Science.gov

Sample records for offsite power transient

  1. Assessment of RELAP5/MOD2 code using loss of offsite power transient data of KNU (Korea Nuclear Unit) No. 1 Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Bud-Dong; Kim, Hho-Jung . Korea Nuclear Safety Center); Lee, Young-Jin )

    1990-04-01

    This report presents a code assessment study based on a real plant transient that occurred on June 9, 1981 at the KNU {number sign}1 (Korea Nuclear Unit Number 1). KNU {number sign}1 is a two-loop Westinghouse PWR plant of 587 Mwe. The loss of offsite power transient occurred at the 77.5% reactor power with 0.5%/hr power ramp. The real plant data were collected from available on-line plant records and computer diagnostics. The transient was simulated by RELAP5/MOD2/36.05 and the results were compared with the plant data to assess the code weaknesses and strengths. Some nodalization studies were performed to contribute to developing a guideline for PWR nodalization for the transient analysis. 5 refs., 18 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Analysis of offsite dose calculation methodology for a nuclear power reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Moser, D.M.

    1995-12-31

    This technical study reviews the methodology for calculating offsite dose estimates as described in the offsite dose calculation manual (ODCM) for Pennsylvania Power and Light - Susquehanna Steam Electric Station (SSES). An evaluation of the SSES ODCM dose assessment methodology indicates that it conforms with methodology accepted by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Using 1993 SSES effluent data, dose estimates are calculated according to SSES ODCM methodology and compared to the dose estimates calculated according to SSES ODCM and the computer model used to produce the reported 1993 dose estimates. The 1993 SSES dose estimates are based on the axioms of Publication 2 of the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP). SSES Dose estimates based on the axioms of ICRP Publication 26 and 30 reveal the total body estimates to be the most affected.

  3. Analysis of Loss-of-Offsite-Power Events 1998–2012

    SciTech Connect

    T. E. Wierman

    2013-10-01

    Loss of offsite power (LOOP) can have a major negative impact on a power plant’s ability to achieve and maintain safe shutdown conditions. Risk analyses performed loss of all alternating current power contributes over 70% of the overall risk at some U.S. nuclear plants. LOOP event and subsequent restoration of offsite power are important inputs to plant probabilistic risk assessments. This report presents a statistical and engineering analysis of LOOP frequencies and durations at U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. The data used in this study are based on the operating experience from fiscal year 1998 through 2012. Frequencies and durations were determined for four event categories: plant-centered, switchyard-centered, grid-related, and weather-related. The EDG failure modes considered are failure to start, failure to load and run, and failure to run more than 1 hour. The component reliability estimates and the reliability data are trended for the most recent 10-year period while yearly estimates for reliability are provided for the entire active period. A statistically significant increase in industry performance was identified for plant-centered and switchyard-centered LOOP frequencies. There is no statistically significant trend in LOOP durations.

  4. Analysis of Loss-of-Offsite-Power Events 1998–2013

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, John Alton

    2015-02-01

    Loss of offsite power (LOOP) can have a major negative impact on a power plant’s ability to achieve and maintain safe shutdown conditions. Risk analyses suggest that loss of all alternating current power contributes over 70% of the overall risk at some U.S. nuclear plants. LOOP event and subsequent restoration of offsite power are important inputs to plant probabilistic risk assessments. This report presents a statistical and engineering analysis of LOOP frequencies and durations at U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. The data used in this study are based on the operating experience during calendar years 1997 through 2013. Frequencies and durations were determined for four event categories: plant-centered, switchyard-centered, grid-related, and weather-related. The emergency diesel generator failure modes considered are failure to start, failure to load and run, and failure to run more than 1 hour. The component reliability estimates and the reliability data are trended for the most recent 10-year period while yearly estimates for reliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant trends in LOOP frequencies over the 1997–2013 period are identified. There is a possibility that a significant trend in grid-related LOOP frequency exists that is not easily detected by a simple analysis. Statistically significant increases in recovery times after grid- and switchyard-related LOOPs are identified.

  5. Impact of Uncertainty on Calculations for Recovery from Loss of Offsite Power

    SciTech Connect

    Dana L. Kelly

    2010-06-01

    Uncertainty, both aleatory and epistemic, can have a significant impact on estimated probabilities of recovering from loss of offsite power within a specified time window, and such probabilities are an input to risk-informed decisions as to the significance of inspection findings in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s Reactor Oversight Process. In particular, the choice of aleatory model for offsite power recovery time can have a significant impact on the estimated nonrecovery probability, especially if epistemic uncertainty regarding parameters in the aleatory model is accounted for properly. In past and current analyses, such uncertainty has largely been ignored. This paper examines the impact of both aleatory and epistemic uncertainty on the results, using modern open-source Bayesian inference software, which implements Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling. It includes examples of time-dependent convolution calculations to show the impact that uncertainty can have on this increasingly frequent type of calculation, also. The results show that the “point estimate” result, which is an input to risk-informed decisions, can easily be uncertain by a factor of 10 if both aleatory and epistemic uncertainties are considered. The paper also illustrates the use of Bayesian model selection criteria to aid in the choice of aleatory model.

  6. Multicriteria relocation analysis of an off-site radioactive monitoring network for a nuclear power plant.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ni-Bin; Ning, Shu-Kuang; Chen, Jen-Chang

    2006-08-01

    Due to increasing environmental consciousness in most countries, every utility that owns a commercial nuclear power plant has been required to have both an on-site and off-site emergency response plan since the 1980s. A radiation monitoring network, viewed as part of the emergency response plan, can provide information regarding the radiation dosage emitted from a nuclear power plant in a regular operational period and/or abnormal measurements in an emergency event. Such monitoring information might help field operators and decision-makers to provide accurate responses or make decisions to protect the public health and safety. This study aims to conduct an integrated simulation and optimization analysis looking for the relocation strategy of a long-term regular off-site monitoring network at a nuclear power plant. The planning goal is to downsize the current monitoring network but maintain its monitoring capacity as much as possible. The monitoring sensors considered in this study include the thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) and air sampling system (AP) simultaneously. It is designed for detecting the radionuclide accumulative concentration, the frequency of violation, and the possible population affected by a long-term impact in the surrounding area regularly while it can also be used in an accidental release event. With the aid of the calibrated Industrial Source Complex-Plume Rise Model Enhancements (ISC-PRIME) simulation model to track down the possible radionuclide diffusion, dispersion, transport, and transformation process in the atmospheric environment, a multiobjective evaluation process can be applied to achieve the screening of monitoring stations for the nuclear power plant located at Hengchun Peninsula, South Taiwan. To account for multiple objectives, this study calculated preference weights to linearly combine objective functions leading to decision-making with exposure assessment in an optimization context. Final suggestions should be useful for

  7. RHF RELAP5 model and preliminary loss-of-offsite-power simulation results for LEU conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Licht, J. R.; Bergeron, A.; Dionne, B.; Thomas, F.

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the current state of the RELAP5 model for the Institut Laue-Langevin High Flux Reactor (RHF) located in Grenoble, France, and provide an update to the key information required to complete, for example, simulations for a loss of offsite power (LOOP) accident. A previous status report identified a list of 22 items to be resolved in order to complete the RELAP5 model. Most of these items have been resolved by ANL and the RHF team. Enough information was available to perform preliminary safety analyses and define the key items that are still required. Section 2 of this document describes the RELAP5 model of RHF. The final part of this section briefly summarizes previous model issues and resolutions. Section 3 of this document describes preliminary LOOP simulations for both HEU and LEU fuel at beginning of cycle conditions.

  8. A GIS-based prediction and assessment system of off-site accident consequence for Guangdong nuclear power plant.

    PubMed

    Wang, X Y; Qu, J Y; Shi, Z Q; Ling, Y S

    2003-01-01

    GNARD (Guangdong Nuclear Accident Real-time Decision support system) is a decision support system for off-site emergency management in the event of an accidental release from the nuclear power plants located in Guangdong province, China. The system is capable of calculating wind field, concentrations of radionuclide in environmental media and radiation doses. It can also estimate the size of the area where protective actions should be taken and provide other information about population distribution and emergency facilities available in the area. Furthermore, the system can simulate and evaluate the effectiveness of countermeasures assumed and calculate averted doses by protective actions. All of the results can be shown and analysed on the platform of a geographical information system (GIS).

  9. Gas-core reactor power transient analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kascak, A. F.

    1972-01-01

    The gas core reactor is a proposed device which features high temperatures. It has applications in high specific impulse space missions, and possibly in low thermal pollution MHD power plants. The nuclear fuel is a ball of uranium plasma radiating thermal photons as opposed to gamma rays. This thermal energy is picked up before it reaches the solid cavity liner by an inflowing seeded propellant stream and convected out through a rocket nozzle. A wall-burnout condition will exist if there is not enough flow of propellant to convect the energy back into the cavity. A reactor must therefore operate with a certain amount of excess propellant flow. Due to the thermal inertia of the flowing propellant, the reactor can undergo power transients in excess of the steady-state wall burnout power for short periods of time. The objective of this study was to determine how long the wall burnout power could be exceeded without burning out the cavity liner. The model used in the heat-transfer calculation was one-dimensional, and thermal radiation was assumed to be a diffusion process.

  10. Programmable AC power supply for simulating power transient expected in fusion reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Halimi, B.; Suh, K. Y.

    2012-07-01

    This paper focus on control engineering of the programmable AC power source which has capability to simulate power transient expected in fusion reactor. To generate the programmable power source, AC-AC power electronics converter is adopted to control the power of a set of heaters to represent the transient phenomena of heat exchangers or heat sources of a fusion reactor. The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) plasma operation scenario is used as the basic reference for producing this transient power source. (authors)

  11. Variable-structure facts controllers for power system transient stability

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y.; Mohler, R.R.; Spee, R.; Mittelstadt, W. )

    1992-02-01

    In this paper, nonlinear, variable-structure control theory is employed for series capacitor control and braking resistor control to improve the transient stability of a single machine infinite-bus (SMIB) system. A related simulation follows and shows that variable-structure control of the series capacitor (SC) and braking resistor is effective for enhancement of power system steady state performance and transient stability.

  12. Wave power extraction from a transient heaving cylinder

    SciTech Connect

    Hudspeth, R. T.; Slotta, L. S.

    1980-01-01

    Wave power extracted from the transient motion of a periodically restrained-released heaving circular cylinder proposed by Falnes and Budal is examined under the limitations of linear wave theory excitation. Numerical estimates for the normalized radiated wave amplitudes required for the waveforce excitation derived by Mei are computed from the computationally efficient variational method developed by Black and Mei for the wave force diffraction regime. Wave power estimates for the rising period only of the heaving motion are given; while the falling period of the motion is neglected. A graphical summary is presented which demonstrates the parametric dependency of the dimensionless wave power rate on the design wave parameters and the body geometry for three general types of transient power systems heaving in deep water conditions. The total power requirements for the complete power extraction system as well as the real fluid viscous effects are not included.

  13. Software Support for Transiently Powered Computers

    SciTech Connect

    Van Der Woude, Joel Matthew

    2015-06-01

    With the continued reduction in size and cost of computing, power becomes an increasingly heavy burden on system designers for embedded applications. While energy harvesting techniques are an increasingly desirable solution for many deeply embedded applications where size and lifetime are a priority, previous work has shown that energy harvesting provides insufficient power for long running computation. We present Ratchet, which to the authors knowledge is the first automatic, software-only checkpointing system for energy harvesting platforms. We show that Ratchet provides a means to extend computation across power cycles, consistent with those experienced by energy harvesting devices. We demonstrate the correctness of our system under frequent failures and show that it has an average overhead of 58.9% across a suite of benchmarks representative for embedded applications.

  14. Prediction of transient electromagnetic environment in power networks

    SciTech Connect

    Nekhoul, B.; Feuillet, R.; Sabonnadiere, J.C.; Quinchon, L.; Morillon, F.

    1994-09-01

    In this paper the authors suggest exact analytic formulations which allow numerical characterization of the transient electromagnetic environment, during operation of circuit breakers or disconnectors, of an electric power transmission network. In this work, an exact method for calculating the transient field radiated by an air insulation substation (AIS) together with the strictest formalism which enables the same calculation to be made for a power transmission line are paid particular attention. Results of simulations for different examples together with results of measurements complete the study.

  15. The Effects of Transients on Photospheric and Chromospheric Power Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samanta, T.; Henriques, V. M. J.; Banerjee, D.; Krishna Prasad, S.; Mathioudakis, M.; Jess, D.; Pant, V.

    2016-09-01

    We have observed a quiet-Sun region with the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope equipped with the CRISP Imaging SpectroPolarimeter. High-resolution, high-cadence, Hα line scanning images were taken to observe different layers of the solar atmosphere from the photosphere to upper chromosphere. We study the distribution of power in different period bands at different heights. Power maps of the upper photosphere and the lower chromosphere show suppressed power surrounding the magnetic-network elements, known as “magnetic shadows.” These also show enhanced power close to the photosphere, traditionally referred to as “power halos.” The interaction between acoustic waves and inclined magnetic fields is generally believed to be responsible for these two effects. In this study we explore whether small-scale transients can influence the distribution of power at different heights. We show that the presence of transients, like mottles, Rapid Blueshifted Excursions (RBEs), and Rapid Redshifted Excursions (RREs), can strongly influence the power maps. The short and finite lifetime of these events strongly affects all power maps, potentially influencing the observed power distribution. We show that Doppler-shifted transients like RBEs and RREs that occur ubiquitously can have a dominant effect on the formation of the power halos in the quiet Sun. For magnetic shadows, transients like mottles do not seem to have a significant effect on the power suppression around 3 minutes, and wave interaction may play a key role here. Our high-cadence observations reveal that flows, waves, and shocks manifest in the presence of magnetic fields to form a nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic system.

  16. Transient Plasma Photonic Crystals for High-Power Lasers.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, G; Spatschek, K H

    2016-06-01

    A new type of transient photonic crystals for high-power lasers is presented. The crystal is produced by counterpropagating laser beams in plasma. Trapped electrons and electrically forced ions generate a strong density grating. The lifetime of the transient photonic crystal is determined by the ballistic motion of ions. The robustness of the photonic crystal allows one to manipulate high-intensity laser pulses. The scheme of the crystal is analyzed here by 1D Vlasov simulations. Reflection or transmission of high-power laser pulses are predicted by particle-in-cell simulations. It is shown that a transient plasma photonic crystal may act as a tunable mirror for intense laser pulses. Generalizations to 2D and 3D configurations are possible. PMID:27314721

  17. Transient Plasma Photonic Crystals for High-Power Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, G.; Spatschek, K. H.

    2016-06-01

    A new type of transient photonic crystals for high-power lasers is presented. The crystal is produced by counterpropagating laser beams in plasma. Trapped electrons and electrically forced ions generate a strong density grating. The lifetime of the transient photonic crystal is determined by the ballistic motion of ions. The robustness of the photonic crystal allows one to manipulate high-intensity laser pulses. The scheme of the crystal is analyzed here by 1D Vlasov simulations. Reflection or transmission of high-power laser pulses are predicted by particle-in-cell simulations. It is shown that a transient plasma photonic crystal may act as a tunable mirror for intense laser pulses. Generalizations to 2D and 3D configurations are possible.

  18. Power spectral signatures of interplanetary corotating and transient flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, M. L.; Burlaga, L. F.; Matthaeus, W. H.

    1984-01-01

    Studies of the time behavior of the galactic cosmic ray intensity have concluded that long term decreases in the intensity are generally associated with systems of interplanetary flows that contain flare generated shock waves, magnetic clouds and other transient phenomena. The magnetic field power spectral signatures of such flow systems are compared to power spectra obtained during times when the solar wind is dominated by stable corotating streams that do not usually produce long-lived reduction in the cosmic ray intensity. The spectral signatures of these two types of regimes (transient and corotating) are distinct. However, the distinguishing features are not the same throughout the heliosphere. In data collected beyond 1 AU the primary differences are in the power spectra of the magnitude of the magnetic field rather than in the power in the field components. Consequently, decreases in cosmic ray intensity are very likely due to magnetic mirror forces and gradient drifts rather than to small angle scattering due to cyclotron wave-particle interactions.

  19. Power System Transient Stability Analysis through a Homotopy Analysis Method

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Shaobu; Du, Pengwei; Zhou, Ning

    2014-04-01

    As an important function of energy management systems (EMSs), online contingency analysis plays an important role in providing power system security warnings of instability. At present, N-1 contingency analysis still relies on time-consuming numerical integration. To save computational cost, the paper proposes a quasi-analytical method to evaluate transient stability through time domain periodic solutions’ frequency sensitivities against initial values. First, dynamic systems described in classical models are modified into damping free systems whose solutions are either periodic or expanded (non-convergent). Second, because the sensitivities experience sharp changes when periodic solutions vanish and turn into expanded solutions, transient stability is assessed using the sensitivity. Third, homotopy analysis is introduced to extract frequency information and evaluate the sensitivities only from initial values so that time consuming numerical integration is avoided. Finally, a simple case is presented to demonstrate application of the proposed method, and simulation results show that the proposed method is promising.

  20. HEMP-induced transients in electric power substations. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wiggins, C.M.; Thomas, D.E.; Salas, T.M.

    1992-02-01

    A nuclear detonation in or above the earth`s atmosphere produces an intense electromagnetic pulse (EMP). A large portion of the EMP electromagnetic energy is within the RF spectrum. A detonation at high altitudes above 40 km produces an EMP called high-altitude EMP (HEMP). HEMP is a steep-front short duration transient with a rise time on the order of a few nanoseconds which decays to near zero in less than a microsecond. A single high-altitude burst can subject much of the continental United States to intense HEMP electric fields on the order of tens of kilovolts per meter. The intense transient HEMP will induce fast transients in high-voltage transmission lines and bus structures, instrumentation cables, and control wires in power transmission and distribution (T & D) substations. A system of traveling wave coupling models for a 500 kV substation, including models for the high voltage primary bus, components (circuit breakers, disconnect switches, power transformers, and current and voltage instrument transformers), low voltage control wiring circuits, and a number of conducted and radiated interference coupling modes, had been developed earlier by EPRI. These EPRI served as the baseline for the present HEMP coupling investigations. The HEMP effects on protective relays were assessed for a nominal HEMP environment using several new field coupling models merged with the switching transient data. It is found that a representative solid state relay is unlikely to be damaged or to misoperate by the nominal HEMP threat with a peak field strength of 50 kV/m. However, it is possible for both DC control wires to flash over to ground simultaneously, causing fuses to blow and placing the relay in an inoperative state.

  1. HEMP-induced transients in electric power substations

    SciTech Connect

    Wiggins, C.M.; Thomas, D.E.; Salas, T.M. )

    1992-02-01

    A nuclear detonation in or above the earth's atmosphere produces an intense electromagnetic pulse (EMP). A large portion of the EMP electromagnetic energy is within the RF spectrum. A detonation at high altitudes above 40 km produces an EMP called high-altitude EMP (HEMP). HEMP is a steep-front short duration transient with a rise time on the order of a few nanoseconds which decays to near zero in less than a microsecond. A single high-altitude burst can subject much of the continental United States to intense HEMP electric fields on the order of tens of kilovolts per meter. The intense transient HEMP will induce fast transients in high-voltage transmission lines and bus structures, instrumentation cables, and control wires in power transmission and distribution (T D) substations. A system of traveling wave coupling models for a 500 kV substation, including models for the high voltage primary bus, components (circuit breakers, disconnect switches, power transformers, and current and voltage instrument transformers), low voltage control wiring circuits, and a number of conducted and radiated interference coupling modes, had been developed earlier by EPRI. These EPRI served as the baseline for the present HEMP coupling investigations. The HEMP effects on protective relays were assessed for a nominal HEMP environment using several new field coupling models merged with the switching transient data. It is found that a representative solid state relay is unlikely to be damaged or to misoperate by the nominal HEMP threat with a peak field strength of 50 kV/m. However, it is possible for both DC control wires to flash over to ground simultaneously, causing fuses to blow and placing the relay in an inoperative state.

  2. Optimal subinterval selection approach for power system transient stability simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Soobae; Overbye, Thomas J.

    2015-10-21

    Power system transient stability analysis requires an appropriate integration time step to avoid numerical instability as well as to reduce computational demands. For fast system dynamics, which vary more rapidly than what the time step covers, a fraction of the time step, called a subinterval, is used. However, the optimal value of this subinterval is not easily determined because the analysis of the system dynamics might be required. This selection is usually made from engineering experiences, and perhaps trial and error. This paper proposes an optimal subinterval selection approach for power system transient stability analysis, which is based on modal analysis using a single machine infinite bus (SMIB) system. Fast system dynamics are identified with the modal analysis and the SMIB system is used focusing on fast local modes. An appropriate subinterval time step from the proposed approach can reduce computational burden and achieve accurate simulation responses as well. As a result, the performance of the proposed method is demonstrated with the GSO 37-bus system.

  3. Transient thermal analysis of a space reactor power system

    SciTech Connect

    Gaeta, M.J.; Best, F.R. . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering)

    1993-07-01

    Space nuclear power systems utilize materials and processes that are completely different from terrestrial reactor systems. Therefore, the tools used to analyze ground-based systems are inappropriate for space reactor design and analysis. The purpose of this study was to develop a space reactor transient analysis tool and to apply this tool to scenarios of interest. The scope of the simulation includes the thermal and neutronic behavior of a liquid-metal-cooled fast reactor, the electrical and thermal performance of the thermoelectric generators, the thermal dynamics of heat pipe radiators, and the thermal behavior of the coolant piping between major components. The thermal model of the system is explicitly coupled to a momentum model of the primary and secondary coolant loops. A one-dimensional conduction model is employed in all solid component models. The reactor model includes an expression for energy generation due to fission and decay heat. The thermoelectric heat exchanger model accounts for thermal energy conversion to useful electrical output. The two-node radiator heat pipe model includes normal operation as well as limited heat pipe operation under sonic limit conditions. The reactor, thermoelectric heat exchanger, and heat pipe models are coupled explicitly by the coolant piping thermal model. The computer program is used to simulate a variety of transients including reactor power changer, degradation of the radiator, and a temporary open circuit condition on the thermoelectrics.

  4. Optimal subinterval selection approach for power system transient stability simulation

    DOE PAGES

    Kim, Soobae; Overbye, Thomas J.

    2015-10-21

    Power system transient stability analysis requires an appropriate integration time step to avoid numerical instability as well as to reduce computational demands. For fast system dynamics, which vary more rapidly than what the time step covers, a fraction of the time step, called a subinterval, is used. However, the optimal value of this subinterval is not easily determined because the analysis of the system dynamics might be required. This selection is usually made from engineering experiences, and perhaps trial and error. This paper proposes an optimal subinterval selection approach for power system transient stability analysis, which is based on modalmore » analysis using a single machine infinite bus (SMIB) system. Fast system dynamics are identified with the modal analysis and the SMIB system is used focusing on fast local modes. An appropriate subinterval time step from the proposed approach can reduce computational burden and achieve accurate simulation responses as well. As a result, the performance of the proposed method is demonstrated with the GSO 37-bus system.« less

  5. Electrical transients of windturbines in a small power grid

    SciTech Connect

    Demoulias, C.S.; Dokopoulos, P.

    1996-09-01

    This paper presents field measurements and calculations on the disconnection and braking of Wind Turbines (WT) with rated power 60 kw and 100 kW in the grid of two Greek Islands. By means of a digital acquisition system with sampling frequency of 130 kHz, voltages and currents of the WT installations have been measured and analyzed just before and during the transient period. A simulation program has been used for this purpose. Results of simulation and measurements show in a wide range of good agreement. The simulation program was further used to investigate the disconnection process of WT under various circumstances. It is shown that during the WT disconnection, a sudden increase in stator currents may appear. So voltage dips may distort the power quality of the grid. Self-excitation of WT, with large induced voltage, occurs when they operate at low-load even with relatively small capacitive compensation. The amount of energy, that the brake of WT absorbs during the disconnection, has been studied under various disconnection procedures. Suggestions are made for the proper moment of brake application, so that the energy absorbed is minimum.

  6. Research on power-law acoustic transient signal detection based on wavelet transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jian-hui; Yang, Ri-jie; Wang, Wei

    2007-11-01

    Aiming at the characteristics of acoustic transient signal emitted from antisubmarine weapon which is being dropped into water (torpedo, aerial sonobuoy and rocket assisted depth charge etc.), such as short duration, low SNR, abruptness and instability, based on traditional power-law detector, a new method to detect acoustic transient signal is proposed. Firstly wavelet transform is used to de-noise signal, removes random spectrum components and improves SNR. Then Power- Law detector is adopted to detect transient signal. The simulation results show the method can effectively extract envelop characteristic of transient signal on the condition of low SNR. The performance of WT-Power-Law markedly outgoes that of traditional Power-Law detection method.

  7. The use of real-time off-site observations as a methodology for increasing forecast skill in prediction of large wind power ramps one or more hours ahead of their impact on a wind plant.

    SciTech Connect

    Martin Wilde, Principal Investigator

    2012-12-31

    ABSTRACT Application of Real-Time Offsite Measurements in Improved Short-Term Wind Ramp Prediction Skill Improved forecasting performance immediately preceding wind ramp events is of preeminent concern to most wind energy companies, system operators, and balancing authorities. The value of near real-time hub height-level wind data and more general meteorological measurements to short-term wind power forecasting is well understood. For some sites, access to onsite measured wind data - even historical - can reduce forecast error in the short-range to medium-range horizons by as much as 50%. Unfortunately, valuable free-stream wind measurements at tall tower are not typically available at most wind plants, thereby forcing wind forecasters to rely upon wind measurements below hub height and/or turbine nacelle anemometry. Free-stream measurements can be appropriately scaled to hub-height levels, using existing empirically-derived relationships that account for surface roughness and turbulence. But there is large uncertainty in these relationships for a given time of day and state of the boundary layer. Alternatively, forecasts can rely entirely on turbine anemometry measurements, though such measurements are themselves subject to wake effects that are not stationary. The void in free-stream hub-height level measurements of wind can be filled by remote sensing (e.g., sodar, lidar, and radar). However, the expense of such equipment may not be sustainable. There is a growing market for traditional anemometry on tall tower networks, maintained by third parties to the forecasting process (i.e., independent of forecasters and the forecast users). This study examines the value of offsite tall-tower data from the WINDataNOW Technology network for short-horizon wind power predictions at a wind farm in northern Montana. The presentation shall describe successful physical and statistical techniques for its application and the practicality of its application in an operational

  8. Computer simulation of magnetization-controlled shunt reactors for calculating electromagnetic transients in power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Karpov, A. S.

    2013-01-15

    A computer procedure for simulating magnetization-controlled dc shunt reactors is described, which enables the electromagnetic transients in electric power systems to be calculated. It is shown that, by taking technically simple measures in the control system, one can obtain high-speed reactors sufficient for many purposes, and dispense with the use of high-power devices for compensating higher harmonic components.

  9. Detection and diagnosis of abnormal transients in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.C.; Rank, P.J.; Hawkes, E.; Wehe, D.K. . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering); Reifman, J. )

    1991-01-01

    This document describes a simulation-based algorithm that combines fuzzy logic with macroscopic conservation equations to diagnose multiple-failure events subject to uncertainties in transient data. Clusters of single-failure data points of similar characteristics are obtained through a pattern recognition algorithm and the cluster centers are combined in the space of macroscopic inventory derivatives to generate multiple-failure cluster centers. A fuzzy membership function is used to represent the likelihood of a data point belonging to a cluster, and failure estimates are obtained through solution of a fuzzy matrix equation. The algorithm has been successful in detecting simulated malfunctions in the pressurizer of a pressurized water reactor. 11 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Transient stability enhancement of electric power generating systems by 120-degree phase rotation

    DOEpatents

    Cresap, Richard L.; Taylor, Carson W.; Kreipe, Michael J.

    1982-01-01

    A method and system for enhancing the transient stability of an intertied three-phase electric power generating system. A set of power exporting generators (10) is connected to a set of power importing generators (20). When a transient cannot be controlled by conventional stability controls, and imminent loss of synchronism is detected (such as when the equivalent rotor angle difference between the two generator sets exceeds a predetermined value, such as 150 degrees), the intertie is disconnected by circuit breakers. Then a switch (30) having a 120-degree phase rotation, or a circuit breaker having a 120-degree phase rotation is placed in the intertie. The intertie is then reconnected. This results in a 120-degree reduction in the equivalent rotor angle difference between the two generator sets, making the system more stable and allowing more time for the conventional controls to stabilize the transient.

  11. Discharge transient coupling in large space power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, N. John; Stillwell, R. P.

    1990-01-01

    Experiments have shown that plasma environments can induce discharges in solar arrays. These plasmas simulate the environments found in low earth orbits where current plans call for operation of very large power systems. The discharges could be large enough to couple into the power system and possibly disrupt operations. Here, the general concepts of the discharge mechanism and the techniques of coupling are discussed. Data from both ground and flight experiments are reviewed to obtain an expected basis for the interactions. These concepts were applied to the Space Station solar array and distribution system as an example of the large space power system. The effect of discharges was found to be a function of the discharge site. For most sites in the array discharges would not seriously impact performance. One location at the negative end of the array was identified as a position where discharges could couple to charge stored in system capacitors. This latter case could impact performance.

  12. Offsite demonstrations for MWLID technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, C.; Gruebel, R.

    1995-04-01

    The goal of the Offsite Demonstration Project for Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID)-developed environmental site characterization and remediation technologies is to facilitate the transfer, use, and commercialization of these technologies to the public and private sector. The meet this goal, the project identified environmental restoration needs of mixed waste and/or hazardous waste landfill owners (Native American, municipal, DOE, and DoD); documenting potential demonstration sites and the contaminants present at each site; assessing the environmental regulations that would effect demonstration activities; and evaluating site suitability for demonstrating MWLID technologies at the tribal and municipal sites identified. Eighteen landfill sites within a 40.2-km radius of Sandia National Laboratories are listed on the CERCLIS Site/Event Listing for the state of New Mexico. Seventeen are not located within DOE or DoD facilities and are potential offsite MWLID technology demonstration sites. Two of the seventeen CERCLIS sites, one on Native American land and one on municipal land, were evaluated and identified as potential candidates for off-site demonstrations of MWLID-developed technologies. Contaminants potentially present on site include chromium waste, household/commercial hazardous waste, volatile organic compounds, and petroleum products. MWLID characterization technologies applicable to these sites include Magnetometer Towed Array, Cross-borehole Electromagnetic Imaging, SitePlanner {trademark}/PLUME, Hybrid Directional Drilling, Seamist{trademark}/Vadose Zone Monitoring, Stripping Analyses, and x-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy for Heavy Metals.

  13. Anode modification with capacitive materials for a microbial fuel cell: an increase in transient power or stationary power.

    PubMed

    Feng, Chunhua; Lv, Zhisheng; Yang, Xiaoshuang; Wei, Chaohai

    2014-06-14

    Extensive efforts have been devoted to improve the anode performance of a microbial fuel cell (MFC) by using modified carbon-based anode materials, but most of them did not recognize that the power performance measured by the commonly-used varying circuit resistance (VCR) or linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) method was overestimated due to the effect of anode capacitance. Here, we examined and compared the transient power and the stationary power of a series of MFCs equipped with the polypyrrole-graphene oxide (PPy-GO)-modified graphite felt anodes. It was found that noticeable transient power was recorded when the VCR or LSV method was chosen for power measurements. Calculations on the contribution of different sources to the measured maximum power density showed that the discharge of bio-electrons stored in the high-capacitance anode was a dominant contributor, especially when the time duration (for the VCR method) was not sufficiently long or the scan rate (for the LSV method) was not sufficiently low. Although anode modification with capacitive materials can result in the increased stationary power obtained from the fed-batch cycle test, owing to the increases in the anode surface area and the number of bacteria attached to anode, the increase in the transient power was more remarkable.

  14. Investigation into the Effects of Microsecond Power Line Transients on Line-Connected Capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Javor, K.

    2000-01-01

    An investigation was conducted into the effect of power-line transients on capacitors used by NASA and installed on platform primary power inputs to avionics. The purpose was to investigate whether capacitor voltage ratings needs to be derated for expected spike potentials. Concerns had been voiced in the past by NASA suppliers that MIL-STD-461 CS06-like requirements were overly harsh and led to physically large capacitors. The author had previously predicted that electrical-switching spike requirements representative of actual power-line transient potentials, durations. and source impedance would require no derating. This investigation bore out that prediction. It was further determined that traditional low source impedance CS06-like transients also will not damage a capacitor, although the spikes themselves are not nearly as well filtered. This report should be used to allay fears that CS06-like requirements drive capacitor voltage derating. Only that derating required by the relatively long duration transients in power quality specification need concern the equipment designer.

  15. Investigation Into The Effects of Microsecond Power Line Transients On Line-Connected Capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Javor, Ken

    1999-01-01

    An investigation was conducted into the effect of power-line transients on capacitors used by NASA and installed on platform primary power inputs to avionics. The purpose was to investigate whether capacitor voltage rating needs to be derated for expected spike potentials. Concerns had been voiced in the past by NASA suppliers that MIL-STD-461 CS06-like requirements were overly harsh and led to physically large capacitors. The author had previously predicted that electrical-switching spike requirements representative of actual power-line transient potentials, durations and source impedance would require no derating. This investigation bore out that prediction. It was further determined that traditional low source impedance CS06-like transients also will not damage a capacitor, although the spikes themselves are not nearly as well filtered. This report should be used to allay fears that CS06-like requirements drive capacitor voltage derating. Only that derating required by the relatively long duration transients in power quality specification need concern the equipment designer.

  16. Building Decision Trees for Characteristic Ellipsoid Method to Monitor Power System Transient Behaviors

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Jian; Diao, Ruisheng; Makarov, Yuri V.; Etingov, Pavel V.; Zhou, Ning; Dagle, Jeffery E.

    2010-12-01

    The characteristic ellipsoid is a new method to monitor the dynamics of power systems. Decision trees (DTs) play an important role in applying the characteristic ellipsoid method to system operation and analysis. This paper presents the idea and initial results of building DTs for detecting transient dynamic events using the characteristic ellipsoid method. The objective is to determine fault types, fault locations and clearance time in the system using decision trees based on ellipsoids of system transient responses. The New England 10-machine 39-bus system is used for running dynamic simulations to generate a sufficiently large number of transient events in different system configurations. Comprehensive transient simulations considering three fault types, two fault clearance times and different fault locations were conducted in the study. Bus voltage magnitudes and monitored reactive and active power flows are recorded as the phasor measurements to calculate characteristic ellipsoids whose volume, eccentricity, center and projection of the longest axis are used as indices to build decision trees. The DT performances are tested and compared by considering different sets of PMU locations. The proposed method demonstrates that the characteristic ellipsoid method is a very efficient and promising tool to monitor power system dynamic behaviors.

  17. Calculation of MCPR (minimum critical power ratio) for BWR transients using the BNL plant analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Horak, W.C.; Diamond, D.J.

    1987-06-01

    The critical power ratio (CPR) is used for determining the thermal limits of boiling water reactors. In this study, critical power ratios for a series of transients run on the Brookhaven Plant Analyzer (BPA) (1) have been calculated. The transients include nominal base case simulations, simulations with variations in relief valve setpoints and the number of failed feedwater heaters, simulations at the 100% power, 75% flow point on the extended load line of the MEOD, and a simulation with partial feedwater heating. The plant represented with the BPA is a BWR/4 rated at 3293 MW with a 6.38 m (251'') vessel. Data were obtained by the Plant Analyzer Development Group at BNL from a variety of sources describing the Browns Ferry Plant.

  18. Transient Current Analysis of Induction Generators for Wind Power Generating System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senjyu, Tomonobu; Sueyoshi, Norihide; Uezato, Katsumi; Fujita, Hideki

    In recent year, non-conventional energy generation is coming up for effective use of natural energy, such as wind energy. Induction generators consisting squirrel-cage rotors are widly used as wind generators because of their salient features like robust rotor design, simple in the construction, maintenance free operation, etc. However these induction generators will draw large transient inrush current, several times as large as the machine rated current, the instant when they are connected to utility grid or restored after the fault clearance. Under such situations, there will be a severe voltage fluctuations in the power system. In this paper, we present transient analysis of induction generators before and after a three-phase fault conditions. Theoretical discission is developed to determine the initial phase angle and the time at which maximum transient currents flow in the system.

  19. Transient Stability Improvement of Multi-machine Power System Using Fuzzy Controlled TCSC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Gundala Srinivasa

    2012-07-01

    Power system is subjected to sudden changes in load levels. Stability is an important concept which determines the stable operation of power system. In general rotor angle stability is taken as index, but the concept of transient stability, which is the function of operating condition and disturbances deals with the ability of the system to remain intact after being subjected to abnormal deviations. A system is said to be synchronously stable (i.e., retain synchronism) for a given fault if the system variables settle down to some steady-state values with time, after the fault is removed.For the improvement of transient stability the general methods adopted are fast acting exciters, circuit breakers and reduction in system transfer reactance. The modern trend is to employ FACTS devices in the existing system for effective utilization of existing transmission resources. These FACTS devices contribute to power flow improvement besides they extend their services in transient stability improvement as well.In this paper, the studies had been carried out in order to improve the Transient Stability of WSCC 9 Bus System with Fixed Compensation on Various Lines and Optimal Location has been investigated using trajectory sensitivity analysis for better results.In this paper, in order to improve the Transient Stability margin further series FACTS device has been implemented. A fuzzy controlled Thyristor Controlled Series Compensation (TCSC) device has been used here and the results highlight the effectiveness of the application of a TCSC in improving the transient stability of a power system.In this paper, Trajectory sensitivity analysis (TSA) has been used to measure the transient stability condition of the system. The TCSC is modeled by a variable capacitor, the value of which changes with the firing angle. It is shown that TSA can be used in the design of the controller. The optimal locations of the TCSC-controller for different fault conditions can also be identified with

  20. 47 CFR 54.637 - Off-site data centers and off-site administrative offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... connections and network equipment associated with off-site data centers and off-site administrative offices... care provider's computer systems, associated components, and data, including (but not limited to... center and the public Internet or another network, (v) An off-site administrative office and the...

  1. 47 CFR 54.637 - Off-site data centers and off-site administrative offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... connections and network equipment associated with off-site data centers and off-site administrative offices... care provider's computer systems, associated components, and data, including (but not limited to... center and the public Internet or another network, (v) An off-site administrative office and the...

  2. 10 CFR 840.5 - Criterion II-Substantial damages to persons offsite or property offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Criterion II-Substantial damages to persons offsite or property offsite. 840.5 Section 840.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY EXTRAORDINARY NUCLEAR OCCURRENCES § 840.5... nuclear, or byproduct material; or (2) DOE finds that $2,500,000 or more of damage offsite has been...

  3. 10 CFR 840.5 - Criterion II-Substantial damages to persons offsite or property offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Criterion II-Substantial damages to persons offsite or property offsite. 840.5 Section 840.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY EXTRAORDINARY NUCLEAR OCCURRENCES § 840.5... nuclear, or byproduct material; or (2) DOE finds that $2,500,000 or more of damage offsite has been...

  4. 10 CFR 840.5 - Criterion II-Substantial damages to persons offsite or property offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Criterion II-Substantial damages to persons offsite or property offsite. 840.5 Section 840.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY EXTRAORDINARY NUCLEAR OCCURRENCES § 840.5... nuclear, or byproduct material; or (2) DOE finds that $2,500,000 or more of damage offsite has been...

  5. 10 CFR 840.5 - Criterion II-Substantial damages to persons offsite or property offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criterion II-Substantial damages to persons offsite or property offsite. 840.5 Section 840.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY EXTRAORDINARY NUCLEAR OCCURRENCES § 840.5... nuclear, or byproduct material; or (2) DOE finds that $2,500,000 or more of damage offsite has been...

  6. 10 CFR 840.5 - Criterion II-Substantial damages to persons offsite or property offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Criterion II-Substantial damages to persons offsite or property offsite. 840.5 Section 840.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY EXTRAORDINARY NUCLEAR OCCURRENCES § 840.5... nuclear, or byproduct material; or (2) DOE finds that $2,500,000 or more of damage offsite has been...

  7. Distributed Multi-Agent-Based Protection Scheme for Transient Stability Enhancement in Power Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, M. S.; Mahmud, M. A.; Pota, H. R.; Hossain, M. J.; Orchi, T. F.

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents a new distributed agent-based scheme to enhance the transient stability of power systems by maintaining phase angle cohesiveness of interconnected generators through proper relay coordination with critical clearing time (CCT) information. In this distributed multi-agent infrastructure, intelligent agents represent various physical device models to provide dynamic information and energy flow among different physical processes of power systems. The agents can communicate with each other in a distributed manner with a final aim to control circuit breakers (CBs) with CCT information as this is the key issue for maintaining and enhancing the transient stability of power systems. The performance of the proposed scheme is evaluated on a standard IEEE 39-bus New England benchmark system under different large disturbances such as three-phase short-circuit faults and changes in loads within the systems. From the simulation results, it is found that the proposed scheme significantly enhances the transient stability of power systems as compared to a conventional scheme of static CB operation.

  8. Modeling Reactor Coolant Systems Thermal-Hydraulic Transients

    1999-10-05

    RELAP5/MOD3.2* is used to model reactor coolant systems during postulated accidents. The code models the coupled behavior of the reactor coolant system and the core for loss-of-coolant accidents and operational transients such as anticipated transients without scram, loss of offsite power, loss of feedwater, and loss of flow. A generic modeling approach is used that permits simulating a variety of thermal-hydraulic systems. Control system and secondary system components are included to allow modeling of themore » plant controls, turbines, condensers, and secondary feedwater systems.« less

  9. A transient heat pipe model for a multimegawatt space power application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Larry W.

    1989-01-01

    The Argonne Monolithic Solid Oxide Fuel Cell power generation system has been described previously. In a burst power generation mode, hundreds of megawatts of dc power would be generated for a finite time interval. An accompanying nuclear power generation system would be used to regenerate the spent reactants (hydrogen and oxygen) in this closed system for subsequent re-use. Although the Argonne space power supply was designed to be a closed system in terms of material effluents, it had to reject the waste heat from the fuel cells (which operate with approximately 70 percent conversion eficiency). The heat rejection method included multiple heat pipes operated in parallel to convey thermal energy from the fuel cell coolant for ultimate radiation to space. The transient behavior of these heat rejection heat pumps was not considered earlier. This paper addresses the problem, showing that the heat pipes as conceptually designed also satisfy the stringent transient power generation---heat rejection requirements of the multimegawatt power generation system.

  10. Transient Dynamics of Electric Power Systems: Direct Stability Assessment and Chaotic Motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Chia-Chi

    A power system is continuously experiencing disturbances. Analyzing, predicting, and controlling transient dynamics, which describe transient behaviors of the power system following disturbances, is a major concern in the planning and operation of a power utility. Important conclusions and decisions are made based on the result of system transient behaviors. As today's power network becomes highly interconnected and much more complex, it has become essential to enhance the fundamental understanding of transient dynamics, and to develop fast and reliable computational algorithms. In this thesis, we emphasize mathematical rigor rather than physical insight. Nonlinear dynamical system theory is applied to study two fundamental topics: direct stability assessment and chaotic motions. Conventionally, power system stability is determined by calculating the time-domain transient behaviors for a given disturbance. In contrast, direct methods identify whether or not the system will remain stable once the disturbance is removed by comparing the corresponding energy value of the post-fault system to a calculated threshold value. Direct methods not only avoid the time-consuming numerical integration of the time domain approach, but also provide a quantitative measure of the degree of system stability. We present a general framework for the theoretical foundations of direct methods. Canonical representations of network-reduction models as well as network-preserving models are proposed to facilitate the analysis and the construction of energy functions of various power system models. An advanced and practical method, called the boundary of stability region based controlling unstable equilibrium point method (BCU method), of computing the controlling unstable equilibrium point is proposed along with its theoretical foundation. Numerical solution algorithms capable of supporting on-line applications of direct methods are provided. Further possible improvements and enhancements are

  11. Research on Reverse Recovery Transient of Parallel Thyristors for Fusion Power Supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zha, Fengwei; Song, Zhiquan; Fu, Peng; Dong, Lin; Wang, Min

    2014-07-01

    In nuclear fusion power supply systems, the thyristors often need to be connected in parallel for sustaining large current. However, research on the reverse recovery transient of parallel thyristors has not been reported yet. When several thyristors are connected in parallel, they cannot turn-off at the same moment, and thus the turn-off model based on a single thyristor is no longer suitable. In this paper, an analysis is presented for the reverse recovery transient of parallel thyristors. Parallel thyristors can be assumed as one virtual thyristor so that the reverse recovery current can be modeled by an exponential function. Through equivalent transformation of the rectifier circuit, the commutating over-voltage can be calculated based on Kirchhoff's equation. The reverse recovery current and commutation over-voltage waveforms are measured on an experiment platform for a high power rectifier supply. From the measurement results, it is concluded that the modeling method is acceptable.

  12. Contribution of Anticipated Transients Without Scram (ATWS) to core melt at United States nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Giachetti, R.T. , Ann Arbor, MI )

    1989-09-01

    This report looks at WASH-1400 and several other Probabilistic Risk Assessments (PRAs) and Probabilistic Safety Studies (PSSs) to determine the contribution of Anticipated Transients Without Scram (ATWS) events to the total core melt probability at eight nuclear power plants in the United States. After considering each plant individually, the results are compared from plant to plant to see if any generic conclusions regarding ATWS, or core melt in general, can be made. 8 refs., 34 tabs.

  13. The transient decline in hippocampal theta power during response inhibition in a positive patterning task.

    PubMed

    Sakimoto, Yuya; Sakata, Shogo

    2015-09-30

    It is believed that a transient decline in hippocampal theta power is induced by behavioral inhibition during a go/no-go stimulus discrimination task. In a previously reported positive patterning (PP) task, rats learn to lever press when a compound stimulus, both tone and light, is presented and inhibit their lever press when a single stimulus, tone or light, is presented. In this task, rats were required to inhibit their response to the single stimulus in a task where both compound and single stimuli were presented with an overlapping element. Thus, we hypothesized that there would be a transient decline in hippocampal theta power induced by behavioral inhibition to the presence of a single stimuli in the PP task. The result of this study showed that a decline in hippocampal theta power occurred during response inhibition to the presence of a single tone stimulus in the PP task, supporting our hypothesis. However, we did not observe any decline in hippocampal theta power during response inhibition to the presence of a single light stimulus. We found that the error response rate for the tone stimulus was slightly lower than that for light stimulus in the PP task. Thus, we proposed that the decline in hippocampal theta power related to more accurate response inhibition to the stimulus that had an overlapping element.

  14. Transient power supply voltage (v{sub DDT}) analysis for detecting IC defects

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, E.I. Jr.; Soden, J.M.; Beegle, R.W.

    1997-04-01

    Transient power supply voltage (V{sub DDT}) analysis is a new testing technique demonstrated as a powerful alternative and complement to I{sub DDQ} testing. V{sub DDT} takes advantage of the limited response time of a voltage supply to the changing power demands of an IC during operation. Changes in the V{sub DD} response time are used to detect increases in power demand with resolutions of 100 nA at 100 kHz, 1 {mu}A at 1 MHz, and 2.5 {mu}A at 1.5 MHz. These current sensitivities have been shown for ICs with quiescent currents < 0.1 {mu}A and > 300 {mu}A. The V{sub DDT} signal acquisition protocols, frequency versus sensitivity tradeoffs, hardware considerations and limitations, data examples, and areas for future research are described.

  15. Optical Transients Powered by Magnetars: Dynamics, Light Curves, and Transition to the Nebular Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ling-Jun; Wang, S. Q.; Dai, Z. G.; Xu, Dong; Han, Yan-Hui; Wu, X. F.; Wei, Jian-Yan

    2016-04-01

    Millisecond magnetars can be formed via several channels: core collapse of massive stars, accretion-induced collapse of white dwarfs (WDs), double WD mergers, double neutron star (NS) mergers, and WD-NS mergers. Because the mass of ejecta from these channels could be quite different, their light curves are also expected to be diverse. We evaluate the dynamic evolution of optical transients powered by millisecond magnetars. We find that the magnetar with a short spin-down timescale converts its rotational energy mostly into the kinetic energy of the transient, while the energy of a magnetar with a long spin-down timescale goes into radiation of the transient. This leads us to speculate that hypernovae could be powered by magnetars with short spin-down timescales. At late times the optical transients will gradually evolve into a nebular phase because of the photospheric recession. We treat the photosphere and nebula separately because their radiation mechanisms are different. In some cases the ejecta could be light enough that the magnetar can accelerate it to a relativistic speed. It is well known that the peak luminosity of a supernova (SN) occurs when the luminosity is equal to the instantaneous energy input rate, as shown by Arnett. We show that photospheric recession and relativistic motion can modify this law. The photospheric recession always leads to a delay of the peak time {t}{pk} relative to the time {t}× at which the SN luminosity equals the instantaneous energy input rate. Relativistic motion, however, may change this result significantly.

  16. Reactive power generation in high speed induction machines by continuously occurring space-transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laithwaite, E. R.; Kuznetsov, S. B.

    1980-09-01

    A new technique of continuously generating reactive power from the stator of a brushless induction machine is conceived and tested on a 10-kw linear machine and on 35 and 150 rotary cage motors. An auxiliary magnetic wave traveling at rotor speed is artificially created by the space-transient attributable to the asymmetrical stator winding. At least two distinct windings of different pole-pitch must be incorporated. This rotor wave drifts in and out of phase repeatedly with the stator MMF wave proper and the resulting modulation of the airgap flux is used to generate reactive VA apart from that required for magnetization or leakage flux. The VAR generation effect increases with machine size, and leading power factor operation of the entire machine is viable for large industrial motors and power system induction generators.

  17. Statistical interpretation of transient current power-law decay in colloidal quantum dot arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibatov, R. T.

    2011-08-01

    A new statistical model of the charge transport in colloidal quantum dot arrays is proposed. It takes into account Coulomb blockade forbidding multiple occupancy of nanocrystals and the influence of energetic disorder of interdot space. The model explains power-law current transients and the presence of the memory effect. The fractional differential analogue of the Ohm law is found phenomenologically for nanocrystal arrays. The model combines ideas that were considered as conflicting by other authors: the Scher-Montroll idea about the power-law distribution of waiting times in localized states for disordered semiconductors is applied taking into account Coulomb blockade; Novikov's condition about the asymptotic power-law distribution of time intervals between successful current pulses in conduction channels is fulfilled; and the carrier injection blocking predicted by Ginger and Greenham (2000 J. Appl. Phys. 87 1361) takes place.

  18. Transient analysis of a molten salt central receiver (MSCR) in a solar power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, A.; Wang, C.; Akinjiola, O.; Lou, X.; Neuschaefer, C.; Quinn, J.

