Science.gov

Sample records for og indberetning ved

  1. OGS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-06-22

    ISS020-E-012819 (22 June 2009) --- Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) astronaut Koichi Wakata, Expedition 20 flight engineer, performs in-flight maintenance on the Oxygen Generator System (OGS) in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station.

  2. OGS Maintenance

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-07-21

    ISS024-E-009246 (21 July 2010) --- NASA astronaut Tracy Caldwell Dyson, Expedition 24 flight engineer, is pictured during troubleshooting operations of the Oxygen Generator System (OGS) hardware and replacement of an H2 (hydrogen) Dome Orbit Replaceable Unit (ORU) in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station.

  3. ABC and VED Analysis in Medical Stores Inventory Control.

    PubMed

    Gupta, R; Gupta, K K; Jain, B R; Garg, R K

    2007-10-01

    The basic principle of inventory control is ABC based on cost criteria and VED on criticality. Based on ABC-VED matrix, economic analysis of drug expenditure of priced vocabulary of medical stores (PVMS) section 01 for the year 2003 of a 190 bedded service hospital was under taken. Out of 493 drugs in PVMS section 01, only 325 drugs were being used in the reference hospital. The total cost of drugs used was Rupees 55,23,503. Of these 325 drugs, 47(14.4%) drugs were Category A, consuming 70% of total expenditure, 73 (22.46 %) drugs Category B consuming 20% and rest 205 drugs (63.7 %) Category C drugs cost only 10% of expenditure. VED categorization done by consensus opinion of medical officers, found 24 (7.3%) drugs vital, 160 (49.3%) essential and rest 141 (43.3 %) desirable. On coupling the two techniques ABC-VED matrix was made and drugs were classified in to Category I (AV+BV+CV+AE+AD) comprising 68 drugs, Category II (BE + CE +BD) 159 and Category III (CD) 98 drugs. The management of Category I drugs was monitored by top management resulting in better control on the annual expenses and at the same time making available the vital Category II by middle and Category III at lower mangerial level.

  4. Life and consciousness – The Vedāntic view

    PubMed Central

    Shanta, Bhakti Niskama

    2015-01-01

    In the past, philosophers, scientists, and even the general opinion, had no problem in accepting the existence of consciousness in the same way as the existence of the physical world. After the advent of Newtonian mechanics, science embraced a complete materialistic conception about reality. Scientists started proposing hypotheses like abiogenesis (origin of first life from accumulation of atoms and molecules) and the Big Bang theory (the explosion theory for explaining the origin of universe). How the universe came to be what it is now is a key philosophical question. The hypothesis that it came from Nothing (as proposed by Stephen Hawking, among others), proves to be dissembling, since the quantum vacuum can hardly be considered a void. In modern science, it is generally assumed that matter existed before the universe came to be. Modern science hypothesizes that the manifestation of life on Earth is nothing but a mere increment in the complexity of matter — and hence is an outcome of evolution of matter (chemical evolution) following the Big Bang. After the manifestation of life, modern science believed that chemical evolution transformed itself into biological evolution, which then had caused the entire biodiversity on our planet. The ontological view of the organism as a complex machine presumes life as just a chance occurrence, without any inner purpose. This approach in science leaves no room for the subjective aspect of consciousness in its attempt to know the world as the relationships among forces, atoms, and molecules. On the other hand, the Vedāntic view states that the origin of everything material and nonmaterial is sentient and absolute (unconditioned). Thus, sentient life is primitive and reproductive of itself – omne vivum ex vivo – life comes from life. This is the scientifically verified law of experience. Life is essentially cognitive and conscious. And, consciousness, which is fundamental, manifests itself in the gradational forms of all

  5. Life and consciousness - The Vedāntic view.

    PubMed

    Shanta, Bhakti Niskama

    2015-01-01

    In the past, philosophers, scientists, and even the general opinion, had no problem in accepting the existence of consciousness in the same way as the existence of the physical world. After the advent of Newtonian mechanics, science embraced a complete materialistic conception about reality. Scientists started proposing hypotheses like abiogenesis (origin of first life from accumulation of atoms and molecules) and the Big Bang theory (the explosion theory for explaining the origin of universe). How the universe came to be what it is now is a key philosophical question. The hypothesis that it came from Nothing (as proposed by Stephen Hawking, among others), proves to be dissembling, since the quantum vacuum can hardly be considered a void. In modern science, it is generally assumed that matter existed before the universe came to be. Modern science hypothesizes that the manifestation of life on Earth is nothing but a mere increment in the complexity of matter - and hence is an outcome of evolution of matter (chemical evolution) following the Big Bang. After the manifestation of life, modern science believed that chemical evolution transformed itself into biological evolution, which then had caused the entire biodiversity on our planet. The ontological view of the organism as a complex machine presumes life as just a chance occurrence, without any inner purpose. This approach in science leaves no room for the subjective aspect of consciousness in its attempt to know the world as the relationships among forces, atoms, and molecules. On the other hand, the Vedāntic view states that the origin of everything material and nonmaterial is sentient and absolute (unconditioned). Thus, sentient life is primitive and reproductive of itself - omne vivum ex vivo - life comes from life. This is the scientifically verified law of experience. Life is essentially cognitive and conscious. And, consciousness, which is fundamental, manifests itself in the gradational forms of all

  6. Performance of viscoelastic dampers (VED) under various temperatures and application of magnetorheological dampers (MRD) for seismic control of structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatti, Abdul Qadir

    2013-08-01

    A number of studies have been carried out to investigate the performance of viscoelastic dampers (VEDs) and magnetorheological dampers (MRDs) in controlling the seismic response of buildings, but very few of them regarding the effect of temperature on the behavior of those dampers. The energy absorption properties of the VEDs are dependent on the ambient temperature, excitation frequency and strain amplitude. Several mathematical models have been investigated for reproducing the experimental behavior of single degree of freedom VEDs and MEDs. Of these, only the fractional derivative model can reflect the influence of temperature which is, however, so complex that it is difficult to apply in structural analysis. In order to verify the effect of temperature, two case studies of structural element have been conducted: once using VED and once using MRD. Kelvin-Voigt mathematical model applied, they were investigated and after analyzing the results, the force vs. displacement showed that MRD achieved a high force capacity and a better performance than VED. Furthermore, the effect of the temperature in case of VED observed via plotting the dissipated energy hysteresis at different temperatures. These results validate the effect of the temperature as the lower the temperature the more viscous the dashpot element becomes, hence improving damping, but this is up to a specific low temperature.

  7. ABC and VED Analysis of the Pharmacy Store of a Tertiary Care Teaching, Research and Referral Healthcare Institute of India.

    PubMed

    Devnani, M; Gupta, Ak; Nigah, R

    2010-04-01

    The ABC and VED (vital, essential, desirable) analysis of the pharmacy store of Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh, India, was conducted to identify the categories of items needing stringent management control. The annual consumption and expenditure incurred on each item of pharmacy for the year 2007-08 was analyzed and inventory control techniques, i.e. ABC, VED and ABC-VED matrix analysis, were applied. The drug formulary of the pharmacy consisted of 421 items. The total annual drug expenditure (ADE) on items issued in 2007-08 was Rs. 40,012,612. ABC analysis revealed 13.78%, 21.85% and 64.37% items as A, B and C category items, respectively, accounting for 69.97%, 19.95% and 10.08% of ADE of the pharmacy. VED analysis showed 12.11%, 59.38% and 28.51% items as V, E, and D category items, respectively, accounting for 17.14%, 72.38% and 10.48% of ADE of the pharmacy. On ABC-VED matrix analysis, 22.09%, 54.63% and 23.28% items were found to be category I, II and III items, respectively, accounting for 74.21%, 22.23% and 3.56% of ADE of the pharmacy. The ABC and VED techniques need to be adopted as a routine practice for optimal use of resources and elimination of out-of-stock situations in the hospital pharmacy.

  8. ABC and VED Analysis of the Pharmacy Store of a Tertiary Care Teaching, Research and Referral Healthcare Institute of India

    PubMed Central

    Devnani, M; Gupta, AK; Nigah, R

    2010-01-01

    The ABC and VED (vital, essential, desirable) analysis of the pharmacy store of Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh, India, was conducted to identify the categories of items needing stringent management control. The annual consumption and expenditure incurred on each item of pharmacy for the year 2007-08 was analyzed and inventory control techniques, i.e. ABC, VED and ABC-VED matrix analysis, were applied. The drug formulary of the pharmacy consisted of 421 items. The total annual drug expenditure (ADE) on items issued in 2007-08 was Rs. 40,012,612. ABC analysis revealed 13.78%, 21.85% and 64.37% items as A, B and C category items, respectively, accounting for 69.97%, 19.95% and 10.08% of ADE of the pharmacy. VED analysis showed 12.11%, 59.38% and 28.51% items as V, E, and D category items, respectively, accounting for 17.14%, 72.38% and 10.48% of ADE of the pharmacy. On ABC-VED matrix analysis, 22.09%, 54.63% and 23.28% items were found to be category I, II and III items, respectively, accounting for 74.21%, 22.23% and 3.56% of ADE of the pharmacy. The ABC and VED techniques need to be adopted as a routine practice for optimal use of resources and elimination of out-of-stock situations in the hospital pharmacy. PMID:21264126

  9. OGS Water ORU R&R

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-08-21

    ISS020-E-033496 (21 Aug. 2009) --- Canadian Space Agency astronaut Robert Thirsk, Expedition 20 flight engineer, is pictured with the oxygen generator system (OGS) rack cover in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station.

  10. Nyberg with OGS R&R

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-07-19

    ISS036-E-021797 (18 July 2013) --- NASA astronaut Karen Nyberg, Expedition 36 flight engineer, performs a remove and replace of the Oxygen Generation System (OGS) Hydrogen (H2) Sensor in the Tranquility node of the International Space Station.

  11. Vedāntic view of life: Reply to Gustavo Caetano-Anollés

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The author would like to thank Professor Gustavo Caetano-Anollés from Department of Crop Sciences, University of Illinois for his interest in his work. We may sometimes observe that there is a noticeable difference between the anecdote people narrate about the implications of a scientific paper and the real conclusion of the paper. Prof. Gustavo Caetano-Anollés's response1 is an ideal example of the same, where he has tried to make great hay about the implications of the article “Life and consciousness – The Vedāntic view.”2 The Vedāntic view subscribes neither to the views of ‘Creationist Movement’/‘Intelligent Design’, nor it supports some splendid anti-science proposal. Vedāntic view refutes the dominant reductionistic view of life in modern biology by proposing a viable alternative concept of ‘Organic Whole’ and thus serves a scientific critique to the nescience (avidyā) that is practiced on the name of science. PMID:27195069

  12. Vedāntic view of life: Reply to Gustavo Caetano-Anollés.

    PubMed

    Shanta, Bhakti Niskama

    2016-01-01

    The author would like to thank Professor Gustavo Caetano-Anollés from Department of Crop Sciences, University of Illinois for his interest in his work. We may sometimes observe that there is a noticeable difference between the anecdote people narrate about the implications of a scientific paper and the real conclusion of the paper. Prof. Gustavo Caetano-Anollés's response(1) is an ideal example of the same, where he has tried to make great hay about the implications of the article "Life and consciousness - The Vedāntic view."(2) The Vedāntic view subscribes neither to the views of 'Creationist Movement'/'Intelligent Design', nor it supports some splendid anti-science proposal. Vedāntic view refutes the dominant reductionistic view of life in modern biology by proposing a viable alternative concept of 'Organic Whole' and thus serves a scientific critique to the nescience (avidyā) that is practiced on the name of science.

  13. Terahertz-Regime, Micro-VEDs: Evaluation of Micromachined TWT Conceptual Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booske, John H.; Kory, Carol L.; Gallagher, D.; van der Weide, Daniel W.; Limbach, S; Gustafson, P; Lee, W.-J.; Gallagher, S.; Jain, K.

    2001-01-01

    Summary form only given. The Terahertz (THz) region of the electromagnetic spectrum (approx.300-3000 GHz) has enormous potential for high-data-rate communications, spectroscopy, astronomy, space research, medicine, biology, surveillance, remote sensing, industrial process control, etc. The most critical roadblock to full exploitation of the THz band is lack of coherent radiation sources that are powerful (0.01-10.0 W continuous wave), efficient (>1 %), frequency agile (instantaneously tunable over 1% bandwidths or more), reliable, and relatively inexpensive. Micro-machined Vacuum Electron Devices (micro-VEDs) represent a promising solution. We describe prospects for miniature, THz-regime TWTs fabricated using micromachining techniques. Several approx.600 GHz conceptual designs are compared. Their expected performance has been analyzed using SD, 2.51), and 3D TWT codes. A folded waveguide (FWG) TWT forward-wave amplifier design is presented based on a Northrop Grumman (NGC) optimized design procedure. This conceptual device is compared to the simulated performance of a novel, micro-VED helix TWT. Conceptual FWG TWT backward-wave amplifiers and oscillators are also discussed. A scaled (100 GHz) FWG TWT operating at a relatively low voltage (-12 kV) is under development at NGC. Also, actual-size micromachining experiments are planned to evaluate the feasibility of arrays of micro-VED TWTs. Progress and results of these efforts are described. This work was supported, in part by AFOSR, ONR, and NSF.

  14. ABC-VED analysis of expendable medical stores at a tertiary care hospital.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sushil; Chakravarty, A

    2015-01-01

    The modern system of medicine has evolved into a complex, sophisticated and expensive treatment modality in terms of cost of medicines and consumables. In any hospital, approximately 33% of total annual budget is spent on buying materials and supplies including medicines. ABC (Always, Better Control)-VED (Vital, Essential, Desirable) analysis of medical stores of a large teaching, tertiary care hospital of the Armed Forces was carried out to identify the categories of drugs needing focused managerial control. Annual consumption and expenditure data of expendable medical stores for one year was extracted from the drug expense book, followed by classification on its annual usage value. Subsequently, the factor of criticality was applied to arrive at a decision matrix for understanding the need for selective managerial control. The study revealed that out of 1536 items considered for the study, 6.77% (104), 19.27% (296) and 73.95% (1136) items were found to be A, B and C category items respectively. VED analysis revealed that vital items (V) accounted for 13.14% (201), essential items (E) for 56.37% (866) and desirable accounted for 30.49% items (469). ABC-VED matrix analysis of the inventory reveals that only 322 (21%) items out of an inventory of 1536 drugs belonging to category I will require maximum attention. Scientific inventory management tools need to be applied routinely for efficient management of medical stores, as it contributes to judicious use of limited resources and resultant improvement in patient care.

  15. Terahertz-Regime, Micro-VEDs: Evaluation of Micromachined TWT Conceptual Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booske, John H.; Kory, Carol L.; Gallagher, D.; van der Weide, Daniel W.; Limbach, S; Gustafson, P; Lee, W.-J.; Gallagher, S.; Jain, K.

    2001-01-01

    Summary form only given. The Terahertz (THz) region of the electromagnetic spectrum (approx.300-3000 GHz) has enormous potential for high-data-rate communications, spectroscopy, astronomy, space research, medicine, biology, surveillance, remote sensing, industrial process control, etc. The most critical roadblock to full exploitation of the THz band is lack of coherent radiation sources that are powerful (0.01-10.0 W continuous wave), efficient (>1 %), frequency agile (instantaneously tunable over 1% bandwidths or more), reliable, and relatively inexpensive. Micro-machined Vacuum Electron Devices (micro-VEDs) represent a promising solution. We describe prospects for miniature, THz-regime TWTs fabricated using micromachining techniques. Several approx.600 GHz conceptual designs are compared. Their expected performance has been analyzed using SD, 2.51), and 3D TWT codes. A folded waveguide (FWG) TWT forward-wave amplifier design is presented based on a Northrop Grumman (NGC) optimized design procedure. This conceptual device is compared to the simulated performance of a novel, micro-VED helix TWT. Conceptual FWG TWT backward-wave amplifiers and oscillators are also discussed. A scaled (100 GHz) FWG TWT operating at a relatively low voltage (-12 kV) is under development at NGC. Also, actual-size micromachining experiments are planned to evaluate the feasibility of arrays of micro-VED TWTs. Progress and results of these efforts are described. This work was supported, in part by AFOSR, ONR, and NSF.

  16. OGS Hydrogen Sensor ORU R&R

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-04-18

    ISS030-E-236919 (18 April 2012) --- NASA astronaut Dan Burbank, Expedition 30 commander, works with the Oxygen Generator System (OGS) rack in the Tranquility node of the International Space Station. Burbank unpowered the OGS, purged the hydrogen sensor Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU) with the Hydrogen Sensor ORU Purge Adapter (HOPA) for return to Earth, and replaced the hydrogen sensor with a new spare, then cleaned the rack Avionics Air Assembly (AAA).

  17. Consciousness, cognition and the cognitive apparatus in the vedānta tradition.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, R

    2011-01-01

    A human being is a complex entity consisting of the Self (also known as Consciousness), mind, senses and the body. The Vedānta tradition holds that the mind, the senses and the body are essentially different from the Self or Consciousness. It is through consciousness that we are able to know the things of the world, making use of the medium of the mind and the senses. Furthermore, the mind, though material, is able to reveal things, borrowing the light from consciousness. From the phenomenological point of view, we have to answer the following questions: how does one know the mind/the mental operations/the cogitations of the mind? Does the mind know itself? Is it possible? There is, again, the problem of the intentionality of consciousness. Is consciousness intentional? According to Vedānta, consciousness by its very nature is not intentional, but it becomes intentional through the mind. The mind or the ego is not part of the consciousness; on the contrary, it is transcendent to consciousness. It is difficult to spell out the relation between consciousness and the mind. How does consciousness, which is totally different from the mind, get related to the mind in such a way that it makes the latter capable of comprehending the things of the world? The Vedānta tradition provides the answer to this question in terms of the knower-known relation. Consciousness is pure light, self-luminous by its very nature, that is, although it reveals other objects, it is not revealed by anything else. When Sartre describes it as nothingness, bereft of even ego, it is to show that it is pure light revealing objects outside it.

  18. Consciousness, Cognition and the Cognitive Apparatus in the Vedānta Tradition

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramanian, R.

    2011-01-01

    A human being is a complex entity consisting of the Self (also known as Consciousness), mind, senses and the body. The Vedānta tradition holds that the mind, the senses and the body are essentially different from the Self or Consciousness. It is through consciousness that we are able to know the things of the world, making use of the medium of the mind and the senses. Furthermore, the mind, though material, is able to reveal things, borrowing the light from consciousness. From the phenomenological point of view, we have to answer the following questions: how does one know the mind/the mental operations/the cogitations of the mind? Does the mind know itself? Is it possible? There is, again, the problem of the intentionality of consciousness. Is consciousness intentional? According to Vedānta, consciousness by its very nature is not intentional, but it becomes intentional through the mind. The mind or the ego is not part of the consciousness; on the contrary, it is transcendent to consciousness. It is difficult to spell out the relation between consciousness and the mind. How does consciousness, which is totally different from the mind, get related to the mind in such a way that it makes the latter capable of comprehending the things of the world? The Vedānta tradition provides the answer to this question in terms of the knower-known relation. Consciousness is pure light, self-luminous by its very nature, that is, although it reveals other objects, it is not revealed by anything else. When Sartre describes it as nothingness, bereft of even ego, it is to show that it is pure light revealing objects outside it. PMID:21694962

  19. ABC–VED analysis of expendable medical stores at a tertiary care hospital

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sushil; Chakravarty, A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The modern system of medicine has evolved into a complex, sophisticated and expensive treatment modality in terms of cost of medicines and consumables. In any hospital, approximately 33% of total annual budget is spent on buying materials and supplies including medicines. ABC (Always, Better Control)–VED (Vital, Essential, Desirable) analysis of medical stores of a large teaching, tertiary care hospital of the Armed Forces was carried out to identify the categories of drugs needing focused managerial control. Methods Annual consumption and expenditure data of expendable medical stores for one year was extracted from the drug expense book, followed by classification on its annual usage value. Subsequently, the factor of criticality was applied to arrive at a decision matrix for understanding the need for selective managerial control. Results The study revealed that out of 1536 items considered for the study, 6.77% (104), 19.27% (296) and 73.95% (1136) items were found to be A, B and C category items respectively. VED analysis revealed that vital items (V) accounted for 13.14% (201), essential items (E) for 56.37% (866) and desirable accounted for 30.49% items (469). ABC–VED matrix analysis of the inventory reveals that only 322 (21%) items out of an inventory of 1536 drugs belonging to category I will require maximum attention. Conclusion Scientific inventory management tools need to be applied routinely for efficient management of medical stores, as it contributes to judicious use of limited resources and resultant improvement in patient care. PMID:25609859

  20. OGS Water ORU R&R

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-08-21

    ISS020-E-033472 (21 Aug. 2009) --- Canadian Space Agency astronaut Robert Thirsk, Expedition 20 flight engineer, prepares to perform in-flight maintenance (IFM) on the oxygen generator system (OGS) rack in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station.

  1. Grasping at ontological straws: overcoming reductionism in the Advaita Vedānta-Neuroscience dialogue.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Contemporary neuropsychology reveals that the parietal lobe contains neurons that are specifically attuned to the act of grasping and this act may be fundamental to the establishment of the phenomenal boundaries between subject and object. Furthermore, alterations to this process, such as the hypoactivation of this region during meditation or the hyperactivation associated with schizophrenia, may eliminate or confuse, respectively, the phenomenal boundaries between subject and object. Traversing disciplines, the Advaita Vedānta school of Hinduism traces some of its key terms for subject and object to the verbal root grah, to grasp. The subject is literally the grasper. Furthermore, the practice of asparśa yoga, the yoga of no-touch, is aimed at stopping, hypoactivating, the grasping process in order to transcend all subject-object boundaries. This paper will argue that while we have not uncovered an identity of thought, we have uncovered a confluence of ideas between these two disciplines. We will see that this confluence of ideas has not pitted the believer against the critic-not forced us into the great reductionism debate that has dominated so much of the interchange between religious studies and the sciences. This case study will illuminate some of the methodological ways around this reductionism battle and also the boundaries of both disciplines for the intellectual benefit of each.

  2. Training healthcare personnel for mass-casualty incidents in a virtual emergency department: VED II.

    PubMed

    Heinrichs, Wm Leroy; Youngblood, Patricia; Harter, Phillip; Kusumoto, Laura; Dev, Parvati

    2010-01-01

    Training emergency personnel on the clinical management of a mass-casualty incident (MCI) with prior chemical, biological, radioactive, nuclear, or explosives (CBRNE) -exposed patients is a component of hospital preparedness procedures. The objective of this research was to determine whether a Virtual Emergency Department (VED), designed after the Stanford University Medical Center's Emergency Department (ED) and populated with 10 virtual patient victims who suffered from a dirty bomb blast (radiological) and 10 who suffered from exposure to a nerve toxin (chemical), is an effective clinical environment for training ED physicians and nurses for such MCIs. Ten physicians with an average of four years of post-training experience, and 12 nurses with an average of 9.5 years of post-graduate experience at Stanford University Medical Center and San Mateo County Medical Center participated in this IRB-approved study. All individuals were provided electronic information about the clinical features of patients exposed to a nerve toxin or radioactive blast before the study date and an orientation to the "game" interface, including an opportunity to practice using it immediately prior to the study. An exit questionnaire was conducted using a Likert Scale test instrument. Among these 22 trainees, two-thirds of whom had prior Code Triage (multiple casualty incident) training, and one-half had prior CBRNE training, about two-thirds felt immersed in the virtual world much or all of the time. Prior to the training, only four trainees (18%) were confident about managing CBRNE MCIs. After the training, 19 (86%) felt either "confident" or "very confident", with 13 (59%) attributing this change to practicing in the virtual ED. Twenty-one (95%) of the trainees reported that the scenarios were useful for improving healthcare team skills training, the primary objective for creating them. Eighteen trainees (82%) believed that the cases also were instructive in learning about clinical

  3. [Academician O.G. Gazenko and aviation medicine].

    PubMed

    Ushakov, I B; Bednenko, V S; Khomenko, M N; Stepanov, V K

    2008-01-01

    The paper analyzes the contribution of O.G. Gazenko to the theory and practice of aviation medicine in the period of his service at the State Test and Research Institute of Aviation and Space Medicine under the USSR Ministry of Defense (1947-1969). O.G. Gazenko took the leadership and participated in personally in the broad investigations of the altitude effects on human organism, medical care of the staff of AF units and troops based in the Arctic, improvement of life and duty conditions for pilots and technicians in hot climate, ejection seat testing, development of methods modeling erroneous pilot's actions in order to understand their triggers.

  4. Pinunuuchi Po'og'ani: Southern Ute Indian Academy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberly, Stacey Inez (Wachimamachi [Antelope Woman])

    2002-01-01

    Describes the Pinunuuchi Po'og'ani, the Southern Ute Indian Academy, providing Montessori education for Southern Ute tribal members ages 6 weeks through 10 years and reviving the use of the Southern Ute language and culture among young students and their families. Describes how the program supports families, students, and staff, and incorporates…

  5. LLCD operations using the Lunar Lasercom OGS Terminal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sodnik, Zoran; Smit, Hans; Sans, Marc; Zayer, Igor; Lanucara, Marco; Montilla, Iciar; Alonso, Angel

    2014-03-01

    The paper describes the operations of ESA's Optical Ground Station (OGS) during the Lunar Laser Communications Demonstration (LLCD) experiment, performed in October and November 2013 with NASA's Lunar Atmospheric and Dust Environmental Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft. First the transmitter and receiver designs at the OGS telescope are described, which are geometrically separated to prevent cross-talk. Problems encountered and the lesson learned will be explained. As it turned the chosen arrangement was not sufficiently stable in terms of alignment and the paper will describe the solution found. A new industrial contract has been placed for improvement of the design of two solutions will be presented, which will both be tested in a follow-up laser communication campaign, scheduled for end March 2014.

  6. Targeting the dengue β-OG with serotype-specific alkaloid virtual leads.

    PubMed

    Gangopadhyay, Aditi; Chakraborty, Hirak Jyoti; Datta, Abhijit

    2017-03-01

    The dengue envelope β-OG pocket is a crucial hinge for mediating virus-host fusion via conformational changes in the envelope to the fusion-competent form. The β-OG pocket is a small molecule target site for inhibition of virus-host fusion. As of date, the only structure of the β-OG pocket known is of serotype 2. Studies of β-OG inhibition by small molecules primarily target viral serotype 2. Envelope and β-OG sequence alignments, reveal dissimilarities across serotypes. In light of protein sequence-structure-function correlation, sequence variations suggest serotypic variations in β-OG druggability. This, together with the fact that dengue viral proteins do have serotype-specific variations of structure and function, lead to the study of the serotype-specificity of the dengue β-OG ligand binding behaviour. β-OG druggability was compared using comparative models of envelope proteins containing the β-OG pocket in four serotypes of the dengue virus. β-OG ligand binding was found to vary with respect to hydrophobicity, hydrophilicity, hydrogen bonding, van der Waals interactions with ligands and tightness of the binding site. The study also reports serotype-specific virtual leads identified from a library of 9175 alkaloids, using a consensus docking and scoring approach. The docking algorithms of Glide SP and XP, together with the Lamarckian genetic algorithm were employed for consensus docking. For consensus scoring, the Glide empirical score was employed along with the scoring function of AutoDock. A multi-dimensional lead optimisation approach was performed for optimising affinity, ligand efficiency, lipophilic ligand efficiency, ADMET and molecular torsional strains. The study proposes the serotype-specific inhibition of the β-OG for an effective inhibition of virus-host fusion, in contrast to a pan inhibitor.

  7. 2008 OG19: a highly elongated Trans-Neptunian object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Valenzuela, E.; Ortiz, J. L.; Duffard, R.; Santos-Sanz, P.; Morales, N.

    2016-03-01

    From two observing runs during the 2014 summer at the Calar Alto Observatory in Almería (Spain) and at the Sierra Nevada Observatory in Granada (Spain), we were able to derive CCD photometry of the Trans-Neptunian object 2008 OG19. We analysed the time series and obtained a double-peaked light curve with a peak-to-valley amplitude of 0.437 ± 0.011 mag and a rotational period of 8.727 ± 0.003 h. This implies that this object is very elongated, closely resembling the case of Varuna. The photometry also allowed us to obtain an absolute magnitude in the R band of 4.39 ± 0.07 mag. From this result, we estimated an equivalent diameter of 2008 OG19 of 619^{+56}_{-113} km using an average albedo for scattered disc objects. Finally, we interpreted the results under the assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium and found a lower limit for the density of 544^{+42}_{-4} kg m-3. However, a more likely density is 609 ± 4 kg m-3 using an aspect angle of 60°, which corresponds to the most likely configuration for the spin axis with respect to the observer assuming random orientations.

  8. BPhyOG: an interactive server for genome-wide inference of bacterial phylogenies based on overlapping genes.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yingqin; Fu, Cong; Zhang, Da-Yong; Lin, Kui

    2007-07-25

    Overlapping genes (OGs) in bacterial genomes are pairs of adjacent genes of which the coding sequences overlap partly or entirely. With the rapid accumulation of sequence data, many OGs in bacterial genomes have now been identified. Indeed, these might prove a consistent feature across all microbial genomes. Our previous work suggests that OGs can be considered as robust markers at the whole genome level for the construction of phylogenies. An online, interactive web server for inferring phylogenies is needed for biologists to analyze phylogenetic relationships among a set of bacterial genomes of interest. BPhyOG is an online interactive server for reconstructing the phylogenies of completely sequenced bacterial genomes on the basis of their shared overlapping genes. It provides two tree-reconstruction methods: Neighbor Joining (NJ) and Unweighted Pair-Group Method using Arithmetic averages (UPGMA). Users can apply the desired method to generate phylogenetic trees, which are based on an evolutionary distance matrix for the selected genomes. The distance between two genomes is defined by the normalized number of their shared OG pairs. BPhyOG also allows users to browse the OGs that were used to infer the phylogenetic relationships. It provides detailed annotation for each OG pair and the features of the component genes through hyperlinks. Users can also retrieve each of the homologous OG pairs that have been determined among 177 genomes. It is a useful tool for analyzing the tree of life and overlapping genes from a genomic standpoint. BPhyOG is a useful interactive web server for genome-wide inference of any potential evolutionary relationship among the genomes selected by users. It currently includes 177 completely sequenced bacterial genomes containing 79,855 OG pairs, the annotation and homologous OG pairs of which are integrated comprehensively. The reliability of phylogenies complemented by annotations make BPhyOG a powerful web server for genomic and genetic

  9. Modelling Aṣṭādhyāyī: An Approach Based on the Methodology of Ancillary Disciplines (Vedāṅga)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Anand

    This article proposes a general model based on the common methodological approach of the ancillary disciplines (Vedāṅga) associated with the Vedas taking examples from Śikṣā, Chandas, Vyākaraṇa and Prātiśā khya texts. It develops and elaborates this model further to represent the contents and processes of Aṣṭādhyāyī. Certain key features are added to my earlier modelling of Pāṇinian system of Sanskrit grammar. This includes broader coverage of the Pāṇinian meta-language, mechanism for automatic application of rules and positioning the grammatical system within the procedural complexes of ancillary disciplines.

  10. What Engages Students in MetaL-FrOG? A Triarchy Perspective on Meta-Cognitive Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fa, Ng Sen; Hussin, Firuz Hussin

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the central ideas of a grounded theory research by the name of Triarchy Perspective on Metacognitive Learning in Free Online Groups, or "TriP on MetaL-FrOG" in short. The research setting was online learning community on the platform of Free Online Group web (FrOG) intended for post-graduate students. The research…

  11. Location Capability and Site Characterization Installing a Borehole VBB Seismometer: the OGS Experience in Ferrara (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesaresi, D.; Barnaba, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Centro di Ricerche Sismologiche (CRS, Seismological Research Centre) of the Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS, Italian National Institute for Oceanography and Experimental Geophysics) in Udine (Italy) after the strong earthquake of magnitude M=6.4 occurred in 1976 in the Italian Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, started to operate the Northeastern Italy Seismic Network: it currently consists of 19 very sensitive broad band and 17 simpler short period seismic stations, all telemetered to and acquired in real time at the OGS CRS data centre in Udine. The southwestern edge of the OGS seismic network stands on the Po alluvial basin: earthquake localization and characterization in this area is affected by the presence of soft alluvial deposits. Following the ML=5.9 earthquake that struck the Emilia region around Ferrara in Northern Italy on May 20, 2012, a cooperation of Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, OGS, the Comune di Ferrara and the University of Ferrara lead to the reinstallation of a previously existing very broad band (VBB) borehole seismic station in Ferrara and to the deployment of a temporary seismographic network consisting of eight portable seismological stations, to record the local earthquakes that occurred during the seismic sequence. The aim of the OGS intervention was on one hand to extend its real time seismic monitoring capabilities toward South-West, including Ferrara and its surroundings, and on the other hand to evaluate seismic site responses in the area. We will introduce details of the Ferrara VBB borehole station and the OGS temporary seismographic network configuration and installation. We will then illustrate the location capability performances, and finally we will shortly describe seismic site characterization with surface/borehole comparisons in terms of seismic noise, site amplification and resonance frequencies.

  12. From Black Power to Hip-Hop: Jeffrey O.G. Ogbar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smiles, Robin V.

    2005-01-01

    While history for most conjures up images of places and experiences far removed, for Dr. Jeffrey O.G. Ogbar, the field provides a "wonderful medium" to illuminate contemporary issues as well. Much of Ogbar's current research centers on events occurring in the latter half of the 20th century, such as the civil rights and Black power…

  13. Coleman works at the AR OGS Rack in the Node 3

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-02-08

    ISS026-E-025143 (8 Feb. 2011) --- NASA astronaut Catherine (Cady) Coleman, Expedition 26 flight engineer, works at the Atmosphere Revitalization / Oxygen Generation System (AR OGS) rack in the Harmony node of the International Space Station. Coleman collected recirculation loop samples for subsequent analysis for pH value.

  14. Coleman works at the AR OGS Rack in the Node 3

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-02-08

    ISS026-E-025142 (8 Feb. 2011) --- NASA astronaut Catherine (Cady) Coleman, Expedition 26 flight engineer, works at the Atmosphere Revitalization / Oxygen Generation System (AR OGS) rack in the Harmony node of the International Space Station. Coleman collected recirculation loop samples for subsequent analysis for pH value.

  15. OGS improvements in the year 2011 in running the Northeastern Italy Seismic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bragato, P. L.; Pesaresi, D.; Saraò, A.; Di Bartolomeo, P.; Durı, G.

    2012-04-01

    The Centro di Ricerche Sismologiche (CRS, Seismological Research Center) of the Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS, Italian National Institute for Oceanography and Experimental Geophysics) in Udine (Italy) after the strong earthquake of magnitude M=6.4 occurred in 1976 in the Italian Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, started to operate the Northeastern Italy Seismic Network: it currently consists of 15 very sensitive broad band and 21 simpler short period seismic stations, all telemetered to and acquired in real time at the OGS-CRS data center in Udine. Real time data exchange agreements in place with other Italian, Slovenian, Austrian and Swiss seismological institutes lead to a total number of about 100 seismic stations acquired in real time, which makes the OGS the reference institute for seismic monitoring of Northeastern Italy. Since 2002 OGS-CRS is using the Antelope software suite on several workstations plus a SUN Cluster as the main tool for collecting, analyzing, archiving and exchanging seismic data, initially in the framework of the EU Interreg IIIA project "Trans-national seismological networks in the South-Eastern Alps". SeisComP is also used as a real time data exchange server tool. In order to improve the seismological monitoring of the Northeastern Italy area, at OGS-CRS we tuned existing programs and created ad hoc ones like: a customized web server named PickServer to manually relocate earthquakes, a script for automatic moment tensor determination, scripts for web publishing of earthquake parametric data, waveforms, state of health parameters and shaking maps, noise characterization by means of automatic spectra analysis, and last but not least scripts for email/SMS/fax alerting. The OGS-CRS Real Time Seismological website (RTS, http://rts.crs.inogs.it/) operative since several years was initially developed in the framework of the Italian DPC-INGV S3 Project: the RTS website shows classic earthquake locations

  16. ogs6 - a new concept for porous-fractured media simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumov, Dmitri; Bilke, Lars; Fischer, Thomas; Rink, Karsten; Wang, Wenqing; Watanabe, Norihiro; Kolditz, Olaf

    2015-04-01

    OpenGeoSys (OGS) is a scientific open-source initiative for numerical simulation of thermo-hydro-mechanical/chemical (THMC) processes in porous and fractured media, continuously developed since the mid-eighties. The basic concept is to provide a flexible numerical framework for solving coupled multi-field problems. OGS is targeting mainly on applications in environmental geoscience, e.g. in the fields of contaminant hydrology, water resources management, waste deposits, or geothermal energy systems, but it has also been successfully applied to new topics in energy storage recently. OGS is actively participating several international benchmarking initiatives, e.g. DECOVALEX (waste management), CO2BENCH (CO2 storage and sequestration), SeSBENCH (reactive transport processes) and HM-Intercomp (coupled hydrosystems). Despite the broad applicability of OGS in geo-, hydro- and energy-sciences, several shortcomings became obvious concerning the computational efficiency as well as the code structure became too sophisticated for further efficient development. OGS-5 was designed for object-oriented FEM applications. However, in many multi-field problems a certain flexibility of tailored numerical schemes is essential. Therefore, a new concept was designed to overcome existing bottlenecks. The paradigms for ogs6 are: - Flexibility of numerical schemes (FEM#FVM#FDM), - Computational efficiency (PetaScale ready), - Developer- and user-friendly. ogs6 has a module-oriented architecture based on thematic libraries (e.g. MeshLib, NumLib) on the large scale and uses object-oriented approach for the small scale interfaces. Usage of a linear algebra library (Eigen3) for the mathematical operations together with the ISO C++11 standard increases the expressiveness of the code and makes it more developer-friendly. The new C++ standard also makes the template meta-programming technique code used for compile-time optimizations more compact. We have transitioned the main code development to

  17. Management of gestational trophoblastic disease: a survey of New Zealand O&G practice.

    PubMed

    Kladnitski, Maria; Kenwright, Diane

    2016-03-11

    The aim of the study was to obtain information on pathways for diagnosis and management of molar pregnancy/gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) across New Zealand, the protocols used, and, in addition, to consider the view of O&G Specialists on a national GTD reference centre. An electronic survey approved by the RANZCOG Continues Professional Development Committee was distributed amongst registered O&G Specialists currently working in New Zealand. Data were analysed using Microsoft Excel 2011. Frequency distributions were used to determine the percentage of participants responding to the listed alternatives for each question. There were 234 potential responders, but only 68 complete questionnaires were received and available for analysis. The diagnosis of GTD requires histopathological analysis of pregnancy tissue, however only 79.7% of participants request this test routinely. Sixty-five percent of Fellows thought that a number of molar pregnancies can be missed with increasing proportion of medically-managed miscarriages, reliance on ultrasound and appearance of the tissue being contributing factors. Sixty-six percent of specialists were directly involved in the management of patients with GTD to various degrees. Follow-up responsibilities were divided between designated O&G specialists (52.3%), specialised gynaecology clinics (29.2%), acute assessment units (13.8%), nurse specialists (12%), O&G registrars (10.8%), GPs (6.2%), and others (6.2%). NZGCG guidelines were used by the majority of responders (54.8%), followed by local (29%) and RCOG (27.4%) guidelines. Seventy-two percent of specialists felt that some form of centralisation in the management of GTD is needed. In spite of the low response rate, our research demonstrates existing practice heterogeneity at every level of care. It also confirms that there is a desire for some form of centralisation in diagnosis and management of GTD, and a definite need for data collection in the form of a national

  18. OGS improvements in 2012 in running the Northeastern Italy Seismic Network: the Ferrara VBB borehole seismic station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesaresi, Damiano; Romanelli, Marco; Barnaba, Carla; Bragato, Pier Luigi; Durì, Giorgio

    2013-04-01

    The Centro di Ricerche Sismologiche (CRS, Seismological Research Center) of the Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS, Italian National Institute for Oceanography and Experimental Geophysics) in Udine (Italy) after the strong earthquake of magnitude M=6.4 occurred in 1976 in the Italian Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, started to operate the Northeastern Italy Seismic Network: it currently consists of 17 very sensitive broad band and 18 simpler short period seismic stations, all telemetered to and acquired in real time at the OGS-CRS data center in Udine. Real time data exchange agreements in place with other Italian, Slovenian, Austrian and Swiss seismological institutes lead to a total number of about 100 seismic stations acquired in real time, which makes the OGS the reference institute for seismic monitoring of Northeastern Italy. The southwestern edge of the OGS seismic network stands on the Po alluvial basin: earthquake localization and characterization in this area is affected by the presence of soft alluvial deposits. OGS ha already experience in running a local seismic network in high noise conditions making use of borehole installations in the case of the micro-seismicity monitoring of a local gas storage site for a private company. Following the ML=5.9 earthquake that struck the Emilia region around Ferrara in Northern Italy on May 20, 2012 at 02:03:53 UTC, a cooperation of Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, OGS, the Comune di Ferrara and the University of Ferrara lead to the reinstallation of a previously existing very broad band (VBB) borehole seismic station in Ferrara. The aim of the OGS intervention was on one hand to extend its real time seismic monitoring capabilities toward South-West, including Ferrara and its surroundings, and on the other hand to evaluate the seismic response at the site. We will describe improvements in running the Northeastern Italy Seismic Network, including details of the Ferrara VBB

  19. Ectopic expression of ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme gene from wild rice, OgUBC1, confers resistance against UV-B radiation and Botrytis infection in Arabidopsis thaliana

    SciTech Connect

    Jeon, En Hee; Pak, Jung Hun; Kim, Mi Jin; Kim, Hye Jeong; Shin, Sang Hyun; Lee, Jai Heon; Kim, Doh Hoon; Oh, Ju Sung; Oh, Boung-Jun; Jung, Ho Won; Chung, Young Soo

    2012-10-19

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We isolated a novel E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme from leaves of wild rice plants. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The OgUBC1 was highly expressed in leaves treated with SA and UV-B radiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The recombinant OgUBC1 has an enzymatic activity of E2 in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The OgUBC1 could protect disruption of plant cells by UV-B radiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer OgUBC1 confers disease resistance and UV-B tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. -- Abstract: A previously unidentified gene encoding ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme was isolated from leaves of wild rice plant treated with wounding and microbe-associated molecular patterns. The OgUBC1 gene was composed of 148 amino acids and contained a typical active site and 21 ubiquitin thioester intermediate interaction residues and 4 E3 interaction residues. Both exogenous application of salicylic acid and UV-B irradiation triggered expression of OgUBC1 in leaves of wild rice. Recombinant OgUBC1 proteins bound to ubiquitins in vitro, proposing that the protein might act as E2 enzyme in planta. Heterologous expression of the OgUBC1 in Arabidopsis thaliana protected plants from cellular damage caused by an excess of UV-B radiation. A stable expression of chalcone synthase gene was detected in leaves of OgUBC1-expressing Arabidopsis, resulting in producing higher amounts of anthocyanin than those in wild-type Col-0 plants. Additionally, both pathogenesis-related gene1 and 5 were transcribed in the transgenic Arabidopsis in the absence of pathogen infection. The OgUBC1-expressing plants were resistant to the infection of Botrytis cinerea. Taken together, we suggested that the OgUBC1 is involved in ubiquitination process important for cellular response against biotic and abiotic stresses in plants.

  20. Postoperative Quality of Life after Total Gastrectomy Compared with Partial Gastrectomy: Longitudinal Evaluation by European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer-OG25 and STO22.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong-Hwan; Lee, Hyuk-Joon; Choi, Yun Suk; Kim, Tae Han; Huh, Yeon-Ju; Suh, Yun-Suhk; Kong, Seong-Ho; Yang, Han-Kwang

    2016-12-01

    The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer quality-of-life questionnaire-OG25 was developed to evaluate the quality of life in patients with stomach and esophageal cancer. The following are included in the OG25 but not in the STO22: odynophagia, choked when swallowing, weight loss, trouble eating with others, trouble swallowing saliva, trouble talking, and trouble with coughing. In this study, we evaluated the quality of life of gastrectomized patients using both, the OG25 and the STO22. A total of 138 patients with partial gastrectomy (PG) (distal gastrectomy=91; pylorus-preserving gastrectomy= 47) and 44 patients with total gastrectomy (TG) were prospectively evaluated. Body weight and scores from the OG25 and STO22 were evaluated preoperatively and at 3 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months after surgery. Patients with TG had significant weight loss compared to patients with PG. At 3 months, TG was associated with worse scores for dysphagia, eating, odynophagia, trouble eating with others, trouble with taste, and weight loss on the OG25. TG was also associated with dysphagia, eating restrictions, and anxiety on the STO22. The OG25 helped differentiate between the groups with respect to weight loss, odynophagia, choked when swallowing, and trouble eating with others. The OG25 scores changed over time and were significantly different. The OG25 is a more sensitive and useful scale than the STO22 for evaluating the quality of life of gastrectomized patients, especially those with total gastrectomy.

  1. Og4C3 circulating antigen: a marker of infection and adult worm burden in Wuchereria bancrofti filariasis.

    PubMed

    Chanteau, S; Moulia-Pelat, J P; Glaziou, P; Nguyen, N L; Luquiaud, P; Plichart, C; Martin, P M; Cartel, J L

    1994-07-01

    Og4C3 circulating filarial antigen was detected in the sera of 94.5% (259/274) of microfilaremic patients, 32% (239/751) of persons with presumption of filariasis, and 23% (11/48) of chronic filariasis patients. The antigen level was correlated with the microfilariae (Mf) density and patient age (P < .01). It remained stable in patients treated with microfilaricidal drugs. Og4C3 antigen, undetectable in Mf culture media, was demonstrated to be a rare somatic Mf antigen. It appears to be an excreted or secreted antigen from adult filaria. It could be used as a marker of infection and an indicator of adult worm burden.

  2. Screening Analogs of β-OG Pocket Binder as Fusion Inhibitor of Dengue Virus 2

    PubMed Central

    Tambunan, Usman SF; Zahroh, Hilyatuz; Parikesit, Arli A; Idrus, Syarifuddin; Kerami, Djati

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is an infectious disease caused by dengue virus (DENV) and transmitted between human hosts by mosquitoes. Recently, Indonesia was listed as a country with the highest cases of dengue by the Association of Southeast Asian Nations. The current treatment for dengue disease is supportive therapy; there is no antiviral drug available in the market against dengue. Therefore, a research on antiviral drug against dengue is very important, especially to prevent outbreak explosion. In this research, the development of dengue antiviral is performed through the inhibition of n-octyl-β-D-glucoside (β-OG) binding pocket on envelope protein of DENV by using analogs of β-OG pocket binder. There are 828 compounds used in this study, and all of them were screened based on the analysis of molecular docking, pharmacological character prediction of the compounds, and molecular dynamics simulation. The result of these analyses revealed that the compound that can be used as an antiviral candidate against DENV is 5-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-N-[2-(p-tolyl) benzotriazol-5-yl]furan-2-carboxamide. PMID:26617459

  3. Students' Decision Steps in Meta-Cognitive Learning in Free Online Groups (MetaL-FrOG): A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sen Fa, Kinsley Ng; Hussin, Firuz Hussin

    2011-01-01

    What prompts the students to respond in online dialogic discussion? Why some students chose to fall out? This case study through the lens of phenomenography observation attempts to explain the five decision steps of students to respond in Meta-cognitive Learning in Free Online Groups (MetaL-FrOG) discussion. It presents a part of a research…

  4. OGS improvements in 2012 in running the North-eastern Italy Seismic Network: the Ferrara VBB borehole seismic station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesaresi, D.; Romanelli, M.; Barnaba, C.; Bragato, P. L.; Durì, G.

    2014-07-01

    The Centro di Ricerche Sismologiche (CRS, Seismological Research Centre) of the Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS, Italian National Institute for Oceanography and Experimental Geophysics) in Udine (Italy) after the strong earthquake of magnitude M=6.4 occurred in 1976 in the Italian Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, started to operate the North-eastern Italy Seismic Network: it currently consists of 17 very sensitive broad band and 18 simpler short period seismic stations, all telemetered to and acquired in real time at the OGS-CRS data centre in Udine. Real time data exchange agreements in place with other Italian, Slovenian, Austrian and Swiss seismological institutes lead to a total number of about 100 seismic stations acquired in real time, which makes the OGS the reference institute for seismic monitoring of North-eastern Italy. The south-western edge of the OGS seismic network (Fig. 1) stands on the Po alluvial basin: earthquake localization and characterization in this area is affected by the presence of soft alluvial deposits. OGS ha already experience in running a local seismic network in high noise conditions making use of borehole installations in the case of the micro-seismicity monitoring of a local gas storage site for a private company. Following the ML = 5.9 earthquake that struck the Emilia region around Ferrara in Northern Italy on 20 May 2012 at 02:03:53 UTC, a cooperation of Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, OGS, the Comune di Ferrara and the University of Ferrara lead to the reinstallation of a previously existing very broad band (VBB) borehole seismic station in Ferrara. The aim of the OGS intervention was on one hand to extend its real time seismic monitoring capabilities toward South-West, including Ferrara and its surroundings, and on the other hand to evaluate the seismic response at the site. We will describe improvements in running the North-eastern Italy Seismic Network, including details of

  5. Reactive transport modeling in variably saturated porous media with OGS-IPhreeqc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, W.; Beyer, C.; Fleckenstein, J. H.; Jang, E.; Kalbacher, T.; Shao, H.; Wang, W.; Kolditz, O.

    2014-12-01

    Worldwide, sustainable water resource management becomes an increasingly challenging task due to the growth of population and extensive applications of fertilizer in agriculture. Moreover, climate change causes further stresses to both water quantity and quality. Reactive transport modeling in the coupled soil-aquifer system is a viable approach to assess the impacts of different land use and groundwater exploitation scenarios on the water resources. However, the application of this approach is usually limited in spatial scale and to simplified geochemical systems due to the huge computational expense involved. Such computational expense is not only caused by solving the high non-linearity of the initial boundary value problems of water flow in the unsaturated zone numerically with rather fine spatial and temporal discretization for the correct mass balance and numerical stability, but also by the intensive computational task of quantifying geochemical reactions. In the present study, a flexible and efficient tool for large scale reactive transport modeling in variably saturated porous media and its applications are presented. The open source scientific software OpenGeoSys (OGS) is coupled with the IPhreeqc module of the geochemical solver PHREEQC. The new coupling approach makes full use of advantages from both codes: OGS provides a flexible choice of different numerical approaches for simulation of water flow in the vadose zone such as the pressure-based or mixed forms of Richards equation; whereas the IPhreeqc module leads to a simplification of data storage and its communication with OGS, which greatly facilitates the coupling and code updating. Moreover, a parallelization scheme with MPI (Message Passing Interface) is applied, in which the computational task of water flow and mass transport is partitioned through domain decomposition, whereas the efficient parallelization of geochemical reactions is achieved by smart allocation of computational workload over

  6. Reactive transport modeling in the subsurface environment with OGS-IPhreeqc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Wenkui; Beyer, Christof; Fleckenstein, Jan; Jang, Eunseon; Kalbacher, Thomas; Naumov, Dimitri; Shao, Haibing; Wang, Wenqing; Kolditz, Olaf

    2015-04-01

    Worldwide, sustainable water resource management becomes an increasingly challenging task due to the growth of population and extensive applications of fertilizer in agriculture. Moreover, climate change causes further stresses to both water quantity and quality. Reactive transport modeling in the coupled soil-aquifer system is a viable approach to assess the impacts of different land use and groundwater exploitation scenarios on the water resources. However, the application of this approach is usually limited in spatial scale and to simplified geochemical systems due to the huge computational expense involved. Such computational expense is not only caused by solving the high non-linearity of the initial boundary value problems of water flow in the unsaturated zone numerically with rather fine spatial and temporal discretization for the correct mass balance and numerical stability, but also by the intensive computational task of quantifying geochemical reactions. In the present study, a flexible and efficient tool for large scale reactive transport modeling in variably saturated porous media and its applications are presented. The open source scientific software OpenGeoSys (OGS) is coupled with the IPhreeqc module of the geochemical solver PHREEQC. The new coupling approach makes full use of advantages from both codes: OGS provides a flexible choice of different numerical approaches for simulation of water flow in the vadose zone such as the pressure-based or mixed forms of Richards equation; whereas the IPhreeqc module leads to a simplification of data storage and its communication with OGS, which greatly facilitates the coupling and code updating. Moreover, a parallelization scheme with MPI (Message Passing Interface) is applied, in which the computational task of water flow and mass transport is partitioned through domain decomposition, whereas the efficient parallelization of geochemical reactions is achieved by smart allocation of computational workload over

  7. Rhamnolipid production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa OG1 using waste frying oil and ram horn peptone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özdal, Murat; Gürkök, Sümeyra; Özdal, Özlem Gür; Kurbanoǧlu, Esabi Başaran

    2017-04-01

    Agro-industrial by-products are being explored as alternative low-cost nutrients for various bioprocesses. In this work, the applicability of ram horn peptone (RHP) and waste frying oil were investigated for rhamnolipid production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa as the sole nitrogen and carbon sources, respectively. The rhamnolipid yield was considerably influenced by the type of organic nitrogen source. Among the tested organic nitrogen sources, RHP proved to be the best nitrogen source for both biomass and rhamnolipid production. RHP was also tested at different concentrations and 10 g/L RHP resulted in the greatest yield of rhamnolipid (12.1 g/L) in the presence of waste frying oil as the sole carbon source. These results revealed that rhamnolipid could be produced efficiently and cost effectively by P. aeruginosa OG1 using RHP and waste frying oil.

  8. RsaOG, a new staphylococcal family of highly transcribed non-coding RNA.

    PubMed

    Marchais, Antonin; Bohn, Chantal; Bouloc, Philippe; Gautheret, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The expression of trans-acting small RNAs in firmicutes has been poorly documented to date. This gap is being filled quickly in the genus Staphylococcus, which is both a model firmicute and an important human pathogen. Here we analyze RsaOG, a novel small RNA family specific to Staphylococcus and highly transcribed. This well conserved element, first discovered in a computational screen, was precisely mapped in the genome by RACE mapping and the identification of a putative transcriptional promoter. The proposed secondary structure presents two highly conserved unpaired sequences, part of which can form a pseudoknot. We suggest a possible involvement of the remaining conserved single stranded region in trans regulatory interactions.

  9. PET2OGS: Algorithms to link the static model of Petrel with the dynamic model of OpenGeoSys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, C.-H.; Shinn, Y. J.; Park, Y.-C.; Huh, D.-G.; Lee, S. K.

    2014-01-01

    A set of three algorithms named PET2OGS is developed to integrate the static model (Petrel) with the dynamic model (OpenGeoSys). PET2OGS consists of three sub-algorithms that convert finite difference methods (FDMs) grids to finite element methods (FEMs) grids. The algorithms and the workflow of the integration procedures are described in detail. After the proposed algorithms are tested on a variety of grids both in homogeneous and heterogeneous media, the integrated platform of the static and dynamic models is applied to model CO2 storage in a saline aquifer. A successful demonstration of the proposed algorithms proved a robust integration of the platform. With some minor modifications of the algorithms in the part of input and output, the proposed algorithms can be extended to integrate different combinations of FDM-based static models and FEM-based dynamic models beyond the example combination in the paper.

  10. Development of cereal-based functional food using cereal-mix substrate fermented with probiotic strain - Pichia kudriavzevii OG32.

    PubMed

    Ogunremi, Omotade R; Agrawal, Renu; Sanni, Abiodun I

    2015-11-01

    Probiotic strains contribute to the functionality of foods during fermentation. In this present work, cereal-mix was fermented with probiotic Pichia kudriavzevii OG32. Selected fermentation parameters and functional properties of the product were determined. The growth of Pichia kudriavzevii OG32 was supported by the cereal-mix containing 1% salt and 0.2% red chili powder to counts of between 7.46 and 8.22 Log10 cfu/mL within 24 h. Pichia kudriavzevii OG32 increased the viscosity of cereal-mix with the highest inoculum size (1.84x105cfu/ml) giving the highest viscosity of 1793.6 mPa.S. An inoculum size of 1.98 × 10(4) cfu/mL gave the most acceptable product based on the sensory evaluation by the panelist. Forty volatile compounds were identified in the fermented product, while acids (32.21%) and esters (32.37%) accounted for the largest proportions. The cereal-based fermented product scavenged DPPH from 200 μmol/L methanolic solution by 55.71%. Probiotic yeast improved the sensory and some functional properties of cereal-based substrate during fermentation. This is one of the first reports on the volatile composition of cereal-based functional food produced with probiotic yeast.

  11. Seismicity of North East Italy and data quality of the broadband network managed by OGS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranaba, C.; Saraò, A.; Plasencia Linares, M.

    2012-04-01

    Seismicity of North-East Italy demarcates the boundary between the Adria microplate and the Eurasian plate. It is characterized by a complex tectonic pattern, resulting from the superposition of several Cenozoic-age tectonic phases. The actual state of stress is a consequence of the Adria microplates progressive motion and its anti-clockwise rotation with respect to the Eurasian plate. The seismotectonic characteristics of the region are not homogeneous, and the contemporary seismic deformation pattern is quite complex, being the results of the superimposition of several distinct strain fields related to different Alpine phases. Although this area is one of the most tectonically active in the Alpine Chain, it is characterized by moderate seismicity mainly concentrated in the piedmont belt in the central Friuli, with extension in Veneto to the west and in Slovenia. The focal mechanisms are mainly of thrust type but different nodal plane orientations are found related to the complexity of the region. In 1977, after the 1976 Ms=6.5 Friuli earthquake an integrated seismic network was installed to monitor the regional seismicity of NE Italy and surroundings as well as to provide high quality data for research projects in regional and global broadband seismology. The network currently comprises 21 short period stations and 15 stations equipped with broadband and accelerometer sensors all telemetered to and acquired in real time at the OGS seismological data center in Udine. The data quality is routinely investigated on the broadband seismic network through standard seismological tools using Power Spectral Densities for frequencies ranging from 0.01 to 16 Hz and a study on the seismic background noise spectra for the Northeastern Italy (NI) stations has been recently carried out in order to quantify the quality of stations from 0.01 to 16 Hz. Our analysis indicates in general the goodness and consistency of our installations that have been improved in the years. Since

  12. Kinetics of microfilaraemia & antigenaemia status by Og(4)C(3) ELISA in bancroftian filariasis.

    PubMed

    Malla, Nancy; Elango, A; Pani, S P; Mahajan, R C

    2007-12-01

    Bancroftian filariasis caused by Wuchereria bancrofti is endemic in many parts of India. In recent years diagnosis of W. bancrofti infection has been revolutionized with the availability of filarial antigen tests, which is important in monitoring success of chemotherapy. We carried out this study to measure microfilariaemia and antigenemia levels in bancroftian microfilariae (mf) carriers at 1 yr follow up after chemotherapy, in lymphoedema patients and in endemic controls from a filariasis endemic area in Tamil Nadu State using Og(4)C(3) ELISA to identify the best marker to assess success of chemotherapy. Serum samples were collected from 30 bancroftian microfilaremic (Mf) carriers pre-treatment and at sequential intervals (7,30,60,90,180 and 365 days) following treatment with diethylcarbamazine (DEC:6mg/kg body weight, single dose), 30 lymphoedema patients (without treatment) at periodic intervals, and 68 control subjects (24 endemic normal subjects in filariasis endemic area in Tamil Nadu State, 24 non-endemic normal subjects residing in Chandigarh, India; 5 brugian filariasis, 5 endemic control subject in brugian filariasis endemic area and 10 other disease controls). The circulating antigen of W. bancrofti was measured quantitatively using Og(4)C(3) ELISA kit. In Mf carriers, there was no significant difference in microfilariae count in pre- and post-treatment (PT) samples till day 30 while significant differences were observed in pre- and sequentially collected post-treatment (PT) samples day 60 to 180 (P<0.001), day 365 (P<0.005). However, there was no significant difference in antigenaemia levels between pre-treatment (day 0) and PT samples collected on day 7 onwards till day 365. Though of the 19 patients who could be followed up till 365 days PT, 4 (21%) were amicrofilaraemic, none became antigen negative. No significant difference was found in antigenaemia levels in sequentially collected samples from lymphoedema patients. Significant differences were

  13. Physical Characteristics of Asteroid-like Comet Nucleus C/2001 OG108 (LONEOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, P. A.; Fernandez, Y. R.; Pravec, P.; French, L. M.; Farnham, T. L.; Gaffey, M. J.; Hardersen, P. S.; Kusnirak, P.; Sarounova, L.; Sheppard, S. S.

    2003-01-01

    For many years several investigators have suggested that some portion of the near-Earth asteroid population may actually be extinct cometary nuclei. Evidence used to support these hypotheses was based on: observations of asteroid orbits and associated meteor showers (e.g. 3200 Phaethon and the Geminid meteor shower); low activity of short period comet nuclei, which implied nonvolatile surface crusts (e.g. Neujmin 1, Arend-Rigaux); and detections of transient cometary activity in some near-Earth asteroids (e.g. 4015 Wilson-Harrington). Recent investigations have suggested that approximately 5-10% of the near- Earth asteroid population may be extinct comets. However if members of the near-Earth asteroid population are extinct cometary nuclei, then there should be some objects within this population that are near their final stages of evolution and so should demonstrate only low levels of activity. The recent detections of coma from near-Earth object 2001 OG108 have renewed interest in this possible comet-asteroid connection. This paper presents the first high quality ground-based near-infrared reflectance spectrum of a comet nucleus combined with detailed lightcurve and albedo measurements.

  14. Physical Characteristics of Asteroid-like Comet Nucleus C/2001 OG108 (LONEOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, P. A.; Fernandez, Y. R.; Pravec, P.; French, L. M.; Farnham, T. L.; Gaffey, M. J.; Hardersen, P. S.; Kusnirak, P.; Sarounova, L.; Sheppard, S. S.

    2003-01-01

    For many years several investigators have suggested that some portion of the near-Earth asteroid population may actually be extinct cometary nuclei. Evidence used to support these hypotheses was based on: observations of asteroid orbits and associated meteor showers (e.g. 3200 Phaethon and the Geminid meteor shower); low activity of short period comet nuclei, which implied nonvolatile surface crusts (e.g. Neujmin 1, Arend-Rigaux); and detections of transient cometary activity in some near-Earth asteroids (e.g. 4015 Wilson-Harrington). Recent investigations have suggested that approximately 5-10% of the near- Earth asteroid population may be extinct comets. However if members of the near-Earth asteroid population are extinct cometary nuclei, then there should be some objects within this population that are near their final stages of evolution and so should demonstrate only low levels of activity. The recent detections of coma from near-Earth object 2001 OG108 have renewed interest in this possible comet-asteroid connection. This paper presents the first high quality ground-based near-infrared reflectance spectrum of a comet nucleus combined with detailed lightcurve and albedo measurements.

  15. Barrier Parameters and Current Transport Characteristics of Ti/p-InP Schottky Junction Modified Using Orange G (OG) Organic Interlayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreenu, K.; Venkata Prasad, C.; Rajagopal Reddy, V.

    2017-06-01

    A Ti/Orange G/p-InP metal/interlayer/semiconductor (MIS) junction has been prepared with Orange G (OG) organic layer by electron beam evaporation and spin coating processes. The electrical properties of Ti/p-InP metal/semiconductor (MS) and Ti/OG/p-InP MIS junctions have been analyzed based on current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics. The MIS junction exhibited higher rectifying behavior than the MS junction. The higher barrier height (BH) of the MIS junction compared with the MS junction indicates effective modification by the OG layer. Also, the BH, ideality factor, shunt resistance, and series resistance were extracted based on the I-V characteristic, Cheung's and Norde's methods, and the ΨS-V plot. The BH evaluated by Cheung's and Norde's methods and the ΨS-V plot was shown to be similar, confirming the reliability and validity of the methods applied. The extracted interface state density (N SS) of the MIS junction was less than for the MS junction, revealing that the OG organic layer reduced the N SS value. Analysis demonstrated that, in the lower bias region, the reverse current conduction mechanism was dominated by Poole-Frenkel emission for both the MS and MIS junction. Meanwhile, in the higher bias region, Schottky emission governed the reverse current conduction mechanism. The results suggest that such OG layers have potential for use in high-quality electronic devices.

  16. Barrier Parameters and Current Transport Characteristics of Ti/ p-InP Schottky Junction Modified Using Orange G (OG) Organic Interlayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreenu, K.; Venkata Prasad, C.; Rajagopal Reddy, V.

    2017-10-01

    A Ti/Orange G/ p-InP metal/interlayer/semiconductor (MIS) junction has been prepared with Orange G (OG) organic layer by electron beam evaporation and spin coating processes. The electrical properties of Ti/ p-InP metal/semiconductor (MS) and Ti/OG/ p-InP MIS junctions have been analyzed based on current-voltage ( I- V) and capacitance-voltage ( C- V) characteristics. The MIS junction exhibited higher rectifying behavior than the MS junction. The higher barrier height (BH) of the MIS junction compared with the MS junction indicates effective modification by the OG layer. Also, the BH, ideality factor, shunt resistance, and series resistance were extracted based on the I- V characteristic, Cheung's and Norde's methods, and the ΨS- V plot. The BH evaluated by Cheung's and Norde's methods and the ΨS- V plot was shown to be similar, confirming the reliability and validity of the methods applied. The extracted interface state density ( N SS) of the MIS junction was less than for the MS junction, revealing that the OG organic layer reduced the N SS value. Analysis demonstrated that, in the lower bias region, the reverse current conduction mechanism was dominated by Poole-Frenkel emission for both the MS and MIS junction. Meanwhile, in the higher bias region, Schottky emission governed the reverse current conduction mechanism. The results suggest that such OG layers have potential for use in high-quality electronic devices.

