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Sample records for ofgraft copolymer fuel

  1. Block copolymers for alkaline fuel cell membrane materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yifan

    Alkaline fuel cells (AFCs) using anion exchange membranes (AEMs) as electrolyte have recently received considerable attention. AFCs offer some advantages over proton exchange membrane fuel cells, including the potential of non-noble metal (e.g. nickel, silver) catalyst on the cathode, which can dramatically lower the fuel cell cost. The main drawback of traditional AFCs is the use of liquid electrolyte (e.g. aqueous potassium hydroxide), which can result in the formation of carbonate precipitates by reaction with carbon dioxide. AEMs with tethered cations can overcome the precipitates formed in traditional AFCs. Our current research focuses on developing different polymer systems (blend, block, grafted, and crosslinked polymers) in order to understand alkaline fuel cell membrane in many aspects and design optimized anion exchange membranes with better alkaline stability, mechanical integrity and ionic conductivity. A number of distinct materials have been produced and characterized. A polymer blend system comprised of poly(vinylbenzyl chloride)-b-polystyrene (PVBC-b-PS) diblock copolymer, prepared by nitroxide mediated polymerization (NMP), with poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (PPO) or brominated PPO was studied for conversion into a blend membrane for AEM. The formation of a miscible blend matrix improved mechanical properties while maintaining high ionic conductivity through formation of phase separated ionic domains. Using anionic polymerization, a polyethylene based block copolymer was designed where the polyethylene-based block copolymer formed bicontinuous morphological structures to enhance the hydroxide conductivity (up to 94 mS/cm at 80 °C) while excellent mechanical properties (strain up to 205%) of the polyethylene block copolymer membrane was observed. A polymer system was designed and characterized with monomethoxy polyethylene glycol (mPEG) as a hydrophilic polymer grafted through substitution of pendent benzyl chloride groups of a PVBC

  2. Block Copolymers for Alkaline Fuel Cell Membrane Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-30

    chloromethylation step. Poly(vinylbenzyl chloride) was radiation grafted into fluorinated or partially fluorinated polymer membranes to prepare an...their early studies, vinylbenzyl chloride was grafted onto partially fluorinated films of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and fully fluorinated ...block copolymers. In addition, the reactive sites can be readily terminated with an electrophile to form functionalized polymers. Additional living

  3. Anion conductive aromatic block copolymers containing diphenyl ether or sulfide groups for application to alkaline fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Yokota, Naoki; Ono, Hideaki; Miyake, Junpei; Nishino, Eriko; Asazawa, Koichiro; Watanabe, Masahiro; Miyatake, Kenji

    2014-10-08

    A novel series of aromatic block copolymers composed of fluorinated phenylene and biphenylene groups and diphenyl ether (QPE-bl-5) or diphenyl sulfide (QPE-bl-6) groups as a scaffold for quaternized ammonium groups is reported. The block copolymers were synthesized via aromatic nucleophilic substitution polycondensation, chloromethylation, quaternization, and ion exchange reactions. The block copolymers were soluble in organic solvents and provided thin and bendable membranes by solution casting. The membranes exhibited well-developed phase-separated morphology based on the hydrophilic/hydrophobic block copolymer structure. The membranes exhibited mechanical stability as confirmed by DMA (dynamic mechanical analyses) and low gas and hydrazine permeability. The QPE-bl-5 membrane with the highest ion exchange capacity (IEC = 2.1 mequiv g(-1)) exhibited high hydroxide ion conductivity (62 mS cm(-1)) in water at 80 °C. A noble metal-free fuel cell was fabricated with the QPE-bl-5 as the membrane and electrode binder. The fuel cell operated with hydrazine as a fuel exhibited a maximum power density of 176 mW cm(-2) at a current density of 451 mA cm(-2).

  4. Imidazolium-based Block Copolymers as Solid-State Separators for Alkaline Fuel Cells and Lithium Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nykaza, Jacob Richard

    In this study, polymerized ionic liquid (PIL) diblock copolymers were explored as solid-state polymer separators as an anion exchange membrane (AEM) for alkaline fuel cells AFCs and as a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) for lithium-ion batteries. Polymerized ionic liquid (PIL) block copolymers are a distinct set of block copolymers that combine the properties of both ionic liquids (e.g., high conductivity, high electrochemical stability) and block copolymers (e.g., self-assembly into various nanostructures), which provides the opportunity to design highly conductive robust solid-state electrolytes that can be tuned for various applications including AFCs and lithium-ion batteries via simple anion exchange. A series of bromide conducting PIL diblock copolymers with an undecyl alkyl side chain between the polymer backbone and the imidazolium moiety were first synthesized at various compositions comprising of a PIL component and a non-ionic component. Synthesis was achieved by post-functionalization from its non-ionic precursor PIL diblock copolymer, which was synthesized via the reverse addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) technique. This PIL diblock copolymer with long alkyl side chains resulted in flexible, transparent films with high mechanical strength and high bromide ion conductivity. The conductivity of the PIL diblock copolymer was three times higher than its analogous PIL homopolymer and an order of magnitude higher than a similar PIL diblock copolymer with shorter alkyl side chain length, which was due to the microphase separated morphology, more specifically, water/ion clusters within the PIL microdomains in the hydrated state. Due to the high conductivity and mechanical robustness of this novel PIL block copolymer, its application as both the ionomer and AEM in an AFC was investigated via anion exchange to hydroxide (OH-), where a maximum power density of 29.3 mW cm-1 (60 °C with H2/O2 at 25 psig (172 kPa) backpressure) was achieved. Rotating disk

  5. Conductive area ratio of multiblock copolymer electrolyte membranes evaluated by e-AFM and its impact on fuel cell performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takimoto, Naohiko; Takamuku, Shogo; Abe, Mitsutaka; Ohira, Akihiro; Lee, Hae-Seung; McGrath, James E.

    The correlation between membrane surface morphology and fuel cell performance was investigated using a series of hydrophilic-hydrophobic multiblock copolymers based on poly(arylene ether sulfone) with different block lengths. The proton conductive regions on the membrane surface were successfully observed by using electrochemical atomic force microscopy (e-AFM). The results revealed a strong dependence of the hydrophilic/hydrophobic microphase-separated structure on the block length. The conductive area ratio (CAR) estimated from the proton conduction image decreased as the block length increased, and it was found to be closely connected with cell resistance that determines fuel cell performance. The well-defined phase-separated structure of multiblock copolymers can improve proton conductivity without any undesirable increments in water uptake or swelling, but in some instances, it affects the interfacial connection with the catalyst layer, resulting in lower fuel cell performance. The results of this study suggest the necessity for further improvement of the membrane morphology by optimizing both the casting conditions and the molecular design of the block sequences.

  6. Hydrocarbon and partially fluorinated sulfonated copolymer blends as functional membranes for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnett, Natalie Y.; Harrison, William L.; Badami, Anand S.; Roy, Abhishek; Lane, Ozma; Cromer, Frank; Dong, Limin; McGrath, James E.

    Polymer blending is recognized as a valuable technique used to modify and improve the mechanical, thermal, and surface properties of two different polymers or copolymers. This paper investigated the solution properties and membrane properties of a biphenol-based disulfonated poly (arylene ether sulfone) random copolymer (BPS-35) with hexafluoroisopropylidene bisphenol based sulfonated poly (arylene ether sulfone) copolymers (6FSH) and an unsulfonated biphenol-based poly (arylene ether sulfone)s. The development of blended membranes with desirable surface characteristics, reduced water swelling and similar proton conductivity is presented. Polymer blends were prepared both in the sodium salt and acid forms from dimethylacetamide (DMAc). Water uptake, specific conductivity, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and contact angles were used to characterize the blended films. Surface enrichment of the fluorinated component is illustrated by an significant increase in the water-surface contact angle was observed when 10 wt.% 6FBPA-00 (106°) was added to BPS 35 (80°). Water weight gain was reduced by a factor of 2.

  7. Highly Stable, Anion Conductive, Comb-Shaped Copolymers for Alkaline Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Li, NW; Leng, YJ; Hickner, MA; Wang, CY

    2013-07-10

    To produce an anion-conductive and durable polymer electrolyte for alkaline fuel cell applications, a series of quaternized poly(2,6-dimethyl phenylene oxide)s containing long alkyl side chains pendant to the nitrogen-centered cation were synthesized using a Menshutkin reaction to form comb-shaped structures. The pendant alkyl chains were responsible for the development of highly conductive ionic domains, as confirmed by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The comb-shaped polymers having one alkyl side chain showed higher hydroxide conductivities than those with benzyltrimethyl ammonium moieties or structures with more than one alkyl side chain per cationic site. The highest conductivity was observed for comb-shaped polymers with benzyldimethylhexadecyl ammonium cations. The chemical stabilities of the comb-shaped membranes were evaluated under severe, accelerated-aging conditions, and degradation was observed by measuring IEC and ion conductivity changes during aging. The comb-shaped membranes retained their high ion conductivity in 1 M NaOH at 80 degrees C for 2000 h. These cationic polymers were employed as ionomers in catalyst layers for alkaline fuel cells. The results indicated that the C-16 alkyl side chain ionomer had a slightly better initial performance, despite its low IEC value, but very poor durability in the fuel cell. In contrast, 90% of the initial performance was retained for the alkaline fuel cell with electrodes containing the C-6 side chain after 60 h of fuel cell operation.

  8. Copolymers of fluorinated polydienes and sulfonated polystyrene

    DOEpatents

    Mays, Jimmy W.; Gido, Samuel P.; Huang, Tianzi; Hong, Kunlun

    2009-11-17

    Copolymers of fluorinated polydienes and sulfonated polystyrene and their use in fuel cell membranes, batteries, breathable chemical-biological protective materials, and templates for sol-gel polymerization.

  9. Block copolymer based composition and morphology control in nanostructured hybrid materials for energy conversion and storage: solar cells, batteries, and fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Orilall, M Christopher; Wiesner, Ulrich

    2011-02-01

    The development of energy conversion and storage devices is at the forefront of research geared towards a sustainable future. However, there are numerous issues that prevent the widespread use of these technologies including cost, performance and durability. These limitations can be directly related to the materials used. In particular, the design and fabrication of nanostructured hybrid materials is expected to provide breakthroughs for the advancement of these technologies. This tutorial review will highlight block copolymers as an emerging and powerful yet affordable tool to structure-direct such nanomaterials with precise control over structural dimensions, composition and spatial arrangement of materials in composites. After providing an introduction to materials design and current limitations, the review will highlight some of the most recent examples of block copolymer structure-directed nanomaterials for photovoltaics, batteries and fuel cells. In each case insights are provided into the various underlying fundamental chemical, thermodynamic and kinetic formation principles enabling general and relatively inexpensive wet-polymer chemistry methodologies for the efficient creation of multiscale functional materials. Examples include nanostructured ceramics, ceramic-carbon composites, ceramic-carbon-metal composites and metals with morphologies ranging from hexagonally arranged cylinders to three-dimensional bi-continuous cubic networks. The review ends with an outlook towards the synthesis of multicomponent and hierarchical multifunctional hybrid materials with different nano-architectures from self-assembly of higher order blocked macromolecules which may ultimately pave the way for the further development of energy conversion and storage devices.

  10. Inter and Intra Molecular Phase Separation Environment Effects on PI-PEO Block Copolymers for Batteries and Fuel Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xue, Chen-Chen; Meador, Mary Ann B.; Eby, R. K.; Cheng, Stephen Z. D.; Ge, Jason J.; Cubon, Valerie A.

    2002-01-01

    Rod-coil molecules have been introduced as a novel type of block copolymers with unique microstructure due to their ability to self-assemble to various ordered morphologies on a nanometer length scale. These molecules, comprised two homo polymers joined together at one end, microphase separate into ordered, periodic arrays of spheres, cylinders in the bulk state and or solution. To get ordered structure in a reasonable scale, additional force field are applied, such as mechanical shearing, electric field and magnetic field. Recently, progress has made it a possible to develop a new class of polyimides (PI)-Polyethylene oxide (PEO) that are soluble in polar organic solvents. The solvent-soluble PI-PEO has a wide variety of applications in microelectronics, since these PI-PEO films exhibit a high degree of thermal and chemical stability. In this paper, we report the self-assembled ordered structure of PI-PEO molecules formed from concentrate solution.

  11. Phase separations in a copolymer copolymer mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jin-Jun; Jin, Guojun; Ma, Yuqiang

    2006-01-01

    We propose a three-order-parameter model to study the phase separations in a diblock copolymer-diblock copolymer mixture. The cell dynamical simulations provide rich information about the phase evolution and structural formation, especially the appearance of onion-rings. The parametric dependence and physical reason for the domain growth of onion-rings are discussed.

  12. Rod-Coil Block Polyimide Copolymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Mary Ann B. (Inventor); Kinder, James D. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    This invention is a series of rod-coil block polyimide copolymers that are easy to fabricate into mechanically resilient films with acceptable ionic or protonic conductivity at a variety of temperatures. The copolymers consist of short-rigid polyimide rod segments alternating with polyether coil segments. The rods and coil segments can be linear, branched or mixtures of linear and branched segments. The highly incompatible rods and coil segments phase separate, providing nanoscale channels for ion conduction. The polyimide segments provide dimensional and mechanical stability and can be functionalized in a number of ways to provide specialized functions for a given application. These rod-coil black polyimide copolymers are particularly useful in the preparation of ion conductive membranes for use in the manufacture of fuel cells and lithium based polymer batteries.

  13. Epoxy-crosslinked sulfonated poly (phenylene) copolymer proton exchange membranes

    DOEpatents

    Hibbs, Michael; Fujimoto, Cy H.; Norman, Kirsten; Hickner, Michael A.

    2010-10-19

    An epoxy-crosslinked sulfonated poly(phenylene) copolymer composition used as proton exchange membranes, methods of making the same, and their use as proton exchange membranes (PEM) in hydrogen fuel cells, direct methanol fuel cell, in electrode casting solutions and electrodes, and in sulfur dioxide electrolyzers. These improved membranes are tougher, have higher temperature capability, and lower SO.sub.2 crossover rates.

  14. Protein based Block Copolymers

    PubMed Central

    Rabotyagova, Olena S.; Cebe, Peggy; Kaplan, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Advances in genetic engineering have led to the synthesis of protein-based block copolymers with control of chemistry and molecular weight, resulting in unique physical and biological properties. The benefits from incorporating peptide blocks into copolymer designs arise from the fundamental properties of proteins to adopt ordered conformations and to undergo self-assembly, providing control over structure formation at various length scales when compared to conventional block copolymers. This review covers the synthesis, structure, assembly, properties, and applications of protein-based block copolymers. PMID:21235251

  15. Silicone/Acrylate Copolymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, W. E.

    1982-01-01

    Two-step process forms silicone/acrylate copolymers. Resulting acrylate functional fluid is reacted with other ingredients to produce copolymer. Films of polymer were formed by simply pouring or spraying mixture and allowing solvent to evaporate. Films showed good weatherability. Durable, clear polymer films protect photovoltaic cells.

  16. Ultraviolet absorbing copolymers

    DOEpatents

    Gupta, Amitava; Yavrouian, Andre H.

    1982-01-01

    Photostable and weather stable absorping copolymers have been prepared from acrylic esters such as methyl methacrylate containing 0.1 to 5% of an 2-hydroxy-allyl benzophenone, preferably the 4,4' dimethoxy derivative thereof. The pendant benzophenone chromophores protect the acrylic backbone and when photoexcited do not degrade the ester side chain, nor abstract hydrogen from the backbone.

  17. Block coordination copolymers

    DOEpatents

    Koh, Kyoung Moo; Wong-Foy, Antek G.; Matzger, Adam J.; Benin, Annabelle I.; Willis, Richard R.

    2012-12-04

    The present invention provides compositions of crystalline coordination copolymers wherein multiple organic molecules are assembled to produce porous framework materials with layered or core-shell structures. These materials are synthesized by sequential growth techniques such as the seed growth technique. In addition, the invention provides a simple procedure for controlling functionality.

  18. Block coordination copolymers

    DOEpatents

    Koh, Kyoung Moo; Wong-Foy, Antek G; Matzger, Adam J; Benin, Annabelle I; Willis, Richard R

    2012-11-13

    The present invention provides compositions of crystalline coordination copolymers wherein multiple organic molecules are assembled to produce porous framework materials with layered or core-shell structures. These materials are synthesized by sequential growth techniques such as the seed growth technique. In addition, the invention provides a simple procedure for controlling functionality.

  19. Block coordination copolymers

    DOEpatents

    Koh, Kyoung Moo; Wong-Foy, Antek G; Matzger, Adam J; Benin, Annabelle I; Willis, Richard R

    2014-11-11

    The present invention provides compositions of crystalline coordination copolymers wherein multiple organic molecules are assembled to produce porous framework materials with layered or core-shell structures. These materials are synthesized by sequential growth techniques such as the seed growth technique. In addition, the invention provides a simple procedure for controlling functionality.

  20. Imide/arylene ether copolymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Brian J. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Bass, Robert G. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    Imide/arylene ether block copolymers are prepared by reacting anhydride terminated poly(amic acids) with amine terminated poly(arylene ethers) in polar aprotic solvents and by chemically or thermally cyclodehydrating the resulting intermediate poly(amic acids). The resulting block copolymers have one glass transition temperature or two, depending upon the particular structure and/or the compatibility of the block units. Most of these block copolymers form tough, solvent resistant films with high tensile properties.

  1. Clickable Amphiphilic Triblock Copolymers.

    PubMed

    Isaacman, Michael J; Barron, Kathryn A; Theogarajan, Luke S

    2012-06-15

    Amphiphilic polymers have recently garnered much attention due to their potential use in drug-delivery and other biomedical applications. A modular synthesis of these polymers is extremely desirable since it offers precise individual block characterization and increased yields. We present here for the first time a modular synthesis of poly(oxazoline)-poly(siloxane)-poly(oxazoline) block copolymers that have been clicked together using the copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition reaction. Various click methodologies for the synthesis of these polymers have been carefully evaluated and optimized. The approach using copper nanoparticles was found to be the most optimal among the methods evaluated. Furthermore, these results were extended to allow for a reactive Si-H group-based siloxane middle block to be successfully clicked. This enables the design of more complex amphiphilic block copolymers that have additional functionality, such as stimuli responsiveness, to be synthesized via a simple hydrosilylation reaction.

  2. Baroplastic Block copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewlett, Sheldon A.

    2005-03-01

    Block copolymers with rubbery and glassy components have been observed to have pressure induced miscibility. These microphase-separated materials, termed baroplastics, were able to flow and be processed at temperatures below the Tg of the glassy component by simple compression molding and extrusion. Diblock and triblock copolymers of polystyrene and poly(butyl acrylate) or poly(2-ethyl hexyl acrylate) were synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and processed at room temperature into well defined transparent objects. SAXS and SANS measurements demonstrated partial mixing between components as a result of pressure during processing. DSC results also show the presence of distinct domains even after several processing cycles. Their mechanical properties after processing were tested and compared with commercial thermoplastic elastomers.

  3. Block copolymer battery separator

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, David; Balsara, Nitash Pervez

    2016-04-26

    The invention herein described is the use of a block copolymer/homopolymer blend for creating nanoporous materials for transport applications. Specifically, this is demonstrated by using the block copolymer poly(styrene-block-ethylene-block-styrene) (SES) and blending it with homopolymer polystyrene (PS). After blending the polymers, a film is cast, and the film is submerged in tetrahydrofuran, which removes the PS. This creates a nanoporous polymer film, whereby the holes are lined with PS. Control of morphology of the system is achieved by manipulating the amount of PS added and the relative size of the PS added. The porous nature of these films was demonstrated by measuring the ionic conductivity in a traditional battery electrolyte, 1M LiPF.sub.6 in EC/DEC (1:1 v/v) using AC impedance spectroscopy and comparing these results to commercially available battery separators.

  4. Multi-block sulfonated poly(phenylene) copolymer proton exchange membranes

    DOEpatents

    Fujimoto, Cy H [Albuquerque, NM; Hibbs, Michael [Albuquerque, NM; Ambrosini, Andrea [Albuquerque, NM

    2012-02-07

    Improved multi-block sulfonated poly(phenylene) copolymer compositions, methods of making the same, and their use as proton exchange membranes (PEM) in hydrogen fuel cells, direct methanol fuel cells, in electrode casting solutions and electrodes. The multi-block architecture has defined, controllable hydrophobic and hydrophilic segments. These improved membranes have better ion transport (proton conductivity) and water swelling properties.

  5. Imide/Arylene Ether Copolymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Brian J.; Hergenrother, Paul M.; Bass, Robert G.

    1991-01-01

    New imide/arylene ether copolymers prepared by reacting anhydride-terminated poly(amic acids) with amine-terminated poly(arylene ethers) in polar aprotic solvents. Each resulting copolymer may have one glass-transition temperature or two, depending on chemical structure and/or compatibility of block units. Most of copolymers form tough, solvent-resistant films with high tensile properties. Films cast from solution tough and flexible, and exhibit useful thermal and mechanical properties. Potentially useful as moldings, adhesives, or composite matrices. Because of flexible arylene ether blocks, these copolymers easier to process than polyimides.

  6. Ion Transport in Polymerized Ionic Liquid Block and Random Copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elabd, Yossef; Ye, Yuesheng; Choi, Jae-Hong; Winey, Karen

    2012-02-01

    Polymerized ionic liquid (PIL) block copolymers, a new type of solid-state polymer electrolyte, are of interest for energy conversion and storage devices, such as fuel cells, batteries, supercapacitors, and solar cells. In this study, a series of PIL diblock and random copolymers with various PIL compositions were synthesized. These consisted of an IL monomer and a non-ionic monomer, 1-[(2-methacryloyloxy)ethyl]-3-butylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (MEBIm-TFSI) and methyl methacrylate (MMA), and 1-[(2-acryloyloxy)ethyl]-3-butylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (AEBIm-TFSI) and styrene (S), respectively, were synthesized. The anion conductivity (ion transport) and morphology were measured in all of the polymers with EIS, SAXS/WAXS, and TEM. Ion transport in block copolymers are significantly higher than random copolymers at the same PIL composition and are highly dependent on the block copolymer nanostructure. The relationship between ion transport mechanisms and the phase behavior of these materials will be discussed.

  7. Interfacial Modification by Copolymers: The Importance of Copolymer Microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadmun, Mark; Eastwood, Eric

    2002-03-01

    The dispersion of nanoscale particles or domains in a polymer matrix can readily lead to nonlinear enhancement of material properties. Our research group has been examining two primary methods to improve the properties of multicomponent polymer systems: compatibilization of a blend with an interfacial modifier or improving the miscibility and properties of polymer blends with specific interactions. In this talk, the importance of specific copolymer microstructure on its ability to strengthen a biphasic interface will be discussed. Atom transfer radical polymerization has been utilized to polymerize a series of multiblock copolymers containing styrene and methyl methacrylate. This, in turn, has allowed the synthesis of a series of copolymers with careful control of the sequence distribution. Subsequent experiments that determine the interfacial strength between two polymers in the presence and absence of these copolymers has provided critical information that documents the importance of copolymer sequence distribution on its ability to strengthen a biphasic interface.

  8. Polyether/Polyester Graft Copolymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Vernon L., Jr.; Wakelyn, N.; Stoakley, D. M.; Proctor, K. M.

    1986-01-01

    Higher solvent resistance achieved along with lower melting temperature. New technique provides method of preparing copolymers with polypivalolactone segments grafted onto poly (2,6-dimethyl-phenylene oxide) backbone. Process makes strong materials with improved solvent resistance and crystalline, thermally-reversible crosslinks. Resulting graft copolymers easier to fabricate into useful articles, including thin films, sheets, fibers, foams, laminates, and moldings.

  9. Mixed fuel composition. [fuel oil, coal powder, and polymer

    SciTech Connect

    Igarashi, T.; Ukigai, T.; Yamamura, M.

    1982-07-13

    A mixed fuel composition comprises (A) a fuel oil, (B) a coal powder having an (H)/(C) ratio according to the coalification band method in the range of 0.4-0.75 and an (O)/(C) ratio in the range of 0.09-0.18 and (C) a partially amidated copolymer obtained by reacting a copolymer of a polymerizable, unsaturated hydrocarbon and maleic anhydride with an aliphatic amine of 2-36 carbon-atoms or a salt thereof as a stabilizer.

  10. Second generation copolymers for EOR

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, C.L.

    1988-05-01

    In this report, the authors review four types of acrylamide-based copolymers with distinctly different dilute solutions and rheological behavior. Each of these ''second generation'' systems possesses characteristics which, in theory, should be superior to conventional polymers under certain operational conditions. Type I copolymers are prepared from acrylamide (AM) and sodium-3-acrylamido-3-methylbutanoate (NaAMB). The high molecular weight, viscosity maintenance, and phase stability in the presence of divalent ions make these copolymers especially attractive for mobility control in EOR. Type II copolymers address the problems of entrapment, pore clogging, and shear degradation often encountered with ultrahigh molecular weight copolymers. The copolymers of this type are lower molecular weight than Type 1 but associate in a cooperative manner in semi-dilute solutions to enhance solution viscoscity. In this report, the authors discuss associative polymers of acrylamide/N-alkyl acrylamides which contain low mole percentages of C/sub 8/, C/sub 10/, or C/sub 12/ comonomers. In practice, a third charged comonomer such as carboxylated or sulfonated one, might be necessary to reduce adsorption to reservoir rock. Type III systems are relatively low molecular weight and hyrophibically modified in order to bring about intramolecular micelle-like association in aqueous solution. The aqueous solutions are non-viscous; viscosification occurs upon solubilization of hydrocarbons in the hydrophobic domains. Copolymers of acrylamide with N-propyl diacetone acrylamide are examples of Type III.

  11. 21 CFR 177.2470 - Polyoxymethylene copolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... copolymer when extracted for 6 hours with distilled water at reflux temperature. (ii) Not to exceed 0.15 percent by weight of the copolymer when extracted for 6 hours with n-heptane at reflux temperature....

  12. Lignin poly(lactic acid) copolymers

    DOEpatents

    Olsson, Johan Vilhelm; Chung, Yi-Lin; Li, Russell Jingxian; Waymouth, Robert; Sattely, Elizabeth; Billington, Sarah; Frank, Curtis W.

    2017-02-14

    Provided herein are graft co-polymers of lignin and poly(lactic acid) (lignin-g-PLA copolymer), thermoset and thermoplastic polymers including them, methods of preparing these polymers, and articles of manufacture including such polymers.

  13. 21 CFR 173.65 - Divinylbenzene copolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION Polymer Substances and Polymer Adjuvants for Food Treatment § 173.65 Divinylbenzene copolymer. Divinylbenzene copolymer may be used for the removal of organic substances from aqueous foods under the following... contacting the polymer is maintained at 79.4 °C (175 °F) or less. (d) The copolymer may be used in...

  14. Copolymers For Capillary Gel Electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Changsheng; Li, Qingbo

    2005-08-09

    This invention relates to an electrophoresis separation medium having a gel matrix of at least one random, linear copolymer comprising a primary comonomer and at least one secondary comonomer, wherein the comonomers are randomly distributed along the copolymer chain. The primary comonomer is an acrylamide or an acrylamide derivative that provides the primary physical, chemical, and sieving properties of the gel matrix. The at least one secondary comonomer imparts an inherent physical, chemical, or sieving property to the copolymer chain. The primary and secondary comonomers are present in a ratio sufficient to induce desired properties that optimize electrophoresis performance. The invention also relates to a method of separating a mixture of biological molecules using this gel matrix, a method of preparing the novel electrophoresis separation medium, and a capillary tube filled with the electrophoresis separation medium.

  15. Use of amphiphilic triblock copolymers for enhancing removal efficiency of organic pollutant from contaminated media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jun Hyup; Lee, Byungsun; Son, Intae; Kim, Jae Hong; Kim, Chunho; Yoo, Ji Yong; Wu, Jong-Pyo; Kim, Younguk

    2015-11-01

    We have studied amphiphilic triblock copolymers poly(ethylene glycol)- b-poly(propylene glycol)- b-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG- b-PPG- b-PEG) and poly(propylene glycol)- b-poly(ethylene glycol)- b-poly(propylene glycol) (PPG- b-PEG- b-PPG) as possible substitutes for sodium dodecyl sulfate as anionic surfactants for the removal of hydrophobic contaminants. The triblock copolymers were compared with sodium dodecyl sulfate in terms of their abilities to remove toluene as hydrophobic contaminant in fuel, and the effects of polymer structure, PEG content, and concentration were studied. The PEG- b-PPG- b-PEG copolymer containing two hydrophilic PEG blocks was more effective for the removal of hydrophobic contaminant at extremely high concentration. We also measured the removal capabilities of the triblock copolymers having various PEG contents and confirmed that removal capability was greatest at 10% PEG content regardless of polymer structure. As with sodium dodecyl sulfate, the removal efficiency of a copolymer has a positive correlation with its concentration. Finally, we proposed the amphiphilic triblock copolymer of PPG- b-PEG- b-PPG bearing 10% PEG content that proved to be the most effective substitute for sodium dodecyl sulfate.

  16. Crystalline imide/arylene ether copolymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Brian J. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Bass, Robert G. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Crystalline imide/arylene ether block copolymers are prepared by reacting anhydride terminated poly(amic acids) with amine terminated poly)arylene ethers) in polar aprotic solvents and chemically or thermally cyclodehydrating the resulting intermediate poly(amic acids). The block copolymers of the invention have one glass transition temperature or two, depending on the particular structure and/or the compatibility of the block units. Most of these crystalline block copolymers for tough, solvent resistant films with high tensile properties. While all of the copolymers produced by the present invention are crystalline, testing reveals that copolymers with longer imide blocks or higher imide content have increased crystallinity.

  17. Liquid ethylene-propylene copolymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhein, R. A.; Ingham, J. D.; Humphrey, M. F.

    1975-01-01

    Oligomers are prepared by heating solid ethylene-propylene rubber in container that retains solid and permits liquid product to flow out as it is formed. Molecular weight and viscosity of liquids can be predetermined by process temperature. Copolymers have low viscosity for given molecular weight.

  18. Polyether-polyester graft copolymer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Vernon L. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    Described is a polyether graft polymer having improved solvent resistance and crystalline thermally reversible crosslinks. The copolymer is prepared by a novel process of anionic copolymerization. These polymers exhibit good solvent resistance and are well suited for aircraft parts. Previous aromatic polyethers, also known as polyphenylene oxides, have certain deficiencies which detract from their usefulness. These commercial polymers are often soluble in common solvents including the halocarbon and aromatic hydrocarbon types of paint thinners and removers. This limitation prevents the use of these polyethers in structural articles requiring frequent painting. In addition, the most popular commercially available polyether is a very high melting plastic. This makes it considerably more difficult to fabricate finished parts from this material. These problems are solved by providing an aromatic polyether graft copolymer with improved solvent resistance and crystalline thermally reversible crosslinks. The graft copolymer is formed by converting the carboxyl groups of a carboxylated polyphenylene oxide polymer to ionic carbonyl groups in a suitable solvent, reacting pivalolactone with the dissolved polymer, and adding acid to the solution to produce the graft copolymer.

  19. Electrochemical Deposition Of Conductive Copolymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Distefano, Salvador; Liang, Ranty H.

    1991-01-01

    Experiments show electrically conductive films are deposited on glassy carbon or indium tin oxide substrates by electrochemical polymerization of N-{(3-trimethoxy silyl) propyl} pyrrole or copolymerization with pyrrole. Copolymers of monomer I and pyrrole exhibit desired electrical conductivity as well as desired adhesion and other mechanical properties. When fully developed, new copolymerization process useful in making surface films of selectable conductivity.

  20. Fuel flexible fuel injector

    DOEpatents

    Tuthill, Richard S; Davis, Dustin W; Dai, Zhongtao

    2015-02-03

    A disclosed fuel injector provides mixing of fuel with airflow by surrounding a swirled fuel flow with first and second swirled airflows that ensures mixing prior to or upon entering the combustion chamber. Fuel tubes produce a central fuel flow along with a central airflow through a plurality of openings to generate the high velocity fuel/air mixture along the axis of the fuel injector in addition to the swirled fuel/air mixture.

  1. Morphology and Proton Transport in Humidified Phosphonated Peptoid Block Copolymers

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Polymers that conduct protons in the hydrated state are of crucial importance in a wide variety of clean energy applications such as hydrogen fuel cells and artificial photosynthesis. Phosphonated and sulfonated polymers are known to conduct protons at low water content. In this paper, we report on the synthesis phosphonated peptoid diblock copolymers, poly-N-(2-ethyl)hexylglycine-block-poly-N-phosphonomethylglycine (pNeh-b-pNpm), with volume fractions of pNpm (ϕNpm) values ranging from 0.13 to 0.44 and dispersity (Đ) ≤ 1.0003. The morphologies of the dry block copolypeptoids were determined by transmission electron microscopy and in both the dry and hydrated states by synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering. Dry samples with ϕNpm > 0.13 exhibited a lamellar morphology. Upon hydration, the lowest molecular weight sample transitioned to a hexagonally packed cylinder morphology, while the others maintained their dry morphologies. Water uptake of all of the ordered samples was 8.1 ± 1.1 water molecules per phosphonate group. In spite of this, the proton conductivity of the ordered pNeh-b-pNpm copolymers ranged from 0.002 to 0.008 S/cm. We demonstrate that proton conductivity is maximized in high molecular weight, symmetric pNeh-b-pNpm copolymers. PMID:27134312

  2. Morphology and Proton Transport in Humidified Phosphonated Peptoid Block Copolymers.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Jiang, Xi; Siegmund, Aaron; Connolly, Michael D; Downing, Kenneth H; Balsara, Nitash P; Zuckermann, Ronald N

    2016-04-26

    Polymers that conduct protons in the hydrated state are of crucial importance in a wide variety of clean energy applications such as hydrogen fuel cells and artificial photosynthesis. Phosphonated and sulfonated polymers are known to conduct protons at low water content. In this paper, we report on the synthesis phosphonated peptoid diblock copolymers, poly-N-(2-ethyl)hexylglycine-block-poly-N-phosphonomethylglycine (pNeh-b-pNpm), with volume fractions of pNpm (ϕNpm) values ranging from 0.13 to 0.44 and dispersity (Đ) ≤ 1.0003. The morphologies of the dry block copolypeptoids were determined by transmission electron microscopy and in both the dry and hydrated states by synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering. Dry samples with ϕNpm > 0.13 exhibited a lamellar morphology. Upon hydration, the lowest molecular weight sample transitioned to a hexagonally packed cylinder morphology, while the others maintained their dry morphologies. Water uptake of all of the ordered samples was 8.1 ± 1.1 water molecules per phosphonate group. In spite of this, the proton conductivity of the ordered pNeh-b-pNpm copolymers ranged from 0.002 to 0.008 S/cm. We demonstrate that proton conductivity is maximized in high molecular weight, symmetric pNeh-b-pNpm copolymers.

  3. Impacts of Repeat Unit Structure and Copolymer Architecture on Thermal and Solution Properties in Homopolymers, Copolymers, and Copolymer Blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrou, Stephen Raye

    Gradient copolymers are a relatively new type of copolymer architecture in which the distribution of comonomers gradually varies over the length of the copolymer chain, resulting in a number of unusual properties derived from the arrangement of repeat units. For example, nanophase-segregated gradient copolymers exhibit extremely broad glass transition temperatures (Tgs) resulting from the wide range of compositions present in the nanostructure. This dissertation presents a number of studies on how repeat unit structure and copolymer architecture dictate bulk and solution properties, specifically taking inspiration from the gradient copolymer architecture and comparing the response from this compositionally heterogeneous material to other more conventional materials. The glass transition behavior of a range of common homopolymers was studied to determine the effects of subunit structure on Tg breadth, observing a significant increase in T g breadth with increasing side chain length in methacrylate-based homopolymers and random copolymers. Additionally, increasing the composition distribution of copolymers, either by blending individual random copolymers of different overall composition or synthesizing random copolymers to high conversion, resulted in significant increases to Tg breadth. Plasticization of homopolymers and random copolymers with low molecular weight additives also served to increase the Tg breadth; the most dramatic effect was observed in the selective plasticization of a styrene/4-vinylpyridine gradient copolymer with increases in T g breadth to values above 100 °C. In addition, the effects of repeat unit structure and copolymer architecture on other polymer properties besides Tg were also investigated. The intrinsic fluorescence of styrene units in styrene-containing copolymers was studied, noting the impact of repeat unit structure and copolymer architecture on the resulting fluorescence spectra in solution. The impact of repeat unit structure on

  4. Bioinspired catecholic copolymers for antifouling surface coatings.

    PubMed

    Cho, Joon Hee; Shanmuganathan, Kadhiravan; Ellison, Christopher J

    2013-05-01

    We report here a synthetic approach to prepare poly(methyl methacrylate)-polydopamine diblock (PMMA-PDA) and triblock (PDA-PMMA-PDA) copolymers combining mussel-inspired catecholic oxidative chemistry and atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). These copolymers display very good solubility in a range of organic solvents and also a broad band photo absorbance that increases with increasing PDA content in the copolymer. Spin-cast thin films of the copolymer were stable in water and showed a sharp reduction (by up to 50%) in protein adsorption compared to those of neat PMMA. Also the peak decomposition temperature of the copolymers was up to 43°C higher than neat PMMA. The enhanced solvent processability, thermal stability and low protein adsorption characteristics of this copolymer makes it attractive for variety of applications including antifouling coatings on large surfaces such as ship hulls, buoys, and wave energy converters.

  5. Crystalline Imide/Arylene Ether Copolymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Brian J.; Hergenrother, Paul M.; Bass, Robert G.

    1991-01-01

    Series of imide/arylene ether block copolymers prepared by using arylene ether blocks to impart low melt viscosity, and imide blocks to provide high strength and other desirable mechanical properties. Work represents extension of LAR-14159 on imide/arylene ether copolymers in form of films, moldings, adhesives, and composite matrices. Copolymers potentially useful in variety of high-temperature aerospace and microelectronic applications.

  6. Self-assembly of Random Copolymers

    PubMed Central

    Li, Longyu; Raghupathi, Kishore; Song, Cunfeng; Prasad, Priyaa; Thayumanavan, S.

    2014-01-01

    Self-assembly of random copolymers has attracted considerable attention recently. In this feature article, we highlight the use of random copolymers to prepare nanostructures with different morphologies and to prepare nanomaterials that are responsive to single or multiple stimuli. The synthesis of single-chain nanoparticles and their potential applications from random copolymers are also discussed in some detail. We aim to draw more attention to these easily accessible copolymers, which are likely to play an important role in translational polymer research. PMID:25036552

  7. DNA block copolymers: functional materials for nanoscience and biomedicine.

    PubMed

    Schnitzler, Tobias; Herrmann, Andreas

    2012-09-18

    We live in a world full of synthetic materials, and the development of new technologies builds on the design and synthesis of new chemical structures, such as polymers. Synthetic macromolecules have changed the world and currently play a major role in all aspects of daily life. Due to their tailorable properties, these materials have fueled the invention of new techniques and goods, from the yogurt cup to the car seat belts. To fulfill the requirements of modern life, polymers and their composites have become increasingly complex. One strategy for altering polymer properties is to combine different polymer segments within one polymer, known as block copolymers. The microphase separation of the individual polymer components and the resulting formation of well defined nanosized domains provide a broad range of new materials with various properties. Block copolymers facilitated the development of innovative concepts in the fields of drug delivery, nanomedicine, organic electronics, and nanoscience. Block copolymers consist exclusively of organic polymers, but researchers are increasingly interested in materials that combine synthetic materials and biomacromolecules. Although many researchers have explored the combination of proteins with organic polymers, far fewer investigations have explored nucleic acid/polymer hybrids, known as DNA block copolymers (DBCs). DNA as a polymer block provides several advantages over other biopolymers. The availability of automated synthesis offers DNA segments with nucleotide precision, which facilitates the fabrication of hybrid materials with monodisperse biopolymer blocks. The directed functionalization of modified single-stranded DNA by Watson-Crick base-pairing is another key feature of DNA block copolymers. Furthermore, the appropriate selection of DNA sequence and organic polymer gives control over the material properties and their self-assembly into supramolecular structures. The introduction of a hydrophobic polymer into DBCs

  8. Dimensionally Stable Ether-Containing Polyimide Copolymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fay, Catharine C. (Inventor); St.Clair, Anne K. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    Novel polyimide copolymers containing ether linkages were prepared by the reaction of an equimolar amount of dianhydride and a combination of diamines. The polyimide copolymers described herein possess the unique features of low moisture uptake, dimensional stability, good mechanical properties, and moderate glass transition temperatures. These materials have potential application as encapsulants and interlayer dielectrics.

  9. Thermochemical characteristics of chitosan-polylactide copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goruynova, P. E.; Larina, V. N.; Smirnova, N. N.; Tsverova, N. E.; Smirnova, L. A.

    2016-05-01

    The energies of combustion of chitosan and its block-copolymers with different polylactide contents are determined in a static bomb calorimeter. Standard enthalpies of combustion and formation are calculated for these substances. The dependences of the thermochemical characteristics on block-copolymer composition are determined and discussed.

  10. Process-Accessible States of Block Copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, De-Wen; Müller, Marcus

    2017-02-01

    Process-directed self-assembly of block copolymers refers to thermodynamic processes that reproducibly direct the kinetics of structure formation from a starting, unstable state into a selected, metastable mesostructure. We investigate the kinetics of self-assembly of linear A C B triblock copolymers after a rapid transformation of the middle C block from B to A . This prototypical process (e.g., photochemical transformation) converts the initial, equilibrium mesophase of the A B B copolymer into a well-defined but unstable, starting state of the A A B copolymer. The spontaneous structure formation that ensues from this unstable state becomes trapped in a metastable mesostructure, and we systematically explore which metastable mesostructures can be fabricated by varying the block copolymer composition of the initial and final states. In addition to the equilibrium mesophases of linear A B diblock copolymers, this diagram of process-accessible states includes 7 metastable periodic mesostructures, inter alia, Schoen's F-RD periodic minimal surface. Generally, we observe that the final, metastable mesostructure of the A A B copolymer possesses the same symmetry as the initial, equilibrium mesophase of the A B B copolymer.

  11. 21 CFR 177.2470 - Polyoxymethylene copolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ....2470 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2470 Polyoxymethylene copolymer. Polyoxymethylene copolymer identified in this section may be safely used as an article or component of articles intended...

  12. 21 CFR 177.2470 - Polyoxymethylene copolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ....2470 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2470 Polyoxymethylene copolymer. Polyoxymethylene copolymer identified in this section may be safely used as an article or component of articles intended...

  13. 21 CFR 177.2470 - Polyoxymethylene copolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ....2470 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2470 Polyoxymethylene copolymer. Polyoxymethylene copolymer identified in this section may be safely used as an article or component of articles intended...

  14. Chiral Block Copolymer Structures for Metamaterial Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-27

    Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 25-August-2011 to 24-August-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Chiral Block Copolymer Structures for...researchers focused o synthesis and processing, morphology and physical characterization of chiral block copolymer (BCP) materials. Such materials a...valuable for both their optical and mechanical properties, particularly for their potential as chiral metamaterials and lightweig energy absorbing

  15. Nanostructured high-performance dielectric block copolymers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenmei; Liao, Xiaojuan; Li, Yawei; Zhao, Qiuhua; Xie, Meiran; Sun, Ruyi

    2015-10-25

    A new type of insulating-conductive block copolymer was synthesized by metathesis polymerization. The copolymer can self-assemble into unique nanostructures of micelles or hollow spheres. It exhibits a high dielectric constant, low dielectric loss, and high stored/released energy density due to the strong dipolar and nano-interfacial polarization contributions.

  16. Process-Accessible States of Block Copolymers.

    PubMed

    Sun, De-Wen; Müller, Marcus

    2017-02-10

    Process-directed self-assembly of block copolymers refers to thermodynamic processes that reproducibly direct the kinetics of structure formation from a starting, unstable state into a selected, metastable mesostructure. We investigate the kinetics of self-assembly of linear ACB triblock copolymers after a rapid transformation of the middle C block from B to A. This prototypical process (e.g., photochemical transformation) converts the initial, equilibrium mesophase of the ABB copolymer into a well-defined but unstable, starting state of the AAB copolymer. The spontaneous structure formation that ensues from this unstable state becomes trapped in a metastable mesostructure, and we systematically explore which metastable mesostructures can be fabricated by varying the block copolymer composition of the initial and final states. In addition to the equilibrium mesophases of linear AB diblock copolymers, this diagram of process-accessible states includes 7 metastable periodic mesostructures, inter alia, Schoen's F-RD periodic minimal surface. Generally, we observe that the final, metastable mesostructure of the AAB copolymer possesses the same symmetry as the initial, equilibrium mesophase of the ABB copolymer.

  17. Synthesis and Characterization of Block Copolymers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-01

    Polyether-Polyimide Block Copolymers; Three series of Polyether-Polyimide (PEPI) block copolymers were synthesized. Soft segments were poly( propylene ... glycol ) (PPO) Mn = 2,000 and 4,000. Hard segments were pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA) and di-(2-hydroxyethyl)-dimethylhydantoin (H). The hard

  18. Responsive copolymers for enhanced petroleum recovery

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, C.; Hester, R.

    1992-01-01

    The overall goal of this research is the development of advanced water-soluble copolymers for use in enhanced oil recovery which rely on reversible microheterogeneous associations for mobility control and reservoir conformance. Technical progress is summarized for the following tasks: advanced copolymer synthesis; characterization of macromolecular structure and properties; and solution rheology in a porous media.

  19. Imide/arylene ether block copolymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, B. J.; Hergenrother, P. M.; Bass, R. G.

    1991-01-01

    Two series of imide/arylene either block copolymers were prepared using an arylene ether block and either an amorphous or semi-crystalline imide block. The resulting copolymers were characterized and selected physical and mechanical properties were determined. These results, as well as comparisons to the homopolymer properties, are discussed.

  20. Processible Polyaniline Copolymers and Complexes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Yun-Hsin

    1995-01-01

    Polyaniline (PANI) is an intractable polymer due to the difficulty of melt processing or dissolving it in common solvents. The purpose of the present investigation was to prepare a new class of conducting polyanilines with better solubility both in base and dope forms by (1) adding external salt to break aggregated chains, (2) introducing ring substituted units onto the backbone without disturbing the coplanar structure, and (3) complexing with polymeric dopants to form a soluble polymer complex. Aggregation of PANI chains in dilute solution was investigated in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) by light scattering, gel permeation chromatography, and viscosity measurements. The aggregation of chains resulted in a negative second virial coefficient in light scattering measurement, a bimodal molecular weight distribution in gel permeation chromatography, and concave reduced viscosity curves. The aggregates can be broken by adding external salt, which resulting in a higher reduced viscosity. The driving force for aggregation is assumed to be a combination of hydrogen bonding between the imine and amine groups, and the rigidity of backbone. The aggregation was modeled to occur via side-on packing of PANI chains. The ring substituted PANI copolymers, poly(aniline -co-phenetidine) were synthesized by chemical oxidation copolymerization using ammonium persulfate as an oxidant. The degree of copolymerization declined with an increasing feed of o-phenetidine in the reaction mixture. The o-phenetidine had a higher reactivity than aniline in copolymerization resulting in a higher content of o-phenetidine in copolymers. The resulting copolymers can be readily dissolved in NMP up to 20% (w/w), and other common solvents, and solutions possess a longer gelation time. The highly soluble copolymer with 20 mole % o-phenetidine in the backbone has same order of conductivity as the unsubstituted PANI after it is doped by HCl. Complexation of PANI and polymeric dopant, poly

  1. Hybridization of Block Copolymer Micelles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    J. Macromol. Sci., Part A 1973, 7,601. (10) Tiara, M.; Ramireddy, C.; Webber, S. K; Munk,P. Collect. Czer" (14) 0snford, C. In The Hydrophobic Effect ...equilibrate In the first series of experiments we have studied the within 20 min, similarly as ASA-10 micelles do. However, effect of the copolymer...high. This may happen after a sudden The Johnston-Ogston effect 2’ 6- also may play a role in jump in temperature or in the composition of the mixed

  2. 21 CFR 177.1060 - n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers. 177.1060... Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1060 n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers. n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic...) Identity. For the purpose of this section, n-alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers are copolymers obtained...

  3. 21 CFR 175.210 - Acrylate ester copolymer coating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acrylate ester copolymer coating. 175.210 Section... Coatings § 175.210 Acrylate ester copolymer coating. Acrylate ester copolymer coating may safely be used as... prepared food, subject to the provisions of this section: (a) The acrylate ester copolymer is a...

  4. Rapid self-assembly of block copolymers to photonic crystals

    DOEpatents

    Xia, Yan; Sveinbjornsson, Benjamin R; Grubbs, Robert H; Weitekamp, Raymond; Miyake, Garret M; Atwater, Harry A; Piunova, Victoria; Daeffler, Christopher Scot; Hong, Sung Woo; Gu, Weiyin; Russell, Thomas P.

    2016-07-05

    The invention provides a class of copolymers having useful properties, including brush block copolymers, wedge-type block copolymers and hybrid wedge and polymer block copolymers. In an embodiment, for example, block copolymers of the invention incorporate chemically different blocks comprising polymer size chain groups and/or wedge groups that significantly inhibit chain entanglement, thereby enhancing molecular self-assembly processes for generating a range of supramolecular structures, such as periodic nanostructures and microstructures. The present invention also provides useful methods of making and using copolymers, including block copolymers.

  5. Microphase separation in random multiblock copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govorun, E. N.; Chertovich, A. V.

    2017-01-01

    Microphase separation in random multiblock copolymers is studied with the mean-field theory assuming that long blocks of a copolymer are strongly segregated, whereas short blocks are able to penetrate into "alien" domains and exchange between the domains and interfacial layer. A bidisperse copolymer with blocks of only two sizes (long and short) is considered as a model of multiblock copolymers with high polydispersity in the block size. Short blocks of the copolymer play an important role in the microphase separation. First, their penetration into the "alien" domains leads to the formation of joint long blocks in their own domains. Second, short blocks localized at the interface considerably change the interfacial tension. The possibility of penetration of short blocks into the "alien" domains is controlled by the product χ Nsh (χ is the Flory-Huggins interaction parameter and Nsh is the short block length). At not very large χ Nsh , the domain size is larger than that for a regular copolymer consisting of the same long blocks as in the considered random copolymer. At a fixed mean block size, the domain size grows with an increase in the block size dispersity, the rate of the growth being dependent of the more detailed parameters of the block size distribution.

  6. Block Copolymer Membranes for Biofuel Purification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evren Ozcam, Ali; Balsara, Nitash

    2012-02-01

    Purification of biofuels such as ethanol is a matter of considerable concern as they are produced in complex multicomponent fermentation broths. Our objective is to design pervaporation membranes for concentrating ethanol from dilute aqueous mixtures. Polystyrene-b-polydimethylsiloxane-b-polystyrene block copolymers were synthesized by anionic polymerization. The polydimethylsiloxane domains provide ethanol-transporting pathways, while the polystyrene domains provide structural integrity for the membrane. The morphology of the membranes is governed by the composition of the block copolymer while the size of the domains is governed by the molecular weight of the block copolymer. Pervaporation data as a function of these two parameters will be presented.

  7. Injectible bodily prosthetics employing methacrylic copolymer gels

    DOEpatents

    Mallapragada, Surya K.; Anderson, Brian C.