    2016-05-01

    Alstom is developing solar power tower plants utilizing molten salt as the working fluid. In solar power tower, the molten salt central receiver (MSCR) atop of the tower is constructed of banks of tubes arranged in panels creating a heat transfer surface exposed to the solar irradiation from the heliostat field. The molten salt heat transfer fluid (HTF), in this case 60/40%wt NaNO3-KNO3, flows in serpentine flow through the surface collecting sensible heat thus raising the HTF temperature from 290°C to 565°C. The hot molten salt is stored and dispatched to produce superheated steam in a steam generator, which in turn produces electricity in the steam turbine generator. The MSCR based power plant with a thermal energy storage system (TESS) is a fully dispatchable renewable power plant with a number of opportunities for operational and economic optimization. This paper presents operation and controls challenges to the MSCR and the overall power plant, and the use of dynamic model computer simulation based transient analyses applied to molten salt based solar thermal power plant. This study presents the evaluation of the current MSCR design, using a dynamic model, with emphasis on severe events affecting critical process response, such as MS temperature deviations, and recommend MSCR control design improvements based on the results. Cloud events are the scope of the transient analysis presented in this paper. The paper presents results from a comparative study to examine impacts or effects on key process variables related to controls and operation of the MSCR plant.

  19. Management of high current transients in the CWDD Injector 200 kV power system

    SciTech Connect

    Carwardine, J.A.; Pile, G.; Zinneman, T.E.

    1993-06-01

    The injector for the Continuous Wave Deuterium Demonstrator is designed to deliver a high current CW negative deuterium ion beam at an energy of 200 keV to a Radio Frequency Quadrupole. The injector comprises a volume ion source, triode accelerator, high-power electron traps and low-energy beam transport with a single focusing solenoid. Some 75 Joules of energy are stored in stray capacitance around the high voltage system and discharged in a few microseconds following an injector breakdown. In order to limit damage to the accelerator grids, a magnetic snubber is incorporated to absorb most of the energy. Nevertheless, large current transients flow around the system as a result of an injector breakdown; these have frequently damaged power components and caused spurious behavior in many of the supporting systems. The analytical and practical approaches taken to minimize the effects of these transients are described. Injector breakdowns were simulated using an air spark gap and measurements made using standard EMC test techniques. The power circuit was modeled using an electrical simulation code; good agreement was reached between the model and measured results.

  20. Transient stability assessment in longitudinal power systems using artificial neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Aboytes, F.; Ramirez, R.

    1996-11-01

    Results of the application of Artificial Neural Networks to the problem of Transient Stability Assessment are presented. This technique is applied to a real Longitudinal Power System that includes discrete supplementary controls. Different representations of the training space patterns and neural networks architectures are investigated. Input variables include topological changes, load and generation levels and contingencies. A special organization of training patterns with a separation by type of contingency is proposed to reduce classification errors. A graphical presentation of results is suggested as an aid to help system operators to select preventive control actions.

  1. Distributed Hierarchical Control Architecture for Transient Dynamics Improvement in Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Marinovici, Laurentiu D.; Lian, Jianming; Kalsi, Karanjit; Du, Pengwei; Elizondo, Marcelo A.

    2013-08-24

    In this paper, a novel distributed hierarchical coordinated control architecture is proposed for large scale power systems. The newly considered architecture facilitates frequency restoration and power balancing functions to be decoupled and implemented at different levels. At the local level, decentralized robust generator controllers are designed to quickly restore frequency after large faults and disturbances in the system. The controllers presented herein are shown to improve transient stability performance, as compared to conventional governor and excitation control. At the area level, Automatic Generation Control (AGC) is modified and coordinates with the decentralized robust controllers to reach the interchange schedule in the tie lines. The interaction of local and zonal controllers is validated through detailed simulations.

  2. Single Event Transients in Voltage Regulators for FPGA Power Supply Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poivey, Christian; Sanders, Anthony; Kim, Hak; Phan, Anthony; Forney, Jim; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Karsh, Jeremy; Pursley, Scott; Kleyner, Igor; Katz, Richard

    2006-01-01

    As with other bipolar analog devices, voltage regulators are known to be sensitive to single event transients (SET). In typical applications, large output capacitors are used to provide noise immunity. Therefore, since SET amplitude and duration are generally small, they are often of secondary importance due to this capacitance filtering. In low voltage applications, however, even small SET are a concern. Over-voltages may cause destructive conditions. Under-voltages may cause functional interrupts and may also trigger electrical latchup conditions. In addition, internal protection circuits which are affected by load as well as internal thermal effects can also be triggered from heavy ions, causing dropouts or shutdown ranging from milliseconds to seconds. In the case of FPGA power supplies applications, SETS are critical. For example, in the case of Actel FPGA RTAX family, core power supply voltage is 1.5V. Manufacturer specifies an absolute maximum rating of 1.6V and recommended operating conditions between 1.425V and 1.575V. Therefore, according to the manufacturer, any transient of amplitude greater than 75 mV can disrupt normal circuit functions, and overvoltages greater than 100 mV may damage the FPGA. We tested five low dropout voltage regulators for SET sensitivity under a large range of circuit application conditions.

  3. Digital computer study of nuclear reactor thermal transients during startup of 60-kWe Brayton power conversion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jefferies, K. S.; Tew, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    A digital computer study was made of reactor thermal transients during startup of the Brayton power conversion loop of a 60-kWe reactor Brayton power system. A startup procedure requiring the least Brayton system complication was tried first; this procedure caused violations of design limits on key reactor variables. Several modifications of this procedure were then found which caused no design limit violations. These modifications involved: (1) using a slower rate of increase in gas flow; (2) increasing the initial reactor power level to make the reactor respond faster; and (3) appropriate reactor control drum manipulation during the startup transient.

  4. Thermomechanical Response of a Gas to Spatially Resolved Power Deposition Transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassoy, David R.

    2015-11-01

    Liquid propellant rocket engine (LPRE) instability is characterized by growing pressure oscillations that affect the integrity and performance of the system. Modeling and prediction have been topics of intense interest to designers for more than 60 years. LPRE combustion provides a wonderful opportunity to employ thermomechanical concepts and mathematical methodologies to quantify the response of combustion chamber gases to spatially distributed, transient thermal energy deposition. Nondimensional Euler equations, including a power deposition term in the energy equation are used to identify crucial parameters, time and length scales, as well as levels of energy deposition, relevant to LPRE performance. The objective is to provide first principles explanations of physical phenomena responsible for mechanical disturbances observed in operating LPRE's.

  5. Geomagnetic origin for transient particle events from nuclear reactor-powered satellites.

    PubMed

    Share, G H; Kurfess, J D; Marlow, K W; Messina, D C

    1989-04-28

    Transient events observed since 1980 by the Gamma-Ray Spectrometer experiment on the Solar Maximum Mission satellite (SMM) have been identified with radiation emitted from 18 different Soviet nuclear reactor-powered satellites. Most of these satellites are similar to Cosmos 954 and 1402 which reentered the atmosphere. Gamma radiation from these satellites was detected when they passed within about 400 to 500 kilometers of SMM. Positron annihilation line radiation (511 kiloelectron volts) and charged-particle events were detected when SMM encountered clouds of positrons and electrons emitted by these satellites and stored up to tens of minutes in the geomagnetic field. The rate of these events varied from about 1 in 5 days to over 30 per day and was strongly dependent on the operating altitudes of the Cosmos satellites and density of the upper atmosphere.

  6. Transient analysis of an FHR coupled to a helium Brayton power cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Minghui; Kim, In Hun; Sun, Xiaodong; Christensen, Richard; Utgikar, Vivek; Sabharwall, Piyush

    2015-08-01

    The Fluoride salt-cooled High-temperature Reactor (FHR) features a passive decay heat removal system and a high-efficiency Brayton cycle for electricity generation. It typically employs an intermediate loop, consisting of an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) and a secondary heat exchanger (SHX), to couple the primary system with the power conversion unit (PCU). In this study, a preliminary dynamic system model is developed to simulate transient characteristics of a prototypic 20-MWth Fluoride salt-cooled High-temperature Test Reactor (FHTR). The model consists of a series of differential conservation equations that are numerically solved using the MATLAB platform. For the reactor, a point neutron kinetics model is adopted. For the IHX and SHX, a fluted tube heat exchanger and an offset strip-fin heat exchanger are selected, respectively. Detailed geometric parameters of each component in the FHTR are determined based on the FHTR nominal steady-state operating conditions. Three initiating events are simulated in this study, including a positive reactivity insertion, a step increase in the mass flow rate of the PCU helium flow, and a step increase in the PCU helium inlet temperature to the SHX. The simulation results show that the reactor has inherent safety features for those three simulated scenarios. It is observed that the increase in the temperatures of the fuel pebbles and primary coolant is mitigated by the decrease in the reactor power due to negative temperature feedbacks. The results also indicate that the intermediate loop with the two heat exchangers plays a significant role in the transient progression of the integral reactor system.

  7. Hysteresis, phase transitions, and dangerous transients in electrical power distribution systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duclut, Charlie; Backhaus, Scott; Chertkov, Michael

    2013-06-01

    The majority of dynamical studies in power systems focus on the high-voltage transmission grids where models consider large generators interacting with crude aggregations of individual small loads. However, new phenomena have been observed indicating that the spatial distribution of collective, nonlinear contribution of these small loads in the low-voltage distribution grid is crucial to the outcome of these dynamical transients. To elucidate the phenomenon, we study the dynamics of voltage and power flows in a spatially extended distribution feeder (circuit) connecting many asynchronous induction motors and discover that this relatively simple 1+1 (space+time) dimensional system exhibits a plethora of nontrivial spatiotemporal effects, some of which may be dangerous for power system stability. Long-range motor-motor interactions mediated by circuit voltage and electrical power flows result in coexistence and segregation of spatially extended phases defined by individual motor states, a “normal” state where the motors’ mechanical (rotation) frequency is slightly smaller than the nominal frequency of the basic ac flows and a “stalled” state where the mechanical frequency is small. Transitions between the two states can be initiated by a perturbation of the voltage or base frequency at the head of the distribution feeder. Such behavior is typical of first-order phase transitions in physics, and this 1+1 dimensional model shows many other properties of a first-order phase transition with the spatial distribution of the motors’ mechanical frequency playing the role of the order parameter. In particular, we observe (a) propagation of the phase-transition front with the constant speed (in very long feeders) and (b) hysteresis in transitions between the normal and stalled (or partially stalled) phases.

  8. A method of lines solution of the transient behavior of the helium cooled power leads for the SSC

    SciTech Connect

    Demko, J.A.; Schiesser, W.E.; Carcagno, R.; McAshan, M.

    1995-05-01

    In this study, a detailed numerical thermal mode of a 6.5 kA power lead for the Superconducting Super Collider has been developed, which was adapted from the dynamic model developed by Schiesser. The transient behavior of the power leads was modeled using, a method of lines (MOL) approach. The model was developed to pmvide a tool for analyzing coolant control strategies as well as an understanding of the behavior of the leads under presumed system transients. Results for a current ramp up to 4970 amps are favorably compared with measurements. Also, a loss of cooling situation is predicted to determine the transient temperature distribution under an off-design condition.

  9. Assessment of RELAP5/MOD2 against a main feedwater turbopump trip transient in the Vandellos II Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Llopis, C.; Casals, A.; Perez, J.; Mendizabal, R.

    1993-12-01

    The Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear (CSN) and the Asociacion Nuclear Vandellos (ANV) have developed a model of Vandellos II Nuclear Power Plant. The ANV collaboration consisted in the supply of design and actual data, the cooperation in the simulation of the control systems and other model components, as well as in the results analysis. The obtained model has been assessed against the following transients occurred in plant: A trip from the 100% power level (CSN); a load rejection from 100% to 50% (CSN); a load rejection from 75% to 65% (ANV); and, a feedwater turbopump trip (ANV). This copy is a report of the feedwater turbopump trip transient simulation. This transient actually occurred in the plant on June 19, 1989.

  10. User's Guide for RESRAD-OFFSITE

    SciTech Connect

    Gnanapragasam, E.; Yu, C.

    2015-04-01

    The RESRAD-OFFSITE code can be used to model the radiological dose or risk to an offsite receptor. This User’s Guide for RESRAD-OFFSITE Version 3.1 is an update of the User’s Guide for RESRAD-OFFSITE Version 2 contained in the Appendix A of the User’s Manual for RESRAD-OFFSITE Version 2 (ANL/EVS/TM/07-1, DOE/HS-0005, NUREG/CR-6937). This user’s guide presents the basic information necessary to use Version 3.1 of the code. It also points to the help file and other documents that provide more detailed information about the inputs, the input forms and features/tools in the code; two of the features (overriding the source term and computing area factors) are discussed in the appendices to this guide. Section 2 describes how to download and install the code and then verify the installation of the code. Section 3 shows ways to navigate through the input screens to simulate various exposure scenarios and to view the results in graphics and text reports. Section 4 has screen shots of each input form in the code and provides basic information about each parameter to increase the user’s understanding of the code. Section 5 outlines the contents of all the text reports and the graphical output. It also describes the commands in the two output viewers. Section 6 deals with the probabilistic and sensitivity analysis tools available in the code. Section 7 details the various ways of obtaining help in the code.

  11. Transient and Steady-state Tests of the Space Power Research Engine with Resistive and Motor Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauch, Jeffrey S.; Kankam, M. David

    1995-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) has been testing free-piston Stirling engine/linear alternators (FPSE/LA) to develop advanced power convertors for space-based electrical power generation. Tests reported herein were performed to evaluate the interaction and transient behavior of FPSE/LA-based power systems with typical user loads. Both resistive and small induction motor loads were tested with the space power research engine (SPRE) power system. Tests showed that the control system could maintain constant long term voltage and stable periodic operation over a large range of engine operating parameters and loads. Modest resistive load changes were shown to cause relatively large voltage and, therefore, piston and displacer amplitude excursions. Starting a typical small induction motor was shown to cause large and, in some cases, deleterious voltage transients. The tests identified the need for more effective controls, if FPSE/LAs are to be used for stand-alone power systems. The tests also generated a large body of transient dynamic data useful for analysis code validation.

  12. Neural network recognition of nuclear power plant transients. Final report, April 15, 1992--April 15, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, E.B.

    1995-05-15

    The objective of this report is to describe results obtained during the second year of funding that will lead to the development of an artificial neural network (A.N.N) fault diagnostic system for the real-time classification of operational transients at nuclear power plants. The ultimate goal of this three-year project is to design, build, and test a prototype diagnostic adviser for use in the control room or technical support center at Duane Arnold Energy Center (DAEC); such a prototype could be integrated into the plant process computer or safety-parameter display system. The adviser could then warn and inform plant operators and engineers of plant component failures in a timely manner. This report describes the work accomplished in the second of three scheduled years for the project. Included herein is a summary of the second year`s results as well as descriptions of each of the major topics undertaken by the researchers. Also included are reprints of the articles written under this funding as well as those that were published during the funded period.

  13. Temporal dependence of transient dark counts in an avalanche photodiode: A solution for power-law behavior of afterpulsing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akiba, M.; Tsujino, K.

    2016-08-01

    This paper offers a theoretical explanation of the temperature and temporal dependencies of transient dark count rates (DCRs) measured for a linear-mode silicon avalanche photodiode (APD) and the dependencies of afterpulsing that were measured in Geiger-mode Si and InGaAs/InP APDs. The temporal dependencies exhibit power-law behavior, at least to some extent. For the transient DCR, the value of the DCR for a given time period increases with decreases in temperature, while the power-law behavior remains unchanged. The transient DCR is attributed to electron emissions from traps in the multiplication layer of the APD with a high electric field, and its temporal dependence is explained by a continuous change in the electron emission rate as a function of the electric field strength. The electron emission rate is calculated using a quantum model for phonon-assisted tunnel emission. We applied the theory to the temporal dependence of afterpulsing that was measured for Si and InGaAs/InP APDs. The power-law temporal dependence is attributed to the power-law function of the electron emission rate from the traps as a function of their position across the p-n junction of the APD. Deviations from the power-law temporal dependence can be derived from the upper and lower limits of the electric field strength.

  14. Health technology assessment: Off-site sterilization

    PubMed Central

    Dehnavieh, Reza; Mirshekari, Nadia; Ghasemi, Sara; Goudarzi, Reza; Haghdoost, AliAkbar; Mehrolhassani, Mohammad Hossain; Moshkani, Zahra; Noori Hekmat, Somayeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Every year millions of dollars are expended to equip and maintain the hospital sterilization centers, and our country is not an exception of this matter. According to this, it is important to use more effective technologies and methods in health system in order to reach more effectiveness and saving in costs. This study was conducted with the aim of evaluating the technology of regional sterilization centers. Methods: This study was done in four steps. At the first step, safety and effectiveness of technology was studied via systematic study of evidence. The next step was done to evaluate the economical aspect of off-site sterilization technology using gathered data from systematic review of the texts which were related to the technology and costs of off-site and in-site hospital sterilization. Third step was conducted to collect experiences of using technology in some selected hospitals around the world. And in the last step different aspects of acceptance and use of this technology in Iran were evaluated. Results: Review of the selected articles indicated that efficacy and effectiveness of this technology is Confirmed. The results also showed that using this method is not economical in Iran. Conclusion: According to the revealed evidences and also cost analysis, due to shortage of necessary substructures and economical aspect, installing the off-site sterilization health technology in hospitals is not possible currently. But this method can be used to provide sterilization services for clinics and outpatients centers. PMID:27390714

  15. Stability, Transient Response, Control, and Safety of a High-Power Electric Grid for Turboelectric Propulsion of Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, Michael; Ross, Christine; Phillips, Danny; Blackwelder, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This document contains the deliverables for the NASA Research and Technology for Aerospace Propulsion Systems (RTAPS) regarding the stability, transient response, control, and safety study for a high power cryogenic turboelectric distributed propulsion (TeDP) system. The objective of this research effort is to enumerate, characterize, and evaluate the critical issues facing the development of the N3-X concept aircraft. This includes the proposal of electrical grid architecture concepts and an evaluation of any needs for energy storage.

  16. The monitoring of transient regimes on machine tools based on speed, acceleration and active electric power absorbed by motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horodinca, M.

    2016-08-01

    This paper intend to propose some new results related with computer aided monitoring of transient regimes on machine-tools based on the evolution of active electrical power absorbed by the electric motor used to drive the main kinematic chains and the evolution of rotational speed and acceleration of the main shaft. The active power is calculated in numerical format using the evolution of instantaneous voltage and current delivered by electrical power system to the electric motor. The rotational speed and acceleration of the main shaft are calculated based on the signal delivered by a sensor. Three real-time analogic signals are acquired with a very simple computer assisted setup which contains a voltage transformer, a current transformer, an AC generator as rotational speed sensor, a data acquisition system and a personal computer. The data processing and analysis was done using Matlab software. Some different transient regimes were investigated; several important conclusions related with the advantages of this monitoring technique were formulated. Many others features of the experimental setup are also available: to supervise the mechanical loading of machine-tools during cutting processes or for diagnosis of machine-tools condition by active electrical power signal analysis in frequency domain.

  17. Analysis of offsite emergency planning zones project

    SciTech Connect

    Petrocchi, A.J.; Armstrong, C.E. . Rocky Flats Plant); McKinney, J.M.; Verholek, M.G.; Fraser, P.J.; Dalfonso, P.H. )

    1991-07-18

    The Rocky Flats Plant maintains and uses significant nonradioactive chemically hazardous material (HAZMAT) inventories. Some of these materials are used in sufficient quantities to represent a credible risk to the offsite public in the event of an emergency at the facility. In Phase 2 of this project, the EG G Rocky Flats, Inc. and TENERA, L.P. Task Team (Task Team) produced an initial screening-level modeling analysis study and an Emergency Planning Zone (EPZ) encompassing the Vulnerable Zones (VZs) for hazardous materials stored at the facility. The screening-level analysis will be supplemented with more refined evaluations during subsequent phases of the project. The existence of these chemicals in the Rocky Flats Plant Occupational Health Information System (OHIS) chemical inventory database was verified. All liquid and gaseous chemicals were considered as potential hazardous material source terms for further screening analysis. Hazards associated with solid substances were not considered in this phase of the project. 2 figs., 13 tabs.

  18. Evidence that aerodynamic effects, including dynamic stall, dictate HAWT structural loads and power generation in highly transient time frames

    SciTech Connect

    Shipley, D.E.; Miller, M.S.; Robinson, M.C.; Luttges, M.W.; Simms, D.A.

    1994-08-01

    Aerodynamic data collected from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory`s Combined Experiment have shown three distinct performance regimes when the turbine is operated under relatively steady flow conditions. Operating at blade angles of attack below static stall, excellent agreement is achieved with two-dimensional wind tunnel data. Around the static stall angle, the cycle average normal force produced is greater than the static test data. Span locations near the hub produce extremely large values of normal force coefficient, well in excess of the two-dimensional data results. These performance regimes have been shown to be a function of the three-dimensional flow structure and cycle averaged dynamic stall effects. Power generation and root bending moments have also been shown to be directly dependent on the inflow wind velocity. Aerodynamic data, including episodes of dynamic stall, have been correlated on a cycle by cycle basis with the structural and power generation characteristics of a horizontal axis wind turbine. Instantaneous unsteady forces and resultant power generation indicate that peak transient levels can significantly exceed cycle averaged values. Strong coupling between transient aerodynamic and resonant response of the turbine was also observed. These results provide some initial insight into the contribution of unsteady aerodynamics on undesirable turbine structural response and fatigue life.

  19. Evidence that aerodynamic effects, including dynamic stall, dictate HAWT structural loads and power generation in highly transient time frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipley, D. E.; Miller, M. S.; Robinson, M. C.; Luttges, M. W.; Simms, D. A.

    1994-08-01

    Aerodynamic data collected from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Combined Experiment have shown three distinct performance regimes when the turbine is operated under relatively steady flow conditions. Operating at blade angles of attack below static stall, excellent agreement is achieved with two-dimensional wind tunnel data. Around the static stall angle, the cycle average normal force produced is greater than the static test data. Span locations near the hub produce extremely large values of normal force coefficient, well in excess of the two-dimensional data results. These performance regimes have been shown to be a function of the three-dimensional flow structure and cycle averaged dynamic stall effects. Power generation and root bending moments have also been shown to be directly dependent on the inflow wind velocity. Aerodynamic data, including episodes of dynamic stall, have been correlated on a cycle by cycle basis with the structural and power generation characteristics of a horizontal axis wind turbine. Instantaneous unsteady forces and resultant power generation indicate that peak transient levels can significantly exceed cycle averaged values. Strong coupling between transient aerodynamic and resonant response of the turbine was also observed. These results provide some initial insight into the contribution of unsteady aerodynamics on undesirable turbine structural response and fatigue life.

  20. 40 CFR 68.165 - Offsite consequence analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Offsite consequence analysis. 68.165 Section 68.165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.165 Offsite...

  1. 40 CFR 68.165 - Offsite consequence analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offsite consequence analysis. 68.165 Section 68.165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.165 Offsite...

  2. 40 CFR 68.165 - Offsite consequence analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Offsite consequence analysis. 68.165 Section 68.165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.165 Offsite...

  3. Transient responses of phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant system. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Cheng-Yi

    1983-01-01

    An analytical and computerized study of the steady state and transient response of a phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) system was completed. Parametric studies and sensitivity analyses of the PAFC system's operation were accomplished. Four non-linear dynamic models of the fuel cell stack, reformer, shift converters, and heat exchangers were developed based on nonhomogeneous non-linear partial differential equations, which include the material, component, energy balance, and electrochemical kinetic features. Due to a lack of experimental data for the dynamic response of the components only the steady state results were compared with data from other sources, indicating reasonably good agreement. A steady state simulation of the entire system was developed using, nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The finite difference method and trial-and-error procedures were used to obtain a solution. Using the model, a PAFC system, that was developed under NASA Grant, NCC3-17, was improved through the optimization of the heat exchanger network. Three types of cooling configurations for cell plates were evaluated to obtain the best current density and temperature distributions. The steady state solutions were used as the initial conditions in the dynamic model. The transient response of a simplified PAFC system, which included all of the major components, subjected to a load change was obtained. Due to the length of the computation time for the transient response calculations, analysis on a real-time computer was not possible. A simulation of the real-time calculations was developed on a batch type computer. The transient response characteristics are needed for the optimization of the design and control of the whole PAFC system. All of the models, procedures and simulations were programmed in Fortran and run on IBM 370 computers at Cleveland State University and the NASA Lewis Research Center.

  4. INITIAL ANALYSIS OF TRANSIENT POWER TIME LAG DUE TO HETEROGENEITY WITHIN THE TREAT FUEL MATRIX.

    SciTech Connect

    D.M. Wachs; A.X. Zabriskie, W.R. Marcum

    2014-06-01

    The topic Nuclear Safety encompasses a broad spectrum of focal areas within the nuclear industry; one specific aspect centers on the performance and integrity of nuclear fuel during a reactivity insertion accident (RIA). This specific accident has proven to be fundamentally difficult to theoretically characterize due to the numerous empirically driven characteristics that quantify the fuel and reactor performance. The Transient Reactor Test (TREAT) facility was designed and operated to better understand fuel behavior under extreme (i.e. accident) conditions; it was shutdown in 1994. Recently, efforts have been underway to commission the TREAT facility to continue testing of advanced accident tolerant fuels (i.e. recently developed fuel concepts). To aid in the restart effort, new simulation tools are being used to investigate the behavior of nuclear fuels during facility’s transient events. This study focuses specifically on the characterizing modeled effects of fuel particles within the fuel matrix of the TREAT. The objective of this study was to (1) identify the impact of modeled heterogeneity within the fuel matrix during a transient event, and (2) demonstrate acceptable modeling processes for the purpose of TREAT safety analyses, specific to fuel matrix and particle size. Hypothetically, a fuel that is dominantly heterogeneous will demonstrate a clearly different temporal heating response to that of a modeled homogeneous fuel. This time difference is a result of the uniqueness of the thermal diffusivity within the fuel particle and fuel matrix. Using MOOSE/BISON to simulate the temperature time-lag effect of fuel particle diameter during a transient event, a comparison of the average graphite moderator temperature surrounding a spherical particle of fuel was made for both types of fuel simulations. This comparison showed that at a given time and with a specific fuel particle diameter, the fuel particle (heterogeneous) simulation and the homogeneous simulation

  5. 40 CFR 68.165 - Offsite consequence analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.165 Offsite consequence... shall submit the following data: (1) Chemical name; (2) Percentage weight of the chemical in a...

  6. Receiving Basin for Offsite Fuels and the Resin Regeneration Facility Safety Analysis Report, Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Shedrow, C.B.

    1999-11-29

    The Safety Analysis Report documents the safety authorization basis for the Receiving Basin for Offsite Fuels (RBOF) and the Resin Regeneration Facility (RRF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The present mission of the RBOF and RRF is to continue in providing a facility for the safe receipt, storage, handling, and shipping of spent nuclear fuel assemblies from power and research reactors in the United States, fuel from SRS and other Department of Energy (DOE) reactors, and foreign research reactors fuel, in support of the nonproliferation policy. The RBOF and RRF provide the capability to handle, separate, and transfer wastes generated from nuclear fuel element storage. The DOE and Westinghouse Savannah River Company, the prime operating contractor, are committed to managing these activities in such a manner that the health and safety of the offsite general public, the site worker, the facility worker, and the environment are protected.

  7. Offsite radiological consequence analysis for the waste transfer leak

    SciTech Connect

    ZIMMERMAN, B.D.

    2003-03-21

    This document quantifies the offsite radiological/consequence of the bounding waste transfer leak accident for comparison with the 25 rem Evaluation Guideline established in DOE-STD-3009, Appendix A. The bounding waste transfer leak accident is a fine spray leak into the air. The calculation applies reasonably conservative input parameters in accordance with DOE-STD-3009, Appendix A, guidance. The calculated offsite dose of 0.7 rem does not challenge the Evaluation Guideline.

  8. Offsite Radiological Consequence Analysis for the Waste Transfer Leak

    SciTech Connect

    ZIMMERMAN, B.D.

    2003-07-30

    This document quantifies the offsite radiological consequence of the bounding waste transfer leak accident for comparison with the 25 rem Evaluation Guideline established in DOE-STD-3009, Appendix A. The bounding waste transfer leak accident is a large pipe break into a pit. The calculated offsite dose does not challenge the Evaluation Guidelines. Revision 1 incorporates comments received from the Office of River Protection.

  9. Numerical and field tests of hydraulic transients at Piva power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giljen, Z.

    2014-03-01

    In 2009, a sophisticated field investigation was undertaken and later, in 2011, numerical tests were completed, on all three turbine units at the Piva hydroelectric power plant. These tests were made in order to assist in making decisions about the necessary scope of the reconstruction and modernisation of the Piva hydroelectric power plant, a plant originally constructed in the mid-1970s. More specifically, the investigation included several hydraulic conditions including both the start-up and stopping of each unit, load rejection under governor control from different initial powers, as well as emergency shut-down. Numerical results were obtained using the method of characteristics in a representation that included the full flow system and the characteristics of each associated Francis turbine. The impact of load rejection and emergency shut-down on the penstock pressure and turbine speed changes are reported and numerical and experimental results are compared, showing close agreement.

  10. Numerical Simulation of Transient and Steady State Nonlinear Beam-Cavity Dynamics in High Power Klystrons.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zambre, Yadunath Bhagvantrao

    1988-03-01

    A 2-1over2 dimensional analysis of klystrons, assuming cylindrical space symmetry but retaining all velocity effects, is presented. The model handles all relativistic, electromagnetic, and non-linear effects. The klystron geometry is viewed as a conducting cylinder (the tube) to which are attached a number of resonant cavities at various locations. Within this tube, particle in cell plasma simulation techniques are used to model the electron beam dynamics and electromagnetic fields. The effects of the cavities are then "patched in" by the use of eigenmode expansions over the cavity geometries. These expansions reduce the effects of the cavity fields into relatively simple time varying boundary conditions on the tube. The plasma simulation in the tube is carried out using a number of "macroparticles," each representing many electrons and each obeying the equations of motion for an electron. A time centered cycloid fitting algorithm is used to move the particles. A time centered spectral method using Fourier series in z and Chebyschev polynomials in r is used to advance the fields. A non-uniform grid permits the use of FFT's to carry out the Chebyschev expansions. A method for finding time periodic solutions is also presented. This method will compute a qualitatively correct transient solution and yield a quantitatively correct steady state solution.

  11. Transient stability enhancement of wind farms using power electronics and facts controllers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadpour, Hossein Ali

    Nowadays, it is well-understood that the burning of fossil fuels in electric power station has a significant influence on the global climate due to greenhouse gases. In many countries, the use of cost-effective and reliable low-carbon electricity energy sources is becoming an important energy policy. Among different kinds of clean energy resources- such as solar power, hydro-power, ocean wave power and so on, wind power is the fastest-growing form of renewable energy at the present time. Moreover, adjustable speed generator wind turbines (ASGWT) has key advantages over the fixed-speed generator wind turbines (FSGWT) in terms of less mechanical stress, improved power quality, high system efficiency, and reduced acoustic noise. One important class of ASGWT is the doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG), which has gained a significant attention of the electric power industry due to their advantages over the other class of ASGWT, i.e. fully rated converter-based wind turbines. Because of increased integration of DFIG-based wind farms into electric power grids, it is necessary to transmit the generated power from wind farms to the existing grids via transmission networks without congestion. Series capacitive compensation of DFIG-based wind farm is an economical way to increase the power transfer capability of the transmission line connecting wind farm to the grid. For example, a study performed by ABB reveals that increasing the power transfer capability of an existing transmission line from 1300 MW to 2000 MW using series compensation is 90% less than the cost of building a new transmission line. However, a factor hindering the extensive use of series capacitive compensation is the potential risk of sub- synchronous resonance (SSR). The SSR is a condition where the wind farm exchanges energy with the electric network, to which it is connected, at one or more natural frequencies of the electric or mechanical part of the combined system, comprising the wind farm and the

  12. State of offsite construction in India-Drivers and barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arif, M.; Bendi, D.; Sawhney, A.; Iyer, K. C.

    2012-05-01

    The rapid growth of the construction industry in India has influenced key players in the industry to adopt alternative technologies addressing time, cost and quality. The rising demand in housing, infrastructure and other facilities have further highlighted the need for the construction industry to look at adopting alternate building technologies. Offsite construction has evolved as a panacea to dealing with the under-supply and poor quality in the current age construction industry. Several offsite techniques have been adopted by the construction sector. Although, different forms of offsite techniques have been around for a while but their uptake has been low in the Indian context. This paper presents the perceptions about offsite construction in India and highlights some of the barriers and drivers facing the Indian construction industry. The data was gathered through a survey of 17 high level managers from some of the largest stakeholder organizations of the construction sector in India. The influence of time and cost has been highlighted as a major factor fuelling the adoption of offsite construction. However, the influence of current planning systems and the need for a paradigm shift are some of the prominent barriers towards the adoption of offsite techniques.

  13. Transient stability and control of renewable generators based on Hamiltonian surface shaping and power flow control. Part II, analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Robinett, Rush D., III; Wilson, David Gerald

    2010-11-01

    The swing equations for renewable generators connected to the grid are developed and a wind turbine is used as an example. The swing equations for the renewable generators are formulated as a natural Hamiltonian system with externally applied non-conservative forces. A two-step process referred to as Hamiltonian Surface Shaping and Power Flow Control (HSSPFC) is used to analyze and design feedback controllers for the renewable generators system. This formulation extends previous results on the analytical verification of the Potential Energy Boundary Surface (PEBS) method to nonlinear control analysis and design and justifies the decomposition of the system into conservative and non-conservative systems to enable a two-step, serial analysis and design procedure. The first step is to analyze the system as a conservative natural Hamiltonian system with no externally applied non-conservative forces. The Hamiltonian surface of the swing equations is related to the Equal-Area Criterion and the PEBS method to formulate the nonlinear transient stability problem. This formulation demonstrates the effectiveness of proportional feedback control to expand the stability region. The second step is to analyze the system as natural Hamiltonian system with externally applied non-conservative forces. The time derivative of the Hamiltonian produces the work/rate (power flow) equation which is used to ensure balanced power flows from the renewable generators to the loads. The Second Law of Thermodynamics is applied to the power flow equations to determine the stability boundaries (limit cycles) of the renewable generators system and enable design of feedback controllers that meet stability requirements while maximizing the power generation and flow to the load. Necessary and sufficient conditions for stability of renewable generators systems are determined based on the concepts of Hamiltonian systems, power flow, exergy (the maximum work that can be extracted from an energy flow) rate

  14. Benchmarking of RESRAD-OFFSITE : transition from RESRAD (onsite) toRESRAD-OFFSITE and comparison of the RESRAD-OFFSITE predictions with peercodes.

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, C.; Gnanapragasam, E.; Cheng, J.-J.; Biwer, B.

    2006-05-22

    The main purpose of this report is to document the benchmarking results and verification of the RESRAD-OFFSITE code as part of the quality assurance requirements of the RESRAD development program. This documentation will enable the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors, and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and its licensees and other stakeholders to use the quality-assured version of the code to perform dose analysis in a risk-informed and technically defensible manner to demonstrate compliance with the NRC's License Termination Rule, Title 10, Part 20, Subpart E, of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR Part 20, Subpart E); DOE's 10 CFR Part 834, Order 5400.5, ''Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment''; and other Federal and State regulatory requirements as appropriate. The other purpose of this report is to document the differences and similarities between the RESRAD (onsite) and RESRAD-OFFSITE codes so that users (dose analysts and risk assessors) can make a smooth transition from use of the RESRAD (onsite) code to use of the RESRAD-OFFSITE code for performing both onsite and offsite dose analyses. The evolution of the RESRAD-OFFSITE code from the RESRAD (onsite) code is described in Chapter 1 to help the dose analyst and risk assessor make a smooth conceptual transition from the use of one code to that of the other. Chapter 2 provides a comparison of the predictions of RESRAD (onsite) and RESRAD-OFFSITE for an onsite exposure scenario. Chapter 3 documents the results of benchmarking RESRAD-OFFSITE's atmospheric transport and dispersion submodel against the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) CAP88-PC (Clean Air Act Assessment Package-1988) and ISCLT3 (Industrial Source Complex-Long Term) models. Chapter 4 documents the comparison results of the predictions of the RESRAD-OFFSITE code and its submodels with the predictions of peer models. This report was prepared by Argonne National Laboratory's (Argonne

  15. Transient response of GaAs microwave power FET to X-ray pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armendariz, M. G.; Castle, J. G., Jr.

    The dependence of the time to recover normal microwave output and of the peak photocurrents in state of the art GaAsFETs on the incident flux of X-rays and on circuit loading are measured. The observed device responses for the medium power GaAsFET AT8150 operated in different test circuits at X-ray intensities up to 9E10 rads(Si)/s are compared.

  16. Computation of transient dynamics of energy power for a dissipative two state system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrega, M.; Solinas, P.; Braggio, A.; Sassetti, M.

    2016-05-01

    We consider a two-level system coupled to a thermal bath and we investigate the variation of energy transferred to the reservoir as a function of time. The physical quantity under investigation is the time-dependent quantum average power. We compare quantum master equation approaches with the functional influence method. Differences and similarities between the methods are analysed, showing deviations at low temperature between the functional integral approach and the predictions based on master equations.

  17. Modelling and optimization of transient processes in line focusing power plants with single-phase heat transfer medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noureldin, K.; González-Escalada, L. M.; Hirsch, T.; Nouri, B.; Pitz-Paal, R.

    2016-05-01

    A large number of commercial and research line focusing solar power plants are in operation and under development. Such plants include parabolic trough collectors (PTC) or linear Fresnel using thermal oil or molten salt as the heat transfer medium (HTM). However, the continuously varying and dynamic solar condition represent a big challenge for the plant control in order to optimize its power production and to keep the operation safe. A better understanding of the behaviour of such power plants under transient conditions will help reduce defocusing instances, improve field control, and hence, increase the energy yield and confidence in this new technology. Computational methods are very powerful and cost-effective tools to gain such understanding. However, most simulation models described in literature assume equal mass flow distributions among the parallel loops in the field or totally decouple the flow and thermal conditions. In this paper, a new numerical model to simulate a whole solar field with single-phase HTM is described. The proposed model consists of a hydraulic part and a thermal part that are coupled to account for the effect of the thermal condition of the field on the flow distribution among the parallel loops. The model is specifically designed for large line-focusing solar fields offering a high degree of flexibility in terms of layout, condition of the mirrors, and spatially resolved DNI data. Moreover, the model results have been compared to other simulation tools, as well as experimental and plant data, and the results show very good agreement. The model can provide more precise data to the control algorithms to improve the plant control. In addition, short-term and accurate spatially discretized DNI forecasts can be used as input to predict the field behaviour in-advance. In this paper, the hydraulic and thermal parts, as well as the coupling procedure, are described and some validation results and results of simulating an example field are

  18. Elimination of output-current transients in the MFTF sustaining neutral-beam-arc power supplies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanness, H. W.; Mayhall, D. J.; Wilson, J. H.

    1981-10-01

    The twenty-three MFTF sustaining neutral beam arc power supplies were designed to provide 0.3 to 30 second output pulses over a range of 24 to 71 volts and 600 to 4000 amperes at 10 percent duty. For economic reasons, the circuit design consists of a 12 pulse rectifier which is synchronously switched on and off by a three phase electromechanical contactor in the primary ac input. Analysis of the problem, various possible solution considered, and the simple and inexpensive solution adopted for use are described.

  19. Damping values for nuclear power plant piping during seismic events and fluid-induced transients

    SciTech Connect

    Ware, A.G.

    1986-01-01

    For several years the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has been assisting the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) in efforts to establish best-estimate damping values for use in the dynamic analysis of nuclear power plant piping systems. Data from a number of piping vibration tests conducted at facilities worldwide (including the INEL) have been collected, evaluated, reported, and placed in a nuclear piping data bank at the INEL. These data are being used to justify changes in allowable damping values for use in nuclear piping design, thus making piping systems safer, less costly, and easier to inspect and maintain.

  20. A Nodal Kinetics and Thermohydraulics Analysis (NOKTA) Code for Analyzing Rod-Ejection Accidents and Other Transients in Nuclear Power Reactor Cores

    SciTech Connect

    Kaya, Sadi; Yavuz, Hasbi

    2000-01-15

    For analyzing nuclear power reactor core transients, a three-dimensional nodal kinetics and thermohydraulics code, NOKTA, was developed. Nodal kinetics calculation is based on a one-group neutron diffusion approach. Thermal-hydraulics analysis is handled as in the COBRA-IV-I code. The NOKTA code was designed for analyzing especially large reactivity accidents, such as sudden rod ejection. It can also analyze intermediate transients, such as sharp power changes that may initiate xenon oscillations, and slow transients, such as boric acid density changes in the flow. The code dimensions are set at 125 subchannels and 30 axial levels. Calculation starts with a saturated xenon density, one-group neutronics parameters, and a flux profile, which is required as an input. Initially, k{sub eff} of each computation cell is set to unity.

  1. Assessment of RELAP5/MOD2 against a 10% load rejection transient from 75% steady state in the Vandellos II Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Llopis, C.; Casals, A.; Perez, J.; Mendizabal, R.

    1993-05-01

    The Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear (CSN) and the Asociacion Nuclear Vandellos have developed a model of Vandellos II Nuclear Power Plant. The ANV collaboration consisted in the supply of design and actual data, the cooperation in the simulation of the control systems and other model components, as well as in the results analysis. The obtained model has been assessed against the following transients occurred in plant: A trip from the 100% power level (CSN); A load rejection from 100% to 50% (CSN); A load rejection from 75% to 65% (ANV); A feedwater turbopump trip (ANV). This copy is a report of the load rejection from 75% to 65% transient simulation. This transient was one of the tests carried out in Vandellos II NPP during the startup tests.

  2. COMMIX-PPC: A three-dimensional transient multicomponent computer program for analyzing performance of power plant condensers

    SciTech Connect

    Chien, T.H.; Domanus, H.M.; Sha, W.T.

    1993-02-01

    The COMMIX-PPC computer pregrain is an extended and improved version of earlier COMMIX codes and is specifically designed for evaluating the thermal performance of power plant condensers. The COMMIX codes are general-purpose computer programs for the analysis of fluid flow and heat transfer in complex Industrial systems. In COMMIX-PPC, two major features have been added to previously published COMMIX codes. One feature is the incorporation of one-dimensional equations of conservation of mass, momentum, and energy on the tube stile and the proper accounting for the thermal interaction between shell and tube side through the porous-medium approach. The other added feature is the extension of the three-dimensional conservation equations for shell-side flow to treat the flow of a multicomponent medium. COMMIX-PPC is designed to perform steady-state and transient. Three-dimensional analysis of fluid flow with heat transfer tn a power plant condenser. However, the code is designed in a generalized fashion so that, with some modification, it can be used to analyze processes in any heat exchanger or other single-phase engineering applications. Volume I (Equations and Numerics) of this report describes in detail the basic equations, formulation, solution procedures, and models for a phenomena. Volume II (User's Guide and Manual) contains the input instruction, flow charts, sample problems, and descriptions of available options and boundary conditions.

  3. Analysis of heat transfer and erosion effects on ITER divertor plasma facing components induced by slow high-power transients

    SciTech Connect

    Federici, G.; Raffray, A.R.; Chiocchio, S.; Esser, B.; Dietz, J.; Igitkhanov, Y.; Janeschitz, G.; Pacher, H.D.; Smid, I.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents the results of an analysis carried out to investigate the thermal response of ITER divertor plasma facing components (PFC`s) clad with Be, W, and CFC, to high-recycling, high-power thermal transients (i.e. 10--30 MW/m{sup 2}) which are anticipated to last up to a few seconds. The armour erosion and surface melting are estimated for the different plasma facing materials (PFM`s) together with the maximum heat flux to the coolant, and armour/heat-sink interface temperature. The analysis assumes that intense target evaporation will lead to high radiative power losses in the plasma in front of the target which self-protects the target. The cases analyzed clarify the influence of several key parameters such as the plasma heat flux to the target, the loss of the melt layer, the duration of the event, the thickness of the armour, and comparison is made with cases without vapor shielding. Finally, some implications for the performance and lifetime of divertor PFC`s clad with different PFM`s are discussed.

  4. COMMIX-PPC: A three-dimensional transient multicomponent computer program for analyzing performance of power plant condensers

    SciTech Connect

    Chien, T.H.; Domanus, H.M.; Sha, W.T.

    1993-02-01

    The COMMIX-PPC computer program is an extended and improved version of earlier COMMIX codes and is specifically designed for evaluating the thermal performance of power plant condensers. The COMMIX codes are general-purpose computer programs for the analysis of fluid flow and heat transfer in complex industrial systems. In COMMIX-PPC, two major features have been added to previously published COMMIX codes. One feature is the incorporation of one-dimensional conservation of mass. momentum, and energy equations on the tube side, and the proper accounting for the thermal interaction between shell and tube side through the porous medium approach. The other added feature is the extension of the three-dimensional conservation equations for shell-side flow to treat the flow of a multicomponent medium. COMMIX-PPC is designed to perform steady-state and transient three-dimensional analysis of fluid flow with heat transfer in a power plant condenser. However, the code is designed in a generalized fashion so that, with some modification. it can be used to analyze processes in any heat exchanger or other single-phase engineering applications.

  5. Electromechanical systems with transient high power response operating from a resonant ac link

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burrows, Linda M.; Hansen, Irving G.

    1992-01-01

    The combination of an inherently robust asynchronous (induction) electrical machine with the rapid control of energy provided by a high frequency resonant ac link enables the efficient management of higher power levels with greater versatility. This could have a variety of applications from launch vehicles to all-electric automobiles. These types of systems utilize a machine which is operated by independent control of both the voltage and frequency. This is made possible by using an indirect field-oriented control method which allows instantaneous torque control all four operating quadrants. Incorporating the ac link allows the converter in these systems to switch at the zero crossing of every half cycle of the ac waveform. This zero loss switching of the link allows rapid energy variations to be achieved without the usual frequency proportional switching loss. Several field-oriented control systems were developed under contract to NASA.

  6. Transient magnetized plasma as an optical element for high power laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakanii, Nobuhiko; Hosokai, Tomonao; Iwasa, Kenta; Masuda, Shinichi; Zhidkov, Alexei; Pathak, Naveen; Nakahara, Hiroki; Mizuta, Yoshio; Takeguchi, Naoki; Kodama, Ryosuke

    2015-02-01

    Underdense plasma produced in gas jets by low intensity laser prepulses in the presence of a static magnetic field, B ˜0.3 T , is shown experimentally to become an optical element allowing steering of tightly focused high power femtosecond laser pulses within several degrees along with essential enhancement of pulse's focusability. Strong laser prepulses form a density ramp perpendicularly to magnetic field direction and, owing to the light refraction, main laser pulses propagate along the magnetic field even if it is tilted from the laser axis. Electrons generated in the laser pulse wake are well collimated and follow in the direction of the magnetic field; their characteristics are measured to be not sensitive to the tilt of magnetic field up to angles ±5 ° .

  7. User's Manual for RESRAD-OFFSITE Version 2.

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, C.; Gnanapragasam, E.; Biwer, B. M.; Kamboj, S.; Cheng, J. -J.; Klett, T.; LePoire, D.; Zielen, A. J.; Chen, S. Y.; Williams, W. A.; Wallo, A.; Domotor, S.; Mo, T.; Schwartzman, A.; Environmental Science Division; DOE; NRC

    2007-09-05

    The RESRAD-OFFSITE code is an extension of the RESRAD (onsite) code, which has been widely used for calculating doses and risks from exposure to radioactively contaminated soils. The development of RESRAD-OFFSITE started more than 10 years ago, but new models and methodologies have been developed, tested, and incorporated since then. Some of the new models have been benchmarked against other independently developed (international) models. The databases used have also expanded to include all the radionuclides (more than 830) contained in the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) 38 database. This manual provides detailed information on the design and application of the RESRAD-OFFSITE code. It describes in detail the new models used in the code, such as the three-dimensional dispersion groundwater flow and radionuclide transport model, the Gaussian plume model for atmospheric dispersion, and the deposition model used to estimate the accumulation of radionuclides in offsite locations and in foods. Potential exposure pathways and exposure scenarios that can be modeled by the RESRAD-OFFSITE code are also discussed. A user's guide is included in Appendix A of this manual. The default parameter values and parameter distributions are presented in Appendix B, along with a discussion on the statistical distributions for probabilistic analysis. A detailed discussion on how to reduce run time, especially when conducting probabilistic (uncertainty) analysis, is presented in Appendix C of this manual.

  8. Power Line Noise in Transient Electromagnetic (TEM) Data: Identification and Removal in a Practical Field Study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jernsletten, J. A.

    2004-05-01

    INTRODUCTION: To evaluate the appropriateness of TEM in mapping deep groundwater tables (in Mars analog environmnets), a field study was carried out in the desert ~30 miles SW of Tucson, Arizona. The study was also designed to observe effects of powerline noise on TEM data. The clay-rich soil in the area is quite conductive. The study consisted of 40 in-loop TEM stations, divided into 3 lines, for 4 line-km of data. The survey was carried out by a crew of one person, with square Tx wire loops 100 m on a side, and a ferrite-core magnetic coil Rx antenna in the center of each Tx loop. Maximum useful depth of investigation achieved was ~600 m. TEM DATA: The field area is surrounded by powerlines on all 4 sides: Line 1 has the outside of the first Tx loop under the powerline to the West; Line 2 starts with the powerline to the North passing above just inside its first Tx loop, and ends with the outside of the last station's transmitter loop ~20 m shy of the powerline to the South; finally, Line 3 starts ~50 m East of the powerline to the West, and runs parallel to the powerline to the South along its entire length, at a separation distance of ~70 m. Line 3 was placed largely in an effort to obeserve powerline noise. The decay curve for the first station on Line 1(Line 1/Station 50) is raised above the other curves from Line 1. This is due to the charge (noise) from the adjacent powerline, which is at a distance of ~50 m from the Rx coil. In effect, the transient decay is recorded as being slower than it would be without the presence of the powerline. This also artficially lowers the apparent resistivity, readily observed in Line 1/Station 50 data. These effects are present to a lesser extent (lower magnitude noise) in the data from Line1/Station 150, the second station on Line 1. On the smooth-model inversion cross-section of the data from Line 1, the effects of the powerline noise appears as a pulling up of the low-resistivity water table contact towards the surface

  9. Electromechanical systems with transient high power response operating from a resonant AC link

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burrows, Linda M.; Hansen, Irving G.

