efforts with government and academia to identify the potential changes in the offshore operating environment, and corresponding risk implications. This presentation will review several of these efforts, and for several of the hypothetical climate variation scenarios, review the potential impacts on and possible mitigations for offshore and coastal energy infrastructure and operations.

  7. Offshore asphaltene and wax deposition: Problems/solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Leontaritis, K.J. |

    1996-05-01

    Many production facilities around the world suffer from either asphaltene or wax deposition. Such problems seriously threaten economic production from many offshore reservoirs due to the high cost of remedial measures. Offshore facilities are especially susceptible to such deposition for a number of reasons. This article presents ideas and methodologies on how to predict, diagnose, prevent, or mitigate problems caused by organic deposition in offshore production facilities. In one facility where these ideas were put to use, despite the debilitating magnitude of the problems, the field has been produced for more than 14 years with minimum environmental impact. Principal conclusions developed are discussed in this paper.

  8. Development of a gene synthesis platform for the efficient large scale production of small genes encoding animal toxins.

    PubMed

    Sequeira, Ana Filipa; Brás, Joana L A; Guerreiro, Catarina I P D; Vincentelli, Renaud; Fontes, Carlos M G A

    2016-12-01

    Gene synthesis is becoming an important tool in many fields of recombinant DNA technology, including recombinant protein production. De novo gene synthesis is quickly replacing the classical cloning and mutagenesis procedures and allows generating nucleic acids for which no template is available. In addition, when coupled with efficient gene design algorithms that optimize codon usage, it leads to high levels of recombinant protein expression. Here, we describe the development of an optimized gene synthesis platform that was applied to the large scale production of small genes encoding venom peptides. This improved gene synthesis method uses a PCR-based protocol to assemble synthetic DNA from pools of overlapping oligonucleotides and was developed to synthesise multiples genes simultaneously. This technology incorporates an accurate, automated and cost effective ligation independent cloning step to directly integrate the synthetic genes into an effective Escherichia coli expression vector. The robustness of this technology to generate large libraries of dozens to thousands of synthetic nucleic acids was demonstrated through the parallel and simultaneous synthesis of 96 genes encoding animal toxins. An automated platform was developed for the large-scale synthesis of small genes encoding eukaryotic toxins. Large scale recombinant expression of synthetic genes encoding eukaryotic toxins will allow exploring the extraordinary potency and pharmacological diversity of animal venoms, an increasingly valuable but unexplored source of lead molecules for drug discovery.

  9. Weathering the Storm: Developing a Spatial Data Infrastructure and Online Research Platform for Oil Spill Preparedness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, J. R.; Rose, K.; Romeo, L.; Barkhurst, A.; Nelson, J.; Duran-Sesin, R.; Vielma, J.

    2016-12-01

    Efforts to prepare for and reduce the risk of hazards, from both natural and anthropogenic sources, which threaten our oceans and coasts requires an understanding of the dynamics and interactions between the physical, ecological, and socio-economic systems. Understanding these coupled dynamics are essential as offshore oil & gas exploration and production continues to push into harsher, more extreme environments where risks and uncertainty increase. However, working with these large, complex data from various sources and scales to assess risks and potential impacts associated with offshore energy exploration and production poses several challenges to research. In order to address these challenges, an integrated assessment model (IAM) was developed at the Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) that combines spatial data infrastructure and an online research platform to manage, process, analyze, and share these large, multidimensional datasets, research products, and the tools and models used to evaluate risk and reduce uncertainty for the entire offshore system, from the subsurface, through the water column, to coastal ecosystems and communities. Here, we will discuss the spatial data infrastructure and online research platform, NETL's Energy Data eXchange (EDX), that underpin the offshore IAM, providing information on how the framework combines multidimensional spatial data and spatio-temporal tools to evaluate risks to the complex matrix of potential environmental, social, and economic impacts stemming from modeled offshore hazard scenarios, such as oil spills or hurricanes. In addition, we will discuss the online analytics, tools, and visualization methods integrated into this framework that support availability and access to data, as well as allow for the rapid analysis and effective communication of analytical results to aid a range of decision-making needs.

  10. Natural products-prompted chemical biology: phenotypic screening and a new platform for target identification.

    PubMed

    Kakeya, Hideaki

    2016-05-04

    Covering: 1993 to 2016The exploitation of small molecules from natural sources, such as microbial metabolites, has contributed to the discovery of not only new drugs but also new research tools for chemical biology. My research team has discovered several novel bioactive small molecules using in vivo cell-based phenotypic screening, and has investigated their modes of action using chemical genetics and chemical genomics. This highlight focuses on our recent discoveries and chemical genetics approaches for bioactive microbial metabolites that target cancer cells, the cancer microenvironment and cell membrane signalling. In addition, the development of two new platforms, 5-sulfonyl tetrazole-based and thiourea-modified amphiphilic lipid-based probe technologies, to identify the cellular targets of these molecules is also discussed.

  11. Airfoil family design for large offshore wind turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Méndez, B.; Munduate, X.; San Miguel, U.

    2014-06-01

    Wind turbine blades size has scaled-up during last years due to wind turbine platform increase especially for offshore applications. The EOLIA project 2007-2010 (Spanish Goverment funded project) was focused on the design of large offshore wind turbines for deep waters. The project was managed by ACCIONA Energia and the wind turbine technology was designed by ACCIONA Windpower. The project included the design of a wind turbine airfoil family especially conceived for large offshore wind turbine blades, in the order of 5MW machine. Large offshore wind turbines suffer high extreme loads due to their size, in addition the lack of noise restrictions allow higher tip speeds. Consequently, the airfoils presented in this work are designed for high Reynolds numbers with the main goal of reducing blade loads and mantainig power production. The new airfoil family was designed in collaboration with CENER (Spanish National Renewable Energy Centre). The airfoil family was designed using a evolutionary algorithm based optimization tool with different objectives, both aerodynamic and structural, coupled with an airfoil geometry generation tool. Force coefficients of the designed airfoil were obtained using the panel code XFOIL in which the boundary layer/inviscid flow coupling is ineracted via surface transpiration model. The desing methodology includes a novel technique to define the objective functions based on normalizing the functions using weight parameters created from data of airfoils used as reference. Four airfoils have been designed, here three of them will be presented, with relative thickness of 18%, 21%, 25%, which have been verified with the in-house CFD code, Wind Multi Block WMB, and later validated with wind tunnel experiments. Some of the objectives for the designed airfoils concern the aerodynamic behavior (high efficiency and lift, high tangential coefficient, insensitivity to rough conditions, etc.), others concern the geometry (good for structural design

  12. A Universal and Robust Integrated Platform for the Scalable Production of Human Cardiomyocytes From Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fonoudi, Hananeh; Ansari, Hassan; Abbasalizadeh, Saeed; Larijani, Mehran Rezaei; Kiani, Sahar; Hashemizadeh, Shiva; Zarchi, Ali Sharifi; Bosman, Alexis; Blue, Gillian M.; Pahlavan, Sara; Perry, Matthew; Orr, Yishay; Mayorchak, Yaroslav; Vandenberg, Jamie; Talkhabi, Mahmood; Winlaw, David S.; Harvey, Richard P.; Aghdami, Nasser

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in the generation of cardiomyocytes (CMs) from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), in conjunction with the promising outcomes from preclinical and clinical studies, have raised new hopes for cardiac cell therapy. We report the development of a scalable, robust, and integrated differentiation platform for large-scale production of hPSC-CM aggregates in a stirred suspension bioreactor as a single-unit operation. Precise modulation of the differentiation process by small molecule activation of WNT signaling, followed by inactivation of transforming growth factor-β and WNT signaling and activation of sonic hedgehog signaling in hPSCs as size-controlled aggregates led to the generation of approximately 100% beating CM spheroids containing virtually pure (∼90%) CMs in 10 days. Moreover, the developed differentiation strategy was universal, as demonstrated by testing multiple hPSC lines (5 human embryonic stem cell and 4 human inducible PSC lines) without cell sorting or selection. The produced hPSC-CMs successfully expressed canonical lineage-specific markers and showed high functionality, as demonstrated by microelectrode array and electrophysiology tests. This robust and universal platform could become a valuable tool for the mass production of functional hPSC-CMs as a prerequisite for realizing their promising potential for therapeutic and industrial applications, including drug discovery and toxicity assays. Significance Recent advances in the generation of cardiomyocytes (CMs) from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) and the development of novel cell therapy strategies using hPSC-CMs (e.g., cardiac patches) in conjunction with promising preclinical and clinical studies, have raised new hopes for patients with end-stage cardiovascular disease, which remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally. In this study, a simplified, scalable, robust, and integrated differentiation platform was developed to generate clinical grade h

  13. Offshore oil gas trends in ROVs tooling

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, J.R. )

    1994-04-01

    The ROVs that operate in today's offshore environment bear little or no resemblance to those which first began supporting the oil and gas work requirements less than 15 years ago. In that short span of time, an explosion of subsea technology has occurred, rendering older equipment obsolete and expanding subsea remote intervention capabilities beyond the horizon of intervention tasks originally envisioned. Today's offshore work ROVs employ the latest in robotics, fiver optics, acoustics, video, and computer technologies, and routinely achieve better than 90 percent operational availability. Leading offshore ROV operations companies have demonstrated less than 1 percent down-time over thousands of hours of operation. As the offshore oil and gas market evolves, the ever-expanding capabilities of the work ROV plays a major role in shaping the operational concepts employed in subsea oil and gas field exploration, development, and production. This paper explores the capabilities of available ROV systems in use offshore today, the economic trends driving ROV technology development, and the new trends in the employment of ROVs and their associated sensors and tooling systems.

  14. Daphnis 10μm pixel pitch product: optimized product platforming allowing outstanding on-time delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compain, Valery; De Monte, Bertrand; Mazaleyrat, Eric; Royer, Yves; Orlach, Bertrand; Vivier, Stéphane; Veyrier, Jacques; Vollard, Gregory; Panzarella, Florent

    2017-02-01

    This paper discusses postponement strategy applied to the Daphnis 10μm products family designed on purpose for postponement and for performing late-stage product completion as close to demands as possible. Regarding individual building blocks, DAPHNIS generic parts are created during the initial stages of the manufacturing process. In the later stages, these generic parts are customized to create the final product.

  15. Monitoring agricultural water use, water productivity and drought using multi-platform satellite data

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To meet the food supply needs of the world’s growing population, global food production will need to roughly double by 2050. This increased production must be accomplished within the constraints of a non-uniform distribution of freshwater resources, an amplifying climate cycle, and concern for env...

  16. A costing model for offshore decommissioning in California.

    PubMed

    Bressler, Andrew; Bernstein, Brock B

    2015-10-01

    California's 27 offshore oil and gas platforms will reach the end of their useful lifetimes sometime in the near future and will require decommissioning. Although existing leases require complete removal of all platforms and associated infrastructure, the underlying laws and regulations have changed in recent years to allow a number of alternative uses after decommissioning. In particular, AB 2503, signed into law in September 2010, provides for a rigs-to-reefs program that allows the state to accept ownership of decommissioned platforms in federal waters. Decisions about whether to remove platforms completely or leave them in place as artificial reefs will depend in part on the relative cost of the 2 options. In this study, we describe the design and use of a mathematical decision model that provides detailed cost estimates of complete and partial removal (to 85 feet below the water line) for California's offshore platforms. The model, PLATFORM, is loaded with Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement (BSEE) and Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) costs for complete removal, along with costs for partial removal calculated for this study and estimates of the uncertainty associated with decommissioning cost estimates. PLATFORM allows users to define a wide range of decommissioning and costing scenarios (e.g., number of platforms, choice of heavy lift vessel, shell mound removal, reef enhancement). As a benchmark cost, complete removal of all 27 offshore platforms, grouped into the 7 decommissioning projects defined by the most recent federal cost estimates produced in 2010, would cost an estimated $1.09 billion, whereas partial removal of these platforms, grouped into the same set of projects, would cost $478 million, with avoided costs of $616 million (with minor rounding). © 2015 SETAC.

  17. Energy from Offshore Wind: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Musial, W.; Butterfield, S.; Ram, B.

    2006-02-01

    This paper provides an overview of the nascent offshore wind energy industry including a status of the commercial offshore industry and the technologies that will be needed for full market development.