    2007-02-27

    The present invention provides novel block copolymers as structural supplements for injectible bodily prosthetics employed in medical or cosmetic procedures. The invention also includes the use of such block copolymers as nucleus pulposus replacement materials for the treatment of degenerative disc disorders and spinal injuries. The copolymers are constructed by polymerization of a tertiary amine methacrylate with either a (poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(propylene oxide)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) polymer, such as the commercially available Pluronic.RTM. polymers, or a poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether polymer.

  8. Curable polyphosphazene copolymers and terpolymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynard, Kennard A. (Inventor); Rose, Selwyn H. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    Copolymers and terpolymers comprising randomly repeating units represented by the general formulae ##EQU1## wherein the R' radicals contain OH functionality and R being at least one member of the group of monovalent radicals selected from alkyl, substituted alkyl, aryl, substituted aryl and arylalkyl, and R' is represented by ##EQU2## wherein Q represents either --(CH.sub.2).sub. n or --C.sub.6 H.sub.4 X(CH.sub.2).sub. m, the --X(CH.sub.2).sub. m group being either meta or para and n is an integer from 1 to 6, m is an integer from 1 to 3, X is O or CH.sub.2, and R is H or a lower alkyl radical with up to four carbon atoms (methyl, ethyl, etc.). The ratio of R to R' is between 99.5 to 0.5 and 65 to 35.

  9. Organosilane Polymers. III. Block Copolymers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-01

    5446 (1969) 9) R. West, J. Polym. Sci., C, 29, 65 (1970) 10) V.F. Traven and R. West, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 95, 6824 (1973) 11) W.G. Boberski and-A.L...COMPOSITION Alkyl H/Aryl H (2 ) Copolymer Method,1 , Calculated Found 111-3 A 0.72 0.73 B 0.72 0.73 111-5 A 0.80 0.85 B 0.80 0.80 111-8 A 1.0 1.4 B 1.0...1.1 (1) A: Chloro-oligomer added to lithio-oligomer. B : Lithio-oligomer added to chloro-oligomer. (2) By HI-NMR TABLE 2 INFRA-RED ABSORPTIONS

  10. Electrostatic control of block copolymer morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sing, Charles E.; Zwanikken, Jos W.; Olvera de La Cruz, Monica

    2014-07-01

    Energy storage is at present one of the foremost issues society faces. However, material challenges now serve as bottlenecks in technological progress. Lithium-ion batteries are the current gold standard to meet energy storage needs; however, they are limited owing to the inherent instability of liquid electrolytes. Block copolymers can self-assemble into nanostructures that simultaneously facilitate ion transport and provide mechanical stability. The ions themselves have a profound, yet previously unpredictable, effect on how these nanostructures assemble and thus the efficiency of ion transport. Here we demonstrate that varying the charge of a block copolymer is a powerful mechanism to predictably tune nanostructures. In particular, we demonstrate that highly asymmetric charge cohesion effects can induce the formation of nanostructures that are inaccessible to conventional uncharged block copolymers, including percolated phases desired for ion transport. This vastly expands the design space for block copolymer materials and is informative for the versatile design of battery electrolyte materials.

  11. Block copolymer structures in nano-pores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinna, Marco; Guo, Xiaohu; Zvelindovsky, Andrei

    2010-03-01

    We present results of coarse-grained computer modelling of block copolymer systems in cylindrical and spherical nanopores on Cell Dynamics Simulation. We study both cylindrical and spherical pores and systematically investigate structures formed by lamellar, cylinders and spherical block copolymer systems for various pore radii and affinity of block copolymer blocks to the pore walls. The obtained structures include: standing lamellae and cylinders, ``onions,'' cylinder ``knitting balls,'' ``golf-ball,'' layered spherical, ``virus''-like and mixed morphologies with T-junctions and U-type defects [1]. Kinetics of the structure formation and the differences with planar films are discussed. Our simulations suggest that novel porous nano-containers can be formed by confining block copolymers in pores of different geometries [1,2]. [4pt] [1] M. Pinna, X. Guo, A.V. Zvelindovsky, Polymer 49, 2797 (2008).[0pt] [2] M. Pinna, X. Guo, A.V. Zvelindovsky, J. Chem. Phys. 131, 214902 (2009).

  12. Arbitrary lattice symmetries via block copolymer nanomeshes

    PubMed Central

    Majewski, Pawel W.; Rahman, Atikur; Black, Charles T.; Yager, Kevin G.

    2015-01-01

    Self-assembly of block copolymers is a powerful motif for spontaneously forming well-defined nanostructures over macroscopic areas. Yet, the inherent energy minimization criteria of self-assembly give rise to a limited library of structures; diblock copolymers naturally form spheres on a cubic lattice, hexagonally packed cylinders and alternating lamellae. Here, we demonstrate multicomponent nanomeshes with any desired lattice symmetry. We exploit photothermal annealing to rapidly order and align block copolymer phases over macroscopic areas, combined with conversion of the self-assembled organic phase into inorganic replicas. Repeated photothermal processing independently aligns successive layers, providing full control of the size, symmetry and composition of the nanoscale unit cell. We construct a variety of symmetries, most of which are not natively formed by block copolymers, including squares, rhombuses, rectangles and triangles. In fact, we demonstrate all possible two-dimensional Bravais lattices. Finally, we elucidate the influence of nanostructure on the electrical and optical properties of nanomeshes. PMID:26100566

  13. Salt Complexation in Block Copolymer Thin Films

    SciTech Connect

    Kim,S.; Misner, M.; Yang, L.; Gang, O.; Ocko, B.; Russell, T.

    2006-01-01

    Ion complexation within cylinder-forming block copolymer thin films was found to affect the ordering process of the copolymer films during solvent annealing, significantly enhancing the long-range positional order. Small amounts of alkali halide or metal salts were added to PS-b-PEO, on the order of a few ions per chain, where the salt complexed with the PEO block. The orientation of the cylindrical microdomains strongly depended on the salt concentration and the ability of the ions to complex with PEO. The process shows large flexibility in the choice of salt used, including gold or cobalt salts, whereby well-organized patterns of nanoparticles can be generated inside the copolymer microdomains. By further increasing the amount of added salts, the copolymer remained highly ordered at large degrees of swelling and demonstrated long-range positional correlations of the microdomains in the swollen state, which holds promise as a route to addressable media.

  14. Reactivity ratios for organotin copolymer systems.

    PubMed

    El-Newehy, Mohamed H; Al-Deyab, Salem S; Al-Hazmi, Ali Mohsen Ali

    2010-04-15

    Di(tri-n-butyltin) itaconate (DTBTI) and monoethyl tributyltin fumarate (METBTF) were synthesized as organotin monomers. The organotin monomers were copolymerized with styrene (ST) and methyl methacrylate (MMA) via a free radical polymerization technique. The overall conversion was kept low (copolymer composition was determined from tin analysis. The synthesized monomers and copolymers were characterized by elemental analysis, 1H- and 13C-NMR, and FTIR spectroscopy.

  15. Method for making block siloxane copolymers

    DOEpatents

    Butler, N.L.; Jessop, E.S.; Kolb, J.R.

    1981-02-25

    A method for synthesizing block polysiloxane copolymers is disclosed. Diorganoscyclosiloxanes and an end-blocking compound are interacted in the presence of a ring opening polymerization catalyst, producing a blocked prepolymer. The prepolymer is then interacted with a silanediol, resulting in condensation polymerization of the prepolymers. A second end-blocking compound is subsequently introduced to end-cap the polymers and copolymers formed from the condensation polymerization.

  16. Responsive Copolymers for Enhanced Petroleum Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, C.; Hester, R.

    2001-02-27

    The objectives of this work was to: synthesize responsive copolymer systems; characterize molecular structure and solution behavior; measure rheological properties of aqueous fluids in fixed geometry flow profiles; and to tailor final polymer compositions for in situ rheology control under simulated conditions. This report focuses on the synthesis and characterization of novel stimuli responsive copolymers, the investigation of dilute polymer solutions in extensional flow and the design of a rheometer capable of measuring very dilute aqueous polymer solutions at low torque.

  17. Method for making block siloxane copolymers

    DOEpatents

    Butler, Nora; Jessop, Edward S.; Kolb, John R.

    1982-01-01

    A method for synthesizing block polysiloxane copolymers. Diorganoscyclosiloxanes and an end-blocking compound are interacted in the presence of a ring opening polymerization catalyst, producing a blocked prepolymer. The prepolymer is then interacted with a silanediol, resulting in condensation polymerization of the prepolymers. A second end-blocking compound is subsequently introduced to end-cap the polymers and copolymers formed from the condensation polymerization.

  18. Alignment of Fatty Acid-Derived Triblock Copolymers under Large Amplitude Oscillatory Shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Wenyue; Wang, Shu; Kesava, Sameer; Gomez, Enrique; Robertson, Megan

    Linear ABA triblock copolymers find widespread utilization as thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs): materials which exhibit elastomeric behavior at room temperature and can be readily processed at elevated temperatures. Traditional TPEs are derived from fossil fuels; however, the finite availability of petroleum and the environmental impact of petroleum processing has led to an increased interest in developing alternative sources for polymers. Vegetable oils and their fatty acids are promising replacements for petroleum sources due to their abundance, low cost, lack of toxicity, biodegradability and ease of functionalization that provides convenient routes to polymerization. In this study, triblock copolymer TPEs were synthesized containing lauryl and stearyl acrylate, derived from fatty acids found in vegetable oils. Small-angle X-ray scattering experiments revealed highly aligned triblock copolymer morphologies after the application of large amplitude oscillatory shear. The temperature and frequency dependence of the degree of alignment was investigated. In contrast to prior studies on shear-aligned morphologies in bulk and thin film block copolymers, hexagonal close packed and face centered cubic spherical structures were observed.

  19. Diffusion of copolymers composed of monomers with drastically different friction factors in copolymer/homopolymer blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duranty, Edward R.; Baschnagel, Jörg; Dadmun, Mark

    2017-02-01

    Copolymers are commonly used as interface modifiers that allow for the compatibilization of polymer components in a blend. For copolymers to function as a compatibilizer, they must diffuse through the matrix of the blend to the interface between the two blend components. The diffusivity of a copolymer in a blend matrix therefore becomes important in determining good candidates for use as compatibilizers. In this work, coarse-grained Monte Carlo simulations using the bond fluctuation model modified with an overlap penalty have been developed to study the diffusive behavior of PS/PMMA random copolymers in a PMMA homopolymer blend. The simulations vary the connectivity between different monomers, the thermodynamic interactions between the monomers which manifest within a chain, and between copolymer and homopolymer matrix and define the monomer friction coefficient of each component independently, allowing for the determination of the combined effect of these parameters on copolymer chain diffusion. The results of this work indicate that PS-r-PMMA copolymer diffusion is not linearly dependent on the copolymer composition on a logarithmic scale, but its diffusion is a balance of the kinetics governed by the dominant motion of the faster styrene monomers and thermodynamics, which are governed by the concentration of styrene monomer within a given monomer's local volume.

  20. Polyhydroxyalkanoate copolymers from forest biomass.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Thomas M; Nakas, James P; Tanenbaum, Stuart W

    2006-07-01

    The potential for the use of woody biomass in poly-beta-hydroxyalkanoate (PHA) biosynthesis is reviewed. Based on previously cited work indicating incorporation of xylose or levulinic acid (LA) into PHAs by several bacterial strains, we have initiated a study for exploring bioconversion of forest resources to technically relevant copolymers. Initially, PHA was synthesized in shake-flask cultures of Burkholderia cepacia grown on 2.2% (w/v) xylose, periodically amended with varying concentrations of levulinic acid [0.07-0.67% (w/v)]. Yields of poly(beta-hydroxybutyrate-co-beta-hydroxyvalerate) [P(3HB-co-3HV)] from 1.3 to 4.2 g/l were obtained and could be modulated to contain from 1.0 to 61 mol% 3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV), as determined by 1H and 13C NMR analyses. No evidence for either the 3HB or 4HV monomers was found. Characterization of these P(3HB-co-3HV) samples, which ranged in molecular mass (viscometric, Mv) from 511-919 kDa, by differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) provided data which were in agreement for previously reported P(3HB-co-3HV) copolymers. For these samples, it was noted that melting temperature (Tm) and glass transition temperature (Tg) decreased as a function of 3HVcontent, with Tm demonstrating a pseudoeutectic profile as a function of mol% 3HV content. In order to extend these findings to the use of hemicellulosic process streams as an inexpensive carbon source, a detoxification procedure involving sequential overliming and activated charcoal treatments was developed. Two such detoxified process hydrolysates (NREL CF: aspen and CESF: maple) were each fermented with appropriate LA supplementation. For the NREL CF hydrolysate-based cultures amended with 0.25-0.5% LA, P(3HB-co-3HV) yields, PHA contents (PHA as percent of dry biomass), and mol% 3HV compositions of 2.0 g/l, 40% (w/w), and 16-52 mol% were obtained, respectively. Similarly, the CESF hydrolysate-based shake-flask cultures yielded 1.6 g/l PHA, 39% (w

  1. Initiator Effects in Reactive Extrusion of Starch Graft Copolymers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Graft copolymers of starch with water-soluble polymers such as polyacrylamide have potential applications including hydrogels, superabsorbents, and thickening agents. Reactive extrusion is a rapid, continuous method for production of starch graft copolymers with high reaction and grafting efficienc...

  2. Hydrogen-bonded aggregates in precise acid copolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Lueth, Christopher A.; Bolintineanu, Dan S.; Stevens, Mark J. Frischknecht, Amalie L.

    2014-02-07

    We perform atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of melts of four precise acid copolymers, two poly(ethylene-co-acrylic acid) (PEAA) copolymers, and two poly(ethylene-co-sulfonic acid) (PESA) copolymers. The acid groups are spaced by either 9 or 21 carbons along the polymer backbones. Hydrogen bonding causes the acid groups to form aggregates. These aggregates give rise to a low wavevector peak in the structure factors, in agreement with X-ray scattering data for the PEAA materials. The structure factors for the PESA copolymers are very similar to those for the PEAA copolymers, indicating a similar distance between aggregates which depends on the spacer length but not on the nature of the acid group. The PEAA copolymers are found to form more dimers and other small aggregates than do the PESA copolymers, while the PESA copolymers have both more free acid groups and more large aggregates.

  3. Fossil fuels -- future fuels

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    Fossil fuels -- coal, oil, and natural gas -- built America`s historic economic strength. Today, coal supplies more than 55% of the electricity, oil more than 97% of the transportation needs, and natural gas 24% of the primary energy used in the US. Even taking into account increased use of renewable fuels and vastly improved powerplant efficiencies, 90% of national energy needs will still be met by fossil fuels in 2020. If advanced technologies that boost efficiency and environmental performance can be successfully developed and deployed, the US can continue to depend upon its rich resources of fossil fuels.

  4. Charge Transport in Conjugated Block Copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Brandon; Le, Thinh; Lee, Youngmin; Gomez, Enrique

    Interest in conjugated block copolymers for high performance organic photovoltaic applications has increased considerably in recent years. Polymer/fullerene mixtures for conventional bulk heterojunction devices, such as P3HT:PCBM, are severely limited in control over interfaces and domain length scales. In contrast, microphase separated block copolymers self-assemble to form lamellar morphologies with alternating electron donor and acceptor domains, thereby maximizing electronic coupling and local order at interfaces. Efficiencies as high as 3% have been reported in solar cells for one block copolymer, P3HT-PFTBT, but the details concerning charge transport within copolymers have not been explored. To fill this gap, we probed the transport characteristics with thin-film transistors. Excellent charge mobility values for electron transport have been observed on aluminum source and drain contacts in a bottom gate, bottom contact transistor configuration. Evidence of high mobility in ordered PFTBT phases has also been obtained following thermal annealing. The insights gleaned from our investigation serve as useful guideposts, revealing the significance of the interplay between charge mobility, interfacial order, and optimal domain size in organic block copolymer semiconductors.

  5. 21 CFR 177.1060 - n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers. 177.1060... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1060 n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers. n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers identified in this section may be safely used as...

  6. 21 CFR 177.1060 - n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers. 177.1060... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1060 n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers. n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers identified in this section may be safely used as...

  7. 21 CFR 177.1060 - n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers. 177.1060... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1060 n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers. n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers identified in this section may be safely used as...

  8. 21 CFR 175.210 - Acrylate ester copolymer coating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acrylate ester copolymer coating. 175.210 Section... COATINGS Substances for Use as Components of Coatings § 175.210 Acrylate ester copolymer coating. Acrylate ester copolymer coating may safely be used as a food-contact surface of articles intended for...

  9. 21 CFR 175.210 - Acrylate ester copolymer coating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acrylate ester copolymer coating. 175.210 Section... COATINGS Substances for Use as Components of Coatings § 175.210 Acrylate ester copolymer coating. Acrylate ester copolymer coating may safely be used as a food-contact surface of articles intended for...

  10. 21 CFR 175.210 - Acrylate ester copolymer coating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acrylate ester copolymer coating. 175.210 Section... COATINGS Substances for Use as Components of Coatings § 175.210 Acrylate ester copolymer coating. Acrylate ester copolymer coating may safely be used as a food-contact surface of articles intended for...

  11. 21 CFR 175.210 - Acrylate ester copolymer coating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acrylate ester copolymer coating. 175.210 Section... COATINGS Substances for Use as Components of Coatings § 175.210 Acrylate ester copolymer coating. Acrylate ester copolymer coating may safely be used as a food-contact surface of articles intended for...

  12. Structure Confirmation and Properties of Poly(Dimethylsiloxaneco-diethylsiloxane) Copolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Li-Juan; Ma, De-Peng; Feng, Sheng-Yu

    2016-05-01

    High molecular weight poly (dimethylsiloxane-co-diethylsiloxane) (PMES) copolymer was synthesized by anionic ring opening polymerization. Its composition and structures was determined by 29Si NMR spectroscopy. A random microstructure of copolymer was observed in the 29Si NMR spectrum. Further, PMES was characterized by GPC and DSC. The results show that PMES is crystallization-free copolymer with low glass transition temperatures.

  13. 21 CFR 177.1820 - Styrene-maleic anhydride copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Styrene-maleic anhydride copolymers. 177.1820... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1820 Styrene-maleic anhydride copolymers. Styrene-maleic anhydride copolymers identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be...

  14. pH-sensitive methacrylic copolymers and the production thereof

    SciTech Connect

    Mallapragada, Surya K.; Anderson, Brian C.; Bloom, Paul D.; Sheares Ashby, Valerie V.

    2007-01-09

    The present invention provides novel multi-functional methacrylic copolymers that exhibit cationic pH-sensitive behavior as well as good water solubility under acidic conditions. The copolymers are constructed from tertiary amine methacrylates and poly(ethylene glycol) containing methacrylates. The copolymers are useful as gene vectors, pharmaceutical carriers, and in protein separation applications.

  15. pH-sensitive methacrylic copolymers and the production thereof

    DOEpatents

    Mallapragada, Surya K.; Anderson, Brian C.; Bloom, Paul D.; Sheares Ashby, Valerie V.

    2006-02-14

    The present invention provides novel multi-functional methacrylic copolymers that exhibit cationic pH-sensitive behavior as well as good water solubility under acidic conditions. The copolymers are constructed from tertiary amine methacrylates and poly(ethylene glycol) containing methacrylates. The copolymers are useful as gene vectors, pharmaceutical carriers, and in protein separation applications.

  16. 21 CFR 177.1312 - Ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers. 177.1312... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1312 Ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers. The ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be...

  17. 21 CFR 177.1312 - Ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers. 177.1312... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1312 Ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers. The ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be...

  18. 21 CFR 177.1312 - Ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers. 177.1312... Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1312 Ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers. The ethylene-carbon monoxide... of this section, ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers (CAS Reg. No. 25052-62-4) consist of the...

  19. 21 CFR 177.1312 - Ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers. 177.1312... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1312 Ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers. The ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be...

  20. 21 CFR 177.1312 - Ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers. 177.1312... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1312 Ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers. The ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be...

  1. 40 CFR 721.484 - Fluorinated acrylic copolymer (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fluorinated acrylic copolymer (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.484 Fluorinated acrylic copolymer (generic name). (a) Chemical substance... fluorinated acrylic copolymer (PMN P-95-1208) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  2. 40 CFR 721.484 - Fluorinated acrylic copolymer (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fluorinated acrylic copolymer (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.484 Fluorinated acrylic copolymer (generic name). (a) Chemical substance... fluorinated acrylic copolymer (PMN P-95-1208) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  3. 21 CFR 177.1060 - n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers. 177.1060... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1060 n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers. n-Alkylglutarimide/acrylic copolymers identified in this section may be safely used as...

  4. 21 CFR 177.1320 - Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers. 177.1320... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1320 Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers. Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers may be safely used to produce packaging materials,...

  5. 21 CFR 177.1350 - Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers. 177.1350... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1350 Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers. Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers may be safely used as articles or components of...

  6. 21 CFR 177.1350 - Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers. 177.1350 Section... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1350 Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers. Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers may be safely used as articles or components of...

  7. 21 CFR 177.1950 - Vinyl chloride-ethylene copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vinyl chloride-ethylene copolymers. 177.1950... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1950 Vinyl chloride-ethylene copolymers. The vinyl chloride-ethylene copolymers identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be...

  8. 21 CFR 177.1950 - Vinyl chloride-ethylene copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Vinyl chloride-ethylene copolymers. 177.1950... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1950 Vinyl chloride-ethylene copolymers. The vinyl chloride-ethylene copolymers identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be...

  9. 21 CFR 177.1350 - Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers. 177.1350... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1350 Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers. Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers may be safely used as articles or components of...

  10. 21 CFR 177.1950 - Vinyl chloride-ethylene copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vinyl chloride-ethylene copolymers. 177.1950... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1950 Vinyl chloride-ethylene copolymers. The vinyl chloride-ethylene copolymers identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be...

  11. 21 CFR 177.1310 - Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers. 177.1310 Section... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1310 Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers. The ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be...

  12. 21 CFR 177.1350 - Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers. 177.1350... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1350 Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers. Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers may be safely used as articles or components of...

  13. 21 CFR 177.1950 - Vinyl chloride-ethylene copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vinyl chloride-ethylene copolymers. 177.1950... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1950 Vinyl chloride-ethylene copolymers. The vinyl chloride-ethylene copolymers identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be...

  14. 21 CFR 177.1320 - Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers. 177.1320... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1320 Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers. Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers may be safely used to produce packaging materials,...

  15. 21 CFR 177.1320 - Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers. 177.1320... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1320 Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers. Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers may be safely used to produce packaging materials,...

  16. 21 CFR 177.1350 - Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers. 177.1350... Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1350 Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers. Ethylene-vinyl acetate... with the following prescribed conditions: (a)(1) Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers consist of...

  17. 21 CFR 177.1310 - Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers. 177.1310 Section... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1310 Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers. The ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be...

  18. 21 CFR 177.1310 - Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers. 177.1310 Section... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1310 Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers. The ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be...

  19. 21 CFR 177.1310 - Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers. 177.1310 Section... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1310 Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers. The ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be...

  20. 21 CFR 172.775 - Methacrylic acid-divinylbenzene copolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Methacrylic acid-divinylbenzene copolymer. 172.775... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.775 Methacrylic acid-divinylbenzene copolymer. Methacrylic acid-divinylbenzene copolymer may be safely used in food in accordance with the...

  1. 21 CFR 172.775 - Methacrylic acid-divinylbenzene copolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Methacrylic acid-divinylbenzene copolymer. 172.775... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.775 Methacrylic acid-divinylbenzene copolymer. Methacrylic acid-divinylbenzene copolymer may be safely used in food in accordance with the...

  2. 21 CFR 172.775 - Methacrylic acid-divinylbenzene copolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Methacrylic acid-divinylbenzene copolymer. 172.775... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.775 Methacrylic acid-divinylbenzene copolymer. Methacrylic acid-divinylbenzene copolymer may be safely used in food in accordance with the...

  3. 21 CFR 172.775 - Methacrylic acid-divinylbenzene copolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Methacrylic acid-divinylbenzene copolymer. 172.775... Additives § 172.775 Methacrylic acid-divinylbenzene copolymer. Methacrylic acid-divinylbenzene copolymer may... produced by the polymerization of methacrylic acid and divinylbenzene. The divinylbenzene functions as...

  4. Block copolymer blend phase behavior: Binary diblock blends and amphiphilic block copolymer/epoxy mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipic, Paul Martin

    The phase behavior of block copolymers and block copolymer blends has provided an extensive amount of exciting research and industrial applications for over thirty years. However, the unique nanoscale morphologies of microphase separated block copolymer systems is still not completely understood. This thesis examines the phase behavior of diblock copolymers and binary diblock copolymer blends in the strong segregation limit (SSL), and blends of an amphiphilic diblock copolymer with an epoxy resin. Studies of high molecular weight (˜84,000 g/mole) poly(ethylene)-poly(ethyl ethylene) (PE-PEE) diblock copolymers probed the ability of block copolymers to reach equilibrium in the SSL. Samples of pure diblocks or binary diblock blends prepared using different preparation techniques (solvent casting or precipitation) had different phase behaviors, as identified with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS), confirming non-equilibrium phase behavior. This non-equilibrium behavior was metastable, and these results identify the caution that should be used when claiming equilibrium phase behavior in the SSL. Blends of an amphiphilic diblock copolymer, poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(ethylene-alt-propylene) (PEO-PEP) with a polymerizable epoxy resin selectively miscible with PEO, poly(Bisphenol-A-co-epichlorohydrin), supported theoretical calculations and increased the understanding of block copolymer/homopolymer blends. These blends formed different ordered structures (lamellae, bicontinuous cubic gyroid, hexagonally packed cylinders, cubic and hexagonally packed spheres) as well as a disordered spherical micellar structure, identified with SAXS and rheological measurements. Addition of hardener, methylene dianiline, to the system resulted in cross-linking of the epoxy resin and formation of a thermoset material. Macrophase separation between the epoxy and block copolymer did not occur, but local expulsion of the PEO from the epoxy was

  5. Structure-property relationships in block copolymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgrath, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    Block copolymers are a class of relatively new materials which contain long sequences of two (or more) chemically different repeat units. Unlike random copolymers, each segment may retain some properties which are characteristic of its homopolymer. It is well known that most physical blends of two different homopolymers are incompatible on a macro-scale. By contrast most block copolymers display only a microphase (eg. 100-200 A domains) separation. Complete separation is restricted because of a loss in configurational entropy. The latter is due to presence of chemical bond(s) between the segments. Novel physical properties can be obtained because it is possible to prepare any desired combination of rubber-like, glassy, or crystalline blocks. The architecture and sequential arrangement of the segments can strongly influence mechanical behavior.

  6. Optical properties of coumarins containing copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skowronski, L.; Krupka, O.; Smokal, V.; Grabowski, A.; Naparty, M.; Derkowska-Zielinska, B.

    2015-09-01

    We investigate the optical properties such as absorption coefficient, refractive index, real and imaginary parts of dielectric function and energy band gap of coumarin-containing copolymers thin films by means of spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) combined with transmittance measurements (T) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). We found that the optical properties of coumarin-containing copolymers strongly depend from length of alkyl spacer as well as the type of substitution in coumarin moiety. In our case the refractive index as well as the energy band gap of coumarin-containing copolymer decrease with increase the length of alkyl spacer. Additionally, the lengthening of the alkyl spacer brings the bathochromic shifts of the absorption spectra towards longer wavelengths.

  7. Nanoscale Ionic Aggregate Morphology in Zwitterionic Copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jae-Hong; Huyck, Rebecca; Salas-de La Cruz, David; Long, Timothy E.; Winey, Karen I.

    2009-03-01

    The morphology of two different zwitterionic copolymers, poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate-ran-butyl acrylate), and poly(sulfobetaine methacrylamide-ran-butyl acrylate) are investigated as a function of the mol % content of SBMA (7 and 9 mol %) and SBMAm (6, 10 and 13 mol %), respectively. In both copolymers, X-ray scattering results show a new structure in the material arising from ionic aggregates. The sizes of the ionic aggregates are obtained through the scattering model. The sizes of the ionic aggregates increase as the ion content increases. The application of scanning transmission electron microscopy to the study of ionomer morphology has enabled direct, model-independent visualization of the ionic aggregates. The correlation between X-ray scattering results and the real space imaging for morphology of these zwitterionic copolymers will be presented.

  8. Microbial Cometabolism and Polyhydroxyalkanoate Co-polymers.

    PubMed

    Ray, Subhasree; Kalia, Vipin Chandra

    2017-03-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHAs) are natural, biodegradable biopolymers, which can be produced from renewable materials. PHAs have potential to replace petroleum derived plastics. Quite a few bacteria can produce PHA under nutritional stress. They generally produce homopolymers of butyrate i.e., polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), as a storage material. The biochemical characteristics of PHB such as brittleness, low strength, low elasticity, etc. make these unsuitable for commercial applications. Co-polymers of PHA, have high commercial value as they overcome the limitations of PHBs. Co-polymers can be produced by supplementing the feed with volatile fatty acids or through hydrolysates of different biowastes. In this review, we have listed the potential bacterial candidates and the substrates, which can be co-metabolized to produce PHA co-polymers.

  9. Microphase segregation in molten randomly grafted copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Shuyan; Chakraborty, Arup K.; Balsara, Nitash P.

    2001-08-01

    We study microphase ordering of molten randomly grafted copolymers (RGCs) by using a mean field theory and the replica method to calculate the quenched average. Our results illustrate that in the weak segregation limit (WSI), the optimal wave vector q* of the lamellar phase formed by molten RGCs, has a temperature dependence different from either linear random copolymers (LRCs) or diblock copolymers (DCPs): when close, but below the microphase separation transition (MST) temperature, q* increases sharply with decreasing temperature; then q* gradually acquires an asymptotic value determined by the length of the branch and the average distance between branch points on the backbone. Our results are compared with recent experiments, and the effects of chain architecture on the microphase separation characteristics of RGCs are delineated. Our results suggest a new method for controlling the microphase spacing by exploiting quenched disorder.

  10. Additive-driven assembly of block copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ying; Daga, Vikram; Anderson, Eric; Watkins, James

    2011-03-01

    One challenge to the formation of well ordered hybrid materials is the incorporation of nanoscale additives including metal, semiconductor and dielectric nanoparticles at high loadings while maintaining strong segregation. Here we describe the molecular and functional design of small molecule and nanoparticle additives that enhance phase segregation in their block copolymer host and enable high additive loadings. Our approach includes the use of hydrogen bond interactions between the functional groups on the additive or particle that serve as hydrogen bond donors and one segment of the block copolymer containing hydrogen bond acceptors. Further, the additives show strong selectively towards the targeted domains, leading to enhancements in contrast between properties of the phases. In addition to structural changes, we explore how large changes in the thermal and mechanical properties occur upon incorporation of the additives. Generalization of this additive-induced ordering strategy to various block copolymers will be discussed.

  11. [Hydrodynamic properties of exopolysaccharide-acrylamide copolymer].

    PubMed

    Votselko, S K

    2000-01-01

    The method for producing copolymer EPAA of exopolysaccharide (EPS)--polyacrylamide (PAA) has been presented which was based on microbial exopolysaccharides (enposane, xampane), their mixture and model EPS (xanthane sigma, rodopol P-23). The copolymer was produced by acrylamide polymerization in 1-2% water solutions of polysaccharides, the concentration of acrylamide in the reaction mixture being 4.7-2% and that of polysaccharides 0.1-1% of the weight. Hydrodynamic parameters of the studied polymers have been determined, their heterogenity as to molecular-weight characteristics has been demonstrated. Molecular-weight distribution of copolymers showed that the content of low-molecular fractions decreased, thus the Mw values were (0.08-0.2) x 10(6) Da in contrast to that of exopolysaccharides possessing Mw (1.2-0.4) x 10(6) Da and of polyacrylamide possessing Mw within (2-30) x 10(6) Da. The value of efficient viscosity of copolymers ranged from 120 to 131 mPa.s that was lower than that of polyacrylamide (500 mPa.s), and higher than that of exopolysaccharides (42 mPa.s), and it depended on the sample, raw material, production conditions. A possibility has been shown to produce a new copolymer based on microbial polysaccharides enposane and xampane in the process of acrylamide polymerization. It has been found out that the studied copolymers EPAA differ from initial ones as to their hydrodynamical properties, which determines their preference: better solubility, good glueing properties, prolonged term of preservation, resistance to bacterial pollution.

  12. Dynamics of Block Copolymer Nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Mochrie, Simon G. J.

    2014-09-09

    A detailed study of the dynamics of cadmium sulfide nanoparticles suspended in polystyrene homopolymer matrices was carried out using X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy for temperatures between 120 and 180 °C. For low molecular weight polystyrene homopolymers, the observed dynamics show a crossover from diffusive to hyper-diffusive behavior with decreasing temperatures. For higher molecular weight polystyrene, the nanoparticle dynamics appear hyper-diffusive at all temperatures studied. The relaxation time and characteristic velocity determined from the measured hyper-diffusive dynamics reveal that the activation energy and underlying forces determined are on the order of 2.14 × 10-19 J and 87 pN, respectively. We also carried out a detailed X-ray scattering study of the static and dynamic behavior of a styrene– isoprene diblock copolymer melt with a styrene volume fraction of 0.3468. At 115 and 120 °C, we observe splitting of the principal Bragg peak, which we attribute to phase coexistence of hexagonal cylindrical and cubic double- gyroid structure. In the disordered phase, above 130 °C, we have characterized the dynamics of composition fluctuations via X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy. Near the peak of the static structure factor, these fluctuations show stretched-exponential relaxations, characterized by a stretching exponent of about 0.36 for a range of temperatures immediately above the MST. The corresponding characteristic relaxation times vary exponentially with temperature, changing by a factor of 2 for each 2 °C change in temperature. At low wavevectors, the measured relaxations are diffusive with relaxation times that change by a factor of 2 for each 8 °C change in temperature.

  13. Co-polymer Films for Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Margaret A. (Inventor); Homer, Margie L. (Inventor); Yen, Shiao-Pin S. (Inventor); Kisor, Adam (Inventor); Jewell, April D. (Inventor); Shevade, Abhijit V. (Inventor); Manatt, Kenneth S. (Inventor); Taylor, Charles (Inventor); Blanco, Mario (Inventor); Goddard, William A. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Embodiments include a sensor comprising a co-polymer, the co-polymer comprising a first monomer and a second monomer. For some embodiments, the first monomer is poly-4-vinyl pyridine, and the second monomer is poly-4-vinyl pyridinium propylamine chloride. For some embodiments, the first monomer is polystyrene and the second monomer is poly-2-vinyl pyridinium propylamine chloride. For some embodiments, the first monomer is poly-4-vinyl pyridine, and the second monomer is poly-4-vinyl pyridinium benzylamine chloride. Other embodiments are described and claimed.

  14. Co-polymer films for sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Margaret A. (Inventor); Homer, Margie L. (Inventor); Yen, Shiao-Pin S. (Inventor); Kisor, Adam (Inventor); Jewell, April D. (Inventor); Shevade, Abhijit V. (Inventor); Manatt, Kenneth S. (Inventor); Taylor, Charles (Inventor); Blanco, Mario (Inventor); Goddard, William A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Embodiments include a sensor comprising a co-polymer, the co-polymer comprising a first monomer and a second monomer. For some embodiments, the first monomer is poly-4-vinyl pyridine, and the second monomer is poly-4-vinyl pyridinium propylamine chloride. For some embodiments, the first monomer is polystyrene and the second monomer is poly-2-vinyl pyridinium propylamine chloride. For some embodiments, the first monomer is poly-4-vinyl pyridine, and the second monomer is poly-4-vinyl pyridinium benzylamine chloride. Other embodiments are described and claimed.

  15. New functionalized block copolymers for bonding copper to epoxy

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, M.; Saunders, R.; Emerson, J.; Hurst, M.

    1995-11-01

    The authors are exploring the use of functionalized block copolymers for bonding copper to epoxy in printed wiring boards. The program involves four key elements: (i) synthesis of suitable functionalized block copolymers; (ii) characterization of the conformation of the copolymers at the relevant interfaces by neutron reflectivity; (iii) spectroscopic measurements of chemical bonding, and (iv) measurement of the mechanical properties of the interfaces. The copolymers are synthesized by living, ring-opening metathesis polymerization. This relatively new technique allows great flexibility for synthesis of functionalized block copolymers in that the initiators are relatively insensitive to a wide range of functional groups. Significant adhesion enhancement has been observed in lap shear tests.

  16. Alcohol fuel anti-wear additive

    SciTech Connect

    Sung, R. L.

    1985-11-05

    A novel fuel composition contains methanol or methanol/gasoline blends plus, as a wear-inhibiting additive, a reaction product of an aldehyde, e.g., paraformaldehyde, and N-alkyl-alkylene diamine, e.g., N-alkyl-1,3-propane diamine with a salicylic acid ester of a polyol, e.g., alpha-hydroxy-omega hydroxy-poly (oxyethylene) poly (oxypropylene) poly (oxyethylene) block copolymer.

  17. Development of Fuel Neutralizing Agents to Prevent Flashback on Aircraft Fires

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-01

    polyvinyi pyrrolidone (PVP), polyacrylamide (PAM) or ■carboxymethylcellulose (CMC). 4. ü.015-0.05% starch polyacrylonitrile graft copolymer...Flowing Toup.h Film/Foam Addition of a starch grafted copolymer to a mixture of aqueous film- forming and protein-containing fluorosurfactant foams...Fuel Number U Milliliter Polyacrylamide Propylene Glycol Polyvinyl Pyrolidine Sticky Water xv i SECTION I INTRODUCTION A. OBJECTIVE The

  18. Molecular Interaction Control in Diblock Copolymer Blends and Multiblock Copolymers with Opposite Phase Behaviors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Junhan

    2014-03-01

    Here we show how to control molecular interactions via mixing AB and AC diblock copolymers, where one copolymer exhibits upper order-disorder transition and the other does lower disorder-order transition. Linear ABC triblock copolymers possessing both barotropic and baroplastic pairs are also taken into account. A recently developed random-phase approximation (RPA) theory and the self-consistent field theory (SCFT) for general compressible mixtures are used to analyze stability criteria and morphologies for the given systems. It is demonstrated that the copolymer systems can yield a variety of phase behaviors in their temperature and pressure dependence upon proper mixing conditions and compositions, which is caused by the delicate force fields generated in the systems. We acknowledge the financial support from National Research Foundation of Korea and Center for Photofunctional Energy Materials.

  19. Mixing thermodynamics of block-random copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckingham, Bryan Scott

    Random copolymerization of A and B monomers represents a versatile method to tune interaction strengths between polymers, as ArB random copolymers will exhibit a smaller effective Flory interaction parameter chi; (or interaction energy density X) upon mixing with A or B homopolymers than upon mixing A and B homopolymers with each other, and the ArB composition can be tuned continuously. Thus, the incorporation of a random copolymer block into the classical block copolymer architecture to yield "block-random" copolymers introduces an additional tuning mechanism for the control of structure-property relationships, as the interblock interactions and physical properties can be tuned continuously through the random block's composition. However, typical living or controlled polymerizations produce compositional gradients along the "random" block, which can in turn influence the phase behavior. This dissertation demonstrates a method by which narrow-distribution copolymers of styrene and isoprene of any desired composition, with no measurable down-chain gradient, are synthesized. This synthetic method is then utilized to incorporate random copolymers of styrene and isoprene as blocks into block-random copolymers in order to examine the resulting interblock mixing thermodynamics. A series of well-defined near-symmetric block and block-random copolymers (S-I, Bd-S, I-SrI, S-SrI and Bd-S rI diblocks, where S is polystyrene, I is polyisoprene and Bd is polybutadiene), with varying molecular weight and random-block composition are synthesized and the mixing thermodynamics---via comparison of their interaction energy densities, X---of their hydrogenated derivatives is examined through measurement of the order-disorder transition (ODT) temperature. Hydrogenated derivatives of I-SrI and S-SrI block-random copolymers, both wherein the styrene aromaticity is retained and derivatives wherein the styrene units are saturated to vinylcyclohexane (VCH), are found to hew closely to the

  20. Acrylamide/acrylic acid copolymers for cement fluid loss control

    SciTech Connect

    McKenzie, L.F.; McElfresh, P.M.

    1982-01-01

    Acrylamide/acrylic acid copolymers are considered as effective fluid loss control additives in a wide range of oil well cements. Unlike HEC based fluid loss aditives, these copolymers can be used with calcium chloride accelerator without significantly influencing fluid loss control. Another advantage of the copolymers is that the amount of fluid loss for a given concentration of polymer remains relatively constant over a wide range of temperatures. The use of acrylamide/acrylic acid copolymers has generally been restricted to wells below 60 degree C BHCT. Above that temperature chemical changes in the copolymer often lead to retardation of the cement. This paper presents data related to the use of acrylamide/acrylic acid copolymers as fluid loss control agents in oil well cementing. A comparison of these polymers with HEC based fluid loss control additives is made. In addition, data related to the cause of acrylamide/acrylic acid copolymer retarding effects is presented. 4 refs.

  1. Block copolymer nanolithography for the fabrication of patterned media.

    SciTech Connect

    Warke, Vishal V; Bakker, Martin G; Hong, Kunlun; Mays, Jimmy; Britt, Phillip F; Li, Xuefa; Wang, Jin

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Bit patterned perpendicular media has the potential to increase the density of magnetic recording beyond what can be achieved by granular media. Self assembling diblock copolymers are of interest as templates for patterned media, as they potentially provide a low cost fabrication route. A method to fabricate the desired pattern using cylinder forming diblock copolymers of (PS-b-PMMA) as template is reported. Upon phase separation hexagonally packed cylinders of the minority phase (PMMA) surrounded by the continuous majority phase (PS) are obtained. The processing sequence began with spin coating the block copolymer on a suitable substrate, followed by annealing the block copolymer thin film in vacuum to orient it perpendicular to the substrate. Block copolymer templates were obtained by glacial acetic acid treatment which opened the pores in the block copolymer thin film. Ni was electrodeposited in the block copolymer templates and this pattern was then transferred onto the underlying substrate by ion milling

  2. Solid-supported block copolymer membranes through interfacial adsorption of charged block copolymer vesicles.

    PubMed

    Rakhmatullina, Ekaterina; Meier, Wolfgang

    2008-06-17

    The properties of amphiphilic block copolymer membranes can be tailored within a wide range of physical parameters. This makes them promising candidates for the development of new (bio)sensors based on solid-supported biomimetic membranes. Here we investigated the interfacial adsorption of polyelectrolyte vesicles on three different model substrates to find the optimum conditions for formation of planar membranes. The polymer vesicles were made from amphiphilic ABA triblock copolymers with short, positively charged poly(2,2-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) end blocks and a hydrophobic poly( n-butyl methacrylate) (PBMA) middle block. We observed reorganization of the amphiphilic copolymer chains from vesicular structures into a 1.5+/-0.04 nm thick layer on the hydrophobic HOPG surface. However, this film starts disrupting and dewetting upon drying. In contrast, adsorption of the vesicles on the negatively charged SiO2 and mica substrates induced vesicle fusion and formation of planar, supported block copolymer films. This process seems to be controlled by the surface charge density of the substrate and concentration of the block copolymers in solution. The thickness of the copolymer membrane on mica was comparable to the thickness of phospholipid bilayers.

  3. 21 CFR 173.65 - Divinylbenzene copolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Divinylbenzene copolymer. 173.65 Section 173.65 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...-benzene, and no more than 4 weight-percent nonpolymerizable impurities. (b) In accordance with...

  4. 21 CFR 173.65 - Divinylbenzene copolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Divinylbenzene copolymer. 173.65 Section 173.65 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... weight-percent ethyl-vinyl-benzene, and no more than 4 weight-percent nonpolymerizable impurities. (b)...

  5. Copolymer sealant compositions and method for making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Navjot (Inventor); Leman, John Thomas (Inventor); Whitney, John M. (Inventor); Krabbenhoft, Herman Otto (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    Condensation curable poly(fluoroorgano)siloxane-poly(silarylene)siloxane block copolymer compositions having a glass transition temperature not exceeding about -54.degree. C. and excellent solvent resistance have been found useful as sealants. Polyalkoxysilylorgano compounds, such as 1,4-bis[trimethoxysilyl(ethyl)]benzene have been found to be effective as cross-linkers.

  6. Copolymer sealant compositions and method for making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Navjot (Inventor); Leman, John Thomas (Inventor); Whitney, John M. (Inventor); Krabbenhoft, Herman Otto (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    Condensation curable poly(fluoroorgano)siloxane-poly(silarylene)siloxane block copolymer compositions having a glass transition temperature not exceeding about -54.degree. C. and excellent solvent resistance have been found useful as sealants. Polyalkoxysilylorgano compounds, such as 1,4-bis[trimethoxysilyl(ethyl)]benzene have been found to be effective as cross-linkers.

  7. Copolymer sealant compositions and method for making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Navjot (Inventor); Leman, John Thomas (Inventor); Whitney, John M. (Inventor); Krabbenhoft, Herman Otto (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Condensation curable poly(fluoroorgano)siloxane-poly(silarylene)siloxane block copolymer compositions having a glass transition temperature not exceeding about -54.degree. C. and excellent solvent resistance have been found useful as sealants. Polyalkoxysilylorgano compounds, such as 1,4-bis[trimethoxysilyl(ethyl)]benzene have been found to be effective as cross-linkers.

  8. Block copolymer/ferroelectric nanoparticle nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Xinchang; He, Yanjie; Jiang, Beibei; Iocozzia, James; Zhao, Lei; Guo, Hanzheng; Liu, Jin; Akinc, Mufit; Bowler, Nicola; Tan, Xiaoli; Lin, Zhiqun

    2013-08-01

    Nanocomposites composed of diblock copolymer/ferroelectric nanoparticles were formed by selectively constraining ferroelectric nanoparticles (NPs) within diblock copolymer nanodomains via judicious surface modification of ferroelectric NPs. Ferroelectric barium titanate (BaTiO3) NPs with different sizes that are permanently capped with polystyrene chains (i.e., PS-functionalized BaTiO3NPs) were first synthesized by exploiting amphiphilic unimolecular star-like poly(acrylic acid)-block-polystyrene (PAA-b-PS) diblock copolymers as nanoreactors. Subsequently, PS-functionalized BaTiO3 NPs were preferentially sequestered within PS nanocylinders in the linear cylinder-forming polystyrene-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA) diblock copolymer upon mixing the BaTiO3 NPs with PS-b-PMMA. The use of PS-b-PMMA diblock copolymers, rather than traditional homopolymers, offers the opportunity for controlling the spatial organization of PS-functionalized BaTiO3 NPs in the PS-b-PMMA/BaTiO3 NP nanocomposites. Selective solvent vapor annealing was utilized to control the nanodomain orientation in the nanocomposites. Vertically oriented PS nanocylinders containing PS-functionalized BaTiO3 NPs were yielded after exposing the PS-b-PMMA/BaTiO3 NP nanocomposite thin film to acetone vapor, which is a selective solvent for PMMA block. The dielectric properties of nanocomposites in the microwave frequency range were investigated. The molecular weight of PS-b-PMMA and the size of BaTiO3 NPs were found to exert an apparent influence on the dielectric properties of the resulting nanocomposites.Nanocomposites composed of diblock copolymer/ferroelectric nanoparticles were formed by selectively constraining ferroelectric nanoparticles (NPs) within diblock copolymer nanodomains via judicious surface modification of ferroelectric NPs. Ferroelectric barium titanate (BaTiO3) NPs with different sizes that are permanently capped with polystyrene chains (i.e., PS-functionalized BaTiO3NPs) were

  9. Block copolymer/ferroelectric nanoparticle nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Pang, Xinchang; He, Yanjie; Jiang, Beibei; Iocozzia, James; Zhao, Lei; Guo, Hanzheng; Liu, Jin; Akinc, Mufit; Bowler, Nicola; Tan, Xiaoli; Lin, Zhiqun

    2013-09-21

    Nanocomposites composed of diblock copolymer/ferroelectric nanoparticles were formed by selectively constraining ferroelectric nanoparticles (NPs) within diblock copolymer nanodomains via judicious surface modification of ferroelectric NPs. Ferroelectric barium titanate (BaTiO3) NPs with different sizes that are permanently capped with polystyrene chains (i.e., PS-functionalized BaTiO3NPs) were first synthesized by exploiting amphiphilic unimolecular star-like poly(acrylic acid)-block-polystyrene (PAA-b-PS) diblock copolymers as nanoreactors. Subsequently, PS-functionalized BaTiO3 NPs were preferentially sequestered within PS nanocylinders in the linear cylinder-forming polystyrene-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA) diblock copolymer upon mixing the BaTiO3 NPs with PS-b-PMMA. The use of PS-b-PMMA diblock copolymers, rather than traditional homopolymers, offers the opportunity for controlling the spatial organization of PS-functionalized BaTiO3 NPs in the PS-b-PMMA/BaTiO3 NP nanocomposites. Selective solvent vapor annealing was utilized to control the nanodomain orientation in the nanocomposites. Vertically oriented PS nanocylinders containing PS-functionalized BaTiO3 NPs were yielded after exposing the PS-b-PMMA/BaTiO3 NP nanocomposite thin film to acetone vapor, which is a selective solvent for PMMA block. The dielectric properties of nanocomposites in the microwave frequency range were investigated. The molecular weight of PS-b-PMMA and the size of BaTiO3 NPs were found to exert an apparent influence on the dielectric properties of the resulting nanocomposites.

  10. Alternative Fuels

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Alternative fuels include gaseous fuels such as hydrogen, natural gas, and propane; alcohols such as ethanol, methanol, and butanol; vegetable and waste-derived oils; and electricity. Overview of alternative fuels is here.

  11. Ionic Conductivity and Gas Permeability of Polymerized Ionic Liquid Block Copolymer Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Christopher; Sanoja, Gabriel; Schneider, Yanika; Modestino, Miguel; Segalman, Rachel; Joint CenterArtificial Photosynthesis Team

    2014-03-01

    Polymer membranes for many energy applications, such as solar-to-hydrogen fuel production, require ionic conductivity while acting as gas diffusion barriers. We have synthesized a diblock copolymer consisting of poly(styrene-block-(4-(2-methacrylamidoethyl)-imidazolium trifluoroacetate) by treating poly(styrene-block-histamine methacrylamide) (PS- b-PHMA) with trifluoroacetic acid. The PS block serves as the structural support while the imidazolium derivative is an ion conducting polymerized ionic liquid (PIL). Small angle X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy demonstrate that the block copolymer self-assembles into well-ordered nanostructures, with lamellae and hexagonally packed cylindrical morphologies. The ionic conductivities of the PS-b-PHMA materials were as high as 2 x 10-4 S/cm while an order of magnitude increase in conductivity was observed upon conversion to PS-b-PIL. The ionic conductivity of the PS-b-PIL increased by a factor of ~ 4 up to 1.2 x 10-3 S/cm as the PIL domain size increased from 20 to 40 nm. These insights allow for the rational design of high performance ion conducting membranes with even greater conductivities via precise morphological control. Additionally, the role of thermal annealing on the ionic conductivity and gas permeability of copolymer membranes was investigated.