    1992-01-01

    The combination of an inherently robust asynchronous (induction) electrical machine with the rapid control of energy provided by a high frequency resonant AC link enables the efficient management of higher power levels with greater versatility. This could have a variety of applications from launch vehicles to all-electric automobiles. These types of systems utilize a machine which is operated by independent control of both the voltage and frequency. This is made possible by using an indirect field-oriented control method which allows instantaneous torque control in all four operating quadrants. Incorporating the AC link allows the converter in these systems to switch at the zero crossing of every half cycle of the AC waveform. This zero loss switching of the link allows rapid energy variations to be achieved without the usual frequency proportional switching loss. Several field-oriented control systems were developed by LeRC and General Dynamics Space Systems Division under contract to NASA. A description of a single motor, electromechanical actuation system is presented. Then, focus is on a conceptual design for an AC electric vehicle. This design incorporates an induction motor/generator together with a flywheel for peak energy storage. System operation and implications along with the associated circuitry are addressed. Such a system would greatly improve all-electric vehicle ranges over the Federal Urban Driving Cycle (FUD).

  10. Transient Flowfield Characteristics of Polycarbonate Plasma Discharge from Pulse-powered Electrothermal Gun Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyoungjin

    2008-12-01

    An electrothermal gun is the device that produces high-temperature and high-velocity plasma vapor using high current pulsed power and has a potential to be an efficient method for producing a variety of nanomaterials. Pulsed plasma discharge from the electrothermal gun into the open air has been investigated numerically, and the time-dependent inviscid gas dynamics equations are solved for the two-dimensional computational domain including electrothermal gun and the open-air space using flux-corrected transport (FCT) scheme. The modeling of the Joule heating and the mass ablation from the bore wall are incorporated in the computation. The computational results yield the details of the plasma discharge behavior inside and outside the capillary bore including choked condition at the bore exit and complex shock structure of external plasma discharge. The flow structure of freely expanding plasma discharge in the open air is essentially the highly underexpanded supersonic jet featuring Mach disk, barrel shock, contact surface, and spherical blast wave. Compared to the experiments, the numerical simulation agrees well with the experimental data such as the capillary mass ablation and shock structure of the plasma jet.

  11. Offsite Radiological Consequence Analysis for the Waste Transfer Leak

    SciTech Connect

    ZIMMERMAN, B.D.

    2003-10-15

    This document quantifies the offsite radiological consequence of the bounding waste transfer leak accident for comparison with the 25 rem Evaluation Guideline established in DOE-STD-3009, Appendix A. The bounding waste transfer leak accident is a large pipe break into a pit. The calculation offsite dose does not challenge the Evaluation Guidelines. Revision 2 incorporated comments received from the office of River Protection. The purpose of this calculation note is to document calculations performed in support of the evaluation of the bounding representative accident scenario for the waste transfer leak accident. The waste transfer leak accident has two representative accident scenarios: the fine spray into the air scenario and the large pipe break into a pit scenario. Both of these scenarios are evaluated in this calculation note, and a determination is made that the large pipe break into a pit scenario is bounding. Only the offsite radiological consequences are considered by this calculation note.

  12. Neural network recognition of nuclear power plant transients. First annual report, April 15, 1992--April 15, 1993, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, E.B.; Danofsky, R.; Adams, J.; AlJundi, T.; Basu, A.; Dhanwada, C.; Kerr, J.; Kim, K.; Lanc, T.

    1993-02-23

    The objective of this report is to describe results obtained during the first year of funding that will lead to the development of an artificial neural network (ANN) fault - diagnostic system for the real - time classification of operational transients at nuclear power plants. The ultimate goal of this three-year project is to design, build, and test a prototype diagnostic adviser for use in the control room or technical support center at Duane Arnold Energy Center (DAEC); such a prototype could be integrated into the plant process computer or safety - parameter display system. The adviser could then warn and inform plant operators and engineers of plant component failures in a timely manner. This report describes the work accomplished in the first of three scheduled years for the project. Included herein is a summary of the first year`s results as, well as individual descriptions of each of the major topics undertaken by the researchers. Also included are reprints of the articles written under this funding as well as those that were published during the funded period.

  13. 40 CFR 279.24 - Off-site shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....24 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for Used Oil Generators § 279.24 Off-site shipments... oil is transported only by transporters who have obtained EPA identification numbers. (a)...

  14. 40 CFR 279.24 - Off-site shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....24 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for Used Oil Generators § 279.24 Off-site shipments... oil is transported only by transporters who have obtained EPA identification numbers. (a)...

  15. 40 CFR 68.165 - Offsite consequence analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Offsite consequence analysis. 68.165 Section 68.165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... analysis. (a) The owner or operator shall submit in the RMP information: (1) One worst-case...

  16. 40 CFR 68.33 - Defining offsite impacts-environment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Defining offsite impacts-environment. 68.33 Section 68.33 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... impacts—environment. (a) The owner or operator shall list in the RMP environmental receptors within...

  17. 40 CFR 68.33 - Defining offsite impacts-environment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Defining offsite impacts-environment. 68.33 Section 68.33 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... impacts—environment. (a) The owner or operator shall list in the RMP environmental receptors within...

  18. 40 CFR 68.33 - Defining offsite impacts-environment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Defining offsite impacts-environment. 68.33 Section 68.33 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... impacts—environment. (a) The owner or operator shall list in the RMP environmental receptors within...

  19. Off-Site Faculty: Perspectives on Online Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Barbara L.; Goodson, Carole; Miertschin, Susan L.

    2010-01-01

    This report presents a cross case analysis involving faculty teaching online from off-site international and interstate locations. The study yielded enabling factors, benefits, communication systems, and challenges in the areas of administration, curriculum, communications, and faculty characteristics. The benefits included the opportunity to be…

  20. 40 CFR 68.30 - Defining offsite impacts-population.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Defining offsite impacts-population... impacts—population. (a) The owner or operator shall estimate in the RMP the population within a circle... defined in § 68.22(a). (b) Population to be defined. Population shall include residential population....

  1. 40 CFR 68.30 - Defining offsite impacts-population.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Defining offsite impacts-population... impacts—population. (a) The owner or operator shall estimate in the RMP the population within a circle... defined in § 68.22(a). (b) Population to be defined. Population shall include residential population....

  2. 40 CFR 68.30 - Defining offsite impacts-population.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Defining offsite impacts-population... impacts—population. (a) The owner or operator shall estimate in the RMP the population within a circle... defined in § 68.22(a). (b) Population to be defined. Population shall include residential population....

  3. 40 CFR 68.30 - Defining offsite impacts-population.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Defining offsite impacts-population... impacts—population. (a) The owner or operator shall estimate in the RMP the population within a circle... defined in § 68.22(a). (b) Population to be defined. Population shall include residential population....

  4. 40 CFR 68.30 - Defining offsite impacts-population.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Defining offsite impacts-population... impacts—population. (a) The owner or operator shall estimate in the RMP the population within a circle... defined in § 68.22(a). (b) Population to be defined. Population shall include residential population....

  5. 40 CFR 68.33 - Defining offsite impacts-environment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Defining offsite impacts-environment. 68.33 Section 68.33 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... impacts—environment. (a) The owner or operator shall list in the RMP environmental receptors within...

  6. 40 CFR 68.33 - Defining offsite impacts-environment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Defining offsite impacts-environment. 68.33 Section 68.33 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... impacts—environment. (a) The owner or operator shall list in the RMP environmental receptors within...

  7. 40 CFR 68.22 - Offsite consequence analysis parameters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... analysis parameters. (a) Endpoints. For analyses of offsite consequences, the following endpoints shall be used: (1) Toxics. The toxic endpoints provided in appendix A of this part. (2) Flammables. The endpoints for flammables vary according to the scenarios studied: (i) Explosion. An overpressure of 1...

  8. 40 CFR 279.24 - Off-site shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for Used Oil Generators § 279.24 Off-site shipments. Except as provided in paragraphs (a) through (c) of this section, generators must ensure that their used...-transportation of small amounts to approved collection centers. Generators may transport, without an...

  9. 40 CFR 279.24 - Off-site shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for Used Oil Generators § 279.24 Off-site shipments. Except as provided in paragraphs (a) through (c) of this section, generators must ensure that their used...-transportation of small amounts to approved collection centers. Generators may transport, without an...

  10. EFFECT OF A HIGH OPACITY ON THE LIGHT CURVES OF RADIOACTIVELY POWERED TRANSIENTS FROM COMPACT OBJECT MERGERS

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, Jennifer; Kasen, Daniel

    2013-09-20

    The coalescence of compact objects is a promising astrophysical source of detectable gravitational wave signals. The ejection of r-process material from such mergers may lead to a radioactively powered electromagnetic counterpart signal which, if discovered, would enhance the science returns. As very little is known about the optical properties of heavy r-process elements, previous light-curve models have adopted opacities similar to those of iron group elements. Here we consider the effect of heavier elements, particularly the lanthanides, which increase the ejecta opacity by several orders of magnitude. We include these higher opacities in time-dependent, multi-wavelength radiative transport calculations to predict the broadband light curves of one-dimensional models over a range of parameters (ejecta masses {approx}10{sup -3}-10{sup -1} M{sub Sun} and velocities {approx}0.1-0.3 c). We find that the higher opacities lead to much longer duration light curves which can last a week or more. The emission is shifted toward the infrared bands due to strong optical line blanketing, and the colors at later times are representative of a blackbody near the recombination temperature of the lanthanides (T {approx} 2500 K). We further consider the case in which a second mass outflow, composed of {sup 56}Ni, is ejected from a disk wind, and show that the net result is a distinctive two component spectral energy distribution, with a bright optical peak due to {sup 56}Ni and an infrared peak due to r-process ejecta. We briefly consider the prospects for detection and identification of these transients.

  11. 38 CFR 36.4364 - Documentation and related requirements-flexible condominiums and condominiums with offsite...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... requirements-flexible condominiums and condominiums with offsite facilities. 36.4364 Section 36.4364 Pensions...—flexible condominiums and condominiums with offsite facilities. (a) Expandable condominiums. The following...) Other flexible condominiums. Condominiums containing withdrawable real estate (contractable...

  12. Discovery of the correlation between peak episodic jet power and X-ray peak luminosity of the soft state in black hole transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.; Yu, W.

    2015-08-01

    Episodic jets are usually observed in the intermediate state of black hole transients during their X-ray outbursts. Here we report the discovery of a strong positive correlation between the peak radio power of the episodic jet Pjet and the corresponding peak X-ray luminosity Lx of the soft state (in Eddington units) in a complete sample of the outbursts of black hole transients observed during the RXTE era of which data are available, which follows the relation log Pjet = (2.2 ± 0.3) + (1.6 ± 0.2) × log Lx. The transient ultraluminous X-ray source in M31 and HLX-1 in EXO 243-49 fall on the relation if they contain stellar-mass black hole and either stellar-mass black hole or intermediate-mass black hole, respectively. Besides, a significant correlation between the peak power of the episodic jet and the rate of increase of the X-ray luminosity dLx/dt during the rising phase of those outbursts is also found, following log Pjet = (2.0 ± 0.4) + (0.7 ± 0.2) × log dLx/dt. In GX 339-4 and H 1743-322 in which data for two outbursts are available, measurements of the peak radio power of the episodic jet and the X-ray peak luminosity (and its rate of change) shows similar positive correlations between outbursts, which demonstrate the dominant role of accretion over black hole spin in generating episodic jet power. On the other hand, no significant difference is seen among the systems with different measured black hole spin in current sample. This implies that the power of the episodic jet is strongly affected by non-stationary accretion instead of black hole spin characterized primarily by the rate of change of the mass accretion rate.

  13. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR OFF-SITE UTILITIES SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Ziegler

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) offsite utilities system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  14. Experimental investigation of transient temperature characteristic in high power fiber laser cutting of a thick steel plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phi Long, Nguyen; Matsunaga, Yukihiro; Hanari, Toshihide; Yamada, Tomonori; Muramatsu, Toshiharu

    2016-10-01

    Experiment of temperature measurement was performed to investigate the transient temperature characteristics of molten metal during laser cutting. The aim of this study was to establish a method for measuring the surface temperature variation near the molten pool correlated with changes in cutting parameters. The relationship between temperature inside the kerf cut and characteristic of the cut surface was investigated by using thermography and thermocouples. Results show strong correlations between the transient temperatures and the thermal image for different cutting conditions. In addition, two-color thermometer has been used to obtain radiation intensity emitted from the irradiating zone as a function of operating conditions. Experiments have shown that one can detect the cutting quality by characterization of the surface temperature during laser cutting process.

  15. Analysis of loss-of-flow transients in a pool-type LMFBR using SSC-P

    SciTech Connect

    Madni, I.K.; Cazzoli, E.G.

    1982-01-01

    In order to have a general analytical capability for the safety evaluation of any proposed LMFBR system, the USNRC is sponsoring the development and validation of computer codes for both pool- and loop-type plants. The computer code for pool-type LMFBRs is designated SSC-P. This paper is concerned with the application of SSC-P to simulate loss-of-flow accident transients in a pool-type LMFBR. The models required for dynamic plant simulation are briefly highlighted. The system response is calculated for (1) a complete loss of electric power event, with scram, leading the plant into buoyancy-induced natural circulation, (2) a protected pipe rupture accident in the primary pump discharge line, and (3) an unprotected loss of off-site power event. For the last case, the predicted results from SSC-P are compared with the published results of Phenix behavior by NOVATOME.

  16. OFFSITE RADIOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCE ANALYSIS FOR THE BOUNDING FLAMMABLE GAS ACCIDENT

    SciTech Connect

    KRIPPS, L.J.

    2005-02-18

    This document quantifies the offsite radiological consequences of the bounding flammable gas accident for comparison with the 25 rem Evaluation Guideline established in DOE-STD-3009, Appendix A. The bounding flammable gas accident is a detonation in a SST. The calculation applies reasonably conservative input parameters in accordance with guidance in DOE-STD-3009, Appendix A. The purpose of this analysis is to calculate the offsite radiological consequence of the bounding flammable gas accident. DOE-STD-3009-94, ''Preparation Guide for US. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Documented Safety Analyses'', requires the formal quantification of a limited subset of accidents representing a complete set of bounding conditions. The results of these analyses are then evaluated to determine if they challenge the DOE-STD-3009-94, Appendix A, ''Evaluation Guideline,'' of 25 rem total effective dose equivalent in order to identify and evaluate safety-class structures, systems, and components. The bounding flammable gas accident is a detonation in a single-shell tank (SST). A detonation versus a deflagration was selected for analysis because the faster flame speed of a detonation can potentially result in a larger release of respirable material. A detonation in an SST versus a double-shell tank (DST) was selected as the bounding accident because the estimated respirable release masses are the same and because the doses per unit quantity of waste inhaled are greater for SSTs than for DSTs. Appendix A contains a DST analysis for comparison purposes.

  17. Determinations of TSD facility acceptability under the CERCLA Off-Site Rule

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    On September 22, 1993, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published the ``Off-Site Rule`` to implement section 121(d)(3) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). CERCLA {section}121(d)(3) requires that wastes generated as a result of remediation activities taken under CERCLA authority and transferred off-site be managed only at facilities that comply with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. In 1994, the DOE`s Office of Environmental Policy and Assistance (OEPA), RCRA/CERCLA Division (EH-413) published a CERCLA Information Brief titled ``The Off-Site Rule`` which describes the content of the Off-Site Rule and clarifies some of its implications for DOE remedial actions under CERCLA. Additionally, EH-413 published the Guide on Selecting Compliant Off-Site Hazardous Waste Treatment, Storage and Disposal Facilities which provides a regulatory roadmap for accomplishing off-site transfers of environmental restoration and process hazardous waste at DOE facilities in a manner compliant with the Off-Site Rule and other relevant Federal regulations. Those guidance documents concentrate primarily on DOE`s perspective as a hazardous waste generator. The purpose of this Information Brief is to address the implications of the Off-Site Rule for DOE-owned hazardous waste treatment, storage or disposal facilities that accept CERCLA remediation wastes from off-site locations.

  18. Analysis of offsite Emergency Planning Zones for Rocky Flats Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Inger, J.R. ); Brown-Strattan, M.A. . Rocky Flats Plant)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this quality assurance program was to ensure the quality and technical adequacy of Phase 2 of the Analysis of Offsite Emergency Planning Zones (EPZ) for the Rocky Flats Plant project. Quality assurance was accomplished by managing and controlling the processes in the development of the product. The quality assurance task team conducted audits, reviews, and surveillances of project and related activities. This process contributed to identifying areas where the quality assurance plan was not fully implemented, areas needing improvement, and/or corrective actions resulting in a improved product. During the reviews and audits, several key areas were identified where quality assurance plan implementation needed to be improved. These areas included maintaining adequate documentation, reviewing technical results, making inputs traceable to technical results, and understanding that all personnel are responsible for quality.

  19. 40 CFR 1400.5 - Internet access to certain off-site consequence analysis data elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Internet access to certain off-site... DISTRIBUTION OF OFF-SITE CONSEQUENCE ANALYSIS INFORMATION Public Access § 1400.5 Internet access to certain off... elements in the risk management plan database available on the Internet: (a) The concentration of...

  20. 40 CFR 1400.5 - Internet access to certain off-site consequence analysis data elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Internet access to certain off-site... DISTRIBUTION OF OFF-SITE CONSEQUENCE ANALYSIS INFORMATION Public Access § 1400.5 Internet access to certain off... elements in the risk management plan database available on the Internet: (a) The concentration of...

  1. 40 CFR 1400.5 - Internet access to certain off-site consequence analysis data elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Internet access to certain off-site... DISTRIBUTION OF OFF-SITE CONSEQUENCE ANALYSIS INFORMATION Public Access § 1400.5 Internet access to certain off... elements in the risk management plan database available on the Internet: (a) The concentration of...

  2. 40 CFR 1400.5 - Internet access to certain off-site consequence analysis data elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Internet access to certain off-site... DISTRIBUTION OF OFF-SITE CONSEQUENCE ANALYSIS INFORMATION Public Access § 1400.5 Internet access to certain off... elements in the risk management plan database available on the Internet: (a) The concentration of...

  3. 40 CFR 1400.5 - Internet access to certain off-site consequence analysis data elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Internet access to certain off-site... DISTRIBUTION OF OFF-SITE CONSEQUENCE ANALYSIS INFORMATION Public Access § 1400.5 Internet access to certain off... elements in the risk management plan database available on the Internet: (a) The concentration of...

  4. 24 CFR 242.50 - Funds and finances: off-site utilities and streets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Funds and finances: off-site utilities and streets. 242.50 Section 242.50 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing... finances: off-site utilities and streets. The Commissioner shall require assurance of completion of...

  5. 24 CFR 242.50 - Funds and finances: off-site utilities and streets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Funds and finances: off-site utilities and streets. 242.50 Section 242.50 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing... finances: off-site utilities and streets. The Commissioner shall require assurance of completion of...

  6. 24 CFR 242.50 - Funds and finances: off-site utilities and streets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Funds and finances: off-site utilities and streets. 242.50 Section 242.50 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing... finances: off-site utilities and streets. The Commissioner shall require assurance of completion of...

  7. 13 CFR 109.510 - On-site and off-site reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false On-site and off-site reviews. 109.510 Section 109.510 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION INTERMEDIARY LENDING... on-site or off-site reviews. Failure to take required corrective actions may constitute an event...

  8. 13 CFR 109.510 - On-site and off-site reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false On-site and off-site reviews. 109.510 Section 109.510 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION INTERMEDIARY LENDING... on-site or off-site reviews. Failure to take required corrective actions may constitute an event...

  9. 14 CFR 151.95 - Fences; distance markers; navigational and landing aids; and offsite work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... landing aids; and offsite work. 151.95 Section 151.95 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Standards § 151.95 Fences; distance markers; navigational and landing aids; and offsite work. (a) Boundary... navigational aids is eligible for inclusion in a proj- ect whenever necessitated by development on the...

  10. 14 CFR 151.95 - Fences; distance markers; navigational and landing aids; and offsite work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... landing aids; and offsite work. 151.95 Section 151.95 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Standards § 151.95 Fences; distance markers; navigational and landing aids; and offsite work. (a) Boundary... navigational aids is eligible for inclusion in a proj- ect whenever necessitated by development on the...

  11. 14 CFR 151.95 - Fences; distance markers; navigational and landing aids; and offsite work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... landing aids; and offsite work. 151.95 Section 151.95 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Standards § 151.95 Fences; distance markers; navigational and landing aids; and offsite work. (a) Boundary... navigational aids is eligible for inclusion in a proj- ect whenever necessitated by development on the...

  12. 14 CFR 151.95 - Fences; distance markers; navigational and landing aids; and offsite work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... landing aids; and offsite work. 151.95 Section 151.95 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Standards § 151.95 Fences; distance markers; navigational and landing aids; and offsite work. (a) Boundary... navigational aids is eligible for inclusion in a proj- ect whenever necessitated by development on the...

  13. 14 CFR 151.95 - Fences; distance markers; navigational and landing aids; and offsite work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... landing aids; and offsite work. 151.95 Section 151.95 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Standards § 151.95 Fences; distance markers; navigational and landing aids; and offsite work. (a) Boundary... navigational aids is eligible for inclusion in a proj- ect whenever necessitated by development on the...

  14. 24 CFR 242.50 - Funds and finances: off-site utilities and streets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... utilities and streets. 242.50 Section 242.50 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing... finances: off-site utilities and streets. The Commissioner shall require assurance of completion of off-site public utilities and streets in all cases, except where a municipality or other public body has...

  15. Research from afar: considerations for conducting an off-site research project.

    PubMed

    Williams, R A; Hagerty, B M; Hoyle, K; Yousha, S M; Abdoo, Y; Andersen, C; Engler, D

    1999-01-01

    An off-site research project is defined as a research study having a conduction location and data-collection site from which the principal investigator is geographically separated. Off-site research projects will likely increase because they afford greater access to larger research subject pools relevant to research questions and allow participation research at a site from which research would otherwise not be conducted. The critical elements proposed to make an off-site study successful include system negotiations, attending to personnel issues, fostering communication, encouraging subject participation, optimizing data collection and management, considering privacy issues, and ensuring optimal research team performance. An example of a specific off-site study involving a major midwest research university in one state and a large United States Navy training center in another state is discussed, and essential elements in establishing off-site research are highlighted.

  16. PLANETSYS, a Computer Program for the Steady State and Transient Thermal Analysis of a Planetary Power Transmission System: User's Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadden, G. B.; Kleckner, R. J.; Ragen, M. A.; Dyba, G. J.; Sheynin, L.

    1981-01-01

    The material presented is structured to guide the user in the practical and correct implementation of PLANETSYS which is capable of simulating the thermomechanical performance of a multistage planetary power transmission. In this version of PLANETSYS, the user can select either SKF or NASA models in calculating lubricant film thickness and traction forces.

  17. Reactor System Transient Code.

    1999-07-14

    RELAP3B describes the behavior of water-cooled nuclear reactors during postulated accidents or power transients, such as large reactivity excursions, coolant losses or pump failures. The program calculates flows, mass and energy inventories, pressures, temperatures, and steam qualities along with variables associated with reactor power, reactor heat transfer, or control systems. Its versatility allows one to describe simple hydraulic systems as well as complex reactor systems.

  18. Analytical Analysis and Case Study of Transient Behavior of Inrush Current in Power Transformer for Designing of Efficient Circuit Breakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmanpreet, Singh, Sukhwinder; Kumar, Ashok; Kaur, Parneet

    2010-11-01

    Stability & security are main aspects in electrical power systems. Transformer protection is major issue of concern to system operation. There are many mall-trip cases of transformer protection are caused by inrush current problems. The phenomenon of transformer inrush current has been discussed in many papers since 1958. In this paper analytical analysis of inrush current in a transformer switched on dc and ac supply has been done. This analysis will help in design aspects of circuit breakers for better performance.

  19. COMMIX-PPC: A three-dimensional transient multicomponent computer program for analyzing performance of power plant condensers. Volume 1, Equations and numerics

    SciTech Connect

    Chien, T.H.; Domanus, H.M.; Sha, W.T.

    1993-02-01

    The COMMIX-PPC computer pregrain is an extended and improved version of earlier COMMIX codes and is specifically designed for evaluating the thermal performance of power plant condensers. The COMMIX codes are general-purpose computer programs for the analysis of fluid flow and heat transfer in complex Industrial systems. In COMMIX-PPC, two major features have been added to previously published COMMIX codes. One feature is the incorporation of one-dimensional equations of conservation of mass, momentum, and energy on the tube stile and the proper accounting for the thermal interaction between shell and tube side through the porous-medium approach. The other added feature is the extension of the three-dimensional conservation equations for shell-side flow to treat the flow of a multicomponent medium. COMMIX-PPC is designed to perform steady-state and transient. Three-dimensional analysis of fluid flow with heat transfer tn a power plant condenser. However, the code is designed in a generalized fashion so that, with some modification, it can be used to analyze processes in any heat exchanger or other single-phase engineering applications. Volume I (Equations and Numerics) of this report describes in detail the basic equations, formulation, solution procedures, and models for a phenomena. Volume II (User`s Guide and Manual) contains the input instruction, flow charts, sample problems, and descriptions of available options and boundary conditions.

  20. COMMIX-PPC: A three-dimensional transient multicomponent computer program for analyzing performance of power plant condensers. Volume 2, User`s guide and manual

    SciTech Connect

    Chien, T.H.; Domanus, H.M.; Sha, W.T.

    1993-02-01

    The COMMIX-PPC computer program is an extended and improved version of earlier COMMIX codes and is specifically designed for evaluating the thermal performance of power plant condensers. The COMMIX codes are general-purpose computer programs for the analysis of fluid flow and heat transfer in complex industrial systems. In COMMIX-PPC, two major features have been added to previously published COMMIX codes. One feature is the incorporation of one-dimensional conservation of mass. momentum, and energy equations on the tube side, and the proper accounting for the thermal interaction between shell and tube side through the porous medium approach. The other added feature is the extension of the three-dimensional conservation equations for shell-side flow to treat the flow of a multicomponent medium. COMMIX-PPC is designed to perform steady-state and transient three-dimensional analysis of fluid flow with heat transfer in a power plant condenser. However, the code is designed in a generalized fashion so that, with some modification. it can be used to analyze processes in any heat exchanger or other single-phase engineering applications.

  1. Stochastic simulation of fission product activity in primary coolant due to fuel rod failures in typical PWRs under power transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javed Iqbal, M.; Mirza, Nasir M.; Mirza, Sikander M.

    2008-01-01

    During normal operation of PWRs, routine fuel rods failures result in release of radioactive fission products (RFPs) in the primary coolant of PWRs. In this work, a stochastic model has been developed for simulation of failure time sequences and release rates for the estimation of fission product activity in primary coolant of a typical PWR under power perturbations. In the first part, a stochastic approach is developed, based on generation of fuel failure event sequences by sampling the time dependent intensity functions. Then a three-stage model based deterministic methodology of the FPCART code has been extended to include failure sequences and random release rates in a computer code FPCART-ST, which uses state-of-the-art LEOPARD and ODMUG codes as its subroutines. The value of the 131I activity in primary coolant predicted by FPCART-ST code has been found in good agreement with the corresponding values measured at ANGRA-1 nuclear power plant. The predictions of FPCART-ST code with constant release option have also been found to have good agreement with corresponding experimental values for time dependent 135I, 135Xe and 89Kr concentrations in primary coolant measured during EDITHMOX-1 experiments.

  2. Idaho Habitat Evaluation for Off-Site Mitigation Record : Annual Report 1988.

    SciTech Connect

    Idaho. Dept. of Fish and Game.

    1990-03-01

    The Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) has been monitoring and evaluating existing and proposed habitat improvement projects for steelhead and chinook in the Clearwater and Salmon subbasins since 1984. Projects included in the monitoring are funded by, or proposed for funding by, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) under the Northwest Power Planning Act as off-site mitigation for downstream hydropower development on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. This monitoring project is also funded under the same authority. A mitigation record is being developed to use actual and potential increases in smolt production as the best measures of benefit from a habitat improvement project. This project is divided into two subprojects: general and intensive monitoring. Primary objectives of the general monitoring subproject are to determine natural production increases due to habitat improvement projects in terms of parr production and to determine natural production status and trends in Idaho. The second objective is accomplished by combining parr density from monitoring and evaluation of BPA habitat projects and from other IDFG management and research activities. The primary objective of the intensive monitoring subproject is to determine the relationships between spawning escapement, parr production, and smolt production in two Idaho streams; the upper Salmon River and Crooked River. Results of the intensive monitoring will be used to estimate mitigation benefits in terms of smolt production and to interpret natural production monitoring in Idaho. 30 refs., 19 figs., 34 tabs.

  3. On-site or off-site treatment of medical waste: a challenge.

    PubMed

    Taghipour, Hassan; Mohammadyarei, Taher; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohamad; Asl Hashemi, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Treating hazardous-infectious medical waste can be carried out on-site or off-site of health-care establishments. Nevertheless, the selection between on-site and off-site locations for treating medical waste sometimes is a controversial subject. Currently in Iran, due to policies of Health Ministry, the hospitals have selected on-site-treating method as the preferred treatment. The objectives of this study were to assess the current condition of on-site medical waste treatment facilities, compare on-site medical waste treatment facilities with off-site systems and find the best location of medical waste treatment. To assess the current on-site facilities, four provinces (and 40 active hospitals) were selected to participate in the survey. For comparison of on-site and off-site facilities (due to non availability of an installed off-site facility) Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) was employed. The result indicated that most on-site medical waste treating systems have problems in financing, planning, determining capacity of installations, operation and maintenance. AHP synthesis (with inconsistency ratio of 0.01 < 0.1) revealed that, in total, the off-site treatment of medical waste was in much higher priority than the on-site treatment (64.1% versus 35.9%). According to the results of study it was concluded that the off-site central treatment can be considered as an alternative. An amendment could be made to Iran's current medical waste regulations to have infectious-hazardous waste sent to a central off-site installation for treatment. To begin and test this plan and also receive the official approval, a central off-site can be put into practice, at least as a pilot in one province. Next, if it was practically successful, it could be expanded to other provinces and cities. PMID:24739145

  4. Decentralized control of large transient in power systems: theory and application. Final report, January 1981-August 1983

    SciTech Connect

    DeCarlo, R.; Hawley, P.; Sebok, D.

    1983-08-01

    Chapter 1 describes a continuation algorithm to construct decentralized state feedback gains which place the natural frequencies (natural modes of vibration or eigenvalues) of a linearized power system at desired locations. Chapter 2 and 3 address the problem of designing a decentralized dither control for linearly interconnected synchronous machines, each of which is nonlinear. In Chapter 2, the theory finds application to the nonlinear third order model of a single machine infinite bus system where the primary control is via an ac-dc converter. Similarly Chapter 3 considers a two machine system with individual machine converters acting as the primary control. Computer simulations of the control action given various system perturbations are found in both Chapters 2 and 3.

  5. Fluid management plan for the Project Shoal Area Offsites Subproject

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) has initiated the Offsites Subproject to characterize the hazards posed to human health and the environment as a result of underground nuclear testing activities at facilities other than the Nevada Test Site (NTS). A primary Subproject objective is to gather adequate data to characterize the various Subproject sites through the collection of surface and subsurface soil samples and by drilling several wells for the collection of groundwater data. The Project Shoal Area (PSA) is one of the Subproject`s Nevada sites and is subject to the requirements set forth in the Federal Facility Compliance Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (DOE, 1996a). In accordance with the FFACO, a Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed for work at the PSA (designated as Corrective Action Unit Number 416). This Fluid Management Plan (FMP) provides guidance for the management of fluids generated from wells constructed at the PSA. Long-term monitoring and future activities at the site, if required, will be set forth in additional documents as required by the FFACO. The ultimate method for disposition of fluids generated by site operations depends upon sample analysis and process knowledge in relation to fluid management criteria. Section 2 describes well site operations; Section 3 discusses fluid management criteria; Section 4 includes the fluid monitoring program; Section 5 presents the fluid management strategy; Section 6 provides for fluid management during routine well monitoring; and Section 7 contains reporting criteria.

  6. Offsite radiological consequence analysis for the bounding flammable gas accident

    SciTech Connect

    CARRO, C.A.

    2003-03-19

    The purpose of this analysis is to calculate the offsite radiological consequence of the bounding flammable gas accident. DOE-STD-3009-94, ''Preparation Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Documented Safety Analyses'', requires the formal quantification of a limited subset of accidents representing a complete set of bounding conditions. The results of these analyses are then evaluated to determine if they challenge the DOE-STD-3009-94, Appendix A, ''Evaluation Guideline,'' of 25 rem total effective dose equivalent in order to identify and evaluate safety class structures, systems, and components. The bounding flammable gas accident is a detonation in a single-shell tank (SST). A detonation versus a deflagration was selected for analysis because the faster flame speed of a detonation can potentially result in a larger release of respirable material. As will be shown, the consequences of a detonation in either an SST or a double-shell tank (DST) are approximately equal. A detonation in an SST was selected as the bounding condition because the estimated respirable release masses are the same and because the doses per unit quantity of waste inhaled are generally greater for SSTs than for DSTs. Appendix A contains a DST analysis for comparison purposes.

  7. Savannah River Site radioiodine atmospheric releases and offsite maximum doses

    SciTech Connect

    Marter, W.L.

    1990-11-01

    Radioisotopes of iodine have been released to the atmosphere from the Savannah River Site since 1955. The releases, mostly from the 200-F and 200-H Chemical Separations areas, consist of the isotopes, I-129 and 1-131. Small amounts of 1-131 and 1-133 have also been released from reactor facilities and the Savannah River Laboratory. This reference memorandum was issued to summarize our current knowledge of releases of radioiodines and resultant maximum offsite doses. This memorandum supplements the reference memorandum by providing more detailed supporting technical information. Doses reported in this memorandum from consumption of the milk containing the highest I-131 concentration following the 1961 1-131 release incident are about 1% higher than reported in the reference memorandum. This is the result of using unrounded 1-131 concentrations of I-131 in milk in this memo. It is emphasized here that this technical report does not constitute a dose reconstruction in the same sense as the dose reconstruction effort currently underway at Hanford. This report uses existing published data for radioiodine releases and existing transport and dosimetry models.

  8. Elevated Ca2+ transients and increased myofibrillar power generation cause cardiac hypercontractility in a model of Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines.

    PubMed

    Clay, Sarah A; Domeier, Timothy L; Hanft, Laurin M; McDonald, Kerry S; Krenz, Maike

    2015-05-01

    Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines (NSML) is primarily caused by mutations in the nonreceptor protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP2 and associated with congenital heart disease in the form of pulmonary valve stenosis and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Our goal was to elucidate the cellular mechanisms underlying the development of HCM caused by the Q510E mutation in SHP2. NSML patients carrying this mutation suffer from a particularly severe form of HCM. Drawing parallels to other, more common forms of HCM, we hypothesized that altered Ca(2+) homeostasis and/or sarcomeric mechanical properties play key roles in the pathomechanism. We used transgenic mice with cardiomyocyte-specific expression of Q510E-SHP2 starting before birth. Mice develop neonatal onset HCM with increased ejection fraction and fractional shortening at 4-6 wk of age. To assess Ca(2+) handling, isolated cardiomyocytes were loaded with fluo-4. Q510E-SHP2 expression increased Ca(2+) transient amplitudes during excitation-contraction coupling and increased sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) content concurrent with increased expression of sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase. In skinned cardiomyocyte preparations from Q510E-SHP2 mice, force-velocity relationships and power-load curves were shifted upward. The peak power-generating capacity was increased approximately twofold. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the relative intracellular area occupied by sarcomeres was increased in Q510E-SHP2 cardiomyocytes. Triton X-100-based myofiber purification showed that Q510E-SHP2 increased the amount of sarcomeric proteins assembled into myofibers. In summary, Q510E-SHP2 expression leads to enhanced contractile performance early in disease progression by augmenting intracellular Ca(2+) cycling and increasing the number of power-generating sarcomeres. This gives important new insights into the cellular pathomechanisms of Q510E-SHP2-associated HCM.

  9. Advanced PFBC transient analysis

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.S.; Bonk, D.L.

    1997-05-01

    Transient modeling and analysis of advanced Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) systems is a research area that is currently under investigation by the US Department of Energy`s Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC). The object of the effort is to identify key operating parameters that affect plant performance and then quantify the basic response of major sub-systems to changes in operating conditions. PC-TRAX{trademark}, a commercially available dynamic software program, was chosen and applied in this modeling and analysis effort. This paper describes the development of a series of TRAX-based transient models of advanced PFBC power plants. These power plants burn coal or other suitable fuel in a PFBC, and the high temperature flue gas supports low-Btu fuel gas or natural gas combustion in a gas turbine topping combustor. When it is utilized, the low-Btu fuel gas is produced in a bubbling bed carbonizer. High temperature, high pressure combustion products exiting the topping combustor are expanded in a modified gas turbine to generate electrical power. Waste heat from the system is used to raise and superheat steam for a reheat steam turbine bottoming cycle that generates additional electrical power. Basic control/instrumentation models were developed and modeled in PC-TRAX and used to investigate off-design plant performance. System performance for various transient conditions and control philosophies was studied.

  10. Code System for Calculating Early Offsite Consequences from Nuclear Reactor Accidents.

    1992-06-10

    SMART calculates early offsite consequences from nuclear reactor accidents. Once the air and ground concentrations of the radionuclide are estimated, the early dose to an individual is calculated via three pathways: cloudshine, short-term groundshine, and inhalation.

  11. Evaluating off-site disposal of low-level waste at LANL-9498

    SciTech Connect

    Hargis, Kenneth M; French, Sean B; Boyance, Julien A

    2009-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory generates a wide range of waste types, including solid low-level radioactive waste (LL W), in conducting its national security mission and other science and technology activities. Although most ofLANL's LLW has been disposed on-site, limitations on expansion, stakeholder concerns, and the potential for significant volumes from environmental remediation and decontamination and demolition (D&D) have led LANL to evaluate the feasibility of increasing off-site disposal. It appears that most of the LL W generated at LANL would meet the Waste Acceptance Criteria at the Nevada Test Site or the available commercial LL W disposal site. Some waste is considered to be problematic to transport to off-site disposal even though it could meet the off-site Waste Acceptance Criteria. Cost estimates for off-site disposal are being evaluated for comparison to estimated costs under the current plans for continued on-site disposal.

  12. Suitable Thicknesses of Base Metal and Interlayer, and Evolution of Phases for Ag/Sn/Ag Transient liquid-phase Joints Used for Power Die Attachment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J. F.; Agyakwa, P. A.; Johnson, C. M.

    2014-04-01

    Real Si insulated gate bipolar transistors with conventional Ni/Ag metallization and dummy Si chips with thickened Ni/Ag metallization have both been bonded, at 250°C for 0 min, 40 min, and 640 min, to Ag foil electroplated with 2.7 µm and 6.8 µm thick Sn as an interlayer. On the basis of characterization of the microstructure of the resulting joints, suitable thicknesses are suggested for the Ag base metal and the Sn interlayer for Ag/Sn/Ag transient liquid-phase (TLP) joints used for power die attachment. The diffusivities of Ag and Sn in the ξAg phase were also obtained. In combination with the kinetic constants of Ag3Sn growth and diffusivities of Ag and Sn in Ag reported in the literature, the diffusivities of Ag and Sn in the ξAg phase were also used to simulate and predict diffusion-controlled growth and evolution of the phases in Ag/Sn/Ag TLP joints during extended bonding and in service.

  13. Offsite radiological consequence calculation for the bounding mixing of incompatible materials accident

    SciTech Connect

    SANDGREN, K.R.

    2003-03-21

    This document quantifies the offsite radiological consequence of the bounding mixing of incompatible materials accident for comparison with the 25 rem Evaluation Guideline established in DOE-STD-3009, Appendix A. The bounding accident is an inadvertent addition of acid to a waste tank containing high levels of caustic. Conservative input parameters were applied in accordance with the guidance provided. The calculated offsite dose does not challenge the Evaluation Guideline.

  14. Offsite radiological consequence analysis for the bounding tank failure due to excessive loads accident

    SciTech Connect

    OBERG, B.D.

    2003-03-20

    This document quantifies the offsite radiological consequence of the bounding tank failure due to excessive loads accident for comparison with the 25 rem Evaluation Guideline established in WE-STK-3009, Appendix A. The bounding tank failure due to excessive loads accident is a single-shell tank failure due to excessive concentrated load. The calculated offsite dose of 0.045 rem, based on reasonably conservative input, does not challenge the Evaluation Guideline.

  15. Guidance on offsite emergency radiation measurement systems. Phase 2: The milk pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-04-01

    This document provides guidance to State and local governments and to Federal agencies on offsite emergency measurement of radionuclides after an accident involving a light-water nuclear power plant; in particular, this document provides guidance on determining the dose commitment from the milk pathway. Protective action levels proposed by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for milk are used as the basis for monitoring requirements. Measurement of radionuclides in milk should be made at the earliest practical point in the production chain: dairy farms, receiving and transfer stations, processing plants or marketing facilities. Early monitoring will provide data to keep significantly contaminated milk out of distribution and will provide the basis for the most timely emergency response action. Radioiodine plus four other radionuclides, cesium-134, cesium-137, strontium-89, and strontium-90, contribute significantly to dose via the milk pathway; of the most severe potential accident, the short-term dose via the milk pathway from radioiodine is significantly greater than that of cesium or strontium. There is no emergency field monitoring instrumentation available for accurately monitoring cesium and strontium, particularly in the presence of radioiodine. Radioiodine can be a potential contamination problem in liquid milk, whereas radiocesium and radiostrontium can be a contamination problem in processed milk products. Monitoring for the long half-life nuclides such as cesium and strontium requires sophisticated equipment or chemistry procedures which are only available in a laboratory. 2 references, 21 figures, 21 tables.

  16. ON DETECTING TRANSIENT PHENOMENA

    SciTech Connect

    Belanger, G.

    2013-08-10

    Transient phenomena are interesting and potentially highly revealing of details about the processes under observation and study that could otherwise go unnoticed. It is therefore important to maximize the sensitivity of the method used to identify such events. In this article, we present a general procedure based on the use of the likelihood function for identifying transients which is particularly suited for real-time applications because it requires no grouping or pre-processing of the data. The method makes use of all the information that is available in the data throughout the statistical decision-making process, and is suitable for a wide range of applications. Here we consider those most common in astrophysics, which involve searching for transient sources, events or features in images, time series, energy spectra, and power spectra, and demonstrate the use of the method in the case of a weak X-ray flare in a time series and a short-lived quasi-periodic oscillation in a power spectrum. We derive a fit statistic that is ideal for fitting arbitrarily shaped models to a power density distribution, which is of general interest in all applications involving periodogram analysis.

  17. Reconstructing ancient sustainability: a comparison of onsite and offsite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubos, Carolin; Dreibrodt, Stefan; Horejs, Barbara

    2013-04-01

    With the onset of sedentism humans started to convert their surroundings. Whereas reconstructions of geochemical traces of settlement activity (e.g. Arrhenius, 1931) or man's pressure on the soils of landscapes (e.g. van Andel et al., 1990; Bork, 1998) were carried out at many sites holistic approaches questioning the sustainability of ancient societies are missing so far. A new approach, applied to the multi layered settlement mound "Cukurici Höyük" (western Anatolia, Turkey) aims at comparing land use intensity and settlement intensity. Land use intensity of the former settlers will be described by determining slope instability phases and quantifying slope deposits at hills adjacent to the settlement. Geochemical and physical properties as well as bio remains will be analysed of the dated debris layers onsite and quantified as matter fluxes. Matter accumulation onsite, being an indicator for settlement intensities, is compared to slope instability phases offsite, describing the impact of former settlers on their environment. The approach aims at quantifying historical settlement pressure over several settlement phases and might shed light on different phases of sustainability in ancient Times. The planned project is imbedded within the archaeological project (ERC Project / Austrian Archaeological Institute) which investigates alternating societal systems in a changing environment between 7000 and 3000 BC. Focus is laid on architectural research, archaeobotany, archaeozoology, lithics, metallurgy, and ore deposit. In a first geoarchaeological field campaign differentiable slope deposits could be proved. These contained datable organic material as well as pottery sherds dating to different historical phases. A well-established archaeological chronosequence of settlement layers will provide the onsite framework for this new project. The paper presents preliminary results of the outlined approach. Additionally several geochemical methodologies applied to the debris

  18. Idaho Habitat Evaluation for Off-Site Mitigation Record : Annual Report 1987.

    SciTech Connect

    Petrosky, Charles E.; Holubetz, Terry B.

    1988-04-01

    The Idaho Department of Fish and Game has been monitoring and evaluating existing and proposed habitat improvement projects for steelhead (Salmo gairdneri) and chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Clearwater and Salmon River drainages over the last four years. Projects included in the evaluation are funded by, or proposed for funding by, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) under the Northwest Power Planning Act as off-site mitigation for downstream hydropower development on the Snake and Columbia rivers. A mitigation record is being developed to use increased smolt production at full seeding as the best measure of benefit from a habitat enhancement project. Determination of full benefit from a project depends on presence of adequate numbers of fish to document actual increases in fish production. The depressed nature of upriver anadromous stocks have precluded attainment of full benefit of any habitat project in Idaho. Partial benefit will be credited to the mitigation record in the interim period of run restoration. According to the BPA Work Plan, project implementors have the primary responsibility for measuring physical habitat and estimating habitat change. To date, Idaho habitat projects have been implemented primarily by the US Forest Service (USFS). The Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT) have sponsored three projects (Bear Valley Mine, Yankee Fork, and the proposed East Fork Salmon River projects). IDFG implemented two barrier-removal projects (Johnson Creek and Boulder Creek) that the USFS was unable to sponsor at that time. The role of IDFG in physical habitat monitoring is primarily to link habitat quality and habitat change to changes in actual, or potential, fish production. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base.

  19. Using RFID to Enhance Security in Off-Site Data Storage

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Carmona, Miguel A.; Marsa-Maestre, Ivan; de la Hoz, Enrique; Velasco, Juan R.

    2010-01-01

    Off-site data storage is one of the most widely used strategies in enterprises of all sizes to improve business continuity. In medium-to-large size enterprises, the off-site data storage processes are usually outsourced to specialized providers. However, outsourcing the storage of critical business information assets raises serious security considerations, some of which are usually either disregarded or incorrectly addressed by service providers. This article reviews these security considerations and presents a radio frequency identification (RFID)-based, off-site, data storage management system specifically designed to address security issues. The system relies on a set of security mechanisms or controls that are arranged in security layers or tiers to balance security requirements with usability and costs. The system has been successfully implemented, deployed and put into production. In addition, an experimental comparison with classical bar-code-based systems is provided, demonstrating the system’s benefits in terms of efficiency and failure prevention. PMID:22163638

  20. Using RFID to enhance security in off-site data storage.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Carmona, Miguel A; Marsa-Maestre, Ivan; de la Hoz, Enrique; Velasco, Juan R

    2010-01-01

    Off-site data storage is one of the most widely used strategies in enterprises of all sizes to improve business continuity. In medium-to-large size enterprises, the off-site data storage processes are usually outsourced to specialized providers. However, outsourcing the storage of critical business information assets raises serious security considerations, some of which are usually either disregarded or incorrectly addressed by service providers. This article reviews these security considerations and presents a radio frequency identification (RFID)-based, off-site, data storage management system specifically designed to address security issues. The system relies on a set of security mechanisms or controls that are arranged in security layers or tiers to balance security requirements with usability and costs. The system has been successfully implemented, deployed and put into production. In addition, an experimental comparison with classical bar-code-based systems is provided, demonstrating the system's benefits in terms of efficiency and failure prevention.

  1. Wireless remote control clinical image workflow: utilizing a PDA for offsite distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Brent J.; Documet, Luis; Documet, Jorge; Huang, H. K.; Muldoon, Jean

    2004-04-01

    Last year we presented in RSNA an application to perform wireless remote control of PACS image distribution utilizing a handheld device such as a Personal Digital Assistant (PDA). This paper describes the clinical experiences including workflow scenarios of implementing the PDA application to route exams from the clinical PACS archive server to various locations for offsite distribution of clinical PACS exams. By utilizing this remote control application, radiologists can manage image workflow distribution with a single wireless handheld device without impacting their clinical workflow on diagnostic PACS workstations. A PDA application was designed and developed to perform DICOM Query and C-Move requests by a physician from a clinical PACS Archive to a CD-burning device for automatic burning of PACS data for the distribution to offsite. In addition, it was also used for convenient routing of historical PACS exams to the local web server, local workstations, and teleradiology systems. The application was evaluated by radiologists as well as other clinical staff who need to distribute PACS exams to offsite referring physician"s offices and offsite radiologists. An application for image workflow management utilizing wireless technology was implemented in a clinical environment and evaluated. A PDA application was successfully utilized to perform DICOM Query and C-Move requests from the clinical PACS archive to various offsite exam distribution devices. Clinical staff can utilize the PDA to manage image workflow and PACS exam distribution conveniently for offsite consultations by referring physicians and radiologists. This solution allows the radiologist to expand their effectiveness in health care delivery both within the radiology department as well as offisite by improving their clinical workflow.

  2. Preliminary Transient Performance Data for Afterburner Operation of Westinghouse Electronic Power Regulator on XJ34-WE-32 Turbojet Engine in Altitude Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasu, George; Schwent, Glennon V.; Ketchum, James R.

    1951-01-01

    At the request of the Bureau of Aeronautics, Department of the Navy, an investigation of the Westinghouse XJ34-WE-32 turbojet engine is being conducted in the NACA Lewis altitude wind tunnel to determine the steady-state and transient operating characteristics of the controlled and uncontrolled engine at various altitudes and ram pressure ratios. As part of this program, transient performance data that illustrate the operation of the engine is obtained in the form of oscillographic traces. Similar data for engine operation i n the afterburning range, covering a range of throttle settings from the minimum value giving rated speed (throttle position, 72 degrees) to full afterburning (throttle position, ll0 degrees), is presented herein. These data thus serve to indicate the transient characteristics of the engine when the throttle is advance into, withdrawn from, and moved within the afterburning range in a stepwise manner, as well as the steady-state stability of the engine during afterburning .

  3. Assessment of a pressurizer spray valve faulty opening transient at Asco Nuclear Power Plant with RELAP5/MOD2. International Agreement Report

    SciTech Connect

    Reventos, F.; Baptista, J.S.; Navas, A.P.; Moreno, P.

    1993-12-01

    The Asociacion Nuclear Asco has prepared a model of Asco NPP using RELAP5/MOD2. This model, which include thermalhydraulics, kinetics and protection and controls, has been qualified in previous calculations of several actual plant transients. One of the transients of the qualification process is a ``Pressurizer spray valve faulty opening`` presented in this report. It consists in a primary coolant depressurization that causes the reactor trip by overtemperature and later on the actuation of the safety injection. The results are in close agreement with plant data.