  18. Higher Order Logic for Platform Identification in a Production System. A Method of Extending the Capabilities of a Production System Applied to Tactical Situation Assessment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-10-17

    s~ ste i n w i t h PTAPS . • . I~ By_________________________ ___________ t omp uta t ional requirements . - . It) r.~~~’-i ~ ‘: ________ M u l t...Platform-Track Association Production Subsystem ( PTAPS ). Figure I gives an overview of a system extended with PTAPS . (Pro- drt ction systems are...discussed in ref ’erences 3—8. ) Many oh’ t he assertions and rules needed to support t he chains of logical reasoning in PTAPS are also individually useful

  19. Proceedings of the 15. international conference on offshore mechanics and arctic engineering -- OMAE 1996. Volume 1, Part A: Offshore technology

    SciTech Connect

    Chakrabarti, S.K.; Pontes, M.T.; Maeda, Hisaaki; Falzarano, J.; Schofield, P.; Morrison, D.

    1996-12-31

    The 57 papers in Part A of Volume 1 are arranged under the following topical sections: Ocean waves; Ship dynamics; Fixed offshore structures; Hydrodynamic forces; Structural mechanics; Hydroelastic and articulated structure; and Tension leg platforms. Most of the papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  20. Gis-Based Wind Farm Site Selection Model Offshore Abu Dhabi Emirate, Uae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleous, N.; Issa, S.; Mazrouei, J. Al

    2016-06-01

    The United Arab Emirates (UAE) government has declared the increased use of alternative energy a strategic goal and has invested in identifying and developing various sources of such energy. This study aimed at assessing the viability of establishing wind farms offshore the Emirate of Abu Dhabi, UAE and to identify favourable sites for such farms using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) procedures and algorithms. Based on previous studies and on local requirements, a set of suitability criteria was developed including ocean currents, reserved areas, seabed topography, and wind speed. GIS layers were created and a weighted overlay GIS model based on the above mentioned criteria was built to identify suitable sites for hosting a new offshore wind energy farm. Results showed that most of Abu Dhabi offshore areas were unsuitable, largely due to the presence of restricted zones (marine protected areas, oil extraction platforms and oil pipelines in particular). However, some suitable sites could be identified, especially around Delma Island and North of Jabal Barakah in the Western Region. The environmental impact of potential wind farm locations and associated cables on the marine ecology was examined to ensure minimal disturbance to marine life. Further research is needed to specify wind mills characteristics that suit the study area especially with the presence of heavy traffic due to many oil production and shipping activities in the Arabian Gulf most of the year.

  1. Floating Offshore Wind in Hawaii: Potential for Jobs and Economic Impacts from Three Future Scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, Tony; Keyser, David; Tegen, Suzanne

    2016-04-18

    Construction of the first offshore wind power plant in the United States began in 2015, off the coast of Rhode Island, using fixed platform structures that are appropriate for shallow seafloors, like those located off the East Coast and mid-Atlantic. However, floating platforms, which have yet to be deployed commercially, will likely need to be anchored to the deeper seafloor if deployed in Hawaiian waters. To analyze the employment and economic potential for floating offshore wind off Hawaii's coasts, the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management commissioned the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to analyze two hypothetical deployment scenarios for Hawaii: 400 MW of offshore wind by 2050 and 800 MW of offshore wind by 2050. The results of this analysis can be used to better understand the general scale of economic opportunities that could result from offshore wind development.

  2. Offshore rectenna feasbility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, J. W.; Hervey, D.; Glaser, P.

    1980-01-01

    A preliminary study of the feasibility and cost of an offshore rectenna to serve the upper metropolitan east coast was performed. A candidate site at which to build a 5 GW rectenna was selected on the basis of proximity to load centers, avoidance of shipping lanes, sea floor terrain, and relocated conditions. Several types of support structures were selected for study based initially on the reference system rectenna concept of a wire mesh ground screen and dipoles each with its own rectifier and filter circuits. Possible secondary uses of an offshore rectenna were examined and are evaluated.

  3. Coiled tubing deployed ESP on the Auk platform

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, D.W.; Watkins, P.; Holtslag, R.J.; Hudson, A.; Wee, P.Y.; McCleery, B.

    1996-12-31

    In March 1995, what is believed to be the world`s first offshore coiled tubing deployed electrical submersible pump (ESP) was successfully commissioned in well AA-03S1 on Shell U.K. Exploration and Production (Shell Expro) Auk platform in the United Kingdom`s Central North Sea. The ESP provides a new and important method of artificial lift for the 21 year old Auk platform, which hitherto had relied upon downhole hydraulic jet pumps to lift approximately half of the platform`s oil production. The coiled tubing deployment proved the viability of performing future workovers with or without the assistance or indeed the presence of a drilling package. The novel completion design successfully catered to the wide variety of customer requirements; Well Engineering for a rigless workover, Petroleum Engineering for reservoir access and Facilities Engineering for a specified flowline height. The experience gained during this project will be a valuable input in determining the future artificial lift strategy for this platform and for other prospects in terms of performance, reliability and operating costs.

  4. Top value platform chemicals: bio-based production of organic acids.

    PubMed

    Becker, Judith; Lange, Anna; Fabarius, Jonathan; Wittmann, Christoph

    2015-12-01

    Driven by the quest for sustainability, recent years have seen a tremendous progress in bio-based production routes from renewable raw materials to commercial goods. Particularly, the production of organic acids has crystallized as a competitive and fast-evolving field, related to the broad applicability of organic acids for direct use, as polymer building blocks, and as commodity chemicals. Here, we review recent advances in metabolic engineering and industrial market scenarios with focus on organic acids as top value products from biomass, accessible through fermentation and biotransformation.

  5. Offshore Wind Turbines - Estimated Noise from Offshore Wind Turbine, Monhegan Island, Maine: Environmental Effects of Offshore Wind Energy Development

    SciTech Connect

    Aker, Pamela M.; Jones, Anthony M.; Copping, Andrea E.

    2010-11-23

    Deep C Wind, a consortium headed by the University of Maine will test the first U.S. offshore wind platforms in 2012. In advance of final siting and permitting of the test turbines off Monhegan Island, residents of the island off Maine require reassurance that the noise levels from the test turbines will not disturb them. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, at the request of the University of Maine, and with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy Wind Program, modeled the acoustic output of the planned test turbines.

  6. Initial steps towards a production platform for DNA sequence analysis on the grid

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Bioinformatics is confronted with a new data explosion due to the availability of high throughput DNA sequencers. Data storage and analysis becomes a problem on local servers, and therefore it is needed to switch to other IT infrastructures. Grid and workflow technology can help to handle the data more efficiently, as well as facilitate collaborations. However, interfaces to grids are often unfriendly to novice users. Results In this study we reused a platform that was developed in the VL-e project for the analysis of medical images. Data transfer, workflow execution and job monitoring are operated from one graphical interface. We developed workflows for two sequence alignment tools (BLAST and BLAT) as a proof of concept. The analysis time was significantly reduced. All workflows and executables are available for the members of the Dutch Life Science Grid and the VL-e Medical virtual organizations All components are open source and can be transported to other grid infrastructures. Conclusions The availability of in-house expertise and tools facilitates the usage of grid resources by new users. Our first results indicate that this is a practical, powerful and scalable solution to address the capacity and collaboration issues raised by the deployment of next generation sequencers. We currently adopt this methodology on a daily basis for DNA sequencing and other applications. More information and source code is available via http://www.bioinformaticslaboratory.nl/ PMID:21156038

  7. Natural product proteomining, a quantitative proteomics platform, allows rapid discovery of biosynthetic gene clusters for different classes of natural products.

    PubMed

    Gubbens, Jacob; Zhu, Hua; Girard, Geneviève; Song, Lijiang; Florea, Bogdan I; Aston, Philip; Ichinose, Koji; Filippov, Dmitri V; Choi, Young H; Overkleeft, Herman S; Challis, Gregory L; van Wezel, Gilles P

    2014-06-19

    Information on gene clusters for natural product biosynthesis is accumulating rapidly because of the current boom of available genome sequencing data. However, linking a natural product to a specific gene cluster remains challenging. Here, we present a widely applicable strategy for the identification of gene clusters for specific natural products, which we name natural product proteomining. The method is based on using fluctuating growth conditions that ensure differential biosynthesis of the bioactivity of interest. Subsequent combination of metabolomics and quantitative proteomics establishes correlations between abundance of natural products and concomitant changes in the protein pool, which allows identification of the relevant biosynthetic gene cluster. We used this approach to elucidate gene clusters for different natural products in Bacillus and Streptomyces, including a novel juglomycin-type antibiotic. Natural product proteomining does not require prior knowledge of the gene cluster or secondary metabolite and therefore represents a general strategy for identification of all types of gene clusters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A cDNA Clone-Launched Platform for High-Yield Production of Inactivated Zika Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yujiao; Shan, Chao; Zou, Jing; Muruato, Antonio E; Bruno, Diniz Nunes; de Almeida Medeiros Daniele, Barbosa; Vasconcelos, Pedro F C; Rossi, Shannan L; Weaver, Scott C; Xie, Xuping; Shi, Pei-Yong

    2017-03-01

    A purified inactivated vaccine (PIV) using the Zika virus (ZIKV) Puerto Rico strain PRVABC59 showed efficacy in monkeys, and is currently in a phase I clinical trial. High-yield manufacture of this PIV is essential for its development and vaccine access. Here we report an infectious cDNA clone-launched platform to maximize its yield. A single NS1 protein substitution (K265E) was identified to increase ZIKV replication on Vero cells (a cell line approved for vaccine production) for both Cambodian FSS13025 and Puerto Rico PRVABC59 strains. The NS1 mutation did not affect viral RNA synthesis, but significantly increased virion assembly through an increased interaction between NS1 and NS2A (a known regulator of flavivirus assembly). The NS1 mutant virus retained wild-type virulence in the A129 mouse model, but decreased its competence to infect Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. To further increase virus yield, we constructed an infectious cDNA clone of the clinical trial PIV strain PRVABC59 containing three viral replication-enhancing mutations (NS1 K265E, prM H83R, and NS3 S356F). The mutant cDNA clone produced >25-fold more ZIKV than the wild-type parent on Vero cells. This cDNA clone-launched manufacture platform has the advantages of higher virus yield, shortened manufacture time, and minimized chance of contamination.

  9. LUZ-Y, a Novel Platform for the Mammalian Cell Production of Full-length IgG-bispecific Antibodies*

    PubMed Central

    Wranik, Bernd J.; Christensen, Erin L.; Schaefer, Gabriele; Jackman, Janet K.; Vendel, Andrew C.; Eaton, Dan

    2012-01-01

    The ability of bispecific antibodies to simultaneously bind two unique antigens has great clinical potential. However, most approaches utilized to generate bispecific antibodies yield antibody-like structures that diverge significantly from the structure of archetype human IgG, and those that do approach structural similarity to native antibodies are often challenging to engineer and manufacture. Here, we present a novel platform for the mammalian cell production of bispecific antibodies that differ from their parental mAbs by only a single point mutation per heavy chain. Central to this platform is the addition of a leucine zipper to the C terminus of the CH3 domain of the antibody that is sufficient to drive the heterodimeric assembly of antibody heavy chains and can be readily removed post-purification. Using this approach, we developed various antibody constructs including one-armed Abs, bispecific antibodies that utilize a common light chain, and bispecific antibodies that pair light chains to their cognate heavy chains via peptide tethers. We have applied this technology to various antibody pairings and will demonstrate the engineering, purification, and biological activity of these antibodies herein. PMID:23118228

  10. Offshore Wind Energy Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musgrove, P.

    1978-01-01

    Explores the possibility of installing offshore windmills to provide electricity and to save fuel for the United Kingdom. Favors their deployment in clusters to facilitate supervision and minimize cost. Discusses the power output and the cost involved and urges their quick development. (GA)

  11. The state of offshore

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, B.F.

    1991-01-01

    In this book, the author explains the factors behind state involvement in offshore petroleum activities. From his analysis of government workings in Great Britain and Norway, he concludes that state intervention is determined by complex interactions among government officials, economic interests, and environmental pressures.