  17. Spatial analysis of undernutrition of children in léogâne Commune, Haiti.

    PubMed

    Spray, Andrea L; Eddy, Brittany; Hipp, James Aaron; Iannotti, Lora

    2013-12-01

    Over a fifth (21.9%) of children under 5 years of age in Haiti suffer from chronic malnutrition, 11.4% are underweight, and 5.1% suffer from acute malnutrition. Léogâne Commune has one of the highest under-five mortality rates in the country. Ordinary least squares regression conducted using data from household surveys to assess the impact of causal factors on child undernutrition may mask important local variations. To characterize the nutrition and health situation of children 6 to 35 months of age in LLogdne Commune, Haiti, using geographically weighted regression. In July 2008, the Children's Nutrition Program of Haiti conducted a representative cross-sectional household survey (N = 150) using a modified 33 x 6 alternative sampling design. Household questionnaires were administered to caregivers of children 6 to 35 months of age and anthropometric measurements were collected. Geographically weighted regression was employed to evaluate how undernutrition (weight-forage) and its household determinants vary across the region. Geographically weighted regression and ordinary least squares regression models were compared. The residuals of the ordinary least squares regression model were spatially autocorrelated (Moran's I = 0.08, z = 1.90, p = .058), indicating that undernutrition occurs in pockets rather than being evenly distributed throughout the population. There was no improvement in performance from the ordinary least squares regression model to the geographically weighted regression model. Despite some limitations, this study illustrates a promising approach for using geospatial data to improve the understanding of how a nutrition situation varies across a region and provide deeper insight into its underlying causes.

  18. Magnesium, Potassium and Phosphorus in Available Forms in Luvisols in the Vicinity of Głogów Copper Smelter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaworska, H.; Dąbkowska-Naskręt, H.; Różański, S.

    2016-02-01

    Region near Głogów is characterized as industrial—agricultural area, intensively used. Presented study was undertaken to estimate the impact of agricultural land use and the vicinity of Głogów copper smelter on the contents of available forms of magnesium, phosphorus and potassium in selected profiles of Luvisols. The following analysis were performed: soil particle-size distribution, pH, organic carbon contents, CaCO3 contents. The contents of available forms of phosphorus and potassium were determined by Egner- Riehm method and that of magnesium using Schachtschabel's method. The results of the study showed that the contents of available P is medium (III class of abundance), very low in K (V class) and for available Mg very low (V class) to medium for surface horizons and very high (I class of abundance) in other soil horizons. The soils, in spite of the elevated copper content in humus horizons, according to IUNG, were classified as uncontaminated soils, therefore, can be used in plant production for all types of crops.

  19. Optimization of rhamnolipid production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa OG1 using waste frying oil and chicken feather peptone.

    PubMed

    Ozdal, Murat; Gurkok, Sumeyra; Ozdal, Ozlem Gur

    2017-06-01

    In the present study, production of rhamnolipid biosurfactant by Pseudomonas aeruginosa OG1 was statistically optimized by response surface methodology. Box-Behnken design was applied to determine the optimal concentrations of 52, 9.2, and 4.5 g/L for carbon source (waste frying oil), nitrogen source (chicken feather peptone), and KH2PO4, respectively, in production medium. Under the optimized cultivation conditions, rhamnolipid production reached up to 13.31 g/L (with an emulsification activity of 80%), which is approximately twofold higher than the yield obtained from preliminary cultivations. Hence, rhamnolipid production, noteworthy in the literature, was achieved with the use of statistical optimization on inexpensive waste materials for the first time in the present study.

  20. CN-18RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN DOSE INTENSITY, TOXICITY, AND OUTCOME IN OLIGODENDROGLIAL TUMORS (OG) TREATED WITH PCV REGIMEN

    PubMed Central

    Tabouret, Emeline; Reyes-Botero, German; Dehais, Caroline; Daros, Marine; Barrie, Maryline; Matta, Mona; Petrirena, Gregorio; Autran, Didier; Duran, Alberto; Boucard, Celine; Delattre, Jean Yves; Chinot, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In grade II and codeleted grade III gliomas, the procarbazine-CCNU-vincristine (PCV) combination increase survival when added to radiotherapy as first line treatment, despite the important toxicity of this treatment schedule. Our objective was to analyze the tolerance, feasibility and impact of dose intensity of the PCV regimen on outcome for patients with OG. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all grade III OG patients receiving PCV (CCNU:110mg/m2) who were referred to our two institutions. The total dose and dose adaptation, cycle delay, dose intensity, toxicity and premature discontinuation of CCNU were analyzed. Impact of these factors on patient outcome was evaluated. RESULTS: Between 2007 and 2011, 89 patients received PCV. Only 37% completed 6 cycles, whereas 13.4% prematurely discontinued PCV because of toxicity. Cycle delay and dose reduction were observed for 62% and 70% patients, respectively. Grade 3 and 4 toxicities were observed in 38% and 8% patients, respectively. Among patients who did not progress under PCV regimen, by multivariate analysis, premature discontinuation for toxicity was significantly correlated with poor PFS (p = 0.023, Hazard ratio (HR):2.354) and OS (p = 0.021, HR:5.093). By univariate analyses, absence of CCNU dose adaptation was correlated to poor PFS (p = 0.032). For OS, pejorative factors were high total CCNU dose (p = 0.029), absence of cycle delay (p = 0.009), absence of CCNU dose adaptation (p = 0.020) and grade 3/4 toxicities (p = 0.013). High CCNU dose-intensity tended to poorly impact PFS (p = 0.053) and OS (p = 0.112). By multivariate analysis, absence of CCNU dose adaptation remained significant for PFS (p = 0.001), while OS was negatively impacted by the absence of cycle delay (p = 0.049) and grade 3/4 toxicities (p = 0.045). CONCLUSION: Despite the efficacy of the PCV regimen, significant toxicity is associated with this schedule, which appears to impact its feasibility and efficacy. The optimal PCV

  1. The Two-Component System GrvRS (EtaRS) Regulates ace Expression in Enterococcus faecalis OG1RF

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Kavindra V.; La Rosa, Sabina Leanti; Cohen, Ana Luisa V.; Murray, Barbara E.

    2014-01-01

    Expression of ace (adhesin to collagen of Enterococcus faecalis), encoding a virulence factor in endocarditis and urinary tract infection models, has been shown to increase under certain conditions, such as in the presence of serum, bile salts, urine, and collagen and at 46°C. However, the mechanism of ace/Ace regulation under different conditions is still unknown. In this study, we identified a two-component regulatory system GrvRS as the main regulator of ace expression under these stress conditions. Using Northern hybridization and β-galactosidase assays of an ace promoter-lacZ fusion, we found transcription of ace to be virtually absent in a grvR deletion mutant under the conditions that increase ace expression in wild-type OG1RF and in the complemented strain. Moreover, a grvR mutant revealed decreased collagen binding and biofilm formation as well as attenuation in a murine urinary tract infection model. Here we show that GrvR plays a major role in control of ace expression and E. faecalis virulence. PMID:25385790

  2. Application of PET2OGS to CO2 storage in a saline aquifer of the CO2CRC Otway project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Chan-Hee; Shinn, Young Jae

    2014-05-01

    PET2OGS, a set of algorithms that integrate the static model (Petrel) with the dynamic model (OpenGeoSys), is applied to model CO2 storage in a saline aquifer. The Otway Basin is the first demonstration site of the deep geological storage of carbon dioxide as part of carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology in Australia. During Stage 2 of the CO2CRC Otway project, CO2 was injected into a saline aquifer along the injection interval of 1435 - 1450 m in a well. Upon conversion and adaption of the geological model into the dynamic model, the simulation of CO2 injection at 159 tone/day for 5 months is carried out for a hypothetical scenario. CO2 storage in each facies are analyzed for storage capacities. The discrete nature of CO2 plume behaviors known in multiphase flow in heterogeneous media is observed in the numerical simulation of CO2 storage. Sensitivity analysis of the storage capacity with respect to facies, porosity, and permeability is provided.

  3. Evidence for regulation of columnar habit in apple by a putative 2OG-Fe(II) oxygenase.

    PubMed

    Wolters, Pieter J; Schouten, Henk J; Velasco, Riccardo; Si-Ammour, Azeddine; Baldi, Paolo

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the genetic mechanisms controlling columnar-type growth in the apple mutant 'Wijcik' will provide insights on how tree architecture and growth are regulated in fruit trees. In apple, columnar-type growth is controlled by a single major gene at the Columnar (Co) locus. By comparing the genomic sequence of the Co region of 'Wijcik' with its wild-type 'McIntosh', a novel non-coding DNA element of 1956 bp specific to Pyreae was found to be inserted in an intergenic region of 'Wijcik'. Expression analysis of selected genes located in the vicinity of the insertion revealed the upregulation of the MdCo31 gene encoding a putative 2OG-Fe(II) oxygenase in axillary buds of 'Wijcik'. Constitutive expression of MdCo31 in Arabidopsis thaliana resulted in compact plants with shortened floral internodes, a phenotype reminiscent of the one observed in columnar apple trees. We conclude that MdCo31 is a strong candidate gene for the control of columnar growth in 'Wijcik'.

  4. SU-D-9A-01: Listmode-Driven Optimal Gating (OG) Respiratory Motion Management: Potential Impact On Quantitative PET Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K; Hristov, D

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the potential impact of listmode-driven amplitude based optimal gating (OG) respiratory motion management technique on quantitative PET imaging. Methods: During the PET acquisitions, an optical camera tracked and recorded the motion of a tool placed on top of patients' torso. PET event data were utilized to detect and derive a motion signal that is directly coupled with a specific internal organ. A radioactivity-trace was generated from listmode data by accumulating all prompt counts in temporal bins matching the sampling rate of the external tracking device. Decay correction for 18F was performed. The image reconstructions using OG respiratory motion management technique that uses 35% of total radioactivity counts within limited motion amplitudes were performed with external motion and radioactivity traces separately with ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) with 2 iterations and 21 subsets. Standard uptake values (SUVs) in a tumor region were calculated to measure the effect of using radioactivity trace for motion compensation. Motion-blurred 3D static PET image was also reconstructed with all counts and the SUVs derived from OG images were compared with SUVs from 3D images. Results: A 5.7 % increase of the maximum SUV in the lesion was found for optimal gating image reconstruction with radioactivity trace when compared to a static 3D image. The mean and maximum SUVs on the image that was reconstructed with radioactivity trace were found comparable (0.4 % and 4.5 % increase, respectively) to the values derived from the image that was reconstructed with external trace. Conclusion: The image reconstructed using radioactivity trace showed that the blurring due to the motion was reduced with impact on derived SUVs. The resolution and contrast of the images reconstructed with radioactivity trace were comparable to the resolution and contrast of the images reconstructed with external respiratory traces. Research supported by Siemens.

  5. Effects of music and art education in early life and oral functions on the QOL of the Takarazuka Revue Company OG compared with general elderly females.

    PubMed

    Masutani, Takiko; Yamamoto, Yasuji; Konishi, Junya; Maeda, Kiyoshi

    2010-03-01

    Today, Japan is becoming a super-aged society, with senior citizens already constituting over 21% of the population. In this situation, the question of how elderly people can extend their lives and enjoy independent lifestyles is becoming more important. The present study aims to clarify the relationship between the Quality of Life (QOL) of elderly females and their current oral functions and experiences of music and art education in early life. We carried out a survey study focusing on elderly females (Takarazuka Revue Company OG group and general female group) by carrying out a questionnaire survey and comparing cognitive function, oral examinations, cerebral atrophy in magnetic resonance imaging, and other characteristics. It was shown that the Takarazuka Revue Company OG group had greater hippocampal volumes and significantly higher cognitive functions than the general female group. In addition, in the general female group, there was a significant correlation between a decrease in the number of remaining teeth and a decrease in activities in daily living, but in the Takarazuka Revue Company OG group, no such correlation was observed. The results showed that those who have received art education as part of their careers over an extensive period since early life have higher levels of cognitive function, QOL, physical activity, social activity and life satisfaction compared with the general female group; showing that they sense a purpose in life and live with a positive attitude. In contrast, in the general female group, those who have continued to enjoy hobbies have higher levels of cognitive function, QOL, physical activity, social activity and life satisfaction than those who have not, thus showing that they live with a positive attitude.

  6. Circulating filarial antigen in the hydrocele fluid from individuals living in a bancroftian filariasis area - Recife, Brazil: detected by the monoclonal antibody Og4C3-assay.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Abraham; Lima, Guilherme; Medeiros, Zulma; Aguiar-Santos, Ana; Alves, Sandra; Montarroyos, Ulisses; Oliveira, Paula; Béliz, Fátima; Netto, Maria José; Furtado, André

    2004-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the circulating filarial antigen (CFA) detected by the monoclonal antibody (mAb) Og4C3-ELISA in paired samples of serum and hydrocele fluid from 104 men with hydrocele, living in an endemic area of Wuchereria bancrofti. Nocturnal blood specimens were filtered and examined for microfilariae (MF) and ultrasound was used in order to identify the presence of adult worms (the filaria dance sign - FDS) in the lymphatic vessels of the scrotal area. Four groups were selected according to their parasitological status: group I - 71 MF- and FDS-; group II - 21 MF+ and FDS+; group III - 10 MF- and FDS+ and group IV- 2 MF+ and FDS-. CFA was identified simultaneously (fluid and serum) in 11 (15.5%), 21 (100%), 3 (30%), and 1 (50%) in groups I, II, III, and IV, respectively. In despite of high CFA+ level (antigen Og4C3) units/ml, the Geometrical Mean (GM) = 2696) in the sera of these 36/104 paired samples, when compared to the hydrocele fluid, (GM = 1079), showed a very good correlation between the CFA level in the serum and CFA level in the fluid (r = 0.731). CFA level in the serum of the 23 microfilaremics (groups II and IV) was extremely high (GM = 4189) and was correlated with MF density (r = 0.442). These findings report for the first time the potential alternative use of the hydrocele fluid to investigate CFA using the mAb Og4C3-ELISA.

  7. The North East Italy (NI) broadband seismic network run by OGS: experience in improving the long period performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesaresi, D.

    2009-04-01

    experimented and routinely used by the world wide GEOFON seismic network and the German regional seismic network: examples and performances of a typical OGS installation will be shown.

  8. OGS#PETSc approach for robust and efficient simulations of strongly coupled hydrothermal processes in EGS reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Norihiro; Blucher, Guido; Cacace, Mauro; Kolditz, Olaf

    2016-04-01

    A robust and computationally efficient solution is important for 3D modelling of EGS reservoirs. This is particularly the case when the reservoir model includes hydraulic conduits such as induced or natural fractures, fault zones, and wellbore open-hole sections. The existence of such hydraulic conduits results in heterogeneous flow fields and in a strengthened coupling between fluid flow and heat transport processes via temperature dependent fluid properties (e.g. density and viscosity). A commonly employed partitioned solution (or operator-splitting solution) may not robustly work for such strongly coupled problems its applicability being limited by small time step sizes (e.g. 5-10 days) whereas the processes have to be simulated for 10-100 years. To overcome this limitation, an alternative approach is desired which can guarantee a robust solution of the coupled problem with minor constraints on time step sizes. In this work, we present a Newton-Raphson based monolithic coupling approach implemented in the OpenGeoSys simulator (OGS) combined with the Portable, Extensible Toolkit for Scientific Computation (PETSc) library. The PETSc library is used for both linear and nonlinear solvers as well as MPI-based parallel computations. The suggested method has been tested by application to the 3D reservoir site of Groß Schönebeck, in northern Germany. Results show that the exact Newton-Raphson approach can also be limited to small time step sizes (e.g. one day) due to slight oscillations in the temperature field. The usage of a line search technique and modification of the Jacobian matrix were necessary to achieve robust convergence of the nonlinear solution. For the studied example, the proposed monolithic approach worked even with a very large time step size of 3.5 years.

  9. Portuguese Version of the EORTC QLQ-OES18 and QLQ-OG25 for Health-Related Quality of Life Assessment.

    PubMed

    Relvas-Silva, Miguel; Silva, Rui Almeida; Dinis-Ribeiro, Mário

    2017-01-31

    Health-related quality of life assessment is increasingly important as it can help both clinical research and care for patients, particularly among oncological patients. Quality of Life Questionnaire - OES18 (esophageal module) and Quality of Life Questionnaire - OG25 (esophagogastric module) are the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer modules for the evaluation of quality of life in patients with esophageal and esophagogastric cancers, respectively. The aim of our study was to translate, to culturally adapt and to perform a pilot testing to create the Portuguese version of both questionnaires. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer guidelines were followed for translation, cultural adaptation and pilot testing of Quality of Life Questionnaire - OES18 (esophageal module) and Quality of Life Questionnaire - OG25 (esophagogastric module). The Quality of Life Questionnaire - OG25 (esophagogastric module) went through a process of forward (English → Portuguese) and backward (Portuguese → English) translation, by independent native speaker translators. After review, a preliminary version was created to be pilot tested among Portuguese patients. As a Brazilian version was already available for Quality of Life Questionnaire - OES18 (esophageal module), the questionnaire was simply culturally adapted and pilot tested. Both cancer and non-cancer patients were included. Overall, 30 patients completed the Portuguese version of each questionnaire. Afterwards, a structured interview was conducted to find and report any problematic items. Troublesome items and wording were changed according to the pilot testing results. The final versions were sent to the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Group and approved. The Portuguese versions of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire - OES18 (esophageal module) and OG25

  10. Mining Hazards Analysis with Simultaneous Mining Copper Ores and Salt Deposits in LGOM (Legnica-Głogów Copper Belt) Mines with Regard to Dynamic Influences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kłeczek, Zdzisław; Niedojadło, Zygmunt; Popiołek, Edward; Skobliński, Wojciech; Sopata, Paweł; Stoch, Tomasz; Wójcik, Artur; Zeljaś, Dagmara

    2016-09-01

    In the case of locating two bedded deposits of different mineral resources in a small vertical distance, additional or increased mining hazards can occur (deformations of the rock mass, crumps and mining shocks, hazards to the land surface). This paper has thoroughly examined the impact of exploitation of the lower-located deposit of copper ore on the higher-located deposit of salt as well as the reverse situation as regards the dynamic phenomena, being the greatest lithospheric hazard in LGOM. At the same time theoretical models of processes were applied, verified by previous observations in situ in mines of Legnica-Głogów Copper Belt.

  11. Toward an accurate description of solid-state properties of superheavy elements. A case study for the element Og (Z=118)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwerdtfeger, Peter

    2016-12-01

    In the last two decades cold and hot fusion experiments lead to the production of new elements for the Periodic Table up to nuclear charge 118. Recent developments in relativistic quantum theory have made it possible to obtain accurate electronic properties for the trans-actinide elements with the aim to predict their potential chemical and physical behaviour. Here we report on first results of solid-state calculations for Og (element 118) to support future atom-at-a-time gas-phase adsorption experiments on surfaces such as gold or quartz.

  12. Searching iron sensors in plants by exploring the link among 2'-OG-dependent dioxygenases, the iron deficiency response and metabolic adjustments occurring under iron deficiency.

    PubMed

    Vigani, Gianpiero; Morandini, Piero; Murgia, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge accumulated on the regulation of iron (Fe) homeostasis, its intracellular trafficking and transport across various cellular compartments and organs in plants; storage proteins, transporters and transcription factors involved in Fe metabolism have been analyzed in detail in recent years. However, the key sensor(s) of cellular plant "Fe status" triggering the long-distance shoot-root signaling and leading to the root Fe deficiency responses is (are) still unknown. Local Fe sensing is also a major task for roots, for adjusting the internal Fe requirements to external Fe availability: how such sensing is achieved and how it leads to metabolic adjustments in case of nutrient shortage, is mostly unknown. Two proteins belonging to the 2'-OG-dependent dioxygenases family accumulate several folds in Fe-deficient Arabidopsis roots. Such proteins require Fe(II) as enzymatic cofactor; one of their subgroups, the HIF-P4H (hypoxia-inducible factor-prolyl 4-hydroxylase), is an effective oxygen sensor in animal cells. We envisage here the possibility that some members of the 2'-OG dioxygenase family may be involved in the Fe deficiency response and in the metabolic adjustments to Fe deficiency or even in sensing Fe, in plant cells.

  13. Searching iron sensors in plants by exploring the link among 2′-OG-dependent dioxygenases, the iron deficiency response and metabolic adjustments occurring under iron deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Vigani, Gianpiero; Morandini, Piero; Murgia, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge accumulated on the regulation of iron (Fe) homeostasis, its intracellular trafficking and transport across various cellular compartments and organs in plants; storage proteins, transporters and transcription factors involved in Fe metabolism have been analyzed in detail in recent years. However, the key sensor(s) of cellular plant “Fe status” triggering the long-distance shoot–root signaling and leading to the root Fe deficiency responses is (are) still unknown. Local Fe sensing is also a major task for roots, for adjusting the internal Fe requirements to external Fe availability: how such sensing is achieved and how it leads to metabolic adjustments in case of nutrient shortage, is mostly unknown. Two proteins belonging to the 2′-OG-dependent dioxygenases family accumulate several folds in Fe-deficient Arabidopsis roots. Such proteins require Fe(II) as enzymatic cofactor; one of their subgroups, the HIF-P4H (hypoxia-inducible factor-prolyl 4-hydroxylase), is an effective oxygen sensor in animal cells. We envisage here the possibility that some members of the 2′-OG dioxygenase family may be involved in the Fe deficiency response and in the metabolic adjustments to Fe deficiency or even in sensing Fe, in plant cells. PMID:23755060

  14. The effects of detergents DDM and beta-OG on the singlet excited state lifetime of the chlorophyll a in cytochrome b6f complex from spinach chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Chen, XiaoBo; Zhao, XiaoHui; Zhang, JianPing; Li, LiangBi; Kuang, TingYun

    2007-08-01

    The singlet excited state lifetime of the chlorophyll a (Chl a) in cytochrome b(6)f (Cyt b(6)f) complex was reported to be shorter than that of free Chl a in methanol, but the value was different for Cyt b(6)f complexes from different sources ( approximately 200 and approximately 600 ps are the two measured results). The present study demonstrated that the singlet excited state lifetime is associated with the detergents n-dodecyl-beta-D-maltoside (DDM) and n-octyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (beta-OG), but has nothing to do with the different sources of Cyt b(6)f complexes. Compared with the Cyt b(6)f dissolved in beta-OG, the Cyt b(6)f in DDM had a lower fluorescence yield, a lower photodegradation rate of Chl a, and a shorter lifetime of Chl a excited state. In short, the singlet excited state lifetime, approximately 200 ps, of the Chl a in Cyt b(6)f complex in DDM is closer to the true in vivo.

  15. Cholera in Pregnancy: Outcomes from a Specialized Cholera Treatment Unit for Pregnant Women in Léogâne, Haiti

    PubMed Central

    Ciglenecki, Iza; Bichet, Mathieu; Tena, Javier; Mondesir, Erneau; Bastard, Mathieu; Tran, Nguyen-Toan; Antierens, Annick; Staderini, Nelly

    2013-01-01

    Background The association between cholera in pregnancy and negative fetal outcome has been described since the 19th century. However, there is limited published literature on the subject. We describe pregnancy outcomes from a specialized multidisciplinary hospital unit at the onset of a large cholera outbreak in Haiti in 2010 and 2011. Methods Pregnant women with cholera were hospitalized in a specialized unit within the MSF hospital compound in Léogâne and treated using standard cholera treatment guidelines but with earlier, more intense fluid replacement. All women had intravenous access established at admission regardless of their hydration status, and all received antibiotic treatment. Data were collected on patient demographics, pregnancy and cholera status, and pregnancy outcome. In this analysis we calculated risk ratios for fetal death and performed logistic regression analysis to control for confounding factors. Results 263 pregnant women with cholera were hospitalized between December 2010 and July 2011. None died during hospitalization, 226 (86%) were discharged with a preserved pregnancy and 16 (6%) had live fullterm singleton births, of whom 2 died within the first 5 days postpartum. The remaining 21 pregnancies (8%) resulted in intrauterine fetal death. The risk of fetal death was associated with factors reflecting severity of the cholera episode: after adjusting for confounding factors, the strongest risk factor for fetal death was severe maternal dehydration (adjusted risk ratio for severe vs. mild dehydration was 9.4, 95% CI 2.5–35.3, p = 0.005), followed by severe vomiting (adjusted risk ratio 5.1, 95% 1.1–23.8, p = 0.041). Conclusion This is the largest cohort of pregnant women with cholera described to date. The main risk factor identified for fetal death was severity of dehydration. Our experience suggests that establishing specialized multidisciplinary units which facilitate close follow-up of both pregnancy and dehydration

  16. Differences in the carriage and the ability to utilize the serotype associated virulence plasmid in strains of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium investigated by use of a self-transferable virulence plasmid, pOG669.

    PubMed

    Olsen, John E; Brown, Derek J; Thomsen, Line E; Platt, David J; Chadfield, Mark S

    2004-06-01

    Most strains of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serotype typhimurium (S. typhimurium) naturally harbour a virulence plasmid which carries the salmonella plasmid virulence (spv) genes. However, isolates belonging to certain phage types are generally found without the plasmid. We have utilized a self-transferable virulence plasmid, pOG669 to investigate the effect of introduction of spv genes into strains of such phage types. The use of the co-integrate plasmid, pOG669, was validated on a diverse collection of strains. pOG669 was transferred into strains of serotypes that are normally associated with the possession of virulence plasmids. All strains maintained the wild type level of virulence in a mouse model, except that introduction of pOG669 restored normal virulence levels in an avirulent, plasmid free strain of S. dublin and resulted in a decrease in virulence in a strain of S. dublin from clonal line Du3. S. gallinarum did not become virulent in mice, but pOG669 was functionally interchangeable with the wild type plasmid when strains were tested in a chicken model. Strains of serotypes not normally associated with the carriage of a virulence plasmid did not increase in virulence upon the introduction of pOG669. An IncX plasmid pOG670 that was included as control was incompatible with the virulence plasmid in a strain of S. dublin, demonstrating that the common virulence plasmid of this serotype is of a different incompatibility group than other virulence plasmids. Strains of S. typhimurium from phage types that do not normally carry a virulence plasmid responded differently to attempts to introduce pOG669. No transconjugants were observed with the strains of DT5 and DT21. The introduction of pOG669 did not alter the virulence of JEO3942(DT10), DT35 and JEO3949(DT66) significantly, while DT1 and DT27 became more virulent. DT27 became as virulent as wild type C5, while logVC(10) of DT1 only increased from 4.1 to 5.7. The ability to express spv-genes was

  17. Survival of Enterococcus faecalis OG1RF:pCF10 in poultry and cattle feed: vector competence of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst).

    PubMed

    Channaiah, Lakshmikantha H; Subramanyam, Bhadriraju; Zurek, Ludek

    2010-03-01

    Laboratory experiments were designed to determine the survival of Enterococcus faecalis OG1RF:pCF10 in poultry and cattle feed and its acquisition and transmission by adults of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), to sterile feed. Adult T. castaneum beetles were introduced into poultry and cattle feed inoculated with E. faecalis OG1RF:pCF10 and incubated at 28 degrees C with 65% relative humidity for 7 days in a growth chamber. E. faecalis survived in both poultry and cattle feed during the 7-day test period. There was a logarithmic decrease in E. faecalis concentration in poultry and cattle feed and in and on the insects. E. faecalis persisted on the surface and within T. castaneum adults for 7 days when adults were released on E. faecalis-inoculated poultry feed and for only 5 days on E. faecalis-inoculated cattle feed. The concentration of E. faecalis decreased more slowly on poultry feed than on cattle feed, and this may explain why adult T. castaneum insects were more successful in acquiring and transferring E. faecalis from inoculated poultry feed to sterile poultry feed during the 7-day test period. However, T. castaneum adults reared on inoculated cattle feed were unable to contaminate sterile cattle feed on day 7. To our knowledge, this is the first report documenting T. castaneum to successfully acquire antibiotic-resistant enterococci from animal feed and transfer them to sterile feed. Management of T. castaneum through effective integrated pest management program is therefore important to prevent the spread of antibiotic-resistant and virulent enterococci in animal feed and feed manufacturing environments.

  18. Further characterization of the thrombasthenia-related idiotype OG. Antiidiotype defines a novel epitope(s) shared by fibrinogen B beta chain, vitronectin, and von Willebrand factor and required for binding to beta 3

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    A patient (OG) with Glanzmann thrombasthenia became refractory to platelet transfusion after the production of an immunoglobulin G (IgG) isoantibody (Ab1) specific for the integrin subunit beta 3. To determine the frequency at which the OG idiotype is found in the general population and in immune-mediated disease states, we developed a rabbit polyclonal antibody (Ab2) specific for affinity-purified OG anti-beta 3 Fab. The binding of Ab2 to Ab1 is inhibited by purified alpha IIb beta 3. Ab2 als binds to IgG specific for alpha IIb beta 3 obtained from one nonrelated Glanzmann thrombasthenia patient ES who has developed isoantibodies of similar specificity. On the other hand, Ab2 does not recognize alpha IIb beta 3-specific antibodies produced by two Glanzmann thrombasthenia patients, AF and LUC, who have developed isoantibodies with specificities distinct from that of the OG isoantibody. Moreover, Ab2 does not recognize alpha IIb beta 3-specific antibodies developed by three representative patients with (autoimmune) thrombocytopenic purpura or six representative patients with alloimmune thrombocytopenias, nor does it bind to IgG from any of 13 nonimmunized individuals. We have found that Ab2 also binds to selected protein ligands of alpha IIb beta 3 namely, fibrinogen, vitronectin, and von Willebrand factor, but not to other protein ligands or control proteins, such a fibronectin, type I collagen, and albumin. The epitope(s) recognized by Ab2 on each adhesive protein are either very similar or identical since each protein can inhibit the binding of Ab2 to any of the other proteins. The epitope on fibrinogen recognized by Ab2 resides in the B beta chain, and is likely contained within the first 42 amino acids from the NH2 terminus. Since OG IgG inhibits fibrinogen binding to alpha IIb beta 3, the specificity of the OG idiotype defines a novel binding motif for the integrin alpha IIb beta 3 that is shared by fibrinogen, vitronectin, and von Willebrand factor, but

  19. JPRS Report, West Europe, Reference Aid, Glossary of Acronyms and Abbreviations of Norway

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-04-04

    alminnelig aim. mob. alminnelig mobilisering common, general, universal general mobilization ALP Anders Langes Parti (Norwegian party that favored...Univers itetet Home Guard Section at the University HVU Heimevernsavdeling ved Universitetet og hoyskolene i Oslo Home Guard Section at the... University and High Schools in Oslo hyg hygienisk sanitary; medical HYSB Haerens yrkesskole for bilteknisk befal Army Automobile Mechanics School

  20. Stressors and Coping in the Norwegian Aeromedical Detachment in Afghanistan 2008-2010

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    Lärarhögskolan Stockholm. HLS Förlag. [4] Bache, M., & Hommelgaard, B. (1994). Danske FN- soldater – opplevelser og stressreaktioner. Unpublished report...College. [65] Widing, H., Davøen, L.M., Laberg, J.C., Johnsen, B.H., Brun,W. & Eid, J. (2002). Soldaters vurdering av egne militære ferdigheter ved

  1. Og4C3 circulating antigen, anti-Brugia malayi IgG and IgG4 titers in Wuchereria bancrofti infected patients, according to their parasitological status.

    PubMed

    Chanteau, S; Glaziou, P; Luquiaud, P; Plichart, C; Moulia-Pelat, J P; Cartel, J L

    1994-09-01

    This study involved 221 microfilaremic (Mf+), 302 amicrofilaremic (Mf-) antigen positive (AG+) and 1454 Mf-antigen negative (AG-) individuals living in endemic villages. Whatever the group considered, antigen and antibody titers were widely distributed. Og4C3 antigen, detected both in Mf- and Mf+ patients, was significantly higher in Mf+ patients. The Mf parasitological status did not significantly influence the antifilarial antibodies levels in the infected AG+ individuals, although IgG4 was more discriminant. In the supposedly uninfected individuals (Mf-AG-), anti-filarial IgG and IgG4 could be detected in a large proportion of the group. Og4C3 circulating antigen test was confirmed to be a good marker of active Wuchereria bancrofti infection.

  2. Rolling-leaf14 is a 2OG-Fe (II) oxygenase family protein that modulates rice leaf rolling by affecting secondary cell wall formation in leaves.

    PubMed

    Fang, Likui; Zhao, Fangming; Cong, Yunfei; Sang, Xianchun; Du, Qing; Wang, Dezhong; Li, Yunfeng; Ling, Yinghua; Yang, Zhenglin; He, Guanghua

    2012-06-01

    As an important agronomic trait, leaf rolling in rice (Oryza sativa L.) has attracted much attention from plant biologists and breeders. Moderate leaf rolling increases the amount of photosynthesis in cultivars and hence raises grain yield. Here, we describe the map-based cloning of the gene RL14, which was found to encode a 2OG-Fe (II) oxygenase of unknown function. rl14 mutant plants had incurved leaves because of the shrinkage of bulliform cells on the adaxial side. In addition, rl14 mutant plants displayed smaller stomatal complexes and decreased transpiration rates, as compared with the wild type. Defective development could be rescued functionally by the expression of wild-type RL14. RL14 was transcribed in sclerenchymatous cells in leaves that remained wrapped inside the sheath. In mature leaves, RL14 accumulated mainly in the mesophyll cells that surround the vasculature. Expression of genes related to secondary cell wall formation was affected in rl14-1 mutants, and cellulose and lignin content were altered in rl14-1 leaves. These results reveal that the RL14 gene affects water transport in leaves by affecting the composition of the secondary cell wall. This change in water transport results in water deficiency, which is the major reason for the abnormal shape of the bulliform cells.

  3. Applying the General Regression Neural Network to Ground Motion Prediction Equations of Induced Events in the Legnica-Głogów Copper District in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiszniowski, Jan

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a study of the nonlinear estimation of the ground motion prediction equation (GMPE) using neural networks. The general regression neural network (GRNN) was chosen for its high learning rate. A separate GRNN was tested as well as a GRNN in cascade connection with linear regression (LR). Measurements of induced seismicity in the Legnica-Głogów Copper District were used in this study. Various sets of input variables were tested. The basic variables used in every case were seismic energy and epicentral distance, while the additional variables were the location of the epicenter, the location of the seismic station, and the direction towards the epicenter. The GRNN improves the GMPE. The best results were obtained when the epicenter location was used as an additional input. The GRNN model was analysed for how it can improve the GMPE with respect to LR. The bootstrap re-sampling method was used for this purpose. It proved the statistical significance of the improvement of the GMPE. Additionally, this method allows the determination of smoothness parameters for the GRNN. Parameters derived through this method have better generalisation capabilities than the smoothness parameters estimated using the holdout method.

  4. Complex rupture source of the 12 January 2010 Léogâne, Haiti earthquake derived from geologic, geodetic, and seismologic observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, R. W.; Hayes, G. P.; Sladen, A.; Fielding, E. J.; Prentice, C. S.; Hudnut, K. W.; Mann, P.; Taylor, F. W.; Crone, A. J.; Gold, R. D.; Ito, T.; Simons, M.; Jean, P.

    2010-12-01

    The Mw 7.0, 12 January 2010 Léogâne, Haiti earthquake initially appeared to be a straightforward accommodation of oblique relative motion between the Caribbean and North America plates along the previously recognized Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault zone (EPGF). Our combined geologic field observations, space geodetic measurements, and seismologic data show that the rupture process of this event involved slip on multiple faults and that slip along the EPGF was minimal or absent. Instead, primary surface deformation resulted from rupture on previously unrecognized blind thrust faults with only minor, deep lateral slip along or near the main EPGF. We quantified uplift along the coast north of the EPGF using vertically displaced coral microatolls. SAR interferograms demonstrate that the observed coastal deformation reflects a broader pattern of uplift and subsidence. Seismologic observations (including body-wave first motions, high non-double couple components of moment tensor inversions, the aftershock distribution and their associated moment tensors) imply that the rupture involved multiple faults. A joint inversion of all data sets yields a preferred model of slip on three faults to explain the principal observations. Moment-release calculations show that this event only partially relieved centuries of accumulated left-lateral strain on a small part of the plate-boundary system. The lack of surface deformation along the EPGF--which shows clear field evidence for Holocene, and probably historic surface rupture--and the predominance of shallow off-fault thrusting implies that considerable shallow shear strain remains to be released in future surface-rupturing earthquakes on the EPGF, including the section adjacent to Port-au-Prince. Because the geologic signature of this earthquake involves broad warping and coastal deformation rather than surface rupture along the main fault zone, the event will not leave a distinct geologic signal that will be easily recognized

  5. Using the AD12-ICT rapid-format test to detect Wuchereria bancrofti circulating antigens in comparison to Og4C3-ELISA and nucleopore membrane filtration and microscopy techniques.

    PubMed

    El-Moamly, Amal Abdul-Rasheed; El-Sweify, Mohamed Aly; Hafez, Mohamad Abdul

    2012-09-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) continues to be a major source of permanent disability and an impediment to socio-economic development in 73 countries where more than 1 billion people are at risk and over 120 millions are infected. The global drive to eliminate LF necessitates an increasing demand for valid, reliable and rapid diagnostic tests. This study aimed to assess the performance of the AD12 rapid format immunochromatographic test (ICT) to detect Wuchereria bancrofti circulating antigens, against the combined gold standard: TropBio Og4C3-ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) which detects circulating filarial antigen (CFA) and the nucleopore membrane filtration and microscopic examination. This prospective case-control study involved 647 asymptomatic migrant workers from filariasis-endemic countries. Of these specimens, 32 were positive for microfilaremia using the membrane filtration and microscopy, 142 positive by ELISA (of which 32 had microfilaremia), and 128 positive by the ICT (of which 31 had microfilaremia). The performance of the ICT was calculated against 32 true-positive and 90 true-negative cases. For the detection of CFA, the ICT had a sensitivity of 97% (95% confidence interval [CI] 91-103), specificity 100% (95% CI 100-100), Positive Predictive Value (PPV) 100% (95% CI 100-100), Negative Predictive Value (NPV) 99% (95% CI 97-101); and the total accuracy of the test was 99% (95% CI 98-101). The agreement between ICT and ELISA in detecting W. bancrofti antigens was excellent (kappa = 0.934; p = 0.000). In conclusion, the AD12-ICT test for the detection of W. bancrofti-CFA was sensitive and specific and comparable to the performance of ELISA. The ICT would be a useful additional test to facilitate the proposed strategies for control and elimination of LF. Because it is rapid, simple to perform, and does not require the use of special equipment, the ICT may be most appropriate in screening programs and in monitoring the possible risk of introducing

  6. The CCTC Quick-Reacting General War Gaming System (QUICK). Program Maintenance Manual. Volume III. Weapon Allocation Subsystem. Change 2.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-30

    A~ O-AOBI a c AND CONTPOL TOIECA L COMi WAIM.DhSO C /me lIs" ATg CCTC SIICKAZACTINS UISRAL AR "MINGSa IVUI SCV PRO-ETC(UI LMASI C L A M Z P II...of Changes. FOR THE DIRECTOR: 129 EnclosuresJ.OG P Change 2 Pages ector . fdor A is ation 7/ z / Tis docitn: is h,,1 Ted. Ved for public rc~cls ; its...BASE PREPARATION VdnPON/TARGET ITIICATIONT SUBSSTM JI2X PLANSET WaEAPON ALLOCATION SUBSYS TEM P’MPALOC ALOC PLAN GEERATION ETALALOC SORTIE GDIURATION

  7. [Diabetes and alternative medicine: diabetic patients experiences with Ayur-Ved, "clinical ecology" and "cellular nutrition" methods].

    PubMed

    Vanelli, M; Chiari, G; Gugliotta, M; Capuano, C; Giacalone, T; Gruppi, L; Condò, M

    2002-04-01

    In the last two years we discovered that three of our patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (0.8%) suffered an unexpected worsening in their glycemic control due to a reduction of their insulin dosage in favour of some "alternative" diabetes treatments using herbs, vitamins, fantastic diets and trace elements prescribed by non-medical practitioners. The first patient, a 6.6 year old boy, was admitted to hospital because of a severe ketoacidosis with first degree coma as a result of his parents having reduced his insulin dosage by 77% and replacing the insulin with an ayurvedic herbal preparation (Bardana Actium Lapp). The second patient, a 10.4 year old boy, was admitted to hospital after his teachers noticed that he appeared tired, thinner and polyuric. During hospital admission for mild ketoacidosis the mother, reluctant at first, finally confessed that her son was under the care of a "clinical ecologist". Having identified several food allergies this "clinical ecologist" had placed the child on a spartan diet of bread, water and salt, and had reduced his insulin dosage by 68%. The third patient, a 21 year old male, upon transfer to the Adult Diabetic Center, reported that he had been under the care of a pranotherapist for several years. The pranotherapist had prescribed a cellular nutrition preparation (called "Madonna drops"), a meditation program and also a 50% reduction in his insulin dosage. During this period his HbAlc values had increased from 6.4% to 12%. Current orthodox diabetes treatments are considered unsatisfactory by many people and it is thus not surprising that they search for "miracle" cures. It is important, however, that hospital staff do not ridicule the patients or their parents for trying these alternative therapies. Nevertheless, it would be useful for staff to discuss in advance these "therapies" with patients, highlighting their ineffectiveness and strongly discouraging cures that call for a reduction or elimination of the insulin treatment.

  8. ABC-VED Analysis of a Drug Store in the Department of Community Medicine of a Medical College in Delhi

    PubMed Central

    Anand, T.; Ingle, G. K.; Kishore, J.; Kumar, R

    2013-01-01

    A matrix based on coupling of cost (always, better and control) analysis and criticality (vital, essential and desirable) analysis was employed for drug inventory containing 129 items of drug store in the Department of Community Medicine of a Medical College in Delhi. The annual drug expenditure incurred on 129 drug items for the year 2010-2011 was found to be Rs. 4,35,847.85. On always, better and control analysis, 18.6, 24.0 and 57.4% drugs were found to be always, better and control category items, respectively, amounting for 69.1, 20.8 and 10.1% of annual drug expenditure. About 13.2 (17), 38.8 (50) and 48.0% (62) items were found to be vital, essential and desirable category items, respectively, amounting for 18.7, 49.5 and 31.8% of annual drug expenditure. Based on always, better and control-vital, essential and desirable matrix analysis there were 37 (28.68%) items in category I, 53 (41.09%) items in category II and 39 (30.23%) items in category III, amounting for 73.0, 22.2 and 4.8% of annual drug expenditure, respectively. To conclude, scientific inventory management tools are needed to be applied in routine for efficient management of the pharmacy stores as it contributes to not only in improvement in patient care but also judicious use of resources as well. PMID:23901172

  9. Probing DNA by 2-OG-dependent dioxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Chi-Lin; Tainer, John A.

    2014-01-01

    TET-mediated 5-methyl cytosine (5mC) oxidation acts in epigenetic regulation, stem cell development, and cancer. Hu et al. now determine the crystal structure of the TET2 catalytic domain bound to DNA, shedding light on 5mC-DNA substrate recognition and the catalytic mechanism of 5mC oxidation. PMID:24360270

  10. Ninteenth International Cosmic Ray Conference. OG Sessions, Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, F. C. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    Contributed papers addressing cosmic ray origin and galactic phenomena are compiled. Topic areas include the composition, spectra, and anisotropy of cosmic ray nuclei with energies and 1 TeV, isotopes, antiprotons and related subjects, and electrons, positrons, and measurements of synchrotron radiation.

  11. Information Gathering Document 0321-1437-30-R-OG

    SciTech Connect

    Hollister, R

    2009-07-15

    Fines and turnings from machining depleted uranium (Dep-U), natural uranium (Nat-U), and Thorium-232, and stainless steel and aluminum. This IGO allows only small, oxidizable pieces of Dep-U/Nat-U/Th-232, with regulated metal contaminants below regulatory limits. Fines and turnings will be in 30 gallon vented drums immersed in mineral oil. The 30 gallon drums will be overpacked in 55 gallon vented drums. The waste will be stored on site until sent for stabilization & disposal with approved TSOFs.

  12. Nineteenth International Cosmic Ray Conference. OG Sessions, Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, F. C. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    Papers submitted for presentation at the 19th International Cosmic Ray Conference are compiled. This volume addresses cosmic ray sources and acceleration, interstellar propagation and nuclear interactions, and detection techniques and instrumentation.

  13. [The psychoimmunological network og panic disorders, agoraphobia and allergic reactions].

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Traub, S

    1995-02-01

    While treating panic and agoraphobia patients with behaviour therapy, a high frequency of allergic reaction of the IgE-mediated type I was observed. Panic disorder, agoraphobia, allergic disorder, and vasomotor reactions are briefly discussed in the framework of psycho-endocrino-immunological research. A pilot study had shown a high correlation between panic disorder with and without agoraphobia and allergic reaction. A controlled study was then planned to test the hypothesized psychoimmunological relationship. 100 allergic patients, 79 panic/agoraphobic patients, and 66 controls underwent psychodiagnostic and allergic screening. 70% of the anxiety patients responded to test allergens with IgE-mediated type-I immediate reactions in comparison to 28% of the control persons. Another 15% of the panic patients reacted to nickle compound with type-IV delayed skin reactions (7% of the controls). Conversely, 10% of the allergic patients suffered from panic disorder (45% had experienced panic attacks) in contrast to 2% of the controls (24% of these reported panic attacks). The relative risk for allergic patients to develop panic disorder with and without agoraphobia is obviously five times as high as for controls. With this assumption of a psychoimmunological preparedness in mind, a behavioural medical diagnostic and therapeutic concept seems more adequate in coping both with panic/agoraphobia and allergic disorder.

  14. Ninteenth International Cosmic Ray Conference. OG Sessions, Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, F. C. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    Contributed papers addressing cosmic ray origin and galactic phenomena are compiled. The topic areas covered in this volume include gamma ray bursts, gamma rays from point sources, and diffuse gamma ray emission.

  15. Role of O.G. Gazenko in formation and advancement of space biology and medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoriev, Anatoly I.

    2011-05-01

    Oleg G. Gazenko belongs to the noble cohort of pupils of well-known Russian physiologist L.A. Orbeli. He was one of the fathers of space biology and medicine, discipline in which he displayed his brilliant talents of experimenter and thinker. He was acknowledged for the investigations of spaceflight effects on living systems, the concept of medical operations system to support long-term piloted missions and implementation of biological researches that fostered the advance of space and gravitational biology. The analytical works of Oleg G. Gazenko are of imperishable significance for future researches to the benefit of space biomedicine.

  16. A REAL TIME COAL CONTENT ORE GRADE (C2OG) SENSOR

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Rand Swanson

    2003-04-28

    This seventh quarterly technical report discusses the progress made on a machine vision technique for determining coal content and ore grades. Considerable progress has been made on coal analysis. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) target recognition software has been tested and incorporated into the system. This software decreases analysis time considerably and is more intuitive to use. Work with board-level computers has proceeded well; ultimately this will make the technology more compact and fieldable. Work with talc will be delayed because the graduate student working on this project is leaving the program. Ongoing work is devoted to more detailed coal analysis, improving the software interface, and developing procedures and a users manual.

  17. A REAL TIME COAL CONTENT ORE GRADE (C2OG) SENSOR

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Rand Swanson

    2002-07-19

    This fourth quarterly technical report discusses the progress made on a machine vision technique for determining coal content and ore grades. Work done this quarter has been primarily devoted to improving the apparatus and data collection system. This includes a totally new optical setup, continued development of a new imaging spectrometer, and software improvements. Additionally, interest from other mining operations has arisen and sample of titanium and talc have now been obtained for preliminary analysis. Work is ongoing with coal samples, although it appears a more diverse sampling may be required. With the improvements now being made in the system, much faster and more user-friendly data collection and analysis will result in faster and better turn-around for sample analysis.

  18. Cardiovascular adaptation to O-G (Experiment 294) - Instrumentation for invasive and noninvasive studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckey, Jay C.; Lane, Lynda D.; Levine, Benjamin D.; Moore, Willie E.; Gaffney, F. A.; Blomqvist, C. G.; Watenpaugh, Donald E.

    1991-01-01

    Many astronauts returning from space have difficulties regulating blood pressure, some to the point of fainting during quiet standing. Experiment 294 was designed to study this and other cardiovascular effects of adaptation to microgravity and to understand the mechanisms behind it. To accomplish this several cardiovascular variables had to be measured accurately. Heart rate, blood pressure, cardiac output (blood pumped by the heart each minute), stroke volume (blood pumped by the heart with each beat), limb flow, limb compliance, heart size and central venous pressure all had to been recorded during various stresses to understand fully the adaptation to space and the readaptation to earth's gravity. Numerous pieces of equipment were used. Some were purpose-built for the Spacelab mission and others were derived from commercial hardware. Developing spaceflight hardware is challenging and costly, but can lead to significant new information in the unique environment of space.

  19. A REAL TIME COAL CONTENT ORE GRADE (C2OG) SENSOR

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Rand Swanson

    2002-01-31

    The overall approach of this effort is to spectrally image ore or coal, and then use the spectral content (i.e., the particular colors of the ore or coal) to differentiate between the ore or coal grades. Currently, experts with practiced eyes do just this to identify the grade of platinum/palladium ore from the Stillwater Mine in south-central Montana. Additionally, trained eyes can identify high-sulfur and high-ash coal visually. The premise of this effort is that machine vision can accomplish this same differentiation. During the first quarter, machine vision results using a digital color camera did not correlate as well with assay results for platinum/palladium ore as would be required for a commercial device. One of the possible reasons for this is that the digital camera did not provide enough spectral information to obtain good differentiation between the sulfides associated with high-grade platinum/palladium ore and background interference, most notably yellow grease that contaminates some of the sample and green colored rock. The second quarter efforts have largely been devoted to implementing an imaging spectrometer for machine vision. In brief, modifying an imaging spectrometer that was designed for remote sensing from a Remotely Controlled (RC) airplane has done this. The imaging spectrometer provides 320 spectral channels, allowing for much better spectral resolution that can be obtained with a digital color camera, which provides 3 spectral channels. Preliminary results, as discussed below in more detail, are encouraging. The technical portion of the report below is organized into subsections as dictated by the DoE contract for this effort. These sections are: Experimental Apparatus, Experimental and Operating Data, Data Reduction, and Hypothesis and Conclusions. Partners in this effort are: Montana Tech of the University of Montana, Stillwater Mining Co., Western Syncoal, and the Montana Board of Research and Commercialization.

  20. A REAL TIME COAL CONTENT ORE GRADE (C2OG) SENSOR

    SciTech Connect

    Rand Swanson

    2004-01-23

    This tenth quarterly technical report discusses the progress made on a machine vision technique for ore grading based on hyperspectral imaging. A graduate student at Montana Tech has successfully defended her thesis related to this project. Arrangements with Stillwater Mining Company to deploy a machine vision system in their core room have been completed. Designs for they system that will be installed next quarter have been drawn and parts are being machined. Presentations on the spectral imaging system developed during this effort have been made to Stillwater Mining Company and at a remote sensing symposium at Montana State University.

  1. A parallelization scheme to simulate reactive transport in the subsurface environment with OGS#IPhreeqc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, W.; Beyer, C.; Fleckenstein, J. H.; Jang, E.; Kolditz, O.; Naumov, D.; Kalbacher, T.

    2015-03-01

    This technical paper presents an efficient and performance-oriented method to model reactive mass transport processes in environmental and geotechnical subsurface systems. The open source scientific software packages OpenGeoSys and IPhreeqc have been coupled, to combine their individual strengths and features to simulate thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical coupled processes in porous and fractured media with simultaneous consideration of aqueous geochemical reactions. Furthermore, a flexible parallelization scheme using MPI (Message Passing Interface) grouping techniques has been implemented, which allows an optimized allocation of computer resources for the node-wise calculation of chemical reactions on the one hand, and the underlying processes such as for groundwater flow or solute transport on the other hand. The coupling interface and parallelization scheme have been tested and verified in terms of precision and performance.

  2. Cardiovascular adaptation to O-G (Experiment 294) - Instrumentation for invasive and noninvasive studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckey, Jay C.; Lane, Lynda D.; Levine, Benjamin D.; Moore, Willie E.; Gaffney, F. A.; Blomqvist, C. G.; Watenpaugh, Donald E.

    1991-01-01

    Many astronauts returning from space have difficulties regulating blood pressure, some to the point of fainting during quiet standing. Experiment 294 was designed to study this and other cardiovascular effects of adaptation to microgravity and to understand the mechanisms behind it. To accomplish this several cardiovascular variables had to be measured accurately. Heart rate, blood pressure, cardiac output (blood pumped by the heart each minute), stroke volume (blood pumped by the heart with each beat), limb flow, limb compliance, heart size and central venous pressure all had to been recorded during various stresses to understand fully the adaptation to space and the readaptation to earth's gravity. Numerous pieces of equipment were used. Some were purpose-built for the Spacelab mission and others were derived from commercial hardware. Developing spaceflight hardware is challenging and costly, but can lead to significant new information in the unique environment of space.

  3. A REAL TIME COAL CONTENT ORE GRADE (C2OG) SENSOR

    SciTech Connect

    Rand Swanson

    2003-04-27

    This eleventh quarterly technical report discusses the installation of a spectral machine vision system in the Stillwater mine's core room. In brief, the system has been fabricated, installed, and preliminary measurements have been made. A first round of refinements has been made, included replacing a bad bearing and applying filters to the lighting. A high-speed Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) program was written to classify the cores in real time. This program identifies sulfides in the core sample quite well, but also produces false positives at boundaries and breaks in the core. Additionally, bright reflections from facets within the ore occasionally saturate the camera. Overall, the project is on schedule, but additional refinement in the algorithm and lighting is required to obtain more accurate results.

  4. Phenological tracking og agricultural feilds investigated by using dual polarimetry tanDEM-X images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzaee, S.; Motagh, M.; Arefi, H.; Nooryazdan, A.

    2015-04-01

    Remote sensing plays a key role in monitoring and assessing environmental changes. Because of its special imaging characteristics such as high-resolution, capabilities to obtain data in all weather conditions and sensitivity to geometrical and dielectric properties of the features, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) technology has become a powerful technique to detect small scale changes related to earth surface.SAR images contain the information of both phase and intensity in different modes like single, dual and full polarimetric states which are important in order to extract information about various targets. In this study we investigate phenological changes in an agricultural region using high-resolution X-band SAR data. The case study is located in Doroud region of Lorestan province, west of Iran. The purpose is to investigate the ability of copolar and interferometric coherence extracted from TanDEM-X dual polarimetry (HH/VV) in bistatic StripMap mode for tracking the phenological changes of crops during growing season. The data include 11 images acquired between 12.06.2012 and 02.11.2012 and 6 images acquired between 30.05.2013 and 04.08.2013 in the CoSSC format. Results show that copolar coherence is almost able to follow phenological changes but interferometric coherence has a near constant behaviour with fluctuations mainly related to baseline variations.

  5. Ostéogénèse imparfaite létale: diagnostic antenatal

    PubMed Central

    El Mhabrech, Houda; Zrig, Ahmed; Mazhoud, Ines; Njim, Leila; Hajjeji, Aouatef; Faleh, Raja; Hafsa, Ch

    2016-01-01

    L'ostéogenèse imparfaite (OI) est un groupe hétérogène de maladies affectant le collagène de type I et caractérisées par une fragilité osseuse. Les formes létales sont rares et se caractérisent par une micromélie avec déformation des membres. Un diagnostic anténatal d'OI létale a été fait dans deux cas, par échographie à 17 et à 25 semaines d'aménorrhée, complélées par un scanner du squelette fœtal dans un cas. Une interruption thérapeutique de grossesse a été indiquée dans les deux cas. PMID:28292051

  6. A REAL TIME COAL CONTENT ORE GRADE (C2OG) SENSOR

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Rand Swanson

    2002-10-24

    This fifth quarterly technical report discusses the progress made on a machine vision technique for determining coal content and ore grades. Recent work has been devoted to implementing new hardware and examining defects in titanium sponge, a new application for the machine vision system. With the improvements in hardware and software, the data collection is much improved. Early results from data taken on titanium sponge defects indicate that some defects will be relatively easy to identify, but others will be much more difficult. Consequently, additional work is required with software algorithms for target recognition. Ongoing work will be divided into several fronts, which include data collection and analysis, improving the target recognition capabilities, and improving the electronic interface.

  7. A REAL TIME COAL CONTENT ORE GRADE (C2OG) SENSOR

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Rand Swanson

    2003-07-21

    This eighth quarterly technical report discusses the progress made on a machine vision technique for determining coal content and preparations for Year-3 system deployment. Classification maps for coal have been generated and shown to two coal-mining executives. An application for licensing high-speed hyperspectral data analysis software from the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) has been made. Both Western Energy and Stillwater Mining Company have offered platforms for Year-3 deployment. Barretts Minerals has expressed renewed interest in using Resonon's machine vision system for identifying dolomite in their talc ore and have agreed to provide samples to the Montana Tech team.

  8. Penile rehabilitation with a vacuum erectile device in an animal model is related to an antihypoxic mechanism: blood gas evidence.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hao-Cheng; Yang, Wen-Li; Zhang, Jun-Lan; Dai, Yu-Tian; Wang, Run

    2013-05-01

    Our previous study showed that vacuum erectile device (VED) therapy has improved erectile function in rats with bilateral cavernous nerve crush (BCNC) injuries. This study was designed to explore the mechanism of VED in penile rehabilitation by analyzing cavernous oxygen saturation (SO2) and to examine the effect of VED therapy on preventing penile shrinkage after BCNC. Thirty adult Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into three groups: group 1, sham surgery; group 2, BCNC; and group 3, BCNC+VED. Penile length and diameter were measured on a weekly basis. After 4 weeks of therapy, the penile blood was extracted by three methods for blood gas analysis (BGA): method 1, cavernous blood was aspirated at the flaccid state; method 2, cavernous blood was aspirated at the traction state; and method 3, cavernous blood was aspirated immediately after applying VED. SO2 values were tested by the blood gas analyzer. The results showed that VED therapy is effective in preventing penile shrinkage induced by BCNC (Penile shortening: BCNC group 1.9±1.1 mm; VED group 0.3±1.0 mm; P<0.01. Penile diameter reduction: BCNC group 0.28±0.14 mm; VED group 0.04±0.14 mm; P<0.01). The mean SO2±s.d. values were increased by VED application (88.25%±4.94%) compared to the flaccid (76.53%±4.16%) or traction groups (78.93%±2.56%) (P<0.05). The calculated blood constructs in the corpus cavernosum right after VED application were 62% arterial and 38% venous blood. These findings suggest that VED therapy can effectively preserve penile size in rats with BCNC injury. The beneficial effect of VED therapy is related to antihypoxia by increasing cavernous blood SO2.

  9. Post-translational hydroxylation by 2OG/Fe(II)-dependent oxygenases as a novel regulatory mechanism in bacteria.

    PubMed

    van Staalduinen, Laura M; Jia, Zongchao

    2014-01-01

    Protein hydroxylation has been well-studied in eukaryotic systems. The structural importance of hydroxylation of specific proline and lysine residues during collagen biosynthesis is well established. Recently, key roles for post-translational hydroxylation in signaling and degradation pathways have been discovered. The function of hydroxylation in signaling is highlighted by its role in the hypoxic response of eukaryotic cells, where oxygen dependent hydroxylation of the hypoxia inducible transcription factor both targets it for degradation and blocks its activation. In contrast, the role of protein hydroxylation has been largely understudied in prokaryotes. Recently, an evolutionarily conserved class of ribosomal oxygenases (ROX) that catalyze the hydroxylation of specific residues in the ribosome has been identified in bacteria. ROX activity has been linked to cell growth, and has been found to have a direct impact on bulk protein translation. This discovery of ribosomal protein hydroxylation in bacteria could lead to new therapeutic targets for regulating bacterial growth, as well as, shed light on new prokaryotic hydroxylation signaling pathways. In this review, recent structural and functional studies will be highlighted and discussed, underscoring the regulatory potential of post-translational hydroxylation in bacteria.

  10. Production of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens OG and its metabolites in renewable media: valorisation for biodiesel production and p-xylene decontamination.

    PubMed

    Etchegaray, Augusto; Coutte, François; Chataigné, Gabrielle; Béchet, Max; Dos Santos, Ramon H Z; Leclère, Valérie; Jacques, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Biosurfactants are important in many areas; however, costs impede large-scale production. This work aimed to develop a global sustainable strategy for the production of biosurfactants by a novel strain of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. Initially, Bacillus sp. strain 0G was renamed B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum (syn. Bacillus velezensis) after analysis of the gyrA and gyrB DNA sequences. Growth in modified Landy's medium produced 3 main recoverable metabolites: surfactin, fengycin, and acetoin, which promote plant growth. Cultivation was studied in the presence of renewable carbon (as glycerol) and nitrogen (as arginine) sources. While diverse kinetics of acetoin production were observed in different media, similar yields (6-8 g·L(-1)) were obtained after 72 h of growth. Glycerol increased surfactin-specific production, while arginine increased the yields of surfactin and fengycin and increased biomass significantly. The specific production of fengycin increased ∼10 times, possibly due to a connecting pathway involving arginine and ornithine. Adding value to crude extracts and biomass, both were shown to be useful, respectively, for the removal of p-xylene from contaminated water and for biodiesel production, yielding ∼70 mg·g(-1) cells and glycerol, which could be recycled in novel media. This is the first study considering circular bioeconomy to lower the production costs of biosurfactants by valorisation of both microbial cells and their primary and secondary metabolites.

  11. Hip Hop Culture's OGs: A Narrative Inquiry into the Intersection of Hip Hop Culture, Black Males and Their Schooling Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Ian P.

    2013-01-01

    Using a critical race lens, this narrative study employs a focus group design to explore the intersections between black males, hip hop culture and schooling experiences. To provide a sociocultural grounding, this study first reviews the research literature around hip hop culture.s sociocultural development and its impact as a culture force that…

  12. Hip Hop Culture's OGs: A Narrative Inquiry into the Intersection of Hip Hop Culture, Black Males and Their Schooling Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Ian P.

    2013-01-01

    Using a critical race lens, this narrative study employs a focus group design to explore the intersections between black males, hip hop culture and schooling experiences. To provide a sociocultural grounding, this study first reviews the research literature around hip hop culture.s sociocultural development and its impact as a culture force that…

  13. Évolution paléogéographique de la Tunisie saharienne et atlasique au cours du Jurassique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamoun, Fékri; Peybernès, Bernard; Fauré, Philippe

    1999-04-01

    By means of palaeontologic data, the differert Jurassic formations of Tunisia are correlated along a north-south transect, from the Saharan Platform to the Northern Atlas, across the successive steps of the South-Tethyan stable palaeomargin. A palaeogeographic synthesis of the country is herein proposed, based on 11 maps established for the most important stages of this preoceanic rifting phase which is characterized by particularly active transtensional tectonics.

  14. Vacuum erection devices revisited: its emerging role in the treatment of erectile dysfunction and early penile rehabilitation following prostate cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Pahlajani, Geetu; Raina, Rupesh; Jones, Stephen; Ali, Marwan; Zippe, Craig

    2012-04-01

    Vacuum erection devices (VEDs) are becoming first-line therapies for the treatment of erectile dysfunction and preservation (rehabilitation) of erectile function following treatment for prostate cancer. Currently, there is limited efficacy of the use of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors in elderly patients, or patients with moderate to severe diabetes, hypertension, and coronary artery disease. The article aims to study the role of VED in patients following prostate cancer therapy. Alternative therapies such as VED have emerged as one of the primary options for patients refractory to oral therapy. VED has also been successfully used in combination treatment with oral therapy and penile injections. More recently, there has been interest in the use of VED in early intervention protocols to encourage corporeal rehabilitation and prevention of postradical prostatectomy veno-occlusive dysfunction. This is evident by the preservation of penile length and girth that is seen with early use of the VED following radical prostatectomy. There are ongoing studies to help preserve penile length and girth with early use of VED following prostate brachytherapy and external beam radiation for prostate cancer. Recently, there has also been interest in the use of VED to help maintain penile length following surgical correction of Peyronie's disease and to increase penile size prior to implantation of the penile prosthesis. VEDs can be one of the options for penile rehabilitation after prostate cancer therapy. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  15. Vacuum therapy in penile rehabilitation after radical prostatectomy: review of hemodynamic and antihypoxic evidence

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Sheng-Qiang; Gao, Liang; Wei, Qiang; Yuan, Jiuhong

    2016-01-01

    Generally, hypoxia is a normal physiological condition in the flaccid penis, which is interrupted by regular nocturnal erections in men with normal erectile function.1 Lack of spontaneous and nocturnal erections after radical prostatectomy due to neuropraxia results in persistent hypoxia of cavernosal tissue, which leads to apoptosis and degeneration of cavernosal smooth muscle fibers. Therefore, overcoming hypoxia is believed to play a crucial role during neuropraxia. The use of a vacuum erectile device (VED) in penile rehabilitation is reportedly effective and may prevent loss of penile length. The corporal blood after VED use is increased and consists of both arterial and venous blood, as revealed by color Doppler sonography and blood gas analysis. A similar phenomenon was observed in negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT). However, NPWT employs a lower negative pressure than VED, and a hypoperfused zone, which increases in response to negative pressure adjacent to the wound edge, was observed. Nonetheless, questions regarding ideal subatmospheric pressure levels, modes of action, and therapeutic duration of VED remain unanswered. Moreover, it remains unclear whether a hypoperfused zone or PO2 gradient appears in the penis during VED therapy. To optimize a clinical VED protocol in penile rehabilitation, further research on the mechanism of VED, especially real-time PO2 measurements in different parts of the penis, should be performed. PMID:26289397

  16. Vacuum erection devices to treat erectile dysfunction and early penile rehabilitation following radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Zippe, Craig D; Pahlajani, Geetu

    2008-11-01

    Vacuum erection devices (VED) are becoming first-line therapies for erectile dysfunction and preservation (rehabilitation) of erectile function following treatment for prostate cancer. Currently, phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors have limited efficacy in elderly patients or patients with moderate to severe diabetes, hypertension, and coronary artery disease. Alternative therapies, such as VED, have emerged as a primary option for patients refractory to oral therapy. VED has also been successfully used in combination treatment with oral therapy and penile injections. More recently, there has been interest in the use of VED in early intervention protocols to encourage corporeal rehabilitation and prevention of post-radical prostatectomy venoocclusive dysfunction. This is evident by the preservation of penile length and girth seen with the early use of the VED following radical prostatectomy. There are ongoing studies to help preserve penile length and girth with early use of VED following prostate brachytherapy and external beam radiation for prostate cancer. Recently, there has also been interest in VED to help maintain penile length following surgical correction of Peyronie's disease and to increase penile size before implantation of the penile prosthesis.