  4. 10 CFR 140.84 - Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... § 140.84 Criterion I—Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels... radioactive material offsite, or that there have been substantial levels of radiation offsite, when, as a... facility and such contamination is characterized by levels of radiation in excess of one of the...

  5. 10 CFR 140.84 - Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... § 140.84 Criterion I—Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels... radioactive material offsite, or that there have been substantial levels of radiation offsite, when, as a... facility and such contamination is characterized by levels of radiation in excess of one of the...

  6. 10 CFR 140.84 - Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... § 140.84 Criterion I—Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels... radioactive material offsite, or that there have been substantial levels of radiation offsite, when, as a... facility and such contamination is characterized by levels of radiation in excess of one of the...

  7. 10 CFR 140.84 - Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... § 140.84 Criterion I—Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels... radioactive material offsite, or that there have been substantial levels of radiation offsite, when, as a... facility and such contamination is characterized by levels of radiation in excess of one of the...

  8. 10 CFR 840.4 - Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... dispersal of radioactive material offsite, or that there have been substantial levels of radiation offsite... facility or device and such contamination is characterized by levels of radiation in excess of one of the... and such contamination is characterized by levels of radiation in excess of one of the values...

  9. 44 CFR 352.26 - Arrangements for Federal response in the licensee offsite emergency response plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Arrangements for Federal response in the licensee offsite emergency response plan. 352.26 Section 352.26 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PREPAREDNESS...

  10. 24 CFR 242.47 - Insured advances for building components stored off-site.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Insured advances for building components stored off-site. 242.47 Section 242.47 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND...

  11. 24 CFR 242.47 - Insured advances for building components stored off-site.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Insured advances for building components stored off-site. 242.47 Section 242.47 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND...

  12. Environmental Assessment Offsite Thermal Treatment of Low-Level Mixed Waste

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    1999-05-06

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL) needs to demonstrate the economics and feasibility of offsite commercial treatment of contact-handled low-level mixed waste (LLMW), containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBS) and other organics, to meet existing regulatory standards for eventual disposal.

  13. 40 CFR 280.51 - Investigation due to off-site impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Investigation due to off-site impacts. 280.51 Section 280.51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID... UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS (UST) Release Reporting, Investigation, and Confirmation § 280.51 Investigation...

  14. 24 CFR 242.47 - Insured advances for building components stored off-site.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Insured advances for building components stored off-site. 242.47 Section 242.47 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND...

  15. 24 CFR 242.47 - Insured advances for building components stored off-site.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insured advances for building components stored off-site. 242.47 Section 242.47 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND...

  16. 40 CFR 279.58 - Off-site shipments of used oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Off-site shipments of used oil. 279.58 Section 279.58 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for Used Oil Processors and Re-Refiners §...

  17. 40 CFR 279.58 - Off-site shipments of used oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Off-site shipments of used oil. 279.58 Section 279.58 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for Used Oil Processors and Re-Refiners §...

  18. 40 CFR 279.58 - Off-site shipments of used oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Off-site shipments of used oil. 279.58 Section 279.58 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for Used Oil Processors and Re-Refiners §...

  19. 40 CFR 279.58 - Off-site shipments of used oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Off-site shipments of used oil. 279.58 Section 279.58 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for Used Oil Processors and Re-Refiners §...

  20. 40 CFR 279.58 - Off-site shipments of used oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Off-site shipments of used oil. 279.58 Section 279.58 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for Used Oil Processors and Re-Refiners §...

  1. Off-Site Supervision in Social Work Education: What Makes It Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maynard, Sarah P.; Mertz, Linda K. P.; Fortune, Anne E.

    2015-01-01

    The field practicum is the signature pedagogy of the social work profession, yet field directors struggle to find adequate field placements--both in quantity and quality. To accommodate more students with a dwindling pool of practicum sites, creative models of field supervision have emerged. This article considers off-site supervision and its…

  2. Process-based index modeling of landscape vulnerability to off-site agrichemical movement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    dentifying areas vulnerable to off-site agrichemical movement and surface and ground water contamination through conventional data collection is labor-intensive, costly and time-consuming. To promote efficient agrichemical use and protect water resources, a process-based index model was developed to...

  3. Offsite environmental monitoring report. Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Black, S. C.; Grossman, R. F.; Mullen, A. A.; Potter, G. D.; Smith, D. D.

    1983-07-01

    A principal activity of the Offsite Radiological Safety Program is routine environmental monitoring for radioactive materials in various media and for radiation in areas which may be affected by nuclear tests. It is conducted to document compliance with standards, to identify trends, and to provide information to the public. This report summarizes these activities for CY 1982.

  4. Incineration of DOE offsite mixed waste at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, J.D.; Harvego, L.A.; Jacobs, A.M.; Willcox, M.V.

    1998-01-01

    The Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF) incinerator at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is one of three incinerators in the US Department of Energy (DOE) Complex capable of incinerating mixed low-level waste (MLLW). WERF has received MLLW from offsite generators and is scheduled to receive more. The State of Idaho supports receipt of offsite MLLW waste at the WERF incinerator within the requirements established in the (INEEL) Site Treatment Plan (STP). The incinerator is operating as a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Interim Status Facility, with a RCRA Part B permit application currently being reviewed by the State of Idaho. Offsite MLLW received from other DOE facilities are currently being incinerated at WERF at no charge to the generator. Residues associated with the incineration of offsite MLLW waste that meet the Envirocare of Utah waste acceptance criteria are sent to that facility for treatment and/or disposal. WERF is contributing to the treatment and reduction of MLLW in the DOE Complex.

  5. 40 CFR 63.684 - Standards: Off-site material treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards: Off-site material treatment. 63.684 Section 63.684 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... biological degradation and is performed in an open tank or surface impoundment, the treatment process...

  6. 9 CFR 149.5 - Offsite identification and segregation of certified swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of certified swine. 149.5 Section 149.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... § 149.5 Offsite identification and segregation of certified swine. Certified swine moved from a..., collection point, or slaughter facility, must remain segregated from noncertified swine at all times...

  7. 24 CFR 242.50 - Funds and finances: off-site utilities and streets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Funds and finances: off-site utilities and streets. 242.50 Section 242.50 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL...

  8. 24 CFR 200.60 - Assurance of completion for offsite facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assurance of completion for offsite facilities. 200.60 Section 200.60 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Requirements for...

  9. 9 CFR 149.5 - Offsite identification and segregation of certified swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Offsite identification and segregation of certified swine. 149.5 Section 149.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT VOLUNTARY TRICHINAE CERTIFICATION...

  10. 9 CFR 149.5 - Offsite identification and segregation of certified swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Offsite identification and segregation of certified swine. 149.5 Section 149.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT VOLUNTARY TRICHINAE CERTIFICATION...

  11. 9 CFR 149.5 - Offsite identification and segregation of certified swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Offsite identification and segregation of certified swine. 149.5 Section 149.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT VOLUNTARY TRICHINAE CERTIFICATION...

  12. 9 CFR 149.5 - Offsite identification and segregation of certified swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Offsite identification and segregation of certified swine. 149.5 Section 149.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT VOLUNTARY TRICHINAE CERTIFICATION...

  13. 40 CFR 63.684 - Standards: Off-site material treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) through (b)(5) of this section (as applicable to the type of treatment process) for the range of off-site... dilution, to achieve one of the following performance levels, as applicable: (i) In the case when every off... section. (A) Less than the VOHAP concentration limit (CR) established for the treatment process using...

  14. Process-based modeling of landscape vulnerability to off-site pesticide transport

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Identifying areas vulnerable to off-site agrichemical movement and surface and ground water contamination through conventional data collection is labor-intensive, costly and time-consuming. To promote efficient pesticide use and protect water resources, a process-based index model was developed to a...

  15. A Bookless Library, Part I: Relocating Print Materials to Off-Site Storage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewell, Bethany B.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of the feasibility of a bookless library in a research setting. As spaces for collections are being converted for increased study and community spaces, many libraries have been moving low-use collections to off-site storage. Issues regarding the types of storage spaces available are addressed. Concerns and…

  16. Low-level radioactive waste management: transitioning to off-site disposal at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Dorries, Alison M

    2010-11-09

    Facing the closure of nearly all on-site management and disposal capability for low-level radioactive waste (LLW), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is making ready to ship the majority of LLW off-site. In order to ship off-site, waste must meet the Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facility's (TSDF) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). In preparation, LANL's waste management organization must ensure LANL waste generators characterize and package waste compliantly and waste characterization documentation is complete and accurate. Key challenges that must be addressed to successfully make the shift to off-site disposal of LLW include improving the detail, accuracy, and quality of process knowledge (PK) and acceptable knowledge (AK) documentation, training waste generators and waste management staff on the higher standard of data quality and expectations, improved WAC compliance for off-site facilities, and enhanced quality assurance throughout the process. Certification of LANL generators will allow direct off-site shipping of LLW from their facilities.

  17. Security assessment of power systems including energy storage and with the integration of wind energy. Volume I. Digital transient simulation effort consulting Agreement No. 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, P. M.

    1982-06-30

    The purpose of the effort reported has been to adapt the MOD-2 simulation models for implementation on a digital transient stability program. This has involved: selection of an appropriate host program, examination of the host program interface, analysis of the analog models for digital implementation, FORTRAN coding of the model equations, installation and debugging on the host program, and final model verification. Synchronous machine equations are analyzed, with particular emphasis on numerical solution. (LEW)

  18. Offsite commercial disposal of oil and gas exploration and production waste :availability, options, and cost.

    SciTech Connect

    Puder, M. G.; Veil, J. A.

    2006-09-05

    A survey conducted in 1995 by the American Petroleum Institute (API) found that the U.S. exploration and production (E&P) segment of the oil and gas industry generated more than 149 million bbl of drilling wastes, almost 18 billion bbl of produced water, and 21 million bbl of associated wastes. The results of that survey, published in 2000, suggested that 3% of drilling wastes, less than 0.5% of produced water, and 15% of associated wastes are sent to offsite commercial facilities for disposal. Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) collected information on commercial E&P waste disposal companies in different states in 1997. While the information is nearly a decade old, the report has proved useful. In 2005, Argonne began collecting current information to update and expand the data. This report describes the new 2005-2006 database and focuses on the availability of offsite commercial disposal companies, the prevailing disposal methods, and estimated disposal costs. The data were collected in two phases. In the first phase, state oil and gas regulatory officials in 31 states were contacted to determine whether their agency maintained a list of permitted commercial disposal companies dedicated to oil. In the second stage, individual commercial disposal companies were interviewed to determine disposal methods and costs. The availability of offsite commercial disposal companies and facilities falls into three categories. The states with high oil and gas production typically have a dedicated network of offsite commercial disposal companies and facilities in place. In other states, such an infrastructure does not exist and very often, commercial disposal companies focus on produced water services. About half of the states do not have any industry-specific offsite commercial disposal infrastructure. In those states, operators take their wastes to local municipal landfills if permitted or haul the wastes to other states. This report provides state-by-state summaries of the

  19. Benchmarking the New RESRAD-OFFSITE Source Term Model with DUST-MS and GoldSim - 13377

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, J.J.; Kamboj, S.; Gnanapragasam, E.; Yu, C.

    2013-07-01

    RESRAD-OFFSITE is a computer code developed by Argonne National Laboratory under the sponsorship of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). It is designed on the basis of RESRAD (onsite) code, a computer code designated by DOE and NRC for evaluating soil-contaminated sites for compliance with human health protection requirements pertaining to license termination or environmental remediation. RESRAD-OFFSITE has enhanced capabilities of modeling radionuclide transport to offsite locations and calculating potential radiation exposure to offsite receptors. Recently, a new source term model was incorporated into RESRAD-OFFSITE to enhance its capability further. This new source term model allows simulation of radionuclide releases from different waste forms, in addition to the soil sources originally considered in RESRAD (onsite) and RESRAD-OFFSITE codes. With this new source term model, a variety of applications can be achieved by using RESRAD-OFFSITE, including but not limited to, assessing the performance of radioactive waste disposal facilities. This paper presents the comparison of radionuclide release rates calculated by the new source term model of RESRAD-OFFSITE versus those calculated by DUST-MS and GoldSim, respectively. The focus of comparison is on the release rates of radionuclides from the bottom of the contaminated zone that was assumed to contain radioactive source materials buried in soil. The transport of released contaminants outside of the primary contaminated zone is beyond the scope of this paper. Overall, the agreement between the RESRAD-OFFSITE results and the DUST-MS and GoldSim results is fairly good, with all three codes predicting identical or similar radionuclide release profiles over time. Numerical dispersion in the DUST-MS and GoldSim results was identified as potentially contributing to the disagreement in the release rates. In general, greater discrepancy in the release rates was found for short

  20. Transient Faults in Computer Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masson, Gerald M.

    1993-01-01

    A powerful technique particularly appropriate for the detection of errors caused by transient faults in computer systems was developed. The technique can be implemented in either software or hardware; the research conducted thus far primarily considered software implementations. The error detection technique developed has the distinct advantage of having provably complete coverage of all errors caused by transient faults that affect the output produced by the execution of a program. In other words, the technique does not have to be tuned to a particular error model to enhance error coverage. Also, the correctness of the technique can be formally verified. The technique uses time and software redundancy. The foundation for an effective, low-overhead, software-based certification trail approach to real-time error detection resulting from transient fault phenomena was developed.

  1. ELUCIDATING THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN ONSITE AND OFFSITE SHIPMENT OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Loftin, B.; Watkins, R.

    2013-06-19

    Federal regulations stipulate how radioactive materials are transported within the United States. However, the Department of Energy, under Department of Energy Order, has the authority to operate, within the boundaries of their physical site, to other stipulations. In many cases the DOE sites have internal reviews for onsite transfers that rival reviews performed by the regulatory authorities for offsite shipments. Most of the differences are in the level or type of packaging that is required, but in some cases it may be in the amount and type of material that is allowed to be transferred. This paper will describe and discuss those differences and it will discuss ways to effectively align the onsite rules for transferring materials with those for offsite shipment.

  2. Offsite environmental monitoring report; radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, Calendar Year 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, M.G.; Flotard, R.D.; Fontana, C.A.; Huff, P.A.; Maunu, H.K.; Mouck, T.L.; Mullen, A.A.; Sells, M.D.

    1997-08-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program. This laboratory operated an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs); and using pressurized ionization chambers (PICs). No nuclear weapons testing was conducted in 1996 due to the continuing nuclear test moratorium. During this period, R and IE personnel maintained readiness capability to provide direct monitoring support if testing were to be resumed and ascertained compliance with applicable EPA, DOE, state, and federal regulations and guidelines. Comparison of the measurements and sample analysis results with background levels and with appropriate standards and regulations indicated that there was no airborne radioactivity from diffusion or resuspension detected by the various EPA monitoring networks surrounding the NTS. There was no indication of potential migration of radioactivity to the offsite area through groundwater and no radiation exposure above natural background was received by the offsite population. All evaluated data were consistent with previous data history.

  3. Minutes of the workshop on off-site release criteria for contaminated materials

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, S.P.N.

    1989-11-01

    A one and one-half-day workshop was held May 2-3, 1989, at the Pollard Auditorium in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, with the objective of formulating a strategy for developing reasonable and uniform criteria for releasing radioactively contaminated materials from the US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. This report contains the minutes of the workshop. At the conclusion of the workshop, a plan was formulated to facilitate the development of the above-mentioned off-site release criteria.

  4. ALTERNATIVES OF MACCS2 IN LANL DISPERSION ANALYSIS FOR ONSITE AND OFFSITE DOSES

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, John HC

    2012-05-01

    In modeling atmospheric dispersion to determine accidental release of radiological material, one of the common statistical analysis tools used at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System, Version 2 (MACCS2). MACCS2, however, has some limitations and shortfalls for both onsite and offsite applications. Alternative computer codes, which could provide more realistic calculations, are being investigated for use at LANL. In the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP), the suitability of MACCS2 for the calculation of onsite worker doses was a concern; therefore, ARCON96 was chosen to replace MACCS2. YMP's use of ARCON96 provided results which clearly demonstrated the program's merit for onsite worker safety analyses in a wide range of complex configurations and scenarios. For offsite public exposures, the conservatism of MACCS2 on the treatment of turbulence phenomena at LANL is examined in this paper. The results show a factor of at least two conservatism in calculated public doses. The new EPA air quality model, AERMOD, which implements advanced meteorological turbulence calculations, is a good candidate for LANL applications to provide more confidence in the accuracy of offsite public dose projections.

  5. Savannah River Site offsite hazardous waste shipment data validation report. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, C.; Kudera, D.E.; Page, L.A.; Rohe, M.J.

    1995-05-01

    The objective of this data validation is to verify that waste shipments reported in response to the US Department of Energy Headquarters data request are properly categorized according to DOE-HQ definitions. This report documents all findings and actions resulting from the independent review of the Savannah River Site data submittal, and provides a summary of the SRS data submittal and data validation strategy. The overall hazardous waste management and offsite release process from 1987--1991 is documented, along with an identification and description of the hazardous waste generation facilities. SRS did not ship any hazardous waste offsite before 1987. Sampling and analysis and surface surveying procedures and techniques used in determining offsite releasability of the shipments are also described in this report. SRS reported 150 manifested waste shipments from 1984 to 1991 that included 4,755 drums or lab packs and 13 tankers. Of these waste items, this report categorizes 4,251 as clean (including 12 tankers), 326 as likely clean, 138 as likely radioactive, and 55 as radioactive (including one tanker). Although outside the original scope of this report, 14 manifests from 1992 and 1993 are included, covering 393 drums or lab packs and seven tankers. From the 1992--1993 shipments, 58 drums or lab packs are categorized as radioactive and 16 drums are categorized as likely radioactive. The remainder are categorized as clean.

  6. 40 CFR 1400.8 - Access to off-site consequence analysis information by Federal government officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY AND DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ACCIDENTAL RELEASE PREVENTION REQUIREMENTS; RISK MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS UNDER THE CLEAN AIR ACT SECTION 112(r)(7); DISTRIBUTION OF OFF-SITE CONSEQUENCE...

  7. 40 CFR 1400.8 - Access to off-site consequence analysis information by Federal government officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY AND DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ACCIDENTAL RELEASE PREVENTION REQUIREMENTS; RISK MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS UNDER THE CLEAN AIR ACT SECTION 112(r)(7); DISTRIBUTION OF OFF-SITE CONSEQUENCE...

  8. Transient tachypnea - newborn

    MedlinePlus

    TTN; Wet lungs - newborns; Retained fetal lung fluid; Transient RDS; Prolonged transition; Neonatal - transient tachypnea ... As the baby grows in the womb, the lungs make a special fluid. This fluid fills the ...

  9. Transient drainage summary report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    This report summarizes the history of transient drainage issues on the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. It defines and describes the UMTRA Project disposal cell transient drainage process and chronicles UMTRA Project treatment of the transient drainage phenomenon. Section 4.0 includes a conceptual cross section of each UMTRA Project disposal site and summarizes design and construction information, the ground water protection strategy, and the potential for transient drainage.

  10. 25 CFR 247.14 - Can I hook up a campsite to on-site or off-site utilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Can I hook up a campsite to on-site or off-site utilities? 247.14 Section 247.14 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE USE OF COLUMBIA RIVER TREATY FISHING ACCESS SITES § 247.14 Can I hook up a campsite to on-site or off-site utilities? (a) You must share access...

  11. 25 CFR 247.14 - Can I hook up a campsite to on-site or off-site utilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Can I hook up a campsite to on-site or off-site utilities? 247.14 Section 247.14 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE USE OF COLUMBIA RIVER TREATY FISHING ACCESS SITES § 247.14 Can I hook up a campsite to on-site or off-site utilities? (a) You must share access...

  12. Transient Ischemic Attack

    MedlinePlus

    Transient Ischemic Attack TIA , or transient ischemic attack, is a "mini stroke" that occurs when a blood clot blocks an artery for a short time. The only ... TIA is that with TIA the blockage is transient (temporary). TIA symptoms occur rapidly and last a ...

  13. A New Adaptive Mother Wavelet for Electromagnetic Transient Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillén, Daniel; Idárraga-Ospina, Gina; Cortes, Camilo

    2016-01-01

    Wavelet Transform (WT) is a powerful technique of signal processing, its applications in power systems have been increasing to evaluate power system conditions, such as faults, switching transients, power quality issues, among others. Electromagnetic transients in power systems are due to changes in the network configuration, producing non-periodic signals, which have to be identified to avoid power outages in normal operation or transient conditions. In this paper a methodology to develop a new adaptive mother wavelet for electromagnetic transient analysis is proposed. Classification is carried out with an innovative technique based on adaptive wavelets, where filter bank coefficients will be adapted until a discriminant criterion is optimized. Then, its corresponding filter coefficients will be used to get the new mother wavelet, named wavelet ET, which allowed to identify and to distinguish the high frequency information produced by different electromagnetic transients.

  14. Process Control Logic Modification to Mitigate Transient Following Tripping of a Primary Circulating Pump for a 540 MWe PHWR Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Contractor, Ankur D; Gaikwad, Avinash J.; Kumar, Rajesh; Chakraborty, G.; Vhora, S.F.

    2006-07-01

    The 540 MWe Indian Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) incorporates many new features as compared to the earlier 220 MWe PHWRs. To evaluate the new design features like Primary Heat Transport (PHT) system configuration with two loops, four Primary Circulating Pumps (PCPs) and four passes through core, addition of a Pressurizer (surge Tank) in the PHT system along with Feed/Bleed system and their safety related implications, simulation model have been developed. A reactor step-back is proposed following one PCP trip. The corresponding PCP in the healthy loop is tripped to avoid asymmetrical flow and pressure distribution in the two identical loops. In spite of such elaborate provisions, the margins from high/low PHT pressure are small following tripping of one PCP. Mathematical models for all the major components and sub-systems of the proposed 540 MWe PHWR were developed based on the conservation equations of mass, momentum, energy and equation of state. All the associated control systems are also modeled. The PHT system includes the reactor core with nuclear fuel, PCP, PHT system pressure controller with feed/bleed system and Pressurizer (Surge Tank). The secondary system includes mainly the Steam Generators (SGs), the SG level and pressure controllers, apart from the various steam cycle components. All these models are integrated together to form the Plant Transient Analysis Computer Code Dyna540. The scenario following one PCP trips leads to different states (high/low pressure in Reactor Outlet Header (ROH)) depending upon the banks in which the PCP trips. The pressurizer is connected to two ROHs on one side of the reactor. The system pressure is controlled based on average of four ROHs pressure. In the case of asymmetrical pump operation, this logic leads to a situation where individual ROH pressure goes very near the low/high PHT system pressure trip set point, even though the controlled average pressure is very close to the set pressure. The PHT high

  15. LMR Transient Calculation Code System (version 5).

    1993-09-01

    Version: 00 The Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) may undergo an unscrammed Transient Over-Power (TOP) or a Loss of Heat Sink (LOHS) type of accident involving power, temperature, and reactivity changes. The LTC (LMR Transient Calculation) Program calculates the time dependent reactor temperatures, reactivities, and power of the LMR after the initiation of the accident. A printout of the results including the input table of data is offered after the program run. No graphics are usedmore » in the program and the LTC.EXE (Quick Basic compiled) can make use of a math co-processor if available (GW Basic doesn't).« less

  16. Offsite environmental monitoring report: Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Chaloud, D.J.; Dicey, B.B.; Mullen, A.A.; Neale, A.C.; Sparks, A.R.; Fontana, C.A.; Carroll, L.D.; Phillips, W.G.; Smith, D.D.; Thome, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program conducted during 1991 by the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory-Las Vegas. This laboratory operates an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and using pressurized ion chambers (PICs); and by biological monitoring of animals, food crops, and humans. Personnel with mobile monitoring equipment are placed in areas downwind from the test site prior to each nuclear weapons test to implement protective actions, provide immediate radiation monitoring, and obtain environmental samples rapidly after any occurrence of radioactivity release. Comparison of the measurements and sample analysis results with background levels and with appropriate standards and regulations indicated that there was no radioactivity detected offsite by the various EPA monitoring networks and no exposure above natural background to the population living in the vicinity of the NTS that could be attributed to current NTS activities. Annual and long-term trends were evaluated in the Noble Gas, Tritium, Milk Surveillance, Biomonitoring, TLD, PIC networks, and the Long-Term Hydrological Monitoring Program.

  17. Offsite Source Recovery Program (OSRP) Workshop Module: Tianjin, China, July 16-July 17, 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Houlton, Robert J.

    2012-07-11

    Recovering and disposal of radioactive sources that are no longer in service in their intended capacity is an area of high concern Globally. A joint effort to recover and dispose of such sources was formed between the US Department of Energy and the Chinese Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP), in preparation for the 2008 Beijing Olympics. LANL involvement in this agreement continues today under the DOE-Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) program. LANL will be presenting overview information on their Offsite Source Recovery (OSRP) and Source Disposal programs, in a workshop for the Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP) at Tianjin, China, on July 16 and 17, 2012.

  18. A simplified model for calculating early offsite consequences from nuclear reactor accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Madni, I.K.; Cazzoli, E.G.; Khatib-Rahbar, M.

    1988-07-01

    A personal computer-based model, SMART, has been developed that uses an integral approach for calculating early offsite consequences from nuclear reactor accidents. The solution procedure uses simplified meteorology and involves direct analytic integration of air concentration equations over time and position. This is different from the discretization approach currently used in the CRAC2 and MACCS codes. The SMART code is fast-running, thereby providing a valuable tool for sensitivity and uncertainty studies. The code was benchmarked against both MACCS version 1.4 and CRAC2. Results of benchmarking and detailed sensitivity/uncertainty analyses using SMART are presented. 34 refs., 21 figs., 24 tabs.

  19. Offsite dose calculation manual guidance: Standard radiological effluent controls for boiling water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Meinke, W.W.; Essig, T.H.

    1991-04-01

    This report contains guidance which may be voluntarily used by licensees who choose to implement the provision of Generic Letter 89-- 01, which allows Radiological Effluent Technical Specifications (RETS) to be removed from the main body of the Technical Specifications and placed in the Offsite Dose Calculation Manual (ODCM). Guidance is provided for Standard Effluent Controls definitions, Controls for effluent monitoring instrumentation, Controls for effluent releases, Controls for radiological environmental monitoring, and the basis for Controls. Guidance on the formulation of RETS has been available in draft form for a number of years; the current effort simply recasts those RETS into Standard Radiological Effluent Controls for application to the ODCM. 11 tabs.

  20. Igniter heater EMI transient test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, M.

    1989-01-01

    Testing to evaluate Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor igniter heater electromagnetic interference (EMI) effects on the Safe and Arm (S and A) device was completed. It was suspected that EMI generated by the igniter heater and it's associated electromechanical relay could cause a premature firing of the NASA Standard Initiators (NSIs) inside the S and A. The maximum voltage induced into the NSI fire lines was 1/4 of the NASA specified no-fire limit of one volt (SKB 26100066). As a result, the igniter heaters are not expected to have any adverse EMI effects on the NSIs. The results did show, however, that power switching causes occasional high transients within the igniter heater power cable. These transients could affect the sensitive equipment inside the forward skirt. It is therefore recommended that the electromechanical igniter heater relays be replaced with zero crossing solid state relays. If the solid state relays are installed, it is also recommended that they be tested for EMI transient effects.

  1. Special issue on transient plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, James; Hoarty, David; Mancini, Roberto; Yoneda, Hitoki

    2015-11-01

    This special issue of Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics is dedicated to the "spectroscopy of transient plasmas" covering plasma conditions produced by a range of pulsed laboratory sources including short and long pulse lasers, pulsed power devices, and free electron lasers (FELs). The full range of plasma spectroscopy up to high energy bremsstrahlung radiation, including line broadening analysis for application to data recorded with the ChemCam instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity, is covered. This issue is timely as advances in optical lasers and x-ray FELs (XFEL) are enabling transient plasma to be probed at higher energies and shorter durations than ever before. New XFEL facilities being commissioned in Europe and Asia are adding to those operating in the US and Japan and the ELI high power laser project in Europe, due to open this year, will provide short pulse lasers of unprecedented power. This special issue represents a snapshot of the theoretical and experimental research in dense plasmas, electron kinetics, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of low temperature plasmas, inertial confinement fusion and non-equilibrium atomic physics using spectroscopy to diagnose plasmas produced by optical lasers, XFELs and pulsed-power machines.

  2. OFF-SITE SMARTPHONE VS. STANDARD WORKSTATION IN THE RADIOGRAPHIC DIAGNOSIS OF SMALL INTESTINAL MECHANICAL OBSTRUCTION IN DOGS AND CATS.

    PubMed

    Noel, Peter G; Fischetti, Anthony J; Moore, George E; Le Roux, Alexandre B

    2016-09-01

    Off-site consultations by board-certified veterinary radiologists benefit residents and emergency clinicians by providing immediate feedback and potentially improving patient outcome. Smartphone devices and compressed images transmitted by email or text greatly facilitate availability of these off-site consultations. Criticism of a smartphone interface for off-site consultation is mostly directed at image degradation relative to the standard radiographic viewing room and monitors. The purpose of this retrospective, cross-sectional, methods comparison study was to compare the accuracy of abdominal radiographs in two imaging interfaces (Joint Photographic Experts Group, off-site, smartphone vs. Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine, on-site, standard workstation) for the diagnosis of small intestinal mechanical obstruction in vomiting dogs and cats. Two board-certified radiologists graded randomized abdominal radiographs using a five-point Likert scale for the presence of mechanical obstruction in 100 dogs or cats presenting for vomiting. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curves for both imaging interfaces was high. The accuracy of the smartphone and traditional workstation was not statistically significantly different for either reviewer (P = 0.384 and P = 0.536). Correlation coefficients were 0.821 and 0.705 for each reviewer when the same radiographic study was viewed in different formats. Accuracy differences between radiologists were potentially related to years of experience. We conclude that off-site expert consultation with a smartphone provides an acceptable interface for accurate diagnosis of small intestinal mechanical obstruction in dogs and cat. PMID:27356300

  3. Integral solutions to transient nonlinear heat (mass) diffusion with a power-law diffusivity: a semi-infinite medium with fixed boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hristov, Jordan

    2016-03-01

    Closed form approximate solutions to nonlinear heat (mass) diffusion equation with power-law nonlinearity of the thermal (mass) diffusivity have been developed by the integral-balance method avoiding the commonly used linearization by the Kirchhoff transformation. The main improvement of the solution is based on the double-integration technique and a new approach to the space derivative. Solutions to Dirichlet and Neumann boundary condition problems have been developed and benchmarked against exact numerical and approximate analytical solutions available in the literature.

  4. Offsite environmental monitoring report: Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Chaloud, D.J; Daigler, D.M.; Davis, M.G.

    1996-06-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program conducted during 1993 by the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory - Las Vegas (EMSL-LV). This laboratory operates an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and using pressurized ionization chambers (PICs); by biological monitoring of foodstuffs including animal tissues and food crops; and by measurement of radioactive material deposited in humans.

  5. Offsite environmental monitoring report: Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, M.G.; Flotard, R.D.; Fontana, C.A.; Hennessey, P.A.; Maunu, H.K.; Mouck, T.L.; Mullen, A.A.; Sells, M.D.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program (OREMP) conducted during 1997 by the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPAs), Radiation and Indoor Environments National Laboratory, Las Vegas, Nevada. This laboratory operated an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling and analyzing milk, water, and air; by deploying and reading thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs); and using pressurized ionization chambers (PICs) to measure ambient gamma exposure rates with a sensitivity capable of detecting low level exposures not detected by other monitoring methods.

  6. A comprehensive risk assessment framework for offsite transportation of inflammable hazardous waste.

    PubMed

    Das, Arup; Gupta, A K; Mazumder, T N

    2012-08-15

    A framework for risk assessment due to offsite transportation of hazardous wastes is designed based on the type of event that can be triggered from an accident of a hazardous waste carrier. The objective of this study is to design a framework for computing the risk to population associated with offsite transportation of inflammable and volatile wastes. The framework is based on traditional definition of risk and is designed for conditions where accident databases are not available. The probability based variable in risk assessment framework is substituted by a composite accident index proposed in this study. The framework computes the impacts due to a volatile cloud explosion based on TNO Multi-energy model. The methodology also estimates the vulnerable population in terms of disability adjusted life years (DALY) which takes into consideration the demographic profile of the population and the degree of injury on mortality and morbidity sustained. The methodology is illustrated using a case study of a pharmaceutical industry in the Kolkata metropolitan area.

  7. Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Offsite Environmental Surveillance Program Report: First Quarter 1999

    SciTech Connect

    R. Evans

    1999-09-01

    The Environmental Science and Research Foundation conducts an Offsite Environmental Surveillance Program at the US Department of Energy's Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The Foundation's environmental surveillance program monitors the effects, if any, of US Department of Energy (DOE) activities on the offsite environment, collects data to confirm compliance with applicable environmental laws and regulations, and observes any trends in the environmental levels of radioactivity. This report for the first quarter 1999 is based on 564 samples of air (including airborne radioactivity, fine particulates, and atmospheric moisture), precipitation, milk, and wild game tissues. All concentrations of radioactivity found in these samples were consistent with concentrations which have been found in sampling during recent quarters and which have been attributed in the past to natural background radiation, worldwide fallout from past nuclear weapons ! testing, an d nuclear operations around the world. No measured concentrations could be directly attributed to operations at the INEEL. Concentrations in all samples were below the guidelines set by both the DOE and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for protection of the public.

  8. Evaluation of angler reporting accuracy in an off-site survey to estimate statewide steelhead harvest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCormick, J. L.; Whitney, D.; Schill, D. J.; Quist, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Accuracy of angler-reported data on steelhead, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), harvest in Idaho, USA, was quantified by comparing data recorded on angler harvest permits to the numbers that the same group of anglers reported in an off-site survey. Anglers could respond to the off-site survey using mail or Internet; if they did not respond using these methods, they were called on the telephone. A majority of anglers responded through the mail, and the probability of responding by Internet decreased with increasing age of the respondent. The actual number of steelhead harvested did not appear to influence the response type. Anglers in the autumn 2012 survey overreported harvest by 24%, whereas anglers in the spring 2013 survey under-reported steelhead harvest by 16%. The direction of reporting bias may have been a function of actual harvest, where anglers harvested on average 2.6 times more fish during the spring fishery than the autumn. Reporting bias that is a function of actual harvest can have substantial management and conservation implications because the fishery will be perceived to be performing better at lower harvest rates and worse when harvest rates are higher. Thus, these findings warrant consideration when designing surveys and evaluating management actions.

  9. Analysis of offsite Emergency Planning Zones (EPZ) for the Rocky Flats Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgin, C.R.; Armstrong, C.; Daugherty, N.M.; Foppe, T.L.; Petrocchi, A.J.; Southward, B.

    1990-05-01

    This project plan for Phase II summarizes the design of a project to complete analysis of offsite Emergency Planning Zones (EPZ) for the Rocky Flats Plant. Federal, state, and local governments develop emergency plans for facilities that may affect the public in the event of an accidental release of nuclear or hazardous materials. One of the purposes of these plans is to identify EPZs where actions might be necessary to protect public health. Public protective actions include sheltering, evacuation, and relocation. Agencies use EPZs to develop response plans and to determine needed resources. The State of Colorado, with support from the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Rocky Flats contractors, has developed emergency plans and EPZs for the Rocky Flats Plant periodically beginning in 1980. In Phase II, Interim Emergency Planning Zones Analysis, Maximum Credible Accident'' we will utilize the current Rocky Flats maximum credible accident (MCA), existing dispersion methodologies, and upgraded dosimetry methodologies to update the radiological EPZs. Additionally, we will develop recommendations for EPZs for nonradiological hazardous materials releases and evaluate potential surface water releases from the facility. This project will allow EG G Rocky Flats to meet current commitments to the state of Colorado and make steady, tangible improvements in our understanding of risk to offsite populations during potential emergencies at the Rocky Flats Plant. 8 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Offsite Environmental Surveillance Program Report: Third Quarter 1999

    SciTech Connect

    R. Evans

    2000-03-01

    The Environmental Science and Research Foundation conducts an offsite environmental surveillance program for the Department of Energy's Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The Foundation's environmental surveillance program monitors the effects, if any, of US Department of Energy (DOE) activities on the offsite environment, collects data to confirm compliance with applicable environmental laws and regulations, and observes any trends in the environmental levels of radioactivity. This report for the third quarter of 1999 is based on 704 samples of air, fine particulates, atmospheric moisture, precipitation, milk, and food. All concentrations of radioactivity found in these samples were consistent with concentrations which have been found in sampling during recent quarters and which have been attributed in the past to natural background radiation, worldwide fallout from past nuclear weapons testing, and nuclear operations around the world. No! measured concentrations could be directly attributed to operations at the INEEL. Concentrations in all samples were below the guidelines set by both the DOE and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for protection of the public.

  11. Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Offsite Environmental Surveillance Program Report: Second Quarter 1999

    SciTech Connect

    R. Evans

    1999-12-01

    The Environmental Science and Research Foundation conducts an Offsite Environmental Surveillance Program at the US Department of Energy's Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The Foundation's environmental surveillance program monitors the effects, if any, of US Department of Energy (DOE) activities on the offsite environment, collects data to confirm compliance with applicable environmental laws and regulations, and observes any trends in the environmental levels of radioactivity. This report for the second quarter 1999 is based on 618 samples of air (including airborne radioactivity, fine particulates, and atmospheric moisture), precipitation, milk, drinking water, sheep, wild game tissues, and environmental radiation. All concentrations of radioactivity found in these samples were consistent with concentrations which have been found in sampling during recent quarters and which have been attributed in the past to natural background radiation, worldwide fallout from past nuclear weapons testing, and nuclear operations around the world. No measured concentrations could be directly attributed to operations at the INEEL. Concentrations in all samples were below the guidelines set by both the DOE and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for protection of the public.

  12. Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Offsite Environmental Surveillance Program Report: Fourth Quarter 1998

    SciTech Connect

    T. Saffle; R. Evans

    1999-08-01

    The Environmental Science and Research Foundation conducts the Offsite Environmental Surveillance Program at the US Department of Energy's Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The Foundation's environmental surveillance program monitors the effects, if any, of US Department of Energy (DOE) activities on the offsite environment, collects data to confirm compliance with applicable environmental laws and regulations, and observes any trends in the environmental levels of radioactivity. This report for the fourth quarter 1998 is based on 622 samples collected of air, fine particulates, atmospheric moisture, precipitation, water, milk, potatoes, and game animals. All concentrations of radioactivity found in these samples were consistent with concentrations which have been found in sampling during recent quarters and which have been attributed in the past to natural background radioactivity, worldwide fallout from past nuclear weapons testing, an! d nuclear operations around the world. No measured concentrations could be directly attributed to operations at the INEEL, although statistical differences did exist between on-site and distant gross beta concentrations. No evidence could be found to link these differences with a specific INEEL source. Concentrations in all samples were below the guidelines set by both the DOE and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for protection of the public.

  13. Aging assessment of surge protective devices in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, J.F.; Subudhi, M.; Carroll, D.P.

    1996-01-01

    An assessment was performed to determine the effects of aging on the performance and availability of surge protective devices (SPDs), used in electrical power and control systems in nuclear power plants. Although SPDs have not been classified as safety-related, they are risk-important because they can minimize the initiating event frequencies associated with loss of offsite power and reactor trips. Conversely, their failure due to age might cause some of those initiating events, e.g., through short circuit failure modes, or by allowing deterioration of the safety-related component(s) they are protecting from overvoltages, perhaps preventing a reactor trip, from an open circuit failure mode. From the data evaluated during 1980--1994, it was found that failures of surge arresters and suppressers by short circuits were neither a significant risk nor safety concern, and there were no failures of surge suppressers preventing a reactor trip. Simulations, using the ElectroMagnetic Transients Program (EMTP) were performed to determine the adequacy of high voltage surge arresters.

  14. Perception of acoustic transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, J. H., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The research investigates the role of knowledge based or top-down processing in the perception of nonlinguistic, transient signals. The experiments address issues in transient pattern classification, target observation, attentional focusing, auditory induction, and computer based performance aids. The theoretical significance and naval relevance of the research is considered.

  15. Modeling system for conducted transient analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Mahoney, T.L.

    1983-01-01

    A computer simulation system has been developed which facilitates the analysis of electrical/electronic systems. Sponsored by the Naval Air Systems Command to investigate power interface transient problems, the program is called the Navy Power Systems Simulator. The simulator is used as a system engineering tool which generates and processes models of virtually any electrical network. It is simple to use and capable of automatically producing a complex system's steady state or transient output response. An engineering friendly computer interface has been achieved by the extensive use of interactive graphics and menu-driven prompting.

  16. Management of government property in the possession of off-site contractors (DOE-PMR 109-60)

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-01

    This handbook contains Part 109-60 of the DOE Property Management Regulations (DOE-PMR) (41 CFR Chapter 109). This Part 109-60 sets forth the minimum requirements to be observed by off-site contractors in establishing and maintaining control over Government property provided pursuant to a contract with DOE. The contract clauses of the DOE Procurement Regulations incorporate Part 109-60 by reference in all off-site contracts in which Government property is provided. Individual Subparts of this Part deal with contractor's responsibility; records and financial reports; identification; physical inventories; care and maintenance; utilization, disposal, and retirement; motor vehicle and aircraft management; and required reports. (RWR)

  17. Health assessment for Utah Power and Light/American Barrel, Salt Lake City, Utah, Region 8. CERCLIS No. UTD980667240. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-05-20

    The Utah Power and Light (UP L) site, formerly known as American Barrel, is located one-half mile from downtown Salt Lake City, Utah. A creosote treatment facility operated there in the early 1900's. Later, a 55-gallon drum storage facility contaminated the soil and groundwater with polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's), volatile organic compounds (VOC's), pesticides, phthalates, and heavy metals. This site is of potential public health concern because humans maybe exposed to hazardous substances at concentrations that may result in adverse health effects. Contamination has spread to off-site areas and children from the nearby residential area have access to contaminated soil. In addition, transients frequently use these areas and may be exposed to the contaminants. UP L is in the 8th update of the National Priorities List of hazardous waste sites.

  18. AC power systems handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Whitaker, J.

    1991-01-01

    Transient disturbances are what headaches are made of. Whatever you call them-spikes, surges, are power bumps-they can take your equipment down and leave you with a complicated and expensive repair job. Protection against transient disturbances is a science that demands attention to detail. This book explains how the power distribution system works, what can go wrong with it, and how to protect a facility against abnormalities. system grounding and shielding are covered in detail. Each major method of transient protection is analyzed and its relative merits discussed. The book provides a complete look at the critical elements of the ac power system. Provides a complete look at the ac power system from generation to consumption. Discusses the mechanisms that produce transient disturbances and how to protect against them. Presents diagrams to facilitate system design. Covers new areas, such as the extent of the transient disturbance problem, transient protection options, and stand-by power systems.

  19. High-energy transients.

    PubMed

    Gehrels, Neil; Cannizzo, John K

    2013-06-13

    We present an overview of high-energy transients in astrophysics, highlighting important advances over the past 50 years. We begin with early discoveries of γ-ray transients, and then delve into physical details associated with a variety of phenomena. We discuss some of the unexpected transients found by Fermi and Swift, many of which are not easily classifiable or in some way challenge conventional wisdom. These objects are important insofar as they underscore the necessity of future, more detailed studies. PMID:23630376

  20. Transient nucleation in glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelton, K. F.

    1991-01-01

    Nucleation rates in condensed systems are frequently not at their steady state values. Such time dependent (or transient) nucleation is most clearly observed in devitrification studies of metallic and silicate glasses. The origin of transient nucleation and its role in the formation and stability of desired phases and microstructures are discussed. Numerical models of nucleation in isothermal and nonisothermal situations, based on the coupled differential equations describing cluster evolution within the classical theory, are presented. The importance of transient nucleation in glass formation and crystallization is discussed.

  1. [Transient epileptic amnesia].

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Kazuhiro; Yoshizaki, Takahito

    2016-03-01

    Transient amnesia is one of common clinical phenomenon of epilepsy that are encountered by physicians. The amnestic attacks are often associated with persistent memory disturbances. Epilepsy is common among the elderly, with amnesia as a common symptom and convulsions relatively uncommon. Therefore, amnesia due to epilepsy can easily be misdiagnosed as dementia. The term 'transient epileptic amnesia (TEA)' was introduced in the early 1990s by Kapur, who highlighted that amnestic attacks caused by epilepsy can be similar to those occurring in 'transient global amnesia', but are distinguished by features brevity and recurrence. In 1998, Zeman et al. proposed diagnostic criteria for TEA.

  2. Pollution Prevention Plan for the Y-12 Analytical Chemistry Organization Off-Site Union Valley Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, J. G.

    2010-03-01

    The Y-12 Analytical Chemistry Organization (ACO) Off-Site Union Valley Facility (Union Valley Facility) is managed by Babcock and Wilcox Technical Services Y-12, L.L.C. (B and W Y-12) through the Y-12 National Security Complex organization. Accordingly, the Y-12 Pollution Prevention Program encompasses the operations conducted at the Union Valley Facility. The Y-12 Program is designed to fully comply with state, federal and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requirements concerning waste minimization/pollution prevention as documented in the Y-12 Pollution Prevention Program Plan. The Program is formulated to reduce the generation and toxicity of all Y-12 wastes in all media, including those wastes generated by the Union Valley Facility operations. All regulatory and DOE requirements are met by the Y-12 Program Plan.

  3. Analysis of offsite Emergency Planning Zones (EPZs) for the Rocky Flats Plant. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-01

    A quality assurance plan (QAP) is a documented description or a listing of the controls to be implemented to assure that an operation or activity is accomplished in a consistent manner and in accordance with requirements. Federal, state, and local governments require emergency planning for facilities that may affect the public in the event of an accidental release of nuclear or hazardous materials. One of the purposes of this EG G Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) Analysis of Offsite Emergency Planning Zones (EPZ) project is to identify the EPZs where actions could be necessary to protect public health. The RFP EPZ project is developing an interim basis for potential sheltering and evacuation recommendations in the event of an accidental release of radionuclides to the atmosphere from this facility. Also, RFP is developing EPZs for accidental releases of major nonradiological hazardous substances to the atmosphere, and will analyze the impacts of an unplanned surface water release from the facility.

  4. Extensive management of field margins enhances their potential for off-site soil erosion mitigation.

    PubMed

    Ali, Hamada E; Reineking, Björn

    2016-03-15

    Soil erosion is a widespread problem in agricultural landscapes, particularly in regions with strong rainfall events. Vegetated field margins can mitigate negative impacts of soil erosion off-site by trapping eroded material. Here we analyse how local management affects the trapping capacity of field margins in a monsoon region of South Korea, contrasting intensively and extensively managed field margins on both steep and shallow slopes. Prior to the beginning of monsoon season, we equipped a total of 12 sites representing three replicates for each of four different types of field margins ("intensive managed flat", "intensive managed steep", "extensive managed flat" and "extensive managed steep") with Astroturf mats. The mats (n = 15/site) were placed before, within and after the field margin. Sediment was collected after each rain event until the end of the monsoon season. The effect of management and slope on sediment trapping was analysed using linear mixed effects models, using as response variable either the sediment collected within the field margin or the difference in sediment collected after and before the field margin. There was no difference in the amount of sediment reaching the different field margin types. In contrast, extensively managed field margins showed a large reduction in collected sediment before and after the field margins. This effect was pronounced in steep field margins, and increased with the size of rainfall events. We conclude that a field margin management promoting a dense vegetation cover is a key to mitigating negative off-site effects of soil erosion in monsoon regions, particularly in field margins with steep slopes.

  5. Off-Site Storage and Special Collections: A Study in Use and Impact in ARL Libraries in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priddle, Charlotte; McCann, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Special collections libraries collect and preserve materials of intellectual and cultural heritage, providing access to unique research resources. As their holdings continue to expand, special collections in research libraries confront increased space pressures. Off-site storage facilities, used frequently by research libraries for general…

  6. 40 CFR 1400.3 - Public access to paper copies of off-site consequence analysis information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Public access to paper copies of off-site consequence analysis information. 1400.3 Section 1400.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY AND DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ACCIDENTAL RELEASE PREVENTION REQUIREMENTS; RISK...

  7. 40 CFR 1400.3 - Public access to paper copies of off-site consequence analysis information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public access to paper copies of off-site consequence analysis information. 1400.3 Section 1400.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY AND DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ACCIDENTAL RELEASE PREVENTION REQUIREMENTS; RISK...

  8. 10 CFR 140.84 - Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) Radioactive material that may be taken into the body from its occurrence in air or water; and (3) Radioactive... Commission finds that: (1) Surface contamination of at least a total of any 100 square meters of offsite... facility and such contamination is characterized by levels of radiation in excess of one of the...

  9. 10 CFR 840.4 - Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite. 840.4 Section 840.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY EXTRAORDINARY NUCLEAR OCCURRENCES § 840.4 Criterion I—Substantial discharge of radioactive material...

  10. 10 CFR 840.4 - Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite. 840.4 Section 840.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY EXTRAORDINARY NUCLEAR OCCURRENCES § 840.4 Criterion I—Substantial discharge of radioactive material...

  11. 10 CFR 840.4 - Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite. 840.4 Section 840.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY EXTRAORDINARY NUCLEAR OCCURRENCES § 840.4 Criterion I—Substantial discharge of radioactive material...

  12. 10 CFR 840.4 - Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite. 840.4 Section 840.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY EXTRAORDINARY NUCLEAR OCCURRENCES § 840.4 Criterion I—Substantial discharge of radioactive material...

  13. 40 CFR 1400.8 - Access to off-site consequence analysis information by Federal government officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... analysis information by Federal government officials. 1400.8 Section 1400.8 Protection of Environment... Information by Government Officials. § 1400.8 Access to off-site consequence analysis information by Federal government officials. The Administrator shall provide any Federal government official with the...

  14. 40 CFR 1400.8 - Access to off-site consequence analysis information by Federal government officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... analysis information by Federal government officials. 1400.8 Section 1400.8 Protection of Environment... Information by Government Officials. § 1400.8 Access to off-site consequence analysis information by Federal government officials. The Administrator shall provide any Federal government official with the...

  15. 40 CFR 1400.8 - Access to off-site consequence analysis information by Federal government officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... analysis information by Federal government officials. 1400.8 Section 1400.8 Protection of Environment... Information by Government Officials. § 1400.8 Access to off-site consequence analysis information by Federal government officials. The Administrator shall provide any Federal government official with the...

  16. Off-site movement of pesticide-contaminated fill from agrichemical facilities during the 1993 flooding in Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roy, W.R.; Chou, S.-F.J.; Krapac, I.G.