  12. Morphology and Proton Conductivity of Ionic Liquid Containing Sulfonated Block Copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sung Yeon; Park, Moon Jeong

    2011-03-01

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) offer the prospect of supplying clean electrical power for a wide variety of systems such as portable electronic devices and vehicles. Although, significant effort has been devoted to improvement of the transport properties of PEMs which is operated relatively lower temperature below 80circ; C, it suffers from a CO poisoning at Pt catalysis, complexity of water and heat management in the system. Herein, we report unique block copolymer electrolyte membrane systems containing ionic liquid. Due to the nonvolatile property of ionic liquid the systems exhibit effective proton transport above 100circ; C without humidification. In present study, sulfonated block copolymers, i.e., poly(styrenesulfonate-b-methylbuthylene) (SnMBm), are utilized for matrix materials by varying the ion contents and molecular weight. Imidazolium based ionic liquids are selectively incorporated into polystyrenesulfonate phases, which results in various morphological transitions as a function of the amount of the ionic liquid. The effect of counter ions on the observed morphologies is significant yielding concurrently different values of conductivity. Small angle x-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy have been employed to determine various morphologies of the ionic liquid containing sulfonated block copolymer membranes and impedance spectroscopy is used for the conductivity measurements.

  13. Cycloolefin effect in cycloolefin-(meth)acryl copolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Hyun Soon; Seo, Dong Chul; Lee, Chang Soo; Park, Sang Wok; Kim, Sang Jin; Shin, Dae Hyeon; Shin, Jin Bong; Park, Joo Hyun

    2008-11-01

    One of the most important factors in ArF resist development is a resin platform, which dominates a lot of parts of resist characteristics. It has been much changed in order to improve their physical properties such as resolution, pattern profile, etch resistance and line edge roughness. Through the low etch resistance in ArF initial (meth)acryl type copolymer and low transmittance in COMA type copolymer most researchers were interested in developing of (meth)acryl type copolymer again for ArF photoresist. On the other hand, we have studied various polymer platforms suitable ArF photoresist except for meth(acryl) type copolymer. As a result of this study we had developed ROMA type polymers and cycloolefin-(meth)acryl type copolymers. Among the polymers cycloolefin-(meth)acryl type copolymer has many attractions such as etch roughness, resist reflow which needs low glass transition temperature and solvent solubility. In this study, we intend to find out cycloolefin-(meth)acryl copolymer characteristics compared with (meth)acryl copolymer. And, we have tried to find out any differences between acrylate type copolymer and cycloolefin-(meth)acrylate type copolymer with various evaluation results. As a result of this study we are going to talk about the reason that the resist using acrylate type copolymer and cycloolefin-(meth)acryl type copolymer show good pattern profile while acrylate type copolymer show poor pattern profile. We also intend to explain the role of cycloolefin as a function of molecular weight variation and substitution ratio variation of cycloolefin in cycloolefin-(meth)acrylate resin.One of the most important factors in ArF resist development is a resin platform, which dominates a lot of parts of resist characteristics. It has been much changed in order to improve their physical properties such as resolution, pattern profile, etch resistance and line edge roughness. Through the low etch resistance in ArF initial (meth)acryl type copolymer and low

  14. Fuel pin

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, David W.; Karnesky, Richard A.; Leggett, Robert D.; Baker, Ronald B.

    1989-01-01

    A fuel pin for a liquid metal nuclear reactor is provided. The fuel pin includes a generally cylindrical cladding member with metallic fuel material disposed therein. At least a portion of the fuel material extends radially outwardly to the inner diameter of the cladding member to promote efficient transfer of heat to the reactor coolant system. The fuel material defines at least one void space therein to facilitate swelling of the fuel material during fission.

  15. Fuel pin

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, D.W.; Karnesky, R.A.; Leggett, R.D.; Baker, R.B.

    1987-11-24

    A fuel pin for a liquid metal nuclear reactor is provided. The fuel pin includes a generally cylindrical cladding member with metallic fuel material disposed therein. At least a portion of the fuel material extends radially outwardly to the inner diameter of the cladding member to promote efficient transfer of heat to the reactor coolant system. The fuel material defines at least one void space therein to facilitate swelling of the fuel material during fission.

  16. Fuel pin

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, David W.; Karnesky, Richard A.; Leggett, Robert D.; Baker, Ronald B.

    1989-10-03

    A fuel pin for a liquid metal nuclear reactor is provided. The fuel pin includes a generally cylindrical cladding member with metallic fuel material disposed therein. At least a portion of the fuel material extends radially outwardly to the inner diameter of the cladding member to promote efficient transfer of heat to the reactor coolant system. The fuel material defines at least one void space therein to facilitate swelling of the fuel material during fission.

  17. Fuel pump

    SciTech Connect

    Bellis, P.D.; Nesselrode, F.

    1991-04-16

    This patent describes a fuel pump. It includes: a fuel reservoir member, the fuel reservoir member being formed with fuel chambers, the chambers comprising an inlet chamber and an outlet chamber, means to supply fuel to the inlet chamber, means to deliver fuel from the outlet chamber to a point of use, the fuel reservoir member chambers also including a bypass chamber, means interconnecting the bypass chamber with the outlet chamber; the fuel pump also comprising pump means interconnecting the inlet chamber and the outlet chamber and adapted to suck fuel from the fuel supply means into the inlet chamber, through the pump means, out the outlet chamber, and to the fuel delivery means; the bypass chamber and the pump means providing two substantially separate paths of fuel flow in the fuel reservoir member, bypass plunger means normally closing off the flow of fuel through the bypass chamber one of the substantially separate paths including the fuel supply means and the fuel delivery means when the bypass plunger means is closed, the second of the substantially separate paths including the bypass chamber when the bypass plunger means is open, and all of the chambers and the interconnecting means therebetween being configured so as to create turbulence in the flow of any fuel supplied to the outlet chamber by the pump means and bypassed through the bypass chamber and the interconnecting means.

  18. Solvent enhanced block copolymer ordering in thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misner, Matthew J.

    Diblock copolymer self-assembly of materials is emerging as a key element in the fabrication of functional nanostructured materials. By solvent casting or solvent annealing block copolymer thin films, we have demonstrated methods to produce diblock copolymer films with highly oriented, close-packed arrays of nanoscopic cylindrical domains with a high degree of long-range lateral order with few defects. The solvent imparts a high degree of mobility in the microphase-separated copolymer that enables a rapid removal of defects and a high degree of lateral order. Though the use of a selective cosolvent during solvent casting, it was found that the microdomain size and spacing could be increased, leading to a size-tunable system. Additionally, the presence of water also led to the ability to control the microdomain orientation during solvent annealing. Ionic complexation within cylinder-forming PS- b-EO block copolymer thin films was also investigated, where added salts bind PEO block as the minor component. Small amounts of added salts, on the order a few ions per chain, show large effects on the ordering of the copolymer films during solvent annealing. By using gold or cobalt salts, well-organized patterns of nanoparticles can be generated in the copolymer microdomains. Topographically and chemically patterned surfaces were used as a route to sectorizing and controlling the lattice orientation of copolymer films. Topographically patterned surfaces allow well-defined boundaries to confine the copolymer microdomains on a surface and effectively direct the ordering and grain orientation of the copolymer microdomains. Chemically patterned surfaces provide a route to direct the block copolymer ordering on completely flat surface, which may have advantages in applications where adding additional topography may be undesirable. To generate nanoporous templates from PS-b-PEO bases materials several routs were followed. The first route was through the addition and selective

  19. 21 CFR 872.3500 - Polyvinylmethylether maleic anhydride (PVM-MA), acid copolymer, and carboxymethylcellulose sodium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...), acid copolymer, and carboxymethylcellulose sodium (NACMC) denture adhesive. 872.3500 Section 872.3500...), acid copolymer, and carboxymethylcellulose sodium (NACMC) denture adhesive. (a) Identification... adhesive is a device composed of polyvinylmethylether maleic anhydride, acid copolymer,...

  20. 21 CFR 872.3500 - Polyvinylmethylether maleic anhydride (PVM-MA), acid copolymer, and carboxymethylcellulose sodium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...), acid copolymer, and carboxymethylcellulose sodium (NACMC) denture adhesive. 872.3500 Section 872.3500...), acid copolymer, and carboxymethylcellulose sodium (NACMC) denture adhesive. (a) Identification. Polyvinylmethylether maleic anhydride (PVM-MA), acid copolymer, and carboxymethylcellulose sodium (NACMC)...

  1. 21 CFR 872.3500 - Polyvinylmethylether maleic anhydride (PVM-MA), acid copolymer, and carboxymethylcellulose sodium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...), acid copolymer, and carboxymethylcellulose sodium (NACMC) denture adhesive. 872.3500 Section 872.3500...), acid copolymer, and carboxymethylcellulose sodium (NACMC) denture adhesive. (a) Identification. Polyvinylmethylether maleic anhydride (PVM-MA), acid copolymer, and carboxymethylcellulose sodium (NACMC)...

  2. 21 CFR 872.3500 - Polyvinylmethylether maleic anhydride (PVM-MA), acid copolymer, and carboxymethylcellulose sodium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...), acid copolymer, and carboxymethylcellulose sodium (NACMC) denture adhesive. 872.3500 Section 872.3500...), acid copolymer, and carboxymethylcellulose sodium (NACMC) denture adhesive. (a) Identification. Polyvinylmethylether maleic anhydride (PVM-MA), acid copolymer, and carboxymethylcellulose sodium (NACMC)...

  3. 21 CFR 872.3500 - Polyvinylmethylether maleic anhydride (PVM-MA), acid copolymer, and carboxymethylcellulose sodium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...), acid copolymer, and carboxymethylcellulose sodium (NACMC) denture adhesive. 872.3500 Section 872.3500...), acid copolymer, and carboxymethylcellulose sodium (NACMC) denture adhesive. (a) Identification. Polyvinylmethylether maleic anhydride (PVM-MA), acid copolymer, and carboxymethylcellulose sodium (NACMC)...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10523 - Perfluoroalkylethyl methacrylate copolymer with hydroxymethyl acrylamide, vinyl chloride and long...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... copolymer with hydroxymethyl acrylamide, vinyl chloride and long chain fatty alkyl acrylate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10523 Perfluoroalkylethyl methacrylate copolymer with hydroxymethyl acrylamide, vinyl... methacrylate copolymer with hydroxymethyl acrylamide, vinyl chloride and long chain fatty alkyl acrylate (PMN...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10523 - Perfluoroalkylethyl methacrylate copolymer with hydroxymethyl acrylamide, vinyl chloride and long...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... copolymer with hydroxymethyl acrylamide, vinyl chloride and long chain fatty alkyl acrylate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10523 Perfluoroalkylethyl methacrylate copolymer with hydroxymethyl acrylamide, vinyl... methacrylate copolymer with hydroxymethyl acrylamide, vinyl chloride and long chain fatty alkyl acrylate (PMN...

  6. Amphiphilic block copolymer membrane for vanadium redox flow battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fei; Sylvia, James M.; Jacob, Monsy M.; Peramunage, Dharmasena

    2013-11-01

    An amphiphilic block copolymer comprised of hydrophobic polyaryletherketone (PAEK) and hydrophilic sulfonated polyaryletherketone (SPAEK) blocks has been synthesized and characterized. A membrane prepared from the block copolymer is used as the separator in a single cell vanadium redox flow battery (VRB). The proton conductivity, mechanical property, VO2+ permeability and single VRB cell performance of this block copolymer membrane are investigated and compared to Nafion™ 117. The block copolymer membrane showed significantly improved vanadium ion selectivity, higher mechanical strength and lower conductivity than Nafion™ 117. The VRB containing the block copolymer membrane exhibits higher coulombic efficiency and similar energy efficiency compared to a VRB using Nafion™ 117. The better vanadium ion selectivity of the block copolymer membrane has led to a much smaller capacity loss during 50 charge-discharge cycles for the VRB.

  7. Phase Behavior of Neat Triblock Copolymers and Copolymer/Homopolymer Blends Near Network Phase Windows

    SciTech Connect

    M Tureau; L Rong; B Hsiao; T Epps

    2011-12-31

    The phase behavior of poly(isoprene-b-styrene-b-methyl methacrylate) (ISM) copolymers near the styrene-rich network phase window was examined through the use of neat triblock copolymers and copolymer/homopolymer blends. Both end-block and middle-block blending protocols were employed using poly(isoprene) (PI), poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), and poly(styrene) (PS) homopolymers. Blended specimens exhibited phase transformations to well-ordered nanostructures (at homopolymer loadings up to 26 vol % of the total blend volume). Morphological consistency between neat and blended specimens was established at various locations in the ISM phase space. Copolymer/homopolymer blending permitted the refinement of lamellar, hexagonally packed cylinder, and disordered melt phase boundaries as well as the identification of double gyroid (Q{sup 230}), alternating gyroid (Q{sup 214}), and orthorhombic (O{sup 70}) network regimes. Additionally, the experimental phase diagram exhibited similar trends to those found in a theoretical ABC triblock copolymer phase diagram with symmetric interactions and statistical segments lengths generated by Tyler et al.

  8. Interaction of poloxamine block copolymers with lipid membranes: Role of copolymer structure and membrane cholesterol content.

    PubMed

    Sandez-Macho, Isabel; Casas, Matilde; Lage, Emilio V; Rial-Hermida, M Isabel; Concheiro, Angel; Alvarez-Lorenzo, Carmen

    2015-09-01

    Interactions of X-shaped poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide) (PEO-PPO) block copolymers with cell membranes were investigated recording the π-A isotherms of monolayer systems of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC):cholesterol 100:0; 80:20 and 60:40 mol ratio and evaluating the capability of the copolymers to trigger haemolysis or to protect from haemolytic agents. Four varieties of poloxamine (Tetronic 904, 908, 1107 and 1307) were chosen in order to cover a wide range of EO and PO units contents and molecular weights, and compared to a variety of poloxamer (Pluronic P85). The π-A isotherms revealed that the greater the content in cholesterol, the stronger the interaction of the block copolymers with the lipids monolayer. The interactions were particularly relevant at low pressures and low lipid proportions, mimicking the conditions of damaged membranes. Relatively hydrophobic copolymers bearing short PEO blocks (e.g., T904 and P85) intercalated among the lipids expanding the surface area (ΔGexc) but not effectively sealing the pores. These varieties showed haemolytic behavior. Oppositely, highly hydrophilic copolymers bearing long PEO blocks (e.g., T908, T1107 and T1307) caused membrane contraction and outer leaflet sealing due to strong interactions of PEO with cholesterol and diamine core with phospholipids. These later varieties were not haemolytic and exerted a certain protective effect against spontaneous haemolysis for both intact erythrocytes and cholesterol-depleted erythrocytes.

  9. Reversible geling co-polymer and method of making

    DOEpatents

    Gutowska, Anna

    2005-12-27

    The present invention is a thereapeutic agent carrier having a thermally reversible gel or geling copolymer that is a linear random copolymer of an [meth-]acrylamide derivative and a hydrophilic comonomer, wherein the linear random copolymer is in the form of a plurality of linear chains having a plurality of molecular weights greater than or equal to a minimum geling molecular weight cutoff and a therapeutic agent.

  10. On the birefringence of multilayered symmetric diblock copolymer films

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J.; Chin, I.; Smith, B.A.; Russell, T.P. ); Mays, J.W. . Dept. of Chemistry)

    1993-09-27

    The chain extension at lamellar interfaces was studied in thin films of symmetric diblock copolymers on gold substrates. The first copolymer consisted of blocks of polystyrene (PS) and poly(2-vinylpyridine) (P2VP), denoted P(S-b-2VP). The second was a diblock copolymer of PS and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), denoted P(S-b-MMA), on a gold substrate. Using attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy, the refractive indices parallel, n[sub [parallel

  11. ROMP from ROMP: A New Approach to Graft Copolymer Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Matthew J.; Wangkanont, Kittikhun; Raines, Ronald T.; Kiessling, Laura L.

    2009-01-01

    A new strategy is presented for the synthesis of graft copolymers using only the ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP). From a ROMP-derived main chain, pendant maleimide functional groups are converted into norbornene moieties via a Diels–Alder reaction with cyclopentadiene. The norbornene groups serve as sites of initiation, and subsequent ROMP from the main chain yields graft copolymers with both main and side chains derived from ROMP. This strategy offers ready access to defined graft copolymers. PMID:20161406

  12. Formation of Anisotropic Block Copolymer Gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liaw, Chya Yan; Shull, Kenneth; Henderson, Kevin; Joester, Derk

    2011-03-01

    Anisotropic, fibrillar gels are important in a variety of processes. Biomineralization is one example, where the mineralization process often occurs within a matrix of collagen or chitin fibers that trap the mineral precursors and direct the mineralization process. We wish to replicate this type of behavior within block copolymer gels. Particularly, we are interested in employing gels composed of cylindrical micelles, which are anisotropic and closely mimic biological fibers. Micelle geometry is controlled in our system by manipulating the ratio of molecular weights of the two blocks and by controlling the detailed thermal processing history of the copolymer solutions. Small-Angle X-ray Scattering and Dynamic Light Scattering are used to determine the temperature dependence of the gel formation process. Initial experiments are based on a thermally-reversible alcohol-soluble system, that can be subsequently converted to a water soluble system by hydrolysis of a poly(t-butyl methacrylate) block to a poly (methacrylic acid) block. MRSEC.

  13. Defect trapping in ABC block copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corte, Laurent; Yamauchi, Kazuhiro; Court, Francois; Cloitre, Michel; Hashimoto, Takeji; Leibler, Ludwik

    2004-03-01

    Equilibrium morphologies in molten ABC triblock terpolymers are much more difficult to attain than in AB diblocks. In practice, it is important to know whether and how synthesis conditions influence the morphology and properties of copolymer materials. It is also relevant to understand the mechanisms of defect formation and annihilation. Indeed, a potential use of copolymers in new applications such as lithography highly depends on the ability to produce regular structures with no or few defects. We show that even the simplest lamellar structures exhibit high sensitivity to preparation conditions and that strongly trapped structural defects inherent to ABC triblock architecture cannot be removed by long annealing. Annealing can induce a transition from a lamellar structure in which A and C blocks are mixed to a lamellar structure where A, B and C are segregated. We propose reorganization mechanisms that are at the origin of some characteristic defects.

  14. Rapid ordering of block copolymer thin films

    DOE PAGES

    Majewski, Pawel W.; Yager, Kevin G.

    2016-08-18

    Block-copolymers self-assemble into diverse morphologies, where nanoscale order can be finely tuned via block architecture and processing conditions. However, the ultimate usage of these materials in real-world applications may be hampered by the extremely long thermal annealing times—hours or days—required to achieve good order. Here, we provide an overview of the fundamentals of block-copolymer self-assembly kinetics, and review the techniques that have been demonstrated to influence, and enhance, these ordering kinetics. We discuss the inherent tradeoffs between oven annealing, solvent annealing, microwave annealing, zone annealing, and other directed self-assembly methods; including an assessment of spatial and temporal characteristics. Here, wemore » also review both real-space and reciprocal-space analysis techniques for quantifying order in these systems.« less

  15. Rapid ordering of block copolymer thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Majewski, Pawel W.; Yager, Kevin G.

    2016-08-18

    Block-copolymers self-assemble into diverse morphologies, where nanoscale order can be finely tuned via block architecture and processing conditions. However, the ultimate usage of these materials in real-world applications may be hampered by the extremely long thermal annealing times—hours or days—required to achieve good order. Here, we provide an overview of the fundamentals of block-copolymer self-assembly kinetics, and review the techniques that have been demonstrated to influence, and enhance, these ordering kinetics. We discuss the inherent tradeoffs between oven annealing, solvent annealing, microwave annealing, zone annealing, and other directed self-assembly methods; including an assessment of spatial and temporal characteristics. Here, we also review both real-space and reciprocal-space analysis techniques for quantifying order in these systems.

  16. "Clickable" PEG-dendritic block copolymers.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Megia, Eduardo; Correa, Juan; Riguera, Ricardo

    2006-11-01

    Three generations of azido-terminated PEG-dendritic block copolymers have been synthesized and completely characterized by NMR and MALDI-TOF. A radial decrease of density, leading to more mobile protons at the outermost periphery, and an increasingly higher compactness of the core with generation have been determined by T(1) and T(2) relaxation time studies. The efficient surface decoration of these dendritic polymers by means of click chemistry has been demonstrated by the incorporation of unprotected carbohydrate units in very good to excellent yields. The reaction proceeds at room temperature, under aqueous conditions, and requires just catalytic amounts of Cu. The modified block copolymers are conveniently purified by ultrafiltration. The glycodendrimers functionalized with alpha-mannose form aggregates with concanavalin A as determined by absorbance experiments at 400 nm. This aggregation ability increases with generation.

  17. Photothermal degradation of ethylene/vinylacetate copolymer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, R. H.; Chung, S.; Clayton, A.; Di Stefano, S.; Oda, K.; Hong, S. D.; Gupta, A.

    1983-01-01

    Photothermal degradation studies were conducted on a 'stabilized' formulation of ethylene/vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) in the temperature range 25-105 C under three different oxygen environments (in open air, with limited access to O2, and in a dark closed stagnant oven). These studies were performed in order to evaluate the utility of EVA as an encapsulation material for photovoltaic modules. Results showed that at low temperature (25 C), slow photooxidation of the polymer occurred via electronic energy transfer involving the UV absorber incorporated in the polymer. However, no changes in the physical properties of the bulk polymer were detected up to 1500 hours of irradiation. At elevated temperatures, leaching and evaporation of the additives occurred, which ultimately resulted in the chemical crosslinking of the copolymer and the formation of volatile photoproducts such as acetic acid.

  18. Rapid ordering of block copolymer thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majewski, Pawel W.; Yager, Kevin G.

    2016-10-01

    Block-copolymers self-assemble into diverse morphologies, where nanoscale order can be finely tuned via block architecture and processing conditions. However, the ultimate usage of these materials in real-world applications may be hampered by the extremely long thermal annealing times—hours or days—required to achieve good order. Here, we provide an overview of the fundamentals of block-copolymer self-assembly kinetics, and review the techniques that have been demonstrated to influence, and enhance, these ordering kinetics. We discuss the inherent tradeoffs between oven annealing, solvent annealing, microwave annealing, zone annealing, and other directed self-assembly methods; including an assessment of spatial and temporal characteristics. We also review both real-space and reciprocal-space analysis techniques for quantifying order in these systems.

  19. Amine-reactive biodegradable diblock copolymers.

    PubMed

    Tessmar, Jörg K; Mikos, Antonios G; Göpferich, Achim

    2002-01-01

    A new class of diblock copolymers was synthesized from biodegradable poly(lactic acid) and poly(ethylene glycol)minus signmonoamine. These polymers were activated by covalently attaching linkers such as disuccinimidyl tartrate or disuccinimidyl succinate to the hydrophilic polymer chain. The polymers were characterized by (1)H NMR spectroscopy, (13)C NMR spectroscopy and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). These investigations indicated that the polymers were obtained with the correct composition, in high purities, and the expected molecular weight. By using dyes containing primary amine groups such as 5-aminoeosin as model substrates, it was possible to show that the polymers are able to bind such compounds covalently. The diblock copolymers were developed to suppress unspecific protein adsorption and allow the binding of bioactive molecules by instant surface modification. The polymers are intended to be used for tissue engineering applications where surface immobilized cell adhesion peptides or growth factors are needed to control cell behavior.

  20. Multigraft Copolymer Superelastomers: Synthesis Morphology, and Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Uhrig, David; Schlegel, Ralf; Weidisch, Roland; Mays, Jimmy

    2011-01-01

    The synthesis of well-defined multigraft copolymers having a polydiene backbone with polystyrene side chains is briefly reviewed, with particular focus on controlling branch point spacing and branch point functionality. Use of living anionic polymerization and chlorosilane linking chemistry has led to the synthesis of series of materials having regularly spaced trifunctional (comb), tetrafunctional (centipede), and hexafunctional (barbwire) branch points. The morphologies of these materials were characterized by transmission electron microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering, and it was found that the morphologies were controlled by the local architectural asymmetry associated with each branch point. Mechanical properties studies revealed that such multigraft copolymers represent a new class of thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs) with superior elongation at break and low residual strains as compared to conventional TPEs.

  1. Block-copolymer-based plasmonic nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Mistark, Peter A; Park, Soojin; Yalcin, Sibel Ebru; Lee, Dong Hyun; Yavuzcetin, Ozgur; Tuominen, Mark T; Russell, Thomas P; Achermann, Marc

    2009-12-22

    We report on the fabrication and optical characterization of dense and ordered arrays of metal nanoparticles. The metal arrays are produced by reducing metal salts in block copolymer (BCP) templates made by solvent annealing of poly(styrene-b-4-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P4VP) or poly(styrene-b-ethylene oxide) (PS-b-PEO) diblock copolymer thin films in mixed solvents. The gold and gold/silver composite nanoparticle arrays show characteristic surface plasmon resonances in the visible wavelength range. The patterning can be applied over large areas onto various substrates. We demonstrate that these metal nanoparticle arrays on metal thin films interact with surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) that propagate at the film/nanoparticle interface and, therefore, modify the dispersion relation of the SPPs.

  2. Hierarchical porous polymer scaffolds from block copolymers.

    PubMed

    Sai, Hiroaki; Tan, Kwan Wee; Hur, Kahyun; Asenath-Smith, Emily; Hovden, Robert; Jiang, Yi; Riccio, Mark; Muller, David A; Elser, Veit; Estroff, Lara A; Gruner, Sol M; Wiesner, Ulrich

    2013-08-02

    Hierarchical porous polymer materials are of increasing importance because of their potential application in catalysis, separation technology, or bioengineering. Examples for their synthesis exist, but there is a need for a facile yet versatile conceptual approach to such hierarchical scaffolds and quantitative characterization of their nonperiodic pore systems. Here, we introduce a synthesis method combining well-established concepts of macroscale spinodal decomposition and nanoscale block copolymer self-assembly with porosity formation on both length scales via rinsing with protic solvents. We used scanning electron microscopy, small-angle x-ray scattering, transmission electron tomography, and nanoscale x-ray computed tomography for quantitative pore-structure characterization. The method was demonstrated for AB- and ABC-type block copolymers, and resulting materials were used as scaffolds for calcite crystal growth.

  3. Nanostructured Block Copolymer Coatings for Biofouling Inhibition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-30

    despite similar contact angles) indicating that the amphiphilic nature and patterning of the coating was deterring spore settlement . The two PS-P2VP-PEO...involved settlement and release of algal spores/sporelings, barnacle cyprids/adults, and tubeworm adults, against these phase segregated block...Our previous studies investigated the antifouling properties of a triblock copolymer system PS-b-P2VP-b- PEO in the field in Florida. No settlement of

  4. Asymmetric block copolymers for supramolecular templating of inorganic nanospace materials.

    PubMed

    Bastakoti, Bishnu Prasad; Li, Yunqi; Kimura, Tatsuo; Yamauchi, Yusuke

    2015-05-06

    This review focuses on polymeric micelles consisting of asymmetric block copolymers as designed templates for several inorganic nanospace materials with a wide variety of compositions. The presence of chemically distinct domains of asymmetric triblock and diblock copolymers provide self-assemblies with more diverse morphological and functional features than those constructed by EOn POm EOn type symmetric triblock copolymers, thereby affording well-designed nanospace materials. This strategy can produce unprecedented nanospace materials, which are very difficult to prepare through other conventional organic templating approaches. Here, the recent development on the synthesis of inorganic nanospace materials are mainly focused on, such as hollow spheres, tubes, and porous oxides, using asymmetric triblock copolymers.

  5. Critical adsorption of copolymer tethered on selective surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hong; Qian, Chang-Ji; Luo, Meng-Bo

    2016-04-01

    Critical adsorption behaviors of flexible copolymer chains tethered to a flat homogeneous surface are studied by using Monte Carlo simulations. We have compared the critical adsorption temperature Tc, estimated by a finite-size scaling method, for different AB copolymer sequences with A the attractive monomer and B the inert monomer. We find that Tc increases with an increase in the fraction of monomers A, fA, in copolymers, and it increases with an increase in the length of block A for the same fA. In particular, Tc of copolymer (AnBn)r can be expressed as a function of the block length, n, and Tc of copolymer (AnB)r and (ABm)r can be expressed as a linear function of fA. Tc of random copolymer chains also can be expressed as a linear function of fA and it can be estimated by using weight-average of Tc of different diblocks in the random copolymer. However, the crossover exponent is roughly independent of AB sequence distributions either for block copolymers or for random copolymers.

  6. Sulfur copolymers for infrared optical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namnabat, S.; Gabriel, J. J.; Pyun, J.; Norwood, R. A.; Dereniak, E. L.; van der Laan, J.

    2014-06-01

    The development of organic polymers with low infrared absorption has been investigated as a possible alternative to inorganic metal oxide, semiconductor, or chalcogenide-based materials for a variety of optical devices and components, such as lenses, goggles, thermal imaging cameras and optical fibers. In principle, organic-based polymers are attractive for these applications because of their low weight, ease of processing, mechanical toughness, and facile chemical variation using commercially available precursors. Herein we report on the optical characterization of a new class of sulfur copolymers that are readily moldable, transparent above 500 nm, possess high refractive index (n > 1.8) and take advantage of the low infrared absorption of S-S bonds for potential use in the mid-infrared at 3-5 microns. These materials are largely made from elemental sulfur by an inverse vulcanization process; in the current study we focus on the properties of a chemically stable, branched copolymer of poly(sulfur-random-1,3-diisopropenylbenzene) (poly(S-r- DIB). Copolymers with elemental sulfur content ranging from 50% to 80% by weight were studied by UV-VIS spectroscopy, FTIR, and prism coupling for refractive index measurement. Clear correlation between material composition and the optical properties was established, confirming that the high polarizability of the sulfur atom leads to high refractive index while also maintaining low optical loss in the infrared.

  7. Crystallization in Ordered Polydisperse Polyolefin Diblock Copolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Sheng; Register, Richard A.; Landes, Brian G.; Hustad, Phillip D.; Weinhold, Jeffrey D.

    2010-12-07

    The morphologies of polydisperse ethylene-octene diblock copolymers, synthesized via a novel coordinative chain transfer polymerization process, are examined using two-dimensional synchrotron small-angle and wide-angle X-ray scattering on flow-aligned specimens. The diblock copolymers comprise one amorphous block with high 1-octene content and one semicrystalline block with relatively low 1-octene content, and each block ideally exhibits the most-probable distribution. Near-symmetric diblocks with a sufficiently large octene differential between the amorphous and semicrystalline blocks show well-ordered lamellar domain structures with long periods exceeding 100 nm. Orientation of these domain structures persists through multiple melting/recrystallization cycles, reflecting a robust structure which self-assembles in the melt. The domain spacings are nearly 3-fold larger than those in near-monodisperse polyethylene block copolymers of similar molecular weights. Although the well-ordered lamellar domain structure established in the melt is preserved in the solid state, the crystallites are isotropic in orientation. These materials display crystallization kinetics consistent with a spreading growth habit, indicating that the lamellae do not confine or template the growing crystals. The exceptionally large domain spacings and isotropic crystal growth are attributed to interblock mixing resulting from the large polydispersity; short hard blocks dissolved in the soft-block-rich domains swell the domain spacing in the melt and allow hard block crystallization to proceed across the lamellar domain interfaces.

  8. Cavitation in block copolymer modified epoxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Declet-Perez, Carmelo; Francis, Lorraine; Bates, Frank

    2013-03-01

    Today, brittleness in epoxy networks limits most commercial applications. Significant toughness can be imparted by adding small amounts of micelle forming block copolymers (BCP) without compromising critical properties such as high use temperature and modulus. Curing the network locks in the self-assembled BCP micellar structures formed in the monomer resin providing control of the resulting morphology. Despite significant research over the last decade, a complete description of the parameters influencing toughness in block copolymer modified epoxies is still lacking. In this presentation we compare the ultimate mechanical behavior of epoxies modified with spherical micelle forming BCP's containing rubbery and glassy cores using real-time in-situ small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) performed during tensile deformation. Striking differences in the 2D SAXS patterns were documented for epoxies modified with rubbery (PEP) versus glassy (PS) micelle cores. Rubbery cores dilate by 100% in volume upon specimen yielding, while the glassy micelle cores deform at approximately constant volume. These results provide direct evidence of a cavitation mediated mechanism for toughness in block copolymer modified epoxies. We further interpret characteristic butterfly features in the 2D SAXS patterns in terms of epoxy network deformation. Support was provided by the NSF sponsored MRSEC at the University of Minnesota

  9. Gyroid Nickel Nanostructures from Diblock Copolymer Supramolecules

    PubMed Central

    Vukovic, Ivana; Punzhin, Sergey; Voet, Vincent S. D.; Vukovic, Zorica; de Hosson, Jeff Th. M.; ten Brinke, Gerrit; Loos, Katja

    2014-01-01

    Nanoporous metal foams possess a unique combination of properties - they are catalytically active, thermally and electrically conductive, and furthermore, have high porosity, high surface-to-volume and strength-to-weight ratio. Unfortunately, common approaches for preparation of metallic nanostructures render materials with highly disordered architecture, which might have an adverse effect on their mechanical properties. Block copolymers have the ability to self-assemble into ordered nanostructures and can be applied as templates for the preparation of well-ordered metal nanofoams. Here we describe the application of a block copolymer-based supramolecular complex - polystyrene-block-poly(4-vinylpyridine)(pentadecylphenol) PS-b-P4VP(PDP) - as a precursor for well-ordered nickel nanofoam. The supramolecular complexes exhibit a phase behavior similar to conventional block copolymers and can self-assemble into the bicontinuous gyroid morphology with two PS networks placed in a P4VP(PDP) matrix. PDP can be dissolved in ethanol leading to the formation of a porous structure that can be backfilled with metal. Using electroless plating technique, nickel can be inserted into the template's channels. Finally, the remaining polymer can be removed via pyrolysis from the polymer/inorganic nanohybrid resulting in nanoporous nickel foam with inverse gyroid morphology. PMID:24797367

  10. Gyroid nickel nanostructures from diblock copolymer supramolecules.

    PubMed

    Vukovic, Ivana; Punzhin, Sergey; Voet, Vincent S D; Vukovic, Zorica; de Hosson, Jeff Th M; ten Brinke, Gerrit; Loos, Katja

    2014-04-28

    Nanoporous metal foams possess a unique combination of properties - they are catalytically active, thermally and electrically conductive, and furthermore, have high porosity, high surface-to-volume and strength-to-weight ratio. Unfortunately, common approaches for preparation of metallic nanostructures render materials with highly disordered architecture, which might have an adverse effect on their mechanical properties. Block copolymers have the ability to self-assemble into ordered nanostructures and can be applied as templates for the preparation of well-ordered metal nanofoams. Here we describe the application of a block copolymer-based supramolecular complex - polystyrene-block-poly(4-vinylpyridine)(pentadecylphenol) PS-b-P4VP(PDP) - as a precursor for well-ordered nickel nanofoam. The supramolecular complexes exhibit a phase behavior similar to conventional block copolymers and can self-assemble into the bicontinuous gyroid morphology with two PS networks placed in a P4VP(PDP) matrix. PDP can be dissolved in ethanol leading to the formation of a porous structure that can be backfilled with metal. Using electroless plating technique, nickel can be inserted into the template's channels. Finally, the remaining polymer can be removed via pyrolysis from the polymer/inorganic nanohybrid resulting in nanoporous nickel foam with inverse gyroid morphology.

  11. Block and Graft Copolymers of Polyhydroxyalkanoates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchessault, Robert H.; Ravenelle, François; Kawada, Jumpei

    2004-03-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) were modified for diblock copolymer and graft polymer by catalyzed transesterification in the melt and by chemical synthesis to extend the side chains of the PHAs, and the polymers were studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Catalyzed transesterification in the melt is used to produce diblock copolymers of poly[3-hydroxybutyrate] (PHB) and monomethoxy poly[ethylene glycol] (mPEG) in a one-step process. The resulting diblock copolymers are amphiphilic and self-assemble into sterically stabilized colloidal suspensions of PHB crystalline lamellae. Graft polymer was synthesized in a two-step chemical synthesis from biosynthesized poly[3-hydroxyoctanoate-co-3-hydroxyundecenoate] (PHOU) containing ca. 25 mol chains. 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid reacts with the side chain alkenes of PHOU by the radical addition creating thioether linkage with terminal carboxyl functionalities. The latter groups were subsequently transformed into the amide or ester linkage by tridecylamine or octadecanol, respectively, producing new graft polymers. The polymers have different physical properties than poly[3-hydroxyoctanoate] (PHO) which is the main component of the PHOU, such as non-stickiness and higher thermal stability. The combination of biosynthesis and chemical synthesis produces a hybrid thermoplastic elastomer with partial biodegradability.

  12. Comparing Fluid and Elastic Block Copolymer Shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozairo, Damith; Croll, Andrew B.

    2014-03-01

    Emulsions can be stabilized with the addition of an amphiphilic diblock copolymer, resulting in droplets surrounded and protected by a polymer monolayer. Such droplets show considerable promise as advanced cargo carriers in pharmaceuticals or cosmetics due to their strength and responsiveness. Diblock copolymer interfaces remain mostly fluid and may not be able to attain the mechanical performance desired by industry. To strengthen block copolymer emulsion droplets we have developed a novel method for creating thin elastic shells using polystyrene-b-poly(acrylic acid)-b-polystyrene (PS-PAA-PS). Characterization of the fluid filled elastic shells is difficult with traditional means which lead us to develop a new and general method of mechanical measurement. Specifically, we use laser scanning confocal microscopy to achieve a high resolution measure of the deformation of soft spheres under the influence of gravity. To prove the resilience of the technique we examine both a polystyrene-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PS-PEO) stabilized emulsion and the PS-PAA-PS emulsion. The mechanical measurement allows the physics of the polymer at the interface to be examined, which will ultimately lead to the rational development of these technologies.

  13. Are block copolymer worms more effective Pickering emulsifiers than block copolymer spheres?

    PubMed

    Thompson, K L; Mable, C J; Cockram, A; Warren, N J; Cunningham, V J; Jones, E R; Verber, R; Armes, S P

    2014-11-21

    RAFT-mediated polymerisation-induced self-assembly (PISA) is used to prepare six types of amphiphilic block copolymer nanoparticles which were subsequently evaluated as putative Pickering emulsifiers for the stabilisation of n-dodecane-in-water emulsions. It was found that linear poly(glycerol monomethacrylate)-poly(2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate) (PGMA-PHPMA) diblock copolymer spheres and worms do not survive the high shear homogenisation conditions used for emulsification. Stable emulsions are obtained, but the copolymer acts as a polymeric surfactant; individual chains rather than particles are adsorbed at the oil-water interface. Particle dissociation during emulsification is attributed to the weakly hydrophobic character of the PHPMA block. Covalent stabilisation of these copolymer spheres or worms can be readily achieved by addition of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) during the PISA synthesis. TEM studies confirm that the resulting cross-linked spherical or worm-like nanoparticles survive emulsification and produce genuine Pickering emulsions. Alternatively, stabilisation can be achieved by either replacing or supplementing the PHPMA block with the more hydrophobic poly(benzyl methacrylate) (PBzMA). The resulting linear spheres or worms also survive emulsification and produce stable n-dodecane-in-water Pickering emulsions. The intrinsic advantages of anisotropic worms over isotropic spheres for the preparation of Pickering emulsions are highlighted. The former particles are more strongly adsorbed at similar efficiencies compared to spheres and also enable smaller oil droplets to be produced for a given copolymer concentration. The scalable nature of PISA formulations augurs well for potential applications of anisotropic block copolymer nanoparticles as Pickering emulsifiers.

  14. Phase Behavior and Conductivity of Phosphonated Block Copolymers Containing Ionic Liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Ha Young; Kim, Sung Yeon; Park, Moon Jeong

    2015-03-01

    As the focus on proton exchange fuel cells continues to escalate in the era of alternative energy systems, the rational design of sulfonated polymers has emerged as a key technique for enhancing device efficiency. While the sulfonic acid group guarantees high proton conductivity of membranes under humidified conditions, the growing need for high temperature operation has discouraged their practical uses in fuel cells. In this respect, phosphonated polymers have drawn intensive attention in recent years owing to their self-dissociation ability. In this study, we have synthesized a set of phosphonated block copolymers, poly(styrenephosphonate-methylbutylene) (PSP- b - PMB), by varying phosphonation level (PL). A wide variety of self-assembled morphologies, i.e., disordered, lamellar, hexagonally perforated lamellae and hexagonally packed cylindrical phases, were observed with PL. Remarkably, upon comparing the morphology of PSP- b-PMB and that of sulfonated analog, we found distinctly dissimilar domain sizes at the same molecular weight and composition. A range of ionic liquids (ILs) were incorporated into the PSP- b-PMB block copolymers and their ion transport properties were examined. It has been revealed that the degree of confinement of ionic phases (domain size) impacts the ion mobility and proton dissociation efficiency of IL-containing polymers.

  15. Proton-conducting polymer membrane comprised of a copolymer of 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Charles W.

    In order to identify a proton-conducting polymer membrane suitable for replacing Nafion ® 117 in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC), we prepared a cross-linked copolymer of hydrophilic 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid (AMPS) and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA). Fumed silicas were also added in an attempt to increase the amount of water adsorbed by the membrane and to enhance water retention. Hydrated copolymer membranes adsorbed significantly more water than Nafion ® 117, but were no better at retaining water during drying under ambient conditions. Films composed of 4% AMPS—96% HEMA had a room temperature proton conductivity of 0.029 S cm -1, which increased to 0.06 S cm -1 at 80 °C.

  16. 40 CFR 721.10213 - Polyether polyester copolymer phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... phosphate (generic). 721.10213 Section 721.10213 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10213 Polyether polyester copolymer phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical... as polyether polyester copolymer phosphate (PMN P-09-253) is subject to reporting under this...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10213 - Polyether polyester copolymer phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... phosphate (generic). 721.10213 Section 721.10213 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10213 Polyether polyester copolymer phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical... as polyether polyester copolymer phosphate (PMN P-09-253) is subject to reporting under this...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10213 - Polyether polyester copolymer phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... phosphate (generic). 721.10213 Section 721.10213 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10213 Polyether polyester copolymer phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical... as polyether polyester copolymer phosphate (PMN P-09-253) is subject to reporting under this...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10213 - Polyether polyester copolymer phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... phosphate (generic). 721.10213 Section 721.10213 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10213 Polyether polyester copolymer phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical... as polyether polyester copolymer phosphate (PMN P-09-253) is subject to reporting under this...

  20. 21 CFR 177.1320 - Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... blended with polyethylene or with one or more olefin copolymers complying with § 177.1520 or with a mixture of polyethylene and one or more olefin copolymers, in such proportions that the ethyl acrylate... prescribed in paragraph (c)(2) of this section, when tested by the methods prescribed for polyethylene...

  1. 21 CFR 177.1320 - Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... percent by weight unless it is blended with polyethylene or with one or more olefin copolymers complying with § 177.1520 or with a mixture of polyethylene and one or more olefin copolymers, in such... prescribed for polyethylene in § 177.1520. (1) Specifications—(i) Infrared identification....

  2. Alternation and tunable composition in hydrogen bonded supramolecular copolymers.

    PubMed

    Felder, Thorsten; de Greef, Tom F A; Nieuwenhuizen, Marko M L; Sijbesma, Rint P

    2014-03-07

    Sequence control in supramolecular copolymers is limited by the selectivity of the associating monomer end groups. Here we introduce the use of monomers with aminopyrimidinone and aminohydroxynaphthyridine quadruple hydrogen bonding end groups, which both homodimerize, but form even stronger heterodimers. These features allow the formation of supramolecular copolymers with a tunable composition and a preference for alternating sequences.

  3. 21 CFR 177.1211 - Cross-linked polyacrylate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... weight of aqueous sodium chloride solution at 20 °C for 24 hours. The low molecular weight extractives... applied mass). The solvent used shall be at least 60 milliliters aqueous sodium chloride solution per gram... polyacrylate copolymers consist of: (1) The grafted copolymer of cross-linked sodium polyacrylate identified...

  4. 21 CFR 177.1211 - Cross-linked polyacrylate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... weight of aqueous sodium chloride solution at 20 °C for 24 hours. The low molecular weight extractives... applied mass). The solvent used shall be at least 60 milliliters aqueous sodium chloride solution per gram... polyacrylate copolymers consist of: (1) The grafted copolymer of cross-linked sodium polyacrylate identified...

  5. 21 CFR 177.1211 - Cross-linked polyacrylate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... weight of aqueous sodium chloride solution at 20 °C for 24 hours. The low molecular weight extractives... applied mass). The solvent used shall be at least 60 milliliters aqueous sodium chloride solution per gram... polyacrylate copolymers consist of: (1) The grafted copolymer of cross-linked sodium polyacrylate identified...

  6. 21 CFR 177.1211 - Cross-linked polyacrylate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... weight of aqueous sodium chloride solution at 20 °C for 24 hours. The low molecular weight extractives... applied mass). The solvent used shall be at least 60 milliliters aqueous sodium chloride solution per gram... polyacrylate copolymers consist of: (1) The grafted copolymer of cross-linked sodium polyacrylate identified...

  7. Morphological studies on block copolymer modified PA 6 blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poindl, M.; Bonten, C.

    2014-05-01

    Recent studies show that compounding polyamide 6 (PA 6) with a PA 6 polyether block copolymers made by reaction injection molding (RIM) or continuous anionic polymerization in a reactive extrusion process (REX) result in blends with high impact strength and high stiffness compared to conventional rubber blends. In this paper, different high impact PA 6 blends were prepared using a twin screw extruder. The different impact modifiers were an ethylene propylene copolymer, a PA PA 6 polyether block copolymer made by reaction injection molding and one made by reactive extrusion. To ensure good particle matrix bonding, the ethylene propylene copolymer was grafted with maleic anhydride (EPR-g-MA). Due to the molecular structure of the two block copolymers, a coupling agent was not necessary. The block copolymers are semi-crystalline and partially cross-linked in contrast to commonly used amorphous rubbers which are usually uncured. The combination of different analysis methods like atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) gave a detailed view in the structure of the blends. Due to the partial cross-linking, the particles of the block copolymers in the blends are not spherical like the ones of ethylene propylene copolymer. The differences in molecular structure, miscibility and grafting of the impact modifiers result in different mechanical properties and different blend morphologies.

  8. Piezoelectric Properties of Non-Polar Block Copolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Pester, Christian; Ruppel, Markus A; Schoberth, Heiko; Schmidt, K.; Liedel, Clemens; Van Rijn, Patrick; Littrell, Ken; Schindler, Kerstin; Hiltl, Stephanie; Czubak, Thomas; Mays, Jimmy; Urban, Volker S; Boker, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Piezoelectric properties in non-polar block copolymers are a novelty in the field of electroactive polymers. The piezoelectric susceptibility of poly(styrene-b-isoprene) block copolymer lamellae is found to be up to an order of magnitude higher when compared to classic piezoelectric materials. The electroactive response increases with temperature and is found to be strongest in the disordered phase.

  9. Morphological studies on block copolymer modified PA 6 blends

    SciTech Connect

    Poindl, M. E-mail: christian.bonten@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de; Bonten, C. E-mail: christian.bonten@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de

    2014-05-15

    Recent studies show that compounding polyamide 6 (PA 6) with a PA 6 polyether block copolymers made by reaction injection molding (RIM) or continuous anionic polymerization in a reactive extrusion process (REX) result in blends with high impact strength and high stiffness compared to conventional rubber blends. In this paper, different high impact PA 6 blends were prepared using a twin screw extruder. The different impact modifiers were an ethylene propylene copolymer, a PA PA 6 polyether block copolymer made by reaction injection molding and one made by reactive extrusion. To ensure good particle matrix bonding, the ethylene propylene copolymer was grafted with maleic anhydride (EPR-g-MA). Due to the molecular structure of the two block copolymers, a coupling agent was not necessary. The block copolymers are semi-crystalline and partially cross-linked in contrast to commonly used amorphous rubbers which are usually uncured. The combination of different analysis methods like atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) gave a detailed view in the structure of the blends. Due to the partial cross-linking, the particles of the block copolymers in the blends are not spherical like the ones of ethylene propylene copolymer. The differences in molecular structure, miscibility and grafting of the impact modifiers result in different mechanical properties and different blend morphologies.

  10. 21 CFR 177.1310 - Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers. 177.1310 Section... Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1310 Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers. The ethylene-acrylic acid... for use in contact with food subject to the provisions of this section. (a) The ethylene-acrylic...

  11. Synthetic Fuel

    ScienceCinema

    Idaho National Laboratory - Steve Herring, Jim O'Brien, Carl Stoots

    2016-07-12

    Two global energy priorities today are finding environmentally friendly alternatives to fossil fuels, and reducing greenhouse gass Two global energy priorities today are finding environmentally friendly alternatives to fossil fuels, and reducing greenhous

  12. Synthetic Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Idaho National Laboratory - Steve Herring, Jim O'Brien, Carl Stoots

    2008-03-26

    Two global energy priorities today are finding environmentally friendly alternatives to fossil fuels, and reducing greenhouse gass Two global energy priorities today are finding environmentally friendly alternatives to fossil fuels, and reducing greenhous

  13. Fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, has supported and managed a fuel cell research and development (R and D) program since 1976. Responsibility for implementing DOE's fuel cell program, which includes activities related to both fuel cells and fuel cell systems, has been assigned to the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) in Morgantown, West Virginia. The total United States effort of the private and public sectors in developing fuel cell technology is referred to as the National Fuel Cell Program (NFCP). The goal of the NFCP is to develop fuel cell power plants for base-load and dispersed electric utility systems, industrial cogeneration, and on-site applications. To achieve this goal, the fuel cell developers, electric and gas utilities, research institutes, and Government agencies are working together. Four organized groups are coordinating the diversified activities of the NFCP. The status of the overall program is reviewed in detail.

  14. Light-emitting block copolymers composition, process and use

    DOEpatents

    Ferraris, John P.; Gutierrez, Jose J.

    2006-11-14

    Generally, and in one form, the present invention is a composition of light-emitting block copolymer. In another form, the present invention is a process producing a light-emitting block copolymers that intends polymerizing a first di(halo-methyl) aromatic monomer compound in the presence of an anionic initiator and a base to form a polymer and contacting a second di(halo-methyl) aromatic monomer compound with the polymer to form a homopolymer or block copolymer wherein the block copolymer is a diblock, triblock, or star polymer. In yet another form, the present invention is an electroluminescent device comprising a light-emitting block copolymer, wherein the electroluminescent device is to be used in the manufacturing of optical and electrical devices.

  15. N-halamine copolymers for use in antimicrobial paints.

    PubMed

    Kocer, Hasan B; Cerkez, Idris; Worley, S D; Broughton, R M; Huang, T S

    2011-08-01

    A series of copolymers containing units of a novel hydantoinylacrylamide and the sodium salt of 2-(acrylamido)-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid have been synthesized. The homopolymer of the hydantoinylacrylamide compound was insoluble in water, while the copolymers with the sulfonic acid sodium salt were water-dispersible/soluble, with the solution becoming completely transparent when the feed ratio for the copolymer contained 7 parts of the hydantoin moiety to 3 parts of the sodium sulfonate moiety. The polymers were added into a commercial water-based latex paint, and upon drying, the painted surfaces treated with the water-miscible copolymers were rendered antimicrobial following chlorination with dilute household bleach. The chlorinated homopolymer failed to provide an antimicrobial property for the paint because of its tendency to isolate into aggregates in the paint, while the completely miscible copolymers were capable of 6-log inactivation of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli O157:H7 within 5 min of contact time.

