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Sample records for og udvikling inden

  1. 21 CFR 172.215 - Coumarone-indene resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... coumarone-indene resin may be safely used on grapefruit, lemons, limes, oranges, tangelos, and tangerines in... intended for use as a protective coating for grapefruit, lemons, limes, oranges, tangelos, and...

  2. 21 CFR 172.215 - Coumarone-indene resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... coumarone-indene resin may be safely used on grapefruit, lemons, limes, oranges, tangelos, and tangerines in... intended for use as a protective coating for grapefruit, lemons, limes, oranges, tangelos, and...

  3. 21 CFR 172.215 - Coumarone-indene resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... coumarone-indene resin may be safely used on grapefruit, lemons, limes, oranges, tangelos, and tangerines in... intended for use as a protective coating for grapefruit, lemons, limes, oranges, tangelos, and...

  4. 21 CFR 172.215 - Coumarone-indene resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... coumarone-indene resin may be safely used on grapefruit, lemons, limes, oranges, tangelos, and tangerines in... intended for use as a protective coating for grapefruit, lemons, limes, oranges, tangelos, and...

  5. Unimolecular dissociation of cyclopentadiene and indene

    SciTech Connect

    Yi, W.; Chattopadhyay, A.; Bersohn, R. )

    1991-05-01

    The dissociation of hydrogen atoms from the methylene group of cyclopentadiene (CP) and indene (ID) excited with a 193 nm photon has been studied by hydrogen atom laser induced fluorescence. The rate of dissociation of IND was 7.4{times}10{sup 6} s{sup {minus}1} but that of CP was too fast to measure. The ratio of H atoms to D atoms generated from 5-deuteriocyclopentadiene (5-dCP) was 3.91{plus minus}0.46. Rice--Ramsberger--Kassel--Marcus theory was used to calculate the rates of dissociation of CP and 5-dCP. The quantum yield for dissociating H atoms from CP was 0.85{plus minus}0.07. The ejected H atoms have a Maxwell velocity distribution with temperatures which are equal to the vibrational temperatures, 3690 and 2479 K for CP and IND, respectively. The most important result of the work is this confirmation of an earlier finding on a different set of molecules that the translational temperature of the fragments {ital after} the dissociation is equal to the vibrational temperature {ital before} the dissociation. This is explained by the assumption that the motion of the fast, light hydrogen atom is partly decoupled from that of the heavier, slower atoms.

  6. C9H8 Pyrolysis. o-Tolylacetylene, Indene, 1-Indenyl, and Biindenyls and the Mechanism of Indene Pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Wentrup, Curt; Winter, Hans-Wilhelm; Kvaskoff, David

    2015-06-18

    o-Tolylacetylene 5 is obtained by flash vacuum pyrolysis (FVP) of the isoxazolone 13a at 800 °C/10(-4) hPa. At 900-1000 °C the acetylene 5 isomerizes to indene 1, which reacts further by elimination of a hydrogen atom and dimerization of the 1-indenyl radical 9 to 1,1'-biindenyl 10. The latter undergoes partial isomerization to 3,3'-biindenyl 16, and further pyrolysis of the biindenyls yields higher polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), particularly chrysene 2. C-H bond breakage in indene, which occurs with an activation energy of 80 ± 5 kcal/mol with formation of the 1-indenyl radical 9, has been the subject of much investigation in relation to hydrocarbon combustion, in particular the formation of chrysene and other PAHs from indene, which itself is formed in the combustion of toluene and other hydrocarbons. However, C-C bond breakage also needs to be considered. Calculations at the B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) level indicate that key C-C bond breakages in indene have free energies of activation of ca. 80 kcal/mol. Positive entropies of activation make all these reactions more facile at high temperatures relevant to hydrocarbon combustion chemistry. C1-C2 bond breakage results in the formation of o-tolylvinylidene 6 and o-tolylacetylene 5. The reversible 1,2-shift interconverting 5 and 6 (the Roger Brown rearrangement) can lead to carbon scrambling in C3-labeled indene 1a, resulting in indene 1d carrying the label in positions 1, 2, and 3 and explaining the (14)C-labeling pattern observed by Badger et al. in the derived chrysene 2d. o-Tolylacetylene 5 and o-tolylvinylidene 6 should be considered as intermediates in models of the fuel-rich combustion of toluene, indene, and other hydrocarbons. PMID:26014897

  7. Molecular structure studies of (1S,2S)-2-benzyl-2,3-dihydro-2-(1H-inden-2-yl)-1H-inden-1-ol

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tao; Paluch, Krzysztof; Scalabrino, Gaia; Frankish, Neil; Healy, Anne-Marie; Sheridan, Helen

    2015-01-01

    The single enantiomer (1S,2S)-2-benzyl-2,3-dihydro-2-(1H-inden-2-yl)-1H-inden-1-ol (2), has recently been synthesized and isolated from its corresponding diastereoisomer (1). The molecular and crystal structures of this novel compound have been fully analyzed. The relative and absolute configurations have been determined by using a combination of analytical tools including X-ray crystallography, X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRPD) analysis and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. PMID:25750458

  8. Co(III)-Carbene Radical Approach to Substituted 1H-Indenes.

    PubMed

    Das, Braja Gopal; Chirila, Andrei; Tromp, Moniek; Reek, Joost N H; Bruin, Bas de

    2016-07-20

    A new strategy for the catalytic synthesis of substituted 1H-indenes via metalloradical activation of o-cinnamyl N-tosyl hydrazones is presented, taking advantage of the intrinsic reactivity of a Co(III) carbene radical intermediate. The reaction uses readily available starting materials and is operationally simple, thus representing a practical method for the construction of functionalized 1H-indene derivatives. The cheap and easy to prepare low spin cobalt(II) complex [Co(II)(MeTAA)] (MeTAA = tetramethyltetraaza[14]annulene) proved to be the most active catalyst among those investigated, which demonstrates catalytic carbene radical reactivity for a nonporphyrin cobalt(II) complex, and for the first time catalytic activity of [Co(II)(MeTAA)] in general. The methodology has been successfully applied to a broad range of substrates, producing 1H-indenes in good to excellent yields. The metallo-radical catalyzed indene synthesis in this paper represents a unique example of a net (formal) intramolecular carbene insertion reaction into a vinylic C(sp(2))-H bond, made possible by a controlled radical ring-closure process of the carbene radical intermediate involved. The mechanism was investigated computationally, and the results were confirmed by a series of supporting experimental reactions. Density functional theory calculations reveal a stepwise process involving activation of the diazo compound leading to formation of a Co(III)-carbene radical, followed by radical ring-closure to produce an indanyl/benzyl radical intermediate. Subsequent indene product elimination involving a 1,2-hydrogen transfer step regenerates the catalyst. Trapping experiments using 2,2,6,6-tetra-methylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO) radical or dibenzoylperoxide (DBPO) confirm the involvement of cobalt(III) carbene radical intermediates. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopic spin-trapping experiments using phenyl N-tert-butylnitrone (PBN) reveal the radical nature of the reaction. PMID

  9. Lewis acid catalyzed cascade reaction of 3-(2-benzenesulfonamide)propargylic alcohols to spiro[indene-benzosultam]s.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lang; Zhu, Yuanxun; Wang, Jing; Lu, Ping; Wang, Yanguang

    2015-01-16

    A highly efficient and convenient construction of the spiro[indene-benzosultam] skeleton from propargylic alcohols has been developed. The reaction proceeded in a Lewis acid catalyzed cascade process, including the trapping of allene carbocation with sulfonamide, electrophilic cyclization, and intramolecular Friedel-Crafts alkylation. In the presence of NIS or NBS, iodo/bromo-substituted spiro[indene-benzosultam]s could be prepared in excellent yields. PMID:25541815

  10. 40 CFR 721.8485 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, (octahydro-4,7-methano-1H- indene-5-diyl)bis(methylene) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-, (octahydro-4,7-methano-1H- indene-5-diyl)bis(methylene) ester. 721.8485 Section 721.8485 Protection of...-methyl-, (octahydro-4,7-methano-1H- indene-5-diyl)bis(methylene) ester. (a) Chemical substance and...-, (octahydro-4,7-methano- 1H- indene-5-diyl)bis(methylene) ester (PMN P-99-1075; CAS No. 43048-08-4) is...

  11. 40 CFR 721.8485 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, (octahydro-4,7-methano-1H- indene-5-diyl)bis(methylene) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-, (octahydro-4,7-methano-1H- indene-5-diyl)bis(methylene) ester. 721.8485 Section 721.8485 Protection of...-methyl-, (octahydro-4,7-methano-1H- indene-5-diyl)bis(methylene) ester. (a) Chemical substance and...-, (octahydro-4,7-methano- 1H- indene-5-diyl)bis(methylene) ester (PMN P-99-1075; CAS No. 43048-08-4) is...

  12. Synthesis and fungicidal activities of novel indene-substituted oxime ether strobilurins.

    PubMed

    Tu, Song; Xu, Long-He; Ye, Li-Yi; Wang, Xi; Sha, Yong; Xiao, Zong-Yuan

    2008-07-01

    Nineteen novel indene-substituted oxime ether strobilurins, which used an indene group to stabilize the ( E)-styryl group in SYP-Z071 (an unsaturated oxime strobilurin fungicide under development by the Shenyang Research Institute of Chemical Industry), were designed and synthesized. The biological assay results showed that all compounds possessed good or excellent fungicidal activities. It was found that most of the compounds showed higher fungicidal activities against Pyricularia oryzae, Phytophthora infestans, Erysiphe graminis, and Colletotrichum lagenarium than SYP-Z071 at the tested concentration. The biological assay results also indicated that most of the compounds exhibited higher in vivo fungicidal activities against cucumber Pseudoperonospora cubensis and C. lagenarium than the commercial fungicides trifloxystrobin and kresoxim-methyl at a concentration of 6.25 mg/L. Furthermore, it was found that alpha-(methoxyimino)- N-methylphenylacetamide oxime ethers 6m- s exhibited a broad spectrum and remarkably higher activities against all tested fungi. Especially, the 6-methylindene-substituted compound 6p was identified as the most promising candidate for further study. PMID:18547049

  13. Potassium 3-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-4-olate: Formation, molecular and electronic structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigalov, Mark; Shainyan, Bagrat; Sterkhova, Irina

    2016-11-01

    Unlike 1-indanone, 7-hydroxy-1-indanone does not enter the base-catalyzed condensation reaction with 1H-pyrrole-2-carbaldehyde but, instead, gives the salt, potassium 3-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-4-olate dihydrate. X-ray analysis, NMR, IR, UV spectroscopy, DFT and MP2 calculations allowed to prove the chelate structure of the salt and to estimate the effect of chelation on the spectral properties as well as to explain the specific reactivity.

  14. Design, Synthesis and Optoelectronic Properties of Unsymmetrical Oxadiazole Based Indene Substituted Derivatives as Deep Blue Fluoroscent Materials.

    PubMed

    Belavagi, Ningaraddi S; Deshapande, Narahari; Pujar, G H; Wari, M N; Inamdar, S R; Khazi, Imtiyaz Ahmed M

    2015-09-01

    A series of novel unsymmetrically substituted indene-oxadiazole derivatives (3a-f) have been designed and synthesized by employing palladium catalysed Suzuki cross coupling reaction in high yields. The structural integrity of all the novel compounds was established by (1)H, (13)C NMR and LC/MS analysis. These compounds are amorphous in nature and are remarkably stable to long term storage under ambient conditions. The optoelectronic properties have been studied in detail using UV-Vis absorption and Fluorescence spectroscopy. All compounds emit intense blue to green-blue fluoroscence with high quantum yields. Time resolved measurments have shown life times in the range of 1.28 to 4.51 ns. The density functional theory (DFT) calculations were carried out for all the molecules to understand their structure-property relationships. Effect of concentration studies has been carried out in different concentrations for both absorption and emission properties and from this we have identified the optimized fluoroscence concentrations for all these compounds. The indene substituted anthracene-oxadiazole derivative (3f) showed significant red shift (λmax (emi) = 490 nm) and emits intense green-blue fluoroscence with largest stokes shift of 145 nm. This compound also exhibited highest fluoroscence life time (τ) of 4.51 ns, which is very close to the standard dye coumarin-540A (4.63 ns) and better than fluorescein-548 (4.10 ns). The results demonstrated that the novel unsymmetrical indene-substituted oxadiazole derivatives could play important role in organic optoelectronic applications, such as organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) or as models for investigating the fluorescent structure-property relationship of the indene-functionalized oxadiazole derivatives.

  15. Indenes and tetralenes analogues attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation: An in-vitro and in-vivo study.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Shilpa; Gautam, Yashveer; Maurya, Anil Kumar; Negi, Arvind S; Prakash, Om; Khan, Feroz; Bawankule, Dnyaneshwar Umrao

    2016-02-01

    In an effort to evaluate novel pharmacological activity of 1-chloro-2-formyl indene and tetralene analogues possessing potential antitubercular and antistaphylococcal agents, we explored its anti-inflammatory potential against lipopolysaccharide(LPS)-induced inflammation using in-vitro and in-vivo bioassay. Synthesized analogues significantly inhibited the production and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines against LPS-induced inflammation in macrophages isolated from mice. Among all the analogues, TAF-5 (1-Chloro-2-formyl-1-tetralene) exhibited most potent anti-inflammatory activity without any cytotoxic effect. We have further evaluated the therapeutic efficacy and safety of TAF-5 in in-vivo system using LPS-induced sepsis, a systemic inflammation model and acute oral toxicity respectively in mice. Oral administration of TAF-5 inhibited the pro-inflammatory cytokines in serum, attenuated the organs injuries and improved host survival in dose dependent manner. Acute oral toxicity study showed TAF-5 is non-toxic at higher dose in mice. These results suggest the suitability of indene and tetralene analogues as new chemical entities for further investigation towards the management of inflammation related diseases.

  16. A Tin(IV) Chloride Promoted Tandem C-O Bond Cleavage/Nazarov Cyclization/Nucleophilic Addition Reaction of 1,1-Disubstituted Allylic Ethers toward the Synthesis of Multisubstituted Indenes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chao; Xu, Zheng-Liang; Shao, Hui; Mou, Xue-Qing; Wang, Jie; Wang, Shao-Hua

    2015-11-01

    A novel SnCl4-promoted tandem reaction toward multisubstituted indenes via a sequential C-O bond cleavage/Nazarov cyclization/nucleophilic addition reaction has been developed to afford a series of multisubstituted indenes with an all-carbon quaternary center in moderate to good yields. PMID:26465205

  17. The dramatic effect of the annealing temperature and dielectric functionalization on the electron mobility of indene-C60 bis-adduct thin films.

    PubMed

    Orgiu, Emanuele; Squillaci, Marco A; Rekab, Wassima; Börjesson, Karl; Liscio, Fabiola; Zhang, Lei; Samorì, Paolo

    2015-03-28

    Herein we report on the charge transport properties of spin-coated thin films of an n-type fullerene derivative, i.e. the indene-C60 bis-adduct (ICBA). In particular, the effects of annealing temperature and duration as well as surface functionalization are explored. Electron mobilities approaching 0.1 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) are reported.

  18. One-Pot Synthesis of Polysubstituted Spirofluorene-Indene via Ru(II)-Catalyzed [3 + 2] Annulation and Intramolecular Friedel-Crafts Cyclization.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yu-Qin; Dong, Lin

    2015-10-16

    Ru(II)-catalyzed one-pot synthesis of polysubstituted spirofluorene-indenes via [3 + 2] annulation and then intramolecular Friedel-Crafts alkylation has been achieved. The simple method provides a broad scope of aryl ketones and internal alkynes, achieving PAHs skeletons in moderate to good yields. PMID:26419666

  19. Inhibitory kinetics of novel 2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-one chalcone-like derivatives on mushroom tyrosinase.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, Sini; Shimmon, Ronald; Conn, Costa; Baker, Anthony

    2015-12-01

    In this study, novel 2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-one chalcone-like compounds and their hydroxyl derivatives were synthesized, and their inhibitory effects on mushroom tyrosinase activity were evaluated. Two of the compounds synthesized inhibited the diphenolase activity of tyrosinase in a dose dependent manner and exhibited much higher tyrosinase inhibitory activities (IC50 values of 12.3 μM and 8.2 μM, respectively) than the positive control, kojic acid (IC50: 27.5 μM). Kinetic analysis showed that their inhibition was reversible. Both the novel compounds displayed competitive inhibition with their Ki values of 10.3 μM and 8.7 μM, respectively. This study suggests hydroxy substituted 2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-one chalcone-like compounds to serve as promising candidates for use as depigmentation agents.

  20. Nazarov cyclization of 1,4-pentadien-3-ols: preparation of cyclopenta[b]indoles and spiro[indene-1,4'-quinoline]s.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiming; Xu, Xingzhu; Gu, Zhanshou; Feng, Wei; Qian, Houjun; Li, Zhengyi; Sun, Xiaoqiang; Kwon, Ohyun

    2016-02-14

    The first Lewis acid-catalyzed intramolecular interrupted Nazarov cyclization of 1,4-pentadien-3-ols is described. Using FeBr3 as the catalyst, a series of new substituted cyclopenta[b]indoles was prepared-through a sequence of Nazarov cyclization, nucleophilic amination, and isomerization-with good yields and high diastereo- and regioselectivities. A similar catalytic process was also developed for the synthesis of structurally interesting spiro[indene-1,4'-quinoline]s. PMID:26771024

  1. Ground and excited state infrared spectroscopy of jet-cooled radicals: exploring the photophysics of trihydronaphthyl and inden-2-ylmethyl.

    PubMed

    Kidwell, Nathanael M; Mehta-Hurt, Deepali N; Korn, Joseph A; Sibert, Edwin L; Zwier, Timothy S

    2014-06-01

    The alkyl and aromatic CH stretch infrared spectra of inden-2-ylmethyl (I2M, C10H9) and trihydronaphthyl (THN, C10H11) radicals have been recorded under jet-cooled conditions in the ground (D0) and first electronically excited (D1) states using resonant ion-dip infrared (RIDIR) spectroscopy. Previously, the vibronic spectroscopy of a series of C10H9 and C10H11 hydronaphthyl radicals were investigated and their thermochemical properties were evaluated with isomer specificity [J. A. Sebree et al., J. Phys. Chem. A 11, 6255-6262 (2010)]. We show here that one of the m/z 129 spectral carriers characterized in that work was misidentified as 2-hydronaphthyl (2-HN) radical, appearing in a discharge of 1,2-dihydronaphthalene in close proximity to 1-hydronaphthyl radical. The D0-RIDIR spectrum in the alkyl CH stretch region positively identifies the m/z 129 isomer as I2M, whose two-color resonant two-photon ionization (2C-R2PI) spectrum was recently reported by Schmidt and co-workers [T. P. Troy et al., Chem. Sci. 2, 1755-1765 (2011)]. Here, we further characterize the I2M and THN radicals by recording their gas phase IR spectra in the alkyl and aromatic CH stretch regions, and explore the spectroscopic consequences of electronic excitation on the CH stretch absorptions. A local-mode CH stretch Hamiltonian incorporating cubic stretch-bend coupling between anharmonic CH stretches and CH2 scissor modes is utilized to describe their Fermi resonance interactions. Excellent agreement between the experimental and theoretical results facilitates the interpretation of the D0- and D1-state RIDIR spectra of I2M, revealing that upon excitation the alkyl CH stretches decrease in frequency by 70 cm(-1), while the allyl-like CH stretches experience a modest blueshift. In comparison, the photophysics of THN are strikingly different in that the IR transitions that possess vibrational motion along the CβH and CδH bonds are absent in the D1-RIDIR spectrum yet are predicted to be present

  2. Ground and excited state infrared spectroscopy of jet-cooled radicals: Exploring the photophysics of trihydronaphthyl and inden-2-ylmethyl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidwell, Nathanael M.; Mehta-Hurt, Deepali N.; Korn, Joseph A.; Sibert, Edwin L.; Zwier, Timothy S.

    2014-06-01

    The alkyl and aromatic CH stretch infrared spectra of inden-2-ylmethyl (I2M, C10H9) and trihydronaphthyl (THN, C10H11) radicals have been recorded under jet-cooled conditions in the ground (D0) and first electronically excited (D1) states using resonant ion-dip infrared (RIDIR) spectroscopy. Previously, the vibronic spectroscopy of a series of C10H9 and C10H11 hydronaphthyl radicals were investigated and their thermochemical properties were evaluated with isomer specificity [J. A. Sebree et al., J. Phys. Chem. A 11, 6255-6262 (2010)]. We show here that one of the m/z 129 spectral carriers characterized in that work was misidentified as 2-hydronaphthyl (2-HN) radical, appearing in a discharge of 1,2-dihydronaphthalene in close proximity to 1-hydronaphthyl radical. The D0-RIDIR spectrum in the alkyl CH stretch region positively identifies the m/z 129 isomer as I2M, whose two-color resonant two-photon ionization (2C-R2PI) spectrum was recently reported by Schmidt and co-workers [T. P. Troy et al., Chem. Sci. 2, 1755-1765 (2011)]. Here, we further characterize the I2M and THN radicals by recording their gas phase IR spectra in the alkyl and aromatic CH stretch regions, and explore the spectroscopic consequences of electronic excitation on the CH stretch absorptions. A local-mode CH stretch Hamiltonian incorporating cubic stretch-bend coupling between anharmonic CH stretches and CH2 scissor modes is utilized to describe their Fermi resonance interactions. Excellent agreement between the experimental and theoretical results facilitates the interpretation of the D0- and D1-state RIDIR spectra of I2M, revealing that upon excitation the alkyl CH stretches decrease in frequency by 70 cm-1, while the allyl-like CH stretches experience a modest blueshift. In comparison, the photophysics of THN are strikingly different in that the IR transitions that possess vibrational motion along the CβH and CδH bonds are absent in the D1-RIDIR spectrum yet are predicted to be present from

  3. Fragrance material review on (3aalpha,4alpha,6alpha,7alpha,7aalpha)-3a,4,5,6,7,7a-hexahydro-3-methyl-5-methylene-4,7-methano-1H-inden-6-yl acetate.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, S P; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2008-12-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of (3aalpha,4alpha,6alpha,7alpha,7aalpha)-3a,4,5,6,7,7a-hexahydro-3-methyl-5-methylene-4,7-methano-1H-inden-6-yl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented.

  4. 40 CFR 721.10710 - 4, 7-Methano-1H-indene, 3a, 4, 7, 7a-tetrahydro-, polymer with 2-methyl-1, 3-butadiene and 5-(1...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 4, 7-Methano-1H-indene, 3a, 4, 7, 7a-tetrahydro-, polymer with 2-methyl-1, 3-butadiene and 5-(1-methylethenyl)bicyclo hept-2-ene. 721.10710 Section 721.10710 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES...

  5. An Efficient Synthesis of Bis-indolylindane-1,3-diones, Indan-1,3-diones, and Indene-1,3(2H)-denies Using [Hbim]BF 4 Ionic Medium.

    PubMed

    Poor Heravi, Mohammad Reza

    2013-12-16

    We prepared a brand new molecule in one step for the synthesis of bis-indolylindane-1,3-dione and indan-1,3-diones from the reaction of ninhydrin and 3 substituted/unsubstituted indoles using [Hbim]BF4 ionic liquid in excellent yields. The method was also used for the synthesis of novel indene-1,3(2H)-denies derivatives. PMID:24455297

  6. Electronic spectroscopy of transient species in solid neon: the indene-motif polycyclic hydrocarbon cation family C9Hy(+) (y = 7-9) and their neutrals.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Adam; Garkusha, Iryna; Fulara, Jan; Maier, John P

    2013-11-28

    In this Perspective the development and application of a mass-selective matrix isolation approach, employed with success over the last two decades in the spectroscopic characterization of numerous ions and neutral reactive species, is illustrated with original data for hydrocarbon cations and neutrals with a six- and a five-membered carbon ring fused. The setup allows for the electronic and vibrational assessment of these isolated molecules and ions in the inert neon environment. The transient species of interest are chosen due to their astrophysical relevance, and the role they play in flames, plasmas, combustion, organic reactions and atmospheric chemistry. Electronic absorption and fluorescence spectra of indene-related polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon derivatives, C9Hy(+) (y = 7-9) cations, are presented. The ions were produced in a discharge source and investigated by means of absorption and emission spectroscopies after selectively trapping them in 6 K neon matrices. Photoconversion between the two C9H8(+) indenylium isomers and, upon irradiation, H2 loss from C9H9(+) were observed. Corresponding neutral species C9Hy are identified by photobleaching the matrices containing the cations.

  7. Experimental and quantum chemical study on the IR, UV and electrode potential of 6-(2,3-dihydro-1,3-dioxo-2-phenyl-1 H-inden-2-yl)-2,3-dihydroxybenzaldehyde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riahi, Siavash; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Bayandori Moghaddam, Abdolmajid; Norouzi, Parviz

    2008-12-01

    Electrode potential of 6-(2,3-dihydro-1,3-dioxo-2-phenyl-1 H-inden-2-yl)-2,3-dihydroxybenzaldehyde (DPDB) in methanol have been calculated theoretically. For the achievement of this task, the density functional theory (B3LYP/6-31G(d)) was employed with the inclusion of the entropic and thermochemical corrections to yield the free energies of the redox reactions. The electrode potential was also obtained experimentally by means of an electrochemical technique (cyclic voltammetry). The geometric parameters, the vibrational frequency values and the UV spectrum of DPDB and 2-(2,3-dihydro-1,3-dioxo-2-phenyl-1 H-inden-2-yl)-5,6-dioxocyclohexa-1,3-dienecarbaldehyde (DPDD is the oxidized form of DPDB), were computed using the same methods. The calculated IR spectrum of DPDB, used for the assignment of the IR frequencies, was observed in the experimental FT-IR spectrum. The correlation between the theoretical and experimental DPDB vibrational frequencies was 0.996. This agreement mutually verified the accuracy of the experimental method and the validity of the applied mathematical model.