    1995-01-01

    Twenty retail agrichemical facilities were flooded. There was a concern that pesticide-contaminated road fill at these facilities had been transported into residential areas by the flooding. Forty fill and flood- related sediment samples were collected at six facilities. No significant accumulation of sediments was present at any of the six facilities. At five of the six facilities, it did not appear that road fill had been transported off-site. Pesticides were detected in sediment samples collected off-site adjacent to five of the facilities. Of the 21 samples collected off-site, atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-1,3,5-triazide) and metolachlor (2-chloro-6'-ethyl-N-(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl)acet-o-toluidine) were detected in 86 and 81% of the samples, respectively. When compared with on-site concentrations, off-site pesticide concentrations were either at similar levels, or were as much as three orders of magnitude less. The interpretation of the pesticide data was difficult and often inconclusive, because there were no background data on the occurrence and distribution of pesticides at each site before flooding.

  17. A la Recherche du Temps Perdu: Case-Study Evidence from Off-Site and Pupil Referral Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, Philip

    1996-01-01

    Argues that current provisions for students excluded for behavior problems (Pupil Referral Units) differ little from those found before 10 years of educational reform (the former "off-site units"). Presents evidence gathered from excluded children and their teachers in four aspects of provisions: (1) resourcing and accommodation; (2) referral and…

  18. 40 CFR 1400.9 - Access to off-site consequence analysis information by State and local government officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Access to off-site consequence analysis information by State and local government officials. 1400.9 Section 1400.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY AND DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ACCIDENTAL RELEASE...

  19. 40 CFR 1400.3 - Public access to paper copies of off-site consequence analysis information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Public access to paper copies of off-site consequence analysis information. 1400.3 Section 1400.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY AND DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ACCIDENTAL RELEASE PREVENTION REQUIREMENTS; RISK...

  20. 40 CFR 1400.9 - Access to off-site consequence analysis information by State and local government officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Access to off-site consequence analysis information by State and local government officials. 1400.9 Section 1400.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY AND DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ACCIDENTAL RELEASE...

  1. 40 CFR 1400.9 - Access to off-site consequence analysis information by State and local government officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Access to off-site consequence analysis information by State and local government officials. 1400.9 Section 1400.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY AND DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ACCIDENTAL RELEASE...

  2. 40 CFR 1400.9 - Access to off-site consequence analysis information by State and local government officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Access to off-site consequence analysis information by State and local government officials. 1400.9 Section 1400.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY AND DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ACCIDENTAL RELEASE...

  3. 40 CFR 1400.9 - Access to off-site consequence analysis information by State and local government officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Access to off-site consequence analysis information by State and local government officials. 1400.9 Section 1400.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY AND DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ACCIDENTAL RELEASE...

  4. Gamma ray transients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cline, Thomas L.

    1987-01-01

    The discovery of cosmic gamma ray bursts was made with systems designed at Los Alamos Laboratory for the detection of nuclear explosions beyond the atmosphere. HELIOS-2 was the first gamma ray burst instrument launched; its initial results in 1976, seemed to deepen the mystery around gamma ray transients. Interplanetary spacecraft data were reviewed in terms of explaining the behavior and source of the transients.

  5. Apparatus Characterizes Transient Voltages in Real Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medelius, Pedro

    2005-01-01

    The figure shows a prototype of a relatively inexpensive electronic monitoring apparatus that measures and records selected parameters of lightning-induced transient voltages on communication and power cables. The selected parameters, listed below, are those most relevant to the ability of lightning-induced transients to damage electronic equipment. This apparatus bridges a gap between some traditional transient-voltage recorders that record complete waveforms and other traditional transient-voltage recorders that record only peak values: By recording the most relevant parameters and only those parameters this apparatus yields more useful information than does a traditional peak-value (only) recorder while imposing much smaller data-storage and data-transmission burdens than does a traditional complete-waveform recorder. Also, relative to a complete-waveform recorder, this apparatus is more reliable and can be built at lower cost because it contains fewer electronic components. The transients generated by sources other than lightning tend to have frequency components well below 1 MHz. Most commercial transient recorders can detect and record such transients, but cannot respond rapidly enough for recording lightning-induced transient voltage peaks, which can rise from 10 to 90 percent of maximum amplitude in a fraction of a microsecond. Moreover, commercial transient recorders cannot rearm themselves rapidly enough to respond to the multiple transients that occur within milliseconds of each other on some lightning strikes. One transient recorder, designed for Kennedy Space Center earlier [ Fast Transient-Voltage Recorder (KSC- 11991), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 23, No. 10, page 6a (October 1999)], is capable of sampling transient voltages at peak values up to 50 V in four channels at a rate of 20 MHz. That recorder contains a trigger circuit that continuously compares the amplitudes of the signals on four channels to a preset triggering threshold. When a trigger signal

  6. Circuit controls transients in SCR inverters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, E. T.; Wilson, T. G.

    1964-01-01

    Elimination of starting difficulties in SCR inverters is accomplished by the addition of two taps of the output winding of the inverter. On starting or under transient loads, the two additional taps deliver power through diodes without requiring quenching of SCR currents in excess of normal starting load.

  7. Transient simulation of molten salt central receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doupis, Dimitri; Wang, Chuan; Carcorze-Soto, Jorge; Chen, Yen-Ming; Maggi, Andrea; Losito, Matteo; Clark, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Alstom is developing concentrated solar power (CSP) utilizing 60/40wt% NaNO3-KNO3 molten salt as the working fluid in a tower receiver for the global renewable energy market. In the CSP power generation cycle, receivers undergo a daily cyclic operation due to the transient nature of solar energy. Development of robust and efficient start-up and shut-down procedures is critical to avoiding component failures due to mechanical fatigue resulting from thermal transients, thus maintaining the performance and availability of the CSP plant. The Molten Salt Central Receiver (MSCR) is subject to thermal transients during normal daily operation, a cycle that includes warmup, filling, operation, draining, and shutdown. This paper describes a study to leverage dynamic simulation and finite element analysis (FEA) in development of start-up, shutdown, and transient operation concepts for the MSCR. The results of the FEA also verify the robustness of the MSCR design to the thermal transients anticipated during the operation of the plant.

  8. The LOFAR Transients Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swinbank, John D.; Staley, Tim D.; Molenaar, Gijs J.; Rol, Evert; Rowlinson, Antonia; Scheers, Bart; Spreeuw, Hanno; Bell, Martin E.; Broderick, Jess W.; Carbone, Dario; Garsden, Hugh; van der Horst, Alexander J.; Law, Casey J.; Wise, Michael; Breton, Rene P.; Cendes, Yvette; Corbel, Stéphane; Eislöffel, Jochen; Falcke, Heino; Fender, Rob; Grießmeier, Jean-Mathias; Hessels, Jason W. T.; Stappers, Benjamin W.; Stewart, Adam J.; Wijers, Ralph A. M. J.; Wijnands, Rudy; Zarka, Philippe

    2015-06-01

    Current and future astronomical survey facilities provide a remarkably rich opportunity for transient astronomy, combining unprecedented fields of view with high sensitivity and the ability to access previously unexplored wavelength regimes. This is particularly true of LOFAR, a recently-commissioned, low-frequency radio interferometer, based in the Netherlands and with stations across Europe. The identification of and response to transients is one of LOFAR's key science goals. However, the large data volumes which LOFAR produces, combined with the scientific requirement for rapid response, make automation essential. To support this, we have developed the LOFAR Transients Pipeline, or TraP. The TraP ingests multi-frequency image data from LOFAR or other instruments and searches it for transients and variables, providing automatic alerts of significant detections and populating a lightcurve database for further analysis by astronomers. Here, we discuss the scientific goals of the TraP and how it has been designed to meet them. We describe its implementation, including both the algorithms adopted to maximize performance as well as the development methodology used to ensure it is robust and reliable, particularly in the presence of artefacts typical of radio astronomy imaging. Finally, we report on a series of tests of the pipeline carried out using simulated LOFAR observations with a known population of transients.

  9. Transient Tsunamis in Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couston, L.; Mei, C.; Alam, M.

    2013-12-01

    A large number of lakes are surrounded by steep and unstable mountains with slopes prone to failure. As a result, landslides are likely to occur and impact water sitting in closed reservoirs. These rare geological phenomena pose serious threats to dam reservoirs and nearshore facilities because they can generate unexpectedly large tsunami waves. In fact, the tallest wave experienced by contemporary humans occurred because of a landslide in the narrow bay of Lituya in 1958, and five years later, a deadly landslide tsunami overtopped Lake Vajont's dam, flooding and damaging villages along the lakefront and in the Piave valley. If unstable slopes and potential slides are detected ahead of time, inundation maps can be drawn to help people know the risks, and mitigate the destructive power of the ensuing waves. These maps give the maximum wave runup height along the lake's vertical and sloping boundaries, and can be obtained by numerical simulations. Keeping track of the moving shorelines along beaches is challenging in classical Eulerian formulations because the horizontal extent of the fluid domain can change over time. As a result, assuming a solid slide and nonbreaking waves, here we develop a nonlinear shallow-water model equation in the Lagrangian framework to address the problem of transient landslide-tsunamis. In this manner, the shorelines' three-dimensional motion is part of the solution. The model equation is hyperbolic and can be solved numerically by finite differences. Here, a 4th order Runge-Kutta method and a compact finite-difference scheme are implemented to integrate in time and spatially discretize the forced shallow-water equation in Lagrangian coordinates. The formulation is applied to different lake and slide geometries to better understand the effects of the lake's finite lengths and slide's forcing mechanism on the generated wavefield. Specifically, for a slide moving down a plane beach, we show that edge-waves trapped by the shoreline and free

  10. Transient Microphonic Effects In Superconducting Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas Powers; G. Davis; Lawrence King

    2005-07-10

    A number of experiments were performed on an installed and operational 5-cell CEBAF cavity to determine the minimum time required to reestablish stable gradient after a cavity window arc trip. Once it was determined that gradient could be reestablished within 10 ms by applying constant power RF signal in and a voltage controlled Oscillator-phase locked loop based system (VCO-PLL), a second experiment was performed to determine if stable gradient could be reestablished using a fixed frequency RF system with a simple gradient based closed loop control system. During this test, instabilities were observed in the cavity forward power signal, which were determined to be microphonic in nature. These microphonic effects were quantified using a cavity resonance monitor and a VCO{_}PLL RF system. Two types of microphonic effects were observed depending on the type of arc event. If the arc occurred in the vacuum space between the warm and cold windows, the transient frequency shift was about 75 Hz peak-to-peak. If the arc occurred on the cavity side of the cold window the transient frequency shift was about 400 Hz peak-to-peak. The background microphonics level for the tested cavity was approximately 30 Hz peak-to-peak. Experimental results, analysis of the resultant klystron power transients, the decay time of the transients, and the implications with respect to fast reset algorithms will be presented.

  11. Potential Offsite Radiological Doses Estimated for the Proposed Divine Strake Experiment, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Ron Warren

    2006-12-01

    An assessment of the potential radiation dose that residents offsite of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) might receive from the proposed Divine Strake experiment was made to determine compliance with Subpart H of Part 61 of Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities. The Divine Strake experiment, proposed by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, consists of a detonation of 700 tons of heavy ammonium nitrate fuel oil-emulsion above the U16b Tunnel complex in Area 16 of the NTS. Both natural radionuclides suspended, and historic fallout radionuclides resuspended from the detonation, have potential to be transported outside the NTS boundary by wind. They may, therefore, contribute radiological dose to the public. Subpart H states ''Emissions of radionuclides to the ambient air from Department of Energy facilities shall not exceed those amounts that would cause any member of the public to receive in any year an effective dose equivalent of 10 mrem/yr'' (Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] 61.92) where mrem/yr is millirem per year. Furthermore, application for U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) approval of construction of a new source or modification of an existing source is required if the effective dose equivalent, caused by all emissions from the new construction or modification, is greater than or equal to 0.1 mrem/yr (40 CFR 61.96). In accordance with Section 61.93, a dose assessment was conducted with the computer model CAP88-PC, Version 3.0. In addition to this model, a dose assessment was also conducted by the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This modeling was conducted to obtain dose estimates from a model designed for acute releases and which addresses terrain effects and uses meteorology from multiple locations. Potential radiation dose to a hypothetical maximally

  12. Ultrafast triggered transient energy storage by atomic layer deposition into porous silicon for integrated transient electronics.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Anna; Muralidharan, Nitin; Carter, Rachel; Share, Keith; Pint, Cary L

    2016-04-14

    Here we demonstrate the first on-chip silicon-integrated rechargeable transient power source based on atomic layer deposition (ALD) coating of vanadium oxide (VOx) into porous silicon. A stable specific capacitance above 20 F g(-1) is achieved until the device is triggered with alkaline solutions. Due to the rational design of the active VOx coating enabled by ALD, transience occurs through a rapid disabling step that occurs within seconds, followed by full dissolution of all active materials within 30 minutes of the initial trigger. This work demonstrates how engineered materials for energy storage can provide a basis for next-generation transient systems and highlights porous silicon as a versatile scaffold to integrate transient energy storage into transient electronics. PMID:26984120

  13. Fuzzy logic -- artificial neural networks integration for transient identification

    SciTech Connect

    Ikonomopoulos, A.; Tsoukalas, L.H. . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering); Uhrig, R.E. . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering Oak Ridge National Lab., TN )

    1991-01-01

    A methodology is presented that integrates pretrained artificial neural networks (ANNs) with rule-based fuzzy logic systems, for the purpose of distinguishing different transients in a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). In general this approach appears to provide timely, concise and task specific information about the status of a system under consideration. The pretrained neural network typifies different transient scenarios and derives membership functions which independently represent individual transients. The overall system successfully performs transient identification, in a time span faster or at least comparable to that of transient development. In order to examine the proposed methodology simulated accidents are used. The results obtained demonstrate the excellent noise tolerance of ANNs and suggest a new approach for transient identification.

  14. Fuzzy logic -- artificial neural networks integration for transient identification

    SciTech Connect

    Ikonomopoulos, A.; Tsoukalas, L.H.; Uhrig, R.E. |

    1991-12-31

    A methodology is presented that integrates pretrained artificial neural networks (ANNs) with rule-based fuzzy logic systems, for the purpose of distinguishing different transients in a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). In general this approach appears to provide timely, concise and task specific information about the status of a system under consideration. The pretrained neural network typifies different transient scenarios and derives membership functions which independently represent individual transients. The overall system successfully performs transient identification, in a time span faster or at least comparable to that of transient development. In order to examine the proposed methodology simulated accidents are used. The results obtained demonstrate the excellent noise tolerance of ANNs and suggest a new approach for transient identification.

  15. Calibration of acoustic transients.

    PubMed

    Burkard, Robert

    2006-05-26

    This article reviews the appropriate stimulus parameters (click duration, toneburst envelope) that should be used when eliciting auditory brainstem responses from mice. Equipment specifications required to calibrate these acoustic transients are discussed. Several methods of calibrating the level of acoustic transients are presented, including the measurement of peak equivalent sound pressure level (peSPL) and peak sound pressure level (pSPL). It is hoped that those who collect auditory brainstem response thresholds in mice will begin to use standardized methods of acoustic calibration, so that hearing thresholds across mouse strains obtained in different laboratories can more readily be compared.

  16. The Transient Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shappee, Benjamin John

    When one looks at the night sky, one usually gets the impression of a static and constant universe. Quite apart from appearances, the sky is teeming with violent, variable, and transient events that shape our universe. These capricious objects are not only penetrating probes into physical conditions too extreme for earthbound laboratories, but they are also useful tools to measure the universe. In this dissertation, I investigate the observational and theoretical properties of three classes of transient/variable objects: thermonuclear supernovae, Cepheid variable stars, and active galactic nuclei.

  17. Analysis of offsite emergency planning zones for the Rocky Flats Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgin, C.R.; Daugherty, N.M.; Smith, M.L. . Rocky Flats Plant); Bunch, D.; Toresdahl, J.; Verholek, M.G. )

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this report is to fully document technical data and information that have been developed to support offsite emergency planning by the State of Colorado for potential accidents at the Rocky Flats Plant. Specifically, this report documents information and data that will assist the State of Colorado in upgrading its radiological emergency planning zones for Rocky Flats Plant. The Colorado Division of Disaster Emergency Services (DODES) and the Colorado Department of Health (CDH) represent the primary audience for this report. The secondary audience for this document includes the Rocky Flats Plant; federal, State, and local governmental agencies; the scientific community; and the interested public. Because the primary audience has a pre-existing background on the subject, this report assumes some exposure to emergency planning, health physics, and dispersion modeling on the part of the reader. The authors have limited their assumptions of background knowledge as much as possible, recognizing that the topics addressed in the report may be new to some secondary audiences.

  18. 10 years and 20,000 sources: the offsite source recovery project

    SciTech Connect

    Whitworth, Julia R; Abeyta, Cristy L; Pearson, Michael W

    2009-01-01

    The Global Threat Reduction Initiative's (GTRI) Offsite Source Recovery Project (OSRP) has been recovering excess and unwanted sealed sources for ten years. In January 2009, GTRI announced that the project had recovered 20,000 sealed radioactive sources. This project grew out of early efforts at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to recover and disposition excess Plutonium-239 (Pu-239) sealed sources that were distributed in the 1960s and 1970s under the Atoms for Peace Program. Sealed source recovery was initially considered a waste management activity, as evidenced by its initial organization under the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Environmental Management (EM) program. After the terrorist attacks of 2001, however, the interagency community began to recognize the threat posed by excess and unwanted radiological material, particularly those that could not be disposed at the end of their useful life. After being transferred to the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) to be part of GTRI, OSRP's mission was expanded to include not only material that would be classified as Greater-than-Class-C (GTCC) when it became waste, but also any other materials that might be a 'national security consideration.' This paper discusses OSRP's history, recovery operations, expansion to accept high-activity beta-gamma-emitting sealed sources and devices and foreign-possessed sources, and more recent efforts such as cooperative projects with the Council on Radiation Control Program Directors (CRCPD) and involvement in GTRI's Search and Secure project. Current challenges and future work will also be discussed.

  19. Environmental assessment for the offsite commercial cleaning of controlled and routine laundry from the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) to assess the potential environmental impacts associated with the offsite commercial cleaning of controlled and routine laundry from the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. Controlled laundry consists of protective clothing and respirator equipment potentially containing radioactive contamination resulting from activities at SRS facilities. Routine laundry includes uncontaminated protective clothing. The aging onsite SRS laundry facility does not comply with current low hazard nuclear facility standards in DOE Order 6430.1. Constructing a new facility on site or upgrading the existing facility have prohibitive costs. The option to seek a commercial offsite vendor was selected as a viable alternative.

  20. Nordic Symposium on Analysis of Electromagnetic Transient Phenomena Using EMTP, part 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jokinen, Tapani

    The Electromagnetic Transients Program (EMTP) is a computer program used to simulate electromagnetic, electromechanical, and control system transients on multiphase electric power systems. Section headings in this volume include the following: Case Studies for Electromagnetic Transients; Transformers - Section 6 from EMTP Theory Book, Second Edition; What Is Needed In Transformer Representations; and Transformer Inrush Current, Test Case 1.

  1. 25 CFR 247.14 - Can I hook up a campsite to on-site or off-site utilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can I hook up a campsite to on-site or off-site utilities? 247.14 Section 247.14 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE...-site utilities? (a) You must share access to all on-site facilities. (b) Because there are a...

  2. 25 CFR 247.14 - Can I hook up a campsite to on-site or off-site utilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Can I hook up a campsite to on-site or off-site utilities? 247.14 Section 247.14 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE USE OF COLUMBIA RIVER TREATY FISHING ACCESS SITES § 247.14 Can I hook up a campsite to on-site or...

  3. 25 CFR 247.14 - Can I hook up a campsite to on-site or off-site utilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Can I hook up a campsite to on-site or off-site utilities? 247.14 Section 247.14 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE USE OF COLUMBIA RIVER TREATY FISHING ACCESS SITES § 247.14 Can I hook up a campsite to on-site or...

  4. Accident consequences analysis of the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy power plant design

    SciTech Connect

    Reyes, S; Gomez del Rio, J; Sanz, J

    2000-02-23

    Previous studies of the safety and environmental (S and E) aspects of the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant design have used simplistic assumptions in order to estimate radioactivity releases under accident conditions. Conservatisms associated with these traditional analyses can mask the actual behavior of the plant and have revealed the need for more accurate modeling and analysis of accident conditions and radioactivity mobilization mechanisms. In the present work a set of computer codes traditionally used for magnetic fusion safety analyses (CHEMCON, MELCOR) has been applied for simulating accident conditions in a simple model of the HYLIFE-II IFE design. Here the authors consider a severe lost of coolant accident (LOCA) producing simultaneous failures of the beam tubes (providing a pathway for radioactivity release from the vacuum vessel towards the containment) and of the two barriers surrounding the chamber (inner shielding and containment building it self). Even though containment failure would be a very unlikely event it would be needed in order to produce significant off-site doses. CHEMCON code allows calculation of long-term temperature transients in fusion reactor first wall, blanket, and shield structures resulting from decay heating. MELCOR is used to simulate a wide range of physical phenomena including thermal-hydraulics, heat transfer, aerosol physics and fusion product release and transport. The results of these calculations show that the estimated off-site dose is less than 6 mSv (0.6 rem), which is well below the value of 10 mSv (1 rem) given by the DOE Fusion Safety Standards for protection of the public from exposure to radiation during off-normal conditions.

  5. Accident consequences analysis of the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy power plant design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, S.; Latkowski, J. F.; Gomez del Rio, J.; Sanz, J.

    2001-05-01

    Previous studies of the safety and environmental aspects of the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy power plant design have used simplistic assumptions in order to estimate radioactivity releases under accident conditions. Conservatisms associated with these traditional analyses can mask the actual behavior of the plant and have revealed the need for more accurate modeling and analysis of accident conditions and radioactivity mobilization mechanisms. In the present work, computer codes traditionally used for magnetic fusion safety analyses (CHEMCON, MELCOR) have been applied for simulating accident conditions in a simple model of the HYLIFE-II IFE design. Here we consider a severe loss of coolant accident (LOCA) in conjunction with simultaneous failures of the beam tubes (providing a pathway for radioactivity release from the vacuum vessel towards the confinement) and of the two barriers surrounding the chamber (inner shielding and confinement building itself). Even though confinement failure would be a very unlikely event it would be needed in order to produce significant off-site doses. CHEMCON code allows calculation of long-term temperature transients in fusion reactor first wall, blanket, and shield structures resulting from decay heating. MELCOR is used to simulate a wide range of physical phenomena including thermal-hydraulics, heat transfer, aerosol physics and fusion product transport and release. The results of these calculations show that the estimated off-site dose is less than 5 mSv (0.5 rem), which is well below the value of 10 mSv (1 rem) given by the DOE Fusion Safety Standards for protection of the public from exposure to radiation during off-normal conditions.

  6. Idaho Habitat Evaluation for Off-Site Mitigation Record : Annual Report 1985.

    SciTech Connect

    Petrosky, Charles E.; Holubetz, Terry B.

    1986-04-01

    Evaluation approaches to document a record of credit for mitigation were developed in 1984-1985 for most of the habitat projects. Restoration of upriver anadromous fish runs through increased passage survival at main stem Columbia and Snake River dams is essential to the establishment of an off-site mitigation record, as well as to the success of the entire Fish and Wildlife program. The mitigation record is being developed to use increased smolt production (i.e., yield) at full-seeding as the basic measure of benefit from a habitat project. The IDFG evaluation approach consists of three basic, integrated levels: general monitoring, standing crop evaluations, and intensive studies. Annual general monitoring of anadromous fish densities in a small number of sections for each project will be used to follow population trends and define full-seeding levels. For most projects, smolt production will be estimated indirectly from standing crop estimates by factoring appropriate survival rates from parr to smolt stages. Intensive studies in a few key production streams will be initiated to determine these appropriate survival rates and provide other basic biological information that is needed for evaluation of the Fish and Wildlife program. A common physical habitat and fish population data base is being developed for every BPA habitat project in Idaho to be integrated at each level of evaluation. Compatibility of data is also needed between Idaho and other agencies and tribes in the Columbia River basin. No final determination of mitigation credit for any Idaho habitat enhancement project has been attainable to date.

  7. Diagnosing and modifying off-site blast effects by seismic means -- A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Brashear, S.; Brush, R.; Cook, B.

    1995-12-31

    A series of complaints were received from the owners of a 130 year-old farmhouse that had been converted into a bed and breakfast establishment. It was determined that blast effects were most noticeable on the third floor of the farmhouse. A vibration study was proposed aimed at isolating the actual cause of the perceived vibration. To aid in this determination, a customized, split-cable seismograph utilizing three single component transducers was deployed both in the interior and exterior of the farmhouse for two primary blasts. By utilizing a monitoring technique involving both interior and exterior sensors from a single seismograph, vibration time-histories from the three locations could be time-linked, providing an accurate assessment as to the actual mechanism responsible for the complaints. In this case, the split-cable array provided data indicating a low frequency ground vibration effect. Amplification of structure vibration due to the matching of the natural frequency of the farmhouse and the transmitted ground vibration was identified as the probable cause of the complaints. Given the potential impact of low frequency energy with surrounding properties, an analytical approach based on the concept of linear superpositioning was used to determine optimum delay intervals to reduce the off-site impact of future production blasts. Single-hole test blast data was recorded with traditional seismographs and analyzed using vibration control software. Utilization of recommended blasthole sequencing, combined with a change in blast orientation, resulted in the elimination of complaints at the farmhouse, in reduced vibration values at other neighboring properties and in a reduction in the overall liability exposure.

  8. Steady and transient regimes in hydropower plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajic, A.

    2013-12-01

    Hydropower plant that has been in operation for about 30 years has to be reconstructed. They have already installed 12 Kaplan turbines, the largest in the world at that time. The existing CAM relationship was determined based on hydraulic model tests and checked by efficiency on-site tests. It was also tested based on turbine bearing vibrations. In order to discover vibrations and long cracks on stay vanes detailed on-site measurements were performed. Influence of the modification of the trailing edges on the dynamic stresses of the stay vanes is also shown. In order to improve power output transient regimes were analyzed, both experimentally and numerically. Reversible hydropower plant, a pioneer in Europe since it was the first Pump storage power plant constructed with the highest head pump-turbines in the world. Analyses of transient regimes discover some problems with S-shaped characteristics coupled with non-symmetrical penstock.

  9. Transient neonatal zinc deficiency.

    PubMed

    Krieger, I; Alpern, B E; Cunnane, S C

    1986-06-01

    We report an infant who developed clinical manifestations of zinc deficiency during the first month of life although the diet was adequate for zinc and no other causes could be ascertained. The diagnosis was confirmed by low plasma-zinc concentrations and a positive response to zinc treatment. The fatty acid profile of plasma phospholipids was typical of zinc deficiency (ie, arachidonic acid was markedly decreased). The transient nature of this disorder was evident when no relapse occurred after cessation of zinc therapy and plasma-zinc and arachidonic acid concentrations remained normal. Several explanations for the development of transient neonatal zinc deficiency are offered. The observation demonstrates that occasional infants may have requirements for zinc that are beyond the intakes of the conventional RDA. PMID:3717070

  10. Bright Transients discovered by PSST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, K. W.; Wright, D.; Smartt, S. J.; Huber, M.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H.; Willman, M.; Primak, N.; Schultz, A.; Gibson, B.; Magnier, E.; Waters, C.; Tonry, J.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Denneau, L.; Stalder, B.; Heinze, A.; Sherstyuk, A.; Foley, R. J.; Jha, S. W.; Rest, A.; Scolnic, D.

    2016-04-01

    Seven bright transients have been discovered as part of the Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients (PSST). Information on all objects discovered by the Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients is available at http://star.pst.qub.ac.uk/ps1threepi/ (see Huber et al. ATel #7153).

  11. Bright Transients discovered by PSST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, K. W.; Wright, D.; Smartt, S. J.; Huber, M.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H.; Willman, M.; Primak, N.; Schultz, A.; Gibson, B.; Magnier, E.; Waters, C.; Tonry, J.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Foley, R. J.; Jha, S. W.; Rest, A.; Scolnic, D.

    2016-03-01

    Seven bright transients have been discovered as part of the Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients (PSST). Information on all objects discovered by the Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients is available at http://star.pst.qub.ac.uk/ps1threepi/ (see Huber et al. ATel #7153).

  12. Bright Transients discovered by PSST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, K. W.; Wright, D.; Smartt, S. J.; Young, D. R.; Huber, M.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H.; Willman, M.; Primak, N.; Schultz, A.; Gibson, B.; Magnier, E.; Waters, C.; Tonry, J.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Foley, R. J.; Jha, S. W.; Rest, A.; Scolnic, D.

    2016-08-01

    Six bright transients have been discovered as part of the Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients (PSST). Information on all objects discovered by the Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients is available at http://star.pst.qub.ac.uk/ps1threepi/ (see Huber et al. ATel #7153).

  13. Two Transients discovered by PSST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, K. W.; Wright, D.; Smartt, S. J.; Young, D. R.; Huber, M.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H.; Willman, M.; Primak, N.; Schultz, A.; Gibson, B.; Magnier, E.; Waters, C.; Tonry, J.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Foley, R. J.; Jha, S. W.; Rest, A.; Scolnic, D.

    2016-08-01

    Two transients have been discovered as part of the Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients (PSST). Information on all objects discovered by the Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients is available at http://star.pst.qub.ac.uk/ps1threepi/ (see Huber et al. ATel #7153).

  14. Ultrafast triggered transient energy storage by atomic layer deposition into porous silicon for integrated transient electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, Anna; Muralidharan, Nitin; Carter, Rachel; Share, Keith; Pint, Cary L.

    2016-03-01

    Here we demonstrate the first on-chip silicon-integrated rechargeable transient power source based on atomic layer deposition (ALD) coating of vanadium oxide (VOx) into porous silicon. A stable specific capacitance above 20 F g-1 is achieved until the device is triggered with alkaline solutions. Due to the rational design of the active VOx coating enabled by ALD, transience occurs through a rapid disabling step that occurs within seconds, followed by full dissolution of all active materials within 30 minutes of the initial trigger. This work demonstrates how engineered materials for energy storage can provide a basis for next-generation transient systems and highlights porous silicon as a versatile scaffold to integrate transient energy storage into transient electronics.Here we demonstrate the first on-chip silicon-integrated rechargeable transient power source based on atomic layer deposition (ALD) coating of vanadium oxide (VOx) into porous silicon. A stable specific capacitance above 20 F g-1 is achieved until the device is triggered with alkaline solutions. Due to the rational design of the active VOx coating enabled by ALD, transience occurs through a rapid disabling step that occurs within seconds, followed by full dissolution of all active materials within 30 minutes of the initial trigger. This work demonstrates how engineered materials for energy storage can provide a basis for next-generation transient systems and highlights porous silicon as a versatile scaffold to integrate transient energy storage into transient electronics. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: (i) Experimental details for ALD and material fabrication, ellipsometry film thickness, preparation of gel electrolyte and separator, details for electrochemical measurements, HRTEM image of VOx coated porous silicon, Raman spectroscopy for VOx as-deposited as well as annealed in air for 1 hour at 450 °C, SEM and transient behavior dissolution tests of uniformly coated VOx on

  15. Experimental Validation of a Closed Brayton Cycle System Transient Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Paul K.; Hervol, David S.

    2006-01-01

    The Brayton Power Conversion Unit (BPCU) located at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio was used to validate the results of a computational code known as Closed Cycle System Simulation (CCSS). Conversion system thermal transient behavior was the focus of this validation. The BPCU was operated at various steady state points and then subjected to transient changes involving shaft rotational speed and thermal energy input. These conditions were then duplicated in CCSS. Validation of the CCSS BPCU model provides confidence in developing future Brayton power system performance predictions, and helps to guide high power Brayton technology development.

  16. Experimental Validation of a Closed Brayton Cycle System Transient Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Paul K.; Hervol, David S.

    2006-01-01

    The Brayton Power Conversion Unit (BPCU) located at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, OH was used to validate the results of a computational code known as Closed Cycle System Simulation (CCSS). Conversion system thermal transient behavior was the focus of this validation. The BPCU was operated at various steady state points and then subjected to transient changes involving shaft rotational speed and thermal energy input. These conditions were then duplicated in CCSS. Validation of the CCSS BPCU model provides confidence in developing future Brayton power system performance predictions, and helps to guide high power Brayton technology development.

  17. Computation of transient electromagnetic fields radiated by transmission line: An exact model

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, R.S.; Darcherif, A.; Sabonnadiere, J.C.

    1995-07-01

    A novel time domain analytical method for predicting electromagnetic field transients resulting from power line switching operations is presented in this paper. This method, which is directly derived from electromagnetic field theory of a power transmission line, allows the field transients to be accurately and efficiently calculated. It will be shown that conventional numerical methods for computing transmission line transient electromagnetic fields are in fact degenerative approximate models for this analytical method.

  18. Offsite source recovery project - ten years of sealed source recovery and disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Whitworth, Julia Rose; Pearson, Mike; Witkowski, Ioana; Wald - Hopkins, Mark; Cuthbertson, A

    2010-01-01

    The Global Threat Reduction Initiative's (GTRI) Offsite Source Recovery Project (OSRP) has been recovering excess and unwanted radioactive sealed sources for ten years. In January 2009, GTRI announced that the project had recovered 20,000 sealed radioactive sources (this number has since increased to more than 23,000). This project grew out of early efforts at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to recover and disposition excess Plutonium-239 (Pu-239) sealed sources that were distributed in the 1960s and 1970s under the Atoms for Peace Program. Decades later, these sources began to exceed their special form certifications or fall out of regular use. As OSRP has collected and stored sealed sources, initially using 'No Path Forward' waste exemptions for storage within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, it has consistently worked to create disposal pathways for the material it has recovered. The project was initially restricted to recovering sealed sources that would meet the definition of Greater-than-Class-C (GTCC) low-level radioactive waste, assisting DOE in meeting its obligations under the Low-level Radioactive Waste Policy Act Amendments (PL 99-240) to provide disposal for this type of waste. After being transferred from DOE-Environmental Management (EM) to the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) to be part of GTRI, OSRP's mission was expanded to include not only material that would be classified as GTCC when it became waste, but also any other materials that might constitute a 'national security consideration.' It was recognized at the time that the GTCC category was a waste designation having to do with environmental consequence, rather than the threat posed by deliberate or accidental misuse. The project faces barriers to recovery in many areas, but disposal continues to be one of the more difficult to overcome. This paper discusses OSRP's disposal efforts over its 10-year history. For sources meeting the DOE definition of

  19. Interpreting signals from astrophysical transient experiments

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Paul T.; Smartt, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    Time-domain astronomy has come of age with astronomers now able to monitor the sky at high cadence, both across the electromagnetic spectrum and using neutrinos and gravitational waves. The advent of new observing facilities permits new science, but the ever-increasing throughput of facilities demands efficient communication of coincident detections and better subsequent coordination among the scientific community so as to turn detections into scientific discoveries. To discuss the revolution occurring in our ability to monitor the Universe and the challenges it brings, on 25–26 April 2012, a group of scientists from observational and theoretical teams studying transients met with representatives of the major international transient observing facilities at the Kavli Royal Society International Centre, UK. This immediately followed the Royal Society Discussion Meeting ‘New windows on transients across the Universe’ held in London. Here, we present a summary of the Kavli meeting at which the participants discussed the science goals common to the transient astronomy community and analysed how to better meet the challenges ahead as ever more powerful observational facilities come on stream. PMID:23630383

  20. Interpreting signals from astrophysical transient experiments.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Paul T; Smartt, Stephen J

    2013-06-13

    Time-domain astronomy has come of age with astronomers now able to monitor the sky at high cadence, both across the electromagnetic spectrum and using neutrinos and gravitational waves. The advent of new observing facilities permits new science, but the ever-increasing throughput of facilities demands efficient communication of coincident detections and better subsequent coordination among the scientific community so as to turn detections into scientific discoveries. To discuss the revolution occurring in our ability to monitor the Universe and the challenges it brings, on 25-26 April 2012, a group of scientists from observational and theoretical teams studying transients met with representatives of the major international transient observing facilities at the Kavli Royal Society International Centre, UK. This immediately followed the Royal Society Discussion Meeting 'New windows on transients across the Universe' held in London. Here, we present a summary of the Kavli meeting at which the participants discussed the science goals common to the transient astronomy community and analysed how to better meet the challenges ahead as ever more powerful observational facilities come on stream. PMID:23630383

  1. Workshop on Radio Transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croft, Steve; Gaensler, Bryan

    2012-04-01

    abstract-type="normal">SummaryWe are entering a new era in the study of variable and transient radio sources. This workshop discussed the instruments and the strategies employed to study those sources, how they are identified and classified, how results from different surveys can be compared, and how radio observations tie in with those at other wavelengths. The emphasis was on learning what common ground there is between the plethora of on-going projects, how methods and code can be shared, and how best practices regarding survey strategy could be adopted. The workshop featured the four topics below. Each topic commenced with a fairly brief introductory talk, which then developed into discussion. By way of preparation, participants had been invited to upload and discuss one slide per topic to a wiki ahead of the workshop. 1. Telescopes, instrumentation and survey strategy. New radio facilities and on-going projects (including upgrades) are both studying the variability of the radio sky, and searching for transients. The discussion first centred on the status of those facilities, and on projects with a time-domain focus, both ongoing and planned, before turning to factors driving choices of instrumentation, such as phased array versus single pixel feeds, the field of view, spatial and time resolution, frequency and bandwidth, depth, area, and cadence of the surveys. 2. Detection, pipelines, and classification. The workshop debated (a) the factors that influence decisions to study variability in the (u,v) plane, in images, or in catalogues, (b) whether, and how much, pipeline code could potentially be shared between one project and another, and which software packages are best for different approaches, (c) how data are stored and later accessed, and (d) how transients and variables are defined and classified. 3. Statistics, interpretation, and synthesis. It then discussed how (i) the choice of facility and strategy and (ii) detection and classification schemes

  2. Thermal transient anemometer

    DOEpatents

    Bailey, James L.; Vresk, Josip

    1989-01-01

    A thermal transient anemometer having a thermocouple probe which is utilized to measure the change in temperature over a period of time to provide a measure of fluid flow velocity. The thermocouple probe is located in the fluid flow path and pulsed to heat or cool the probe. The cooling of the heated probe or the heating of the cooled probe from the fluid flow over a period of time is measured to determine the fluid flow velocity. The probe is desired to be locally heated near the tip to increase the efficiency of devices incorporating the probe.

  3. Thermal transient anemometer

    DOEpatents

    Bailey, J.L.; Vresk, J.

    1989-07-18

    A thermal transient anemometer is disclosed having a thermocouple probe which is utilized to measure the change in temperature over a period of time to provide a measure of fluid flow velocity. The thermocouple probe is located in the fluid flow path and pulsed to heat or cool the probe. The cooling of the heated probe or the heating of the cooled probe from the fluid flow over a period of time is measured to determine the fluid flow velocity. The probe is desired to be locally heated near the tip to increase the efficiency of devices incorporating the probe. 12 figs.

  4. Transient neonatal tyrosinaemia.

    PubMed

    Rice, D N; Houston, I B; Lyon, I C; Macarthur, B A; Mullins, P R; Veale, A M; Guthrie, R

    1989-01-01

    Children who had presented with transient neonatal tyrosinaemia (TNT) were compared with a group of unaffected controls at 7-9 years of age. A comprehensive psychometric assessment revealed significant differences between the groups in adaptive behaviour, psycholinguistic abilities, and speed of learning. In nearly all components of the tests used, higher levels of TNT were associated with lower levels of performance. This study demonstrates that TNT, a condition commonly regarded as benign in the short term, has long-term effects which may be detrimental to the child in school.

  5. Transient enthalpy probe development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Brian K.

    A reliable diagnostic probe has been developed to measure the local enthalpy in high-pressure, arc heated test streams that simulate atmospheric reentry conditions. The probe employs the double sonic-throat technique and is designed for the sweep (transient) mode to survive the severe heating environment. Tests in the high-pressure arc heater facilities show that, under certain conditions, the enthalpy probe measurements are in good agreement with enthalpy profiles inferred from heat flux measurements using the theory of Fay and Riddell (1958).

  6. The Rapid Transient Surveyor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranec, Christoph; Tonry, John; Wright, Shelley; Tully, R. Brent; Lu, Jessica R.; Takamiya, Marianne Y.; Hunter, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    The next decade of astronomy will be dominated by large area surveys (see the detailed discussion in the Astro-2010 Decadal survey and NRC's recent OIR System Report). Ground-based optical transient surveys, e.g., LSST, ZTF and ATLAS and space-based exoplanet, supernova, and lensing surveys such as TESS and WFIRST will join the Gaia all-sky astrometric survey in producing a flood of data that will enable leaps in our understanding of the universe. There is a critical need for further characterization of these discoveries through high angular resolution images, deeper images, spectra, or observations at different cadences or periods than the main surveys. Such follow-up characterization must be well matched to the particular surveys, and requires sufficient additional observing resources and time to cover the extensive number of targets.We describe plans for the Rapid Transient Surveyor (RTS), a permanently mounted, rapid-response, high-cadence facility for follow-up characterization of transient objects on the U. of Hawai'i 2.2-m telescope on Maunakea. RTS will comprise an improved robotic laser adaptive optics system, based on the prototype Robo-AO system (formerly at the Palomar 1.5-m and now at the Kitt Peak 2.2-m telescope), with simultaneous visible and near-infrared imagers as well as a near-infrared integral field spectrograph (R~100, λ = 850 - 1830 nm, 0.15″ spaxels, 8.7″×6.0″ FoV). RTS will achieve an acuity of ~0.07″ in visible wavelengths and < 0.16″ in the near infrared leading to an increase of the infrared point-source sensitivity against the sky background by a factor of ~9, crucial for efficient near-infrared spectroscopy.RTS will allow us to map the dark matter distribution in the z < 0.1 local universe with ten times better accuracy and precision than previous experiments. ATLAS will discover several thousand SNIae per year, measuring SNIa peak brightness, and decline rates, while RTS will measure reddening by dust, confirm SN type and

  7. Characterizing Nanoscale Transient Communication.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yifan; Anwar, Putri Santi; Huang, Limin; Asvial, Muhamad

    2016-04-01

    We consider the novel paradigm of nanoscale transient communication (NTC), where certain components of the small-scale communication link are physically transient. As such, the transmitter and the receiver may change their properties over a prescribed lifespan due to their time-varying structures. The NTC systems may find important applications in the biomedical, environmental, and military fields, where system degradability allows for benign integration into life and environment. In this paper, we analyze the NTC systems from the channel-modeling and capacity-analysis perspectives and focus on the stochastically meaningful slow transience scenario, where the coherence time of degeneration Td is much longer than the coding delay Tc. We first develop novel and parsimonious models to characterize the NTC channels, where three types of physical layers are considered: electromagnetism-based terahertz (THz) communication, diffusion-based molecular communication (DMC), and nanobots-assisted touchable communication (TouchCom). We then revisit the classical performance measure of ϵ-outage channel capacity and take a fresh look at its formulations in the NTC context. Next, we present the notion of capacity degeneration profile (CDP), which describes the reduction of channel capacity with respect to the degeneration time. Finally, we provide numerical examples to demonstrate the features of CDP. To the best of our knowledge, the current work represents a first attempt to systematically evaluate the quality of nanoscale communication systems deteriorating with time.

  8. Transient congenital hypothyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Bhavani, Nisha

    2011-01-01

    Transient thyroid function abnormalities in the new born which revert back to normal after varying periods of time are mostly identified in the neonatal screening tests for thyroid and are becoming more common because of the survival of many more premature infants. It can be due to factors primarily affecting the thyroid-like iodine deficiency or excess, maternal thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) antibodies, maternal use of antithyroid drugs, DUOX 2 (dual oxidase 2) mutations, and prematurity or those that affect the pituitary-like untreated maternal hyperthyroidism, prematurity, and drugs. Most of these require only observation, whereas some, such as those due to maternal TSHR antibodies may last for upto three-to-six months and may necessitate treatment. Isolated hyperthyrotropinemia (normal Tetraiodothyronine (T4) and high Thyroid Stimulating hormone (TSH)) may persist as subclinical hypothyroidism in childhood. Transient hypothyroxinemia (low T4 and normal TSH) is very common in premature babies. The recognition of these conditions will obviate the risks associated with unnecessary thyroxine supplementation in childhood and parental concerns of a life long illness in their offspring. PMID:21966647

  9. Environmental assessment for the off-site volume reduction of low-level radioactive waste from the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1061) for the proposed off-site volume reduction of low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) generated at the Savannah River Site (SRS), near Aiken, South Carolina. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  10. The joy of transient chaos

    SciTech Connect

    Tél, Tamás

    2015-09-15

    We intend to show that transient chaos is a very appealing, but still not widely appreciated, subfield of nonlinear dynamics. Besides flashing its basic properties and giving a brief overview of the many applications, a few recent transient-chaos-related subjects are introduced in some detail. These include the dynamics of decision making, dispersion, and sedimentation of volcanic ash, doubly transient chaos of undriven autonomous mechanical systems, and a dynamical systems approach to energy absorption or explosion.

  11. The joy of transient chaos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tél, Tamás

    2015-09-01

    We intend to show that transient chaos is a very appealing, but still not widely appreciated, subfield of nonlinear dynamics. Besides flashing its basic properties and giving a brief overview of the many applications, a few recent transient-chaos-related subjects are introduced in some detail. These include the dynamics of decision making, dispersion, and sedimentation of volcanic ash, doubly transient chaos of undriven autonomous mechanical systems, and a dynamical systems approach to energy absorption or explosion.

  12. The Zwicky Transient Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.

    2016-01-01

    The Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF) has been designed with a singular focus: a systematic exploration of the night sky at a magnitude level well suited for spectral classification and follow up with the existing class of 4-m to 10-m class telescopes. ZTF is the successor to the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF). The discovery engine for ZTF is a 47 square degree camera (realized through 16 e2V monolithic CCDs) that fills the entire focal plane of the 48-inch Oschin telescope of the Palomar Observatory. Single 30-s epoch sensitivity is about 20.5 in g and R bands. The Infarared Processing & Analysis Center (IPAC) is the data center for ZTF. ZTF is a public-private partnership with equal contributions from a consortium of world-wide partners and an NSF MSIP grant. Forty percent of ZTF time is set aside for two major community surveys: a 3-day cadence survey of high latitudes (to mimic LSST) and a time domain survey of the entire Northern Galactic plane. We expect first light in February 2017 and begin a 3-year survey starting summer of 2017. The first year will be spent on building up deep reference images of the sky (a must for transient surveys). During the second year IPAC will deliver near archival quality photometric products within 12 hours of observations. By comparison to reference images photometric alerts will be sent out. Year 3 will see the near real-time release of image differencing products. A Community Science Advisory Committee (CSAC), chaired by S. Ridgway (NOAO), has been set up to both advise the PI and to ensure that the US community's interests are well served. Astronomers interested in getting a head start on ZTF may wish to peruse the data releases from PTF. Young people (or young at heart) may wish to attend the annual summer school on PTF/ZTF (August, Caltech campus). The Principal Investigator (PI) for the project is S. Kulkarni and the Project Scientist is Eric Bellm.For further details please consult http://www.ptf.caltech.edu/ztf

  13. A physically transient form of silicon electronics.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Suk-Won; Tao, Hu; Kim, Dae-Hyeong; Cheng, Huanyu; Song, Jun-Kyul; Rill, Elliott; Brenckle, Mark A; Panilaitis, Bruce; Won, Sang Min; Kim, Yun-Soung; Song, Young Min; Yu, Ki Jun; Ameen, Abid; Li, Rui; Su, Yewang; Yang, Miaomiao; Kaplan, David L; Zakin, Mitchell R; Slepian, Marvin J; Huang, Yonggang; Omenetto, Fiorenzo G; Rogers, John A

    2012-09-28

    A remarkable feature of modern silicon electronics is its ability to remain physically invariant, almost indefinitely for practical purposes. Although this characteristic is a hallmark of applications of integrated circuits that exist today, there might be opportunities for systems that offer the opposite behavior, such as implantable devices that function for medically useful time frames but then completely disappear via resorption by the body. We report a set of materials, manufacturing schemes, device components, and theoretical design tools for a silicon-based complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology that has this type of transient behavior, together with integrated sensors, actuators, power supply systems, and wireless control strategies. An implantable transient device that acts as a programmable nonantibiotic bacteriocide provides a system-level example.

  14. 44 CFR 352.26 - Arrangements for Federal response in the licensee offsite emergency response plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS: EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS PLANNING Federal Participation § 352.26 Arrangements for... from commercial nuclear power plant licensees to State and local governments and to surrounding members...) Arrangements for use of Federal facilities and resources for response functions such as: (1)...

  15. 44 CFR 352.26 - Arrangements for Federal response in the licensee offsite emergency response plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS: EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS PLANNING Federal Participation § 352.26 Arrangements for... services at Federal hospitals; and (5) Ensuring the creation and maintenance of channels of communication from commercial nuclear power plant licensees to State and local governments and to surrounding...

  16. Transient complex peroxisomal interactions

    PubMed Central

    Bonekamp, Nina A.; Schrader, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondria and peroxisomes are ubiquitous subcellular organelles that fulfill essential metabolic functions, rendering them indispensable for human development and health. Both are highly dynamic organelles that can undergo remarkable changes in morphology and number to accomplish cellular needs. While mitochondrial dynamics are also regulated by frequent fusion events, the fusion of mature peroxisomes in mammalian cells remained a matter of debate. In our recent study, we clarified systematically that there is no complete fusion of mature peroxisomes analogous to mitochondria. Moreover, in contrast to key division components such as DLP1, Fis1 or Mff, mitochondrial fusion proteins were not localized to peroxisomes. However, we discovered and characterized novel transient, complex interactions between individual peroxisomes which may contribute to the homogenization of the often heterogeneous peroxisomal compartment, e.g., by distribution of metabolites, signals or other “molecular information” via interperoxisomal contact sites. PMID:23336019

  17. Perturbations for transient acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Vargas, Cristofher Zuñiga; Zimdahl, Winfried; Hipólito-Ricaldi, Wiliam S. E-mail: hipolito@ceunes.ufes.br

    2012-04-01

    According to the standard ΛCDM model, the accelerated expansion of the Universe will go on forever. Motivated by recent observational results, we explore the possibility of a finite phase of acceleration which asymptotically approaches another period of decelerated expansion. Extending an earlier study on a corresponding homogeneous and isotropic dynamics, in which interactions between dark matter and dark energy are crucial, the present paper also investigates the dynamics of the matter perturbations both on the Newtonian and General Relativistic (GR) levels and quantifies the potential relevance of perturbations of the dark-energy component. In the background, the model is tested against the Supernova type Ia (SNIa) data of the Constitution set and on the perturbative level against growth rate data, among them those of the WiggleZ survey, and the data of the 2dFGRS project. Our results indicate that a transient phase of accelerated expansion is not excluded by current observations.