  16. Block Copolymer Metastability: Scientific Nightmare or Engineering Dream?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, Frank S.

    1997-03-01

    Most experimental studies and almost all theories that deal with block copolymers, or mixtures of block copolymers and homopolymers, have been designed from an equilibrium perspective. Yet a myriad of factors conspire to retard approach to equilibrium in these systems, including: subtle features in the free energy surface that are controlled by ordered state symmetry; a coupling between microphase separation and entanglement dynamics; complex molecular architectures such as multiblock, starblock, and miktoarm. Even unentangled low molecular weight diblock copolymers, the simplest and dynamically least encumbered materials, exhibit long-lived metastable states that confound attempts to validate equilibrium theories. However, this apparent dilemma can be exploited through clever processing strategies. This lecture will address two opposing consequences of block copolymer metastability. The first is a potential nightmare: Can we ever establish universal block copolymer phase diagrams? The second is the stuff of dreams: Self-assembled thermoset nanocomposites.

  17. Electric Field Induced Selective Disordering in Lamellar Block Copolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Ruppel, Markus A; Pester, Christian W; Langner, Karol M; Sevink, Geert; Schoberth, Heiko; Schmidt, Kristin; Urban, Volker S; Mays, Jimmy; Boker, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    External electric fields align nanostructured block copolymers by either rotation of grains or nucleation and growth depending on how strongly the chemically distinct block copolymer components are segregated. In close vicinity to the orderdisorder transition, theory and simulations suggest a third mechanism: selective disordering. We present a time-resolved small-angle X-ray scattering study that demonstrates how an electric field can indeed selectively disintegrate ill-aligned lamellae in a lyotropic block copolymer solution, while lamellae with interfaces oriented parallel to the applied field prevail. The present study adds an additional mechanism to the experimentally corroborated suite of mechanistic pathways, by which nanostructured block copolymers can align with an electric field. Our results further unveil the benefit of electric field assisted annealing for mitigating orientational disorder and topological defects in block copolymer mesophases, both in close vicinity to the orderdisorder transition and well below it.

  18. Electric field induced selective disordering in lamellar block copolymers.

    PubMed

    Ruppel, Markus; Pester, Christian W; Langner, Karol M; Sevink, Geert J A; Schoberth, Heiko G; Schmidt, Kristin; Urban, Volker S; Mays, Jimmy W; Böker, Alexander

    2013-05-28

    External electric fields align nanostructured block copolymers by either rotation of grains or nucleation and growth depending on how strongly the chemically distinct block copolymer components are segregated. In close vicinity to the order-disorder transition, theory and simulations suggest a third mechanism: selective disordering. We present a time-resolved small-angle X-ray scattering study that demonstrates how an electric field can indeed selectively disintegrate ill-aligned lamellae in a lyotropic block copolymer solution, while lamellae with interfaces oriented parallel to the applied field prevail. The present study adds an additional mechanism to the experimentally corroborated suite of mechanistic pathways, by which nanostructured block copolymers can align with an electric field. Our results further unveil the benefit of electric field assisted annealing for mitigating orientational disorder and topological defects in block copolymer mesophases, both in close vicinity to the order-disorder transition and well below it.

  19. Poly(methyl methacrylate)-cellulose nitrate copolymers. I. Preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Badran, B.M.; Sherif, S.; Abu-Sedira, A.A.

    1981-03-01

    Poly(methyl methacrylate)-cellulose nitrate copolymers were prepared in the form of rods and sheets by bulk polymerization using benzoyl peroxide as initiator. Suspension polymerization did not succeed in preparing poly(methyl methacrylate)-cellulose nitrate copolymers, especially when cellulose nitrate of 11.4% nitrogen content was used. The parameters such as cellulose nitrate concentration, nitrogen content of cellulose nitrate, the amount of initiator and the reaction time, and the temperature are discussed. The prepared copolymers were irradiated for specified periods of up to 11.83 Mrad. It was found that poly(methyl methacrylate)-cellulose nitrate copolymers did not dissolve in any conventional solvent, but they swelled. Swelling decreases with increasing cellulose nitrate concentrations, nitrogen content of cellulose nitrate, and irradiation dose, indicating the crosslinked structure of the prepared copolymers.

  20. Future Fuels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-04

    tactical ground mobility and increasing operational reach • Identify, review, and assess – Technologies for reducing fuel consumption, including...T I O N S A C T I O N S TOR Focus - Tactical ground mobility - Operational reach - Not A/C, Ships, or troops Hybrid Electric Vehicle Fuel Management...Fuel Management During Combat Operations Energy Fundamentals • Energy Density • Tactical Mobility • Petroleum Use • Fuel Usage (TWV) • TWV OP TEMPO TOR

  1. Fossil Fuels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crank, Ron

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with fossil fuels. Some topics covered are historic facts, development of fuels, history of oil production, current and future trends of the oil industry, refining fossil fuels, and environmental problems. Material in each unit may…

  2. Ionization of amphiphilic acidic block copolymers.

    PubMed

    Colombani, Olivier; Lejeune, Elise; Charbonneau, Céline; Chassenieux, Christophe; Nicolai, Taco

    2012-06-28

    The ionization behavior of an amphiphilic diblock copolymer poly(n-butyl acrylate(50%)-stat-acrylic acid(50%))(100)-block-poly(acrylic acid)(100) (P(nBA(50%)-stat-AA(50%))(100)-b-PAA(100), DH50) and of its equivalent triblock copolymer P(nBA(50%)-stat-AA(50%))(100)-b-PAA(200)-b-P(nBA(50%)-stat-AA(50%))(100) (TH50) were studied by potentiometric titration either in pure water or in 0.5 M NaCl. These polymers consist of a hydrophilic acidic block (PAA) connected to a hydrophobic block, P(nBA(50%)-stat-AA(50%))(100), whose hydrophobic character has been mitigated by copolymerization with hydrophilic units. We show that all AA units, even those in the hydrophobic block could be ionized. However, the AA units within the hydrophobic block were less acidic than those in the hydrophilic block, resulting in the preferential ionization of the latter block. The preferential ionization of PAA over that of P(nBA(50%)-stat-AA(50%))(100) was stronger at higher ionic strength. Remarkably, the covalent bonds between the PAA and P(nBA(50%)-stat-AA(50%))(100) blocks in the diblock or the triblock did not affect the ionization of each block, although the self-association of the block copolymers into spherical aggregates modified the environment of the PAA blocks compared to when PAA was molecularly dispersed.

  3. Corrugational Instabilities of Thin Copolymer Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, D. R. M.

    1995-07-01

    We study the equilibrium configurations of thin films of diblock copolymers, in the strong segregation limit, resting on a flat surface. The top surface is free. Such films are geometrically frustrated and possess an inherent strain. Here we show how this strain induces an undulational instability in the film. The existence of this instability is very sensitive to the chain end distribution within the bilayers, and a macroscopic observation of this instability on a length scale of 1000 Å gives an indication of the chain end distribution on the scale of 5 Å.

  4. Highly Selective Ionic Block Copolymer Membranes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-10

    commonly used ionic polymer membrane in fuel cells ) as a function of methanol solution concentration using time-resolved FTIR-ATR spectroscopy. This...this field of study. These results suggest that methanol fuel cell performance and efficiency can be improved by developing new ionic polymers that...methanol sorption in the membrane and not diffusion. The typical assumption in ionic polymer development for the methanol fuel cell is that the diffusion

  5. 21 CFR 177.1340 - Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins. 177... Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1340 Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins. Ethylene-methyl... section, the ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins consist of basic copolymers produced by...

  6. Multidimensional chromatographic techniques for hydrophilic copolymers II. Analysis of poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(vinyl acetate) graft copolymers.

    PubMed

    Knecht, Daniela; Rittig, Frank; Lange, Ronald F M; Pasch, Harald

    2006-10-13

    A large variety of hydrophilic copolymers is applied in different fields of chemical industry including bio, pharma and pharmaceutical applications. For example, poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(vinyl alcohol) graft copolymers that are used as tablet coatings are responsible for the controlled release of the active compounds. These copolymers are produced by grafting of vinyl acetate onto polyethylene glycol (PEG) and subsequent hydrolysis of the poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(vinyl acetate) graft copolymers. The poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(vinyl acetate) copolymers are distributed with regard to molar mass and chemical composition. In addition, they frequently contain the homopolymers polyethylene glycol and polyvinyl acetate. The comprehensive analysis of such complex systems requires hyphenated analytical techniques, including two-dimensional liquid chromatography and combined LC and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The development and application of these techniques are discussed in the present paper.

  7. Alternative fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J. S.; Butze, H. F.; Friedman, R.; Antoine, A. C.; Reynolds, T. W.

    1977-01-01

    Potential problems related to the use of alternative aviation turbine fuels are discussed and both ongoing and required research into these fuels is described. This discussion is limited to aviation turbine fuels composed of liquid hydrocarbons. The advantages and disadvantages of the various solutions to the problems are summarized. The first solution is to continue to develop the necessary technology at the refinery to produce specification jet fuels regardless of the crude source. The second solution is to minimize energy consumption at the refinery and keep fuel costs down by relaxing specifications.

  8. High temperature polymers for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Einsla, Brian Russel

    Novel proton exchange membranes (PEMs) were investigated that show potential for operating at higher temperatures in both direct methanol (DMFC) and H 2/air PEM fuel cells. The need for thermally stable polymers immediately suggests the possibility of heterocyclic polymers bearing appropriate ion conducting sites. Accordingly, monomers and random disulfonated poly(arylene ether) copolymers containing either naphthalimide, benzoxazole or benzimidazole moieties were synthesized via direct copolymerization. The ion exchange capacity (IEC) was varied by simply changing the ratio of disulfonated monomer to nonsulfonated monomer in the copolymerization step. Water uptake and proton conductivity of cast membranes increased with IEC. The water uptake of these heterocyclic copolymers was lower than that of comparable disulfonated poly(arylene ether) systems, which is a desirable improvement for PEMs. Membrane electrode assemblies were prepared and the initial fuel cell performance of the disulfonated polyimide and polybenzoxazole (PBO) copolymers was very promising at 80°C compared to the state-of-the-art PEM (NafionRTM); nevertheless these membranes became brittle under operating conditions. Several series of poly(arylene ether)s based on disodium-3,3'-disulfonate-4,4 '-dichlorodiphenylsulfone (S-DCDPS) and a benzimidazole-containing bisphenol were synthesized and afforded copolymers with enhanced stability. Selected properties of these membranes were compared to separately prepared miscible blends of disulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) copolymers and polybenzimidazole (PBI). Complexation of the sulfonic acid groups with the PBI structure reduced water swelling and proton conductivity. The enhanced proton conductivity of NafionRTM membranes has been proposed to be due to the aggregation of the highly acidic side-chain sulfonic acid sites to form ion channels. A series of side-chain sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) copolymers based on methoxyhydroquinone was

  9. Anomalous Micellization of Pluronic Block Copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonardi, Amanda; Ryu, Chang Y.

    2014-03-01

    Poly(ethylene oxide) - poly(propylene oxide) - poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO) block copolymers, commercially known as Pluronics, are a unique family of amphiphilic triblock polymers, which self-assemble into micelles in aqueous solution. These copolymers have shown promise in therapeutic, biomedical, cosmetic, and nanotech applications. As-received samples of Pluronics contain low molecular weight impurities (introduced during the manufacturing and processing), that are ignored in most applications. It has been observed, however, that in semi-dilute aqueous solutions, at concentrations above 1 wt%, the temperature dependent micellization behavior of the Pluronics is altered. Anomalous behavior includes a shift of the critical micellization temperature and formation of large aggregates at intermediate temperatures before stable sized micelles form. We attribute this behavior to the low molecular weight impurities that are inherent to the Pluronics which interfere with the micellization process. Through the use of Dynamic Light Scattering and HPLC, we compared the anomalous behavior of different Pluronics of different impurity levels to their purified counterparts.

  10. Controlling Structure in Sulfonated Block Copolymer Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truong, Phuc; Stein, Gila; Strzalka, Joe

    2015-03-01

    In many ionic block copolymer systems, the strong incompatibility between ionic and non-ionic segments will trap non-equilibrium structures in the film, making it difficult to engineer the optimal domain sizes and transport pathways. The goal of this work is to establish a framework for controlling the solid-state structure of sulfonated pentablock copolymer membranes. They have ABCBA block sequence, where A is poly(t-butyl styrene), B is poly(hydrogenated isoprene), and C is poly(styrene sulfonate). To process into films, the polymer is dissolved in toluene/n-propanol solvent mixtures, where the solvent proportions and the polymer loading were both varied. Solution-state structure was measured with small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). We detected micelles with radii that depend on the solvent composition and polymer loading. Film structure was measured with grazing-incidence SAXS, which shows (i) domain periodicity is constant throughout film thickness; (ii) domain periodicity depends on solvent composition and polymer loading, and approximately matches the micelle radii in solutions. The solid-state packing is consistent with a hard sphere structure factor. Results suggest that solid-state structure can be tuned by manipulating the solution-state self-assembly.

  11. Interface-enforced complexation between copolymer blocks.

    PubMed

    Steinschulte, Alexander A; Xu, Weinan; Draber, Fabian; Hebbeker, Pascal; Jung, Andre; Bogdanovski, Dimitri; Schneider, Stefanie; Tsukruk, Vladimir V; Plamper, Felix A

    2015-05-14

    Binary diblock copolymers and corresponding ternary miktoarm stars are studied at oil-water interfaces. All polymers contain oil-soluble poly(propylene oxide) PPO, water-soluble poly(dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) PDMAEMA and/or poly(ethylene oxide) PEO. The features of their Langmuir compression isotherms are well related to the ones of the corresponding homopolymers. Within the Langmuir-trough, PEO-b-PPO acts as the most effective amphiphile compared to the other PPO-containing copolymers. In contrast, the compression isotherms show a complexation of PPO and PDMAEMA for PPO-b-PDMAEMA and the star, reducing their overall amphiphilicity. Such complex formation between the blocks of PPO-b-PDMAEMA is prevented in bulk water but facilitated at the interface. The weakly-interacting blocks of PPO-b-PDMAEMA form a complex due to their enhanced proximity in such confined environments. Scanning force microscopy and Monte Carlo simulations with varying confinement support our results, which are regarded as compliant with the mathematical random walk theorem by Pólya. Finally, the results are expected to be of relevance for e.g. emulsion formulation and macromolecular engineering.

  12. Copolymeric pour-point depressant for diesel fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, V.I.; Dadyko, V.A.; Dushechkin, A.P.; Shapkina, L.N.

    1984-03-01

    This article considers the use of a pour-point depressant consisting of a mixture of ethylene with methyl methacrylate (EMMA) and ethylene with vinyl acetate (EVA) to improve the low-temperature indexes of diesel fuels. It is determined that the greatest effect with respect to limiting filterability temperature from the addition of EMMA is achieved with an EVA content of approximately 0.04%. The use of both a copolymer promoting the formation of a large number of crystallization centers (EMMA) and a copolymer that is a good modifier of the wax crystal surface (EVA) leads to a limitation of the crystal growth and preservation of the fine-crystal structure as the fuel temperature is lowered.

  13. Benzodithiophene and Imide-Based Copolymers for Photovoltaic; Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Braunecker, W. A.; Owczarczyk, Z. R.; Garcia, A.; Kopidakis, N.; Larsen, R. E.; Hammond, S. R.; Ginley, D. S.; Olson, D. C.

    2012-04-10

    Conjugated alternating copolymers were designed with low optical band gaps for organic photovoltaic (OPV) applications by considering quinoid resonance stabilization. Copolymers of thienoisoindoledione (TID) and benzodithiophene (BDT) had appreciably lower band gaps (by {approx}0.4 eV) than copolymers of thienopyrroledione (TPD) and BDT. In addition to intramolecular charge transfer stabilization (i.e., the 'push-pull' effect), the former copolymer's quinoid resonance structure is stabilized by a gain in aromatic resonance energy in the isoindole unit. Additionally, the HOMO levels of the copolymers could be tuned with chemical modifications to the BDT monomer, resulting in open circuit voltages of greater than 1 V in photovoltaic devices. Despite the optimized band gap, TID containing polymers displayed lower photoconductance, as determined by time-resolved microwave conductivity, and decreased device efficiency (2.1% vs 4.8%) as compared with TPD analogues. These results were partially attributed to morphology, as computational modeling suggests TID copolymers have a twisted backbone, and X-ray diffraction data indicate the polymer films do not form ordered domains, whereas TPD copolymers are considerably more planar and are shown to form partially ordered domains.

  14. Effects of Blockiness on the phase behavior of random copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanderwoude, Gordon; Shi, An-Chang

    Theoretical study of random block copolymers remains a challenging topic due in part to the sheer enormity of their phase space. In this study we use the self-consistent field theory to investigate the phase behaviour of linear (AB)n-type and (AB)n-C-type multiblock copolymers with randomly distributed A and B blocks. In particular, we examine the effect of ``blockiness'' of the random copolymers on the formation of ordered phases. The blockiness can be quantified by the average length of individual A or B blocks, which can be taken as a measure of the heterogeneity of the random copolymers. We observed that the critical value of the χ parameter, at which the order-disorder transition occurs, decreases with increasing blockiness in the (AB)n copolymers. We also observed that the phase behaviour of the (AB)n-C copolymers depends strongly on the blockiness of the random chain. In particular, the blockiness governs whether or not the A/B blocks can phase separate within the A/B domains, thus dictating whether the (AB)n-C behaves as A/B-C diblock copolymers or as ABC terpolymers. The theoretical phase diagrams will be compared with available experiments.

  15. Nanopatterning of recombinant proteins and viruses using block copolymer templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cresce, Arthur Von Wald

    The study of interfaces is important in understanding biological interactions, including cellular signaling and virus infection. This thesis is an original effort to examine the interaction between a block copolymer and both a protein and a virus. Block copolymers intrinsically form nanometer-scale structures over large areas without expensive processing, making them ideal for the synthesis of the nanopatterned surfaces used in this study. The geometry of these nanostructures can be easily tuned for different applications by altering the block ratio and composition of the block copolymer. Block copolymers can be used for controlled uptake of metal ions, where one block selectively binds metal ions while the other does not. 5-norbornene-2,3-dicarboxylic acid is synthesized through ring-opening metathesis polymerization. It formed spherical domains with spheres approximately 30 nm in diameter, and these spheres were then subsequently loaded with nickel ion. This norbornene block copolymer was tested for its ability to bind histidine-tagged green fluorescent protein (hisGFP), and it was found that the nickel-loaded copolymer was able to retain hisGFP through chelation between the histidine tag and the metal-containing portions of the copolymer surface. Poly(styrene-b-4-vinylpyridine) (PS/P4VP) was also loaded with nickel, forming a cylindrical microstructure. The binding of Tobacco mosaic virus and Tobacco necrosis virus was tested through Tween 20 detergent washes. Electron microscopy allowed for observation of both block copolymer nanostructures and virus particles. Results showed that Tween washes could not remove bound Tobacco mosaic virus from the surface of PS/P4VP. It was also seen that the size and tunability of block copolymers and the lack of processing needed to attain different structures makes them attractive for many applications, including microfluidic devices, surfaces to influence cellular signaling and growth, and as a nanopatterning surface for

  16. Electrochemically controlled self-assembly of block copolymer nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eitouni, Hany Basam

    Organometallic block copolymers, wherein one block is composed of alternating ferrocene and dialkylsilane units in the main chain, undergo self-assembly to form microphase-separated ordered structures similarly to typical organic block copolymers. The 1,1'-dimethylsilylferrocenophane monomer was synthesized and polymerized anionically with other monomers to make a variety of different organometallic block copolymers. The phase behavior and thermodynamic interactions of anionically synthesized poly(styrene-block-ferrocenyldimethylsilane) (SF) and poly(isoprene-block-ferrocenyldimethylsilane) (IF) copolymers were examined using depolarized light scattering, small angle x-ray and neutron scattering (SAXS and SANS), and transmission electron microscopy. The temperature-dependence of the Flory-Huggins parameter, chi, and the statistical segment lengths of SF and IF copolymers were determined by SAXS and SANS using the random phase approximation. The thermodynamic interactions in poly(ferrocenyldimethylsilane) diblock copolymers were systematically adjusted by oxidizing the ferrocene moieties with silver salts and examined using SAXS and depolarized light scattering. The polymers retained microphase separated ordered structures upon oxidation and showed systematic changes in the location of the order-disorder transition as a function of extent of oxidation. By controlling the redox properties of the ferrocene moiety in the backbone of the polymer, we present a method for controlling the self-assembled microstructure and hence bulk material properties. Using electrochemical techniques, a novel means of controlling the order-disorder transition of block copolymers was discovered. By applying very small electrical potentials to disordered solutions of organometallic block copolymers, oriented ordered grains were formed near one electrode, the result of electrochemical reactions. After reversing the electrical bias on the system, the ordered grains disappeared and new

  17. Thin membranes of new hard/soft segment copolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, W.S.; Sartori, G.; Thaler, W.A.

    1996-12-31

    Thin membranes of new hard/soft segment copolymers have been synthesized for the separation of aromatics from saturates through high temperature pervaporation. In the membranes, hard segments provide temperature stability and solvent resistance, while soft segments govern aromatic/saturate selectivity and flux. We have synthesized new chlorinated polyurethane/polyester and polyimide/polyester copolymers. Based on a polyimide copolymer membrane, a new technology has been developed recently to separate heavy catalytically cracked naphtha into an aromatics-rich permeate and an aromatics-lean retentate.

  18. Photocrosslinkable copolymers for non-linear optical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kawatsuki, N.; Pakbaz, K.; Schmidt, H.W.

    1993-12-31

    New photocrosslinkable copolymers have been synthesized and applied as non-linear optical materials. The copolymers are based on methyl methacrylate, a photo-excitable benzophenone monomer, a non-linear optical active 4`-[(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylamino]-4-nitro-azobenzene (disperse red 1) side chain monomer and a crosslinkable 2-butenyl monomer. These copolymers can be crosslinked by UV light at 366 nm in the poled state and show a stable alignment of NLO chromophore by monitoring the adsorption spectra. The crosslinked and poled film did not change its alignment after storing 4 weeks at room temperature.

  19. Microphase Separated Block Copolymers in Pervaporation Membranes for Biofuels Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greer, Douglas; Shin, Chae-Young; Ozcam, Evren; Skerker, Jeffrey; Basso, Thalita; Leon, Dacia; Bauer, Stefan; Balsara, Nitash; Energy Biosciences Institute Collaboration

    2014-03-01

    The production of transportation biofuels requires numerous continuous separation processes. We designed block copolymer membranes for pervaporation as a means to achieve these separations. These block copolymers contain a glassy structure block for support and a rubbery transport block for sorption and diffusion. We create membranes with nanoscale conducting channels using the unique trait of block copolymers to assemble into ordered morphologies. We have previously used nanostructured membranes to separate ethanol/water binary mixtures [J. Membr. Sci. 373, 112 (2011)], [J. Membr. Sci. 401, 125 (2012)]. We report this type of membranes is effective in other, more complex separations important to biofuel production. These separations increase yield and decrease process time.

  20. Electrically conductive doped block copolymer of polyacetylene and polyisoprene

    DOEpatents

    Aldissi, Mahmoud

    1985-01-01

    An electrically conductive block copolymer of polyisoprene and polyacetyl and a method of making the same are disclosed. The polymer is prepared by first polymerizing isoprene with n-butyllithium in a toluene solution to form an active isoprenyllithium polymer. The active polymer is reacted with an equimolar amount of titanium butoxide and subsequently exposed to gaseous acetylene. A block copolymer of polyisoprene and polyacetylene is formed. The copolymer is soluble in common solvents and may be doped with I.sub.2 to give it an electrical conductivity in the metallic regime.

  1. Effect of water uptake on morphology of polymerized ionic liquid block copolymers and random copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tsen-Shan; Ye, Yuesheng; Elabd, Yossef; Winey, Karen

    2012-02-01

    Dynamic studies of polymer morphology probe how the physical properties of polymerized ionic liquids are affected by the environment, such as temperature or moisture. For a series of poly(methyl methacrylate-b-1-[2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl]-3-Butylimidazolium X^-) block and random copolymers with hydrophilic counterions (X^- = Br^-, HCO3^-, OH^-), the introduction of water vapor to the system can swell the ionic liquid block, causing enlarged hydrophilic domains and swollen channels for ion conduction. This expected expansion of ionic liquid domains in humid environments can be used to intelligently design these copolymers for use in technological applications. The effect of water vapor exposure in these imidazolium-based acrylate polymers is studied by small-angle X-ray scattering. These morphology results will be discussed alongside complementary studies of water uptake and ion conductivity.

  2. Fuel compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Zaweski, E.F.; Niebylski, L.M.

    1986-08-05

    This patent describes distillate fuel for indirect injection compression ignition engines containing, in an amount sufficient to minimize coking, especially throttling nozzle coking in the prechambers or swirl chambers of indirect injection compression ignition engines operated on such fuel, at least the combination of (i) organic nitrate ignition accelerator and (ii) an esterified cycle dehydration product of sorbitol which, when added to the fuel in combination with the organic nitrate ignition accelerator minimizes the coking.

  3. Characterization of copolymer latexes by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Anik, Nadia; Airiau, Marc; Labeau, Marie-Pierre; Bzducha, Wojciech; Cottet, Hervé

    2010-02-02

    Latexes are widely used for industrial applications, including decorative paints, binders for the papermaking industry, and drilling fluids for oil-field applications. In this work, the interest of capillary zone electrophoresis (CE) for the characterization of hydrophobic block copolymer latexes obtained by the conventional emulsion polymerization technique consisting of a core of polystyrene (PS) surrounded by a layer of poly(ethyl acrylate) (PEA) has been investigated. The PEA part of the copolymer can be partially hydrolyzed in poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) leading to PS-PEA-AA water-soluble amphiphilic copolymer having high viscosifying properties. The main purpose of this work was to evaluate the potential of CE for the characterization of the latexes at the different stages of the synthesis (PS core, PS-PEA diblock latex, and hydrolyzed PS-PEA-AA gel). The main analytical issues were to state (i) if there was free PS or PEA homopolymer latexes in the PS-PEA latex sample and (ii) if there was free PS, PEA, PS-PEA latexes, or free PAA chains in the PS-PEA-AA gel. Within this scope, this work describes the optimization of the selectivity of the separation between the different species (PS, PEA particles in the not hydrolyzed diblock latex and PS, PEA, PS-PEA particles as well as the polymer PAA chains in the PS-PEA-AA diblock gel sample obtained by latter latex hydrolysis). For that purpose, several experimental parameters were investigated such as pH and ionic strength of the background electrolyte (BGE) or the concentration of neutral surfactant added in the BGE. A challenging issue was to overcome the high viscosity of the PS-PEA-AA gel. This was resolved by the addition of 10 mM neutral surfactant in the gel sample and in the BGE. Finally, it is demonstrated that, within the detection limits, CE is a suitable analytical tool for controlling and monitoring the syntheses of these latexes and for intrinsically characterizing the distribution in charge density of

  4. Thermodynamics and Phase Behavior of Phosphonated Block Copolymers Containing Ionic Liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Ha Young; Park, Moon Jeong

    Charge-containing copolymers have drawn intensive attention in recent years for their uses in wide range of electrochemical devices such as fuel cells, lithium batteries and actuators. Particularly, the creation of microphase-separated morphologies in such materials by designing them in block and graft configurations has been the subject of extensive studies, in order to establish a synergistic means of optimizing ion transport properties and mechanical integrity. Interest in this topic has been further stimulated by intriguing phase behavior from charge-containing polymers, which was not projected from conventional phase diagrams of non-ionic polymers. Herein, we investigate thermodynamics and phase behavior of a set of phosphonated block copolymers. By synthesizing low-molecular weight samples with degree of polymerization (N) <35, we observed order-disorder transition that enabled us to estimate effective Flory-Huggins interaction parameters (χ) by using random phase approximation. We further examined the systems by adding various ionic liquids, where noticeable increases in χ values and modulated microphase separation behavior were observed. The morphology-conductivity relationship has been elucidated by taking into account the segmental motion of polymer chains, volume of conducting phases, and the molecular interactions between phosphonated polymer chains and cations of ionic liquids.

  5. Surface Tension and Lamellar Spacing in Polyelectrolyte Blends and Block Copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sing, Charles; Olvera de La Cruz, Monica

    2015-03-01

    Heterogeneous polymer systems such as block copolymers (BCPs) are governed primarily by a competition between the surface tension between different chemical species and the entropic stretching of the polymer chains. Charged BCPs represent a class of materials that is currently of great interest to the polymer community due to the promise of charged BCPs as nanostructured membranes for batteries and fuel cells. The inclusion of charge presents a powerful way to tune the structure of BCPs, and we develop our understanding of how to do so by investigating the interfacial properties (surface tension and microstructure size) of polyelectrolyte blends and block copolymers. We use a new method that combines the features of liquid state (LS) theory and self consistent field theory (SCFT) into a multiscale LS-SCFT theory that provides beyond-mean-field predictions of polyelectrolyte systems. We find that charge size, charge correlations, and the fraction of charged monomers plays a crucial role in determining surface tension, and we therefore demonstrate how BCP structure changes upon inclusion of charges. Finally, we will show that these predictions provide the ideal basis for comparison to experiment and subsequent refinement of LS-SCFT theory.

  6. Fuel cells 101

    SciTech Connect

    Hirschenhofer, J.H.

    1999-07-01

    This paper discusses the various types of fuel cells, the importance of cell voltage, fuel processing for natural gas, cell stacking, fuel cell plant description, advantages and disadvantages of the types of fuel cells, and applications. The types covered include: polymer electrolyte fuel cell, alkaline fuel cell, phosphoric acid fuel cell; molten carbonate fuel cell, and solid oxide fuel cell.

  7. Fuel dehazers

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, W.R.

    1986-03-01

    Hazy fuels can be caused by the emulsification of water into the fuel during refining, blending, or transportation operations. Detergent additive packages used in gasoline tend to emulsify water into the fuel. Fuels containing water haze can cause corrosion and contamination, and support microbiological growth. This results in problems. As the result of these problems, refiners, marketers, and product pipeline companies customarily have haze specifications. The haze specification may be a specific maximum water content or simply ''bright and clear'' at a specified temperature.

  8. Motor fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, L.D.

    1982-07-13

    Liquid hydrocarbon fuel compositions are provided containing antiknock quantities of ashless antiknock agents comprising selected furyl compounds including furfuryl alcohol, furfuryl amine, furfuryl esters, and alkyl furoates.

  9. Alternative fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    This paper presents the preliminary results of a review, of the experiences of Brazil, Canada, and New Zealand, which have implemented programs to encourage the use of alternative motor fuels. It will also discuss the results of a separate completed review of the Department of Energy's (DOE) progress in implementing the Alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988. The act calls for, among other things, the federal government to use alternative-fueled vehicles in its fleet. The Persian Gulf War, environmental concerns, and the administration's National Energy Strategy have greatly heightened interest in the use of alternative fuels in this country.

  10. Cationic vinyl pyridine copolymers and products thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, Alan (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    Quaternized, cross-linked, insoluble copolymers of unsubstituted and substituted vinyl pyridines and a dihalo organic compound are spontaneously formed at ambient temperature on mixing the two monomers in bulk, in solution or in suspension. The amount of cross-linking may be varied according to the composition and reaction conditions. The polymer product exhibits ion exchange capacity and undergoes a reversible color change from black at a pH above 7 to yellow at a pH below 7. The polymer may be formed in the presence of preformed polymers, substrates such as porous or impervious particles or films to deposit an ion exchange film in situ or on the surface of the substrate. The coated or resin impregnated substrate may be utilized for separation of anionic species from aqueous solution.

  11. Computational engineering of low bandgap copolymers

    PubMed Central

    Wykes, Michael; Milián-Medina, Begoña; Gierschner, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    We present a conceptual approach to low bandgap copolymers, in which we clarify the physical parameters which control the optical bandgap, develop a fundamental understanding of bandgap tuning, unify the terminology, and outline the minimum requirements for accurate prediction of polymer bandgaps from those of finite length oligomers via extrapolation. We then test the predictive power of several popular hybrid and long-range corrected (LC) DFT functionals when applied to this task by careful comparison to experimental studies of homo- and co-oligomer series. These tests identify offset-corrected M06HF, with 100% HF exchange, as a useful alternative to the poor performance of tested hybrid and LC functionals with lower fractions of HF exchange (B3LYP, CAM-B3LYP, optimally-tuned LC-BLYP, BHLYP), which all significantly overestimate changes in bandgap as a function of system size. PMID:24790963

  12. Block and graft copolymers and NanoGel copolymer networks for DNA delivery into cell.

    PubMed

    Lemieux, P; Vinogradov, S V; Gebhart, C L; Guérin, N; Paradis, G; Nguyen, H K; Ochietti, B; Suzdaltseva, Y G; Bartakova, E V; Bronich, T K; St-Pierre, Y; Alakhov, V Y; Kabanov, A V

    2000-01-01

    Self-assembling complexes from nucleic acids and synthetic polymers are evaluated for plasmid and oligonucleotide (oligo) delivery. Polycations having linear, branched, dendritic. block- or graft copolymer architectures are used in these studies. All these molecules bind to nucleic acids due to formation of cooperative systems of salt bonds between the cationic groups of the polycation and phosphate groups of the DNA. To improve solubility of the DNA/polycation complexes, cationic block and graft copolymers containing segments from polycations and non-ionic soluble polymers, for example, poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) were developed. Binding of these copolymers with short DNA chains, such as oligos, results in formation of species containing hydrophobic sites from neutralized DNA polycation complex and hydrophilic sites from PEO. These species spontaneously associate into polyion complex micelles with a hydrophobic core from neutralized polyions and a hydrophilic shell from PEO. Such complexes are very small (10-40 nm) and stable in solution despite complete neutralization of charge. They reveal significant activity with oligos in vitro and in vivo. Binding of cationic copolymers to plasmid DNA forms larger (70-200 nm) complexes. which are practically inactive in cell transfection studies. It is likely that PEO prevents binding of these complexes with the cell membranes ("stealth effect"). However attaching specific ligands to the PEO-corona can produce complexes, which are both stable in solution and bind to target cells. The most efficient complexes were obtained when PEO in the cationic copolymer was replaced with membrane-active PEO-b-poly(propylene oxide)-b-PEO molecules (Pluronic 123). Such complexes exhibited elevated levels of transgene expression in liver following systemic administration in mice. To increase stability of the complexes, NanoGel carriers were developed that represent small hydrogel particles synthesized by cross-linking of PEI with double end

  13. Electrode coating composed of copolymers derived from diacetone acrylamide

    SciTech Connect

    Rampel, G.

    1981-01-13

    An improved electrode coating and separator coating derived from a copolymer of diacetone acrylamide and a polymerizable monomer are disclosed. This invention relates to novel rechargeable electrodes, separators and processes for preparing same.

  14. Crystalline Morphology of Propylene 1-Octene Random Copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Keesu; Alamo, Rufina G.

    2008-03-01

    The morphology of isotactic propylene 1-octene random copolymers has been studied by AFM, DSC, WAXS, and FTIR in an octene range of 10-20 mol %. Different morphologies were observed below and above 15 mol %. The morphological components in the higher counit copolymers are not of the lamellae-type, thicker than lamellae observed below 15 mol %, connected and isotropic in their orientation. Their global morphology is developed via nucleation and growth (NG) of spherulitic aggregates. The evolution of heat of fusion with time is also sigmoidal shape, typical of NG-type crystallization mechanism. WAXS diffractograms for the higher counit copolymers are devoid of crystalline reflections, except for small and broad peaks suggesting mesomorphic-like structures, which by FTIR show small contents of the 840 cm-1, 12 and higher units regularity bands, and hence formed of short helical sequences. The PO morphology is additionally compared with copolymers with ethylene, 1-butene and 1-hexene counits at matched contents.

  15. Insensitive explosive composition of halogenated copolymer and triaminotrinitrobenzene

    DOEpatents

    Benziger, Theodore M.

    1976-01-01

    A highly insensitive and heat resistant plastic-bonded explosive containing 90 wt % triaminotrinitrobenzene and 10 wt % of a fully saturated copolymer of chlorotrifluoroethylene and vinylidene fluoride is readily manufactured by the slurry process.

  16. Nanostructured photovoltaic materials using conjugated block copolymer assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastroianni, Sarah E.; Epps, Thomas H., III

    2011-03-01

    Block copolymers containing a conjugated block offer attractive possibilities for creating nanostructured organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices. Current OPV materials suffer from efficiency losses primarily due to a size-scale discrepancy between exciton diffusion length and domain sizes; excitons that do not reach the interface between electron and hole-conducting materials recombine, preventing charge carrier separation. The inherent nature of block-copolymers to self-assemble into well-defined nanoscale structures with domain spacings on the order of exciton diffusion length offers a potential solution for reducing exciton recombination. In this work, allyl-terminated poly(3-hexyl thiophene) or poly(3-decyl thiophene) acting as electron donors are incorporated into the block copolymer chain via a coupling reaction with poly(styrene) or poly(isoprene- b -styrene) derivatives synthesized by anionic polymerization. The resulting block copolymer morphologies are characterized by small angle X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy.

  17. Electrode coating composed of copolymers derived from diacetone acrylamide

    SciTech Connect

    Rampel, G.

    1985-07-23

    An improved electrode coating and separator coating derived from a copolymer of diacetone acrylamide and a polymerizable monomer. This invention relates to novel rechargeable electrodes, separators and processes for preparing same.

  18. Surface Characterization of Aliphatic Polyester -g- Phosphorylcholine Copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiongfei; Emrick, Todd; Hsu, Shaw L.

    2007-03-01

    In order to control biodegradation behavior of a class of polyesters, hydrophilic functional groups were grafted onto the main chains. Phosphorylcholine (PC) molecules with azide attached at the end were synthesized. Due to their excellent biocompatibility and hydrophilicity, they have been covalently coupled to biodegradable aliphatic polyesters via a ``click'' cycloaddition reaction to produce amphiphilic graft copolymers. A series of copolymers were prepared by varying the molar incorporation of PC groups. Surface properties of the copolymers were examined to further explore their applications in drug delivery systems. Grazing angle reflection infrared spectroscopy was employed to determine segmental orientation at the film surface. XPS was used to verify surface composition. A water adsorption experiment was carried out to determine the water permeation rate. The improvement in hydrophilicity was confirmed by a water contact experiment. Results indicate that the graft copolymers were promising in drug delivery systems.

  19. Self-Assembly of Block Copolymers in an Ionic Liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yiyong; Li, Zhibo; Lodge, Timothy P.

    2006-03-01

    Amphiphilic diblock copolymers poly((1,2-butadiene)-b-ethylene oxide) (PB-PEO) were shown to aggregate and form well-defined micelles in an ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methyl imidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([BMIM][PF6]). The universal sequence of micellar structures (spherical micelle, wormlike micelle, and bilayered vesicle) were all resolved by varying the block copolymer composition. For the first time, the nanostructures of PB-PEO micelles formed in an ionic liquid were directly visualized by cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM). The detailed micelle structure information was extracted from cryo-TEM and dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements, and compared to their aqueous counterparts. The work demonstrates the feasibility of controlling micellar nanostructures of amphiphilic block copolymers in ionic liquids, and also provides important knowledge for further applications of copolymers for forming microemulsions and ion gels.

  20. Stepwise Activation of Switchable Glazing by Compositional Gradient of Copolymers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eunsu; Kim, Dowan; Yoon, Jinhwan

    2016-10-05

    Thermotropic glazing is one of the most promising developments for adaptive solar control; however, a monotonic transparent-opaque transition limits its practical application. In this work, to render stepwise activation of the switchable glazing, we prepared multicomposition copolymers having a compositional gradient. By slow addition of the monomers in the reaction mixture during free-radical polymerization, the blend of copolymers with each polymer having different compositions of the monomers could be prepared. We found that the developed copolymers exhibit different thermal behaviors according to the monomer composition, yielding the nearly linear transmittance change over a wide temperature range due to the gradient hydrophilic-hydrophobic balances. By combining prepared copolymers with photothermal graphene oxide as a heat transducer, we demonstrated gradual solar control of the smart window in response to sunlight intensity in outdoor testing.

  1. Interfacial properties of semifluorinated alkane diblock copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, Flint; Tsige, Mesfin; Borodin, Oleg; Perahia, Dvora; Grest, Gary S.

    2008-06-01

    The liquid-vapor interfacial properties of semifluorinated linear alkane diblock copolymers of the form F3C(CF2)n-1(CH2)m-1CH3 are studied by fully atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. The chemical composition and the conformation of the molecules at the interface are identified and correlated with the interfacial energies. A modified form of the Optimized Parameter for Liquid Simulation All-Atom (OPLS-AA) force field of Jorgensen and co-workers [J. Am. Chem. Soc. 106, 6638 (1984); 118, 11225 (1996); J. Phys. Chem. A 105, 4118 (2001)], which includes specific dihedral terms for H-F blocks-and corrections to the H-F nonbonded interaction, is used together with a new version of the exp-6 force field developed in this work. Both force fields yield good agreement with the available experimental liquid density and surface tension data as well as each other over significant temperature ranges and for a variety of chain lengths and compositions. The interfacial regions of semifluorinated alkanes are found to be rich in fluorinated groups compared to hydrogenated groups, an effect that decreases with increasing temperature but is independent of the fractional length of the fluorinated segments. The proliferation of fluorine at the surface substantially lowers the surface tension of the diblock copolymers, yielding values near those of perfluorinated alkanes and distinct from those of protonated alkanes of the same chain length. With decreasing temperatures within the liquid state, chains are found to preferentially align perpendicular to the interface, as previously seen.

  2. Block Copolymer Thin Films: Patterns and Patterning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Register, Richard A.

    2001-03-01

    The nanostructures ("microdomains") in thin block copolymer films make excellent contact masks for surface patterning on the nanoscale. Using these thin films as templates, we have developed techniques based on reactive ion etching to uniformly and completely pattern the underlying substrate with a dense periodic pattern of dots, holes, or lines, with widths of order 20 nm. In addition, we have fabricated arrays of metal dots by backfilling these holes, and GaAs quantum dots by regrowth onto patterned GaAs substrates. A key issue in this nanopatterning approach is controlling the pattern which forms within the mask. While the local structure of the pattern (e.g., spheres vs. cylinders) is easily controlled through block copolymer composition, the long-range order ("grain size") is more difficult to manipulate. For cylinder-forming diblocks, we find that the correlation length of the microdomains grows as a weak power of annealing time, approximately 1/4. The principal types of defects which destroy the long-range order of the microdomains are disclinations. Sequential AFM images taken on the same region of the film after varying annealing times can be strung together into "movies" (to be shown at the talk) which directly show that the principal mode of defect annihilation (and hence grain growth) is the annihilation of disclination quadrupoles (pairs of +1/2 and -1/2 disclinations). We propose a model for quadrupole annihilation which reproduces the 1/4 exponent. Preliminary results for sphere-forming systems suggest that the exponent there is even lower than 1/4, making it difficult to achieve a significant degree of coarsening by extending the annealing time. * in collaboration with D.H. Adamson, P.M. Chaikin, Z. Cheng, P.D. Dapkus (USC), C.K. Harrison, D.A. Huse, R.R. Li (USC), and M. Park.

  3. Melt structure and self-nucleation of ethylene copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alamo, Rufina G.

    A strong memory effect of crystallization has been observed in melts of random ethylene copolymers well above the equilibrium melting temperature. These studies have been carried out by DSC, x-ray, TEM and optical microscopy on a large number of model, narrow, and broad copolymers with different comonomer types and contents. Melt memory is correlated with self-seeds that increase the crystallization rate of ethylene copolymers. The seeds are associated with molten ethylene sequences from the initial crystals that remain in close proximity and lower the nucleation barrier. Diffusion of all sequences to a randomized melt state is a slow process, restricted by topological chain constraints (loops, knots, and other entanglements) that build in the intercrystalline region during crystallization. Self-seeds dissolve above a critical melt temperature that demarcates homogeneity of the copolymer melt. There is a critical threshold level of crystallinity to observe the effect of melt memory on crystallization rate, thus supporting the correlation between melt memory and the change in melt structure during copolymer crystallization. Unlike binary blends, commercial ethylene-1-alkene copolymers with a range in inter-chain comonomer composition between 1 and about 15 mol % display an inversion of the crystallization rate in a range of melt temperatures where narrow copolymers show a continuous acceleration of the rate. With decreasing the initial melt temperature, broadly distributed copolymers show enhanced crystallization followed by a decrease of crystallization rate. The inversion demarcates the onset of liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) and a reduction of self-nuclei due to the strong thermodynamic drive for molecular segregation inside the binodal. The strong effect of melt memory on crystallization rate can be used to identify liquid-liquid phase separation in broadly distributed copolymers, and offers strategies to control the state of copolymer melts in ways of

  4. Block copolymer adhesion promoters via ring-opening metathesis polymerization

    DOEpatents

    Kent, Michael S.; Saunders, Randall

    1997-01-01

    Coupling agents based on functionalized block copolymers for bonding thermoset polymers to solid materials. These are polymers which possess at least two types of functional groups, one which is able to attach to and react with solid surfaces, and another which can react with a thermoset resin, which are incorporated as pendant groups in monomers distributed in blocks (typically two) along the backbone of the chain. The block copolymers in this invention are synthesized by living ring-opening metathesis polymerization.

  5. Thermoreversible, epitaxial fcc<-->bcc transitions in block copolymer solutions.

    PubMed

    Bang, Joona; Lodge, Timothy P; Wang, Xiaohui; Brinker, Kristin L; Burghardt, Wesley R

    2002-11-18

    Uncharged block copolymer micelles display thermoreversible transitions between close-packed and bcc lattices for a range of concentration, solvent selectivity, and copolymer composition. Using small-angle x-ray scattering on shear-oriented solutions, highly aligned fcc crystals are seen to transform epitaxially to bcc crystals, with fcc/bcc orientational relationships that are well established in martensitic transformations in metals. The transition is driven by decreasing solvent selectivity with increasing temperature, inducing solvent penetration of the micellar core.

  6. Photooxidative degradation of clear ultraviolet absorbing acrylic copolymer surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, A.; Liang, R. H.; Vogl, O.; Pradellok, W.; Huston, A. L.; Scott, G. W.

    1983-01-01

    Photodegradation of copolymer of methyl methacrylate and 2(2'-hydroxy 5'vinyl-phenyl) 2H-benzotriazole has been investigated in order to determine the changes in the chemical composition of the surface of the copolymer on photooxidation. An electronic energy transfer mechanism has been postulated in order to interpret the observed photochemical changes in the polymer. Preliminary examination of the photophysical properties of the chromophore provides support for such a mechanism.

  7. Fuel injector

    DOEpatents

    Lambeth, Malcolm David Dick

    2001-02-27

    A fuel injector comprises first and second housing parts, the first housing part being located within a bore or recess formed in the second housing part, the housing parts defining therebetween an inlet chamber, a delivery chamber axially spaced from the inlet chamber, and a filtration flow path interconnecting the inlet and delivery chambers to remove particulate contaminants from the flow of fuel therebetween.

  8. Carboxymethylbetaine copolymer layer covalently fixed to a glass substrate.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hisatomo; Li, Lifu; Nakaji-Hirabayashi, Tadashi; Kitano, Hiromi; Ohno, Kohji; Matsuoka, Kazuyoshi; Saruwatari, Yoshiyuki

    2012-06-01

    A random copolymer of zwitterionic monomer, carboxymethylbetaine (CMB), and 3-methacryloyloxypropyl trimethoxysilane was prepared in ethanol using 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile as initiator. The incubation of ethanol solution of the copolymer with a glass plate gave a layer of the copolymer with a thickness of about 2-3 nm. The copolymer-modified glass substrate became highly hydrophilic upon immersion in water, and showed a resistance against non-specific adsorption of proteins, and the degree of resistance increased with the content of CMB residues in the copolymer and leveled off. The adhesion of various cells to the glass substrate was also strongly suppressed by the surface modification with the copolymer layer. Further introduction of PolyCMB graft chains on the surface of the layer enhanced the suppression of cell adhesion due to the steric hindrance for the cells to approach the layer. The usefulness of the combination of zwitterionic polymer layer and graft chains to afford anti-biofouling properties to a solid surface of metal oxides was shown.

  9. Field-theoretic simulations of random copolymers with structural rigidity.

    PubMed

    Mao, Shifan; MacPherson, Quinn; Qin, Jian; Spakowitz, Andrew J

    2017-04-12

    Copolymers play an important role in a range of soft-materials applications and biological phenomena. Prevalent works on block copolymer phase behavior use flexible chain models and incorporate interactions using a mean-field approximation. However, when phase separation takes place on length scales comparable to a few monomers, the structural rigidity of the monomers becomes important. In addition, concentration fluctuations become significant at short length scales, rendering the mean-field approximation invalid. In this work, we use simulation to address the role of finite monomer rigidity and concentration fluctuations in microphase segregation of random copolymers. Using a field-theoretic Monte-Carlo simulation of semiflexible polymers with random chemical sequences, we generate phase diagrams for random copolymers. We find that the melt morphology of random copolymers strongly depends on chain flexibility and chemical sequence correlation. Chemically anti-correlated copolymers undergo first-order phase transitions to local lamellar structures. With increasing degree of chemical correlation, this first-order phase transition is softened, and melts form microphases with irregular shaped domains. Our simulations in the homogeneous phase exhibit agreement with the density-density correlation from mean-field theory. However, conditions near a phase transition result in deviations between simulation and mean-field theory for the density-density correlation and the critical wavemode. Chain rigidity and sequence randomness lead to frustration in the segregated phase, introducing heterogeneity in the resulting morphologies.

  10. Theory for the aggregation of proteins and copolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Fields, G.B.; Alonso, D.O.V.; Stigter, D.; Dill, K.A.

    1992-05-14

    We develop mean-field lattice statistical mechanics theory for the equilibrium between denatured and aggregated states of proteins and other random copolymers of hydrophobic and polar monomers in aqueous solution. We suppose that the aggregated state is a mixture of amorphous polymer plus solvent and that the driving forces are the hydrophobic interaction, which favors aggregation, and conformational and translational entropies, which favor disaggregation. The theory predicts that the phase diagram for thermal aggregation is an asymmetric closed loop, and for denaturants (guanidinium hydrochloride of urea) it is asymmetric with an upper consolute point. The theory predicts that a copolymer in a poor solvent will expand with increasing polymer concentration because of {open_quotes}screening{close_quotes} of the solvent interactions by the other chains; the chain ultimately reaches a theta-like state in the absence of solvent. The screening concentration depends strongly on the copolymer composition. We find two striking features of these copolymer phase diagrams. First, they are extraordinarily sensitive to the copolymer composition; a change of one amino acid can substantially change the aggregation behavior. Second, relative to homopolymers, copolymers should be stable against aggregation at concentrations that are higher by many orders of magnitude. 43 refs., 13 figs.