  12. Integrated approach using multi-platform sensors for enhanced high-resolution daily ice cover product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonev, George; Gladkova, Irina; Grossberg, Michael; Romanov, Peter; Helfrich, Sean

    2016-09-01

    The ultimate objective of this work is to improve characterization of the ice cover distribution in the polar areas, to improve sea ice mapping and to develop a new automated real-time high spatial resolution multi-sensor ice extent and ice edge product for use in operational applications. Despite a large number of currently available automated satellite-based sea ice extent datasets, analysts at the National Ice Center tend to rely on original satellite imagery (provided by satellite optical, passive microwave and active microwave sensors) mainly because the automated products derived from satellite optical data have gaps in the area coverage due to clouds and darkness, passive microwave products have poor spatial resolution, automated ice identifications based on radar data are not quite reliable due to a considerable difficulty in discriminating between the ice cover and rough ice-free ocean surface due to winds. We have developed a multisensor algorithm that first extracts maximum information on the sea ice cover from imaging instruments VIIRS and MODIS, including regions covered by thin, semitransparent clouds, then supplements the output by the microwave measurements and finally aggregates the results into a cloud gap free daily product. This ability to identify ice cover underneath thin clouds, which is usually masked out by traditional cloud detection algorithms, allows for expansion of the effective coverage of the sea ice maps and thus more accurate and detailed delineation of the ice edge. We have also developed a web-based monitoring system that allows comparison of our daily ice extent product with the several other independent operational daily products.

  13. The relevance of methane emissions from beef production and the challenges of the Argentinean beef production platform.

    PubMed

    Rearte, D H; Pordomingo, A J

    2014-11-01

    The livestock sector faces the challenge to respond to the growing demand for animal protein from an expanding population while reducing environmental impact through GHG emissions. Globally about 2.836 million tons of CO2-eq were emitted by the beef production sector equivalent to 46,2 kg CO2-eq per kg carcass weight (CW). From the 1.485 million cattle head spread out over the world, 82% are on extensive grazing systems while only 18% are on high productive intensive systems. Among the top ten beef exporter countries, five are located in Latin America accounting a quarter of the global stock and two of them, Argentina and Uruguay, produce on temperate pastures under grazing systems. In Argentina, the livestock area was reduced in favor of increasing the grain cropping area, which took place in the last two decades. Production systems were intensified to maintain cattle stock. Cattle programs changed from 100% pasture to pasture supplemented with cereal grains and conserved forages, and confinement on grain feeding for fattening was incorporated. Due to land sharing competition with cash crops, no increment of cattle stock is expected therefore improving production efficiency appears as the only way to increase beef production while reducing methane emissions intensity. Beef produced on intensive grazing systems on supplemented pastures maintained organoleptic, nutritional and lipid profile than that of beef produced on pure grazing systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Integrated platform for home services using new products and services for senior citizens Call CNAV-CARSAT 2015.

    PubMed

    Noguès, Michel; Laune, Daniel; Paccard, Delphine; Coupet, Anne-Laure; Millot-Keurinck, Justine; Bototo, Narjis; Bertrand, Marine; Bousquet, Jean

    2017-03-01

    This project is part of: i) the risks of ageing prevention policy of the French retirement and occupational health insurance agency of Languedoc Roussillon (Carsat-LR) and ii) the European innovation partnership on active and healthy ageing (EIP on AHA). It aims to support senior citizens who live independently and have been identified at risk of frailty on a social or health level. The purpose is to increase legibility as well as technical and financial access to innovations for vulnerable seniors who are remote from the digital era, through a multiservice user-friendly platform. Launched at the end of 2015, the project rallies over 10 actors of the silver economy currently developing personalised ICT tools to improve the safety and comfort of seniors and the coordination between health and social care. The objective is threefold: i) developing new adapted technologies, ii) having them evaluated by retirees and professionals and iii) making them accessible to the ICT web platform which will provide tutorials and prices and collect opinions from users and professionals. 500 retirees selected by CARSAT-LR will be testing these new devices and solutions which will be provided without charge. The following will be evaluated: i) feedback from users; ii) benefits gained through accessing comprehensive and appropriate information; iii) coordination of caregivers and professionals; iv) enjoyment from using the products (access to games, social links, customer confidence, sense of safety). This is a unique opportunity to mobilise solutions in a structured manner, bringing together competing businesses under a consortium agreement. Advantages for these businesses include acceleration of development and availability of their adapted solutions as well as the possibility to test their products on a significant panel of people. Professional caregiver's data follow-up will identify seniors at risk of frailty, proposing preventive actions and local services tailored to their

  15. RADIATION DOSE AND RISK TO RECREATIONAL FISHERMEN FROM INGESTION OF FISH CAUGHT NEAR EIGHT OIL PLATFORMS IN THE GULF OF MEXICO

    SciTech Connect

    MEINHOLD,A.F.; HOLTZMAN,S.

    1998-06-01

    Offshore production of oil and gas is accompanied by a saline wastewater, called produced water. Produced water discharges to the Gulf of Mexico often contain elevated concentrations of radionuclides that occur naturally in the geologic reservoir along with the oil and gas. These radionuclides may accumulate in organisms that live near offshore oil and gas structures. Because recreational fishing in the Gulf of Mexico is concentrated near oil and gas platforms, there is the potential for increased risks to recreational fishermen from the ingestion of radionuclides in fish caught near produced water discharges. This analysis investigated the potential risk to recreational fishermen from radium and lead-210 in offshore produced water discharges to the Gulf of Mexico. The assessment used data collected at eight discharging offshore platforms and two reference locations. These data were collected in a USDOE funded project titled ``Environmental and Economic Assessment of Discharges from Gulf of Mexico Region Oil and Gas Operations'', here called the USDOE Field Study. The risk assessments were done to support risk managers in developing regulations and permits for offshore discharges of produced water.

  16. Oleaginous yeasts: Promising platforms for the production of oleochemicals and biofuels.

    PubMed

    Adrio, José L

    2017-09-01

    Oleaginous yeasts have a unique physiology that makes them the best suited hosts for the production of lipids, oleochemicals, and diesel-like fuels. Their high lipogenesis, capability of growing on many different carbon sources (including lignocellulosic sugars), easy large-scale cultivation, and an increasing number of genetic tools are some of the advantages that have encouraged their use to develop sustainable processes. This mini-review summarizes the metabolic engineering strategies developed in oleaginous yeasts within the last 2 years to improve process metrics (titer, yield, and productivity) for the production of lipids, free fatty acids, fatty acid-based chemicals (e.g., fatty alcohols, fatty acid ethyl esters), and alkanes. During this short period of time, tremendous progress has been made in Yarrowia lipolytica, the model oleaginous yeast, which has been engineered to improve lipid production by different strategies including increasing lipogenic pathway flux and biosynthetic precursors, and blocking degradation pathways. Moreover, remarkable advances have also been reported in Rhodosporidium toruloides and Lipomyces starkey despite the limited genetic tools available for these two very promising hosts. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 1915-1920. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Polymersome production on a microfluidic platform using pH sensitive block copolymers.

    PubMed

    Brown, Luke; McArthur, Sally L; Wright, Phillip C; Lewis, Andrew; Battaglia, Giuseppe

    2010-08-07

    Development of pH sensitive biocompatible block copolymer polymersomes, which are stable in physiological conditions, is enabling the intracellular delivery of water soluble drugs and proteins. As a result, it is becoming increasingly important to develop robust production methods to enhance the polymersome encapsulation efficiency. One way that this could be achieved is through production in microfluidic devices that potentially offer more favourable conditions for encapsulation. Here a flow focussing microfluidic device is used to induce self-assembly of poly(2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl phosphorylcholine)-poly(2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (PMPC-b-PDPA) block copolymer by changing the pH of the flows within the microchannels. The laminar flow conditions within the device result in a pH gradient at either interface of the central flow, where diffusion of hydrogen ions enables the deprotonation of the PDPA block copolymer and results in self-assembly of polymersomes. Dynamic light scattering reveals hydrodynamic diameters in the range of 75-275 nm and double membrane structures visualized using transmission electron microscopy indicate that polymersome nanostructures are being produced. The encapsulation efficiency for Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) was calculated by measuring the spectroscopic absorbance at 279 nm and indicates that the encapsulation efficiency produced in the microfluidic device is equivalent to the standard in solution production method. Critically, the microfluidic system eliminates the use of organic solvents, which limit biological applications, through the pH induced self-assembly process and offers a continuous production method for intracellular delivery polymersomes.

  18. Emerging biotechnologies for production of itaconic acid and its applications as a platform chemical

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recently, itaconic acid (IA), an unsaturated C5-dicarboxylic acid, has attracted much attention as a biobased building block chemical. It is produced industrially (> 80 g L**-1) from glucose by fermentation with Aspergillus terreus. The titer is low compared with citric acid production (> 200 g L**-...

  19. U.K. offshore project employs new technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Moritis, G.

    1995-12-18

    The Liverpool Bay project, to produce oil and gas from four offshore fields in the British sector of the Irish Sea, includes a number recently developed technologies. GE Power Systems and GE Marine and Industrial Engines says that this project is the first to use its GE LM6000 aeroderivative gas turbine for power generation. On the Lennox platform, Cooper Cameron Corp.`s first platform spool tree was installed. Marine fouling protection of the platforms is provided by LEV Group`s proprietary ocean-powered marine growth preventers. All three technologies are described.

  20. Recent advances in the metabolic engineering of microorganisms for the production of 3-hydroxypropionic acid as C3 platform chemical.

    PubMed

    Valdehuesa, Kris Niño G; Liu, Huaiwei; Nisola, Grace M; Chung, Wook-Jin; Lee, Seung Hwan; Park, Si Jae

    2013-04-01

    Development of sustainable technologies for the production of 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3HP) as a platform chemical has recently been gaining much attention owing to its versatility in applications for the synthesis of other specialty chemicals. Several proposed biological synthesis routes and strategies for producing 3HP from glucose and glycerol are reviewed presently. Ten proposed routes for 3HP production from glucose are described and one of which was recently constructed successfully in Escherichia coli with malonyl-Coenzyme A as a precursor. This resulted in a yield still far from the required level for industrial application. On the other hand, strategies employing engineered E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae capable of producing 3HP from glycerol are also evaluated. The titers produced by these recombinant strains reached around 3 %. At its current state, it is evident that a bulk of engineering works is yet to be done to acquire a biosynthesis route for 3HP that is acceptable for industrial-scale production.

  1. High-Throughput Screening Platform for the Discovery of New Immunomodulator Molecules from Natural Product Extract Libraries.

    PubMed

    Pérez Del Palacio, José; Díaz, Caridad; de la Cruz, Mercedes; Annang, Frederick; Martín, Jesús; Pérez-Victoria, Ignacio; González-Menéndez, Víctor; de Pedro, Nuria; Tormo, José R; Algieri, Francesca; Rodriguez-Nogales, Alba; Rodríguez-Cabezas, M Elena; Reyes, Fernando; Genilloud, Olga; Vicente, Francisca; Gálvez, Julio

    2016-07-01

    It is widely accepted that central nervous system inflammation and systemic inflammation play a significant role in the progression of chronic neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, neurotropic viral infections, stroke, paraneoplastic disorders, traumatic brain injury, and multiple sclerosis. Therefore, it seems reasonable to propose that the use of anti-inflammatory drugs might diminish the cumulative effects of inflammation. Indeed, some epidemiological studies suggest that sustained use of anti-inflammatory drugs may prevent or slow down the progression of neurodegenerative diseases. However, the anti-inflammatory drugs and biologics used clinically have the disadvantage of causing side effects and a high cost of treatment. Alternatively, natural products offer great potential for the identification and development of bioactive lead compounds into drugs for treating inflammatory diseases with an improved safety profile. In this work, we present a validated high-throughput screening approach in 96-well plate format for the discovery of new molecules with anti-inflammatory/immunomodulatory activity. The in vitro models are based on the quantitation of nitrite levels in RAW264.7 murine macrophages and interleukin-8 in Caco-2 cells. We have used this platform in a pilot project to screen a subset of 5976 noncytotoxic crude microbial extracts from the MEDINA microbial natural product collection. To our knowledge, this is the first report on an high-throughput screening of microbial natural product extracts for the discovery of immunomodulators.