  18. Transient infrared transmission spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.W.; McClelland, J.F. )

    1990-10-15

    Transient infrared transmission spectroscopy is a new method that can acquire analytically useful transmission spectra from moving, optically thick solids. No sample preparation is required. The spectra are of sufficient quality for accurate quantitative compositional analysis. The method works by the creation of a thin, short-lived, chilled layer at the sample surface. Blackbody-like thermal emission from the bulk of the sample is selectively absorbed as it passes through the chilled layer, so the transmission spectrum of the layer is superimposed on the observed thermal emission. Spectra of polycarbonate, beeswax, and copolymers of methyl and butyl methacrylate are presented. Compositional analysis of the methacrylate copolymers with a standard error or prediction of only 0.87 mol % is demonstrated.

  19. Transient infrared transmission spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Jones, R W; McClelland, J F

    1990-10-15

    Transient infrared transmission spectroscopy is a new method that can acquire analytically useful transmission spectra from moving, optically thick solids. No sample preparation is required. The spectra are of sufficient quality for accurate quantitative compositional analysis. The method works by the creation of a thin, short-lived, chilled layer at the sample surface. Blackbody-like thermal emission from the bulk of the sample is selectively absorbed as it passes through the chilled layer, so the transmission spectrum of the layer is superimposed on the observed thermal emission. Spectra of polycarbonate, beeswax, and copolymers of methyl and butyl methacrylate are presented. Compositional analysis of the methacrylate copolymers with a standard error of prediction of only 0.87 mol % is demonstrated.

  20. Utilities and offsites design baseline. Outside Battery Limits Facility 6000 tpd SRC-I Demonstration Plant. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1984-05-25

    As part of the overall Solvent Refined Coal (SRC-1) project baseline being prepared by International Coal Refining Company (ICRC), the RUST Engineering Company is providing necessary input for the Outside Battery Limits (OSBL) Facilities. The project baseline is comprised of: design baseline - technical definition of work; schedule baseline - detailed and management level 1 schedules; and cost baseline - estimates and cost/manpower plan. The design baseline (technical definition) for the OSBL Facilities has been completed and is presented in Volumes I, II, III, IV, V and VI. The OSBL technical definition is based on, and compatible with, the ICRC defined statement of work, design basis memorandum, master project procedures, process and mechanical design criteria, and baseline guidance documents. The design basis memorandum is included in Paragraph 1.3 of Volume I. The baseline design data is presented in 6 volumes. Volume I contains the introduction section and utility systems data through steam and feedwater. Volume II continues with utility systems data through fuel system, and contains the interconnecting systems and utility system integration information. Volume III contains the offsites data through water and waste treatment. Volume IV continues with offsites data, including site development and buildings, and contains raw materials and product handling and storage information. Volume V contains wastewater treatment and solid wastes landfill systems developed by Catalytic, Inc. to supplement the information contained in Volume III. Volume VI contains proprietary information of Resources Conservation Company related to the evaporator/crystallizer system of the wastewater treatment area.

  1. 10 CFR 50.62 - Requirements for reduction of risk from anticipated transients without scram (ATWS) events for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... transients without scram (ATWS) events for light-water-cooled nuclear power plants. 50.62 Section 50.62... from anticipated transients without scram (ATWS) events for light-water-cooled nuclear power plants. (a) Applicability. The requirements of this section apply to all commercial light-water-cooled nuclear power...

  2. 10 CFR 50.62 - Requirements for reduction of risk from anticipated transients without scram (ATWS) events for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... transients without scram (ATWS) events for light-water-cooled nuclear power plants. 50.62 Section 50.62... from anticipated transients without scram (ATWS) events for light-water-cooled nuclear power plants. (a) Applicability. The requirements of this section apply to all commercial light-water-cooled nuclear power...

  3. 10 CFR 50.62 - Requirements for reduction of risk from anticipated transients without scram (ATWS) events for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... transients without scram (ATWS) events for light-water-cooled nuclear power plants. 50.62 Section 50.62... from anticipated transients without scram (ATWS) events for light-water-cooled nuclear power plants. (a) Applicability. The requirements of this section apply to all commercial light-water-cooled nuclear power...

  4. 10 CFR 50.62 - Requirements for reduction of risk from anticipated transients without scram (ATWS) events for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... transients without scram (ATWS) events for light-water-cooled nuclear power plants. 50.62 Section 50.62... from anticipated transients without scram (ATWS) events for light-water-cooled nuclear power plants. (a) Applicability. The requirements of this section apply to all commercial light-water-cooled nuclear power...

  5. 10 CFR 50.62 - Requirements for reduction of risk from anticipated transients without scram (ATWS) events for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... transients without scram (ATWS) events for light-water-cooled nuclear power plants. 50.62 Section 50.62... from anticipated transients without scram (ATWS) events for light-water-cooled nuclear power plants. (a) Applicability. The requirements of this section apply to all commercial light-water-cooled nuclear power...

  6. 1982 engineering conference on reliability for the electrical power industry

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, D.J.; Arendt, J.S.; Battle, R.E.; Baranowsky, P.W.

    1982-01-01

    Emergency onsite ac power systems at nuclear power plants are a major concern in plant risk assessments because of the relatively large frequency of loss of offsite power and the dependence of most other safety systems on ac power. Detailed reviews of onsite ac power system designs and reviews of experience with diesel generators at US nuclear power plants form the basis of system reliability analyses that show significant improvements in reliability can be obtained at moderate cost for some plants. Onsite ac power system modifications analyzed include procedural modifications, minor equipment modifications and major equipment additions. Relative costs of various modifications are compared with associated system reliability improvements.

  7. Future Transient Testing of Advanced Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Jon Carmack

    2009-09-01

    The transient in-reactor fuels testing workshop was held on May 4–5, 2009 at Idaho National Laboratory. The purpose of this meeting was to provide a forum where technical experts in transient testing of nuclear fuels could meet directly with technical instrumentation experts and nuclear fuel modeling and simulation experts to discuss needed advancements in transient testing to support a basic understanding of nuclear fuel behavior under off-normal conditions. The workshop was attended by representatives from Commissariat à l'Énergie Atomique CEA, Japanese Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Department of Energy (DOE), AREVA, General Electric – Global Nuclear Fuels (GE-GNF), Westinghouse, Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), universities, and several DOE national laboratories. Transient testing of fuels and materials generates information required for advanced fuels in future nuclear power plants. Future nuclear power plants will rely heavily on advanced computer modeling and simulation that describes fuel behavior under off-normal conditions. TREAT is an ideal facility for this testing because of its flexibility, proven operation and material condition. The opportunity exists to develop advanced instrumentation and data collection that can support modeling and simulation needs much better than was possible in the past. In order to take advantage of these opportunities, test programs must be carefully designed to yield basic information to support modeling before conducting integral performance tests. An early start of TREAT and operation at low power would provide significant dividends in training, development of instrumentation, and checkout of reactor systems. Early start of TREAT (2015) is needed to support the requirements of potential users of TREAT and include the testing of full length fuel irradiated in the FFTF reactor. The capabilities provided by TREAT are needed for the development of nuclear power and the following benefits will be realized by the

  8. Summer 1993 Transient Student Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent State Univ., Warren, OH. Office of Institutional Research.

    A study was conducted by the Trumbull Campus (TC) of Kent State University, in Ohio, to determine the motivations, objectives, and level of satisfaction of transient students, or students pursuing a degree at another institution but enrolled in courses at TC. Surveys were mailed to 50 transient students enrolled in summer 1993, with completed…

  9. Capture-recapture survival models taking account of transients

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pradel, R.; Hines, J.E.; Lebreton, J.D.; Nichols, J.D.

    1997-01-01

    The presence of transient animals, common enough in natural populations, invalidates the estimation of survival by traditional capture- recapture (CR) models designed for the study of residents only. Also, the study of transit is interesting in itself. We thus develop here a class of CR models to describe the presence of transients. In order to assess the merits of this approach we examme the bias of the traditional survival estimators in the presence of transients in relation to the power of different tests for detecting transients. We also compare the relative efficiency of an ad hoc approach to dealing with transients that leaves out the first observation of each animal. We then study a real example using lazuli bunting (Passerina amoena) and, in conclusion, discuss the design of an experiment aiming at the estimation of transience. In practice, the presence of transients is easily detected whenever the risk of bias is high. The ad hoc approach, which yields unbiased estimates for residents only, is satisfactory in a time-dependent context but poorly efficient when parameters are constant. The example shows that intermediate situations between strict 'residence' and strict 'transience' may exist in certain studies. Yet, most of the time, if the study design takes into account the expected length of stay of a transient, it should be possible to efficiently separate the two categories of animals.

  10. Reliability of radio transients detected in the Nasu sky survey

    SciTech Connect

    Aoki, Takahiro; Daishido, Tsuneaki; Tanaka, Tai; Nakao, Ryota; Nomura, Naomi; Sugisawa, Kentaro; Niinuma, Kotaro; Takefuji, Kazuhiro; Kida, Sumiko

    2014-01-20

    This article reports on the reliability of 11 radio transients detected in the Nasu sky survey. We derived false detection rates and evaluated the statistical significance of each transient source. A single source, labeled WJN J1443+3439, was statistically significant at the 10{sup –5} significance level; the other 10 sources were insignificant. On the basis of this single detection, the sky surface density of live radio transients was estimated to be 2{sub −1.9}{sup +9}×10{sup −6} deg{sup −2} at a flux density above 3 Jy and a frequency of 1.42 GHz. Since this result is comparable with other survey results and known transients, WJN J1443+3439 could not be excluded. The sky surface density supported a power-law distribution of source count versus flux density. For transient events, the power-law exponent was approximately –3/2. These results are expected to assist radio variable/transient surveys in next-generation facilities such as the Square Kilometre Array.

  11. Investigation of off-site airborne transport of lead from a superfund removal action site using lead isotope ratios and concentrations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pribil, Michael J.; Maddaloni, Mark A.; Staiger, Kimberly; Wilson, Eric; Magriples, Nick; Ali, Mustafa; Santella, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Lead (Pb) concentration and Pb isotopic composition of surface and subsurface soil samples were used to investigate the potential for off-site air transport of Pb from a former white Pb processing facility to neighboring residential homes in a six block area on Staten Island, NY. Surface and subsurface soil samples collected on the Jewett White Pb site were found to range from 1.122 to 1.138 for 206Pb/207Pb and 2.393 to 2.411 for 208Pb/207Pb. The off-site surface soil samples collected from residential backyards, train trestle, near site grass patches and background areas varied from 1.144 to 1.196 for 206Pb/207Pb and 2.427 to 2.464 for 208Pb/207Pb. Two soil samples collected along Richmond Terrace, where Jewett site soils accumulated after major rain events, varied from 1.136 to 1.147 for 206Pb/207Pb and 2.407 to 2.419 for 208Pb/207Pb. Lead concentration for on-site surface soil samples ranged from 450 to 8000 ug/g, on-site subsurface soil samples ranged from 90,000 to 240,000 ug/g and off-site samples varied from 380 to 3500 ug/g. Lead concentration and isotopic composition for the Staten Island off-site samples were similar to previously published data for other northeastern US cities and reflect re-suspension and re-mobilization of local accumulated Pb. The considerable differences in both the Pb isotopic composition and Pb concentration of on-site and off-site samples resulted in the ability to geochemically trace the transport of particulate Pb. Data in this study indicate minimal off-site surface transport of Pb from the Jewett site into the neighboring residential area.

  12. Transient ponderomotive effects in superconducting cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Kirk Davis; Thomas Powers

    2005-07-10

    A number of experiments were performed on an installed and operational 5-cell CEBAF cavity to determine the minimum time required to re-establish stable gradient after a cavity window arc trip. Once it was determined that gradient could be re-established within 10 ms by applying constant power RF signal in a voltage controlled Oscillator-phase locked loop based system (VCO-PLL), a second experiment was performed to determine if stable gradient could be re-established using a fixed frequency RF system with a simple gradient based closed loop control system. During this test, fluctuations were observed in the cavity forward power signal, the source of which was later determined to be pondero-motive in nature. These ponderomotive induced vibrations were quantified using a cavity resonance monitor and a VCO-PLL RF system. Experimental results, analysis of the resultant klystron power transients, the decay time of the transients, and the implications with respect to fast reset algorithms will be presented.

  13. Transient catalytic combustor model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tien, J. S.

    1981-01-01

    A quasi-steady gas phase and thermally thin substrate model is used to analyze the transient behavior of catalytic monolith combustors in fuel lean operation. The combustor response delay is due to the substrate thermal inertia. Fast response is favored by thin substrate, short catalytic bed length, high combustor inlet and final temperatures, and small gas channel diameters. The calculated gas and substrate temperature time history at different axial positions provides an understanding of how the catalytic combustor responds to an upstream condition change. The computed results also suggest that the gas residence times in the catalytic bed in the after bed space are correlatable with the nondimensional combustor response time. The model also performs steady state combustion calculations; and the computed steady state emission characteristics show agreement with available experimental data in the range of parameters covered. A catalytic combustor design for automotive gas turbine engine which has reasonably fast response ( 1 second) and can satisfy the emission goals in an acceptable total combustor length is possible.

  14. Transient Thermoelectric Solution Employing Green's Functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackey, Jon; Sehirlioglu, Alp; Dynys, Fred

    2014-01-01

    The study works to formulate convenient solutions to the problem of a thermoelectric couple operating under a time varying condition. Transient operation of a thermoelectric will become increasingly common as thermoelectric technology permits applications in an increasing number of uses. A number of terrestrial applications, in contrast to steady-state space applications, can subject devices to time varying conditions. For instance thermoelectrics can be exposed to transient conditions in the automotive industry depending on engine system dynamics along with factors like driving style. In an effort to generalize the thermoelectric solution a Greens function method is used, so that arbitrary time varying boundary and initial conditions may be applied to the system without reformulation. The solution demonstrates that in thermoelectric applications of a transient nature additional factors must be taken into account and optimized. For instance, the materials specific heat and density become critical parameters in addition to the thermal mass of a heat sink or the details of the thermal profile, such as oscillating frequency. The calculations can yield the optimum operating conditions to maximize power output andor efficiency for a given type of device.

  15. Single Event Transients in Linear Integrated Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchner, Stephen; McMorrow, Dale

    2005-01-01

    to transients. In some cases, such events produced resets by falsely triggering circuits designed to protect against over- voltage or over-current. On at least three occasions, transients caused satellites to switch into "safe mode" in which most of the systems on board the satellites were powered down for an extended period. By the time the satellites were reconfigured and returned to full operational state, much scientific data had been lost. Fortunately, no permanent damage occurred in any of the systems and they were all successfully re-activated.

  16. Reliability of emergency ac power systems at nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Battle, R E; Campbell, D J

    1983-07-01

    Reliability of emergency onsite ac power systems at nuclear power plants has been questioned within the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) because of the number of diesel generator failures reported by nuclear plant licensees and the reactor core damage that could result from diesel failure during an emergency. This report contains the results of a reliability analysis of the onsite ac power system, and it uses the results of a separate analysis of offsite power systems to calculate the expected frequency of station blackout. Included is a design and operating experience review. Eighteen plants representative of typical onsite ac power systems and ten generic designs were selected to be modeled by fault trees. Operating experience data were collected from the NRC files and from nuclear plant licensee responses to a questionnaire sent out for this project.

  17. Transient upsets in microprocessor controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaser, R. E.; Masson, G. M.

    1981-01-01

    The modeling and analysis of transient faults in microprocessor based controllers are discussed. Such controllers typically consist of a microprocessor, read only memory storing and application program, random access memory for data storage, and input/output devices for external communications. The effects of transient faults on the performance of the controller are reviewed. An instruction level perspective of performance is taken which is the basis of a useful high level program state description of the microprocessor controller. A transition matrix is defined which determines the controller's response to transient fault arrivals.

  18. Transient overvoltages on cable sheaths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabringhaus, H. G.

    1983-08-01

    Transient overvoltage on the sheaths of high voltage cables with single point sheath earthing or cross bonding of the cable sheaths involve danger for the cable and the joints. The investigations of transient overvoltages in the case of a switching operation on a 110 kV single core oil filled cable with single sided sheath earthing are reported. A comparison between measured transient voltage variations and those calculated with the help of a traveling wave analyzer program shows very good agreement. The investigations showed that with single point sheath earthing, the unearthed sheath end ought to be protected against overvoltages.

  19. Transient characteristics of rocket turbopumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimura, Takashi; Watanabe, Mitsuo

    Transient characteristics of high-speed, high-pressure cryogenic turbopumps for rocket engines were examined experimentally by starting and stopping several rocket turbopumps rapidly by gas turbine drive. Aspects of transient characteristics studied were instantaneous pump head coefficient and pump efficiency, cavitation growth in the inducer during rapid acceleration, effects of the starting mode related to the propulsion system mission, and transient behavior of a self-balancing type axial thrust balancing system. Based on the test results, the feasibility of definite starting modes for the LE-5 turbopump was confirmed and the self-balancing type axial thrust balancing system for the LE-7 LOX turbopump was completed.

  20. 75 FR 19985 - Fee for Services To Support FEMA's Offsite Radiological Emergency Preparedness Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ... services provided by FEMA personnel for FEMA's Radiological Emergency Preparedness (REP) Program. DATES... charging an hourly user fee rate of $53.72 to NRC licensees of commercial nuclear power plants for all REP.... FEMA will deposit these funds in the REP Program Fund to offset the actual costs by FEMA for its...

  1. Linking RESRAD-OFFSITE and HYDROGEOCHEM Model for Performance Assessment of Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility - 13429

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Wen-Sheng; Yu, Charley; Cheng, Jing-Jy; Kamboj, Sunita; Gnanapragasam, Emmanuel; Liu, Chen-Wuing; Li, Ming-Hsu

    2013-07-01

    Performance assessments are crucial steps for the long-term radiological safety requirements of low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility. How much concentration of radionuclides released from the near-field to biosphere and what radiation exposure levels of an individual can influence on the satisfactory performance of the LLW disposal facility and safety disposal environment. Performance assessment methodology for the radioactive waste disposal consists of the reactive transport modeling of safety-concerned radionuclides released from the near-field to the far-field, and the potential exposure pathways and the movements of radionuclides through the geosphere, biosphere and man of which the accompanying dose. Therefore, the integration of hydrogeochemical transport model and dose assessment code, HYDROGEOCHEM code and RESRAD family of codes is imperative. The RESRAD family of codes such as RESRAD-OFFSITE computer code can evaluate the radiological dose and excess cancer risk to an individual who is exposed while located within or outside the area of initial (primary) contamination. The HYDROGEOCHEM is a 3-D numerical model of fluid flow, thermal, hydrologic transport, and biogeochemical kinetic and equilibrium reactions in saturated and unsaturated media. The HYDROGEOCHEM model can also simulate the crucial geochemical mechanism, such as the effect of redox processes on the adsorption/desorption, hydrogeochemical influences on concrete degradation, adsorption/desorption of radionuclides (i.e., surface complexation model) between solid and liquid phase in geochemically dynamic environments. To investigate the safety assessment of LLW disposal facility, linking RESRAD-OFFSITE and HYDROGEOCHEM model can provide detailed tools of confidence in the protectiveness of the human health and environmental impact for safety assessment of LLW disposal facility. (authors)

  2. Strong influence of off-site symmetry positions of hydrogen atoms in ScH3 hcp phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakornchote, T.; Bovornratanaraks, T.; Vannarat, S.; Pinsook, U.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the wave-like arrangements of H atoms around metal plane (Hm) in the ScH3 hcp phase by using the ab-initio method. We found that only P63 / mmc, P 3 bar c 1, P63cm and P63 phases are energetically favorable. The wave-like arrangement allows the off-site symmetry positions of the H atoms, and leads to substantial changes in the pair distribution between Sc and H atoms which are associating with the changes in the electronic structure in such a way that the total energy is lowering. The symmetry breaking from P63mmc is also responsible for the band gap opening. In the P63 structure, the calculated band gap is 0.823 eV and 1.223 eV using GGA and sX-LDA functionals, respectively. This band gap can be compared with 1.7 eV derived from the optical measurement and 1.55 eV from the HSE06 calculation. Thus, the broken symmetry structures can be viewed as Peierls distortion of the P63 / mmc structure. Furthermore, we found that only the P63 structure is dynamically stable, unlike YH3 where the P63cm structure is also stable. The stability of P63 comes from sufficiently strong interactions between two neighboring H atoms at their off-site symmetry positions, i.e. near the metal plane and near the tetragonal site. The P63 phonon density of states is in good agreement with the data from the neutron experiment.

  3. Stocking of Offsite Waters for Hungry Horse Dam Mitigation; Creston National Fish Hatchery, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Maskill, Mark

    2003-03-01

    Mitigation Objective 1: Produce Native Westslope Cutthroat Trout at Creston NFH--Task: Acquire eggs and rear up to 100,000 Westslope Cutthroat trout annually for offsite mitigation stocking. Accomplishments: A total of 150,000 westslope cutthroat eggs (M012 strain) were acquired from the State of Montana Washoe Park State Fish Hatchery in July 2001 for this objective. Another 120,000 westslope cutthroat eggs were taken from feral fish at Rogers Lake in May of 2001 by the Creston Hatchery crew. The fish were reared using approved fish culture techniques as defined in the U.S. Department of the Interior Fish Hatchery Management guidelines. Post release survival and angler success is monitored annually by Montana Fish Wildlife and Parks (MFWP) and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribe (CSKT). Stocking numbers and locations may vary yearly based on results of biological monitoring. Mitigation Objective 2: Produce Rainbow Trout at Creston NFH--Task: Acquire and rear up to 100,000 Rainbow trout annually for offsite mitigation in closed basin waters. Accomplishments: A total of 50,500 rainbow trout eggs (Arlee strain) were acquired from the State of Montana Arlee State Fish Hatchery in December 2001 for this objective. The fish were reared using approved fish culture techniques as defined in the U.S. Department of the Interior Fish Hatchery Management guidelines. Arlee rainbow trout are being used for this objective because the stocking locations are terminal basin reservoirs and habitat conditions and returns to creel are unsuitable for native cutthroat. Post release survival and angler success is monitored annually by the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribe (CSKT). Stocking numbers and locations may vary yearly based on results of biological monitoring.

  4. Transient nucleation in condensed systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelton, K. F.; Greer, A. L.; Thompson, C. V.

    1983-01-01

    Using classical nucleation theory we consider transient nucleation occurring in a one-component, condensed system under isothermal conditions. We obtain an exact closed-form expression for the time dependent cluster populations. In addition, a more versatile approach is developed: a numerical simulation technique which models directly the reactions by which clusters are produced. This simulation demonstrates the evolution of cluster populations and nucleation rate in the transient regime. Results from the simulation are verified by comparison with exact analytical solutions for the steady state. Experimental methods for measuring transient nucleation are assessed, and it is demonstrated that the observed behavior depends on the method used. The effect of preexisting cluster distributions is studied. Previous analytical and numerical treatments of transient nucleation are compared to the solutions obtained from the simulation. The simple expressions of Kashchiev are shown to give good descriptions of the nucleation behavior.

  5. Off-site source recovery project case study: disposal of high activity cobalt 60 sources at the Nevada test site 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Cocina, Frank G; Stewart, William C; Wald - Hopkins, Mark; Hageman, John P

    2009-01-01

    The Off-Site Source Recovery Project has been operating at Los Alamos National Laboratory since 1998 to address the U.S. Department of Energy responsibility for collection and management of orphaned or disused radioactive sealed sources which may represent a risk to public health and national security if not properly managed.

  6. Differential Diagnosis of Transient Amnesia

    PubMed Central

    Croft, P. B.; Heathfield, K. W. G.; Swash, M.

    1973-01-01

    In a group of 39 consecutive patients attending neurological clinics with transient amnesia patients with transient global amnesia formed the largest group; others suffered from epilepsy, migraine, temporal lobe encephalitis, or psychogenic fugues. In most cases the clinical features suggested the aetiology, but an electroencephalogram recorded as soon after the attack as possible may help in distinguishing amnesia due to temporal lobe epilepsy. PMID:4758521

  7. A Technique for Transient Thermal Testing of Thick Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horn, Thomas J.; Richards, W. Lance; Gong, Leslie

    1997-01-01

    A new open-loop heat flux control technique has been developed to conduct transient thermal testing of thick, thermally-conductive aerospace structures. This technique uses calibration of the radiant heater system power level as a function of heat flux, predicted aerodynamic heat flux, and the properties of an instrumented test article. An iterative process was used to generate open-loop heater power profiles prior to each transient thermal test. Differences between the measured and predicted surface temperatures were used to refine the heater power level command profiles through the iteration process. This iteration process has reduced the effects of environmental and test system design factors, which are normally compensated for by closed-loop temperature control, to acceptable levels. The final revised heater power profiles resulted in measured temperature time histories which deviated less than 25 F from the predicted surface temperatures.

  8. Transient Thermoelectric Generator: An Active Load Story

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockholm, J. G.; Goupil, C.; Maussion, P.; Ouerdane, H.

    2015-06-01

    Under stationary conditions, the optimization of maximum power output and efficiency of thermoelectric generators (TEG) is a well-known subject. Use of a finite-time thermodynamics (FTT) approach to the description of TEGs has demonstrated that there exists a closed feedback effect between the output electrical load value and the entering heat current. From the practical point of view, this effect is strongly evidenced by the use of direct current (DC-to-DC) converters as active loads. Both transient conditions and FTT contribute to a complex landscape of the optimization of the power and efficiencies of a TEG. It has been claimed that the use of inductive load may lead to a strong enhancement of the efficiency, and the frequency response of a TEG as a band-pass filter has also been recently reported. We consider these results using a classical linear Onsager approach of a TEG operating under transient conditions. We show that a trans-admittance may be defined as a coupling element between the input and the output, leading to the observed electric-to-thermal feedback. We discuss recent experiments on a TEG connected to an active load, which is reported to boast an efficiency exceeding the usual stationary DC thermoelectric efficiency.

  9. Detecting aseismic transients using seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reverso, T.; Marsan, D.; Helmstetter, A.

    2013-12-01

    Aseismic deformation transients occur in different tectonic context. In subduction zones, aseismic slip events are of paramount importance for understanding earthquake hazard, and for estimating the potential for future mega-thrust events. Aseismic slip is however difficult to detect except for the largest cases using GPS data. Here, we propose a systematic detection of aseismic deformation transients based on seismicity data alone. We search for transient increases in background seismicity rate, that would indicate the presence of an aseismic event. To that purpose, we make use of an ETAS model in space and time, to distinguish earthquakes due to background processes from aftershocks. We optimize the model parameters, and test the sensitivity of the results with changes in parameters. Given the 'best' model, we measure the statistical significance of the departure of the local (in time and space) background rate with the 'normal' background rate. Significant departure then indicates the need to temporary increase the background rate in order to explain the observed earthquake occurrences. We thus can single out such episodes of aseismic transients, and characterize their duration and spatial extent. Applying this method to the Aleutian subduction zone reveals several instances of aseismic deformation transients, at various spatial and temporal scales. We further investigate how these transients are organized along the subduction interface, and in time.

  10. The Transient Radio Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keane, E. F.

    2010-11-01

    The high time-resolution radio sky represents unexplored astronomical territory where the discovery potential is high. In this thesis I have studied the transient radio sky, focusing on millisecond scales. As such, this work is concerned primarily with neutron stars, the mostpopulous member of the radio transient parameter space. In particular, I have studied the well known radio pulsars and the recently identified group of neutron stars which show erratic radio emission, known as RRATs, which show radio bursts every few minutes to every few hours. When RRATs burst onto the scene in 2006, it was thought that they represented a previously unknown, distinct class of sporadically emitting sources. The difficulty in their identification implies a large underlying population, perhaps larger than the radio pulsars. The first question investigated in this thesis was whether the large projected population of RRATs posed a problem, i.e. could the observed supernova rate account for so many sources. In addition to pulsars and RRATs, the various other known neutron star manifestations were considered, leading to the conclusion that distinct populations would result in a `birthrate problem'. Evolution between the classes could solve this problem -- the RRATs are not a distinct population ofneutron stars.Alternatively, perhaps the large projected population of RRATs is an overestimate. To obtain an improved estimate, the best approach is to find more sources. The Parkes Multi-beam Pulsar Survey, wherein the RRATs were initially identified, offered an opportunity to do just this. Abouthalf of the RRATs showing bursts during the survey were thought to have been missed, due to the deleterious effects of impulsive terrestrial interference signals. To remove these unwanted signals, so that we could identify the previously shrouded RRATs, we developed newinterference mitigation software and processing techniques. Having done this, the survey was completely re-processed, resulting in

  11. SU-D-213-05: Design, Evaluation and First Applications of a Off-Site State-Of-The-Art 3D Dosimetry System

    SciTech Connect

    Malcolm, J; Mein, S; McNiven, A; Letourneau, D; Oldham, M

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To design, construct and commission a prototype in-house three dimensional (3D) dose verification system for stereotatic body radiotherapy (SBRT) verification at an off-site partner institution. To investigate the potential of this system to achieve sufficient performance (1mm resolution, 3% noise, within 3% of true dose reading) for SBRT verification. Methods: The system was designed utilizing a parallel ray geometry instigated by precision telecentric lenses and an LED 630nm light source. Using a radiochromic dosimeter, a 3D dosimetric comparison with our gold-standard system and treatment planning software (Eclipse) was done for a four-field box treatment, under gamma passing criteria of 3%/3mm/10% dose threshold. Post off-site installation, deviations in the system’s dose readout performance was assessed by rescanning the four-field box irradiated dosimeter and using line-profiles to compare on-site and off-site mean and noise levels in four distinct dose regions. As a final step, an end-to-end test of the system was completed at the off-site location, including CT-simulation, irradiation of the dosimeter and a 3D dosimetric comparison of the planned (Pinnacle{sup 3}) to delivered dose for a spinal SBRT treatment(12 Gy per fraction). Results: The noise level in the high and medium dose regions of the four field box treatment was relatively 5% pre and post installation. This reflects the reduction in positional uncertainty through the new design. This At 1mm dose voxels, the gamma pass rates(3%,3mm) for our in-house gold standard system and the off-site system were comparable at 95.8% and 93.2% respectively. Conclusion: This work will describe the end-to-end process and results of designing, installing, and commissioning a state-of-the-art 3D dosimetry system created for verification of advanced radiation treatments including spinal radiosurgery.

  12. Calcium rich transients: tidal detonations of white dwarfs?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maccarone, Thomas

    2013-09-01

    We propose for a 40 kilosecond TOO observation of a new Ca-rich gap transient. These enigmatic objects, with properties intermediate between those of classical novae and Type Ia supernovae, can be well-explained by tidal detonations of low mass white dwarfs by intermediate mass black holes. In such a case, fall-back accretion of the tidal debris would power an X-ray source for which we propose to search. Because supermassive black holes will swallow white dwarfs whole, a successful outcome to this proposal would both explain the Ca-rich gap transients *and* establish the existence of intermediate mass black holes.

  13. Atomic clock based on transient coherent population trapping

    SciTech Connect

    Guo Tao; Deng Ke; Chen Xuzong; Wang Zhong

    2009-04-13

    We proposed a scheme to implement coherent population trapping (CPT) atomic clock based on the transient CPT phenomenon. We proved that the transient transmitted laser power in a typical {lambda} system near CPT resonance features as a damping oscillation. Also, the oscillating frequency is exactly equal to the frequency detuning from the atomic hyperfine splitting. Therefore, we can directly measure the frequency detuning and then compensated to the output frequency of microwave oscillator to get the standard frequency. By this method, we can further simplify the structure of CPT atomic clock, and make it easier to be digitized and miniaturized.

  14. Transient stability assessment by pattern recognition in the frequency domain

    SciTech Connect

    Ostojic, D.R. ); Heydt, G.T. . School of Electrical Engineering)

    1991-02-01

    This paper presents pattern recognition methodology which utilizes spectral monitoring of electromechanical oscillations to assess the transient stability of interconnected power systems. The proposed frequency domain approach permits definitive recognition of unstable dynamic modes. This is used to design an adaptive linear classifier which, in the developmental implementation virtually eliminates both false dismissals, and false alarms. The result is an accurate and reliable decision-making system which performs transient stability monitoring and assessment in real-time. Production computer code has not yet been implemented, but it is expected that the cited performance in developmental tests will be duplicated.

  15. Location selection criteria for a second data center or off-site storage of materials.

    PubMed

    Cochran, Mitchell; Witman, Paul

    2013-01-01

    As organizations develop secondary data centers, it is critical that they be placed in locations that serve the organization yet do not have a shared risk with the primary data center. The organization needs to consider factors or guidelines which mitigate potential issues that could affect both the primary and secondary data center. It is impossible to eliminate all risk to a single data center but an organization needs to ensure that at least one data center remains operable. The article will propose that data centers be located 50 km or approximately 30 miles apart. The proposal is supported by evaluating earthquake intensity maps that will show that earthquakes damage drops to relatively safe levels after the 30 miles from the epicenter. The article will show that other environmental factors such as power, floods, fire, transportation, fire, and soil are also mitigated by a 30-mile separation guideline. PMID:24180066

  16. 75 FR 38128 - Sensata Technologies MA, Inc., Power Controls Division, Formerly Known As Airpax Corp., Cambridge...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... As Airpax Corp., Cambridge, Maryland, Including Employees of Sensata Technologies MA, Inc., Power Controls Division Formerly Known As Airpax Corp., Cambridge, Maryland Working Off-Site in Falmouth... known as Airpax Corporation, Cambridge, Maryland. The notice will soon be published in the...

  17. Stocking of Offsite Waters for Hungry Horse Dam Mitigation; Creston National Fish Hatchery, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    US Fish and Wildlife Service Staff,

    2004-02-01

    Mitigation Objective 1: Produce Native Westslope Cutthroat Trout at Creston NFH--Task: Acquire eggs and rear up to 100,000 Westslope Cutthroat trout annually for offsite mitigation stocking. Accomplishments: A total of 141,000 westslope cutthroat eggs (M012 strain) was acquired from the State of Montana Washoe Park State Fish Hatchery in May 2002 for this objective. We also received an additional 22,000 westslope cutthroat eggs, MO12 strain naturalized, from feral fish at Rogers Lake, Flathead County, Montana. The fish were reared using approved fish culture techniques as defined in the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Fish Hatchery Management guidelines. Survival from the swim up fry stage to stocking was 95.6%. We achieved a 0.80 feed conversion this year on a new diet, Skretting ''Nutra Plus''. Post release survival and angler success is monitored annually by Montana Fish Wildlife and Parks (MFWP) and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribe (CSKT). Stocking numbers and locations vary yearly based on results of biological monitoring and adaptive management. Mitigation Objective 2: Produce Rainbow Trout at Creston NFH--Task: Acquire and rear up to 100,000 Rainbow trout annually for offsite mitigation in closed basin waters. Accomplishments: A total of 54,000 rainbow trout eggs (Arlee strain) was acquired from the Ennis National Fish Hatchery in December 2002 for this objective. The fish were reared using approved fish culture techniques as defined in the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Fish Hatchery Management guidelines. Survival from the swim up fry stage to stocking was 99.9%. We achieved a 0.79 feed conversion this year on a new diet, Skretting ''Nutra Plus''. Arlee rainbow trout are being used for this objective because the stocking locations are terminal basin reservoirs and habitat conditions and returns to the creel are unsuitable for native cutthroat. Post release survival and angler success is monitored annually by the Confederated Salish and Kootenai

  18. Evaluation of station blackout accidents at nuclear power plants: Technical findings related to unresolved safety issue A-44: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-06-01

    ''Station Blackout,'' which is the complete loss of alternating current (AC) electrical power in a nuclear power plant, has been designated as Unresolved Safety Issue A-44. Because many safety systems required for reactor core decay heat removal and containment heat removal depend on AC power, the consequences of a station blackout could be severe. This report documents the findings of technical studies performed as part of the program to resolve this issue. The important factors analyzed include: the fequency of loss of offsite power; the probability that emergency or onsite AC power supplies would be unavailable; the capability and reliability of decay heat removal systems independent of AC power; and the likelihood that offsite power would be restored before systems that cannot operate for extended periods without AC power fail, thus resulting in core damage. This report also addresses effects of different designs, locations, and operational features on the estimated frequency of core damage resulting from station blackout events.

  19. Transient voltage oscillations in coils

    SciTech Connect

    Chowdhuri, P.

    1985-01-01

    Magnet coils may be excited into internal voltage oscillations by transient voltages. Such oscillations may electrically stress the magnet's dielectric components to many times its normal stress. This may precipitate a dielectric failure, and the attendant prolonged loss of service and costly repair work. Therefore, it is important to know the natural frequencies of oscillations of a magnet during the design stage, and to determine whether the expected switching transient voltages can excite the magnet into high-voltage internal oscillations. The series capacitance of a winding significantly affects its natural frequencies. However, the series capacitance is difficult to calculate, because it may comprise complex capacitance network, consisting of intra- and inter-coil turn-to-turn capacitances of the coil sections. A method of calculating the series capacitance of a winding is proposed. This method is rigorous but simple to execute. The time-varying transient voltages along the winding are also calculated.

  20. Cohabitation Duration and Transient Domesticity.

    PubMed

    Golub, Andrew; Reid, Megan; Strickler, Jennifer; Dunlap, Eloise

    2013-01-01

    Research finds that many impoverished urban Black adults engage in a pattern of partnering and family formation involving a succession of short cohabitations yielding children, a paradigm referred to as transient domesticity. Researchers have identified socioeconomic status, cultural adaptations, and urbanicity as explanations for aspects of this pattern. We used longitudinal data from the 2001 Survey of Income and Program Participation to analyze variation in cohabitation and marriage duration by race/ethnicity, income, and urban residence. Proportional hazards regression indicated that separation risk is greater among couples that are cohabiting, below 200% of the federal poverty line, and Black but is not greater among urban dwellers. This provides empirical demographic evidence to support the emerging theory of transient domesticity and suggests that both socioeconomic status and race explain this pattern. We discuss the implications of these findings for understanding transient domesticity and make recommendations for using the Survey of Income and Program Participation to further study this family formation paradigm.

  1. Dynamic remedial action scheme using online transient stability analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Arun

    Economic pressure and environmental factors have forced the modern power systems to operate closer to their stability limits. However, maintaining transient stability is a fundamental requirement for the operation of interconnected power systems. In North America, power systems are planned and operated to withstand the loss of any single or multiple elements without violating North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) system performance criteria. For a contingency resulting in the loss of multiple elements (Category C), emergency transient stability controls may be necessary to stabilize the power system. Emergency control is designed to sense abnormal conditions and subsequently take pre-determined remedial actions to prevent instability. Commonly known as either Remedial Action Schemes (RAS) or as Special/System Protection Schemes (SPS), these emergency control approaches have been extensively adopted by utilities. RAS are designed to address specific problems, e.g. to increase power transfer, to provide reactive support, to address generator instability, to limit thermal overloads, etc. Possible remedial actions include generator tripping, load shedding, capacitor and reactor switching, static VAR control, etc. Among various RAS types, generation shedding is the most effective and widely used emergency control means for maintaining system stability. In this dissertation, an optimal power flow (OPF)-based generation-shedding RAS is proposed. This scheme uses online transient stability calculation and generator cost function to determine appropriate remedial actions. For transient stability calculation, SIngle Machine Equivalent (SIME) technique is used, which reduces the multimachine power system model to a One-Machine Infinite Bus (OMIB) equivalent and identifies critical machines. Unlike conventional RAS, which are designed using offline simulations, online stability calculations make the proposed RAS dynamic and adapting to any power system

  2. Studies of Transient Meteor Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenniskens, Peter M. M.

    2002-01-01

    Meteoroids bombard Earth's atmosphere daily, but occasionally meteor rates increase to unusual high levels when Earth crosses the relatively fresh ejecta of comets. These transient events in meteor activity provide clues about the whereabouts of Earth-threatening long-period comets, the mechanisms of large-grain dust ejection from comets, and the particle composition and size distribution of the cometary ejecta. Observations of these transient events provide important insight in natural processes that determine the large grain dust environment of comets, in natural phenomena that were prevalent during the time of the origin of life, and in processes that determine the hazard of civilizations to large impacts and of man-made satellites to the periodic blizzard of small meteoroids. In this proposal, three tasks form a coherent program aimed at elucidating various aspects of meteor outbursts, with special reference to planetary astronomy and astrobiology. Task 1 was a ground-based effort to observe periods of transient meteor activity. This includes: (1) stereoscopic imaging of meteors during transient meteor events for measurements of particle size distribution, meteoroid orbital dispersions and fluxes; and (2) technical support for Global-MS-Net, a network of amateur-operated automatic counting stations for meteor reflections from commercial VHF radio and TV broadcasting stations, keeping a 24h vigil on the level of meteor activity for the detection of new meteor streams. Task 2 consisted of ground-based and satellite born spectroscopic observations of meteors and meteor trains during transient meteor events for measurements of elemental composition, the presence of organic matter in the meteoroids, and products generated by the interaction of the meteoroid with the atmosphere. Task 3 was an airborne effort to explore the 2000 Leonid meteor outbursts, which are anticipated to be the most significant of transient meteor activity events in the remainder of the

  3. Detection of Transient Signals from Extraterrestrial Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarter, J. C.

    2003-05-01

    If you were an engineer and wanted to build a beacon with which to attract the attention of any emerging technological civilizations in the Milky Way galaxy, how would you do it? SETI 2020: A Roadmap for the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (a recent report of the SETI Science and Technology Working Group) describes a number of different beacon scenarios, as well as examples of leakage radiation, all of which would lead to signal types that appear as transients in the sky of any given receiving civilization. Most SETI searches to date have been ill-matched to the problem of finding transient signals; the dwell time on source has been short, and the same directions have not been revisited very often. Both the Omnidirectional SETI System (OSS) proposed in SETI 2020, and the Allen Telescope Array (ATA) will offer greatly improved opportunities for detecting radio transients, whether they are from technological or astrophysical sources. The ATA should be operational within a few years, but the OSS will not be affordable until Moore's Law has significantly reduced the cost for the compute power needed to form all beams on the sky and all frequency channels in the spectrometers. This is estimated to be { ˜ 1016}-10{21} ops depending on the total collecting area of the array. Nevertheless, the opportunity to build a radio-fly's-eye or radio camera (suggested by Robert Dixon in 1988) is now getting close enough to warrant prototyping and construction of small size arrays and receivers; several programs are underway.

  4. Applying a process based erosion model to assess off-site effects of soil erosion from the regional scale to the measure level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindewolf, Marcus; Arevalo, Annika; Saathoff, Ulfert; Käpermann, Philipp; Schmidt, Jürgen

    2013-04-01

    Since soil erosion is one of the most important issues of global soil degradation, great effort was put into the application of erosion models for the assessment and prevention of on-site damages. Beside the primary impact of soil loss in decreasing soil fertility, erosion can cause significant impacts if transported sediments are entering downslope ecosystems, settlements, infrastructure or traffic routes. These off-site damages can be very costly, affect a lot of people and contaminate water-resources. The analysis of these problems is intensified by the requirements of new legislation, such as the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD), providing new challenges for planning authorities in order to combat off-site damage. Hence there is strong public and scientific interest in understanding the processes of sediment as well as particle attached nutrient and pollutant transport. Predicting the frequency, magnitude and extent of off-site impacts of water erosion is a necessary precondition for adequate risk assessments and mitigation measures. Process based models are increasingly used for the simulation of soil erosion. Regarding the requirements of the WFD, these models need to deliver comparable estimates from the regional scale to the level of mitigation measures. This study aims on the application of the process based model EROSION 3D for off-site risk assessment on different scales for the German federal state of Saxony using available geo data, data base applications and GIS-routines. Following issues were investigated: - Where are the expected sediment deposition areas? - Which settlements, infrastructures and traffic routes are affected by sediment fluxes? - Which river sections are affected by sediment inputs? - Which river sections are affected by nutrient and heavy metal inputs? The model results identify the Saxon loess belt as highly endangered by off-site damages although hotspots can be found in the northern flatlands and the southern mountain range as

  5. Transient classification and novae ejecta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Robert

    2016-07-01

    A third parameter, in addition to luminosity and rate of brightness decline, derived from the spectra of transients is suggested as a means of more accurately classifying objects in outburst. Principal component analysis of the spectra of transients is suggested as the best way to determine the third parameter. A model is suggested for novae ejecta that is based on the ballistic ejection of an ensemble of clouds having a wide range of sizes. Short term brightness fluctuations of novae, the formation of dust, and the production of X-ray emission follow naturally from such a picture of the evolving clouds.

  6. Modeling a Transient Catalytic Combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tien, J. S.

    1985-01-01

    Transient model of monolith catalytic combustor presented in report done under NASA/DOE contract. Model assumes quasi-steady gas phase and thermally "thin" solid. In gas-phase treatment, several quasi-global chemical reactions assumed capable of describing CO and unburnt hydrocarbon emissions in fuel-lean operations. In steady-state computation presented, influence of selected operating and design parameters on minimum combustor length studied. When fast transient responses required, both steady and unsteady studies made to achieve meaningful compromise in design.

  7. Prediction of GE-ATLAS transient boiling transition data using RETRAN-02/RETRAN-15F

    SciTech Connect

    Ansari, A.A.F.; Beller, D.K.; Burns, K.J.; Hague, Q.A.; Schultz, S.P.

    1983-05-01

    The steady-state operating limit for boiling water reactors (BWRs) is determined by calculating the transient change in the critical power ratio (CPR). To determine the operating limit CPR, a method for calculating the ..delta..CPR during transients is needed. The RETRAN code can be used as a tool in the evaluation of transient CPRs for determining the operating margin for BWRs. Since the RETRAN code does not contain a critical power calculation, the ..delta..CPR cannot be obtained directly from RETRAN. Therefore, a program, TCPYA01, designed to evaluate transient CPR (and ..delta..CPR) based on the GEXL correlation using time-dependent conditions from RETRAN was used. The justification for using the RETRAN code is provided by predicting transient boiling transition data taken at the GE-ATLAS loop facility. Results of the sensitivity studies performed on nodalization, void models, and time-step size are also provided.

  8. The square kilometre array and the transient universe.

    PubMed

    Stappers, B W

    2013-06-13

    The square kilometre array (SKA) is a next generation radio telescope that will be built in southern Africa and Australasia. It will be built in two phases and will use a range of detectors, from aperture arrays to dishes, to span the frequency range from a few tens of megahertz to a few gigahertz. The combination of great sensitivity, wide field of view and unprecedented computing power mean that the SKA will be an excellent instrument for studying the transient radio universe. Transient radio emission is generated in extremes of: gravitational and magnetic fields, velocity, temperature, pressure and density. While we know about plenty of source classes for this type of short duration radio emission, there is still a large range of transient parameter space that has not yet been sampled owing to the limitations of current generation radio telescopes.

  9. The square kilometre array and the transient universe.

    PubMed

    Stappers, B W

    2013-06-13

    The square kilometre array (SKA) is a next generation radio telescope that will be built in southern Africa and Australasia. It will be built in two phases and will use a range of detectors, from aperture arrays to dishes, to span the frequency range from a few tens of megahertz to a few gigahertz. The combination of great sensitivity, wide field of view and unprecedented computing power mean that the SKA will be an excellent instrument for studying the transient radio universe. Transient radio emission is generated in extremes of: gravitational and magnetic fields, velocity, temperature, pressure and density. While we know about plenty of source classes for this type of short duration radio emission, there is still a large range of transient parameter space that has not yet been sampled owing to the limitations of current generation radio telescopes. PMID:23630382

  10. Analysis of offsite emergency planning zones for the Rocky Flats Plant. Evaluation of radiological materials, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgin, C.R.; Daugherty, N.M.; Smith, M.L.; Bunch, D.; Toresdahl, J.; Verholek, M.G.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this report is to fully document technical data and information that have been developed to support offsite emergency planning by the State of Colorado for potential accidents at the Rocky Flats Plant. Specifically, this report documents information and data that will assist the State of Colorado in upgrading its radiological emergency planning zones for Rocky Flats Plant. The Colorado Division of Disaster Emergency Services (DODES) and the Colorado Department of Health (CDH) represent the primary audience for this report. The secondary audience for this document includes the Rocky Flats Plant; federal, State, and local governmental agencies; the scientific community; and the interested public. Because the primary audience has a pre-existing background on the subject, this report assumes some exposure to emergency planning, health physics, and dispersion modeling on the part of the reader. The authors have limited their assumptions of background knowledge as much as possible, recognizing that the topics addressed in the report may be new to some secondary audiences.

  11. Digital signature embedding (DSE) for medical image integrity in a data grid off-site backup archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zheng; Huang, H. K.; Liu, Brent J.

    2005-04-01

    One of the new trends to protect the PACS image data against disaster situations is to store clinical images at an off-site backup archive. In order to support the mission-critical clinical PACS, the backup archive must be 24/7 continuously available (CA). We have developed a novel Data Grid for this purpose using the grid computing technology. With the federation of several PAC systems in a grid, the Data Grid can provide the true CA (99.999%) backup for the PAC systems. However, image integrity becomes a new critical issue to the Data Grid where the image data are not under the protection of local PACS anymore. In this paper, we presented a digital signature embedding (DSE) method, which can assure image integrity in image transmission or archive. The DSE method permanently embeds the digital signature (DS) of the image in the image pixels using lossless data embedding approaches, which can completely recover the original image whenever desired. The permanently embedded DS in the image would provide the integrity assurance for medical image during its lifetime. The embedding process can be utilized by the local PACS archive server to embed the DS in every image before it is sent to the Data Grid. The embedded DS can then be extracted for verification to ensure image integrity when images arrived in the Data Grid or when images were retrieved back. Therefore, with the DSE method, we have extended our protection of image integrity from local PACS to the backup Data Grid.

  12. [Onsite microbiology services and outsourcing microbiology and offsite laboratories--advantage and disadvantage, thinking of effective utilization].

    PubMed

    Hosokawa, Naoto

    2011-10-01

    In recent years, budget restrictions have prompted hospital managers to consider outsourcing microbiology service. But there are many advantages onsite microbiology services. Onsite microbiology services have some advantages. 1) High recovery rate of microorganism. 2) Shorter turn around time. 3) Easy to communicate between physician and laboratory technician. 4) Effective utilization of blood culture. 5) Getting early information about microorganism. 6) Making antibiogram (microbiological local factor). 7) Getting information for infection control. The disadvantages are operating costs and labor cost. The important point of maximal utilization of onsite microbiology service is close communication between physicians to microbiology laboratory. It will be able to provide prompt and efficient report to physicians through discussion about Gram stain findings, agar plate media findings and epidemiological information. The rapid and accurate identification of pathogen affords directed therapy, thereby decreasing the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics and shortening the length of hospital stay and unnecessary ancillary procedures. When the physician use outsourcing microbiology services, should discuss with offsite laboratories about provided services. Infection control person has to arrange data of susceptibility about every isolate and monitoring multi-drug resistant organism. Not only onsite microbiology services but also outsourcing microbiology services, to communicate bedside and laboratory is most important point of effective utilization.