  11. Antimicrobial activity of poly(acrylic acid) block copolymers.

    PubMed

    Gratzl, Günther; Paulik, Christian; Hild, Sabine; Guggenbichler, Josef P; Lackner, Maximilian

    2014-05-01

    The increasing number of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains has developed into a major health problem. In particular, biofilms are the main reason for hospital-acquired infections and diseases. Once formed, biofilms are difficult to remove as they have specific defense mechanisms against antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial surfaces must therefore kill or repel bacteria before they can settle to form a biofilm. In this study, we describe that poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) containing diblock copolymers can kill bacteria and prevent from biofilm formation. The PAA diblock copolymers with poly(styrene) and poly(methyl methacrylate) were synthesized via anionic polymerization of tert-butyl acrylate with styrene or methyl methacrylate and subsequent acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of the tert-butyl ester. The copolymers were characterized via nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), elemental analysis, and acid-base titrations. Copolymer films with a variety of acrylic acid contents were produced by solvent casting, characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and tested for their antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The antimicrobial activity of the acidic diblock copolymers increased with increasing acrylic acid content, independent of the copolymer-partner, the chain length and the nanostructure.

  12. Radical-cured block copolymer-modified thermosets

    SciTech Connect

    Redline, Erica M.; Francis, Lorraine F.; Bates, Frank S.

    2013-01-10

    Poly(ethylene-alt-propylene)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEP-PEO) diblock copolymers were synthesized and added at 4 wt % to 2,2-bis[4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloxypropoxy)phenyl]propane (BisGMA), a monomer that cures using free radical chemistry. In separate experiments, poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate (PEGDMA) was combined as a secondary monomer with BisGMA and the monomers were loaded with 4 wt % PEP-PEO. The diblock copolymers self-assembled into well-dispersed spherical micelles with PEP cores and PEO coronas. No appreciable change in the final extent of cure of the thermosets was caused by the addition of diblock copolymer, except in the case of BisGMA, where the addition of the block copolymer increased extent of cure by 12%. Furthermore, the extent of cure was increased by 29% and 37% with the addition of 25 and 50 wt % PEGDMA, respectively. Elastic modulus and fracture resistance were also determined, and the values indicate that the addition of block copolymers does not significantly toughen the thermoset materials. This finding is surprising when compared with the large increase in fracture resistance seen in block copolymer-modified epoxies, and an explanation is proposed.

  13. Complex copolymers for mobility control, water purification, and surface activity

    SciTech Connect

    Meister, J.J.

    1988-05-01

    Many processes that are basic to the extraction of natural resources are facilitated by addition of polymers. To be useful, the polymers must meet an interrelated list of chemical and physical properties as well as economic criteria. Two important properties demanded of the polymers are: 1. Rheology. Polymers are often added to change solvent or process flow properties. The addition of polymers almost always causes non-Newtonian flow behavior in the resulting fluid. Methods of controlling surface behavior are to: 1) create polar and nonpolar regions in the molecule thus producing a hydrophilic-lipophilic balance in the molecule, 2) charge the molecule by introducing ionic sites with the same or opposite charge as the boundary, or 3) introduce or remove functional groups in the molecule which produce binding reactions, such as a) hydrogen bond creation of b) nitrogen lone-pair donation, with the surface. This multitude of properties the polymer must possess dictate that better polymer performance is obtained from materials with complicated structures. Such polymers are complex polymers: random copolymers, block copolymers, graft copolymers, micellizing copolymers, and network copolymers. There has been a dramatic increase in the past decade in the number and complexity of these copolymers and it is these newly discovered polymers and their chemistry which will be described here. The synthesis, analysis, and testing of these polymers, with particular emphasis on those polymers designed for enhanced oil recovery, is presented.

  14. Thermodynamics of block copolymers with and without salt.

    PubMed

    Teran, Alexander A; Balsara, Nitash P

    2014-01-09

    Ion-containing block copolymers are of interest for applications such as electrolytes in rechargeable lithium batteries. The addition of salt to these materials is necessary to make them conductive; however, even small amounts of salt can have significant effects on the phase behavior of these materials and consequently on their ion-transport and mechanical properties. As a result, the effect of salt addition on block copolymer thermodynamics has been the subject of significant interest over the past decade. This feature article describes a comprehensive study of the thermodynamics of block copolymer/salt mixtures over a wide range of molecular weights, compositions, salt concentrations, and temperatures. The Flory-Huggins interaction parameter was determined by fitting small-angle X-ray scattering data of disordered systems to predictions based on the random phase approximation. Experiments on neat block copolymers revealed that the Flory-Huggins parameter is a strong function of chain length. Experiments on block copolymer/salt mixtures revealed a highly nonlinear dependence of the Flory-Huggins parameter on salt concentration. These findings are a significant departure from previous results and indicate the need for improved theories for describing thermodynamic interactions in neat and salt-containing block copolymers.

  15. Properties of radiation cured vinyl-divinyl copolymers. [Gamma rays

    SciTech Connect

    Micko, M.M.; Paszner, L.

    1980-04-01

    Analysis of compression stress-strain curves of radiation-cured vinyl methacrylate copolymers shows that addition of small concentrations of vinyl comonomers significantly alter all mechanical strength properties in compression. Stress-strain behavior is found to be a function of the copolymer composition. Best strength results are limited to a narrow comonomer concentration region; between 5 to 10% of divinyl monomer (DVM) for the four systems studied. This concentration range broadens with increasing molecular bridge length of the crosslinking agent being narrowest for ethylene glycol dimethylacrylate and broadest for tetraethylene glycol dimethacrylate. Copolymer connection number (CN/sub co/), as introduced earlier, is found to be useful structural parameter for crosslinked copolymers in that it correlates quantitatively mechanical or thermomechanical properties with crosslink densities within copolymers. The Methyl methacrylate-TEGDMA comonomer system was found to be the most suitable and economically attractive. It represents a well balanced compromise of improved polymerization parameters and copolymer properties desirable in many polymeric products. 9 figures, 2 tables.

  16. Fuel cell-fuel cell hybrid system

    DOEpatents

    Geisbrecht, Rodney A.; Williams, Mark C.

    2003-09-23

    A device for converting chemical energy to electricity is provided, the device comprising a high temperature fuel cell with the ability for partially oxidizing and completely reforming fuel, and a low temperature fuel cell juxtaposed to said high temperature fuel cell so as to utilize remaining reformed fuel from the high temperature fuel cell. Also provided is a method for producing electricity comprising directing fuel to a first fuel cell, completely oxidizing a first portion of the fuel and partially oxidizing a second portion of the fuel, directing the second fuel portion to a second fuel cell, allowing the first fuel cell to utilize the first portion of the fuel to produce electricity; and allowing the second fuel cell to utilize the second portion of the fuel to produce electricity.

  17. Functional Polymers and Sequential Copolymers by Phase Transfer Catalysis. 30. Synthesis of Liquid Crystalline Poly(epichlorohydrin) and Copolymers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-10-01

    Copolymers K0 By Coleen Pugh and V. Percec Department of Macromolecular Science Case Western Reserve University Cleveland, OH 44106 Submitted for... Coleen Pugh and V. Percec Department of Macromolecular Science Case Western Reserve University Cleveland, OH 44106 f ABSTRACT/ -Poly(epichlotohydrin...Catalysis. 30. Synthesis of Liquid Crystalline Poly(epichlorohydrin) and Copolymers 12 PERSONAL AUTIIOR(S C Coleen Pugh and V. Percec 13a TYPE OF

  18. Polymer synthesis toward fuel cell membrane materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebeck, Nathaniel T.

    Fuel cells are a promising technology that will be part of the future energy landscape. New membranes for alkaline and proton exchange membrane fuel cells are needed to improve the performance, simplify the system, and reduce cost. Polymer chemistry can be applied to develop new polymers and to assemble polymers into improved membranes that need less water, have increased performance and are less expensive, thereby removing the deficiencies of current membranes. Nucleophilic aromatic substitution polymerization typically produces thermally stable engineering polymers that can be easily functionalized. New functional monomers were developed to explore new routes to novel functional polymers. Sulfonamides were discovered as new activating groups for polymerization of high molecular weight thermooxidatively stable materials with sulfonic acid latent functionality. While the sulfonamide functional polymers could be produced, the sulfonamide group proved to be too stable to convert into a sulfonic acid after reaction. The reactivity of 2-aminophenol was investigated to search for a new class of ion conducting polymer materials. Both the amine and the phenol groups are found to be reactive in a nucleophilic aromatic substitution, however not to the extent to allow the formation of high molecular weight polymer materials. Layer-by-layer films were assembled from aqueous solutions of poly(styrene sulfonate) and trimethylammonium functionalized poly(phenylene oxide). The deposition conditions were adjusted to increase the free charge carrier content, and chloride conductivites reached almost 30 mS/cm for the best films. Block and random poly(phenylene oxide) copolymers were produced from 2,6-dimethylphenol and 2,6-diphenylphenol and the methyl substituted repeat units were functionalized with trimethylammonium bromide. The block copolymers displayed bromide conductivities up to 26 mS/cm and outperformed the random copolymers, indicating that morphology has an effect on ion

  19. Fuels research: Fuel thermal stability overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, S. M.

    1980-01-01

    Alternative fuels or crude supplies are examined with respect to satisfying aviation fuel needs for the next 50 years. The thermal stability of potential future fuels is discussed and the effects of these characteristics on aircraft fuel systems are examined. Advanced fuel system technology and design guidelines for future fuels with lower thermal stability are reported.

  20. Fuel ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-02-01

    This report discusses the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988 which requires GAO to examine fuel ethanol imports from Central America and the Caribbean and their impact on the U.S. fuel ethanol industry. Ethanol is the alcohol in beverages, such as beer, wine, and whiskey. It can also be used as a fuel by blending with gasoline. It can be made from renewable resources, such as corn, wheat, grapes, and sugarcane, through a process of fermentation. This report finds that, given current sugar and gasoline prices, it is not economically feasible for Caribbean ethanol producers to meet the current local feedstock requirement.

  1. Shape memory rubber bands & supramolecular ionic copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brostowitz, Nicole

    subject covered in this dissertation is supra-molecular ionic copolymers. Supramolecular interactions are non-covalent; e.g. hydrogen bonding, ionic interactions, van der Waals forces. Supramolecular interactions in polymers can be used to tailor the thermo-mechanical properties by controlling bond association and dissociation. Recent research has focused on hydrogen bonded systems due to established synthesis mechanisms. Reversibility of the supramolecular interactions can be triggered by environmental changes. Ionic interactions would provide greater bond strength and more control over operating conditions. Research has been limited on ionic copolymers due to complicated synthesis methods needed to include functionalization. Low molecular weight polymers were synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization with post polymerization conversion to phosphonium end-groups. Both polystyrene and poly(methyl acrylate) were investigated with similar reaction conditions. Chromatography measured the molecular weight and indicated a low polydispersity consistent with controlled reactions. Copolymers were formed by interfacial mixing of the cationic polymers with multifunctional, anionic oligomers. Oligomers containing sulfonate groups were used to create linear or three-dimensional polymer networks. NMR and rheology was used to characterize the presence and effect of ionic groups when compared to the neat polymer.

  2. Ion Transport in Nanostructured Block Copolymer/Ionic Liquid Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoarfrost, Megan Lane

    Incorporating an ionic liquid into one block copolymer microphase provides a platform for combining the outstanding electrochemical properties of ionic liquids with a number of favorable attributes provided by block copolymers. In particular, block copolymers thermodynamically self-assemble into well-ordered nanostructures, which can be engineered to provide a durable mechanical scaffold and template the ionic liquid into continuous ion-conducting nanochannels. Understanding how the addition of an ionic liquid affects the thermodynamic self-assembly of block copolymers, and how the confinement of ionic liquids to block copolymer nanodomains affects their ion-conducting properties is essential for predictable structure-property control. The lyotropic phase behavior of block copolymer/ionic liquid mixtures is shown to be reminiscent of mixtures of block copolymers with selective molecular solvents. A variety of ordered microstructures corresponding to lamellae, hexagonally close-packed cylinders, body-centered cubic, and face-centered cubic oriented micelles are observed in a model system composed of mixtures of imidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([Im][TFSI]) and poly(styrene- b-2-vinyl pyridine) (PS-b-P2VP). In contrast to block copolymer/molecular solvent mixtures, the interfacial area occupied by each PS-b-P2VP chain decreases upon the addition of [Im][TFSI], indicating a considerable increase in the effective segregation strength of the PS-b-P2VP copolymer with ionic liquid addition. The relationship between membrane structure and ionic conductivity is illuminated through the development of scaling relationships that describe the ionic conductivity of block copolymer/ionic liquid mixtures as a function of membrane composition and temperature. It is shown that the dominant variable influencing conductivity is the overall volume fraction of ionic liquid in the mixture, which means there

  3. Disulfide-Functionalized Diblock Copolymer Worm Gels.

    PubMed

    Warren, Nicholas J; Rosselgong, Julien; Madsen, Jeppe; Armes, Steven P

    2015-08-10

    Two strategies for introducing disulfide groups at the outer surface of RAFT-synthesized poly(glycerol monomethacrylate)-poly(2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate) (PGMA-PHPMA, or Gx-Hy for brevity) diblock copolymer worms are investigated. The first approach involved statistical copolymerization of GMA with a small amount of disulfide dimethacrylate (DSDMA, or D) comonomer to afford a G54-D0.50 macromolecular chain transfer agent (macro-CTA); this synthesis was conducted in relatively dilute solution in order to ensure mainly intramolecular cyclization and hence the formation of linear chains. Alternatively, a new disulfide-based bifunctional RAFT agent (DSDB) was used to prepare a G45-S-S-G45 (or (G45-S)2) macro-CTA. A binary mixture of a non-functionalized G55 macro-CTA was utilized with each of these two disulfide-based macro-CTAs in turn for the RAFT aqueous dispersion polymerization of 2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate (HPMA). By targeting a PHPMA DP of 130 and systematically varying the molar ratio of the two macro-CTAs, a series of disulfide-functionalized diblock copolymer worm gels were obtained. For both formulations, oscillatory rheology studies confirmed that higher disulfide contents led to stronger gels, presumably as a result of inter-worm covalent bond formation via disulfide/thiol exchange. Using the DSDB-based macro-CTA led to the strongest worm gels, and this formulation also proved to be more effective in suppressing the thermosensitive behavior that is observed for the nondisulfide-functionalized control worm gel. However, macroscopic precipitation occurred when the proportion of DSDB-based macro-CTA was increased to 50 mol %, whereas the DSDMA-based macro-CTA could be utilized at up to 80 mol %. Finally, the worm gel modulus could be reduced to that of a nondisulfide-containing worm gel by reductive cleavage of the inter-worm disulfide bonds using excess tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine (TCEP) to yield thiol groups. These new biomimetic worm gels are

  4. New adhesive systems based on functionalized block copolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, M.; Saunders, R.; Hurst, M.; Small, J.; Emerson, J.; Zamora, D.

    1997-05-01

    The goal of this work was to evaluate chemically-functionalized block copolymers as adhesion promoters for metal/thermoset resin interfaces. Novel block copolymers were synthesized which contain pendant functional groups reactive toward copper and epoxy resins. In particular, imidazole and triazole functionalities that chelate with copper were incorporated onto one block, while secondary amines were incorporated onto the second block. These copolymers were found to self-assemble from solution onto copper surfaces to form monolayers. The structure of the adsorbed monolayers were studied in detail by neutron reflection and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. The monolayer structure was found to vary markedly with the solution conditions and adsorption protocol. Appropriate conditions were found for which the two blocks form separate layers on the surface with the amine functionalized block exposed at the air surface. Adhesion testing of block copolymer-coated copper with epoxy resins was performed in both lap shear and peel modes. Modest enhancements in bond strengths were observed with the block copolymer applied to the native oxide. However, it was discovered that the native oxide is the weak link, and that by simply removing the native oxide, and then applying an epoxy resin before the native oxide can reform, excellent bond strength in the as-prepared state as well as excellent retention of bond strength after exposure to solder in ambient conditions are obtained. It is recommended that long term aging studies be performed with and without the block copolymer. In addition, the functionalized block copolymer method should be evaluated for another system that has inherently poor bonding, such as the nickel/silicone interface, and for systems involving metals and alloys which form oxides very rapidly, such as aluminum and stainless steel, where bonding strategies involve stabilizing the native oxide.

  5. Molecular Transfer Printing Using Block Copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Shengxiang; Liu, Chi-Chun; Liu, Guoliang; Nealey, Paul

    2009-03-01

    We report a new parallel patterning technique, molecular transfer printing (MTP), for replicating geometrically complex patterns over macroscopic areas with sub-15 nm feature dimensions, and the ability to replicate the same pattern multiple times. In MTP, inks are mixed with block copolymers (BCPs) and deposited as films on a substrate. The inks are compatible with only one block of the BCP, and sequestered into domains of nanometer scale dimensions after microphase separation. A second substrate is then placed in contact with the surface of the film. By designing the inks to react, adsorb, or otherwise interact with the second substrate, inks are transferred to the second substrate in the exact pattern of domains present at the surface of the ``master'' BCP film. Here we demonstrate high degrees of perfection on both line and dot patterns. We also show that 1) the master template can be regenerated, 2) the resultant replica can be used to direct the assembly of BCPs and as a daughter master for MTP, and 3) the master and daughter templates can be reused tens of times.

  6. Nanoscale buckling deformation in layered copolymer materials

    PubMed Central

    Makke, Ali; Perez, Michel; Lame, Olivier; Barrat, Jean-Louis

    2012-01-01

    In layered materials, a common mode of deformation involves buckling of the layers under tensile deformation in the direction perpendicular to the layers. The instability mechanism, which operates in elastic materials from geological to nanometer scales, involves the elastic contrast between different layers. In a regular stacking of “hard” and “soft” layers, the tensile stress is first accommodated by a large deformation of the soft layers. The inhibited Poisson contraction results in a compressive stress in the direction transverse to the tensile deformation axis. The hard layers sustain this transverse compression until buckling takes place and results in an undulated structure. Using molecular simulations, we demonstrate this scenario for a material made of triblock copolymers. The buckling deformation is observed to take place at the nanoscale, at a wavelength that depends on strain rate. In contrast to what is commonly assumed, the wavelength of the undulation is not determined by defects in the microstructure. Rather, it results from kinetic effects, with a competition between the rate of strain and the growth rate of the instability. PMID:22203970

  7. Copolymers for Drag Reduction in Marie Propulsion: New Molecular Structures with Enhanced Effectiveness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-31

    the in the solution viscosity is observed due to repulsive neutral sulfonic acid moiety to the charged sodium sulfonate electrostatic interactions...34Water-Soluble Copolymers. 26. Fluorescence Probe Studies of Hydrophobically- Modified Maleic Acid -Ethyl Vinyl Ether Copolymers," Charles. L...Chem., A27(5), 539 (1990). "Water-Soluble Copolymers. XXXV. Photophysical and Rheological Studies of the Copolymer of Methacrylic Acid with 2-(1

  8. Synthesis and Structure - Property Relationships for Regular Multigraft Copolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Mays, Jimmy; Uhrig, David; Gido, Samuel; Zhu, Yuqing; Weidisch, Roland; Iatrou, Hermis; Hadjichristidis, Nikos; Hong, Kunlun; Beyer, Frederick; Lach, Ralph

    2004-01-01

    Multigraft copolymers with polyisoprene backbones and polystyrene branches, having multiple regularly spaced branch points, were synthesized by anionic polymerization high vacuum techniques and controlled chlorosilane linking chemistry. The functionality of the branch points (1, 2 and 4) can be controlled, through the choice of chlorosilane linking agent. The morphologies of the various graft copolymers were investigated by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray scattering. It was concluded that the morphology of these complex architectures is governed by the behavior of the corresponding miktoarm star copolymer associated with each branch point (constituting block copolymer), which follows Milner's theoretical treatment for miktoarm stars. By comparing samples having the same molecular weight backbone and branches but different number of branches it was found that the extent of long range order decreases with increasing number of branch points. The stress-strain properties in tension were investigated for some of these multigraft copolymers. For certain compositions thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) behavior was observed, and in many instances the elongation at break was much higher (2-3X) than that of conventional triblock TPEs.

  9. A Solid-State NMR Investigation of MQ Silicone Copolymers.

    PubMed

    Vasil'ev, Sergey G; Volkov, Vitaly I; Tatarinova, Elena A; Muzafarov, Aziz M

    2013-01-01

    The structure of MQ copolymers of the general chemical formula [(CH3)3SiO0.5]m [SiO2]n was characterized by means of solid-state magic angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The MQ copolymers are highly branched polycyclic compounds (densely cross-linked nanosized networks). MQ copolymers were prepared by hydrolytic polycondensation in active medium. (29)Si NMR spectra were obtained by single pulse excitation (or direct polarization, DP) and cross-polarization (CP) (29)Si{(1)H} techniques in concert with MAS. It was shown that material consist of monofunctional M (≡SiO Si (CH3)3) and two types of tetrafunctional Q units: Q(4) ((≡SiO)4Si) and Q(3) ((≡SiO)3SiOH). Spin-lattice relaxation times T1 measurements of (29)Si nuclei and analysis of (29)Si{(1)H} variable contact time signal intensities allowed us to obtain quantitative data on the relative content of different sites in copolymers. These investigations indicate that MQ copolymers represent dense structure with core and shell.

  10. Perpendicularly Aligned, Anion Conducting Nanochannels in Block Copolymer Electrolyte Films

    SciTech Connect

    Arges, Christopher G.; Kambe, Yu; Suh, Hyo Seon; Ocola, Leonidas E.; Nealey, Paul F.

    2016-03-08

    Connecting structure and morphology to bulk transport properties, such as ionic conductivity, in nanostructured polymer electrolyte materials is a difficult proposition because of the challenge to precisely and accurately control order and the orientation of the ionic domains in such polymeric films. In this work, poly(styrene-block-2-vinylpyridine) (PSbP2VP) block copolymers were assembled perpendicularly to a substrate surface over large areas through chemical surface modification at the substrate and utilizing a versatile solvent vapor annealing (SVA) technique. After block copolymer assembly, a novel chemical vapor infiltration reaction (CVIR) technique selectively converted the 2-vinylpyridine block to 2-vinyl n-methylpyridinium (NMP+ X-) groups, which are anion charge carriers. The prepared block copolymer electrolytes maintained their orientation and ordered nanostructure upon the selective introduction of ion moieties into the P2VP block and post ion-exchange to other counterion forms (X- = chloride, hydroxide, etc.). The prepared block copolymer electrolyte films demonstrated high chloride ion conductivities, 45 mS cm(-1) at 20 degrees C in deionized water, the highest chloride ion conductivity for anion conducting polymer electrolyte films. Additionally, straight-line lamellae of block copolymer electrolytes were realized using chemoepitaxy and density multiplication. The devised scheme allowed for precise and accurate control of orientation of ionic domains in nanostructured polymer electrolyte films and enables a platform for future studies that examines the relationship between polymer electrolyte structure and ion transport.

  11. Preparation and icephobic properties of polymethyltrifluoropropylsiloxane-polyacrylate block copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaohui; Zhao, Yunhui; Li, Hui; Yuan, Xiaoyan

    2014-10-01

    Five polymethyltrifluoropropylsiloxane (PMTFPS)-polyacrylate block copolymers (PMTFPS-b-polyacrylate) were synthesized by free radical polymerization of methyl methacrylate, n-butyl acrylate and hydroxyethyl methacrylate using PMTFPS macroazoinitiator (PMTFPS-MAI) in range of 10-50 mass percentages. The morphology, surface chemical composition and wettability of the prepared copolymer films were investigated by transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and water contact angle measurement. Delayed icing time and ice shear strength of the films were also detected for the icephobic purpose. The surface morphologies of the copolymers were different from those of the bulk because of the migration of the PMTFPS segments to the air interface during the film formation. Maximal delayed icing time (186 s at -15 °C) and reduction of the ice shear strength (301 ± 10 kPa) which was significantly lower than that of polyacrylates (804 ± 37 kPa) were achieved when the content of PMTFPS-MAI was 20 wt%. The icephobicity of the copolymers was attributed primarily to the enrichment of PMTFPS on the film surface and synergistic effect of both silicone and fluorine. Thus, the results show that the PMTFPS-b-polyacrylate copolymer can be used as icephobic coating materials potentially.

  12. Controlling block copolymer phase behavior using ionic surfactant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, D.; Aswal, V. K.

    2016-05-01

    The phase behavior of poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide-poly(ethylene oxide) PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymer [P85 (EO26PO39EO26)] in presence of anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in aqueous solution as a function of temperature has been studied using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The measurements have been carried out for fixed concentrations (1 wt%) of block copolymer and surfactants. Each of the individual components (block copolymer and surfactant) and the nanoparticle-surfactant mixed system have been examined at varying temperature. The block copolymer P85 forms spherical micelles at room temperature whereas shows sphere-to-rod like micelle transition at higher temperatures. On the other hand, SDS surfactant forms ellipsoidal micelles over a wide temperature range. Interestingly, it is found that phase behavior of mixed micellar system (P85 + SDS) as a function of temperature is drastically different from that of P85, giving the control over the temperature-dependent phase behavior of block copolymers.

  13. Chain bridging in a model of semicrystalline multiblock copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Manas; Ganesan, Venkat

    2009-02-01

    Recent experimental observations have suggested an intimate connection between the chain conformations and mechanical properties of semicrystalline multiblock copolymers. Motivated by these studies, we present a theoretical study evaluating the bridging/looping fractions in a model of semicrystalline multiblock copolymers. We model the noncrystalline block (A) as a flexible Gaussian chain and the crystalline block (B) as a semiflexible chain with a temperature dependent rigidity and interactions that favor the formation of parallel oriented bonds. Using self-consistent field theory, the bridging fractions of the various domains in different multiblock copolymers (ABA, BAB, ABABA, and BABAB) are evaluated and compared with their flexible counterparts. In general, we observe that for both triblock and pentablock copolymers, rendering one of the blocks crystallizable promotes bridging in that component while reducing the bridging in the other noncrystallizable component. Moreover, the bridging fractions in tri- and pentablock copolymers were seen to be quantitatively similar except insofar as being normalized by the volume fraction of bridgeable units.

  14. Perfluorocyclobutyl Aryl Ether-Based ABC Amphiphilic Triblock Copolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Binbin; Yao, Wenqiang; Li, Yongjun; Zhang, Sen; Huang, Xiaoyu

    2016-12-01

    A series of fluorine-containing amphiphilic ABC triblock copolymers comprising hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA), and hydrophobic poly(p-(2-(4-biphenyl)perfluorocyclobutoxy)phenyl methacrylate) (PBPFCBPMA) segments were synthesized by successive atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). First, PEG-Br macroinitiators bearing one terminal ATRP initiating group were prepared by chain-end modification of monohydroxy-terminated PEG via esterification reaction. PEG-b-PBPFCBPMA-Br diblock copolymers were then synthesized via ATRP of BPFCBPMA monomer initiated by PEG-Br macroinitiator. ATRP polymerization of tert-butyl methacrylate (tBMA) was directly initiated by PEG-b-PBPFCBPMA-Br to provide PEG-b-PBPFCBPMA-b-PtBMA triblock copolymers with relatively narrow molecular weight distributions (Mw/Mn ≤ 1.43). The pendant tert-butyoxycarbonyls were hydrolyzed to carboxyls in acidic environment without affecting other functional groups for affording PEG-b-PBPFCBPMA-b-PMAA amphiphilic triblock copolymers. The critical micelle concentrations (cmc) were determined by fluorescence spectroscopy using N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine as probe and the self-assembly behavior in aqueous media were investigated by transmission electron microscopy. Large compound micelles and bowl-shaped micelles were formed in neutral aqueous solution. Interestingly, large compound micelles formed by triblock copolymers can separately or simultaneously encapsulate hydrophilic Rhodamine 6G and hydrophobic pyrene agents.

  15. Perfluorocyclobutyl Aryl Ether-Based ABC Amphiphilic Triblock Copolymer

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Binbin; Yao, Wenqiang; Li, Yongjun; Zhang, Sen; Huang, Xiaoyu

    2016-01-01

    A series of fluorine-containing amphiphilic ABC triblock copolymers comprising hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA), and hydrophobic poly(p-(2-(4-biphenyl)perfluorocyclobutoxy)phenyl methacrylate) (PBPFCBPMA) segments were synthesized by successive atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). First, PEG-Br macroinitiators bearing one terminal ATRP initiating group were prepared by chain-end modification of monohydroxy-terminated PEG via esterification reaction. PEG-b-PBPFCBPMA-Br diblock copolymers were then synthesized via ATRP of BPFCBPMA monomer initiated by PEG-Br macroinitiator. ATRP polymerization of tert-butyl methacrylate (tBMA) was directly initiated by PEG-b-PBPFCBPMA-Br to provide PEG-b-PBPFCBPMA-b-PtBMA triblock copolymers with relatively narrow molecular weight distributions (Mw/Mn ≤ 1.43). The pendant tert-butyoxycarbonyls were hydrolyzed to carboxyls in acidic environment without affecting other functional groups for affording PEG-b-PBPFCBPMA-b-PMAA amphiphilic triblock copolymers. The critical micelle concentrations (cmc) were determined by fluorescence spectroscopy using N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine as probe and the self-assembly behavior in aqueous media were investigated by transmission electron microscopy. Large compound micelles and bowl-shaped micelles were formed in neutral aqueous solution. Interestingly, large compound micelles formed by triblock copolymers can separately or simultaneously encapsulate hydrophilic Rhodamine 6G and hydrophobic pyrene agents. PMID:28000757

  16. Effects of copolymer component on the properties of phosphorylcholine micelles.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhengzhong; Cai, Mengtan; Cao, Jun; Zhang, Jiaxing; Luo, Xianglin

    2017-01-01

    Zwitterionic polymers have unique features, such as good compatibility, and show promise in the application of drug delivery. In this study, the zwitterionic copolymers, poly(ε-caprolactone)-b-poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) with disulfide (PCL-ss-PMPC) or poly(ε-caprolactone)-b-poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) or without disulfide (PCL-PMPC) and with different block lengths in PCL-ss-PMPC, were designed. The designed copolymers were obtained by a combination of ring-opening polymerization and atom transferring radical polymerization. The crystallization properties of these polymers were investigated. The micelles were prepared based on the obtained copolymers with zwitterionic phosphorylcholine as the hydrophilic shell and PCL as the hydrophobic core. The size distributions of the blank micelles and the doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded micelles were uniform, and the micelle diameters were <100 nm. In vitro drug release and intracellular drug release results showed that DOX-loaded PCL-ss-PMPC micelles could release drugs faster responding to the reduction condition and the intracellular microenvironment in contrast to PCL-PMPC micelles. Moreover, in vitro cytotoxicity evaluation revealed that the designed copolymers possessed low cell toxicity, and the inhibiting effect of DOX-loaded phosphorylcholine micelles to tumor cells was related to the components of these copolymers. These results reveal that the reduction-responsive phosphorylcholine micelles with a suitable ratio of hydrophilic/hydrophobic units can serve as promising drug carriers.

  17. Effects of copolymer component on the properties of phosphorylcholine micelles

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhengzhong; Cai, Mengtan; Cao, Jun; Zhang, Jiaxing; Luo, Xianglin

    2017-01-01

    Zwitterionic polymers have unique features, such as good compatibility, and show promise in the application of drug delivery. In this study, the zwitterionic copolymers, poly(ε-caprolactone)-b-poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) with disulfide (PCL-ss-PMPC) or poly(ε-caprolactone)-b-poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) or without disulfide (PCL-PMPC) and with different block lengths in PCL-ss-PMPC, were designed. The designed copolymers were obtained by a combination of ring-opening polymerization and atom transferring radical polymerization. The crystallization properties of these polymers were investigated. The micelles were prepared based on the obtained copolymers with zwitterionic phosphorylcholine as the hydrophilic shell and PCL as the hydrophobic core. The size distributions of the blank micelles and the doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded micelles were uniform, and the micelle diameters were <100 nm. In vitro drug release and intracellular drug release results showed that DOX-loaded PCL-ss-PMPC micelles could release drugs faster responding to the reduction condition and the intracellular microenvironment in contrast to PCL-PMPC micelles. Moreover, in vitro cytotoxicity evaluation revealed that the designed copolymers possessed low cell toxicity, and the inhibiting effect of DOX-loaded phosphorylcholine micelles to tumor cells was related to the components of these copolymers. These results reveal that the reduction-responsive phosphorylcholine micelles with a suitable ratio of hydrophilic/hydrophobic units can serve as promising drug carriers. PMID:28138244

  18. Plastic Deformation and Morphological Evolution of Precise Acid Copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middleton, L. Robert; Azoulay, Jason; Murtagh, Dustin; Cordaro, Joseph; Winey, Karen

    2014-03-01

    Acid- and ion-containing polymers have specific interactions that produce complex and hierarchical morphologies that provide remarkable mechanical properties. Historically, correlating the hierarchical structure and the mechanical properties of these polymers has been challenging due to the random arrangements of the polar groups along the backbone, ex situ characterization and the difficulty in deconvolution the effects of crystalline and amorphous regions along with secondary interactions between polymer chains. We address these challenges through in situ deformation of precise acid copolymers and relate the structural evolution to bulk properties by considering a series of copolymers with 9, 15 or 21 carbons between acid groups. Simultaneous synchrotron X-ray scattering and room temperature uniaxial tensile experiments of these precise acid copolymers were conducted. The different deformation mechanisms are compared and the microstructural evolution during deformation is discussed. For example, the liquid-like distribution of acid aggregates within the bulk copolymer transitions into a layered structure concurrent to a dramatic increase in tensile strength. Overall, we evaluate the effect and control of introducing acid groups on mechanical deformation of the bulk copolymers.

  19. Drug release from pH-responsive thermogelling pentablock copolymers.

    PubMed

    Determan, Michael D; Cox, James P; Mallapragada, Surya K

    2007-05-01

    A novel pH-dependent injectable sustained delivery system was developed by utilizing a cationic pentablock copolymer that exhibits a thermoreversible sol-gel transition. Aqueous solutions of the pentablock copolymer, consisting of poly(2-diethylaminoethyl-methyl methacrylate)-poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(2-diethylaminoethyl-methyl methacrylate) (PDEAEM(25)-PEO(100)-PPO(65)-PEO(100)-PDEAEM(25)) exhibit temperature and pH dependent micellization due to the lower critical solution temperature of the PPO blocks and the polyelectrolyte character of the PDEAEM blocks, respectively. Aqueous solutions of the copolymers above 12 wt % are free flowing liquids at room temperature and form elastic physical hydrogels reversibly above 37 degrees C. Hydrophobic probe absorbance studies indicate that pentablock copolymer micelles increase the solubility of sparingly soluble drugs. Solutions of the pentablock copolymer that form gels at body temperature exhibit sustained zero-order release in in vitro experiments. The release rates of model drugs and proteins were significantly influenced by the pH of the release media, thereby making these polymers ideal candidates for modulated drug delivery.

  20. Relaxation processes in a lower disorder order transition diblock copolymer

    SciTech Connect

    Sanz, Alejandro; Ezquerra, Tiberio A.; Nogales, Aurora

    2015-02-14

    The dynamics of lower disorder-order temperature diblock copolymer leading to phase separation has been observed by X ray photon correlation spectroscopy. Two different modes have been characterized. A non-diffusive mode appears at temperatures below the disorder to order transition, which can be associated to compositional fluctuations, that becomes slower as the interaction parameter increases, in a similar way to the one observed for diblock copolymers exhibiting phase separation upon cooling. At temperatures above the disorder to order transition T{sub ODT}, the dynamics becomes diffusive, indicating that after phase separation in Lower Disorder-Order Transition (LDOT) diblock copolymers, the diffusion of chain segments across the interface is the governing dynamics. As the segregation is stronger, the diffusive process becomes slower. Both observed modes have been predicted by the theory describing upper order-disorder transition systems, assuming incompressibility. However, the present results indicate that the existence of these two modes is more universal as they are present also in compressible diblock copolymers exhibiting a lower disorder-order transition. No such a theory describing the dynamics in LDOT block copolymers is available, and these experimental results may offer some hints to understanding the dynamics in these systems. The dynamics has also been studied in the ordered state, and for the present system, the non-diffusive mode disappears and only a diffusive mode is observed. This mode is related to the transport of segment in the interphase, due to the weak segregation on this system.

  1. Chitosan-glutaraldehyde copolymers and their sorption properties.

    PubMed

    Poon, Louis; Wilson, Lee D; Headley, John V

    2014-08-30

    This study reports the preparation of chitosan-glutaraldehyde (Chi-Glu) copolymers at modified reaction conditions such as the temperature prior to gelation, pH, and reagent ratios. The chitosan copolymers were characterized using infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), CHN elemental analysis, and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). Evidence of self-polymerized glutaraldehyde was supported by CHN and TGA results. The sorption properties of Chi-Glu copolymers were evaluated in aqueous solutions containing p-nitrophenol at variable pH (4.6, 6.6, and 9.0). The sorption properties of the copolymers correlated with the level of the accessibility of the sorption sites in accordance with the relative cross-linker content. The relative sorption capacity of the Chi-Glu copolymers increases as the level of cross-linking increases. Chitosan displays the lowest sorptive uptake while an optimal sorption capacity was concluded at the 4:1 glutaraldehyde:chitosan monomer mole ratio, in close agreement with the three reactive sites (i.e. OH/NH) per glucosamine monomer. The PNP dye probe was determined to bind to chitosan through an electrostatic interaction due to the increased sorption capacity of the phenolate anion, as evidenced by the change in pH from 4.6 to 9.0.

  2. 40 CFR 180.1162 - Acrylate polymers and copolymers; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acrylate polymers and copolymers... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1162 Acrylate polymers and copolymers; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. (a) Acrylate polymers and copolymers are exempt from the requirement of...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10419 - Tetrafluoroethylene chlorotrifluoroethylene copolymer (generic) (P-11-561).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... chlorotrifluoroethylene copolymer (generic) (P-11-561). 721.10419 Section 721.10419 Protection of Environment... chlorotrifluoroethylene copolymer (generic) (P-11-561). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to... copolymer (PMN P-11-561) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10419 - Tetrafluoroethylene chlorotrifluoroethylene copolymer (generic) (P-11-561).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... chlorotrifluoroethylene copolymer (generic) (P-11-561). 721.10419 Section 721.10419 Protection of Environment... chlorotrifluoroethylene copolymer (generic) (P-11-561). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to... copolymer (PMN P-11-561) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10419 - Tetrafluoroethylene chlorotrifluoroethylene copolymer (generic) (P-11-561).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... chlorotrifluoroethylene copolymer (generic) (P-11-561). 721.10419 Section 721.10419 Protection of Environment... chlorotrifluoroethylene copolymer (generic) (P-11-561). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to... copolymer (PMN P-11-561) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10179 - Copolymers of phenol and aromatic hydocarbon (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Copolymers of phenol and aromatic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10179 Copolymers of phenol and aromatic hydocarbon (generic). (a... generically as copolymers of phenol and aromatic hydocarbon (PMNs P-04-346 and P-04-347) are subject...

  7. Compatibilizing Effect of Random or Block Copolymer Added to Binary Mixture of Homopolymers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    copolymer R50/50 (Mw 25000); filled squares: random copolymer RF50/50 (M 16300); filled diamonds : random copolymer SPP45 (Mw > 2.3 x 105); open squares...Pennsylvania 18015 Dr. R. S. Porter Professor Brian Newman Department of Polymer Science Department of Mechanics and and Engineering Materials Science

  8. Responsive copolymers for enhanced petroleum recovery. Quarterly technical progress report, March 22, 1994--June 21, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, C.; Hester, R.

    1994-09-01

    In this report, the authors consider the synthesis of copolymers of interest in the enhanced recovery of petroleum. Acrylamide and N,N-dimethyl-N-dodecyl-N-(2-amidoethyl) ammonium bromide copolymers were synthesized and characterized by various instrumental methods. The rheological properties of this copolymer were investigated using a porous media elongation rheometer.

  9. 21 CFR 175.350 - Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid copolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid copolymer. 175.350... COATINGS Substances for Use as Components of Coatings § 175.350 Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid copolymer. A copolymer of vinyl acetate and crotonic acid may be safely used as a coating or as a component of a...

  10. 40 CFR 180.1162 - Acrylate polymers and copolymers; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Acrylate polymers and copolymers... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1162 Acrylate polymers and copolymers; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. (a) Acrylate polymers and copolymers are exempt from the requirement of...

  11. 21 CFR 177.1020 - Acrylonitrile/butadiene/sty-rene co-polymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acrylonitrile/butadiene/sty-rene co-polymer. 177... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances.../butadiene/sty-rene co-polymer. Acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene copolymer identified in this section may...

  12. 40 CFR 180.1162 - Acrylate polymers and copolymers; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acrylate polymers and copolymers... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1162 Acrylate polymers and copolymers; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. (a) Acrylate polymers and copolymers are exempt from the requirement of...

  13. 21 CFR 177.1020 - Acrylonitrile/butadiene/sty-rene co-polymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acrylonitrile/butadiene/sty-rene co-polymer. 177... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances.../butadiene/sty-rene co-polymer. Acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene copolymer identified in this section may...

  14. 21 CFR 177.1020 - Acrylonitrile/butadiene/sty-rene co-polymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acrylonitrile/butadiene/sty-rene co-polymer. 177... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances.../butadiene/sty-rene co-polymer. Acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene copolymer identified in this section may...

  15. 40 CFR 180.1162 - Acrylate polymers and copolymers; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acrylate polymers and copolymers... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1162 Acrylate polymers and copolymers; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. (a) Acrylate polymers and copolymers are exempt from the requirement of...

  16. 21 CFR 177.1020 - Acrylonitrile/butadiene/sty-rene co-polymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acrylonitrile/butadiene/sty-rene co-polymer. 177... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances.../butadiene/sty-rene co-polymer. Acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene copolymer identified in this section may...

  17. 40 CFR 180.1162 - Acrylate polymers and copolymers; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Acrylate polymers and copolymers... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1162 Acrylate polymers and copolymers; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. (a) Acrylate polymers and copolymers are exempt from the requirement of...

  18. Water-soluble graft copolymers of starch-acrylamide and uses therefor

    DOEpatents

    Butler, G.B.; Hogen-Esch, T.E.; Meister, J.J.; Pledger, H. Jr.

    1983-08-23

    Graft copolymers having starch as the central chain with grafted side chains of acrylamide or acrylamide-acrylic acid, and a process for preparation of such copolymers in the presence of Ce[sup +4] or other redox initiators are disclosed. These copolymers are employed in preparing highly viscous aqueous solutions that are particularly useful in oil recovery from subterranean wells. 2 figs.

  19. Water-soluble graft copolymers of starch-acrylamide and uses therefor

    DOEpatents

    Butler, George B.; Hogen-Esch, Thieo E.; Meister, John J.; Pledger, Jr., Huey

    1983-08-23

    Graft copolymers having starch as the central chain with grafted side chains of acrylamide or acrylamide-acrylic acid, and a process for preparation of such copolymers in the presence of Ce.sup.+4 or other redox initiators. These copolymers are employed in preparing highly viscous aqueous solutions that are particularly useful in oil recovery from subterranean wells.

  20. Responsive copolymers for enhanced petroleum recovery. Quarterly technical progress report, March 22, 1993--June 22, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, C.; Hester, R.

    1993-08-01

    The overall goal of this research is the development of advanced water-soluble copolymers for use in enhanced oil recovery which rely on reversible microheterogeneous associations for mobility control and reservoir conformance. Technical progress for the quarter is summarized for the following tasks: advanced copolymer syntheses; characterization of molecular structure of copolymers; and polymer solution rheology.

  1. 21 CFR 177.1360 - Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers... for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1360 Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers. Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers (CAS Reg. No....

  2. 21 CFR 177.1340 - Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins. 177.1340... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1340 Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins. Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins may be safely used as articles or components...

  3. 21 CFR 177.1360 - Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers... for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1360 Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers. Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers (CAS Reg. No....

  4. 21 CFR 177.1360 - Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers... for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1360 Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers. Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers (CAS Reg. No....

  5. 21 CFR 177.1340 - Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins. 177... for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1340 Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins. Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins may be safely used...

  6. 21 CFR 177.1340 - Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins. 177... for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1340 Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins. Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins may be safely used...

  7. 21 CFR 177.1360 - Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers... Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1360 Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers. Ethylene... conditions: (a) Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers are produced by the partial or...

  8. 21 CFR 177.1360 - Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers... for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1360 Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers. Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers (CAS Reg. No....

  9. 21 CFR 177.1340 - Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins. 177... for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1340 Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins. Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins may be safely used...

  10. 21 CFR 172.808 - Copolymer condensates of ethylene oxide and propylene oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Copolymer condensates of ethylene oxide and... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.808 Copolymer condensates of ethylene oxide and propylene oxide. Copolymer condensates of ethylene oxide and propylene oxide may be safely used in food under the...

  11. Visible light-responsive micelles formed from dialkoxyanthracene-containing block copolymers.

    PubMed

    Yan, Qiang; Hu, Jun; Zhou, Rong; Ju, Yong; Yin, Yingwu; Yuan, Jinying

    2012-02-11

    A class of dialkoxyanthracene-containing diblock copolymers is synthesized which possesses visible light-responsivity. These copolymers can self-assemble into a micellar structure in water. Green visible light (540 nm) is able to scissor these anthracene species and cleave the diblock copolymer into two fragments, inducing disassembly of the self-assembled micelles.

  12. Synthesis of imide/arylene ether copolymers for adhesives and composite matrices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, B. J.; Hergenrother, P. M.; Bass, R. G.

    1991-01-01

    A series of imide/arylene ether copolymers were prepared from the reaction of an amorphous arylene ether oligomer and a semi-crystalline imide oligomer. These copolymers were thermally characterized and mechanical properties were measured. One block copolymer was endcapped and the molecular weight was controlled to provide a material that displayed good compression moldability and attractive adhesion and composite properties.

  13. Alternative jet aircraft fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J.

    1979-01-01

    Potential changes in jet aircraft fuel specifications due to shifts in supply and quality of refinery feedstocks are discussed with emphasis on the effects these changes would have on the performance and durability of aircraft engines and fuel systems. Combustion characteristics, fuel thermal stability, and fuel pumpability at low temperature are among the factors considered. Combustor and fuel system technology needs for broad specification fuels are reviewed including prevention of fuel system fouling and fuel system technology for fuels with higher freezing points.

  14. Copolymerization of Metal Nanoparticles: A Route to Colloidal Plasmonic Copolymers**

    PubMed Central

    Lukach, Ariella; Sugikawa, Kota; Chung, Siyon; Vickery, Jemma; Therien-Aubin, Heloise; Yang, Bai; Rubinstein, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The resemblance between colloidal and molecular polymerization reactions has been recognized as a powerful tool for the fundamental studies of polymerization reactions, as well as a platform for the development of new nanoscale systems with desired properties. Future applications of colloidal polymers will require nanoparticle (NP) ensembles with a high degree of complexity that can be realized by hetero-assembly of NPs with different dimensions, shapes and compositions. In the present work, we have developed a method to apply strategies from molecular copolymerization to the co-assembly of gold nanorods with different dimensions into random and block copolymer structures (plasmonic copolymers). The approach was extended to the co-assembly of random copolymers of gold and palladium nanorods. A kinetic model validated and further expanded the kinetic theories developed for molecular copolymerization reactions. PMID:24520012

  15. Performance behavior of modified cellulosic fabrics using polyurethane acrylate copolymer.

    PubMed

    Zuber, Mohammad; Shah, Sayyed Asim Ali; Jamil, Tahir; Asghar, Muhammad Irfan

    2014-06-01

    The surface of the cellulosic fabrics was modified using self-prepared emulsions of polyurethane acrylate copolymers (PUACs). PUACs were prepared by varying the molecular weight of polycaprolactone diol (PCL). The PCL was reacted with isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) and chain was extended with 2-hydroxy ethyl acrylate (HEA) to form vinyl terminated polyurethane (VTPU) preploymer. The VTPU was further co-polymerized through free radical polymerization with butyl acrylate in different proportions. The FT-IR spectra of monomers, prepolymers and copolymers assured the formation of proposed PUACs structure. The various concentrations of prepared PUACs were applied onto the different fabric samples using dip-padding techniques. The results revealed that the application of polyurethane butyl acrylate copolymer showed a pronounced effect on the tear strength and pilling resistance of the treated fabrics.

  16. Non-native three-dimensional block copolymer morphologies

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Atikur; Majewski, Pawel W.; Doerk, Gregory; Black, Charles T.; Yager, Kevin G.

    2016-01-01

    Self-assembly is a powerful paradigm, wherein molecules spontaneously form ordered phases exhibiting well-defined nanoscale periodicity and shapes. However, the inherent energy-minimization aspect of self-assembly yields a very limited set of morphologies, such as lamellae or hexagonally packed cylinders. Here, we show how soft self-assembling materials—block copolymer thin films—can be manipulated to form a diverse library of previously unreported morphologies. In this iterative assembly process, each polymer layer acts as both a structural component of the final morphology and a template for directing the order of subsequent layers. Specifically, block copolymer films are immobilized on surfaces, and template successive layers through subtle surface topography. This strategy generates an enormous variety of three-dimensional morphologies that are absent in the native block copolymer phase diagram. PMID:28004774

  17. Non-native three-dimensional block copolymer morphologies

    DOE PAGES

    Rahman, Atikur; Majewski, Pawel W.; Doerk, Gregory; ...

    2016-12-22

    Self-assembly is a powerful paradigm, wherein molecules spontaneously form ordered phases exhibiting well-defined nanoscale periodicity and shapes. However, the inherent energy-minimization aspect of self-assembly yields a very limited set of morphologies, such as lamellae or hexagonally packed cylinders. Here, we show how soft self-assembling materials—block copolymer thin films—can be manipulated to form a diverse library of previously unreported morphologies. In this iterative assembly process, each polymer layer acts as both a structural component of the final morphology and a template for directing the order of subsequent layers. Specifically, block copolymer films are immobilized on surfaces, and template successive layers throughmore » subtle surface topography. As a result, this strategy generates an enormous variety of three-dimensional morphologies that are absent in the native block copolymer phase diagram.« less

  18. Non-native three-dimensional block copolymer morphologies

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, Atikur; Majewski, Pawel W.; Doerk, Gregory; Black, Charles T.; Yager, Kevin G.

    2016-12-22

    Self-assembly is a powerful paradigm, wherein molecules spontaneously form ordered phases exhibiting well-defined nanoscale periodicity and shapes. However, the inherent energy-minimization aspect of self-assembly yields a very limited set of morphologies, such as lamellae or hexagonally packed cylinders. Here, we show how soft self-assembling materials—block copolymer thin films—can be manipulated to form a diverse library of previously unreported morphologies. In this iterative assembly process, each polymer layer acts as both a structural component of the final morphology and a template for directing the order of subsequent layers. Specifically, block copolymer films are immobilized on surfaces, and template successive layers through subtle surface topography. As a result, this strategy generates an enormous variety of three-dimensional morphologies that are absent in the native block copolymer phase diagram.

  19. BLOCK COPOLYMER THIN FILMS: Physics and Applications1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasolka, Michael J.; Mayes, Anne M.