  8. Vibrationally resolved ¹Lb (¹A')↔S0 (¹A') electronic spectra of benzimidazole and indene: Influence of Duschinsky and Herzberg-Teller effects on weak dipole-allowed transitions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Pan; Pang, Min; Li, Ming; Shen, Wei; He, Rongxing

    2015-12-01

    Geometrical optimizations of the ground and first excited states of benzimidazole and indene were performed using the density functional theory (DFT) and its time-dependent extension methods (TD-DFT), respectively. Their vibrationally resolved (1)Lb ((1)A')↔S0 ((1)A') absorption and fluorescence spectra were simulated within the Franck-Condon approximation including the Herzberg-Teller (HT) and Duschinsky effects. Calculated results revealed that, with the HT and Duschinsky effects getting involved, the simulated weak (1)Lb ((1)A')↔S0 ((1)A') electronic spectra of the two molecules excellently reproduce the experimental findings. Based on the experimental data and other theoretical results, we tentatively assigned most of the vibrational normal modes which emerged in the experimental spectra of the two molecules. The present theoretical insights are expected to help us understand the nature of electronic transitions in the vibrationally resolved absorption and fluorescence spectra of benzimidazole and its analogues.

  9. [Academician O.G. Gazenko and aviation medicine].

    PubMed

    Ushakov, I B; Bednenko, V S; Khomenko, M N; Stepanov, V K

    2008-01-01

    The paper analyzes the contribution of O.G. Gazenko to the theory and practice of aviation medicine in the period of his service at the State Test and Research Institute of Aviation and Space Medicine under the USSR Ministry of Defense (1947-1969). O.G. Gazenko took the leadership and participated in personally in the broad investigations of the altitude effects on human organism, medical care of the staff of AF units and troops based in the Arctic, improvement of life and duty conditions for pilots and technicians in hot climate, ejection seat testing, development of methods modeling erroneous pilot's actions in order to understand their triggers. PMID:19238922

  10. Pinunuuchi Po'og'ani: Southern Ute Indian Academy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberly, Stacey Inez (Wachimamachi [Antelope Woman])

    2002-01-01

    Describes the Pinunuuchi Po'og'ani, the Southern Ute Indian Academy, providing Montessori education for Southern Ute tribal members ages 6 weeks through 10 years and reviving the use of the Southern Ute language and culture among young students and their families. Describes how the program supports families, students, and staff, and incorporates…

  11. Synthesis and biological evaluation of trans 6-methoxy-1,1-dimethyl-2-phenyl-3-aryl-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-4-yloxyalkylamine derivatives against drug susceptible, non-replicating M. tuberculosis H37Rv and clinical multidrug resistant strains.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Shailesh; Dwivedi, Atma P; Kashyap, Vivek Kr; Saxena, A K; Dwivedi, A K; Srivastava, Ranjana; Sahu, Devi P

    2013-04-15

    Synthesis of a library of novel trans 6-methoxy-1,1-dimethyl-2-phenyl-3-aryl-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-4-yloxy alkyl amines and their antimycobacterial activity against drug sensitive and multidrug resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis have been reported. All the new compounds in the series exhibited MIC between 1.56 and 6.25 μg/ml. Two compounds 1i and 1j with low MIC and low cytotoxicity showed significant reduction in CFU in infected mouse macrophages at 1× MIC concentration. The compound 1i inhibited the growth of M. tuberculosis in mice at 100mg/kg dose with 1.35 log10 reduction of CFU in lungs tissue and was active against non-replicating Mycobacterium tuberculosis under anaerobic condition.

  12. Nisin-Triggered Activity of Lys44, the Secreted Endolysin from Oenococcus oeni Phage fOg44▿

    PubMed Central

    Nascimento, João Gil; Guerreiro-Pereira, Maria Carolina; Costa, Sérgio Fernandes; São-José, Carlos; Santos, Mário Almeida

    2008-01-01

    The intrinsic resistance of Oenococcus oeni cells to the secreted endolysin from oenophage fOg44 (Lys44) was investigated. Experiments with several antimicrobials support the hypothesis that the full activity of Lys44 requires sudden ion-nonspecific dissipation of the proton motive force, an event undertaken by the fOg44 holin in the phage infection context. PMID:17981964

  13. What Engages Students in MetaL-FrOG? A Triarchy Perspective on Meta-Cognitive Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fa, Ng Sen; Hussin, Firuz Hussin

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the central ideas of a grounded theory research by the name of Triarchy Perspective on Metacognitive Learning in Free Online Groups, or "TriP on MetaL-FrOG" in short. The research setting was online learning community on the platform of Free Online Group web (FrOG) intended for post-graduate students. The research…

  14. ogs6 - a new concept for porous-fractured media simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumov, Dmitri; Bilke, Lars; Fischer, Thomas; Rink, Karsten; Wang, Wenqing; Watanabe, Norihiro; Kolditz, Olaf

    2015-04-01

    OpenGeoSys (OGS) is a scientific open-source initiative for numerical simulation of thermo-hydro-mechanical/chemical (THMC) processes in porous and fractured media, continuously developed since the mid-eighties. The basic concept is to provide a flexible numerical framework for solving coupled multi-field problems. OGS is targeting mainly on applications in environmental geoscience, e.g. in the fields of contaminant hydrology, water resources management, waste deposits, or geothermal energy systems, but it has also been successfully applied to new topics in energy storage recently. OGS is actively participating several international benchmarking initiatives, e.g. DECOVALEX (waste management), CO2BENCH (CO2 storage and sequestration), SeSBENCH (reactive transport processes) and HM-Intercomp (coupled hydrosystems). Despite the broad applicability of OGS in geo-, hydro- and energy-sciences, several shortcomings became obvious concerning the computational efficiency as well as the code structure became too sophisticated for further efficient development. OGS-5 was designed for object-oriented FEM applications. However, in many multi-field problems a certain flexibility of tailored numerical schemes is essential. Therefore, a new concept was designed to overcome existing bottlenecks. The paradigms for ogs6 are: - Flexibility of numerical schemes (FEM#FVM#FDM), - Computational efficiency (PetaScale ready), - Developer- and user-friendly. ogs6 has a module-oriented architecture based on thematic libraries (e.g. MeshLib, NumLib) on the large scale and uses object-oriented approach for the small scale interfaces. Usage of a linear algebra library (Eigen3) for the mathematical operations together with the ISO C++11 standard increases the expressiveness of the code and makes it more developer-friendly. The new C++ standard also makes the template meta-programming technique code used for compile-time optimizations more compact. We have transitioned the main code development to

  15. Activation of defense response pathways by OGs and Flg22 elicitors in Arabidopsis seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Denoux, Carine; Galletti, Roberta; Mammarella, Nicole; Gopalan, Suresh; Werck, Danièle; De Lorenzo, Giulia; Ferrari, Simone; Ausubel, Frederick M.; Dewdney, Julia

    2010-01-01

    We carried out transcriptional profiling analysis in 10 day-old Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings treated with oligogalacturonides (OGs), oligosaccharides derived from the plant cell wall, or the bacterial flagellin peptide Flg22, general elicitors of the basal defense response in plants. Although detected by different receptors, both OGs and Flg22 trigger a fast and transient response that is both similar and comprehensive, and characterized by activation of early stages of multiple defense signaling pathways, particularly JA-associated processes. However, the response to Flg22 is stronger in both the number of genes differentially expressed and the amplitude of change. The magnitude of induction of individual genes is in both cases dose dependent, but even at very high concentrations, OGs do not induce a response that is as comprehensive as that seen with Flg22. While high doses of either microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP) elicit a late response that includes activation of senescence processes, SA-dependent secretory pathway genes and PR1 expression are substantially induced only by Flg22. These results suggest a lower threshold for activation of early responses than for sustained or SA-mediated late defenses. Expression patterns of aminocyclopropane-carboxylate synthase genes also implicate ethylene biosynthesis in regulation of the late innate immune response. PMID:19825551

  16. Ectopic expression of ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme gene from wild rice, OgUBC1, confers resistance against UV-B radiation and Botrytis infection in Arabidopsis thaliana

    SciTech Connect

    Jeon, En Hee; Pak, Jung Hun; Kim, Mi Jin; Kim, Hye Jeong; Shin, Sang Hyun; Lee, Jai Heon; Kim, Doh Hoon; Oh, Ju Sung; Oh, Boung-Jun; Jung, Ho Won; Chung, Young Soo

    2012-10-19

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We isolated a novel E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme from leaves of wild rice plants. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The OgUBC1 was highly expressed in leaves treated with SA and UV-B radiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The recombinant OgUBC1 has an enzymatic activity of E2 in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The OgUBC1 could protect disruption of plant cells by UV-B radiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer OgUBC1 confers disease resistance and UV-B tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. -- Abstract: A previously unidentified gene encoding ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme was isolated from leaves of wild rice plant treated with wounding and microbe-associated molecular patterns. The OgUBC1 gene was composed of 148 amino acids and contained a typical active site and 21 ubiquitin thioester intermediate interaction residues and 4 E3 interaction residues. Both exogenous application of salicylic acid and UV-B irradiation triggered expression of OgUBC1 in leaves of wild rice. Recombinant OgUBC1 proteins bound to ubiquitins in vitro, proposing that the protein might act as E2 enzyme in planta. Heterologous expression of the OgUBC1 in Arabidopsis thaliana protected plants from cellular damage caused by an excess of UV-B radiation. A stable expression of chalcone synthase gene was detected in leaves of OgUBC1-expressing Arabidopsis, resulting in producing higher amounts of anthocyanin than those in wild-type Col-0 plants. Additionally, both pathogenesis-related gene1 and 5 were transcribed in the transgenic Arabidopsis in the absence of pathogen infection. The OgUBC1-expressing plants were resistant to the infection of Botrytis cinerea. Taken together, we suggested that the OgUBC1 is involved in ubiquitination process important for cellular response against biotic and abiotic stresses in plants.

  17. Comparative assessment of an Og4C3 ELISA and an ICT filariasis test: a study of Myanmar migrants in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Nuchprayoon, Surang; Porksakorn, Chantima; Junpee, Alisa; Sanprasert, Vivornpun; Poovorawan, Yong

    2003-12-01

    Detection of circulating filarial antigen has now emerged as an alternative method for the diagnosis of bancroftian filariasis. We compared two antigen detection assays, an Og4C3 ELISA and an ICT (immunochromatography) Filariasis test, for the diagnosis of Wuchereria bancrofti infections in migrant Myanmar workers in Tak province, Western Thailand. A total of 337 Myanmars participated in this study. The microfilarial rate was 3.3%. The Og4C3 ELISA could detect 19.1% of bancroftian filariasis while the ICT test detected 12.7%. Both antigen assays could detect all microfilaremics. The Og4C3 ELISA detected 14.8% of amicrofilaremics while the ICT test identified 8.1%. Those who were positive for the ICT test were also positive by the Og4C3 ELISA. Those Og4C3 positive cases, that were ICT negative (ICT-ve/Og4C3+ve) had statistically significant (p < 0.05, unpaired t-test) lower Og4C3 antigen levels (409.5 units, range 117-2,389) than those that were ICT positive (ICT+ve/Og4C3+ve) (5,252.0 units, range 130-28,062). Our results emphasize the problem of bancroftian filariasis in Myanmar migrants working in Thailand. Close monitoring and control of this disease in Myanmar migrants are of public health importance. Antigen detection systems are promising tools for the surveillance of bancroftian filariasis. PMID:15198343

  18. Spectroscopic studies (FTIR, FT-Raman and UV-Visible), normal coordinate analysis, NBO analysis, first order hyper polarizability, HOMO and LUMO analysis of (1R)-N-(Prop-2-yn-1-yl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-amine molecule by ab initio HF and density functional methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthu, S.; Ramachandran, G.

    2014-03-01

    The Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and FT-Raman of (1R)-N-(Prop-2-yn-1-yl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-amine (1RNPDA) were recorded in the regions 4000-400 cm-1 and 4000-100 cm-1 respectively. A complete assignment and analysis of the fundamental vibrational modes of the molecule were carried out. The observed fundamental modes have been compared with the harmonic vibrational frequencies computed using HF method by employing 6-31G(d,p) basis set and DFT(B3LYP) method by employing 6-31G(d,p) basis set. The vibrational studies were interpreted in terms of Potential Energy Distribution (PED). The complete vibrational frequency assignments were made by Normal Co-ordinate Analysis (NCA) following the scaled quantum mechanical force field methodology (SQMFF). The first order hyper polarizability (β0) of this molecular system and related properties (α, μ, and Δα) are calculated using B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) method based on the finite-field approach. The thermodynamic functions of the title compound were also performed at the above methods and basis set. A detailed interpretation of the infrared and Raman spectra of 1RNPDA is reported. The 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts of the molecule were calculated using the GIAO method confirms with the experimental values. Stability of the molecule arising from hyper-conjugative interactions and charge delocalization has been analyzed using Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analysis. UV-vis spectrum of the compound was recorded and electronic properties such as excitation energies, oscillator strength and wavelength were performed by TD-DFT/B3LYP using 6-31G(d,p) basis set. The HOMO and LUMO energy gap reveals that the energy gap reflects the chemical activity of the molecule. The observed and calculated wave numbers are formed to be in good agreement. The experimental spectra also coincide satisfactorily with those of theoretically constructed spectra.

  19. 21 CFR 172.215 - Coumarone-indene resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... grapefruit, lemons, limes, oranges, tangelos, and tangerines in accordance with the following prescribed..., lemons, limes, oranges, tangelos, and tangerines whereby the maximum amount of the resin remaining on...

  20. Screening Analogs of β-OG Pocket Binder as Fusion Inhibitor of Dengue Virus 2

    PubMed Central

    Tambunan, Usman SF; Zahroh, Hilyatuz; Parikesit, Arli A; Idrus, Syarifuddin; Kerami, Djati

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is an infectious disease caused by dengue virus (DENV) and transmitted between human hosts by mosquitoes. Recently, Indonesia was listed as a country with the highest cases of dengue by the Association of Southeast Asian Nations. The current treatment for dengue disease is supportive therapy; there is no antiviral drug available in the market against dengue. Therefore, a research on antiviral drug against dengue is very important, especially to prevent outbreak explosion. In this research, the development of dengue antiviral is performed through the inhibition of n-octyl-β-D-glucoside (β-OG) binding pocket on envelope protein of DENV by using analogs of β-OG pocket binder. There are 828 compounds used in this study, and all of them were screened based on the analysis of molecular docking, pharmacological character prediction of the compounds, and molecular dynamics simulation. The result of these analyses revealed that the compound that can be used as an antiviral candidate against DENV is 5-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-N-[2-(p-tolyl) benzotriazol-5-yl]furan-2-carboxamide. PMID:26617459

  1. Students' Decision Steps in Meta-Cognitive Learning in Free Online Groups (MetaL-FrOG): A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sen Fa, Kinsley Ng; Hussin, Firuz Hussin

    2011-01-01

    What prompts the students to respond in online dialogic discussion? Why some students chose to fall out? This case study through the lens of phenomenography observation attempts to explain the five decision steps of students to respond in Meta-cognitive Learning in Free Online Groups (MetaL-FrOG) discussion. It presents a part of a research…

  2. Reactive transport modeling in variably saturated porous media with OGS-IPhreeqc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, W.; Beyer, C.; Fleckenstein, J. H.; Jang, E.; Kalbacher, T.; Shao, H.; Wang, W.; Kolditz, O.

    2014-12-01

    Worldwide, sustainable water resource management becomes an increasingly challenging task due to the growth of population and extensive applications of fertilizer in agriculture. Moreover, climate change causes further stresses to both water quantity and quality. Reactive transport modeling in the coupled soil-aquifer system is a viable approach to assess the impacts of different land use and groundwater exploitation scenarios on the water resources. However, the application of this approach is usually limited in spatial scale and to simplified geochemical systems due to the huge computational expense involved. Such computational expense is not only caused by solving the high non-linearity of the initial boundary value problems of water flow in the unsaturated zone numerically with rather fine spatial and temporal discretization for the correct mass balance and numerical stability, but also by the intensive computational task of quantifying geochemical reactions. In the present study, a flexible and efficient tool for large scale reactive transport modeling in variably saturated porous media and its applications are presented. The open source scientific software OpenGeoSys (OGS) is coupled with the IPhreeqc module of the geochemical solver PHREEQC. The new coupling approach makes full use of advantages from both codes: OGS provides a flexible choice of different numerical approaches for simulation of water flow in the vadose zone such as the pressure-based or mixed forms of Richards equation; whereas the IPhreeqc module leads to a simplification of data storage and its communication with OGS, which greatly facilitates the coupling and code updating. Moreover, a parallelization scheme with MPI (Message Passing Interface) is applied, in which the computational task of water flow and mass transport is partitioned through domain decomposition, whereas the efficient parallelization of geochemical reactions is achieved by smart allocation of computational workload over

  3. Reactive transport modeling in the subsurface environment with OGS-IPhreeqc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Wenkui; Beyer, Christof; Fleckenstein, Jan; Jang, Eunseon; Kalbacher, Thomas; Naumov, Dimitri; Shao, Haibing; Wang, Wenqing; Kolditz, Olaf

    2015-04-01

    Worldwide, sustainable water resource management becomes an increasingly challenging task due to the growth of population and extensive applications of fertilizer in agriculture. Moreover, climate change causes further stresses to both water quantity and quality. Reactive transport modeling in the coupled soil-aquifer system is a viable approach to assess the impacts of different land use and groundwater exploitation scenarios on the water resources. However, the application of this approach is usually limited in spatial scale and to simplified geochemical systems due to the huge computational expense involved. Such computational expense is not only caused by solving the high non-linearity of the initial boundary value problems of water flow in the unsaturated zone numerically with rather fine spatial and temporal discretization for the correct mass balance and numerical stability, but also by the intensive computational task of quantifying geochemical reactions. In the present study, a flexible and efficient tool for large scale reactive transport modeling in variably saturated porous media and its applications are presented. The open source scientific software OpenGeoSys (OGS) is coupled with the IPhreeqc module of the geochemical solver PHREEQC. The new coupling approach makes full use of advantages from both codes: OGS provides a flexible choice of different numerical approaches for simulation of water flow in the vadose zone such as the pressure-based or mixed forms of Richards equation; whereas the IPhreeqc module leads to a simplification of data storage and its communication with OGS, which greatly facilitates the coupling and code updating. Moreover, a parallelization scheme with MPI (Message Passing Interface) is applied, in which the computational task of water flow and mass transport is partitioned through domain decomposition, whereas the efficient parallelization of geochemical reactions is achieved by smart allocation of computational workload over

  4. A Cluster of Genes Involved in Polysaccharide Biosynthesis from Enterococcus faecalis OG1RF

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yi; Murray, Barbara E.; Weinstock, George M.

    1998-01-01

    Our previous work identified a cosmid clone containing a 43-kb insert from Enterococcus faecalis OG1RF that produced a nonprotein antigen in Escherichia coli. In the present work, we studied this clone in detail. Periodate treatment of lysates of the clone confirmed that the antigen was carbohydrate in nature. Analysis of DNA sequences and transposon insertion mutants suggested that the insert contained a multicistronic gene cluster. Database comparison showed that the cluster contained genes similar to genes involved in the biosynthesis of dTDP-rhamnose, glycosyltransferases, and ABC transporters involved in the export of sugar polymers from both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. Insertions in several genes within the cluster abolished the immunoreactivity of the clone. This is the first report on a gene cluster of E. faecalis involved in the biosynthesis of an antigenic polysaccharide. PMID:9712783

  5. PET2OGS: Algorithms to link the static model of Petrel with the dynamic model of OpenGeoSys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, C.-H.; Shinn, Y. J.; Park, Y.-C.; Huh, D.-G.; Lee, S. K.

    2014-01-01

    A set of three algorithms named PET2OGS is developed to integrate the static model (Petrel) with the dynamic model (OpenGeoSys). PET2OGS consists of three sub-algorithms that convert finite difference methods (FDMs) grids to finite element methods (FEMs) grids. The algorithms and the workflow of the integration procedures are described in detail. After the proposed algorithms are tested on a variety of grids both in homogeneous and heterogeneous media, the integrated platform of the static and dynamic models is applied to model CO2 storage in a saline aquifer. A successful demonstration of the proposed algorithms proved a robust integration of the platform. With some minor modifications of the algorithms in the part of input and output, the proposed algorithms can be extended to integrate different combinations of FDM-based static models and FEM-based dynamic models beyond the example combination in the paper.

  6. Development of cereal-based functional food using cereal-mix substrate fermented with probiotic strain - Pichia kudriavzevii OG32.

    PubMed

    Ogunremi, Omotade R; Agrawal, Renu; Sanni, Abiodun I

    2015-11-01

    Probiotic strains contribute to the functionality of foods during fermentation. In this present work, cereal-mix was fermented with probiotic Pichia kudriavzevii OG32. Selected fermentation parameters and functional properties of the product were determined. The growth of Pichia kudriavzevii OG32 was supported by the cereal-mix containing 1% salt and 0.2% red chili powder to counts of between 7.46 and 8.22 Log10 cfu/mL within 24 h. Pichia kudriavzevii OG32 increased the viscosity of cereal-mix with the highest inoculum size (1.84x105cfu/ml) giving the highest viscosity of 1793.6 mPa.S. An inoculum size of 1.98 × 10(4) cfu/mL gave the most acceptable product based on the sensory evaluation by the panelist. Forty volatile compounds were identified in the fermented product, while acids (32.21%) and esters (32.37%) accounted for the largest proportions. The cereal-based fermented product scavenged DPPH from 200 μmol/L methanolic solution by 55.71%. Probiotic yeast improved the sensory and some functional properties of cereal-based substrate during fermentation. This is one of the first reports on the volatile composition of cereal-based functional food produced with probiotic yeast. PMID:26788290

  7. Physical Characteristics of Asteroid-like Comet Nucleus C/2001 OG108 (LONEOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, P. A.; Fernandez, Y. R.; Pravec, P.; French, L. M.; Farnham, T. L.; Gaffey, M. J.; Hardersen, P. S.; Kusnirak, P.; Sarounova, L.; Sheppard, S. S.

    2003-01-01

    For many years several investigators have suggested that some portion of the near-Earth asteroid population may actually be extinct cometary nuclei. Evidence used to support these hypotheses was based on: observations of asteroid orbits and associated meteor showers (e.g. 3200 Phaethon and the Geminid meteor shower); low activity of short period comet nuclei, which implied nonvolatile surface crusts (e.g. Neujmin 1, Arend-Rigaux); and detections of transient cometary activity in some near-Earth asteroids (e.g. 4015 Wilson-Harrington). Recent investigations have suggested that approximately 5-10% of the near- Earth asteroid population may be extinct comets. However if members of the near-Earth asteroid population are extinct cometary nuclei, then there should be some objects within this population that are near their final stages of evolution and so should demonstrate only low levels of activity. The recent detections of coma from near-Earth object 2001 OG108 have renewed interest in this possible comet-asteroid connection. This paper presents the first high quality ground-based near-infrared reflectance spectrum of a comet nucleus combined with detailed lightcurve and albedo measurements.

  8. Magnesium, Potassium and Phosphorus in Available Forms in Luvisols in the Vicinity of Głogów Copper Smelter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaworska, H.; Dąbkowska-Naskręt, H.; Różański, S.

    2016-02-01

    Region near Głogów is characterized as industrial—agricultural area, intensively used. Presented study was undertaken to estimate the impact of agricultural land use and the vicinity of Głogów copper smelter on the contents of available forms of magnesium, phosphorus and potassium in selected profiles of Luvisols. The following analysis were performed: soil particle-size distribution, pH, organic carbon contents, CaCO3 contents. The contents of available forms of phosphorus and potassium were determined by Egner- Riehm method and that of magnesium using Schachtschabel's method. The results of the study showed that the contents of available P is medium (III class of abundance), very low in K (V class) and for available Mg very low (V class) to medium for surface horizons and very high (I class of abundance) in other soil horizons. The soils, in spite of the elevated copper content in humus horizons, according to IUNG, were classified as uncontaminated soils, therefore, can be used in plant production for all types of crops.

  9. DC-8-based observations of aircraft CO, CH4, N2O, and H2O(g) emission indices during SUCCESS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vay, S. A.; Anderson, B. E.; Sachse, G. W.; Collins, J. E., Jr.; Podolske, J. R.; Twohy, C. H.; Gandrud, B.; Chan, K. R.; Baughcum, S. L.; Wallio, H. A.

    We report the first measurements of CO, CH4, N2O, CO2, and H2O(g) in the exhaust trails of T-39, B-757, and DC-8 aircraft at cruise conditions. Emission indices (EI) derived from these in-situ measurements are presented. Results are in agreement with ground-based tests indicating aircraft act as a net sink for CH4 and recent airborne in-situ measurements that N2O is not an important exhaust constituent. Condensation of H2O(g) on exhaust particles resulted in EI(H2O(g)) values less than those expected from the combustion of fuel alone. Observed apparent negative EI(H2O(g)) values suggest that aircraft aerosol emissions, under unique atmospheric conditions, seed cloud formation and lead to dehydration of the exhaust-influenced air parcel. Such conditions may induce the formation of cirrus clouds from persistent contrails. Comparisons with the Boeing EMIT Code show measurement-derived CO emission index values consistent with model evaluations.

  10. Chemical Soil Degradation n the Area of the Głogów Copper Smelter Protective Forest/ Degradacja Ziemi Na Terenach Byłej Strefy Ochronnej Huty Miedzi Głogów

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostecki, Jakub; Greinert, Andrzej; Drab, Michał; Wasylewicz, Róża; Walczak, Barbara

    2015-06-01

    Earth surface is under the continous influence of the environmental factors - both natural and anthropogenic. The significant impact on the environment can be noted in areas adjacent to the metal industry plants, in a consequence of pollutants emission, especially dusts containing the heavy metals, into the atmosphere,. In the surroundings of Głogów Copper Smelter (GCS) elevated amounts of copper and lead has been noted. In the soils of the test sites were found up to 5250 mg kg-1 Cu and 1290 mg kg-1 Pb. The forest litter contained 3.3-5.1 more Cu and 3.9-8.6 Pb than the humic horizon of the soil. Analyse of the different soils covering the GCS protective forest area let specify the stabilising role of particle size distribution, TOC content and the soil reaction to Cu and Pb migration in the environment. Powierzchnia ziemi jest nieustannnie narażona na oddziaływania o charakterze naturalnym i antropogenicznym. Znaczące oddziaływanie jest łatwo zauważalne na terenach przemysłowych. Szczególnie na obszarach objętych wydobyciem i przeróbką metali. Na terenach przyległych do Huty Miedzi Głogów stwierdzono wysoką koncentrację miedzi i ołowiu sięgającą 5250 mg kg-1 Cu i 1290 mg kg-1 Pb. Poziom ściółki leśnej zawierał 3,3-5,1 raza więcej Cu i 3,9-8,6 Pb niż poziom próchniczny analizowanych gleb. Analiza różnych gleb pokrywających las ochronny HMG pozwoliła wskazać na znaczącą rolę składu granulometrycznego, zawartości węgla organicznego oraz odczynu na stabilizację migracji Cu i Pb w środowisku.