  17. Vacuum therapy in penile rehabilitation after radical prostatectomy: review of hemodynamic and antihypoxic evidence.

    PubMed

    Qian, Sheng-Qiang; Gao, Liang; Wei, Qiang; Yuan, Jiuhong

    2016-01-01

    Generally, hypoxia is a normal physiological condition in the flaccid penis, which is interrupted by regular nocturnal erections in men with normal erectile function. [1] Lack of spontaneous and nocturnal erections after radical prostatectomy due to neuropraxia results in persistent hypoxia of cavernosal tissue, which leads to apoptosis and degeneration of cavernosal smooth muscle fibers. Therefore, overcoming hypoxia is believed to play a crucial role during neuropraxia. The use of a vacuum erectile device (VED) in penile rehabilitation is reportedly effective and may prevent loss of penile length. The corporal blood after VED use is increased and consists of both arterial and venous blood, as revealed by color Doppler sonography and blood gas analysis. A similar phenomenon was observed in negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT). However, NPWT employs a lower negative pressure than VED, and a hypoperfused zone, which increases in response to negative pressure adjacent to the wound edge, was observed. Nonetheless, questions regarding ideal subatmospheric pressure levels, modes of action, and therapeutic duration of VED remain unanswered. Moreover, it remains unclear whether a hypoperfused zone or PO 2 gradient appears in the penis during VED therapy. To optimize a clinical VED protocol in penile rehabilitation, further research on the mechanism of VED, especially real-time PO 2 measurements in different parts of the penis, should be performed.

  18. Molecular mechanisms of vacuum therapy in penile rehabilitation: a novel animal study.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jiuhong; Lin, Haochen; Li, Ping; Zhang, Rongzheng; Luo, Annie; Berardinelli, Francesco; Dai, Yutian; Wang, Run

    2010-11-01

    Penile rehabilitation (PR) is widely applied after radical prostatectomy. Vacuum erectile device (VED) therapy is the one of three PR methods used in the clinical setting that improve erectile function (EF) and is the only PR method which may preserve penile length. However, its unknown mechanism hampered doctors' recommendations and patients' compliance. To assess the effects of VED therapy on erectile dysfunction (ED) in a rat model of bilateral cavernous nerve crush (BCNC) and to investigate the molecular mechanism of VED in postprostatectomy ED. This was an experimental study using Sprague-Dawley rats in three groups: sham, BCNC, and BCNC plus VED. Intervention included BCNC, electrical stimulation of the cavernous nerve (CNS), and VED therapy. At the end of a 4-wk period, CNS was used to assess EF by maximum intracavernosal pressure (ICP)/mean arterial pressure (MAP) ratio and duration (area under the curve [AUC]). For the structural analyses, whole rat penis was harvested. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase biotin-dUTP nick end labeling assay was used for the assessment of apoptotic indices (AI). Immunohistochemistry was performed for endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), α-smooth muscle actin (ASMA), transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1), and hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α). Staining for Masson's trichrome was utilized to calculate the smooth muscle/collagen ratios. EF was improved with VED therapy measured by ICP/MAP ratios and AUC. VED therapy reduced HIF-1α expression and AI significantly compared with control. Animals exposed to VED therapy had decreased TGF-β1 expression, increased smooth muscle/collagen ratios, and preserved ASMA and eNOS expression. To our knowledge, this is the first scientific study to suggest that VED therapy in the BCNC rat model preserves EF through antihypoxic, antiapoptotic, and antifibrotic mechanisms. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Spontaneous Splenic Rupture in Vascular Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Batagini, Nayara Cioffi; Gornik, Heather; Kirksey, Lee

    2015-01-01

    Vascular Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (VEDS) is a rare autosomal dominant collagen vascular disorder. Different from other Ehler-Danlos Syndrome subtypes, VEDS has poor prognosis due to severe fragility of connective tissues and association with life-threatening vascular and gastrointestinal complications. Spontaneous splenic rupture is a rare but hazardous complication related to this syndrome. To date, only 2 cases have been reported in the literature. Here we present another case of this uncommon complication, occurring in a 54-year-old woman in clinical follow-up for VEDS who presented with sudden onset of abdominal pain and hypotension.

  20. Recurrent arterial aneurysm rupture of the upper extremity in a patient with vascular-type Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Koji; Tajiri, Nobuhisa; Nakai, Mikizo; Shimizu, Shuji

    2014-10-01

    Arterial aneurysm rupture is one of the most critical complications in patients with vascular-type Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (vEDS). Here, we report a case of recurrent aneurysm rupture successfully treated by endovascular embolization. A 38-year old woman who underwent brachial artery ligation for a ruptured aneurysm was diagnosed postoperatively with vEDS. Impending rupture of a collateral artery aneurysm was encountered 5 months after the initial open surgery. Endovascular embolization with a liquid embolic agent was successfully performed. Given that arterial rupture can occur repeatedly in patients with vEDS, careful life-long follow-up is necessary.

  1. The results of an experimental indoor hydroponic Cannabis growing study, using the 'Screen of Green' (ScrOG) method-Yield, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Knight, Glenys; Hansen, Sean; Connor, Mark; Poulsen, Helen; McGovern, Catherine; Stacey, Janet

    2010-10-10

    The results of an indoor hydroponic Cannabis growth study are presented. It is intended that this work will be of assistance to those with an interest in determining an estimation of yield and value of Cannabis crops. Three cycles of six plants were grown over a period of 1 year in order to ascertain the potential yield of female flowering head material from such an operation. The cultivation methods used were selected to replicate typical indoor hydroponic Cannabis growing operations, such as are commonly encountered by the New Zealand Police. The plants were also tested to ascertain the percentage of the psychoactive chemical Δ-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) present in the flowering head material, and were genetically profiled by STR analysis. Phenotypic observations are related to the data collected. The inexperience of the growers was evidenced by different problems encountered in each of the three cycles, each of which would be expected to negatively impact the yield and THC data obtained. These data are therefore considered to be conservative. The most successful cycle yielded an average of 881g (31.1oz) of dry, groomed female flowering head per plant, and over the whole study the 18 plants yielded a total of 12,360g (436.0oz), or an average of 687g (24.2oz) of dry head per plant. THC data shows significant intra-plant variation and also demonstrates inter-varietal variation. THC values for individual plants ranged from 4.3 to 25.2%. The findings of this study and a separate ESR research project illustrate that the potency of Cannabis grown in New Zealand has dramatically increased in recent years. DNA analysis distinguished distinct groups in general agreement with the phenotypic variation observed. One plant however, exhibiting a unique triallelic pattern at two of the five loci tested, while remaining phenotypically indistinguishable from three other plants within the same grow. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Samtaler i hvid kittel: En analyse af indlaeggelsessamtaler og deres institutionelle betingelser (Conversations in White Aprons: An Analysis of Hospitalization Conversations and Their Institutional Conditions). ROLIG Papir 47.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Jytte

    This report focuses on the communication that takes place between nurses and patients in a hospital setting. Nurses have for years been accused of talking at patients rather than talking to them. They have also been accused of using a language that patients do not know. The problem is partly a result of individual roles within the medical…

  3. GO2OGS 1.0: a versatile workflow to integrate complex geological information with fault data into numerical simulation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, T.; Naumov, D.; Sattler, S.; Kolditz, O.; Walther, M.

    2015-11-01

    We offer a versatile workflow to convert geological models built with the ParadigmTM GOCAD© (Geological Object Computer Aided Design) software into the open-source VTU (Visualization Toolkit unstructured grid) format for usage in numerical simulation models. Tackling relevant scientific questions or engineering tasks often involves multidisciplinary approaches. Conversion workflows are needed as a way of communication between the diverse tools of the various disciplines. Our approach offers an open-source, platform-independent, robust, and comprehensible method that is potentially useful for a multitude of environmental studies. With two application examples in the Thuringian Syncline, we show how a heterogeneous geological GOCAD model including multiple layers and faults can be used for numerical groundwater flow modeling, in our case employing the OpenGeoSys open-source numerical toolbox for groundwater flow simulations. The presented workflow offers the chance to incorporate increasingly detailed data, utilizing the growing availability of computational power to simulate numerical models.

  4. A parallelization scheme to simulate reactive transport in the subsurface environment with OGS#IPhreeqc 5.5.7-3.1.2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, W.; Beyer, C.; Fleckenstein, J. H.; Jang, E.; Kolditz, O.; Naumov, D.; Kalbacher, T.

    2015-10-01

    The open-source scientific software packages OpenGeoSys and IPhreeqc have been coupled to set up and simulate thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical coupled processes with simultaneous consideration of aqueous geochemical reactions faster and easier on high-performance computers. In combination with the elaborated and extendable chemical database of IPhreeqc, it will be possible to set up a wide range of multiphysics problems with numerous chemical reactions that are known to influence water quality in porous and fractured media. A flexible parallelization scheme using MPI (Message Passing Interface) grouping techniques has been implemented, which allows an optimized allocation of computer resources for the node-wise calculation of chemical reactions on the one hand and the underlying processes such as for groundwater flow or solute transport on the other. This technical paper presents the implementation, verification, and parallelization scheme of the coupling interface, and discusses its performance and precision.

  5. Site specific prediction equations for peak acceleration of ground motion due to earthquakes induced by underground mining in Legnica-Głogów Copper District in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasocki, Stanisław

    2013-10-01

    Ground motion database from the region of Żelazny Most tailings pond, the largest in Europe ore-flotation waste repository, is used to identify ground motion prediction equations (GMPE-s) for peak horizontal and peak vertical acceleration. A GMPE model including both geometrical spreading and anelastic damping terms cannot be correctly identified and the model with only spreading term is accepted. The analysis of variance of this model's residuals with station location as grouping variable indicates that station locations contribute significantly to the observed ground motion variability. Therefore, a site specific GMPE model with relative site amplifications is assessed. Despite short distances among stations, the amplification considerably vary from point to point, up to 1.8 times for the horizontal and 3.5 times for the vertical peak amplitude. The model including site effects enhances GMPE-s fit to observations, explains more than 60% dependent variables variability and correctly accounts for site effects.

  6. Oral phenotype and scoring of vascular Ehlers–Danlos syndrome: a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Michael; Gogly, Bruno; Golmard, Lisa; Naveau, Adrien; Chérifi, Hafida; Emmerich, Joseph; Gaultier, Frédérick; Berdal, Ariane; Jeunemaitre, Xavier; Fournier, Benjamin P J

    2012-01-01

    Objective Vascular Ehlers–Danlos syndrome (vEDS) is a rare genetic condition related to mutations in the COL3A1 gene, responsible of vascular, digestive and uterine accidents. Difficulty of clinical diagnosis has led to the design of diagnostic criteria, summarised in the Villefranche classification. The goal was to assess oral features of vEDS. Gingival recession is the only oral sign recognised as a minor diagnostic criterion. The authors aimed to check this assumption since bibliographical search related to gingival recession in vEDS proved scarce. Design Prospective case–control study. Setting Dental surgery department in a French tertiary hospital. Participants 17 consecutive patients with genetically proven vEDS, aged 19–55 years, were compared with 46 age- and sex-matched controls. Observations Complete oral examination (clinical and radiological) with standardised assessment of periodontal structure, temporomandibular joint function and dental characteristics were performed. COL3A1 mutations were identified by direct sequencing of genomic or complementary DNA. Results Prevalence of gingival recession was low among patients with vEDS, as for periodontitis. Conversely, patients showed marked gingival fragility, temporomandibular disorders, dentin formation defects, molar root fusion and increased root length. After logistic regression, three variables remained significantly associated to vEDS. These variables were integrated in a diagnostic oral score with 87.5% and 97% sensitivity and specificity, respectively. Conclusions Gingival recession is an inappropriate diagnostic criterion for vEDS. Several new specific oral signs of the disease were identified, whose combination may be of greater value in diagnosing vEDS. PMID:22492385

  7. Podzol development in S Norway - a soil chronosequence of 31 pedons covering soil ages from 85 to 9650 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauer, Daniela; Svendgård-Stokke, Siri; Sperstad, Ragnhild; Sørensen, Rolf; Fuchs, Markus; Gebers, Henrik; Schülli-Maurer, Isabelle

    2013-04-01

    horizons. The mineralogical composition of the parent material is dominated by quartz and feldspars, whereby the feldspar grains show features of proceeding weathering with time. In addition to podzolisation features, illuvial clay is observed below the Bs horizons. Apparently, the sand is sufficiently buffered during the first millennia of soil formation so that acidification proceeds slowly enough to allow for clay translocation prior to podzolisation. Reference Sørensen, R., Høeg, H.I., Henningsmoen, K.E., Skog, G., Labowsky, S.F., Stabell, B. (2012): Utviklingen av det senglasiale og tidlig preboreale landskapet og vegetasjonen omkring steinalderboplassene ved Pauler, Larvik kommune, Vestfold. In: Jaksland, L. (Ed.), E18 Brunlaneprospektet. Varia 79. Kulturhistorisk Museum, University of Oslo.

  8. Micromorphological changes over time observed in the Vestfold Podzol chronosequence, SE Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauer, Daniela; Musztyfaga, Elżbieta; Sørensen, Rolf; Svendgård-Stokke, Siri; Rennert, Thilo; Sperstad, Ragnhild; Fuchs, Markus

    2016-04-01

    addition, micromorphological analysis shows that clay translocation took place prior to strong acidification and podzolisation in many profiles. In some rare cases, clay coatings are observed even on top of spodic material, suggesting that - at least to minor extent - translocation of coarse clay may take place even contemporarily to podzolisation. This apparent contradiction can be explained by different depths of mobilisation of metal-organic complexes and clay. Apparently, even when the upper, strongly acid part of the soils is already subject to podzolisation, acidification and Al saturation at some depth are still not as advanced as further up in the profile and still allow for clay mobilisation. In addition, cappings of coarse clay and fine silt on top of larger grains suggest that water flushing through the coarse voids of the sandy material, e.g., after snow-melt, may sweep down also clay particles in a not completely dispersed state. In this way, clay translocation might take place also outside the pH range that is usually considered suitable for clay migration. Reference Sørensen, R., Høeg, H.I., Henningsmoen, K.E., Skog, G., Labowsky, S.F., Stabell, B., 2012. Utviklingen av det senglasiale og tidlig preboreale landskapet og vegetasjonen omkring steinalderboplassene ved Pauler, Larvik kommune, Vestfold. In: Jaksland, L. (Ed.), E18 Brunlaneprospektet. Varia 79. Kulturhistorisk Museum, University of Oslo.

  9. Population Size, Growth, and Environmental Justice Near Oil and Gas Wells in Colorado.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Lisa M; Allshouse, William B; Burke, Troy; Blair, Benjamin D; Adgate, John L

    2016-11-01

    We evaluated population size and factors influencing environmental justice near oil and gas (O&G) wells. We mapped nearest O&G well to residential properties to evaluate population size, temporal relationships between housing and O&G development, and 2012 housing market value distributions in three major Colorado O&G basins. We reviewed land use, building, real estate, and state O&G regulations to evaluate distributive and participatory justice. We found that by 2012 at least 378,000 Coloradans lived within 1 mile of an active O&G well, and this population was growing at a faster rate than the overall population. In the Denver Julesburg and San Juan basins, which experienced substantial O&G development prior to 2000, we observed a larger proportion of lower value homes within 500 feet of an O&G well and that most O&G wells predated houses. In the Piceance Basin, which had not experienced substantial prior O&G development, we observed a larger proportion of high value homes within 500 feet of an O&G well and that most houses predated O&G wells. We observed economic, rural, participatory, and/or distributive injustices that could contribute to health risk vulnerabilities in populations near O&G wells. We encourage policy makers to consider measures to reduce these injustices.

  10. Gruppeorganiseret og selvstyret fremmedsprogstilegnelse. Et undervisningseksperiment pa RUC [and] Skolesprogene. Om fremmedsprogenes status og funktion i gymnasiet. ROLIG Papir 22 (Group Organized and Self Managed Foreign Language Acquisition. A Research Project at RUC [and] School Languages. On the Status and Function of Foreign Languages in Secondary Schools. ROLIG Paper 22).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakobsen, Karen Sonne

    Two articles highlight different issues on foreign language learning and instruction in Denmark. The first article describes a research project at Roskilde University Center that focuses on group organized and self managed foreign language acquisition. The idea for the project came about as a result of concern over problems related to foreign…

  11. Identification and evolution of the orphan genes in the domestic silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei; Zhao, Xin-Wei; Zhang, Ze

    2015-09-14

    Orphan genes (OGs) which have no recognizable homology to any sequences in other species could contribute to the species specific adaptations. In this study, we identified 738 OGs in the silkworm genome. About 31% of the silkworm OGs is derived from transposable elements, and 5.1% of the silkworm OGs emerged from gene duplication followed by divergence of paralogs. Five de novo silkworm OGs originated from non-coding regions. Microarray data suggested that most of the silkworm OGs were expressed in limited tissues. RNA interference experiments suggested that five de novo OGs are not essential to the silkworm, implying that they may contribute to genetic redundancy or species-specific adaptation. Our results provide some new insights into the evolutionary significance of the silkworm OGs. Copyright © 2015 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Octyl gallate: An antioxidant demonstrating selective and sensitive fluorescent property.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Zhang, Yongkui; Li, Hui

    2017-03-15

    Octyl gallate (OG) is an internationally recognized antioxidant that demonstrates selective and sensitive fluorescent property. The fluorescence of OG can be selectively enhanced in the presence of human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA). The specific structures of HSA and BSA provided the basic conditions for fluorescence enhancement. OG yielded approximately 49- and 11-fold increments in emission intensity in the presence of HSA and BSA at a molar ratio of 1:1, respectively. The lifetimes of HSA and BSA correspondingly decreased. A Förster resonance energy transfer phenomenon occurred during interaction between OG and HSA or BSA. Our in-depth investigation of OG-HSA interaction showed that formation of a stable complex was an important prerequisite to efficiently enhance the fluorescence of OG. The selective and sensitive fluorescent property of OG can possibly be used to determine OG concentration via the standard addition method, which must be performed under certain conditions.

  13. Methods of Isolation and Characterization of Oligogalacturonide Elicitors.

    PubMed

    Benedetti, Manuel; Mattei, Benedetta; Pontiggia, Daniela; Salvi, Gianni; Savatin, Daniel Valentin; Ferrari, Simone

    2017-01-01

    Oligogalacturonides (OGs) are pectic fragments derived from the partial degradation of homogalacturonan in the plant cell wall and able to elicit plant defence responses. Recent methodological advances in the isolation of OGs from plant tissues and their characterization have confirmed their role as bona fide plant Damage-Associated Molecular Patterns. Here, we describe the methods for the isolation of OGs from Arabidopsis leaf tissues and for the characterization of OG structure and biological activity.

  14. Work Programme, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Thessaloniki (Greece).

    This publication presents the work program for 2001 for the European Center for the Development of Vocational Training (CEDEFOP) set in the framework of four operational guidelines (OGs). The section on each OG contains an introduction including CEDEFOP's aims, followed by descriptions of research projects relevant to the OG. Each of the 11…

  15. Operational Group Sandy technical progress report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2013-01-01

    This report documents results from the March 2013 deployment of the OGS. It includes background information on Hurricane Sandy and the federal response; the OGS methodology; scenarios for Hurricane Sandy’s impact on coastal communities and urban ecosystems; potential interventions to improve regional resilience to future major storms; a discussion of scenario results; and lessons learned about the OGS process.

  16. Effect of Penile Traction and Vacuum Erectile Device for Peyronie's Disease in an Animal Model.

    PubMed

    Lin, Haocheng; Liu, Chunhui; Wang, Run

    2017-09-08

    Penile traction therapy with the use of a traction device (TD) or vacuum erectile device (VED) has been studied as local modalities for Peyronie's disease (PD). To identify changes of penile curvature, erectile function, and possible cellular and molecular mechanisms between the TD and VED in a rat model of PD. Peyronie's plaque was induced in 30 adult male rats. Then, rats were randomly divided into control (PD without treatment), VED, and TD groups. In the VED group, vacuum pressure was applied to the cylinder to induce penile engorgement inside the cylinder for 1 minute. The penis was allowed to deflate completely for another 1 minute. This was repeated for five cycles (inflate and deflate). In the TD group, the rat penis was straightened by a suspended tension gauge at the same tension by clamping the prepuce. This was performed three times per day at 20 minutes per session, with 5-minute intervals between sessions. The entire treatment duration was 4 weeks. Penile curvature, intracavernosal pressure, and mean arterial pressure were measured. Immunohistochemistry for α-smooth muscle actin, transforming growth factor-β1 and mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 2/3 were performed. The TD and VED groups had less penile curvature compared with the control group (15.3 ± 5.3° for TD, 28.4 ± 6.8° for VED, 38.6 ± 10.5° for control; P < .001 for TD vs control, P < .05 for VED vs control). The TD group also had less penile curvature compared with the VED group (P < .05). The VED group had a higher ratio of intracavernosal pressure to mean arterial pressure compared with the two other groups (0.56 ± 0.10 for VED, 0.38 ± 0.06 for TD, 0.32 ± 0.07 for control; P < .001). The immunohistochemistry results showed the VED group had more preserved α-smooth muscle actin with less transforming growth factor-β1 and mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 2/3 than the TD and control groups in the corpus cavernosa. Various benefits can be observed with the TD and

  17. A pilot study to determine penile oxygen saturation before and after vacuum therapy in patients with erectile dysfunction after radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Welliver, R Charles; Mechlin, Clay; Goodwin, Brianne; Alukal, Joseph P; McCullough, Andrew R

    2014-04-01

    Provoked and spontaneous nocturnal erections are thought to play a role in maintenance of male sexual health through oxygenation of the corpus cavernosa. Conversely, hypoxia is thought to be an etiological factor in the pathogenesis of cavernosal fibrosis and long-term erectile dysfunction. It has been hypothesized that the early penile hypoxia after radical prostatectomy (RP) may lead to fibrosis and consequently a decrease in stretched penile length and long-term erectile dysfunction. The aim of this study was to assess the changes in penile tissue oxygenation with vacuum erection device (VED) use. Twenty men between 2 and 24 months following RP were enrolled prospectively. Each man cycled a VED to achieve full erection 10 consecutive times over a period of approximately 2 minutes without constriction ring. Tissue oximetry was measured at baseline and immediately after VED using a tissue oximeter at five sites: right thigh, right corpora, glans, left corpora, and left thigh. Additional measurements were captured over the course of an hour. Mean age and time from surgery was 58.2 years and 12.6 months, respectively, and the average Sexual Health Inventory for Men score was 7. Use of the VED significantly increased both glanular and corporal oximetry relative to the baseline values for the entire 60 minutes. An initial increase of 55% was seen in corporal oxygenation with VED use. This is the first study demonstrating that a single, brief application of the VED without a constriction ring results in significant improvement in penile oxygen saturation. The use of a VED has significant benefits for patients both with regard to cost and invasiveness when compared with other penile rehabilitation protocols. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  18. Effects of yellow, orange and red filter glasses on the thresholds of a dark-adapted human eye.

    PubMed

    Aarnisalo, E; Pehkonen, P

    1990-04-01

    Effects of 13 different yellow, orange and red (Schott) longpass filter glasses on the extrafoveal thresholds obtained by 3 normal subjects after dark-adaptation were measured using a Goldman-Weekers adaptometer. When filters GG400, GG420, GG435, GG455, GG475, GG495, OG515 and OG530 (cutting off radiation up to 527 nm) were used there was no significant change in the threshold value. However, significantly higher threshold values were obtained with the use of the filters OG550, OG570, OG590, RG610 and RG630.

  19. Activated carbon fiber for heterogeneous activation of persulfate: implication for the decolorization of azo dye.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiabin; Hong, Wei; Huang, Tianyin; Zhang, Liming; Li, Wenwei; Wang, Ying

    2016-09-01

    Activated carbon fiber (ACF) was used as a green catalyst to activate persulfate (PS) for oxidative decolorization of azo dye. ACF demonstrated a higher activity than activated carbon (AC) to activate PS to decolorize Orange G (OG). The decolorization efficiency of OG increased as ACF loading, PS dosage, and temperature increased. OG decolorization followed a pseudo first-order kinetics, and the activation energy was 40.902 kJ/mol. pH had no apparent effect on OG decolorization. Radical quenching experiments with various radical scavengers (e.g., alcohols, phenol) showed that radical-induced decolorization of OG took place on the surface of ACF, and both SO4 (·-) and HO· were responsible for OG decolorization. The impact of inorganic salts was also evaluated because they are important compositions of dye wastewater. Cl(-) and SO4 (2-) exhibited a promoting effect on OG decolorization, and the accelerating rate increased with elevating dosage of ions. Addition of Cl(-) and SO4 (2-) could increase the adsorption of OG on ACF surface, thus favorable for OG decolorization caused by the surface-bound SO4 (·-) and HO·. Conversely, HCO3 (-) and humic acid (HA) slightly inhibited OG decolorization. The azo band and naphthalene ring on OG were remarkably destructed to other intermediates and finally mineralized to CO2 and H2O.

  20. [Brachial artery endothelial function in teenagers with obesity depending on severity of clinical, trophological and metabolic disorders].

    PubMed

    Maskova, G S; Chernaia, N L; Nagornova, E Iu; Fomina, O V; Byteva, T A

    2014-01-01

    We carried out complex examination of 68 adolescents aged 11-17 years with primary obesity which in addition to assessment of clinical-anamnestic, laboratory data and functional parameters of cardiovascular system included registration of reaction of brachial artery endothelium to reactive hyperemia. Vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) was found in 66% of obese teenagers. Obesity in adolescents with VED was characterized by aggravated course with higher fat mass index (36.8 +/- 4.39%) and prevalence of hypothalamic (42%) and metabolic (8.8%) syndromes. Stable arterial hypertension (AH) found in 37% of examined adolescents was 1.5 times more often registered in those with VED. We distinguished 4 groups of adolescents with various degree of risk of development of cardiovascular disorders: with stable AH and VED (group I), with stable AH and normal function of vascular endothelium (group II), with normal or labile arterial pressure with VED (group III), with normal or labile arterial pressure with normal function of vascular endothelium. It is expedient to supplement examination of obese adolescents with assessment of the state of vascular endothelium aiming at determination of degree of risk of development of atherosclerosis and/or stable AH.

  1. Vessel enhancing diffusion: a scale space representation of vessel structures.

    PubMed

    Manniesing, Rashindra; Viergever, Max A; Niessen, Wiro J

    2006-12-01

    A method is proposed to enhance vascular structures within the framework of scale space theory. We combine a smooth vessel filter which is based on a geometrical analysis of the Hessian's eigensystem, with a non-linear anisotropic diffusion scheme. The amount and orientation of diffusion depend on the local vessel likeliness. Vessel enhancing diffusion (VED) is applied to patient and phantom data and compared to linear, regularized Perona-Malik, edge and coherence enhancing diffusion. The method performs better than most of the existing techniques in visualizing vessels with varying radii and in enhancing vessel appearance. A diameter study on phantom data shows that VED least affects the accuracy of diameter measurements. It is shown that using VED as a preprocessing step improves level set based segmentation of the cerebral vasculature, in particular segmentation of the smaller vessels of the vasculature.

  2. Spontaneous Dissection of the Renal Artery in Vascular Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Filipa; Cardoso, Teresa; Sá, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a rare heterogeneous group of connective tissue disorders. The vascular type (vEDS) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by heterozygous mutations in the COL3A1 gene predisposing to premature arterial, intestinal, or uterine rupture. We report a case of a 38-year-old woman with a recent diagnosis of vEDS admitted in the Emergency Department with a suspicion of a pyelonephritis that evolved to a cardiopulmonary arrest. A fatal retroperitoneal hematoma related with a haemorrhagic dissection of the right renal artery was found after emergency surgery. This case highlights the need to be aware of the particular characteristics of vEDS, such as a severe vascular complication that can lead to a fatal outcome. PMID:26175915

  3. Total pleural covering technique for intractable pneumothorax in patient with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kadota, Yoshihisa; Fukui, Eriko; Kitahara, Naoto; Okura, Eiji; Ohta, Mitsunori

    2016-07-01

    We report a patient with vascular-type Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (vEDS) who developed pneumothorax and was treated with a total pleural covering technique (TPC). A 24-year-old man developed repeat pneumothorax with intermittent hemo-sputum. Based on unusual radiological manifestations of lung lesions and physical findings, EDS was suspected as an underlying cause of the pneumothorax. Surgical treatment was performed using a mediastinal fat pad and TPC, and no relapse was seen up to 2 years after surgery. TPC is a less invasive surgical approach for selected patients with vEDS. Accurate underlying diagnosis of vEDS and systemic evaluation of vascular complications are necessary before planning surgery.

  4. Nouveaux restes aviens du Néogène de la Sperrgebiet (Namibie): Complément à la biostratigraphie avienne des éolianites du désert de Namib

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senut, Brigitte; Dauphin, Yannicke; Pickford, Martin

    1998-11-01

    Two new types of fossil ratite eggshells discovered in aeolianites at Karingarab (Sperrgebiet, Namibia) exhibit morphologies intermediate between those of types already described. They help to refine the biochronology of the aeolianites of the Namib Desert.

  5. EbpR Is Important for Biofilm Formation by Activating Expression of the Endocarditis and Biofilm-Associated Pilus Operon (ebpABC) of Enterococcus faecalis OG1RF▿

    PubMed Central

    Bourgogne, Agathe; Singh, Kavindra V.; Fox, Kristina A.; Pflughoeft, Kathryn J.; Murray, Barbara E.; Garsin, Danielle A.

    2007-01-01

    We identify ef1090 (renamed ebpR) and show its importance for the transcriptional regulation of expression of the Enterococcus faecalis pilus operon, ebpABC. An ebpR deletion (ΔebpR) mutant was found to have reduced ebpABC expression with loss of pilus production and a defect in primary adherence with, as a consequence, reduced biofilm formation. PMID:17586623

  6. Smaborns Dagpasning: Et Problem for Foraeldre og Kommuner. (Day-Care of Pre-School Children: A Problem to Parents and Local Authorities. With an English Summary). Publication No. 103.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gronhoj, Bodil

    Survey data were collected for the purposes of describing and comparing various forms of day care provision for preschool children within Danish municipalities with different day care provision and different degrees of urbanization. Information concerning the family background of subjects, parental assessment of different aspects of day care and…

  7. Social baggrund, intellektuelt niveau og placering i skolesystemet (The Relationship between Social Background, the Intellectual Level of Pupils, and Their Situation in the School System at the Age of 14).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orum, Bente

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of a report whose aim was to investigate the relationship between intellectual level, social background, and the personal circumstances of the pupil within the school system at the age of 14. Their parents answered a questionnaire, and this, coupled with IQ tests given to…

  8. Smaborns Dagpasning: Et Problem for Foraeldre og Kommuner. (Day-Care of Pre-School Children: A Problem to Parents and Local Authorities. With an English Summary). Publication No. 103.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gronhoj, Bodil

    Survey data were collected for the purposes of describing and comparing various forms of day care provision for preschool children within Danish municipalities with different day care provision and different degrees of urbanization. Information concerning the family background of subjects, parental assessment of different aspects of day care and…

  9. Les récifs coniaciens à rudistes de Tunisie centro-occidentale: sédimentologie, cadre paléogéographique et interprétation séquentielle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saïdi, Fouiâd; Ismaïl, Mohamed Hédi Ben; M'rabet, Ali

    1997-05-01

    Coniacian rudist-buildups have been discovered in the Dernaïa-Tamesmida area (west central Tunisia). They are sedimentologically studied in detail in this paper. Reefs sensu stricto are made up of rudists (Hippuritidae and Radiolitidae) and they show a height:lateral extension ratio of about 1:50. The fore-reef is composed of southwest progradang pelletoid sandwaves, whilst hemipelagic micrite has been deposited in the distal talus. The back-reef lagoons (NE side) include green algae and annelid, miliolid, ostracod and gastropod biotopes. Perilagoonal oolitic bars may border these environments. These reefs evolved in a shallow, relatively open environment. They correspond to barrier-reef complexes which developed at the margin of a generally shallow carbonate ramp. In terms of the sequence stratigraphy, they characterise late low sea levels and especially the high sea levels of the uppermost Turonien-Coniacian depositional sequence.

  10. [Penile rehabilitation with vacuum erection device for erectile dysfunction after radical prostatectomy].

    PubMed

    Shen, Yi-Jun; Ye, Ding-Wei; Yao, Xu-Dong; Zhang, Shi-Lin; Dai, Bo; Zhang, Hai-Liang; Zhu, Yao

    2012-08-01

    To investigate the efficacy and safety of vacuum erection device (VED) for erectile dysfunction (ED) after radical prostatectomy (RP). Six cases of ED after open RP were reviewed. Three of the patients started a daily rehabilitation protocol using VED 10 min/d within 3 months after RP (group A, early intervention), while the other 3 initiated the same protocol after 12 months (group B, late intervention). We compared the IIEF-5 scores as well as stretched penile lengths and mid-shaft circumferences before and after 3 and 6 months of VED rehabilitation. We also assessed the safety of the device and sexual satisfaction of the patients and their partners. The mean IIEF-5 score of the six cases was remarkably increased at 3 and 6 months of VED rehabilitation (P < 0.05), significantly higher in group A than in B at 3 months (8.7 +/- 0.6 vs 6.7 +/- 0.6, P < 0.05) and 6 months (13.0 +/- 1.0 vs 8.3 +/- 1.5, P < 0.05). After 6 months of VED rehabilitation, there were no significant changes in stretched penile length or mid-shaft circumference in group A, both significantly decreased in group B (P < 0.05), and sexual satisfaction of the patients and their partners were 83.3% and 50%, respectively. No serious adverse events were observed except mild complaint of pe- nile skin darkening in 1 case and numb feeling during the intercourse in 2. Early use of VED after RP improves erectile function and helps to preserve the length and mid-shaft circumference of the penis.

  11. Comparison of visual and computerized estrous detection and evaluation of influencing factors.

    PubMed

    Gaude, Ina; Kempf, Andreas; Strüve, Klaas Dietrich; Hoedemaker, Martina

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the automatic estrous detection system (AED) Heatime(®) with visual estrous detection (VED). The study was conducted on 139 Holstein Friesian cows in one dairy herd in Northern Germany. The cows were fitted with activity collars from d 21 postpartum until d 40 of gestation and a 30-min visual estrous observation was conducted three times a day. In addition, as a separate part of the VED, estrous detection by exclusive consideration of standing estrus (SE) was investigated. Ovulation detected by regular trans-rectal ultrasonography and serum progesterone analyses served as gold standard to calculate estrous detection rate (EDR) and reliability rate (RR) for each of the three estrous detection systems (AED, VED and SE). Change in body condition antepartum and postpartum, lameness, milk yield and milk fat- milk protein- ratio (FPR) on the expression and detection of estrus were investigated. Estrus was more precisely detected by the AED (EDR: 85.1%) than by VED (EDR: 52.2%) and SE (EDR: 22.3%) (P<0.05). The RR when using the three methods did not differ (P>0.05). Changes in body condition, lameness, milk yield or the FPR were not associated with the estrous detection rate by the AED. The estrous detection rate by VED in lame animals (EDR: 24.2%) was, however, less than in cows without any lameness (EDR: 52.7%; P<0.05). In conclusion, the AED Heatime(®) system can be effectively used for estrous detection and can be used to more precisely detect estrus than with VED. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Acute saline expansion increases nephron filtration and distal flow rate but maintains tubuloglomerular feedback responsiveness: role of adenosine A1 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Prabhleen; Deng, Aihua; Thomson, Scott C.; Vallon, Volker

    2012-01-01

    Temporal adaptation of tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) permits readjustment of the relationship of nephron filtration rate [single nephron glomerular filtration rate (SNGFR)] and early distal tubular flow rate (VED) while maintaining TGF responsiveness. We used closed-loop assessment of TGF in hydropenia and after acute saline volume expansion (SE; 10% body wt over 1 h) to determine whether 1) temporal adaptation of TGF occurs, 2) adenosine A1 receptors (A1R) mediate TGF responsiveness, and 3) inhibition of TGF affects SNGFR, VED, or urinary excretion under these conditions. SNGFR was evaluated in Fromter-Wistar rats by micropuncture in 1) early distal tubules (ambient flow at macula densa), 2) recollected from early distal tubules while 12 nl/min isotonic fluid was added to late proximal tubule (increased flow to macula densa), and 3) from proximal tubules of same nephrons (zero flow to macula densa). SE increased both ambient SNGFR and VED compared with hydropenia, whereas TGF responsiveness (proximal-distal difference in SNGFR, distal SNGFR response to adding fluid to proximal tubule) was maintained, demonstrating TGF adaptation. A1R blockade completely inhibited TGF responsiveness during SE and made VED more susceptible to perturbation in proximal tubular flow, but did not alter ambient SNGFR or VED. Greater urinary excretion of fluid and Na+ with A1R blockade may reflect additional effects on the distal nephron in hydropenia and SE. In conclusion, A1R-independent mechanisms adjust SNGFR and VED to higher values after SE, which facilitates fluid and Na+ excretion. Concurrently, TGF adapts and stabilizes early distal delivery at the new setpoint in an A1R-dependent mechanism. PMID:22622464

  13. Inventory Analysis in a Private Dental Hospital in Bangalore, India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Nitin; Krishnappa, Pushpanjali

    2016-11-01

    There are various approaches for inventory management. Of all the inventory control systems, ABC (Always, Better, Control) and VED (Vital, Essential, Desirable) matrix is most suitable for dental stores. We could not find any literature pertaining to inventory analysis in a private dental hospital. So, we conducted a study in a private dental hospital in Bangalore, Karnataka, India. The present study aimed at evolving an inventory control plan for a private dental institution by categorizing the materials utilizing an ABC-VED coupling matrix. The study analysed the annual consumption, the expenditure incurred for the dental consumables and developed a matrix based on ABC and VED analysis to narrow down the group of consumables for managerial monitoring. Of the 215 consumables used 13.5% (A category) consumed 70% of total annual expenditure. About 21% of the consumables (Category B) consumed 20% and 65.5% (C category) accounted for 10% of the annual expenditure. The VED analysis found 47% consumables as vital, 37.6% as essential and 15.4% as desirable category. ABC-VED matrix analysis categorized 51.6%, 33.5% and 14.8% of consumables as category I, II and III, respectively. Categorization by the ABC-VED coupling matrix model helps to narrow down on fewer consumables. The management of Category I consumables was monitored by top management resulting in better control on the annual expenses and at the same time making available the vital consumables. Category II was monitored by middle and Category III at lower managerial level.

  14. Inventory Analysis in a Private Dental Hospital in Bangalore, India

    PubMed Central

    Krishnappa, Pushpanjali

    2016-01-01

    Introduction There are various approaches for inventory management. Of all the inventory control systems, ABC (Always, Better, Control) and VED (Vital, Essential, Desirable) matrix is most suitable for dental stores. We could not find any literature pertaining to inventory analysis in a private dental hospital. So, we conducted a study in a private dental hospital in Bangalore, Karnataka, India. Aim The present study aimed at evolving an inventory control plan for a private dental institution by categorizing the materials utilizing an ABC-VED coupling matrix. Materials and Methods The study analysed the annual consumption, the expenditure incurred for the dental consumables and developed a matrix based on ABC and VED analysis to narrow down the group of consumables for managerial monitoring. Results Of the 215 consumables used 13.5% (A category) consumed 70% of total annual expenditure. About 21% of the consumables (Category B) consumed 20% and 65.5% (C category) accounted for 10% of the annual expenditure. The VED analysis found 47% consumables as vital, 37.6% as essential and 15.4% as desirable category. ABC-VED matrix analysis categorized 51.6%, 33.5% and 14.8% of consumables as category I, II and III, respectively. Conclusion Categorization by the ABC-VED coupling matrix model helps to narrow down on fewer consumables. The management of Category I consumables was monitored by top management resulting in better control on the annual expenses and at the same time making available the vital consumables. Category II was monitored by middle and Category III at lower managerial level. PMID:28050404

  15. Preservation of penile length after radical prostatectomy: early intervention with a vacuum erection device.

    PubMed

    Dalkin, B L; Christopher, B A

    2007-01-01

    Radical prostatectomy has been shown to have a potential negative impact on penile health. Stretched penile length (SPL), which most closely correlates with erect penile length, was significantly reduced in almost half of men undergoing surgery in several studies. The purpose of this study was to test whether early intervention after surgery with a vacuum erection device could prevent the changes in penile health, as defined by SPL, found in prior studies. Forty-two men with good preoperative sexual function undergoing nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy underwent measurement of SPL preoperative and at 3 months postoperative by a single investigator. Daily use of a vacuum erection device (VED) was begun the day after catheter removal, and continued for 90 days. Men kept a log of their compliance with daily VED use. A decrease in SPL of > or = 1.0 cm was considered significant. Out of 42 men, 39 completed the study. In men who used the VED >50% of possible days, only 1/36 (3%) had a decrease in SPL of > or = 1.0 cm. Of the three men with poor VED compliance, two (67%) had a reduction in SPL of > or = 1.0 cm. When compared to prior studies where 48% of men after surgery had a significant reduction in SPL, early intervention with the daily use of a VED resulted in a significantly lower risk of loss of penile length (P<0.0001). For men wishing to preserve penile health/length after surgery, early intervention with the daily use of a VED should be strongly recommended.

  16. Systemic Induction of the Defensin and Phytoalexin Pisatin Pathways in Pea (Pisum sativum) against Aphanomyces euteiches by Acetylated and Nonacetylated Oligogalacturonides.

    PubMed

    Selim, Sameh; Sanssené, Jean; Rossard, Stéphanie; Courtois, Josiane

    2017-06-19

    Oligogalacturonides (OGs) are known for their powerful ability to stimulate the plant immune system but little is known about their mode of action in pea (Pisum sativum). In the present study, we investigated the elicitor activity of two fractions of OGs, with polymerization degrees (DPs) of 2-25, in pea against Aphanomyces euteiches. One fraction was nonacetylated (OGs - Ac) whereas the second one was 30% acetylated (OGs + Ac). OGs were applied by injecting the upper two rachises of the plants at three- and/or four-weeks-old. Five-week-old roots were inoculated with 10⁵ zoospores of A. euteiches. The root infection level was determined at 7, 10 and 14 days after inoculation using the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Results showed significant root infection reductions namely 58, 45 and 48% in the plants treated with 80 µg OGs + Ac and 59, 56 and 65% with 200 µg of OGs - Ac. Gene expression results showed the upregulation of genes involved in the antifungal defensins, lignans and the phytoalexin pisatin pathways and a priming effect in the basal defense, SA and ROS gene markers as a response to OGs. The reduction of the efficient dose in OGs + Ac is suggesting that acetylation is necessary for some specific responses. Our work provides the first evidence for the potential of OGs in the defense induction in pea against Aphanomyces root rot.

  17. Tubulin polymerization promoting protein (TPPP/p25) as a marker for oligodendroglial changes in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Höftberger, Romana; Fink, Stephanie; Aboul-Enein, Fahmy; Botond, Gergö; Olah, Judit; Berki, Timea; Ovadi, Judit; Lassmann, Hans; Budka, Herbert; Kovacs, Gabor G

    2010-11-15

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an idiopathic chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system with variable extent of remyelination. Remyelination originates from oligodendrocyte (OG) precursor cells, which migrate and differentiate into mature OG. Tubulin polymerization promoting protein (TPPP/p25) is located in mature OG and aggregates in oligodendroglial cytoplasmic inclusions in multiple system atrophy. We developed a novel monoclonal anti-TPPP/p25 antibody to quantify OG in different subtypes and disease stages of MS, and possible degenerative changes in OG. We evaluated autopsy material from 25 MS cases, including acute, primary progressive, secondary progressive, relapsing remitting MS, and five controls. Demyelinated lesions revealed loss of TPPP/p25-positive OG within the plaques. In remyelination, TPPP/p25 was first expressed in OG cytoplasms and later became positive in myelin sheaths. We observed increased numbers of TPPP/p25 immunoreactive OG in the normal appearing white matter (NAWM) in MS patients. In MS cases, the cytoplasmic area of TPPP/p25 immunoreactivity in the OG was higher in the periplaque area when compared with NAWM and the plaque, and TPPP/p25 immunoreactive OG cytoplasmic area inversely correlated with the disease duration. There was a lack of phospho-TDP-43, phospho-tau, α-synuclein, and ubiquitin immunoreactivity in OG with enlarged cytoplasm. Our data suggest impaired differentiation, migration, and activation capacity of OG in later disease stages of MS. Upregulation of TPPP/p25 in the periplaque white matter OG without evidence for inclusion body formation might reflect an activation state. Distinct and increased expression of TPPP/p25 in MS renders it a potential prognostic and diagnostic marker of MS.

  18. Cervical artery dissections and type A aortic dissection in a family with a novel missense COL3A1 mutation of vascular type Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

    PubMed

    Makrygiannis, Georgios; Loeys, Bart; Defraigne, Jean-Olivier; Sakalihasan, Natzi

    2015-11-01

    Cervical artery dissection (CeAD) is a rare condition. One of the causes is the vascular type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (vEDS). A novel missense mutation in COL3A1 was found in a young patient with CeAD as the single manifestation of vEDS. This is a heterozygous c.953G > A mutation in exon 14, disrupting the normal Gly-X-Y repeats of type III procollagen, by converting glycine to aspartic acid.

  19. Rickettsia Phylogenomics: Unwinding the Intricacies of Obligate Intracellular Life

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Joseph J.; Williams, Kelly; Shukla, Maulik; Snyder, Eric E.; Nordberg, Eric K.; Ceraul, Shane M.; Dharmanolla, Chitti; Rainey, Daphne; Soneja, Jeetendra; Shallom, Joshua M.; Vishnubhat, Nataraj Dongre; Wattam, Rebecca; Purkayastha, Anjan; Czar, Michael; Crasta, Oswald; Setubal, Joao C.; Azad, Abdu F.; Sobral, Bruno S.

    2008-01-01

    Background Completed genome sequences are rapidly increasing for Rickettsia, obligate intracellular α-proteobacteria responsible for various human diseases, including epidemic typhus and Rocky Mountain spotted fever. In light of phylogeny, the establishment of orthologous groups (OGs) of open reading frames (ORFs) will distinguish the core rickettsial genes and other group specific genes (class 1 OGs or C1OGs) from those distributed indiscriminately throughout the rickettsial tree (class 2 OG or C2OGs). Methodology/Principal Findings We present 1823 representative (no gene duplications) and 259 non-representative (at least one gene duplication) rickettsial OGs. While the highly reductive (∼1.2 MB) Rickettsia genomes range in predicted ORFs from 872 to 1512, a core of 752 OGs was identified, depicting the essential Rickettsia genes. Unsurprisingly, this core lacks many metabolic genes, reflecting the dependence on host resources for growth and survival. Additionally, we bolster our recent reclassification of Rickettsia by identifying OGs that define the AG (ancestral group), TG (typhus group), TRG (transitional group), and SFG (spotted fever group) rickettsiae. OGs for insect-associated species, tick-associated species and species that harbor plasmids were also predicted. Through superimposition of all OGs over robust phylogeny estimation, we discern between C1OGs and C2OGs, the latter depicting genes either decaying from the conserved C1OGs or acquired laterally. Finally, scrutiny of non-representative OGs revealed high levels of split genes versus gene duplications, with both phenomena confounding gene orthology assignment. Interestingly, non-representative OGs, as well as OGs comprised of several gene families typically involved in microbial pathogenicity and/or the acquisition of virulence factors, fall predominantly within C2OG distributions. Conclusion/Significance Collectively, we determined the relative conservation and distribution of 14354 predicted

  20. Nonselective and polarization effects in time-resolved optogalvanic spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhechev, D.; Steflekova, V.

    2016-02-01

    Three interfering effects in optogalvanic (OG) spectroscopy are identified in a hollow cathode discharge (HCD) - OG detector. The laser beam is found to generate two nonselective processes, namely photoelectron emission (PE) from the cathode surface with a sub-breakdown bias applied, and nonresonant space ionization. The convolution of these galvanic contributions was determined experimentally as an instrumental function and a deconvolution procedure to determine the actual OG signal was developed. Specific plasma conductance is detected dependent on the polarization of the laser beam irradiating. Linearly/circularly polarized light beam is found to induce OG signals differ in amplitude (and their shape parameters in the time-resolved OG signals (TROGS)). The phenomena coherence and specific conductance are found to be in causal relationship. The additional conductance due to coherent states of atoms manifests itself as an intrinsic instrumental property of OG detector.

  1. Energy balance-dependent regulation of ovine glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase protein isoform expression

    PubMed Central

    Triantaphyllopoulos, Kostas A; Laliotis, George P; Bizelis, Iosif A

    2014-01-01

    G6PDH is the rate-limiting enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway and one of the principal source of NADPH, a major cellular reductant. Importantly, in ruminant's metabolism the aforementioned NADPH provided, is utilized for de novo fatty acid synthesis. Previous work of cloning the ovine (Ovis aries) og6pdh gene has revealed the presence of two cDNA transcripts (og6pda and og6pdb), og6pdb being a product of alternative splicing not similar to any other previously reported.1 In the current study the effect of energy balance in the ovine G6PDH protein expression was investigated, shedding light on the biochemical features and potential physiological role of the oG6PDB isoform. Changes in energy balance leads to protein expression changes in both transcripts, to the opposite direction and not in a proportional way. Negative energy balance was not in favor of the presence of any particular isoform, while both protein expression levels were not significantly different (P > 0.05). In contrast, at the transition point from negative to positive and on the positive energy balance, there is a significant increase of oG6PDA compared with oG6PDB protein expression (P < 0.001). Both oG6PDH protein isoforms changed significantly toward the positive energy balance. oG6PDA is escalating, while oG6PDB is falling, under the same stimulus (positive energy balance alteration). This change is also positively associated with increasing levels in enzyme activity, 4 weeks post-weaning in ewes’ adipose tissue. Furthermore, regression analysis clearly demonstrated the linear correlation of both proteins in response to the WPW, while energy balance, enzyme activity, and oG6PDA relative protein expression follow the same escalating trend; in contrast, oG6PDB relative protein expression falls in time, similar to both transcripts accumulation pattern, as reported previously.2 PMID:24575366

  2. Energy balance-dependent regulation of ovine glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase protein isoform expression.

    PubMed

    Triantaphyllopoulos, Kostas A; Laliotis, George P; Bizelis, Iosif A

    2014-01-01

    G6PDH is the rate-limiting enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway and one of the principal source of NADPH, a major cellular reductant. Importantly, in ruminant's metabolism the aforementioned NADPH provided, is utilized for de novo fatty acid synthesis. Previous work of cloning the ovine (Ovis aries) og6pdh gene has revealed the presence of two cDNA transcripts (og6pda and og6pdb), og6pdb being a product of alternative splicing not similar to any other previously reported.(1) In the current study the effect of energy balance in the ovine G6PDH protein expression was investigated, shedding light on the biochemical features and potential physiological role of the oG6PDB isoform. Changes in energy balance leads to protein expression changes in both transcripts, to the opposite direction and not in a proportional way. Negative energy balance was not in favor of the presence of any particular isoform, while both protein expression levels were not significantly different (P > 0.05). In contrast, at the transition point from negative to positive and on the positive energy balance, there is a significant increase of oG6PDA compared with oG6PDB protein expression (P < 0.001). Both oG6PDH protein isoforms changed significantly toward the positive energy balance. oG6PDA is escalating, while oG6PDB is falling, under the same stimulus (positive energy balance alteration). This change is also positively associated with increasing levels in enzyme activity, 4 weeks post-weaning in ewes' adipose tissue. Furthermore, regression analysis clearly demonstrated the linear correlation of both proteins in response to the WPW, while energy balance, enzyme activity, and oG6PDA relative protein expression follow the same escalating trend; in contrast, oG6PDB relative protein expression falls in time, similar to both transcripts accumulation pattern, as reported previously.(2.)

  3. Structural Underpinnings of Nitrogen Regulation by the Prototypical Nitrogen-Responsive Transcriptional Factor NrpR

    SciTech Connect

    Wisedchaisri, Goragot; Dranow, David M.; Lie, Thomas J.; Bonanno, Jeffrey B.; Patskovsky, Yury; Ozyurt, Sinem A.; Sauder, J. Michael; Almo, Steven C.; Wasserman, Stephen R.; Burley, Stephen K.; Leigh, John A.; Gonen, Tamir

    2010-11-29

    Plants and microorganisms reduce environmental inorganic nitrogen to ammonium, which then enters various metabolic pathways solely via conversion of 2-oxoglutarate (2OG) to glutamate and glutamine. Cellular 2OG concentrations increase during nitrogen starvation. We recently identified a family of 2OG-sensing proteins - the nitrogen regulatory protein NrpR - that bind DNA and repress transcription of nitrogen assimilation genes. We used X-ray crystallography to determine the structure of NrpR regulatory domain. We identified the NrpR 2OG-binding cleft and show that residues predicted to interact directly with 2OG are conserved among diverse classes of 2OG-binding proteins. We show that high levels of 2OG inhibit NrpRs ability to bind DNA. Electron microscopy analyses document that NrpR adopts different quaternary structures in its inhibited 2OG-bound state compared with its active apo state. Our results indicate that upon 2OG release, NrpR repositions its DNA-binding domains correctly for optimal interaction with DNA thereby enabling gene repression.

  4. The 667.7-nm optogalvanic effect signal in argon hollow cathode discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gateva, Sanka V.; Janossy, M.

    2003-11-01

    The optogalvanic signals (OGS) at 667.728 nm (the 1s4-2p1) Ar transition in pure Ar and He:Ar=1:1 mixture have been investigated with a low power diode laser in a longitudinal hollow cathode discharge. Qualitative explanation of the formation of the 667.7 nm Ar OGS is proposed. A simple model for explanation of the dependence of the 667.728 nm Ar OGS amplitude and sign along the cross-section of the discharge tube is applied. The OGS in pure Ar and HE:Ar = 1:1 mixture gas discharge are compared.

  5. A reporter ligand NMR screening method for 2-oxoglutarate oxygenase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Ivanhoe K. H.; Demetriades, Marina; Hardy, Adam P.; Lejeune, Clarisse; Smart, Tristan J.; Szöllössi, Andrea; Kawamura, Akane; Schofield, Christopher J.; Claridge, Timothy D. W.

    2015-01-01

    The human 2-oxoglutarate (2OG) dependent oxygenases belong to a family of structurally related enzymes that play important roles in many biological processes. We report that competition-based NMR methods, using 2OG as a reporter ligand, can be used for quantitative and site-specific screening of ligand binding to 2OG oxygenases. The method was demonstrated using hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) hydroxylases and histone demethylases, and KD values were determined for inhibitors that compete with 2OG at the metal centre. This technique is also useful as a screening or validation tool for inhibitor discovery, as exemplified by work with protein-directed dynamic combinatorial chemistry (DCC). PMID:23234607

  6. Effect of oligochitosan and oligo-β-glucan supplementation on growth, innate immunity, and disease resistance of striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus).

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Ngoc Duy; Van Dang, Phu; Le, Anh Quoc; Nguyen, Thi Kim Lan; Pham, Duy Hai; Van Nguyen, Nguyen; Nguyen, Quoc Hien

    2016-06-01

    Oligochitosan (COS) and oligo-β-glucan (βOG) were prepared by gamma Co-60 irradiation of chitosan/H2 O2 and β-glucan/H2 O2 solutions. The striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) was fed diets containing 0-200 mg COS, βOG, and a mixture of COS/βOG per kg feed for 45 days, and then challenged with Edwardsiella ictaluri bacterium. The effects of supplemented COS, βOG, and a mixture of COS/βOG on immune stimulation and growth performance in striped catfish were investigated. The results indicated that when striped catfish fed with 100-200 mg COS or βOG/kg feed the growth performance was significantly improved and the mortality was considerably decreased. Furthermore, striped catfish fed with supplementation of 50 mg COS + 50 mg βOG/kg feed was the best for increasing weight gain (∼26%) and for decreasing mortality (∼38%) compared with the control group. Moreover, phagocytic activity and lysozyme activity of fish were enhanced by feeding diet-supplemented COS and/or βOG. Thus, COS and/or βOG can be potentially utilized as the immunostimulants and growth promoters for aquaculture.

  7. Structural underpinnings of nitrogen regulation by the prototypical nitrogen-responsive transcriptional factor NrpR

    PubMed Central

    Wisedchaisri, Goragot; Dranow, David M.; Lie, Thomas J.; Bonanno, Jeffrey B.; Patskovsky, Yury; Ozyurt, Sinem A.; Sauder, J. Michael; Almo, Steven C.; Wasserman, Stephen R.; Burley, Stephen K.; Leigh, John A.; Gonen, Tamir

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Plants and microorganisms reduce environmental inorganic nitrogen to ammonium, which then enters various metabolic pathways solely via conversion of 2-oxoglutarate (2OG) to glutamate and glutamine. Cellular 2OG concentrations increase during nitrogen starvation. We recently identified a novel family of 2OG-sensing proteins – the nitrogen regulatory protein NrpR – that bind DNA and repress transcription of nitrogen assimilation genes. We used X-ray crystallography to determine the structure of NrpR regulatory domain. We identified the NrpR 2OG-binding cleft and show that residues predicted to interact directly with 2OG are conserved among diverse classes of 2OG-binding proteins. We show that high levels of 2OG inhibit NrpRs ability to bind DNA. Electron microscopy analyses document that NrpR adopts different quaternary structures in its inhibited 2OG-bound state compared with its active apo state. Our results indicate that upon 2OG release, NrpR re-positions its DNA-binding domains correctly for optimal interaction with DNA thereby enabling gene repression. PMID:21070950

  8. Effects of dietary oat proteins on cholesterol metabolism of hypercholesterolaemic hamsters.

    PubMed

    Tong, Li-Tao; Guo, Lina; Zhou, Xianrong; Qiu, Ju; Liu, Liya; Zhong, Kui; Zhou, Sumei

    2016-03-15

    The aim of present study was to investigate the hypocholesterolaemic effects of oat proteins (OP) in hamsters fed with a hypercholesterolaemic diet. The hamsters were divided into five groups and fed with the experimental diets containing oat, OP, oat β-glucan (OG), or OP+OG for 30 days. OP and the OG significantly lowered the concentrations of plasma low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and liver total cholesterol (TC), and increased the excretion of faecal bile acid and TC. Plasma and liver TC in the OP+OG group were significantly lower than those in the OP or OG groups. Both OP and OG increased the activity of liver cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), while its activity in the OP+OG group was strongly increased compared with the OP or OG groups. These results indicated that dietary OP could improve hypercholesterolaemia, while dietary OP and OG together would have better hypocholesterolaemic effects. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Simplified analysis of frame structures with viscoelastic dampers considering the effect of soil-structure interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xuefei; Wang, Shuguang; Du, Dongsheng; Liu, Weiqing

    2017-01-01

    In this study, simplified numerical models are developed to analyze the soil-structure interaction (SSI) effect on frame structures equipped with viscoelastic dampers (VEDs) based on pile group foundation. First, a single degree-of-freedom (SDOF) oscillator is successfully utilized to replace the SDOF energy dissipated structure considering the SSI effect. The equivalent period and damping ratio of the system are obtained through analogical analysis using the frequency transfer function with adoption of the modal strain energy (MSE) technique. A parametric analysis is carried out to study the SSI effect on the performance of VEDs. Then the equilibrium equations of the multi degree-of-freedom (MDOF) structure with VEDs considering SSI effect are established in the frequency domain. Based on the assumption that the superstructure of the coupled system possesses the classical normal mode, the MDOF superstructure is decoupled to a set of individual SDOF systems resting on a rigid foundation with adoption of the MSE technique through formula derivation. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed methods have the advantage of reducing computational cost, however, retaining the satisfactory accuracy. The numerical method proposed herein can provide a fast evaluation of the efficiency of VEDs considering the SSI effect.

  10. Interdisciplinary evaluation of dysphagia: clinical swallowing evaluation and videoendoscopy of swallowing.

    PubMed

    Sordi, Marina de; Mourão, Lucia Figueiredo; Silva, Ariovaldo Armando da; Flosi, Luciana Claudia Leite

    2009-01-01

    Patients with dysphagia have impairments in many aspects, and an interdisciplinary approach is fundamental to define diagnosis and treatment. A joint approach in the clinical and videoendoscopy evaluation is paramount. To study the correlation between the clinical assessment (ACD) and the videoendoscopic (VED) assessment of swallowing by classifying the degree of severity and the qualitative/descriptive analyses of the procedures. cross-sectional, descriptive and comparative. held from March to December of 2006, at the Otolaryngology/Dysphagia ward of a hospital in the country side of São Paulo. 30 dysphagic patients with different disorders were assessed by ACD and VED. The data was classified by means of severity scales and qualitative/ descriptive analysis. the correlation between severity ACD and VED scales pointed to a statistically significant low agreement (KAPA = 0.4) (p=0,006). The correlation between the qualitative/descriptive analysis pointed to an excellent and statistically significant agreement (KAPA=0.962) (p<0.001) concerning the entire sample. the low agreement between the severity scales point to a need to perform both procedures, reinforcing VED as a doable procedure. The descriptive qualitative analysis pointed to an excellent agreement, and such data reinforces our need to understand swallowing as a process.

  11. Exploring the Meaningful Learning of Students in Second Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keskitalo, Tuulikki; Pyykko, Elli; Ruokamo, Heli

    2011-01-01

    This study reports a case study in which a pedagogical model, namely the Global Virtual Education (GloVEd) model, which is based on the teaching-studying-learning process (TSL process) and the characteristics of meaningful learning, is developed and used to evaluate students' meaningful learning experiences during the Global Virtual Collaboration…

  12. Cloud/Mesoscale Model Development and Application Studies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-30

    rt t udy. Since ccmp,:etirFg his thesis thisJl task has recei4ved ~essempliasis, though our analysis of Derecho -type events associated with V’CCs... ambient wind. Parcel history can te observed spatially, varying as distance from the orographic barrier. With minimum unc-rtainty, we are thus able to

  13. A Rate-Dependent Viscoelastic Damage Model for Simulation of Solid Propellant Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matheson, Erik

    2005-07-01

    A viscoelastic deformation and damage model (VED) for solid rocket propellants has been developed based on an extensive set of mechanical properties experiments. Monotonic tensile tests performed at several strain rates showed rate and dilatation effects. During cyclic tensile tests, hysteresis and a rate-dependent shear modulus were observed. A tensile relaxation experiment showed significant stress decay in the sample. Taylor impact tests exhibited large dilatations without significant crack growth. Extensive modifications to a viscoelastic-viscoplastic model (VEP) necessary to capture these experimental results have led to development of the VED model. In particular, plasticity has been eliminated in the model, and the multiple Maxwell viscoelastic formulation has been replaced with a time-dependent shear modulus. Furthermore, the loading and unloading behaviors of the material are modeled independently. To characterize the damage and dilatation behavior, the Tensile Damage and Distention (TDD) model is run in conjunction with VED. The VED model is connected to a single-cell driver as well as to the CTH shock physics code. Simulations of tests show good comparisons with tensile tests and some aspects of the Taylor tests.

  14. A Rate-Dependent Viscoelastic Damage Model for Simulation of Solid Propellant Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matheson, E. R.; Nguyen, D. Q.

    2006-07-01

    A viscoelastic deformation and damage model (VED) for solid rocket propellants has been developed based on an extensive set of mechanical properties experiments. Monotonic tensile tests performed at several strain rates showed rate and dilatation effects. During cyclic tensile tests, hysteresis and a rate-dependent shear modulus were observed. A tensile relaxation experiment showed significant stress decay in the sample. Taylor impact tests exhibited large dilatations without significant crack growth. Extensive modifications to a viscoelastic-viscoplastic model (VEP) necessary to capture these experimental results have led to development of the VED model. In particular, plasticity has been eliminated in the model, and the multiple Maxwell viscoelastic formulation has been replaced with a time-dependent shear modulus. Furthermore, the loading and unloading behaviors of the material are modeled independently. To characterize the damage and dilatation behavior, the Tensile Damage and Distention (TDD) model is run in conjunction with VED. The VED model is connected to a single-cell driver as well as to the CTH shock physics code. Simulations of tests show good comparisons with tensile tests and some aspects of the Taylor tests.

  15. East Coast Air Combat Maneuvering Range (EC/ACMR) Ocean Tower Construction Completion Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-03-01

    fahr ~cat ioni yard to the Vast -oat intallation sites was accomplished in two phases. The first phase invol!ved t ransportat ion of the derrick ha...meeting H. MEDICAl, No injuries, no serious disease . I. MORALE - Vcry Food 2. LT, MAYER, ROICC ACMR, SENDS. F. "- F-9

  16. MICRO-VERS. Micro-computer Software for the Vocational Education Reporting System. Version 3.1. Radio Shack TRS-80 Model III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield. Dept. of Adult, Vocational and Technical Education.

    This manual is intended to accompany a software system for the TRS-80 Model III computer that is designed to aid local districts in completing vocational education enrollment claims and Vocational Education Data System (VEDS) reports. Part I, Introduction, gives a brief overview of the Microcomputer Vocational Education Reporting System…

  17. MICRO-VERS. Micro-computer Software for the Vocational Education Reporting System. User's Guide and Reference Manual. Version 3.1. Apple II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield. Dept. of Adult, Vocational and Technical Education.

    This manual is intended to accompany a software system for the Apple II microcomputer that is designed to aid local districts in completing vocational education enrollment claims and Vocational Education Data System (VEDS) reports. Part I, Introduction, gives a brief overview of the Microcomputer Vocational Education Reporting System (MICRO-VERS),…

  18. A Comparative Analysis of the Relationships of Total Distribution Costs between Airlift and Sealift

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-01-16

    54 0. ORIGINATORS REPORT NUMUERISO 6. ROJCT O. /A 7 SR4-4A o.bI. OTm..iTR REPORT NO(Sl (Any pater, rnumepe that amay be sal Ved Al apert ) N/A 10...of Subsistence, and Quarters, Medical and Dental Expenses ..... • 2,160 Transportation and Handling of Supplies . • • . . . 442 Laundry Expenses

  19. A Study of the Relationship between Member Attitudes and Organizational Effectiveness in a Strategic Missile Wing (SAC) Operations Directorate.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-09-01

    directly related to productivity and the ability to anticipate problems that might come up in the future., Tl research pr9ved that there are relationships...Vi. LIST OF FIGURES . .. .. .. .. .. . . .... vii Chapter I1. INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . .* 1 Problem Statement . * . 2 Literature...Organizational Effectivenss ... .......... ... 8 2. Orthogonally Rotated Factors . . . . . . .. 28 3. Sample Canonical Correlaton Analysis Output . . 34 4

  20. Phylogenetic conservatism in plant phenology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davies, T. Jonathan; Wolkovich, Elizabeth M.; Kraft, Nathan J. B.; Salamin, Nicolas; Allen, Jenica M.; Ault, Toby R.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Bolmgren, Kjell; Cleland, Elsa E.; Cook, Benjamin I.; Crimmins, Theresa M.; Mazer, Susan J.; McCabe, Gregory J.; Pau, Stephanie; Regetz, Jim; Schwartz, Mark D.; Travers, Steven E.