  2. The potential of Physcomitrella patens as a platform for the production of plant-based vaccines.

    PubMed

    Rosales-Mendoza, Sergio; Orellana-Escobedo, Lucía; Romero-Maldonado, Andrea; Decker, Eva L; Reski, Ralf

    2014-02-01

    The moss Physcomitrella patens has a number of advantages for the production of biopharmaceuticals, including: i) availability of standardized conditions for cultivation in bioreactors; ii) not being part of the food chain; iii) high biosafety; iv) availability of highly efficient transformation methods; v) a haploid, fully sequenced genome providing genetic stability and uniform expression; vi) efficient gene targeting at the nuclear level allows for the generation of mutants with specific post-translational modifications (e.g., glycosylation patterns); and vii) oral formulations are a viable approach as no toxic effects are attributed to ingestion of this moss. In the light of this panorama, this opinion paper analyzes the possibilities of using P. patens for the production of oral vaccines and presents some specific cases where its use may represent significant progress in the field of plant-based vaccine development. The advantages represented by putative adjuvant effects of endogenous secondary metabolites and producing specific glycosylation patterns are highlighted.

  3. Review of the recombinant human interferon gamma as an immunotherapeutic: Impacts of production platforms and glycosylation.

    PubMed

    Razaghi, Ali; Owens, Leigh; Heimann, Kirsten

    2016-12-20

    Human interferon gamma is a cytokine belonging to a diverse group of interferons which have a crucial immunological function against mycobacteria and a wide variety of viral infections. To date, it has been approved for treatment of chronic granulomatous disease and malignant osteopetrosis, and its application as an immunotherapeutic agent against cancer is an increasing prospect. Recombinant human interferon gamma, as a lucrative biopharmaceutical, has been engineered in different expression systems including prokaryotic, protozoan, fungal (yeasts), plant, insect and mammalian cells. Human interferon gamma is commonly expressed in Escherichia coli, marketed as ACTIMMUNE(®), however, the resulting product of the prokaryotic expression system is unglycosylated with a short half-life in the bloodstream; the purification process is tedious and makes the product costlier. Other expression systems also did not show satisfactory results in terms of yields, the biological activity of the protein or economic viability. Thus, the review aims to synthesise available information from previous studies on the production of human interferon gamma and its glycosylation patterns in different expression systems, to provide direction to future research in this field.

  4. Engineered platform for bioethylene production by a cyanobacterium expressing a chimeric complex of plant enzymes.

    PubMed

    Jindou, Sadanari; Ito, Yuki; Mito, Natsumi; Uematsu, Keiji; Hosoda, Akifumi; Tamura, Hiroto

    2014-07-18

    Ethylene is an industrially important compound, but more sustainable production methods are desirable. Since cellulosomes increase the ability of cellulolytic enzymes by physically linking the relevant enzymes via dockerin-cohesin interactions, in this study, we genetically engineered a chimeric cellulosome-like complex of two ethylene-generating enzymes from tomato using cohesin-dockerins from the bacteria Clostridium thermocellum and Acetivibrio cellulolyticus. This complex was transformed into Escherichia coli to analyze kinetic parameters and enzyme complex formation and into the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, which was then grown with and without 0.1 mM isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) induction. Only at minimal protein expression levels (without IPTG), the chimeric complex produced 3.7 times more ethylene in vivo than did uncomplexed enzymes. Thus, cyanobacteria can be used to sustainably generate ethylene, and the synthetic enzyme complex greatly enhanced production efficiency. Artificial synthetic enzyme complexes hold great promise for improving the production efficiency of other industrial compounds.

  5. Offshore Essaouira basin: Geology and hydrocarbon potential

    SciTech Connect

    Jabour, H.; Ait Salem, A. )

    1991-03-01

    The study area lies in the offshore extension of the onshore Essaouria basin. The Mesozoic development of the Essaouira margin was largely controlled by Late Triassic to Mid-Jurassic rifting and subsequent opening of the Central Atlantic, with the evolution of a typical passive, opening of the Central Atlantic, with the evolution of a typical passive, continental margin. Diapiric salt structure recognized on seismic defines a Late Triassic-Early Jurassic salt basin in the offshore area initiated during early rifting. Subsidence and sea-level rise during Jurassic resulted in carbonate platform development. This was followed during Cretaceous and Tertiary time by the deposition of a prograding siliciclastic system. Only three wells have been drilled in this basin. Although drilled on poorly defined prospects, these wells encountered gas and oil shows. Fairly extensive seismic coverage of good quality data is now available. A study based on an integrated approach involving seismic facies definition and mapping, correlation with well data, identification of the principal control on sedimentation, and basin modeling in conjunction with source rock prediction and maturity modeling has been carried out. Results have shown that hydrocarbon potential in the offshore Essaouira basin has not yet been substantiated by drilling. Attractive structural and stratigraphic prospects exist in the shelf, shelf edge, and the slope, and await confirmation by drilling.

  6. Generation of Triple-Transgenic Forsythia Cell Cultures as a Platform for the Efficient, Stable, and Sustainable Production of Lignans.

    PubMed

    Murata, Jun; Matsumoto, Erika; Morimoto, Kinuyo; Koyama, Tomotsugu; Satake, Honoo

    2015-01-01

    unprecedented platform for efficient, stable, and sustainable production of sesamin, and shows that a transgenic and specific light-regulated Forsythia cell-based metabolic engineering is a promising strategy for the acquisition of rare and beneficial lignans.

  7. Assessment of Offshore Wind Energy Potential in the United States (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, D.; Schwartz, M.; Haymes, S.; Heimiller, D.; Musial, W.

    2011-05-01

    The development of an offshore wind resource database is one of the first steps necessary to understand the magnitude of the resource and to plan the distribution and development of future offshore wind power facilities. The U.S. Department of Energy supported the production of offshore wind resource maps and potential estimates for much of the United States. This presentation discusses NREL's 2010 offshore wind resources report; current U.S., regional, and state offshore maps; methodology for the wind mapping and validation; wind potential estimates; the Geographic Information Systems database; and future work and conclusions.

  8. Assessment of economic impact of offshore and coastal discharge requirements on present and future operations in the Gulf of Mexico. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsey, R.

    1996-06-01

    The high potential costs of compliance associated with new effluent guidelines for offshore and coastal oil and gas operations could significantly affect the economics of finding, developing, and producing oil and gas in the Gulf of Mexico. This report characterizes the potential economic impacts of alternative treatment and discharge regulations for produced water on reserves and production in Gulf of Mexico coastal, territorial and outer continental shelf (OCS) waters, quantifying the impacts of both recent regulatory changes and possible more stringent requirements. The treatment technologies capable of meeting these requirements are characterized in terms of cost, performance, and applicability to coastal and offshore situations. As part of this analysis, an extensive database was constructed that includes oil and gas production forecasts by field, data on existing platforms, and the current treatment methods in place for produced water treatment and disposal on offshore facilities. This work provides the first comprehensive evaluation of the impacts of alternative regulatory requirements for produced water management and disposal in coastal and offshore areas of the Gulf of Mexico.

  9. Methyl ricinoleate as platform chemical for simultaneous production of fine chemicals and polymer precursors.

    PubMed

    Dupé, Antoine; Achard, Mathieu; Fischmeister, Cédric; Bruneau, Christian

    2012-11-01

    The modification of methyl ricinoleate by etherification of the hydroxyl group was accomplished by using a nonclassical ruthenium-catalyzed allylation reaction and also by esterification. Methyl ricinoleate derivatives were engaged in ring-closing metathesis (RCM) reactions leading to biosourced 3,6-dihydropyran and α,β-unsaturated lactone derivatives with concomitant production of polymer precursors. Sequential RCM/hydrogenation and RCM/cross-metathesis were also implemented as a straightforward method for the synthesis of tetrahydropyran and lactone derivatives as well as valuable monomers (i.e., polyamide precursors).

  10. Geomechanical Performance of Hydrate-Bearing Sediment in Offshore Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen Holditch; Tad Patzek; Jonny Rutqvist; George Moridis; Richard Plumb

    2008-03-31

    The objective of this multi-year, multi-institutional research project was to develop the knowledge base and quantitative predictive capability for the description of geomechanical performance of hydrate-bearing sediments (hereafter referred to as HBS) in oceanic environments. The focus was on the determination of the envelope of hydrate stability under conditions typical of those related to the construction and operation of offshore platforms. We have developed a robust numerical simulator of hydrate behavior in geologic media by coupling a reservoir model with a commercial geomechanical code. We also investigated the geomechanical behavior of oceanic HBS using pore-scale models (conceptual and mathematical) of fluid flow, stress analysis, and damage propagation. The objective of the UC Berkeley work was to develop a grain-scale model of hydrate-bearing sediments. Hydrate dissociation alters the strength of HBS. In particular, transformation of hydrate clusters into gas and liquid water weakens the skeleton and, simultaneously, reduces the effective stress by increasing the pore pressure. The large-scale objective of the study is evaluation of geomechanical stability of offshore oil and gas production infrastructure. At Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), we have developed the numerical model TOUGH + Hydrate + FLAC3D to evaluate how the formation and disassociation of hydrates in seafloor sediments affects seafloor stability. Several technical papers were published using results from this model. LBNL also developed laboratory equipment and methods to produce realistic laboratory samples of sediments containing gas hydrates so that mechanical properties could be measured in the laboratory. These properties are required to run TOUGH + Hydrate + FLAC3D to evaluate seafloor stability issues. At Texas A&M University we performed a detailed literature review to determine what gas hydrate formation properties had been measured and reported in the literature. We

  11. 30 CFR 250.913 - When must I resubmit Platform Verification Program plans?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When must I resubmit Platform Verification... INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Platforms and Structures Platform Verification Program § 250.913 When must I resubmit Platform Verification Program plans...

  12. 30 CFR 250.900 - What general requirements apply to all platforms?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... platforms? 250.900 Section 250.900 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Platforms and Structures General Requirements for Platforms § 250.900 What general requirements apply to all platforms? (a) You must...

  13. Influence of motion coupling and nonlinear effects on parametric roll for a floating production storage and offloading platform

    PubMed Central

    Greco, M.; Lugni, C.; Faltinsen, O. M.

    2015-01-01

    Occurrence and features of parametric roll (PR) on a weather-vaning floating production storage and offloading (FPSO) platform with a turret single-point mooring-line system are examined. The main focus is on the relevance of motions coupling and nonlinear effects on this phenomenon and on more general unstable conditions as well as on the occurrence and severity of water on deck. This work was motivated by recent experiments on an FPSO model without mooring systems highlighting the occurrence of parametric resonance owing to roll–yaw coupling. A three-dimensional numerical hybrid potential-flow seakeeping solver was able to capture this behaviour. The same method, extended to include the mooring lines, is adopted here to investigate the platform behaviour for different incident wavelengths, steepnesses, headings, locations of the turret and pretensions. From the results, sway and yaw tend to destabilize the system, also bringing chaotic features. The sway–roll–yaw coupling widens the existence region of PR resonance and increases PR severity; it also results in a larger amount of shipped water, especially at smaller wavelength-to-ship length ratio and larger steepness. The chaotic features are excited when a sufficiently large yaw amplitude is reached. Consistently, a simplified stability analysis showed the relevance of nonlinear-restoring coefficients, first those connected with the sway–yaw coupling then those associated with the roll–yaw coupling, both destabilizing. From the stability analysis, the system is unstable for all longitudinal locations of the turret and pre-tensions examined, but the instability weakens as the turret is moved forward, and the pre-tension is increased. The use of a suitable dynamic-positioning system can control the horizontal motions, avoiding the instability. PMID:25512590

  14. Optimization of transplastomic production of hemicellulases in tobacco: effects of expression cassette configuration and tobacco cultivar used as production platform on recombinant protein yields