  13. Costs for off-site disposal of nonhazardous oil field wastes: Salt caverns versus other disposal methods

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.A.

    1997-09-01

    According to an American Petroleum Institute production waste survey reported on by P.G. Wakim in 1987 and 1988, the exploration and production segment of the US oil and gas industry generated more than 360 million barrels (bbl) of drilling wastes, more than 20 billion bbl of produced water, and nearly 12 million bbl of associated wastes in 1985. Current exploration and production activities are believed to be generating comparable quantities of these oil field wastes. Wakim estimates that 28% of drilling wastes, less than 2% of produced water, and 52% of associated wastes are disposed of in off-site commercial facilities. In recent years, interest in disposing of oil field wastes in solution-mined salt caverns has been growing. This report provides information on the availability of commercial disposal companies in oil-and gas-producing states, the treatment and disposal methods they employ, and the amounts they charge. It also compares cavern disposal costs with the costs of other forms of waste disposal.

  14. Development of transient initiating event frequencies for use in probabilistic risk assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Mackowiak, D.P.; Gentillon, C.D.; Smith, K.L.

    1985-05-01

    Transient initiating event frequencies are an essential input to the analysis process of a nuclear power plant probabilistic risk assessment. These frequencies describe events causing or requiring scrams. This report documents an effort to validate and update from other sources a computer-based data file developed by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) describing such events at 52 United States commercial nuclear power plants. Operating information from the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission on 24 additional plants from their date of commercial operation has been combined with the EPRI data, and the entire data base has been updated to add 1980 through 1983 events for all 76 plants. The validity of the EPRI data and data analysis methodology and the adequacy of the EPRI transient categories are examined. New transient initiating event frequencies are derived from the expanded data base using the EPRI transient categories and data display methods. Upper bounds for these frequencies are also provided. Additional analyses explore changes in the dominant transients, changes in transient outage times and their impact on plant operation, and the effects of power level and scheduled scrams on transient event frequencies. A more rigorous data analysis methodology is developed to encourage further refinement of the transient initiating event frequencies derived herein. Updating the transient event data base resulted in approx.2400 events being added to EPRI's approx.3000-event data file. The resulting frequency estimates were in most cases lower than those reported by EPRI, but no significant order-of-magnitude changes were noted. The average number of transients per year for the combined data base is 8.5 for pressurized water reactors and 7.4 for boiling water reactors.

  15. TREAT Transient Analysis Benchmarking for the HEU Core

    SciTech Connect

    Kontogeorgakos, D. C.; Connaway, H. M.; Wright, A. E.

    2014-05-01

    This work was performed to support the feasibility study on the potential conversion of the Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT) at Idaho National Laboratory from the use of high enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to the use of low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. The analyses were performed by the GTRI Reactor Conversion staff at the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The objective of this study was to benchmark the transient calculations against temperature-limited transients performed in the final operating HEU TREAT core configuration. The MCNP code was used to evaluate steady-state neutronics behavior, and the point kinetics code TREKIN was used to determine core power and energy during transients. The first part of the benchmarking process was to calculate with MCNP all the neutronic parameters required by TREKIN to simulate the transients: the transient rod-bank worth, the prompt neutron generation lifetime, the temperature reactivity feedback as a function of total core energy, and the core-average temperature and peak temperature as a functions of total core energy. The results of these calculations were compared against measurements or against reported values as documented in the available TREAT reports. The heating of the fuel was simulated as an adiabatic process. The reported values were extracted from ANL reports, intra-laboratory memos and experiment logsheets and in some cases it was not clear if the values were based on measurements, on calculations or a combination of both. Therefore, it was decided to use the term “reported” values when referring to such data. The methods and results from the HEU core transient analyses will be used for the potential LEU core configurations to predict the converted (LEU) core’s performance.

  16. Modeling of transient modal instability in fiber amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Ward, Benjamin G

    2013-05-20

    A model of transient modal instability in fiber amplifiers is presented. This model combines an optical beam propagation method that incorporates laser gain through local solution of the rate equations and refractive index perturbations caused by the thermo-optic effect with a time-dependent thermal solver with a quantum defect heating source term. This model predicts modal instability a fiber amplifier operating at 241, 270, and 287 Watts of output power characterized by power coupling to un-seeded modes, the presence of stable and unstable regions within the fiber, and rapid intensity variations along the fiber. The instability becomes more severe as the power is increased.

  17. Classification of events with an off-site radiological impact at the Sellafield site between 1950 and 2000, using the International Nuclear Event Scale.

    PubMed

    Webb, G A M; Anderson, R W; Gaffney, M J S

    2006-03-01

    The paper assesses unplanned operational events at the Sellafield nuclear installation, formerly Windscale and Calder Works, in Cumbria, England, over the period 1950-2000 that had, or could have had, radiological implications for members of the general public. A unified system of off-site impact rating has been developed using a site-specific application of the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES) that is applied retrospectively to events since the start of operations at the site in 1950. Published and unpublished sources of information have been used to assemble what the authors believe to be a complete list of events over the period that would now be assessed as INES level 3 or above on the basis of off-site impact. The last such event occurred in 1984. The exercise also demonstrates that it is possible to apply the current INES rating scheme to a wide variety of radiological events.

  18. A fast reactor transient analysis methodology for PCs

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, K.O. . School of Nuclear Engineering)

    1991-10-01

    This Manual describes a PC program for LMR Transient Calculations, LTC, written in GW-BASIC. It calculates the power and temperature trajectories for unscrammed TOP and LOHS transients. The LOF transient treatment is not operational in the GW-BASIC program because of storage limitations. The corresponding mathematical model, which allows a rapid treatment of the kinetics and the various feedback effects, is described in Ref. 1. It is briefly reviewed in Sec. 1. The program structure is outlined in Sec. 2, followed by a more detailed description in Sec. 3. Computational details are presented in Appendix A. A complete listing of the GW-BASIC program is given in Appendix B. Appendix C shows input-echo and output for a TOP sample problem, and Appendix D is a Glossary of all quantities used in the LTC program. The limitations of the GW-BASIC storage (to about 60K) are removed if it is run within Quick-BASIC. This then allows the extension of this program to treat LOF transients. Running LTC in Quick-BASIC permits also larger Dimensions'' for TOP and LOHS transients.

  19. Transient Loschmidt echo in quenched Ising chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupo, Carla; Schiró, Marco

    2016-07-01

    We study the response to sudden local perturbations of highly excited quantum Ising spin chains. The key quantity encoding this response is the overlap between time-dependent wave functions, which we write as a transient Loschmidt Echo. Its asymptotics at long time differences contain crucial information about the structure of the highly excited nonequilibrium environment induced by the quench. We compute the echo perturbatively for a weak local quench but for arbitrarily large global quench, using a cumulant expansion. Our perturbative results suggest that the echo decays exponentially, rather than power law as in the low-energy orthogonality catastrophe, a further example of quench-induced decoherence already found in the case of quenched Luttinger liquids. The emerging decoherence scale is set by the strength of the local potential and the bulk excitation energy.

  20. Transient simulation of superconducting synchronous machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koronides, A. G.

    1980-11-01

    A computer model is developed to study the electromechanical interactions between superconducting generators and power systems during various fault conditions. A large set of equivalent circuits is used to represent the eddy currents on the finite length electromagnetic cylindrical shields which surround the superconducting field winding. The armature and field windings are represented by coupled circuits as in conventional generator models. The rotor turbine shaft dynamics are introduced in the model by a set of lumped masses representing the various stages of the turbine and the rotor, connected by springs representing the shaft. The electrical and mechanical equations of the machine are related by the air gap torque equation in a large system of simultaneous, nonlinear differential equations. The developed computer algorithms used to study the transient behavior of a 300 MCA superconducting generator and the results are reported.

  1. On transient events in the upper atmosphere generated away of thunderstorm regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozenko, V.; Garipov, G.; Khrenov, B.; Klimov, P.; Panasyuk, M.; Sharakin, S.; Zotov, M.

    2011-12-01

    Experimental data on transient events in UV and Red-IR ranges obtained in the MSU missions "Unversitetsky-Tatiana" (wavelengths 300-400 nm) and "Unversitetsky-Tatiana-2" (wavelengths 300-400 nm and 600-800 nm), published by Garipov et al, in 2010 at COSPAR session http://www.cospar2010.org, at TEPA conference http://www.aragats.am/Conferences/tepa2010 and in 2011 by Sadovnichy et al, Solar System Research, 45, #1, 3-29 (2011); Vedenkin et al, JETP, v. 140, issue 3(9), 1-11 (2011) demonstrated existence of transients at large distances (up to thousands km) away of cloud thunderstorm regions. Those "remote" transients are short (1-5 msec) and are less luminous than the transients above thunderstorm regions. The ratio of Red-IR to UV photon numbers in those transients indicates high altitude of their origin (~70 km). Important observation facts are also: 1. a change of the exponent in transient distribution on luminosity Q ("-1" for photon numbers Q=1020 -1023 to "-2" for Q>1023), 2. a change of global distribution of transient with their luminosity (transients with Q>1023 are concentrated in equatorial range above continents, while transients with low luminosity are distributed more uniformly), 3. a phenomenon of transient sequences in one satellite orbit which is close to geomagnetic meridian. In the present paper phenomenological features of transients are explained in assumption that the observed transients have to be divided in two classes: 1. transients related to local, lower in the atmosphere, lightning at distance not more than hundreds km from satellite detector field of view in the atmosphere and 2. transients generated by far away lightning. Local transients are luminous and presumably are events called "transient luminous events" (TLE). In distribution on luminosity those events have some threshold Q~1023 and their differential luminosity distribution is approximated by power law exponent "-2". Remote transients have to be considered separately. Their

  2. Analysis of offsite Emergency Planning Zones (EPZs) for the Rocky Flats Plant. Phase 3, Sitewide spectrum-of-accidents and bounding EPZ analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Petrocchi, A.J.; Zimmerman, G.A.

    1994-03-14

    During Phase 3 of the EPZ project, a sitewide analysis will be performed applying a spectrum-of-accidents approach to both radiological and nonradiological hazardous materials release scenarios. This analysis will include the MCA but will be wider in scope and will produce options for the State of Colorado for establishing a bounding EPZ that is intended to more comprehensively update the interim, preliminary EPZ developed in Phase 2. EG&G will propose use of a hazards assessment methodology that is consistent with the DOE Emergency Management Guide for Hazards Assessments and other methods required by DOE orders. This will include hazards, accident, safety, and risk analyses. Using this methodology, EG&G will develop technical analyses for a spectrum of accidents. The analyses will show the potential effects from the spectrum of accidents on the offsite population together with identification of offsite vulnerable zones and areas of concern. These analyses will incorporate state-of-the-art technology for accident analysis, atmospheric plume dispersion modeling, consequence analysis, and the application of these evaluations to the general public population at risk. The analyses will treat both radiological and nonradiological hazardous materials and mixtures of both released accidentally to the atmosphere. DOE/RFO will submit these results to the State of Colorado for the State`s use in determining offsite emergency planning zones for the Rocky Flats Plant. In addition, the results will be used for internal Rocky Flats Plant emergency planning.

  3. Design of transient light signal simulator based on FPGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jing; Chen, Rong-li; Wang, Hong

    2014-11-01

    A design scheme of transient light signal simulator based on Field Programmable gate Array (FPGA) was proposed in this paper. Based on the characteristics of transient light signals and measured feature points of optical intensity signals, a fitted curve was created in MATLAB. And then the wave data was stored in a programmed memory chip AT29C1024 by using SUPERPRO programmer. The control logic was realized inside one EP3C16 FPGA chip. Data readout, data stream cache and a constant current buck regulator for powering high-brightness LEDs were all controlled by FPGA. A 12-Bit multiplying CMOS digital-to-analog converter (DAC) DAC7545 and an amplifier OPA277 were used to convert digital signals to voltage signals. A voltage-controlled current source constituted by a NPN transistor and an operational amplifier controlled LED array diming to achieve simulation of transient light signal. LM3405A, 1A Constant Current Buck Regulator for Powering LEDs, was used to simulate strong background signal in space. Experimental results showed that the scheme as a transient light signal simulator can satisfy the requests of the design stably.

  4. Experimental research on transient radiation effects in microprocessors based on SPARC-V8 architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuanfu, Zhao; Hongchao, Zheng; Long, Fan; Suge, Yue; Maoxin, Chen; Shougang, Du

    2015-11-01

    An experimental system is developed for the transient radiation effects testing of an anti-radiation hardened processor. Based on this system, the transient radiation effects in a microprocessor based on SPARC-V8 architecture was investigated. The dose-rate-soft-error index parameters of the processor were determined according to the test results, as were the influences on the function and timing parameters of the processor. The power supply balance is affected, which caused the system to reset and be the main source of soft errors. The results showed the circuit recovery time is primarily determined by the internal PLL, while the core power and the output-low-IO ports are more sensitive to the transient dose rate effect. The power-integrity-hardened design is proposed to mitigate the transient radiation effect.

  5. Exploring the Optical Transient Sky with the Palomar Transient Factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rau, Arne; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Law, Nicholas M.; Bloom, Joshua S.; Ciardi, David; Djorgovski, George S.; Fox, Derek B.; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Grillmair, Carl C.; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Nugent, Peter E.; Ofek, Eran O.; Quimby, Robert M.; Reach, William T.; Shara, Michael; Bildsten, Lars; Cenko, S. Bradley; Drake, Andrew J.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Helfand, David J.; Helou, George; Howell, D. Andrew; Poznanski, Dovi; Sullivan, Mark

    2009-12-01

    The Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) is a wide-field experiment designed to investigate the optical transient and variable sky on time scales from minutes to years. PTF uses the CFH12k mosaic camera, with a field of view of 7.9 deg2 and a plate scale of 1'' pixel-1, mounted on the Palomar Observatory 48 inch Samuel Oschin Telescope. The PTF operation strategy is devised to probe the existing gaps in the transient phase space and to search for theoretically predicted, but not yet detected, phenomena, such as fallback supernovae, macronovae, .Ia supernovae, and the orphan afterglows of gamma-ray bursts. PTF will also discover many new members of known source classes, from cataclysmic variables in their various avatars to supernovae and active galactic nuclei, and will provide important insights into understanding galactic dynamics (through RR Lyrae stars) and the solar system (asteroids and near-Earth objects). The lessons that can be learned from PTF will be essential for the preparation of future large synoptic sky surveys like the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope. In this article we present the scientific motivation for PTF and describe in detail the goals and expectations for this experiment.

  6. Integration of computer systems for California aqueduct power plant systems

    SciTech Connect

    Delfin, E.L. ); Gaushell, D.J. )

    1993-06-01

    The California State Water Project is one of the largest water and power systems in the world and includes over 130 hydroelectric units. This paper provides an overview of the planning and implementation of the control and communication systems replacement for the entire Project. New control system features include a multi-agency control center, off-site backup control center, four area control systems, ten major pumping/generating plant control systems, and a 400 mile fiber optic communication system.

  7. Spectroscopic Classifications of Optical Transients with SOAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hounsell, R. A.; Miller, J. A.; Pan, Y.-C.; Foley, R. J.; Jha, S. W.; Rest, A.; Scolnic, D.; Smith, K. W.; Wright, D.; Smartt, S. J.; Huber, M.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H.; Willman, M.; Primak, N.; Schultz, A.; Gibson, B.; Magnier, E.; Waters, C.; Tonry, J.; Wainscoat, R. J.

    2016-06-01

    We report the following classifications of optical transients from spectroscopic observations with the Goodman spectrograph on the SOAR 4-m telescope. Targets were supplied by the Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients (PSST).

  8. Offsite radiation doses summarized from Hanford environmental monitoring reports for the years 1957-1984. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Soldat, J.K.; Price, K.R.; McCormack, W.D.

    1986-02-01

    Since 1957, evaluations of offsite impacts from each year of operation have been summarized in publicly available, annual environmental reports. These evaluations included estimates of potential radiation exposure to members of the public, either in terms of percentages of the then permissible limits or in terms of radiation dose. The estimated potential radiation doses to maximally exposed individuals from each year of Hanford operations are summarized in a series of tables and figures. The applicable standard for radiation dose to an individual for whom the maximum exposure was estimated is also shown. Although the estimates address potential radiation doses to the public from each year of operations at Hanford between 1957 and 1984, their sum will not produce an accurate estimate of doses accumulated over this time period. The estimates were the best evaluations available at the time to assess potential dose from the current year of operation as well as from any radionuclides still present in the environment from previous years of operation. There was a constant striving for improved evaluation of the potential radiation doses received by members of the public, and as a result the methods and assumptions used to estimate doses were periodically modified to add new pathways of exposure and to increase the accuracy of the dose calculations. Three conclusions were reached from this review: radiation doses reported for the years 1957 through 1984 for the maximum individual did not exceed the applicable dose standards; radiation doses reported over the past 27 years are not additive because of the changing and inconsistent methods used; and results from environmental monitoring and the associated dose calculations reported over the 27 years from 1957 through 1984 do not suggest a significant dose contribution from the buildup in the environment of radioactive materials associated with Hanford operations.

  9. Efficacy of drinking-water treatment residual in controlling off-site phosphorus losses: a field study in Florida.

    PubMed

    Agyin-Birikorang, S; Oladeji, O O; O'Connor, G A; Obreza, T A; Capece, J C

    2009-01-01

    Land application of drinking-water treatment residuals (WTR) has been shown to control excess soil soluble P and can reduce off-site P losses to surface and ground water. To our knowledge, no field study has directly evaluated the impacts of land application of WTRs on ground water quality. We monitored the effects of three organic sources of P (poultry manure, Boca Raton biosolids, Pompano biosolids) or triple superphosphate co-applied with an aluminum-based WTR (Al-WTR) on soil and ground water P and Al concentrations under natural field conditions for 20 mo in a soil with limited P sorption capacity. The P sources were applied at two rates (based on P or nitrogen [N] requirement of bahiagrass) with or without Al-WTR amendment and replicated three times. Without WTR application, applied P sources increased surface soil soluble P concentrations regardless of the P source or application rate. Co-applying the P sources with Al-WTR prevented increases in surface soil soluble P concentrations and reduced P losses to shallow ground water. Total dissolved P and orthophosphate concentrations of shallow well ground water of the N-based treatments were greater (>0.9 and 0.3 mg L(-1), respectively) in the absence than in the presence ( approximately 0.6 and 0.2 mg L(-1), respectively) of Al-WTR. The P-based application rate did not increase ground water P concentrations relative to background concentrations. Notwithstanding, Al-WTR amendment decreased ground water P concentrations from soil receiving treatments with P-based application rates. Ground water total dissolved Al concentrations were unaffected by soil Al-WTR application. We conclude that, at least for the study period, Al-WTR can be safely used to reduce P leaching into ground water without increasing the Al concentration of ground water. PMID:19329695

  10. Efficacy of drinking-water treatment residual in controlling off-site phosphorus losses: a field study in Florida.

    PubMed

    Agyin-Birikorang, S; Oladeji, O O; O'Connor, G A; Obreza, T A; Capece, J C

    2009-01-01

    Land application of drinking-water treatment residuals (WTR) has been shown to control excess soil soluble P and can reduce off-site P losses to surface and ground water. To our knowledge, no field study has directly evaluated the impacts of land application of WTRs on ground water quality. We monitored the effects of three organic sources of P (poultry manure, Boca Raton biosolids, Pompano biosolids) or triple superphosphate co-applied with an aluminum-based WTR (Al-WTR) on soil and ground water P and Al concentrations under natural field conditions for 20 mo in a soil with limited P sorption capacity. The P sources were applied at two rates (based on P or nitrogen [N] requirement of bahiagrass) with or without Al-WTR amendment and replicated three times. Without WTR application, applied P sources increased surface soil soluble P concentrations regardless of the P source or application rate. Co-applying the P sources with Al-WTR prevented increases in surface soil soluble P concentrations and reduced P losses to shallow ground water. Total dissolved P and orthophosphate concentrations of shallow well ground water of the N-based treatments were greater (>0.9 and 0.3 mg L(-1), respectively) in the absence than in the presence ( approximately 0.6 and 0.2 mg L(-1), respectively) of Al-WTR. The P-based application rate did not increase ground water P concentrations relative to background concentrations. Notwithstanding, Al-WTR amendment decreased ground water P concentrations from soil receiving treatments with P-based application rates. Ground water total dissolved Al concentrations were unaffected by soil Al-WTR application. We conclude that, at least for the study period, Al-WTR can be safely used to reduce P leaching into ground water without increasing the Al concentration of ground water.

  11. Transient analysis of a capillary pumped loop heat pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiper, A. M.; Feric, G.; Anjum, M. I.; Swanson, T. D.

    1990-01-01

    A bench-top Capillary Pumped Loop (CPL) test system has been developed and tested to investigate the transient mode operation of this system by applying a step power input to the evaporators. Tests were conducted at several power input and evaporator inlet subcooling combinations. In addition, a lumped-heat-capacity model of the CPL test system has been presented which is used for predicting qualitatively the transient operation characteristics. Good agreement has been obtained between the predicted and the measured temperature variations. A simple evaporator inlet subcooler model has also been developed to study effects of inlet subcooling on the steady-state evaporator wall temperature. Results were compared with the test data collected.

  12. Transient shear banding in a simple yield stress fluid.

    PubMed

    Divoux, Thibaut; Tamarii, David; Barentin, Catherine; Manneville, Sébastien

    2010-05-21

    We report a large set of experimental data which demonstrates that a simple yield stress fluid, i.e., which does not present aging or thixotropy, exhibits transient shear banding before reaching a steady state characterized by a homogeneous, linear velocity profile. The duration of the transient regime decreases as a power law with the applied shear rate γ. This power-law behavior, observed here in carbopol dispersions, does not depend on the gap width and on the boundary conditions for a given sample preparation. For γ≲0.1  s(-1), heterogeneous flows could be observed for as long as 10(5)  s. These local dynamics account for the ultraslow stress relaxation observed at low shear rates. PMID:20867072

  13. Superresolution microscopy with transient binding.

    PubMed

    Molle, Julia; Raab, Mario; Holzmeister, Susanne; Schmitt-Monreal, Daniel; Grohmann, Dina; He, Zhike; Tinnefeld, Philip

    2016-06-01

    For single-molecule localization based superresolution, the concentration of fluorescent labels has to be thinned out. This is commonly achieved by photophysically or photochemically deactivating subsets of molecules. Alternatively, apparent switching of molecules can be achieved by transient binding of fluorescent labels. Here, a diffusing dye yields bright fluorescent spots when binding to the structure of interest. As the binding interaction is weak, the labeling is reversible and the dye ligand construct diffuses back into solution. This approach of achieving superresolution by transient binding (STB) is reviewed in this manuscript. Different realizations of STB are discussed and compared to other localization-based superresolution modalities. We propose the development of labeling strategies that will make STB a highly versatile tool for superresolution microscopy at highest resolution. PMID:26773299

  14. [Transient abnormal Q-waves].

    PubMed

    Godballe, C; Hoeck, H C; Sørensen, J A

    1990-01-01

    We present a case of transient abnormal Q-waves (TAQ) and a review of the literature. TAQ are defined as abnormal Q-waves, which disappear within ten days. They are most often seen in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) but are also seen in other conditions. Brief episodes of myocardial ischemia giving rise to reversible biochemical and ultrastructural myocardial changes, resulting in transient ECG changes, provide an accepted theory for the pathogenesis of TAO. Investigations have shown that the occurrence of exercise-induced TAQ may be a symptom of IHD. It is impossible to distinguish TAQ from Q-waves induced by myocardial infarction. Appearance of TAQ during exercise-testing frequently indicates IHD. PMID:2301045

  15. Model refinement using transient response

    SciTech Connect

    Dohrmann, C.R.; Carne, T.G.

    1997-12-01

    A method is presented for estimating uncertain or unknown parameters in a mathematical model using measurements of transient response. The method is based on a least squares formulation in which the differences between the model and test-based responses are minimized. An application of the method is presented for a nonlinear structural dynamic system. The method is also applied to a model of the Department of Energy armored tractor trailer. For the subject problem, the transient response was generated by driving the vehicle over a bump of prescribed shape and size. Results from the analysis and inspection of the test data revealed that a linear model of the vehicle`s suspension is not adequate to accurately predict the response caused by the bump.

  16. Superresolution microscopy with transient binding.

    PubMed

    Molle, Julia; Raab, Mario; Holzmeister, Susanne; Schmitt-Monreal, Daniel; Grohmann, Dina; He, Zhike; Tinnefeld, Philip

    2016-06-01

    For single-molecule localization based superresolution, the concentration of fluorescent labels has to be thinned out. This is commonly achieved by photophysically or photochemically deactivating subsets of molecules. Alternatively, apparent switching of molecules can be achieved by transient binding of fluorescent labels. Here, a diffusing dye yields bright fluorescent spots when binding to the structure of interest. As the binding interaction is weak, the labeling is reversible and the dye ligand construct diffuses back into solution. This approach of achieving superresolution by transient binding (STB) is reviewed in this manuscript. Different realizations of STB are discussed and compared to other localization-based superresolution modalities. We propose the development of labeling strategies that will make STB a highly versatile tool for superresolution microscopy at highest resolution.

  17. Transient Ablation of Teflon Hemispheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arai, Norio; Karashima, Kei-ichi; Sato, Kiyoshi

    1997-01-01

    For high-speed entry of space vehicles into atmospheric environments, ablation is a practical method for alleviating severe aerodynamic heating. Several studies have been undertaken on steady or quasi-steady ablation. However, ablation is a very complicated phenomenon in which a nonequilibrium chemical process is associated with an aerodynamic process that involves changes in body shape with time. Therefore, it seems realistic to consider that ablation is an unsteady phenomenon. In the design of an ablative heat-shield system, since the ultimate purpose of the heat shield is to keep the internal temperature of the space vehicle at a safe level during entry, the transient heat conduction characteristics of the ablator may be critical in the selection of the material and its thickness. This note presents an experimental study of transient ablation of Teflon, with particular emphasis on the change in body shape, the instantaneous internal temperature distribution, and the effect of thermal expansion on ablation rate.

  18. Pressure transient in liquid lines

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, J.G.; Wang, X.Q.

    1995-07-01

    The pressure surge that results from a step change of flow in liquid pipelines, commonly known as water hammer, was analyzed by an eigenfunction method. A differential-integral Pressure wave equation and a linearized velocity equation were derived from the equations of mass and momentum conservation. Waveform distortion due to viscous dissipation and pipe-wall elastic expansion is characterized by a dimensionless transmission number K. The pressure surge condition, which is mathematically singular, was used in the solution procedure. The exact solutions from numerical calculation of the differential-integral equation provide a complete Pressure transient in the pipe. The problems are also calculated With the general-purpose computer code COMMIX, which solves the exact mass conservation equation and Navier-Stokes equations. These solutions were compared with published experimental results, and agreement was good. The effect of turbulence on the pressure transient is discussed in the light of COMMIX calculational results.

  19. Transient simulation of absorption machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anand, D. K.; Allen, R. W.; Kumar, B.

    A model for a water-cooled Lithium-Bromide/water absorption chiller is presented. Its transient response both during the start-up phase and during the shut-off period is predicted. The simulation model incorporates such influencing factors as the thermodynamic properties of the working fluid, the absorbent, the heat-transfer configuration of different components of the chiller and related physical data. The time constants of different components are controlled by a set of key parameters that have been identified. The results show a variable but at times significant amount of time delay before the chiller capacity gets close to its steady-state value. The model is intended to provide an insight into the mechanism of build-up to steady-state performance. By recognizing the significant factors contributing to transient degradation, steps can be taken to reduce such degradation.

  20. Nonlinear Diffusion and Transient Osmosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akira, Igarashi; Lamberto, Rondoni; Antonio, Botrugno; Marco, Pizzi

    2011-08-01

    We investigate both analytically and numerically the concentration dynamics of a solution in two containers connected by a narrow and short channel, in which diffusion obeys a porous medium equation. We also consider the variation of the pressure in the containers due to the flow of matter in the channel. In particular, we identify a phenomenon, which depends on the transport of matter across nano-porous membranes, which we call “transient osmosis". We find that nonlinear diffusion of the porous medium equation type allows numerous different osmotic-like phenomena, which are not present in the case of ordinary Fickian diffusion. Experimental results suggest one possible candidate for transiently osmotic processes.

  1. ATLAS discoveries of optical transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonry, J.; Denneau, L.; Stalder, B.; Heinze, A.; Sherstyuk, A.; Rest, A.; Smith, K. W.; Smartt, S. J.

    2016-09-01

    We report the following transients found by the ATLAS survey (see Tonry et al. ATel #8680). ATLAS is a twin 0.5m telescope system on Haleakala and Mauna Loa. The first unit is operational on Haleakala is robotically surveying the sky. Two filters are used, cyan and orange (denoted c and o, all mags in AB system), more information is on http://www.fallingstar.com.

  2. ATLAS discoveries of optical transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonry, J.; Denneau, L.; Stalder, B.; Heinze, A.; Sherstyuk, A.; Rest, A.; Smith, K. W.; Smartt, S. J.

    2016-06-01

    We report the following transients found by the ATLAS survey (see Tonry et al. ATel #8680). ATLAS is a twin 0.5m telescope system on Haleakala and Mauna Loa. The first unit is operational on Haleakala is robotically surveying the sky. Two filters are used, cyan and orange (denoted c and o, all mags in AB system), more information is on http://www.fallingstar.com.

  3. ATLAS discoveries of optical transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonry, J.; Denneau, L.; Stalder, B.; Heinze, A.; Sherstyuk, A.; Rest, A.; Smith, K. W.; Smartt, S. J.

    2016-08-01

    We report the following transients found by the ATLAS survey (see Tonry et al. ATel #8680). ATLAS is a twin 0.5m telescope system on Haleakala and Mauna Loa. The first unit is operational on Haleakala is robotically surveying the sky. Two filters are used, cyan and orange (denoted c and o, all mags in AB system), more information is on http://www.fallingstar.com.

  4. Nonlinear transient simulation of transformers

    SciTech Connect

    Pierrat, L.; Tran-Quoc, T. |; Montmeat, A.

    1995-12-31

    In this paper, a nonlinear model of transformer which takes into account both the saturation and the hysteresis is proposed. In order to simulate transient phenomena in transformers, a system of equations is presented. The digital simulation of the energization and de-energization of a three-phase distribution transformer is studied. Ferroresonant phenomena in iron core transformers supplied through capacitive links are presented. Finally, the influence of MOV arresters on overvoltage reduction is investigated.

  5. ATLAS discoveries of optical transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonry, J.; Denneau, L.; Stalder, B.; Heinze, A.; Sherstyuk, A.; Rest, A.; Smith, K. W.; Smartt, S. J.

    2016-10-01

    We report the following transients found by the ATLAS survey (see Tonry et al. ATel #8680). ATLAS is a twin 0.5m telescope system on Haleakala and Mauna Loa. The first unit is operational on Haleakala is robotically surveying the sky. Two filters are used, cyan and orange (denoted c and o, all mags in AB system), more information is on http://www.fallingstar.com.

  6. Possible Nearby Transient discovered by PSST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, D.; Smith, K. W.; Smartt, S. J.; Huber, M.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H.; Willman, M.; Primak, N.; Schultz, A.; Gibson, B.; Magnier, E.; Waters, C.; Tonry, J.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Foley, R. J.; Jha, S. W.; Rest, A.; Scolnic, D.

    2016-01-01

    A transient, which is a possible nearby supernova, has been discovered as part of the Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients (PSST). Information on all objects discovered by the Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients is available at http://star.pst.qub.ac.uk/ps1threepi/ (see Huber et al. ATel #7153).

  7. Transient-mode multipactor discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graves, T. P.; Spektor, R.; Stout, P.; Axley, A.

    2009-08-01

    Multipactor discharge is a resonant condition in which electrons impact material surfaces in phase with an alternating rf or microwave electric field. A growing and/or sustained discharge requires the electrode secondary electron coefficient, δ(Ee), to be greater than unity at the impacting electron energy (Ee). E1, the minimum energy for δ =1, is highly dependent on electrode surface preparation and conditioning, and contaminated surfaces will generally experience a lower E1 than the same clean or "conditioned" surface. A transient mode of multipactor discharge can exist when the multipactor electron energy distribution occurs near E1. The transient nature of such a discharge is shown to result from dynamic changes in E1 due to multipactor conditioning and surface contamination. Experimental data depict transient-mode multipactor (TMM) discharges at a range of rf voltages and chamber pressures for both copper and aluminum electrodes. TMM was detected using a biased current probe, and these events were undetectable by third harmonic diagnostics at chamber pressures below 1×10-3 torr. Discharge parameters such as charge density, period, and duty cycle are shown to be related to both the rf voltage and the chamber pressure. Monte Carlo simulation results support the experimental findings, showing an exponential decrease in the resonant electron population with increasing E1.

  8. Transient Response in LMFBR System.

    1999-04-26

    SSC-L (the Super System Code) calculates the thermohydraulic response of loop-type liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) systems during operational, incidental, and accidental transients, especially natural circulation events. Modules simulated and parameters calculated include: core flow rates and temperatures, loop flow rates and temperatures, pump performance, and heat exchanger operation. Additionally, SSC-L accounts for all plant protection and plant control systems. Although the primary emphasis is on transients for safety analysis, SSC-L can be usedmore » for many other applications, such as scoping analysis for plant design and specification of various components. Any number of user-specified loops, pipes, and nodes are permitted. Both single- and two-phase thermal-hydraulics are used in a multi-channel core representation. Inter-assembly flow redistribution is accounted for using a detailed fuel pin model. The heat transport system geometry is user-specified. SSC-L provides steady-state and transient options and a restart capability. Input is free format in a modular structure that makes use of abstract data management techniques.« less

  9. Spectral signatures of penumbral transients

    SciTech Connect

    Reardon, K.; Tritschler, A.

    2013-12-20

    In this work we investigate the properties of penumbral transients observed in the upper photospheric and chromospheric region above a sunspot penumbra using two-dimensional spectroscopic observations of the Ca II 854.21 nm line with a 5 s cadence. In our 30 minutes of observations, we identify several penumbral-micro jets (PMJs) with cotemporal observations from Dunn Solar Telescope/IBIS and Hinode/SOT. We find that the line profiles of these PMJ events show emission in the two wings of the line (±0.05 nm), but little modification of the line core. These are reminiscent of the line profiles of Ellerman bombs observed in plage and network regions. Furthermore, we find evidence that some PMJ events have a precursor phase starting 1 minute prior to the main brightening that might indicate initial heating of the plasma prior to an acoustic or bow shock event. With the IBIS data, we also find several other types of transient brightenings with timescales of less than 1 minute that are not clearly seen in the Hinode/SOT data. The spectral profiles and other characteristics of these events are significantly different from those of PMJs. The different appearances of all these transients are an indicator of the general complexity of the chromospheric magnetic field and underscore the highly dynamic behavior above sunspots. It also highlights the care that is needed in interpreting broadband filter images of chromospheric lines, which may conceal very different spectral profiles, and the underlying physical mechanisms at work.

  10. Transient beam loading in the SLC Damping Rings

    SciTech Connect

    Minty, M.G.; Siemann, R.H.

    1995-05-01

    Effects arising from heavy beam loading in the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) Damping Rings are described. The stability of the rf system and particle beam is studied using a numerical model of the beam cavity interaction with multiple feedback loops. Nonlinearities of the power source are also considered. The effects of beam-induced transients and intensity jitter on the rf system are analyzed and used to determine stability tolerances for both high current and low current pulses.

  11. 10 CFR Appendix R to Part 50 - Fire Protection Program for Nuclear Power Facilities Operating Prior to January 1, 1979

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... quick and complete replenishment of exhausted air supply bottles as they are returned. If compressors... compressors shall be operable assuming a loss of offsite power. Special care must be taken to locate the compressor in areas free of dust and contaminants. I. Fire brigade training. The fire brigade...

  12. 10 CFR Appendix R to Part 50 - Fire Protection Program for Nuclear Power Facilities Operating Prior to January 1, 1979

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... quick and complete replenishment of exhausted air supply bottles as they are returned. If compressors... compressors shall be operable assuming a loss of offsite power. Special care must be taken to locate the compressor in areas free of dust and contaminants. I. Fire brigade training. The fire brigade...

  13. Transient combustion in hybrid rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karabeyoglu, Mustafa Arif

    1998-09-01

    Hybrid rockets regained interest recently as an alternative chemical propulsion system due to their advantages over the solid and liquid systems that are currently in use. Development efforts on hybrids revealed two important problem areas: (1) low frequency instabilities and (2) slow transient response. Both of these are closely related to the transient behavior which is a poorly understood aspect of hybrid operation. This thesis is mainly involved with a theoretical study of transient combustion in hybrid rockets. We follow the methodology of identifying and modeling the subsystems of the motor such as the thermal lags in the solid, boundary layer combustion and chamber gasdynamics from a dynamic point of view. We begin with the thermal lag in the solid which yield the regression rate for any given wall heat flux variation. Interesting phenomena such as overshooting during throttling and the amplification and phase lead regions in the frequency domain are discovered. Later we develop a quasi-steady transient hybrid combustion model supported with time delays for the boundary layer processes. This is integrated with the thermal lag system to obtain the thermal combustion (TC) coupled response. The TC coupled system with positive delays generated low frequency instabilities. The scaling of the instabilities are in good agreement with actual motor test data. Finally, we formulate a gasdynamic model for the hybrid chamber which successfully resolves the filling/emptying and longitudinal acoustic behavior of the motor. The TC coupled system is later integrated to the gasdynamic model to obtain the overall response (TCG coupled system) of gaseous oxidizer motors with stiff feed systems. Low frequency instabilities were also encountered for the TCG coupled system. Apart from the transient investigations, the regression rate behavior of liquefying hybrid propellants such as solid cryogenic materials are also studied. The theory is based on the possibility of enhancement

  14. Space power development impact on technology requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassidy, J. F.; Fitzgerald, T. J.; Gilje, R. I.; Gordon, J. D.

    1986-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the selection of a specific spacecraft power technology and the identification of technology development to meet system requirements. Requirements which influence the selection of a given technology include the power level required, whether the load is constant or transient in nature, and in the case of transient loads, the time required to recover the power, and overall system safety. Various power technologies, such as solar voltaic power, solar dynamic power, nuclear power systems, and electrochemical energy storage, are briefly described.

  15. Transient creep and convective instability of the lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birger, Boris I.

    2012-12-01

    Laboratory experiments with rock samples show that transient creep, at which strain grows with time and strain rate decrease at constant stress, occurs while creep strains are sufficiently small. The transient creep at high temperatures is described by the Andrade rheological model. Since plate tectonics allows only small deformations in lithospheric plates, creep of the lithosphere plates is transient whereas steady-state creep, described by non-Newtonian power-law rheological model, takes place in the underlying mantle. At the transient creep, the effective viscosity, found in the study of postglacial flows, differs significantly from the effective viscosity, which characterizes convective flow, since timescales of these flows are very different. Besides, the transient creep changes the elastic crust thickness estimated within the power-law rheology of the lithosphere. Two problems of convective stability for the lithosphere with the Andrade rheology are solved. The solution of the first problem shows that the state, in which large-scale convective flow in the mantle occurs under lithospheric plates, is unstable and must bifurcate into another more stable state at which the lithospheric plates become mobile and plunge into the mantle at subduction zones. If the lithosphere had the power-law fluid rheology, the effective viscosity of the stagnant lithospheric plates would be extremely high and the state, in which large-scale convection occurs under the stagnant plates, would be stable that contradicts plate tectonics. The mantle convection forms mobile lithospheric plates if the effective viscosity of the plate is not too much higher than the effective viscosity of the underlying mantle. The Andrade rheology lowers the plate effective viscosity corresponding to the power-law fluid rheology and, thus, leads to instability of the state in which the plates are stagnant. The solution of the second stability problem shows that the state, in which the lithospheric plate

  16. Runaway transient simulation of a model Kaplan turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, S.; Zhou, D.; Liu, D.; Wu, Y.; Nishi, M.

    2010-08-01

    The runaway transient is a typical transient process of a hydro power unit, where the rotational speed of a turbine runner rapidly increases up to the runaway speed under a working head as the guide vanes cannot be closed due to some reason at the load rejection. In the present paper, the characteristics of the runaway transient of a model Kaplan turbine having ns = 479(m-kW) is simulated by using a time-dependent CFD technique where equation of rotational motion of runner, continuity equation and unsteady RANS equations with RNG k-epsilon turbulence model are solved iteratively. In the calculation, unstructured mesh is used to the whole flow passage, which consists of several sub-domains: entrance, casing, stay vanes + guide vanes, guide section, runner and draft tube. And variable speed sliding mesh technique is used to exchange interface flow information between moving part and stationary part, and three-dimensional unstructured dynamic mesh technique is also adopted to ensure mesh quality. Two cases were treated in the simulation of runaway transient characteristics after load rejection: one is the rated operating condition as the initial condition, and the other is the condition at the maximum head. Regarding the runaway speed, the experimental speed is 1.45 times the initial speed and the calculation is 1.47 times the initial for the former case. In the latter case, the experiment and the calculation are 1.67 times and 1.69 times respectively. From these results, it is recognized that satisfactorily prediction will be possible by using the present numerical method. Further, numerical results show that the swirl in the draft-tube flow becomes stronger in the latter part of the transient process so that a vortex rope will occur in the draft tube and its precession will cause the pressure fluctuations which sometimes affect the stability of hydro power system considerably.

  17. Analysis of Three Mile Island Unit 2 reactor cooling system transients. Volume 5

    SciTech Connect

    Henrie, J.O.; Postma, A.K.

    1983-08-01

    The reactimeter data recorded on 3/28/79 at Three Mile Island (TMI-2) indicates a number of abrupt transients starting at 13:52. These transients appeared to be the results of very rapid energy releases in the reactor cooling system. A study was initiated by the US Department of Energy to determine the causes and consequences of these transients. The study shows that the transients were not caused by energy releases in the reactor cooling system. They were probably caused by malfunctions in the reactimeter power supply or by reactimeter ground loop faults. Information obtained and observations derived from the study of real energy release transients which occurred during the first day of the TMI-2 loss of coolant accident are presented.

  18. SITE ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    E.P. McCann

    1999-04-16

    The Site Electrical Power System receives and distributes utility power to all North Portal site users. The major North Portal users are the Protected Area including the subsurface facility and Balance of Plant areas. The system is remotely monitored and controlled from the Surface Operations Monitoring and Control System. The system monitors power quality and provides the capability to transfer between Off-Site Utility and standby power (including dedicated safeguards and security power). Standby power is only distributed to selected loads for personnel safety and essential operations. Security power is only distributed to essential security operations. The standby safeguards and security power is independent from all other site power. The system also provides surface lighting, grounding grid, and lightning protection for the North Portal. The system distributes power during construction, operation, caretaker, and closure phases of the repository. The system consists of substation equipment (disconnect switches, breakers, transformers and grounding equipment) and power distribution cabling from substation to the north portal switch gear building. Additionally, the system includes subsurface facility substation (located on surface), switch-gear, standby diesel generators, underground duct banks, power cables and conduits, switch-gear building and associated distribution equipment for power distribution. Each area substation distributes power to the electrical loads and includes the site grounding, site lighting and lightning protection equipment. The site electrical power system distributes power of sufficient quantity and quality to meet users demands. The Site Electrical Power System interfaces with the North Portal surface systems requiring electrical power. The system interfaces with the Subsurface Electrical Distribution System which will supply power to the underground facilities from the North Portal. Power required for the South Portal and development side

  19. LONG GAMMA-RAY TRANSIENTS FROM COLLAPSARS

    SciTech Connect

    Woosley, S. E.; Heger, Alexander E-mail: alex@physics.umn.edu

    2012-06-10

    In the collapsar model for common gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), the formation of a centrifugally supported disk occurs during the first {approx}10 s following the collapse of the iron core in a massive star. This only occurs in a small fraction of massive stellar deaths, however, and requires unusual conditions. A much more frequent occurrence could be the death of a star that makes a black hole and a weak or absent outgoing shock, but in a progenitor that only has enough angular momentum in its outermost layers to make a disk. We consider several cases where this is likely to occur-blue supergiants with low mass-loss rates, tidally interacting binaries involving either helium stars or giant stars, and the collapse to a black hole of very massive pair-instability supernovae. These events have in common the accretion of a solar mass or so of material through a disk over a period much longer than the duration of a common GRB. A broad range of powers is possible, 10{sup 47}-10{sup 50} erg s{sup -1}, and this brightness could be enhanced by beaming. Such events were probably more frequent in the early universe where mass-loss rates were lower. Indeed, this could be one of the most common forms of gamma-ray transients in the universe and could be used to study first generation stars. Several events could be active in the sky at any one time. Recent examples of this sort of event may have been the Swift transients Sw-1644+57, Sw-2058+0516, and GRB 101225A.

  20. Transient Mirror Heating Theory and Experiment in the Jefferson Lab IR Demo FEL

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, S.; Michelle D. Shinn.; Neil, G.R.

    2001-01-01

    During commissioning of the IR Demo FEL at Jefferson Lab, we noticed that the FEL exhibited a rapid power drop with time when the first set of 3 mu-m mirrors was used. Thought the rate of power drop was unexpected, it was thought that it could be due to a distortion of the mirrors during a time short compared to a the thermal diffusion time. This transient distortion might affect the laser more than the steady state distortion. This paper presents some analysis of the transient mirror heating problem and some recent experimental results using different mirror substrates and coatings. It is found that the behavior of the first mirror set cannot be reconciled with the observed power fall-off if a linear absorption is assumed. The power drop in more recent experiments is consistent with linear thermal analysis. No anomalous transient effects are seen.

  1. Multimode power processor

    DOEpatents

    O'Sullivan, G.A.; O'Sullivan, J.A.

    1999-07-27

    In one embodiment, a power processor which operates in three modes: an inverter mode wherein power is delivered from a battery to an AC power grid or load; a battery charger mode wherein the battery is charged by a generator; and a parallel mode wherein the generator supplies power to the AC power grid or load in parallel with the battery. In the parallel mode, the system adapts to arbitrary non-linear loads. The power processor may operate on a per-phase basis wherein the load may be synthetically transferred from one phase to another by way of a bumpless transfer which causes no interruption of power to the load when transferring energy sources. Voltage transients and frequency transients delivered to the load when switching between the generator and battery sources are minimized, thereby providing an uninterruptible power supply. The power processor may be used as part of a hybrid electrical power source system which may contain, in one embodiment, a photovoltaic array, diesel engine, and battery power sources. 31 figs.

  2. Multimode power processor

    DOEpatents

    O'Sullivan, George A.; O'Sullivan, Joseph A.

    1999-01-01

    In one embodiment, a power processor which operates in three modes: an inverter mode wherein power is delivered from a battery to an AC power grid or load; a battery charger mode wherein the battery is charged by a generator; and a parallel mode wherein the generator supplies power to the AC power grid or load in parallel with the battery. In the parallel mode, the system adapts to arbitrary non-linear loads. The power processor may operate on a per-phase basis wherein the load may be synthetically transferred from one phase to another by way of a bumpless transfer which causes no interruption of power to the load when transferring energy sources. Voltage transients and frequency transients delivered to the load when switching between the generator and battery sources are minimized, thereby providing an uninterruptible power supply. The power processor may be used as part of a hybrid electrical power source system which may contain, in one embodiment, a photovoltaic array, diesel engine, and battery power sources.

  3. Transient-induced climate drift

    SciTech Connect

    Johansson, A.; Reinhold, B.; Saha, S. )

    1993-05-01

    The climate drift of various quantities associated with deep, planetary-scale, equilibrated, transient Rossby waves are estimated for the Southern Hemisphere extratropical summer as revealed by the DERF II (Dynamical Extended Range Forecasting) dataset. It is found that the vertical structures of these waves systematically become too baroclinic during the course of integration. There are two time scales associated with this climate drift. There is one very short time scale, estimated to be of the order of one day, when the waves become more barotropic. It is followed by a period when the wave baroclinicity monotonically increases, and after roughly 10 days the model structures appear to have reached their statistically equilibrated state. In the meantime, the kinetic energy of the transient waves decreases substantially to roughly half the observed value. After this initial drop, however, the transient kinetic energy increases again, and it is not clear if an equilibrium value has been reached after 30 days, which is the limit of the DERF II dataset. This third time scale is not found in the quantities directly associated with the vertical structures per se, but it is hypothesized to be a consequence of these errors. A theory is utilized that in a simplified way takes into account the processes that determine the vertical structure of baroclinic waves as well as their robustness as a means of understanding the processes leading to these errors. The implications from this theory are that the formulation and magnitude of the dissipative and diffusive processes in the model are the most likely problem, but there are other possibilities. 37 refs., 10 figs.

  4. Separation of distinct photoexcitation species in femtosecond transient absorption microscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Xiao, Kai; Ma, Ying -Zhong; Simpson, Mary Jane; Doughty, Benjamin; Yang, Bing

    2016-02-03

    Femtosecond transient absorption microscopy is a novel chemical imaging capability with simultaneous high spatial and temporal resolution. Although several powerful data analysis approaches have been developed and successfully applied to separate distinct chemical species in such images, the application of such analysis to distinguish different photoexcited species is rare. In this paper, we demonstrate a combined approach based on phasor and linear decomposition analysis on a microscopic level that allows us to separate the contributions of both the excitons and free charge carriers in the observed transient absorption response of a composite organometallic lead halide perovskite film. We found spatialmore » regions where the transient absorption response was predominately a result of excitons and others where it was predominately due to charge carriers, and regions consisting of signals from both contributors. Lastly, quantitative decomposition of the transient absorption response curves further enabled us to reveal the relative contribution of each photoexcitation to the measured response at spatially resolved locations in the film.« less

  5. A transient overpower experiment in EBR-II

    SciTech Connect

    Herzog, J.P.; Tsai, H.; Dean, E.M.; Aoyama, T.; Yamamoto, K.