  11. Evidence for regulation of columnar habit in apple by a putative 2OG-Fe(II) oxygenase.

    PubMed

    Wolters, Pieter J; Schouten, Henk J; Velasco, Riccardo; Si-Ammour, Azeddine; Baldi, Paolo

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the genetic mechanisms controlling columnar-type growth in the apple mutant 'Wijcik' will provide insights on how tree architecture and growth are regulated in fruit trees. In apple, columnar-type growth is controlled by a single major gene at the Columnar (Co) locus. By comparing the genomic sequence of the Co region of 'Wijcik' with its wild-type 'McIntosh', a novel non-coding DNA element of 1956 bp specific to Pyreae was found to be inserted in an intergenic region of 'Wijcik'. Expression analysis of selected genes located in the vicinity of the insertion revealed the upregulation of the MdCo31 gene encoding a putative 2OG-Fe(II) oxygenase in axillary buds of 'Wijcik'. Constitutive expression of MdCo31 in Arabidopsis thaliana resulted in compact plants with shortened floral internodes, a phenotype reminiscent of the one observed in columnar apple trees. We conclude that MdCo31 is a strong candidate gene for the control of columnar growth in 'Wijcik'.

  12. Application of PET2OGS to CO2 storage in a saline aquifer of the CO2CRC Otway project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Chan-Hee; Shinn, Young Jae

    2014-05-01

    PET2OGS, a set of algorithms that integrate the static model (Petrel) with the dynamic model (OpenGeoSys), is applied to model CO2 storage in a saline aquifer. The Otway Basin is the first demonstration site of the deep geological storage of carbon dioxide as part of carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology in Australia. During Stage 2 of the CO2CRC Otway project, CO2 was injected into a saline aquifer along the injection interval of 1435 - 1450 m in a well. Upon conversion and adaption of the geological model into the dynamic model, the simulation of CO2 injection at 159 tone/day for 5 months is carried out for a hypothetical scenario. CO2 storage in each facies are analyzed for storage capacities. The discrete nature of CO2 plume behaviors known in multiphase flow in heterogeneous media is observed in the numerical simulation of CO2 storage. Sensitivity analysis of the storage capacity with respect to facies, porosity, and permeability is provided.

  13. SU-D-9A-01: Listmode-Driven Optimal Gating (OG) Respiratory Motion Management: Potential Impact On Quantitative PET Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K; Hristov, D

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the potential impact of listmode-driven amplitude based optimal gating (OG) respiratory motion management technique on quantitative PET imaging. Methods: During the PET acquisitions, an optical camera tracked and recorded the motion of a tool placed on top of patients' torso. PET event data were utilized to detect and derive a motion signal that is directly coupled with a specific internal organ. A radioactivity-trace was generated from listmode data by accumulating all prompt counts in temporal bins matching the sampling rate of the external tracking device. Decay correction for 18F was performed. The image reconstructions using OG respiratory motion management technique that uses 35% of total radioactivity counts within limited motion amplitudes were performed with external motion and radioactivity traces separately with ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) with 2 iterations and 21 subsets. Standard uptake values (SUVs) in a tumor region were calculated to measure the effect of using radioactivity trace for motion compensation. Motion-blurred 3D static PET image was also reconstructed with all counts and the SUVs derived from OG images were compared with SUVs from 3D images. Results: A 5.7 % increase of the maximum SUV in the lesion was found for optimal gating image reconstruction with radioactivity trace when compared to a static 3D image. The mean and maximum SUVs on the image that was reconstructed with radioactivity trace were found comparable (0.4 % and 4.5 % increase, respectively) to the values derived from the image that was reconstructed with external trace. Conclusion: The image reconstructed using radioactivity trace showed that the blurring due to the motion was reduced with impact on derived SUVs. The resolution and contrast of the images reconstructed with radioactivity trace were comparable to the resolution and contrast of the images reconstructed with external respiratory traces. Research supported by Siemens.

  14. OGS#PETSc approach for robust and efficient simulations of strongly coupled hydrothermal processes in EGS reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Norihiro; Blucher, Guido; Cacace, Mauro; Kolditz, Olaf

    2016-04-01

    A robust and computationally efficient solution is important for 3D modelling of EGS reservoirs. This is particularly the case when the reservoir model includes hydraulic conduits such as induced or natural fractures, fault zones, and wellbore open-hole sections. The existence of such hydraulic conduits results in heterogeneous flow fields and in a strengthened coupling between fluid flow and heat transport processes via temperature dependent fluid properties (e.g. density and viscosity). A commonly employed partitioned solution (or operator-splitting solution) may not robustly work for such strongly coupled problems its applicability being limited by small time step sizes (e.g. 5-10 days) whereas the processes have to be simulated for 10-100 years. To overcome this limitation, an alternative approach is desired which can guarantee a robust solution of the coupled problem with minor constraints on time step sizes. In this work, we present a Newton-Raphson based monolithic coupling approach implemented in the OpenGeoSys simulator (OGS) combined with the Portable, Extensible Toolkit for Scientific Computation (PETSc) library. The PETSc library is used for both linear and nonlinear solvers as well as MPI-based parallel computations. The suggested method has been tested by application to the 3D reservoir site of Groß Schönebeck, in northern Germany. Results show that the exact Newton-Raphson approach can also be limited to small time step sizes (e.g. one day) due to slight oscillations in the temperature field. The usage of a line search technique and modification of the Jacobian matrix were necessary to achieve robust convergence of the nonlinear solution. For the studied example, the proposed monolithic approach worked even with a very large time step size of 3.5 years.

  15. Metabolism of naphthalene, 1-naphthol, indene, and indole by Rhodococcus sp. strain NCIMB 12038

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, C.C.R.; Boyd, D.R.; Larkin, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    Naphthalene and its 1-hydroxy derivative, 1-naphthol, are examples of common bicyclic aromatics often released into the environment. Bacteria which degrade these compounds under aerobic conditions are widely distributed; however, the metabolism of naphthalene in gram-positive nocardioform bacteria has not been well investigated. This study described the independent regulation of 1-naphthol and naphthalene metabolism in Rhodococcus strain 12038. 45 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Searching iron sensors in plants by exploring the link among 2′-OG-dependent dioxygenases, the iron deficiency response and metabolic adjustments occurring under iron deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Vigani, Gianpiero; Morandini, Piero; Murgia, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge accumulated on the regulation of iron (Fe) homeostasis, its intracellular trafficking and transport across various cellular compartments and organs in plants; storage proteins, transporters and transcription factors involved in Fe metabolism have been analyzed in detail in recent years. However, the key sensor(s) of cellular plant “Fe status” triggering the long-distance shoot–root signaling and leading to the root Fe deficiency responses is (are) still unknown. Local Fe sensing is also a major task for roots, for adjusting the internal Fe requirements to external Fe availability: how such sensing is achieved and how it leads to metabolic adjustments in case of nutrient shortage, is mostly unknown. Two proteins belonging to the 2′-OG-dependent dioxygenases family accumulate several folds in Fe-deficient Arabidopsis roots. Such proteins require Fe(II) as enzymatic cofactor; one of their subgroups, the HIF-P4H (hypoxia-inducible factor-prolyl 4-hydroxylase), is an effective oxygen sensor in animal cells. We envisage here the possibility that some members of the 2′-OG dioxygenase family may be involved in the Fe deficiency response and in the metabolic adjustments to Fe deficiency or even in sensing Fe, in plant cells. PMID:23755060

  17. Cholera in Pregnancy: Outcomes from a Specialized Cholera Treatment Unit for Pregnant Women in Léogâne, Haiti

    PubMed Central

    Ciglenecki, Iza; Bichet, Mathieu; Tena, Javier; Mondesir, Erneau; Bastard, Mathieu; Tran, Nguyen-Toan; Antierens, Annick; Staderini, Nelly

    2013-01-01

    Background The association between cholera in pregnancy and negative fetal outcome has been described since the 19th century. However, there is limited published literature on the subject. We describe pregnancy outcomes from a specialized multidisciplinary hospital unit at the onset of a large cholera outbreak in Haiti in 2010 and 2011. Methods Pregnant women with cholera were hospitalized in a specialized unit within the MSF hospital compound in Léogâne and treated using standard cholera treatment guidelines but with earlier, more intense fluid replacement. All women had intravenous access established at admission regardless of their hydration status, and all received antibiotic treatment. Data were collected on patient demographics, pregnancy and cholera status, and pregnancy outcome. In this analysis we calculated risk ratios for fetal death and performed logistic regression analysis to control for confounding factors. Results 263 pregnant women with cholera were hospitalized between December 2010 and July 2011. None died during hospitalization, 226 (86%) were discharged with a preserved pregnancy and 16 (6%) had live fullterm singleton births, of whom 2 died within the first 5 days postpartum. The remaining 21 pregnancies (8%) resulted in intrauterine fetal death. The risk of fetal death was associated with factors reflecting severity of the cholera episode: after adjusting for confounding factors, the strongest risk factor for fetal death was severe maternal dehydration (adjusted risk ratio for severe vs. mild dehydration was 9.4, 95% CI 2.5–35.3, p = 0.005), followed by severe vomiting (adjusted risk ratio 5.1, 95% 1.1–23.8, p = 0.041). Conclusion This is the largest cohort of pregnant women with cholera described to date. The main risk factor identified for fetal death was severity of dehydration. Our experience suggests that establishing specialized multidisciplinary units which facilitate close follow-up of both pregnancy and dehydration

  18. Changes in Antibody Levels during and following an Episode of Acute Adenolymphangitis (ADL) among Lymphedema Patients in Léogâne, Haiti

    PubMed Central

    Mues, Katherine E.; Lammie, Patrick J.; Klein, Mitchel; Kleinbaum, David G.; Addiss, David; Fox, LeAnne M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Episodes of acute adenolymphangitis (ADL) are often the first clinical sign of lymphatic filariasis (LF). They are often accompanied by swelling of the affected limb, inflammation, fever, and general malaise and lead to the progression of lymphedema. Although ADL episodes have been studied for a century or more, questions still remain as to their etiology. We quantified antibody levels to pathogens that potentially contribute to ADL episodes during and after an episode among lymphedema patients in Léogâne, Haiti. We estimated the proportion of ADL episodes hypothesized to be attributed to specific pathogens. Methods We measured antibody levels to specific pathogens during and following an ADL episode among 41 lymphedema patients enrolled in a cohort study in Léogâne, Haiti. We calculated the absolute and relative changes in antibody levels between the ADL and convalescent time points. We calculated the proportion of episodes that demonstrated a two-fold increase in antibody level for several bacterial, fungal, and filarial pathogens. Results Our results showed the greatest proportion of two-fold changes in antibody levels for the carbohydrate antigen Streptococcus group A, followed by IgG2 responses to a soluble filarial antigen (BpG2), Streptococcal Pyrogenic Exotoxin B, and an antigen for the fungal pathogen Candida. When comparing the median antibody level during the ADL episode to the median antibody level at the convalescent time point, only the antigens for Pseudomonas species (P-value = 0.0351) and Streptolysin O (P-value = 0.0074) showed a significant result. Conclusion Although our results are limited by the lack of a control group and few antibody responses, they provide some evidence for infection with Streptococcus A as a potential contributing factor to ADL episodes. Our results add to the current evidence and illustrate the importance of determining the causal role of bacterial and fungal pathogens and immunological antifilarial

  19. L'Anti-Atlas occidental du Maroc: étude sédimentologique et reconstitutions paléogéographiques au Cambrien inférieur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benssaou, M.; Hamoumi, N.

    2001-04-01

    L'étude lithostratigraphique en sédimentologique des formations du Cambrien inférieur de l'Anti-Atlas occidental (Maroc) a permis de mettre en évidence la diversité extrême des faciès allant des faciès continentaux jusqu'au faciès franchement marins. La répartition verticale de ces faciès ainsi que leurs associations ont permis de (i) proposer un nouveau découpage de la succession en formations lithostratigraphiques, (ii) reconstituer les milieux de dépôt (système fluviatile, lacs, fan-deltas, milieu littoral, plate-forme dominée par des constructions stromatolitiques et récifales et plate-forme dominée par les tempêtes) et (iii) établir des modèles paléogéographiques retraçant les différentes étapes d'évolution de ce bassin qui fait partie de la plate-forme nord-gondwanienne au Cambrien inférieur. Lithostratigraphical and sedimentological studies of the Early Cambrian formations in the western Anti-Atlas (Morocco) evidence their large diversity of facies ranging from continental to clearly marine. Vertical distribution and associations of facies afford opportunities to (i) suggest a new classification of the sedimentary sequence in terms of lithostratigraphic formations, (ii) restore the depositional environments (fluvial system, lake, delta fan, coast, stromatolite and reef-dominated platform, tempest-dominated platform), and (iii) establish palæogeographic models displaying the different evolutionary stages of this basin that constituted a part of the Lower Cambrian north-Gondwanian platform.

  20. Rh(III)-catalyzed dehydrogenative alkylation of (hetero)arenes with allylic alcohols, allowing aldol condensation to indenes.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zhuangzhi; Boultadakis-Arapinis, Mélissa; Glorius, Frank

    2013-07-25

    Efficient Rh(III)-catalyzed C-H activation of different classes of (hetero)arenes such as 2-phenylpyridine, indoles, aryl ketones and acetanilide and their dehydrogenative cross-coupling with allylic alcohols are described. Several important skeletons such as β-aryl aldehydes and ketones, 2-acetylindenes, 3,4-dihydro-1H-quinolin-2-one and quinoline could be produced using this protocol. PMID:23765402

  1. Complex rupture source of the 12 January 2010 Léogâne, Haiti earthquake derived from geologic, geodetic, and seismologic observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, R. W.; Hayes, G. P.; Sladen, A.; Fielding, E. J.; Prentice, C. S.; Hudnut, K. W.; Mann, P.; Taylor, F. W.; Crone, A. J.; Gold, R. D.; Ito, T.; Simons, M.; Jean, P.

    2010-12-01

    The Mw 7.0, 12 January 2010 Léogâne, Haiti earthquake initially appeared to be a straightforward accommodation of oblique relative motion between the Caribbean and North America plates along the previously recognized Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault zone (EPGF). Our combined geologic field observations, space geodetic measurements, and seismologic data show that the rupture process of this event involved slip on multiple faults and that slip along the EPGF was minimal or absent. Instead, primary surface deformation resulted from rupture on previously unrecognized blind thrust faults with only minor, deep lateral slip along or near the main EPGF. We quantified uplift along the coast north of the EPGF using vertically displaced coral microatolls. SAR interferograms demonstrate that the observed coastal deformation reflects a broader pattern of uplift and subsidence. Seismologic observations (including body-wave first motions, high non-double couple components of moment tensor inversions, the aftershock distribution and their associated moment tensors) imply that the rupture involved multiple faults. A joint inversion of all data sets yields a preferred model of slip on three faults to explain the principal observations. Moment-release calculations show that this event only partially relieved centuries of accumulated left-lateral strain on a small part of the plate-boundary system. The lack of surface deformation along the EPGF--which shows clear field evidence for Holocene, and probably historic surface rupture--and the predominance of shallow off-fault thrusting implies that considerable shallow shear strain remains to be released in future surface-rupturing earthquakes on the EPGF, including the section adjacent to Port-au-Prince. Because the geologic signature of this earthquake involves broad warping and coastal deformation rather than surface rupture along the main fault zone, the event will not leave a distinct geologic signal that will be easily recognized

  2. The N-Terminal Region of the Oenococcus oeni Bacteriophage fOg44 Lysin Behaves as a Bona Fide Signal Peptide in Escherichia coli and as a cis-Inhibitory Element, Preventing Lytic Activity on Oenococcal Cells

    PubMed Central

    São-José, Carlos; Parreira, Ricardo; Vieira, Graça; Santos, Mário A.

    2000-01-01

    The function of the N-terminal region of the Oenococcus oeni phage fOg44 lysin (Lys44) as an export signal was investigated. We observed that when induced in Escherichia coli, Lys44 was cleaved between residues 27 and 28 in a SecA-dependent manner. Lys44 processing could be blocked by a specific signal peptidase inhibitor and was severely reduced by modification of the cleavage site. The lethal effect of Lys44 expression observed in E. coli was ascribed to the presence of its N-terminal 27-residue sequence, as its deletion resulted in the production of a nontoxic, albeit active, product. We have further established that lytic activity in oenococcal cells was dependent on Lys44 processing. An active protein with the molecular mass expected for the cleaved enzyme was detected in extracts from O. oeni-infected cells. The temporal pattern of its appearance suggests that synthesis and export of Lys44 in the infected host progress along with phage maturation. Overall, these results provide, for the first time, experimental evidence for the presence of a signal peptide in a bacteriophage lysin. Database searches and alignment of protein sequences support the prediction that other known O. oeni and Lactococcus lactis phages also encode secretory lysins. The evolutionary significance of a putative phage lysis mechanism relying on secretory lytic enzymes is tentatively discussed, on the basis of host cell wall structure and autolytic capacity. PMID:11004183

  3. Structure-Toxicity Relations of Some Substituted 2-BENZOYL-1H-INDENE-1,3(2H)-DIONE Rodenticides.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opong-Mensah, Kofi

    Chemical control of rodents depends primarily on the use of poisoned baits. The need for more potent rodenticides arises out of the evolution of resistant strains in rodent populations. One novel and 5 known benzoylindandiones were synthesized by condensation of methyl aryl ketones with dimethyl phthalate. Novel TLC, HPLC, and GC methods were developed to assay the acylindandiones after characterization by MS, IR and FT-NMR spectroscopy. The n-octanol/water partition coefficient (log P), acid dissociation constants (pKa) and mouse LD(,50)s were determined experimentally. Quantum mechanical molecular descriptors, such as HOMO-LUMO energies, were generated using computer models. The structure-toxicity relations of the benzoylindandiones were developed using regression models and partial least squares analysis. LD(,50)s (mM/Kg) for male Sprague-Dawley mice by intraperitoneal injection for 2-benzoyl-1,3-indandione (1), 2-(4'-methoxybenzoyl)-1,3-indandione (2), 2-(3'-methylbenzoyl) -1,3-indandione (3), 2-(4'-methylbenzoyl)-1,3-indandione (4), 2-(4'-isopropylbenzoyl)-1,3-indandione (5), and 2 -diphenylacetyl-1,3-indandione (6) were (median, 95% confidence limits): 1, 0.038 (0.030-0.049); 2, 0.026 (0.021-0.037); 3, 0.083 (0.065-0.106); 4, 0.077 (0.060-0.098); 5, 0.096 (0.071-0.128); and 6, 0.048 (0.035-0.064); log P was (mean (+OR-) standard error): 1, 1.14 (+OR-) 0.03; 2, 1.37 (+OR -) 0.02; 3, 1.24 (+OR-) 0.04; 4, 1.31 (+OR-) 0.02; 5, 1.43 (+OR-) 0.03 and 6, 2.47 (+OR-) 0.03; the pKas were (mean (+OR-) standard error): 1, 3.08 (+OR-) 0.02; 2, 3.91 (+OR -) 0.01; 3, 2.63 (+OR-) 0.01; 4, 2.93 (+OR-) 0.02; 5, 3.91 (+OR-) 0.01; and 6, 3.31 (+OR-) 0.01. -Log (,10)LD(,50) of the 6 indandiones correlated highly with the mean of the C-13 NMR chemical shifts of the carbonyl carbons, but poorly with pKa, IR carbonyl stretching frequencies, HOMO, LUMO, Hammett sigma and log P. 2-Benzoyl-1,3-indandione and 2-(4'-methoxybenzoyl) -1,3-indandione were more potent rodenticides than diphenadione in mice.

  4. 2-(Di­phenyl­methyl­idene)-2,3-di­hydro-1H-inden-1-one

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tao; Bandero, Vilmar; McCabe, Tom; Frankish, Neil; Sheridan, Helen

    2013-01-01

    In the title mol­ecule, C22H16O, the indanone ring system is approximately planar with a dihedral angle between the fused rings of 5.13 (14)°. Two benzene rings are linked together at one side of a double bond, sitting on either side of the indanone ring system and making dihedral angles of 70.30 (12) and 44.74 (13)° with it. In the crystal, hydrogen bonding is not present, but weak C—H⋯π or π–π inter­actions occur and mol­ecules form a sheet-like structure in the bc plane. PMID:24109382

  5. Performance and Stability of Polymer Solar Cells Based on the Blends of Poly(3-Hexylthiophene) and Indene-C60 Bis-Adduct

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min-Nan, Guo; Shao-Wei, Liu; Na, Guo; Li-Ying, Yang; Wen-Jing, Qin; Shou-Gen, Yin

    2016-07-01

    Not Available Supported by the Tianjin Natural Science Foundation under Grant Nos 13JCYBJC18900 and 13JCZDJC26700, and the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China under Grant No 2013AA014201.

  6. (2RS,4'RS)-3'-(3-Chloro-4-meth-oxy-phen-yl)-4'-phenyl-4'H-spiro-[indene-2,5'-isoxazol]-1(3H)-one ethanol monosolvate.

    PubMed

    Boughaleb, Adil; Zouihri, Hafid; Gmouh, Said; Kerbal, Abdelali; El Yazidi, Mohamed

    2011-09-01

    The title compound, C(23)H(17)ClN(2)O(3)·C(2)H(6)O, is the stoichiometric 1:1 ethanol solvate of a racemic reaction product, which forms a conglomerate. The refined Flack parameter of 0.36 (3) indicates racemic twinning. In the structure, mol-ecules are linked into zigzag chains by a series of inter-molecular N-H⋯O and O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds.

  7. The photophysics of a polar molecule in a nonpolar cryogenic glass--the effects of dimerization on (1-butyl-4-(1H-inden-1-ylidene)-1,4-dihydropyridine (BIDP).

    PubMed

    Kahan, Anat; Bazanov, Boris; Haas, Yehuda

    2010-10-01

    The first excited state of BIDP was shown in a previous communication to exhibit an ultrafast decay in fluid nonpolar, nonprotic solutions due to the presence of a S(1)/S(0) conical intersection (CI). In frozen polar and nonpolar glasses a strong fluorescence was observed, rationalized by the hindering of the internal torsion required to reach the geometry of the CI. Complete analysis of the data was hampered by some unusual observations in nonpolar glasses. In this paper we show that they can be explained by assuming dimer formation, with a formation constant of K(eq) = (4 ± 3) × 10(5) M(-1) at 83 K and ΔH(dim) = 7 ± 2 kcal/mol. A complete analysis of the spectra is presented, and fluorescence quantum yields of the monomer and dimer are reported. Efficient self-quenching is found, with a Stern Volmer constant, K(SV) = (1.5 ± 0.1) × 10(6) M(-1), assigned to static quenching. The dimer absorption spectrum was extracted from the data and is compared to Kasha's exciton model and to quantum chemical (QC) calculations. The basic features of exciton splitting are reproduced by quantum mechanical calculations, but complete quantitative agreement of the QC computations with the experimental results is not attained. The previous analysis of the monomer spectra using the displaced harmonic oscillator model is extended to the more demanding conditions prevailing at cryogenic temperatures. The derived ΔH(dim) is in good agreement with other dimers formation enthalpies and with the quantum mechanical calculation presented. The new analysis corrects τ(f) in MCHIP to 2.9 × 10(-13) s, somewhat smaller than the value reported in polar solvent in a previous communication, thereby strengthening the assumption that polarity can reduce the efficiency of CI.

  8. Nineteenth International Cosmic Ray Conference. OG Sessions, Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, F. C. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    Papers submitted for presentation at the 19th International Cosmic Ray Conference are compiled. This volume addresses cosmic ray sources and acceleration, interstellar propagation and nuclear interactions, and detection techniques and instrumentation.

  9. Ninteenth International Cosmic Ray Conference. OG Sessions, Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, F. C. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    Contributed papers addressing cosmic ray origin and galactic phenomena are compiled. Topic areas include the composition, spectra, and anisotropy of cosmic ray nuclei with energies and 1 TeV, isotopes, antiprotons and related subjects, and electrons, positrons, and measurements of synchrotron radiation.

  10. Information Gathering Document 0321-1437-30-R-OG

    SciTech Connect

    Hollister, R

    2009-07-15

    Fines and turnings from machining depleted uranium (Dep-U), natural uranium (Nat-U), and Thorium-232, and stainless steel and aluminum. This IGO allows only small, oxidizable pieces of Dep-U/Nat-U/Th-232, with regulated metal contaminants below regulatory limits. Fines and turnings will be in 30 gallon vented drums immersed in mineral oil. The 30 gallon drums will be overpacked in 55 gallon vented drums. The waste will be stored on site until sent for stabilization & disposal with approved TSOFs.

  11. Ninteenth International Cosmic Ray Conference. OG Sessions, Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, F. C. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    Contributed papers addressing cosmic ray origin and galactic phenomena are compiled. The topic areas covered in this volume include gamma ray bursts, gamma rays from point sources, and diffuse gamma ray emission.