    2001-08-01

    A two-part review of research concerning block copolymer thin films is presented. The first section summarizes experimental and theoretical studies of the fundamental physics of these systems, concentrating upon the forces that govern film morphology. The role of film thickness and surface energetics on the morphology of compositionally symmetric, amorphous diblock copolymer films is emphasized, including considerations of boundary condition symmetry, so-called hybrid structures, and surface chemical expression. Discussions of compositionally asymmetric systems and emerging research areas, e.g., liquid-crystalline and A-B-C triblock systems, are also included. In the second section, technological applications of block copolymer films, e.g., as lithographic masks and photonic materials, are considered. Particular attention is paid to means by which microphase domain order and orientation can be controlled, including exploitation of thickness and surface effects, the application of external fields, and the use of patterned substrates.

  20. Polarized Raman study of random copolymers of propylene with olefins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gen, D. E.; Chernyshov, K. B.; Prokhorov, K. A.; Nikolaeva, G. Yu.; Sagitova, E. A.; Pashinin, P. P.; Kovalchuk, A. A.; Klyamkina, A. N.; Nedorezova, P. M.; Optov, V. A.; Shklyaruk, B. F.

    2010-06-01

    The polarized Raman spectroscopy is employed in the study of structural modifications in the films of isotactic polypropylene (PP) whose chain contains ethylene, 1-butene, 1-hexene, 1-octene, and 4-metyl-pentene-1, which represents an isomer of 1-hexene. It is demonstrated that the phase and conformational compositions of copolymer molecules depend on the comonomer content and the side-chain length of the second monomer. The content of the PP molecules in the helical conformation in the crystalline and amorphous phases of the copolymers monotonically decreases with increasing content of the second monomer. The decrease in the content of helical macromolecules in the crystalline phase is faster than the decrease in the amorphous phase. At a certain content of comonomers, the total content of the helical fragments decreases with increasing length of the side chain of the second monomer. The structures and Raman spectra of the copolymers of propylene with 1-hexene and 4-methyl-1-pentene are similar.

  1. Characterization of Lithium Polysulfide Salts in Homopolymers and Block Copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dunyang; Wujcik, Kevin; Balsara, Nitash

    Ion-conducting polymers are important for solid-state batteries due to the promise of better safety and the potential to produce higher energy density batteries. Nanostructured block copolymer electrolytes can provide high ionic conductivity and mechanical strength through microphase separation. One of the potential use of block copolymer electrolytes is in lithium-sulfur batteries, a system that has high theoretical energy density wherein the reduction of sulfur leads to the formation of lithium polysulfide intermediates. In this study we investigate the effect of block copolymer morphology on the speciation and transport properties of the polysulfides. The morphology and conductivities of polystyrene-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (SEO) containing lithium polysulfides were studies using small-angle X-ray scattering and ac impedance spectroscopy. UV-vis spectroscopy is being used to determine nature of the polysulfide species in poly(ethylene oxide) and SEO. Department of Energy, Soft Matter Electron Microscopy Program and Battery Materials Research Program.

  2. Reordering transitions during annealing of block copolymer cylinder phases

    SciTech Connect

    Majewski, Pawel W.; Yager, Kevin G.

    2015-10-06

    While equilibrium block-copolymer morphologies are dictated by energy-minimization effects, the semi-ordered states observed experimentally often depend on the details of ordering pathways and kinetics. In this study, we explore reordering transitions in thin films of block-copolymer cylinder-forming polystyrene-block-poly(methyl methacrylate). We observe several transient states as films order towards horizontally-aligned cylinders. In particular, there is an early-stage reorganization from randomly-packed cylinders into hexagonally-packed vertically-aligned cylinders; followed by a reorientation transition from vertical to horizontal cylinder states. These transitions are thermally activated. The growth of horizontal grains within an otherwise vertical morphology proceeds anisotropically, resulting in anisotropic grains in the final horizontal state. The size, shape, and anisotropy of grains are influenced by ordering history; for instance, faster heating rates reduce grain anisotropy. These results help elucidate aspects of pathway-dependent ordering in block-copolymer thin films.

  3. Non-native three-dimensional block copolymer morphologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Atikur; Majewski, Pawel W.; Doerk, Gregory; Black, Charles T.; Yager, Kevin G.

    2016-12-01

    Self-assembly is a powerful paradigm, wherein molecules spontaneously form ordered phases exhibiting well-defined nanoscale periodicity and shapes. However, the inherent energy-minimization aspect of self-assembly yields a very limited set of morphologies, such as lamellae or hexagonally packed cylinders. Here, we show how soft self-assembling materials--block copolymer thin films--can be manipulated to form a diverse library of previously unreported morphologies. In this iterative assembly process, each polymer layer acts as both a structural component of the final morphology and a template for directing the order of subsequent layers. Specifically, block copolymer films are immobilized on surfaces, and template successive layers through subtle surface topography. This strategy generates an enormous variety of three-dimensional morphologies that are absent in the native block copolymer phase diagram.

  4. Ordered nanoscale domains by infiltration of block copolymers

    DOEpatents

    Darling, Seth B.; Elam, Jeffrey; Tseng, Yu-Chih; Peng, Qing

    2016-11-08

    A method of preparing tunable inorganic patterned nanofeatures by infiltration of a block copolymer scaffold having a plurality of self-assembled periodic polymer microdomains. The method may be used sequential infiltration synthesis (SIS), related to atomic layer deposition (ALD). The method includes selecting a metal precursor that is configured to selectively react with the copolymer unit defining the microdomain but is substantially non-reactive with another polymer unit of the copolymer. A tunable inorganic features is selectively formed on the microdomain to form a hybrid organic/inorganic composite material of the metal precursor and a co-reactant. The organic component may be optionally removed to obtain an inorganic features with patterned nanostructures defined by the configuration of the microdomain.

  5. Synthesis of graft copolymers onto starch and its semiconducting properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çankaya, Nevin

    Literature review has revealed that, although there are studies about grafting on natural polymers, especially on starch, few of them are about electrical properties of graft polymers. Starch methacrylate (St.met) was obtained by esterification of OH groups on natural starch polymer for this purpose. Grafting of synthesized N-cyclohexyl acrylamide (NCA) and commercial methyl methacrylate (MMA) monomers with St.met was done by free radical polymerization method. The graft copolymers were characterized with FT-IR spectra, thermal and elemental analysis. Thermal stabilities of the graft copolymers were determined by TGA (thermo gravimetric analysis) method and thermal stability of the copolymers is decreased via grafting. The electrical conductivity of the polymers was measured as a function of temperature and it has been observed that electrical conductivity increases with increasing temperature. The absorbance and transmittance versus wavelength of the polymers have been measured.

  6. Universality between Experiment and Simulation of a Diblock Copolymer Melt.

    PubMed

    Beardsley, Thomas M; Matsen, Mark W

    2016-11-18

    The equivalent behavior among analogous block copolymer systems involving chemically distinct molecules or mathematically different models has long hinted at an underlying universality, but only recently has it been rigorously demonstrated by matching results from different simulations. The profound implication of universality is that simple coarse-grained models can be calibrated so as to provide quantitatively accurate predictions to experiment. Here, we provide the first compelling demonstration of this by simulating a polyisoprene-polylactide diblock copolymer melt using a previously calibrated lattice model. The simulation successfully predicts the peak in the disordered-state structure function, the position of the order-disorder transition, and the latent heat of the transition in excellent quantitative agreement with experiment. This could mark a new era of precision in the field of block copolymer research.

  7. Universality between Experiment and Simulation of a Diblock Copolymer Melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beardsley, Thomas M.; Matsen, Mark W.

    2016-11-01

    The equivalent behavior among analogous block copolymer systems involving chemically distinct molecules or mathematically different models has long hinted at an underlying universality, but only recently has it been rigorously demonstrated by matching results from different simulations. The profound implication of universality is that simple coarse-grained models can be calibrated so as to provide quantitatively accurate predictions to experiment. Here, we provide the first compelling demonstration of this by simulating a polyisoprene-polylactide diblock copolymer melt using a previously calibrated lattice model. The simulation successfully predicts the peak in the disordered-state structure function, the position of the order-disorder transition, and the latent heat of the transition in excellent quantitative agreement with experiment. This could mark a new era of precision in the field of block copolymer research.

  8. Reactive block copolymer vesicles with an epoxy wall.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hui; Liu, Qingchun; Chen, Yongming

    2007-01-16

    Recently, block copolymer vesicles have attracted considerable attention because of their properties in encapsulation and release. To explore their applications in biorelated fields, functionalization of the polymer vesicle is necessary. Herein, a reactive unilamellar vesicle is reported by self-assembly of poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(glycidyl methacrylate) copolymer (PEO-b-PGMA) in solution. When water was added into the PEO-b-PGMA solution in THF, unilamellar vesicles were produced. If hydrophobic primary amine additives, such as hexamethylenediamine (HDA) and dodecylamine (DA), were introduced during block copolymer assembling, the vesicular morphology remained unchanged; instead, the amines reacted with the epoxys and the vesicles were fixed by cross-linking. Furthermore, when 3-aminopropyl trimethoxysilane (APS) was applied, the organic/inorganic hybrid vesicles were obtained, which were stable against the solvent change. Therefore, this research not only supplies a new way to fix the vesicular morphology but also a reactive vesicle scaffold for introducing functional species.

  9. Mechanism for Rapid Self-Assembly of Block Copolymer Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Brian K.; Prud'Homme, Robert K.

    2003-09-01

    Amphiphilic block copolymers in solution spontaneously self-assemble when the solvent quality for one block is selectively decreased. We demonstrate that, for supersaturation ratio changes [d(S)/dt] over 105 per second from equilibrium, nanoparticles are obtained with a formation mechanism and size dependent on the jumping rate and magnitude. The threshold rate for homogeneous precipitation is determined by the induction time of a particle, equivalent to the diffusion limited fusion of copolymer chains to form a corona of overlapping soluble brushes. Via determination of the induction time with a novel confined impinging jets mixer and use of a scaling relation, the interfacial free energy of a block copolymer nanoparticle was measured for the first time.

  10. On the Melting Behavior of Ethylene/alpha-olefin Copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marand, Herve; Alizadeh, Azar; Subramaniam, Chitra; Richardson, Ley

    1998-03-01

    The melting behavior of ethylene/a-olefin copolymers of well controlled microstructure and narrow molecular weight distribution will be discussed. Specifically, we will report results of investigations of the effect of crystallization temperature and time on the multiple melting behavior of ethylene copolymers of various contents in butene, pentene, hexene and octene comonomers. More importantly, it will be shown that the location of the low endotherm is independent of previous thermal history and initial degree of crystallinity at the beginning of the crystallization/annealing process which leads to that endotherm. The low endotherm is furthermore independent of the copolymer composition as long as the crystallization process leads to a fringed micellar crystal morphology. Implications of these new results and comparison of the effect of the nature of the short chain branches on the evolution of the melting behavior with crystallization time provides new venues to the understanding of the multiple endothermic behavior of semicrystalline polymers in general.

  11. Nanoscale arrangement of diblock copolymer micelles with Au nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hwan; Lim, Yirang; Kim, Sehee; Kim, Sung-Soo; Sohn, Byeong-Hyeok

    2014-11-01

    We fabricated a single-layered film consisting of spherical micelles of diblock copolymers and one-dimensional Au nanorods that were surface modified with the same polymer as the corona block of the copolymers. When the diameters of micelles were larger than the lengths of the nanorods, spherical micelles arranged in a hexagonal configuration surrounded by nanorods with their long axes perpendicular to the radial direction of the micelles. This arrangement provided selective organization of the Au nanorods and Ag nanoparticles which were selectively synthesized within the cores of the copolymer micelles. Thus, position-selective arrangement of Au nanorods and Ag nanoparticles was demonstrated at the nanometer scale such that a homogenous distribution of two different nanomaterials over a large area without aggregation was achieved.

  12. Reforming of fuel inside fuel cell generator

    DOEpatents

    Grimble, R.E.

    1988-03-08

    Disclosed is an improved method of reforming a gaseous reformable fuel within a solid oxide fuel cell generator, wherein the solid oxide fuel cell generator has a plurality of individual fuel cells in a refractory container, the fuel cells generating a partially spent fuel stream and a partially spent oxidant stream. The partially spent fuel stream is divided into two streams, spent fuel stream 1 and spent fuel stream 2. Spent fuel stream 1 is burned with the partially spent oxidant stream inside the refractory container to produce an exhaust stream. The exhaust stream is divided into two streams, exhaust stream 1 and exhaust stream 2, and exhaust stream 1 is vented. Exhaust stream 2 is mixed with spent fuel stream 2 to form a recycle stream. The recycle stream is mixed with the gaseous reformable fuel within the refractory container to form a fuel stream which is supplied to the fuel cells. Also disclosed is an improved apparatus which permits the reforming of a reformable gaseous fuel within such a solid oxide fuel cell generator. The apparatus comprises a mixing chamber within the refractory container, means for diverting a portion of the partially spent fuel stream to the mixing chamber, means for diverting a portion of exhaust gas to the mixing chamber where it is mixed with the portion of the partially spent fuel stream to form a recycle stream, means for injecting the reformable gaseous fuel into the recycle stream, and means for circulating the recycle stream back to the fuel cells. 1 fig.

  13. Reforming of fuel inside fuel cell generator

    DOEpatents

    Grimble, Ralph E.

    1988-01-01

    Disclosed is an improved method of reforming a gaseous reformable fuel within a solid oxide fuel cell generator, wherein the solid oxide fuel cell generator has a plurality of individual fuel cells in a refractory container, the fuel cells generating a partially spent fuel stream and a partially spent oxidant stream. The partially spent fuel stream is divided into two streams, spent fuel stream I and spent fuel stream II. Spent fuel stream I is burned with the partially spent oxidant stream inside the refractory container to produce an exhaust stream. The exhaust stream is divided into two streams, exhaust stream I and exhaust stream II, and exhaust stream I is vented. Exhaust stream II is mixed with spent fuel stream II to form a recycle stream. The recycle stream is mixed with the gaseous reformable fuel within the refractory container to form a fuel stream which is supplied to the fuel cells. Also disclosed is an improved apparatus which permits the reforming of a reformable gaseous fuel within such a solid oxide fuel cell generator. The apparatus comprises a mixing chamber within the refractory container, means for diverting a portion of the partially spent fuel stream to the mixing chamber, means for diverting a portion of exhaust gas to the mixing chamber where it is mixed with the portion of the partially spent fuel stream to form a recycle stream, means for injecting the reformable gaseous fuel into the recycle stream, and means for circulating the recycle stream back to the fuel cells.

  14. Responsive copolymers for enhanced petroleum recovery. Second annual report

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, C.; Hester, R.

    1995-05-01

    The authors describe second year efforts in synthesis, characterization, and rheology to develop polymers with significantly improved efficiency in mobility control and conformance. These advanced polymer systems would maintain high viscosities or behave as virtual gels under low shear conditions and at elevated electrolyte concentrations. At high fluid shear rates, associates would deaggregate yielding low viscosity solutions, reducing problems of shear degradation or face plugging during injection. Polymeric surfactants were also developed with potential for use in higher salt, higher temperature reservoirs for mobilization of entrapped oil. Chapters include: Ampholytic terpolymers of acrylamide with sodium 3-acrylamido-3-methylbutanoate and 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanetrimethylammonium chloride; Hydrophilic sulfobetaine copolymers of acrylamide and 3-(2-acrylamido-methylpropane-dimethylammonio)-1-propanesulfonate; Copolymerization of maleic anhydride and N-vinylformamide; Reactivity ratio of N-vinylformamide with acrylamide, sodium acrylate, and n-butyl acrylate; Effect of the distribution of the hydrophobic cationic monomer dimethyldodecyl(2-acrylamidoethyl)ammonium bromide on the solution behavior of associating acrylamide copolymers; Effect of surfactants on the solution properties of amphipathic copolymers of acrylamide and N,N-dimethyl-N-dodecyl-N-(2-acrylamidoethyl)ammonium bromide; Associative interactions and photophysical behavior of amphiphilic terpolymers prepared by modification of maleic anhydride/ethyl vinyl ether copolymers; Copolymer compositions of high-molecular-weight functional acrylamido water-soluble polymers using direct-polarization magic-angle spinning {sup 13}C NMR; Use of factorial experimental design in static and dynamic light scattering characterization of water soluble polymers; and Porous medium elongational rheometer studies of NaAMB/AM copolymer solutions.

  15. Analytic PRISM theory of structurally asymmetric polymer blends and copolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Schweizer, K.S. )

    1993-10-25

    Analytic PRISM theory with the new molecular closures is applied to determine the effective chi-parameters and spinodal instability curves for structurally asymmetric polymer alloys. Compressibility effects are found to be very important, and the use of a literal incompressible RPA-like approximation is shown to incur qualitative errors in most cases. A rich and nonadditive dependence of phase transition temperatures and apparent SANS chi-parameters on backbone stiffness asymmetry, attractive interaction potential asymmetry, and thermodynamic variables is found for binary homopolymer blends. A novel strategy for designing miscible mixtures based on a cancellation, or compensation, of the relevant asymmetries is identified. The influence of chain stiffness asymmetry in blends characterized by specific interactions is also studied. Generalization of the analytic PRISM theory to mixtures of random copolymers and periodic block copolymer melts is presented. All the rich behavior predicted for phase-separating homopolymer mixtures is again found for these systems, plus additional non mean field effects associated with random copolymer composition and block architecture. The theory is applied semiquantitatively to interpret recent experiments on polyolefin blends, diblock copolymers, and random copolymer alloys. Theoretical predictions are made which qualitatively account for recent experimental observations of a strong influence of stiffness asymmetry on phase separation temperatures, and the breakdown of the mean field random copolymer approach. Anomalous behavior is also predicted for deuterated mixtures due to an interference between the consequences of stiffness asymmetry and enthalipic interactions. The physical mechanism for the many non-Flory-Huggins effects predicted by the compressible PRISM theory is local, scalar density correlations, which appears to be different than the nematic fluctuation mechanism suggested by recent field theoretic work.

  16. Structure-Property Relationships in Polyolefin Block Copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansour, Ameara Salah

    Poly(cyclohexylethylene) (PCHE for a homopolymer or C in a block copolymer) is created by hydrogenating polystyrene, and this polymer exhibits interesting properties, such as a high glass transition temperature (147 °C), high flexural modulus (2.8 GPa), low stress optical coefficient (-0.2 * 10-9 Pa-1), and low cost. However, the inherently brittle nature of PCHE prevents it from being used in applications that simultaneously require high modulus, ductility, thermal stability, and optical clarity. Previous research has shown that incorporating PCHE into a block copolymer with rubbery poly(ethylene-alt-propylene) (P) or poly(ethylethylene) (EE) or semicrystalline polyethylene (E) results in a tough material. In some cases, applications also require specific mechanical or optical properties. In order to tune these properties, this research examined tuning crystallinity using two methods: (1) by controlling the microstructure of the soft block by synthesizing a random copolymer of E and EE, and (2) by blending high C content pentablock copolymers with semicrystalline and rubbery minority components. In the first study, diblock copolymers of C(EcoEE) also were used to understand how the microstructure of the random copolymer affects the thermodynamics of the system. In the second study, CECEC and CPCPC, designed to form the same morphology (hexagonally packed cylinders with glassy C matrices), and have similar order-to-disorder transition temperatures and domain spacings, were blended together. Isothermal crystallization experiments were used to determine how the confining E and P in one domain affects the crystallization process. The effect of architecture, the state of the minority component, and the percent crystallinity on the mechanical properties of high glass content materials was also examined. These results were compared to the mechanical properties of homopolymer PCHE, polystyrene, and polycarbonate. The processing conditions needed to create smooth films of

  17. FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Fortescue, P.; Zumwalt, L.R.

    1961-11-28

    A fuel element was developed for a gas cooled nuclear reactor. The element is constructed in the form of a compacted fuel slug including carbides of fissionable material in some cases with a breeder material carbide and a moderator which slug is disposed in a canning jacket of relatively impermeable moderator material. Such canned fuel slugs are disposed in an elongated shell of moderator having greater gas permeability than the canning material wherefore application of reduced pressure to the space therebetween causes gas diffusing through the exterior shell to sweep fission products from the system. Integral fission product traps and/or exterior traps as well as a fission product monitoring system may be employed therewith. (AEC)

  18. Fuel bundle

    SciTech Connect

    Lui, C.K.

    1989-04-04

    This patent describes a method of forming a fuel bundle of a nuclear reactor. The method consists of positioning the fuel rods in the bottom plate, positioning the tie rod in the bottom plate with the key passed through the receptacle to the underside of the bottom plate and, after the tie rod is so positioned, turning the tie rod so that the key is in engagement with the underside of the bottom plate. Thereafter mounting the top plate is mounted in engagement with the fuel rods with the upper end of the tie rod extending through the opening in the top plate and extending above the top plate, and the tie rod is secured to the upper side of sid top plate thus simultaneously securing the key to the underside of the bottom plate.

  19. Block copolymer adhesion promoters via ring-opening metathesis polymerization

    DOEpatents

    Kent, M.S.; Saunders, R.

    1997-02-18

    Coupling agents are disclosed based on functionalized block copolymers for bonding thermoset polymers to solid materials. These are polymers which possess at least two types of functional groups, one which is able to attach to and react with solid surfaces, and another which can react with a thermoset resin, which are incorporated as pendant groups in monomers distributed in blocks (typically two) along the backbone of the chain. The block copolymers in this invention are synthesized by living ring-opening metathesis polymerization. 18 figs.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of organotin containing copolymers: reactivity ratio studies.

    PubMed

    Al-Deyab, Salem S; Al-Hazmi, Ali Mohsen; El-Newehy, Mohamed H

    2010-03-12

    Organotin monomers containing dibutyltin groups--dibutyltin citraconate (DBTC) as a new monomer and dibutyltin maleate (DBTM)--were synthesized. Free radical copolymerizations of the organotin monomers with styrene (ST) and butyl acrylate (BA) were performed. The overall conversion was kept low (< or = 15% wt/wt) for all studied samples and the copolymers composition was determined from tin analysis using the Gillman and Rosenberg method. The reactivity ratios were calculated from the copolymer composition using the Fineman-Ross (FR) method. The synthesized monomers were characterized by elemental analysis, 1H-, 13C-NMR and FTIR spectroscopy.

  1. Block Copolymer Nanocomposites in Electric Fields: Kinetics of Alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Liedel, Clemens; Pester, Christian; Ruppel, Markus A; Lewin, Christian; Pavan, Mariela J.; Urban, Volker S; Shenhar, Roy; Bosecke, Peter; Boker, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the kinetics of block copolymer/nanoparticle composite alignment in an electric field using in situ transmission small-angle X-ray scattering. As a model system, we employ a lamellae forming polystyrene-block-poly(2-vinyl pyridine) block copolymer with different contents of gold nanoparticles in thick films under solvent vapor annealing. While the alignment improves with increasing nanoparticle fraction, the kinetics slows down. This is explained by changes in the degree of phase separation and viscosity. Our findings provide extended insights into the basics of nanocomposite alignment.

  2. Catalytic production of olefin block copolymers via chain shuttling polymerization.

    PubMed

    Arriola, Daniel J; Carnahan, Edmund M; Hustad, Phillip D; Kuhlman, Roger L; Wenzel, Timothy T

    2006-05-05

    We report a catalytic system that produces olefin block copolymers with alternating semicrystalline and amorphous segments, achieved by varying the ratio of alpha-olefin to ethylene in the two types of blocks. The system uses a chain shuttling agent to transfer growing chains between two distinct catalysts with different monomer selectivities in a single polymerization reactor. The block copolymers simultaneously have high melting temperatures and low glass transition temperatures, and therefore they maintain excellent elastomeric properties at high temperatures. Furthermore, the materials are effectively produced in economically favorable, continuous polymerization processes.

  3. Synthesis and infrared properties of ethylenedioxythiophene and octylthiophene based copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buvat, P.; Hourquebie, P.

    1998-06-01

    The control of the structural parameters and doping conditions of PATs lead to quasi-metallic materials. We have developed the synthesis of copolymers and PAT to enhance the metallic properties with conservation of the solubility. Le contrôle des paramètres physico-chimiques des PATs et des conditions de dopage conduit à des matériaux quasi-métalliques. Nous nous sommes ici orientés vers des copolymères du PEDOT et des PATs pour augmenter le caractère métallique tout en conservant les propriétés de solubilité.

  4. Block-copolymer-induced structure formation in microemulsions

    SciTech Connect

    Hilfiker, R.; Eicke, H.F.; Steeb, C.; Hofmeier, U. )

    1991-02-07

    Transient electric birefringence measurements were performed on water/AOT (sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate)/isooctane microemulsions with various amounts of block-copoly(oxyethylene/isoprene/oxyethylene) added. The authors could show that addition of the copolymer leads to a formation of nanodroplet (ND)-copolymer-aggregates. The contributions of NDs and aggregates to the induced birefringence could easily be separated because the NDs exhibited a negative and the aggregates a positive induced birefringence and because the time scales corresponding to the two processes were different.

  5. Hydrostatic pressure studies of polyvinylidine fluoride (PVDF) and its copolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Samara, G.A.; Bauer, F.

    1987-01-01

    The frequency, temperature and hydrostatic pressure (less than or equal to10 kbar) dependences of the dielectric properties, molecular relaxations and phase transitions in PVDF and a copolymer with a 30% trifluorethylene were investigated. For the copolymer, both the ferroelectric transition (T/sub c/) and dynamic melting (T/sub m/) temperatures exhibit large increases with pressure. PVDF itself does not exhibit a T/sub c/ below T/sub m/, but its T/sub m/ also shows a large increase with pressure. The pressure and frequency dependences suggest an explanation for why it is possible to use these polymers as piezoelectric shock wave gauges to relatively high shock pressures.

  6. Morphology and Proton Transport in Porous Block Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chelsea; Kortright, Jeffrey; Wong, David; Balsara, Nitash

    2015-03-01

    Block copolymer electrolyte membranes consisting of a proton-conducting block and an uncharged structural block are attractive due to their potential in clean energy applications. Herein we demonstrate a novel approach of fabricating block copolymer electrolyte membranes, by inducing pores in the proton-conducting phase. We examine morphology of these membranes with contrast-matched resonant soft X-ray scattering (RSoXS) and electron tomography. Proton conductivity as a function of porosity and water activity is also investigated. By tuning the porosity of the membranes, we are able to adjust the water uptake of the membranes for improved proton conductivities, in both humid air and liquid water.

  7. FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Howard, R.C.; Bokros, J.C.

    1962-03-01

    A fueled matrlx eontnwinlng uncomblned carbon is deslgned for use in graphlte-moderated gas-cooled reactors designed for operatlon at temperatures (about 1500 deg F) at which conventional metallic cladding would ordlnarily undergo undesired carburization or physical degeneratlon. - The invention comprlses, broadly a fuel body containlng uncombined earbon, clad with a nickel alloy contalning over about 28 percent by' weight copper in the preferred embodlment. Thls element ls supporirted in the passageways in close tolerance with the walls of unclad graphite moderator materlal. (AEC)

  8. Synthesis and characterization of perfluorinated sulfonimide copolymers as polymer electrolyte membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Shuang

    Ionomers for polymer electrolyte membranes in fuel cell applications were developed utilizing the acidic bis(perfluoromethyl sulfonyl) imide functional group. Perfluorinated vinyl ether sulfonimide monomers CF2=CFOCF 2CF(CF3)O(CF2)2SO2N(Na)SO 2CF3 (1), CF2=CFOCF2CF(CF 3)O(CF2)2SO2N(Na)SO2(CF 2)4SO2N(Na)CF3 (2), CF 2=CFOCF2CF(CF3)O(CF2)2SO 2N(Na)SO2(CF2)6SO2N(Na)CF 3 (3) and CF2=CFOCF2CF(CF3)O(CF2) 2SO2N(Na)SO2(CF2)2O(CF 2)2SO2N(Na)CF3 (4) were synthesized through multiple steps. The complete coupling reaction between the water sensitive CF3SO 2N(Na)Si(CH3)3 and the bromine-protected Dupont monomer BrCF2CFBrOCF2CF(CF3)O(CF2) 2SO2F is an important step to incorporate the sulfonimide group into the monomer 1. Bis(fluorosulfonyl) perfluoroalkanes FSO2RfSO2F (Rf = -(CF 2)4-, -(CF2)6- and -(CF 2)2O(CF2)2-) were used to introduce multifunctional sulfonimides into monomers 2, 3 and 4. Disulfonyl fluoride compounds were reacted with CF 3SO2N(Na)SiMe3 affording the unsymmetrical sulfonyl fluoride intermediates CF3SO2N(Na)SO2R fSO2F. After the transformation of -SO2F into -SO2N(Na)Si(CH3), the coupling reaction of the silyl compounds with BrCF2CFBrOCF2CF(CF3)O(CF 2)2SO2F followed by debromination gave the final products 2, 3 and 4. Copolymers of the sulfonimide monomers with tetrafluoroethylene (TFE) were produced by semi-batch free-radical emulsion copolymerizations. The perflurinated vinyl ether sulfonimide, TFE, the redox initiator pair (NH4) 2S2O8/NaHSO3, the emulsifier C 7F15COONH4 and the buffer NaH2PO 4/Na2HPO4 were mixed in a stirred Parr autoclave at 10°C. During the copolymerization, TFE pressure and the sulfonimide monomer concentration were kept nearly constant in the reaction system to generate copolymers with acidic groups randomly distributed in the polymer chains. Copolymerization conditions were optimized through variations of some important reaction parameters such as the initiator concentration, TFE pressure, the sulfonimide monomer concentration and the

  9. Micellization of St/MMA gradient copolymers: a general picture of structural transitions in gradient copolymer micelles.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Chao; Huang, Haiying; He, Tianbai

    2013-10-01

    In this work, a gradient copolymer of styrene (St) and methyl methacrylate (MMA) is synthesized via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer living radical polymerization and its micellization behaviors in an acetone and water mixture are investigated by transmission electron microscopy, light scattering, and NMR spectroscopy. Three different kinds of transitions were found to coexist in a single system for the first time: a unimers to micelles transition, a star-like micelles to crew-cut micelles transition resulting from the shrinkage of micelles, and morphological transitions from spherical micelles to cylindrical micelles to vesicles. Our findings provide a general picture of structural transitions and relaxation processes in gradient copolymer micelles, which can lead to the development of novel materials and applications based on gradient copolymers.

  10. Chlorine resistant desalination membranes based on directly sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) copolymers

    DOEpatents

    McGrath, James E [Blacksburg, VA; Park, Ho Bum [Austin, TX; Freeman, Benny D [Austin, TX

    2011-10-04

    The present invention provides a membrane, kit, and method of making a hydrophilic-hydrophobic random copolymer membrane. The hydrophilic-hydrophobic random copolymer membrane includes a hydrophilic-hydrophobic random copolymer. The hydrophilic-hydrophobic random copolymer includes one or more hydrophilic monomers having a sulfonated polyarylsulfone monomer and a second monomer and one or more hydrophobic monomers having a non-sulfonated third monomer and a fourth monomer. The sulfonated polyarylsulfone monomer introduces a sulfonate into the hydrophilic-hydrophobic random copolymer prior to polymerization.

  11. Cyclic block copolymers for controlling feature sizes in block copolymer lithography.

    PubMed

    Poelma, Justin E; Ono, Kosuke; Miyajima, Daigo; Aida, Takuzo; Satoh, Kotaro; Hawker, Craig J

    2012-12-21

    Block copolymer lithography holds promise as a next-generation technique to achieve the sub-20 nm feature sizes demanded by semiconductor roadmaps. While molecular weight and block immiscibility have traditionally been used to control feature size, this study demonstrates that macromolecular architecture is also a powerful tool for tuning domain spacing. To demonstrate this concept, a new synthetic strategy for cyclic block polymers based on highly efficient "click" coupling of difunctional linear chains is developed, and the thin film self-assembly of cyclic polystyrene-block-polyethylene oxide (cPS-b-PEO) is compared with the corresponding linear analogues. The reduced hydrodynamic radii of the cyclic systems result in ~30% decrease in domain spacing over the corresponding linear polymers.

  12. Ionic conductivity of mesoporous block copolymer membranes in liquid electrolyte as a function of copolymer and homopolymer molecular weight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, David; Mullin, Scott; Stone, Greg; Battaglia, Vincent; Balsara, Nitash

    2011-03-01

    Mesoporous block copolymer membranes have been synthesized using poly(styrene-block-ethylene-block-polystyrene) (SES). A series of symmetric SES copolymers and PS homopolymers have been studied at different blending fractions. Ionic conductivities of the porous films in a liquid electrolyte, 1.0 M Li PF6 in ethylene carbonate/diethyl carbonate, compare favorably to conventional battery separators and generally increase with internal surface area, as measured by nitrogen adsorption. Characterization of the effects of pore structure and SES morphology on conductivity will be presented. Support from the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Vehicles Technologies (FCVT) under the Batteries for Advanced Transportation Technologies (BATT) Program.

  13. Nuclear Fuels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, J. Thomas

    1983-01-01

    Trends in and factors related to the nuclear industry and nuclear fuel production are discussed. Topics addressed include nuclear reactors, survival of the U.S. uranium industry, production costs, budget cuts by the Department of Energy and U.S. Geological survey for resource studies, mining, and research/development activities. (JN)

  14. Fuel Cells

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, M. D.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the theories, construction, operation, types, and advantages of fuel cells developed by the American space programs. Indicates that the cell is an ideal small-scale power source characterized by its compactness, high efficiency, reliability, and freedom from polluting fumes. (CC)

  15. Future Fuel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stover, Del

    1991-01-01

    Tough new environmental laws, coupled with fluctuating oil prices, are likely to prompt hundreds of school systems to examine alternative fuels. Literature reviews and interviews with 45 government, education, and industry officials provided data for a comparative analysis of gasoline, diesel, natural gas, methanol, and propane. (MLF)

  16. Alternative Fuels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-11

    Swedish Biofuels AB • Cellulosic and algal feedstocks that are non-competitive with food material $ P r o d u c t P r o d u c t Traditional fuels...JP-8 BACK-UP SLIDES Unclassified 19 What Are Biofuels ? Cellulose “first generation”“second generation” C18:0 C16:1 Triglycerides (fats, oils

  17. Atom Transfer Radical Copolymerization of Gradient Copolymers of HEMA/DMAEMA with Arbitrary Composition Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallow, Keith; Loo, Yueh-Lin

    2009-03-01

    Gradient copolymers represent a new class of statistical copolymers where a non-uniform composition profile is controllably introduced along the length of the polymer chain. Gradient copolymers have thermal and mechanical properties that are different from random or block copolymers having the same average composition. Due to synthetic limitations, however, the introduction of arbitrary composition profiles remains challenging. Here, we demonstrate the ability to controllably introduce arbitrary composition profiles along copolymers of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) by atom transfer radical copolymerization in a semi-batch reactor. Using gas chromatography to monitor monomer consumption, we have constructed a kinetic model which we use as a basis to synthesize copolymers with linear and parabolic composition profiles. The overall DMAEMA content and molecular weight of these gradient copolymers were determined using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and size exclusion chromatography, respectively, and both show good agreement with our model's predictions.

  18. Deposit control additives and fuel compositions containing the same

    SciTech Connect

    Abramo, G.P.; Avery, N.L.; Trewella, J.C.

    1992-02-18

    This patent describes a fuel composition comprising a major amount of a fuel and an additive which imparts intake valve deposit inhibiting properties to the fuel. It comprises a polyisobutenyl succinimide which is the reaction product of a polyisobutenyl succinic anhydride and a polyalkylene polyamine; a polymer of isobutylene; an ester which is an adipate, phthalate, isophthalate, terephthalate and trimellitate of iso-octanol, iso-nonanol, iso-decanol, or iso-tridecanol or mixture thereof, polyol ester of neopentyl glycol, pentaerythritol or trimethylol-propane with corresponding monocarboxylic acid, oligomer and polymer ester of dicarboxylic acid, polyol and monoalcohol; and a polyether which is a polymer or copolymer of ethylene oxide, propylene oxide, butylene oxide, pentene oxide, hexene oxide, octene oxide, decene oxide or isomer thereof.

  19. Bicontinuous polymeric microemulsions from polydisperse diblock copolymers.

    PubMed

    Ellison, Christopher J; Meuler, Adam J; Qin, Jian; Evans, Christopher M; Wolf, Lynn M; Bates, Frank S

    2009-03-26

    Polymeric bicontinuous microemulsions are thermodynamically stable structures typically formed by ternary blends of immiscible A and B homopolymers and a macromolecular surfactant such as an AB diblock copolymer. Investigations of these bicontinuous morphologies have largely focused on model systems in which all components have narrow molecular weight distributions. Here we probe the effects of AB diblock polydispersity in ternary blends of polystyrene (PS), polyisoprene (PI), and poly(styrene-b-isoprene) (PS-PI). Three series of blends were prepared using the same PS and PI homopolymers; two of them contain nearly monodisperse components while the third includes a polydisperse PS-PI diblock. The PS and PI homopolymers and two of the PS-PI diblocks were prepared by anionic polymerization using sec-butyllithium and have narrow molecular weight distributions. The polydisperse PS-PI diblock was prepared by anionic polymerization using the functional organolithium 3-tert-butyldimethylsilyloxy-1-propyllithium; this diblock has a polydisperse PS block (Mw/Mn = 1.57) and a nearly monodisperse PI block (Mw/Mn < 1.1). The phase behavior of the three series of blends was probed using a combination of dynamic mechanical spectroscopy, small-angle X-ray scattering, and cloud point measurements, and a bicontinuous microemulsion channel was identified in each system. These results prove that monodisperse components are not required to form bicontinuous microemulsions and highlight the utility of polydispersity as a tool to tune polymer blend phase behavior. The random-phase approximation, originally advanced by de Gennes, and self-consistent field theory are used to provide a theoretical supplement to the experimental work. These theories are able to predict the directions of the polydispersity-driven shifts in domain spacing, order-disorder transition temperatures, and the location of the microemulsion channel. Self-consistent field theory is also used in conjunction with the

  20. Combinatorial Block Copolymer Ordering on Tunable Rough

    SciTech Connect

    Kulkarni M. M.; Yager K.; Sharma, A.; Karim, A.

    2012-05-01

    Morphology control of block copolymer (BCP) thin films through substrate interaction via controlled roughness parameters is of significant interest for numerous high-tech applications ranging from solar cells to high-density storage media. While effects of substrate surface energy (SE) and roughness (R) on BCP morphology have been individually investigated, their synergistic effects have not been explored in any systematic manner. Interestingly, orientation response of BCP to changes in SE can be similar to what can be accomplished with variations in R. Here we present a novel approach for orienting lamellar BCP films of poly(styrene)-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PS-PMMA) on spin-coated xerogel (a dried gel of silica nanoparticle network) substrate with simultaneously tunable surface energy, {gamma}{sub s} {approx} 29-53 mJ/m{sup 2}, by UVO exposure and roughness, R{sub rms} {approx} 0.5-30 nm, by sol-gel processing steps of regulating the catalyst concentration and sol aging time. As in previous BCP orientation studies on 20 nm diameter monodisperse silica nanoparticle coated surface, we find a similar but broadened oscillatory BCP orientation behavior with film thickness due to the random rather than periodic rough surfaces. We also find that higher random roughness amplitude is not the necessary criteria for obtaining a vertical orientation of BCP lamellae. Rather, a high surface fractal dimension (D{sub f} > 2.4) of the rough substrate in conjunction with an optimal substrate surface energy {gamma}{sub s} 29 mJ/m{sup 2} results in 100% vertically oriented lamellar microdomains. The AFM measured film surface microstructure correlates well with the internal 3D BCP film structure probed by grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) and rotational small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). In contrast to tunable self-assembled monolayer (SAM)-coated substrates, the xerogel films are very durable and retain their chemical properties over period of

  1. Bicontinuous Polymeric Microemulsions from Polydisperse Diblock Copolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Ellison, Christopher J.; Meuler, Adam J.; Qin, Jian; Evans, Christopher M.; Wolf, Lynn M.; Bates, Frank S.

    2009-06-12

    Polymeric bicontinuous microemulsions are thermodynamically stable structures typically formed by ternary blends of immiscible A and B homopolymers and a macromolecular surfactant such as an AB diblock copolymer. Investigations of these bicontinuous morphologies have largely focused on model systems in which all components have narrow molecular weight distributions. Here we probe the effects of AB diblock polydispersity in ternary blends of polystyrene (PS), polyisoprene (PI), and poly(styrene-b-isoprene) (PS-PI). Three series of blends were prepared using the same PS and PI homopolymers; two of them contain nearly monodisperse components while the third includes a polydisperse PS-PI diblock. The PS and PI homopolymers and two of the PS-PI diblocks were prepared by anionic polymerization using sec-butyllithium and have narrow molecular weight distributions. The polydisperse PS-PI diblock was prepared by anionic polymerization using the functional organolithium 3-tert-butyldimethylsilyloxy-1-propyllithium; this diblock has a polydisperse PS block (M{sub w}/M{sub n} = 1.57) and a nearly monodisperse PI block (Mw/Mn < 1.1). The phase behavior of the three series of blends was probed using a combination of dynamic mechanical spectroscopy, small-angle X-ray scattering, and cloud point measurements, and a bicontinuous microemulsion channel was identified in each system. These results prove that monodisperse components are not required to form bicontinuous microemulsions and highlight the utility of polydispersity as a tool to tune polymer blend phase behavior. The random-phase approximation, originally advanced by de Gennes, and self-consistent field theory are used to provide a theoretical supplement to the experimental work. These theories are able to predict the directions of the polydispersity-driven shifts in domain spacing, order-disorder transition temperatures, and the location of the microemulsion channel. Self-consistent field theory is also used in conjunction

  2. Shear ordered diblock copolymers with tuneable optical properties.

    PubMed

    Parnell, Andrew J; Tzokova, Nadejda; Pryke, Andrew; Howse, Jonathan R; Mykhaylyk, Oleksandr O; Ryan, Anthony J; Panine, Pierre; Fairclough, J Patrick A

    2011-02-28

    A series of high molecular weight poly(styrene-b-isoprene) block copolymers with optical properties defined by composition in a non-selective solvent were studied using simultaneous ultra small angle X-ray scattering (USAXS) and optical spectrometry. A small magnitude shear produces ordered and oriented states in the copolymer solutions that persist for extended periods of time, and also have superior optical properties that are directly attributable to the mesoscopic block copolymer (BCP) morphology. We have demonstrated that the optical transmission of these materials can be tuned by the addition of low molecular weight poly(isoprene) and poly(styrene) to swell their respective domains within the diblock copolymer. The optical transmission peak for the diblocks could be tuned; from 380 nm-440 nm for the 670k diblock, 425 nm-540 nm for the 850k diblock and 541 nm-625 nm for the 1 million diblock by altering the solution concentration and composition. The full width at half maximum that can be achieved for the optical transmission peaks is as small as 15 nm at 473 nm with a Δλ/λ of 0.03, highlighting the high quality ordering in these systems. Also a small shift in the transmission peak wavelength was observed across a wide angle of view (15 nm at 30°) suggesting that these materials could be used for large area narrow band optical filters.

  3. Polyglycolic and Polylactic Acid Copolymers as Ureteral Replacements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-08-25

    and Identify by block number) ureteral: regeneration employing polyglycolic- polylactic acid cylinders. Although prolonged patency was not...1473 EDITION OF I NOV 65 IS OBSOLETE UVICLASSTFIED SECURITY CLASSIrICATION OF THIS PAGE (117 sn beta Entered) ’I 4 POLYGLYCOLIC AND POLYLACTIC ACID...UnlimIitod I/1 POLYGLYCOLLC AND POLYLACTIC ACID COPOLYMERS AS URETERAL REPLACEMENTS Abstract Preliminary experimentation in rats and dogs

  4. In vivo biocompatibility of radiation crosslinked acrylamide copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraydın, Dursun; Ünver-Saraydın, Serpil; Karadağ, Erdener; Koptagel, Emel; Güven, Olgun

    2004-04-01

    In vitro swelling and in vivo biocompatibility of radiation crosslinked acrylamide copolymers such as acrylamide/crotonic acid (AAm/CA) and acrylamide/itaconic acid (AAm/IA) were studied. The swelling kinetics of acrylamide copolymers were performed in distilled water, human serum and some simulated physiological fluids such as phosphate buffer, pH 7.4, glycine-HCl buffer, pH 1.1, physiological saline solution, and some swelling and diffusion parameters have been calculated. AAm/CA and AAm/IA hydrogels were subcutaneously implanted in rats for up to 10 weeks and the immediate short- and long-term tissue response to these implants were investigated. Histological analysis indicated that tissue reaction at the implant site progressed from an initial acute inflammatory response. No necrosis, tumorigenesis or infection was observed at the implant site up to 10 weeks. The radiation crosslinked AAm/CA and AAm/IA copolymers were found well tolerated, non-toxic and highly biocompatible. However, AAm/IA copolymer was not found to be compatible biomaterials, because one of the AAm/IA samples was disintegrated into small pieces in the rat.

  5. Responsive copolymers for enhanced petroleum recovery. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, C.; Hester, R.

    1994-08-01

    A coordinated research program involving synthesis, characterization, and rheology has been undertaken to develop advanced polymer system which should be significantly more efficient than polymers presently used for mobility control and conformance. Unlike the relatively inefficient, traditional EOR polymers, these advanced polymer systems possess microstructural features responsive to temperature, electrolyte concentration, and shear conditions. Contents of this report include the following chapters. (1) First annual report responsive copolymers for enhanced oil recovery. (2) Copolymers of acrylamide and sodium 3-acrylamido-3-methylbutanoate. (3) Terpolymers of NaAMB, Am, and n-decylacrylamide. (4) Synthesis and characterization of electrolyte responsive terpolymers of acrylamide, N-(4-butyl)phenylacrylamide, and sodium acrylate, sodium-2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulphonate or sodium-3-acrylamido-3-methylbutanoate. (5) Synthesis and solution properties of associative acrylamido copolymers with pyrensulfonamide fluorescence labels. (6) Photophysical studies of the solution behavior of associative pyrenesulfonamide-labeled polyacrylamides. (7) Ampholytic copolymers of sodium 2-(acrylamido)-2-methylpropanesulfonate with [2-(acrylamido)-2-methypropyl]trimethylammonium chloride. (8) Ampholytic terpolymers of acrylamide with sodium 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulphoante and 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanetrimethyl-ammonium chloride and (9) Polymer solution extensional behavior in porous media.

  6. Rheological Behavior of Entangled Polystyrene-Polyhedral Oligosilsesquioxane (POSS) Copolymer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-24

    and precipitated into 100 mL of methanol. After stirring 1 hour, the copolymer was isolated on fritted glassware and air-dried overnight. 1H NMR...Hesse, W. Z. Zeitschrift fuer Anorganische und Allgemeine Chemie 1926, 156, 245-257. 53 Fulcher, G. S. Journal of the American Ceramic Society

  7. Striped, Ellipsoidal Particles by Controlled Assembly of Diblock Copolymers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-17

    chloroform solutions were then mixed with deionized water containing 0.1 wt % amphiphilic cationic surfactant (CTAB), emulsified by ultrasonication, and...This block copolymer solution was emulsified by ultrasonication in 15 mL of deionized water containing CTAB (Sigma-Aldrich, 0.1 wt %) as a

  8. Meter-long multiblock copolymer microfibers via interfacial bioorthogonal polymerization

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shuang; Zhang, Han; Remy, Roddel A.; Deng, Fei; Mackay, Michael E.; Fox, Joseph M.; Jia, Xinqiao

    2015-01-01

    High molecular weight multiblock copolymers are synthesized as robust polymer fibers via interfacial bioorthogonal polymerization employing the rapid cycloaddition of s-tetrazines with strained trans-cyclooctenes. When cell-adhesive peptide was incorporated in the tetrazine monomer, the resulting protein-mimetic polymer fibers provide guidance cues for cell attachment and elongation. PMID:25824805

  9. Nanostructured Block Copolymer Solutions and Composites: Mechanical and Structural Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Lynn

    2015-03-01

    Self-assembled block copolymer templates are used to control the nanoscale structure of materials that would not otherwise order in solution. In this work, we have developed a technique to use close-packed cubic and cylindrical mesophases of a thermoreversible block copolymer (PEO-PPO-PEO) to impart spatial order on dispersed nanoparticles. The thermoreversible nature of the template allows for the dispersion of particles synthesized outside the template. This feature extends the applicability of this templating method to many particle-polymer systems, including proteins, and also permits a systematic evaluation of the impact of design parameters on the structure and mechanical properties of the nanocomposites. The criteria for forming co-crystals have been characterized using small-angle scatting and the mechanical properties of these soft crystals determined. Numerous crystal structures have been reported for the block copolymer system and we have taken advantage of several to generate soft co-crystals. The result of this templating is spatially ordered nanoparticle arrays embedded within the block copolymer nanostructure. These soft materials can be shear aligned into crystals with long range order and this shear alignment is discussed. Finally, the dynamics of nanoparticles within the nanostructured material are characterized with fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP). The applications and general behavior of these nanostructured hydrogels are outlined.

  10. 21 CFR 177.1980 - Vinyl chloride-propylene copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use as... Viscosity of Vinyl Chloride Polymers,” which is incorporated by reference. Copies may be obtained from the... vinyl chloride-propylene copolymer per 100 grams of sample tested as determined from the...

  11. 21 CFR 173.60 - Dimethylamine-epichlorohydrin copolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ....archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (4) Heavy metals (as Pb), 2... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dimethylamine-epichlorohydrin copolymer. 173.60 Section 173.60 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  12. 21 CFR 173.60 - Dimethylamine-epichlorohydrin copolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (4) Heavy metals (as Pb), 2... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Dimethylamine-epichlorohydrin copolymer. 173.60 Section 173.60 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  13. 21 CFR 173.60 - Dimethylamine-epichlorohydrin copolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .../code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (4) Heavy metals (as Pb), 2 parts per million maximum... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dimethylamine-epichlorohydrin copolymer. 173.60 Section 173.60 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  14. 21 CFR 173.60 - Dimethylamine-epichlorohydrin copolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ....archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (4) Heavy metals (as Pb), 2... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dimethylamine-epichlorohydrin copolymer. 173.60 Section 173.60 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  15. 21 CFR 173.60 - Dimethylamine-epichlorohydrin copolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ....archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (4) Heavy metals (as Pb), 2... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dimethylamine-epichlorohydrin copolymer. 173.60 Section 173.60 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  16. 21 CFR 177.1830 - Styrene-methyl methacrylate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... methacrylate copolymers identified in this section may be safely used as components of plastic articles... weight percent of polymer units derived from styrene. (b) The finished plastic food-contact article, when... not to exceed an absorbance of 0.15. (3) Ultraviolet-absorbing distilled water and 8 and 50...

  17. Morphology of Novel Semicrystalline Ethylene-α-Olefin Block Copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Sheng; Register, Richard; Landes, Brian

    2009-03-01

    In semicrystalline block copolymers, the solid-state structure can be set either by block incompatibility or by crystallization of one or more blocks. Depending on the block interaction strength, a wide array of solid-state morphologies may be observed, ranging from spherulitic to confined crystallization within preexisting microphase-separated domains. Dow Chemical has recently developed a novel chain shuttling polymerization process to produce olefin block copolymers with alternating amorphous and semicrystalline chain segments, where each block exhibits the most-probable distribution. We examined the melt and solid-state morphologies of these novel olefin block copolymers, having a high octene content in the amorphous block, using two- dimensional synchrotron small-angle and wide-angle x-ray scattering on specimens oriented by channel die compression. Multiblock and diblock copolymers with near-symmetric compositions showed well-ordered lamellar structures at room temperature with long periods exceeding 100 nm, with little dependence on thermal history, indicating the presence of a mesophase-separated melt which templates crystallization.