    2013-01-01

    Synthesis. Closely related species tend to resemble each other in the timing of their life-history events, a likely product of evolutionarily conser ved responses to environmental cues. The search for the underlying drivers of phenology must therefore account for species’ shared evolutionary histories.

  1. Evaluation of Epoxies to Provide Stress-Free Bonding of Pyroceram Mirrors.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-03-01

    re-checked for distortion. In this case, the distortion remained at 6-7 fringes with a definite saddling of the surface. The only conclusion which...intorfesorar shown n Fig’ re 53, but the quntitative dOeqrad-lio ni TF could not be, predicted. Figure 55 is a plot of the MT-.’ responsce achie’ved for the

  2. Community College Journal for Research and Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Edith H., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    This journal, designed as a forum for the exchange of ideas among research and planning professionals, offers articles of research studies and practices. After Timothy Lightfield highlights upcoming professional association events, Janice S. Ancarrow's article, "The National Vocational Education Data Reporting and Accounting System (VEDS): Its…

  3. Hearings on Reauthorization of the Vocational Education Act of 1963. Part 10: Vocational Education Data System. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Elementary, Secondary, and Vocational Education of the Committee on Education and Labor. House of Representatives. Ninety-Seventh Congress. First Session (December 10, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

    This is a report of a hearing on December 10, 1981, before the Subcommittee on Elementary, Secondary, and Vocational Education of the Committee on Education and Labor, House of Representatives, regarding reauthorization of the Vocational Education Act of 1963. It focuses on the vocational education data system known as VEDS. Testimony includes…

  4. Embolization of Life-Threatening Arterial Rupture in Patients with Vascular Ehlers–Danlos Syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Okada, Takuya; Frank, Michael; Pellerin, Olivier Primio, Massimiliano Di Angelopoulos, Georgios; Boughenou, Marie-Fazia; Pagny, Jean-Yves; Messas, Emmanuel; Sapoval, Marc

    2013-05-09

    PurposeTo evaluate the safety and efficacy of transarterial embolization of life-threatening arterial rupture in patients with vascular Ehlers–Danlos syndrome (vEDS) in a single tertiary referral center.MethodsWe retrospectively analyzed transarterial embolization for vEDS performed at our institution from 2000 to 2012. The indication of embolization was spontaneous arterial rupture or pseudoaneurysm with acute bleeding. All interventions used a percutaneous approach through a 5F or less introducer sheath. Embolic agents were microcoils and glue in 3 procedures, glue alone in 2, and microcoils alone in 2.ResultsFive consecutive vEDS patients were treated by 7 embolization procedures (4 women, mean age 29.8 years). All procedures were successfully performed. Two patients required a second procedure for newly arterial lesions at a different site from the first procedure. Four of the five patients were still alive after a mean follow-up of 19.4 (range 1–74.7) months. One patient died of multiple organ failure 2 days after procedure. Minor procedural complications were observed in 3 procedures (43 %), all directly managed during the same session. Remote arterial lesions occurred after 3 procedures (43 %); one underwent a second embolization, and the other 2 were observed conservatively. Puncture site complication was observed in only one procedure (14 %).ConclusionEmbolization for vEDS is a safe and effective method to manage life-threatening arterial rupture.

  5. A Culture-Based Model for Strategic Implementation of Virtual Education Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burn, Janice; Thongprasert, Nalinee

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the critical success factors for implementing Virtual Education Delivery (VED) in Thailand, and to identify ways to facilitate such adoption and lead to effective outcomes. The study incorporated an analysis of three specific factors related to Thai culture: high power distance "Bhun Khun", uncertainty…

  6. Tocotrienols are needed for normal bone calcification in growing female rats.

    PubMed

    Norazlina, Mohamed; Ima-Nirwana, Soelaiman; Abul Gapor, Mohd Top; Abdul Kadir Khalid, B

    2002-01-01

    In this study the effects of vitamin E deficiency and supplementation on bone calcification were determined using 4-month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats weighed between 180 and 200 g. The study was divided in three parts. In experiment I the rats were given normal rat chow (RC, control group), a vitamin E deficient (VED) diet or a 50% vitamin E deficient (50%VED) diet. In experiment 2 the rats were given VED supplemented with 30 mg/kg palm vitamin E (PVE30), 60 mg/kg palm vitamin E (PVE60) or 30 mg/kg pure alpha-tocopherol (ATF). In experiment 3 the rats were fed RC and given the same supplements as in experiment 2. The treatment lasted 8 months. Vitamin E derived from palm oil contained a mixture of ATF and tocotrienols. Rats on the VED and 50%VED diets had lower bone calcium content in the left femur compared to the RC group (91.6 +/- 13.3 mg and 118.3 +/- 26.0 mg cf 165.7 +/- 15.2 mg; P < 0.05) and L5 vertebra (28.3 +/- 4.0 mg and 39.5 +/- 6.2 mg compared with 51.4 +/- 5.8 mg; P < 0.05). Supplementing the VED group with PVE60 improved bone calcification in the left femur (133.6 +/- 5.0 mg compared with 91.6 +/- 13.3 mg; P < 0.05) and L5 vertebra (41.3 +/- 3.3 mg compared with 28.3 +/- 4.0 mg; P < 0.05) while supplementation with PVE30 improved bone calcium content in the L5 vertebra (35.6 +/- 3.1 mg compared with 28.3 +/- 4.0 mg; P < 0.05). However, supplementation with ATF did not change the lumbar and femoral bone calcium content compared to the VED group. Supplementing the RC group with PVE30, PVE60 or ATF did not cause any significant changes in bone calcium content. In conclusion, vitamin E deficiency impaired bone calcification. Supplementation with the higher dose of palm vitamin E improved bone calcium content, but supplementation with pure ATF alone did not. This effect may be attributed to the tocotrienol content of palm vitamin E. Therefore, tocotrienols play an important role in bone calcification.

  7. Removal of hydantoin products of 8-oxoguanine oxidation by the Escherichia coli DNA repair enzyme, FPG.

    PubMed

    Leipold, M D; Muller, J G; Burrows, C J; David, S S

    2000-12-05

    An intriguing feature of 7,8-dihydro-8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (OG) is that it is highly reactive toward further oxidation. Indeed, OG has been shown to be a "hot spot" for oxidative damage and susceptible to oxidation by a variety of cellular oxidants. Recent work has identified two new DNA lesions, guanidinohydantoin (Gh) and spiroiminodihydantoin (Sp), resulting from one-electron oxidation of OG. The presence of Gh and Sp lesions in DNA templates has been shown to result in misinsertion of G and A by DNA polymerases, and therefore, both are potentially mutagenic DNA lesions. The base excision repair (BER) glycosylases Fpg and MutY serve to prevent mutations associated with OG in Escherichia coli, and therefore, we have investigated the ability of these two enzymes to process DNA duplex substrates containing the further oxidized OG lesions, Gh and Sp. The Fpg protein, which removes OG and a variety of other oxidized purine base lesions, was found to remove Gh and Sp efficiently opposite all four of the natural DNA bases. The intrinsic rate of damaged base excision by Fpg was measured under single-turnover conditions and was found to be highly dependent upon the identity of the base opposite the OG, Gh, or Sp lesion; as expected, OG is removed more readily from an OG:C- than an OG:A-containing substrate. However, when adenine is paired with Gh or Sp, the rate of removal of these damaged lesions by Fpg was significantly increased relative to the rate of removal of OG from an OG:A mismatch. The adenine glycosylase MutY, which removes misincorporated A residues from OG:A mismatches, is unable to remove A paired with Gh or Sp. Thus, the activity of Fpg on Gh and Sp lesions may dramatically influence their mutagenic potential. This work suggests that, in addition to OG, oxidative products resulting from further oxidation of OG should be considered when evaluating oxidative DNA damage and its associated effects on DNA mutagenesis.

  8. Short communication: Effects of an immunomodulatory feed additive on phagocytic capacity of neutrophils and relative gene expression in circulating white blood cells of transition Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Wu, Z H; Yu, Y; Alugongo, G M; Xiao, J X; Li, J H; Li, Y X; Wang, Y J; Li, S L; Cao, Z J

    2017-09-01

    High-producing dairy cows typically experience immunosuppression with dysregulated neutrophil function (e.g., compromised phagocytosis) during the transition period (3 wk before to 3 wk after parturition), which is causally associated with increased risk of infections. Enhanced neutrophil immune competence has significant bearing with the wellbeing of transition dairy cattle. In the current study, we investigated the effect of OmniGen-AF (OG; Phibro Animal Health, Quincy, IL) and its dose in modulation of neutrophil function of transition cows. Forty-eight multiparous cows were stratified by parity, somatic cell count, and expected calving date and randomly assigned to 3 treatments: OG fed at 0 g/head per day (CON), 60 g/head per day (OG60; recommended dose), and 90 g/head per day (OG90; 1.5× recommended dose). The OG was added from dry off (61.8 ± 1.69 d before parturition) to 28 d in milk (DIM), and removed from all treatment groups at 29 to 35 DIM (the last week of the experimental period). Neutrophil phagocytic ability against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli was improved and tended to be improved, respectively, by OG from d 28 before parturition to 28 DIM. Cows in OG60 had higher neutrophil phagocytic ability against S. aureus and E. coli compared with CON cows from d 28 before parturition to 28 DIM. Neutrophil phagocytosis of S. aureus and E. coli was higher and tended to be higher for OG60 compared with CON on 35 DIM. The relative gene expression of CXCL8 and SELL were upregulated and tended to be upregulated by OG from 60 d before parturition to 28 DIM; this was due to cows in OG60 having greater SELL and CXCL8 gene expression than CON. Expression of SELL in circulating white blood cells of OG60-treated cows was greater than OG90 and the relative expression of CXCL8 gene tended to be greater for OG60 compared with CON on 35 DIM. In conclusion, feeding OG at the recommended dose of 60 g/head per day from dry off was effective in maintaining

  9. Treadmill walking is not equivalent to overground walking for the study of walking smoothness and rhythmicity in older adults.

    PubMed

    Row Lazzarini, Brandi S; Kataras, Theodore J

    2016-05-01

    Treadmills are appealing for gait studies, but some gait mechanics are disrupted during treadmill walking. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of speed and treadmill walking on walking smoothness and rhythmicity of 40 men and women between the ages of 70-96 years. Gait smoothness was examined during overground (OG) and treadmill (TM) walking by calculating the harmonic ratio from linear accelerations measured at the level of the lumbar spine. Rhythmicity was quantified as the stride time standard deviation. TM walking was performed at two speeds: a speed matching the natural OG walk speed (TM-OG), and a preferred TM speed (PTM). A dual-task OG condition (OG-DT) was evaluated to determine if TM walking posed a similar cognitive challenge. Statistical analysis included a one-way Analysis of Variance with Bonferroni corrected post hoc comparisons and the Wilcoxon signed rank test for non-normally distributed variables. Average PTM speed was slower than OG. Compared to OG, those who could reach the TM-OG speed (74.3% of sample) exhibited improved ML smoothness and rhythmicity, and the slower PTM caused worsened vertical and AP smoothness, but did not affect rhythmicity. PTM disrupted smoothness and rhythmicity differently than the OG-DT condition, likely due to reduced speed. The use of treadmills for gait smoothness and rhythmicity studies in older adults is problematic; some participants will not achieve OG speed during TM walking, walking at the TM-OG speed artificially improves rhythmicity and ML smoothness, and walking at the slower PTM speed worsens vertical and AP gait smoothness.

  10. Pulsed Artificial Electrojet Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, K.

    2008-12-01

    Traditional techniques for generating low frequency signals in the ULF/ELF range (.1-100 Hz) and rely on ground based Horizontal Electric Dipole (HED) antennas. It is, furthermore, well known that a Vertical Electric Dipole (VED) is by more than 50 dB more efficient than a HED with the same dipole current moment. However, the prohibitively long length of VED antennas in the ELF/ULF range coupled with voltage limitations due to corona discharge in the atmosphere make them totally impracticable. In this paper we discuss a novel concept, inspired by the physics of the equatorial electrojet, that allows for the conversion of a ground based HED to a VED in the E-region of the equatorial ionosphere with current moment comparable to the driving HED. The paper focuses in locations near the dip-equator, where the earth's magnetic is in predominantly in the horizontal direction. The horizontal electric field associated with a pulsed HED drives a large Hall current in the ionospheric E-region, resulting in a vertical current. It is shown that the pulsed vertical current in the altitude range 80-130 km, driven by a horizontal electric field of, approximately, .1 mV/m at 100 km altitude, is of the order of kA. This results in a pulsed VED larger than 106 A-m. Such a pulsed VED will drive ELF/ULF pulses with amplitude in excess of .1 nT at a lateral range larger than few hundred kilometers. This is by three orders of magnitude larger than the one expected by a HED with comparable current moment. The paper will conclude with the description of a sneak-through technique that allows for creating pulsed electric fields in the ionosphere much larger than expected from steady state oscillatory HED antennas.

  11. VERTICAL STRATIFICATION OF SOIL WATER STORAGE AND RELEASE DYNAMICS IN PACIFIC NORTHWEST CONIFEROUS FORESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    abstract for journal article We characterized vertical variation in the seasonal depletion of stored soil moisture in old-growth ponderosa pine (OG-PP, xeric), and young and old-growth Douglas-fir (Y-DF, OG-DF, mesic) forests to evaluate changes in water availability for root up...

  12. Development of a see-through hollow cathode discharge lamp for (Li/Ne) optogalvanic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saini, V. K.; Kumar, P.; Sarangpani, K. K.; Dixit, S. K.; Nakhe, S. V.

    2017-09-01

    Development of a demountable and see-through hollow cathode (HC) discharge lamp suitable for optogalvanic (OG) spectroscopy is described. The design of the HC lamp is simple, compact, and inexpensive. Lithium, investigated rarely by the OG method, is selected for cathode material as its isotopes are important for nuclear industry. The HC lamp is characterized electrically and optically for discharge oscillations free OG effect. Strong OG signals of lithium as well as neon (as buffer gas) are produced precisely upon copper vapor laser pumped tunable dye laser irradiation. The HC lamp is capable of generating a clean OG resonance spectrum in the available dye laser wavelength scanning range (627.5-676 nm) obtained with 4-(Dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(4-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran dye. About 28 resonant OG lines are explicitly observed. Majority of them have been identified using j-l coupling scheme and assigned to the well-known neon transitions. One line that corresponds to wavelength near about 670.80 nm is assigned to lithium and resolved for its fine (2S1/2 → 2P1/2, 3/2) transitions. These OG transitions allow 0.33 cm-1 accuracy and can be used to supplement the OG transition data available from other sources to calibrate the wavelength of a scanning dye laser with precision at atomic levels.

  13. Vertical stratification of soil water storage and release dynamics in Pacific Northwest coniferous forests.

    Treesearch

    J.M. Warren; F.C. Meinzer; J.R. Brooks; J.C. Domec

    2005-01-01

    We characterized vertical variation in the seasonal release of stored soil moisture in old-growth ponderosa pine (OG-PP, xeric), and young and old-growth Douglas-fir (Y-DF, OG-DF, mesic) forests to evaluate changes in water availability for root uptake. Soil water potential (ψ) and volumetric water content (θ...

  14. Reading and Spelling Gains Following One Year of Orton-Gillingham Intervention in Singaporean Students with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Lois; Oei, Adam C.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of Orton-Gillingham (OG) based approaches to dyslexia remediation, empirical support documenting its effectiveness is lacking. Recently, Chia and Houghton demonstrated the effectiveness of the OG approach for remediation of dyslexia in Singapore. As a conceptual replication and extension of that research, we report…

  15. The low temperature oxidation of lithium thin films on HOPG by O 2 and H 2 O

    DOE PAGES

    Wulfsberg, Steven M.; Koel, Bruce E.; Bernasek, Steven L.

    2016-09-01

    Lithiated graphite and lithium thin films are prevalent in fusion devices. In fusion devices, liathiated graphite will undergo oxidation by background gases. In order to gain insight into this oxidation process, thin (< 15 ML) lithium films on highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) were exposed to O2(g) and H2O(g) in an ultra-high vacuum chamber. High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) was used to identify the surface species formed during O2(g) and H2O(g) exposure. Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) was used to obtain the relative oxidation rates during O2(g) and H2O(g) exposure. AES showed that as the lithium film thickness decreasedmore » from 15 to 5 to 1 ML, the oxidation rate decreased for both O2(g) and H2O(g). HREELS showed that a 15 ML lithium film was fully oxidized after 9.7 L of O2(g) exposure and Li2O was formed. HREELS also showed that during initial exposure (< 0.5 L) H2O(g), lithium hydride and lithium hydroxide was formed on the surface of a 15 ML lithium film. After 0.5 L of H2O(g) exposure, the H2O(g) began to physisorb, and after 15 L of H2O(g) exposure, the 15 ML lithium film was not fully oxidized.« less

  16. The low temperature oxidation of lithium thin films on HOPG by O2 and H2O

    DOE PAGES

    Wulfsberg, Steven M.; Koel, Bruce E.; Bernasek, Steven L.

    2016-04-16

    Lithiated graphite and lithium thin films have been used in fusion devices. In this environment, lithiated graphite will undergo oxidation by background gases. In order to gain insight into this oxidation process, thin (< 15 monolayer (ML)) lithium films on highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) were exposed in this paper to O2(g) and H2O(g) in an ultra-high vacuum chamber. High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) was used to identify the surface species formed during O2(g) and H2O(g) exposure. Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) was used to obtain the relative oxidation rates during O2(g) and H2O(g) exposure. AES showed that asmore » the lithium film thickness decreased from 15 to 5 to 1 ML, the oxidation rate decreased for both O2(g) and H2O(g). HREELS showed that a 15 ML lithium film was fully oxidized after 9.7 L (L) of O2(g) exposure and Li2O was formed. HREELS also showed that during initial exposure (< 0.5 L) H2O(g), lithium hydride and lithium hydroxide were formed on the surface of a 15 ML lithium film. Finally, after 0.5 L of H2O(g) exposure, the H2O(g) began to physisorb, and after 15 L of H2O(g) exposure, the 15 ML lithium film was not fully oxidized.« less

  17. Reprint of "The low temperature oxidation of lithium thin films on HOPG by O2 and H2O"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wulfsberg, Steven M.; Koel, Bruce E.; Bernasek, Steven L.

    2016-10-01

    Lithiated graphite and lithium thin films have been used in fusion devices. In this environment, lithiated graphite will undergo oxidation by background gases. In order to gain insight into this oxidation process, thin (< 15 monolayer (ML)) lithium films on highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) were exposed to O2(g) and H2O(g) in an ultra-high vacuum chamber. High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) was used to identify the surface species formed during O2(g) and H2O(g) exposure. Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) was used to obtain the relative oxidation rates during O2(g) and H2O(g) exposure. AES showed that as the lithium film thickness decreased from 15 to 5 to 1 ML, the oxidation rate decreased for both O2(g) and H2O(g). HREELS showed that a 15 ML lithium film was fully oxidized after 9.7 L (L) of O2(g) exposure and Li2O was formed. HREELS also showed that during initial exposure (< 0.5 L) H2O(g), lithium hydride and lithium hydroxide were formed on the surface of a 15 ML lithium film. After 0.5 L of H2O(g) exposure, the H2O(g) began to physisorb, and after 15 L of H2O(g) exposure, the 15 ML lithium film was not fully oxidized.

  18. Reading and Spelling Gains Following One Year of Orton-Gillingham Intervention in Singaporean Students with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Lois; Oei, Adam C.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of Orton-Gillingham (OG) based approaches to dyslexia remediation, empirical support documenting its effectiveness is lacking. Recently, Chia and Houghton demonstrated the effectiveness of the OG approach for remediation of dyslexia in Singapore. As a conceptual replication and extension of that research, we report…

  19. 2-Oxoglutarate: linking TCA cycle function with amino acid, glucosinolate, flavonoid, alkaloid, and gibberellin biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Wagner L.; Martins, Auxiliadora O.; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Tohge, Takayuki

    2014-01-01

    The tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediate 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG) is used as an obligatory substrate in a range of oxidative reactions catalyzed by 2-OG-dependent dioxygenases. These enzymes are widespread in nature being involved in several important biochemical processes. We have recently demonstrated that tomato plants in which the TCA cycle enzyme 2-OG dehydrogenase (2-ODD) was antisense inhibited were characterized by early senescence and modified fruit ripening associated with differences in the levels of bioactive gibberellin (GA). Accordingly, there is now compelling evidence that the TCA cycle plays an important role in modulating the rate of flux from 2-OG to amino acid metabolism. Here we discuss recent advances in the biochemistry and molecular biology of 2-OG metabolism occurring in different biological systems indicating the importance of 2-OG and 2-OG dependent dioxygenases not only in glucosinolate, flavonoid and alkaloid metabolism but also in GA and amino acid metabolism. We additionally summarize recent findings regarding the impact of modification of 2-OG metabolism on biosynthetic pathways involving 2-ODDs. PMID:25360142

  20. Efficacy of Fast ForWord Training on Facilitating Acquisition of Reading Skills by Children with Reading Difficulties--A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hook, Pamela E.; Macaruso, Paul; Jones, Sandra

    2001-01-01

    A study found children (ages 7-12) with difficulties in phonemic awareness and word identification who received Fast ForWord (FFW) training (n=11) and Orton Gillingham (OG) training (n=9) made similar gains in phonemic awareness. Unlike children who received FFW, children who received OG training made significant gains in word attack. (Contains…

  1. eggNOG 4.5: a hierarchical orthology framework with improved functional annotations for eukaryotic, prokaryotic and viral sequences.

    PubMed

    Huerta-Cepas, Jaime; Szklarczyk, Damian; Forslund, Kristoffer; Cook, Helen; Heller, Davide; Walter, Mathias C; Rattei, Thomas; Mende, Daniel R; Sunagawa, Shinichi; Kuhn, Michael; Jensen, Lars Juhl; von Mering, Christian; Bork, Peer

    2016-01-04

    eggNOG is a public resource that provides Orthologous Groups (OGs) of proteins at different taxonomic levels, each with integrated and summarized functional annotations. Developments since the latest public release include changes to the algorithm for creating OGs across taxonomic levels, making nested groups hierarchically consistent. This allows for a better propagation of functional terms across nested OGs and led to the novel annotation of 95 890 previously uncharacterized OGs, increasing overall annotation coverage from 67% to 72%. The functional annotations of OGs have been expanded to also provide Gene Ontology terms, KEGG pathways and SMART/Pfam domains for each group. Moreover, eggNOG now provides pairwise orthology relationships within OGs based on analysis of phylogenetic trees. We have also incorporated a framework for quickly mapping novel sequences to OGs based on precomputed HMM profiles. Finally, eggNOG version 4.5 incorporates a novel data set spanning 2605 viral OGs, covering 5228 proteins from 352 viral proteomes. All data are accessible for bulk downloading, as a web-service, and through a completely redesigned web interface. The new access points provide faster searches and a number of new browsing and visualization capabilities, facilitating the needs of both experts and less experienced users. eggNOG v4.5 is available at http://eggnog.embl.de.

  2. Oligogalacturonide-auxin antagonism does not require posttranscriptional gene silencing or stabilization of auxin response repressors in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Savatin, Daniel V; Ferrari, Simone; Sicilia, Francesca; De Lorenzo, Giulia

    2011-11-01

    α-1-4-Linked oligogalacturonides (OGs) derived from plant cell walls are a class of damage-associated molecular patterns and well-known elicitors of the plant immune response. Early transcript changes induced by OGs largely overlap those induced by flg22, a peptide derived from bacterial flagellin, a well-characterized microbe-associated molecular pattern, although responses diverge over time. OGs also regulate growth and development of plant cells and organs, due to an auxin-antagonistic activity. The molecular basis of this antagonism is still unknown. Here we show that, in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), OGs inhibit adventitious root formation induced by auxin in leaf explants as well as the expression of several auxin-responsive genes. Genetic, biochemical, and pharmacological experiments indicate that inhibition of auxin responses by OGs does not require ethylene, jasmonic acid, and salicylic acid signaling and is independent of RESPIRATORY BURST OXIDASE HOMOLOGUE D-mediated reactive oxygen species production. Free indole-3-acetic acid levels are not noticeably altered by OGs. Notably, OG- as well as flg22-auxin antagonism does not involve any of the following mechanisms: (1) stabilization of auxin-response repressors; (2) decreased levels of auxin receptor transcripts through the action of microRNAs. Our results suggest that OGs and flg22 antagonize auxin responses independently of Aux/Indole-3-Acetic Acid repressor stabilization and of posttranscriptional gene silencing.

  3. Nuclear Spin Relaxation in Glass States of 3He-A in Stretched Aerogel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitriev, V. V.; Krasnikhin, D. A.; Mulders, N.; Senin, A. A.; Yudin, A. N.

    2011-02-01

    We present results of pulse NMR investigations of superfluid A-like phase of 3He in stretched aerogel. In this case we have anisotropic orbital glass (OG) with two possible types of ordering in spin space—ordered spin nematic (OG-SN) or disordered spin glass (OG-SG) states. It was found that longitudinal relaxation of magnetization is non-exponential in both states and depends on temperature and on inhomogeneity of external steady magnetic field. At the same conditions the relaxation in OG-SG state is more rapid than in OG-SN state. For transverse orientation of the magnetic field relative to anisotropy axis the duration of free induction decay signal was longer than in normal phase. It may be explained by formation of coherently precessing spin state.

  4. Translating obstetrics and gynaecology undergraduate experience into career aspiration: an audit of Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG) medical student placement standards.

    PubMed

    Bonnett, T J; Roberts, A L; Farrell, T A

    2012-11-01

    In 2006, the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG) published a list of undergraduate placement standards in an effort to improve the obstetrics and gynaecology (O&G) undergraduate experience and reverse declining interest in the specialty among UK graduates. We surveyed 3rd-year medical students undertaking O&G placements to investigate how appropriate they felt the RCOG placement standards were. We present the first evaluation of these standards and discuss their potential role in improving the undergraduate O&G experience. We also sought to examine the influence of undergraduate O&G exposure on interest in entering the specialty and the effect of gender on perceived learning experience. Students rated the RCOG standards as highly appropriate, and significant differences in clinical exposure and career intentions were seen between genders. Overall, students demonstrated greater interest in pursuing O&G than has previously been documented, which may represent a wider upturn in interest in the speciality.

  5. Development of a liposome microbicide formulation for vaginal delivery of octylglycerol for HIV prevention

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lin; Sassi, Alexandra Beumer; Patton, Dorothy; Isaacs, Charles; Moncla, B. J.; Gupta, Phalguni; Rohan, Lisa Cencia

    2015-01-01

    The feasibility of using a liposome drug delivery system to formulate octylglycerol (OG) as a vaginal microbicide product was explored. A liposome formulation was developed containing 1% OG and phosphatidyl choline in a ratio that demonstrated in vitro activity against Neisseria gonorrhoeae, HSV-1, HSV-2 and HIV-1 while sparing the innate vaginal flora, Lactobacillus. Two conventional gel formulations were prepared for comparison. The OG liposome formulation with the appropriate OG/lipid ratio and dosing level had greater efficacy than either conventional gel formulation and maintained this efficacy for at least 2 months. No toxicity was observed for the liposome formulation in ex vivo testing in a human ectocervical tissue model or in vivo testing in the macaque safety model. Furthermore, minimal toxicity was observed to lactobacilli in vitro or in vivo safety testing. The OG liposome formulation offers a promising microbicide product with efficacy against HSV, HIV and N. gonorrhoeae. PMID:22149387

  6. Detection of induced seismicity due to oil and gas extraction in the northern Gulf of Mexico, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadugba, Oluwaseun Idowu

    Drilling operations and extraction of oil and gas (O&G) may lead to subsurface slumping or compression of sediments due to reduced vertical principal stress which may lead to small earthquakes at the drilling site. O&G extraction is common in the northern Gulf of Mexico (NGM) and only thirty-five earthquakes of magnitudes between 2.3 and 6.0 have been recorded in the area from 1974 to the present. The purpose of this research is to detect more earthquakes using stacks of seismic data from the Transportable USArray (TA) from 2011 to 2013, and determine the spatiotemporal relationship between the detected earthquakes and O&G extraction. Five new small offshore earthquakes, that may be associated with the offshore O&G production, have been detected in the data. Spatial correlation of the epicenters with offshore drilling sites shows that the earthquakes may be due to the O&G extraction.

  7. Development of a liposome microbicide formulation for vaginal delivery of octylglycerol for HIV prevention.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Sassi, Alexandra Beumer; Patton, Dorothy; Isaacs, Charles; Moncla, B J; Gupta, Phalguni; Rohan, Lisa Cencia

    2012-08-01

    The feasibility of using a liposome drug delivery system to formulate octylglycerol (OG) as a vaginal microbicide product was explored. A liposome formulation was developed containing 1% OG and phosphatidyl choline in a ratio that demonstrated in vitro activity against Neisseria gonorrhoeae, HSV-1, HSV-2 and HIV-1 while sparing the innate vaginal flora, Lactobacillus. Two conventional gel formulations were prepared for comparison. The OG liposome formulation with the appropriate OG/lipid ratio and dosing level had greater efficacy than either conventional gel formulation and maintained this efficacy for at least 2 months. No toxicity was observed for the liposome formulation in ex vivo testing in a human ectocervical tissue model or in vivo testing in the macaque safety model. Furthermore, minimal toxicity was observed to lactobacilli in vitro or in vivo safety testing. The OG liposome formulation offers a promising microbicide product with efficacy against HSV, HIV and N. gonorrhoeae.

  8. Green synthesized nickel nanoparticles for targeted detection and killing of S. typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Jeyaraj Pandian, Chitra; Palanivel, Rameshthangam; Balasundaram, Usha

    2017-09-01

    Simple and sensitive colorimetric immunosensor based on peroxidase mimetic activity and photothermal effect of nickel oxide nanoparticle (NiOGs) has been developed to detect and kill food borne pathogen Salmonella typhimurium. NiOGs showed superior peroxidase mimetic activity for oxidation of peroxidase substrate 3, 3', 5, 5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB). Oxidation of TMB by NiOGs followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics with Km and Vmax values of 0.25mM and 2.64×10(-8)M/s respectively. NiOGs was coated with citric acid (CA-NiOGs) followed by conjugation with antibody (anti-S. typhimurium) (Ab-CA-NiOGs) that effectively captured S. typhimurium. Colorimetric detection of S. typhimurium by Ab-CA-NiOGs showed a linear relationship between pathogen concentration (1×10(1) to 1×10(6)cfu/mL) and color signal (652nm) with limit of detection (LOD) of 10cfu/mL. The proposed method showed no cross reactivity against other pathogens. Recovery of S. typhimurium in milk and juice samples was found to be 95 to 100% and 92 to 99% respectively. NiOGs exposed to laser irradiation showed dose dependent increase in temperature and singlet oxygen within 5min. Bacteria bound to Ab-CA-NiOGs after laser irradiation, induced membrane damage and reduced bacterial viability to 6%. The bifunctional peroxidase-mimetic activity and photothermal effect of NiOGs can be exploited in selective sensing and killing of target pathogens respectively in food products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Molecular diagnosis in Vascular Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Predicts Pattern of Arterial Involvement and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Shalhub, Sherene; Black, James H; Cecchi, Alana C.; Xu, Zhi; Griswold, Ben F; Safi, Hazim J; Milewicz, Dianna M.; McDonnell, Nazli B.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The management of arterial pathology in individuals with vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (vEDS) remains a challenge. Here we describe the correlation between COL3A1 gene mutation type and the clinical phenotype in individuals with vEDS. METHODS Individuals with confirmed molecular diagnoses of vEDS were enrolled in a multi institutional natural history study. Data collected included demographics, clinical and family histories, arterial pathology (aneurysm, dissection, and rupture), operative details, and autopsy reports. Individuals were classified into two cohorts based on the type of COL3A1 mutations and their effect on the amount of normal collagen produced: MIN group had mutations that lead to minimal (10–15%) production of normal type III collagen and HI group had haploinsufficiency mutations that lead to production of half the normal type III collagen. RESULTS A cohort of 68 (72%) individuals from 56 families had arterial pathology (44% male, 13% HI). The HI group was older at the time of their first vascular event (mean 42 years, range 26–58 vs. 33 years, range 8–62, P = .016). The HI group had a higher incidence of aortic pathology compared to the MIN group (56% vs. 21%. P = .025). Visceral arterial pathology was seen in 43 arteries in 23 individuals in the MIN group versus only a single artery in 5 individuals in the HI group. Emergent surgical procedures were more likely to be undertaken when vEDS diagnosis was not known (81% vs. 41%, P = .005) and the majority of these procedures were open surgical repair compared to endovascular repair (81% vs. 19%, P = .019). In the elective setting, there was equal use of open and endovascular repair. Post-operative complications were highest when the diagnosis of vEDS was not known (62% vs. 14%, P < .001) and when procedures were undertaken in an emergency setting (5% vs. 55% P < .001). There was no mortality due to arterial complications in the HI cohort and 21% in the MIN cohort (P = .132

  10. Impacts of land use change in soil carbon and nitrogen in a Mediterranean agricultural area (Southern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parras-Alcántara, L.; Martín-Carrillo, M.; Lozano-García, B.

    2013-05-01

    The agricultural Mediterranean areas are dedicated to arable crops (AC), but in the last decades, a significant number of AC has led to a land use change (LUC) to olive grove (OG) and vineyards (V). A field study was conducted to determine the long-term effects (46 years) of LUC (AC by OG and V) and to determine soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), C : N ratio and their stratification across the soil entire profile, in Montilla-Moriles denomination of origin (D.O.), in Calcic-Chromic Luvisols (LVcc/cr), an area under semiarid Mediterranean conditions. The experimental design consisted of studying the LUC on one farm between 1965 and 2011. Originally, only AC was farmed in 1965, but OG and V were farmed up to now (2011). This LUC principally affected the horizon thickness, texture, bulk density, pH, organic matter, organic carbon, total nitrogen and C : N ratio. The LUC had a negative impact in the soil, affecting the SOC and TN stocks. The conversion from AC to V and OG involved the loss of the SOC stock (52.7% and 64.9% to V and OG respectively) and the loss of the TN stock (42.6% and 38.1% to V and OG respectively). With respect to the stratification ratios (SRs), the effects were opposite; 46 years after LUC increased the SRs (in V and OG) of SOC, TN and C : N ratio.

  11. Land-use change effects on soil quality in Montilla-Moriles DO, Southern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín-Carrillo, M.; Parras-Alcántara, L.; Lozano-García, B.

    2013-02-01

    The agricultural Mediterranean areas are dedicated to arable crops (AC), but in the last few decades, a significant number of AC has a land use change (LUC) to olive grove cultivations (OG) and vineyards (V). A field study was conducted to determine the long-term effects (46 yr) of LUC (AC by OG and V) and to determine soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), C:N ratio and their stratification across the soil entire profile, in Montilla-Moriles denomination of origin (DO), in Calcic-Chromic Luvisols (LVcc/cr), an area under semiarid Mediterranean conditions. The experimental design consisted of studying the LUC on one farm between 1965 and 2011. Originally, only AC was farmed in 1965, but OG and V were farmed up to now (2011). This LUC principally affected the thickness horizon, texture, bulk density, pH, organic matter, organic carbon, total nitrogen and C:N ratio. The LUC had a negative impact in the soil, affecting the SOC and TN stocks. The conversion from AC to V and OG involved the loss of the SOC stock (52.7% and 64.9% to V and OG, respectively) and the loss of the TN stock (42.6% and 38.1% to V and OG, respectively). With respect to the soil quality, the effect was opposite; 46 yr after LUC improved the soil quality, increasing the stratification ratio (in V and OG) of SOC, TN and C:N ratio.

  12. Ocimum gratissimum retards breast cancer growth and progression and is a natural inhibitor of matrix metalloproteases.

    PubMed

    Nangia-Makker, Pratima; Raz, Tirza; Tait, Larry; Shekhar, Malathy P V; Li, Hong; Balan, Vitaly; Makker, Hemanckur; Fridman, Rafael; Maddipati, Krishnarao; Raz, Avraham

    2013-05-01

    Ocimum genus (a.k.a holy basil or tulsi) is a dietary herb used for its multiple beneficial pharmacologic properties including anti-cancer activity. Here we show that crude extract of Ocimum gratissimum (OG) and its hydrophobic and hydrophilic fractions (HB and HL) differentially inhibit breast cancer cell chemotaxis and chemoinvasion in vitro and retard tumor growth and temporal progression of MCF10ADCIS.com xenografts, a model of human breast comedo-ductal carcinoma in situ (comedo-DCIS). OG-induced inhibition of tumor growth was associated with decreases in basement membrane disintegration, angiogenesis and MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities as confirmed by in situ gelatin zymography and cleavage of galectin-3. There was also decrease in MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities in the conditioned media of OG-treated MCF10AT1 and MCF10AT1-EIII8 premalignant human breast cancer cells as compared with control. The MMP-2 and MMP-9 inhibitory activities of OG were verified in vitro using gelatin, a synthetic fluorogenic peptide and recombinant galectin-3 as MMP substrates. Mice fed on OG-supplemented drinking water showed no adverse effects compared with control. These data suggest that OG is non-toxic and that the anti-cancer therapeutic activity of OG may in part be contributed by its MMP inhibitory activity.

  13. Ocimum gratissimum retards breast cancer growth and progression and is a natural inhibitor of matrix metalloproteases

    PubMed Central

    Nangia-Makker, Pratima; Raz, Tirza; Tait, Larry; Shekhar, Malathy P.V.; Li, Hong; Balan, Vitaly; Makker, Hemanckur; Fridman, Rafael; Maddipati, Krishnarao; Raz, Avraham

    2013-01-01

    Ocimum genus (a.k.a holy basil or tulsi) is a dietary herb used for its multiple beneficial pharmacologic properties including anti-cancer activity. Here we show that crude extract of Ocimum gratissimum (OG) and its hydrophobic and hydrophilic fractions (HB and HL) differentially inhibit breast cancer cell chemotaxis and chemoinvasion in vitro and retard tumor growth and temporal progression of MCF10ADCIS.com xenografts, a model of human breast comedo-ductal carcinoma in situ (comedo-DCIS). OG-induced inhibition of tumor growth was associated with decreases in basement membrane disintegration, angiogenesis and MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities as confirmed by in situ gelatin zymography and cleavage of galectin-3. There was also decrease in MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities in the conditioned media of OG-treated MCF10AT1 and MCF10AT1-EIII8 premalignant human breast cancer cells as compared with control. The MMP-2 and MMP-9 inhibitory activities of OG were verified in vitro using gelatin, a synthetic fluorogenic peptide and recombinant galectin-3 as MMP substrates. Mice fed on OG-supplemented drinking water showed no adverse effects compared with control. These data suggest that OG is non-toxic and that the anti-cancer therapeutic activity of OG may in part be contributed by its MMP inhibitory activity. PMID:23380593

  14. Unnatural substrates reveal the importance of 8-oxoguanine for in vivo mismatch repair by MutY

    PubMed Central

    Livingston, Alison L.; O’Shea, Valerie L.; Kim, Taewoo; Kool, Eric T.; David, Sheila S.

    2009-01-01

    Escherchia coli MutY plays an important role in preventing mutations associated with the oxidative lesion 7,8-dihydro-8-oxo-2′-deoxyguanosine (OG) in DNA by excising adenines from OG:A mismatches as the first step of base excision repair. To determine the importance of specific steps in the base pair recognition and base removal process of MutY, we have evaluated the effects of modifications of the OG:A substrate on the kinetics of base removal, mismatch affinity and repair to G:C in an Escherchia coli-based assay. Surprisingly, adenine modification was tolerated in the cellular assay, while modification of OG results in minimal cellular repair. High affinity for the mismatch and efficient base removal require the presence of OG. Taken together, these results suggest that the presence of OG is a critical feature for MutY to locate OG:A mismatches and select the appropriate adenines for excision to initiate repair in vivo prior to replication. PMID:18026095

  15. Extensive Copy Number Variations in Admixed Indian Population of African Ancestry: Potential Involvement in Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Dash, Debasis; Mukerji, Mitali

    2014-01-01

    Admixture mapping has been enormously resourceful in identifying genetic variations linked to phenotypes, adaptation, and diseases. In this study through analysis of copy number variable regions (CNVRs), we report extensive restructuring in the genomes of the recently admixed African-Indian population (OG-W-IP) that inhabits a highly saline environment in Western India. The study included subjects from OG-W-IP (OG), five different Indian and three HapMap populations that were genotyped using Affymetrix version 6.0 arrays. Copy number variations (CNVs) detected using Birdsuite were used to define CNVRs. Population structure with respect to CNVRs was delineated using random forest approach. OG genomes have a surprising excess of CNVs in comparison to other studied populations. Individual ancestry proportions computed using STRUCTURE also reveals a unique genetic component in OGs. Population structure analysis with CNV genotypes indicates OG to be distant from both the African and Indian ancestral populations. Interestingly, it shows genetic proximity with respect to CNVs to only one Indian population IE-W-LP4, which also happens to reside in the same geographical region. We also observe a significant enrichment of molecular processes related to ion binding and receptor activity in genes encompassing OG-specific CNVRs. Our results suggest that retention of CNVRs from ancestral natives and de novo acquisition of CNVRs could accelerate the process of adaptation especially in an extreme environment. Additionally, this population would be enormously useful for dissecting genes and delineating the involvement of CNVs in salt adaptation. PMID:25398783

  16. Oligogalacturonic acids promote tomato fruit ripening through the regulation of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthesis at the transcriptional and post-translational levels.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yingxuan; Zhou, Leilei; Wang, Zhichao; Chen, Jianting; Qu, Guiqin

    2016-01-09

    Oligogalacturonic acids (OGs) are oligomers of alpha-1,4-linked galacturonosyl residues that are released from cell walls by the hydrolysis of polygalacturonic acids upon fruit ripening and under abiotic/biotic stress. OGs may induce ethylene production and fruit ripening, however, the mechanism(s) behind these processes is unknown. Tomato cultivar 'Ailsa Craig' (AC) and mutant Neverripe, ripening inhibitor, non-ripening, and colorless non-ripening fruits were treated with OGs at different stages. Only AC fruits at mature green stage 1 showed an advanced ripening phenomenon, although transient ethylene production was detected in all of the tomato fruits. Ethylene synthesis genes LeACS2 and LeACO1 were rapidly up-regulated, and the phosphorylated LeACS2 protein was detected after OGs treatment. Protein kinase/phosphatase inhibitors significantly affected the ripening process induced by the OGs. As a potential receptor of OGs, LeWAKL2 was also up-regulated in their presence. We demonstrated that OGs promoted tomato fruit ripening by inducing ethylene synthesis through the regulation of LeACS2 at transcriptional and post-translational levels.

  17. Release model for in situ vitrification large-field test off-gas treatment system

    SciTech Connect

    Pafford, D.J.; Tung, V.X.

    1992-03-01

    A conceptual model for the vapor and aerosol transport and deposition in the in situ vitrification large-field test off-gas system (OGS) has been developed. This model can be used to predict the emissions from the OGS under normal and off-normal conditions. Results generated by the model can be used to evaluate design and/or procedural modifications, define tests, and predict results. The OGS vapor and aerosol transport and deposition is modeled using the PULSE/MOD-ISV/VER 1.0.0 developmental computer code. Input data requirements for this code include the specific geometries of the OGS components; the composition, rate, and temperature of the vapors and aerosols entering the OGS; and the OGS component surface temperatures or heat fluxes. Currently, not all of these model inputs are available. Therefore, conceptual input parameters are developed. Using this input data, preliminary calculations with the code have been performed. These calculations include a demonstration that the code predicts convergent results, a comparison of predicted results with performance data for one of the OGS components, and a preliminary sensitivity study of the complete model.

  18. Decolourization of the azo dye Orange G in aqueous solution via a heterogeneous Fenton-like reaction catalysed by goethite.

    PubMed

    Wu, Honghai; Dou, Xiaowen; Deng, Dayi; Guan, Yufeng; Zhang, Liguo; He, Guangping

    2012-01-01

    Decolourization of the azo dye Orange G (OG) was investigated by using goethite/H2O2 as a heterogeneous Fenton-like reagent. Five principle operational parameters, namely pH, ion strength, concentrations ofgoethite (alpha-FeOOH) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and reaction temperature, were taken into account to investigate how these controlling factors mediated OG decolourization. Goethite surfaces catalysed a Fenton-like reaction responsible for decolourizing OG following pseudo-first-order kinetics (R2 > 0.964). This process was effective but seriously impacted by the medium pH and the dosages of both alpha-FeOOH and H2O2. The decolourization efficiencies of OG increased with the decrease of solution pH and NaCl (chloride ion) concentration and/or the increase of H2O2. The acidic aqueous medium conditions were likely favourable due to the surface adsorption of the negatively charged OG leading to the promotion of decolourizing OG. The apparent activation energy (E) for this reaction was 42.18 kJ mol(-1), a relatively low value. This is consistent with the OG decolourization being enhanced with the reaction temperature increase.

  19. [Electrophoretic studies of serum protein fractions in horses with laminitis].

    PubMed

    Edinger, H; Miller, I; Stanek, C; Gemeiner, M

    1992-10-01

    The spectrum of serum proteins was evaluated in 46 horses affected with spontaneous laminitis and correlations between the severity of the disease and changes of the protein pattern were analyzed. The investigation was made in two groups; group A consisted of 21 horses of various breeds (warmblood, thoroughbred, standardbred) and group B of 25 ponys. Each group was subdivided according to the severity of the disease, using the OBEL-grade (OG) classification system. Serum proteins were separated by different one- and two-dimensional electrophoretic methods. Sera analysed by cellulose acetate electrophoresis showed a significant difference in the alpha 1-globulin fraction between OG II and OG IV affected horses. An increasing severity of the disease was correlated with a decrease of the alpha 1-globulins. The other protein fractions didn't show a uniform tendency. In group B there was a significant difference in the alpha 1-globulin fractions of OG II and OG III and in the beta 2-globulin fractions of OG I and OG II affected ponys. The acute phase proteins C3c, C4, Hp and fibronectin could be determined in a preliminary study in horse serum using the cross-reactivity of antibodies against the homologous human proteins.

  20. Industrial wastewater treatment by an advanced oxidation process.

    PubMed

    Gunukula, R V; Tittlebaum, M E

    2001-01-01

    The overall objective of this study was to evaluate an advanced oxidation process (AOP) used to treat oil and grease (O&G), total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of industrial wastewaters generated during barge cleaning operations. This wastewater generally contains appreciable concentrations of O&G, TPH, COD, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) compounds. A bench scale AOP test unit was designed and built for the treatment of the barge cleaning industrial wastewater. The AOP test unit was a 0.33 gpm mobile, modular unit consisting of two contact chambers, two counter current columns and two catalytic chambers. Six experiments were performed using the AOP unit to determine its effectiveness on the reduction of O&G, TPH, and COD. The wastewater was delivered to the AOP from a storage tank. The unit was run for a total of 120 minutes at various gas delivery rates of ozone for each treatment run. Influent and effluent samples were collected at 30 minutes intervals and analyzed for O&G, TPH, and COD. Significant reductions in O&G and TPH concentrations were observed. Oxygen alone indicated a 50% removal efficiency for O&G and TPH. The ozone treatment efficiency was 86% for O&G and TPH at a dosage rate of 12 SCFH and 82% for a dosage rate of 6 SCFH.

  1. Molecular study of ovine glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase gene expression in respect to different energy intake.

    PubMed

    Laliotis, George P; Vitsa, Alkistis; Bizelis, Iosif; Charismiadou, Maria A; Rogdakis, Emmanuel

    2010-06-01

    Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) plays an important role in a ruminant's metabolism catalyzing the first committed reaction in the pentose phosphate pathway as it provides necessary compounds of NADPH for the synthesis of fatty acids. The cloning of ovine (Ovis aries) G6PD gene revealed the presence of two cDNA transcripts (oG6PD(A) and oG6PD(B)), with oG6PD(B) being a product of alternative splicing and with no similarity to any other previously reported G6PD transcript. Here, we attempt to study the effect of energy balance in ovine G6PD transcript expression, trying simultaneously to find out any potential physiological role of the oG6PD(B) transcript. Changes of energy balance that lead to synergistic changes in the expression of both transcripts, but in opposite directions and not in a proportional way. Negative energy balance favours the presence of the oG6PD(B) transcript leading to a significant increase of its expression, compared to oG6PD(A) expression (P<0.05). In contrast, positive energy balance leads to a significant increase of oG6PD(A) compared to oG6PD(B) expression (P<0.05). In either condition oG6PD(B) expression is unchanged. Regression analysis showed that there is an energy balance threshold where the expression of both transcripts shows no change. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Methylation effect on chalcone synthase gene expression determines anthocyanin pigmentation in floral tissues of two Oncidium orchid cultivars.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Jing; Chuang, Yao-Nung; Chiou, Chung-Yi; Chin, Dan-Chu; Shen, Fu-Quan; Yeh, Kai-Wun

    2012-08-01

    The anthocyanin-biosynthetic pathway was studied in flowers of Oncidium Gower Ramsey with yellow floral color and mosaic red anthocyanin in lip crests, sepals and petals, and compared with the anthocyanin biosynthesis in flowers of Oncidium Honey Dollp, a natural somatoclone derived from tissue culture of Gower Ramsey, with a yellow perianth without red anthocyanins in floral tissues. HPLC analysis revealed that the red anthocyanin in lip crests of the Gower Ramsey cultivar comprised peonidin-3-O-glucoside, delphinidin-3-O-glucoside and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, whereas Honey Dollp was devoid of anthocyanin compounds. Among the five anthocyanin-biosynthetic genes, OgCHS was actively expressed in lip crests of Gower Ramsey flowers, but no transcripts of OgCHS were detected in Honey Dollp floral tissues. Transient expression of OgCHS by bombardment confirmed that recovery of the OgCHS gene expression completed the anthocyanin pathway and produced anthocyanin compounds in lip crests of Honey Dollp flowers. Transcription factor genes regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis showed no distinctive differences in the expression level of OgMYB1, OgbHLH and OgWD40 between the two cultivars. A methylation assay revealed that the promoter of OgCHS was not methylated in Gower Ramsey, while a positive methylation effect was present in the upstream promoter region of OgCHS in Honey Dollp. Overall, our results suggest that the failure of anthocyanin accumulation in Honey Dollp floral tissues may be attributed to inactivation of the OgCHS gene resulting from the epigenetic methylation of 5'-upstream promoter region.

  3. Use of benzo analogs to enhance antimycotic activity of kresoxim methyl for control of aflatoxigenic fungal pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong H.; Mahoney, Noreen; Chan, Kathleen L.; Campbell, Bruce C.; Haff, Ronald P.; Stanker, Larry H.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine two benzo analogs, octylgallate (OG) and veratraldehyde (VT), as antifungal agents against strains of Aspergillus parasiticus and A.flavus (toxigenic or atoxigenic). Both toxigenic and atoxigenic strains used were capable of producing kojic acid, another cellular secondary product. A. fumigatus was used as a genetic model for this study. When applied independently, OG exhibits considerably higher antifungal activity compared to VT. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of OG were 0.3–0.5 mM, while that of VT were 3.0–5.0 mM in agar plate-bioassays. OG or VT in concert with the fungicide kresoxim methyl (Kre-Me; strobilurin) greatly enhanced sensitivity of Aspergillus strains to Kre-Me. The combination with OG also overcame the tolerance of A. fumigatus mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) mutants to Kre-Me. The degree of compound interaction resulting from chemosensitization of the fungi by OG was determined using checkerboard bioassays, where synergistic activity greatly lowered MICs or minimum fungicidal concentrations. However, the control chemosensitizer benzohydroxamic acid, an alternative oxidase inhibitor conventionally applied in concert with strobilurin, did not achieve synergism. The level of antifungal or chemosensitizing activity was also “compound—strain” specific, indicating differential susceptibility of tested strains to OG or VT, and/or heat stress. Besides targeting the antioxidant system, OG also negatively affected the cell wall-integrity pathway, as determined by the inhibition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall-integrity MAPK pathway mutants. We concluded that certain benzo analogs effectively inhibit fungal growth. They possess chemosensitizing capability to increase efficacy of Kre-Me and thus, could reduce effective dosages of strobilurins and alleviate negative side effects associated with current antifungal practices. OG also exhibits moderate antiaflatoxigenic activity. PMID

  4. Olumacostat glasaretil, a novel topical sebum inhibitor, in the treatment of acne vulgaris: A phase IIa, multicenter, randomized, vehicle-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Bissonnette, Robert; Poulin, Yves; Drew, Janice; Hofland, Hans; Tan, Jerry

    2017-01-01

    Olumacostat glasaretil (OG) inhibits acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase, the enzyme responsible for the first, rate-limiting step in de novo fatty acid synthesis. OG inhibited in vitro human sebocyte lipid production and reduced in vivo sebaceous gland size in hamster ears. Safety and efficacy of OG 7.5% gel were evaluated in patients with moderate to severe facial acne vulgaris. Patients were randomized (1:1) to twice-daily application of OG or vehicle for 12 weeks. Efficacy was measured through changes in lesion counts and improvement in acne severity scores. A total of 108 patients received OG (n = 53) or vehicle (n = 55); these groups had mean baseline counts of 29.7 and 28.6 inflammatory and 40.9 and 38.8 noninflammatory lesions, respectively. At week 12, OG treatment showed greater reductions from baseline in inflammatory lesions (-63.9% vs -45.9%; P = .0006) and noninflammatory lesions (-48.1% vs -28.8%; P = .0025), and more patients with greater than or equal to 2-grade improvement in investigator global assessment score (24.5% vs 7.3%; P = .0070) than vehicle. Application-site adverse events (typically mild or moderate intensity) were more common with OG. Larger trials are needed to optimize OG dosing and confirm the current results. OG was well tolerated and showed evidence of efficacy, suggesting further development is warranted. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Peculiarities of the C2d3Π→a3Π band system intensities in gas discharges through CO-contained mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigorian, G. M.

    2012-12-01

    The paper discusses the experimental results pointing to the efficient channel of the CO vibrational to the C2 electronic energy-transfer. The radiation spectra of the d3Πg electronic state of C2 molecule are investigated and the relation of their kinetics to a vibrational excitation of CO molecules in the He-CO-O2 plasma is discussed. The changes of CO vibrational energy distribution (VED) were imposed by an application of a laser resonator to the discharge tube under investigation. It was found that the modulation of laser radiation (and VED) led to a similar changes of the spontaneous radiation from d3Πg state of C2 molecules

  6. Introducing cholera vaccination in Asia, Africa and Haiti: a meeting report.

    PubMed

    Hall, Robert H; Sack, David A

    2015-01-15

    Orally-administered cholera vaccine (OCV) has been increasingly examined as an additional tool to intervene against endemic and epidemic cholera. In 2013, short- and long-term field experience with OCV under nine distinctive field settings was reported from India, Bangladesh, Vietnam, Guinea, Haiti, and Thailand. Lead investigators from each of these projects presented their findings at a symposium chaired by Drs. David A. Sack and Robert H. Hall at the Vaccines for Enteric Diseases (VED) Conference in Bangkok on November 7, 2013. The objective of the symposium was to describe the unique features of each setting and project, share field experience of implementing cholera vaccination, discuss results, and identify constraints to the wider use of OCV. The VED provided a forum where >200 attendees engaged with this exciting and potentially decisive new development in the cholera field.

  7. Thermo-Mechanical Stress in High-Frequency Vacuum Electron Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamzina, Diana; Luhmann, Neville C.; Ravani, Bahram

    2017-01-01

    Analysis of the thermo-mechanical performance of high-frequency vacuum electron devices is essential to the advancement of RF sources towards high-power generation. Operation in an ultra-high vacuum environment, space restricting magnetic focusing, and limited material options are just some of the constraints that complicate thermal management in a high-power VED. An analytical method for evaluating temperature, stress, and deformation distribution in thin vacuum-to-cooling walls is presented, accounting for anisotropic material properties. Thin plate geometry is used and analytical expressions are developed for thermo-mechanical analysis that includes the microstructure effects of grain orientations. The method presented evaluates the maximum allowable heat flux that can be used to establish the power-handling limitation of high-frequency VEDs prior to full-scale design, accelerating time-to-manufacture.

  8. Optimal strategy for penile rehabilitation after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy based on preoperative erectile function.

    PubMed

    Basal, Seref; Wambi, Chris; Acikel, Cengizhan; Gupta, Mantu; Badani, Ketan

    2013-04-01

    WHAT'S KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT? AND WHAT DOES THE STUDY ADD?: Removing of prostate for the treatment of localized prostate cancer is associated with a variable loss of erectile function due to injury of the nerves of erection during operation. Some researchers have reported that after nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy (RP), the natural recovery time of erectile function is at least 2 years. Factors such as thermal damage, ischaemic injury, mechanically induced nerve stretching and the local inflammatory effects of surgical trauma may also impair the cavernous nerves during RP. The concept of penile rehabilitation was first studied by Montorsi et al. in 1997. They showed that the use of any drug or device at or after RP could maximize the recovery of erectile function. Penile rehabilitation programmes (PRPs) with vasoactive agents, such as oral phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors (PDE5Is), intraurethral and intracavernosal vasoactive agents, and vacuum erection devices (VEDs) can protect erectile tissue integrity and prevent corporal smooth muscle atrophy and diminish collagen formation. The present findings are consistent with previous reports that PRPs have a significant beneficial effect on early erectile function recovery and that preoperative erectile function is one of the important predictors of erectile function after RP. Patients can be referred for penile rehabilitation if they have any degree of erectile function (mild, moderate or normal) before operation. We also showed that the combination of PDE5Is and VEDs for PRPs offers the shortest erectile function recovery period. To define the optimal penile rehabilitation programme (PRP) based on preoperative Sexual Health Inventory for Men (SHIM) scores after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP). The medical records of 203 patients who underwent bilateral nerve-sparing RARP between 2007 and 2011 were reviewed for the present retrospective study. According to patients' preoperative erection status, group 1

  9. Micromachined TWTs for THz Radiation Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booske, John H.; vanderWeide, Daniel W.; Kory, Carol L.; Limbach, S.; Downey, Alan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Terahertz (THz) region of the electromagnetic spectrum (about 300 - 3000 GHz in frequency or about 0.1 - 1 mm free space wavelength) has enormous potential for high-data-rate communications, spectroscopy, astronomy, space research, medicine, biology, surveillance, remote sensing, industrial process control, etc. It has been characterized as the most scientifically rich, yet under-utilized, region of the electromagnetic spectrum. The most critical roadblock to full exploitation of the THz band is lack of coherent radiation sources that are powerful (0.001 - 1.0 W continuous wave), efficient (> 1%), frequency agile (instantaneously tunable over 1% bandwidths or more), reliable, and comparatively inexpensive. To develop vacuum electron device (VED) radiation sources satisfying these requirements, fabrication and packaging approaches must be heavily considered to minimize costs, in addition to the basic interaction physics and circuit design. To minimize size of the prime power supply, beam voltage must be minimized, preferably 10 kV. Solid state sources satisfy the low voltage requirement, but are many orders of magnitude below power, efficiency, and bandwidth requirements. On the other hand, typical fast-wave VED sources in this regime (e.g., gyrotrons, FELs) tend to be large, expensive, high voltage and very high power devices unsuitable for most of the applications cited above. VEDs based on grating or inter-digital (ID) circuits have been researched and developed. However, achieving forward-wave amplifier operation with instantaneous fractional bandwidths > 1% is problematic for these devices with low-energy (< 15 kV) electron beams. Moreover, the interaction impedance is quite low unless the beam-circuit spacing is kept particularly narrow, often leading to significant beam interception. One solution to satisfy the THz source requirements mentioned above is to develop micromachined VEDs, or "micro-VEDs". Among other benefits, micro-machining technologies

  10. Evaluation of Skin-Spar Joint Resistance to Hydrodynamic Ram

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    Test Squadron (780 TS/OL-AC) 46th Test Wing (46 OG/ OGM /OL-AC) Aerospace Survivability and Safety Flight Division Air Armament Center, Air Force...43 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION 780th Test Squadron (780th TS/OL-AC) 46th Test Wing (46 OG/ OGM ...MONITORING AGENCY ACRONYM(S) AFRL-WS-WP 780th Test Squadron (780 TS/OL-AC) 46th Test Wing (46 OG/ OGM /OL-AC) Aerospace Survivability and Safety

  11. Aircraft Survivability: Vulnerability Reduction, Spring 2006

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    Wing (TW) 46 Operations Group (OG)/Munitions Test Division ( OGM )/ Aerospace Survivability and Safety Flight’s (AOL-AC), with actual testing...testing, scheduled to occur during FY06, is again being managed by 46OG/ OGM /OL-AC and conducted by ARL-SLAD. This tri-service program has greatly...Test Wing’s 46 Operations Group/Munitions Test Division/Aerospace Survivability and Safety Flight (46 OG/ OGM /OL-AC). Design efforts focused on

  12. SURVIAC Bulletin: Fire Suppression Technology Applied to Chemical/Biological Warfare Protection, Volume 17, Issue 2 - 2001

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    Technical Representative (COTR) for the Center is Mr. Martin L. Lentz, 46 OG/ OGM /OL-AC, 2700 D Street, Bldg. 1661, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433...publication may be addressed to: 46 OG/ OGM /OL-AC/SURVIAC 2700 D St., Building 1661 Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433-7605 Com: (937) 255-4840, DSN...iac.dtic.mil/surviac SURVIAC 46 OG/ OGM /OL-AC/SURVIAC 2700 D St., Building 1661 Wright-Patterson AFB, OH 45433-7605 PRSRT STD US POSTAGE PAID

  13. Forging Norwegian Special Operation Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    mest viktig og ŗ" for minst viktig. Ikke gi samme verdi to ganger) - Ansatte må ha muligheten til å styre sitt eget arbeid - Vi trenger å jobbe...viktig og ŗ" for minst viktig. Ikke gi samme verdi to ganger) - Personell i din avdeling deler de samme verdiene - Personell i din avdeling trenger å...deg. (Bruk ŕ" for mest viktig og ŗ" for minst viktig. Ikke gi samme verdi to ganger) - Din avdeling trenger å tilpasse seg hurtig til endringer i

  14. Efficacy of Ceftobiprole Medocaril against Enterococcus faecalis in a Murine Urinary Tract Infection Model

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Barbara E.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated ceftobiprole against the well-characterized Enterococcus faecalis strain OG1RF (with and without the β-lactamase [Bla] plasmid pBEM10) in a murine urinary tract infection (UTI) model. Ceftobiprole was equally effective for Bla+ and Bla− OG1 strains, while ampicillin was moderately to markedly (depending on the inoculum) less effective against Bla+ than Bla− OG1 strains. These data illustrate an in vivo effect on ampicillin of Bla production by E. faecalis and the stability and efficacy of ceftobiprole in experimental UTI. PMID:22450988

  15. Different and identical features of chondroblastic osteosarcoma and chondrosarcoma: highlights on radiography and magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Yen, Chao-Hsuan; Chang, Cheng-Yen; Teng, Michael Mu-Huo; Wu, Hung-Ta H; Chen, Paul Chih-Hsueh; Chiou, Hong-Jen; Chiu, Nai-Chi

    2009-02-01

    To identify the different and identical features of 2 tumors with similar pathologic findings, chondroblastic osteosarcoma (OGS) and chondrosarcoma (CSA), with highlights on radiography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Ten patients with chondroblastic OGS and 10 patients with CSA were enrolled. After recording the tumor location, tumor morphology was evaluated for patterns of bony destruction, visible tumor matrix, and aggressive periosteal reactions, endosteal scalloping, cortical expansion, cortical breakthrough and pathologic fracture by radiographic analysis. Signal intensity changes, enhancement pattern, and tumor extensions were evaluated by MRI. The mean patient ages were 24.7 and 56.7 years in patients with chondroblastic OGS and CSA, respectively (p = 0.001). Tumor occurrence was detected in the appendicular bones in 8 chondroblastic OGS and 3 CSA. Three chondroblastic OGS occurred around the knee (p = 0.003). In addition, there were 6 tumors arising from the metaphysis and 2 arising from the diaphysis in chondroblastic OGS patients. In CSA patients, 1 tumor arose in the metaphysis, 1 in the diaphysis, and 1 in the epiphysis (p = 0.039). On radiographs, visible bone-forming tumor matrix was present in 8 chondroblastic OGS, and coexistence of bone- and cartilage-forming patterns were detected in 2. Visible cartilage-forming tumor matrix was present in 7 CSA, and atypical radiodensity patterns were detected in 2 (p < 0.001). Aggressive periosteal reaction was present in 7 chondroblastic OGS, and non-aggressive periosteal reaction was found in 1 CSA (p = 0.008). MRI revealed the presence of a lobular structure of high signal intensity on T2-weighted images, and peripheral rim and septal enhancement pattern was noted in 2 chondroblastic OGS and 10 CSA patients. Inhomogeneous and marginal enhancement patterns were noted in 6 and 2 chondroblastic OGS, respectively (p = 0.001). Metaphysis origin, bone-forming tumor matrix, aggressive periosteal reaction, and

  16. Overview of Ground Station 1 of the NASA space communications and navigation program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, W. T.; Antsos, D.; Croonquist, A.; Piazzolla, S.; Roberts, L. C.; Garkanian, V.; Trinh, T.; Wright, M. W.; Rogalin, R.; Wu, J.; Clare, L.

    2016-03-01

    Optical Ground Station 1 (OGS1) is the first of a new breed of dedicated ground terminals to support NASA's developing space-based optical communications infrastructure. It is based at NASA's Optical Communications Telescope Laboratory (OCTL) at the Table Mountain Observatory near Wrightwood, CA. The system will serve as the primary ground station for NASA's Laser Communications Relay Demonstration (LCRD) experiment. This paper presents an overview of the OCTL telescope facility, the OGS1 ground-based optical communications systems, and the networking and control infrastructure currently under development. The OGS1 laser safety systems and atmospheric monitoring systems are also briefly described.