  12. (2RS,4′RS)-3′-(3-Chloro-4-meth­oxy­phen­yl)-4′-phenyl-4′H-spiro­[indene-2,5′-isoxazol]-1(3H)-one ethanol monosolvate

    PubMed Central

    Boughaleb, Adil; Zouihri, Hafid; Gmouh, Said; Kerbal, Abdelali; El yazidi, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    The title compound, C23H17ClN2O3·C2H6O, is the stoichiometric 1:1 ethanol solvate of a racemic reaction product, which forms a conglomerate. The refined Flack parameter of 0.36 (3) indicates racemic twinning. In the structure, mol­ecules are linked into zigzag chains by a series of inter­molecular N—H⋯O and O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. PMID:22059010

  13. Crystal structure of rac-(3aR,4S,5aR,6S,9R,10aS,10bR)-3a,5a,9-tri­methyl­tetra­deca­hydro-6,9-ep­oxy­cyclo­hepta­[e]inden-4-ol monohydrate

    PubMed Central

    Schäfer, Andreas; Golz, Christopher; Preut, Hans; Strohmann, Carsten; Hiersemann, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The title hydrate, C17H28O2·H2O, was synthesized in order to determine the relative configuration of the tetra­cyclic framework. The fused 5,6,7-tricarbocyclic core exhibits an entire cis-annulation, featuring a 1,4-cis-relation of the angular methyl groups in the six-membered ring. The oxa bridge of the ep­oxy­cyclo­heptane moiety is oriented towards the concave face of the boat-shaped mol­ecule, whereas the angular methyl groups are directed towards the convex face. The asymmetric unit of the crystal contains two nearly identical formula units, which are related via a pseudo-centre of symmetry. The structure could be solved in the space groups I-4 and I41/a. The refinement in the acentric space group, however, gave significantly better results and these are used in this paper. O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds are observed between the organic mol­ecules, between the organic mol­ecules and the water mol­ecules, and between the water mol­ecules, forming a chain along the c-axis direction. PMID:26396907

  14. Determination of a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ agonist, 1-(trans-methylimino-N-oxy)-6-(2-morpholinoethoxy-3-phenyl-1H-indene-2-carboxylic acid ethyl ester (KR-62980) in rat plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Sun; Song, Jin Sook; Roh, Hyeongjin; Park, Jong-Shik; Ahn, Jin Hee; Ahn, Sung-Hoon; Bae, Myung Ae

    2011-01-01

    A novel peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) agonist, KR-62980, was determined by liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) in rat plasma. In order to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of KR-62980, a reliable, selective and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic method with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry was developed for the quantification of KR-62980 in rat plasma. KR-62980 and imipramine (IS) were separated on Hypersil GOLD C18 column with a mixture of acetonitrile-ammonium formate (10mM) (80:20, v/v) as mobile phase. The ion transitions monitored were m/z 437.2 → 114.2 for KR-62980, m/z 281.3 → 86.1 for imipramine in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The percent recoveries of KR-62980 and imipramine were 90.1 and 98.4% from rat plasma, respectively. The linear dynamic range extended from 0.01 to 10 μg/ml with a correlation coefficient (R(2)) greater than 0.99 and the lower limit of quantification was 0.01 μg/ml. The mean of intra- and inter-assay precisions was 2.1 and 9.3%. The method was validated and successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of KR-62980 in rat.

  15. Phenological tracking og agricultural feilds investigated by using dual polarimetry tanDEM-X images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzaee, S.; Motagh, M.; Arefi, H.; Nooryazdan, A.

    2015-04-01

    Remote sensing plays a key role in monitoring and assessing environmental changes. Because of its special imaging characteristics such as high-resolution, capabilities to obtain data in all weather conditions and sensitivity to geometrical and dielectric properties of the features, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) technology has become a powerful technique to detect small scale changes related to earth surface.SAR images contain the information of both phase and intensity in different modes like single, dual and full polarimetric states which are important in order to extract information about various targets. In this study we investigate phenological changes in an agricultural region using high-resolution X-band SAR data. The case study is located in Doroud region of Lorestan province, west of Iran. The purpose is to investigate the ability of copolar and interferometric coherence extracted from TanDEM-X dual polarimetry (HH/VV) in bistatic StripMap mode for tracking the phenological changes of crops during growing season. The data include 11 images acquired between 12.06.2012 and 02.11.2012 and 6 images acquired between 30.05.2013 and 04.08.2013 in the CoSSC format. Results show that copolar coherence is almost able to follow phenological changes but interferometric coherence has a near constant behaviour with fluctuations mainly related to baseline variations.

  16. A kind of integrated method discuss of fOG signal processing circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jun; Pan, Xin; Ying, Jiaju; Liu, Jie

    2014-12-01

    In view of the circuit miniaturization need in project application of fiber optic gyroscope(FOG), a new integrated technical scheme adopting system in package(SIP) for signal processing circuit of FOG was put forward. At first, the principle on signal processing circuit of FOG was analyzed, and the technical scheme adopting SIP based on low-temperature co-fired substrate technology was presented according to circuit characteristic and actual condition. Secondly, under the prerequisite of the concept introduction of SIP and LTCC, the SIP prototype of signal processing circuit of FOG was trialed produced,and it passed through the debug test. This SIP modular is an overall circuit complete integrated the signal processing circuit of FOG, and only a potentiometer and EPROM do not case outside. The testing results indicate that SIP is a kind of feasible scheme that carries out miniaturization for signal processing circuit of FOG.

  17. A REAL TIME COAL CONTENT ORE GRADE (C2OG) SENSOR

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Rand Swanson

    2002-10-24

    This fifth quarterly technical report discusses the progress made on a machine vision technique for determining coal content and ore grades. Recent work has been devoted to implementing new hardware and examining defects in titanium sponge, a new application for the machine vision system. With the improvements in hardware and software, the data collection is much improved. Early results from data taken on titanium sponge defects indicate that some defects will be relatively easy to identify, but others will be much more difficult. Consequently, additional work is required with software algorithms for target recognition. Ongoing work will be divided into several fronts, which include data collection and analysis, improving the target recognition capabilities, and improving the electronic interface.

  18. A REAL TIME COAL CONTENT ORE GRADE (C2OG) SENSOR

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Rand Swanson

    2003-04-28

    This seventh quarterly technical report discusses the progress made on a machine vision technique for determining coal content and ore grades. Considerable progress has been made on coal analysis. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) target recognition software has been tested and incorporated into the system. This software decreases analysis time considerably and is more intuitive to use. Work with board-level computers has proceeded well; ultimately this will make the technology more compact and fieldable. Work with talc will be delayed because the graduate student working on this project is leaving the program. Ongoing work is devoted to more detailed coal analysis, improving the software interface, and developing procedures and a users manual.

  19. A REAL TIME COAL CONTENT ORE GRADE (C2OG) SENSOR

    SciTech Connect

    Rand Swanson

    2003-04-27

    This eleventh quarterly technical report discusses the installation of a spectral machine vision system in the Stillwater mine's core room. In brief, the system has been fabricated, installed, and preliminary measurements have been made. A first round of refinements has been made, included replacing a bad bearing and applying filters to the lighting. A high-speed Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) program was written to classify the cores in real time. This program identifies sulfides in the core sample quite well, but also produces false positives at boundaries and breaks in the core. Additionally, bright reflections from facets within the ore occasionally saturate the camera. Overall, the project is on schedule, but additional refinement in the algorithm and lighting is required to obtain more accurate results.

  20. Gocad2OGS: Workflow to Integrate Geo-structural Information into Numerical Simulation Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Thomas; Walther, Marc; Naumov, Dmitri; Sattler, Sabine; Kolditz, Olaf

    2015-04-01

    The investigation of fluid circulation in the Thuringian syncline is one of the INFLUINS project's targets. A 3D geo-structural model including 12 stratigraphic layers and 54 fault zones is created by geologists in the first step using the Gocad software. Within the INFLUINS project a ground-water flow simulation is used to check existing hypotheses and to gain new ideas of the underground fluid flow behaviour. We used the scientific, platform independent, open source software OpenGeoSys that implements the finite element method to solve the governing equations describing fluid flow in porous media. The geo-structural Gocad model is not suitable for the FEM numerical analysis. Therefore it is converted into an unstructured grid satisfying all mesh quality criteria required for the ground-water flow simulation. The resulting grid is stored in an open data format given by the Visualization Toolkit (vtk). In this work we present a workflow to convert geological structural models, created using the Gocad software, into a simulation model that is easy to use from numerical simulation software. We tested our workflow with the 3D geo-structural model of the Thuringian syncline and were able to setup and to evaluate a hydrogeological simulation model successfully.

  1. A REAL TIME COAL CONTENT ORE GRADE (C2OG) SENSOR

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Rand Swanson

    2002-01-31

    The overall approach of this effort is to spectrally image ore or coal, and then use the spectral content (i.e., the particular colors of the ore or coal) to differentiate between the ore or coal grades. Currently, experts with practiced eyes do just this to identify the grade of platinum/palladium ore from the Stillwater Mine in south-central Montana. Additionally, trained eyes can identify high-sulfur and high-ash coal visually. The premise of this effort is that machine vision can accomplish this same differentiation. During the first quarter, machine vision results using a digital color camera did not correlate as well with assay results for platinum/palladium ore as would be required for a commercial device. One of the possible reasons for this is that the digital camera did not provide enough spectral information to obtain good differentiation between the sulfides associated with high-grade platinum/palladium ore and background interference, most notably yellow grease that contaminates some of the sample and green colored rock. The second quarter efforts have largely been devoted to implementing an imaging spectrometer for machine vision. In brief, modifying an imaging spectrometer that was designed for remote sensing from a Remotely Controlled (RC) airplane has done this. The imaging spectrometer provides 320 spectral channels, allowing for much better spectral resolution that can be obtained with a digital color camera, which provides 3 spectral channels. Preliminary results, as discussed below in more detail, are encouraging. The technical portion of the report below is organized into subsections as dictated by the DoE contract for this effort. These sections are: Experimental Apparatus, Experimental and Operating Data, Data Reduction, and Hypothesis and Conclusions. Partners in this effort are: Montana Tech of the University of Montana, Stillwater Mining Co., Western Syncoal, and the Montana Board of Research and Commercialization.

  2. A REAL TIME COAL CONTENT ORE GRADE (C2OG) SENSOR

    SciTech Connect

    Rand Swanson

    2004-01-23

    This tenth quarterly technical report discusses the progress made on a machine vision technique for ore grading based on hyperspectral imaging. A graduate student at Montana Tech has successfully defended her thesis related to this project. Arrangements with Stillwater Mining Company to deploy a machine vision system in their core room have been completed. Designs for they system that will be installed next quarter have been drawn and parts are being machined. Presentations on the spectral imaging system developed during this effort have been made to Stillwater Mining Company and at a remote sensing symposium at Montana State University.

  3. A REAL TIME COAL CONTENT ORE GRADE (C2OG) SENSOR

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Rand Swanson

    2003-07-21

    This eighth quarterly technical report discusses the progress made on a machine vision technique for determining coal content and preparations for Year-3 system deployment. Classification maps for coal have been generated and shown to two coal-mining executives. An application for licensing high-speed hyperspectral data analysis software from the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) has been made. Both Western Energy and Stillwater Mining Company have offered platforms for Year-3 deployment. Barretts Minerals has expressed renewed interest in using Resonon's machine vision system for identifying dolomite in their talc ore and have agreed to provide samples to the Montana Tech team.

  4. A REAL TIME COAL CONTENT ORE GRADE (C2OG) SENSOR

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Rand Swanson

    2002-07-19

    This fourth quarterly technical report discusses the progress made on a machine vision technique for determining coal content and ore grades. Work done this quarter has been primarily devoted to improving the apparatus and data collection system. This includes a totally new optical setup, continued development of a new imaging spectrometer, and software improvements. Additionally, interest from other mining operations has arisen and sample of titanium and talc have now been obtained for preliminary analysis. Work is ongoing with coal samples, although it appears a more diverse sampling may be required. With the improvements now being made in the system, much faster and more user-friendly data collection and analysis will result in faster and better turn-around for sample analysis.

  5. Optical limiting in semiconductor-doped glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bindra, K. S.; Oak, S. M.; Rustagi, K. C.

    1996-02-01

    We report optical limiting at 527 nm in two Schott semiconductor-doped glasses OG530 and OG515. These two glasses show quite contrasting nonlinear optical behaviour. The glass OG515 shows strong clamping while OG530 shows no clamping in optical limiting inspite of having much larger nonlinear refractive index. Similarly OG530 exhibits saturation of absorption while OG515 does not.

  6. Hip Hop Culture's OGs: A Narrative Inquiry into the Intersection of Hip Hop Culture, Black Males and Their Schooling Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Ian P.

    2013-01-01

    Using a critical race lens, this narrative study employs a focus group design to explore the intersections between black males, hip hop culture and schooling experiences. To provide a sociocultural grounding, this study first reviews the research literature around hip hop culture.s sociocultural development and its impact as a culture force that…

  7. The formation of pentagon-heptagon pair defect by the reconstruction og vacancy defects in carbon nanotube

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, G.D.; Wang, C.Z.; Yoon, E.; Hwang, N.M.; Ho, K.M.

    2008-01-29

    The reconstruction process of vacancy hole in carbon nanotube is investigated by tight-binding molecular dynamics simulations and by ab initio total energy calculations. In the molecular dynamics simulation, a vacancy hole is found to reconstruct into two separated pentagon-heptagon pair defects. As the result of reconstruction, the radius of the carbon nanotube is reduced and the chirality of the tube is partly changed. During the vacancy hole healing process, the formation of pentagonal and heptagonal rings is proceeded by the subsequent Stone-Wales.

  8. Phenyl substituted indenylphosphine ruthenium complexes as catalysts for dehydrogenation of alcohols.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jia; Sun, Yue; Yu, Guang-Ao; Zhao, Cui; She, Neng-Fang; Mao, Shu-Lan; Huang, Peng-Shou; Han, Zhi-Jun; Yin, Jun; Liu, Sheng-Hua

    2012-09-14

    Thermal treatment of (1H-inden-3-yl)dicyclohexylphosphinium tetrafluoroborate (1) and (3-mesityl-1H-inden-3-yl)dicyclohexylphosphinium tetrafluoroborate (3) with tBuONa followed by [(η(6)-cymene)RuCl(2))](2) in methanol gave the adduct {(η(6)-cymene)RuCl(2)[(1H-inden-3-yl)PCy(2)]} (6) and {(η(6)-cymene)RuCl(2)[(3-mesityl-1H-inden-3-yl)PCy(2)]} (7), respectively. Thermal treatment of (2-phenyl-1H-inden-3-yl)dicyclohexylphosphinium tetrafluoroborate (4) with tBuONa followed by [(η(6)-cymene)RuCl(2))](2) or RuCl(3)·3H(2)O in methanol gave {Ru[κ(P):(η(6)-2-phenyl-1H-inden-3-yl)PCy(2)]Cl(2)} (8). Whereas (2-mesityl-1H-inden-3-yl)dicyclohexylphosphine (5) reacted with [(η(6)-cymene)RuCl(2))](2) (in toluene) or RuCl(3)·3H(2)O (in ethanol) to afford {Ru[κ(P):(η(6)-2-mesityl-1H-inden-3-yl)PCy(2)]Cl(2)} (9). The molecular structures of complexes 6, 8 and 9 have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. In addition, complexes 8 and 9 have been found to catalyze the acceptorless dehydrogenation of alcohols in toluene. 9 displayed high activity and different substrates, including cyclic and linear alcohols, were efficiently oxidized to ketones by using 2.0 mol% of catalyst. PMID:22806176

  9. High Performance Organic Photovoltaics via Novel Materials Combinations

    SciTech Connect

    Laird, Dr Darin; McGuiness, Dr Christine; Storch, Mark

    2011-01-20

    OPV cell efficiencies have increased significantly over the last decade and verified champion efficiencies are currently at 8.3% for both single and multi-junction device types. These increases in efficiency have been driven through the development and optimization of the donor and acceptor materials in bulk heterojunction active layers. Plextronics and Solarmer Energy Inc. are two of the world leading developers of these donor and acceptor materials. Solarmer Energy has reported NREL certified 6.77% efficiencies using optimized low band gap donor materials in combination with PC61BM and PC71BM acceptors and recently reported a champion NREL certified efficiency of 8.1%. Plextronics has reported Newport certified efficiencies of 6.7% using PC71BM acceptors with low band gap materials. In addition, Plextronics has also demonstrated that OPV efficiency of P3HT based materials can be improved by 50% by improving the Voc using alternative acceptors (indene substituted C60 and C70) to PC61BM and PC71BM. However, performance of these alternative acceptors in combination with low band gap materials has not been investigated and the potential for efficiency improvement is evident. In this collaboration, four low band gap donor materials from Solarmer Energy Inc were combined with Plextronics’ indene-class acceptors Plextronics’ indene substituted C60 and C70 acceptors to demonstrate OPV performance greater than 7%. Two main indene class C60 acceptors (codenamed Mono-indene[C60] Mono-indene[C60] , Bis-indene[C60] ) were screened with the Solarmer polymers. These four polymers were screened and optimized with the indene class acceptors at both Plextronics and Solarmer. A combination was identified which produced 6.7% (internal measurement) with a Solarmer polymer and a Plextronics fullerene acceptor. This was accomplished primarily by improving the Voc as well as improving the current (Jsc) and FF.

  10. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons for fullerene synthesis in flames

    DOEpatents

    Alford, J. Michael; Diener, Michael D.

    2006-12-19

    This invention provides improved methods for combustion synthesis of carbon nanomaterials, including fullerenes, employing multiple-ring aromatic hydrocarbon fuels selected for high carbon conversion to extractable fullerenes. The multiple-ring aromatic hydrocarbon fuels include those that contain polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. More specifically, multiple-ring aromatic hydrocarbon fuels contain a substantial amount of indene, methylnapthalenes or mixtures thereof. Coal tar and petroleum distillate fractions provide low cost hydrocarbon fuels containing polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, including without limitation, indene, methylnapthalenes or mixtures thereof.

  11. Structure elucidation of a pungent compound in black cardamom: Amomum tsao-ko Crevost et Lemarié (Zingiberaceae).

    PubMed

    Starkenmann, Christian; Mayenzet, Fabienne; Brauchli, Robert; Wunsche, Laurent; Vial, Christian

    2007-12-26

    Natural plant extracts containing taste modifier compounds will gain more commercial interest in the future. Black cardamom, Amomum tsao-ko Crevost et Lemarié, used as a spice in Asia, produces a nice refreshing effect in the mouth. Therefore, an ethyl acetate extract was prepared, and constituents were separated by liquid chromatography. Guided by the tasting of each fraction (LC tasting), a new pungent compound was discovered, (+/-)-trans-2,3,3a,7a-tetrahydro-1H-indene-4-carbaldehyde. To confirm this new structure, a synthesis was performed starting from cyclopentene-1-carbaldehyde. The Wittig conditions were determined to control the stereochemistry of the ring fusion to prepare (+/-)-trans-(2,3,3a,7a-tetrahydro-1 H-inden-4-yl) methanol and (+/-)-cis-(2,3,3a,7a-tetrahydro-1H-inden-4-yl) methanol. After oxidation, (+/-)-trans-2,3,3a,7a-tetrahydro-1H-indene-4-carbaldehyde and (+/-)-cis-2,3,3a,7a-tetrahydro-1H-indene-4-carbaldehyde were tasted in water and only the trans-2,3,3a,7a-tetrahydro-1H-indene-4-carbaldehyde, present in black cardamom, produced a trigeminal effect in the mouth.

  12. Differential Degradation of Bicyclics with Aromatic and Alicyclic Rings by Rhodococcus sp. Strain DK17 ▿

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dockyu; Yoo, Miyoun; Choi, Ki Young; Kang, Beom Sik; Kim, Tai Kyoung; Hong, Soon Gyu; Zylstra, Gerben J.; Kim, Eungbin

    2011-01-01

    The metabolically versatile Rhodococcus sp. strain DK17 is able to grow on tetralin and indan but cannot use their respective desaturated counterparts, 1,2-dihydronaphthalene and indene, as sole carbon and energy sources. Metabolite analyses by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry clearly show that (i) the meta-cleavage dioxygenase mutant strain DK180 accumulates 5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-1,2-naphthalene diol, 1,2-indene diol, and 3,4-dihydro-naphthalene-1,2-diol from tetralin, indene, and 1,2-dihydronaphthalene, respectively, and (ii) when expressed in Escherichia coli, the DK17 o-xylene dioxygenase transforms tetralin, indene, and 1,2-dihydronaphthalene into tetralin cis-dihydrodiol, indan-1,2-diol, and cis-1,2-dihydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene, respectively. Tetralin, which is activated by aromatic hydroxylation, is degraded successfully via the ring cleavage pathway to support growth of DK17. Indene and 1,2-dihydronaphthalene do not serve as growth substrates because DK17 hydroxylates them on the alicyclic ring and further metabolism results in a dead-end metabolite. This study reveals that aromatic hydroxylation is a prerequisite for proper degradation of bicyclics with aromatic and alicyclic rings by DK17 and confirms the unique ability of the DK17 o-xylene dioxygenase to perform distinct regioselective hydroxylations. PMID:21965391

  13. The results of an experimental indoor hydroponic Cannabis growing study, using the 'Screen of Green' (ScrOG) method-Yield, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Knight, Glenys; Hansen, Sean; Connor, Mark; Poulsen, Helen; McGovern, Catherine; Stacey, Janet

    2010-10-10

    The results of an indoor hydroponic Cannabis growth study are presented. It is intended that this work will be of assistance to those with an interest in determining an estimation of yield and value of Cannabis crops. Three cycles of six plants were grown over a period of 1 year in order to ascertain the potential yield of female flowering head material from such an operation. The cultivation methods used were selected to replicate typical indoor hydroponic Cannabis growing operations, such as are commonly encountered by the New Zealand Police. The plants were also tested to ascertain the percentage of the psychoactive chemical Δ-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) present in the flowering head material, and were genetically profiled by STR analysis. Phenotypic observations are related to the data collected. The inexperience of the growers was evidenced by different problems encountered in each of the three cycles, each of which would be expected to negatively impact the yield and THC data obtained. These data are therefore considered to be conservative. The most successful cycle yielded an average of 881g (31.1oz) of dry, groomed female flowering head per plant, and over the whole study the 18 plants yielded a total of 12,360g (436.0oz), or an average of 687g (24.2oz) of dry head per plant. THC data shows significant intra-plant variation and also demonstrates inter-varietal variation. THC values for individual plants ranged from 4.3 to 25.2%. The findings of this study and a separate ESR research project illustrate that the potency of Cannabis grown in New Zealand has dramatically increased in recent years. DNA analysis distinguished distinct groups in general agreement with the phenotypic variation observed. One plant however, exhibiting a unique triallelic pattern at two of the five loci tested, while remaining phenotypically indistinguishable from three other plants within the same grow.

  14. First zoeal stage of the partner shrimp Periclimenes paivai Chace, with remarks on the genus Periclimenes O.G. Costa (Caridea, Palaemonidae.

    PubMed

    Pantaleão, João A F; Terossi, Mariana; Costa, Rogério C; Mantelatto, Fernando L

    2013-01-01

    The morphology of the first zoeal stage of Periclimenes paivai Chace is described and illustrated for the first time. Larvae were obtained from three females with embryos, caught in the type locality (Cananéia, São Paulo state, Brazil). The morphological characters are detailed and compared with all previous descriptions of larvae in the genus (P. amethysteus, P. brevicarpalis, P. diversipes, P. pandionis, P. sagittifer and P. soror). The zoeae I of Periclimenes species are very similar, but P. paivai can be separated from the other six species by means of five characteristics: 8 plumose setae on the inner margin of the antennal scale, one spine on the endopod of the maxillule, one cuspidate seta on the basal endite of the maxilulle, one plumose seta on the single coxal endite of the maxilla, and one plumose seta on the endopod of the maxilla. Remarks from a comparative analysis of available descriptions of the genus are furnished. 

  15. Samtaler i hvid kittel: En analyse af indlaeggelsessamtaler og deres institutionelle betingelser (Conversations in White Aprons: An Analysis of Hospitalization Conversations and Their Institutional Conditions). ROLIG Papir 47.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Jytte

    This report focuses on the communication that takes place between nurses and patients in a hospital setting. Nurses have for years been accused of talking at patients rather than talking to them. They have also been accused of using a language that patients do not know. The problem is partly a result of individual roles within the medical…

  16. GO2OGS 1.0: a versatile workflow to integrate complex geological information with fault data into numerical simulation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, T.; Naumov, D.; Sattler, S.; Kolditz, O.; Walther, M.

    2015-11-01

    We offer a versatile workflow to convert geological models built with the ParadigmTM GOCAD© (Geological Object Computer Aided Design) software into the open-source VTU (Visualization Toolkit unstructured grid) format for usage in numerical simulation models. Tackling relevant scientific questions or engineering tasks often involves multidisciplinary approaches. Conversion workflows are needed as a way of communication between the diverse tools of the various disciplines. Our approach offers an open-source, platform-independent, robust, and comprehensible method that is potentially useful for a multitude of environmental studies. With two application examples in the Thuringian Syncline, we show how a heterogeneous geological GOCAD model including multiple layers and faults can be used for numerical groundwater flow modeling, in our case employing the OpenGeoSys open-source numerical toolbox for groundwater flow simulations. The presented workflow offers the chance to incorporate increasingly detailed data, utilizing the growing availability of computational power to simulate numerical models.

  17. A novel smart supramolecular organic gelator exhibiting dual-channel responsive sensing behaviours towards fluoride ion via gel-gel states.

    PubMed

    Mehdi, Hassan; Pang, Hongchang; Gong, Weitao; Dhinakaran, Manivannan Kalavathi; Wajahat, Ali; Kuang, Xiaojun; Ning, Guiling

    2016-07-01

    A novel smart supramolecular organic gelator G-16 containing anion and metal-coordination ability has been designed and synthesized. It shows excellent and robust gelation capability as a strong blue fluorescent supramolecular organic gel OG in DMF. Addition of Zn(2+) produced Zn(2+)-coordinated supramolecular metallogel OG-Zn. Organic gel OG and organometallic gel OG-Zn exhibited efficient and different sensing behaviors towards fluoride ion due to the variation in self-assembling nature. Supramolecular metallogel OG-Zn displayed specific selectivity for fluoride ion and formed OG-Zn-F with dramatic color change from blue to blue green in solution and gel to gel states. Furthermore after directly addition of fluoride into OG produced fluoride containing organic gel OG-F with drastically modulation in color from blue to greenish yellow fluorescence via strong aggregation-induced emission (AIE) property. A number of experiments were conducted such as FTIR, (1)H NMR, and UV/Vis spectroscopies, XRD, SEM and rheology. These results revealed that the driving forces involved in self-assembly of OG, OG-Zn, OG-Zn-F and OG-F were hydrogen bonding, metal coordination, π-π interactions, and van der Waal forces. In contrast to the most anion responsive gels, particularly fluoride ion responsive gels showed gel-sol state transition on stimulation by anions, the gel state of OG and OG-Zn did not show any gel-to-sol transition during the whole F(-) response process.

  18. A novel smart supramolecular organic gelator exhibiting dual-channel responsive sensing behaviours towards fluoride ion via gel-gel states.