    1994-03-01

    The TOPI-IE test was a transient overpower test on irradiate mixed-oxide fuel pins in the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II). The test, the fifth in a series, was part of a cooperative program between the US Department of Energy and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation of Japan to conduct operational transient testing on mixed-oxide fuel pins in the metal-fueled EBR-II. The principle objective of the TOPI-1E test was to assess breaching margins for irradiated mixed-oxide fuel pins over the Plant Protection System (PPS) thresholds during a slow, extended overpower transient. This paper describes the effect of the TOPI-1E experiment on reactor components and the impact of the experiment on the long-term operability of the reactor. The paper discusses the role that SASSYS played in the pre-test safety analysis of the experiment. The ability of SASSYS to model transient overpower events is detailed by comparisons of data from the experiment with computed reactor variables from a SASSYS post-test simulation of the experiment.

  6. Transient Elastodynamic Crack Growth in Functionally Graded Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Chalivendra, Vijaya B.

    2008-02-15

    A generalized elastic solution for an arbitrarily propagating transient crack in Functionally Graded Materials (FGMs) is obtained through an asymptotic analysis. The shear modulus and mass density of the FGM are assumed to vary exponentially along the gradation direction. The mode-mixity due to the inclination of property gradient with respect to the propagating crack tip is accommodated in the analysis through superposition of the opening and shear modes. First three terms of out of plane displacement field and its gradients about the crack tip are obtained in powers of radial coordinates, with the coefficients depending on the time rate of change of crack tip speed and stress intensity factors. Using these displacement fields, the effect of transient stress intensity factors and acceleration on synthetic contours of constant out of plane displacement under both opening and mixed mode loading conditions has been studied. These contours show that the transient terms cause significant spatial variation on out of plane displacements around the crack tip. Therefore, in studying dynamic fracture of FGMs, it is appropriate to include the transient terms in the field equations for the situations of sudden variation of stress intensity factor or crack tip velocity.

  7. Transient eddy current flow metering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbriger, J.; Stefani, F.

    2015-10-01

    Measuring local velocities or entire flow rates in liquid metals or semiconductor melts is a notorious problem in many industrial applications, including metal casting and silicon crystal growth. We present a new variant of an old technique which relies on the continuous tracking of a flow-advected transient eddy current that is induced by a pulsed external magnetic field. This calibration-free method is validated by applying it to the velocity of a spinning disk made of aluminum. First tests at a rig with a flow of liquid GaInSn are also presented.

  8. Transient thermal convection in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dressler, R. F.

    1981-01-01

    The unsteady two-dimensional thermal convection in a cylinder due to a transient acceleration solved for a step-function excitation. From this, the solution was obtained for an arbitrary time-dependent acceleration. The solutions are valied for sufficiently low Rayleigh numbers and therefore, relevant to microgravity fields. As an example, two graphs are presented for he convection resulting from the movement of an astronaut inside the Shuttle. The analysis can be applied to obtain any other convective flows such as those caused by g-jitter or variable rotation of the Shuttle.

  9. Observations of Solar Radio Transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paige, Giorla

    2011-05-01

    A low frequency radio telescope has been recently been constructed on the campus of the The College of New Jersey (TCNJ) and has begun conducting observations at 20MHz as part of NASA'a Radio Jove program. This instrument is capable of observations of solar radio emission including strong prompt radio emission associated with solar burst events. We will discuss solar observations conducted with this instrument as well as an effort to conduct coincident observations with the Eight-meter-wavelength Transient Array (ETA) and the Long Wavelength Array (LWA).

  10. Transient Wellbore Fluid Flow Model

    1982-04-06

    WELBORE is a code to solve transient, one-dimensional two-phase or single-phase non-isothermal fluid flow in a wellbore. The primary thermodynamic variables used in solving the equations are the pressure and specific energy. An equation of state subroutine provides the density, quality, and temperature. The heat loss out of the wellbore is calculated by solving a radial diffusion equation for the temperature changes outside the bore. The calculation is done at each node point in themore » wellbore.« less

  11. Diffuse dispersive delay and the time convolution/attenuation of transients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bittner, Burt J.

    1991-01-01

    Test data and analytic evaluations are presented to show that relatively poor 100 KHz shielding of 12 Db can effectively provide an electromagnetic pulse transient reduction of 100 Db. More importantly, several techniques are shown for lightning surge attenuation as an alternative to crowbar, spark gap, or power zener type clipping which simply reflects the surge. A time delay test method is shown which allows CW testing, along with a convolution program to define transient shielding effectivity where the Fourier phase characteristics of the transient are known or can be broadly estimated.

  12. Production of high transient heat and particle fluxes in a linear plasma device

    SciTech Connect

    De Temmerman, G.; Zielinski, J. J.; Meiden, H. van der; Melissen, W.; Rapp, J.

    2010-08-23

    We report on the generation of high transient heat and particle fluxes in a linear plasma device by pulsed operation of the plasma source. A capacitor bank is discharged into the source to transiently increase the discharge current up to 1.7 kA, allowing peak densities and temperature of 70x10{sup 20} m{sup -3} and 6 eV corresponding to a surface power density of about 400 MW m{sup -2}.

  13. Protecting off-site populations and site workers from vapor discharges during shallow soil mixing at the North Carolina State University National Priorities List Site.

    PubMed

    Schaad, David E; Halley, James M; Alaimo, Vince

    2007-09-01

    Although vapor monitoring is generally a component of remedial action activities, most sites do not have routine gaseous releases or vapor clouds erupting from the soil during implementation of the cleanup process (or during cleanup of the site). At the North Carolina State University Lot 86 National Priorities List Site, over 8410 m3 (11,000 yd3) of chemical waste was disposed at the Site, including organic solvents and shock-sensitive and air- and water-reactive compounds. During the Remedial Action, it was imperative to protect site workers and off-site populations from potential inhalation exposures. Engineering controls were incorporated into the shallow soil mixing process to limit the release of gaseous compounds. To quantify potential exposures to on-site and off-site receptors, modeling was conducted to evaluate potential exposure routes and migration pathways. To demonstrate acceptable levels of airborne constituents, a multifaceted air sampling and monitoring program was implemented. To ensure that potential exposures could be quantified, passive dosimeters, continuous real-time monitoring, time-weighted whole air sampling, and grab samples of vapor clouds were all critical components of the air monitoring program. After the successful completion of the Remedial Action, the pre-Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) chemical waste generated from the University's educational and research laboratories was entirely encapsulated and neither on-site workers nor off-site populations were exposed to analyzed compounds above any health-based action level (i.e., 15-min short-term exposure limit [STEL], 8-hr threshold limit value, or time-weighted average permissible exposure limit).

  14. Protecting off-site populations and site workers from vapor discharges during shallow soil mixing at the North Carolina State University National Priorities List Site.

    PubMed

    Schaad, David E; Halley, James M; Alaimo, Vince

    2007-09-01

    Although vapor monitoring is generally a component of remedial action activities, most sites do not have routine gaseous releases or vapor clouds erupting from the soil during implementation of the cleanup process (or during cleanup of the site). At the North Carolina State University Lot 86 National Priorities List Site, over 8410 m3 (11,000 yd3) of chemical waste was disposed at the Site, including organic solvents and shock-sensitive and air- and water-reactive compounds. During the Remedial Action, it was imperative to protect site workers and off-site populations from potential inhalation exposures. Engineering controls were incorporated into the shallow soil mixing process to limit the release of gaseous compounds. To quantify potential exposures to on-site and off-site receptors, modeling was conducted to evaluate potential exposure routes and migration pathways. To demonstrate acceptable levels of airborne constituents, a multifaceted air sampling and monitoring program was implemented. To ensure that potential exposures could be quantified, passive dosimeters, continuous real-time monitoring, time-weighted whole air sampling, and grab samples of vapor clouds were all critical components of the air monitoring program. After the successful completion of the Remedial Action, the pre-Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) chemical waste generated from the University's educational and research laboratories was entirely encapsulated and neither on-site workers nor off-site populations were exposed to analyzed compounds above any health-based action level (i.e., 15-min short-term exposure limit [STEL], 8-hr threshold limit value, or time-weighted average permissible exposure limit). PMID:17912923

  15. Transient effects in Herschel/PACS spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadda, Dario; Jacobson, Jeffery D.; Appleton, Philip N.

    2016-10-01

    Context. The Ge:Ga detectors used in the PACS spectrograph onboard the Herschel space telescope react to changes of the incident flux with a certain delay. This generates transient effects on the resulting signal which can be important and last for up to an hour. Aims: The paper presents a study of the effects of transients on the detected signal and proposes methods to mitigate them especially in the case of the unchopped mode. Methods: Since transients can arise from a variety of causes, we classified them in three main categories: transients caused by sudden variations of the continuum due to the observational mode used; transients caused by cosmic ray impacts on the detectors; transients caused by a continuous smooth variation of the continuum during a wavelength scan. We propose a method to disentangle these effects and treat them separately. In particular, we show that a linear combination of three exponential functions is needed to fit the response variation of the detectors during a transient. An algorithm to detect, fit, and correct transient effects is presented. Results: The solution proposed to correct the signal for the effects of transients substantially improves the quality of the final reduction with respect to the standard methods used for archival reduction in the cases where transient effects are most pronounced. Conclusions: The programs developed to implement the corrections are offered through two new interactive data reduction pipelines in the latest releases of the Herschel Interactive Processing Environment.

  16. Evaluation of a main steam line break with induced, multiple tube ruptures: A comparison of NUREG 1477 (Draft) and transient methodologies Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station

    SciTech Connect

    Parrish, K.R.

    1995-09-01

    This paper presents the approach taken to analyze the radiological consequences of a postulated main steam line break event, with one or more tube ruptures, for the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station. The analysis was required to support the restart of PVNGS Unit 2 following the steam generator tube rupture event on March 14, 1993 and to justify continued operation of Units 1 and 3. During the post-event evaluation, the NRC expressed concern that Unit 2 could have been operating with degraded tubes and that similar conditions could exist in Units 1 and 3. The NRC therefore directed that a safety assessment be performed to evaluate a worst case scenario in which a non-isolable main steam line break occurs inducing one or more tube failures in the faulted steam generator. This assessment was to use the generic approach described in NUREG 1477, Voltage-Based Interim Plugging Criteria for Steam Generator Tubes - Task Group Report. An analysis based on the NUREG approach was performed but produced unacceptable results for off-site and control room thyroid doses. The NUREG methodology, however, does not account for plant thermal-hydraulic transient effects, system performance, or operator actions which could be credited to mitigate dose consequences. To deal with these issues, a more detailed analysis methodology was developed using a modified version of the Combustion Engineering Plant Analysis Code, which examines the dose consequences for a main steam line break transient with induced tube failures for a spectrum equivalent to 1 to 4 double ended guillotine U-tube breaks. By incorporating transient plant system responses and operator actions, the analysis demonstrates that the off-site and control room does consequences for a MSLBGTR can be reduced to acceptable limits. This analysis, in combination with other corrective and recovery actions, provided sufficient justification for continued operation of PVNGS Units 1 and 3, and for the subsequent restart of Unit 2.

  17. Transient simulation of absorption machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anand, D. K.; Allen, R. W.; Kumar, B.

    1982-08-01

    This paper presents a model for a water-cooled Lithium-Bromide/water absorption chiller and predicts its transient response both during the start-up phase and during the shutoff period. The simulation model incorporates such influencing factors as the thermodynamic properties of the working fluid, the absorbent, the heat-transfer configuration of different components of the chiller and related physical data. The time constants of different components are controlled by a set of key parameters that have been identified in this study. The results show a variable but at times significant amount of time delay before the chiller capacity gets close to its steady-state value. The model is intended to provide an insight into the mechanism of build-up to steady-state performance. By recognizing the significant factors contributing to transient degradation, steps can be taken to reduce such degradation. The evaluation of the residual capacity in the shut-off period will yield more realistic estimates of chiller COP for a chiller satisfying dynamic space cooling load.

  18. PRISMATIC CORE COUPLED TRANSIENT BENCHMARK

    SciTech Connect

    J. Ortensi; M.A. Pope; G. Strydom; R.S. Sen; M.D. DeHart; H.D. Gougar; C. Ellis; A. Baxter; V. Seker; T.J. Downar; K. Vierow; K. Ivanov

    2011-06-01

    The Prismatic Modular Reactor (PMR) is one of the High Temperature Reactor (HTR) design concepts that have existed for some time. Several prismatic units have operated in the world (DRAGON, Fort St. Vrain, Peach Bottom) and one unit is still in operation (HTTR). The deterministic neutronics and thermal-fluids transient analysis tools and methods currently available for the design and analysis of PMRs have lagged behind the state of the art compared to LWR reactor technologies. This has motivated the development of more accurate and efficient tools for the design and safety evaluations of the PMR. In addition to the work invested in new methods, it is essential to develop appropriate benchmarks to verify and validate the new methods in computer codes. The purpose of this benchmark is to establish a well-defined problem, based on a common given set of data, to compare methods and tools in core simulation and thermal hydraulics analysis with a specific focus on transient events. The benchmark-working group is currently seeking OECD/NEA sponsorship. This benchmark is being pursued and is heavily based on the success of the PBMR-400 exercise.

  19. Postseismic relaxation and transient creep

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savage, J.C.; Svarc, J.L.; Yu, S.-B.

    2005-01-01

    Postseismic deformation has been observed in the epicentral area following the 1992 Landers (M = 7.3), 1999 Chi-Chi (M = 7.6), 1999 Hector Mine (M = 7.1), 2002 Denali (M = 7.9), 2003 San Simeon (M = 6.5), and 2004 Parkfield (M = 6.0) earthquakes. The observations consist of repeated GPS measurements of the position of one monument relative to another (separation ???100 km). The early observations (t < 0.1 year) are well fit by the function a' + c'log(t), where t is the time after the earthquake and a' and c' are constants chosen to fit the data. Because a log(t) time dependence is characteristic of transient (primary) creep, the early postseismic response may be governed by transient creep as Benioff proposed in 1951. That inference is provisional as the stress conditions prevailing in postseismic relaxation are not identical to the constant stress condition in creep experiments. The observed logarithmic time dependence includes no characteristic time that might aid in identifying the micromechanical cause.

  20. FRINK - A Code to Evaluate Space Reactor Transients

    SciTech Connect

    Poston, David I.; Marcille, Thomas F.; Dixon, David D.; Amiri, Benjamin W.

    2007-01-30

    One of the biggest needs for space reactor design and development is detailed system modeling. Most proposed space fission systems are very different from previously operated fission power systems, and extensive testing and modeling will be required to demonstrate integrated system performance. There are also some aspects of space reactors that make them unique from most terrestrial application, and require different modeling approaches. The Fission Reactor Integrated Nuclear Kinetics (FRINK) code was developed to evaluate simplified space reactor transients (note: the term ''space reactor'' inherently includes planetary and lunar surface reactors). FRINK is an integrated point kinetic/thermal-hydraulic transient analysis FORTRAN code - ''integrated'' refers to the simultaneous solution of the thermal and neutronic equations. In its current state FRINK is a very simple system model, perhaps better referred to as a reactor model. The ''system'' only extends to the primary loop power removal boundary condition; however this allows the simulation of simplified transients (e.g. loss of primary heat sink, loss of flow, large reactivity insertion, etc.), which are most important in bounding early system conceptual design. FRINK could then be added to a complete system model later in the design and development process as system design matures.

  1. Loss of 115 kV Power

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.A.

    2001-08-22

    This report discusses the postulated loss of 115 kV power. Continuous electrical power to Savannah River Plant reactors is necessary to maintain water flow for heat removal and essential monitoring and control. Should power supplied to the plant 115 kV system from offsite be lost, on-site generation is sufficient to maintain all reactors in a safe shutdown mode for an indefinite period. Should on-site generators for the 115 kV grid also be lost, diesel-electric generators within each reactor building are also sufficient to maintain safe shutdown for a finite period. In all cases DC power for necessary monitoring and control would be available from battery systems with AC converter backup.

  2. Cool and luminous transients from mass-losing binary stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pejcha, Ondřej; Metzger, Brian D.; Tomida, Kengo

    2016-02-01

    We study transients produced by equatorial disc-like outflows from catastrophically mass-losing binary stars with an asymptotic velocity and energy deposition rate near the inner edge which are proportional to the binary escape velocity vesc. As a test case, we present the first smoothed-particle radiation-hydrodynamics calculations of the mass loss from the outer Lagrange point with realistic equation of state and opacities. The resulting spiral stream becomes unbound for binary mass ratios 0.06 ≲ q ≲ 0.8. For synchronous binaries with non-degenerate components, the spiral-stream arms merge at a radius of ˜10a, where a is the binary semi-major axis, and the accompanying shock thermalizes about 10 per cent of the kinetic power of the outflow. The mass-losing binary outflows produce luminosities reaching up to ˜106 L⊙ and effective temperatures spanning 500 ≲ Teff ≲ 6000 K, which is compatible with many of the class of recently discovered red transients such as V838 Mon and V1309 Sco. Dust readily forms in the outflow, potentially in a catastrophic global cooling transition. The appearance of the transient is viewing angle-dependent due to vastly different optical depths parallel and perpendicular to the binary plane. We predict a correlation between the peak luminosity and the outflow velocity, which is roughly obeyed by the known red transients. Outflows from mass-losing binaries can produce luminous (105 L⊙) and cool (Teff ≲ 1500 K) transients lasting a year or longer, as has potentially been detected by Spitzer surveys of nearby galaxies.

  3. Laboratory studies of spacecraft response to transient discharge pulses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nanevicz, J. E.; Adamo, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    The in-orbit measurement of spacecraft discharge properties was investigated. The experiments include design and fabrication of appropriate sensors and effects of spacecraft electromagnetic responses on the interpretation of the discharge data. Electric field sensors especially designed to response to high-speed transient signals were installed on a mock-up of a satellite. The simple mock-up was basically a sheet of aluminum rolled to form a cylinder. A movable spark-discharge noise source designed to be electromagnetically isolated from its power supply system was used to induce transient signals at various locations on the spacecraft's outer surface. The measurements and their implications are described. It is concluded that practical orbital measurements to define discharge noise source properties should be possible, and that simple mock-ups of the type described below are useful in sensor system design and data interpretation.

  4. Application of the boundary element method to transient heat conduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dargush, G. F.; Banerjee, P. K.

    1991-01-01

    An advanced boundary element method (BEM) is presented for the transient heat conduction analysis of engineering components. The numerical implementation necessarily includes higher-order conforming elements, self-adaptive integration and a multiregion capability. Planar, three-dimensional and axisymmetric analyses are all addressed with a consistent time-domain convolution approach, which completely eliminates the need for volume discretization for most practical analyses. The resulting general purpose algorithm establishes BEM as an attractive alternative to the more familiar finite difference and finite element methods for this class of problems. Several detailed numerical examples are included to emphasize the accuracy, stability and generality of the present BEM. Furthermore, a new efficient treatment is introduced for bodies with embedded holes. This development provides a powerful analytical tool for transient solutions of components, such as casting moulds and turbine blades, which are cumbersome to model when employing the conventional domain-based methods.

  5. Evolutionary Support Vector Machines for Transient Stability Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dora Arul Selvi, B.; Kamaraj, N.

    2012-03-01

    Currently, power systems are in the need of fast and reliable contingency monitoring systems for the purpose of maintaining stability in the presence of deregulated and open market environment. In this paper, a quick and unfailing transient stability monitoring algorithm that considers both the symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults is presented. support vector machines (SVMs) are employed as pattern classifiers so as to construct fast relation mappings between the transient stability results and the selected input attributes using mutual information. The type of fault is recognized by a SVM classifier and the critical clearing time of the fault is estimated by a support vector regression machine. The SVM parameters are tuned by an elitist multi-objective non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm in such a manner that the best classification and regression performance are accomplished. To demonstrate the good potential of the scheme, IEEE 3 generator system and a South Indian Grid are utilized.

  6. Probing Transient Electron Dynamics Using Ultrafast X Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucksbaum, Philip

    2016-05-01

    Linear x-ray absorption in atoms or molecules creates highly excited multi-electron quantum systems, which relax rapidly by fluorescence or Auger emission. These relaxation rates are usually less than a few femtoseconds in duration, and so they can reveal transient elecronic states in molecules as they undergo photo-induced transformations. I will show recent results from femtosecond x-ray experiments that display this phenomenon. There are efforts underway to push the temporal resolving power of ultrafast x-ray pulses into the attosecond regime, using stronger fields to initiate nonlinear absorption processes such as transient stimulated electronic Raman scattering. I will discuss current progress and future prospects for research in this area. This research is supported through Stanford PULSE Institute, SLAC National Accelerator Lab by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Science Program.

  7. Transient transfection of mammalian cells using a violet diode laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Mapa, Maria Leilani; Angus, Liselotte; Ploschner, Martin; Dholakia, Kishan; Gunn-Moore, Frank J.

    2010-07-01

    We demonstrate the first use of the violet diode laser for transient mammalian cell transfection. In contrast to previous studies, which showed the generation of stable cell lines over a few weeks, we develop a methodology to transiently transfect cells with an efficiency of up to ~40%. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) and human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells are exposed to a tightly focused 405-nm laser in the presence of plasmid DNA encoding for a mitochondrial targeted red fluorescent protein. We report transfection efficiencies as a function of laser power and exposure time for our system. We also show, for the first time, that a continuous wave laser source can be successfully applied to selective gene silencing experiments using small interfering RNA. This work is a major step towards an inexpensive and portable phototransfection system.

  8. Spectroscopic Classifications of Optical Transients with SOAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, R. J.; Hounsell, R. A.; Downing, S.; Pan, Y.-C.; Scolnic, D.; Jha, S. W.; Rest, A.; Smith, K. W.; Wright, D.; Smartt, S. J.; Huber, M.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H.; Willman, M.; Primak, N.; Schultz, A.; Gibson, B.; Magnier, E.; Waters, C.; Tonry, J.; Wainscoat, R. J.

    2015-07-01

    We report the following classifications of optical transients from spectroscopic observations with the Goodman spectrograph (wavelength range 3100 - 7100) on the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope.

  9. A Case of Transient Global Amnesia

    PubMed Central

    Mccroskey, Aidan L.; Deyerle, Branden A.

    2016-01-01

    Transient global amnesia is a clinical syndrome characterized by the sudden onset of anterograde amnesia, accompanied by repetitive questioning, sometimes with a retrograde component, lasting up to 24 hours, without compromise of other neurologic function. Neuroimaging after an acutetransient global amnesia event often shows transient perturbation of specific hippocampal circuits that are involved in memory processing. Critical clinical distinctions, such as between transient global amnesia and other forms of transient amnesic episodes, as well as important clues to the underlying pathophysiologies are herein reviewed. Finally, we discuss the role of hippocampal insufficiency in the neurobiology of delusions. PMID:27354927

  10. Transients with the Fermi GBM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, Michelle; Fermi GBM Team

    2016-03-01

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) is an all-sky monitoring instrument sensitive to energies from 8 keV to 40 MeV. Its primary science objective is observing gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) in support of the Large Area Telescope, which are both part of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. Over the past 7 years of operation, the GBM has detected over 240 GRBs per year and provided timely GCN notices for follow-up observations. In addition to GRBs, Galactic transients, solar flares, and terrestrial gamma-ray flashes have also been observed. With several instruments coming online recently, such as the gravitational wave detectors Advanced LIGO/Virgo and the very high energy surveying instrument HAWC, now is an opportune time for multi-messenger collaboration in counterpart search of gravitational waves and GRBs.

  11. Transient Dendritic Solidification Experiment (TDSE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Transient Dendritic Solidification Expepriment (TDSE) is being developed as a candidate for flight aboard the International Space Station. TDSE will study the growth of dendrites (treelike crystalline structures) in a transparent material (succinonitrile or SCN) that mimics the behavior of widely used iron-based metals. Basic work by three Space Shuttle missions of the Isothermal Dendritic Growth Expepriment (IDGE) is yielding new insights into virtually all industrially relevant metal and alloy forming operations. The TDSE is similar to IDGE, but will maintain a constant temperature while varying pressure on the dendrites. Shown here is an exploded view of major elements of TDSE. A similar view is available with labels. The principal investigator is Matthew Koss of College of the Holy Cross in Worcester, MA. Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

  12. Transient Dendritic Solidification Experiment (TDSE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Transient Dendritic Solidification Experiment (TDSE) is being developed as a candidate for flight aboard the International Space Station. TDSE will study the growth of dendrites (treelike crystalline structures) in a transparent material (succinonitrile or SCN) that mimics the behavior or widely used iron-based metals. Basic work by three Space Shuttle missions of the Isothermal Dendritic Growth Experiment (IDGE) is yielding new insights into virtually all industrially relevant metal and alloy forming operations. The TDSE is similar to IDGE, but will maintain a constant temperature while varying pressure on the dendrites. Shown here is an exploded view of major elements of the TDSE. A similar view is availble without labels. The principal investigator is Matthew Koss of College of the Holy Cross in Worcester, MA. Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

  13. Adaptation to transient postural perturbations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andres, Robert O.

    1992-01-01

    This research was first proposed in May, 1986, to focus on some of the problems encountered in the analysis of postural responses gathered from crewmembers. The ultimate driving force behind this line of research was the desire to treat, predict, or explain 'Space Adaptation Syndrome' (SAS) and hence circumvent any adverse effects of space motion sickness on crewmember performance. The aim of this project was to develop an easily implemented analysis of the transient responses to platform translation that can be elicited with a protocol designed to force sensorimotor reorganization, utilizing statistically reliable criterion measures. This report will present: (1) a summary of the activity that took place in each of the three funded years of the project; (2) discussion of experimental results and their implications for future research; and (3) a list of presentations and publications resulting from this project.

  14. Regulatory Analysis of Reactivity Transients

    SciTech Connect

    Beyer, Carl E.; Clifford, Paul M.; Geelhood, Kenneth J.; Voglewede, John C.

    2009-08-01

    This paper will describe modifications made to the FRAPCON-3 and FRAPTRAN fuel performance codes and models that impact reactivity initiated accident (RIA) analyses. The modified models include an upper bound empirical and best estimate release models for fast transients, and a revised fuel failure model that accounts for ductile and brittle failure. Because experimental data exists for discrete test conditions, the codes and models are used to interpolate and to some extent, to extrapolate these test conditions. An upper bound empirical model for release is used to establish new recommended release fractions for long-lived and short lived (radioactive) isotopes for RIA events in Regulatory Guide 1.183. A best estimate release model is used in FRAPTRAN 1.4 based on grain boundary gas concentrations from FRAPCON-3.4 to predict release for RIA events. Code and model predictions will be compared to failure and release data from RIA tests to demonstrate accuracy.

  15. X33 Transient Liftoff Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peck, Jeff; Brunty, Joseph

    2000-01-01

    The successful design of a launch vehicle requires the careful characterization of the various loads the structure will experience over its lifetime. Many of the most demanding load environments occur during the launch/ascent phase of a mission, typically defined as the point of engine start through engine cut off. One of the critical events during the launch phase is the liftoff event. This event imparts high loads on the vehicle due to transient events such as thrust build-up and vehicle release. This paper describes the theory and procedures used to calculate structural loads due to the liftoff event for the Lockheed-Martin X33 technology demonstrator vehicle. These procedures were developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center and verified previously on other advanced launch system concepts and the Space Shuttle system.

  16. Fluid Management Plan for the Project Shoal Area, Off-sites Subproject, CAU 447, Revision 0 (with Record of Technical Change No. 1, 2, and 3)

    SciTech Connect

    USDOE /NV

    1999-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) has initiated the Off-Site Project to characterize the hazards posed to human health and the environment as a result of underground nuclear testing activities at facilities other than the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The Project Shoal Area (PSA) is one of the Off-Sites Project areas located off the NTS, but within the state of Nevada. The PSA is located approximately 48 kilometers (30 miles) southeast of Fallon, Nevada. Four wells were drilled at the PSA in 1996 as part of the site investigation administered through the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (1996). The hydrogeologic data gathered from these wells was used to support the groundwater flow and contaminant transport modeling of the PSA. However, the subsequent evaluation of the groundwater model concluded that further delineation of the subsurface was required to reduce uncertainties in the model. In accordance with the FFACO, an addendum to the Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) for the proposed PSA subsurface investigation, Corrective Action Unit 447, was developed. The addendum proposed the drilling and construction of four additional wells and the conduct of hydrologic testing at the PSA. This Fluid Management Plan (FMP) provides guidance for the management of fluids generated from the well construction and testing activities at the PSA.

  17. Distinct Features of Auditory Steady-State Responses as Compared to Transient Event-Related Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li; Peng, Weiwei; Zhang, Zhiguo; Hu, Li

    2013-01-01

    Transient event-related potentials (ERPs) and steady-state responses (SSRs) have been popularly employed to investigate the function of the human brain, but their relationship still remains a matter of debate. Some researchers believed that SSRs could be explained by the linear summation of successive transient ERPs (superposition hypothesis), while others believed that SSRs were the result of the entrainment of a neural rhythm driven by the periodic repetition of a sensory stimulus (oscillatory entrainment hypothesis). In the present study, taking auditory modality as an example, we aimed to clarify the distinct features of SSRs, evoked by the 40-Hz and 60-Hz periodic auditory stimulation, as compared to transient ERPs, evoked by a single click. We observed that (1) SSRs were mainly generated by phase synchronization, while late latency responses (LLRs) in transient ERPs were mainly generated by power enhancement; (2) scalp topographies of LLRs in transient ERPs were markedly different from those of SSRs; (3) the powers of both 40-Hz and 60-Hz SSRs were significantly correlated, while they were not significantly correlated with the N1 power in transient ERPs; (4) whereas SSRs were dominantly modulated by stimulus intensity, middle latency responses (MLRs) were not significantly modulated by both stimulus intensity and subjective loudness judgment, and LLRs were significantly modulated by subjective loudness judgment even within the same stimulus intensity. All these findings indicated that high-frequency SSRs were different from both MLRs and LLRs in transient ERPs, thus supporting the possibility of oscillatory entrainment hypothesis to the generation of SSRs. Therefore, SSRs could be used to explore distinct neural responses as compared to transient ERPs, and help us reveal novel and reliable neural mechanisms of the human brain. PMID:23874901

  18. High-energy emission from transients.

    PubMed

    Hinton, J A; Starling, R L C

    2013-06-13

    Cosmic explosions dissipate energy into their surroundings on a very wide range of time scales: producing shock waves and associated particle acceleration. The historical culprits for the acceleration of the bulk of Galactic cosmic rays are supernova remnants: explosions on approximately 10(4) year time scales. Increasingly, however, time-variable emission points to rapid and efficient particle acceleration in a range of different astrophysical systems. Gamma-ray bursts have the shortest time scales, with inferred bulk Lorentz factors of approximately 1000 and photons emitted beyond 100 GeV, but active galaxies, pulsar wind nebulae and colliding stellar winds are all now associated with time-variable emission at approximately teraelectron volt energies. Cosmic photons and neutrinos at these energies offer a powerful probe of the underlying physical mechanisms of cosmic explosions, and a tool for exploring fundamental physics with these systems. Here, we discuss the motivations for high-energy observations of transients, the current experimental situation, and the prospects for the next decade, with particular reference to the major next-generation high-energy observatory, the Cherenkov Telescope Array. PMID:23630380

  19. Transient pulsed radio emission from a magnetar.

    PubMed

    Camilo, Fernando; Ransom, Scott M; Halpern, Jules P; Reynolds, John; Helfand, David J; Zimmerman, Neil; Sarkissian, John

    2006-08-24

    Anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs) are slowly rotating neutron stars with very bright and highly variable X-ray emission that are believed to be powered by ultra-strong magnetic fields of >10(14) G, according to the 'magnetar' model. The radio pulsations that have been observed from more than 1,700 neutron stars with weaker magnetic fields have never been detected from any of the dozen known magnetars. The X-ray pulsar XTE J1810-197 was revealed (in 2003) as the first AXP with transient emission when its luminosity increased 100-fold from the quiescent level; a coincident radio source of unknown origin was detected one year later. Here we show that XTE J1810-197 emits bright, narrow, highly linearly polarized radio pulses, observed at every rotation, thereby establishing that magnetars can be radio pulsars. There is no evidence of radio emission before the 2003 X-ray outburst (unlike ordinary pulsars, which emit radio pulses all the time), and the flux varies from day to day. The flux at all radio frequencies is approximately equal--and at >20 GHz XTE J1810-197 is currently the brightest neutron star known. These observations link magnetars to ordinary radio pulsars, rule out alternative accretion models for AXPs, and provide a new window into the coronae of magnetars. PMID:16929292

  20. Three years of Transients with Fermi GBM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.

    2012-01-01

    The Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) is an all-sky monitoring instrument, sensitive between 8 keV and 40 MeV, with a primary objective of supporting the Large Area Telescope (LAT) in observations of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs). Both instruments are part of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. Together, the GBM and LAT instruments have provided ground-breaking measurements of GRBs that have, after 10 years of focus on GRB afterglows, inspired renewed interest in the prompt emission phase of GRBs and the physical mechanisms that fuel them. In addition to GRB science, GBM has made significant contributions to the astrophysics of galactic transient sources including long-term variations in the Crab nebula, spin state transitions in accretion powered pulsars, state transitions in black hole X-ray binaries, and unprecedented time-resolved spectral studies of soft gamma-ray repeater bursts. Closer to home, GBM also contributes to solar flare and terrestrial gamma flash science.

  1. Transient pulsed radio emission from a magnetar.

    PubMed

    Camilo, Fernando; Ransom, Scott M; Halpern, Jules P; Reynolds, John; Helfand, David J; Zimmerman, Neil; Sarkissian, John

    2006-08-24

    Anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs) are slowly rotating neutron stars with very bright and highly variable X-ray emission that are believed to be powered by ultra-strong magnetic fields of >10(14) G, according to the 'magnetar' model. The radio pulsations that have been observed from more than 1,700 neutron stars with weaker magnetic fields have never been detected from any of the dozen known magnetars. The X-ray pulsar XTE J1810-197 was revealed (in 2003) as the first AXP with transient emission when its luminosity increased 100-fold from the quiescent level; a coincident radio source of unknown origin was detected one year later. Here we show that XTE J1810-197 emits bright, narrow, highly linearly polarized radio pulses, observed at every rotation, thereby establishing that magnetars can be radio pulsars. There is no evidence of radio emission before the 2003 X-ray outburst (unlike ordinary pulsars, which emit radio pulses all the time), and the flux varies from day to day. The flux at all radio frequencies is approximately equal--and at >20 GHz XTE J1810-197 is currently the brightest neutron star known. These observations link magnetars to ordinary radio pulsars, rule out alternative accretion models for AXPs, and provide a new window into the coronae of magnetars.

  2. Three Decades of High Energy Transients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kouveliotou, Chryssa

    2012-01-01

    Gamma-Ray Bursts are the most brilliant explosions in space. The first GRB was discovered on 1967, just over 40 years ago. It took several years and multiple generations of space and ground instruments to unravel some of the mysteries of this phenomenon. However, many questions remain open today. I will discuss the history, evolution and current status of the GRB field and its contributions in our understanding of the transient high energy sky. Finally, I will describe how GRBs can be utilized in future missions as tools, to probe the cosmic chemical evolution of the Universe Magnetars are magnetically powered rotating neutron stars with extreme magnetic fields (over 10(exp 14) Gauss). They were discovered in the X- and gamma-rays where they predominantly emit their radiation. Very few sources (roughly 24) have been found since their discovery in 1987. NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope was launched June 11, 2009; since then the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) recorded emission from several magnetar sources. In total, six new sources were discovered between 2008 and 2011, with a synergy between Swift, RXTE, Fermi and the Interplanetary Network (IPN). I will give a short history of magnetars and describe how this, once relatively esoteric field, has emerged as a link between several astrophysical areas including Gamma-Ray Bursts.

  3. Transient modeling of electromechanical relays. Part 2: Plunger type 50 relays

    SciTech Connect

    Glinkowski, M.T.; Esztergalyos, J.

    1996-04-01

    Electromechanical, plunger type 50 relay is modeled in EMTP/ATP using TACS. Mechanical magnetic, and electrical characteristics are represented in the form of simple mathematical models that can provide a useful tool for studying the dynamic responses of the Type 50 devices and incorporating them into a power system transient analysis. This paper is the second part of a summary report by Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) of work on relay modeling sponsored by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). Part 2 presents the Electro-Magnetic Transient Program/Alternative Transient Program (EMTP/ATP) model for plunger type 50 instantaneous overcurrent relays that compare with actual tests performed on the devices on a Power System Simulator (PSS).

  4. New methods to constrain the radio transient rate: results from a survey of four fields with LOFAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbone, D.; van der Horst, A. J.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Swinbank, J. D.; Rowlinson, A.; Broderick, J. W.; Cendes, Y. N.; Stewart, A. J.; Bell, M. E.; Breton, R. P.; Corbel, S.; Eislöffel, J.; Fender, R. P.; Grießmeier, J.-M.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Jonker, P.; Kramer, M.; Law, C. J.; Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; Pietka, M.; Scheers, L. H. A.; Stappers, B. W.; van Leeuwen, J.; Wijnands, R.; Wise, M.; Zarka, P.

    2016-07-01

    We report on the results of a search for radio transients between 115 and 190 MHz with the LOw-Frequency ARray (LOFAR). Four fields have been monitored with cadences between 15 min and several months. A total of 151 images were obtained, giving a total survey area of 2275 deg2. We analysed our data using standard LOFAR tools and searched for radio transients using the LOFAR Transients Pipeline. No credible radio transient candidate has been detected; however, we are able to set upper limits on the surface density of radio transient sources at low radio frequencies. We also show that low-frequency radio surveys are more sensitive to steep-spectrum coherent transient sources than GHz radio surveys. We used two new statistical methods to determine the upper limits on the transient surface density. One is free of assumptions on the flux distribution of the sources, while the other assumes a power-law distribution in flux and sets more stringent constraints on the transient surface density. Both of these methods provide better constraints than the approach used in previous works. The best value for the upper limit we can set for the transient surface density, using the method assuming a power-law flux distribution, is 1.3 × 10-3 deg-2 for transients brighter than 0.3 Jy with a time-scale of 15 min, at a frequency of 150 MHz. We also calculated for the first time upper limits for the transient surface density for transients of different time-scales. We find that the results can differ by orders of magnitude from previously reported, simplified estimates.

  5. The explosive transient camera - An automatic, wide-field sky monitor for short-timescale optical transients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderspek, Roland K.; Ricker, George R.; Doty, John P.

    1992-01-01

    The Explosive Transient Camera (ETC) is a widefield sky monitor designed to detect short-timescale (1-l0 s) celestial optical flashes. It consists of two arrays of wide-field CCD cameras monitoring about 0.4 steradian of the night sky for optical transients with risetimes of about 1-10 s and peak magnitudes m(V) of less than about 10. The ETC was designed to be completely automated in order to make year-round observations with minimal human intervention. A small, powerful 68,000-based computer controls all aspects of observations, including roof motion, CCD readouts, and weather sensing: under software control, the ETC is able to perform all the functions of a human observer automatically.

  6. Calculation of MCPR for BWR transients using the BNL plant analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Horak, W.C.; Diamond, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    A class of transients of interest includes those from full power that involve some changes from the plant's technical specifications. These changes are allowed if it can be demonstrated that the effect on key parameters, such as the minimum critical power ratio (MCPR), is acceptable. Another class of transients is of interest for similar reasons, those that are initiated from the maximum extended operating domain (MEOD) or with partial feedwater heating. In the MEOD, the reactor conditions may be different from previous experience to increase the speed of the power ascension or obtain more power out of the core at end-of-cycle when the reactivity of the fuel is low. The critical power ratio (CPR) is used to determine the thermal limits of boiling water reactors (BWRs). In this study, CPRs for a series of transients run on the Brookhaven Plant Analyzer (BPA) have been calculated. The transients include nominal base case simulations; simulations with variations in relief valve setpoints and the number of failed feedwater heaters; simulations at the 100% power, 75% flow point on the extended load line of the MEOD; and a simulation with partial feedwater heating. The plant represented with the BPA is a BWR/4 rated at 3293 MW with a 6.38-m vessel.

  7. Transient global amnesia: an extensive case report.

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, B; Marin, O S

    1979-01-01

    A case of transient global amnesia was studied in detail. Of note was a temporally extensive, although quite patchy, retrograde amnesia during the event for information recallable at other times. While a consolidation block can explain the anterograde amnesia in transient global amnesia, the profound retrograde amnesia requires an additional block in the retrieval of old, established memories. PMID:469566

  8. Transient thermal stress recovery for structural models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walls, William

    1992-01-01

    A method for computing transient thermal stress vectors from temperature vectors is described. The three step procedure involves the use of NASTRAN to generate an influence coefficient matrix which relates temperatures to stresses in the structural model. The transient thermal stresses are then recovered and sorted for maximum and minimum values. Verification data for the procedure is also provided.

  9. Stability Test for Transient-Temperature Calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, W.

    1984-01-01

    Graphical test helps assure numerical stability of calculations of transient temperature or diffusion in composite medium. Rectangular grid forms basis of two-dimensional finite-difference model for heat conduction or other diffusion like phenomena. Model enables calculation of transient heat transfer among up to four different materials that meet at grid point.

  10. Optical isolation in the LIGO gravitational wave laser detector in transient states

    SciTech Connect

    Soloviev, A A; Khazanov, Efim A

    2012-04-30

    This paper presents a numerical analysis of the degree of optical isolation of the laser source by the Faraday isolator in transient states of the laser interferometer gravitational wave observatory (LIGO) detector. This system may be in transient states where the power of the light reflected from the detector to the laser source can exceed many times the power of the source. The present results can be used to analyse the need for installing an additional active mechanical isolation of the source and to evaluate its response time.

  11. Femtosecond transient absorption dynamics of close-packed gold nanocrystal monolayer arrays.

    SciTech Connect

    Eah, S.-K.; Jaeger, H. M.; Scherer, N. F.; Lin, X.-M.; Weiderrecht, G. P.; Univ. of Chicago

    2004-03-11

    Femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy is used to investigate hot electron dynamics of close-packed 6 nm gold nanocrystal monolayers. Morphology changes of the monolayer caused by the laser pump pulse are monitored by transmission electron microscopy. At low pump power, the monolayer maintains its structural integrity. Hot electrons induced by the pump pulse decay through electron-phonon (e-ph) coupling inside the nanocrystals with a decay constant that is similar to the value for bulk films. At high pump power, irreversible particle aggregation and sintering occur in the nanocrystal monolayer, which cause damping and peak shifting of the transient bleach signal.

  12. An analytical and experimental investigation of natural circulation transients in a model pressurized water reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Massoud, M

    1987-01-01

    Natural Circulation phenomena in a simulated PWR was investigated experimentally and analytically. The experimental investigation included determination of system characteristics as well as system response to the imposed transient under symmetric and asymmetric operations. System characteristics were used to obtain correlation for heat transfer coefficient in heat exchangers, system flow resistance, and system buoyancy heat. Asymmetric transients were imposed to study flow oscillation and possible instability. The analytical investigation encompassed development of mathematical model for single-phase, steady-state and transient natural circulation as well as modification of existing model for two-phase flow analysis of phenomena such as small break LOCA, high pressure coolant injection and pump coast down. The developed mathematical model for single-phase analysis was computer coded to simulate the imposed transients. The computer program, entitled ''Symmetric and Asymmetric Analysis of Single-Phase Flow (SAS),'' were employed to simulate the imposed transients. It closely emulated the system behavior throughout the transient and subsequent steady-state. Modifications for two-phase flow analysis included addition of models for once-through steam generator and electric heater rods. Both programs are faster than real time. Off-line, they can be used for prediction and training applications while on-line they serve for simulation and signal validation. The programs can also be used to determine the sensitivity of natural circulation behavior to variation of inputs such as secondary distribution and power transients.

  13. A Analytical and Experimental Investigation of Natural Circulation Transients in a Model Pressurized Water Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massoud, Mahmoud

    Natural Circulation phenomena in a simulated PWR was investigated experimentally and analytically. The experimental investigation included determination of system characteristics as well as system response to the imposed transient under symmetric and asymmetric operations. System characteristics were used to obtain correlation for heat transfer coefficient in heat exchangers, system flow resistance, and system buoyancy head. Asymmetric transients were imposed to study flow oscillation and possible instability. The analytical investigation encompassed development of mathematical model for single-phase, steady-state and transient natural circulation as well as modification of existing model for two-phase flow analysis of phenomena such as small break LOCA, high pressure coolant injection and pump coast down. The developed mathematical model for single-phase analysis was computer coded to simulate the imposed transients. The computer program, entitled "Symmetric and Asymmetric Analysis of Single-Phase Flow (SAS)," were employed to simulate the imposed transients. It closely emulated the system behavior throughout the transient and subsequent steady -state. Modifications for two-phase flow analysis included addition of models for once-through steam generator and electric heater rods. Both programs are faster than real time. Off-line, they can be used for prediction and training applications while on-line they serve for simulation and signal validation. The programs can also be used to determine the sensitivity of natural circulation behaviour to variation of inputs such as secondary distribution and power transients.

  14. Transient repression of the lac operon.

    PubMed

    Tyler, B; Loomis, W F; Magasanik, B

    1967-12-01

    Severe transient repression of constitutive or induced beta-galactosidase synthesis occurs upon the addition of glucose to cells of Escherichia coli growing on glycerol, succinic acid, or lactic acid. Only mutants particularily well adapted to growth on glucose exhibit this phenomenon when transferred to a glucose-containing medium. No change in ribonucleic acid (RNA) metabolism was observed during transient repression. We could show that transient repression is pleiotropic, affecting all products of the lac operon. It occurs in a mutant insensitive to catabolite repression. It is established much more rapidly than catabolite repression, and is elicited by glucose analogues that are phosphorylated but not further catabolized by the cell. Thus, transient repression is not a consequence of the exclusion of inducer from the cell, does not require catabolism of the added compound, and does not involve a gross change in RNA metabolism. We conclude that transient repression is distinct from catabolite repression. PMID:4864411

  15. Synchronizing noisy nonidentical oscillators by transient uncoupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tandon, Aditya; Schröder, Malte; Mannattil, Manu; Timme, Marc; Chakraborty, Sagar

    2016-09-01

    Synchronization is the process of achieving identical dynamics among coupled identical units. If the units are different from each other, their dynamics cannot become identical; yet, after transients, there may emerge a functional relationship between them—a phenomenon termed "generalized synchronization." Here, we show that the concept of transient uncoupling, recently introduced for synchronizing identical units, also supports generalized synchronization among nonidentical chaotic units. Generalized synchronization can be achieved by transient uncoupling even when it is impossible by regular coupling. We furthermore demonstrate that transient uncoupling stabilizes synchronization in the presence of common noise. Transient uncoupling works best if the units stay uncoupled whenever the driven orbit visits regions that are locally diverging in its phase space. Thus, to select a favorable uncoupling region, we propose an intuitive method that measures the local divergence at the phase points of the driven unit's trajectory by linearizing the flow and subsequently suppresses the divergence by uncoupling.

  16. Transient Eddies in the UCLA GCM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, G. H.

    1985-01-01

    The simulation of transient eddies in the nine level UCLA general circulation model (GCM) was examined and compared to observations, with emphasis on the Northern Hemisphere winter. Qualitatively, the UCLA GCM reproduces many features of the observed circulation and the relationship between the time mean flow and transient eddies; however, the magnitudes of transient eddies in the UCLA GCM, particularly at frequencies lower than those associated with baroclinic instability, appear to be much less than those observed. The pattern of low level transient eddy heat fluxes were similar to observations and acted to dissipate the low level seasonal mean temperature field. The simulated transient eddy kinetic energy at 300 mb is given for eddies of all time scales shorter than a season.

  17. Galactic transients from the OGLE survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mroz, Przemek

    2016-07-01

    For many years, there were not any systematic, large-scale surveys for transients in the Milky Way and the Magellanic Clouds. This gap is being filled by discoveries from the OGLE survey, which has been regularly monitoring the densest sky regions (the Galactic bulge and disk, the Magellanic System) for over twenty years. The OGLE collection of Galactic transients contains several dozen classical novae and over a thousand other cataclysmic variables. I will tell how to select transients from billions of sources observed by the OGLE every night. I will show how the properties of classical novae depend on the underlying stellar population (and the star formation history). I will also discuss the preliminary results of the search for transients in the Milky Way disk from the OGLE-IV Galaxy Variability Survey. Finally, I will show some transients of yet unknown origin and present the OGLE-IV real time monitoring systems.

  18. Current status of the Explosive Transient Camera. [automated sky survey instument sensitive to optical transients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderspek, Roland; Doty, John P.; Ricker, George R.

    1992-01-01

    The current configuration and performance of the Explosive Transient Camera (ETC), a wide-field sky monitor capable of detecting short-timescale optical transients, are briefly reviewed, as are plans for future improvements. The primary objective of the ETC is to detect an optical transient that is spatially and temporally coincident with a gamma-ray burster. However, the ETC is sensitive to all sources of short-timescale optical transients and will conduct a systematic survey of the night sky for all optical transients. Results of preliminary observations of the night sky conducted since January 1991 are summarized, and long-term variability searches with the ETC are discussed.

  19. ATWS Transients for the 2400 MWt Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng,L.Y.; Ludewig, H.

    2007-08-05

    Reactivity transients have been analyzed with an updated RELAPS-3D (ver. 2.4.2) system model of the pin core design for the 2400MWt gas-cooled fast reactor (GCFR). Additional reactivity parameters were incorporated in the RELAP5 point-kinetics model to account for reactivity feedbacks due to axial and radial expansion of the core, fuel temperature changes (Doppler effect), and pressure changes (helium density changes). Three reactivity transients without scram were analyzed and the incidents were initiated respectively by reactivity ramp, loss of load, and depressurization. During the course of the analysis the turbine bypass model for the power conversion unit (PCU) was revised to enable a better utilization of forced flow cooling after the PCU is tripped. The analysis of the reactivity transients demonstrates the significant impact of the PCU on system pressure and core flow. Results from the modified turbine bypass model suggest a success path for the GCFR to mitigate reactivity transients without scram.

  20. Transient Tolerant Automated Control System for the LEDA 75kV Injector

    SciTech Connect

    Thuot, M.E.; Dalesio, L.R.; Harrington, M.; Hodgkins, D.; Kerstiens, D.M.; Stettler, M.W.; Warren, D.S.; Zaugg, T.; Arvin, A.; Bolt, S.; Richards, M.

    1999-03-29

    The Low-Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) injector is designed to inject 75-keV, 110-mA, proton beams into the LEDA RFQ. The injector operation has been automated to provide long term, high availability operation using the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). Automated recovery from spark-downs demands reliable spark detection and sequence execution by the injector controller. Reliable computer control in the high-energy transient environment required transient suppression and isolation of hundreds of analog and binary data lines connecting the EPICS computer controller to the injector and it's power supplies and diagnostics. A transient suppression design based on measured and modeled spark transient parameters provides robust injector operation. This paper describes the control system hardware and software design, implementation and operational performance.