  17. Solubilization and structural stability of bacteriorhodopsin with a mild nonionic detergent, n-Octyl-β-thioglucoside.

    PubMed

    Asada, Azusa; Sonoyama, Masashi

    2011-01-01

    Solubilization and structural stability of a membrane protein bacteriorhodopsin (bR) with n-octyl-β-thioglucoside (OTG) was investigated in comparison with a previous study on bR solubilized with n-octyl-β-glucoside (OG). Highly efficient and stable solubilization of bR with OTG was accomplished above the OTG concentration of about 15 mM. In comparison with OG-solubilized bR, the structural stability of OTG-solubilized bR was high in the dark and under light illumination. These results indicate that OTG is a detergent superior to OG for solubilizing bR molecules.

  18. Comparison of antioxidant activity of insulin, Ocimum gratissimum L., and Vernonia amygdalina L. in type 1 diabetic rat model.

    PubMed

    Okon, Uduak Akpan; Umoren, Idorenyin Udo

    2017-07-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is known to be associated with increase of oxidative stress products. The direction of effect of any treatment on these products could therefore be a reliable measure of its efficacy on DM. So the aim of this study was to investigate the activity of insulin, Ocimum gratissimum L. (OG) and Vernonia amygdalina L. (VA) on oxidative stress products. Thirty-six female Wistar rats weighing 150-200 g were randomly divided into six groups of six rats each. Thirty rats were induced for type 1 DM (DM1) with a single intraperitoneal administration of 65 mg/kg body weight of streptozotocin. Group 1 was normal control and was administered distilled water while Group 2 served as DM1 control group; Groups 3, 4, 5 and 6 were diabetic rats treated with 208 mg/kg OG (DM1 + OG), 52 mg/kg VA (DM1 + VA), 208 mg/kg OG + 52 mg/kg VA (DM1 + OG + VA) and 0.16 IU insulin (DM1 + insulin) respectively. Determination of methemoglobin and sulfhemoglobin was achieved by the absorption spectrum principle. Red blood cell (RBC) catalase was assayed by continuous spectrophotometric method. The RBC catalase concentration was significantly decreased in the DM1 and DM1 + VA groups when compared with the normal control. DM1 + OG significantly increased RBC-catalase when compared to DM1. The methemoglobin concentration was significantly reduced in the DM1, DM1 + VA, DM1 + OG + VA and DM1 + insulin groups when compared to the normal control group. The sulfhemoglobin concentration was significantly increased in the diabetic control and the diabetic treated groups when compared to the normal control. DM1 + OG reduced the sulfhemoglobin concentration when compared to DM1. The blood glucose concentration of all the diabetic groups was significantly raised compared to normal control. OG, VA and insulin significantly reduced the blood glucose concentration with the efficacy of OG and VA higher than insulin. Adverse alteration of oxidative indices were observed in type 1 DM model

  19. A Multidisciplinary Study of Ciguatoxin and Related Low Molecular Weight Toxins from Marine Source

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-08-01

    viscera (liver and intestines) of guinea pigs, and the fruit of the avocado . Authentic ClX ws not available at the time the experiments outlined below...iully Treatmet of the tissues with attract~s from tilapiao, kale,. guines, pig viscera and avocado produced respnes slimilar to those ctain’ved with...all ultimately caused death. Avocado extract differad only in the anmumt necessary to procduce these effects, 80 - 100 ug/kg in two animals. Copy .c

  20. Design Methodology and Experimental Verification of Serpentine/Folded Waveguide TWTs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-17

    integration into the amplifier. The first of these is a small beam tunnel offset relative to the circuit bends, and the second is the slightly smaller... circuit topologies, which permit greater design flexibility than the basic serpen- tine/FW topologies, are also introduced, and their dispersion...challenging due to uncertainties in the fabrication and assembly of these small RF circuits . Serpentine and folded-waveguide (FW) TWTs are a class of VEDs

  1. High Power Density Spray Cooling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-01

    storage causing a large surface tanperature increase. In this case, the surface temperature quickly excee the Leidenfrost taperature, and the surface become...heat content of the liquid on the heat transfer rate at surface temperatures below the Leidenfrost point. All ccmparisons are in the form of total...experiment. lpariments were begun at roam temperature and ramVed up continuously until Leidenfrost conditions were reached, after which the heaters were

  2. Coordinated Research Program in Pulsed Power Physics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    LASER LABORATORY Department of Electrical Engineering TEXAS TECH UNIVERSJ Lubbock, Texas 79409 2c e pproVed f or ii ~~distribution ulmtd Unclassified...Department of Electrical Engineering Texas Tech University 230A7 Lubbock, Texas 79409 0/--/-77 II. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 12, REPORT DATE 14...Phenomena ..... .. 40 Project No. 4: Pulsed Power Surface Physics and Applications . 84 Project No. 5: Excited State Spectroscopy of Electrically Excited

  3. Shift and Scale Invariant Preprocessor.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    1982 THESIS D V SHIFT AND SCALE INVARIANT ?PREPROCESSOR by Norman E. Huston, Jr. December 1981 0 Thesis Advisor: L. A. Wilson Approved for public...SCHOOL December 1981 Author: - . 4 ,/ A pp ro0ved by: rYY. ( Thesis Advisor Co-Ad isor Chairman, De artment of 4n n eing Dean of Science and...large range of problems/disciplines. Fields where it is particularly common include optical imagery, acoustic signal processing , radiology, radio

  4. Verbal Emotional Disclosure of Traumatic Experiences in Adolescents: The Role of Social Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Silvia; Peñate, Wenceslao; Bethencourt, Juan M.; Fumero, Ascensión

    2017-01-01

    It is well-known that traumatic events and adverse life situations are very important in both physical and psychological health. Prevalence studies suggested that adolescents experience at least one potentially traumatic event before reaching age 18. The paradigm of research centered on expressive writing has evidenced the beneficial effects that the emotional disclosure of previous traumas produces on physical health and psychological adjustment. The aims of the study are threefold: determining the prevalence of adverse or traumatic events; examining the extent to which psychopathological symptoms developed in those exposed to traumatic events; and exploring an verbal emotional disclosure (VED) paradigm in which variations on time spent talking about traumatic experiences to others resulted in a reduction of the psychological impact of trauma in a sample of Spanish adolescents. 422 volunteer adolescents participated, 226 boys and 192 girls, from 10 to 19 years old, all of them living in Tenerife. The mean age was 14.8 years (SD = 1.83). All of them completed the instruments used to assess the psychological impact of traumatic experiences and VED. The main results indicated that 77% of the participants had suffered a traumatic situation. The participants who have been exposed to traumatic events scored significantly higher in measures of post-traumatic stress, disorder, intrusive thoughts, avoidance behaviors, anxiety and depression, compared to those without trauma. Furthermore, results show a decrease in symptomatology scores as a function of time spent disclosing emotional experiences to others, particularly when disclosure occurred several times. In conclusion, stressful events or traumatic experiences and their concomitant emotional effects are highly prevalent in adolescents, and repeated VED to others appears to ameliorate their impact. VED shows greater therapeutic benefits when adolescents narrate the experience on several occasions and in an extensive way

  5. An Analysis of the Air Force Logistics Command (AFLC) Forecasting Method for Predicting Second Destination Transportation (SDT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    Boston: PWS-Kent Publishing Company, 1988. 17. Pindyck , Robert S. and Daniel L. Rubinfeld. Econometric Models and Economic Forecasts (Second Edition...Mr. George T. Menker and his staff at HQ AFLC/DSXR. I am also deeply indebted to my advisor and friend Lt Col Robert E. Trempe for his technical...number) Thesis Advisor: Robert E. Trempe, Lt Col, USAF Instructor in Logistics Management Department of Logistics Management Appr ved for p lic re ease

  6. Forecasting Device Effectiveness. Volume 2. Procedures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-01

    18 months, but who have not ser- ved as gunners. Alternatively, they might be enlistees who have just finished Basic Combat Training (BCT) and on the...34 trouble-shooting a complex : piece of equipment. Consider the number of internal decisions or calculations that must be made in choosing your answer...training system chunk: the material to be learned into small blocks or steps appropriate to the complexity of the subtas:S (tasks) and the capabilities

  7. A Large-Scale Quantitative Proteomic Approach to Identifying Sulfur Mustard-Induced Protein Phosphorylation Cascades

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Maryland 21010 ReceiVed July 31, 2009 Probing the Dynamic Effect of Cys-CdTe Quantum Dots toward Cancer Cells in Vitro. See article on pp 82–88...specific proteins, such as p53, NF-κB, Bcl- 2, and others (1). While these studies are effective at probing individual pathways, they do not put into... effective at answering a range of biological questions, from targeted studies to global analyses. For example, metabolic labeling approaches such as stable

  8. Problem Solving and Reasoning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    response fre- of homework or test problems that the class was lems were esented quencies in two tasks. Findings that fit this working on at the time...psychological models were th this students who receive these tasks as homework simpler, and the inferences about processes ved by assignments and...quantitative relations study of children from kindergarten through and stud, nts must be able to choose formulas third grade. The versions differ in

  9. The novel role of fenofibrate in preventing nicotine- and sodium arsenite-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction in the rat.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Jagdeep; Reddy, Krishna; Balakumar, Pitchai

    2010-09-01

    The present study investigated the effect of fenofibrate, an agonist of PPAR-alpha, in nicotine- and sodium arsenite-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) in rats. Nicotine (2 mg/kg/day, i.p., 4 weeks) and sodium arsenite (1.5 mg/kg/day, i.p., 2 weeks) were administered to produce VED in rats. The scanning electron microscopy study in thoracic aorta revealed that administration of nicotine or sodium arsenite impaired the integrity of vascular endothelium. Further, administration of nicotine or sodium arsenite significantly decreased serum and aortic concentrations of nitrite/nitrate and subsequently reduced acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation. Moreover, nicotine or sodium arsenite produced oxidative stress by increasing serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and aortic superoxide generation. However, treatment with fenofibrate (30 mg/kg/day, p.o.) or atorvastatin (30 mg/kg/day p.o., a standard agent) significantly prevented nicotine- and sodium arsenite-induced VED and oxidative stress by improving the integrity of vascular endothelium, increasing the concentrations of serum and aortic nitrite/nitrate, enhancing the acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation and decreasing serum TBARS and aortic superoxide anion generation. Conversely, co-administration of L-NAME (25 mg/kg/day, i.p.), an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, markedly attenuated these vascular protective effects of fenofibrate. The administration of nicotine or sodium arsenite altered the lipid profile by increasing serum cholesterol and triglycerides and consequently decreasing high-density lipoprotein levels, which were significantly prevented by treatment with fenofibrate or atorvastatin. It may be concluded that fenofibrate improves the integrity and function of vascular endothelium, and the vascular protecting potential of fenofibrate in preventing the development of nicotine- and sodium arsenite-induced VED may be attributed to its

  10. Comparison of a Follow-On Analysis and Initial Findings of a Survey of the Perceived Quality of Life of Air Force People

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-07

    being, his satis- faction or dissatisfaction with life , or happiness or unhappiness [17:11]. Dr. Ben-Chieh Liu has defined QOL as: . . . the output...FOLLOW-ON ANALYSIS AND INITIAL FINDINGS OF A SURVEY OF THE PERCEIVED QUALITY OF LIFE OF AIR FORCE PEOPLE , /•’ / William L./George; Captain...A FOLLOW-ON ANALYSIS AND INITIAL FINDINGS OF A SURVEY OF THE PERCLiVED QUALITY OF LIFE OF AIR FORCE PEOPLE 5 TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOO COVERED

  11. Two-Dimensional Confined Jet Thrust Vector Control: Operating Mechanisms and Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-01

    Avdilability Codes Nsf / AvduI and Ior 4 01st Specia Appr-ved for public release; distribution unlimited Pr ef ace In this thesis, I continued the...exceptionally high quality test articles, also with impossible deadlines. - the von Karman Institute, Dr. M. Carbonaro provided me with theoretical and...Schlieren photographs and video tapes were used to study flow separation and internal shock structures. Nozzle performance parameters were determined for

  12. Assessment of Benefits and Drawbacks of Using Fuzzy Logic, Especially in Fire Control Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-01

    classitied by :W. Pelt classitication date :September 20, 1993 jp:op:ved ci.’ :::: - - - - title :ongerubriceerd manage mentuittreksel :Ongerubriceerd...kanonsysteem het gebruik van "fuzzy reasoning" technieken voorkwam. Dit voorstel is gedaan door SIGNAAL, in een opdracht van de KM. Het TNO-FEL had een...van bet gebruik van fuzzy logic in vergelijking met ’conventionele’ methoden. Geconcludeerd wordt dat er in principe goede mogelijkhieden voor

  13. An Implementation of Wavelet Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-07-01

    CLASSIFIED AD-A273 162 * DISTO High Frequency, RAdar Pivilsion TECHNICAL REPORT SRL-0122-TR AN IMPLEMENTATION OF WAVELET ANALYSIS by DTIC C.J...Coleman ELECTE 0 EE1 I II, 44 H 93-28032 Tilldl I ~APPRO VED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE I UNCLASSIFIED l UNCLASSIFIED DSTOAV A U S T R A L I A SURVEILLANCE...5 6 SIGNAL STRUCTURE .................................................. 9 7 CO NCLUSIO N S

  14. Qualification Test Report. Fuel Pump Test Stand. 3C3965G05

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-10-01

    ACTION REQESTS XII. OONCUB ICNS APPEDIX A. VED ORR ATION TESY D SHEETS APPENDIX B. EEFINITICN OF tUt CREA I=CN LIMITS APPENDIX C. CRREATION ETA...LO-DISCH. OPM P4-FIL OUT PSIO T4mIGV INLET - BYPASS OPM PS-DZSCH. PSI0 TSmDISCH. Q3 - IGV IN OPM P6-FIL BPV PSID T&mCELL AM1. r = SERVO RET. GPM

  15. Implementation Document for Groundwater Intercept and Treatment System, Basin A Neck IRA. Volume 3: Engineering Drawings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-01

    OR 1-000 LB. CONCENTRATED MOVING LOAD) 0. TOPOGRAPHICAL DATA IS ’ lEAN SEA -F4EL AND BASES .’.N OPERATING AND EQUIPMENT LAYDOAN AREA FLOORS = 250 osf...INEER APPR VED EQUAL) OINIE06 EQIPEN VNRY WIS EC0,OJPIE SEETI6 ."󈧒i)Vil 1ý21 3L SALE DSPLA LOO 6E T t CTER 20.. SAL.TV CAPAITY aE MANUFACTURIN CO

  16. The Shaped Charge Concept. Part 2. The History of Shaped Charges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    was called lde Beethoven and had a disamee of 180 an with 5,000 kg of high explosive. The Beethoven was designed for ums against ships mnd ground...foificauions. During the Normandy invasion, the Beethoven destroyed two batleships and four large uumrport ships. The Beethoven was the formunnir of die...large Gennan holov charge called the "MISTERIE?" (This is undoubtedl) the MISTEL which evo ved fhom the Beethoven charge discussed earlier). From the

  17. Verbal Emotional Disclosure of Traumatic Experiences in Adolescents: The Role of Social Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Silvia; Peñate, Wenceslao; Bethencourt, Juan M; Fumero, Ascensión

    2017-01-01

    It is well-known that traumatic events and adverse life situations are very important in both physical and psychological health. Prevalence studies suggested that adolescents experience at least one potentially traumatic event before reaching age 18. The paradigm of research centered on expressive writing has evidenced the beneficial effects that the emotional disclosure of previous traumas produces on physical health and psychological adjustment. The aims of the study are threefold: determining the prevalence of adverse or traumatic events; examining the extent to which psychopathological symptoms developed in those exposed to traumatic events; and exploring an verbal emotional disclosure (VED) paradigm in which variations on time spent talking about traumatic experiences to others resulted in a reduction of the psychological impact of trauma in a sample of Spanish adolescents. 422 volunteer adolescents participated, 226 boys and 192 girls, from 10 to 19 years old, all of them living in Tenerife. The mean age was 14.8 years (SD = 1.83). All of them completed the instruments used to assess the psychological impact of traumatic experiences and VED. The main results indicated that 77% of the participants had suffered a traumatic situation. The participants who have been exposed to traumatic events scored significantly higher in measures of post-traumatic stress, disorder, intrusive thoughts, avoidance behaviors, anxiety and depression, compared to those without trauma. Furthermore, results show a decrease in symptomatology scores as a function of time spent disclosing emotional experiences to others, particularly when disclosure occurred several times. In conclusion, stressful events or traumatic experiences and their concomitant emotional effects are highly prevalent in adolescents, and repeated VED to others appears to ameliorate their impact. VED shows greater therapeutic benefits when adolescents narrate the experience on several occasions and in an extensive way.

  18. Analysis of in vitro skin permeation of 22-oxacalcitriol having a complicated metabolic pathway.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Koji; Mitsui, Tetsuya; Yamamoto, Toshinori; Shiokawa, Rie; Nomiyama, Yuko; Ohishi, Norihisa; Aso, Yoshinori; Sugibayashi, Kenji

    2006-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze simultaneous skin permeation and metabolism of 22-oxacalcitriol (OCT) having several metabolites in skin by observing skin permeation of only unchanged OCT through excised rat skin. A diffusion model including metabolic processes was employed to express simultaneous skin permeation and metabolism of OCT. In vitro permeation experiments of OCT from Oxarol ointment through full-thickness and stripped rat skin were carried out using Franz-type diffusion cells. Time courses of unchanged OCT amounts in ointment, skin, and receptor fluid were determined and fitted to diffusion equations to obtain permeation parameters and a metabolic rate. Fitting curves of the skin permeation profile obtained by the model were sufficiently close to observed data of unchanged OCT amounts in ointment, skin, and receptor fluid. The following parameters were obtained: metabolic rate of 1.37 x 10(-1) h(-1), and diffusion constants of OCT in stratum corneum (SC) (D(SC)) and viable epidermis and dermis (VED) (D(VED)) of 1.50 x 10(-7) and 2.96 x 10(-4) cm2/h, respectively. The partition coefficient of OCT for SC/ointment (K(SC/D)) was 7 times greater than that of VED/ointment (K(VED/D)). The present analysis made it possible to calculate skin permeation parameters (partitioning, diffusivity, and metabolic rate) of OCT without requiring metabolic information, e.g., quantification of metabolites or identification of metabolic pathways. This would be widely applicable for drugs that are not suitable for conventional methods due to complicated metabolic pathways.

  19. Group Selection Methods and Contribution to the West Point Leadership Development System (WPLDS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    Network Science Center Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. U.S. Military...Academy Network Science Center Authorized a ~ ved for distribution: ~ WILLIAM PULllEYBLANK, Ph.D. /l~j) L fuA~oNY HNSON, Ph.D. Network Science ...Center Chair Director, Network Science Center Technical review by COL Howard D. Mcinvale, Ph.D., Department of Mathematical Sciences , U.S. Military

  20. The CCTC Quick-Reacting General War Gaming System (QUICK) Users Manual. Volume 3. Weapon Allocation Subsystem

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-04-15

    GENERAL Ld WAR GAMING SYSTEM (QUICK) VOLUME III WEAFON ALLOCATION SUBSYSTEM DEFENSE USERS MANUAL COMMUNICATIONS AGENCY FTHIS 2OCUP.ENT HiAS E APP)VED...GAMING SYSTEM Volume III Weapon Allocation Subsystem. SUBMITTED Bl("--- APPROVED BY: Q)C.. IIOMPSON 1ED EI A. RAF, . " Project Officel Captain, U.S...Volume III , provides detailed instructions for execution of the Weapon Allocatirn Subsystem and the modules it comprises. Companion documents are: a

  1. A Design-Aid and Cost Estimate Model for Suppressive Shielding Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-12-01

    Dou.-ar-tmelrit Of the Army. Tns0ni has been reviewed aniid isý -a7pro-ved for relase Fr Lurther informlation on this. pr-oject contact Dr . Ccorr--e L...5 Ivaterial Parameters ......... .. 00. .......... 5 Economic Parameters . ........ . ................... . 6 The Cost Equation...pipes, etc. (sae Appendix B) The economic value of suppressive structures must be determiined before they can replace the concrete barriers. An economic

  2. Vestibular nuclei characterized by calcium-binding protein immunoreactivity and tract tracing in Gekko gecko

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jing; Wang, Wenbo; Carr, Catherine E.; Dai, Zhendong; Tang, Yezhong

    2014-01-01

    Immunohistochemical techniques were used to describe the distribution of the calcium binding proteins calretinin, calbindin and parvalbumin as well as synaptic vesicle protein 2 in the vestibular nuclei of the Tokay gecko (Gekko gecko). In addition, tract tracing was used to investigate connections between the vestibular nerves and brainstem nuclei. Seven vestibular nuclei were recognized: the nuclei cerebellaris lateralis (Cerl), vestibularis dorsolateralis (Vedl), ventrolateralis (Vevl), ventromedialis (Vevm), tangentialis (Vetg), ovalis (VeO) and descendens (Veds). Vestibular fibers entered the brainstem with the ascending branch projecting to Vedl and Cerl, the lateral descending branch to Veds, and the medial descending branch to ipsilateral Vevl. Cerl lay most rostral, in the cerebellar peduncle. Vedl, located rostrally, was ventral to the cerebellar peduncle, and consisted of loosely arranged multipolar and monopolar cells. Vevl was found at the level of the vestibular nerve root and contained conspicuously large cells and medium-sized cells. Veds is a large nucleus, the most rostral portion of which is situated lateral and ventral to Vevl, and occupies much of the dorsal brainstem extending caudally through the medulla. VeO is a spherically shaped cell group lateral to the auditory nucleus magnocellularis and dorsal to the caudal part of Vevl. Vevm and Vetg were small in the present study. Except for VeO, all other vestibular nuclei appear directly comparable to counterparts in other reptiles and birds based on their location, cytoarchitecture, and connections, indicating these are conserved features of the vestibular system. PMID:23201031

  3. Vacuum erection device in treatment of organic erectile dysfunction and penile vascular differences between patients with DM type I and DM type II.

    PubMed

    Pajovic, Bogdan; Dimitrovski, Antonio; Fatic, Nikola; Malidzan, Milos; Vukovic, Marko

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate changes in the vascular system and hemodynamics between patients with organic erectile dysfunction (ED) (DM type I and II), as well as to compare the quality of sexual life between those two groups after the treatment with vacuum erection device (VED). Study enrolled 50 males with DM, aged from 35 to 67 years, who have attended the urologic clinic due to inability to attain and maintain an erection of the penis sufficient to permit satisfactory sexual intercourse. Patients were using VED and six months later were assessed for therapy results. The International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) was used to quantify erectile dysfunction. Alprostadil injection test was also used, with Doppler color flow imaging system, to evaluate the peak systolic velocity (PSV) and diameter of cavernosal artery (DCA). Significantly higher values of PSV were obtained in patients with DM type II. Also, DCA showed significant difference between two groups of patients. There was significant improvement in three items of IIEF after six months of treatment among both groups of examinees. Patients with DM type I had more serious risk for development of arteriogenic ED. VED could be a good alternative therapy for patients who denied peroral therapy.

  4. Vessel Enhancement and Segmentation of 4D CT Lung Image Using Stick Tensor Voting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cong, Tan; Hao, Yang; Jingli, Shi; Xuan, Yang

    2016-12-01

    Vessel enhancement and segmentation plays a significant role in medical image analysis. This paper proposes a novel vessel enhancement and segmentation method for 4D CT lung image using stick tensor voting algorithm, which focuses on addressing the vessel distortion issue of vessel enhancement diffusion (VED) method. Furthermore, the enhanced results are easily segmented using level-set segmentation. In our method, firstly, vessels are filtered using Frangi's filter to reduce intrapulmonary noises and extract rough blood vessels. Secondly, stick tensor voting algorithm is employed to estimate the correct direction along the vessel. Then the estimated direction along the vessel is used as the anisotropic diffusion direction of vessel in VED algorithm, which makes the intensity diffusion of points locating at the vessel wall be consistent with the directions of vessels and enhance the tubular features of vessels. Finally, vessels can be extracted from the enhanced image by applying level-set segmentation method. A number of experiments results show that our method outperforms traditional VED method in vessel enhancement and results in satisfied segmented vessels.

  5. Candidate THz sources: The history and future (?) of velocity-modulated devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Thomas H.

    2006-02-01

    Compelling applications for terahertz technology include medical diagnostics and imaging, extremely wideband communication (XWB), pollution monitoring and security threat detection. One impediment is a lack of practical sources in the 1-10THz frequency range. Room-temperature CW operation, high spectral purity, tunability, and power levels above the milliwatt range are additional requirements that compound the challenge. Continued scaling of feature sizes will enable traditional semiconductor devices to provide good small-signal performance at THz frequencies, but practically obtaining the desired output power levels is much less certain. Traditional coherent optical sources encounter downward frequency scaling difficulties as the energy state differences approach 25meV (corresponding to approximately 6THz, or 50μm free-space wavelength). Electronic devices dependent on velocity modulation obey rather different scaling laws and are strong candidates for bridging the "terahertz gap." As relatively few contemporary engineers are familiar with vacuum electronic devices (VEDs), and fewer still with velocity modulation, this paper reviews the history of velocity-modulated VEDs, starting with the observations of Barkhausen and Kurz in 1919, and proceeding to practical devices, such as the klystron, magnetron, traveling-wave tube (TWT) and backward-wave oscillator (BWO). We additionally consider how modern process technology enables a reconceiving of classical VEDs to produce devices capable of practical operation in the 1-10THz region.

  6. "Dieu a cree la femelle, l'homme a fait la femme." En rekognoscering i dansk og undenlandsk konssprogsforskning ("God Created the Female, Man Created Woman." A Reconnaissance in Danish and Foreign Research on Sex Differences and Language). ROLIG papir 32.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennicke, Annette

    Research on sex differences and language includes the following (many titles are English translations): "Language--The Child, the Women, the Family"; "Woman and Man"; "In Society's Words"; "The Life of Words"; "Verbs and Women"; "Lines from a Ladies Luncheon"; "The History of the Danish Language"; "How Sex Roles Are Represented and Conserved in…

  7. Répartition des dépôts carbonatés du Lias inférieur et moyen le long de la côte atlantique du Maroc: conséquences sur la paléogéographie de l'Atlantique naissant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dresnay, Renaud Du

    Along the Atlantic coast of Morocco a series of embayments or basins including the Essaouira-Jebel Amsittène and Tarfaya-Laayoune basins, contain marine sediments which may attain considerable thickness and whose Early Jurassic (Liassic) age has been well documented. This paper describes Liassic deposits from six exposures or drill holes between the Saharan coast of Tarfaya and the Essaouira-Jebel Amsittène region. These Atlantic basins do not connect with the marine troughs of the High and Middle Atlas, which follow a Mediterranean Tethys trend, but are separated from them by a SSW-NNE trending threshold made up of the axial portion of the central Hercynian Massif (Moroccan Meseta). Their opening to the ancestral Mediterranean must have been farther north, probably by means of interconnecting, WSW-ENE trending rift-related graben trenches, possibly starting with the Rharb (Kenitra) basin. More likely, however, openingsexisted beneath the present nappes of the Rif and along the undoubtedly wide fracture zone represented by the Azores-Gibraltar line separating the Rif terrain from that of the Betic Cordilleras (both of which contain well dated marine Hettangian). Farther SW, probably hidden by the sedimentary prism of the African continental shelf, connections may exist with the Liassic occurrence of Central America, as already suggested by Avias (1953. Sci. Terre1 (1), 1-276; 1956. 20° Congr. géol. Intern Mexico, Secc. II, 1-5), shown in a figure by Erben (1956b. Neues Jb. geol. paläontol. Abh., Stuttgart 103, 28-79), and subsequently upheld by Hallam (1971a. J. Geol. Chicago79 (2), 129-157; 1983. Palaeogeogr. P. clim. P. ecol.43, 181-193) and Thierry (1982. Bull. Soc. géol. Fr., Sér. 7, 24, 1053-1067). These lines of communication would have centered on a "Panamanian Strait" ("Panama Strasse") and would have permitted faunal migrations, in particular towards South America. Migrations of certain European and Mesogean faunal species have recently been proposed by Schmidt-Effing (1976a. Münster Forsch. Géol. Paläont.38-39, 201-217; 1976b. Publ. geol. ICAITI, Guatemala, 5, 22-23; 1980. In: The Origin of the Gulf of Mexico and the Early Opening of the Central North Atlantic Ocean (Edited by Pilger, R. H., Jr), pp. 79-86, Von Hillebrandt (1981b. Geol. Rdsch.70 (2), 570-582; 1984. Int. Symp. Jurassic Stratigraphy3, 716-729) and Riccardi (1983. In: The Phanerozoic Geology of the World (Edited by Moullade, M. and Nairn, A. E. M.), II. B, 201-264). Unless one believes that in all localities cosmopolitan faunas arrived from a universal ocean, these relationships lead to the model of an "Atlantic corridor", starting in the Middle, and perhaps even the Early Liassic (the "Paleotethys" of Bernoulli and Lemoine, 1980. Mém. Bur. Rech. géol. min.115, 168-179; or the "proto-Atlantic" or "Atlantic Tethys" of Lancelot, 1980. Mém. Bur. Rech. géol. min.115, 215-223; and Lancelot and Winterer, 1980 Initial Report of the Deep Sea Drilling Project50, 801-821; although the latter authors postulate such a connection only from Late Liassic time on). This model raises the specific question whether or not Early Jurassic deposits are present in the Senegal basin (Guieu, 1976. Rapp. Dépt. Géol. Fac. Sci. Univ. Dakar32, 1-87).

  8. Les manifestations tectoniques synsédimentaires associées à la compression éocène en Tunisie : implications paléogéographiques et structurales sur la marge Nord-AfricaineThe synsedimentary tectonic activity associated to Eocene shortening in Tunisia: implication in the palaeogeographic and structural evolution of the North African Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Ghali, Abdessalem; Ben Ayed, Noureddine; Bobier, Claude; Zargouni, Fouad; Krima, Anis

    2003-09-01

    In central Tunisia, a synsedimentary tectonic episode has been pointed out through the tectonic movements affecting the Late Palaeocene-Early Eocene successions. This tectonic episode has controlled, to a large extent, the palaeogeographic setting of the area during that period and confirmed the important effect induced by the Pyrenean shortening phase on the edge of the African plate, which obviously has witnessed a common history with the southern part of the European plate. To cite this article: A. El Ghali et al., C. R. Geoscience 335 (2003).

  9. Mise en évidence d'une nappe de charriage à deux unités paléogènes au plateau de Lansarine (Tunisie du Nord) : définition d'un nouvel élément structural de l'Atlas tunisien et réévaluation du calendrier des serrages tertiaires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masrouhi, Amara; Ghanmi, Mohamed; Youssef, Mohamed Ben; Vila, Jean-Marie; Zargouni, Fouad

    2007-05-01

    The Palaeogene plateau of the Lansarine area (northern Tunisia) is a thrust nappe formed by two Eocene limestone units, overlapping the marine Miocene series. The stacking of these two units and the coverage of the Neogene series are noticeable in several localities within the study area. The cartography permits the measurement of a NW-SE overthrust amplitude of 10 km with respect to the nearest southern overlapping of the Mateur peel thrusts, which are displaced themselves. The measured overthrust represents a minimal estimation based on the present erosion limits. These results indicate that the region has been exposed, at least, to two Tertiary compressive phases. The first one took place during the Late Eocene. This phase, which was characterized by a moderate folding, corresponds to the Atlasic phase. The second major phase, which has been dated to the Tortonian age, is responsible for the tangentially carrying of the Palaeogene series. These new data have allowed the recognition of a new tectonic unit in the Tunisian Atlas, which is the thrust nappe of the Jebel Lansarine.

  10. Explosion and/or fire risk assessment methodology: a common approach, structured for underground coalmine environments / Metoda szacowania ryzyka wybuchu i pożarów: podejście ogólne, dostosowane do środowiska kopalni podziemnej

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cioca, Ionel-Lucian; Moraru, Roland Iosif

    2012-10-01

    In order to meet statutory requirements concerning the workers health and safety, it is necessary for mine managers within Valea Jiului coal basin in Romania to address the potential for underground fires and explosions and their impact on the workforce and the mine ventilation systems. Highlighting the need for a unified and systematic approach of the specific risks, the authors are developing a general framework for fire/explosion risk assessment in gassy mines, based on the quantification of the likelihood of occurrence and gravity of the consequences of such undesired events and employing Root-Cause analysis method. It is emphasized that even a small fire should be regarded as being a major hazard from the point of view of explosion initiation, should a combustible atmosphere arise. The developed methodology, for the assessment of underground fire and explosion risks, is based on the known underground explosion hazards, fire engineering principles and fire test criteria for potentially combustible materials employed in mines.

  11. Synthesis of disperse graphene-like materials and their structural and electrochemical characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maleeva, E. A.; Tarasevich, M. R.

    2014-08-01

    Graphene-like materials of oxidized graphite (OG) were obtained by boiling in ethylene glycol, microwave treatment of a suspension of OG in ethylene glycol, and microwave treatment of dry OG without using solvents. The obtained materials were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), IR spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, elemental analysis, and electrochemical measurements. Microwave treatment of dry OG gave the most disperse material (˜400 m2/g) with an oxygen content of no more than 20%. Treatment in 0.5 M H2SO4 for 50 h at 60°C in oxygen did not lead to oxidation and was accompanied by an increase in the dispersity of this material.

  12. Observation of penning ionization in Zr-Ne discharge by optogalvanic effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khare, R.; Saini, V. K.; Shrivastava, V. K.; Nundy, U.

    2010-02-01

    The pulsed optogalvanic (OG) effect is used to observe Penning ionization in a Zr-Ne hollow-cathode discharge, which was axially irradiated by a pulsed dye laser pumped by copper vapor laser. The effect of discharge current on the temporal evolution of the OG signal is studied at 588.2, 594.5, 597.6 and 614.3 nm. The double humped temporal profile of the OG signals, corresponding to transitions of neon, and closeness of energy levels between that level of neon (Ne) and excited levels of zirconium (Zr) ions confirmed that Penning type of ionizing energy transfer collisions were taking place in the Zr-Ne discharge at lower discharge currents (≤5 mA). The disappearance of the double humped feature in the temporal profile of the OG signals indicated that the Penning contribution became negligible at higher discharge currents (≥10 mA).

  13. International Space Station United States Orbital Segment Oxygen Generation System On-Orbit Operational Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Robert J.; Howe, John, Jr.; Kulp, Galen W.; VanKeuren, Steven P.

    2008-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) United States Orbital Segment (USOS) Oxygen Generation System (OGS) was originally intended to be installed in ISS Node 3. The OGS rack delivery was accelerated, and it was launched to ISS in July of 2006 and installed in the US Laboratory Module. Various modification kits were installed to provide its interfaces, and the OGS was first activated in July of 2007 for 15 hours, In October of 2007 it was again activated for 76 hours with varied production rates and day/night cycling. Operational time in each instance was limited by the quantity of feedwater in a Payload Water Reservoir (PWR) bag. Feedwater will be provided by PWR bag until the USOS Water Recovery System (WRS) is delivered to SS in fall of 2008. This paper will discuss operating experience and characteristics of the OGS, as well as operational issues and their resolution.

  14. Williams performs LAB1D1 Rack rotation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-01-03

    ISS014-E-11069 (3 Jan. 2007) --- Astronaut Sunita L. Williams, Expedition 14 flight engineer, looks through an opening during the Oxygen Generator System (OGS) rack rotation in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station.

  15. 40 CFR 432.2 - General definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the production of fresh or frozen products, and may include the following types of processing: Cutting... measured as nitrogen. (2) BOD 5 means 5-day biochemical oxygen demand. (3) O&G means total recoverable oil...

  16. 40 CFR 432.2 - General definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the production of fresh or frozen products, and may include the following types of processing: Cutting... measured as nitrogen. (2) BOD 5 means 5-day biochemical oxygen demand. (3) O&G means total recoverable oil...

  17. Digital Atlas and Evaluation of the Influence of Inter-Annual Variability on Climate Analyses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-01

    Abstracts, Institute Nationale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale-OGS, Trieste, Italy 2001 р. 65 Unesco 1993: Manual of quality control procedures for validation of oceanographic data, IOC UNESCO, pp.436. 995

  18. Chemistry union unveils names of four new elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Hamish

    2016-07-01

    The periodic table could soon be graced by four new symbols - Nh, Mc, Ts and Og - after the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) unveiled its proposed names for the four most recently discovered elements.

  19. How Is Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Treated?

    MedlinePlus

    ... surgery, you may be a candidate for it. Augmentation (og-men-TA-shun) therapy is a treatment ... bloodstream. They're also studying a type of augmentation therapy in which the AAT protein is inhaled ...

  20. Size distribution and source of black carbon aerosol in urban Beijing during winter haze episodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yunfei; Wang, Xiaojia; Tao, Jun; Huang, Rujin; Tian, Ping; Cao, Junji; Zhang, Leiming; Ho, Kin-Fai; Han, Zhiwei; Zhang, Renjian

    2017-06-01

    Black carbon (BC) has important impact on climate and environment due to its light absorption ability, which greatly depends on its physicochemical properties including morphology, size and mixing state. The size distribution of the refractory BC (rBC) was investigated in urban Beijing in the late winter of 2014, during which there were frequent haze events, through analysis of measurements obtained using a single-particle soot photometer (SP2). By assuming void-free rBC with a density of 1.8 g cm-3, the mass of the rBC showed an approximately lognormal distribution as a function of the volume-equivalent diameter (VED), with a peak diameter of 213 nm. Larger VED values of the rBC were observed during polluted periods than on clean days, implying an alteration in the rBC sources, as the size distribution of the rBC from a certain source was relative stable, and VED of an individual rBC varied little once it was emitted into the atmosphere. The potential source contribution function analysis showed that air masses from the south to east of the observation site brought higher rBC loadings with more thick coatings and larger core sizes. The mean VED of the rBC presented a significant linear correlation with the number fraction of thickly coated rBC, extrapolating to be ˜ 150 nm for the completely non-coated or thinly coated rBC. It was considered as the typical mean VED of the rBC from local traffic sources in this study. Local traffic was estimated to contribute 35 to 100 % of the hourly rBC mass concentration with a mean of 59 % during the campaign. Lower local traffic contributions were observed during polluted periods, suggesting increasing contributions from other sources (e.g., coal combustion and biomass burning) to the rBC. Thus, the heavy pollution in Beijing was greatly influenced by other sources in addition to the local traffic.

  1. The opposite roles of agdA and glaA on citric acid production in Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Cao, Zhanglei; Hou, Li; Yin, Liuhua; Wang, Dawei; Gao, Qiang; Wu, Zhenqiang; Wang, Depei

    2016-07-01

    Citric acid is produced by an industrial-scale process of fermentation using Aspergillus niger as a microbial cell factory. However, citric acid production was hindered by the non-fermentable isomaltose and insufficient saccharification ability in A. niger when liquefied corn starch was used as a raw material. In this study, A. niger TNA 101ΔagdA was constructed by deletion of the α-glucosidase-encoding agdA gene in A. niger CGMCC 10142 genome using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. The transformants A. niger OG 1, OG 17, and OG 31 then underwent overexpression of glucoamylase in A. niger TNA 101ΔagdA. The results showed that the α-glucosidase activity of TNA 101ΔagdA was decreased by 62.5 % compared with CGMCC 10142, and isomaltose was almost undetectable in the fermentation broth. The glucoamylase activity of the transformants OG 1 and OG 17 increased by 34.5 and 16.89 % compared with that of TNA 101ΔagdA, respectively. In addition, for the recombinants TNA 101ΔagdA, OG 1 and OG 17, there were no apparent defects in the growth development. Consequently, in comparison with CGMCC 10142, TNA 101ΔagdA and OG 1 decreased the residual reducing sugar by 52.95 and 88.24 %, respectively, and correspondingly increased citric acid production at the end of fermentation by 8.68 and 16.87 %. Citric acid production was further improved by decreasing the non-fermentable residual sugar and increasing utilization rate of corn starch material in A. niger. Besides, the successive saccharification and citric acid fermentation processes were successfully integrated into one step.

  2. Investigation into the High Voltage Shutdown of the Oxygen Generator System in the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Joyce E.; Gentry, Gregory J.; Diderich, Greg S.; Roy, Robert J.; Golden, John L.; VanKeuren, Steve; Steele, John W.; Rector, Tony J.; Varsik, Jerome D.; Montefusco, Daniel J.; Wilson, Mark E.; Worthy, Erica S.

    2012-01-01

    The Oxygen Generation System (OGS) Hydrogen Dome Assembly Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU) serial number 00001 suffered a cell stack high-voltage shutdown on July 5, 2010. The Hydrogen Dome Assembly ORU was removed and replaced with the on-board spare ORU serial number 00002 to maintain OGS operation. The Hydrogen Dome Assembly ORU was returned from ISS on STS-133/ULF-5 in March 2011 with test, teardown and evaluation (TT&E) and failure analysis to follow.

  3. Comparing Top-down and Bottom-up Estimates of Methane Emissions across Multiple U.S. Basins Provides Insights into National Oil and Gas Emissions and Mitigation Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamburg, S.; Alvarez, R.; Lyon, D. R.; Zavala-Araiza, D.

    2016-12-01

    Several recent studies quantified regional methane emissions in U.S. oil and gas (O&G) basins using top-down approaches such as airborne mass balance measurements. These studies apportioned total methane emissions to O&G based on hydrocarbon ratios or subtracting bottom-up estimates of other sources. In most studies, top-down estimates of O&G methane emissions exceeded bottom-up emission inventories. An exception is the Barnett Shale Coordinated Campaign, which found agreement between aircraft mass balance estimates and a custom emission inventory. Reconciliation of Barnett Shale O&G emissions depended on two key features: 1) matching the spatial domains of top-down and bottom-up estimates, and 2) accounting for fat-tail sources in site-level emission factors. We construct spatially explicit custom emission inventories for domains with top-down O&G emission estimates in eight major U.S. oil and gas production basins using a variety of data sources including a spatially-allocated U.S. EPA Greenhouse Gas Inventory, the EPA Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program, state emission inventories, and recently published measurement studies. A comparison of top-down and our bottom-up estimates of O&G emissions constrains the gap between these approaches and elucidates regional variability in production-normalized loss rates. A comparison of component-level and site-level emission estimates of production sites in the Barnett Shale region - where comprehensive activity data and emissions estimates are available - indicates that abnormal process conditions contribute about 20% of regional O&G emissions. Combining these two analyses provides insights into the relative importance of different equipment, processes, and malfunctions to emissions in each basin. These data allow us to estimate the U.S. O&G supply chain loss rate, recommend mitigation strategies to reduce emissions from existing infrastructure, and discuss how a similar approach can be applied internationally.

  4. Foot-Ground Reaction Force During Resistance Exercise in Parabolic Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Stuart M. C.; Cobb, Kendall; Loehr, James A.; Nguyen, Daniel; Schneider, Suzanne M.

    2003-01-01

    An interim Resistance Exercise Device (iRED) was designed to provide resistive exercise as a countermeasure to space flight-induced loss of muscle strength and endurance as well as decreased bone mineral density. The purpose of this project was to compare foot-ground reaction force during iRED exercise in normal gravity (l-g) versus micro gravity (O-g) achieved during parabolic flight. METHODS: Four subjects performed three exercises using the iRED (squat, heel raise, and deadlift) during I-g and O-g at a moderate intensity (60% of maximum strength during deadlift exercise). Foot-ground reaction force was measured in three axes (x,y,z) using a force plate, and the magnitude of the resultant force vector was calculated (r = X 2 + y2 + Z2 ). Range of motion (ROM) was measured using a linear encoder. Peak force (PkF) and total work (TW) were calculated using a customized computer program. Paired t-tests were used to test if significant differences (p.::::0.05) were observed between I-g and O-g exercise. RESULTS: PkF and TW measured in the resultant axis were significantly less in O-g for each of the exercises tested. During O-g, PkF was 42-46% and TW was 33- 37% of that measured during I-g. ROM and average time to complete each repetition were not different from I-g to O-g. CONCLUSIONS: When performing exercises in which body mass is a portion of the resistance during I-g, PkF and TW measured during resistive exercise were reduced approximately 60-70% during O-g. Thus, a resistive exercise device during O-g will be required to provided higher resistances to induce a similar training stimulus to that on Earth.

  5. Oxygen Generator System Mars In-Situ Propellant Production Precursor Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridhar, K. R.; Gottmann, M.; Baird, R. S.

    1999-01-01

    The 2001 Lander to Mars will carry the first ever In situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) payload to Mars. This payload, the Mars In-situ Propellant production Precursor (MIP), will demonstrate a variety of technologies that will be required for future ISRU Mars indigenous material processing plant designs. One of those technologies is that of extracting oxygen from the predominantly carbon dioxide atmosphere of Mars, a prerequisite for future sample return and human missions to Mars. The Oxygen Generator Subsystem (OGS) portion of the MIP will demonstrate this and is the focus of this paper. The primary objective of the OGS is to demonstrate the production of oxygen from Mars atmospheric gases. Secondary objectives are to measure the performance and reliability of oxygen generation hardware in actual mission environments over an extended time. Major constraints on the OGS design came from several sources. The Lander provides power to the system from solar power that is harnessed by photovoltaic arrays. This limited OGS to daytime only operations (six to eight hours) and a maximum power of 15W. The reliance on solar power necessitated thermal cycling of the OGS between Mars ambient and OGS operating temperatures. The Lander also limited the total mass of the MIP payload to 7.5 kg with a correspondingly small volume, and the OGS was one of six experiments in the MIP Mass and volume were to be minimized. Another constraint was cost. Mission funding, as always, was tight. Cost was to be minimized. In short the OGS design had to be low power (<15 Watts), low mass (1 kg), low volume, low cost, and be capable of cyclical operations for an extended stay on Mars. After extensive research, a zirconia based solid oxide electrolyzer design was selected.

  6. Oxygen Generator System Mars In-Situ Propellant Production Precursor Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridhar, K. R.; Gottmann, M.; Baird, R. S.

    1999-01-01

    The 2001 Lander to Mars will carry the first ever ISRU payload to Mars. This payload, the Mars In-situ Propellant production Precursor (MIP), will demonstrate a variety of technologies that will be required for future ISRU Mars indigenous material processing plant designs. One of those technologies is that of extracting oxygen from the predominantly carbon dioxide atmosphere of Mars, a prerequisite for future sample return and human missions to Mars. The Oxygen Generator Subsystem (OGS) portion of the MIP will demonstrate this and is the focus of this paper. The primary objective of the OGS is to demonstrate the production of oxygen from Mars atmospheric gases. Secondary objectives are to measure the performance and reliability of oxygen generation hardware in actual mission environments over an extended time. Major constraints on the OGS design came from several sources. The Lander provides power to the system from solar power that is harnessed by photovoltaic arrays. This limited OGS to daytime only operations (six to eight hours) and a maximum power of 15W. The reliance on solar power necessitated thermal cycling of the OGS between Mars ambient and OGS operating temperatures. The Lander also limited the total mass of the MIP payload to 7.5 kg with a correspondingly small volume, and the OGS was one of six experiments in the MIP. Mass and volume were to be minimized. Another constraint was cost. Mission funding, as always, was tight. Cost was to be minimized. In short the OGS design had to be low power (<15 Watts), low mass (1 kg), low volume, low cost, and be capable of cyclical operations for an extended stay on Mars. After extensive research, a zirconia based solid oxide electrolyzer design was selected.

  7. Methanol extract of Ocimum gratissimum protects murine peritoneal macrophages from nicotine toxicity by decreasing free radical generation, lipid and protein damage and enhances antioxidant protection

    PubMed Central

    Mahapatra, Santanu Kar; Chakraborty, Subhankari Prasad; Das, Subhasis

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, methanol extract of Ocimum gratissimum Linn (ME-Og) was tested against nicotine-induced murine peritoneal macrophage in vitro. Phytochemical analysis of ME-Og shown high amount of flavonoid and phenolic compound present in it. The cytotoxic effect of ME-Og was studied in murine peritoneal macrophages at different concentrations (0.1 to 100 µg/ml) using the 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) method. To establish the protective role of ME-Og against nicotine toxicity, peritoneal macrophages from mice were treated with nicotine (10 mM), nicotine + ME-Og (1 to 25 µg/ml) for 12 h in culture media. The significantly (p < 0.05) increased super oxide anion generation, reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase activity, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyls, oxidized glutathione levels were observed in nicotine-treated group as compared to control group; those were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced in ME-Og supplemented groups in concentration dependent manner. More over, significantly (p < 0.05) reduced antioxidant status due to nicotine exposure was effectively ameliorated by ME-Og supplementation in murine peritoneal macrophages. Among the different concentration of ME-Og, maximum protective effect was observed by 25 µg/ml, which does not produce significant cell cytotoxicity in murine peritoneal macrophages. These findings suggest the potential use and beneficial role of O. gratissimum as a modulator of nicotine-induced free radical generation, lipid-protein damage and antioxidant status in important immune cell, peritoneal macrophages. PMID:20716908

  8. 40 CFR 420.127 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... values for 30 consecutive days Kilograms per day TSS 38.1 16.3 O&G 16.3 5.45 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the... Pollutant or pollutant property BCT effluent limitations Maximum for any 1 day Average of daily values for 30 consecutive days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.175 0.0751 O&G 0.0751 0.0250 pH (1...

  9. Oxygen Generator System Mars In-Situ Propellant Production Precursor Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridhar, K. R.; Gottmann, M.; Baird, R. S.

    1999-01-01

    The 2001 Lander to Mars will carry the first ever In situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) payload to Mars. This payload, the Mars In-situ Propellant production Precursor (MIP), will demonstrate a variety of technologies that will be required for future ISRU Mars indigenous material processing plant designs. One of those technologies is that of extracting oxygen from the predominantly carbon dioxide atmosphere of Mars, a prerequisite for future sample return and human missions to Mars. The Oxygen Generator Subsystem (OGS) portion of the MIP will demonstrate this and is the focus of this paper. The primary objective of the OGS is to demonstrate the production of oxygen from Mars atmospheric gases. Secondary objectives are to measure the performance and reliability of oxygen generation hardware in actual mission environments over an extended time. Major constraints on the OGS design came from several sources. The Lander provides power to the system from solar power that is harnessed by photovoltaic arrays. This limited OGS to daytime only operations (six to eight hours) and a maximum power of 15W. The reliance on solar power necessitated thermal cycling of the OGS between Mars ambient and OGS operating temperatures. The Lander also limited the total mass of the MIP payload to 7.5 kg with a correspondingly small volume, and the OGS was one of six experiments in the MIP Mass and volume were to be minimized. Another constraint was cost. Mission funding, as always, was tight. Cost was to be minimized. In short the OGS design had to be low power (<15 Watts), low mass (1 kg), low volume, low cost, and be capable of cyclical operations for an extended stay on Mars. After extensive research, a zirconia based solid oxide electrolyzer design was selected.

  10. Oxygen Generator System Mars In-Situ Propellant Production Precursor Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridhar, K. R.; Gottmann, M.; Baird, R. S.

    1999-01-01

    The 2001 Lander to Mars will carry the first ever ISRU payload to Mars. This payload, the Mars In-situ Propellant production Precursor (MIP), will demonstrate a variety of technologies that will be required for future ISRU Mars indigenous material processing plant designs. One of those technologies is that of extracting oxygen from the predominantly carbon dioxide atmosphere of Mars, a prerequisite for future sample return and human missions to Mars. The Oxygen Generator Subsystem (OGS) portion of the MIP will demonstrate this and is the focus of this paper. The primary objective of the OGS is to demonstrate the production of oxygen from Mars atmospheric gases. Secondary objectives are to measure the performance and reliability of oxygen generation hardware in actual mission environments over an extended time. Major constraints on the OGS design came from several sources. The Lander provides power to the system from solar power that is harnessed by photovoltaic arrays. This limited OGS to daytime only operations (six to eight hours) and a maximum power of 15W. The reliance on solar power necessitated thermal cycling of the OGS between Mars ambient and OGS operating temperatures. The Lander also limited the total mass of the MIP payload to 7.5 kg with a correspondingly small volume, and the OGS was one of six experiments in the MIP. Mass and volume were to be minimized. Another constraint was cost. Mission funding, as always, was tight. Cost was to be minimized. In short the OGS design had to be low power (<15 Watts), low mass (1 kg), low volume, low cost, and be capable of cyclical operations for an extended stay on Mars. After extensive research, a zirconia based solid oxide electrolyzer design was selected.

  11. Government Contractors and Sticky SGA Costs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    Government Contractors and Sticky SGA Costs by Stephen C. Hansen Naval Postgraduate School These discussion comments reflect the private...2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Government Contractors and Sticky SGA Costs 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT... contractors . Let Fseg = 1 if a company is a Federal Focus Firm. l ( SGAit ) L ( Revenueit ) og ’ =a0+a1 og ’ SGAi,t-1 Revenuei,t- 1 ( Revenue· t

  12. 40 CFR 420.117 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alkaline Cleaning Subcategory... of daily values for 30 consecutive days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.0730 0.0313 O&G... days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.102 0.0438 O&G 0.0438 0.0146 pH (1) (1) 1 Within...

  13. Validation of the American Board of Orthodontics Objective Grading System for assessing the treatment outcomes of Chinese patients.

    PubMed

    Song, Guang-Ying; Baumrind, Sheldon; Zhao, Zhi-He; Ding, Yin; Bai, Yu-Xing; Wang, Lin; He, Hong; Shen, Gang; Li, Wei-Ran; Wu, Wei-Zi; Ren, Chong; Weng, Xuan-Rong; Geng, Zhi; Xu, Tian-Min

    2013-09-01

    Orthodontics in China has developed rapidly, but there is no standard index of treatment outcomes. We assessed the validity of the American Board of Orthodontics Objective Grading System (ABO-OGS) for the classification of treatment outcomes in Chinese patients. We randomly selected 108 patients who completed treatment between July 2005 and September 2008 in 6 orthodontic treatment centers across China. Sixty-nine experienced Chinese orthodontists made subjective assessments of the end-of-treatment casts for each patient. Three examiners then used the ABO-OGS to measure the casts. Pearson correlation analysis and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis were conducted to evaluate the correspondence between the ABO-OGS cast measurements and the orthodontists' subjective assessments. The average subjective grading scores were highly correlated with the ABO-OGS scores (r = 0.7042). Four of the 7 study cast components of the ABO-OGS score-occlusal relationship, overjet, interproximal contact, and alignment-were statistically significantly correlated with the judges' subjective assessments. Together, these 4 accounted for 58% of the variability in the average subjective grading scores. The ABO-OGS cutoff score for cases that the judges deemed satisfactory was 16 points; the corresponding cutoff score for cases that the judges considered acceptable was 21 points. The ABO-OGS is a valid index for the assessment of treatment outcomes in Chinese patients. By comparing the objective scores on this modification of the ABO-OGS with the mean subjective assessment of a panel of highly qualified Chinese orthodontists, a cutoff point for satisfactory treatment outcome was defined as 16 points or fewer, with scores of 16 to 21 points denoting less than satisfactory but still acceptable treatment. Cases that scored greater than 21 points were considered unacceptable. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Enhanced degradation of Orange G by permanganate with the employment of iron anode.

    PubMed

    Bu, Lingjun; Shi, Zhou; Zhou, Shiqing

    2017-01-01

    Iron anode was employed to enhance the degradation of Orange G (OG) by permanganate (EC/KMnO4). Continuously generated Fe(2+) from iron anode facilitated the formation of fresh MnO2, which plays a role in catalyzing permanganate oxidation. The EC/KMnO4 system also showed a better performance to remove OG than Fe(2+)/KMnO4, indicating the importance of in situ formed fresh MnO2. Besides, the effects of applied current, KMnO4 dosage, solution pH, and natural organics were evaluated and results demonstrated that high current and oxidant dosage are favorable for OG removal. And the application of iron anode has a promoting effect on the KMnO4 oxidation over a wide pH range (5.0-9.0), while the Fe(2+)/KMnO4 process does not. For natural organics, its presence could inhibit OG removal due to its competitive role. And the promoting effect of OG removal by the EC/KMnO4 process in natural water was confirmed. At last, the EC/KMnO4 process showed a satisfying performance on the decolorization and mineralization of OG. This study provides a potential technology to enhance permanganate oxidation and broadens the knowledge of azo dye removal.

  15. Two strains of roof rats as effective models for assessing new-object reaction.

    PubMed

    Kiyokawa, Yasushi; Tanaka, Kazuyuki D; Ishii, Akiko; Mikami, Kaori; Katayama, Masatoshi; Koizumi, Ryoko; Minami, Syota; Tanikawa, Tsutomu; Takeuchi, Yukari

    2017-04-05

    Wild animals generally avoid even small and harmless novel objects and/or familiar objects moved to a novel position, which is termed "new-object reaction". Although new-object reaction appears to be a biologically important characteristic for animals, little progress has been made in understanding the neural mechanisms underlying new-object reaction. One reason might be the lack of effective experimental animals. Two strains of roof rats (Sj and Og strains) were established from wild roof rats caught in Shinjuku, Tokyo and one of the Ogasawara Islands, respectively, by a Japanese pest control company. Based on the rat caregivers' informal observations, we conducted behavioral and anatomical tests to assess the validity of Sj and Og strains for the analyses of new-object reaction. In Experiment 1, the Sj strain showed reduced food consumption compared with the Og strain when food was provided in a novel way, suggesting that the Sj strain had a stronger avoidance of novel objects compared with the Og strain. Experiment 2 demonstrated that the basolateral complex of the amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in experimental Sj rats had a larger percentage area compared with that of experimental Og rats, indicating these nuclei might be involved in the difference observed in avoidance of novel objects between the strains. Taken together, the present study suggests that Sj and Og strains are effective experimental animals for assessing new-object reaction.

  16. Identification of chicoric acid as a hypoglycemic agent from Ocimum gratissimum leaf extract in a biomonitoring in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Casanova, Livia Marques; da Silva, Daniel; Sola-Penna, Mauro; Camargo, Luiza Maria de Magalhães; Celestrini, Deborah de Moura; Tinoco, Luzineide Wanderley; Costa, Sônia Soares

    2014-03-01

    Ocimum gratissimum L. is popularly used to treat diabetes mellitus. The hypoglycemic activity of this medicinal species has been confirmed by in vivo studies. The present study conducted a chemical investigation of a leaf decoction (10% p/v) of O. gratissimum monitored by in vivo hypoglycemic activity assays. Four phenolic substances were identified: L-caftaric acid (1), L-chicoric acid (2), eugenyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (3) and vicenin-2 (4). The acute hypoglycemic activity of the O. gratissimum decoction fractions Og1-S (300 mg/kg), Og1-A (240 mg/kg) and Og1-B (80 mg/kg) was evaluated intraperitoneally in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. They reduced glycemia by 63%, 76% and 60% (in 120 min), respectively, in the diabetic mice. Subfractions of Og1-A were also evaluated under the same conditions: Og1-AS (200 mg/kg) and Og1-AP (40 mg/kg) produced a decrease of only 37% and 39%, respectively. Among the major phenolic substances, only chicoric acid (2; 3 mg/kg) reduced significantly the glycemic levels of diabetic mice by 53%, 120 min after treatment. This is the first study describing the hypoglycemic activity of chicoric acid in an animal model of diabetes mellitus. In addition, we suggest that there may be other substances contributing to this activity. Thus, for the first time, a correlation is established between the hypoglycemic activity of O. gratissimum and its chemical composition.

  17. Thermal behaviour of cubic phases rich in 1-monooleoyl-rac-glycerol in the ternary system. 1-monooleoyl-rac-glycerol/n-octyl-beta-D-glucoside/water.

    PubMed

    Persson, Gerd; Edlund, Håkan; Lindblom, Göran

    2003-01-01

    Using synchrotron X-ray diffraction the thermal behaviour was studied of the cubic phases in the 1-monooleoyl-rac-glycerol (MO)/n-octyl-beta-d-glucopyranoside (OG)/2H2O system with 58 or 45 wt % MO concentration and varying OG/2H2O contents. These MO contents correspond to a Pn3m cubic single-phase or a Pn3m cubic phase in excess water on the binary MO/water axis of the ternary phase diagram. The cubic liquid crystalline phases are stable with small fractions of OG, while higher OG concentrations trigger a cubic-to-lamellar phase transition. Moreover, with increasing OG concentration the initial Pn3m structure is completely converted to an Ia3d structure prior to the Lalpha phase being formed. Upon heating this effect is reversed, resulting in an Ia3d-to-Pn3m phase transition. For some samples additional peaks were observed in the diffractograms upon heating, resulting from the metastability notoriously shown by bicontinuous cubic phases. This judgement is supported by the fact that upon cooling these peaks were absent. Remarkably, both the Ia3d and the Pn3m cubic structures could be in equilibrium with excess water in this ternary system. A comparison is made with previous results on n-dodecyl-beta-d-maltoside (DM), showing that cubic phases with OG have higher thermal and compositional stability than with DM.

  18. Importance of the Endocarditis and Biofilm-associated Pilus (ebp) Locus in the Pathogenesis of Enterococcus faecalis Ascending Urinary Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Kavindra V.; Nallapareddy, Sreedhar R.; Murray, Barbara E.

    2009-01-01

    Background We recently showed that the ubiquitous Enterococcus faecalis ebp (endocarditis and biofilm-associated pilus) operon was important for biofilm and experimental endocarditis. Here we assess its role in murine urinary tract infection using wild type E. faecalis OG1RF and its nonpiliated ebpA allelic replacement mutant (TX5475). Methods OG1RF and TX5475 were administered transurethrally in a 1:1 ratio (competition assay) or individually (monoinfection). Kidneys and bladders were cultured 48 h postinfection. These strains were also tested in a peritonitis model. Results No differences were observed in the peritonitis model. In mixed urinary infection, OG1RF significantly outnumbered TX5475 in kidneys (P=0.0033) and bladders (P=<0.0001). More OG1RF CFU were also recovered from kidneys of monoinfected mice at the four inocula tested (P=0.015 to 0.049) and ID50s of OG1RF for kidney and bladder (9.1 × 101 and 3.5 × 103 CFU, respectively) were two-three log10 lower than with TX5475. Increased tropism for the kidney relative to the bladder was observed by both OG1RF and TX5475. Conclusion The ebp locus, part of the core genome of E. faecalis, contributes to infection in an ascending UTI model and is the first such enterococcal locus shown to be important in this site. PMID:17471437

  19. Three Years of on Orbit ISS Oxygen Generation System Operation 2007-2010

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diderich, Greg S.; Polis, Pete; VanKeuren, Steven P.; Erickson, Bob

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) United States Orbital Segment (USOS) Oxygen Generation System (OGS) has accumulated 240 days of continuous operation at varied oxygen production rates within the US Laboratory Module (LAB) since it was first activated in July 2007. OGS relocated from the ISS LAB to Node 3 during 20A Flight (February 2010). The OGS rack delivery was accelerated for on-orbit checkout in the LAB, and it was launched to ISS in July of 2006. During the on-orbit checkout interval within the LAB from July 2007 to October 2008, OGS operational times were limited by the quantity of feedwater in a Payload Water Reservoir (PWR) bag. Longer runtimes are now achievable due to the continuous feedwater availability after ULF2 delivery and activation of the USOS Water Recovery System (WRS) racks. OGS is considered a critical function to maintaining six crew capability. There have been a number of failures which interrupted or threatened to interrupt oxygen production. Filters in the recirculation loop have clogged and have been replaced, Hydrogen sensors have fallen out of specifications, a pump delta pressure sensor failed, a pump failed to start, and the voltage on the cell stack increased out of tolerance. This paper will discuss the operating experience and characteristics of the OGS, as well as operational issues and their resolution.

  20. Physiological profiles of Australian surf boat rowers.

    PubMed

    Fell, J W; Gaffney, P T

    2001-06-01

    The physiological profiles of 17 open grade (OG) and 13 reserve grade (RG) male surfboat rowers (SBR) aged 19-44 years were determined and compared. Parameters investigated included anthropometry, agility, isometric strength, flexibility, rowing ergometer performance (MT), peak VO2 and arterialised blood pH, lactate and bicarbonate. Means were compared using t-tests. Multiple regression analyses provided a number of models for the prediction of MT performance in SBR. The mean age, height, mass, and sum of eight skinfolds for SBR are: 26.2 (+/-5.9) years, 180.5 (+/-6.0) cm, 84.4 (+/-9.3) kg and 78.2 (+/-26.2) mm respectively. OG rowers were significantly different from RG for the parameters of ergometer performance (OG: 1360.2+/-42.9 m; RG: 1316.4+/-41.8 m), peak ventilation (OG: 174.2+/-17.2 L x min(-1); RG: 154.8+/-22.1 L x min(-1)), and post exercise blood pH levels (OG: 6.98+/-0.07; RG: 7.04+/-0.07). Performance on a rowing ergometer successfully discriminates between OG and RG rowers with the best predictors of ergometer performance in SBR being height, peak ventilation, and post exercise pH.

  1. PubMed

    Pimenta, Manoela Siqueira; Lobo, Nayana Santiago Guedis; Vieira, Virna Castelo; Costa, Ângela Maria Alves da; Costa, Flávio Nogueira da; Pereira, Sérgio Luís da Silva

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiplaque effect of Ocimum gratissimum (Og) by in vivo investigation. Fifteen healthy volunteers participated in a crossover, double-blind clinical study, using a 3-day partial-mouth plaque accumulation model. The participants abolished any method of mechanical oral hygiene and they were randomly assigned to initially use just the following mouthrinses: distilled water (DW solution), 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate (CLX solution) or 10% Og (Og solution). The plaque index (PLI) was recorded in all mandibular teeth at the end of the trial and the Kruskal-Wallis (α=0.05) and Mann-Whitney (α=0.05) tests were used to estimate the difference among groups. The clinical results showed statistically significant difference among the groups (p<0.05), favoring the CLX solution and Og solution, but the first was more effective (p<0.05). The mouthrinses containing 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate and 10% Og were able to inhibit plaque re-growth, however Og showed more limited results in comparison to CLX.