    PubMed

    Mehdi, Hassan; Pang, Hongchang; Gong, Weitao; Dhinakaran, Manivannan Kalavathi; Wajahat, Ali; Kuang, Xiaojun; Ning, Guiling

    2016-07-01

    A novel smart supramolecular organic gelator G-16 containing anion and metal-coordination ability has been designed and synthesized. It shows excellent and robust gelation capability as a strong blue fluorescent supramolecular organic gel OG in DMF. Addition of Zn(2+) produced Zn(2+)-coordinated supramolecular metallogel OG-Zn. Organic gel OG and organometallic gel OG-Zn exhibited efficient and different sensing behaviors towards fluoride ion due to the variation in self-assembling nature. Supramolecular metallogel OG-Zn displayed specific selectivity for fluoride ion and formed OG-Zn-F with dramatic color change from blue to blue green in solution and gel to gel states. Furthermore after directly addition of fluoride into OG produced fluoride containing organic gel OG-F with drastically modulation in color from blue to greenish yellow fluorescence via strong aggregation-induced emission (AIE) property. A number of experiments were conducted such as FTIR, (1)H NMR, and UV/Vis spectroscopies, XRD, SEM and rheology. These results revealed that the driving forces involved in self-assembly of OG, OG-Zn, OG-Zn-F and OG-F were hydrogen bonding, metal coordination, π-π interactions, and van der Waal forces. In contrast to the most anion responsive gels, particularly fluoride ion responsive gels showed gel-sol state transition on stimulation by anions, the gel state of OG and OG-Zn did not show any gel-to-sol transition during the whole F(-) response process. PMID:27193611

  19. Method for reproducibly preparing a low-melting high-carbon yield precursor

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Wesley E.; Napier, Jr., Bradley

    1978-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method for preparing a reproducible synthetic carbon precursor by the autoclave polymerization of indene (C.sub.9 H.sub.8) at a temperature in the range of 470.degree.-485.degree. C, and at a pressure in the range of about 1000 to about 4300 psi. Volatiles in the resulting liquid indene polymer are removed by vacuum outgassing to form a solid carbon precursor characterized by having a relatively low melting temperature, high-carbon yield, and high reproducibility which provide for the fabrication of carbon and graphite composites having strict requirements for reproducible properties.

  20. CO extrusion in homogeneous gold catalysis: reactivity of gold acyl species generated through water addition to gold vinylidenes.

    PubMed

    Bucher, Janina; Stößer, Tim; Rudolph, Matthias; Rominger, Frank; Hashmi, A Stephen K

    2015-01-26

    Herein, we describe a new gold-catalyzed decarbonylative indene synthesis. Synergistic σ,π-activation of diyne substrates leads to gold vinylidene intermediates, which upon addition of water are transformed into gold acyl species, a type of organogold compound hitherto only scarcely reported. The latter are shown to undergo extrusion of CO, an elementary step completely unknown for homogeneous gold catalysis. By tuning the electronic and steric properties of the starting diyne systems, this new reactivity could be exploited for the synthesis of indene derivatives in high yields.

  1. [Sesquiterpenoids from gorgonian Muriceides collaris].

    PubMed

    Shi, Xue-feng; He, Wei-hong; Li, Guo-qiang

    2015-09-01

    Seven guaiane-type sesquiterpenoids, a new compound 6-formyl-5-isopropyl-3-hydroxymethyl-7-methyl-1H-indene (1), a new natural product 5-isopropyl-3, 7-dimethyl-1H-indene-1-one (2), along with five known compounds: guaiazulene (3), 4-formyl-7-isopropyl-10-methylazulene (4), sesquiterpene ketolactone (5), alismoxide (6) and guaia-1 (5), 6-diene (7), were isolated from gorgonian Muriceides collaris collected in South China Sea. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis [MS, IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR (DEPT), HMQC, HMBC, NOESY] and by comparison of the spectral data with those of the literatures.

  2. cDNA cloning and functional characterization of ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE 3 orthologs from Oncidium Gower Ramsey involved in flower cutting and pollinia cap dislodgement.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shin-Yu; Tsai, Hsing-Chun; Raghu, Rajasekaran; Do, Yi-Yin; Huang, Pung-Ling

    2011-10-01

    The cDNAs encoding ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3 (EIN3) transcription factor, OgEIL1 and OgEIL2 of Oncidium were cloned, sequenced and characterized. The deduced amino acid sequences of OgEIL1 and OgEIL2 of identified cDNA clones contain all structural features found in the Arabidopsis EIN3, such as an amino terminal acidic domain, a proline-rich region, and five basic conserved domains. Complementation test for OgEIL1 in Arabidopsis ein3 mutant indicate that function of OgEIL1 is the same as Arabidopsis EIN3. RNA gel blot analysis indicated that OgEIL1 and OgEIL2 expressed differentially in the roots, stem, leaves and flower buds of Oncidium. OgEIL1 and OgEIL2 mRNA levels in fully opened flowers increased as time progressed after cutting and reached a maximum in the fifth day and decreased on seventh day, which is consistent with the hypothesis that flowers initiated to wilt when ethylene raised abruptly. In de-capped flowers, OgEIL2 mRNA showed a decrease, while OgEIL1 mRNA exhibited an increase. Exogenous application of ethylene increased the mRNA levels of OgEIL1 and OgEIL2 in flower buds and flowers after cutting compared prior to ethylene treatment, however, in pollinia de-capped flowers, both OgEIL1 and OgEIL2 mRNA levels responded to a decline to exogenous ethylene immediately after treatment. Collectively, it is suggested that the main functions of OgEIL1 and OgEIL2 are to modulate the senescence of Oncidium flowers.

  3. Identification and evolution of the orphan genes in the domestic silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei; Zhao, Xin-Wei; Zhang, Ze

    2015-09-14

    Orphan genes (OGs) which have no recognizable homology to any sequences in other species could contribute to the species specific adaptations. In this study, we identified 738 OGs in the silkworm genome. About 31% of the silkworm OGs is derived from transposable elements, and 5.1% of the silkworm OGs emerged from gene duplication followed by divergence of paralogs. Five de novo silkworm OGs originated from non-coding regions. Microarray data suggested that most of the silkworm OGs were expressed in limited tissues. RNA interference experiments suggested that five de novo OGs are not essential to the silkworm, implying that they may contribute to genetic redundancy or species-specific adaptation. Our results provide some new insights into the evolutionary significance of the silkworm OGs.

  4. A novel chiral yttrium complex with a tridentate linked amido-indenyl ligand for intramolecular hydroamination.

    PubMed

    Chai, Zhuo; Hua, Dezhi; Li, Kui; Chu, Jiang; Yang, Gaosheng

    2014-01-01

    A new chiral silicon-linked tridentate amido-indenyl ligand was developed from indene and enantiopure 1,2-cyclohexanediamine. Its yttrium complex was synthesized, characterized and applied to efficiently catalyze the intramolecular hydroamination of non-activated olefins with up to 97% ee.

  5. Peripherally Selective Cannabinoid 1 Receptor (CB1R) Agonists for the Treatment of Neuropathic Pain.

    PubMed

    Seltzman, Herbert H; Shiner, Craig; Hirt, Erin E; Gilliam, Anne F; Thomas, Brian F; Maitra, Rangan; Snyder, Rod; Black, Sherry L; Patel, Purvi R; Mulpuri, Yatendra; Spigelman, Igor

    2016-08-25

    Alleviation of neuropathic pain by cannabinoids is limited by their central nervous system (CNS) side effects. Indole and indene compounds were engineered for high hCB1R affinity, peripheral selectivity, metabolic stability, and in vivo efficacy. An epithelial cell line assay identified candidates with <1% blood-brain barrier penetration for testing in a rat neuropathy induced by unilateral sciatic nerve entrapment (SNE). The SNE-induced mechanical allodynia was reversibly suppressed, partially or completely, after intraperitoneal or oral administration of several indenes. At doses that relieve neuropathy symptoms, the indenes completely lacked, while the brain-permeant CB1R agonist HU-210 (1) exhibited strong CNS side effects, in catalepsy, hypothermia, and motor incoordination assays. Pharmacokinetic findings of ∼0.001 cerebrospinal fluid:plasma ratio further supported limited CNS penetration. Pretreatment with selective CB1R or CB2R blockers suggested mainly CB1R contribution to an indene's antiallodynic effects. Therefore, this class of CB1R agonists holds promise as a viable treatment for neuropathic pain. PMID:27482723

  6. Indium(III) chloride catalyzed highly diastereoselective domino synthesis of indenodithiepines and indenodithiocines.

    PubMed

    Muthusamy, Sengodagounder; Sivaguru, Manickasamy; Suresh, Eringathodi

    2015-01-14

    An atom-economical diastereoselective synthesis of indenodithiepines and indenodithiocines has been developed via a domino reaction of propargylic alcohols and dithioacetals in the presence of InCl3 as a catalyst. A range of functionalized dithiepines and dithiocines, fused to the indene ring, were obtained in good to excellent yields under mild conditions.

  7. Singlet oxygen and organic light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, S.J.; Sinclair, M.B.; Valencia, V.S.; Kepler, R.G.; Clough, R.L.; Scurlock, R.D.; Ogilby, P.R.

    1995-07-01

    The preparation of light emitting diodes employing a new class of materials, 5,10-dihetera 5,10-dihydro-indeno[3,2b]indenes, as hole transport agents is described. These materials have been found to be more resistant to degradation by singlet oxygen than a poly(p-phenylene vinylene) (PPV) derivative.

  8. Operational Group Sandy technical progress report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2013-01-01

    This report documents results from the March 2013 deployment of the OGS. It includes background information on Hurricane Sandy and the federal response; the OGS methodology; scenarios for Hurricane Sandy’s impact on coastal communities and urban ecosystems; potential interventions to improve regional resilience to future major storms; a discussion of scenario results; and lessons learned about the OGS process.

  9. Work Programme, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Thessaloniki (Greece).

    This publication presents the work program for 2001 for the European Center for the Development of Vocational Training (CEDEFOP) set in the framework of four operational guidelines (OGs). The section on each OG contains an introduction including CEDEFOP's aims, followed by descriptions of research projects relevant to the OG. Each of the 11…

  10. Two Grammatical Models of Modern English. The Old and the New from A to Z. Germanic Linguistic Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuurman, Frits

    Case studies provide detailed comparisons, arranged alphabetically by title for ease of reference, of 26 problems in Modern English grammar, from both the old grammar (OG) and new grammar (NG) viewpoints. This A-Z approach juxtaposes contributions made by OG and NG to the description of Modern English grammar. Part I surveys large OG and NG…

  11. Activated carbon fiber for heterogeneous activation of persulfate: implication for the decolorization of azo dye.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiabin; Hong, Wei; Huang, Tianyin; Zhang, Liming; Li, Wenwei; Wang, Ying

    2016-09-01

    Activated carbon fiber (ACF) was used as a green catalyst to activate persulfate (PS) for oxidative decolorization of azo dye. ACF demonstrated a higher activity than activated carbon (AC) to activate PS to decolorize Orange G (OG). The decolorization efficiency of OG increased as ACF loading, PS dosage, and temperature increased. OG decolorization followed a pseudo first-order kinetics, and the activation energy was 40.902 kJ/mol. pH had no apparent effect on OG decolorization. Radical quenching experiments with various radical scavengers (e.g., alcohols, phenol) showed that radical-induced decolorization of OG took place on the surface of ACF, and both SO4 (·-) and HO· were responsible for OG decolorization. The impact of inorganic salts was also evaluated because they are important compositions of dye wastewater. Cl(-) and SO4 (2-) exhibited a promoting effect on OG decolorization, and the accelerating rate increased with elevating dosage of ions. Addition of Cl(-) and SO4 (2-) could increase the adsorption of OG on ACF surface, thus favorable for OG decolorization caused by the surface-bound SO4 (·-) and HO·. Conversely, HCO3 (-) and humic acid (HA) slightly inhibited OG decolorization. The azo band and naphthalene ring on OG were remarkably destructed to other intermediates and finally mineralized to CO2 and H2O. PMID:27294702

  12. OGtree: a tool for creating genome trees of prokaryotes based on overlapping genes.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Li-Wei; Lin, Kuang-Lun; Lu, Chin Lung

    2008-07-01

    OGtree is a web-based tool for constructing genome trees of prokaryotic species based on a measure of combining overlapping-gene content and overlapping-gene order in their whole genomes. The overlapping genes (OGs) are defined as adjacent genes whose coding sequences overlap partially or entirely. In fact, OGs are ubiquitous in microbial genomes and more conserved between species than non-OGs. Based on these properties, it has been suggested that OGs can serve as better phylogenetic characters than non-OGs for reconstructing the evolutionary relationships among microbial genomes. OGtree takes the accession numbers of prokaryotic genomes as its input. It then downloads their complete genomes from the National Centre for Biotechnology Information and identifies OGs in each genome and their orthologous OGs in other genomes. Next, OGtree computes an overlapping-gene distance between each pair of input genomes based on a combination of their OG content and orthologous OG order. Finally, it utilizes distance-based methods of building tree to reconstruct the genome trees of input prokaryotic genomes according to their pairwise OG distance. OGtree is available online at http://bioalgorithm.life.nctu.edu.tw/OGtree/.

  13. Relevans og intention. To analyser af en massemedietekst om okonomisk politik. ROLIG-papir 33 (Relevance and Intention. Two Analyses of a Mass Media Text on Economic Politics. ROLIG-paper 33).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heltoft, Lars; Geist, Uwe

    The three papers in this publication analyze a newspaper article on "economic politics," or more specifically, the devaluing of the Danish kroner. The papers all examine some linguistic or structural feature of the language used in writing the article. Specific focus is on relevance theory and relevance in the article, the use of text analysis in…

  14. Smaborns Dagpasning: Et Problem for Foraeldre og Kommuner. (Day-Care of Pre-School Children: A Problem to Parents and Local Authorities. With an English Summary). Publication No. 103.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gronhoj, Bodil

    Survey data were collected for the purposes of describing and comparing various forms of day care provision for preschool children within Danish municipalities with different day care provision and different degrees of urbanization. Information concerning the family background of subjects, parental assessment of different aspects of day care and…

  15. Nouveaux restes aviens du Néogène de la Sperrgebiet (Namibie): Complément à la biostratigraphie avienne des éolianites du désert de Namib

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senut, Brigitte; Dauphin, Yannicke; Pickford, Martin

    1998-11-01

    Two new types of fossil ratite eggshells discovered in aeolianites at Karingarab (Sperrgebiet, Namibia) exhibit morphologies intermediate between those of types already described. They help to refine the biochronology of the aeolianites of the Namib Desert.

  16. Formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from bimolecular reactions of phenyl radicals at high temperatures.

    PubMed

    Constantinidis, P; Schmitt, H-C; Fischer, I; Yan, B; Rijs, A M

    2015-11-21

    The self-reaction of the phenyl radical is one of the key reactions in combustion chemistry. Here we study this reaction in a high-temperature flow reactor by IR/UV ion dip spectroscopy, using free electron laser radiation as mid-infrared source. We identified several major reaction products based on their infrared spectra, among them indene, 1,2-dihydronaphthalene, naphthalene, biphenyl and para-terphenyl. Due to the structural sensitivity of the method, the reaction products were identified isomer-selectively. The work shows that the formation of indene and naphthalene, which was previously considered to be evidence for the HACA (hydrogen abstraction C2H2 addition) mechanism in the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and soot can also be understood in a phenyl addition model.

  17. Formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from bimolecular reactions of phenyl radicals at high temperatures.

    PubMed

    Constantinidis, P; Schmitt, H-C; Fischer, I; Yan, B; Rijs, A M

    2015-11-21

    The self-reaction of the phenyl radical is one of the key reactions in combustion chemistry. Here we study this reaction in a high-temperature flow reactor by IR/UV ion dip spectroscopy, using free electron laser radiation as mid-infrared source. We identified several major reaction products based on their infrared spectra, among them indene, 1,2-dihydronaphthalene, naphthalene, biphenyl and para-terphenyl. Due to the structural sensitivity of the method, the reaction products were identified isomer-selectively. The work shows that the formation of indene and naphthalene, which was previously considered to be evidence for the HACA (hydrogen abstraction C2H2 addition) mechanism in the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and soot can also be understood in a phenyl addition model. PMID:26457393

  18. Tandem processes promoted by a hydrogen shift in 6-arylfulvenes bearing acetalic units at ortho position: a combined experimental and computational study

    PubMed Central

    Alajarin, Mateo; Marin-Luna, Marta; Vidal, Angel

    2016-01-01

    Summary 6-Phenylfulvenes bearing (1,3-dioxolan or dioxan)-2-yl substituents at ortho position convert into mixtures of 4- and 9-(hydroxy)alkoxy-substituted benz[f]indenes as result of cascade processes initiated by a thermally activated hydrogen shift. Structurally related fulvenes with non-cyclic acetalic units afforded mixtures of 4- and 9-alkoxybenz[f]indenes under similar thermal conditions. Mechanistic paths promoted by an initial [1,4]-, [1,5]-, [1,7]- or [1,9]-H shift are conceivable for explaining these conversions. Deuterium labelling experiments exclude the [1,4]-hydride shift as the first step. A computational study scrutinized the reaction channels of these tandem conversions starting by [1,5]-, [1,7]- and [1,9]-H shifts, revealing that this first step is the rate-determining one and that the [1,9]-H shift is the one with the lowest energy barrier. PMID:26977185

  19. Tandem processes promoted by a hydrogen shift in 6-arylfulvenes bearing acetalic units at ortho position: a combined experimental and computational study.

    PubMed

    Alajarin, Mateo; Marin-Luna, Marta; Sanchez-Andrada, Pilar; Vidal, Angel

    2016-01-01

    6-Phenylfulvenes bearing (1,3-dioxolan or dioxan)-2-yl substituents at ortho position convert into mixtures of 4- and 9-(hydroxy)alkoxy-substituted benz[f]indenes as result of cascade processes initiated by a thermally activated hydrogen shift. Structurally related fulvenes with non-cyclic acetalic units afforded mixtures of 4- and 9-alkoxybenz[f]indenes under similar thermal conditions. Mechanistic paths promoted by an initial [1,4]-, [1,5]-, [1,7]- or [1,9]-H shift are conceivable for explaining these conversions. Deuterium labelling experiments exclude the [1,4]-hydride shift as the first step. A computational study scrutinized the reaction channels of these tandem conversions starting by [1,5]-, [1,7]- and [1,9]-H shifts, revealing that this first step is the rate-determining one and that the [1,9]-H shift is the one with the lowest energy barrier. PMID:26977185

  20. Rickettsia Phylogenomics: Unwinding the Intricacies of Obligate Intracellular Life

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Joseph J.; Williams, Kelly; Shukla, Maulik; Snyder, Eric E.; Nordberg, Eric K.; Ceraul, Shane M.; Dharmanolla, Chitti; Rainey, Daphne; Soneja, Jeetendra; Shallom, Joshua M.; Vishnubhat, Nataraj Dongre; Wattam, Rebecca; Purkayastha, Anjan; Czar, Michael; Crasta, Oswald; Setubal, Joao C.; Azad, Abdu F.; Sobral, Bruno S.

    2008-01-01

    Background Completed genome sequences are rapidly increasing for Rickettsia, obligate intracellular α-proteobacteria responsible for various human diseases, including epidemic typhus and Rocky Mountain spotted fever. In light of phylogeny, the establishment of orthologous groups (OGs) of open reading frames (ORFs) will distinguish the core rickettsial genes and other group specific genes (class 1 OGs or C1OGs) from those distributed indiscriminately throughout the rickettsial tree (class 2 OG or C2OGs). Methodology/Principal Findings We present 1823 representative (no gene duplications) and 259 non-representative (at least one gene duplication) rickettsial OGs. While the highly reductive (∼1.2 MB) Rickettsia genomes range in predicted ORFs from 872 to 1512, a core of 752 OGs was identified, depicting the essential Rickettsia genes. Unsurprisingly, this core lacks many metabolic genes, reflecting the dependence on host resources for growth and survival. Additionally, we bolster our recent reclassification of Rickettsia by identifying OGs that define the AG (ancestral group), TG (typhus group), TRG (transitional group), and SFG (spotted fever group) rickettsiae. OGs for insect-associated species, tick-associated species and species that harbor plasmids were also predicted. Through superimposition of all OGs over robust phylogeny estimation, we discern between C1OGs and C2OGs, the latter depicting genes either decaying from the conserved C1OGs or acquired laterally. Finally, scrutiny of non-representative OGs revealed high levels of split genes versus gene duplications, with both phenomena confounding gene orthology assignment. Interestingly, non-representative OGs, as well as OGs comprised of several gene families typically involved in microbial pathogenicity and/or the acquisition of virulence factors, fall predominantly within C2OG distributions. Conclusion/Significance Collectively, we determined the relative conservation and distribution of 14354 predicted

  1. Synthesis of ionones and carvone analogues: olfactory properties and preliminary toxicity assays.

    PubMed

    Anzaldi, M; Sottofattori, E; Dusatti, F; Ferro, M; Pani, M; Balbi, A

    2000-09-01

    Vilsmeier reagents react with alpha/beta-ionones and carvone to produce aldehydes 7-11 in a one-step procedure. The indene derivative 11, which came from the double iminoalkylation of carvone and ring closure with the elimination of dimethylamine, was practically odourless, while all the others had peculiar odours which were very different from the starting material. The cytotoxicity data of 9 and 10, which are the most promising potential perfume ingredients, are also reported.

  2. 21 CFR 74.1710 - D&C Yellow No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... additive D&C Yellow No. 10 is a mixture of the sodium salts of the mono- and disulfonic acids of 2-(2-quinolinyl)-1H-indene-1,3 (2H)-dione consisting principally of the sodium salts of 2-(2,3-dihydro-1,3-dioxo...-quinolinesulfonic acid with lesser amounts of the disodium salts of the disulfonic acids of...

  3. 21 CFR 74.1710 - D&C Yellow No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... additive D&C Yellow No. 10 is a mixture of the sodium salts of the mono- and disulfonic acids of 2-(2-quinolinyl)-1H-indene-1,3 (2H)-dione consisting principally of the sodium salts of 2-(2,3-dihydro-1,3-dioxo...-quinolinesulfonic acid with lesser amounts of the disodium salts of the disulfonic acids of...

  4. Formation of five- and seven-membered rings enabled by the triisopropylsilyl auxiliary group.

    PubMed

    Usanov, Dmitry L; Yamamoto, Hisashi

    2012-01-01

    A highly convenient synthetic pathway to 2-indanones from aldehydes was established. The introduction of a triisopropylsilyl group greatly facilitated Meinwald rearrangement of the intermediate epoxides and alleviated the necessity of polysubstitution for the clean formation of indenes and cyclopentadienes via cyclodehydration of allylic alcohols; unprecedented freedom with respect to the product structure was thus achieved. The developed methodology could also be applicable to the formation of seven-membered rings leading to dibenzo[7]annulenes and dibenzosuberones.

  5. Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel myrtucommulones and structural analogues that target mPGES-1 and 5-lipoxygenase.

    PubMed

    Wiechmann, Katja; Müller, Hans; Huch, Volker; Hartmann, David; Werz, Oliver; Jauch, Johann

    2015-08-28

    The natural acylphloroglucinol myrtucommulone A (1) inhibits microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase (mPGES)-1 and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO), and induces apoptosis of cancer cells. Starting from 1 as lead, 28 analogues were synthesized following a straightforward modular strategy with high yielding convergent steps. Major structural variations concerned (I) replacement of the syncarpic acid moieties by dimedone or indandione, (II) cyclization of the syncarpic acid with the acylphloroglucinol core, and (III) substitution of the methine bridges and the acyl residue with isopropyl, isobutyl, n-pentyl or phenyl groups, each. The potency for mPGES-1 inhibition was improved by 12.5-fold for 43 (2-(1-(3-hexanoyl-2,4,6-trihydroxy-5-(1-(3-hydroxy-1-oxo-1H-inden-2-yl)-2-methylpropyl)phenyl)-2-methylpropyl)-3-hydroxy-1H-inden-1-one) with IC50 = 0.08 μM, and 5-LO inhibition was improved 33-fold by 47 (2-((3-hexanoyl-2,4,6-trihydroxy-5-((3-hydroxy-1-oxo-1H-inden-2-yl) (phenyl)methyl)phenyl) (phenyl)methyl)-3-hydroxy-1H-inden-1-one) with IC50 = 0.46 μM. SAR studies revealed divergent structural determinants for induction of cell death and mPGES-1/5-LO inhibition, revealing 43 and 47 as non-cytotoxic mPGES-1 and 5-LO inhibitors that warrant further preclinical assessment as anti-inflammatory drugs. PMID:26123643

  6. Nonselective and polarization effects in time-resolved optogalvanic spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhechev, D.; Steflekova, V.

    2016-02-01

    Three interfering effects in optogalvanic (OG) spectroscopy are identified in a hollow cathode discharge (HCD) - OG detector. The laser beam is found to generate two nonselective processes, namely photoelectron emission (PE) from the cathode surface with a sub-breakdown bias applied, and nonresonant space ionization. The convolution of these galvanic contributions was determined experimentally as an instrumental function and a deconvolution procedure to determine the actual OG signal was developed. Specific plasma conductance is detected dependent on the polarization of the laser beam irradiating. Linearly/circularly polarized light beam is found to induce OG signals differ in amplitude (and their shape parameters in the time-resolved OG signals (TROGS)). The phenomena coherence and specific conductance are found to be in causal relationship. The additional conductance due to coherent states of atoms manifests itself as an intrinsic instrumental property of OG detector.

  7. Attempts to prepare an all-carbon indigoid system

    PubMed Central

    Yildizhan, Şeref; Jones, Peter G

    2015-01-01

    Summary First attempts are described to prepare a precursor for an all-carbon analog of indigo, the tetracyclic triene 4. Starting from indan-2-one (9) the α-methylene ketone 13 was prepared. Upon subjecting this compound to a McMurry coupling reaction, it dimerized to the bis-indene derivative 17, rather than providing the tetramethyl derivative of 4, the hydrocarbon 14. In a second approach, indan-1-one (18) was dimerized to the conjugated enedione 21 through the bis-1-indene dimer 19. All attempts to methylenate 21 failed, however. When 19 was treated with the Tebbe reagent, the dimer 23 was produced, presumably through a Cope reaction of the intermediately generated isomer 22. The bis-indene derivative 23 can be alkylated with 1,2-dibromoethane to produce a 1:1 mixture of the spiro compounds 24 and 25. Although 9 could be reductively dimerized to 30, the conversion of this olefin to 14 failed. PMID:25977710

  8. 7 CFR 319.56-22 - Apples and pears from certain countries in Europe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... leaf blister moth (Leucoptera malifoliella (O.G. Costa) (Lyonetiidae)), the plum fruit moth (Cydia funebrana (Treitschke) (Tortricidae)), the summer fruit tortrix moth (Adoxophyes orana (Fischer...