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Chloroplast transformation in tobacco has been used extensively to produce recombinant proteins and enzymes. Chloroplast expression cassettes can be designed with different configurations of the cis-acting elements that govern foreign gene expression. With the aim to optimize production of recombinant hemicellulases in transplastomic tobacco, we developed a set of cassettes that incorporate elements known to facilitate protein expression in chloroplasts and examined expression and accumulation of a bacterial xylanase XynA. Biomass production is another important factor in achieving sustainable and high-volume production of cellulolytic enzymes. Therefore, we compared productivity of two tobacco cultivars – a low-alkaloid and a high-biomass - as transplastomic expression platforms. Results Four different cassettes expressing XynA produced various mutant phenotypes of the transplastomic plants, affected their growth rate and resulted in different accumulation levels of the XynA enzyme. The most productive cassette was identified and used further to express XynA and two additional fungal xylanases, Xyn10A and Xyn11B, in a high-biomass tobacco cultivar. The high biomass cultivar allowed for a 60% increase in XynA production per plant. Accumulation of the fungal enzymes reached more than 10-fold higher levels than the bacterial enzyme, constituting up to 6% of the total soluble protein in the leaf tissue. Use of a well-characterized translational enhancer with the selected expression cassette revealed inconsistent effects on accumulation of the recombinant xylanases. Additionally, differences in the enzymatic activity of crude plant extracts measured in leaves of different age suggest presence of a specific xylanase inhibitor in the green leaf tissue. Conclusion Our results demonstrate the pivotal importance of the expression cassette design and appropriate tobacco cultivar for high-level transplastomic production of recombinant proteins. PMID:23642171

  15. Integrating `-omics' and natural product discovery platforms to investigate metabolic exchange in microbiomes

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jane Y; Karr, Jessica R; Watrous, Jeramie D; Dorrestein, Pieter C

    2011-01-01

    The microbiome is an abundance of microorganisms within a host (e.g. human microbiome). These microorganisms produce small molecules and metabolites that have been shown to affect and dictate the physiology of an individual. Functional knowledge of these molecules, often produced for communication or defense, will reveal the interplay between microbes and host in health and disease. The vast diversity in structure and function of microbiome-associated small molecules necessitate tools that will utilize multiple `-omics' strategies to understand the interactions within the human microbiome. This review discusses the importance of these investigations and the integration of current `-omics' technologies with tools established in natural product discovery in order to identify and characterize uncharacterized small molecules in the effort towards diagnostic modeling of the human microbiome. PMID:21087892

  16. A synthetic biochemistry platform for cell free production of monoterpenes from glucose

    DOE PAGES

    Korman, Tyler P.; Opgenorth, Paul H.; Bowie, James U.

    2017-05-24

    Cell-free systems designed to perform complex chemical conversions of biomass to biofuels or commodity chemicals are emerging as promising alternatives to the metabolic engineering of living cells. We design a system comprises 27 enzymes for the conversion of glucose into monoterpenes that generates both NAD(P)H and ATP in a modified glucose breakdown module and utilizes both cofactors for building terpenes. Different monoterpenes are produced in our system by changing the terpene synthase enzyme. The system is stable for the production of limonene, pinene and sabinene, and can operate continuously for at least 5 days from a single addition of glucose.more » We also obtain conversion yields 495% and titres 415 g l-1. The titres are an order of magnitude over cellular toxicity limits and thus difficult to achieve using cell-based systems. Overall, these results highlight the potential of synthetic biochemistry approaches for producing bio-based chemicals.« less

  17. Transgenic rice seed synthesizing diverse flavonoids at high levels: a new platform for flavonoid production with associated health benefits.

    PubMed

    Ogo, Yuko; Ozawa, Kenjiro; Ishimaru, Tsutomu; Murayama, Tsugiya; Takaiwa, Fumio

    2013-08-01

    Flavonoids possess diverse health-promoting benefits but are nearly absent from rice, because most of the genes encoding enzymes for flavonoid biosynthesis are not expressed in rice seeds. In the present study, a transgenic rice plant producing several classes of flavonoids in seeds was developed by introducing multiple genes encoding enzymes involved in flavonoid synthesis, from phenylalanine to the target flavonoids, into rice. Rice accumulating naringenin was developed by introducing phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and chalcone synthase (CHS) genes. Rice producing other classes of flavonoids, kaempferol, genistein, and apigenin, was developed by introducing, together with PAL and CHS, genes encoding flavonol synthase/flavanone-3-hydroxylase, isoflavone synthase, and flavone synthases, respectively. The endosperm-specific GluB-1 promoter or embryo- and aleurone-specific 18-kDa oleosin promoters were used to express these biosynthetic genes in seed. The target flavonoids of naringenin, kaempferol, genistein, and apigenin were highly accumulated in each transgenic rice, respectively. Furthermore, tricin was accumulated by introducing hydroxylase and methyltransferase, demonstrating that modification to flavonoid backbones can be also well manipulated in rice seeds. The flavonoids accumulated as both aglycones and several types of glycosides, and flavonoids in the endosperm were deposited into PB-II-type protein bodies. Therefore, these rice seeds provide an ideal platform for the production of particular flavonoids due to efficient glycosylation, the presence of appropriate organelles for flavonoid accumulation, and the small effect of endogenous enzymes on the production of flavonoids by exogenous enzymes.

  18. Development, pre-qualification, and production history of 60 ksi UOE steel tendon pipe for AUGER tension leg platform

    SciTech Connect

    Takeuchi, Izumi; Nishimoto, Koji; Nagase, Makoto; Nishizawa, Masashi; Smith, J.D.; Bowen, K.G. |

    1995-12-31

    AUGER Tension Leg Platform (TLP) tendons consisted of specially designed threaded forged connections welded to thick-walled tubular tendon segments. This paper describes the development, pre-qualification testing, and production properties of the 60ksi-26 in. O.D. x 1.300 in. wall-thickness steel pipes which formed the TLP tendon segments. The tendon pipe segments were manufactured by the UOE process using Thermo-Mechanical Control Process (TMCP) steel plate with double-submerged arc seam welding (DSAW). Stringent mechanical properties and dimensional control requirements were established for the tendon pipes, with special emphasis on weldability and resulting high heat-affected-zone (HAZ) crack-tip opening displacement (CTOD) fracture toughness. The weldability (hydrogen delayed cracking resistance) and fracture toughness of the HAZ showed high and stable performance. Tight dimensional control, especially ovality, ensured minimal high-low during the making of girth welds at the construction site. Limiting high-low is an important parameter for lowering local stress-concentration factor (SCF) and increasing fatigue life. These results are discussed with particular reference to the steel Local Brittle Zone (LBZ) concept. Narrow range control of the TMCP steel chemistry, plate manufacturing process, and UOE pipe-forming and seam-welding process insured that all requirements were met for the production quantity.

  19. Wind Energy: Offshore Permitting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    Technological advancements and tax incentives have driven a global expansion in the development of renewable energy resources. Wind energy , in...particular, is now often cited as the fastest growing commercial energy source in the world. Currently, all U.S. wind energy facilities are based on land...authority to permit and regulate offshore wind energy development within the zones of the oceans under its jurisdiction. The federal government and coastal

  20. Geological & Geophysical findings from seismic, well log and core data for marine gas hydrate deposits at the 1st offshore methane hydrate production test site in the eastern Nankai Trough, offshore Japan: An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, T.; Noguchi, S.; Takayama, T.; Suzuki, K.; Yamamoto, K.

    2012-12-01

    In order to evaluate productivity of gas from marine gas hydrate by the depressurization method, Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation is planning to conduct a full-scale production test in early 2013 at the AT1 site in the north slope of Daini-Atsumi Knoll in the eastern Nankai Trough, Japan. The test location was determined using the combination of detailed 3D seismic reflection pattern analysis, high-density velocity analysis, and P-impedance inversion analysis, which were calibrated using well log data obtained in 2004. At the AT1 site, one production well (AT1-P) and two monitoring wells (AT1-MC and MT1) were drilled from February to March 2012, followed by 1 coring well (AT1-C) from June to July 2012. An extensive logging program with logging while drilling (LWD) and wireline-logging tools, such as GeoVISION (resistivity image), EcoScope (neutron/density porosity, mineral spectroscopy etc.), SonicScanner (Advanced Sonic tool), CMR/ProVISION (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Tools), XPT (formation pressure, fluid mobility), and IsolationScanner (ultrasonic cement evaluation tools) was conducted at AT1-MC well to evaluate physical reservoir properties of gas hydrate-bearing sediments, to determine production test interval in 2013, and to evaluate cement bonding. Methane hydrate concentrated zone (MHCZ) confirmed by the well logging at AT1-MC was thin turbidites (tens of centimeters to few meters) with 60 m of gross thickness, which is composed of lobe type sequences in the upper part of it and channel sand sequences in the lower part. The gross thickness of MHCZ in the well is thicker than previous wells in 2004 (A1, 45 m) located around 150 m northeast, indicating that the prediction given by seismic inversion analysis was reasonable. Well-to-well correlation between AT1-MC and MT1 wells within 40 m distance exhibited that lateral continuity of these sand layers (upper part of reservoir) are fairly good, which representing ideal reservoir for the production

  1. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of San Francisco, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cochrane, Guy R.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Greene, H. Gary; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Golden, Nadine E.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Endris, Charles A.; Manson, Michael W.; Sliter, Ray W.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Watt, Janet Tilden; Ross, Stephanie L.; Bruns, Terry R.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    Circulation over the continental shelf in the Offshore of San Francisco map area is dominated by the southward-flowing California Current, an eastern limb of the North Pacific Gyre that flows from Oregon to Baja California. At its midpoint offshore of central California, the California Current transports subarctic surface waters southeastward, about 150 to 1,300 km from shore. Seasonal northwesterly winds that are, in part, responsible for the California Current, generate coastal upwelling. Ocean temperatures offshore of central California have increased over the past 50 years, driving an ecosystem shift from the productive subarctic regime towards a depopulated subtropical environment.

  2. Recent developments in welding consumables for offshore structures

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, C.E.

    1994-12-31

    The submerged arc, manual metal arc and flux cored arc welding processes are used extensively in the fabrication of fixed offshore oil and gas production platforms. The development of submerged arc wire and flux combinations for the high deposition rate welding of both conventional and higher strength steels is described. In order to optimize the weld metal mechanical properties an investigation has been undertaken into the effect of nitrogen on the tensile and toughness properties. Welds have been deposited using wires with varying levels of nitrogen. The influence of nitrogen on the weld metal tensile, impact toughness and CTOD toughness properties has been examined together with its effect on the weld deposit microstructure. The implications of these results for commercial consumables have been assessed. The requirement to reduce the weight and cost of offshore structures has led to the increasing use of higher strength steels. The development of submerged arc wire and flux combinations for higher strength steels is described together with the tensile and toughness properties of the deposited welds. Manual metal arc electrodes and flux cored wires are both widely used in many applications. Weld metal alloy systems for manual metal arc electrodes have been investigated to produce weldments exhibiting both higher levels of strength together with retaining good low temperature impact toughness properties. The influence of these alloying elements on the resultant weld deposit strength and toughness properties is described. For manual metal arc electrodes raw materials and manufacturing conditions play a significant role in influencing the resultant weld deposit hydrogen content. The development of a packaging system which enables basic electrodes to be used without the need for onsite baking is described, together with its successful adoption on fabrication sites.

  3. The Feasibility of Thermophilic Caldimonas manganoxidans as a Platform for Efficient PHB Production.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Li-Jung; Lin, Ji-Hong; Sankatumvong, Pantitra; Wu, Tzong-Ming; Li, Si-Yu

    2016-11-01

    Recently, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) has been found in a few thermophilic strains where several advantages can be gained from running fermentation at high temperatures. Caldimonas manganoxidans, a thermophilic gram-negative bacterium, was investigated for the feasibility as a PHB-producing strain. It is suggested that the best fermentation strategy for achieving the highest PHB concentration of 5.4 ± 1.1 g/L (from 20 g/L glucose) in 24 h is to use the fermentation conditions that are favored for the bacterial growth, yet temperature and pH should be chosen at conditions that are favored for the PHB content. Besides, the above fermentation conditions produce PHB that has a high molecular weight of 1274 kDa with a low polydispersity index (PDI) of 1.45, where the highest Mw of PHB of 1399 kDa (PDI of 1.32) is obtained in this study. To the best knowledge of authors, C. manganoxidans has the best PHB productivity among the thermophiles and is comparable to those common PHB-producing mesophiles.