  2. Sensory Stimulation Prior to Spinal Cord Injury Induces Post-Injury Dysesthesia in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hoschouer, Emily L.; Finseth, Taylor; Flinn, Sharon; Basso, D. Michele

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Chronic pain and dysesthesias are debilitating conditions that can arise following spinal cord injury (SCI). Research studies frequently employ rodent models of SCI to better understand the underlying mechanisms and develop better treatments for these phenomena. While evoked withdrawal tests can assess hypersensitivity in these SCI models, there is little consensus over how to evaluate spontaneous sensory abnormalities that are seen in clinical SCI subjects. Overgrooming (OG) and biting after peripheral nerve injury or spinal cord excitotoxic lesions are thought to be one behavioral demonstration of spontaneous neuropathic pain or dysesthesia. However, reports of OG after contusion SCI are largely anecdotal and conditions causing this response are poorly understood. The present study investigated whether repeated application of sensory stimuli to the trunk prior to mid-thoracic contusion SCI would induce OG after SCI in mice. One week prior to SCI or laminectomy, mice were subjected either to nociceptive and mechanical stimulation, mechanical stimulation only, the testing situation without stimulation, or no treatment. They were then examined for 14 days after surgery and the sizes and locations of OG sites were recorded on anatomical maps. Mice subjected to either stimulus paradigm showed increased OG compared with unstimulated or uninjured mice. Histological analysis showed no difference in spinal cord lesion size due to sensory stimulation, or between mice that overgroomed or did not overgroom. The relationship between prior stimulation and contusion injury in mice that display OG indicates a critical interaction that may underlie one facet of spontaneous neuropathic symptoms after SCI. PMID:20121420

  3. Characterization and antimicrobial activity of sweetpotato starch-based edible film containing origanum (Thymus capitatus) oil.

    PubMed

    Ehivet, Fabienne E; Min, Byungjin; Park, Mi-Kyung; Oh, Jun-Hyun

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to characterize the mechanical and barrier properties of sweetpotato starch (SPS)-based film (SPSF) and to investigate the antimicrobial activity of SPSF containing origanum oil (OG) against foodborne pathogenic bacteria. The SPSF was fabricated with the SPS extracted from commercial sweetpotato roots. Tensile strength (TS), percent elongation at break (E), and water vapor permeability (WVP) were determined to characterize the SPSF fabricated with selected SPS concentrations, plasticizers, and the concentrations of plasticizers. The agar diffusion assay was used to determine the antimicrobial activity of SPSF containing selective concentrations of OG against Salmonella Enteritidis, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes. The SPSF fabricated with 2.5% SPS exhibited the greatest TS (4.58 MPa). The TS, E, and WVP of SPSF plasticized with 40% sorbitol exhibited 7.96 MPa, 77.92%, 0.212 ng m/m(2) S Pa, respectively. Therefore, the SPSF fabricated with 2.5% SPS and 40% sorbitol was determined as the optimum film. The antimicrobial activity of the SPSF containing OG increased as the concentration of OG increased. And the SPSF containing OG exhibited greater inhibitory effects against the gram-negative bacteria such as S. Enteritidis and E. coli O157:H7 than the gram-positive L. monocytogenes. The greatest antimicrobial activity was observed against S. Enteritidis when the SPSF containing 2% OG was applied, and the maximum square of zone width was 18.43 mm(2).

  4. Oral collagen-derived dipeptides, prolyl-hydroxyproline and hydroxyprolyl-glycine, ameliorate skin barrier dysfunction and alter gene expression profiles in the skin.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Jun; Asami, Naoto; Kataoka, Aya; Sugihara, Fumihito; Inoue, Naoki; Kimira, Yoshifumi; Wada, Masahiro; Mano, Hiroshi

    2015-01-09

    Oral supplementation with collagen hydrolysate (CH) has been shown to improve the condition of the skin in humans and experimental animals. Several hydroxyproline-containing oligo-peptides were previously detected in human peripheral blood after the ingestion of CH, and the two dipeptides, prolyl-hydroxyproline (PO) and hydroxyprolyl-glycine (OG), have been proposed to have beneficial effects on human health. When HR-1 hairless mice were fed a HR-AD diet, which lacked magnesium and zinc, transepidermal water loss (TEWL) increased and water content of stratum corneum decreased. In the present study, we investigated the effects of dietary PO and OG on skin barrier dysfunction in HR-1 hairless mice. Mice were fed a HR-AD diet with or without PO (0.15%) and OG (0.15%) for 35 consecutive days. The administration of PO and OG significantly decreased TEWL, and significantly increased water content of stratum corneum. A DNA microarray analysis of the dorsal skin revealed differences in gene expression between the group administered PO and OG and the control group. We also identified muscle-related Gene Ontology as a result of analyzing the up-regulated genes. These results suggested that the administration of PO and OG improved skin barrier dysfunction and altered muscle-related gene expression.

  5. Pediatric Diabetes Outpatient Center at Rhode Island Hospital: The impact of changing initial diabetes education from inpatient to outpatient.

    PubMed

    Pingul, Mia M; Mulvihill, Erin M; Reinert, Steven E; Gopalakrishnan, Geetha; Plante, Wendy A; Boney, Charlotte M; Bialo, Shara R; Quintos, Jose Bernardo

    2017-02-01

    This study compared outcomes and costs for new-onset Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patients educated at the outpatient versus inpatient settings. Retrospective study examining the following variables: 1) hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), 2) severe hypoglycemia, 3) admissions for diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) or ER visits, and 4) healthcare cost. 152 patients with new-onset T1DM from September 2007-August 2009. There were no differences between outpatient group (OG) and inpatient group (IG) in mean HbA1c levels at 1, 2 and 3 years post-diagnosis (OG 8%, 8.5%, 9.3%; IG 8.3%, 8.9%, 9%, p=0.51). Episodes of severe hypoglycemia, DKA, and ER visits were not different between the two groups. Mean total hospital costs for OG and pure OG were significantly less than IG (OG: $2886 vs. IG: $4925, p<0.001), (pure OG: $1044 vs. IG: $4925, p<0.0001). Our study demonstrates that outpatient- based pediatric diabetes education lowers healthcare cost without compromising medical outcomes. [Full article available at http://rimed.org/rimedicaljournal-2017-02.asp].

  6. Characterization of the refolding and reassembly of an integral membrane protein OmpF porin by low-angle laser light scattering photometry coupled with high-performance gel chromatography.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yasushi

    2002-06-28

    The refolding and reassembly of an integral membrane protein OmpF porin denatured in sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) into its stable species by the addition of n-octyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (OG) have been studied by means of circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and low-angle laser light scattering photometry coupled with high-performance gel chromatography. The minimal concentration where change in the secondary structure was induced by the addition of OG was found to be 6.0 mg/ml in CD experiments. A species unfolded further than the SDS-denatured form of this protein was observed at an early stage (5-15 min) of refolding just above the minimal OG concentration. In addition, the CD spectrum of protein species obtained above the minimal OG concentration showed that the protein is composed of a beta-structure which is different from the native structure of this protein. In light scattering experiments, no changes in molecular assemblies were observed when the OG concentration was below its minimal refolding concentration determined by CD measurements. Above the minimal concentration, a compact monomeric species was observed when denatured OmpF porin was incubated for 5 min at 25 degrees C in a refolding medium containing 1 mg/ml SDS and 7 mg/ml OG, and then injected into columns equilibrated with the refolding medium. After an incubation of 24 h before injection into the columns, predominant dimerization of this protein was observed in addition to incorrect aggregation.

  7. Predictive modeling of slope deposits and comparisons of two small areas in Northern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shary, Peter A.; Sharaya, Larisa S.; Mitusov, Andrew V.

    2017-08-01

    Methods for correct quantitative comparison of several terrains are important in the development and use of quantitative landscape evolution models, and they need to introduce specific modeling parameters. We introduce such parameters and compare two small terrains with respect to the link slope-valley for the description of slope deposits (colluvium) in them. We show that colluvium accumulation in small areas cannot be described by linear models and thus introduce non-linear models. Two small areas, Perdoel (0.29 ha) and Bornhöved (3.2 ha), are studied. Slope deposits in the both are mainly in dry valleys, with a total thickness Mtotal up to 2.0 m in Perdoel and up to 1.2 m in Bornhöved. Parent materials are mainly Pleistocene sands aged 30 kyr BP. Exponential models of multiple regression that use a 1-m LiDAR DEM (digital elevation model) explained 70-93% of spatial variability in Mtotal. Parameters DH12 and DV12 of horizontal and vertical distances are introduced that permit to characterize and compare conditions of colluvium formation for various terrains. The study areas differ 3.7 times by the parameter DH12 that describes a horizontal distance from thalwegs at which Mtotal diminishes 2.72 times. DH12 is greater in Bornhöved (29.7 m) than in Perdoel (8.12 m). We relate this difference in DH12 to the distinction between types of the link slope-valley: a regional type if catchment area of a region outside a given small area plays an important role, and a local type when accumulation of colluvium from valley banks within a small area is of more importance. We argue that the link slope-valley is regional in Perdoel and local in Bornhöved. Peaks of colluvium thickness were found on thalwegs of three studied valleys by both direct measurements in a trench, and model surfaces of Mtotal. A hypothesis on the formation mechanism of such peaks is discussed. The parameter DV12 describes a vertical distance from a peak of colluvium thickness along valley bottom at

  8. Treatment outcomes in a graduate orthodontic clinic for cases defined by the American Board of Orthodontics malocclusion categories.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Charee L; Roberts, W Eugene; Hartsfield, James K; Qi, Rong

    2007-12-01

    The American Board of Orthodontics (ABO) discrepancy index (DI) quantifies the severity of a malocclusion. The ABO objective grading system (OGS) assesses the quality of orthodontic finishing. Indiana University's comprehensive clinical assessment (CCA) supplements the OGS to provide an instrument to determine clinical outcomes. The purposes of this article were to (1) determine whether treatment outcome is related to the type of malocclusion as defined by the ABO classification, (2) determine the fraction of finished orthodontic cases in the graduate orthodontics clinic that are within the ABO standards for passing the phase III clinical examination, (3) evaluate the contribution of each component of the OGS and the CCA to the total OGS and CCA scores, (4) determine the percentage of finished cases that meet the ABO case category specifications, and (5) identify problem areas to improve the quality of treatment for challenging malocclusions. Three hundred eighty-two cases that satisfied requirements for 8 of the ABO's malocclusion categories were selected from 989 consecutively finished cases from 1998 through 2003. They were evaluated by using the OGS, the CCA, and the DI. The average OGS score was 32.64, the average CCA score was 5.62, and the average DI score was 20.94. There was no significant difference in the OGS and the CCA scores among the categories. Categories 2, 5, 7, and 8 had a DI score that was significantly higher than the average for the entire sample. The OGS and CCA scores were positively correlated with the DI score, meaning that complex malocclusions are challenging to finish well. The most points lost for the OGS and the CCA were for occlusal contacts and treatment efficiency (length of treatment relative to the result), respectively. The fewest points lost were for interproximal contacts and vertical control, respectively. Furthermore, prematurely terminated cases (early debonds) had longer treatment times and higher (worse) OGS and CCA

  9. Inhibition of Sebum Production with the Acetyl Coenzyme A Carboxylase Inhibitor Olumacostat Glasaretil.

    PubMed

    Hunt, David W; Winters, Geoffrey C; Brownsey, Roger W; Kulpa, Jerzy E; Gilliland, Kathryn L; Thiboutot, Diane M; Hofland, Hans E

    2017-07-01

    Olumacostat glasaretil (OG) is a small molecule inhibitor of acetyl coenzyme A (CoA) carboxylase (ACC), the enzyme that controls the first rate-limiting step in fatty acid biosynthesis. Inhibition of ACC activity in the sebaceous glands is designed to substantially affect sebum production, because over 80% of human sebum components contain fatty acids. OG inhibits de novo lipid synthesis in primary and transformed human sebocytes. TrueMass Sebum Panel analyses showed a reduction in saturated and monounsaturated fatty acyl chains across lipid species, including di- and triacylglycerols, phospholipids, cholesteryl esters, and wax esters in OG-treated sebocytes. There was no shift to shorter acyl chain lengths observed, suggesting that the fatty acid chain elongation process was not affected. OG is a pro-drug of the ACC inhibitor 5-(tetradecyloxy)-2-furoic acid and was designed to enhance delivery in vivo. Topical application of OG but not 5-(tetradecyloxy)-2-furoic acid significantly reduced hamster ear sebaceous gland size, indicating that this pro-drug approach was critical to obtain the desired activity in vivo. High-performance liquid chromatography analyses of hamster ear extracts showed that OG treatment increased ACC levels and the ratio of acetyl-CoA to free CoA in these animals, indicating increased fatty acid oxidation. These changes are consistent with ACC inhibition. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging showed that OG applied onto Yorkshire pig ears accumulated in sebaceous glands relative to the surrounding dermis. Sebaceous gland ACC represents an attractive therapeutic target given its central role in formation of sebum, a key factor in acne pathogenesis. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The role of the cerebral ganglia in the venom-induced behavioral manipulation of cockroaches stung by the parasitoid jewel wasp.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Maayan; Libersat, Frederic

    2015-04-01

    The jewel wasp stings cockroaches and injects venom into their cerebral ganglia, namely the subesophageal ganglion (SOG) and supraesophageal ganglion (SupOG). The venom induces a long-term hypokinetic state, during which the stung cockroach shows little or no spontaneous walking. It was shown that venom injection to the SOG reduces neuronal activity, thereby suggesting a similar effect of venom injection in the SupOG. Paradoxically, SupOG-ablated cockroaches show increased spontaneous walking in comparison with control. Yet most of the venom in the SupOG of cockroaches is primarily concentrated in and around the central complex (CX). Thus the venom could chiefly decrease activity in the CX to contribute to the hypokinetic state. Our first aim was to resolve this discrepancy by using a combination of behavioral and neuropharmacological tools. Our results show that the CX is necessary for the initiation of spontaneous walking, and that focal injection of procaine to the CX is sufficient to induce the decrease in spontaneous walking. Furthermore, it was shown that artificial venom injection to the SOG decreases walking. Hence our second aim was to test the interactions between the SupOG and SOG in the venom-induced behavioral manipulation. We show that, in the absence of the inhibitory control of the SupOG on walking initiation, injection of venom in the SOG alone by the wasp is sufficient to induce the hypokinetic state. To summarize, we show that venom injection to either the SOG or the CX of the SupOG is, by itself, sufficient to decrease walking.

  11. IMPACT OF DEFICIENT NUTRITION IN BONE MASS AFTER BARIATRIC SURGERY

    PubMed Central

    COSTA, Tatiana Munhoz da Rocha Lemos; PAGANOTO, Mariana; RADOMINSKI, Rosana Bento; BORBA, Victoria Zeghbi Cochenski

    2016-01-01

    Background: Essential nutrients are considered for the prevention of the bone loss that occurs after bariatric surgery. Aim: Evaluate nutrients involved in bone metabolism, and relate to serum concentrations of calcium, vitamin D, and parathyroid hormone, and the use of supplements and sun exposure on the bone mass of patients who had undergone gastric bypass surgery. Methods: An observational study, with patients who had undergone the surgery 12 or more months previously, operated group (OG), compared to a control group (CG). Results: Were included 56 in OG and 27 in the CG. The mean age was 36.4±8.5 years. The individuals in the OG, compared to CG, consumed inadequate amounts of protein and daily calcium. The OG had a higher prevalence of low sun exposure, lower levels of 25OH Vitamin D (21.3±10.9 vs. 32.1±11.8 ng/dl), and increased serum levels of parathyroid hormone (68.1±32.9 vs. 39.9±11.9 pg/ml, p<0.001). Secondary hyperparathyroidism was present only in the OG (41.7%). The mean lumbar spine bone mineral density was lower in the OG. Four individuals from the OG had low bone mineral density for chronological age, and no one from the CG. Conclusion: The dietary components that affect bone mass in patients undergoing bariatric surgery were inadequate. The supplementation was insufficient and the sun exposure was low. These changes were accompanied by secondary hyperparathyroidism and a high prevalence of low bone mass in lumbar spine in these subjects. PMID:27120738

  12. Single-turnover and pre-steady-state kinetics of the reaction of the adenine glycosylase MutY with mismatch-containing DNA substrates.

    PubMed

    Porello, S L; Leyes, A E; David, S S

    1998-10-20

    The DNA repair enzyme MutY plays an important role in the prevention of DNA mutations resulting from the presence of the oxidatively damaged lesion 7,8-dihydro-8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (OG) in DNA by the removal of misincorporated adenine residues in OG:A mispairs. MutY also exhibits adenine glycosylase activity toward adenine in G:A and C:A mismatches, although the importance of this activity in vivo has not been established. We have investigated the kinetic properties of MutY's glycosylase activity with OG:A and G:A containing DNA duplexes. Our results indicate that MutY's processing of these two substrates is distinctly different. By using single-turnover experiments, the intrinsic rate for adenine removal by MutY from an OG:A substrate was found to be at least 6-fold faster than that from the corresponding G:A substrate. However, under conditions where [MutY] < [DNA], OG:A substrates are not quantitatively converted to product due to the inefficient turnover resulting from slow product release. In contrast, with a G:A substrate MutY's dissociation from the corresponding product is more facile, such that complete conversion of the substrate to product can be achieved under similar conditions. The kinetic results illustrate that the glycosylase reaction catalyzed by MutY has significant differences depending on the characteristics of the substrate. The lingering of MutY with the product of its reaction with OG:A mispairs may be biologically significant to prevent premature removal of OG. Thus, this approach is providing insight into factors that may be influencing the repair of damaged and mismatched DNA in vivo by base-excision repair glycosylases.

  13. Effects of Organogel Hardness and Formulation on Acceptance of Frankfurters.

    PubMed

    Barbut, S; Wood, J; Marangoni, A G

    2016-09-01

    Different organogel formulations used as beef fat (BF) replacement (0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, and 80%) were utilized to optimize the mechanical properties of frankfurters. Organogels, made of canola oil (CO), included different concentrations of ethyl cellulose (EC) and sorbitan monostearate (SMS). They consisted of: 8% EC + 1.5% SMS referred to as organogel-I (OG-I), 8% EC + 3.0% SMS (OG-II), and 10% EC + 1.5% SMS (OG-III), which were found promising in a previous study when used at 100% replacement. Replacement of BF with organogels at all levels could bring down the very high hardness values (texture profile analysis and sensory) of frankfurters prepared using CO by itself, relative to the BF control. OG-I and OG-II quantity had no significant effect on hardness and springiness, being similar in many cases to the BF and lower than the CO control. Shear force values of all organogel treatments were not significantly different from one another, and were between the BF and CO controls. Smokehouse yield showed a pattern of decreasing losses with increasing organogel replacement level. Sensory analysis revealed that using CO by itself significantly increased hardness, but structuring the oil (via organogelation), brought it down to the BF control value in all OG-I and OG-II formulations. Juiciness was significantly reduced by using liquid oil but increased with raising the amount of organogels. Oiliness sensation increased with higher organogel substitution and was actually higher than the beef control. The study demonstrates the potential use of vegetable oil structuring in replacing the more saturated BF in emulsion-type meat products. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. Constructing a Spatially Resolved Methane Emission Inventory for the Barnett Shale Region.

    PubMed

    Lyon, David R; Zavala-Araiza, Daniel; Alvarez, Ramón A; Harriss, Robert; Palacios, Virginia; Lan, Xin; Talbot, Robert; Lavoie, Tegan; Shepson, Paul; Yacovitch, Tara I; Herndon, Scott C; Marchese, Anthony J; Zimmerle, Daniel; Robinson, Allen L; Hamburg, Steven P

    2015-07-07

    Methane emissions from the oil and gas industry (O&G) and other sources in the Barnett Shale region were estimated by constructing a spatially resolved emission inventory. Eighteen source categories were estimated using multiple data sets, including new empirical measurements at regional O&G sites and a national study of gathering and processing facilities. Spatially referenced activity data were compiled from federal and state databases and combined with O&G facility emission factors calculated using Monte Carlo simulations that account for high emission sites representing the very upper portion, or fat-tail, in the observed emissions distributions. Total methane emissions in the 25-county Barnett Shale region in October 2013 were estimated to be 72,300 (63,400-82,400) kg CH4 h(-1). O&G emissions were estimated to be 46,200 (40,000-54,100) kg CH4 h(-1) with 19% of emissions from fat-tail sites representing less than 2% of sites. Our estimate of O&G emissions in the Barnett Shale region was higher than alternative inventories based on the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Greenhouse Gas Inventory, EPA Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program, and Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research by factors of 1.5, 2.7, and 4.3, respectively. Gathering compressor stations, which accounted for 40% of O&G emissions in our inventory, had the largest difference from emission estimates based on EPA data sources. Our inventory's higher O&G emission estimate was due primarily to its more comprehensive activity factors and inclusion of emissions from fat-tail sites.

  15. Benchmark Theoretical and Experimental Study on (15)N NMR Shifts of Oxidatively Damaged Guanine.

    PubMed

    Dračínský, Martin; Šála, Michal; Klepetářová, Blanka; Šebera, Jakub; Fukal, Jiří; Holečková, Veronika; Tanaka, Yoshiyuki; Nencka, Radim; Sychrovský, Vladimír

    2016-02-11

    The (15)N NMR shifts of 9-ethyl-8-oxoguanine (OG) were calculated and measured in liquid DMSO and in crystal. The OG molecule is a model for oxidatively damaged 2'-deoxyguanosine that occurs owing to oxidative stress in cell. The DNA lesion is repaired with human 8-oxoguanine glycosylase 1 (hOGG1) base-excision repair enzyme, however, the exact mechanism of excision of damaged nucleobase with hOGG1 is currently unknown. This benchmark study on (15)N NMR shifts of OG aims their accurate structural interpretation and calibration of the calculation protocol utilizable in future studies on mechanism of hOGG1 enzyme. The effects of NMR reference, DFT functional, basis set, solvent, structure, and dynamics on calculated (15)N NMR shifts were first evaluated for OG in crystal to calibrate the best performing calculation method. The effect of large-amplitude motions on (15)N NMR shifts of OG in liquid was calculated employing molecular dynamics. The B3LYP method with Iglo-III basis used for B3LYP optimized geometry with 6-311++G(d,p) basis and including effects of solvent and molecular dynamic was the calculation protocol used for calculation of (15)N NMR shifts of OG. The NMR shift of N9 nitrogen of OG was particularly studied because the atom is involved in an N-glycosidic bond that is cleaved with hOGG1. The change of N9 NMR shift owing to oxidation of 9-ethylguanine (G) measured in liquid was -27.1 ppm. The calculated N9 NMR shift of OG deviated from experiment in crystal and in liquid by 0.45 and 0.65 ppm, respectively. The calculated change of N9 NMR shift owing to notable N9-pyramidalization of OG in one previously found polymorph was 20.53 ppm. We therefore assume that the pyramidal geometry of N9 nitrogen that could occur for damaged DNA within hOGG1 catalytic site might be detectable with (15)N NMR spectroscopy. The calculation protocol can be used for accurate structural interpretation of (15)N NMR shifts of oxidatively damaged guanine DNA residue.

  16. Long-term Outcomes of Laparoscopic Versus Open Surgery for Clinical Stage I Gastric Cancer: The LOC-1 Study

    PubMed Central

    Honda, Michitaka; Hiki, Naoki; Kinoshita, Takahiro; Yabusaki, Hiroshi; Abe, Takayuki; Nunobe, Souya; Terada, Mitsumi; Matsuki, Atsushi; Sunagawa, Hideki; Aizawa, Masaki; Healy, Mark A.; Iwasaki, Manabu; Furukawa, Toshi A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Clinical trials comparing laparoscopic gastrectomy (LG) versus traditional open gastrectomy (OG) have been planned, their surgical outcomes reported but their oncologic outcomes are still pending. Consequently, we have conducted this large-scale historical cohort study to provide relevant information rapidly to guide our current practice. Methods: Through a consensus meeting involving surgeons, biostatisticians, and epidemiologists, 30 variables of preoperative information possibly influencing surgeons’ choice between LG versus OG and potentially associating with outcomes were identified to enable rigorous estimation of propensity scores. A total of 4235 consecutive patients who underwent gastrectomy for gastric adenocarcinoma were identified and their relevant data were gathered from the participating hospitals. After propensity score matching, 1848 patients (924 each for LG and OG) were selected for comparison of long-term outcomes. Results: In the propensity-matched population, the 5-year overall survival was 96.3% [95% confidence interval (CI) 95.0–97.6] in the OG as compared with 97.1% (95% CI, 95.9–98.3) in LG. The number of all-cause death was 33/924 in the OG and 24/924 in the LG through the entire period, and the hazard ratio (LG/OG) for overall death was 0.75 (95% CI, 0.44–1.27; P = 0.290). The 3-year recurrence-free survival was 97.4% (95% CI, 96.4–98.5) in the OG and 97.7% (95% CI, 96.5–98.8) in the LG. The number of recurrence was 22/924 in the OG and 21/924 in the LG through the entire period, and the hazard ratio was 1.01 (95% CI, 0.55–1.84; P = 0.981). Conclusions: This observational study adjusted for all-known confounding factors seems to provide strong enough evidence to suggest that LG is oncologically comparable to OG for gastric cancer. PMID:27115899

  17. Searching for the Blind fault: Haiti Subsurface Imaging Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocel, E.; Stewart, R.; Mann, P.; Dowla, N.

    2013-12-01

    The impact of the 12 January 2010 Haiti earthquake was catastrophic, causing serious damage to infrastructure and more than 200000 deaths. Initially, the Haiti earthquake was assumed to occur with the movement of Enriquillo Plantain Garden Fault Zone (EPGFZ), but recent scientific studies have shown that the primary rupture occurred on an unmapped blind thrust fault in the Léogâne fan (associated as Léogâne fault) near the EPGFZ (Figure 1a and 1b). The main purpose of this project are: characterizing and analyzing subsurface structures and associated hazards, characterizing the physical properties of near-surface, locating and understanding the blind faults theorized to have caused the 2010 earthquake (Léogâne fault). Surveys were conducted by a research group from the University of Houston in 2013 to address some of these goals. Surveys were mainly concentrated on Léogâne fan (Figure 1c) and Lake Enriquillo (Figure 1d). For Léogâne surveys, multiple 2D Seismic lines were deployed with approximately N-S orientation. We performed both P wave and S wave refraction analyses and time-migrated the P wave data. The prominent change in both P wave and S wave velocities are interpreted as the effects of faulting. The CMP stacked section shows a multiple discontinuity profile whose location coincides with the anomalies observed at P wave and S wave refraction velocity profile. Extracted reflection coefficients also support a reflective structure at these offsets. We interpret the anomalous structure as North dipping thrust fault. The dip of the fault is estimated around 60°. Near-surface reflection seismic analysis provided deeper information indicating multiple layers with varying velocities, intersected by a number of faults. Gravity surveys were conducted along the main seismic line over Léogâne fan, with additional surveys conducted from Jacmel to Léogâne and around the Port Au Prince area. The estimated Free air gravity profile suggests that the

  18. Structural context effects in the oxidation of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine to hydantoin products: electrostatics, base stacking, and base pairing.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Aaron M; Muller, James G; Dlouhy, Adrienne C; Burrows, Cynthia J

    2012-09-12

    8-Oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (OG) is the most common base damage found in cells, where it resides in many structural contexts, including the nucleotide pool, single-stranded DNA at transcription forks and replication bubbles, and duplex DNA base-paired with either adenine (A) or cytosine (C). OG is prone to further oxidation to the highly mutagenic hydantoin products spiroiminodihydantoin (Sp) and 5-guanidinohydantoin (Gh) in a sharply pH-dependent fashion within nucleosides. In the present work, studies were conducted to determine how the structural context affects OG oxidation to the hydantoins. These studies revealed a trend in which the Sp yield was greatest in unencumbered contexts, such as nucleosides, while the Gh yield increased in oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) contexts or at reduced pH. Oxidation of oligomers containing hydrogen-bond modulators (2,6-diaminopurine, N(4)-ethylcytidine) or alteration of the reaction conditions (pH, temperature, and salt) identify base stacking, electrostatics, and base pairing as the drivers of the key intermediate 5-hydroxy-8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (5-HO-OG) partitioning along the two hydantoin pathways, allowing us to propose a mechanism for the observed base-pairing effects. Moreover, these structural effects cause an increase in the effective pK(a) of 5-HO-OG, following an increasing trend from 5.7 in nucleosides to 7.7 in a duplex bearing an OG·C base pair, which supports the context-dependent product yields. The high yield of Gh in ODNs underscores the importance of further study on this lesion. The structural context of OG also determined its relative reactivity toward oxidation, for which the OG·A base pair is ~2.5-fold more reactive than an OG·C base pair, and with the weak one-electron oxidant ferricyanide, the OG nucleoside reactivity is >6000-fold greater than that of OG·C in a duplex, leading to the conclusion that OG in the nucleoside pool should act as a protective agent for OG in the genome.

  19. Walk-run transition in young and older adults: with special reference to the cardio-respiratory responses.

    PubMed

    Farinatti, P T V; Monteiro, W D

    2010-06-01

    Cardio-respiratory responses of young and older subjects performing walking and running protocols at the walk-run transition speed (WRT) were compared. A total of 26 volunteers assigned to younger (YG, 24 +/- 3 years) and older (OG, 64 +/- 6 years) groups underwent a protocol to determine the WRT used in 6-min walking and running protocols. Oxygen uptake (VO(2)), ventilation (V (E)), expired carbon dioxide (VCO(2)), heart rate (HR) and perceived exertion (RPE) were assessed. Oxygen pulse (O(2) pulse) and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were calculated. The WRT was not different between groups (OG: 6.84 +/- 0.69 km h(-1) vs. YG: 7.04 +/- 0.77 km h(-1), P = 0.62). No between-group differences were found within a given gait pattern for VO(2) (P = 0.061) and VCO(2) (P = 0.076). However, VO(2) (P = 0.0022) and VCO(2) (P = 0.0041) increased in OG when running, remaining stable in YG (VO(2): P = 0.622; VCO(2): P = 0.412). The VE was higher in OG compared to YG in walking (P = 0.030) and running (P = 0.004) protocols. No age-related (P = 0.180) or locomotion (P = 0.407) effects were found for RER. The HR increased in OG and between-group difference was detected while running (P = 0.003). No within- (P = 0.447) or between-group (P = 0.851) difference was found for O(2) pulse. The net VO(2) increased from walking to running in OG (P < 0.0001) but not in YG (P = 0.53), while RPE was lower in YG (P = 0.041) but stable in OG (P = 0.654). In conclusion, the WRT speed was similar across the age groups. However, the VO(2) and VCO(2) increase from walking to running was larger for OG than YG. The HR, VE and RPE were also higher when running in OG compared to YG. Therefore, the locomotion strategy had different impacts on the metabolic demand of older and younger subjects.

  20. Skeletal muscle morphology, protein synthesis, and gene expression in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nygaard, Rie H; Jensen, Jakob K; Voermans, Nicol C; Heinemeier, Katja M; Schjerling, Peter; Holm, Lars; Agergaard, Jakob; Mackey, Abigail L; Andersen, Jesper L; Remvig, Lars; Kjaer, Michael

    2017-08-01

    Patients with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) are known to have genetically impaired connective tissue and skeletal muscle symptoms in form of pain, fatigue, and cramps; however earlier studies have not been able to link these symptoms to morphological muscle changes. We obtained skeletal muscle biopsies in patients with classic EDS [cEDS; n = 5 (Denmark)+ 8 (The Netherlands)] and vascular EDS (vEDS; n = 3) and analyzed muscle fiber morphology and content (Western blotting and muscle fiber type/area distributions) and muscle mRNA expression and protein synthesis rate (RT-PCR and stable isotope technique). The cEDS patients did not differ from healthy controls (n = 7-11) with regard to muscle fiber type/area, myosin/α-actin ratio, muscle protein synthesis rate, or mRNA expression. In contrast, the vEDS patients demonstrated higher expression of matrix proteins compared with cEDS patients (fibronectin and MMP-2). The cEDS patients had surprisingly normal muscle morphology and protein synthesis, whereas vEDS patients demonstrated higher mRNA expression for extracellular matrix remodeling in skeletal musculature compared with cEDS patients.NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study is the first of its kind to systematically investigate muscle biopsies from Ehlers-Danlos patients, focusing on muscle structure and function. These patients suffer from severe muscle symptoms, but in our study they show surprisingly normal muscle findings, which points toward indirect muscle symptoms originating from the surrounding connective tissue. These findings have basal physiological importance and implications for future physiotherapeutic treatment options for these patients. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  1. [Gerontological profile of an elderly population in Tabasco, México].

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Pérez, Ramiro; Quevedo-Tejero, Elsy Del Carmen; García-Rochín, Ramón; Zavala-González, Marco A

    2012-01-01

    Defining the gerontological profile of an elderly population in Tabasco, Mexico. This was an observational, retrospective, cross-sectional, descriptive study. The study population consisted of 35,745 elderly adults who were enrolled in the Mexican Older Adults' Institute (Instituto Nacional de las Personas Adultas Mayores-INAPAM) in Tabasco. Sampling was not used. The selection criteria invol ved elderly adults who were enrolled in INAPAM from January/2004-December/2006. Socio-demographic, sanitary and personal preferences were the variables considered. INAPAM's Mexican Survey of Senior Citizens' database for the study period was used for providing the necessary information; descriptive statistics were used for analysis. Some elderly adults were unable to work (11.9 %); those working did so in the countryside (10.5 %). Almost all of them had some sort of income (99.8 %): family support (46 %) or employment (22.3 %). A fifth of the population were illiterate (21 %). Most of them li ved with someone else (88.9 %) with a spouse (57.3 %) or children (45.9 %). Most li ved in their own houses (87.1 %), had basic services (94.3 %) and a stove, television and refrigerator (74.5 %). The frequently occurring diseases were osteo-degenerative (50.4 %), ophthalmic (39.2 %) dental (16.3 %), high blood pressure-related, Diabetes mellitus and tumours. Most had social security (63.3 %) but mostly used Mexican Ministry of Health services (28.7 %). They fostered the following values: health (81.2 %), family (72.4 %) and love (45.9 %); sharing family time was the most frequent free-time activity (72 %) followed by religious activities (56.4 %). The aforementioned features formed the gerontological profile for elderly adults in Tabasco; and the results of this series partially differed from that reported by other Mexican institutions.

  2. On the electromagnetic fields produced by marine frequency domain controlled sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chave, Alan D.

    2009-12-01

    In recent years, marine controlled source electromagnetics (CSEM) has found increasing use in hydrocarbon exploration due to its ability to detect thin resistive zones beneath the seafloor. Although it must be recognized that the quantitative interpretation of marine CSEM data over petroleum-bearing formations will typically require 2-D surveys and 2-D or 3-D modelling, the use of the 1-D approximation is useful under some circumstances and provides considerable insight into the physics of marine CSEM. It is the purpose of this paper to thoroughly explore the 1-D solutions for all four fundamental source types-vertical and horizontal, electric and magnetic dipole (VED, HED, VMD and HMD)-using a set of canonical reservoir models that encompass brine to weak to strong hydrocarbon types. The paper introduces the formalism to solve the Maxwell equations for a 1-D structure in terms of independent and unique toroidal and poloidal magnetic modes that circumscribe the salient diffusion physics. Green's functions for the two modes from which solutions for arbitrary source current distributions can be constructed are derived and used to obtain the electromagnetic (EM) fields produced by finite VED, HED, VMD and HMD sources overlying an arbitrary 1-D electrical structure. Field behaviour is analysed using the Poynting vector that represents the time-averaged flow of energy through the structure and a polarization ellipse decomposition of the triaxial seafloor EM field that is a complete field description. The behaviour of the two EM modes using unimodal VED and VMD sources is presented. The paper closes by extending these results to the bimodal HED and HMD sources.

  3. Vestibular nuclei characterized by calcium-binding protein immunoreactivity and tract tracing in Gekko gecko.

    PubMed

    Song, Jing; Wang, Wenbo; Carr, Catherine E; Dai, Zhendong; Tang, Yezhong

    2013-02-01

    Immunohistochemical techniques were used to describe the distribution of the calcium binding proteins calretinin, calbindin and parvalbumin as well as synaptic vesicle protein 2 in the vestibular nuclei of the Tokay gecko (Gekko gecko). In addition, tract tracing was used to investigate connections between the vestibular nerves and brainstem nuclei. Seven vestibular nuclei were recognized: the nuclei cerebellaris lateralis (Cerl), vestibularis dorsolateralis (Vedl), ventrolateralis (Vevl), ventromedialis (Vevm), tangentialis (Vetg), ovalis (VeO) and descendens (Veds). Vestibular fibers entered the brainstem with the ascending branch projecting to Vedl and Cerl, the lateral descending branch to Veds, and the medial descending branch to ipsilateral Vevl. Cerl lay most rostral, in the cerebellar peduncle. Vedl, located rostrally, was ventral to the cerebellar peduncle, and consisted of loosely arranged multipolar and monopolar cells. Vevl was found at the level of the vestibular nerve root and contained conspicuously large cells and medium-sized cells. Veds is a large nucleus, the most rostral portion of which is situated lateral and ventral to Vevl, and occupies much of the dorsal brainstem extending caudally through the medulla. VeO is a spherically shaped cell group lateral to the auditory nucleus magnocellularis and dorsal to the caudal part of Vevl. Vevm and Vetg were small in the present study. Except for VeO, all other vestibular nuclei appear directly comparable to counterparts in other reptiles and birds based on their location, cytoarchitecture, and connections, indicating these are conserved features of the vestibular system. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Possible vasculoprotective role of linagliptin against sodium arsenite-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Jyoti, Uma; Kansal, Sunil Kumar; Kumar, Puneet; Goyal, Sandeep

    2016-02-01

    Vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) interrupts the integrity and function of endothelial lining through enhanced markers of oxidative stress and decrease endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression. The main aim of the present study has been designed to investigate the possible vasculoprotective role of linagliptin against sodium arsenite-induced VED. Sodium arsenite (1.5 mg/kg, i.p., 2 weeks) abrogated the acetylcholine-induced, endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation by depicting the decrease in serum nitrite/nitrate concentration, reduced glutathione level, and simultaneously enhance the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) level, superoxide level, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. These elevated markers interrupt the integrity of endothelial lining of thoracic aorta which was assessed histologically. The study elicits dose dependent effect of linagliptin (1.5 mg/kg, i.p. and 3 mg/kg, i.p.) or atorvastatin (30 mg/kg, p.o.) treatment, improved the endothelium-dependent independent relaxation, improve the integrity of endothelium lining which was assessed histologically by enhancing the serum nitrite/nitrate level, reduced glutathione level and simultaneously decreasing the TBARS level, superoxide anion level and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) level. L-NAME (25 mg/kg, i.p.), eNOS inhibitor, abrogated the ameliorative potential of linagliptin. However, the ameliorative potential of linagliptin has been enhanced by l-arginine (200 mg/kg, i.p.) which elicits that ameliorative potential of linagliptin was through eNOS signaling cascade and it may be concluded that linagliptin 3 mg/kg, i.p. has more significantly activated the eNOS and decreased the oxidative markers than linagliptin 1.5 mg/kg, i.p. and prevented sodium arsenite-induced VED.

  5. Freezing and melting behavior of an octyl β-D-glucoside-water binary system--inhibitory effect of octyl β-D-glucoside on ice crystal formation.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Shigesaburo; Asakura, Kouichi; Osanai, Shuichi

    2012-12-21

    Phase transition behavior of lyotropic liquid crystals of an octyl β-D-glucoside (OG)-water binary system during ice freezing and melting was studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and polarizing optical microscopy (POM). Not the thermotropic, but the lyotropic phase transition due to the change of OG concentration during ice freezing and melting was observed. The concentration-temperature phase diagram of the binary system was constructed. Melting temperature of ice, T(m), lyotropic phase transition temperature, T(tr), and glass transition temperatures of unfrozen phases in the absence and presence of ice, T(g) and T(g)', were shown in the phase diagram. The phase diagram indicated that the OG aqueous system was concentrated to ca. 90-92 wt% by ice freezing and exhibited glass transition at T(g)'. An observation of the concentration-gradient specimen by the cryo-POM showed the evidence of the inhibitory effects of OG on nucleation and growth of ice crystals in the extremely high OG concentration system in which the lamellar liquid crystalline phase was formed. This study provided the importance of the influence of concentration change by ice freezing on the behaviour of the sugar-based surfactant-water system under low temperature conditions.

  6. Disruption of Microtubular Cytoskeleton Induced by Cryptogein, an Elicitor of Hypersensitive Response in Tobacco Cells1

    PubMed Central

    Binet, Marie-Noëlle; Humbert, Claude; Lecourieux, David; Vantard, Marylin; Pugin, Alain

    2001-01-01

    The dynamics of microtubular cytoskeleton were studied in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv Xanthi) cells in response to two different plant defense elicitors: cryptogein, a protein secreted by Phytophthora cryptogea and oligogalacturonides (OGs), derived from the plant cell wall. In tobacco plants cryptogein triggers a hypersensitive-like response and induces systemic resistance against a broad spectrum of pathogens, whereas OGs induce defense responses, but fail to trigger cell death. The comparison of the microtubule (MT) dynamics in response to cryptogein and OGs in tobacco cells indicates that MTs appear unaffected in OG-treated cells, whereas cryptogein treatment caused a rapid and severe disruption of microtubular network. When hyperstabilized by the MT depolymerization inhibitor, taxol, the MT network was still disrupted by cryptogein treatment. On the other hand, the MT-depolymerizing agent oryzalin and cryptogein had different and complementary effects. In addition to MT destabilization, cryptogein induced the death of tobacco cells, whereas OG-treated cells did not die. We demonstrated that MT destabilization and cell death induced by cryptogein depend on calcium influx and that MT destabilization occurs independently of active oxygen species production. The molecular basis of cryptogein-induced MT disruption and its potential significance with respect to cell death are discussed. PMID:11161014

  7. Characterization of the effects of an rpoC mutation that confers resistance to the Fst peptide toxin-antitoxin system toxin.

    PubMed

    Brinkman, Cassandra L; Bumgarner, Roger; Kittichotirat, Weerayuth; Dunman, Paul M; Kuechenmeister, Lisa J; Weaver, Keith E

    2013-01-01

    Overexpression of the Fst toxin in Enterococcus faecalis strain OG1X leads to defects in chromosome segregation, cell division and, eventually, membrane integrity. The M7 mutant derivative of OG1X is resistant to most of these effects but shows a slight growth defect in the absence of Fst. Full-genome sequencing revealed two differences between M7 and its OG1X parent. First, OG1X contains a frameshift mutation that inactivates the etaR response regulator gene, while M7 is a wild-type revertant for etaR. Second, the M7 mutant contains a missense mutation in the rpoC gene, which encodes the β' subunit of RNA polymerase. Mutagenesis experiments revealed that the rpoC mutation was primarily responsible for the resistance phenotype. Microarray analysis revealed that a number of transporters were induced in OG1X when Fst was overexpressed. These transporters were not induced in M7 in response to Fst, and further experiments indicated that this had a direct protective effect on the mutant cells. Therefore, exposure of cells to Fst appears to have a cascading effect, first causing membrane stress and then potentiation of these effects by overexpression of certain transporters.

  8. Catalytic contributions of key residues in the adenine glycosylase MutY revealed by pH dependent kinetics and cellular repair assays

    PubMed Central

    Brinkmeyer, Megan K.; Pope, Mary Ann Miles; David, Sheila S.

    2012-01-01

    Summary MutY enzymes prevent mutations in DNA associated with 8-oxoguanine (OG) by catalyzing the removal of adenines opposite OG. pH dependence analyses of the adenine glycosylase activity establish that Asp 138 of MutY must be deprotonated for maximal catalytic activity consistent with the role of this residue in stabilizing the oxacarbenium ion transition state in an SN1 mechanism. Use of a cellular OG:A repair assay allowed further validation of the critical role of Asp 138. Conservative substitutions of the catalytic residues Asp 138 and Glu 37 resulted in enzymes with a range of activity that were used to correlate the efficiency of adenine excision with overall OG:A repair and suppression of DNA mutations in vivo. The results indicate that MutY variations that reduce glycosylase activity as a consequence of reduced mismatch affinity result in more dramatic reductions in cellular OG:A repair than those that only compromise adenine excision catalysis. PMID:22365610

  9. Evaluation of the antinociceptive activity of Ocimum gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae) essential oil and its isolated active principles in mice.

    PubMed

    Paula-Freire, L I G; Andersen, M L; Molska, G R; Köhn, D O; Carlini, E L A

    2013-08-01

    Ocimum gratissimum is used in popular medicine to treat painful diseases. The antinociceptive properties of O. gratissimum essential oil (OgEO) and two of its active principles (eugenol and myrcene) were tested in classic models of pain (hot plate test and formalin test). Adult male C57BL/6 J mice acutely received corn oil (control group, p.o.), morphine (positive control group, 5 mg/kg, i.p.), OgEO (10, 20, or 40 mg/kg, p.o.), eugenol or myrcene (both at 1, 5, or 10 mg/kg, p.o.). The highest doses of all tested drugs significantly increased the latency to lick the paw(s) in the hot plate test compared with the control group. OgEO at a dose of 40 mg/kg and eugenol and myrcene at a dose of 10 mg/kg were effective in minimizing animal pain in the first and second phases of the formalin test. The antinociceptive effect shown by all drugs tested in hot plate test was reverted by naloxone administration (1 mg/kg), indicating opiod system participation. These results demonstrate the beneficial effects of OgEO and its active principles against neurogenic and inflammatory pain. Our findings demonstrate that OgEO and its isolated active principles exhibited antinociceptive activity in murine pain models. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Pectin Biosynthesis Is Critical for Cell Wall Integrity and Immunity in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Bethke, Gerit; Thao, Amanda; Xiong, Guangyan; Hatsugai, Noriyuki; Katagiri, Fumiaki; Pauly, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Plant cell walls are important barriers against microbial pathogens. Cell walls of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves contain three major types of polysaccharides: cellulose, various hemicelluloses, and pectins. UDP-d-galacturonic acid, the key building block of pectins, is produced from the precursor UDP-d-glucuronic acid by the action of glucuronate 4-epimerases (GAEs). Pseudomonas syringae pv maculicola ES4326 (Pma ES4326) repressed expression of GAE1 and GAE6 in Arabidopsis, and immunity to Pma ES4326 was compromised in gae6 and gae1 gae6 mutant plants. These plants had brittle leaves and cell walls of leaves had less galacturonic acid. Resistance to specific Botrytis cinerea isolates was also compromised in gae1 gae6 double mutant plants. Although oligogalacturonide (OG)-induced immune signaling was unaltered in gae1 gae6 mutant plants, immune signaling induced by a commercial pectinase, macerozyme, was reduced. Macerozyme treatment or infection with B. cinerea released less soluble uronic acid, likely reflecting fewer OGs, from gae1 gae6 cell walls than from wild-type Col-0. Although both OGs and macerozyme-induced immunity to B. cinerea in Col-0, only OGs also induced immunity in gae1 gae6. Pectin is thus an important contributor to plant immunity, and this is due at least in part to the induction of immune responses by soluble pectin, likely OGs, that are released during plant-pathogen interactions. PMID:26813622

  11. Okra (Hibiscus esculentus) gum-alginate blend mucoadhesive beads for controlled glibenclamide release.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Priyanka; Ubaidulla, U; Nayak, Amit Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The utility of isolated okra (Hibiscus esculentus) gum (OG) was evaluated as a potential sustained drug release polymer-blends with sodium alginate in the development of controlled glibenclamide release ionically-gelled beads for oral use. OG was isolated from okra fruits and its solubility, pH, viscosity and moisture content were studied. Glibenclamide-loaded OG-alginate blend beads were prepared using CaCl2 as cross-linking agent through ionic-gelation technique. These ionically gelled beads showed drug entrapment efficiency of 64.19 ± 2.02 to 91.86 ± 3.24%. The bead sizes were within 1.12 ± 0.11 to 1.28 ± 0.15 mm. These glibenclamide-loaded OG-alginate blend beads exhibited sustained in vitro drug release over a prolonged period of 8 h. The in vitro drug release from these OG-alginate beads were followed controlled-release (zero-order) pattern with super case-II transport mechanism. The beads were also characterized by SEM and FTIR. The swelling and degradation of these beads was influenced by the pH of the test medium. These beads also exhibited good mucoadhesivity with goat intestinal mucosa.

  12. Sorbitan ester organogels for transdermal delivery of sumatriptan.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, Kamal K; Tiwari, Chandraprabha; Khopade, Ajay J; Bohidar, Himadri B; Jain, Sanjay K

    2007-06-01

    The partial phase behavior, rheological, and drug release characteristics of an organogel (OG) composed of water, isooctane and sorbitan esters, sorbitan monopalmitate (Span-40) and poly(oxyethylene)sorbitan monostearate (Polysorbate-60) were studied. Phase diagrams showed decreasing areas of optically isotropic organogel region depending on the surfactant ratio, Kw and drug incorporation. The nonbirefringent, clear isotropic solution suggested the reverse micellar/microemulsion nature of the organogel without any molecular ordering. The increase in drug concentration in OGs leads to increase in the viscosity and sol-gel transition temperature (Tg). Fractal dimension (df) values calculated for different compositions suggested that the density of the tubular network increases with increasing drug concentration in OGs. The release rate of the drug from OGs was found to be non-Fickian through the dialysis membrane. The permeation rate of sumatriptan from pig skin was 0.231 mg/h/cm2 (781.9 nmol/h/cm2). The study indicates potential of OG as a reservoir system for transdermal drug delivery.

  13. Spatiotemporal Industrial Activity Model for Estimating the Intensity of Oil and Gas Operations in Colorado.

    PubMed

    Allshouse, William B; Adgate, John L; Blair, Benjamin D; McKenzie, Lisa M

    2017-09-05

    Oil and gas (O&G) production in the United States has increased in the last 15 years, and operations, which are trending toward large multiwell pads, release hazardous air pollutants. Health studies have relied on proximity to O&G wells as an exposure metric, typically using an inverse distance-weighting (IDW) approach. Because O&G emissions are dependent on multiple factors, a dynamic model is needed to describe the variability in air pollution emissions over space and time. We used information on Colorado O&G activities, production volumes, and air pollutant emission rates from two Colorado basins to create a spatiotemporal industrial activity model to develop an intensity-adjusted IDW well-count metric. The Spearman correlation coefficient between this metric and measured pollutant concentrations was 0.74. We applied our model to households in Greeley, Colorado, which is in the middle of the densely developed Denver-Julesburg basin. Our intensity-adjusted IDW increased the unadjusted IDW dynamic range by a factor of 19 and distinguishes high-intensity events, such as hydraulic fracturing and flowback, from lower-intensity events, such as production at single-well pads. As the frequency of multiwell pads increases, it will become increasingly important to characterize the range of intensities at O&G sites when conducting epidemiological studies.

  14. Effects of dietary hull-less barley β-glucan on the cholesterol metabolism of hypercholesterolemic hamsters.

    PubMed

    Tong, Li-Tao; Zhong, Kui; Liu, Liya; Zhou, Xianrong; Qiu, Ju; Zhou, Sumei

    2015-02-15

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the hypocholesterolemic effects of dietary hull-less barley β-glucan (HBG) on cholesterol metabolism in hamsters which were fed a hypercholesterolemic diet. The hamsters were divided into 3 groups and fed experimental diets, containing 5‰ HBG or 5‰ oat β-glucan (OG), for 30days. The HBG, as well as OG, lowered the concentration of plasma LDL-cholesterol significantly. The excretion of total lipids and cholesterol in feces were increased in HBG and OG groups compared with the control group. The activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase in liver was reduced significantly in the HBG group compared with the control and OG groups. The activity of cholesterol 7-α hydroxylase (CYP7A1) in the liver, in the HBG and OG groups, was significantly increased compared with the control group. The concentrations of acetate, propionate and total short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were not significantly different between the HBG and control groups. These results indicate that dietary HBG reduces the concentration of plasma LDL cholesterol by promoting the excretion of fecal lipids, and regulating the activities of HMG-CoA reductase and CYP7A1 in hypercholesterolemic hamsters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Intraoperative endoscopy and leaks after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Alaedeen, Diya; Madan, Atul K; Ro, Charles Y; Khan, Khurram A; Martinez, Jose M; Tichansky, David S

    2009-06-01

    Postoperative leaks after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) are a source of morbidity and mortality. Any intervention that would decrease leak rates after LRYGB would be useful. This investigation tested the hypothesis that postoperative leak rates are lower after LRYGB with the routine use of intraoperative endoscopy (EN). Consecutive patients who underwent LRYGB were included. Intraoperative leak testing with air and methylene blue through an orogastric tube (OG) was used in the first 200 patients. Intraoperative endoscopy was used after the first 200 patients. There were 400 patients in this study. Preoperative demographics did not differ between groups. The intraoperative leak rate of the EN group was double the OG group (8 vs 4%; P = not significant), although the difference was not statistically significant. The OG group had a postoperative leak rate of 4 per cent with a mortality rate of 1 per cent. The EN group had a postoperative leak rate of 0.5 per cent with a mortality rate of 0 per cent. The difference in leak rates was statistically significant (P < 0.04). Despite the issues of learning curve, EN demonstrates more intraoperative leaks than OG, indicating EN may be a more sensitive test than OG. Routine use of EN is associated with less postoperative leaks after LRYGB.

  16. Laser-induced optogalvanic signal oscillations in miniature neon glow discharge plasma.

    PubMed

    Saini, V K

    2013-06-20

    Laser-induced optogalvanic (OG) signal oscillations detected in miniature neon glow discharge plasma are investigated using a discharge equivalent-circuit model. The damped oscillations in OG signal are generated when a pulsed dye laser is tuned to a specific neon transition (1s5→2p2) at 588.2 nm under the discharge conditions where dynamic resistance changes its sign. Penning ionization via quasi-resonant energy transfer collisions between neon gas atoms in metastable state and sputtered electrode atoms in ground state is discussed to explain the negative differential resistance properties of discharge plasma that are attributed to oscillations in the OG signal. The experimentally observed results are simulated by analyzing the behavior of an equivalent discharge-OG circuit. Good agreement between theoretically calculated and experimental results is observed. It is found that discharge plasma is more sensitive and less stable in close vicinity to dynamic resistance sign inversion, which can be useful for weak-optical-transition OG detection.

  17. Oxidative DNA damage is epigenetic by regulating gene transcription via base excision repair

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Aaron M.; Ding, Yun; Burrows, Cynthia J.

    2017-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have emerged as important cellular-signaling agents for cellular survival. Herein, we demonstrate that ROS-mediated oxidation of DNA to yield 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (OG) in gene promoters is a signaling agent for gene activation. Enhanced gene expression occurs when OG is formed in guanine-rich, potential G-quadruplex–forming sequences (PQS) in promoter-coding strands, initiating base excision repair (BER) by 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1), yielding an abasic site (AP). The AP enables melting of the duplex to unmask the PQS, adopting a G-quadruplex fold in which apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1) binds, but inefficiently cleaves, the AP for activation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) or endonuclease III-like protein 1 (NTHL1) genes. These details were mapped via synthesis of OG and AP analogs at single-nucleotide precision within the promoter of a luciferase reporter system. The reporters were analyzed in human and mouse cells while selectively knocking out or down critical BER proteins to identify the impact on luciferase expression. Identification of the oxidatively modified DNA base OG to guide BER activity in a gene promoter and impact cellular phenotype ascribes an epigenetic role to OG. PMID:28143930

  18. Obstetricians/Gynecologists' Problems in Sickness Certification Consultations: Two Nationwide Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Hinas, Elin; Ljungquist, Therese; Alexanderson, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To explore experiences by physicians working in obstetrics, gynecology, or maternal healthcare (O/Gs) of problems in sickness certification consultations and differences between two years. Material and Methods. Answers by O/Gs to two Swedish nationwide surveys, in 2008 (n = 1037) and 2012 (n = 992), were analyzed for frequencies and severity of problems and organizational support in sickness certification consultations. Results. One-third of O/Gs found sickness certifications problematic every week. The most frequent problem was patients requesting sick notes for reasons other than work incapacity due to disease/injury (2008: 21%; 2012: 16%). The most problematic were assessing work capacity (2008 and 2012: 52%) and having different opinion from that of the patient about need for sick leave (2008: 51%; 2012: 46%). In 2012, 27% used the national sickness certification guidelines weekly, compared to 9% in 2008. A larger proportion in 2012 than 2008 reported that the guidelines facilitated contacts with patients and different stakeholders. Conclusions. Although O/Gs perceived sickness certification as problematic, there was less perceived severity of problems in 2012 compared to 2008, possibly because interventions regarding sickness certification have been introduced in Sweden recent years. Still, more organizational support, for example, time and supervision, are needed to enhance O/Gs' sickness certification practices. PMID:27980537

  19. Characterization of the Effects of an rpoC Mutation That Confers Resistance to the Fst Peptide Toxin-Antitoxin System Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Brinkman, Cassandra L.; Bumgarner, Roger; Kittichotirat, Weerayuth; Dunman, Paul M.; Kuechenmeister, Lisa J.

    2013-01-01

    Overexpression of the Fst toxin in Enterococcus faecalis strain OG1X leads to defects in chromosome segregation, cell division and, eventually, membrane integrity. The M7 mutant derivative of OG1X is resistant to most of these effects but shows a slight growth defect in the absence of Fst. Full-genome sequencing revealed two differences between M7 and its OG1X parent. First, OG1X contains a frameshift mutation that inactivates the etaR response regulator gene, while M7 is a wild-type revertant for etaR. Second, the M7 mutant contains a missense mutation in the rpoC gene, which encodes the β′ subunit of RNA polymerase. Mutagenesis experiments revealed that the rpoC mutation was primarily responsible for the resistance phenotype. Microarray analysis revealed that a number of transporters were induced in OG1X when Fst was overexpressed. These transporters were not induced in M7 in response to Fst, and further experiments indicated that this had a direct protective effect on the mutant cells. Therefore, exposure of cells to Fst appears to have a cascading effect, first causing membrane stress and then potentiation of these effects by overexpression of certain transporters. PMID:23104812

  20. The Coadministration of Unoxidized and Oxidized Desi Ghee Ameliorates the Toxic Effects of Thermally Oxidized Ghee in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Uddin, Islam

    2017-01-01

    Desi Ghee was thermally oxidized at 160°C for 9 h and characterized for peroxide value (PV), free fatty acid (FFA), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), radical scavenging activity (RSA), and fatty acid and cholesterol composition using GC-MS. Oxidized (OG) and normal ghee (NG) were fed to rabbits in different doses. Blood was collected for hematology and biochemical analyses after 7 and 14 days. The oxidation of desi ghee increased the PV, FFA, and TBARS values and showed a decline in the RSA values. GC-MS revealed that desi ghee was rich in saturated fatty acids (55.9 g/100 g) and significant amounts of oleic acid (26.2 g/100 g). The OG significantly decreased the body weight, which was normalized by the coadministration of NG. Serum lipid profile showed a dose dependent increase in total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low density lipoproteins (LDL) and decrease in RBCs count, hematocrit, glucose, and hemoglobin concentration with OG feeding. These parameters were normalized by coadministration of NG. Liver histopathology of OG fed groups showed bile duct dilation and necrotic changes, while normal architecture showed in NG groups, compared to control. These results indicate that NG has no significant effect on rabbits comparing with OG and that it was beneficial when coadministered with oxidized ghee. PMID:28299204

  1. Nonmetabolizable analogue of 2-oxoglutarate elicits heterocyst differentiation under repressive conditions in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120

    PubMed Central

    Laurent, Sophie; Chen, Han; Bédu, Sylvie; Ziarelli, Fabio; Peng, Ling; Zhang, Cheng-Cai

    2005-01-01

    In response to combined nitrogen starvation in the growth medium, the filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 is able to develop a particular cell type, called a heterocyst, specialized in molecular nitrogen fixation. Heterocysts are regularly intercalated among vegetative cells and represent 5–10% of all cells along each filament. In unicellular cyanobacteria, the key Krebs cycle intermediate, 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG), has been suggested as a nitrogen status signal, but in vivo evidence is still lacking. In this study we show that nitrogen starvation causes 2-OG to accumulate transiently within cells of Anabaena PCC 7120, reaching a maximal intracellular concentration of ≈0.1 mM 1 h after combined nitrogen starvation. A nonmetabolizable fluorinated 2-OG derivative, 2,2-difluoropentanedioic acid (DFPA), was synthesized and used to demonstrate the signaling function of 2-OG in vivo. DFPA is shown to be a structural analogue of 2-OG and the process of its uptake and accumulation in vivo can be followed by 19F magic angle spinning NMR because of the presence of the fluorine atom and its chemical stability. DFPA at a threshold concentration of 0.3 mM triggers heterocyst differentiation under repressing conditions. The multidisciplinary approaches using synthetic fluorinated analogues, magic angle spinning NMR for their analysis in vivo, and techniques of molecular biology provide a powerful means to identify the nature of the signals that remain unknown or poorly defined in many signaling pathways. PMID:15985552

  2. Relationship between pretreatment case complexity and orthodontic clinical outcomes determined by the American Board of Orthodontics criteria.

    PubMed

    Cansunar, Hatice Akinci; Uysal, Tancan

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate the relationship between pretreatment case complexity and orthodontic treatment outcomes. The total sample contained 1693 cases (853 females and 840 males, mean age  =  16.3 years) from the archives of postgraduate orthodontic clinics. The complexity of each case was evaluated using the American Board of Orthodontics (ABO) Discrepancy Index (DI), and orthodontic clinical outcomes were evaluated using the ABO Objective Grading System (OGS). Only one investigator evaluated all cases. Multivariate analysis of variance, correlation analysis, and multiple variable regression analysis were used for statistical evaluation (P < .05 as significant). The mean total DI score was 16.2, and the mean total OGS score was 18. No significant correlation was found between the total DI and the total OGS scores. However, pretreatment overbite, lateral open bite, crowding, buccal posterior crossbite, and other components affected the total OGS score significantly. The highest percentage of passing OGS values was found for cases of medium-level complexity. This retrospective study of university clinical records showed that the posttreatment clinical outcomes were significantly affected from pretreatment case complexity. Posttreatment alignment was affected significantly from pretreatment buccal posterior crossbite and cephalometric values. Similarly, posttreatment buccolingual inclination was affected from pretreatment anterior open bite, occlusion, and other factors. Occlusal contacts were affected significantly from pretreatment lingual posterior crossbite and other factors. In addition, we determined that posttreatment root angulations were affected significantly from pretreatment crowding values.

  3. Organic and genetically modified soybean diets: consequences in growth and in hematological indicators of aged rats.

    PubMed

    Daleprane, Julio Beltrame; Feijó, Tatiana Silveira; Boaventura, Gilson Teles

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the protein quality of organic and genetically modified soy by feeding specific diets to rats. Three groups of Wistar rats (n=10) were used, and each group was named according to the food that they ate. There was an organic soy group (OG), a genetically modified soy group (GG), and a control group (CG). All animals received water and diet ad libitum for 455 days. At the end of this period, the weight of the GG group was the same as that of the OG, and both were higher than CG. Protein intake was similar for the OG and GG, which were significantly lower (p<0.0005) than the CG. The growth rate (GR) of the rats, albumin levels, and total levels of serum protein were comparable for all groups. Hematocrit (p<0.04) and hemoglobin (p<0.03) for the OG and GG were less than the CG. Although the OG and GG demonstrated reduced hematocrit and hemoglobin, both types of soy were utilized in a way similar to casein. This result suggests that the protein quality of soy is parallel to the standard protein casein in terms of growth promotion but not hematological indicators.

  4. Crystal Structure and Functional Analysis of Homocitrate Synthase, an Essential Enzyme in Lysine Biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Bulfer, Stacie L.; Scott, Erin M.; Couture, Jean-François; Pillus, Lorraine; Trievel, Raymond C.

    2010-01-12

    Homocitrate synthase (HCS) catalyzes the first and committed step in lysine biosynthesis in many fungi and certain Archaea and is a potential target for antifungal drugs. Here we report the crystal structure of the HCS apoenzyme from Schizosaccharomyces pombe and two distinct structures of the enzyme in complex with the substrate 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG). The structures reveal that HCS forms an intertwined homodimer stabilized by domain-swapping between the N- and C-terminal domains of each monomer. The N-terminal catalytic domain is composed of a TIM barrel fold in which 2-OG binds via hydrogen bonds and coordination to the active site divalent metal ion, whereas the C-terminal domain is composed of mixed {alpha}/{beta} topology. In the structures of the HCS apoenzyme and one of the 2-OG binary complexes, a lid motif from the C-terminal domain occludes the entrance to the active site of the neighboring monomer, whereas in the second 2-OG complex the lid is disordered, suggesting that it regulates substrate access to the active site through its apparent flexibility. Mutations of the active site residues involved in 2-OG binding or implicated in acid-base catalysis impair or abolish activity in vitro and in vivo. Together, these results yield new insights into the structure and catalytic mechanism of HCSs and furnish a platform for developing HCS-selective inhibitors.

  5. Peroxidase-Generated Apoplastic ROS Impair Cuticle Integrity and Contribute to DAMP-Elicited Defenses.

    PubMed

    Survila, Mantas; Davidsson, Pär R; Pennanen, Ville; Kariola, Tarja; Broberg, Martin; Sipari, Nina; Heino, Pekka; Palva, Erkki T

    2016-01-01

    Cuticular defects trigger a battery of reactions including enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and resistance to necrotrophic pathogens. However, the source of ROS generated by such impaired cuticles has remained elusive. Here, we report the characterization of Arabidopsis thaliana ohy1 mutant, a Peroxidase 57 (PER57) - overexpressing line that demonstrates enhanced defense responses that result both from increased accumulation of ROS and permeability of the leaf cuticle. The ohy1 mutant was identified in a screen of A. thaliana seedlings for oligogalacturonides (OGs) insensitive/hypersensitive mutants that exhibit altered growth retardation in response to exogenous OGs. Mutants impaired in OG sensitivity were analyzed for disease resistance/susceptibility to the necrotrophic phytopathogens Botrytis cinerea and Pectobacterium carotovorum. In the ohy1 line, the hypersensitivity to OGs was associated with resistance to the tested pathogens. This PER57 overexpressing line exhibited a significantly more permeable leaf cuticle than wild-type plants and this phenotype could be recapitulated by overexpressing other class III peroxidases. Such peroxidase overexpression was accompanied by the suppressed expression of cutin biosynthesis genes and the enhanced expression of genes associated with OG-signaling. Application of ABA completely removed ROS, restored the expression of genes associated with cuticle biosynthesis and led to decreased permeability of the leaf cuticle, and finally, abolished immunity to B. cinerea. Our work demonstrates that increased peroxidase activity increases permeability of the leaf cuticle. The loss of cuticle integrity primes plant defenses to necrotrophic pathogens via the activation of DAMP-responses.