  9. 7 CFR 319.56-22 - Apples and pears from certain countries in Europe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... leaf blister moth (Leucoptera malifoliella (O.G. Costa) (Lyonetiidae)), the plum fruit moth (Cydia funebrana (Treitschke) (Tortricidae)), the summer fruit tortrix moth (Adoxophyes orana (Fischer...

  10. 7 CFR 319.56-22 - Apples and pears from certain countries in Europe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... leaf blister moth (Leucoptera malifoliella (O.G. Costa) (Lyonetiidae)), the plum fruit moth (Cydia funebrana (Treitschke) (Tortricidae)), the summer fruit tortrix moth (Adoxophyes orana (Fischer...

  11. 7 CFR 319.56-22 - Apples and pears from certain countries in Europe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... leaf blister moth (Leucoptera malifoliella (O.G. Costa) (Lyonetiidae)), the plum fruit moth (Cydia funebrana (Treitschke) (Tortricidae)), the summer fruit tortrix moth (Adoxophyes orana (Fischer...

  12. 7 CFR 319.56-22 - Apples and pears from certain countries in Europe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... leaf blister moth (Leucoptera malifoliella (O.G. Costa) (Lyonetiidae)), the plum fruit moth (Cydia funebrana (Treitschke) (Tortricidae)), the summer fruit tortrix moth (Adoxophyes orana (Fischer...

  13. Structural Underpinnings of Nitrogen Regulation by the Prototypical Nitrogen-Responsive Transcriptional Factor NrpR

    SciTech Connect

    Wisedchaisri, Goragot; Dranow, David M.; Lie, Thomas J.; Bonanno, Jeffrey B.; Patskovsky, Yury; Ozyurt, Sinem A.; Sauder, J. Michael; Almo, Steven C.; Wasserman, Stephen R.; Burley, Stephen K.; Leigh, John A.; Gonen, Tamir

    2010-11-29

    Plants and microorganisms reduce environmental inorganic nitrogen to ammonium, which then enters various metabolic pathways solely via conversion of 2-oxoglutarate (2OG) to glutamate and glutamine. Cellular 2OG concentrations increase during nitrogen starvation. We recently identified a family of 2OG-sensing proteins - the nitrogen regulatory protein NrpR - that bind DNA and repress transcription of nitrogen assimilation genes. We used X-ray crystallography to determine the structure of NrpR regulatory domain. We identified the NrpR 2OG-binding cleft and show that residues predicted to interact directly with 2OG are conserved among diverse classes of 2OG-binding proteins. We show that high levels of 2OG inhibit NrpRs ability to bind DNA. Electron microscopy analyses document that NrpR adopts different quaternary structures in its inhibited 2OG-bound state compared with its active apo state. Our results indicate that upon 2OG release, NrpR repositions its DNA-binding domains correctly for optimal interaction with DNA thereby enabling gene repression.

  14. A reporter ligand NMR screening method for 2-oxoglutarate oxygenase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Ivanhoe K. H.; Demetriades, Marina; Hardy, Adam P.; Lejeune, Clarisse; Smart, Tristan J.; Szöllössi, Andrea; Kawamura, Akane; Schofield, Christopher J.; Claridge, Timothy D. W.

    2015-01-01

    The human 2-oxoglutarate (2OG) dependent oxygenases belong to a family of structurally related enzymes that play important roles in many biological processes. We report that competition-based NMR methods, using 2OG as a reporter ligand, can be used for quantitative and site-specific screening of ligand binding to 2OG oxygenases. The method was demonstrated using hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) hydroxylases and histone demethylases, and KD values were determined for inhibitors that compete with 2OG at the metal centre. This technique is also useful as a screening or validation tool for inhibitor discovery, as exemplified by work with protein-directed dynamic combinatorial chemistry (DCC). PMID:23234607

  15. Aqueous leaf extract of Ocimum gratissimum improves hematological parameters in alloxan-induced diabetic rats via its antioxidant properties

    PubMed Central

    Shittu, Shehu-Tijani Toyin; Oyeyemi, Wahab A; Lasisi, Taye J; Shittu, Seyid Alli-Siise; Lawal, Temitope T; Olujobi, Samuel T

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to investigate the effects of Ocimum gratissimum (OG) on hematological parameters and oxidative stress in diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five male rats (150–200 g) were randomly grouped into five as control, normal + OG, diabetic untreated, diabetic + OG, and diabetic + glibenclamide groups. Diabetes was induced by 100 mg/kg of alloxan monohydrate in the diabetic untreated and diabetic + OG groups followed by treatment with distilled water and 400 mg/kg OG, respectively, whereas control, normal + OG, and diabetic + glibenclamide groups were treated with distilled water, 400 mg/kg OG, and 5 mg/kg glibenclamide, respectively. Body weight and fasting blood glucose level were monitored weekly. After 28 days of treatments, under anesthesia induced by 50 mg/kg sodium thiopental i.p., blood samples were obtained for hematological analysis, malondialdehyde (MDA) level determination, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Data were compared using analysis of variance and Student's t-test. Results: There was a significant decrease in the fasting blood glucose of the diabetic + OG animals compared to the diabetic untreated and the initial reduction in weight observed in this group was reversed at the end of the experiments. Packed cell volume, red blood cell count, and hemoglobin concentration were significantly increased (P < 0.05) in the diabetic + OG when compared with the untreated group. The MDA concentration was significantly lowered (P < 0.01) in the diabetic + OG group when compared with diabetic untreated while SOD activity was significantly reduced in the diabetic untreated group. Conclusion: It was concluded that OG reverses anemia secondary to alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus in rats probably via its antioxidant activity. PMID:27127737

  16. Treadmill walking is not equivalent to overground walking for the study of walking smoothness and rhythmicity in older adults.

    PubMed

    Row Lazzarini, Brandi S; Kataras, Theodore J

    2016-05-01

    Treadmills are appealing for gait studies, but some gait mechanics are disrupted during treadmill walking. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of speed and treadmill walking on walking smoothness and rhythmicity of 40 men and women between the ages of 70-96 years. Gait smoothness was examined during overground (OG) and treadmill (TM) walking by calculating the harmonic ratio from linear accelerations measured at the level of the lumbar spine. Rhythmicity was quantified as the stride time standard deviation. TM walking was performed at two speeds: a speed matching the natural OG walk speed (TM-OG), and a preferred TM speed (PTM). A dual-task OG condition (OG-DT) was evaluated to determine if TM walking posed a similar cognitive challenge. Statistical analysis included a one-way Analysis of Variance with Bonferroni corrected post hoc comparisons and the Wilcoxon signed rank test for non-normally distributed variables. Average PTM speed was slower than OG. Compared to OG, those who could reach the TM-OG speed (74.3% of sample) exhibited improved ML smoothness and rhythmicity, and the slower PTM caused worsened vertical and AP smoothness, but did not affect rhythmicity. PTM disrupted smoothness and rhythmicity differently than the OG-DT condition, likely due to reduced speed. The use of treadmills for gait smoothness and rhythmicity studies in older adults is problematic; some participants will not achieve OG speed during TM walking, walking at the TM-OG speed artificially improves rhythmicity and ML smoothness, and walking at the slower PTM speed worsens vertical and AP gait smoothness.

  17. 40 CFR 432.125 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 16 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G (as HEM) 14 8.0 TSS 30 20 1 mg/L (ppm). 2 Maximum of 400 MPN or CFU per... 4.0 BOD5 26 16 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G (as HEM) 14 8.0 TSS 30 20 Total Nitrogen 147 103 1...

  18. 40 CFR 432.125 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 16 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G (as HEM) 14 8.0 TSS 30 20 1 mg/L (ppm). 2 Maximum of 400 MPN or CFU per... 4.0 BOD5 26 16 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G (as HEM) 14 8.0 TSS 30 20 Total Nitrogen 147 103 1...

  19. Glioblastoma with oligodendroglial components: glioblastoma or anaplastic oligodendroglial tumors.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Hiroaki; Hosoda, Tetsuya; Kitai, Ryuhei; Kodera, Toshiaki; Arishima, Hidetaka; Tsunetoshi, Kenzo; Neishi, Hiroyuki; Yamauchi, Takahiro; Sato, Kazufumi; Imamura, Yoshiyuki; Itoh, Hiroshi; Kubota, Toshihiko; Kikuta, Ken-ichiro

    2012-07-01

    There have been some recent reports about glioblastoma with oligodendroglial (OG) components and malignant glioma with primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET)-like components. We investigated whether the presence and extent of OG components and PNET-like components influenced the prognosis in patients with glioblastoma. Eighty-six patients with glioblastoma were divided into an OG group (28 %), which revealed areas with a honeycomb appearance, and a non-OG group (72 %) without a honeycomb appearance. Patients with glioblastoma were also divided into a PNET group (27 %), which revealed areas with PNET-like features defined as neoplastic cells with high N/C ratios and hyperchromatic oval-carrot-shaped nuclei, and lacked the typical honeycomb appearance, and a non-PNET group (73 %) without PNET features. There were no significant differences in overall survival among the OG, the non-OG, the PNET, and the non-PNET groups. Two patients who survived longer than 36 months had both OG and PNET components with 1p or 19q loss of heterozygosity. Perinuclear halo, which is a characteristic feature of oligodendrogliomas, is an artifact of tissue fixation. Therefore, we should not readily use the term glioblastoma with OG components. PNET-like components, which are considered rare in malignant gliomas, may be frequently identified in glioblastomas. PMID:22527749

  20. The low temperature oxidation of lithium thin films on HOPG by O2 and H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wulfsberg, Steven M.; Koel, Bruce E.; Bernasek, Steven L.

    2016-09-01

    Lithiated graphite and lithium thin films have been used in fusion devices. In this environment, lithiated graphite will undergo oxidation by background gases. In order to gain insight into this oxidation process, thin (< 15 monolayer (ML)) lithium films on highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) were exposed to O2(g) and H2O(g) in an ultra-high vacuum chamber. High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) was used to identify the surface species formed during O2(g) and H2O(g) exposure. Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) was used to obtain the relative oxidation rates during O2(g) and H2O(g) exposure. AES showed that as the lithium film thickness decreased from 15 to 5 to 1 ML, the oxidation rate decreased for both O2(g) and H2O(g). HREELS showed that a 15 ML lithium film was fully oxidized after 9.7 L (L) of O2(g) exposure and Li2O was formed. HREELS also showed that during initial exposure (< 0.5 L) H2O(g), lithium hydride and lithium hydroxide were formed on the surface of a 15 ML lithium film. After 0.5 L of H2O(g) exposure, the H2O(g) began to physisorb, and after 15 L of H2O(g) exposure, the 15 ML lithium film was not fully oxidized.

  1. Reprint of "The low temperature oxidation of lithium thin films on HOPG by O2 and H2O"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wulfsberg, Steven M.; Koel, Bruce E.; Bernasek, Steven L.

    2016-10-01

    Lithiated graphite and lithium thin films have been used in fusion devices. In this environment, lithiated graphite will undergo oxidation by background gases. In order to gain insight into this oxidation process, thin (< 15 monolayer (ML)) lithium films on highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) were exposed to O2(g) and H2O(g) in an ultra-high vacuum chamber. High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) was used to identify the surface species formed during O2(g) and H2O(g) exposure. Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) was used to obtain the relative oxidation rates during O2(g) and H2O(g) exposure. AES showed that as the lithium film thickness decreased from 15 to 5 to 1 ML, the oxidation rate decreased for both O2(g) and H2O(g). HREELS showed that a 15 ML lithium film was fully oxidized after 9.7 L (L) of O2(g) exposure and Li2O was formed. HREELS also showed that during initial exposure (< 0.5 L) H2O(g), lithium hydride and lithium hydroxide were formed on the surface of a 15 ML lithium film. After 0.5 L of H2O(g) exposure, the H2O(g) began to physisorb, and after 15 L of H2O(g) exposure, the 15 ML lithium film was not fully oxidized.

  2. VERTICAL STRATIFICATION OF SOIL WATER STORAGE AND RELEASE DYNAMICS IN PACIFIC NORTHWEST CONIFEROUS FORESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    abstract for journal article We characterized vertical variation in the seasonal depletion of stored soil moisture in old-growth ponderosa pine (OG-PP, xeric), and young and old-growth Douglas-fir (Y-DF, OG-DF, mesic) forests to evaluate changes in water availability for root up...

  3. Oligogalacturonide-auxin antagonism does not require posttranscriptional gene silencing or stabilization of auxin response repressors in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Savatin, Daniel V; Ferrari, Simone; Sicilia, Francesca; De Lorenzo, Giulia

    2011-11-01

    α-1-4-Linked oligogalacturonides (OGs) derived from plant cell walls are a class of damage-associated molecular patterns and well-known elicitors of the plant immune response. Early transcript changes induced by OGs largely overlap those induced by flg22, a peptide derived from bacterial flagellin, a well-characterized microbe-associated molecular pattern, although responses diverge over time. OGs also regulate growth and development of plant cells and organs, due to an auxin-antagonistic activity. The molecular basis of this antagonism is still unknown. Here we show that, in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), OGs inhibit adventitious root formation induced by auxin in leaf explants as well as the expression of several auxin-responsive genes. Genetic, biochemical, and pharmacological experiments indicate that inhibition of auxin responses by OGs does not require ethylene, jasmonic acid, and salicylic acid signaling and is independent of RESPIRATORY BURST OXIDASE HOMOLOGUE D-mediated reactive oxygen species production. Free indole-3-acetic acid levels are not noticeably altered by OGs. Notably, OG- as well as flg22-auxin antagonism does not involve any of the following mechanisms: (1) stabilization of auxin-response repressors; (2) decreased levels of auxin receptor transcripts through the action of microRNAs. Our results suggest that OGs and flg22 antagonize auxin responses independently of Aux/Indole-3-Acetic Acid repressor stabilization and of posttranscriptional gene silencing.

  4. Differential expression of carotenoid-related genes determines diversified carotenoid coloration in floral tissues of Oncidium cultivars.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Chung-Yi; Pan, Hsin-An; Chuang, Yao-Nung; Yeh, Kai-Wun

    2010-09-01

    Three cultivars of Oncidium orchid with varied coloration, such as Oncidium Gower Ramsey (yellow), Sunkist (orange), and White Jade (white), were analyzed for carotenoid metabolites and gene expression of carotenoid-biosynthetic genes. The HPLC analysis revealed that yellow Gower Ramsey accumulates violaxanthin, 9-cis-violaxanthin and neoxanthin, orange Sunkist accumulates an additional beta-carotene, and White Jade is devoid of carotenoid compounds. Molecular characterization indicated that the three Oncidium cultivars exhibited varied expression pattern and level in carotenoid-biosynthetic pathway. Among them, high expression level of beta-hydroxylase (OgHYB) and zeaxanthin epoxidase (OgZEP) was displayed in yellow Gower Ramsey, relative to the down-regulation of OgHYB and OgZEP exhibited in orange Sunkist, which results in the accumulation of beta-carotene and orange coloration in floral tissues. However, White Jade is caused by the up-regulation of OgCCD1 (Carotenoid Cleavage Dioxygenase 1), which catabolizes carotenoid metabolites. Methylation assay of OgCCD1 promoter in White Jade and Gower Ramsey revealed that a high level of DNA methylation was present in OgCCD1 promoter region of Gower Ramsey. Transient expression of OgCCD1 in yellow lip tissues of Gower Ramsey by bombardment confirmed its function of disintegrating carotenoid compounds. Our results suggest an evolutionary significance that genetic variation of carotenoid-related genes in Oncidium generates the complexity of floral pigmentation and consequently provides the profound varieties in Oncidium population.

  5. Reading and Spelling Gains Following One Year of Orton-Gillingham Intervention in Singaporean Students with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Lois; Oei, Adam C.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of Orton-Gillingham (OG) based approaches to dyslexia remediation, empirical support documenting its effectiveness is lacking. Recently, Chia and Houghton demonstrated the effectiveness of the OG approach for remediation of dyslexia in Singapore. As a conceptual replication and extension of that research, we report…

  6. eggNOG 4.5: a hierarchical orthology framework with improved functional annotations for eukaryotic, prokaryotic and viral sequences.

    PubMed

    Huerta-Cepas, Jaime; Szklarczyk, Damian; Forslund, Kristoffer; Cook, Helen; Heller, Davide; Walter, Mathias C; Rattei, Thomas; Mende, Daniel R; Sunagawa, Shinichi; Kuhn, Michael; Jensen, Lars Juhl; von Mering, Christian; Bork, Peer

    2016-01-01

    eggNOG is a public resource that provides Orthologous Groups (OGs) of proteins at different taxonomic levels, each with integrated and summarized functional annotations. Developments since the latest public release include changes to the algorithm for creating OGs across taxonomic levels, making nested groups hierarchically consistent. This allows for a better propagation of functional terms across nested OGs and led to the novel annotation of 95 890 previously uncharacterized OGs, increasing overall annotation coverage from 67% to 72%. The functional annotations of OGs have been expanded to also provide Gene Ontology terms, KEGG pathways and SMART/Pfam domains for each group. Moreover, eggNOG now provides pairwise orthology relationships within OGs based on analysis of phylogenetic trees. We have also incorporated a framework for quickly mapping novel sequences to OGs based on precomputed HMM profiles. Finally, eggNOG version 4.5 incorporates a novel data set spanning 2605 viral OGs, covering 5228 proteins from 352 viral proteomes. All data are accessible for bulk downloading, as a web-service, and through a completely redesigned web interface. The new access points provide faster searches and a number of new browsing and visualization capabilities, facilitating the needs of both experts and less experienced users. eggNOG v4.5 is available at http://eggnog.embl.de. PMID:26582926

  7. eggNOG 4.5: a hierarchical orthology framework with improved functional annotations for eukaryotic, prokaryotic and viral sequences

    PubMed Central

    Huerta-Cepas, Jaime; Szklarczyk, Damian; Forslund, Kristoffer; Cook, Helen; Heller, Davide; Walter, Mathias C.; Rattei, Thomas; Mende, Daniel R.; Sunagawa, Shinichi; Kuhn, Michael; Jensen, Lars Juhl; von Mering, Christian; Bork, Peer

    2016-01-01

    eggNOG is a public resource that provides Orthologous Groups (OGs) of proteins at different taxonomic levels, each with integrated and summarized functional annotations. Developments since the latest public release include changes to the algorithm for creating OGs across taxonomic levels, making nested groups hierarchically consistent. This allows for a better propagation of functional terms across nested OGs and led to the novel annotation of 95 890 previously uncharacterized OGs, increasing overall annotation coverage from 67% to 72%. The functional annotations of OGs have been expanded to also provide Gene Ontology terms, KEGG pathways and SMART/Pfam domains for each group. Moreover, eggNOG now provides pairwise orthology relationships within OGs based on analysis of phylogenetic trees. We have also incorporated a framework for quickly mapping novel sequences to OGs based on precomputed HMM profiles. Finally, eggNOG version 4.5 incorporates a novel data set spanning 2605 viral OGs, covering 5228 proteins from 352 viral proteomes. All data are accessible for bulk downloading, as a web-service, and through a completely redesigned web interface. The new access points provide faster searches and a number of new browsing and visualization capabilities, facilitating the needs of both experts and less experienced users. eggNOG v4.5 is available at http://eggnog.embl.de. PMID:26582926

  8. eggNOG 4.5: a hierarchical orthology framework with improved functional annotations for eukaryotic, prokaryotic and viral sequences.

    PubMed

    Huerta-Cepas, Jaime; Szklarczyk, Damian; Forslund, Kristoffer; Cook, Helen; Heller, Davide; Walter, Mathias C; Rattei, Thomas; Mende, Daniel R; Sunagawa, Shinichi; Kuhn, Michael; Jensen, Lars Juhl; von Mering, Christian; Bork, Peer

    2016-01-01

    eggNOG is a public resource that provides Orthologous Groups (OGs) of proteins at different taxonomic levels, each with integrated and summarized functional annotations. Developments since the latest public release include changes to the algorithm for creating OGs across taxonomic levels, making nested groups hierarchically consistent. This allows for a better propagation of functional terms across nested OGs and led to the novel annotation of 95 890 previously uncharacterized OGs, increasing overall annotation coverage from 67% to 72%. The functional annotations of OGs have been expanded to also provide Gene Ontology terms, KEGG pathways and SMART/Pfam domains for each group. Moreover, eggNOG now provides pairwise orthology relationships within OGs based on analysis of phylogenetic trees. We have also incorporated a framework for quickly mapping novel sequences to OGs based on precomputed HMM profiles. Finally, eggNOG version 4.5 incorporates a novel data set spanning 2605 viral OGs, covering 5228 proteins from 352 viral proteomes. All data are accessible for bulk downloading, as a web-service, and through a completely redesigned web interface. The new access points provide faster searches and a number of new browsing and visualization capabilities, facilitating the needs of both experts and less experienced users. eggNOG v4.5 is available at http://eggnog.embl.de.

  9. The detergent octylglucoside neutralizes lipopolysaccharide in a specific manner.

    PubMed

    Henrich, B; Guadarrama, R; Zähringer, U; MacKenzie, C R

    2001-04-01

    The stimulatory effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on human macrophages was found to be neutralized by the detergent octylglucoside (OG). Both macrophage stimulation and reactivity in a limulus amebocyte lysate test were suppressed by suspension of LPS in OG at concentrations between 0.25 and 2.5 mM, whereas other stimulatory lipopeptides and lipid containing stimulants were unaffected by OG. LPS at concentrations causing maximal stimulation of macrophages could be completely neutralized by non-toxic concentrations of OG. In addition, it was found that the neutralization in complex mixtures of macromolecules, such as bacterial cell lysate, was specific for LPS and that the stimulatory activity of the other substances in the mixture was not affected by the OG.

  10. Translating obstetrics and gynaecology undergraduate experience into career aspiration: an audit of Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG) medical student placement standards.

    PubMed

    Bonnett, T J; Roberts, A L; Farrell, T A

    2012-11-01

    In 2006, the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG) published a list of undergraduate placement standards in an effort to improve the obstetrics and gynaecology (O&G) undergraduate experience and reverse declining interest in the specialty among UK graduates. We surveyed 3rd-year medical students undertaking O&G placements to investigate how appropriate they felt the RCOG placement standards were. We present the first evaluation of these standards and discuss their potential role in improving the undergraduate O&G experience. We also sought to examine the influence of undergraduate O&G exposure on interest in entering the specialty and the effect of gender on perceived learning experience. Students rated the RCOG standards as highly appropriate, and significant differences in clinical exposure and career intentions were seen between genders. Overall, students demonstrated greater interest in pursuing O&G than has previously been documented, which may represent a wider upturn in interest in the speciality.

  11. Development of a liposome microbicide formulation for vaginal delivery of octylglycerol for HIV prevention

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lin; Sassi, Alexandra Beumer; Patton, Dorothy; Isaacs, Charles; Moncla, B. J.; Gupta, Phalguni; Rohan, Lisa Cencia

    2015-01-01

    The feasibility of using a liposome drug delivery system to formulate octylglycerol (OG) as a vaginal microbicide product was explored. A liposome formulation was developed containing 1% OG and phosphatidyl choline in a ratio that demonstrated in vitro activity against Neisseria gonorrhoeae, HSV-1, HSV-2 and HIV-1 while sparing the innate vaginal flora, Lactobacillus. Two conventional gel formulations were prepared for comparison. The OG liposome formulation with the appropriate OG/lipid ratio and dosing level had greater efficacy than either conventional gel formulation and maintained this efficacy for at least 2 months. No toxicity was observed for the liposome formulation in ex vivo testing in a human ectocervical tissue model or in vivo testing in the macaque safety model. Furthermore, minimal toxicity was observed to lactobacilli in vitro or in vivo safety testing. The OG liposome formulation offers a promising microbicide product with efficacy against HSV, HIV and N. gonorrhoeae. PMID:22149387

  12. Oligogalacturonides: plant damage-associated molecular patterns and regulators of growth and development.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Simone; Savatin, Daniel V; Sicilia, Francesca; Gramegna, Giovanna; Cervone, Felice; Lorenzo, Giulia De

    2013-01-01

    Oligogalacturonides (OGs) are oligomers of alpha-1,4-linked galacturonosyl residues released from plant cell walls upon partial degradation of homogalacturonan. OGs are able to elicit defense responses, including accumulation of reactive oxygen species and pathogenesis-related proteins, and protect plants against pathogen infections. Recent studies demonstrated that OGs are perceived by wall-associated kinases and share signaling components with microbe-associated molecular patterns. For this reason OGs are now considered true damage-associated molecular patterns that activate the plant innate immunity and may also be involved in the activation of responses to mechanical wounding. Furthermore, OGs appear to modulate developmental processes, likely through their ability to antagonize auxin responses. Here we review our current knowledge on the role and mode of action of this class of oligosaccharides in plant defense and development.

  13. Morphology and structure of extremely red objects at z ∼ 1 in the CANDELS-COSMOS field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Guan-Wen; Ma, Zhong-Yang; Chen, Yang; Kong, Xu

    2015-06-01

    Using high-resolution HST/Wide Field Camera 3 F125W imaging from the CANDELS-COSMOS field, we report the structural and morphological properties of extremely red objects (EROs) at z ∼ 1. Based on the UVJ color criteria, we separate EROs into two types: old passive galaxies (OGs) and dusty star-forming galaxies (DGs). For a given stellar mass, we find that the mean size of OGs (DGs) is smaller by a factor of ∼ 2 (1.5) than that of present-day early-type (late-type) galaxies at a rest-frame optical wavelength. We derive the average effective radii of OGs and DGs, corresponding to 2.09 ± 1.13 kpc and 3.27 ± 1.14 kpc, respectively. Generally, the DGs are heterogeneous, with mixed features including bulges, disks and irregular structures, with relatively high M20, large size and low G. By contrast, OGs have elliptical-like compact morphologies with lower M20, smaller size and higher G, indicating a more concentrated and symmetric spatial extent of the stellar population distribution in OGs than DGs. These findings imply that OGs and DGs have different evolutionary processes, and that the minor merger scenario is the most likely mechanism for the structural properties of OGs. However, the size evolution of DGs is possibly due to the secular evolution of galaxies. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China.

  14. Release model for in situ vitrification large-field test off-gas treatment system

    SciTech Connect

    Pafford, D.J.; Tung, V.X.