  4. Accord near for offshore California oil shipments

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-15

    There are faint glimmers of hope again for offshore California operators. After more than a decade of often bitter strife over offshore oil and gas development and transportation issues, state officials and oil producers may be moving toward compromise solutions. One such solution may be forthcoming on offshore development. But the real change came with the turnabout of the California Coastal Commission (CCC), which last month approved a permit for interim tankering of crude from Point Arguello oil field in the Santa Barbara Channel to Los Angeles. The dispute over how to ship offshore California crude to market has dragged on since before Point Arguelo development plans were unveiled. The project's status has become a flashpoint in the U.S. debate over resource use and environmental concerns. The controversy flared anew in the wake of the 1989 Exxon Valdez tanker spill off Alaska, when CCC voided a Santa Barbara County permit for interim tankering, a move project operator Chevron Corp. linked to the Exxon Valdez accident. Faced with litigation, the state's economic devastation, and acrimonious debate over transporting California crude, Gov. Pete Wilson and other agencies approved the CCC permit. But there's a catch: A permanent pipeline must be built to handle full production within 3 years. The paper discusses permit concerns, the turnaround decision, the anger of environmental groups, and pipeline proposals.

  5. A Cost-Effective ELP-Intein Coupling System for Recombinant Protein Purification from Plant Production Platform

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Li; Sun, Samuel S. M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Plant bioreactor offers an efficient and economical system for large-scale production of recombinant proteins. However, high cost and difficulty in scaling-up of downstream purification of the target protein, particularly the common involvement of affinity chromatography and protease in the purification process, has hampered its industrial scale application, therefore a cost-effective and easily scale-up purification method is highly desirable for further development of plant bioreactor. Methodology/Principal Findings To tackle this problem, we investigated the ELP-intein coupling system for purification of recombinant proteins expressed in transgenic plants using a plant lectin (PAL) with anti-tumor bioactivity as example target protein and rice seeds as production platform. Results showed that ELP-intein-PAL (EiP) fusion protein formed novel irregular ER-derived protein bodies in endosperm cells by retention of endogenous prolamins. The fusion protein was partially self-cleaved in vivo, but only self-cleaved PAL protein was detected in total seed protein sample and deposited in protein storage vacuoles (PSV). The in vivo uncleaved EiP protein was accumulated up to 2–4.2% of the total seed protein. The target PAL protein could be purified by the ELP-intein system efficiently without using complicated instruments and expensive chemicals, and the yield of pure PAL protein by the current method was up to 1.1 mg/g total seed protein. Conclusion/Significance This study successfully demonstrated the purification of an example recombinant protein from rice seeds by the ELP-intein system. The whole purification procedure can be easily scaled up for industrial production, providing the first evidence on applying the ELP-intein coupling system to achieve cost-effective purification of recombinant proteins expressed in plant bioreactors and its possible application in industry. PMID:21918684

  6. An interspecific Nicotiana hybrid as a useful and cost-effective platform for production of animal vaccines.

    PubMed

    Ling, Huai-Yian; Edwards, Aaron M; Gantier, Michael P; Deboer, Kathleen D; Neale, Alan D; Hamill, John D; Walmsley, Amanda M

    2012-01-01

    The use of transgenic plants to produce novel products has great biotechnological potential as the relatively inexpensive inputs of light, water, and nutrients are utilised in return for potentially valuable bioactive metabolites, diagnostic proteins and vaccines. Extensive research is ongoing in this area internationally with the aim of producing plant-made vaccines of importance for both animals and humans. Vaccine purification is generally regarded as being integral to the preparation of safe and effective vaccines for use in humans. However, the use of crude plant extracts for animal immunisation may enable plant-made vaccines to become a cost-effective and efficacious approach to safely immunise large numbers of farm animals against diseases such as avian influenza. Since the technology associated with genetic transformation and large-scale propagation is very well established in Nicotiana, the genus has attributes well-suited for the production of plant-made vaccines. However the presence of potentially toxic alkaloids in Nicotiana extracts impedes their use as crude vaccine preparations. In the current study we describe a Nicotiana tabacum and N. glauca hybrid that expresses the HA glycoprotein of influenza A in its leaves but does not synthesize alkaloids. We demonstrate that injection with crude leaf extracts from these interspecific hybrid plants is a safe and effective approach for immunising mice. Moreover, this antigen-producing alkaloid-free, transgenic interspecific hybrid is vigorous, with a high capacity for vegetative shoot regeneration after harvesting. These plants are easily propagated by vegetative cuttings and have the added benefit of not producing viable pollen, thus reducing potential problems associated with bio-containment. Hence, these Nicotiana hybrids provide an advantageous production platform for partially purified, plant-made vaccines which may be particularly well suited for use in veterinary immunization programs.

  7. An Interspecific Nicotiana Hybrid as a Useful and Cost-Effective Platform for Production of Animal Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Huai-Yian; Edwards, Aaron M.; Gantier, Michael P.; DeBoer, Kathleen D.; Neale, Alan D.; Hamill, John D.; Walmsley, Amanda M.

    2012-01-01

    The use of transgenic plants to produce novel products has great biotechnological potential as the relatively inexpensive inputs of light, water, and nutrients are utilised in return for potentially valuable bioactive metabolites, diagnostic proteins and vaccines. Extensive research is ongoing in this area internationally with the aim of producing plant-made vaccines of importance for both animals and humans. Vaccine purification is generally regarded as being integral to the preparation of safe and effective vaccines for use in humans. However, the use of crude plant extracts for animal immunisation may enable plant-made vaccines to become a cost-effective and efficacious approach to safely immunise large numbers of farm animals against diseases such as avian influenza. Since the technology associated with genetic transformation and large-scale propagation is very well established in Nicotiana, the genus has attributes well-suited for the production of plant-made vaccines. However the presence of potentially toxic alkaloids in Nicotiana extracts impedes their use as crude vaccine preparations. In the current study we describe a Nicotiana tabacum and N. glauca hybrid that expresses the HA glycoprotein of influenza A in its leaves but does not synthesize alkaloids. We demonstrate that injection with crude leaf extracts from these interspecific hybrid plants is a safe and effective approach for immunising mice. Moreover, this antigen-producing alkaloid-free, transgenic interspecific hybrid is vigorous, with a high capacity for vegetative shoot regeneration after harvesting. These plants are easily propagated by vegetative cuttings and have the added benefit of not producing viable pollen, thus reducing potential problems associated with bio-containment. Hence, these Nicotiana hybrids provide an advantageous production platform for partially purified, plant-made vaccines which may be particularly well suited for use in veterinary immunization programs. PMID:22539991

  8. On the instability of offshore foundations: theory and mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, FuPing; Li, JinHui; Qi, WenGang; Hu, Cun

    2015-12-01

    As the offshore engineering moving from shallow to deep waters, the foundation types for fixed and floating platforms have been gradually evolving to minimize engineering costs and structural risks in the harsh offshore environments. Particular focus of this paper is on the foundation instability and its failure mechanisms as well as the relevant theory advances for the prevailing foundation types in both shallow and deep water depths. Piles, spudcans, gravity bases, suction caissons, and plate anchors are detailed in this paper. The failure phenomena and mechanisms for each type of foundations are identified and summarized, respectively. The theoretical approaches along with sophisticated empirical solutions for the bearing capacity problems are then presented. The major challenges are from flow-structure-soil coupling processes, rigorous constitutive modeling of cyclic behaviors of marine sediments, and the spatial variability of soil properties for large-spreading structures. Further researches are suggested to reveal the instability mechanisms for underpinning the evolution of offshore foundations.

  9. The Limits of Offshore Balancing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    UNITED STATES ARMY WAR COLLEGE PRESS Carlisle Barracks, PA ST R ENGTH-’W I SDOM THE LIMITS OF OFFSHORE BALANCING Hal Brands U.S. ARMY WAR...Offshore Balancing 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT...Strategic Studies Institute and U.S. Army War College Press THE LIMITS OF OFFSHORE BALANCING Hal Brands September 2015

  10. Radiation dose and risk to recreational fishermen from ingestion of fish caught near eight oil platforms in the Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Meinhold, A.F.; Holtzman, S.

    1998-06-01

    Offshore production of oil and gas is accompanied by a saline wastewater, called produced water. Produced water discharges to the Gulf of Mexico often contain elevated concentrations of radionuclides that occur naturally in the geologic reservoir along with the oil and gas. These radionuclides may accumulate in organisms that live near offshore oil and gas structures. Because recreational fishing in the Gulf of Mexico is concentrated near oil and gas platforms, there is the potential for increased risks to recreational fishermen from the ingestion of radionuclides in fish caught near produced water discharges. This analysis investigated the potential risk to recreational fishermen from radium and lead-210 in offshore produced water discharged to the Gulf of Mexico.

  11. Autonomous buoy for offshore well control and monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    1998-08-01

    Conventional subsea control systems require expensive electrohydraulic umbilicals that limit the maximum distance between platform and well. A proposed control-buoy concept is a hybrid well-control system with the reliability of conventional umbilical-based systems and the long-distance cost advantages of umbilical-free systems. Well 4-ALS-39 is a marginal gas well off-shore the state of Alagoas, northeast Brazil, in 25-m-deep water. Its production development became economically feasible with the use of an autonomous control buoy for well control and monitoring. A control and data-acquisition system installed on the buoy monitors wellhead pressure and temperature and controls the wet-Christmas-tree valves and production choke through a conventional electrohydraulic umbilical. A radio link between the buoy and shore ensures permanent supervision and interlock with the onshore pipeline valves and metering station. Because the onshore plant is normally unmanned, a dialed cellular-telephone line allows remote well monitoring and operation. The small buoy is completely autonomous in terms of energy. All energy required to power the system is generated locally by solar panels and a low-power, electrically driven hydraulic-power unit.

  12. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene levels in offshore workers.

    PubMed

    Hopf, Nancy Brenna; Kirkeleit, Jorunn; Kramer, Stacy L; Moen, Bente; Succop, Paul; Genter, Mary Beth; Carreón, Tania; Mack, James; Talaska, Glenn

    2010-01-01

    To compare differences in pre- and post-shift urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1OHP) levels as a measure of internal dose of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) between two groups of oil production workers offshore assumed to be exposed to PAH, and to compare the exposed group to an unexposed control group. Participants' (n = 42) urine samples, collected over a study period of three consecutive 12-h work days (pre-shift on the first day and post-shift on the third day), were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection. Analysis of covariance was used in the statistical models. (1) Post-shift 1OHP levels were significantly higher in the exposed workers compared to the controls. (2) Tank workers and process operators did not show statistically significant different post-shift 1OHP levels. Altogether, this study indicates the presence of a low level PAH exposure among offshore oil production workers.

  13. Automation ensures safety, extends production

    SciTech Connect

    Perdue, J.M.

    1996-06-01

    This paper reviews some current improvements in offshore platform safety as a result of new regulations. In response to Norwegian Petroleum Directorate regulations limiting personnel on the rig floor, Weatherford Norway has developed a casing modem with remote-controlled power tongs. This paper reviews the various automated systems for handling drill pipes and joints on offshore platforms and how they work.

  14. A High-Throughput Screening Platform of Microbial Natural Products for the Discovery of Molecules with Antibiofilm Properties against Salmonella

    PubMed Central

    Paytubi, Sonia; de La Cruz, Mercedes; Tormo, Jose R.; Martín, Jesús; González, Ignacio; González-Menendez, Victor; Genilloud, Olga; Reyes, Fernando; Vicente, Francisca; Madrid, Cristina; Balsalobre, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    In this report, we describe a High-Throughput Screening (HTS) to identify compounds that inhibit biofilm formation or cause the disintegration of an already formed biofilm using the Salmonella Enteritidis 3934 strain. Initially, we developed a new methodology for growing Salmonella biofilms suitable for HTS platforms. The biomass associated with biofilm at the solid-liquid interface was quantified by staining both with resazurin and crystal violet, to detect living cells and total biofilm mass, respectively. For a pilot project, a subset of 1120 extracts from the Fundación MEDINA's collection was examined to identify molecules with antibiofilm activity. This is the first validated HTS assay of microbial natural product extracts which allows for the detection of four types of activities which are not mutually exclusive: inhibition of biofilm formation, detachment of the preformed biofilm and antimicrobial activity against planktonic cells or biofilm embedded cells. Currently, several extracts have been selected for further fractionation and purification of the active compounds. In one of the natural extracts patulin has been identified as a potent molecule with antimicrobial activity against both, planktonic cells and cells within the biofilm. These findings provide a proof of concept that the developed HTS can lead to the discovery of new natural compounds with antibiofilm activity against Salmonella and its possible use as an alternative to antimicrobial therapies and traditional disinfectants. PMID:28303128

  15. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for the production of 5-aminovalerate and glutarate as C5 platform chemicals.