  6. Peroxidase-Generated Apoplastic ROS Impair Cuticle Integrity and Contribute to DAMP-Elicited Defenses

    PubMed Central

    Survila, Mantas; Davidsson, Pär R.; Pennanen, Ville; Kariola, Tarja; Broberg, Martin; Sipari, Nina; Heino, Pekka; Palva, Erkki T.

    2016-01-01

    Cuticular defects trigger a battery of reactions including enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and resistance to necrotrophic pathogens. However, the source of ROS generated by such impaired cuticles has remained elusive. Here, we report the characterization of Arabidopsis thaliana ohy1 mutant, a Peroxidase 57 (PER57) – overexpressing line that demonstrates enhanced defense responses that result both from increased accumulation of ROS and permeability of the leaf cuticle. The ohy1 mutant was identified in a screen of A. thaliana seedlings for oligogalacturonides (OGs) insensitive/hypersensitive mutants that exhibit altered growth retardation in response to exogenous OGs. Mutants impaired in OG sensitivity were analyzed for disease resistance/susceptibility to the necrotrophic phytopathogens Botrytis cinerea and Pectobacterium carotovorum. In the ohy1 line, the hypersensitivity to OGs was associated with resistance to the tested pathogens. This PER57 overexpressing line exhibited a significantly more permeable leaf cuticle than wild-type plants and this phenotype could be recapitulated by overexpressing other class III peroxidases. Such peroxidase overexpression was accompanied by the suppressed expression of cutin biosynthesis genes and the enhanced expression of genes associated with OG-signaling. Application of ABA completely removed ROS, restored the expression of genes associated with cuticle biosynthesis and led to decreased permeability of the leaf cuticle, and finally, abolished immunity to B. cinerea. Our work demonstrates that increased peroxidase activity increases permeability of the leaf cuticle. The loss of cuticle integrity primes plant defenses to necrotrophic pathogens via the activation of DAMP-responses. PMID:28066496

  7. Découverte de l'Éocène continental autour de l'archipel de Kasserine, aux Jebels Rhéouis, Boudinar et Chamsi en Tunisie centro-méridionale : nouvelles implications paléogéographiquesEocene continental facies discovery around the Kasserine archipelago in Rheouis, Boudinar and Chamsi Jebels in the central-meridional Tunisia: new palaeogeographic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamoussi, Fakher; Abbès, Chedly; Fakhfakh, Emna; Bédir, Mourad; Kharbachi, Samir; Soussi, Mohamed; Zargouni, Fouad; López-Galindo, Alberto

    2001-09-01

    The Rhéouis and Boudinar Eocene outcrops located along the Tunisian 'north-south axis' show continental deposits similar to those already described in the west-central and meridional Atlas in the Jebel Chaambi and Chebket Bouloufa. The field investigations of these levels conduct to the discovery of Bulimes' terrestrial Gastropods known in the Mediterranean domain. The presence of palygorskite in the clay minerals confirms the emerged tendency of these deposits. The continental palaeogeography might have been induced by the Triassic halokinetic movements along the Atlasic anticlines.

  8. Advanced Technology for Improved Quantum Device Properties Using Highly Strained Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-15

    PREPARED BY: W.J. Schaff S.D. OffseyI DL)L.,C ;.. $T A H. Park At~pio-ved tc- ;p7ua~ic tel-e:a~o L.F. Eastman q uoig4 04 Table of Contents Page...Graded-Index Separate-Confinement Heterostructure Single Quantum Well Lasers Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy", S.D. Offsey, W.J. Schaff , P.J. Tasker, H...gle Confinement Single Quantum Well Lasers Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy", S.D. Offsey, W.J. Schaff , P.J. Tasker and L.F. Eastman, Device Research

  9. Tidal and Lunar Data for Point Mugu, San Nicholas Island, and the Barking Sands Area during 1989

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-31

    daylight Autumnal Equinox 22 September 1720 PST Beginning of Autumn Day and night equal length Winter Solstice 21 December 1322 PST Beginning of...DTIC Ne uEC 2 2 1988 V COMPILED BYRICH DIXON GEOPHYSICS DivIsoN 31 DECEMBER 1988 APPRoVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION Is UNLIMITED PACIFIC MISSILE...PAGE CO.’ Annual FROM TO 1988, December , 31 41 ., P, J-J TARY NOTATiON COSAT’ CODES 18 SUBJECT T ERMS (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by

  10. Thermochemistry of Gaseous Compounds of Metals.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    Ifl////// EEEI/EEEEEEEEE/I/I/I/EEE//EE EEEEEEEEE//EEI EE/IEI/E//E//E AFOSR.TR. 8 1 -to3 FC March 1981 Final Technical Report 5 December 1977 to 4...ved) TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT ii Research Objectives 1 Technical Approach 2 Results 3 Professional Personnel 10 Publications 10 REFERENCES 11...8217. ". rA TO DT)C Ti t : ’ 1 ,., t., reviewed and is approv. IA AFR 190-12 (7b). Distri. , : ’, .. : l t d A. D. Biu,. Technical k:,)’orII1t.lon Officer

  11. The Influence of 8 Weeks of Whey-Protein and Leucine Supplementation on Physical and Cognitive Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    branchecl -chain mino ac ids ( BCAA ) may a lso improve cogni t ive per formance dur ing latigue. Blornstrand, Hassmdn, Eckblorn, and News- holme (1q91...1991) and Hassmdn, Blornstrand, Eck- blom, and Newsholme (1994) observecl that participants supplemented with BCAAs scored better on both mood lcvels...whey and casein, whey and BCAAs . or’ placebo ver’ I 0 weeks of R1’. ’fhey obser"ved a significant incrcase in l-RM BP in all 3 groups with no

  12. Is the daily use of vacuum erection device for a month before penile prosthesis implantation beneficial? a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Canguven, O; Talib, R A; Campbell, J; De Young, L; El Ansari, W; Al-Ansari, A

    2017-01-01

    Patient concerns about penile length after penile prosthesis (PP) implantation for erectile dysfunction (ED) have significant impact on patients and their partners. In addition, corporal fibrosis is associated with difficult PP implantation. The preoperative use of vacuum erectile devices (VED) is an uncommon physical treatment for such concerns. Therefore, the current randomized controlled study assessed two outcomes: whether pre-operative VED use for a month before surgery would significantly increase flaccid stretched penile length (SPL) on the day of surgery, and facilitate easier corporal dilatation intraoperatively. Fifty-one patients scheduled for PP implantation for ED were randomized to either intervention group (pre-operative VED use; 10-15 min/day for ≥30 days; Group A; n = 25), or control group (no intervention; Group B; n = 26). A research assistant (blinded to the treatment assignments) recorded SPL at baseline (initial consultation) and on day of surgery. The surgeons performing the PP implantation (also blinded to the treatment assignments) provided subjective assessments of the ease of corporal dilatation. Baseline patient characteristics, demographics, and comorbidities were the same in both groups. Baseline measurements (SPL-1) were 10.71 ± 1.28 and 10.87 ± 1.26 cm in Group A and Group B, respectively; and the day of surgery measurements (SPL-2) were 11.50 ± 1.33 and 11.06 ± 1.34 cm in Group A and Group B, respectively. In terms of outcomes: mean SPL increase in Group A was significantly more by a mean of 0.80 ± 0.38 cm (p < 0.05) compared to Group B; and surgeons' subjective report of surgical ease indicated smoother corporal dilatation for Group A compared to Group B. VED use (10-15 min/day during the month prior to PP implantation) was associated with significantly increased SPL on day of surgery, and facilitated easier corporal dilatation intraoperatively. Future studies should examine the long-term outcomes of

  13. Controlled Growth of Parallel Oriented ZnO Nanostructural Arrays on Ga2O3 Nanowires

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-01

    Controlled Growth of Parallel Oriented ZnO Nanostructural Arrays on Ga2O3 Nanowires Lena Mazeina,* Yoosuf N. Picard, and Sharka M. Prokes Electronics...Manuscript ReceiVed NoVember 6, 2008 ABSTRACT: Novel hierarchical ZnO- Ga2O3 nanostructures were fabricated via a two stage growth process. Nanowires of Ga2O3 ...nanobrushes (NBs) with Ga2O3 as the core and ZnO as the branches self-assembling symmetrically in six equiangular directions around the core

  14. A Systems Engineering Based Methodology for Analyzing Human Electrocortical Responses.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-20

    D f Lh modeling provided a promising approach for hiandling obse ved r n the dcita. Model Parameter values were found to relate- tr S ...designed to be similar. Due to the nature of the two 121 FiR 5 5a0 Fig 5 0 0.. .. . . LO ° s .. . " R "R " - " - ,". ’. ’Io rpc ("IM O’CY 1. - g e -lip le e...w d - A’ --- • -A N - 46 .- - Iv e s -a S8ECT 32 -400 -1100 j ’.J - 00 000 - LIGHTS ONLY DECISION EASY DECISION HARD "* - U ".. FP[OUttu Y H

  15. Histogram Equalization with Variable Enhancement Degree for Preserving Mean Brightness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawakami, Takashi; Murahira, Kota; Taguchi, Akira

    The histogram equalization (HE) is one of the common methods used for improving contrast in digital images. However, this technique causes a fluctuation of mean brightness. The fluctuation leads to the flicker for video signal. In order to preserve the mean brightness, the dynamic histogram equalization (DHE) is proposed. In this letter, we propose a novel DHE which is called the DHE with variable enhancement degree (DHEwVED). This method can change from DHE to HE by turning one parameter. We also show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  16. Duwamish Waterways Navigation Improvement Study: Review of Existing Information on Land-Use Plans and Aquatic Resources in and Adjacent to the Duwamish River and Elliott Bay, Washington

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    STATEMENT A Apr,’.,ved for public rel*o,4 Distribution Unlimited TABLE OF CONTENTS Page INTRODUCTION ii A, LAND USE A-i to A-89 Summary A-2 Information...Sources A-3 1 Plans, Policies, and Related Documents A-4 Surveys and Inventories A-36 Environmental and Archaeological Assessments A-47 Other A-69 B...general with r.espect to content and location or provid& only a limited examination of pre-existinq data. Articles were abstracted or the author’s

  17. Visual Electricity Demonstrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lincoln, James

    2017-09-01

    The Visual Electricity Demonstrator (VED) is a linear diode array that serves as a dynamic alternative to an ammeter. A string of 48 red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) blink one after another to create the illusion of a moving current. Having the current represented visually builds an intuitive and qualitative understanding about what is happening in a circuit. In this article, I describe several activities for this device and explain how using this technology in the classroom can enhance the understanding and appreciation of physics.

  18. A Four-Phase Modulation System for Use with an Adaptive Array.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-01

    channel, the signal-to- noise ratio out of the filter is given by P. PSS/ NIIF N B . (183) The signal-to-noise ratio in the ith channel for any timing off...set is then given by P5s S/N I = S/ NIIF P S (184) The output of the linear envelope detector is described by its mean and power spectral density. To...228) 11 p These values are independent of other parameters invol ved (such as S/ NIIF ) to the accuracy shown here. Note that Equation (227

  19. Mathematical Studies of Wavelet Inverse Reconstructions for Nondestructive Evaluation, Novel Dielectrics, and the Dispersion from Chaotic Motions in Water

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    dispersion of water from a previous AFOSR grant. The wavelet studies were direct^ toward nondestructive evaluation using ultrasonic waves. The...novel dielectrics were mainly the PBGS, photonic band gap structures - periodic arrays of a dielectric with permitivity »^ embedded in a...n g au9lan°S irtHeXCePti1° nal "^ "^ *™^" °™«" much 0? Z Tnilf TeUt phaSe Space- This metn°° ^ved mucn of the noise from the

  20. Pathfinder. Volume 9, Number 1, January/February 2011

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-01

    Intelligence Agency team member Ken Brewer rece ved the Department of Defense Outstanding Employee with a Disability award Dec. 7 in Bethesda, Md...Personnel and Readiness, joined NGA Director Letitia A. Long in recognizing Brewer with this honor and presenting him with the award. “I am honored...to be named as one of the DOD’s Outstanding Employees with a Disability,” Brewer said. “This is an unforgettable moment in my life.” The award

  1. An Introduction to the Literature of Search Theory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    continuous space. His objective was to optimize allo- cation of search effort. Suppose that we have a search area divided into two parts A1 and A2 1...7 p,., Atop 110, Nasleda, Miesasir K., "Labot Supply of Whenr with AD Ans 212 pp Rol Husbiand StinploVed Either Pull Thme Or Part Vile, Wkso L...pp,. Hov ¶524 (DI~ehNred us the ltisenethonall Mgrrehi, Maurice, "A Targeting Problein Segars Theflory coulsleiso integrale Using Usea Geserllead

  2. Flying Qualities of Relaxed Static Stability Aircraft. Volume 2. Ramifications of Flight-Essential/Critical Heavily-Augmented Airplane Characteristics on Flying Qualities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    root variation am is perwltte4 to becout sort uaatlvs ( eeg ., cog. Wereeeixuly w~ved further fotowrd of the neutral potat). % w~a e t-period dh~a~a fs Cc...deg-sec) unit impulse. For sueh an input the pit~ch att.It~ tdc responses in !A’gure 11 appear with the same response shapes as those deacribed...this pair approaches the clewaical tm -degree-of-froedo. phugoid mode dwereint Z’ V/gZuAT &rglo I n this classic phugoid (Ref erence 22) the angle of

  3. Positroid stratification of orthogonal Grassmannian and ABJM amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Joonho; Lee, Sangmin

    2014-09-01

    A novel understanding of scattering amplitudes in terms of on-shell diagrams and positive Grassmannian has been recently established for four dimensional Yang-Mills theories and three dimensional Chern-Simons theories of ABJM type. We give a detailed construction of the positroid stratification of orthogonal Grassmannian relevant for ABJM amplitudes. On-shell diagrams are classified by pairing of external particles. We introduce a combinatorial aid called `OG tableaux' and map each equivalence class of on-shell diagrams to a unique tableau. The on-shell diagrams related to each other through BCFW bridging are naturally grouped by the OG tableaux. Introducing suitably ordered BCFW bridges and positive coordinates, we construct the complete coordinate charts to cover the entire positive orthogonal Grassmannian for arbitrary number of external particles. The graded counting of OG tableaux suggests that the positive orthogonal Grassmannian constitutes a combinatorial polytope.

  4. Orbital glass and spin glass states of 3He-A in aerogel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitriev, V. V.; Krasnikhin, D. A.; Mulders, N.; Senin, A. A.; Volovik, G. E.; Yudin, A. N.

    2010-06-01

    Glass states of superfluid A-like phase of 3He in aerogel induced by random orientations of aerogel strands are investigated theoretically and experimentally. In anisotropic aerogel with stretching deformation two glass phases are observed. Both phases represent the anisotropic glass of the orbital ferromagnetic vector Ηthe orbital glass (OG). The phases differ by the spin structure: the spin nematic vector hat d can be either in the ordered spin nematic (SN) state or in the disordered spin-glass (SG) state. The first phase (OG-SN) is formed under conventional cooling from normal 3He. The second phase (OG-SG) is metastable, being obtained by cooling through the superfluid transition temperature, when large enough resonant continuous radio-frequency excitation is applied. NMR signature of different phases allows us to measure the parameter of the global anisotropy of the orbital glass induced by deformation.

  5. Hubble Space Telescope Reduced-Gyro Control Law Design, Implementation, and On-Orbit Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clapp, Brian R.; Ramsey, Patrick R.; Wirzburger, John H.; Smith, Daniel C.; VanArsadall, John C.

    2008-01-01

    Following gyro failures in April 2001 and April 2003, HST Pointing Control System engineers designed reduced-gyro control laws to extend the spacecraft science mission. The Two-Gyro Science (TGS) and One-Gyro Science (OGS) control laws were designed and implemented using magnetometers, star trackers, and Fine Guidance Sensors in succession to control vehicle rate about the missing gyro axes. Both TGS and OGS have demonstrated on-orbit pointing stability of 7 milli-arcseconds or less, which depends upon the guide star magnitude used by the Fine Guidance Sensor. This paper describes the design, implementation, and on-orbit performance of the TGS and OGS control law fine-pointing modes using Fixed Head Star Trackers and Fine Guidance Sensors, after successfully achieving coarse-pointing control using magnetometers.

  6. A new overgrowth syndrome is due to mutations in RNF125.

    PubMed

    Tenorio, Jair; Mansilla, Alicia; Valencia, María; Martínez-Glez, Víctor; Romanelli, Valeria; Arias, Pedro; Castrejón, Nerea; Poletta, Fernando; Guillén-Navarro, Encarna; Gordo, Gema; Mansilla, Elena; García-Santiago, Fé; González-Casado, Isabel; Vallespín, Elena; Palomares, María; Mori, María A; Santos-Simarro, Fernando; García-Miñaur, Sixto; Fernández, Luis; Mena, Rocío; Benito-Sanz, Sara; del Pozo, Ángela; Silla, Juan Carlos; Ibañez, Kristina; López-Granados, Eduardo; Martín-Trujillo, Alex; Montaner, David; Heath, Karen E; Campos-Barros, Ángel; Dopazo, Joaquín; Nevado, Julián; Monk, David; Ruiz-Pérez, Víctor L; Lapunzina, Pablo

    2014-12-01

    Overgrowth syndromes (OGS) are a group of disorders in which all parameters of growth and physical development are above the mean for age and sex. We evaluated a series of 270 families from the Spanish Overgrowth Syndrome Registry with no known OGS. We identified one de novo deletion and three missense mutations in RNF125 in six patients from four families with overgrowth, macrocephaly, intellectual disability, mild hydrocephaly, hypoglycemia, and inflammatory diseases resembling Sjögren syndrome. RNF125 encodes an E3 ubiquitin ligase and is a novel gene of OGS. Our studies of the RNF125 pathway point to upregulation of RIG-I-IPS1-MDA5 and/or disruption of the PI3K-AKT and interferon signaling pathways as the putative final effectors. © 2014 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  7. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy. Procedure of choice.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, R E; Kummer, B A; Tiszenkel, H I; Kotler, D P

    1986-01-01

    Operative gastrostomy (OG) for gastrointestinal decompression or feeding has stood the test of time. Nevertheless, this procedure is often associated with significant morbidity and occasional mortality. Furthermore, although it is often performed under local anesthesia, general anesthesia is frequently necessary. A recent alternative to OG is percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG). The purpose of this study is to describe our experience with 100 consecutive PEGs in 98 patients. There were no complications, and no patient died as a result of PEG. Furthermore, PEG never required general anesthesia and was rapid and less costly than OG. Since PEG is so simple to perform, it may be employed earlier in the patient's course, thus avoiding nasogastric feedings or parenteral alimentation. PEG is the procedure of choice should gastrostomy be needed. PMID:3767486

  8. Sustainable oil and grease removal from synthetic stormwater runoff using bench-scale bioretention studies.

    PubMed

    Hong, Eunyoung; Seagren, Eric A; Davis, Allen P

    2006-02-01

    One of the principal components of the contaminant load in urban stormwater runoff is oil and grease (O&G) pollution, resulting from vehicle emissions. A mulch layer was used as a contaminant trap to remove O&G (dissolved and particulate-associated naphthalene, dissolved toluene, and dissolved motor oil hydrocarbons) from a synthetic runoff during a bench-scale infiltration study. Approximately 80 to 95% removal of all contaminants from synthetic runoff was found via sorption and filtration. Subsequently, approximately 90% of the sorbed naphthalene, toluene, oil, and particulate-associated naphthalene was biodegraded within approximately 3, 4, 8, and 2 days after the event, respectively, based on decreases in contaminant concentrations coupled with increases of microbial populations. These results indicate the effectiveness and sustainability of placing a thin layer of mulch on the surface of a bioretention facility for reducing O&G pollution from urban stormwater runoff.

  9. Development of Osaka gas type planar SOFC

    SciTech Connect

    Iha, M.; Shiratori, A.; Chikagawa, O.

    1996-12-31

    Osaka Gas Co. has been developing a planar type SOFC (OG type SOFC) which has a suitable structure for stacking. Murata Mfg. Co. has begun to develop the OG type SOFC stack through joint program since 1993. Figure 1 shows OG type cell structure. Because each cell is sustained by cell holders acting air manifold, the load of upper cell is not put on the lower cells. Single cell is composed of 3-layered membrane and LaCrO{sub 3} separator. 5 single cells are mounted on the cell holder, connected with Ni felt electrically, and bonded by glassy material sealant. We call the 5-cell stack a unit. Stacking 13 units, we succeeded 870 W generation in 1993. But the power density was low, 0.11 Wcm{sup -2} because of crack in the electrolyte and gas leakage at some cells.

  10. Biochemistry and Occurrence of O-Demethylation in Plant Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Hagel, Jillian M.; Facchini, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    Demethylases play a pivitol role in numerous biological processes from covalent histone modification and DNA repair to specialized metabolism in plants and microorganisms. Enzymes that catalyze O- and N-demethylation include 2-oxoglutarate (2OG)/Fe(II)-dependent dioxygenases, cytochromes P450, Rieske-domain proteins and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-dependent oxidases. Proposed mechanisms for demethylation by 2OG/Fe(II)-dependent enzymes involve hydroxylation at the O- or N-linked methyl group followed by formaldehyde elimination. Members of this enzyme family catalyze a wide variety of reactions in diverse plant metabolic pathways. Recently, we showed that 2OG/Fe(II)-dependent dioxygenases catalyze the unique O-demethylation steps of morphine biosynthesis in opium poppy, which provides a rational basis for the widespread occurrence of demethylases in benzylisoquinoline alkaloid metabolism. PMID:21423357

  11. Decolorization of an azo dye Orange G in microbial fuel cells using Fe(II)-EDTA catalyzed persulfate.

    PubMed

    Niu, Cheng-Gang; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Xue-Gang; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Huang, Da-Wei; Ruan, Min; Li, Xiang-Wei

    2012-12-01

    This study constructed a microbial fuel cell (MFC) using Fe(II)-EDTA catalyzed persulfate as the cathode solutions to decolorize Orange G (OG) and harvest electricity simultaneously. Chelated Fe(2+) could activate persulfate to generate sulfate free radicals (SO(4)(-)) which with high oxidation potential (E(0)=2.6 V) can degrade azo dyes. The influence of some important factors such as pH value of cathode solutions, dosages of K(2)S(2)O(8), Fe(2+) and EDTA were investigated in a two-chamber microbial fuel cell. Under an optimal condition, the maximum power density achieved 91.1 mW m(-2), the OG removal rate was 97.4% and the K(2)S(2)O(8) remaining rate was 47.3% after 12 h. The OG degradation by Fe(II)-EDTA catalyzed persulfate was found to follow the second-order kinetic model.

  12. A prebiotic role for 8-oxoguanosine as a flavin mimic in pyrimidine dimer photorepair.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Khiem Van; Burrows, Cynthia J

    2011-09-21

    Redox-active enzyme cofactors derived from ribonucleotides have been called "fossils of the RNA world," suggesting that early catalysts employed modified nucleobases to facilitate redox chemistry in primitive metabolism. Here, we show that the common oxidative damage product 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (OG), when incorporated into a DNA or RNA strand in proximity to a cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer, can mimic the function of a flavin in photorepair. The OG nucleotide acts catalytically in a mechanism consistent with that of photolyase in which the photoexcited state of the purine donates an electron to a pyrimidine dimer to initiate bond cleavage; subsequent back electron transfer regenerates OG. This unusual example of one form of DNA damage, oxidation, functioning to repair another, photodimerization, may provide insight into the origins of prebiotic redox processes.

  13. Structure-Guided Reprogramming of a Hydroxylase To Halogenate Its Small Molecule Substrate.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Andrew J; Dunham, Noah P; Bergman, Jonathan A; Wang, Bo; Zhu, Qin; Chang, Wei-Chen; Liu, Xinyu; Boal, Amie K

    2017-01-24

    Enzymatic installation of chlorine/bromine into unactivated carbon centers provides a versatile, selective, and environmentally friendly alternative to chemical halogenation. Iron(II) and 2-(oxo)-glutarate (Fe(II)/2OG)-dependent halogenases are powerful biocatalysts that are capable of cleaving aliphatic C-H bonds to introduce useful functional groups, including halogens. Using the structure of the Fe/2OG halogenase, WelO5, in complex with its small molecule substrate, we identified a similar N-acyl amino acid hydroxylase, SadA, and reprogrammed it to halogenate its substrate, thereby generating a new chiral haloalkyl center. The work highlights the potential of Fe(II)/2OG enzymes as platforms for development of novel stereospecific catalysts for late-stage C-H functionalization.

  14. A Bombyx mandarina mutant exhibiting translucent larval skin is controlled by the molybdenum cofactor sulfurase gene.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Tsuguru; Ozaki, Masataka; Masamoto, Takaaki; Katsuma, Susumu; Abe, Hiroaki; Shimada, Toru

    2009-04-01

    During the maintenance of the wild silkworm, Bombyx mandarina, a mutant phenotype exhibiting translucent skin was identified. Based on the crossing experiments with the domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori, we found that the mutant was controlled by molybdenum cofactor sulfurase (MoCoS) gene. We designated the mutant ''Ozaki's translucent'' (og(Z)). We found a 2.1-kb deletion containing the transcription initiation site, exons 1 and 2, and the 5' end of exon 3 of the MoCoS gene. The transcript of the MoCoS gene was not detected in the og(Z) homozygote. We concluded that og(Z) is a complete loss-of-function allele generated by a disruption of the MoCoS gene.

  15. Geochronology of the Neogene intrusive magmatism of the Oaș—Gutâi Mountains, Eastern Carpathians (NW Romania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovacs, Marinel; Pécskay, Zoltán; Fülöp, Alexandrina; Jurje, Maria; Edelstein, Oscar

    2013-12-01

    Earlier geological work in the Oaș-Gutâi Mts (OG), Eastern Carpathians, has revealed the extensive presence of shallow subvolcanic intrusive bodies, both exposed on the surface and covered by Paleogene-Neogene sedimentary sequences and Neogene volcanic formations. This study is based on detailed mapping and sampling of the OG Neogene intrusive magmatic rocks. Thirty seven representative intrusions (sills, dykes, microlaccoliths, etc.) were selected for radiometric dating. These intrusions show a wide variety of petrographic rock-types: from microgabbros to microgranodiorites and from basalts to andesites. However, the intrusions consist of typical calc-alkaline, medium-K rocks, similar to the volcanic rocks which outcrop in the same areas. The K-Ar age determinations on whole-rock samples of intrusions yielded ages between 11.9 Ma and 7.0 Ma (from Late Sarmatian to Middle Pannonian). The results are in good agreement with the common assumption, based on the biostratigraphic and geological data, that large volumes of intrusions have formed during the paroxysm of the intermediate volcanic activity in the OG. Except for the Firiza basalt intrusive complex of the Gutâi Mts (8.1-7.0 Ma), the OG intrusions show similar K-Ar ages as the intrusions of the "Subvolcanic Zone" and Călimani Mts from Eastern Carpathians. The timing of the OG intrusive magmatism partially overlaps with the timing of the intrusive magmatic activity in the Eastern Moravia and Pieniny Mts. The systematic radiometric datings in the whole OG give clear evidence that the hydrothermal activity related to the epithermal systems always postdates intrusion emplacement.

  16. A novel magnetic nanoscaled Fe3O4/CeO2 composite prepared by oxidation-precipitation process and its application for degradation of orange G in aqueous solution as Fenton-like heterogeneous catalyst.

    PubMed

    Gan, Guoqiang; Liu, Juan; Zhu, Zhixi; Yang, Ziran; Zhang, Conglu; Hou, Xiaohong

    2017-02-01

    In this work, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) Fe3O4/CeO2 were firstly synthesized using three different preparation methods, including coprecipitation, impregnation oxidation-precipitation and impregnation reduction-precipitation, respectively. The catalytic activities of Fe3O4/CeO2 MNPs, prepared by above three methods, were compared systematically in terms of the degradation of orange G (OG). The impregnation oxidation-precipitation process was economical and maneuverable due to the usage of air, no need of nitrogen protection and higher utilization efficiency of iron. Response surface methodology based on central composite design were used to investigate the individual and interactive effects of three process parameters on the OG degradation, i.e. the initial pH of the solution, the dosage of H2O2 and the initial concentration of OG. Under the optimal conditions of pH 2.5, H2O2 30 mM, OG 50 mg L(-1), catalyst 2.0 g L(-1) and 35 °C, the degradation percentage of OG was 98.2% within 120 min, which agreed well with the modeling prediction (R(2) = 0.9984, and Adj-R(2) = 0.9969). And the degradation reaction well followed the first-order kinetic with R(2) = 0.9969. The Fe3O4/CeO2-OX MNPs showed high catalytic activity, stability and reusability in the degradation of OG. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. CLASSIFICATION OF EXTREMELY RED OBJECTS IN THE COSMOS FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Kong Xu; Fang Guanwen; Wang Min; Arimoto, Nobuo

    2009-09-10

    We present a study of the classification of z {approx} 1 extremely red objects (EROs), using a combination of Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS), Spitzer Infrared Array Camera (IRAC), and ground-based images of the COSMOS field. Our sample includes {approx}5300 EROs with i - K{sub s} {>=} 2.45 (AB, equivalently I - K{sub s} = 4 in Vega) and K{sub s} {<=} 21.1 (AB). For EROs in our sample, we compute, using the ACS F814W images, their concentration, asymmetry, as well as their Gini coefficient and the second moment of the brightest 20% of their light. Using those morphology parameters and the Spitzer IRAC [3.6] - [8.0] color, the spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting method, we classify EROs into two classes: old galaxies (OGs) and young, dusty starburst galaxies (DGs). We found that the fraction of OGs and DGs in our sample is similar, about 48% of EROs in our sample are OGs, and 52% of them are DGs. To reduce the redundancy of these three different classification methods, we performed a principal component analysis on the measurements of EROs, and find that morphology parameters and SEDs are efficient in segregating OGs and DGs. The [3.6] - [8.0] color, which depends on reddening, redshift, and photometric accuracy, is difficult to separate EROs around the discriminating line between starburst and elliptical. We investigate the dependence of the fraction of EROs on their observational properties, and the results suggest that DGs become increasingly important at fainter magnitudes, redder colors, and higher redshifts. The clustering of the entire EROs, DGs, and OGs was estimated by calculating their correlation function, and we find that the clustering of EROs is much stronger than that of full K-limited samples of galaxies; the clustering amplitude of OGs is a factor of {approx}2 larger than that of DGs.

  18. Effects of finishing/polishing techniques on microleakage of resin-modified glass ilonomer cement restorations.

    PubMed

    Yap, Adrian U J; Yap, W Y; Yeo, Egwin J C; Tan, Jane W S; Ong, Debbie S B

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of finishing/polishing techniques on the microleakage of resin-modified glass ionomer restorations. Class V preparations were made on the buccal and lingual/palatal surfaces of freshly extracted teeth. The cavities on each tooth were restored with Fuji II LC (FT [GC]) and Photac-Fil Quick (PF [3M-ESPE]) according to manufacturers' instructions. Immediately after light-polymerization, gross finishing was done with eight-fluted tungsten carbide burs. The teeth were then randomly divided into four groups and finishing/polishing was done with one of the following systems: (a) Robot Carbides (RC); (b) Super-Snap system (SS); (c) OneGloss (OG) and (d) CompoSite Polishers (CS). The sample size for each material-finishing/polishing system combination was eight. After finishing/polishing, the teeth were stored in distilled water at 37 degrees C for one week. The root apices were then sealed with acrylic and two coats of varnish was applied 1 mm beyond the restoration margins. The teeth were subsequently subjected to dye penetration testing (0.5% basic fuchsin), sectioned and scored. Data was analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests at a significance level of 0.05. Results of statistical analysis were as follows: Enamel margins: PF-OGOGOG & CSOG. FT restorations had significantly less enamel and dentin leakage than PF restorations when treated with OG. The effect of finishing/polishing techniques on microleakage was both tissue and material dependent.

  19. Surface texture of resin-modified glass ionomer cements: effects of finishing/polishing systems.

    PubMed

    Yap, Adrian U J; Tan, W S; Yeo, J C; Yap, W Y; Ong, S B

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the surface texture of two resin-modified glass ionomer cements (RMGICs) in the vertical and horizontal axis after treatment with different finishing/polishing systems. Class V preparations were made on the buccal and lingual/palatal surfaces of freshly extracted teeth. The cavities on each tooth were restored with Fuji II LC (GC) and Photac-Fil Quick (ESPE) according to manufacturers' instructions. Immediately after light-polymerization, gross finishing was done with 8-flute tungsten carbide burs. The teeth were then randomly divided into four groups and finished/polished with (a) Robot Carbides (RC); (b) Super-Snap system (SS); (c) OneGloss (OG) and (d) CompoSite Points (CS). The sample size for each material-finishing/polishing system combination was eight. The mean surface roughness (microm) in vertical (RaV) and horizontal (RaH) axis was measured using a profilometer. Data was subjected to ANOVA/Scheffe's tests and Independent Samples t-test at significance level 0.05. Mean RaV ranged from 0.59-1.31 and 0.83-1.52, while mean RaH ranged from 0.80-1.43 and 0.85-1.58 for Fuji II LC and Photac-Fil, respectively. Results of statistical analysis were as follows: Fuji II LC: RaV-RC, SS<OG & SSOG; Photac-Fil: RaV- SS, CS<OG; RaH-SSOG & CSOG) for finishing/polishing of RMGICs is not recommended. Graded abrasive disk (SS) or two-step rubber abrasive (CS) systems should be used instead.

  20. D-2-hydroxyglutarate metabolism is linked to photorespiration in the shm1-1 mutant.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, A; Engqvist, M K M; Jansen, E E W; Weber, A P M; Jakobs, C; Maurino, V G

    2013-07-01

    The Arabidopsis mutant shm1-1 is defective in mitochondrial serine hydroxymethyltransferase 1 activity and displays a lethal photorespiratory phenotype at ambient CO2 concentration but grows normally at high CO2 . After transferring high CO2 -grown shm1-1 plants to ambient CO2 , the younger leaves remain photosynthetically active while developed leaves display increased yellowing and decreased FV /FM values. Metabolite analysis of plants transferred from high CO2 to ambient air indicates a massive light-dependent (photorespiratory) accumulation of glycine, 2-oxoglutarate (2OG) and D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D-2HG). Amino acid markers of senescence accumulated in ambient air in wild-type and shm1-1 plants maintained in darkness and also build up in shm1-1 in the light. This, together with an enhanced transcription of the senescence marker SAG12 in shm1-1, suggests the initiation of senescence in shm1-1 under photorespiratory conditions. Mitochondrial D-2HG dehydrogenase (D-2HGDH) converts D-2HG into 2OG. In vitro studies indicate that 2OG exerts competitive inhibition on D-2HGDH with a Ki of 1.96 mm. 2OG is therefore a suitable candidate as inhibitor of the in vivo D-2HGDH activity, as 2OG is produced and accumulates in mitochondria. Inhibition of the D-2HGDH by 2OG is likely a mechanism by which D-2HG accumulates in shm1-1, however it cannot be ruled out that D-2HG may also accumulate due to an active senescence programme that is initiated in these plants after transfer to photorespiratory conditions. Thus, a novel interaction of the photorespiratory pathway with cellular processes involving D-2HG has been identified.

  1. Analysis of a long-term measurement of air pollutants (2007-2011) in North China Plain (NCP); Impact of emission reduction during the Beijing Olympic Games.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ruiguang; Tang, Guiqian; Wang, Yuesi; Tie, Xuexi

    2016-09-01

    Five years measurements were used to evaluate the effect of emission controls on the changes of air pollutants in Beijing and its surroundings in the NCP during 2008 Olympic Games (2008OG). The major challenge of this study was to filter out the effect of variability of meteorological conditions, when compared the air pollutants during the game to non-game period. We used four-year (2007, 2009-2011) average as the Non-2008OG to smooth the temporal variability caused by meteorological parameters. To study the spatial variability and regional transport, 6 sites (urban, rural, a mega city, a heavy industrial city, and a remote site) were selected. The result showed that the annually meteorological variability was significantly reduced. Such as, in BJ the differences between 2008OG and 5-years averaged values were 2.7% for relative humidity and 0.6% for wind speed. As a result, the anomaly of air pollutants between 2008OG and Non-2008OG can largely attribute to the emission control. The comparison showed that the major pollutants (PM10, PM2.5, NO, NOx) at the 6 sites in 2008OG were consistently lowered. For example, PM2.5 in BJ decreased from 75 to 45 μg/m(3) (40% reduction). However, the emission controls had minor effect on O3 concentrations (1% reduction). In contrast, the O3 precursor (NOx) reduced from 19.7 to 13.2 ppb (33% reduction). The in-sensitivity between NOx and O3 suggested that the O3 formation was under VOCs control condition in NCP, showing that strong VOC emission control is needed in order to significantly reduce O3 concentration in the region.

  2. Effects of obesity and chronic low back pain on gait

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Obesity is often associated with low back pain (LBP). Despite empirical evidence that LBP induces gait abnormalities, there is a lack of quantitative analysis of the combined effect of obesity and LBP on gait. The aim of our study was to quantify the gait pattern of obese subjects with and without LBP and normal-mass controls by using Gait Analysis (GA), in order to investigate the cumulative effects of obesity and LBP on gait. Methods Eight obese females with chronic LBP (OLG; age: 40.5 ± 10.1 years; BMI: 42.39 ± 5.47 Kg/m2), 10 obese females (OG; age: 33.6 ± 5.2 years; BMI: 39.26 ± 2.39 Kg/m2) and 10 healthy female subjects (CG; age: 33.4 ± 9.6 years; BMI: 22.8 ± 3.2 Kg/m2), were enrolled in this study and assessed with video recording and GA. Results and Discussion OLG showed longer stance duration and shorter step length when compared to OG and CG. They also had a low pelvis and hip ROM on the frontal plane, a low knee flexion in the swing phase and knee range of motion, a low dorsiflexion in stance and swing as compared to OG. No statistically significant differences were found in ankle power generation at push-off between OLG and OG, which appeared lower if compared to CG. At hip level, both OLG and OG exhibited high power generation levels during stance, with OLG showing the highest values. Conclusions Our results demonstrated that the association of obesity and LBP affects more the gait pattern than obesity alone. OLG were in fact characterised by an altered knee and ankle strategy during gait as compared to OG and CG. These elements may help optimizing rehabilitation planning and treatment in these patients. PMID:21943156

  3. Effects of obesity and chronic low back pain on gait.

    PubMed

    Cimolin, Veronica; Vismara, Luca; Galli, Manuela; Zaina, Fabio; Negrini, Stefano; Capodaglio, Paolo

    2011-09-26

    Obesity is often associated with low back pain (LBP). Despite empirical evidence that LBP induces gait abnormalities, there is a lack of quantitative analysis of the combined effect of obesity and LBP on gait. The aim of our study was to quantify the gait pattern of obese subjects with and without LBP and normal-mass controls by using Gait Analysis (GA), in order to investigate the cumulative effects of obesity and LBP on gait. Eight obese females with chronic LBP (OLG; age: 40.5 ± 10.1 years; BMI: 42.39 ± 5.47 Kg/m(2)), 10 obese females (OG; age: 33.6 ± 5.2 years; BMI: 39.26 ± 2.39 Kg/m(2)) and 10 healthy female subjects (CG; age: 33.4 ± 9.6 years; BMI: 22.8 ± 3.2 Kg/m(2)), were enrolled in this study and assessed with video recording and GA. OLG showed longer stance duration and shorter step length when compared to OG and CG. They also had a low pelvis and hip ROM on the frontal plane, a low knee flexion in the swing phase and knee range of motion, a low dorsiflexion in stance and swing as compared to OG. No statistically significant differences were found in ankle power generation at push-off between OLG and OG, which appeared lower if compared to CG. At hip level, both OLG and OG exhibited high power generation levels during stance, with OLG showing the highest values. Our results demonstrated that the association of obesity and LBP affects more the gait pattern than obesity alone. OLG were in fact characterised by an altered knee and ankle strategy during gait as compared to OG and CG. These elements may help optimizing rehabilitation planning and treatment in these patients.

  4. The Effects of 12 Weeks Regular Aerobic Exercise on Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor and Inflammatory Factors in Juvenile Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung Soo; Yoo, Jae Ho; Kang, Sung; Woo, Jin Hee; Shin, Ki Ok; Kim, Kwi Beak; Cho, Su Youn; Roh, Hee Tae; Kim, Young Il

    2014-08-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 12 weeks regular aerobic exercise on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and inflammatory factors in juvenile obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Obesity and T2DM, typically common among adults, have recently become more prevalent in the Korean juvenile population, affecting not only their lipid profiles and oxidant stress levels, but also their BDNF and inflammatory factor levels. [Subjects] This study enrolled 26 juveniles (boys = 15, girls = 9) who were assigned to a control group (CG, n = 11), obesity group (OG, n = 8), or T2DM group (TG, n = 7). [Methods] The outcome of a 40-60-minute aerobic exercise session that took place three times per week for 12 weeks at a maximum oxygen intake (VO2max) of 50~60% was investigated. [Results] The exercise resulted in a significant reduction in the resting serum BDNF and TrkB levels (baseline) among juveniles in the OG and TG as compared to those in the CG. Additionally, the 12 weeks of regular aerobic exercise led to significant reductions in body weight, body fat percentage, and body mass index in the OG and a significant increase of VO2max in the OG and TG. However, no significant differences in serum NGF or inflammatory factors were found among the three groups. There was a significant increase in resting serum BDNF levels following the 12 weeks regular exercise only in the OG. [Conclusion] While 12 weeks of regular aerobic exercise had a positive effect on body composition, and increased BDNF levels of juveniles in the OG, it did not affect the inflammatory factor levels and had no effect on the TG.

  5. Cancer-associated variants and a common polymorphism of MUTYH exhibit reduced repair of oxidative DNA damage using a GFP-based assay in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Raetz, Alan G; Xie, Yali; Kundu, Sucharita; Brinkmeyer, Megan K; Chang, Cindy; David, Sheila S

    2012-11-01

    Biallelic germline mutations in the base excision repair enzyme gene MUTYH lead to multiple colorectal adenomas and carcinomas referred to as MUTYH-associated polyposis. MUTYH removes adenine misincorporated opposite the DNA oxidation product, 8-oxoguanine (OG), thereby preventing accumulation of G:C to T:A transversion mutations. The most common cancer-associated MUTYH variant proteins when expressed in bacteria exhibit reduced OG:A mismatch affinity and adenine removal activity. However, direct evaluation of OG:A mismatch repair efficiency in mammalian cells has not been assessed due to the lack of an appropriate assay. To address this, we developed a novel fluorescence-based assay of OG:A repair and measured the repair capacity of MUTYH-associated polyposis variants expressed in Mutyh-/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). The repair of a single site-specific synthetic lesion in a green fluorescent protein reporter leads to green fluorescent protein expression with co-expression of a red fluorescent protein serving as the transfection control. Cell lines that stably express the MUTYH-associated polyposis variants G382D and Y165C have significantly lower OG:A repair versus wild-type MEFs and MEFs expressing human wild-type MUTYH. The MUTYH allele that encodes the Q324H variant is found at a frequency above 40% in samples from different ethnic groups and has long been considered phenotypically silent but has recently been associated with increased cancer risk in several clinical studies. In vitro analysis of Q324H MUTYH expressed in insect cells showed that it has reduced enzyme activity similar to that of the known cancer variant G382D. Moreover, we find that OG:A repair in MEFs expressing Q324H was significantly lower than wild-type controls, establishing that Q324H is functionally impaired and providing further evidence that this common variant may lead to increased cancer risk.

  6. Assessment of age- and sex-related changes in baggy lower eyelids using a novel objective image analysis method: Orbital gray scale analysis.

    PubMed

    Jo, Seong-Jin; Kim, Hyung Su; Park, Jung Tae; Kim, Bo Ri; Youn, Sang Woong

    2017-09-26

    Baggy lower eyelids (BLEs) are a common aesthetic problem of aging. Valid and reliable assessment tools for BLEs are required to evaluate the current status and treatment outcome. Age- and sex-related changes in BLEs were assessed with the orbital gray scale (OGS), a novel objective image analysis method. We gathered frontal-view photographs of the faces of the patients who sought for correction of BLEs. Based on the clinical pattern, we classified the BLEs of the subjects into medial (M), medial and central (MC), and medial to lateral (MCL) types. Severity was evaluated using the OGS, a modified method of the linear gray scale analysis. The BLEs of 1034 subjects were classified. The most common types were MCL type in the men and MC type in the women, respectively. The M and MC types were common in the young subjects, whereas the MCL type was more common in the old subjects (P < .001). The measurements of OGS in 104 subjects showed positive correlation with age, a higher mean value in the men, and a trend toward higher values in the order of M, MC, and MCL types (P < .001 for central and lateral OGS scores). In a multiple linear regression analysis, central and lateral OGS values were significantly related with age, sex, and M-C-L classification type (P < .001). The M-C-L classification and OGS were significantly associated with both age and sex, proving that they could be potent objective assessment tools for BLEs. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Effects of forage family on apparent ruminal synthesis of B vitamins in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Castagnino, D S; Seck, M; Beaudet, V; Kammes, K L; Voelker Linton, J A; Allen, M S; Gervais, R; Chouinard, P Y; Girard, C L

    2016-03-01

    Effects of forage family (legume vs. grass) on apparent ruminal synthesis (ARS) and postruminal supply of B vitamins were evaluated in 2 experiments. Diets containing either alfalfa (AL) or orchardgrass (OG) silages as the sole forage were offered to ruminally and duodenally cannulated lactating Holstein cows in crossover design experiments. Experiment 1 compared diets containing AL and OG [~23% forage neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and ~27% total NDF] offered to 8 cows in two 15-d treatment periods. Experiment 2 compared diets containing AL and OG (~25% forage NDF and ~30% total NDF) offered to 13 cows in two 18-d treatment periods. Thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folates, and vitamin B12 were analyzed in feeds and duodenal digesta. Apparent ruminal synthesis was calculated as the duodenal flow of each vitamin minus its intake. Forage family affected B vitamin intakes, duodenal flow, and ARS. In both experiments, AL diets increased vitamin B6 and decreased folate intakes. In experiment 1, riboflavin and niacin intakes were greater with the OG diet, whereas in experiment 2 thiamin intake was greater but riboflavin intake was smaller with the OG diet. In spite of the low contribution of either silage to the dietary folate content, folate intake was greater with OG diets than AL due to the difference in soybean meal contribution between diets. Niacin and folate ARS were not affected by the forage family. Duodenal microbial nitrogen flow was positively correlated with ARS of riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folates, and vitamin B12, but tended to be negatively correlated with thiamin ARS. Apparent ruminal synthesis of folates and vitamin B12 appear to be related to microbial biomass activity. Changes in nutrient composition of the diets likely affected the microbial population in the rumen and their B vitamin metabolism.

  8. Single-protein study of photoresistance of pigment-protein complex in lipid bilayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchiyama, Daisuke; Hoshino, Hajime; Otomo, Kohei; Kato, Taro; Onda, Ken-ichi; Watanabe, Akira; Oikawa, Hiroyuki; Fujiyoshi, Satoru; Matsushita, Michio; Nango, Mamoru; Watanabe, Natsuko; Sumino, Ayumi; Dewa, Takehisa

    2011-07-01

    Photoresistance of a pigment-binding membrane protein, light-harvesting 2 (LH2) complex from the photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodopseudomonas acidophila, was investigated by fluorescence of single LH2 complexes at a temperature of 296 K. Before irreversibly stopping fluorescence, a single LH2 complex in phospholipid bilayer of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) emitted on average 4 times more fluorescence photons than a complex in detergent micelle of octylglucopyranoside (OG). Fluorescence-excitation spectrum of single LH2 complexes taken at 5 K showed that the LH2 complex is structurally less perturbed in DMPC bilayer than in OG micelle, suggesting that structural instability reduces photoresistance of LH2.

  9. Sadat’s October War - A Road to Peace

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-01-01

    Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Once the fi-og reached the Rllo’dle of the Nrle, the scorpion plunged his sting m&o tie f?og% back The dying frog asked...best mterests “Iknow “the scorpion rep/red “Eou wdlche from my venom and I C!!&own It doesn’t make any sense at ail But it doesn’t have to make...was Egypt’s presumed weakness Like the scorpion in the old story, no one believed Sadat would take the risk of another defeat at the hands of the

  10. 40 CFR 420.72 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...&G 0.0374 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2) With scarfing. Subpart G Pollutant or... days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.221 0.0830 O&G 0.0553 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range...) of product TSS 0.357 0.134 O&G 0.0894 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2)...

  11. 40 CFR 420.77 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.150 0.0561 O&G 0.0374 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2...&G 0.0553 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (b) Section mills—(1) Carbon. Subpart G... 30 consecutive days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.357 0.134 O&G 0.0894 pH (1) (1)...

  12. 40 CFR 420.74 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... product TSS 0.0150 0.00563 O&G 0.00373 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2) With scarfing...&G 0.00584 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (b) Section mills—(1) Carbon. Subpart G... values for 30 consecutive days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.0334 0.0125 O&G 0.00834...

  13. Aircraft Survivability: UAVs and Manned Aircraft - Increasing Effectiveness and Survivability, Fall 2002

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    structure or result in severe injury from acci- dental activation. Also, the energetic initiator should create only a minimal, low-temperature, flame...engineer for this effort is Mr. Steve Polyak , the NAWCWD project engineer is Mr. Hau Nguyen and the 46 OG/OGM/ OL–AC project engineer is Mr. Pat...MANPADS lethality and AH–1 vulnerability to the MANPADS threat. The ARL project engineer for this effort is Mr. Steve Polyak and the 46 OG/OGM/ OL–AC

  14. 40 CFR 420.77 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.150 0.0561 O&G 0.0374 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2...&G 0.0553 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (b) Section mills—(1) Carbon. Subpart G... 30 consecutive days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.357 0.134 O&G 0.0894 pH (1) (1)...

  15. 40 CFR 420.74 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... product TSS 0.0150 0.00563 O&G 0.00373 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2) With scarfing...&G 0.00584 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (b) Section mills—(1) Carbon. Subpart G... values for 30 consecutive days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.0334 0.0125 O&G 0.00834...

  16. 40 CFR 420.72 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...&G 0.0374 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2) With scarfing. Subpart G Pollutant or... days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.221 0.0830 O&G 0.0553 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range...) of product TSS 0.357 0.134 O&G 0.0894 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2)...

  17. A neural networks based operation guidance system for procedure presentation and validation

    SciTech Connect

    Mo, K.; Lee, S. J.; Seong, P. H.

    2006-07-01

    In this study, an operation guidance system (OGS) has been developed to regulate and supervise operators' actions during abnormal environments in nuclear power plants (NPPs). The system integrated a primitive computerized procedures system (CPS) and an operation validation system (OVS). As the key component of the OGS, OVS provides two important functions for the operators: validated check of operations, and qualitative and quantitative effects analysis of operations. Each of operators' action is evaluated by the system and possible results are simulated by using artificial neural networks (ANNs). Finally, corresponding suggestion or warning is provided to operators. The human errors during operation in emergency could be effectively reduced. (authors)

  18. Extending Matchings in Graphs: A Survey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    of pm’s in the graph. Moreover, the determination of all such "forbidden" lines can be carried out in polynomial time by applying Edmonds matching...the list can be determined in polynomial time.. (See [22].) Denote the number of such bricks of G by O(G). We then can exactly compute rt(G) via the...classes of graphs for which O(G) can always be ezactly determined in polynomial time? The best known such class is the class of planar graphs. This was

  19. 40 CFR 420.77 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.150 0.0561 O&G 0.0374 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2...&G 0.0553 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (b) Section mills—(1) Carbon. Subpart G... 30 consecutive days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.357 0.134 O&G 0.0894 pH (1) (1) 1...

  20. 40 CFR 420.72 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...&G 0.0374 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2) With scarfing. Subpart G Pollutant or... days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.221 0.0830 O&G 0.0553 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range...) of product TSS 0.357 0.134 O&G 0.0894 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2) Specialty...

  1. 40 CFR 420.77 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.150 0.0561 O&G 0.0374 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2...&G 0.0553 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (b) Section mills—(1) Carbon. Subpart G... 30 consecutive days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.357 0.134 O&G 0.0894 pH (1) (1) 1...

  2. 40 CFR 420.74 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... product TSS 0.0150 0.00563 O&G 0.00373 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2) With scarfing...&G 0.00584 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (b) Section mills—(1) Carbon. Subpart G... values for 30 consecutive days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.0334 0.0125 O&G 0.00834 pH...

  3. 40 CFR 420.107 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.00125 0.000626 O&G 0.000522 0.000209 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6...) of product TSS 0.00626 0.00313 O&G 0.00261 0.00104 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (3... 0.0313 0.0125 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (4) Direct application—single stand...

  4. 40 CFR 420.77 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.150 0.0561 O&G 0.0374 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2...&G 0.0553 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (b) Section mills—(1) Carbon. Subpart G... 30 consecutive days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.357 0.134 O&G 0.0894 pH (1) (1) 1...

  5. 40 CFR 420.72 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...&G 0.0374 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2) With scarfing. Subpart G Pollutant or... days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.221 0.0830 O&G 0.0553 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range...) of product TSS 0.357 0.134 O&G 0.0894 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2) Specialty...

  6. 40 CFR 420.72 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...&G 0.0374 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2) With scarfing. Subpart G Pollutant or... days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.221 0.0830 O&G 0.0553 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range...) of product TSS 0.357 0.134 O&G 0.0894 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2) Specialty...

  7. 40 CFR 420.74 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... product TSS 0.0150 0.00563 O&G 0.00373 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2) With scarfing...&G 0.00584 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (b) Section mills—(1) Carbon. Subpart G... values for 30 consecutive days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.0334 0.0125 O&G 0.00834 pH...

  8. 40 CFR 420.74 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... product TSS 0.0150 0.00563 O&G 0.00373 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2) With scarfing...&G 0.00584 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (b) Section mills—(1) Carbon. Subpart G... values for 30 consecutive days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.0334 0.0125 O&G 0.00834 pH...

  9. Absolute Doppler shift calibration of laser induced fluorescence signals using optogalvanic measurements in a hollow cathode lamp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruyten, Wilhelmus M.; Keefer, Dennis

    1992-01-01

    The paper investigates the use of optogalvanic (OG) measurements on the neutral 3P1 and 3P2 levels of argon in a hollow cathode lamp for the purpose of calibrating Doppler shifts of laser-induced fluorescence signals from an arcjet plume. It is shown that, even with non-Doppler-free OG detection, accuracy to better than 10 MHz is possible but that, depending on the experiment geometry, corrections of 10-35 MHz may be necessary to offset small axial drift velocities of neutral atoms in the hollow cathode lamp.

  10. Het SOWNet Experiment (The SOWNet Experiment)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-01

    aangegeven. De gele nummers zijn de, OGS ID’s. TNO-rapport ITNO-DV 2008 A243 Bijiage C 1 3/16 Figuur C. I Sensomummering en lay-out. TNO-rapport I TNO-DV...832 8 0 1 0 3 6 0 Opmerkingen bij deze tabel: - De gele kolommen van de tabel zijn de ontvangen count-waarden voor een Iwheeled’ voertuig. - De kolommen...Sensomnummering en lay-out. TNO-rapport I TNO-DV 2008 A243 BjaeC131 In de figuur stelt iedere rode punt een OGS weer en het gele getal het aantal alarmen van deze

  11. X-ray spectral models of Galactic bulge sources - The emission-line factor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vrtilek, S. D.; Swank, J. H.; Kallman, T. R.

    1988-01-01

    Current difficulties in finding unique and physically meaningful models for the X-ray spectra of Galactic bulge sources are exacerbated by the presence of strong, variable emission and absorption features that are not resolved by the instruments observing them. Nine Einstein solid state spectrometer (SSS) observations of five Galactic bulge sources are presented for which relatively high resolution objective grating spectrometer (OGS) data have been published. It is found that in every case the goodness of fit of simple models to SSS data is greatly improved by adding line features identified in the OGS that cannot be resolved by the SSS but nevertheless strongly influence the spectra observed by SSS.

  12. 40 CFR 420.107 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.00125 0.000626 O&G 0.000522 0.000209 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6...) of product TSS 0.00626 0.00313 O&G 0.00261 0.00104 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (3... 0.0313 0.0125 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (4) Direct application—single stand...

  13. 40 CFR 420.112 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Cleaning Subcategory § 420.112 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction... days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.0730 0.0313 O&G 0.0313 0.0104 pH (1) (1) 1 Within...) of products TSS 0.102 0.0438 O&G 0.0438 0.0146 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0....

  14. Effects of Thermal Status on Markers of Blood Coagulation During Simulated Hemorrhage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-01

    Ex pe ri m en ta lP hy si ol og y 926 Exp Physiol 100.8 (2015) pp 926–934 Research Paper Fluid restriction during exercise in the heat reduces...gradient were kept constant thereafter. Following thorough removal of sweat that was on the skin surface with a towel , changes in body weight...Physiology C© 2015 The Physiological Society Ex pe ri m en ta lP hy si ol og y Exp Physiol 100.11 (2015) pp 1309–1318 1309 Research Paper Cardiopulmonary

  15. Catalytic Mechanisms of Fe(II)- and 2-Oxoglutarate-dependent Oxygenases*

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Salette; Hausinger, Robert P.

    2015-01-01

    Mononuclear non-heme Fe(II)- and 2-oxoglutarate (2OG)-dependent oxygenases comprise a large family of enzymes that utilize an Fe(IV)-oxo intermediate to initiate diverse oxidative transformations with important biological roles. Here, four of the major types of Fe(II)/2OG-dependent reactions are detailed: hydroxylation, halogenation, ring formation, and desaturation. In addition, an atypical epimerization reaction is described. Studies identifying several key intermediates in catalysis are concisely summarized, and the proposed mechanisms are explained. In addition, a variety of other transformations catalyzed by selected family members are briefly described to further highlight the chemical versatility of these enzymes. PMID:26152721

  16. “Fast-track” and “Minimally Invasive” Surgery for Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin-Xin; Pan, Hua-Feng; Jiang, Zhi-Wei; Zhang, Shu; Wang, Zhi-Ming; Chen, Ping; Zhao, Yan; Wang, Gang; Zhao, Kun; Li, Jie-Shou

    2016-01-01

    Background: Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocols or fast-track (FT) programs enable a shorter hospital stay and lower complication rate. Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) is associated with a lesser trauma and a quicker recovery in many elective abdominal surgeries. However, little is known of the safety and effectiveness made by ERAS protocols combined with MIS for gastric cancer. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and effectiveness made by FT programs and MIS in combination or alone. Methods: We summarized an 11-year experience on gastric cancer patients undergoing elective laparotomy or minimally invasive gastric resection in standard cares (SC) or FT programs during January 2004 to December 2014. A total of 984 patients were enrolled and assigned into four groups: open gastrectomies (OG) with SC (OG + SC group, n = 167); OG with FT programs (OG + FT group, n = 277); laparoscopic gastrectomies (LG) with FT programs (LG + FT group, n = 248); and robot-assisted gastrectomies (RG) with FT programs (RG + FT group, n = 292). Patients’ data were collected to evaluate the clinical outcome. The primary end point was the length of postoperative hospital stay. Results: The OG + SC group showed the longest postoperative hospital stay (mean: 12.3 days, median: 11 days, interquartile range [IQR]: 6–16 days), while OG + FT, LG + FT, and RG + FT groups recovered faster (mean: 7.4, 6.4, and 6.6 days, median: 6, 6, and 6 days, IQR: 3–9, 4–8, and 3–9 days, respectively, all P < 0.001). The postoperative rehabilitation parameters such as flatus time after surgery (4.7 ± 0.9, 3.1 ± 0.8, 3.0 ± 0.9, and 3.1 ± 0.9 days) followed the same manner. After 30 postoperative days’ follow-up, the total incidence of complications was 9.6% in OG + SC group, 10.1% in OG + FT group, 8.1% in LG + FT group, and 10.3% in RG + FT group. The complications showed no significant differences between the four groups (all P > 0.05). Conclusions: ERAS protocols

  17. Modeling of a viscoelastic damper and its application in structural control

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Zainah; Ghodsi, S. S.; Khatibi, Hamed

    2017-01-01

    Conventional seismic rehabilitation methods may not be suitable for some buildings owing to their high cost and time-consuming foundation work. In recent years, viscoelastic dampers (VEDs) have been widely used in many mid- and high-rise buildings. This study introduces a viscoelastic passive control system called rotary rubber braced damper (RRBD). The RRBD is an economical, lightweight, and easy-to-assemble device. A finite element model considering nonlinearity, large deformation, and material damage is developed to conduct a parametric study on different damper sizes under pushover cyclic loading. The fundamental characteristics of this VED system are clarified by analyzing building structures under cyclic loading. The result show excellent energy absorption and stable hysteresis loops in all specimens. Additionally, by using a sinusoidal shaking table test, the effectiveness of the RRBD to manage the response displacement and acceleration of steel frames is considered. The RRBD functioned at early stages of lateral displacement, indicating that the system is effective for all levels of vibration. Moreover, the proposed damper shows significantly better performance in terms of the column compression force resulting from the brace action compared to chevron bracing (CB). PMID:28570657

  18. Development of a novel overmoded sub-terahertz inclined coaxial clinotron with asymmetric mode suppressed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zaigao; Wang, Yue

    2017-10-01

    Overmoded coaxial high frequency structures can improve the power capacity of vacuum electron devices (VEDs) and make the fabrication and assembly of the devices easy in the terahertz band, but they also lead to mode competition and deleterious effect on the beam-wave interaction. The numerical investigation on the cold cavity characteristics indicates that the dispersion curve of the quasi-TEM mode almost overlaps with the dispersion curve of the high-order quasi-TE11 mode, and the 3-D numerical simulation results also illustrate that due to the mode competition, the quasi-TEM cannot be excited steadily in the VEDs with traditional coaxial SWSs with the available current density. In order to effectively suppress the mode competition of overmoded coaxial SWSs, novel inclined coaxial slow wave structures (SWSs) are proposed in this paper. As the overmoded ratio of the SWSs reaches 9.7, the 3D particle-in-cell simulation results indicate that this novel device can successfully produce the terahertz wave with the output power of 571 W at the operating frequency of 0.338 THz, and the frequency spectrum of the generated signal is very pure. The field distributions in the inclined coaxial SWSs illustrate that there is no asymmetric mode excited in the proposed device.

  19. Assessment of Ganga river ecosystem at Haridwar, Uttarakhand, India with reference to water quality indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhutiani, R.; Khanna, D. R.; Kulkarni, Dipali Bhaskar; Ruhela, Mukesh

    2016-06-01

    The river Ganges is regarded as one of the most holy and sacred rivers of the world from time immemorial. The evaluation of river water quality is a critical element in the assessment of water resources. The quality/potability of water that is consumed defines the base line of protection against many diseases and infections. The present study aimed to calculate Water Quality Index (WQI) by the analysis of sixteen physico-chemical parameters on the basis of River Ganga index of Ved Prakash, weighted arithmetic index and WQI by National sanitation foundation (NSF) to assess the suitability of water for drinking, irrigation purposes and other human uses. These three water quality indices have been used to assess variation in the quality of the River Ganga at monitored locations over an 11-year period. Application of three different indexes to assess the water quality over a period of 11 years shows minor variations in water quality. Index values as per River Ganga Index by Ved Prakash et al. from 2000 to 2010 ranged between medium to good, Index values as per NSF Index for years 2000-2010 indicate good water quality, while Index values as per the weighted arithmetic index method for the study period indicate poor water quality.

  20. [The Contribution of Vascular Capacity and Blood Volume to Maintain Stable Blood Circulation during General Anesthesia].

    PubMed

    Shigemi, Kenji

    2016-05-01

    To maintain proper cardiac preload is one of the most effective procedures for the systemic circulation remaining stable. In particular, the balance between vascular capacity and total blood volume must be maintained within appropriate range by the administration of fluids, blood and/or vasoactive drugs with mean circulatory filling pressure (Pmcf), central venous pressure (CVP) or stroke volume variation (SVV). End-diastolic left ventricular volume (Ved) is theoretically the best index of cardiac preload; however, without transesophageal echocardbalanceiogram we cannot directly monitor Ved during anesthesia. The infused fluid volume remaining in intravascular space, the vascular capacity controlled by autonomic nervous system and/or vasoactive agents, and the unstressed blood volume properly mobilized to excess blood volume are the crucial factors to maintain cardiac output The knowledge of vascular physiology contribute the decision making to manipulate such factors to control blood circulation during general anesthesia. For example, CVP is usually maintained in the narrow range and seems to be stable; however, it must be changed just after the circulatory disturbances, such as acute bleeding, blood transfusion, and fluid infusion, and followed by gradual returning to initial value, because of the solid mechanism to preserve cardiac output

  1. Generalization of geometrical flux maximizing flow on Riemannian manifolds for improved volumetric blood vessel segmentation.

    PubMed

    Gooya, Ali; Liao, Hongen; Sakuma, Ichiro

    2012-09-01

    Geometric flux maximizing flow (FLUX) is an active contour based method which evolves an initial surface to maximize the flux of a vector field on the surface. For blood vessel segmentation, the vector field is defined as the vectors specified by vascular edge strengths and orientations. Hence, the segmentation performance depends on the quality of the detected edge vector field. In this paper, we propose a new method for level set based segmentation of blood vessels by generalizing the FLUX on a Riemannian manifold (R-FLUX). We consider a 3D scalar image I(x) as a manifold embedded in the 4D space (x, I(x)) and compute the image metric by pullback from the 4D space, whose metric tensor depends on the vessel enhancing diffusion (VED) tensor. This allows us to devise a non-linear filter which both projects and normalizes the original image gradient vectors under the inverse of local VED tensors. The filtered gradient vectors pertaining to the vessels are less sensitive to the local image contrast and more coherent with the local vessel orientation. The method has been applied to both synthetic and real TOF MRA data sets. Comparisons are made with the FLUX and vesselsness response based segmentations, indicating that the R-FLUX outperforms both methods in terms of leakage minimization and thiner vessel delineation.