    1992-03-01

    A conceptual model for the vapor and aerosol transport and deposition in the in situ vitrification large-field test off-gas system (OGS) has been developed. This model can be used to predict the emissions from the OGS under normal and off-normal conditions. Results generated by the model can be used to evaluate design and/or procedural modifications, define tests, and predict results. The OGS vapor and aerosol transport and deposition is modeled using the PULSE/MOD-ISV/VER 1.0.0 developmental computer code. Input data requirements for this code include the specific geometries of the OGS components; the composition, rate, and temperature of the vapors and aerosols entering the OGS; and the OGS component surface temperatures or heat fluxes. Currently, not all of these model inputs are available. Therefore, conceptual input parameters are developed. Using this input data, preliminary calculations with the code have been performed. These calculations include a demonstration that the code predicts convergent results, a comparison of predicted results with performance data for one of the OGS components, and a preliminary sensitivity study of the complete model.

  15. Extensive Copy Number Variations in Admixed Indian Population of African Ancestry: Potential Involvement in Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Dash, Debasis; Mukerji, Mitali

    2014-01-01

    Admixture mapping has been enormously resourceful in identifying genetic variations linked to phenotypes, adaptation, and diseases. In this study through analysis of copy number variable regions (CNVRs), we report extensive restructuring in the genomes of the recently admixed African-Indian population (OG-W-IP) that inhabits a highly saline environment in Western India. The study included subjects from OG-W-IP (OG), five different Indian and three HapMap populations that were genotyped using Affymetrix version 6.0 arrays. Copy number variations (CNVs) detected using Birdsuite were used to define CNVRs. Population structure with respect to CNVRs was delineated using random forest approach. OG genomes have a surprising excess of CNVs in comparison to other studied populations. Individual ancestry proportions computed using STRUCTURE also reveals a unique genetic component in OGs. Population structure analysis with CNV genotypes indicates OG to be distant from both the African and Indian ancestral populations. Interestingly, it shows genetic proximity with respect to CNVs to only one Indian population IE-W-LP4, which also happens to reside in the same geographical region. We also observe a significant enrichment of molecular processes related to ion binding and receptor activity in genes encompassing OG-specific CNVRs. Our results suggest that retention of CNVRs from ancestral natives and de novo acquisition of CNVRs could accelerate the process of adaptation especially in an extreme environment. Additionally, this population would be enormously useful for dissecting genes and delineating the involvement of CNVs in salt adaptation. PMID:25398783

  16. Three new tetranorditerpenes from aerial parts of acerola cherry (Malpighia emarginata).

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie-Qing; Deng, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Ting-Zhao; Han, Qiang; Li, Yan; Qiu, Ming-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Acerola cherry is a world famous fruit which contains abundant antioxidants such as vitamin C, anthocyanins, flavonoids, and phenolics. However, studies concerning bioactivity components from aerial parts of acerola (Malpighia emarginata) are scarce. In view of this, we have examined the constituents of aerial parts of acerola, and three new tetranorditerpenes acerolanins A-C (1-3) with a rare 2H-benz[e]inden-2-one substructure were isolated. Their structures were determined on the basis of spectral studies and acerolanin C was confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis. Furthermore, three new compounds have been studied for their cytotoxic activity. PMID:24566326

  17. Thermally-generated reactive intermediates: Trapping of the parent ferrocene-based o-quinodimethane and reactions of diradicals generated by hydrogen-atom transfers

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, J.M.

    1993-09-01

    Ferrocenocyclobutene is prepared by flash vacuum pyrolysis (FVP) of the N-amino-2-phenylaziridine hydrazone of 2-methylferrocenealdehyde. In the second section of this dissertation, a series of hydrocarbon rearrangements were observed. FVP of o-allyltoluene at 0.1 Torr (700--900 C) gives 2-methylindan and indene, accompanied by o-propenyltoluene. FVP of 2-methyl-2`-vinylbiphenyl gives 9-methyl-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene, which fits the proposed mechanism. However, FVP of 2-(o-methylbenzyl)styrene gives mainly anthracene and 1-methylanthracene. This cyclization reaction was also successful with o-allylphenol and o-(2-methylallyl)phenol.

  18. High-temperature organic-fluid fouling unit

    SciTech Connect

    Kuru, W.C.; Panchal, C.B.

    1997-06-01

    A new type of fouling unit is developed for high-temperature (500 C) and high-pressure (70 atmosphere) fouling experiments by modifying a commercial autoclave. Key modifications are the installation of a helical impeller in a flow tube and a fouling probe in the autoclave to simulate the fluid dynamics and heat transfer of typical heat-exchange equipment. A calibration technique is described, and fouling results are presented for experimental runs with indene and kerosene. The results are compared with those obtained using other types of fouling test units. Other potential applications of the fouling unit, such as corrosion and micro-scale reaction experiments, are discussed.

  19. Near-infrared absorbing boron-dibenzopyrromethenes that serve as light-harvesting sensitizers for polymeric solar cells.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Yuji; Watanabe, Kazuki; Nishiyabu, Ryuhei; Hata, Rieko; Murakami, Akinori; Shoda, Takayuki; Ota, Hitoshi

    2011-09-01

    Hexylthiophene-conjugated boron-dibenzopyrromethenes with benzo[1,3,2]oxazaborinine rings, 1, that absorb near-infrared light with relatively high molecular extinction coefficients have been synthesized. The incorporation of 3-hexylthiophene-conjugated dye 1a at a blend ratio of 5 wt % into a polymeric solar cell based on a P3HT/indene-C(70) bisadduct (IC(70)BA) bulk heterojunction structure improved power conversion efficiency from 3.7 to 4.3%. The present work suggests that well-defined near-infrared absorbing BODIPY analogues can potentially be used as photosensitizers in polymeric solar cells.

  20. Improvement of initial adhesion to aluminum of insulating glass polyurethane sealants using a tertiary amine based curing system

    SciTech Connect

    Hubin-Eschger, P.J.

    1996-12-31

    Hydroxylated polybutadiene based insulated glass sealants are well known to have a very low moisture vapor transmission rate and an excellent adhesion to glass and aluminum. Since the beginning of their industrial development, the best and most known and effective curing system for these sealants has been an organomercuric ester based catalyst. The current and future pressure regarding ecological and toxicological issues will make this type of product increasingly difficult to use. This paper presents the results of work to develop other catalytic systems, which were obtained with the tertiary amine dimethylbenzylamine. The final improvement of initial adhesion to aluminum is obtained with the use of phenolic derivatives of coumarone indene.

  1. Crystal structure of 3,4′-diphenyl-3′-p-tolyl-4′H-spiro­[indan-2,5′-[1,2]oxazol]-1-one

    PubMed Central

    Mahfoud, Asmae; Al Houari, Ghali; El Yazidi, Mohamed; Saadi, Mohamed; El Ammari, Lahcen

    2015-01-01

    In the title compound, C30H23NO2, the five-membered rings are both in envelope conformations with the same spiro C atom as the flap. The benzene ring and the two phenyl rings are inclined to the mean plane of the indene ring system by 83.98 (8), 81.46 (8) and 72.31 (7)°. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by pairs of C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds into inversion dimers. The dimers are further connected by C—H⋯N inter­actions, forming layers parallel to (10-1). PMID:26594573

  2. Crystal structure of 3,4'-diphenyl-3'-p-tolyl-4'H-spiro-[indan-2,5'-[1,2]oxazol]-1-one.

    PubMed

    Mahfoud, Asmae; Al Houari, Ghali; El Yazidi, Mohamed; Saadi, Mohamed; El Ammari, Lahcen

    2015-11-01

    In the title compound, C30H23NO2, the five-membered rings are both in envelope conformations with the same spiro C atom as the flap. The benzene ring and the two phenyl rings are inclined to the mean plane of the indene ring system by 83.98 (8), 81.46 (8) and 72.31 (7)°. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked by pairs of C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds into inversion dimers. The dimers are further connected by C-H⋯N inter-actions, forming layers parallel to (10-1). PMID:26594573

  3. Combinatorial synthesis of pyrazoloquinoline and pyrazoloacridine derivatives with high regioselectivity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dong-Sheng; Zhou, Yu-Jing; Li, Yu-Ling; Yao, Chang-Sheng; Wang, Xiang-Shan

    2013-06-28

    Three-component reaction of aldehyde, 1H-indazol-6-amine and 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds in EtOH under catalyst-free conditions, generates the corresponding pyrazolo[3,4-a]acridine, cyclopenta[b]pyrazolo[3,4-f]quinoline, indeno[1,2-b]pyrazolo[3,4-f]quinoline and benzo[h]pyrazolo[3,4-a]acridine derivatives in high yields and regioselectivity, respectively. The dicarbonyl compounds include 5,5-dimethylcyclohexane-1,3-dione, cyclopentane-1,3-dione, 2H-indene- 1,3-dione and 2-hydroxynaphthalene-1,4-dione. PMID:23410044

  4. Three new tetranorditerpenes from aerial parts of acerola cherry (Malpighia emarginata).

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie-Qing; Deng, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Ting-Zhao; Han, Qiang; Li, Yan; Qiu, Ming-Hua

    2014-02-24

    Acerola cherry is a world famous fruit which contains abundant antioxidants such as vitamin C, anthocyanins, flavonoids, and phenolics. However, studies concerning bioactivity components from aerial parts of acerola (Malpighia emarginata) are scarce. In view of this, we have examined the constituents of aerial parts of acerola, and three new tetranorditerpenes acerolanins A-C (1-3) with a rare 2H-benz[e]inden-2-one substructure were isolated. Their structures were determined on the basis of spectral studies and acerolanin C was confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis. Furthermore, three new compounds have been studied for their cytotoxic activity.

  5. Electron-deficient η1-Indenyl,η3-allylpalladium(II) complexes stabilized by fluxional non-covalent interactions.

    PubMed

    Werlé, Christophe; Hamdaoui, Mustapha; Bailly, Corinne; Le Goff, Xavier-Frédéric; Brelot, Lydia; Djukic, Jean-Pierre

    2013-02-01

    Highly fluxional, solution-persistent, and formally electron-deficient (32e(-)) binuclear Pd(II)-C(0) complexes of 2-methyl-1H-indene were synthesized and structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis. DFT investigations combined with a number of theoretical analyses of the bond framework suggest that the polar intermetallic interaction possesses no major covalent character. Instead of bearing a static metal-metal bond as suggested by structural X-ray diffraction analysis, the complexes display in solution significant fluxionality through haptotropy, i.e., a formal "oscillation" of the Pd(η(3)-allyl) moiety between two limiting η(1)-indenyl configurations. PMID:23317421

  6. A Serendipitous Synthesis of 11a-Hydroxy-11,11a-dihydrobenzo[e]indeno[2,1-b][1,4]diazepine-10,12-dione Derivatives by Condensation of 2-Aminobenzamides with Ninhydrin in Water.

    PubMed

    Devi, Rajkumari Vijilata; Garande, Ashok M; Maity, Dilip K; Bhate, Prakash M

    2016-02-19

    Ninhydrin undergoes an unprecedented condensation reaction with various 2-aminobenzamide derivatives in boiling water to afford 11a-hydroxy-11,11a-dihydrobenzo[e]indeno[2,1-b][1,4]diazepine-10,12-dione derivatives. These hitherto unreported products are easily isolated in high yield by a simple filtration step. An interesting "ortho effect" was observed in the condensation reaction of ninhydrin with 2-amino-N-phenylbenzamide derivatives having an ortho- substituent in the N-phenyl moiety wherein the corresponding expected 3'-phenyl-1'H-spiro[indene-2,2'-quinazoline]-1,3,4'(3'H)-triones were obtained. PMID:26784368

  7. Formal [4 + 1] Cycloadditions of β,β-Diaryl-Substituted ortho-(Alkynyl)styrenes through Gold(I)-Catalyzed Cycloisomerization Reactions.

    PubMed

    Sanjuán, Ana M; Virumbrales, Cintia; García-García, Patricia; Fernández-Rodríguez, Manuel A; Sanz, Roberto

    2016-03-01

    Gold(I)-catalyzed cycloisomerization of β,β-diaryl-o-(alkynyl)styrenes at 80 °C selectively yields dihydroindeno[2,1-a]indenes in a transformation that encompasses a formal [4 + 1] cycloaddition and takes place through a cascade 5-endo-cyclization-diene activation-iso-Nazarov cyclization. In addition, by performing the reaction at 0 °C, the same substrates exclusively give rise to benzofulvene derivatives, which have also been shown to be intermediates in the formation of the tetracyclics. PMID:26883951

  8. Diarylindenotetracenes via a selective cross-coupling/C-H functionalization: electron donors for organic photovoltaic cells.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xingxian; Luhman, Wade A; Yagodkin, Elisey; Holmes, Russell J; Douglas, Christopher J

    2012-03-16

    A direct synthesis of new donor materials for organic photovoltaic cells is reported. Diaryindenotetracenes were synthesized utilizing a Kumada-Tamao-Corriu cross-coupling of peri-substituted tetrachlorotetracene with spontaneous indene annulation via C-H activation. Vacuum deposited planar heterojunction organic photovoltaic cells incorporating these molecules as electron donors exhibit power conversion efficiencies exceeding 1.5% with open-circuit voltages ranging from 0.7 to 1.1 V when coupled with C(60) as an electron acceptor.

  9. Gold(I) Carbenes by Retro-Buchner Reaction: Generation and Fate

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The fate of the aryl gold(I) carbenes generated by retro-Buchner reaction of ortho-substituted 7-aryl-1,3,5-cycloheptatrienes is dependent on the constitution of the ortho substituent. Indenes and fluorenes are obtained by intramolecular reaction of highly electrophilic gold(I) carbenes with alkenes and arenes. According to density functional theory calculations, the gold-catalyzed retro-Buchner process occurs stepwise, although the two carbon–carbon cleavages occur on a rather flat potential energy surface. PMID:24358986

  10. New materials for organic light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, S.J.; Pollagi, T.P.; Sinclair, M.B.; Scurlock, R.D.; Ogilby, P.R.

    1995-12-01

    We have investigated the performance of a class of heterocycles, 5, 10-dihetera-5,10-dihydroindeno[3,2b]indenes, as hole transport agents in simple double heterostructure organic light-emitting diodes with tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq). The best of these materials, 5,10-dihydroindolo[3,2b]indole, yields devices with luminance and lifetimes comparable to those obtained using N,N{prime}-di-(3-methylphenyl)-N,N{prime}diphenyl-4,4{prime}-diaminobiphenyl (TPD) as a hole transporting material.

  11. Use of benzo analogs to enhance antimycotic activity of kresoxim methyl for control of aflatoxigenic fungal pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong H.; Mahoney, Noreen; Chan, Kathleen L.; Campbell, Bruce C.; Haff, Ronald P.; Stanker, Larry H.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine two benzo analogs, octylgallate (OG) and veratraldehyde (VT), as antifungal agents against strains of Aspergillus parasiticus and A.flavus (toxigenic or atoxigenic). Both toxigenic and atoxigenic strains used were capable of producing kojic acid, another cellular secondary product. A. fumigatus was used as a genetic model for this study. When applied independently, OG exhibits considerably higher antifungal activity compared to VT. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of OG were 0.3–0.5 mM, while that of VT were 3.0–5.0 mM in agar plate-bioassays. OG or VT in concert with the fungicide kresoxim methyl (Kre-Me; strobilurin) greatly enhanced sensitivity of Aspergillus strains to Kre-Me. The combination with OG also overcame the tolerance of A. fumigatus mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) mutants to Kre-Me. The degree of compound interaction resulting from chemosensitization of the fungi by OG was determined using checkerboard bioassays, where synergistic activity greatly lowered MICs or minimum fungicidal concentrations. However, the control chemosensitizer benzohydroxamic acid, an alternative oxidase inhibitor conventionally applied in concert with strobilurin, did not achieve synergism. The level of antifungal or chemosensitizing activity was also “compound—strain” specific, indicating differential susceptibility of tested strains to OG or VT, and/or heat stress. Besides targeting the antioxidant system, OG also negatively affected the cell wall-integrity pathway, as determined by the inhibition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall-integrity MAPK pathway mutants. We concluded that certain benzo analogs effectively inhibit fungal growth. They possess chemosensitizing capability to increase efficacy of Kre-Me and thus, could reduce effective dosages of strobilurins and alleviate negative side effects associated with current antifungal practices. OG also exhibits moderate antiaflatoxigenic activity. PMID

  12. Effect of nucleosides and a nucleotide mixture on proliferation of human gastric cancer cells (KATO III).

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Usami, M; Yasuda, I; Kasahara, H; Kotani, G; Cao, Y; Zheng, J; Iso, A; Kanamaru, T; Ohyanagi, H

    1994-04-01

    The effect of the nucleotides and a nucleotide mixture (OG-VI), consisting of inosine, guanosine 5'-monophosphate (5'-GMP), cytidine, uridine, thymidine (TdR) (4:4:4:3:1 in molar ratio), and TdR co-administration on proliferation of KATO III human gastric cancer cells in culture was evaluated. Consumption of purine and pyrimidine by cancer cells and changes in cell number with OG-VI or TdR were compared with the control culture medium (Williams E) after 72 hour-culture. Addition of OG-VI or TdR did not enhance the cellular proliferation, but inhibited growth when given in higher concentrations (0.3-3 mM inosine, 0.3-3 mM 5'-GMP, 0.22-2.2 mM uridine, 74-740 microM TdR). Consumption rate of TdR in the medium was less in the TdR group, 33.7%, than in the OG-VI group, 72.2% (p < 0.05). This suggests that TdR metabolism is modulated by other nucleosides and nucleotide included in OG-VI. Under the coadministration of 5-fluorouracil (FUra), addition of OG-VI or TdR suppressed cellular proliferation (p < 0.05). The inhibition rate of cellular proliferation in the OG-VI group was slightly higher than the TdR group, but there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups. The combination of FUra with OG-VI or TdR enhances the antitumor effect of FUra. It is concluded that the OG-VI does not enhance the tumor cell proliferation and it is a potential biochemical modulator of FUra metabolism in human cancer cells. PMID:7823535

  13. Overview of Ground Station 1 of the NASA space communications and navigation program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, W. T.; Antsos, D.; Croonquist, A.; Piazzolla, S.; Roberts, L. C.; Garkanian, V.; Trinh, T.; Wright, M. W.; Rogalin, R.; Wu, J.; Clare, L.

    2016-03-01

    Optical Ground Station 1 (OGS1) is the first of a new breed of dedicated ground terminals to support NASA's developing space-based optical communications infrastructure. It is based at NASA's Optical Communications Telescope Laboratory (OCTL) at the Table Mountain Observatory near Wrightwood, CA. The system will serve as the primary ground station for NASA's Laser Communications Relay Demonstration (LCRD) experiment. This paper presents an overview of the OCTL telescope facility, the OGS1 ground-based optical communications systems, and the networking and control infrastructure currently under development. The OGS1 laser safety systems and atmospheric monitoring systems are also briefly described.

  14. Explosion and/or fire risk assessment methodology: a common approach, structured for underground coalmine environments / Metoda szacowania ryzyka wybuchu i pożarów: podejście ogólne, dostosowane do środowiska kopalni podziemnej

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cioca, Ionel-Lucian; Moraru, Roland Iosif

    2012-10-01

    In order to meet statutory requirements concerning the workers health and safety, it is necessary for mine managers within Valea Jiului coal basin in Romania to address the potential for underground fires and explosions and their impact on the workforce and the mine ventilation systems. Highlighting the need for a unified and systematic approach of the specific risks, the authors are developing a general framework for fire/explosion risk assessment in gassy mines, based on the quantification of the likelihood of occurrence and gravity of the consequences of such undesired events and employing Root-Cause analysis method. It is emphasized that even a small fire should be regarded as being a major hazard from the point of view of explosion initiation, should a combustible atmosphere arise. The developed methodology, for the assessment of underground fire and explosion risks, is based on the known underground explosion hazards, fire engineering principles and fire test criteria for potentially combustible materials employed in mines.

  15. Répartition des dépôts carbonatés du Lias inférieur et moyen le long de la côte atlantique du Maroc: conséquences sur la paléogéographie de l'Atlantique naissant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dresnay, Renaud Du

    Along the Atlantic coast of Morocco a series of embayments or basins including the Essaouira-Jebel Amsittène and Tarfaya-Laayoune basins, contain marine sediments which may attain considerable thickness and whose Early Jurassic (Liassic) age has been well documented. This paper describes Liassic deposits from six exposures or drill holes between the Saharan coast of Tarfaya and the Essaouira-Jebel Amsittène region. These Atlantic basins do not connect with the marine troughs of the High and Middle Atlas, which follow a Mediterranean Tethys trend, but are separated from them by a SSW-NNE trending threshold made up of the axial portion of the central Hercynian Massif (Moroccan Meseta). Their opening to the ancestral Mediterranean must have been farther north, probably by means of interconnecting, WSW-ENE trending rift-related graben trenches, possibly starting with the Rharb (Kenitra) basin. More likely, however, openingsexisted beneath the present nappes of the Rif and along the undoubtedly wide fracture zone represented by the Azores-Gibraltar line separating the Rif terrain from that of the Betic Cordilleras (both of which contain well dated marine Hettangian). Farther SW, probably hidden by the sedimentary prism of the African continental shelf, connections may exist with the Liassic occurrence of Central America, as already suggested by Avias (1953. Sci. Terre1 (1), 1-276; 1956. 20° Congr. géol. Intern Mexico, Secc. II, 1-5), shown in a figure by Erben (1956b. Neues Jb. geol. paläontol. Abh., Stuttgart 103, 28-79), and subsequently upheld by Hallam (1971a. J. Geol. Chicago79 (2), 129-157; 1983. Palaeogeogr. P. clim. P. ecol.43, 181-193) and Thierry (1982. Bull. Soc. géol. Fr., Sér. 7, 24, 1053-1067). These lines of communication would have centered on a "Panamanian Strait" ("Panama Strasse") and would have permitted faunal migrations, in particular towards South America. Migrations of certain European and Mesogean faunal species have recently been proposed by Schmidt-Effing (1976a. Münster Forsch. Géol. Paläont.38-39, 201-217; 1976b. Publ. geol. ICAITI, Guatemala, 5, 22-23; 1980. In: The Origin of the Gulf of Mexico and the Early Opening of the Central North Atlantic Ocean (Edited by Pilger, R. H., Jr), pp. 79-86, Von Hillebrandt (1981b. Geol. Rdsch.70 (2), 570-582; 1984. Int. Symp. Jurassic Stratigraphy3, 716-729) and Riccardi (1983. In: The Phanerozoic Geology of the World (Edited by Moullade, M. and Nairn, A. E. M.), II. B, 201-264). Unless one believes that in all localities cosmopolitan faunas arrived from a universal ocean, these relationships lead to the model of an "Atlantic corridor", starting in the Middle, and perhaps even the Early Liassic (the "Paleotethys" of Bernoulli and Lemoine, 1980. Mém. Bur. Rech. géol. min.115, 168-179; or the "proto-Atlantic" or "Atlantic Tethys" of Lancelot, 1980. Mém. Bur. Rech. géol. min.115, 215-223; and Lancelot and Winterer, 1980 Initial Report of the Deep Sea Drilling Project50, 801-821; although the latter authors postulate such a connection only from Late Liassic time on). This model raises the specific question whether or not Early Jurassic deposits are present in the Senegal basin (Guieu, 1976. Rapp. Dépt. Géol. Fac. Sci. Univ. Dakar32, 1-87).

  16. "Dieu a cree la femelle, l'homme a fait la femme." En rekognoscering i dansk og undenlandsk konssprogsforskning ("God Created the Female, Man Created Woman." A Reconnaissance in Danish and Foreign Research on Sex Differences and Language). ROLIG papir 32.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennicke, Annette

    Research on sex differences and language includes the following (many titles are English translations): "Language--The Child, the Women, the Family"; "Woman and Man"; "In Society's Words"; "The Life of Words"; "Verbs and Women"; "Lines from a Ladies Luncheon"; "The History of the Danish Language"; "How Sex Roles Are Represented and Conserved in…

  17. La coupe d'Ouled Haddou (Rif externe oriental) : un affleurement continu de la transition Crétacé Paléogène au Maroc, révélé par les Foraminifères planctoniquesThe Ouled Haddou section (oriental external Rif): a continuous outcrop of the Cretaceous Palaeogene transition in Morocco, revealed by planktonic Foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toufiq, Abdelkabir; Bellier, Jean-Pierre; Boutakiout, Mohamed; Feinberg, Hugues

    2002-10-01

    In the Ouled Haddou section, deposits of the Uppermost Maastrichtian correspond to the Abathomphalus mayaroensis Biozone. The index species is regularly present until the Cretaceous-Palaeogene boundary, which is marked by a mass extinction affecting 41 species (large and complex). Some Cretaceous small species persist in the Lowermost Danian. The first levels of the Danian are assigned to the Guembelitria cretacea Biozone, in which the species index persist without being affected, and the first species of the Tertiary appear. The upper part of the Lower Danian corresponds to the succession of Parvularugoglobigerina eugubina, Parasubbotina pseudobulloides, and Subbotina triloculinoides Biozones. From the P. eugubina Biozone, associations of Danian vary to undergo a complete renewal in the upper zones. The Ouled Haddou section, described for the first time, presents, according to planktonic Foraminifera, a complete record of the Cretaceous-Palaeogene transition. To cite this article: A. Toufiq et al., C. R. Geoscience 334 (2002) 995-1001.

  18. Chemistry union unveils names of four new elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Hamish

    2016-07-01

    The periodic table could soon be graced by four new symbols – Nh, Mc, Ts and Og – after the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) unveiled its proposed names for the four most recently discovered elements.

  19. 40 CFR 432.87 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best control technology for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... application of the best control technology for conventional pollutants (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125... effluent limitations representing the application of BCT: Limitations for BOD5, fecal coliform, O&G,...

  20. 40 CFR 432.107 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best control technology for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... application of the best control technology for conventional pollutants (BCT). (a) Except as provided in 40 CFR... effluent limitations representing the application of BCT: Limitations for BOD5, fecal coliform, O&G,...

  1. 40 CFR 432.87 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best control technology for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... application of the best control technology for conventional pollutants (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125... effluent limitations representing the application of BCT: Limitations for BOD5, fecal coliform, O&G,...

  2. 40 CFR 432.37 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best control technology for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve... coliform, TSS, and O&G are the same as the corresponding limitation specified in § 432.32....

  3. 40 CFR 432.47 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best control technology for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve... coliform, TSS, and O&G are the same as the corresponding limitation specified in § 432.42....