    PubMed

    Park, Si Jae; Kim, Eun Young; Noh, Won; Park, Hye Min; Oh, Young Hoon; Lee, Seung Hwan; Song, Bong Keun; Jegal, Jonggeon; Lee, Sang Yup

    2013-03-01

    5-Aminovalerate (5AVA) is the precursor of valerolactam, a potential building block for producing nylon 5, and is a C5 platform chemical for synthesizing 5-hydroxyvalerate, glutarate, and 1,5-pentanediol. Escherichia coli was metabolically engineered for the production of 5-aminovalerate (5AVA) and glutarate. When the recombinant E. coli WL3110 strain expressing the Pseudomonas putidadavAB genes encoding delta-aminovaleramidase and lysine 2-monooxygenase, respectively, were cultured in a medium containing 20g/L of glucose and 10g/L of L-lysine, 3.6g/L of 5AVA was produced by converting 7g/L of L-lysine. When the davAB genes were introduced into recombinant E. coli strainXQ56allowing enhanced L-lysine synthesis, 0.27 and 0.5g/L of 5AVA were produced directly from glucose by batch and fed-batch cultures, respectively. Further conversion of 5AVA into glutarate could be demonstrated by expression of the P. putida gabTD genes encoding 5AVA aminotransferase and glutarate semialdehyde dehydrogenase. When recombinant E. coli WL3110 strain expressing the davAB and gabTD genes was cultured in a medium containing 20g/L glucose, 10g/L L-lysine and 10g/L α-ketoglutarate, 1.7g/L of glutarate was produced.

  16. Plasmon induced polymerization using a TERS approach: a platform for nanostructured 2D/1D material production.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhenglong; Richard-Lacroix, Marie; Deckert, Volker

    2017-09-15

    Plasmon-induced chemical reactions have recently attracted great attention as a promising method for high efficiency light-energy conversion and proved to be useful in a wealth of different domains of chemistry and physics. One of the interesting and, so far, less explored avenues of such reactions is their potential for efficient, highly localized and controlled polymer production. Here, we present the first example of a localized, directed plasmon catalyzed polymerization process of a self-assembled monolayer on both silver and gold surfaces monitored by surface- and tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS and TERS). As a proof-of-concept, a bi-functionalized dibenzo(1,2)dithiine-3,8-diamine (D3ATP) molecule that undergoes a well-known plasmon-induced coupling via the amino group into an azo group has been used. Initial dimerization is demonstrated using established marker bands associated with the formation of the azo group. A subsequent indicator for a polymerization reaction, the appearance of a new characteristic band, is monitored by time-dependent SERS and TERS experiments. We demonstrate that the dimerization reaction and hence, the subsequent polymerization, can be induced by a plasmonic feature, e.g. a TERS tip, at specific nanoscale locations and, at a much larger micron scale, by continuously scanning the plasmonic probe. The presented results provide the basis for designing further plasmonic catalysis experiments in general, and offer a new platform for producing ultra-thin polymer films with a defined structural dimension.

  17. A High-Throughput Screening Platform of Microbial Natural Products for the Discovery of Molecules with Antibiofilm Properties against Salmonella.

    PubMed

    Paytubi, Sonia; de La Cruz, Mercedes; Tormo, Jose R; Martín, Jesús; González, Ignacio; González-Menendez, Victor; Genilloud, Olga; Reyes, Fernando; Vicente, Francisca; Madrid, Cristina; Balsalobre, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    In this report, we describe a High-Throughput Screening (HTS) to identify compounds that inhibit biofilm formation or cause the disintegration of an already formed biofilm using the Salmonella Enteritidis 3934 strain. Initially, we developed a new methodology for growing Salmonella biofilms suitable for HTS platforms. The biomass associated with biofilm at the solid-liquid interface was quantified by staining both with resazurin and crystal violet, to detect living cells and total biofilm mass, respectively. For a pilot project, a subset of 1120 extracts from the Fundación MEDINA's collection was examined to identify molecules with antibiofilm activity. This is the first validated HTS assay of microbial natural product extracts which allows for the detection of four types of activities which are not mutually exclusive: inhibition of biofilm formation, detachment of the preformed biofilm and antimicrobial activity against planktonic cells or biofilm embedded cells. Currently, several extracts have been selected for further fractionation and purification of the active compounds. In one of the natural extracts patulin has been identified as a potent molecule with antimicrobial activity against both, planktonic cells and cells within the biofilm. These findings provide a proof of concept that the developed HTS can lead to the discovery of new natural compounds with antibiofilm activity against Salmonella and its possible use as an alternative to antimicrobial therapies and traditional disinfectants.

  18. Carbonate shelf edge off southern Australia: A prograding open-platform margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Noel P.; von der Borch, Christopher C.

    1991-10-01

    The southern continental margin of Australia is an extensive shelf that has been a site of cool-water carbonate deposition since Eocene time. The platform has no rim and is swept by high-energy waves and swells throughout the year. The shelf is deep (40 to 100 m) and typified by bryozoan-rich sediments. The shelf margin is a gentle incline that becomes progressively steeper seaward, except where it laps down onto offshore terraces. The edge of the Eucla Platform in the Great Australian Bight is used to illustrate that the margin is a series of extensive prograding clinoforms. Progradation is interpreted to be the result of off-shelf sediment transport and in-place carbonate production by actively growing deep-water bryozoa and sponges. This area is a potential model for ancient high-energy platform margins during geologic periods when large skeletal reef-building metazoans were scarce.

  19. A Novel Dual Expression Platform for High Throughput Functional Screening of Phage Libraries in Product like Format

    PubMed Central

    Mugabe, Sheila; Gao, Changshou; Tkaczyk, Christine; Mazor, Yariv; Pavlik, Peter; Wu, Herren; Dall’Acqua, William; Chowdhury, Partha Sarathi

    2015-01-01

    High throughput screenings of single chain Fv (scFv) antibody phage display libraries are currently done as soluble scFvs produced in E.coli. Due to endotoxin contaminations from bacterial cells these preparations cannot be reliably used in mammalian cell based assays. The monovalent nature and lack of Fc in soluble scFvs prevent functional assays that are dependent on target cross linking and/or Fc functions. A convenient approach is to convert scFvs into scFv.Fc fusion proteins and express them in mammalian cell lines for screening. This approach is low throughput and is only taken after primary screening of monovalent scFvs that are expressed in bacteria. There is no platform at present that combines the benefits of both bacterial and mammalian expression system for screening phage library output. We have, therefore, developed a novel dual expression vector, called pSplice, which can be used to express scFv.Fc fusion proteins both in E.coli and mammalian cell lines. The hallmark of the vector is an engineered intron which houses the bacterial promoter and signal peptide for expression and secretion of scFv.Fc in E.coli. When the vector is transfected into a mammalian cell line, the intron is efficiently spliced out resulting in a functional operon for expression and secretion of the scFv.Fc fusion protein into the culture medium. By applying basic knowledge of mammalian introns and splisosome, we designed this vector to enable screening of phage libraries in a product like format. Like IgG, the scFv.Fc fusion protein is bi-valent for the antigen and possesses Fc effector functions. Expression in E.coli maintains the speed of the bacterial expression platform and is used to triage clones based on binding and other assays that are not sensitive to endotoxin. Triaged clones are then expressed in a mammalian cell line without the need for any additional cloning steps. Conditioned media from the mammalian cell line containing the fusion proteins are then used for

  20. Experiment study of the motion of the floating offshore turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Tzu-Ching; Hsu, Wen-Yang; Yang, Ray-Yeng; Chen, Yang-Yi

    2016-04-01

    Recently the wind industry moved to offshore areas. The floating wind turbine combined the platform and the mooring system. This research focuses on studying the motion of the floating offshore turbine with a mooring system. The platform, which was developed by the Ship and Ocean Industries R&D Center, had been test in a wave-wind flume in the Tainan Hydraulics Laboratory by using a 1:50 Froude scaling model. In the experiment, the floating offshore turbine was placed in a water flume and exposed to periodic waves at frequencies ranging from 0.22 rad/s - 0.875 rad/s, the wave amplitude is about 2.5 meter, and with the different pretension of the mooring lines. The experiment includes the measurement of damping coefficient from the free decay test and the dynamic response in a sea state. This research compares the motion of the floating offshore turbine with the different pretension of the mooring lines, and the model provides comprehensive data for the operational, design, and survival seas states, as well as the calibration and improvement of the existing design and performance of numerical models.

  1. Passive fire protection for ELf`s N`Kossa floating production barge

    SciTech Connect

    Petit, P.

    1996-06-01

    The project to develop Elf`s N`Kossa offshore field called for an original design which included a floating production barge, 220 m long by 46 m wide, supporting six large modules, to provide both production facilities and living quarters. At sea, fire is a major concern and many different systems, both active and passive, have been used on offshore platforms. To provide passive fire protection of five of the six modules on this massive structure, a new high solubility glass fiber product called Insulfrax was used. This product is manufactured in Europe by the Carborundum Co. and is used in chimneys and domestic appliances, as well as for onshore and offshore fire protection. This paper reviews the sound and fire resistant qualities of this material.

  2. Four barges mobilized for job: Indian offshore pipeline work demands comprehensive coordination

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, J. )

    1994-02-01

    This paper describes the design, installation, and commissioning timeframe developed for the Oil and Natural Gas Commission of India. Offshore Hyundai International Inc. and Offshore Pipelines International have completed the installation of 47 pipelines, six platforms, and a single-point mooring system in the Arabian Sea. The coordination and work scheduling problems are described along with the engineered placement of the pipelines in an already congested area.

  3. The Effects of Anthropogenic Structures on Habitat Connectivity and the Potential Spread of Non-Native Invertebrate Species in the Offshore Environment.

    PubMed

    Simons, Rachel D; Page, Henry M; Zaleski, Susan; Miller, Robert; Dugan, Jenifer E; Schroeder, Donna M; Doheny, Brandon

    2016-01-01

    Offshore structures provide habitat that could facilitate species range expansions and the introduction of non-native species into new geographic areas. Surveys of assemblages of seven offshore oil and gas platforms in the Santa Barbara Channel revealed a change in distribution of the non-native sessile invertebrate Watersipora subtorquata, a bryozoan with a planktonic larval duration (PLD) of 24 hours or less, from one platform in 2001 to four platforms in 2013. We use a three-dimensional biophysical model to assess whether larval dispersal via currents from harbors to platforms and among platforms is a plausible mechanism to explain the change in distribution of Watersipora and to predict potential spread to other platforms in the future. Hull fouling is another possible mechanism to explain the change in distribution of Watersipora. We find that larval dispersal via currents could account for the increase in distribution of Watersipora from one to four platforms and that Watersipora is unlikely to spread from these four platforms to additional platforms through larval dispersal. Our results also suggest that larvae with PLDs of 24 hours or less released from offshore platforms can attain much greater dispersal distances than larvae with PLDs of 24 hours or less released from nearshore habitat. We hypothesize that the enhanced dispersal distance of larvae released from offshore platforms is driven by a combination of the offshore hydrodynamic environment, larval behavior, and larval release above the seafloor.