  2. An aerostat-supported ELF/VLF transmitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, E. C., Jr.; Kies, L. R.; Bannister, P. R.; Ingram, R. F.; Hopkins, W. D.; Roberts, M. A.

    1989-03-01

    A demonstration of an aerostat-supported extremely low frequency/very low frequency (ELF/VLF) transmitting antenna was performed. At ELF the vertical electric dipole (VED) antenna radiated at least 100,000 times more power than would a horizontal electric dipole having the same moment. That efficiency was achieved with an altitude of 12,500 feet (3810 m). Calculations show that the radiated power will increase as the fourth power of aerostat altitude. The tether antenna exhibited a corona onset voltage of 180 kV and was resistant to the degrading effects of ELF corona. Prolonged in-corona operation is therefore possible. The antenna was continuously tuned, despite changes in height and capacitance caused by the aerostat flight dynamics. The huge 300-H ELF tuning inductor posed no problem. Enhanced VED moments were achieved at ELF by operation at voltages up to 260 kV, 40% above the corona onset voltage. At VLF the antenna emulated a monopole that had a radiation efficiency greater than 90%. The measured bandwidths were large: 1.5 kHz at 23 kHz and 3.5 kHz at 34 kHz. The antenna height exceeded one-quarter wavelength at VLF, so the antenna could be tuned capacitively and required relatively low base voltages. At both VLF and ELF the measured fields agreed closely with predictions.

  3. Medical Store Management: An Integrated Economic Analysis of a Tertiary Care Hospital in Central India

    PubMed Central

    Mahatme, MS; Dakhale, GN; Hiware, SK; Shinde, AT; Salve, AM

    2012-01-01

    Economic analysis plays a pivotal role in the management of medical store. The main objectives of this study were to consider always better control-vital, essential and desirable (ABC-VED) analysis with economic order quantity (EOQ), comparison of indexed cost and the actual cost, and to assess the expenditure for the forthcoming years. Based on cost and criticality, a matrix of nine groups by combining ABC and VED analysis was formulated. Drug categories were narrowed down for prioritization to direct supervisory monitoring. The subgroups AE and AV of the categories category I and II should be ordered based on EOQ. The difference between the actual annual drug expenditure (ADE) and the derived indexed cost using the cost inflation index (CII) was calculated. Linear regression was used to assess the expenditure for the forth coming years. The total ADE for the financial year of 2010–2011 was Rs. 1,91,44,253 which was only 7.68% of annual hospital expenditure. Using the inflation index, the indexed cost of acquisition of ADE for year 2010–2011 was Rs. 1,95,10,387. The difference between the two was estimated to be 2.11%. Thus, the CII justifies the demand of increased budget for next year and prompts us for cautious use of drugs. By taking into consideration the ADE of last 10 years, we have forecasted the budget for forthcoming years which will help significantly for making policies according to the available budget. PMID:22754264

  4. Design of Visco-Elastic Dampers for RC Frame for Site-Specific Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamatchi, P.; Rama Raju, K.; Ravisankar, K.; Iyer, Nagesh R.

    2016-12-01

    Number of Reinforced Concrete (RC) framed buildings have got damaged at Ahmedabad city, India located at about 240 km away from epicenter during January 2001, 7.6 moment magnitude (Mw) Bhuj earthquake. In the present study, two dimensional nonlinear time history dynamic analyses of a typical 13 storey frame assumed to be located at Ahmedabad is carried out with the rock level and surface level site-specific ground motion for scenario earthquake of Mw 7.6 from Bhuj. Artificial ground motions are generated using extended finite source stochastic model with seismological parameters reported in literature for 2001 Bhuj earthquake. Surface level ground motions are obtained for a typical soil profile of 100 m depth reported in literature through one dimensional equivalent linear wave propagation analyses. From the analyses, failure of frame is observed for surface level ground motions which indicates that, in addition to the in-adequacy of the cross sections and reinforcement of the RC members of the frame chosen, the rich energy content of the surface level ground motion near the fundamental time period of the frame has also contributed for the failure of frame. As a part of retrofitting measure, five Visco-elastic Dampers (VED) in chevron bracing are added to frame. For the frame considered in the present study, provision of VED is found to be effective to mitigate damage for the soil site considered.

  5. The effects of CO2 injection on Geochemistry and Aquifer properties investigated at a hypothetical storage site in the north German basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graupner, B. J.; Li, D.; Benisch, K.; Mitiku, A. B.; Beyer, C.; Bauer, S.

    2012-04-01

    The storage of CO2 in deep saline aquifers is one of the major options for carbon dioxide sequestration. With the injection of CO2 in the underground a CO2 phase will migrate through the target reservoir controlled by the pressure gradient and buoyancy. Over the time CO2 dissolves in water and stimulates geochemical reactions like mineral dissolution due to the acidic conditions that might be followed by mineral precipitation again. Mineral dissolution and precipitation affects the porosity and permeability and thus feeds back on multiphase flow. To evaluate the behaviour of the storage system the coupled simulator OGS-Eclipse-ChemApp was developed, which provides the coupled multiphase flow and reactive transport simulation under conditions typical for CO2 injection. The open-source scientific software OpenGeoSys (OGS) was used in this investigation to simulate CO2 injection into a saline formation. To represent the hydraulic and geochemical alteration during CO2 sequestration under reservoir conditions, OGS was coupled to the widely used multiphase flow simulator ECLIPSE for modelling multiphase flow. Geochemical reactions are considered with an already existing interface between OGS and PhreeqC. Furthermore changes in porosity and permeability were considered. ECLIPSE and OGS are coupled using an operator splitting approach. Results of the multiphase flow simulation are passed for each time step from ECLIPSE to OGS where transport of dissolved species is calculated. Transport of components can be considered with OGS in the CO2 as well as in the water phase. Transport in the water phase is of major interest for reactive transport simulations. Subsequently, equilibrium geochemical reactions at each node of the OGS FEM model grid can be calculated using ChemApp. Changes in the brine concentration of dissolved inorganic carbon due to chemical reactions are transferred back to the multiphase flow simulator, which calculates the new phase equilibrium in the next time

  6. Effects of internal molecular degrees of freedom on the thermal conductivity of some glasses and disordered crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivchikov, A. I.; Korolyuk, O. A.; Sharapova, I. V.; Tamarit, J. Ll.; Bermejo, F. J.; Pardo, L. C.; Rovira-Esteva, M.; Ruiz-Martin, M. D.; Jezowski, A.; Baran, J.; Davydova, N. A.

    2012-01-01

    The thermal conductivity κ(T) of the fully ordered stable phase II, the metastable phase III, the orientationally disordered (plastic) phase I, as well as the nonergodic orientational glass (OG) phase, of the glass former cyclohexanol (C6H11OH) has been measured under equilibrium vapor pressure within the 2-200 K temperature range. The main emphasis is here focused on the influence of the conformational disorder upon the thermal properties of this material. Comparison of results with those regarding cyanoclyclohexane (C6H11CN), a chemically related compound, serves to quantify the role played by the terminal groups -OH and -CN on the phonon scattering processes. The picture that emerges shows that motions of such groups do play a minor role as scattering centers, both within the low-temperature orientationally ordered phases as well as in the OG states. The results are analyzed within the Debye-Peierls relaxation time model for isotropic solids comprising mechanisms for long-wave phonon scattering within the OG and orientational ordered low-temperature phases, as well as others arising from localized short-wavelength vibrational modes as pictured by the Cahill-Pohl model. By means of complementary neutron and Raman scattering we show that in the OG state the energy landscapes for both compounds are very similar.

  7. Dimension-six triple gluon operator in Higgs +jet observables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Diptimoy; Wiebusch, Martin

    2015-02-01

    Recently a lot of progress has been made towards a full classification of new physics effects in Higgs observables by means of effective dimension-six operators. Specifically, Higgs production in association with a high transverse momentum jet has been suggested as a way to discriminate between operators that modify the Higgs-top coupling (Ot) and operators that induce an effective Higgs-gluon coupling (Og)—a distinction that is hard to achieve with signal strength measurements alone. With this article we would like to draw attention to another source of new physics in Higgs +jet observables: the triple gluon operator O3 g (consisting of three factors of the gluon field strength tensor). We compute the distortions of kinematic distributions in Higgs +jet production at a 14 TeV LHC due to O3 g and compare them with the distortions due to Ot and Og. We find that the transverse momentum distributions alone cannot discriminate between O3 g and Og if the coefficient of the operator Ot treated as an unknown parameter. We further show that the jet rapidity and the difference between the Higgs and jet rapidity are well suited to remove this new degeneracy. Using rough estimates for the expected bounds we find that allowed distortions in kinematic distributions due to Og are of similar size as those due to O3 g. We conclude that a full analysis of new physics in Higgs +jet observables must take the contributions from O3 g into account.

  8. Water content effects on photosynthetic response of Sphagnum mosses from the foothills of the Philip Smith Mountains, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Murray, K J; Harley, P C; Beyers, J; Walz, H; Tenhunen, J D

    1989-05-01

    In tussock tundra areas of the foothills north of the Brooks Range, Alaska, up to two-thirds of annual precipitation may occur during intermittent summer thunderstorms. The seasonal pattern in capitulum water content of Sphagnum spp. depends on the frequency and duration of these precipitation events, on the microtopography of the habitat including depth of thaw, and on morphological characteristics of the individual species. The response of net photosynthesis to varying water content in Sphagnum squarrosum and S. angustifolium growing under willow canopies in a tussock tundra area near the Dalton Highway on the North Slope of Alaska was examined in the field. After a period in June required to develop photosynthetic capability, capitula water content was essentially optimal for photosynthesis in the range from 6 to 10 g H2O/g DW. Above this range, the rate of CO2 uptake was reduced, presumably due to limitations on CO2 diffusion to the photosynthetically active sites. At water contents below the optimum, net photosynthesis fell rapidly until reaching compensation at approximately 1 g H2O/g DW. Dependent on changes in weather conditions, average water content of Sphagnum samples collected in the field occasionally fell below 5 g H2O/g DW. During a particularly dry period, water content of individual Sphagnum hummocks fell below 1 g H2O/g DW, indicating that water stress does limit Sphagnum photosynthetic production in this habitat.

  9. Phylogeny Inference of Closely Related Bacterial Genomes: Combining the Features of Both Overlapping Genes and Collinear Genomic Regions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan-Cong; Lin, Kui

    2015-01-01

    Overlapping genes (OGs) represent one type of widespread genomic feature in bacterial genomes and have been used as rare genomic markers in phylogeny inference of closely related bacterial species. However, the inference may experience a decrease in performance for phylogenomic analysis of too closely or too distantly related genomes. Another drawback of OGs as phylogenetic markers is that they usually take little account of the effects of genomic rearrangement on the similarity estimation, such as intra-chromosome/genome translocations, horizontal gene transfer, and gene losses. To explore such effects on the accuracy of phylogeny reconstruction, we combine phylogenetic signals of OGs with collinear genomic regions, here called locally collinear blocks (LCBs). By putting these together, we refine our previous metric of pairwise similarity between two closely related bacterial genomes. As a case study, we used this new method to reconstruct the phylogenies of 88 Enterobacteriale genomes of the class Gammaproteobacteria. Our results demonstrated that the topological accuracy of the inferred phylogeny was improved when both OGs and LCBs were simultaneously considered, suggesting that combining these two phylogenetic markers may reduce, to some extent, the influence of gene loss on phylogeny inference. Such phylogenomic studies, we believe, will help us to explore a more effective approach to increasing the robustness of phylogeny reconstruction of closely related bacterial organisms. PMID:26715828

  10. In vitro study of Streptococcus mutans adhesion on composite resin coated with three surface sealants.

    PubMed

    Kim, Da Hye; Kwon, Tae-Yub

    2017-02-01

    Although the coating of surface sealants to dental composite resin may potentially reduce bacterial adhesion, there seems to be little information regarding this issue. This preliminary in vitro study investigated the adhesion of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) on the dental composite resins coated with three commercial surface sealants. Composite resin (Filtek Z250) discs (8 mm in diameter, 1 mm in thickness) were fabricated in a mold covered with a Mylar strip (control). In group PoGo, the surfaces were polished with PoGo. In groups PS, OG, and FP, the surfaces polished with PoGo were coated with the corresponding surface sealants (PermaSeal, PS; OptiGuard, OG; Fortify Plus, FP). The surfaces of the materials and S. mutans cells were characterized by various methods. S. mutans adhesion to the surfaces was quantitatively evaluated using flow cytometry (n = 9). Group OG achieved the lowest water contact angle among all groups tested (p < 0.001). The cell surface of S. mutans tested showed hydrophobic characteristics. Group PoGo exhibited the greatest bacterial adhesion among all groups tested (p < 0.001). The sealant-coated groups showed statistically similar (groups PS and FP, p > 0.05) or significantly lower (group OG, p < 0.001) bacterial adhesion when compared with the control group. The application of the surface sealants significantly reduced S. mutans adhesion to the composite resin polished with the PoGo.

  11. Sono-incorporation of CuO nanoparticles on the surface and into the mesoporous hexatitanate layers: Enhanced Fenton-like activity in degradation of orange-G at its neutral pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sehati, S.; Entezari, M. H.

    2017-03-01

    In this work, for the first time, CuO/Ti6O13 mesoporous nanocomposite was synthesized by direct intercalation of CuO nanoparticles into hexatitanate layers in the presence of ultrasound. In fact mesoporous potassium hexatitanate with high pore size (44.94 nm) was used as a support. CuO nanoparticles were grown into the titanate pores which caused formation of ultra small CuO with uniform size and high surface area. In fact, titanate is considered as a substrate for better dispersion and nucleation of the CuO nanoparticles which prevented the agglomeration and overgrowth of guest molecules. The prepared sample was characterized by XRD, FE-SEM, TEM, UV-vis spectra, N2 adsorption-desorption, Raman spectra and FT-IR techniques. The product was used as a heterogeneous Fenton-like catalyst for the degradation of Orang G (OG). The effect of important parameters, including pH, H2O2 addition rate and catalyst loading on the decolorization of OG were investigated. Based on the results, CuO/Ti6O13 catalyst exhibited high catalytic activity for OG degradation in aqueous solution at neutral pH of the dye. Moreover, breaking of H2O2 during the catalytic reaction was monitored by spectroscopic method. The results confirmed the decomposition of H2O2 to produce rad OH which is the main active species for the degradation of OG.

  12. Turbulence considerations for comparing ecosystem exchange over old-growth and clear-cut stands for limited fetch and complex canopy flow conditions

    Treesearch

    Sonia Wharton; Matt Schroeder; Kyaw Tha Paw U; Matthias Falk; Ken Bible

    2009-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2), water vapor, and energy fluxes were measured using eddy covariance (EC) methodology over three adjacent evergreen forests in southern Washington State to identify stand-level age-effects on ecosystem exchange. The sites represent Douglas-fir forest ecosystems at two contrasting successional stages: old-growth (OG) and early...

  13. JPRS Report, West Europe, Reference Aid, Glossary of Acronyms and Abbreviations of Denmark

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    and Machine Building Company, Inc. Danish Booksellers Importers Association 16 Danfip Dansk Federation for Informations-behandling og...Danish Concrete Industries Danish Cinema Operators Purchasing Chain Danish Booksellers Commission Office DBL Dansk biografisk Leksikon DBR Dansk...flertal) high school class (for example 2.g) Greenland Workers Union Gyldendals Booksellers , Nordic Publishers, Inc. old Danish yard yesterday grams

  14. An Investigation of the Squadron Air Combat Training System (HAVE ACME)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-06-01

    flight) ALOAD Trajectory/Maneuver Gs (Og for straight and level flight) AOA Angle of attack in degrees PITCH Elevation angle of the aircraft longitudinal axis...in degrees YAW Azimuth angle between the aircraft longitudinal axis and North in degrees ROLL Roll angle of transverse/wing axis about

  15. Effect of Oral Glucose Administration on Rebound Growth Hormone Release in Normal and Obese Women: The Role of Adiposity, Insulin Sensitivity and Ghrelin

    PubMed Central

    Pena-Bello, Lara; Pertega-Diaz, Sonia; Outeiriño-Blanco, Elena; Garcia-Buela, Jesus; Tovar, Sulay; Sangiao-Alvarellos, Susana; Dieguez, Carlos; Cordido, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Context Metabolic substrates and nutritional status play a major role in growth hormone (GH) secretion. Uncovering the mechanisms involved in GH secretion following oral glucose (OG) administration in normal and obese patients is a pending issue. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate GH after OG in relation with adiposity, insulin secretion and action, and ghrelin secretion in obese and healthy women, to further elucidate the mechanism of GH secretion after OG and the altered GH secretion in obesity. Participants and Methods We included 64 healthy and obese women. After an overnight fast, 75 g of OG were administered; GH, glucose, insulin and ghrelin were obtained during 300 minutes. Insulin secretion and action indices and the area under the curve (AUC) were calculated for GH, glucose, insulin and ghrelin. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were employed. Results The AUC of GH (μg/L•min) was lower in obese (249.8±41.8) than in healthy women (490.4±74.6), P=0.001. The AUC of total ghrelin (pg/mL•min) was lower in obese (240995.5±11094.2) than in healthy women (340797.5±37757.5), P=0.042. There were significant correlations between GH secretion and the different adiposity, insulin secretion and action, and ghrelin secretion indices. After multivariate analysis only ghrelin AUC remained a significant predictor for fasting and peak GH. PMID:25782001

  16. Effect of oral glucose administration on rebound growth hormone release in normal and obese women: the role of adiposity, insulin sensitivity and ghrelin.

    PubMed

    Pena-Bello, Lara; Pertega-Diaz, Sonia; Outeiriño-Blanco, Elena; Garcia-Buela, Jesus; Tovar, Sulay; Sangiao-Alvarellos, Susana; Dieguez, Carlos; Cordido, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic substrates and nutritional status play a major role in growth hormone (GH) secretion. Uncovering the mechanisms involved in GH secretion following oral glucose (OG) administration in normal and obese patients is a pending issue. The aim of this study was to investigate GH after OG in relation with adiposity, insulin secretion and action, and ghrelin secretion in obese and healthy women, to further elucidate the mechanism of GH secretion after OG and the altered GH secretion in obesity. We included 64 healthy and obese women. After an overnight fast, 75 g of OG were administered; GH, glucose, insulin and ghrelin were obtained during 300 minutes. Insulin secretion and action indices and the area under the curve (AUC) were calculated for GH, glucose, insulin and ghrelin. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were employed. The AUC of GH (μg/L•min) was lower in obese (249.8±41.8) than in healthy women (490.4±74.6), P=0.001. The AUC of total ghrelin (pg/mL•min) was lower in obese (240995.5±11094.2) than in healthy women (340797.5±37757.5), P=0.042. There were significant correlations between GH secretion and the different adiposity, insulin secretion and action, and ghrelin secretion indices. After multivariate analysis only ghrelin AUC remained a significant predictor for fasting and peak GH.

  17. Radiation Climate and Turbulence Structure of a Tropical Dry Evergreen Forest.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-11-01

    equivalent to solutions from the Eddington approximations but expressed in terms of a transfer single scattering albedo w’ and optical thickness T...The following variables were measured: - global short wave and reflected short wave radiation - (miniaturized Eppley precision spectral pyranometer ...standard WMO broad band spectral regions - (Eppley precision pyranometer with Schott filters - OGl and OG2 broad band filters) - total direct shortwave

  18. Catalytic ozonation of Orange-G through highly interactive contributions of hematite and SBA-16 - To better understand azo-dye oxidation in nature.

    PubMed

    Larouk, Safa; Ouargli, Rachida; Shahidi, Dariush; Olhund, Leanne; Shiao, Tze Chieh; Chergui, Nacira; Sehili, Tahar; Roy, René; Azzouz, Abdelkrim

    2017-02-01

    Hematite-SBA-16 mixture (HS) exhibited high catalytic activity in Orange-G (OG) ozonation in water. Total OG discoloration was achieved in half the time required with hematite or SBA-16 alone, all UV-Vis bands disappeared in less than 2 min. Liquid chromatography- Mass spectrometry (LC-MS) revealed that OG ozonation triggers via both hydroxylation and desulfonation of the aromatic rings into specific intermediates. Prolonged ozonation in the presence of hematite and SBA-16 alone resulted in different distributions of common derivatives. The latter were not detected after 25 min ozonation with HS. Stochastic modeling of the evolution in time of the UV-Vis bands of OG revealed strong binary interaction between the initial pH and catalyst concentration. This was explained in terms of reciprocal contributions of: i. the catalytic properties of hematite in spite of its low porosity; ii. the high specific surface area of SBA-16 for adsorption and surface reaction notwithstanding its low intrinsic catalytic activity. The weak basicity of SBA-16 surface seems to play a key-role in adsorption. These findings are of great interest for envisaging flexible oxidative treatments, where Fe(3+) containing soils or mixtures of sand and rust may also act as catalyst for total mineralization of various azo-dyes, regardless to their structures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Interaction of NaCl(g) and HCl(g) with condensed NA2SO4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stearns, C. A.; Kohl, F. J.; Fryburg, G. C.; Miller, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    The interaction of Na2SO4(l) with NaCl(g), HCl(g) and H2O(g) was studied in atmospheric pressure flowing air and oxygen at Na2SO4(l) temperatures of 900 and 1000 C. Thermomicrogravimetric and high pressure mass spectrometric sampling techniques were used. Experimental results establish that previously reported enhanced rates of weight loss of Na2SO4(l) in the presence of NaCl(g) are due to the reaction: Na2SO4(c) + 2HCl(g) = 2NaCl(g) + SO2(g) + H2O(g) + 1/2O2(g) being driven to the right in flowing gas systems. The HCl(g) is the product of hydrolysis of NaCl caused by small but significant amounts of H2O(g) present in the system. Thermochemical calculations are used to show that even with sub-ppm levels of H2O(g) present, significant quantities of HCl(g) are produced.

  20. Nitric oxide production mediates oligogalacturonide-triggered immunity and resistance to Botrytis cinerea in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Rasul, S; Dubreuil-Maurizi, C; Lamotte, O; Koen, E; Poinssot, B; Alcaraz, G; Wendehenne, D; Jeandroz, S

    2012-08-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) regulates a wide range of plant processes from development to environmental adaptation. In this study, we investigated the production and/or function of NO in Arabidopsis thaliana leaf discs and plants elicited by oligogalacturonides (OGs) and challenged with Botrytis cinerea. We provided evidence that OGs triggered a fast and long lasting NO production which was Ca(2+) dependent and involved nitrate reductase (NR). Accordingly, OGs triggered an increase of both NR activity and transcript accumulation. NO production was also sensitive to the mammalian NO synthase inhibitor L-NAME. Intriguingly, we showed that L-NAME affected NO production by interfering with NR activity, thus questioning the mechanisms of how this compound impairs NO synthesis in plants. We further demonstrated that NO modulates RBOHD-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and participates in the regulation of OG-responsive genes such as anionic peroxidase (PER4) and a β-1,3-glucanase. Mutant plants impaired in PER4 and β-1,3-glucanase, as well as Col-0 plants treated with the NO scavenger cPTIO, were more susceptible to B. cinerea. Taken together, our investigation deciphers part of the mechanisms linking NO production, NO-induced effects and basal resistance to B. cinerea.

  1. Plant immunity triggered by engineered in vivo release of oligogalacturonides, damage-associated molecular patterns

    PubMed Central

    Benedetti, Manuel; Pontiggia, Daniela; Raggi, Sara; Cheng, Zhenyu; Scaloni, Flavio; Ferrari, Simone; Ausubel, Frederick M.; Cervone, Felice; De Lorenzo, Giulia

    2015-01-01

    Oligogalacturonides (OGs) are fragments of pectin that activate plant innate immunity by functioning as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). We set out to test the hypothesis that OGs are generated in planta by partial inhibition of pathogen-encoded polygalacturonases (PGs). A gene encoding a fungal PG was fused with a gene encoding a plant polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP) and expressed in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. We show that expression of the PGIP–PG chimera results in the in vivo production of OGs that can be detected by mass spectrometric analysis. Transgenic plants expressing the chimera under control of a pathogen-inducible promoter are more resistant to the phytopathogens Botrytis cinerea, Pectobacterium carotovorum, and Pseudomonas syringae. These data provide strong evidence for the hypothesis that OGs released in vivo act as a DAMP signal to trigger plant immunity and suggest that controlled release of these molecules upon infection may be a valuable tool to protect plants against infectious diseases. On the other hand, elevated levels of expression of the chimera cause the accumulation of salicylic acid, reduced growth, and eventually lead to plant death, consistent with the current notion that trade-off occurs between growth and defense. PMID:25870275

  2. The Adoption of Systems Innovations in Educational Organizations: A Case Study of Operation Guidance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kester, Ralph J.; Howard, John, Jr.

    To identify factors which affect the acceptance of innovation in school organizations, a career development product entitled Operation Guidance (OG) was the object of a case study. Five basic organizational characteristics were used to roughly quantify attributes of the organization of the six schools studied. The characteristics were:…

  3. Does kappa-carrageenan thermoreversible gelation affect β-carotene oxidative degradation and bioaccessibility in o/w emulsions?

    PubMed

    Soukoulis, Christos; Tsevdou, Maria; Yonekura, Lina; Cambier, Sébastien; Taoukis, Petros S; Hoffmann, Lucien

    2017-07-01

    In the present work oil-in-gel (o/g) emulsions comprising 0.4-1% w/w κ-carrageenan in the absence and presence of Ca(2+) (20mM) were investigated for their ability to hamper the oxidative degradation under isothermal (5, 20 and 37°C) ambient air storage conditions and promote the in vitro bioaccessibility of β-carotene. The mechanical and structure conformational aspects of the o/g emulsions throughout in vitro digestion were measured by means of oscillatory rheology and optical microscopy. Although the addition of κ-carrageenan reduced by more than 50% (from 0.85 to 0.40day(-1)) the β-carotene oxidative degradation rates, only minor differences were detected in terms of gelation method (ca. 0.42 and 0.39day(-1) for ionotropic and coldset systems) and biopolymer concentration (0.38-0.42day(-1)). The bioaccessibility of β-carotene was significantly higher in coldset o/g emulsions (ca. 43%) compared to the ionically mediated ones (ca. 36%). With the exception of 0.4% κ-carrageenan containing o/g emulsions (55.4 and 49.7% for control and 0.4% κ-carrageenan respectively), the β-carotene bioaccessibility was significantly reduced with the increase in κ-carrageenan concentration (ranging from 34 to 38.9%). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison of oogenesis and sex steroid profiles between twice and once annually spawning of rainbow trout females (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Estay, Francisco; Colihueque, Nelson; Araneda, Cristian

    2012-01-01

    This study compares the gonadosomatic index (GSI), oocyte growth (OG), gonadal histology, and plasma level concentrations of sex hormones (estradiol-17β (E2) and vitellogenin (V)) of twice-spawning (T-SP) and once-spawning (O-SP) females of rainbow trout throughout the additional and the normal reproductive cycle, respectively. In T-SP, the GSI values rapidly increase from May to November, in contrast to O-SP, which showed low and constant GSI values (1.19 to 14.5 and 1.19 to 0.63, resp.). T-SP exhibited a marked increase of OG in the same period, reaching a maximum diameter of 4,900 ± 141.42 μm, in contrast to O-SP, which presented a slow OG. The gonadal histology of T-SP agreed with the general pattern of ovogenesis observed for O-SP (vitellogenesis, ovulation, and recrudescence); however, this process was nonsynchronous between the two breeder groups. Plasma steroid levels showed significant variation during oogenesis, which agreed with the GSI, OG, and gonadal histology patterns. The level of E2 increased to a maximum value of 26.2 ng/mL and 36.0 ng/mL in O-SP and T-SP, respectively, one or two months before the spawning event where vitellogenesis was fully active. The V concentrations followed a pattern similar to those of E2.

  5. Impulse oscillometry and obesity in children.

    PubMed

    Assumpção, Maíra S de; Ribeiro, José D; Wamosy, Renata M G; Figueiredo, Fernanda C X S de; Parazzi, Paloma L F; Schivinski, Camila I S

    2017-09-08

    To compare impulse oscillometry system (IOS) parameters of normal-weight children with overweight and obese children. All participants were submitted to the evaluation of lung function (spirometry and impulse oscillometry) following the American Thoracic Society (ATS) standards. The evaluation of respiratory mechanics was performed using the Jaeger™ MasterScreen™ Impulse Oscillometry System (IOS) (Erich Jaeger, Germany), three tests were recorded, with acquisition for at least 20s. The study included 81 children (30 in the CG, 21 in the OWG, and 30 the in OG), matched for age and sex. Regarding spirometry data, OG showed higher numerical values in relation to the CG; however, there were no significant differences among the three groups. For impulse oscillometry parameters, there was a difference between CG and OG for respiratory impedance (Z5) (p=0.036), resistance at 5hertz (R5) (p=0.026), resonant frequency (Fres) (p=0.029), and reactance area (AX) (p=0.014). For the parameters expressed in percentage of predicted, there were differences in resistance at 5 hertz (R5%), resonant frequency (Fres%), and reactance area (AX%) between CG and OG. Obese children showed increased oscillometry parameters values representative of airway obstruction, compared to normal-weight children. Changes in some oscillometry parameters can already be observed in overweight school-aged children. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. 24 CFR 200.950 - Building product standards and certification program for solar water heating system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... certification program for solar water heating system. 200.950 Section 200.950 Housing and Urban Development... solar water heating system. (a) Applicable standards. (1) All solar water heating systems shall be...) Document OG-300-93, Operating Guidelines and Minimum Standards for Certifying Solar Water Heating Systems...

  7. 24 CFR 200.950 - Building product standards and certification program for solar water heating system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... certification program for solar water heating system. 200.950 Section 200.950 Housing and Urban Development... solar water heating system. (a) Applicable standards. (1) All solar water heating systems shall be...) Document OG-300-93, Operating Guidelines and Minimum Standards for Certifying Solar Water Heating Systems...

  8. 24 CFR 200.950 - Building product standards and certification program for solar water heating system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... certification program for solar water heating system. 200.950 Section 200.950 Housing and Urban Development... solar water heating system. (a) Applicable standards. (1) All solar water heating systems shall be...) Document OG-300-93, Operating Guidelines and Minimum Standards for Certifying Solar Water Heating Systems...

  9. 24 CFR 200.950 - Building product standards and certification program for solar water heating system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... certification program for solar water heating system. 200.950 Section 200.950 Housing and Urban Development... solar water heating system. (a) Applicable standards. (1) All solar water heating systems shall be...) Document OG-300-93, Operating Guidelines and Minimum Standards for Certifying Solar Water Heating Systems...

  10. 24 CFR 200.950 - Building product standards and certification program for solar water heating system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... certification program for solar water heating system. 200.950 Section 200.950 Housing and Urban Development... solar water heating system. (a) Applicable standards. (1) All solar water heating systems shall be...) Document OG-300-93, Operating Guidelines and Minimum Standards for Certifying Solar Water Heating Systems...

  11. OmniGen-AF supplementation modulated the physiological and acute phase responses of Brahman heifers to an endotoxin challenge

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study examined the effect of feeding OmniGen-AF (OG; Prince Agri Products) on the physiological and acute phase responses (APR) of newly-weaned heifers to an endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) challenge. Brahman heifers (n=24; 183±5 kilograms) from the Texas AgriLife Research Center in Overton...

  12. Modulation of the metabolic response to an endotoxin challenge in Brahman heifers through OmniGen-AF supplementation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study examined the effect of feeding OmniGen-AF (OG; Prince Agri Products) on the metabolic response of newly-weaned heifers to an endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) challenge. Brahman heifers (n=24; 183±5 kilograms) from the Texas AgriLife Research Center in Overton, TX, were separated into 2...

  13. Comparison of Motor Control Deficits During Treadmill and Overground Walking Poststroke

    PubMed Central

    Kautz, Steven A.; Bowden, Mark G.; Clark, David J.; Neptune, Richard R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Force-sensing split-belt treadmills (TMs) provide an alternative to the conventional overground (OG) setting and allow new avenues for analyzing the biomechanics and motor control of walking. However, walking control may differ on a TM compared with walking OG. Objective To compare spatiotemporal, kinematic, and EMG-based measures of motor control between TM and OG walking at self-selected and fastest comfortable speeds in persons with poststroke hemiparesis. Methods Individuals with chronic hemiparesis (56) and similarly aged healthy individuals (17) walked over an instrumented walkway and on an instrumented split-belt TM; 16 channels of EMG recorded bilateral muscle activity, and a 12-camera motion capture system collected bilateral 3D kinematics. The authors applied a nonnegative matrix factorization (NNMF) algorithm to examine the underlying patterns of motor control. Results Self-selected walking patterns differed on the TM versus OG in controls: speed decreased, stride length decreased, stance percentage increased, and double-support percentage increased. Poststroke, responses were similar, but cadence also decreased, and step length asymmetry increased. Kinematic patterns were similar except those associated with slower walking speeds. NNMF demonstrated similar EMG variance in the 2 environments. Conclusion Persons, both healthy and poststroke, walk with different gait parameters on the TM. Although measures of motor control were mostly similar between the 2 environments, the TM induced step length asymmetry in 30% of participants (60% of whom took longer paretic steps). TM walking, therefore, is a valid method for detecting motor control deficits. PMID:21636831

  14. Isoelectric Focusing Patterns of Staphylococcal Exfoliative Toxin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    were. however, serologically distinct, giving reac- Electrode solutions in the gel focusing chambers sere 3 ( tions of nonidentity in Ouchterlony ...062 I 312 CURRENT MRIROBOI OG. Vol. 8 119831 TOXIN TYPE ELECTROFOCUS OUCHTERLONY ETA ETB ANODE - pH 8 0 a. ii9- 00 13 PH 6 CATHODE Fig. 2

  15. Modulation of chemical stability and in vitro bioaccessibility of beta-carotene loaded in kappa-carrageenan oil-in-gel emulsions.

    PubMed

    Soukoulis, Christos; Tsevdou, Maria; Andre, Christelle M; Cambier, Sébastien; Yonekura, Lina; Taoukis, Petros S; Hoffmann, Lucien

    2017-04-01

    In the present paper, ionotropically structured κ-carrageenan based oil-in-gel (o/g) emulsions were tested as potential carrier systems for the delivery of β-carotene. In situ ionic gelation was induced by Na(+), K(+) or Ca(2+) added at the level of 0.2-0.6% (w/w). All o/g emulsions exerted a true gel like behaviour with storage modulus (G') being reduced according to the order: K(+)>Ca(2+)>Na(+). Ionic gelation induced a moderate increase in the microscopically assessed lipid droplets radii. O/g emulsions containing monovalent ions exerted the highest β-carotene retention throughout isothermal storage particularly at high (37 and 55°C) temperatures. Notwithstanding, increasing ionic strength resulted in acceleration of β-carotene degradation rates for all cation species. β-Carotene bioaccessibility was significantly lower in Ca(2+)o/g emulsions due to the formation of complexes between the biopolymer matrix containing β-carotene and bile salts. A good correlation between β-carotene bioaccessibility, physical and colloidal aspects of the micellar digesta fractions was observed.

  16. Desiccation tolerance during different desiccation strategies in A. angustifolia embryos

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Brazilian pine (Araucaria angustifolia) is native to the Atlantic Rainforest of Brazil and is an endangered species. The mature seeds are recalcitrant and have large embryos (about 2.5 cm in length) that contain more than 1 g H2O.g dry mass (dm)-1. Successful cryopreservation requires reduction of ...

  17. 40 CFR 432.122 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Regulatedparameter Maximum daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 Ammonia (as N) 8.0 4.0 BOD5 26 16 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G (as HEM) 14 8.0 TSS 30 20 1 mg/L (ppm). 2 Maximum of 400 MPN or CFU per 100 mL at any time. 3...

  18. 40 CFR 432.122 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 Ammonia (as N) 8.0 4.0 BOD5 26 16 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G (as HEM) 14 8.0 TSS 30 20 1 mg/L (ppm). 2 Maximum of 400 MPN or CFU per 100 mL at any time. 3 No maximum...

  19. 40 CFR 432.112 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 Ammonia (as N) 8.0 4.0 BOD5 26 16 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G (as HEM) 14 8.0 TSS 30 20 1 mg/L (ppm). 2 Maximum of 400 MPN or CFU per 100 mL at any time. 3 No maximum...

  20. 40 CFR 437.21 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Regulatedparameter Maximum daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 Conventional Parameters O&G 127 38.0 pH (2) (2) TSS 74.1 30...-Decane 0.948 0.437 Fluoranthene 0.0537 0.0268 n-Octadecane 0.589 0.302 1 mg/L (ppm). 2 Within the range...

  1. 40 CFR 432.105 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 0.18 0.09 Fecal coliform (2) (3) O&G 1 4 0.10 0.05 Total Nitrogen 5 194 134 TSS 1 0.22 0.11 1 Pounds... maximum monthly average limitation. 4 May be measured as hexane extractable material (HEM). 5 mg/L...

  2. Compensatory Vowel Lengthening for Omitted Coda Consonants: A Phonetic Investigation of Children's Early Representations of Prosodic Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Jae Yung; Demuth, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    Children's early word productions often differ from the target form, sometimes exhibiting vowel lengthening when word-final coda consonants are omitted (e.g., "dog" /d[open o]g/ [arrow right] [d[open o]:]). It has typically been assumed that such lengthening compensates for a missing prosodic unit (a mora). However, this study raises the…

  3. The Synchrony and Diachrony of Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian Adjectival Long-Form Allomorphy (ALFA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, James Joshua

    2010-01-01

    In Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian (BCS), the gentive (G) and dative/locative (DL) cases exhibit adjectival long-form allomorphy (ALFA). The genitive -"og" -"oga" and the DL -"om" -"ome" -"omu" stand in free variation, inasmuch as when one form is substituted for another the truth value of an utterance…

  4. FUEL ELEMENT FOR NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Carney, K.G. Jr.

    1959-07-14

    A nuclear fuel element comprising a large number og wafers of fissionable material and a protective jacket having compartments holding these wafers is described. The compartments of the jacket aid the removal of heat from the wafers, keep the wafers or fragments thereof from migrating in the jacket, and permit the escape of gaseous fission products.

  5. Omnigen-AF reduces basal plasma cortisol, AWA cortisol release to adrencocorticotropic hormone or corticotrophin releasing hormone & vasopressin in lactating dairy cows under thermoneutral or acute heat stress conditions.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Differences in the adrenal cortisol response of OmniGen-AF (OG) supplemented dairy cows to a corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH) and vasopressin (VP) or an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge when housed at different temperature-humidity indices (THI) were studied. Holstein cows (n=12; 1...

  6. Compensatory Vowel Lengthening for Omitted Coda Consonants: A Phonetic Investigation of Children's Early Representations of Prosodic Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Jae Yung; Demuth, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    Children's early word productions often differ from the target form, sometimes exhibiting vowel lengthening when word-final coda consonants are omitted (e.g., "dog" /d[open o]g/ [arrow right] [d[open o]:]). It has typically been assumed that such lengthening compensates for a missing prosodic unit (a mora). However, this study raises the…

  7. Telecom and scintillation first data analysis for DOMINO: laser communication between SOTA, onboard SOCRATES satellite, and MEO optical ground station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phung, D.-H.; Samain, E.; Maurice, N.; Albanesse, D.; Mariey, H.; Aimar, M.; M. Lagarde, G.; Artaud, G.; Issler, J.-L.; Vedrenne, N.; Velluet, M.-T.; Toyoshima, M.; Akioka, M.; Kolev, D.; Munemasa, Y.; Takenaka, H.; Iwakiri, N.

    2016-03-01

    In collaboration between CNES, NICT, Geoazur, the first successful lasercom link between the micro-satellite SOCRATES and an OGS in Europe has been established. This paper presents some results of telecom and scintillation first data analysis for 4 successful links in June & July 2015 between SOTA terminal and MEO optical ground station (OGS) at Caussols France. The telecom and scintillation data have been continuously recorded during the passes by using a detector developed at the laboratory. An irradiance of 190 nW/m2 and 430 nW/m2 has been detected for 1549 nm and 976 nm downlinks at 35° elevation. Spectrums of power fluctuation measured at OGS are analyzed at different elevation angles and at different diameters of telescope aperture to determine fluctuations caused by pointing error (due to satellite & OGS telescope vibrations) and caused by atmospheric turbulence. Downlink & Uplink budgets are analyzed, the theoretical estimation matches well to measured power levels. Telecom signal forms and bit error rates (BER) of 1549 nm and 976 nm downlink are also shown at different diameters of telescope aperture. BER is 'Error Free' with full-aperture 1.5m telescope, and almost in `good channel' with 0.4 m sub-aperture of telescope. We also show the comparison between the expected and measured BER distributions.

  8. Cloning and characterization of an alternative transcript of ovine glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase gene: comparative approach between ruminant and non-ruminant species.

    PubMed

    Laliotis, George P; Argyrokastritis, Alexandros; Bizelis, Iosif; Rogdakis, Emmanuel

    2007-02-15

    Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) plays an important role in ruminant's lipogenesis, as it provides necessary compounds of NADPH for the synthesis of fatty acids catalyzing the first committed reaction in the pentose phosphate pathway. In this work the full length ovine glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase cDNA was isolated using a polymerase chain reaction based strategy. Two isoforms (OG6PDA and OG6PDB) were detected encoding a protein of 515 and 524 amino acids, respectively. Both deduced amino acid sequences reveal a well conserved protein containing all the important residues for its catalytic role. The extra nine amino acids encoded by OG6PDB cause a frameshift in the polypeptide chain resulting in changes around the area of the potential substrate binding site. A three-dimensional model of ovine G6PD protein shows that this frameshift cause structural changes in the catalytic binding "pocket" of the molecule. Southern blot and RT analysis revealed that ovine G6PD appears as a single copy gene while it is expressed, with slight variability, in all tissues analyzed. Moreover, expression analysis of the ovine G6PD isoforms showed that OG6PDB is expressed only in tissues where lipogenesis is high in ruminants. Thus, we hypothesize that in ruminants G6PD may be regulated by the ratio of the two transcripts, according to the existence stimulus.

  9. Total Copper Analyzer for Rapid In Situ Characterization of Effluent Discharges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-03

    samples from PSNS, PHNS and SBWWTP................................................................................................ 59 C.2. Total...Recoverable Copper measured at SSC-SD by GFAA in discrete samples from PSNS, PHNS and SBWWTP. Total Recoverable Iron measured at SSC-SD by GFAA in...National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System O&G Oil and Grease ONR Office of Naval Research PHNS Pearl Harbor Naval Shipyard ppb Parts per

  10. Cardiovascular Fitness in Obese versus Nonobese 8-11-Year-Old Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mastrangelo, M. Alysia; Chaloupka, Edward C.; Rattigan, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare cardiovascular fitness between obese and nonobese children. Based on body mass index, 118 were classified as obese (boys [OB] = 62, girls [OG] = 56), while 421 were nonobese (boys [NOB] = 196, girls [NOG] = 225). Cardiovascular fitness was determined by a 1-mile [1.6 km] run/walk (MRW) and estimated peak…

  11. Parent-of-origin dependent gene-specific knock down in mouse embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Iqbal, Khursheed; Kues, Wilfried A.; Niemann, Heiner . E-mail: niemann@tzv.fal.de

    2007-07-06

    In mice hemizygous for the Oct4-GFP transgene, the F1 embryos show parent-of-origin dependent expression of the marker gene. F1 embryos with a maternally derived OG2 allele (OG2{sup mat}/-) express GFP in the oocyte and during preimplantation development until the blastocyst stage indicating a maternal and embryonic expression pattern. F1-embryos with a paternally inherited OG2 allele (OG2{sup pat}/-) express GFP from the 4- to 8-cell stage onwards showing only embryonic expression. This allows to study allele specific knock down of GFP expression. RNA interference (RNAi) was highly efficient in embryos with the paternally inherited GFP allele, whereas embryos with the maternally inherited GFP allele showed a delayed and less stringent suppression, indicating that the initial levels of the target transcript and the half life of the protein affect RNAi efficacy. RT-PCR analysis revealed only minimum of GFP mRNA. These results have implications for studies of gene silencing in mammalian embryos.

  12. Differences in 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase regulation in liver and kidney.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, B C; Clotfelter, L A; Cheung, J Y; LaNoue, K F

    1992-01-01

    In response to acidosis, renal ammoniagenesis is stimulated, enhancing urinary buffering power, while hepatic ammoniagenesis and ureagenesis decrease, so as to spare bicarbonate consumed in the urea cycle. 2-Oxoglutarate (2-OG) levels can regulate ammoniagenesis in kidney and gluconeogenesis in liver and kidney. Since the activity of 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (2-OGDH) has an important influence on cellular levels of 2-OG, this study evaluated the effects of pH on 2-OGDH in liver and kidney and found that: (1) the isolated enzyme from both organs has the same pH-sensitivity; (2) 2-OGDH flux measured in intact mitochondria was inhibited by increasing H+ in liver, but stimulated in kidney; (3) transport of 2-OG into the mitochondria was not rate-limiting; (4) liver mitochondrial 2-OGDH exhibited a strong preference for 2-OG generated within the mitochondria from glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), suggesting that channelling between GOT and 2-OGDH occurs. Since complexation between 2-OGDH and GOT occurs in vitro, we propose that the degree of complexation is higher in liver than in kidney, such that most of the 2-OGDH may be complexed to GOT in liver. In the liver the inherent H(+)-sensitivity of 2-OGDH is masked by the pH-sensitivity of GOT and the glutamate-aspartate carrier. PMID:1352447

  13. The Effect of Vision on Postural Strategies in Prader-Willi Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cimolin, Veronica; Galli, Manuela; Vismara, Luca; Grugni, Graziano; Priano, Lorenzo; Capodaglio, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the role of visual contribution in patients with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) on balance maintenance using a force platform. We enrolled 14 individuals with PWS free from conditions associated with impaired balance, 44 obese (OG) and 20 healthy controls (CG). Postural sway was measured for 60 s while standing…

  14. The Role and Values of Combat Leadership in Modern Warfare: Can Combat Leadership and Personal Leadership Skills be Replaced by Modern Technology?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-29

    level, where actions and counteractions are following each other.6 Command and control should give flexibility and energy in such an environment...enkjenning slar inn. Men, det koker ofte ned til; hva skal du oppmi? Hva er dine prim<Ere m~l, og hva er eventuelt dine sekund<Ere mill. I dagens

  15. 78 FR 23581 - Federal Property Suitable as Facilities To Assist the Homeless

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-19

    ..., 1988 Court Order in National Coalition for the Homeless v. Veterans Administration, No. 88-2503-OG (D.D.../removal Nebraska Hummel Park Radio Station 11808 John Pershing Dr. Omaha NE 68112 Landholding Agency: GSA... Signal Mountain Lodge Cabin Grand Teton Nation Park Moran WY 83013 Landholding Agency: GSA...

  16. 78 FR 61851 - Federal Property Suitable as Facilities To Assist the Homeless

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-04

    ... Court Order in National Coalition for the Homeless v. Veterans Administration, No. 88-2503-OG (D.D.C... for info. on accessibility reqs. Georgia Building 931 1501 First St. Dobbins Air Reserve GA 30069... Naval Air Station Joint Reserve Base New Orleans LA 70143 Landholding Agency: Air Force Property...

  17. 76 FR 40386 - Federal Property Suitable as Facilities To Assist the Homeless

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-08

    ..., 1988 Court Order in National Coalition for the Homeless v. Veterans Administration, No. 88-2503-OG (D.D... Unsuitable Properties Building Illinois Bldg. 649 Philip H. Sheridan Reserve Ctr. Ft. Sheridan IL Landholding...: Secured Area New Mexico Santa Rosa State Park ] 2528 Joe & Louise Page Rd. Santa Rosa NM 88435...

  18. A Graph with E Edges Has Pagenumber o (the Square root of E log E),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-01

    pages. The general conjecture for arbitrary fixed genus was recently disproved by Heath and Istrail [111 who provide an algorithm to embed a genus g graph in...1987), The pagenumber of genus g graphs is O(g), 19th ACM Symp. on Theory of Computing, 388-397. [KI . Kannan (1985), Unraveling k-page graphs

  19. 75 FR 11904 - Federal Property Suitable as Facilities To Assist the Homeless

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... in National Coalition for the Homeless v. Veterans Administration, No. 88-2503-OG (D.D.C.), HUD... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Federal Property Suitable as Facilities To Assist the Homeless AGENCY: Office of the... for possible use to assist the homeless. DATES: Effective Date: March 12, 2010. FOR...

  20. 75 FR 8985 - Federal Property Suitable as Facilities To Assist the Homeless

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... order in National Coalition for the Homeless v. Veterans Administration, No. 88-2503-OG (D.D.C.), HUD... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Federal Property Suitable as Facilities To Assist the Homeless AGENCY: Office of the... for possible use to assist the homeless. DATES: Effective Date: February 26, 2010. FOR...

  1. 75 FR 18231 - Federal Property Suitable as Facilities to Assist the Homeless

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... National Coalition for the Homeless v. Veterans Administration, No. 88-2503-OG (D.D.C.), HUD publishes a... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Federal Property Suitable as Facilities to Assist the Homeless AGENCY: Office of the... for possible use to assist the homeless. DATES: Effective Date: April 9, 2010. FOR FURTHER...

  2. 5-Carboxy-8-hydroxyquinoline is a Broad Spectrum 2-Oxoglutarate Oxygenase Inhibitor which Causes Iron Translocation

    PubMed Central

    Aik, WeiShen; Che, Ka Hing; Li, Xuan Shirley; Kristensen, Jan B. L.; King, Oliver N. F.; Chan, Mun Chiang; Yeoh, Kar Kheng; Choi, Hwanho; Walport, Louise J.; Thinnes, Cyrille C.; Bush, Jacob T.; Lejeune, Clarisse; Rydzik, Anna M.; Rose, Nathan R.; Bagg, Eleanor A.; McDonough, Michael A.; Krojer, Tobias; Yue, Wyatt W.; Ng, Stanley S.; Olsen, Lars; Brennan, Paul E.; Oppermann, Udo; Muller-Knapp, Susanne; Klose, Robert J.; Ratcliffe, Peter J.; Schofield, Christopher J.; Kawamura, Akane

    2015-01-01

    2-Oxoglutarate and iron dependent oxygenases are therapeutic targets for human diseases. Using a representative 2OG oxygenase panel, we compare the inhibitory activities of 5-carboxy-8-hydroxyquinoline (IOX1) and 4-carboxy-8-hydroxyquinoline (4C8HQ) with that of two other commonly used 2OG oxygenase inhibitors, N-oxalylglycine (NOG) and 2,4-pyridinedicarboxylic acid (2,4-PDCA). The results reveal that IOX1 has a broad spectrum of activity, as demonstrated by the inhibition of transcription factor hydroxylases, representatives of all 2OG dependent histone demethylase subfamilies, nucleic acid demethylases and γ-butyrobetaine hydroxylase. Cellular assays show that, unlike NOG and 2,4-PDCA, IOX1 is active against both cytosolic and nuclear 2OG oxygenases without ester derivatisation. Unexpectedly, crystallographic studies on these oxygenases demonstrate that IOX1, but not 4C8HQ, can cause translocation of the active site metal, revealing a rare example of protein ligand-induced metal movement PMID:26682036

  3. New Insights on Leucine-Rich Repeats Receptor-Like Kinase Orthologous Relationships in Angiosperms

    PubMed Central

    Dufayard, Jean-François; Bettembourg, Mathilde; Fischer, Iris; Droc, Gaetan; Guiderdoni, Emmanuel; Périn, Christophe; Chantret, Nathalie; Diévart, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Leucine-Rich Repeats Receptor-Like Kinase (LRR-RLK) genes represent a large and complex gene family in plants, mainly involved in development and stress responses. These receptors are composed of an LRR-containing extracellular domain (ECD), a transmembrane domain (TM) and an intracellular kinase domain (KD). To provide new perspectives on functional analyses of these genes in model and non-model plant species, we performed a phylogenetic analysis on 8,360 LRR-RLK receptors in 31 angiosperm genomes (8 monocots and 23 dicots). We identified 101 orthologous groups (OGs) of genes being conserved among almost all monocot and dicot species analyzed. We observed that more than 10% of these OGs are absent in the Brassicaceae species studied. We show that the ECD structural features are not always conserved among orthologs, suggesting that functions may have diverged in some OG sets. Moreover, we looked at targets of positive selection footprints in 12 pairs of OGs and noticed that depending on the subgroups, positive selection occurred more frequently either in the ECDs or in the KDs. PMID:28424707

  4. 75 FR 47616 - Federal Property Suitable as Facilities To Assist the Homeless

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Federal Property Suitable as Facilities To Assist the Homeless AGENCY: Office of the... for possible use to assist the homeless. DATES: Effective Date: August 6, 2010. FOR FURTHER... in National Coalition for the Homeless v. Veterans Administration, No. 88-2503-OG (D.D.C.),...

  5. 75 FR 6047 - Federal Property Suitable as Facilities to Assist the Homeless

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Federal Property Suitable as Facilities to Assist the Homeless AGENCY: Office of the... for possible use to assist the homeless. DATES: Effective Date: February 5, 2010. FOR FURTHER... in National Coalition for the Homeless v. Veterans Administration, No. 88-2503-OG (D.D.C.),...

  6. 75 FR 4836 - Federal Property Suitable as Facilities To Assist the Homeless

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-29

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Federal Property Suitable as Facilities To Assist the Homeless AGENCY: Office of the... for possible use to assist the homeless. DATES: Effective Date: January 29, 2010. FOR FURTHER... in National Coalition for the Homeless v. Veterans Administration, No. 88-2503-OG (D.D.C.),...

  7. Increase in Dye:Dendrimer Ratio Decreases Cellular Uptake of Neutral Dendrimers in RAW Cells.

    PubMed

    Vaidyanathan, Sriram; Kaushik, Milan; Dougherty, Casey; Rattan, Rahul; Goonewardena, Sascha N; Banaszak Holl, Mark M; Monano, Janet; DiMaggio, Stassi

    2016-09-12

    Neutral generation 3 poly(amidoamine) dendrimers were labeled with Oregon Green 488 (G3-OGn) to obtain materials with controlled fluorophore:dendrimer ratios (n = 1-2), a mixture containing mostly 3 dyes per dendrimer, a mixture containing primarily 4 or more dyes per dendrimer (n = 4+), and a stochastic mixture (n = 4avg). The UV absorbance of the dye conjugates increased linearly as n increased and the fluorescence emission decreased linearly as n increased. Cellular uptake was studied in RAW cells and HEK 293A cells as a function of the fluorophore:dendrimer ratio (n). The cellular uptake of G3-OG n (n = 3, 4+, 4avg) into RAW cells was significantly lower than G3-OG n (n = 1, 2). The uptake of G3-OG n (n = 3, 4+, 4avg) into HEK 293A cells was not significantly different from G3-OG1. Thus, the fluorophore:dendrimer ratio was observed to change the extent of uptake in the macrophage uptake mechanism but not in the HEK 293A cell. This difference in endocytosis indicates the presence of a pathway in the macrophage that is sensitive to hydrophobicity of the particle.

  8. The mitochondrial 2-oxoglutarate carrier is part of a metabolic pathway that mediates glucose- and glutamine-stimulated insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Odegaard, Matthew L; Joseph, Jamie W; Jensen, Mette V; Lu, Danhong; Ilkayeva, Olga; Ronnebaum, Sarah M; Becker, Thomas C; Newgard, Christopher B

    2010-05-28

    Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from pancreatic islet beta-cells is dependent in part on pyruvate cycling through the pyruvate/isocitrate pathway, which generates cytosolic alpha-ketoglutarate, also known as 2-oxoglutarate (2OG). Here, we have investigated if mitochondrial transport of 2OG through the 2-oxoglutarate carrier (OGC) participates in control of nutrient-stimulated insulin secretion. Suppression of OGC in clonal pancreatic beta-cells (832/13 cells) and isolated rat islets by adenovirus-mediated delivery of small interfering RNA significantly decreased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. OGC suppression also reduced insulin secretion in response to glutamine plus the glutamate dehydrogenase activator 2-amino-2-norbornane carboxylic acid. Nutrient-stimulated increases in glucose usage, glucose oxidation, glutamine oxidation, or ATP:ADP ratio were not affected by OGC knockdown, whereas suppression of OGC resulted in a significant decrease in the NADPH:NADP(+) ratio during stimulation with glucose but not glutamine + 2-amino-2-norbornane carboxylic acid. Finally, OGC suppression reduced insulin secretion in response to a membrane-permeant 2OG analog, dimethyl-2OG. These data reveal that the OGC is part of a mechanism of fuel-stimulated insulin secretion that is common to glucose, amino acid, and organic acid secretagogues, involving flux through the pyruvate/isocitrate cycling pathway. Although the components of this pathway must remain intact for appropriate stimulus-secretion coupling, production of NADPH does not appear to be the universal second messenger signal generated by these reactions.

  9. 40 CFR 437.43 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... § 437.42(d). (e) Combined waste receipts from subparts B and C of this part: Limitations for BOD5, O&G... CENTRALIZED WASTE TREATMENT POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Multiple Wastestreams § 437.43 Effluent limitations... combines treated or untreated wastes from subparts A, B, or C of this part may be subject to...

  10. 40 CFR 437.43 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... § 437.42(d). (e) Combined waste receipts from subparts B and C of this part: Limitations for BOD5, O&G... WASTE TREATMENT POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Multiple Wastestreams § 437.43 Effluent limitations attainable by... combines treated or untreated wastes from subparts A, B, or C of this part may be subject to...

  11. Measurements and Analysis of the Motion of a Canard Airplane Model in Gusts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1940-04-01

    ation. An adverso pitching motion may arise to increaso further the acceleration increment. It is therefore felt that these factors should be taken...referred to o.,g. of model) Figure 6.- History of evento the 3.7-foot gust gradient. in Figure 7.- History of evente in :: the 8.2-f oot guBt gradient

  12. Synthesis of octyl-β-D-glucopyranoside catalyzed by Thai rosewood β-glucosidase-displaying Pichia pastoris in an aqueous/organic two-phase system.

    PubMed

    Guo, DongHeng; Xu, YanShan; Kang, YaJun; Han, ShuangYan; Zheng, SuiPing

    2016-04-01

    We explored the ability of a Thai rosewood β-glucosidase-displaying P. pastoris whole-cell biocatalyst (Pp-DCBGL) system to synthesize alkyl β-D-glucosides. The primary investigation centered on the synthesis of octyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (octyl-glu, OG). OG could be synthesized through reverse hydrolysis reaction with very low efficiency. Then, OG was synthesized between BG and octanol by a transglycosylation reaction. In a 2-ml reaction system, OG was synthesized with a conversion rate of 51.1% in 3h when 5 mg/ml BG was utilized as the glucosyl donor under optimized conditions. And, even after being reused four times, the Pp-DCBGL was relatively stable. Additionally, a 500-ml-scale reaction system was conducted in a 2-L stirred reactor with a conversion rate of 47.5% in 1.5 h. Moreover, the conversion rate did not decrease after the whole-cell catalyst was reused two times. In conclusion, Pp-DCBGL has high reaction efficiency and operational stability, which is a powerful biocatalyst available for industrial synthesis.

  13. Cosmic Ray Origin, Acceleration and Propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baring, Matthew G.

    2000-01-01

    This paper summarizes highlights of the OG3.1, 3.2 and 3.3 sessions of the 26th International Cosmic Ray Conference in Salt Lake City, which were devoted to issues of origin/composition, acceleration and propagation.

  14. Preliminary results of the in-orbit test of ARTEMIS with the Optical Ground Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes Garcia-Talavera, Marcos; Sodnik, Zoran; Lopez, Pablo; Alonso, Angel; Viera, Teodora; Oppenhauser, Gotthard

    2002-04-01

    ESA and the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC) reached an agreemenet for building the Optical Ground Station (OGS), in the IAC Teide Observatory, in order to perform In Orbit Testing (IOT) of Optical Data Relay payloads onboard communication satellites, the first being ARTEMIS. During its recent launch, ARTEMIS was put into a degraded orbit due to a malfunction on the launcher's upper stage. ESA rapidly adopted a recovery strategy aimed to take the satellite to its nominal geostationary position. After completion of the first manoeuvres, ARTEMIS was successfully positioned in a circular parking orbit, at about 31,000 kilometers, and turned into full operation. In this orbit, its optical payload has been tested with the OGS, before establishing the link with SPOT IV. New tracking algorithms were developed at OGS control system in order to correct for ARTEMIS new orbit. The OGS has established a bi-directional link to ARTEMIS, behaving, seen from ARTEMIS, as a LEO terminal. Preliminary results are presented on the space-to- ground bi-directional link, including pointing acquisition and tracking (PAT) performance, received beam characterization and BER measurements.

  15. Commitment to and preparedness for sustainable supply chain management in the oil and gas industry.

    PubMed

    Wan Ahmad, Wan Nurul K; Rezaei, Jafar; Tavasszy, Lóránt A; de Brito, Marisa P

    2016-09-15

    Our current dependency on the oil and gas (O&G) industry for economic development and social activities necessitates research into the sustainability of the industry's supply chains. At present, studies on sustainable supply chain management (SSCM) practices in the industry do not include firm-internal factors that affect the sustainability strategies employed by different functional areas of its supply chains. Our study aims to address this gap by identifying the relevant internal factors and exploring their relationship with SSCM strategies. Specifically, we discuss the commitment to and preparedness for sustainable practices of companies that operate in upstream and downstream O&G supply chain. We study the impact of these factors on their sustainability strategies of four key supply chain functions: supplier management, production management, product stewardship and logistics management. The analyses of data collected through a survey among 81 companies show that management preparedness may enhance sustainable supply chain strategies in the O&G industry more than commitment does. Among the preparedness measures, management of supply chain operational risks is found to be vital to the sustainability of all supply chain functions except for production management practices. The findings also highlight the central importance of supplier and logistics management to the achievement of sustainable O&G supply chains. Companies must also develop an organizational culture that encourages, for example, team collaboration and proactive behaviour to finding innovative sustainability solutions in order to translate commitment to sustainable practices into actions that can produce actual difference to their SSCM practices.

  16. Sequential capillary electrophoresis analysis using optically gated sample injection and UV/vis detection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoxia; Tian, Miaomiao; Camara, Mohamed Amara; Guo, Liping; Yang, Li

    2015-10-01

    We present sequential CE analysis of amino acids and L-asparaginase-catalyzed enzyme reaction, by combing the on-line derivatization, optically gated (OG) injection and commercial-available UV-Vis detection. Various experimental conditions for sequential OG-UV/vis CE analysis were investigated and optimized by analyzing a standard mixture of amino acids. High reproducibility of the sequential CE analysis was demonstrated with RSD values (n = 20) of 2.23, 2.57, and 0.70% for peak heights, peak areas, and migration times, respectively, and the LOD of 5.0 μM (for asparagine) and 2.0 μM (for aspartic acid) were obtained. With the application of the OG-UV/vis CE analysis, sequential online CE enzyme assay of L-asparaginase-catalyzed enzyme reaction was carried out by automatically and continuously monitoring the substrate consumption and the product formation every 12 s from the beginning to the end of the reaction. The Michaelis constants for the reaction were obtained and were found to be in good agreement with the results of traditional off-line enzyme assays. The study demonstrated the feasibility and reliability of integrating the OG injection with UV/vis detection for sequential online CE analysis, which could be of potential value for online monitoring various chemical reaction and bioprocesses.

  17. Oxygen amendment on growth and nitrogen-use efficiency of flooded Italian Basil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Flooding is a frequent and often unavoidable cause of stress, in vegetable production in Florida. Flooding results in hypoxia i.e., oxygen deficiency. This study was conducted with traditional Italian basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), cv. Genovese OG, treated with either a fast- or slow-release solid oxy...

  18. Immunomodulatory Role of Ocimum gratissimum and Ascorbic Acid against Nicotine-Induced Murine Peritoneal Macrophages In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Mahapatra, Santanu Kar; Chakraborty, Subhankari Prasad; Roy, Somenath

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this present study was to evaluate the immune functions and immune responses in nicotine-induced (10 mM) macrophages and concurrently establish the immunomodulatory role of aqueous extract of Ocimum gratissimum (Ae-Og) and ascorbic acid. In this study, nitrite generations and some phenotype functions by macrophages were studied. Beside that, release of Th1 cytokines (TNF-α, IL-12) and Th2 cytokines (IL-10, TGF-β) was measured by ELISA, and the expression of these cytokines at mRNA level was analyzed by real-time PCR. Ae-Og, at a dose of 10 μg/mL, significantly reduced the nicotine-induced NO generation and iNOSII expression. Similar kinds of response were observed with supplementation of ascorbic acid (0.01 mM). The administration of Ae-Og and ascorbic acid increased the decreased adherence, chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and intracellular killing of bacteria in nicotine-treated macrophages. Ae-Og and ascorbic acid were found to protect the murine peritoneal macrophages through downregulation of Th1 cytokines in nicotine-treated macrophages with concurrent activation of Th2 responses. These findings strongly enhanced our understanding of the molecular mechanism leading to nicotine-induced suppression of immune functions and provide additional rationale for application of anti-inflammatory therapeutic approaches by O. gratissimum and ascorbic acid for different inflammatory disease prevention and treatment during nicotine toxicity. PMID:22220218

  19. OmniGen-AF alters rectal temperature (RT) and leukocyte profiles in dairy cows exposed to heat stress (HS) following acute activation of the stress axis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Differences in the response of OmniGen-AF (OG) supplemented dairy cows to a corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) and vasopressin (VP) or an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge when housed at different temperature-humidity indices (THI) were studied. Holstein cows (n=12; 162±1 days in milk)...

  20. The Effect of Vision on Postural Strategies in Prader-Willi Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cimolin, Veronica; Galli, Manuela; Vismara, Luca; Grugni, Graziano; Priano, Lorenzo; Capodaglio, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the role of visual contribution in patients with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) on balance maintenance using a force platform. We enrolled 14 individuals with PWS free from conditions associated with impaired balance, 44 obese (OG) and 20 healthy controls (CG). Postural sway was measured for 60 s while standing…