  18. Synthesis of polytetrafluoroethylene based olefinic copolymer by gamma radiation grafting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreto, H. F. R.; Lima, L. F. C. P.; Parra, D. F.; Zaia, V.; Lugão, A. B.

    2007-12-01

    High speed extrusion of linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) is limited by processes shortcoming known as 'melt fracture' and 'sharkskin', which are surface defect of the extruded polymer. This defect results in a product with a rough surface that lacks luster and with poor surface properties. The fluoropolymer processing additives are used to eliminate the surface defect by coating the die wall and inducing slip at the coated fluoropolymer surface/LLDPE interface. The aim of this study was to obtain a recycled polytetrafluoroethylene polymer grafted with an olefin that could improve the extrudability of the LLDPE. The copolymer was obtained by irradiating recycled PTFE in an inert atmosphere followed by grafting an olefinic monomer the polymeric matrix (PTFE). After a certain time of contact, the copolymer was heat treated to allow recombination and elimination of the radicals, both in a reactive and/or inert atmosphere. The olefinic monomer used was 1,3-butadiene. The 1,3-butadiene monomer was found to be more effective with respect to grafting. The specimens were studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermogravimetry (DTG). The obtained copolymer (0.2-2.0 wt%) was mixed with LLDPE. The rheological properties of the mixture were determined with a torque rheometer. The results indicated that the developed process rendered a copolymer which when added to LLDPE, improved the extrusion process and eliminated the defect 'melt fracture'.

  19. Bioactive, mechanically favorable, and biodegradable copolymer nanocomposites for orthopedic applications.

    PubMed

    Victor, Sunita Prem; Muthu, Jayabalan

    2014-06-01

    We report the synthesis of mechanically favorable, bioactive, and biodegradable copolymer nanocomposites for potential bone applications. The nanocomposites consist of in situ polymerized biodegradable copolyester with hydroxyapatite (HA). Biodegradable copolyesters comprise carboxy terminated poly(propylene fumarate) (CT-PPF) and poly(trimethylol propane fumarate co mannitol sebacate) (TF-Co-MS). Raman spectral imaging clearly reveals a uniform homogenous distribution of HA in the copolymer matrix. The mechanical studies reveal that improved mechanical properties formed when crosslinked with methyl methacrylate (MMA) when compared to N-vinyl pyrrolidone (NVP). The SEM micrographs of the copolymer nanocomposites reveal a serrated structure reflecting higher mechanical strength, good dispersion, and good interfacial bonding of HA in the polymer matrix. In vitro degradation of the copolymer crosslinked with MMA is relatively more than that of NVP and the degradation decreases with an increase in the amount of the HA filler. The mechanically favorable and degradable MMA based nanocomposites also have favorable bioactivity, blood compatibility, cytocompatibility and cell adhesion. The present nanocomposite is a more promising material for orthopedic applications.

  20. Influence of Chirality in Ordered Block Copolymer Phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Ishan; Grason, Gregory

    2015-03-01

    Block copolymers are known to assemble into rich spectrum of ordered phases, with many complex phases driven by asymmetry in copolymer architecture. Despite decades of study, the influence of intrinsic chirality on equilibrium mesophase assembly of block copolymers is not well understood and largely unexplored. Self-consistent field theory has played a major role in prediction of physical properties of polymeric systems. Only recently, a polar orientational self-consistent field (oSCF) approach was adopted to model chiral BCP having a thermodynamic preference for cholesteric ordering in chiral segments. We implement oSCF theory for chiral nematic copolymers, where segment orientations are characterized by quadrupolar chiral interactions, and focus our study on the thermodynamic stability of bi-continuous network morphologies, and the transfer of molecular chirality to mesoscale chirality of networks. Unique photonic properties observed in butterfly wings have been attributed to presence of chiral single-gyroid networks, this has made it an attractive target for chiral metamaterial design.

  1. Genetic network driven control of PHBV copolymer composition.

    PubMed

    Iadevaia, Sergio; Mantzaris, Nikos V

    2006-03-09

    We developed a detailed mathematical model describing the coupling between the molecular weight distribution dynamics of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) copolymer chains with those of hydroxybutyrate (HB) and hydroxyvalerate (HV) monomer formation. Sensitivity analysis of the model revealed that both the monomer composition and the molecular weight distribution of the copolymer chains are strongly affected by the ratio between the rates at which the two-monomer units are incorporated into the chains. This ratio depends on the relative HB and HV availability, which in turn is a function of the expression levels of genes encoding enzymes that catalyze monomer formation. Regulation of gene expression was accomplished through the aid of an artificial genetic network, the patterns of expression of which can be controlled by appropriately tuning the concentration of an extracellular inducer. Extensive simulations were used to study the effects of operating conditions and parameter uncertainties on the range of achievable copolymer compositions. Since the predicted conditions fell in the range of feasible bioprocessing manipulations, it is expected that such strategy could be successfully employed. Thus, the presented model constitutes a powerful tool for designing genetic networks that can drive the formation of PHBV copolymer structures with desirable characteristics.

  2. 21 CFR 177.1211 - Cross-linked polyacrylate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...). The solvent used shall be at least 60 milliliters aqueous sodium chloride solution per gram of... grafted copolymer of cross-linked sodium polyacrylate identified as 2-propenoic acid, polymers with N,N-di-2-propenyl-2-propen-1-amine and hydrolyzed polyvinyl acetate, sodium salts, graft (CAS Reg....

  3. 21 CFR 181.32 - Acrylonitrile copolymers and resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acrylonitrile copolymers and resins. 181.32 Section 181.32 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... acrylonitrile monomer extraction for finished food-contact articles, determined by using the method of...

  4. 21 CFR 181.32 - Acrylonitrile copolymers and resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acrylonitrile copolymers and resins. 181.32 Section 181.32 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... acrylonitrile monomer extraction for finished food-contact articles, determined by using the method of...

  5. Preparation of synthetic copolymers potentially capable to interact with biomacromolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davydova, N. K.; Sinitsyna, O. V.; Zinoviev, K. E.

    2012-07-01

    A series of substituted amides of acrylic acid with various functional groups have been synthesized. On their basis there were obtained synthetic polymers which potentially could be employed as the probes capable of interaction with biomacromolecules. Atomic force microscopy was applied to study the interaction between DNA and the copolymers.

  6. 21 CFR 177.1430 - Isobutylene-butene copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...: Isobutylene-butene copolymers Molecular weight (range) Viscosity (range) Maximum bromine value 1. Used as... this section. (3) Maximum bromine value. Maximum bromine value shall be determined by ASTM method D1492-78, “Standard Test Method for Bromine Index of Aromatic Hydrocarbons by Coulometric Titration,”...

  7. Reducible HPMA-co-oligolysine copolymers for nucleic acid delivery

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Julie; Johnson, Russell N.; Schellinger, Joan G.; Carlson, Peter M.

    2011-01-01

    Biodegradability can be incorporated into cationic polymers via use of disulfide linkages that are degraded in the reducing environment of the cell cytosol. In this work, N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) and methacrylamido-functionalized oligo-L-lysine peptide monomers with either a non-reducible 6-aminohexanoic acid (AHX) linker or a reducible 3-[(2-aminoethyl)dithiol]propionic acid (AEDP) linker were copolymerized via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. Both of the copolymers and a 1:1 (w/w) mixture of copolymers with reducible and non-reducible peptides were complexed with DNA to form polyplexes. The polyplexes were tested for salt stability, transfection efficiency, and cytotoxicity. The HPMA-oligolysine copolymer containing the reducible AEDP linkers was less efficient at transfection than the non-reducible polymer and was prone to flocculation in saline and serum-containing conditions, but was also not cytotoxic at charge ratios tested. Optimal transfection efficiency and toxicity was attained with mixed formulation of copolymers. Flow cytometry uptake studies indicated that blocking extracellular thiols did not restore transfection efficiency and that the decreased transfection of the reducible polyplex is therefore not primarily caused by extracellular polymer reduction by free thiols. The decrease in transfection efficiency of the reducible polymers could be partially mitigated by the addition of low concentrations of EDTA to prevent metal-catalyzed oxidation of reduced polymers. PMID:21893178

  8. Reducible HPMA-co-oligolysine copolymers for nucleic acid delivery.

    PubMed

    Shi, Julie; Johnson, Russell N; Schellinger, Joan G; Carlson, Peter M; Pun, Suzie H

    2012-05-01

    Biodegradability can be incorporated into cationic polymers via use of disulfide linkages that are degraded in the reducing environment of the cell cytosol. In this work, N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) and methacrylamido-functionalized oligo-l-lysine peptide monomers with either a non-reducible 6-aminohexanoic acid (AHX) linker or a reducible 3-[(2-aminoethyl)dithiol] propionic acid (AEDP) linker were copolymerized via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. Both of the copolymers and a 1:1 (w/w) mixture of copolymers with reducible and non-reducible peptides were complexed with DNA to form polyplexes. The polyplexes were tested for salt stability, transfection efficiency, and cytotoxicity. The HPMA-oligolysine copolymer containing the reducible AEDP linkers was less efficient at transfection than the non-reducible polymer and was prone to flocculation in saline and serum-containing conditions, but was also not cytotoxic at charge ratios tested. Optimal transfection efficiency and toxicity were attained with mixed formulation of copolymers. Flow cytometry uptake studies indicated that blocking extracellular thiols did not restore transfection efficiency and that the decreased transfection of the reducible polyplex is therefore not primarily caused by extracellular polymer reduction by free thiols. The decrease in transfection efficiency of the reducible polymers could be partially mitigated by the addition of low concentrations of EDTA to prevent metal-catalyzed oxidation of reduced polymers.

  9. Reversible Tuning of a Block Copolymer Nanostructure via Electric Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, K.; Schoberth, Heiko; Ruppel, Markus A.; Zettl, H; Weiss, Thomas; Urban, Volker S; Krausch, G; Boker, A.

    2007-01-01

    Block copolymers consisting of incompatible components self-assemble into microphase-separated domains yielding highly regular structures with characteristic length scales of the order of several tens of nanometres. Therefore, in the past decades, block copolymers have gained considerable potential for nanotechnological applications, such as in nanostructured networks and membranes, nanoparticle templates and high-density data storage media. However, the characteristic size of the resulting structures is usually determined by molecular parameters of the constituent polymer molecules and cannot easily be adjusted on demand. Here, we show that electric d.c. fields can be used to tune the characteristic spacing of a block-copolymer nanostructure with high accuracy by as much as 6% in a fully reversible way on a timescale in the range of several milliseconds. We discuss the influence of various physical parameters on the tuning process and study the time response of the nanostructure to the applied field. A tentative explanation of the observed effect is given on the basis of anisotropic polarizabilities and permanent dipole moments of the monomeric constituents. This electric-field-induced effect further enhances the high technological potential of block-copolymer-based soft-lithography applications.

  10. Functional Microstructures from Iron-Containing Block Copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balsara, Nitash

    2005-03-01

    We have studied the properties of microstructures formed by diblock copolymers composed of an organic block such as polystyrene or polyisoprene, and an iron-containing block such as poly(vinyl ferrocene) or poly(ferrocenyldimethylsilane). We demonstrate that the thermodynamic state of these block copolymers can be controlled by altering the redox state of the ferrocene (Fc) moieties. Oxidizing only 8% of the Fc block results in a 40 K drop in the order-disorder transition temperature. Fc is catalytically active in the oxidized state. Thus one can obtain catalysts from iron-containing block copolymers wherein both the support and the active sites are formed by self-assembly. An interesting property of ferrocene is the fact that its oxidation state can be altered reversibly by the application of small electric fields (˜2V/cm). We are currently exploring the possibility of using electric fields to control the microstructure and function of our iron-containing block copolymers.

  11. Copolymer-in-oil phantom materials for elastography.

    PubMed

    Oudry, J; Bastard, C; Miette, V; Willinger, R; Sandrin, L

    2009-07-01

    Phantoms that mimic mechanical and acoustic properties of soft biological tissues are essential to elasticity imaging investigation and to elastography device characterization. Several materials including agar/gelatin, polyvinyl alcohol and polyacrylamide gels have been used successfully in the past to produce tissue phantoms, as reported in the literature. However, it is difficult to find a phantom material with a wide range of stiffness, good stability over time and high resistance to rupture. We aim at developing and testing a new copolymer-in-oil phantom material for elastography. The phantom is composed of a mixture of copolymer, mineral oil and additives for acoustic scattering. The mechanical properties of phantoms were evaluated with a mechanical test instrument and an ultrasound-based elastography technique. The acoustic properties were investigated using a through-transmission water-substituting method. We showed that copolymer-in-oil phantoms are stable over time. Their mechanical and acoustic properties mimic those of most soft tissues: the Young's modulus ranges from 2.2-150 kPa, the attenuation coefficient from 0.4-4.0 dB.cm(-1) and the ultrasound speed from 1420-1464 m/s. Their density is equal to 0.90 +/- 0.04 g/cm3. The results suggest that copolymer-in-oil phantoms are attractive materials for elastography.

  12. Molecular Design of Sulfonated Triblock Copolymer Permselective Membranes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-03

    membrane morphology at environmental conditions, and the membrane sorption and transport properties with respect to water and nerve gas simulant...transport properties with respect to water and nerve gas simulant dimethylmethylphosphonate (DMMP). The methods developed include: a) quantum...triblock copolymers of styrene and lower olefins, which may provide desired protective, comfort, and mechanical properties . In our earlier works, we

  13. Protein-reactive, thermoresponsive copolymers with high flexibility and biodegradability.

    PubMed

    Guan, Jianjun; Hong, Yi; Ma, Zuwei; Wagner, William R

    2008-04-01

    A family of injectable, biodegradable, and thermosensitive copolymers based on N-isopropylacrylamide, acrylic acid, N-acryloxysuccinimide, and a macromer polylactide-hydroxyethyl methacrylate were synthesized by free radical polymerization. Copolymers were injectable at or below room temperature and formed robust hydrogels at 37 degrees C. The effects of monomer ratio, polylactide length, and AAc content on the chemical and physical properties of the hydrogel were investigated. Copolymers exhibited lower critical solution temperatures (LCSTs) from 18 to 26 degrees C. After complete hydrolysis, hydrogels were soluble in phosphate buffered saline at 37 degrees C with LCSTs above 40.8 degrees C. Incorporation of type I collagen at varying mass fractions by covalent reaction with the copolymer backbone slightly increased LCSTs. Water content was 32-80% without collagen and increased to 230% with collagen at 37 degrees C. Hydrogels were highly flexible and relatively strong at 37 degrees C, with tensile strengths from 0.3 to 1.1 MPa and elongations at break from 344 to 1841% depending on NIPAAm/HEMAPLA ratio, AAc content, and polylactide length. Increasing the collagen content decreased both elongation at break and tensile strength. Hydrogel weight loss at 37 degrees C was 85-96% over 21 days and varied with polylactide content. Hydrogel weight loss at 37 degrees C was 85-96% over 21 days and varied with polylactide content. Degradation products were shown to be noncytotoxic. Cell adhesion on the hydrogels was 30% of that for tissue culture polystyrene but increased to statistically approximate this control surface after collagen incorporation. These newly described thermoresponsive copolymers demonstrated attractive properties to serve as cell or pharmaceutical delivery vehicles for a variety of tissue engineering applications.

  14. Fuel cell

    SciTech Connect

    Struthers, R.C.

    1983-06-28

    An improved fuel cell comprising an anode section including an anode terminal, an anode fuel, and an anolyte electrolyte, a cathode section including a cathode terminal, an electron distributor and a catholyte electrolyte, an ion exchange section between the anode and cathode sections and including an ionolyte electrolyte, ion transfer membranes separating the ionolyte from the anolyte and the catholyte and an electric circuit connected with and between the terminals conducting free electrons from the anode section and delivering free electrons to the cathode section, said ionolyte receives ions of one polarity moving from the anolyte through the membrane related thereto preventing chemical equilibrium in the anode section and sustaining chemical reaction and the generating of free electrons therein, said ions received by the ionolyte from the anolyte release different ions from the ionolyte which move through the membrane between the ionolyte and catholyte and which add to the catholyte.

  15. Activation of DNA strand exchange by cationic comb-type copolymers: effect of cationic moieties of the copolymers

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sung Won; Kano, Arihiro; Maruyama, Atsushi

    2008-01-01

    We have previously reported that poly(l-lysine)-graft-dextran cationic comb-type copolymers accelerate strand exchange reaction between duplex DNA and its complementary single strand by >4 orders of magnitude, while stabilizing duplex. However, the stabilization of the duplex is considered principally unfavourable for the accelerating activity since the strand exchange reaction requires, at least, partial melting of the initial duplex. Here we report the effects of different cationic moieties of cationic comb-type copolymers on the accelerating activity. The copolymer having guanidino groups exhibited markedly higher accelerating effect on strand exchange reactions than that having primary amino groups. The high accelerating effect of the former is considered to be due to its lower stabilizing effect on duplex DNA, resulting from its increased affinity to single-stranded DNA. The difference in affinity was clearly demonstrated by a fluorescence correlation spectroscopy study; the interaction of the former with single-stranded DNA still remained high even at 1 M NaCl, while that of the latter completely disappeared. These results suggest that some modes of interactions, such as hydrogen bonding, other than electrostatic interactions between the copolymers having guanidino groups and DNAs may be involved in strand exchange activation. PMID:18033803

  16. Fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Gheysens, J.L.G.

    1990-11-27

    This patent describes a composition for the improvement of hydrocarbon fuels exhibiting a boiling range of gasoline being suitable for use in spark ignition-type engines. It comprises an aromatic amine; a polyaminated detergent; a catalyst comprising a colloidal suspension or amine salt of transition/alkali/alkaline earth metal organic coordinations having at least one metal oxidehydroxide linked to an alkyl chain via a carboxyl group; and a solvent comprising an alkanol-aliphatic ether oxygenated hydrocarbon.

  17. Future Fuels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-01

    Storage Devices, Fuel Management, Gasification, Fischer-Tropsch, Syngas , Hubberts’s Peak UNCLAS UNCLAS UNCLAS UU 80 Dr. Sujata Millick (703) 696...traction power – mission payloads – mobile electric power • Improved survivability • Inherent modularity improves maintainability & upgradability ...threatened the output of the Ploesti oil fields and refineries. In the FT process, so-called syngas (a mixture of molecular hydrogen and carbon monoxide

  18. Fuel conditioner

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, M.L.; Nelson, O.L. Jr.

    1988-06-28

    A fuel conditioner is described comprising 10 to 80% of a polar oxygenated hydrocarbon having an average molecular weight from about 250 to about 500, an acid acid number from about 25 to about 125, and a saponification number from about 30 to about 250; and 5 to 50% of an oxygenated compatibilizing agent having a solubility parameter of from about 8.8 to about 11.5 and moderate to strong hydrogen-bonding capacity.

  19. Alcohol fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    Ethanol is an alcohol made from grain that can be blended with gasoline to extend petroleum supplies and to increase gasoline octane levels. Congressional proposals to encourage greater use of alternative fuels could increase the demand for ethanol. This report evaluates the growth potential of the ethanol industry to meet future demand increases and the impacts increased production would have on American agriculture and the federal budget. It is found that ethanol production could double or triple in the next eight years, and that American farmers could provide the corn for this production increase. While corn growers would benefit, other agricultural segments would not; soybean producers, for example could suffer for increased corn oil production (an ethanol byproduct) and cattle ranchers would be faced with higher feed costs because of higher corn prices. Poultry farmers might benefit from lower priced feed. Overall, net farm cash income should increase, and consumers would see slightly higher food prices. Federal budget impacts would include a reduction in federal farm program outlays by an annual average of between $930 million (for double current production of ethanol) to $1.421 billion (for triple production) during the eight-year growth period. However, due to an partial tax exemption for ethanol blended fuels, federal fuel tax revenues could decrease by between $442 million and $813 million.

  20. Linear elasticity and phase behavior of block copolymer melts by self consistent field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyler, Christopher Austin

    Self Consistent Field Theory (SCFT) is a well established theory for describing the thermodynamics of block copolymer melts and blends. Although the theory is approximate, it has been quite successful in describing the phase behavior of diblock copolymers. We have applied SCFT to study the linear elastic behavior and the phase behavior of block copolymer melts. First, we calculate the linear elastic response of block copolymer melts ordered on a cubic lattice, with either body-centered or gyroid symmetry. We compare our results to experiments. A large, low-frequency plateau in the elastic storage modulus, corresponding to approximately 0.2kT per polymer chain, has been experimentally observed. By calculating the free energy of block copolymer melts on deformed lattices, we find that SOFT correctly predicts the elastic behavior of these three-dimensionally-ordered structures. We also investigate the phase behavior of triblock copolymer melts. Recent experimental work has identified a new, non-cubic, three-dimensional network phase, termed the O70 phase, in ABC triblock copolymers. We investigate the phase behavior of ABC triblock copolymer melts by calculating the free energy of several candidate phases, including the O70 phase. We find that O 70 is an equilibrium structure in triblock copolymer melts and that the SCFT and experimentally observed phase boundaries agree qualitatively. We also find that O70 is an equilibrium phase in diblock copolymer melts.

  1. Modification and evaluation of fuel cell membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nalawade, Amol Prataprao

    The primary goals of this study were modification of existing NafionRTM membranes and characterization of newly developed hydrocarbon-based membranes for high temperature fuel cell applications. Various NafionRTM/silicate nanocomposites were formulated via in situ sol-gel reactions for tetraethylorthosilicate. Different silicate composition profiles generated across membrane cross-sections were investigated by EDAX/ESEM. Composite water uptake, proton conductivity and fuel cell performance were comparable to that of unmodified Nafion RTM. Tafel analysis showed better electrode kinetics for composites having more silicate in the middle and less or no silicate at electrolyte-electrode interfaces. All composites showed reduced fuel cross-over and superior mechanical as well as chemical durability than unmodified NafionRTM. Poly(cyclohexadiene) (PCHD) materials were characterized in the interest of developing alternative low-cost proton exchange membranes. All cross-linked sulfonated (xsPCHD) membranes showed significantly higher water uptake at 80 °C and higher proton conductivity at 120 °C at all relative humidities (RH), compared to the current benchmark membrane, NafionRTM. A xsPCHD-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) copolymer and a xsPCHD-PEG blend surpassed the DOE target by exhibiting proton conductivities of 141.44 and 322.40 mS/cm, respectively, at 50 % RH. Although the PCHD-based PEMs exhibited thermal stability up to 150 °C, they showed poor mechanical properties which would cause poor membrane durability during fuel cell operation. Atomic force microscopy studies demonstrated nanophase separated morphology of xsPCHD having a higher degree of connectedness of hydrophilic domains in the copolymer and blends relative to the xsPCHD homopolymer. Broadband dielectric spectroscopy (BDS) was used to study sub-Tg relaxations in annealed poly(2,5-benzimidazole) (ABPBI) fuel cell precursor materials. A trend in degree of connectivity of charge migration pathways and

  2. Vapor-liquid equilibria for copolymer+solvent systems: Effect of intramolecular repulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, R.B.; Prausnitz, J.M.

    1995-03-01

    Role of intramolecular interactions in blend miscibility is well documented for polymer+copolymer mixtures. Some copolymer+polymer mixtures are miscible although their corresponding homopolymers are not miscible; for example, over a range of acrylonitrile content, styrene/acrylonitrile copolymers are miscible with poly(methyl methacrylate) but neither polystyrene nor polyacrylonitrile is miscible with poly(methyl methacrylate). Similarly, over a composition range, butadiene/acrylonitrile copolymers are miscible with poly(vinyl chloride) while none of the binary combinations of the homopolymers [polybutadiene, polyacrylonitrile, and poly(vinyl chloride)] are miscible. This behavior has been attributed to ``intramolecular repulsion`` between unlike copolymer segments. We have observed similar behavior in vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE) of copolymer+solvent systems. We find that acrylonitrile/butadiene copolymers have higher affinity for acetonitrile solvent than do polyacrylonitrile or polybutadiene. We attribute this non-intuitive behavior to ``intramolecular repulsion`` between unlike segments of the copolymer. This repulsive interaction is weakened when acetonitrile molecules are in the vicinity of unlike copolymer segments, favoring copolymer+solvent miscibility. We find similar behavior when acetonitrile is replaced by methyl ethyl ketone. To best knowledge, this effect has not been reported previously for VLE. We have obtained VLE data for mixtures containing a solvent and a copolymer as a function of copolymer composition. It appears that, at a given solvent partial pressure, there may be copolymer composition that yields maximum absorption of the solvent. This highly non-ideal VLE phase behavior may be useful for optimum design of a membrane for a separation process.

  3. Adsorption and functionality of fibrinogen on triblock copolymer-coated surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, Stephen Moss

    To assess the influence of the surface microenvironment on the adsorption and biologic activity of fibrinogen, a series of poly(ethylene oxide)/poly(propylene oxide) triblock copolymers were adsorbed to solid, hydrophobic polystyrene-divinylbenzene beads. The copolymers, which were of the form PEOsb{b}PPOsb{a}PEOsb{b}, varied in their hydrophile/lipophile balances (HLB) due only to differences in their PEO chain length (5 to 129 EO units) as the hydrophobic PPO core segment was of fixed length (56 or 69 PO units). The surface coverage of copolymers was determined first and after exposing the beads to fibrinogen or to human plasma, the total amount of protein adsorbed to their surface was measured. The functionality of fibrinogen bound to copolymer-modified beads was assessed in terms of fibrin clot formation and by the adherence of macrophages (THP-1 tumor cells). Enzymatic processing was used to probe the surface orientation of fibrinogen. The copolymers appear to adsorb in an expanded fashion, a conclusion supported by surface pressure-area isotherms of the copolymers spread at the air-water interface. As compared to copolymer-free surfaces, protein adsorption decreases by up to 90% as the PEO chain length of the copolymers increases. The copolymer coatings appear to lower fibrinogen adsorption by limiting the available surface area. On surfaces coated with the hydrophobic versions of the copolymers, the biologic assays demonstrate that fibrinogen is as reactive/coagulable as for surfaces with saturated coverages of fibrin despite that these copolymer-coated surfaces have 60% less fibrinogen adsorbed to them. When adsorbed at the same low surface concentration in the absence of copolymer, fibrinogen is not active. Enzymatic processing of bound fibrinogen suggests that the presence of the copolymers promote the adsorption of the protein in end-on fashion. It is proposed here, that when adsorbed end-on, fibrinogen is functional because its reactive sites are

  4. Synthesis and Characterization of Poly(phthalazinone Ether Nitrile) Copolymers with Hydrophobic Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, L. M.; Liao, G. X.; Liu, C.; Yang, S. S.; Jian, X. G.

    Poly(phthalazinone ether nitrile) (PPEN) block copolymers containing polysiloxane were prepared so as to create a strongly hydrophobic polymer surface. The copolymers were synthesized from eugenol end-capped polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and fluoro-terminated PPEN oligomers by the aromatic nucleophilic substitution polycondensation in the presence of dimethyl sulfoxide/o-dichlorobenzene and K2CO3 as solvents and catalyst, respectively. The resultant copolymers were characterized by FTIR, 1H NMR, and gel permeation chromatography. XPS analysis results indicated that the copolymer film had a very rich PDMS segment surface. Atomic force microscopy further showed that there existed a continuous PDMS phase on the copolymer surface and PPEN as the dispersive particles was dispersed at diameters between 0.1 and 0.3 nm. The enrichment of PDMS in the copolymer surface could be responsible for an increase of surface water repellency (113.4°).

  5. Interaction between PEO-PPO-PEO copolymers and a hexapeptide in aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Jia, Lianwei; Guo, Chen; Xiang, Junfeng; Wang, Ning; Yang, Liangrong; Tang, Yalin; Liu, Huizhou

    2012-01-24

    Interaction between PEO-PPO-PEO copolymers and a hexapeptide, growth hormone releasing peptide-6 (GHRP-6), was investigated by NMR to study the potential use of the copolymers in peptide drug delivery. (1)H NMR and nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY) measurements determined that PO methyl protons interacted with methyl protons of the Ala moiety, aromatic protons of the Trp moiety, and some of the Phe aromatic protons. The Lys moiety and part of the Phe moiety entered the hydrophilic EO environment via hydrogen bonding. PEO-PPO-PEO copolymers and the peptide formed a complex in 1:1 stoichiometry. Binding constants between copolymers and GHRP-6 were determined, and it was indicated that the copolymers containing more EO and PO units will lead to greater affinity with the peptide. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) measurements confirmed the results of NMR experiments. This study indicates that PEO-PPO-PEO copolymers have great potential in delivering peptide drugs.

  6. [Study on photoluminescence of 8-hydroxyquinaldine gallium acrylate and methyl methacrylate copolymer].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zun-hong

    2006-03-01

    A new copolymer of 8-hydroxyquinaldine gallium acrylate and methyl methacrylate was prepared. The composition and properties of the copolymer were characterized by FTIR, UV-Vis, DSC, TG and fluorescence spectra. A strong blue-green photoluminescence, with the peak at 496 nm, was observed for the copolymer/CHCl3 solution. Effect of monomer ratio and concentration on the photoluminescence property of the copolymer was investigated. The results showed that the maximum fluorescence intensity was attained when Ga(Mq)2A: MMA was 1:20, the maximum excitation wavelength is approximately 263 nm when the concentration of the copolymer is under 2 g x L(-1), but the maximum excitation wavelength exceeds 365 nm when the concentration is above 4 g x L(-1). The copolymer was soluble in chloroform, acetone, and DMF at 25 degrees C, so it could be easier to prepare electroluminescent device by spin-coat technology.

  7. Periodic nanostructures from self assembled wedge-type block-copolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, Yan; Sveinbjornsson, Benjamin R.; Grubbs, Robert H.; Weitekamp, Raymond; Miyake, Garret M.; Piunova, Victoria; Daeffler, Christopher Scot

    2015-06-02

    The invention provides a class of wedge-type block copolymers having a plurality of chemically different blocks, at least a portion of which incorporates a wedge group-containing block providing useful properties. For example, use of one or more wedge group-containing blocks in some block copolymers of the invention significantly inhibits chain entanglement and, thus, the present block copolymers materials provide a class of polymer materials capable of efficient molecular self-assembly to generate a range of structures, such as periodic nanostructures and microstructures. Materials of the present invention include copolymers having one or more wedge group-containing blocks, and optionally for some applications copolymers also incorporating one or more polymer side group-containing blocks. The present invention also provides useful methods of making and using wedge-type block copolymers.

  8. Novel pentablock copolymer (PLA-PCL-PEG-PCL-PLA) based nanoparticles for controlled drug delivery: Effect of copolymer compositions on the crystallinity of copolymers and in vitro drug release profile from nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Tamboli, Viral; Mishra, Gyan P; Mitra, Ashim K

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to design novel pentablock copolymers (polylatide-polycaprolactone-polyethylene glycol- polycaprolactone-polylatide) (PLA-PCL-PEG-PCL-PLA) to prepare nanoparticle formulations which provide continuous delivery of steroids over a longer duration with minimal burst effect. Another purpose was to evaluate the effect of poly (L-lactide) (PLLA) or poly (D, L-lactide) (PDLLA) incorporation on crystallinity of pentablock copolymers and in vitro release profile of triamcinolone acetonide (selected as model drug) from nanoparticles. PLA-PCL-PEG-PCL-PLA copolymers with different block ratio of PCL/PLA segment were synthesized. Release of triamcinolone acetonide from nanoparticles was significantly affected by crystallinity of the copolymers. Burst release of triamcinolone acetonide from nanoparticles was significantly minimized with incorporation of proper ratio of PDLLA in the existing triblock (PCL-PEG-PCL) copolymer. Moreover, pentablock copolymer based nanoparticles exhibited continuous release of triamcinolone acetonide. Pentablock copolymer based nanoparticles can be utilized to achieve continuous near zero-order delivery of corticosteroids from nanoparticles without any burst effect.

  9. Novel pentablock copolymer (PLA-PCL-PEG-PCL-PLA) based nanoparticles for controlled drug delivery: Effect of copolymer compositions on the crystallinity of copolymers and in vitro drug release profile from nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Tamboli, Viral; Mishra, Gyan P.; Mitra, Ashim K.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to design novel pentablock copolymers (polylatide-polycaprolactone-polyethylene glycol- polycaprolactone-polylatide) (PLA-PCL-PEG-PCL-PLA) to prepare nanoparticle formulations which provide continuous delivery of steroids over a longer duration with minimal burst effect. Another purpose was to evaluate the effect of poly (L-lactide) (PLLA) or poly (D, L-lactide) (PDLLA) incorporation on crystallinity of pentablock copolymers and in vitro release profile of triamcinolone acetonide (selected as model drug) from nanoparticles. PLA-PCL-PEG-PCL-PLA copolymers with different block ratio of PCL/PLA segment were synthesized. Release of triamcinolone acetonide from nanoparticles was significantly affected by crystallinity of the copolymers. Burst release of triamcinolone acetonide from nanoparticles was significantly minimized with incorporation of proper ratio of PDLLA in the existing triblock (PCL-PEG-PCL) copolymer. Moreover, pentablock copolymer based nanoparticles exhibited continuous release of triamcinolone acetonide. Pentablock copolymer based nanoparticles can be utilized to achieve continuous near zero-order delivery of corticosteroids from nanoparticles without any burst effect. PMID:23626400

  10. Fuel Burn Estimation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatterji, Gano

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: Validated the fuel estimation procedure using flight test data. A good fuel model can be created if weight and fuel data are available. Error in assumed takeoff weight results in similar amount of error in the fuel estimate. Fuel estimation error bounds can be determined.

  11. Aviation fuels outlook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Momenthy, A. M.

    1980-01-01

    Options for satisfying the future demand for commercial jet fuels are analyzed. It is concluded that the most effective means to this end are to attract more refiners to the jet fuel market and encourage development of processes to convert oil shale and coal to transportation fuels. Furthermore, changing the U.S. refineries fuel specification would not significantly alter jet fuel availability.

  12. 146. FUEL LINE TO SKID 2 (FUEL LOADER) IN FUEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    146. FUEL LINE TO SKID 2 (FUEL LOADER) IN FUEL CONTROL ROOM (215), LSB (BLDG. 751). LIQUID NITROGEN/HELIUM HEAT EXCHANGER ON RIGHT. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  13. Copolymers for Drag Reduction in Marine Propulsion: New Molecular Structures with Enhanced Effectiveness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-31

    Meeting, Washington, DC, August 1992. "Synthesis and Solution Characterization of Cationic, Hydrophobically-Modified Acrylamide Copolymers ," Y. Chang and...Mississippi Academy of Sciences, Biloxi, MS, March 13, 1992. "Synthesis and Solution Characterization of Hydrophobically-Modified Acrylamide Copolymers ," Y...Hydrophobically-Modified Acrylamide Copolymers ," Y. Chang and C. L. McCormick, submitted April 1992 for presentation at the National ACS Meeting, Washington, DC

  14. Styrene-butadiene-styrene Tri-block Copolymers Modified wit Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxanes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-31

    morphology.1-6 Polymer nano -composites are a new and active research area in the field of block copolymers. Block copolymers reinforced by various nano -sized...fillers have been prepared and studied; layered silicates-based nano -composites have drawn the most attention thus far. 7- 9 Although domain...morphology is not strongly influenced by the blending of layered- silicates, these nano -reinforced block copolymers have shown promising property enhancements

  15. Effect of sequence features on assembly of spider silk block copolymers.

    PubMed

    Tokareva, Olena S; Lin, Shangchao; Jacobsen, Matthew M; Huang, Wenwen; Rizzo, Daniel; Li, David; Simon, Marc; Staii, Cristian; Cebe, Peggy; Wong, Joyce Y; Buehler, Markus J; Kaplan, David L

    2014-06-01

    Bioengineered spider silk block copolymers were studied to understand the effect of protein chain length and sequence chemistry on the formation of secondary structure and materials assembly. Using a combination of in vitro protein design and assembly studies, we demonstrate that silk block copolymers possessing multiple repetitive units self-assemble into lamellar microstructures. Additionally, the study provides insights into the assembly behavior of spider silk block copolymers in concentrated salt solutions.

  16. Biological materials: Part A. tuning LCST of raft copolymers and gold/copolymer hybrid nanoparticles and Part B. Biobased nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ning

    The research described in this dissertation is comprised of two major parts. The first part studied the effects of asymmetric amphiphilic end groups on the thermo-response of diblock copolymers of (oligo/di(ethylene glycol) methyl ether (meth)acrylates, OEGA/DEGMA) and the hybrid nanoparticles of these copolymers with a gold nanoparticle core. Placing the more hydrophilic end group on the more hydrophilic block significantly increased the cloud point compared to a similar copolymer composition with the end group placement reversed. For a given composition, the cloud point was shifted by as much as 28 °C depending on the placement of end groups. This is a much stronger effect than either changing the hydrophilic/hydrophobic block ratio or replacing the hydrophilic acrylate monomer with the equivalent methacrylate monomer. The temperature range of the coil-globule transition was also altered. Binding these diblock copolymers to a gold core decreased the cloud point by 5-15 °C and narrowed the temperature range of the coil-globule transition. The effects were more pronounced when the gold core was bound to the less hydrophilic block. Given the limited numbers of monomers that are approved safe for in vivo use, employing amphiphilic end group placement is a useful tool to tune a thermo-response without otherwise changing the copolymer composition. The second part of the dissertation investigated the production of value-added nanomaterials from two biorefinery "wastes": lignin and peptidoglycan. Different solvents and spinning methods (melt-, wet-, and electro-spinning) were tested to make lignin/cellulose blended and carbonized fibers. Only electro-spinning yielded fibers having a small enough diameter for efficient carbonization (≤ 5-10 μm), but it was concluded that cellulose was not a suitable binder. Cellulose lignin fibers before carbonization showed up to 90% decrease in moisture uptake compared to pure cellulose. Peptidoglycan (a bacterial cell wall

  17. Influence of Copolymer Composition on Morphology Development in Blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishanmoorthy, Jayaraman

    2005-03-01

    Blends involving a crystallizable polyester [poly(hexamethylene adipate) (PHMA)] with an amorphous polyether has been studied. These systems have hydroxyl end groups which can react with diisocyanate in the presence of nucleophilic catalysts. These functionalized (isocyanate-terminated) polymer blends form the fundamental structure of polyurethanes. These prepolymers can then be cured at a later stage due to ambient water molecules. Thus the migration of water molecules through the morphology formed needs to be understood well. The morphology development (i.e. phase separation occurring concurrently with crystallization) of nascent polymer blends has been characterized. The morphology of functionalized polymers exhibit very different kinetics due to the presence of the small amount of copolymers formed. The ultimate morphology formed can be ``tuned'' by varying blend composition and crystallization conditions. The structures of prepolymers will be reported. The presence of this copolymer can significantly alter the structural transformation in either binary or ternary blends.

  18. Magnetic alignment of block copolymer microdomains by intrinsic chain anisotropy

    DOE PAGES

    Rokhlenko, Yekaterina; Yager, Kevin G.; Gopinadhan, Manesh; ...

    2015-12-18

    We examine the role of intrinsic chain susceptibility anisotropy in magnetic field directed self-assembly of a block copolymer using in situ x-ray scattering. Alignment of a lamellar mesophase is observed on cooling across the disorder-order transition with the resulting orientational order inversely proportional to the cooling rate. We discuss the origin of the susceptibility anisotropy, Δχ, that drives alignment and calculate its magnitude using coarse-grained molecular dynamics to sample conformations of surface-tethered chains, finding Δχ ≈ 2×10–8. From field-dependent scattering data, we estimate that grains of ≈ 1.2 μm are present during alignment. Furthermore, these results demonstrate that intrinsic anisotropymore » is sufficient to support strong field-induced mesophase alignment and suggest a versatile strategy for field control of orientational order in block copolymers.« less

  19. Evaluation of copolymer conformation states of vinylchloride-maleic anhydride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, A. A.

    2016-11-01

    The quantum-chemical analysis and experimental study of alternating vinylchloride-maleic anhydride (VC-MA) copolymer macromolecules with polymerization degree 600 have been carried out. The VC-MA copolymer in solvents of different nature undergoes cycloanhydride-enol tautomerism and the macromolecules take the form of corrugated sticks according to viscometric measurements. The computer simulation has shown that the segment with polymerization degree n < 18 (model compound) is not a helix and rolls while if n = 18 the conformations get distorted. The model molecule optimal structure comprising a random sequence of alternating units of comonomers and their enol tautomers with minimal system total energy has been found by the semiempirical parametric method PM3.

  20. Magnetic alignment of block copolymer microdomains by intrinsic chain anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Rokhlenko, Yekaterina; Yager, Kevin G.; Gopinadhan, Manesh; Osuji, Chinedum O.; Zhang, Kai; O'Hern, Corey S.; Larson, Steven R.; Gopalan, Padma; Majewski, Pawel W.

    2015-12-18

    We examine the role of intrinsic chain susceptibility anisotropy in magnetic field directed self-assembly of a block copolymer using in situ x-ray scattering. Alignment of a lamellar mesophase is observed on cooling across the disorder-order transition with the resulting orientational order inversely proportional to the cooling rate. We discuss the origin of the susceptibility anisotropy, Δχ, that drives alignment and calculate its magnitude using coarse-grained molecular dynamics to sample conformations of surface-tethered chains, finding Δχ ≈ 2×10–8. From field-dependent scattering data, we estimate that grains of ≈ 1.2 μm are present during alignment. Furthermore, these results demonstrate that intrinsic anisotropy is sufficient to support strong field-induced mesophase alignment and suggest a versatile strategy for field control of orientational order in block copolymers.

  1. Effect of chain microstructure on physical properties of olefin copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poon, Benjamin Chunman

    The effect of chain microstructure on various physical properties was studied in polyethylene and polypropylene copolymers. Adhesion of Ziegler-Natta (ZNPE) and metallocene (mPE) catalyzed ethylene-octene copolymers to polypropylene (PP) were studied by measuring the delamination toughness G of coextruded microlayers using the T-peel test. It was found that the heterogeneous ZNPE exhibited poor adhesion to polypropylene. It was proposed that the low molecular weight, highly branched ZNPE fractions migrate to the interface to form an amorphous layer. The homogeneous mPE with the same short chain branch content showed very high G. Blending ZNPE with an mPE increased G. Atomic force microscopy revealed that blending mPE into ZNPE reduced or eliminated the amorphous interfacial layer. It was hypothesized that mPE increased miscibility of low molecular weight, highly branched fractions of ZNPE and prevented their segregation at the interface. The solid state structure and properties of homogeneous propylene-octene copolymers were examined. Based on the combined observations from melting behavior, dynamic mechanical response, morphology with primarily atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and tensile deformation, a classification scheme with 4 distinct categories is proposed. The homopolymer with 60 wt% crystallinity constitutes Type IV. It is characterized by large alpha-positive spherulite. Copolymers with up to 5 mol% octene, with at least 35 wt% crystallinity, are classified as Type III. They crystallize as alpha-positive spherulites that are smaller than the homopolymer. Both Type IV and Type III materials exhibit thermoplastic behavior. Copolymers classified as Type II have between 5 and 10 mol% octene with crystallinity in the range of 20--35%. Type II materials have smaller impinging spherulites than Type III copolymers and they are negative. The materials in this category have plastomeric behavior. Type I copolymers have more than 10 mol% octene and less

  2. Supramolecular association of a triblock copolymer in water.

    PubMed

    Gente, Giacomo; Iovino, Alessandro; La Mesa, Camillo

    2004-06-15

    Solutions of a poly(oxyethylene)-poly(oxypropylene)-poly(oxyethylene) triblock copolymer, Pluronic F(68), were investigated in isothermal and isopleth mode. Surface tension, sigma, dynamic shear viscosity, n(omega), QELS experiments, and volumetric, colligative, and refractive index measurements characterize the system behavior in a wide range of compositions and temperatures. The thermodynamic properties associated with micelle formation, above the critical micellar temperature, were determined by different experimental methods. The large entropic contributions to the system stability are ascribed to significant dehydration of the oxypropylene portion in the copolymer, consequent to micelle formation. Temperature has a pronounced effect on the association features of F(68). It gives rise to abrupt changes in QELS and rheological properties when the critical micellar temperature is approached. Such effects are explained in terms of thermally driven micellization processes and interconnection between micelles.

  3. Preirradiation grafting of ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer resins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ringrose, B. J.; Kronfli, E.

    1999-07-01

    Acrylic acid was graft copolymerised on to EVA powdered resins containing 9%, 18% and 28% vinyl acetate. A preirradiation grafting method was used and the effect on graft level of varying the parameters of gamma irradiation dose (2-50 kGy), dose rate (0.5-5 kGy h -1), monomer concentration (2.5-25%) and grafting time (1-4 h) and temperature (35-98°C) was investigated. The graft copolymer resins were converted into film and characterised in terms of their hydrophilicity and electrolytic resistance in alkaline solutions. Depending on the vinyl acetate content and rheological properties of the base EVA copolymer, high graft weight resins can be converted into semipermeable films suitable for a range of applications including battery separator membranes and topical medical dressings.

  4. Preparation of diarylethene copolymers and their photoinduced refractive index change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, S. Y.; Yoo, M.; Shin, H.-W.; Ahn, K.-H.; Kim, Y.-R.; Kim, E.

    2003-01-01

    Diarylethene copolymers were synthesized from 1-(6 '-vinyl-2 '-methylbenzo[ b]thiophene-3 '-yl)-2-(2 ''-methylbenzo [ b]thiophene-3 ''-yl)hexafluorocyclopentene (VMBTF6) and 1-[6 '-(4 '''-vinylbenzoyl)-2 '-methylbenzo[ b]thiophene-3 '-yl]-2-(2 ''-methylbenzo[ b]thiophene-3 ''-yl)hexafluorocyclopentene (VBMBTF6) via living free radical techniques using stable TEMPO derivatives. The diarylethene content was controlled by the feed ratio of diarylethene derivatives and styrene. Transparent photochromic polymer films were prepared from the diarylethene copolymers with narrow molecular weight dispersion (PD˜1.3) by spin coating method. Photoinduced refractive index changes (Δ nTE) of the polymer films, with 25 mol% of diaryethene content, accompanied by the photochromic change were determined as 0.0009 and 0.0030 for poly(styrene- ran -VMBTF6) and poly(styrene- ran-VBMBTF6), respectively.

  5. Graft copolymers of natural fibers for green composites.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Vijay Kumar; Thakur, Manju Kumari; Gupta, Raju Kumar

    2014-04-15

    In the present study, free radical induced graft-copolymerization of natural cellulosic polymers (Grewia optiva) has been carried out to develop the novel materials meant for green composites and many other applications. During the graft copolymer synthesis diverse reaction parameters that significantly affect the percentage of grafting were optimized. The structural, thermal and physico-chemical changes in the natural cellulosic polymers based graft copolymers have been ascertained with scanning electron micrography, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and swelling studies. The swelling studies of the grafted cellulosic polymers have been carried out in different solvents to assess the possible applicability of these natural polymers. Green composites were also prepared using raw/grafted cellulosic polymers. It has been found that grafted polymers (Grewia optiva) based green composites gives better tensile properties than the parent natural cellulosic polymers based composites.

  6. Charged Diblock Copolymers at Interfaces: Micelle Dissociation Upon Compression

    SciTech Connect

    Theodoly, O.; Checco, A; Muller, P

    2010-01-01

    We use grazing incidence X-ray scattering to study the surface micellization of charged amphiphilic diblock copolymers poly(styrene-block-acrylic acid) at the air-water interface. Scattering interference peaks are consistent with the formation of hexagonally packed micelles. The remarkable increase of inter-micelle distance upon compression is explained by a dissociation of micelles into a brush. Hence, surface micelles reorganize, whereas micelles of the same copolymers in solutions are 'frozen'. We show indeed that the energetic cost of unimer extraction from micelles is much lower for surface than for solution. Finally, a model combining electrostatic interactions and micelle/brush equilibrium explains surface pressure vs. area without free parameters.

  7. Recent advances in PEG-PLA block copolymer nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ren Zhong; Zeng, Zhao Wu; Zhou, Guang Lin; Wang, Jun Jie; Li, Fan Zhu; Wang, An Ming

    2010-11-26

    Due to their small particle size and large and modifiable surface, nanoparticles have unique advantages compared with other drug carriers. As a research focus in recent years, polyethylene glycol-polylactic acid (PEG-PLA) block copolymer and its end-group derivative nanoparticles can enhance the drug loading of hydrophobic drugs, reduce the burst effect, avoid being engulfed by phagocytes, increase the circulation time of drugs in blood, and improve bioavailability. Additionally, due to their smaller particle size and modified surface, these nanoparticles can accumulate in inflammation or target locations to enhance drug efficacy and reduce toxicity. Recent advances in PEG-PLA block copolymer nanoparticles, including the synthesis of PEG-PLA and the preparation of PEG-PLA nanoparticles, were introduced in this study, in particular the drug release and modifiable characteristics of PEG-PLA nanoparticles and their application in pharmaceutical preparations.

  8. Formulation and Characterization of Epoxy Resin Copolymer for Graphite Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keck, F. L.

    1983-01-01

    Maximum char yield was obtained with a copolymer containing 25% mol fraction DGEBE and 75% mol fraction DGEBA (Epon 828). To achieve the high values (above 40%), a large quantity of catalyst (trimethoxyboroxine) was necessary. Although a graphite laminate 1/8" thick was successfully fabricated, the limited life of the catalyzed epoxy copolymer system precludes commercial application. Char yields of 45% can be achieved with phenolic cured epoxy systems as indicated by data generated under NAS2-10207 contract. A graphite laminate using this type of resin system was fabricated for comparison purposes. The resultant laminate was easier to process and because the graphite prepreg is more stable, the fabrication process could readily be adapted to commercial applications.

  9. Block Copolymer Membranes for Efficient Capture of a Chemotherapy Drug

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the use of block copolymer membranes for an emerging application, “drug capture”. The polymer is incorporated in a new class of biomedical devices, referred to as ChemoFilter, which is an image-guided temporarily deployable endovascular device designed to increase the efficacy of chemotherapy-based cancer treatment. We show that block copolymer membranes consisting of functional sulfonated polystyrene end blocks and a structural polyethylene middle block (S-SES) are capable of capturing doxorubicin, a chemotherapy drug. We focus on the relationship between morphology of the membrane in the ChemoFilter device and efficacy of doxorubicin capture measured in vitro. Using small-angle X-ray scattering and cryogenic scanning transmission electron microscopy, we discovered that rapid doxorubicin capture is associated with the presence of water-rich channels in the lamellar-forming S-SES membranes in aqueous environment. PMID:27547493

  10. Fluctuations/Correlations in Symmetric Diblock Copolymers: Simulations and Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zong, Jing; Yang, Delian; Wang

    2012-02-01

    Modeling symmetric diblock copolymers as discrete Gaussian chains with soft, finite-range repulsions as commonly used in dissipative-particle dynamics simulations, we have performed fast off-lattice Monte Carlo (FOMC) simulations1 in a canonical ensemble with variable box lengths to study the thermodynamic and structural properties of both the disordered and lamellar phases. Our FOMC results for the disordered phase are further compared, without any parameter-fitting, to those from the reference interaction site model (RISM) and the polymer reference interaction site model (PRISM) theories, as well as the Gaussian fluctuation theory, based on the same model system. Such direct comparisons unambiguously and quantitatively reveal the consequences of various theoretical approximations and the validity of these theories in describing the fluctuations/correlations in disordered diblock copolymers. [4pt] [1] Q. Wang and Y. Yin, J. Chem. Phys., 130, 104903 (2009).