  4. The Effects of Anthropogenic Structures on Habitat Connectivity and the Potential Spread of Non-Native Invertebrate Species in the Offshore Environment

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Rachel D.; Page, Henry M.; Zaleski, Susan; Miller, Robert; Dugan, Jenifer E.; Schroeder, Donna M.; Doheny, Brandon

    2016-01-01

    Offshore structures provide habitat that could facilitate species range expansions and the introduction of non-native species into new geographic areas. Surveys of assemblages of seven offshore oil and gas platforms in the Santa Barbara Channel revealed a change in distribution of the non-native sessile invertebrate Watersipora subtorquata, a bryozoan with a planktonic larval duration (PLD) of 24 hours or less, from one platform in 2001 to four platforms in 2013. We use a three-dimensional biophysical model to assess whether larval dispersal via currents from harbors to platforms and among platforms is a plausible mechanism to explain the change in distribution of Watersipora and to predict potential spread to other platforms in the future. Hull fouling is another possible mechanism to explain the change in distribution of Watersipora. We find that larval dispersal via currents could account for the increase in distribution of Watersipora from one to four platforms and that Watersipora is unlikely to spread from these four platforms to additional platforms through larval dispersal. Our results also suggest that larvae with PLDs of 24 hours or less released from offshore platforms can attain much greater dispersal distances than larvae with PLDs of 24 hours or less released from nearshore habitat. We hypothesize that the enhanced dispersal distance of larvae released from offshore platforms is driven by a combination of the offshore hydrodynamic environment, larval behavior, and larval release above the seafloor. PMID:27031827

  5. Microfluidic Platform for the Continuous Production and Characterization of Multilamellar Vesicles: A Synchrotron Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) Study.

    PubMed

    Ghazal, Aghiad; Gontsarik, Mark; Kutter, Jörg P; Lafleur, Josiane P; Ahmadvand, Davoud; Labrador, Ana; Salentinig, Stefan; Yaghmur, Anan

    2017-01-05

    A microfluidic platform combined with synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) was used for monitoring the continuous production of multilamellar vesicles (MLVs). Their production was fast and started to evolve within less than 0.43 s of contact between the lipids and the aqueous phase. To obtain nanoparticles with a narrow size distribution, it was important to use a modified hydrodynamic flow focusing (HFF) microfluidic device with narrower microchannels than those normally used for SAXS experiments. Monodispersed MLVs as small as 160 nm in size, with a polydispersity index (PDI) of approximately 0.15 were achieved. The nanoparticles produced were smaller and had a narrower size distribution than those obtained via conventional bulk mixing methods. This microfluidic platform therefore has a great potential for the continuous production of monodispersed NPs.

  6. Offshore outlook: the American Arctic

    SciTech Connect

    Jahns, M.O.

    1985-05-01

    Offshore areas in the American Arctic are highlighted and the development of the area is compared with other offshore areas where the required technology is more readily available. Principal areas are shown in which new concepts are being put to practice. Canada's east coast is examined. Several technological trends are reviewed to help operators accelerate the discovery and development of arctic petroleum reserves.

  7. Offshore Fish Community: Ecological Interactions

    EPA Science Inventory

    The offshore (>80 m) fish community of Lake Superior is made up of predominately native species. The most prominent species are deepwater sculpin, kiyi, cisco, siscowet lake trout, burbot, and the exotic sea lamprey. Bloater and shortjaw cisco are also found in the offshore zone...

  8. Offshore Fish Community: Ecological Interactions

    EPA Science Inventory

    The offshore (>80 m) fish community of Lake Superior is made up of predominately native species. The most prominent species are deepwater sculpin, kiyi, cisco, siscowet lake trout, burbot, and the exotic sea lamprey. Bloater and shortjaw cisco are also found in the offshore zone...

  9. A wind chart to characterize potential offshore wind energy sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Jesus, F.; Menéndez, M.; Guanche, R.; Losada, I. J.

    2014-10-01

    Offshore wind industry needs to improve wind assessment in order to decrease the uncertainty associated to wind resource and its influence on financial requirements. Here, several features related to offshore wind resource assessment are discussed, such as input wind data, estimation of long-term and extreme wind statistics, the wind profile and climate variations. This work proposes an analytical method to characterize wind resource. Final product is a wind chart containing useful wind information that can be applied to any offshore sites. Using long-term time series of meteorological variables (e.g. wind speed and direction at different heights), the methodology is applied to five pilot sites in different countries along European Atlantic corridor and it is used to describe and compare offshore wind behavior.

  10. Effect of Second-Order Hydrodynamics on a Floating Offshore Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Roald, L.; Jonkman, J.; Robertson, A.

    2014-05-01

    The design of offshore floating wind turbines uses design codes that can simulate the entire coupled system behavior. At the present, most codes include only first-order hydrodynamics, which induce forces and motions varying with the same frequency as the incident waves. Effects due to second- and higher-order hydrodynamics are often ignored in the offshore industry, because the forces induced typically are smaller than the first-order forces. In this report, first- and second-order hydrodynamic analysis used in the offshore oil and gas industry is applied to two different wind turbine concepts--a spar and a tension leg platform.

  11. Fiber glass pipe effective for offshore water handling

    SciTech Connect

    Turnipseed, S.P.

    1995-07-03

    Excellent corrosion resistance, weight savings, ease of construction, and reduced maintenance make fiber glass pipe attractive for water-handling service on offshore platforms. This article covers guidelines for fiber glass pipe installations and presents a number of case histories from the industry and Chevron Corp. Applications include seawater treatment, water injection, sewage and drains, deluge fire water systems, hose reel fire water, seawater cooling, produced water, and potable water. The paper gives usage guidelines.

  12. Screw pumps move heavy California offshore crude effectively

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, J.R. )

    1994-09-19

    Multiple-screw pumps are ideally suited for transporting and processing heavy crude and emulsions. The pumps have high-pressure capability and excellent operating efficiencies. Minimal space for treating equipment on a platform makes pumping heavy crude from offshore fields difficult. Water is difficult to separate from heavy crude and heavy crude also has a tendency to retain sediments/solids. The paper describes the original development of these pumps, their field expansion, and the supporting onshore facility.

  13. How to reduce sigma in offshore pipe fabrications

    SciTech Connect

    Still, J.

    1999-11-01

    The use of stainless steel for offshore oil and gas applications has increased dramatically over the last 20 years. Stainless steels fall into a number of categories depending on the composition and microstructure formed after heat treatment. Selection of pipe materials for offshore applications is dependent on the product to be carried. Austenitic and ferritic/austenitic (duplex) stainless steels are commonly used for process and utility piping systems offshore, whereas martensitic and ferritic are restricted to specific applications. Reference to sigma in offshore welding specifications has been mixed. Previously, the identification of sigma was wither not quoted or stated as being not permitted. However, achieving zero sigma content in duplex stainless steel welds and HAZs is questionable, particularly in steels and weld metals having a high chromium and molybdenum content. In the real world, how does one ensure that production welds performed offshore are free of sigma--or have a limited volume fraction of it--without having to constantly monitor welder performance? This review examines the difficulties and controls required to limit the presence of sigma in austenitic and duplex weld metals and HAZs associated with offshore piping and pipeline systems. Materials described here are those manufactured using contemporary steel making processes.

  14. Study of medical isotope production facility stack emissions and noble gas isotopic signature using automatic gamma-spectra analysis platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Weihua; Hoffmann, Emmy; Ungar, Kurt; Dolinar, George; Miley, Harry; Mekarski, Pawel; Schrom, Brian; Hoffman, Ian; Lawrie, Ryan; Loosz, Tom

    2013-04-01

    The nuclear industry emissions of the four CTBT (Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty) relevant radioxenon isotopes are unavoidably detected by the IMS along with possible treaty violations. Another civil source of radioxenon emissions which contributes to the global background is radiopharmaceutical production companies. To better understand the source terms of these background emissions, a joint project between HC, ANSTO, PNNL and CRL was formed to install real-time detection systems to support 135Xe, 133Xe, 131mXe and 133mXe measurements at the ANSTO and CRL 99Mo production facility stacks as well as the CANDU (CANada Deuterium Uranium) primary coolant monitoring system at CRL. At each site, high resolution gamma spectra were collected every 15 minutes using a HPGe detector to continuously monitor a bypass feed from the stack or CANDU primary coolant system as it passed through a sampling cell. HC also conducted atmospheric monitoring for radioxenon at approximately 200 km distant from CRL. A program was written to transfer each spectrum into a text file format suitable for the automatic gamma-spectra analysis platform and then email the file to a server. Once the email was received by the server, it was automatically analysed with the gamma-spectrum software UniSampo/Shaman to perform radionuclide identification and activity calculation for a large number of gamma-spectra in a short period of time (less than 10 seconds per spectrum). The results of nuclide activity together with other spectrum parameters were saved into the Linssi database. This database contains a large amount of radionuclide information which is a valuable resource for the analysis of radionuclide distribution within the noble gas fission product emissions. The results could be useful to identify the specific mechanisms of the activity release. The isotopic signatures of the various radioxenon species can be determined as a function of release time. Comparison of 133mXe and 133Xe activity

  15. Reticle decision center: a novel applications platform for enhancing reticle yield and productivity at 10nm technology and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwa, George; Bugata, Raj; Chiang, Kaiming; Lakkapragada, Suresh; Tolani, Vikram; Gopalakrishnan, Sandhya; Chen, Chun-Jen; Yang, Chin-Ting; Hsu, Sheng-Chang; Tuo, Laurent

    2016-10-01

    In the semiconductor IC manufacturing industry, challenges associated with producing defect-free photomasks have been dramatically increasing. At the 10nm technology node, since the 193nm immersion scanner numerical aperture has remained the same 1.35 as in previous nodes, more multi-patterning and aggressive SMO illumination sources are being used to effectively print smaller feature CDs and pitches. To accommodate such specialized sources, more model-based mask OPC and ILT have been used making mask designs very complicated. This in turn makes mask manufacturing very challenging especially for the defect inspection, repair, and metrology processes that need to guarantee defect-free masks. Over the past few years, considerable innovation have been made in the areas of defect inspection and disposition that has ensured continued predictability of mask quality to wafer and final chip yields. The accurate disposition of each mask defect before and after repair has been facilitated by a suite of automated applications such as ADC, LPR, RPG, AIA, etc. that work together with the inspection, repair, and metrology tools and effectively also provide the best possible utilization of the tool capability, capacity and operator resources. In this paper we introduce a new consolidated applications platform called the Reticle Decision Center (RDC) which hosts all these supporting software applications on a centralized server with direct connectivity to mask inspection, repair, metrology tools and more. The paper details how the RDC server is architected to host any application in its native operating system environment and provides for high availability with automatic failover and redundancy. The server along with its host of applications has been tightly integrated with KLA-Tencor's Teron mask inspectors. The paper concludes with showing benefits realized in mask cycle-time and yield as a result of implementing RDC into a high-volume 10nm mask-shop production line.

  16. VirtualToxLab — A platform for estimating the toxic potential of drugs, chemicals and natural products

    SciTech Connect

    Vedani, Angelo; Dobler, Max; Smieško, Martin

    2012-06-01

    The VirtualToxLab is an in silico technology for estimating the toxic potential (endocrine and metabolic disruption, some aspects of carcinogenicity and cardiotoxicity) of drugs, chemicals and natural products. The technology is based on an automated protocol that simulates and quantifies the binding of small molecules towards a series of proteins, known or suspected to trigger adverse effects. The toxic potential, a non-linear function ranging from 0.0 (none) to 1.0 (extreme), is derived from the individual binding affinities of a compound towards currently 16 target proteins: 10 nuclear receptors (androgen, estrogen α, estrogen β, glucocorticoid, liver X, mineralocorticoid, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, progesterone, thyroid α, and thyroid β), four members of the cytochrome P450 enzyme family (1A2, 2C9, 2D6, and 3A4), a cytosolic transcription factor (aryl hydrocarbon receptor) and a potassium ion channel (hERG). The interface to the technology allows building and uploading molecular structures, viewing and downloading results and, most importantly, rationalizing any prediction at the atomic level by interactively analyzing the binding mode of a compound with its target protein(s) in real-time 3D. The VirtualToxLab has been used to predict the toxic potential for over 2500 compounds: the results are posted on (http://www.virtualtoxlab.org). The free platform — the OpenVirtualToxLab — is accessible (in client–server mode) over the Internet. It is free of charge for universities, governmental agencies, regulatory bodies and non-profit organizations. -- Highlights: ► In silico technology for estimating the toxic potential of drugs and chemicals. ► Simulation of binding towards 16 proteins suspected to trigger adverse effects. ► Mechanistic interpretation and real-time 3D visualization. ► Accessible over the Internet. ► Free of charge for universities, governmental agencies, regulatory bodies and NPOs.

  17. Monitoring and isolation of blood dendritic cells from apheresis products in healthy individuals: a