  11. Magnetic Alignment of Block Copolymer Microdomains by Intrinsic Chain Anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rokhlenko, Yekaterina; Gopinadhan, Manesh; Osuji, Chinedum O.; Zhang, Kai; O'Hern, Corey S.; Larson, Steven R.; Gopalan, Padma; Majewski, Paweł W.; Yager, Kevin G.

    2015-12-01

    We examine the role of intrinsic chain susceptibility anisotropy in magnetic field directed self-assembly of a block copolymer using in situ x-ray scattering. Alignment of a lamellar mesophase is observed on cooling across the disorder-order transition with the resulting orientational order inversely proportional to the cooling rate. We discuss the origin of the susceptibility anisotropy, Δ χ , that drives alignment and calculate its magnitude using coarse-grained molecular dynamics to sample conformations of surface-tethered chains, finding Δ χ ≈2 ×1 0-8. From field-dependent scattering data, we estimate that grains of ≈1.2 μ m are present during alignment. These results demonstrate that intrinsic anisotropy is sufficient to support strong field-induced mesophase alignment and suggest a versatile strategy for field control of orientational order in block copolymers.

  12. Stabilization of Bicontinuous Phases in Diblock Copolymer Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escobedo, Fernando; Martinez-Veracoechea, Francisco

    2009-03-01

    We used a coarse-grained description of the copolymer chains (i.e., dissipative particle dynamics fluid), together with continuum-space Monte Carlo and Molecular Dynamics methods, to study systems of diblock copolymers melts that have been ``filled'' with selective additives (i.e., homopolymer, and nanoparticles). Approximate phase boundaries were found via free-energy calculations. We focus on the stabilization of bi-continuous phases and the strikingly different phase behavior observed when the nature of the selective filler is changed. Our results elucidate the origins of the packing frustration that limits the viability of the gyroid, double-diamond, and plumber's nightmare phases and provide insights for overcoming it. Attention is also focused on directly determining the areas of phase diagram where macro- phase separation occurs. We compare the particle-based simulation results with the results obtained by means of self- consistent filed theory calculations.

  13. Supramolecular self-assembly of conjugated diblock copolymers.

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, H.; You, W.; Jiang, P.; Yu, L.; Wang, H. H.; Univ. of Chicago

    2004-02-20

    This paper describes the synthesis and characterization of a novel series of copolymers with different lengths of oligo(phenylene vinylene) (OPV) as the rod block, and poly(propylene oxide) as the coil block. Detailed characterization by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) revealed the strong tendency of these copolymers to self-assemble into cylindrical micelles in solution and as-casted films on a nanometer scale. These micelles have a cylindrical OPV core surrounded by a poly(propylene glycol) (PPG) corona and readily align with each other to form parallel packed structures when mica is used as the substrate. A packing model has been proposed for these cylindrical micelles.

  14. MEAN FIELD AND MONTE CARLO MODELING OF MULTIBLOCK COPOLYMERS

    SciTech Connect

    K. RASMUSSEN; ET AL

    2001-01-01

    The authors discuss and apply extensions needed to treat multiblock copolymers within the mean field theoretical framework for microphase separation in diblock copolymer metals, originally due to Leibler. The mean field calculations are complemented by lattice Monte Carlo realizations using the bond fluctuation model. They find that the microphase separation transition occurs at larger {sub {chi}}N as the number of blocks in increased beyond two (i.e., beyond diblock), and that the characteristic length scale of the emerging morphology decreases as the number of blocks increases. The latter prediction is in qualitative agreement with published experimental results due to Sontak and co-workers for model multiblock poly(styrene-isoprene) systems and recent results due to Hjelm and co-workers for a segmented poly(ester-urethane) relevant to Los Alamos interests. Additionally, the mean field predictions and bond fluctuation realizations yield consistent results.

  15. Barite formation in the presence of a commercial copolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Agudo, Cristina; Putnis, Christine; Ruiz-Agudo, Encarnacion; Putnis, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    Fluid composition can significantly modify the mechanisms of mineral formation. Particularly, the presence of organic additives in the aqueous media has been shown to alter the precipitation of minerals substantially (e.g. calcium carbonate, barium carbonate and barium sulfate). Despite the numerous studies dealing with barite precipitation and the influence of organic additives (e.g. Benton et al. 1993, Qi et al., 2000, Wang and Cölfen, 2006, Mavredaki et al., 2011), the details of the mechanism of barite formation in the presence of organic additives, particularly at the early stages of this process, are yet to be fully resolved. Here, we present observations on the initial stages of barite formation from aqueous solutions, as well as the alterations induced by a commercial copolymer (maleic acid/allyl sulfonic acid copolymer with phosphonate groups), commonly used as a scale inhibitor in oil recovery. Most synthetic commercial additives contain the same functional groups (e.g. carboxylate, phosphonate and/or sulfonate groups). Thus our work may help to understand the mechanism by which copolymers modify crystallization processes and aid in the selection of the most appropriate inhibitors for hindering or controlling barite scale formation. Barite scaling is one of the main problems in many industrial processes (such as, paper-making, chemical manufacturing, cement operations, off-shore oil extraction, geothermal energy production). Using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), we show that barite growth is significantly influenced by the presence of the copolymer. In its absence, barium sulfate growth occurs by 2D island nucleation and spreading. The addition of small amounts (0.1 ppm and 0.5 ppm) of the copolymer enhances 2D nucleation but blocks growth. Just 1 ppm of inhibitor is enough to block barite nucleation and growth by adsorption of a copolymer layer onto the barite surface. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was also used to gain better insights into the

  16. Room-Temperature-Cured Copolymers for Lithium Battery Gel Electrolytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Mary Ann B.; Tigelaar, Dean M.

    2009-01-01

    Polyimide-PEO copolymers (PEO signifies polyethylene oxide) that have branched rod-coil molecular structures and that can be cured into film form at room temperature have been invented for use as gel electrolytes for lithium-ion electric-power cells. These copolymers offer an alternative to previously patented branched rod-coil polyimides that have been considered for use as polymer electrolytes and that must be cured at a temperature of 200 C. In order to obtain sufficient conductivity for lithium ions in practical applications at and below room temperature, it is necessary to imbibe such a polymer with a suitable carbonate solvent or ionic liquid, but the high-temperature cure makes it impossible to incorporate and retain such a liquid within the polymer molecular framework. By eliminating the high-temperature cure, the present invention makes it possible to incorporate the required liquid.

  17. Fuel extender

    SciTech Connect

    Dorn, G.K.; Gilbert, H.A.

    1989-02-21

    An efficient and cost competitive fuel extender liquid is described for blending with lead-free gasoline as an additive thereto in a maximum amount of up to about 35% thereof with 65% by volume of the gasoline in a blended mixture wherein. The content of the extender in the resultant fuel as proportioned on the basis of its thus representative maximum content consists essentially of: naphtha X as represented by C/sub 4/, C/sub 5/ and C/sub 6/ hydrocarbons having a Reid vapor pressure of about 8.5 to 9.6 per ASTM, D323 test procedure and an initial distillation point of about 101/sup 0/F. and an end point of about 280/sup 0/F. within a range of about 10 to 25% by volume, about 3.8 to 6.0% by volume of anhydrous ethanol, a stabilizing amount of a water repellent of the class consisting of ethyl acetate and methyl isotubyl ketone; and about 4 to 10.5% by volume of aromatics benzene and toluene, of benzene and xylene or of benzene with toluene and xylene; the extender having a specific gravity substantially comparable with that of the lead-free gasoline to which it is to be added and having phase stability in the presence of water when mixed with the gasoline.

  18. Toward Strong Thermoplastic Elastomers with Asymmetric Miktoarm Block Copolymer Architectures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-05

    Road, Berkeley, California 94720, United States *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: Thermoplastic elastomers ( TPEs ) are designed by embedding discrete...glassy or semicrystalline domains in an elastomeric matrix. Typical styrenic-based amorphous TPEs are made of linear ABA-type triblock copolymers...are a dominant category in the family of commercial thermoplastic elastomers ( TPEs ). Typical examples are polystyrene−poly(butadiene)−polystyrene (SBS

  19. New Fluorinated and Sulfonated Block Copolymers Final Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-23

    serves as a plasticizer even in the hydrophobic FI domain. Similar glass transition reduction effects observed in other ionomer systems have been...Sulfonated Ionomer : Thermal Annealing and Solvent Effects.” American Physical Society National Meeting. Los Angeles, CA. March 21, 2005. 4. Akinbode...optimizing morphology and ultimately properties, membranes have been cast from relatively inexpensive block-copolymer ionomers of fluorinated poly

  20. Hybrid, elastomeric hydrogels crosslinked by multifunctional block copolymer micelles

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Longxi; Liu, Chao; Zhu, Jiahua; Pochan, Darrin J.; Jia, Xinqiao

    2010-01-01

    Amphiphlic block copolymers consisting of hydrophilic, poly(acrylic acid) randomly decorated with acrylate groups and hydrophobic, rubbery poly(n-butyl acrylate) self-assembled into well-defined micelles with an average diameter of ~21 nm. Radical polymerization of acrylamide in the presence of the crosslinkable micelles gave rise to hybrid, elastomeric hydrogels whose mechancial properties can be readily tuned by varying the BCM concentration. PMID:21278815

  1. Beyond Orientation: The Impact of Electric Fields on Block Copolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Liedel, Clemens; Boker, A.; Pester, Christian; Ruppel, Markus A; Urban, Volker S

    2012-01-01

    Since the first report on electric field-induced alignment of block copolymers (BCPs) in 1991, electric fields have been shown not only to direct the orientation of BCP nanostructures in bulk, solution, and thin films, but also to reversibly induce order-order transitions, affect the order-disorder transition temperature, and control morphologies' dimensions with nanometer precision. Theoretical and experimental results of the past years in this very interesting field of research are summarized and future perspectives are outlined.

  2. Roll-on perfume compositions containing polyoxybutylene-polyoxyethylene copolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Schmolka, I.R.

    1987-05-26

    This patent describes a liquid roll-on composition containing, in weight percent based upon the total composition weight, from 5 percent to 15 percent of a perfume oil, from 25 percent to 40 percent of a volatile alcohol, from 10 percent to 60 percent water, and from 10 percent to 30 percent of a nonionic polyether surfactant. The improvement comprises employing as the nonionic polyether surfactant a cogeneric polyoxybutylene-polyoxyethylene block copolymer.

  3. Tin-Free Direct C-H Arylation Polymerization for High Photovoltaic Efficiency Conjugated Copolymers.

    PubMed

    Dudnik, Alexander S; Aldrich, Thomas J; Eastham, Nicholas D; Chang, Robert P H; Facchetti, Antonio; Marks, Tobin J

    2016-12-07

    A new and highly regioselective direct C-H arylation polymerization (DARP) methodology enables the reproducible and sustainable synthesis of high-performance π-conjugated photovoltaic copolymers. Unlike traditional Stille polycondensation methods for producing photovoltaic copolymers, this DARP protocol eliminates the need for environmentally harmful, toxic organotin compounds. This DARP protocol employs low loadings of commercially available catalyst components, Pd2(dba)3·CHCl3 (0.5 mol%) and P(2-MeOPh)3 (2 mol%), sterically tuned carboxylic acid additives, and an environmentally friendly solvent, 2-methyltetrahydrofuran. Using this DARP protocol, several representative copolymers are synthesized in excellent yields and high molecular masses. The DARP-derived copolymers are benchmarked versus Stille-derived counterparts by close comparison of optical, NMR spectroscopic, and electrochemical properties, all of which indicate great chemical similarity and no significant detectable structural defects in the DARP copolymers. The DARP- and Stille-derived copolymer and fullerene blend microstructural properties and morphologies are characterized with AFM, TEM, and XRD and are found to be virtually indistinguishable. Likewise, the charge generation, recombination, and transport characteristics of the fullerene blend films are found to be identical. For the first time, polymer solar cells fabricated using DARP-derived copolymers exhibit solar cell performances rivalling or exceeding those achieved with Stille-derived materials. For the DARP copolymer PBDTT-FTTE, the power conversion efficiency of 8.4% is a record for a DARP copolymer.

  4. Sulfonated acrylamide copolymers as pseudo-stationary phases in electrokinetic chromatography.

    PubMed

    Shi, W; Watson, C J; Palmer, C P

    2001-01-05

    Sulfonated copolymers were synthesized, characterized and used as separation media in electrokinetic chromatography. The polymers used were synthesized from AMPS (2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid) and LMAm (lauryl methacrylamide) in different mole ratios (from 100:0 to 60:40). Electrophoretic mobilities and methylene selectivities were calculated, which showed the expected correlation with the monomer ratios. The chemical selectivities for the separation of nine solutes by the copolymers were compared with that of sodium lauryl sulfate micelles, showing significant differences. No significant difference in chemical selectivities was observed for copolymers with different monomer ratios. No significant change of hydrophobic microdomain of copolymers was found in background buffers with different ionic strength values, based on the investigation of the retention factors, methylene selectivities and polymer effective mobilities. No change of hydrophobic microdomain of the copolymer solutions was found at copolymer concentrations from 0.17 to 3% (w/v), however, plots of k' versus polymer concentration suggested a different copolymer phase at lower concentrations (from 0 to 0.1%, w/v) from that at higher concentrations (from 0.17 to 3%, w/v). The copolymer with AMPS-LMAm (80:20) could be chosen as optimum copolymer as far as the methylene selectivity, peak symmetry and polymer mobility were concerned.

  5. Self-assembly of block copolymers on topographically patterned polymeric substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, Thomas P.; Park, Soojin; Lee, Dong Hyun; Xu, Ting

    2016-05-10

    Highly-ordered block copolymer films are prepared by a method that includes forming a polymeric replica of a topographically patterned crystalline surface, forming a block copolymer film on the topographically patterned surface of the polymeric replica, and annealing the block copolymer film. The resulting structures can be used in a variety of different applications, including the fabrication of high density data storage media. The ability to use flexible polymers to form the polymeric replica facilitates industrial-scale processes utilizing the highly-ordered block copolymer films.

  6. In situ gelling stimuli-sensitive block copolymer hydrogels for drug delivery.

    PubMed

    He, Chaoliang; Kim, Sung Wan; Lee, Doo Sung

    2008-05-08

    Stimuli-sensitive block copolymer hydrogels, which are reversible polymer networks formed by physical interactions and exhibit a sol-gel phase-transition in response to external stimuli, have great potential in biomedical and pharmaceutical applications, especially in site-specific controlled drug-delivery systems. The drug may be mixed with a polymer solution in vitro and the drug-loaded hydrogel can form in situ after the in vivo administration, such as injection; therefore, stimuli-sensitive block copolymer hydrogels have many advantages, such as simple drug formulation and administration procedures, no organic solvent, site-specificity, a sustained drug release behavior, less systemic toxicity and ability to deliver both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs. Among the stimuli in the biomedical applications, temperature and pH are the most popular physical and chemical stimuli, respectively. The temperature- and/or pH-sensitive block copolymer hydrogels for biomedical applications have been extensively developed in the past decade. This review focuses on recent development of the preparation and application for drug delivery of the block copolymer hydrogels that respond to temperature, pH or both stimuli, including poly(N-substituted acrylamide)-based block copolymers, poloxamers and their derivatives, poly(ethylene glycol)-polyester block copolymers, polyelectrolyte-based block copolymers and the polyelectrolyte-modified thermo-sensitive block copolymers. In addition, the hydrogels based on other stimuli-sensitive block copolymers are discussed.

  7. Controlling effective interactions and spatial dispersion of nanoparticles in multiblock copolymer melts

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, Debapriya; Schweizer, Kenneth S.

    2015-06-04

    The microscopic Polymer Reference Interaction Site Model theory is employed to study, for the first time, the effective interactions, spatial organization, and miscibility of dilute spherical nanoparticles in non-microphase separating, chemically heterogeneous, compositionally symmetric AB multiblock copolymer melts of varying monomer sequence or architecture. The dependence of nanoparticle wettability on copolymer sequence and chemistry results in interparticle potentials-of-mean force that are qualitatively different from homopolymers. An important prediction is the ability to improve nanoparticle dispersion via judicious choice of block length and monomer adsorption-strengths which control both local surface segregation and chain connectivity induced packing constraints and frustration. The degree of dispersion also depends strongly on nanoparticle diameter relative to the block contour length. Small particles in copolymers with longer block lengths experience a more homopolymer-like environment which renders them relatively insensitive to copolymer chemical heterogeneity and hinders dispersion. Larger particles (sufficiently larger than the monomer diameter) in copolymers of relatively short block lengths provide better dispersion than either a homopolymer or random copolymer. The theory also predicts a novel widening of the miscibility window for large particles upon increasing the overall molecular weight of copolymers composed of relatively long blocks. The influence of a positive chi-parameter in the pure copolymer melt is briefly studied. Quantitative application to fullerenes in specific copolymers of experimental interest is performed, and miscibility predictions are made.

  8. 21 CFR 175.360 - Vinylidene chloride copolymer coatings for nylon film.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... vinylidene chloride copolymers produced by copolymerizing vinylidene chloride with methyl methacrylate and/or 2-sulfoethyl methacrylate, or with methyl methacrylate and/or 2-sulfoethyl methacrylate...

  9. 21 CFR 175.360 - Vinylidene chloride copolymer coatings for nylon film.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... vinylidene chloride copolymers produced by copolymerizing vinylidene chloride with methyl methacrylate and/or 2-sulfoethyl methacrylate, or with methyl methacrylate and/or 2-sulfoethyl methacrylate...

  10. Molecular architecture of electroactive and biodegradable copolymers composed of polylactide and carboxyl-capped aniline trimer.

    PubMed

    Guo, Baolin; Finne-Wistrand, Anna; Albertsson, Ann-Christine

    2010-04-12

    Two-, four-, and six-armed branched copolymers with electroactive and biodegradable properties were synthesized by coupling reactions between poly(l-lactides) (PLLAs) with different architecture and carboxyl-capped aniline trimer (CCAT). The aniline oligomer CCAT was prepared from amino-capped aniline trimer and succinic anhydride. FT-IR, NMR, and SEC analyses confirmed the structure of the branched copolymers. UV-vis spectra and cyclic voltammetry of CCAT and copolymer solution showed good electroactive properties, similar to those of polyaniline. The water contact angle of the PLLAs was the highest, followed by the undoped copolymer and the doped copolymers. The values of doped four-armed copolymers were 54-63 degrees . Thermal properties of the polymers were studied by DSC and TGA. The copolymers had better thermal stability than the pure PLLAs, and the T(g) between 48-58 degrees C and T(m) between 146-177 degrees C of the copolymers were lower than those of the pure PLLA counterparts. This kind of electroactive and biodegradable copolymer has a great potential for applications in cardiovascular or neuronal tissue engineering.

  11. Efficacy of Different Block Copolymers in Facilitating Microemulsion Phases in Polymer Blend Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandav, Gunja; Ganesan, Venkat

    2014-03-01

    Polymeric microemulsions are formed in a narrow range of phase diagram when a blend of immiscible homopolymers is compatibilized by copolymers. In this study, we consider the ternary blend system of A and B homopolymers mixed with block copolymers containing A and B segments, and probe the efficacy of different copolymer configurations in promoting the formation of microemulsion phases. Specifically, we consider: (a) Monodisperse diblock copolymers; (b) Diblock copolymers with bidisperse molecular weights (MW); (c) Block copolymers having MW polydispersity in one of the blocks; (d) Diblock copolymers having monodisperse MW but bidispersity in average composition; and (e) Gradient copolymers exhibiting a linear variation in the average composition. Using single chain in mean field simulations effected in two dimensions, we probe the onset of formation and the width of the bicontinuous microemulsion channel in the ternary phase diagram of homopolymer blended with compatibilizer. We rationalize our results by explicitly quantifying the interfacial activity and the influence of fluctuation effects in the respective copolymer systems.

  12. Biodegradable block copolymers as injectable drug-delivery systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Byeongmoon; Bae, You Han; Lee, Doo Sung; Kim, Sung Wan

    1997-08-01

    Polymers that display a physicochemical response to stimuli are widely explored as potential drug-delivery systems. Stimuli studied to date include chemical substances and changes in temperature, pH and electric field. Homopolymers or copolymers of N-isopropylacrylamide, and poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (known as poloxamers) are typical examples of thermosensitive polymers, but their use in drug delivery is problematic because they are toxic and non-biodegradable. Biodegradable polymers used for drug delivery to date have mostly been in the form of injectable microspheres or implant systems, which require complicated fabrication processes using organic solvents. Such systems have the disadvantage that the use of organic solvents can cause denaturation when protein drugs are to be encapsulated. Furthermore, the solid form requires surgical insertion, which often results in tissue irritation and damage. Here we report the synthesis of a thermosensitive, biodegradable hydrogel consisting of blocks of poly(ethylene oxide) and poly(L-lactic acid). Aqueous solutions of these copolymers exhibit temperature-dependent reversible gel-sol transitions. The hydrogel can be loaded with bioactive molecules in an aqueous phase at an elevated temperature (around 45 °C), where they form a sol. In this form, the polymer is injectable. On subcutaneous injection and subsequent rapid cooling to body temperature, the loaded copolymer forms a gel that can act as a sustained-release matrix for drugs.

  13. Ductile electroactive biodegradable hyperbranched polylactide copolymers enhancing myoblast differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Meihua; Wang, Ling; Guo, Baolin; Wang, Zhong; Chen, Y. Eugene; Ma, Peter X.

    2015-01-01

    Myotube formation is crucial to restoring muscular functions, and biomaterials that enhance the myoblast differentiation into myotubes are highly desirable for muscular repair. Here, we report the synthesis of electroactive, ductile, and degradable copolymers and their application in enhancing the differentiation of myoblasts to myotubes. A hyperbranched ductile polylactide (HPLA) was synthesized and then copolymerized with aniline tetramer (AT) to produce a series of electroactive, ductile and degradable copolymers (HPLAAT). The HPLA and HPLAAT showed excellent ductility with strain to failure from 158.9% to 42.7% and modulus from 265.2 to 758.2 MPa. The high electroactivity of the HPLAAT was confirmed by UV spectrometer and cyclic voltammogram measurements. These HPLAAT polymers also showed improved thermal stability and controlled biodegradation rate compared to HPLA. Importantly, when applying these polymers for myotube formation, the HPLAAT significantly improved the proliferation of C2C12 myoblasts in vitro compared to HPLA. Furthermore, these polymers greatly promoted myogenic differentiation of C2C12 cells as measured by quantitative analysis of myotube number, length, diameter, maturation index, and gene expression of MyoD and TNNT. Together, our study shows that these electroactive, ductile and degradable HPLAAT copolymers represent significantly improved biomaterials for muscle tissue engineering compared to HPLA. PMID:26335860

  14. Yield Stress Enhancement in Glassy-Polyethylene Block Copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulhearn, William; Register, Richard

    Polyethylene (PE) has the highest annual production volume of all synthetic polymers worldwide, and is valuable across many applications due to its low cost, toughness, processability, and chemical resistance. However, PE is not well suited to certain applications due to its modest yield stress and Young's modulus (approximately 30 MPa and 1 GPa, respectively for linear, high-density PE). Irreversible deformation of PE results from dislocation of crystal stems and eventual crystal fragmentation under applied stress. The liquid-like amorphous fraction provides no useful mechanical support to the crystal fold surface in a PE homopolymer, so the only method to enhance the force required for crystal slip, and hence the yield stress, is crystal thickening via thermal treatment. An alternative route towards modifying the mechanical properties of PE involves copolymerization of a minority high-glass transition temperature block into a majority-PE block copolymer. In this work, we investigate a system of glassy/linear-PE block copolymers prepared via ring-opening metathesis polymerization of cyclopentene and substituted norbornene monomers followed by hydrogenation. We demonstrate that a large change in mechanical properties can be achieved with the addition of a short glassy block (e.g. a doubling of the yield stress and Young's modulus versus PE homopolymer with the addition of 25 percent glassy block). Furthermore, owing to the low interaction energy between PE and the substituted polynorbornene blocks employed, these high-yield PE block copolymers can exhibit single-phase melts for ease of processability.

  15. (Electro)Mechanical Properties of Olefinic Block Copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spontak, Richard

    2014-03-01

    Conventional styrenic triblock copolymers (SBCs) swollen with a midblock-selective oil have been previously shown to exhibit excellent electromechanical properties as dielectric elastomers. In this class of electroactive polymers, compliant electrodes applied as active areas to opposing surfaces of an elastomer attract each other, and thus compress the elastomer due to the onset of a Maxwell stress, upon application of an external electric field. This isochoric process is accompanied by an increase in lateral area, which yields the electroactuation strain (measuring beyond 300% in SBC systems). Performance parameters such as the Maxwell stress, transverse strain, dielectric breakdown, energy density and electromechanical efficiency are determined directly from the applied electric field and resulting electroactuation strain. In this study, the same principle used to evaluate SBC systems is extended to olefinic block copolymers (OBCs), which can be described as randomly-coupled multiblock copolymers that consist of crystallizable polyethylene hard segments and rubbery poly(ethylene-co-octene) soft segments. Considerations governing the development of a methodology to fabricate electroresponsive OBC systems are first discussed for several OBCs differing in composition and bulk properties. Evidence of electroactuation in selectively-solvated OBC systems is presented and performance metrics measured therefrom are quantitatively compared with dielectric elastomers derived from SBC and related materials.

  16. Crystallization studies of polyethylene -poly(ethylene glycol) graft copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mark, P. R.; Hovey, G. E.; Murthy, N. S.; Breitenkamp, K.; Kade, M.; Emerick, T.

    2006-03-01

    Structure and crystallization behavior of three copolymers obtained by grafting poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) chains to polyethylene (PE) main chain was investigated by variable temperature x-ray diffraction and thermal analysis. The results show that PEG side chains and PE main chains crystallize into separate domains. This is especially true when grafted chains are long (50 and 100 repeat units), in which the PEG domains are same as in PEG homopolymer both in structure and in melting behavior. In the copolymer with shorter chains (25 repeat units), the PEG crystals are not distinct and melting is broad. The PEG domains can be dissolved in water or ethanol without altering the mechanical integrity of the film. PE crystallites in both samples are similar to that in PE homopolymer. For instance, the thermal expansion of the basal cell plane (a- and b-axes) of the PE domains agrees well with that of PE homopolymer over the entire temperature range from ambient to melt. However, the chain-axis dimension PE-lattice in the copolymer is shorter by ˜ 0.05 å and the basal dimensions are larger by ˜ 0.05 å. The changes in these dimensions due to the changes in the length of the grafted PEG chains were investigated.

  17. Electrically Tunable Soft-Solid Block Copolymer Structural Color.

    PubMed

    Park, Tae Joon; Hwang, Sun Kak; Park, Sungmin; Cho, Sung Hwan; Park, Tae Hyun; Jeong, Beomjin; Kang, Han Sol; Ryu, Du Yeol; Huh, June; Thomas, Edwin L; Park, Cheolmin

    2015-12-22

    One-dimensional photonic crystals based on the periodic stacking of two different dielectric layers have been widely studied, but the fabrication of mechanically flexible polymer structural color (SC) films, with electro-active color switching, remains challenging. Here, we demonstrate free-standing electric field tunable ionic liquid (IL) swollen block copolymer (BCP) films. Placement of a polymer/ionic liquid film-reservoir adjacent to a self-assembled poly(styrene-block-quaternized 2-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-QP2VP) copolymer SC film allowed the development of red (R), green (G), and blue (B) full-color SC block copolymer films by swelling of the QP2VP domains by the ionic liquid associated with water molecules. The IL-polymer/BCP SC film is mechanically flexible with excellent color stability over several days at ambient conditions. The selective swelling of the QP2VP domains could be controlled by both the ratio of the IL to a polymer in the gel-like IL reservoir layer and by an applied voltage in the range of -3 to +6 V using a metal/IL reservoir/SC film/IL reservoir/metal capacitor type device.

  18. Polymerization of hydrogels inside self-assembled block copolymer vesicles.

    PubMed

    Gaspard, Jeffery; Hahn, Mariah S; Silas, James A

    2009-11-17

    Block copolymer vesicles are powerful tools for investigating cell adhesion since they display the fluid, deformable, semipermeable membrane properties of lipid vesicles while having greater chemical and mechanical stability. The aim of the present study was to fabricate block copolymer vesicles containing hydrogel interiors in order to extend achievable vesicle properties and, thereby, their range of cell-like behaviors. Block copolymer vesicles based on poly(butadiene-b-ethylene oxide) were demonstrated to compartmentalize and retain acrylamide solutions through particle dialysis and to allow for subsequent in situ hydrogel polymerization. Small molecule leakage studies of the resulting particles indicated that the cross-link density of the hydrogel interiors had minimal impact on vesicle permeability to small molecules (<430 Da) relative to vesicle membrane properties. In contrast, particle deformation analyses indicated that initial vesicle surface approach and adhesion was dominated by its membrane properties, whereas its ultimate deformation was primarily governed by the hydrogel interior. Thus, the hydrogel-containing vesicles allowed orthogonal control of particle surface and mechanical properties. Analysis of particle behavior in terms of Gibb's free energy minimization indicated that vesicle adhesion energy, membrane tension, and internal osmotic pressure dominated particle adhesion and deformation. Combined, the present work demonstrates the potential for designing compartmentalized, hierarchical polymer-based cell mimics with broadly tunable dynamic-mechanical properties and surface properties.

  19. Polymeric drugs based on random copolymers with antimitotic activity.

    PubMed

    López-Donaire, M L; Parra-Cáceres, J; Fernández-Gutiérrez, M; Vázquez-Lasa, B; Román, J San

    2010-09-13

    Polymeric drugs based on random copolymers with antimitotic activity were obtained by free radical copolymerization of oleyl 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-α-d-glucopyranoside methacrylate (OAGMA) and 2-ethyl-(2-pyrrolidone) methacrylate (EPM) at low and high conversion and analyzed in terms of microstructure, physicochemical, and biological properties. Reactivity ratios of monomers were found to be r(OAGMA) = 1.34 and r(EPM) = 0.98, indicating the obtaining of statistical copolymers with random sequence distribution of the comonomeric units in the macromolecular chains. The glass transition temperature of the copolymers presents a negative deviation from the predicted values according to the Fox equation, suggesting a higher flexibility of the alternating diad. Copolymeric systems with OAGMA contents between 10-50 mol % presented thermosensitive behavior in a heating process showing cloud point temperatures (CPT) in the range 45-28 °C with increasing OAGMA content and hysteresis in one heating-and-cooling cycle. In vitro glycolipid release studies revealed the stability of the ester group in culture medium. The polymeric drugs with 30 and 50 mol % OAGMA presented antimitotic activity on a human glioblastoma line, but they were less toxic on normal human fibroblast cultures.

  20. Preparation and characteristics of new chiral photochromic copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielińska, Sonia; Ortyl, Ewelina; Barille, Regis; Kucharski, Stanisław

    2009-11-01

    The copolymers consisting of chiral (S)-(-)-1-(4-nitrophenyl)pyrrolidin-2-yl]methyl 2-methacrylate ((S)-PYM) and azobenzene methacrylic co-monomers: 2-(methyl{4-[(E)-(5-methylisoxazol-3-yl)diazenyl]phenyl}amino)ethyl 2-methacrylate (ISM) or 2-{[4-[4-{(2,6-dimethylpirymidin-4-yl)amino]sulfonyl}phenyl) diazenyl]phenyl}-(methyl)amino]ethyl 2-methacrylate (SUM) were synthesized by radical polymerization. The quantum chemical calculations were carried out to predict spectral and nonlinear optical properties of the materials in question. The copolymers showed reversible photochromic properties under illumination with light by change of UV-vis spectra and ellipsometric parameters. The ellipsometric measurements made it possible to determine the change of refractive index under illumination that was in the range between 0.017 and 0.041 depending on copolymer type. Photochromic gratings were inscribed on the surface of polymer films in two kinds of experiments, leading to interesting conclusion that the surface relief grating could be recorded by two interfering laser beams as well as by a single linearly polarized laser beam. The chirooptical properties of the materials were investigated by circular dichroism spectroscopy.

  1. Ionic Conductivity of Nanostructured Block Copolymer and Ionic Liquid Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoarfrost, Megan L.; Virgili, Justin M.; Segalman, Rachel A.

    2010-03-01

    Block copolymer and ionic liquid mixtures are of interest for creating ionically conductive, thermally stable, and nanostructured membranes. For mixtures of poly(styrene-b-2-vinylpyridine) (S2VP) and the ionic liquid bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([Im][TFSI]), nanostructured ion-conducting domains are formed due to [Im][TFSI] selectively residing in the P2VP domains of the block copolymer. The dependence of ionic conductivity on temperature, ionic liquid loading, and volume fraction of PS in the neat block copolymer was investigated for membranes with the matrix phase being P2VP/[Im][TFSI]. It was determined that the temperature dependence of conductivity follows the Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher equation, with the activation energy determined by the ratio of [Im][TFSI] to 2VP monomers. The overall weight fraction of [Im][TFSI] in the mixtures, however, is the dominating factor determining conductivity, regardless of PS volume fraction. The insight gained from this work will be important for further investigation into the effect on the ion transport properties of ionic liquids when confined to minority nanostructured domains.

  2. Design of block copolymer templated solid state batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bullock, Steven Edward

    The advent of portable electronics has placed a great demand on the power requirements of battery systems. High power batteries for small devices, such as cell phones, laptop computers, and personal data assistants (PDA's) have focused primarily on lithium ion batteries. With the introduction of large flexible panel displays, the need for a flexible battery system is apparent. Ring Opening Metathesis Polymerization (ROMP) is a facile method for synthesizing block copolymers with polar functional groups. These functional groups allow the formation of metal oxide clusters via a template of the microphase separated block copolymer domains. In this thesis, the synthesis of a flexible polymer battery system is described. Diblock copolymers of an ionically conductive unsaturated polyethylene oxide block with a carboxylic acid functionalized block were synthesized and characterized with NMR, IR and Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC). Characterization of polymer templated LiMn2O 4 clusters and nanocomposites synthesized for the study have a distributed cluster morphology within the polymer matrix. The nanocomposites were analyzed with transmission electron microscopy to determine the morphology of the nanocomposites. Battery performance was characterized with cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge/discharge cycling for power capacity. The ionic conductivity was measured with impedance spectroscopy. The novel room temperature templating strategy used for the synthesis of these ionically conductive nanocomposites requires no thermal cycling steps. This makes it attractive for processing of sheet structures to power flexible displays.

  3. Multifunctional triblock copolymers for intracellular messenger RNA delivery.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Connie; Convertine, Anthony J; Stayton, Patrick S; Bryers, James D

    2012-10-01

    Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a promising alternative to plasmid DNA (pDNA) for gene vaccination applications, but safe and effective delivery systems are rare. Reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization was employed to synthesize a series of triblock copolymers designed to enhance the intracellular delivery of mRNA. These materials are composed of a cationic dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) segment to mediate mRNA condensation, a hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMA) segment to enhance stability and biocompatibility, and a pH-responsive endosomolytic copolymer of diethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DEAEMA) and butyl methacrylate (BMA) designed to facilitate cytosolic entry. The blocking order and PEGMA segment length were systematically varied to investigate the effect of different polymer architectures on mRNA delivery efficacy. These polymers were monodisperse, exhibited pH-dependent hemolytic activity, and condensed mRNA into 86-216 nm particles. mRNA polyplexes formed from polymers with the PEGMA segment in the center of the polymer chain displayed the greatest stability to heparin displacement and were associated with the highest transfection efficiencies in two immune cell lines, RAW 264.7 macrophages (77%) and DC2.4 dendritic cells (50%). Transfected DC2.4 cells were shown to be capable of subsequently activating antigen-specific T cells, demonstrating the potential of these multifunctional triblock copolymers for mRNA-based vaccination strategies.

  4. Reordering transitions during annealing of block copolymer cylinder phases

    DOE PAGES

    Majewski, Pawel W.; Yager, Kevin G.

    2015-10-06

    While equilibrium block-copolymer morphologies are dictated by energy-minimization effects, the semi-ordered states observed experimentally often depend on the details of ordering pathways and kinetics. In this study, we explore reordering transitions in thin films of block-copolymer cylinder-forming polystyrene-block-poly(methyl methacrylate). We observe several transient states as films order towards horizontally-aligned cylinders. In particular, there is an early-stage reorganization from randomly-packed cylinders into hexagonally-packed vertically-aligned cylinders; followed by a reorientation transition from vertical to horizontal cylinder states. These transitions are thermally activated. The growth of horizontal grains within an otherwise vertical morphology proceeds anisotropically, resulting in anisotropic grains in the final horizontalmore » state. The size, shape, and anisotropy of grains are influenced by ordering history; for instance, faster heating rates reduce grain anisotropy. These results help elucidate aspects of pathway-dependent ordering in block-copolymer thin films.« less

  5. Millisecond Photoinduced Absorption Studies of Pyridine-Based Copolymer Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coplin, K. A.; Clark, D. T.; Jessen, S. W.; Epstein, A. J.; Fu, D.-K.; Swager, T. M.

    1997-03-01

    We present a study of the photoexcited states in copolymers of poly(p-pyridyl vinylene) and poly(p-phenylene vinylene) (PPyVPR_iV) with sidegroups R_1=C_12H_25 or R_2=COOC_12H_25 attached at the 2 and 5 positions of the phenyl ring. Previous studies discussed the millisecond photoinduced absorption (ms PA) characteristics of PPyVPR_iV powders(S.W. Jessen et al.), Synth. Met., in press.. In particular, triplet-triplet (T-T) transitions were observed at 1.6 eV for both materials. Additional polaron signatures were also observed in both the electronic ( ~ 0.85 eV) and infrared (1100 - 1600 cm-1) regions of the photoinduced spectrum. We compare these powder results with ms PA features for film morphologies of both the copolymers. We observe a weaker ( ~ 10X) T-T^* transition for copolymer films cast from xylene solution indicating a reduction in triplet exciton production as compared to powder samples. These results are contrasted with the behavior we reported(S.W. Jessen et al.), to be published. earlier for film and powder samples of the parent polymer poly(p-pyridyl vinylene).

  6. Nanoparticle-directed self-assembly of amphiphilic block copolymers.

    PubMed

    Kamps, Amanda C; Sanchez-Gaytan, Brenda L; Hickey, Robert J; Clarke, Nigel; Fryd, Michael; Park, So-Jung

    2010-09-07

    Nanoparticles can form unique cavity-like structures in core-shell type assemblies of block copolymers through the cooperative self-assembly of nanoparticles and block copolymers. We show that the self-assembly behavior is general for common as-synthesized alkyl-terminated nanoparticles for a range of nanoparticle sizes. We examined various self-assembly conditions such as solvent compositions, nanoparticle coordinating ligands, volume fraction of nanoparticles, and nanoparticle sizes in order to elucidate the mechanism of the radial assembly formation. These experiments along with strong segregation theory calculations indicated that both the enthalpic interaction and the polymer stretching energy are important factors in the coassembly formation. The slightly unfavorable interaction between the hydrophobic segment of polymers and alkyl-terminated nanoparticles causes the accumulation of nanoparticles at the interface between the polymer core and the shell, forming the unique cavity-like structure. The coassemblies were stabilized for a limited range of nanoparticle volume fractions within which the inclusion of nanoparticle layers reduces the polymer stretching. The volume fraction range yielding the well-defined radial coassembly structure was mapped out with varying nanoparticle sizes. The experimental and theoretical phase map provides the guideline for the coassembly formation of as-synthesized alkyl-terminated nanoparticles and amphiphilic block copolymers.

  7. Simple, generalizable route to highly aligned block copolymer thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiang, Zhe; Cavicchi, Kevin; Vogt, Bryan; University of Akron Team

    Macroscopic alignment of block copolymer domains in thin films is desired for many applications, such as cell responsive surfaces or optical polarizers. Alignment generally requires specialized tools that apply external fields, shear force gradient, or produce topological patterned substrates. This requirement limits the broad academic application of aligned BCPs. Here, we describe a simple modification of commonly utilized solvent vapor annealing (SVA) process for macroscopic alignment of BCPs. Adhering a flat, crosslinked elastomer pad to the BCP film leads to differential swelling between the elastomer pad and BCP to produce a shear force that aligns the ordered BCP domains. The role of elastomer properties, solvent quality, drying rate and degree of segregation of the block copolymer will be discussed to provide generalized rules for alignment with this technique. Cylindrical nanostructures formed in polystyrene-block-polydimethylsiloxane can be transformed into arrays of silica lines and increasing the thickness from a monolayer to bilayer can effectively halve the spacing of the lines. These results illustrate a generalized method for BCP alignment and a potential route for the generation of complex hierarchical assembled structures. A generalized method for block copolymer thin film alignment: solvent vapor annealing with shear.

  8. Fuel cells: A survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowe, B. J.

    1973-01-01

    A survey of fuel cell technology and applications is presented. The operating principles, performance capabilities, and limitations of fuel cells are discussed. Diagrams of fuel cell construction and operating characteristics are provided. Photographs of typical installations are included.

  9. Renewable Fuel Standard Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about regulations, developed by EPA, in collaboration with refiners, renewable fuel producers, and many other stakeholders, that ensure that transportation fuel sold in the United States contains a minimum volume of renewable fuel.

  10. Local Structure and Ion Transport in Glassy Poly(ethylene oxide styrene) Copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Han-Chang; Mays, Jimmy; Sokolov, Alexei P.; Winey, Karen I.

    2014-03-01

    Polymer electrolytes have attracted attention for a wide variety of applications in energy production such as lithium-ion batteries and fuel cells. The concept of free volume provides important information about ion mobility and chain dynamics in the polymer matrix. Researchers have recently demonstrated that ion transport in glassy polymer can be improved by designing a system with high free volume. We have studied the effect of temperature and humidity on the intermolecular correlations of poly(ethylene oxide styrene-block-styrene) (PEOSt- b-St) block copolymer and poly(ethylene oxide styrene) (PEOSt) homopolymer using in situ multi-angle x-ray scattering across a wide range of scattering angles (q = 0.007-1.5 Å-1) . An increase in backbone-to-backbone distance is observed, indicating an increase in free volume between different polymer main chains. Structural characterization of the polymer segments will be discussed together with conductivity and dielectric results to better understand the ion transport mechanism in the local environment of the polymer system. Department of Chemistry, University of Tennessee.

  11. Building non-tortuous ion-conduction pathways using self-assembled block copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Onnuri; Park, Moon Jeong

    Ion-containing polymers with self-assembled morphologies are becoming important ingredients of a wide range of electrochemical devices such as lithium-ion batteries, fuel cells and electroactive actuators. Although several studies have reported the relationship between morphologies and ion transport properties of such polymers, the most of quantitative analysis have been limited to two-dimensional morphologies as they occupy a large window of the phase diagrams. In present study, we investigated the effects of morphology on the ion transport efficiency with a focus on three-dimensional symmetry. A range of three-dimensional self-assembled morphologies, i.e., ill-defined cubic, orthorhombic network (O70) , and face-centered cubic phases (fcc) were achieved for a single sulfonated block copolymer upon the addition of non-stoichiometric ionic liquids. The type of three-dimensional lattice was found out to play a crucial role in determining the ion transport properties of composite membranes, where the most efficient ion-conduction was demonstrated for fcc phases with lowest tortuosity of 1 over orthorhombic networks phases (tortuosity:1.5). This intriguing result suggests a new avenue to designing polymer electrolytes with improved transport properties.

  12. Morphology and Ionic Conductivity of Block Copolymer Electrolytes Containing Ionic Liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Moon Jeong

    2015-03-01

    The global energy crisis and an increase in environmental pollution in the recent years have drawn the attention of the scientific community towards the development of efficient electrochemical devices. Polymers containing charged species have the potential to serve as electrolytes in next-generation devices and achieving high ion transport properties in these electrolytes is the key to improving their efficiency. Although the synthesis and characterization of a wide variety of ion-containing polymers have been extensively reported over the last decade, quantitative understanding of the factors governing the ion transport properties of these materials is in its infancy. In this talk, I will present the current understanding of the diverse factors affecting the thermodynamics, morphologies and ion transport of ion-containing polymers by focusing on the use of ionic liquids (ILs). Various strategies for accessing improved transport properties of IL-containing polymers are elucidated by focusing on the role of IL-polymer interactions. The major accomplishment of obtaining well-defined morphologies for these IL-containing polymers by the use of block copolymer is particularly emphasized as a novel means of controlling the transport properties. The application of IL-incorporated polymer electrolytes in high temperature fuel cells and electro-active actuators is also enclosed.

  13. Fire Resistant Fuel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-15

    preferentially with aqueous or non-polar media. HLB has values ranging between 1 and 40 , with lower values representing lipophilic behavior, and higher...Not given Nonidet P80 US 3,756,794 Not given Triton X-102 US 3,756,794 Not given Tergitol NP-9-15 WO 98/56878 Seppic Octarox US 6,068,670 Sidobre...copolymer Pluronic L81 1-7 block copolymer Schercomid ODA N/A Ethanolamide of oleic acid Span 40 6.7 Sorbitan Ester (monopalmitate) Span 60 4.7

  14. Future aviation fuels overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reck, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    The outlook for aviation fuels through the turn of the century is briefly discussed and the general objectives of the NASA Lewis Alternative Aviation Fuels Research Project are outlined. The NASA program involves the evaluation of potential characteristics of future jet aircraft fuels, the determination of the effects of those fuels on engine and fuel system components, and the development of a component technology to use those fuels.

  15. Effect of hydrocarbon fuel type on fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, E. L.; Bittker, D. A.

    1982-01-01

    A modified jet fuel thermal oxidation tester (JFTOT) procedure was used to evaluate deposit and sediment formation for four pure hydrocarbon fuels over the temperature range 150 to 450 C in 316-stainless-steel heater tubes. Fuel types were a normal alkane, an alkene, a naphthene, and an aromatic. Each fuel exhibited certain distinctive deposit and sediment formation characteristics. The effect of aluminum and 316-stainless-steel heater tube surfaces on deposit formation for the fuel n-decane over the same temperature range was investigated. Results showed that an aluminum surface had lower deposit formation rates at all temperatures investigated. By using a modified JFTOT procedure the thermal stability of four pure hydrocarbon fuels and two practical fuels (Jet A and home heating oil no. 2) was rated on the basis of their breakpoint temperatures. Results indicate that this method could be used to rate thermal stability for a series of fuels.

  16. Fuel cell technology: A sweeter fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendall, Kevin

    2002-12-01

    Eating sugar gives us a boost when we feel tired because our cells use it as fuel to produce energy. Likewise, sugar can now be used to produce power in artificial biological fuel cells that function in a physiological environment.

  17. Fuel processor for fuel cell power system

    DOEpatents

    Vanderborgh, Nicholas E.; Springer, Thomas E.; Huff, James R.

    1987-01-01

    A catalytic organic fuel processing apparatus, which can be used in a fuel cell power system, contains within a housing a catalyst chamber, a variable speed fan, and a combustion chamber. Vaporized organic fuel is circulated by the fan past the combustion chamber with which it is in indirect heat exchange relationship. The heated vaporized organic fuel enters a catalyst bed where it is converted into a desired product such as hydrogen needed to power the fuel cell. During periods of high demand, air is injected upstream of the combustion chamber and organic fuel injection means to burn with some of the organic fuel on the outside of the combustion chamber, and thus be in direct heat exchange relation with the organic fuel going into the catalyst bed.

  18. Fuel Reformer Nozzle Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lai, Ming-Chia D.

    2003-01-01

    The fellowship work this summer will be in support of the development of a fuel mixer for a liquid fuel reformer that is upstream of a fuel cell. Tasks for the summer shall consist of design of a fuel mixer, setup of the laser diagnostics for determining the degree of fuel mixing, and testing of the fuel mixer. The fuel mixer shall be a venturi section with fuel injected at or near the throat, and an air swirler upstream of the venturi. Data to determine the performance of the mixer shall be taken using a Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA).

  19. Advanced Materials for PEM-Based Fuel Cell Systems

    SciTech Connect

    James E. McGrath

    2005-10-26

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are quickly becoming attractive alternative energy sources for transportation, stationary power, and small electronics due to the increasing cost and environmental hazards of traditional fossil fuels. Two main classes of PEMFCs include hydrogen/air or hydrogen/oxygen fuel cells and direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). The current benchmark membrane for both types of PEMFCs is Nafion, a perfluorinated sulfonated copolymer made by DuPont. Nafion copolymers exhibit good thermal and chemical stability, as well as very high proton conductivity under hydrated conditions at temperatures below 80 °C. However, application of these membranes is limited due to their high methanol permeability and loss of conductivity at high temperatures and low relative humidities. These deficiencies have led to the search for improved materials for proton exchange membranes. Potential PEMs should have good thermal, hydrolytic, and oxidative stability, high proton conductivity, selective permeability, and mechanical durability over long periods of time. Poly(arylene ether)s, polyimides, polybenzimidazoles, and polyphenylenes are among the most widely investigated candidates for PEMs. Poly(arylene ether)s are a promising class of proton exchange membranes due to their excellent thermal and chemical stability and high glass transition temperatures. High proton conductivity can be achieved through post-sulfonation of poly(arylene ether) materials, but this most often results in very high water sorption or even water solubility. Our research has shown that directly polymerized poly(arylene ether) copolymers show important advantages over traditional post-sulfonated systems and also address the concerns with Nafion membranes. These properties were evaluated and correlated with morphology, structure-property relationships, and

  20. Advanced Materials for PEM-Based Fuel Cell Systems

    SciTech Connect

    James E. McGrath; Donald G. Baird; Michael von Spakovsky

    2005-10-26

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are quickly becoming attractive alternative energy sources for transportation, stationary power, and small electronics due to the increasing cost and environmental hazards of traditional fossil fuels. Two main classes of PEMFCs include hydrogen/air or hydrogen/oxygen fuel cells and direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). The current benchmark membrane for both types of PEMFCs is Nafion, a perfluorinated sulfonated copolymer made by DuPont. Nafion copolymers exhibit good thermal and chemical stability, as well as very high proton conductivity under hydrated conditions at temperatures below 80 degrees C. However, application of these membranes is limited due to their high methanol permeability and loss of conductivity at high temperatures and low relative humidities. These deficiencies have led to the search for improved materials for proton exchange membranes. Potential PEMs should have good thermal, hydrolytic, and oxidative stability, high proton conductivity, selective permeability, and mechanical durability over long periods of time. Poly(arylene ether)s, polyimides, polybenzimidazoles, and polyphenylenes are among the most widely investigated candidates for PEMs. Poly(arylene ether)s are a promising class of proton exchange membranes due to their excellent thermal and chemical stability and high glass transition temperatures. High proton conductivity can be achieved through post-sulfonation of poly(arylene ether) materials, but this most often results in very high water sorption or even water solubility. Our research has shown that directly polymerized poly(arylene ether) copolymers show important advantages over traditional post-sulfonated systems and also address the concerns with Nafion membranes. These properties were evaluated and correlated with morphology, structure-property relationships, and states of water in the membranes. Further improvements in properties were achieved through incorporation of inorganic