  4. 40 CFR 432.37 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best control technology for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve... coliform, TSS, and O&G are the same as the corresponding limitation specified in § 432.32....

  5. 40 CFR 432.47 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best control technology for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve... coliform, TSS, and O&G are the same as the corresponding limitation specified in § 432.42....

  6. Chemistry union unveils names of four new elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Hamish

    2016-07-01

    The periodic table could soon be graced by four new symbols - Nh, Mc, Ts and Og - after the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) unveiled its proposed names for the four most recently discovered elements.

  7. Training obstetricians and gynaecologists to be emotionally intelligent.

    PubMed

    Pilkington, A; Hart, J; Bundy, C

    2012-01-01

    The concept of emotional intelligence (EI), a model that encompasses all of the skills in the patient-doctor relationship, has been applied to medical education in recent years. Doctors in obstetrics and gynaecology (O&G) often deal with emotionally demanding situations for themselves and for their patients, and therefore, EI skills may be vital and should be part of any training curriculum. Using novel methodology, 16 O&G consultants from across the North-West of England were asked to investigate (using a coding manual) randomly allocated modules of the RCOG O&G training curriculum, to look for constructs of EI and these were found both implicitly and explicitly, highlighting the importance of EI to O&G. By focussing on EI training within the curriculum, to improve the patient-doctor relationship, patient satisfaction may be increased and litigation reduced in a specialty that is already highly litigious.

  8. The broad spectrum 2-oxoglutarate oxygenase inhibitor N-oxalylglycine is present in rhubarb and spinach leaves.

    PubMed

    Al-Qahtani, Khalid; Jabeen, Bushra; Sekirnik, Rok; Riaz, Naheed; Claridge, Timothy D W; Schofield, Christopher J; McCullagh, James S O

    2015-09-01

    2-Oxoglutarate (2OG) and ferrous iron dependent oxygenases are involved in many biological processes in organisms ranging from humans (where some are therapeutic targets) to plants. These enzymes are of significant biomedicinal interest because of their roles in hypoxic signaling and epigenetic regulation. Synthetic N-oxalylglycine (NOG) has been identified as a broad-spectrum 2OG oxygenase inhibitor and is currently widely used in studies on the hypoxic response and chromatin modifications in animals. We report the identification of NOG as a natural product present in Rheum rhabarbarum (rhubarb) and Spinach oleracea (spinach) leaves; NOG was not observed in Escherchia coli or human embryonic kidney cells (HEK 293T). The finding presents the possibility that NOG plays a natural role in regulating gene expression by inhibiting 2OG dependent oxygenases. This has significance because tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) intermediate inhibition of 2OG dependent oxygenases has attracted major interest in cancer research.

  9. International Space Station United States Orbital Segment Oxygen Generation System On-Orbit Operational Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Robert J.; Howe, John, Jr.; Kulp, Galen W.; VanKeuren, Steven P.

    2008-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) United States Orbital Segment (USOS) Oxygen Generation System (OGS) was originally intended to be installed in ISS Node 3. The OGS rack delivery was accelerated, and it was launched to ISS in July of 2006 and installed in the US Laboratory Module. Various modification kits were installed to provide its interfaces, and the OGS was first activated in July of 2007 for 15 hours, In October of 2007 it was again activated for 76 hours with varied production rates and day/night cycling. Operational time in each instance was limited by the quantity of feedwater in a Payload Water Reservoir (PWR) bag. Feedwater will be provided by PWR bag until the USOS Water Recovery System (WRS) is delivered to SS in fall of 2008. This paper will discuss operating experience and characteristics of the OGS, as well as operational issues and their resolution.

  10. 78 FR 5171 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-24

    ... to the Chief of Account Management, Online GEOINT Services--Customer Account Management (OGSU... collection requirement is necessary to develop customer service models regarding consumers of geospatial... 1995, the Online GEOINT Services (OGS) directorate of NGA announces a proposed public...

  11. Hetero Bis-Addition of Spiro-Acetalized or Cyclohexanone Ring to 58π Fullerene Impacts Solubility and Mobility Balance in Polymer Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Mikie, Tsubasa; Saeki, Akinori; Ikuma, Naohiko; Kokubo, Ken; Seki, Shu

    2015-06-17

    Fullerene bis-adducts are increasingly being studied to gain a high open circuit voltage (Voc) in bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaics (OPVs). We designed and synthesized homo and hetero bis-adduct [60]fullerenes by combining fused cyclohexanone or a five-membered spiro-acetalized unit (SAF5) with 1,2-dihydromethano (CH2), indene, or [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). These new eight 56π fullerenes showed a rational rise of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO). We perform a systematic study on the electrochemical property, solubility, morphology, and space-charge-limited current (SCLC) mobility. The best power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 4.43% (average, 4.36%) with the Voc of 0.80 V was obtained for poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) blended with SAF5/indene hetero bis-adduct, which is a marked advancement in PCE compared to the 0.9% of SAF5 monoadduct. More importantly, we elucidate an important role of mobility balance between hole and electron that correlates with the device PCEs. Besides, an empirical equation to extrapolate the solubilities of hetero bis-adducts is proposed on the basis of those of counter monoadducts. Our work offers a guide to mitigate barriers for exploring a large number of hetero bis-adduct fullerenes for efficient OPVs.

  12. Synthesis and properties of photochromic biindenylidenedione derivatives containing thiophene groups, and new insights into the reaction of 2,2‧-biindanylidene-1,1‧,3,3‧-tetraone with Grignard reagent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Juyan; Han, Jie; Song, Zhiyi; Wei, Yongheng; Pang, Meili; Meng, Jiben

    2008-11-01

    Three indenone derivatives ( 1: 2-[3'-hydroxy-3'-(2-thienyl)indanone-2'-yl]-3-(2-thienyl)indenone; 2: trans- anti-3,3'-(2-thienyl)-3,3'-dihydroxy-[2,2'-bi-1H-indene]-1,1'-dione and 3: trans- syn-3,3'-(2-thienyl)-3,3'-dihydroxy-[2,2'-bi-1H-indene]-1,1'-dione) were obtained in a one-pot reaction of 2,2'-biindanylidene-1,1',3,3'-tetraone with 2-thienylmagnesium bromide. Their structures were characterized by means of IR, 1H NMR, MS, elemental analysis, and X-ray crystallography. The photochromic and photo-induced radical behaviors of these compounds were investigated by means of solid UV-vis spectroscopy and electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The results show that compounds 2 and 3 exhibit photochromism in the solid state, whereas compound 1 does not. The relationship between the crystal structures and photochemical properties is also discussed. Based on the formation and product distribution of compounds 1, 2, and 3, a plausible pathway is suggested for the reaction of 2,2'-biindanylidene-1,1',3,3'-tetraone with 2-thienylmagnesium bromide. The findings obtained in this study also provide new insights into the addition-oxidation mechanism for the reaction of 2,2'-biindanylidene-1,1',3,3'-tetraone with Grignard reagent.

  13. Time- and isomer-resolved measurements of sequential addition of acetylene to the propargyl radical

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Savee, John D.; Selby, Talitha M.; Welz, Oliver; Taatjes, Craig A.; Osborn, David L.

    2015-10-06

    Soot formation in combustion is a complex process in which polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are believed to play a critical role. Recent works concluded that three consecutive additions of acetylene (C2H2) to propargyl (C3H3) create a facile route to the PAH indene (C9H8). However, the isomeric forms of C5H5 and C7H7 intermediates in this reaction sequence are not known. We directly investigate these intermediates using time- and isomer-resolved experiments. Both the resonance stabilized vinylpropargyl (vp-C5H5) and 2,4-cyclopentadienyl (c-C5H5) radical isomers of C5H5 are produced, with substantially different intensities at 800 K vs 1000 K. In agreement with literature master equationmore » calculations, we find that c-C5H5 + C2H2 produces only the tropyl isomer of C7H7 (tp-C7H7) below 1000 K, and that tp-C7H7 + C2H2 terminates the reaction sequence yielding C9H8 (indene) + H. Lastly, this work demonstrates a pathway for PAH formation that does not proceed through benzene.« less

  14. Relation between molecule ionization energy, film thickness and morphology of two indandione derivatives thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grzibovskis, Raitis; Vembris, Aivars; Pudzs, Kaspars

    2016-08-01

    Nowadays most organic devices consist of thin (below 100 nm) layers. Information about the morphology and energy levels of thin films at such thickness is essential for the high efficiency devices. In this work we have investigated thin films of 2-(4-[N,N-dimethylamino]-benzylidene)-indene-1,3-dione (DMABI) and 2-(4-(bis(2-(trityloxy)ethyl)amino)benzylidene)-2H-indene-1,3-dione (DMABI-6Ph). DMABI-6Ph is the same DMABI molecule with attached bulky groups which assist formation of amorphous films from solutions. Polycrystalline structure was obtained for the DMABI thin films prepared by thermal evaporation in vacuum and amorphous structure for the DMABI-6Ph films prepared by spin-coating method. Images taken by SEM showed separate crystals or islands at the thickness of the samples below 100 nm. The ionization energy of the studied compounds was determined using photoemission yield spectroscopy. A vacuum level shift of 0.40 eV was observed when ITO electrode was covered with the thin film of the organic compound. Despite of the same active part of the investigated molecules the ITO/DMABI interface is blocking electrons while ITO/DMABI-6Ph interface is blocking holes.

  15. Time- and Isomer-Resolved Measurements of Sequential Addition of Acetylene to the Propargyl Radical.

    PubMed

    Savee, John D; Selby, Talitha M; Welz, Oliver; Taatjes, Craig A; Osborn, David L

    2015-10-15

    Soot formation in combustion is a complex process in which polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are believed to play a critical role. Recent works concluded that three consecutive additions of acetylene (C2H2) to propargyl (C3H3) create a facile route to the PAH indene (C9H8). However, the isomeric forms of C5H5 and C7H7 intermediates in this reaction sequence are not known. We directly investigate these intermediates using time- and isomer-resolved experiments. Both the resonance stabilized vinylpropargyl (vp-C5H5) and 2,4-cyclopentadienyl (c-C5H5) radical isomers of C5H5 are produced, with substantially different intensities at 800 K vs 1000 K. In agreement with literature master equation calculations, we find that c-C5H5 + C2H2 produces only the tropyl isomer of C7H7 (tp-C7H7) below 1000 K, and that tp-C7H7 + C2H2 terminates the reaction sequence yielding C9H8 (indene) + H. This work demonstrates a pathway for PAH formation that does not proceed through benzene. PMID:26722791

  16. Oxidation and formation of deposit precursors in hydrocarbon fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayo, F. R.; Lan, B.; Cotts, D. B.; Buttrill, S. E., Jr.; St.john, G. A.

    1983-01-01

    The oxidation of two jet turbine fuels and some pure hydrocarbons was studied at 130 C with and without the presence of small amounts of N-methyl pyrrole (NMP) or indene. Tendency to form solid-deposit precursors was studied by measuring soluble gum formation as well as dimer and trimer formation using field ionization mass spectrometry. Pure n-dodecane oxidized fastest and gave the smallest amount of procursors. An unstable fuel oil oxidized much slower but formed large amounts of precursors. Stable Jet A fuel oxidized slowest and gave little precursors. Indene either retarded or accelerated the oxidation of n-dodecane, depending on its concentration, but always caused more gum formation. The NMP greatly retarded n-dodecane oxidation but accelerated Jet A oxidation and greatly increased the latter's gum formation. In general, the additive reacted faster and formed most of the gum. Results are interpreted in terms of classical cooxidation theory. The effect of oxygen pressure on gum formation is also reported.

  17. Crystal structure of 4'-(2-meth-oxy-quinolin-3-yl)-1'-methyl-dispiro-[indan-2,2'-pyrrolidine-3',3''-indoline]-1,3,2''-trione.

    PubMed

    Mathusalini, Sadasivam; Viswanathan, Vijayan; Mohan, Palathurai Subramaniam; Lin, Chia-Her; Velmurugan, Devadasan

    2015-12-01

    In the title compound, C30H23N3O4, the central 1-methyl-pyrrolidine ring adopts a twist conformation on the N-CH2 bond. The pyrrolidin-2-one ring of the indolin-2-one ring system also has a twist conformation on the C-C bond involving the spiro C atom and the carbonyl C atom. The five-membered ring of the indene-1,3-dione moiety has an envelope conformation with the spiro C atom as the flap. The quinoline ring system adopts an almost planar conformation (r.m.s. deviation = 0.04 Å). The mean planes of the indolin-2-one ring system, the indene-1,3-dione ring system and the the quinoline ring system are inclined to the mean plane of the central 1-methyl-pyrrolidine ring by 77.97 (7), 86.98 (7) and 46.58 (6)°, respectively. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked via N-H⋯N hydrogen bonds, forming chains along the b axis. The chains are linked via a number of C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, and C-H⋯π and π-π inter-actions [inter-centroid distance = 3.7404 (9) Å], forming a three-dimensional network. PMID:26870486

  18. Effects of land use on ground-water quality in central Florida - Preliminary results: U. S. Geological Survey Toxic Waste - Ground-Water Contamination Program

    SciTech Connect

    Rutledge, A.T.

    1987-01-01

    Activities of man in areas of recharge to the Floridian aquifer system that may be affecting groundwater quality include: (1) the use of drainage wells for stormwater disposal in urban areas, (2) the use of pesticides and fertilizers in citrus groves, and (3) the mining and processing of phosphate ore in mining areas. Preliminary findings about the impact of these land uses on groundwater quality are presented. Drainage wells convey excess urban stormwater directly to the Upper Floridian aquifer. The volatile organic compounds are the most common contaminants in ground water. Trace elements such as chromium and lead are entering the aquifer but their movement is apparently attenuated by precipitation reactions associated with high pH or by cation-exchange reactions. Among the trace elements and organic chemicals, most ground-water contamination in citrus production areas is caused by pesticide; other contaminants include benzene, toluene, naphthalene, and indene compounds. In the phosphate mining area, constituents of concern are arsenic, selenium, and mercury, and secondarily lead, chromium, cadmium, and others. Organic compounds such as fluorene, naphthalene, di-n-butyl phthalate, alkylated benzenes and naphthalenes, and indene compounds also are entering groundwater. 29 refs., 13 figs., 16 tabs.

  19. Effects of feeding wheat straw or orchardgrass at ad libitum or restricted intake during the dry period on postpartum performance and lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Litherland, N B; Weich, W D; Hansen, W P; Linn, J G

    2012-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of forage source [wheat straw (WS) or orchardgrass hay (OG)] and total amount of diet dry matter fed [ad libitum or restricted to 70% of predicted dry matter intake (DMI)] prepartum on postpartum performance. The study design was a 2×2 factorial design with 10 cows per treatment. Treatments were WS total mixed ration (TMR) ad libitum, OG TMR ad libitum, WS TMR restricted, and OG TMR restricted. The WS TMR (dry matter basis) contained 30% WS, 20.7% corn silage, 10.0% alfalfa hay, 18.2% ground corn, 16.8% soybean meal, and 4.3% molasses mineral mix (14.7% CP, 1.5 Mcal/kg of net energy for lactation, 37.0% neutral detergent fiber). The OG TMR contained 30% OG, 46.2% corn silage, 10.0% alfalfa hay, 9.5% soybean meal, and 4.3% molasses (14.2% CP, 1.5 Mcal/kg of net energy for lactation, 41.0% neutral detergent fiber). Cows received 1 lactation diet after calving (17.7% CP, 1.6 Mcal/kg of net energy for lactation, 27.3% neutral detergent fiber). Total diet DMI prepartum was higher for ad libitum than for restricted as designed, but forage source had no effect on DMI. Total tract apparent digestibilities of DM and NDF were greater for OG than for WS. Postpartum DMI expressed as a percentage of body weight for the first week of lactation was higher for ad libitum than for restricted diets. Postpartum DMI during the first 30 d of lactation was higher for OG than for WS, but no effect was observed for the amount fed prepartum. Milk yield during the first week of lactation was higher for OG than for WS; however, during the first 30 d, 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield and yield of milk fat were highest for OG TMR restricted and WS TMR ad libitum. Prepartum treatments had a limited effect on pre- and postpartum lipid metabolism; however, cows fed WS TMR ad libitum had the highest postpartum β-hydroxybutyrate. Eating behavior was observed by 10-min video scans of 24-h video surveillance for 5d pre- and postpartum

  20. Role of low-frequency vibrations on sound propagation in glasses at intermediate temperature.

    SciTech Connect

    Criado, A.; Jimenez-Ruiz, M.; Cabrillo, C.; Bermejo, F. J.; Grimsditch, M.; Fischer, H. E.; Bennington, S. M.; Eccleston, R. S.; Materials Science Division; Conesjo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas; Univ. de Sevilla; Inst. Laue Langevin; Rutherford Appleton Lab.

    2000-04-01

    We report measurements of the temperature dependence of the sound attenuation and the fractional change in sound velocity for the glass (G) and orientational-glass (OG) phases of polymorphic ethanol. Strikingly similar behaviors are found for both phases despite the OG's underlying crystal (bcc) lattice. Such similarity, which is also revealed in dielectric spectroscopy and inelastic neutron scattering measurements, suggests whole molecule small-angle librations as a common microscopic origin for a wide variety of 'glassy' phenomena.

  1. Methanol extract of Ocimum gratissimum protects murine peritoneal macrophages from nicotine toxicity by decreasing free radical generation, lipid and protein damage and enhances antioxidant protection

    PubMed Central

    Mahapatra, Santanu Kar; Chakraborty, Subhankari Prasad; Das, Subhasis

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, methanol extract of Ocimum gratissimum Linn (ME-Og) was tested against nicotine-induced murine peritoneal macrophage in vitro. Phytochemical analysis of ME-Og shown high amount of flavonoid and phenolic compound present in it. The cytotoxic effect of ME-Og was studied in murine peritoneal macrophages at different concentrations (0.1 to 100 µg/ml) using the 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) method. To establish the protective role of ME-Og against nicotine toxicity, peritoneal macrophages from mice were treated with nicotine (10 mM), nicotine + ME-Og (1 to 25 µg/ml) for 12 h in culture media. The significantly (p < 0.05) increased super oxide anion generation, reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase activity, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyls, oxidized glutathione levels were observed in nicotine-treated group as compared to control group; those were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced in ME-Og supplemented groups in concentration dependent manner. More over, significantly (p < 0.05) reduced antioxidant status due to nicotine exposure was effectively ameliorated by ME-Og supplementation in murine peritoneal macrophages. Among the different concentration of ME-Og, maximum protective effect was observed by 25 µg/ml, which does not produce significant cell cytotoxicity in murine peritoneal macrophages. These findings suggest the potential use and beneficial role of O. gratissimum as a modulator of nicotine-induced free radical generation, lipid-protein damage and antioxidant status in important immune cell, peritoneal macrophages. PMID:20716908

  2. Rapid Oligo-Galacturonide Induced Changes in Protein Phosphorylation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Kohorn, Bruce D; Hoon, Divya; Minkoff, Benjamin B; Sussman, Michael R; Kohorn, Susan L

    2016-04-01

    The wall-associated kinases (WAKs)(1)are receptor protein kinases that bind to long polymers of cross-linked pectin in the cell wall. These plasma-membrane-associated protein kinases also bind soluble pectin fragments called oligo-galacturonides (OGs) released from the wall after pathogen attack and damage. WAKs are required for cell expansion during development but bind water soluble OGs generated from walls with a higher affinity than the wall-associated polysaccharides. OGs activate a WAK-dependent, distinct stress-like response pathway to help plants resist pathogen attack. In this report, a quantitative mass-spectrometric-based phosphoproteomic analysis was used to identify Arabidopsis cellular events rapidly induced by OGsin planta Using N(14/)N(15)isotopicin vivometabolic labeling, we screened 1,000 phosphoproteins for rapid OG-induced changes and found 50 proteins with increased phosphorylation, while there were none that decreased significantly. Seven of the phosphosites within these proteins overlap with those altered by another signaling molecule plants use to indicate the presence of pathogens (the bacterial "elicitor" peptide Flg22), indicating distinct but overlapping pathways activated by these two types of chemicals. Genetic analysis of genes encoding 10 OG-specific and two Flg22/OG-induced phosphoproteins reveals that null mutations in eight proteins compromise the OG response. These phosphorylated proteins with genetic evidence supporting their role in the OG response include two cytoplasmic kinases, two membrane-associated scaffold proteins, a phospholipase C, a CDPK, an unknown cadmium response protein, and a motor protein. Null mutants in two proteins, the putative scaffold protein REM1.3, and a cytoplasmic receptor like kinase ROG2, enhance and suppress, respectively, a dominantWAKallele. Altogether, the results of these chemical and genetic experiments reveal the identity of several phosphorylated proteins involved in the kinase

  3. The opposite roles of agdA and glaA on citric acid production in Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Cao, Zhanglei; Hou, Li; Yin, Liuhua; Wang, Dawei; Gao, Qiang; Wu, Zhenqiang; Wang, Depei

    2016-07-01

    Citric acid is produced by an industrial-scale process of fermentation using Aspergillus niger as a microbial cell factory. However, citric acid production was hindered by the non-fermentable isomaltose and insufficient saccharification ability in A. niger when liquefied corn starch was used as a raw material. In this study, A. niger TNA 101ΔagdA was constructed by deletion of the α-glucosidase-encoding agdA gene in A. niger CGMCC 10142 genome using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. The transformants A. niger OG 1, OG 17, and OG 31 then underwent overexpression of glucoamylase in A. niger TNA 101ΔagdA. The results showed that the α-glucosidase activity of TNA 101ΔagdA was decreased by 62.5 % compared with CGMCC 10142, and isomaltose was almost undetectable in the fermentation broth. The glucoamylase activity of the transformants OG 1 and OG 17 increased by 34.5 and 16.89 % compared with that of TNA 101ΔagdA, respectively. In addition, for the recombinants TNA 101ΔagdA, OG 1 and OG 17, there were no apparent defects in the growth development. Consequently, in comparison with CGMCC 10142, TNA 101ΔagdA and OG 1 decreased the residual reducing sugar by 52.95 and 88.24 %, respectively, and correspondingly increased citric acid production at the end of fermentation by 8.68 and 16.87 %. Citric acid production was further improved by decreasing the non-fermentable residual sugar and increasing utilization rate of corn starch material in A. niger. Besides, the successive saccharification and citric acid fermentation processes were successfully integrated into one step.

  4. 40 CFR 432.82 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve... Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G 4 0.22 0.11 TSS 0.74 0.37 1 Pounds per 1000 lbs (or g/kg) of finished product... pounds per year of finished products must achieve the limitations for BOD5, fecal coliform, O&G, and...

  5. 40 CFR 432.82 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve... Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G 4 0.22 0.11 TSS 0.74 0.37 1 Pounds per 1000 lbs (or g/kg) of finished product... pounds per year of finished products must achieve the limitations for BOD5, fecal coliform, O&G, and...

  6. 40 CFR 432.22 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve... daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 BOD5 0.42 0.21 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G 4 0.16 0.08 TSS 0.50 0.25 1... slaughtered on-site, the limitations for BOD5, fecal coliform, O&G, and TSS are the same as the...

  7. Structure of human phytanoyl-CoA 2-hydroxylase identifies molecular mechanisms of Refsum disease.

    PubMed

    McDonough, Michael A; Kavanagh, Kathryn L; Butler, Danica; Searls, Timothy; Oppermann, Udo; Schofield, Christopher J

    2005-12-01

    Refsum disease (RD), a neurological syndrome characterized by adult onset retinitis pigmentosa, anosmia, sensory neuropathy, and phytanic acidaemia, is caused by elevated levels of phytanic acid. Many cases of RD are associated with mutations in phytanoyl-CoA 2-hydroxylase (PAHX), an Fe(II) and 2-oxoglutarate (2OG)-dependent oxygenase that catalyzes the initial alpha-oxidation step in the degradation of phytenic acid in peroxisomes. We describe the x-ray crystallographic structure of PAHX to 2.5 A resolution complexed with Fe(II) and 2OG and predict the molecular consequences of mutations causing RD. Like other 2OG oxygenases, PAHX possesses a double-stranded beta-helix core, which supports three iron binding ligands (His(175), Asp(177), and His(264)); the 2-oxoacid group of 2OG binds to the Fe(II) in a bidentate manner. The manner in which PAHX binds to Fe(II) and 2OG together with the presence of a cysteine residue (Cys(191)) 6.7 A from the Fe(II) and two further histidine residues (His(155) and His(281)) at its active site distinguishes it from that of the other human 2OG oxygenase for which structures are available, factor inhibiting hypoxia-inducible factor. Of the 15 PAHX residues observed to be mutated in RD patients, 11 cluster in two distinct groups around the Fe(II) (Pro(173), His(175), Gln(176), Asp(177), and His(220)) and 2OG binding sites (Trp(193), Glu(197), Ile(199), Gly(204), Asn(269), and Arg(275)). PAHX may be the first of a new subfamily of coenzyme A-binding 2OG oxygenases.

  8. Orcinol glucoside produces antidepressant effects by blocking the behavioural and neuronal deficits caused by chronic stress.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jin-Fang; Gao, Wen-Chao; Cheng, Wen-Ming; Lu, Wei-Li; Tang, Jie; Peng, Lei; Li, Ning; Chen, Fei-Hu

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on the antidepressant potential of orcinol glucoside (OG) and its possible mechanisms of action. We established a depressed rat model using 3 consecutive weeks of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). The antidepressant-like effect of OG was revealed using the sucrose preference test, the open field test, the forced swimming test (FST), and the tail suspension test (TST). The activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis was evaluated by detecting the serum corticosterone (CORT) concentrations and mRNA expression of corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) in the hypothalamus. The protein expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and total phosphorylated-ERK1/2 were detected by western blot. The results showed that OG treatment (1.5, 3, or 6mg/kg) alleviated the depression-like behaviour of rats under CUMS, as indicated by the increased sucrose preference and the decreased immobility in both the FST and TST, although the rearing frequency in the open field test increased only in the group that received the lowest dose (1.5mg/kg OG). Rats that received OG treatment exhibited reduced serum CORT levels and CRH mRNA expression in the hypothalamus, suggesting that the hyperactivity of the HPA axis in CUMS rats was reversed by OG treatment. Moreover, OG treatment upregulated the protein levels of BDNF and phosphorylated-ERK1/2 in the hippocampus, even above control levels. Our findings suggest that OG improved depressive behaviour in CUMS rats by downregulating HPA axis hyperactivity and increasing BDNF expression and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in the hippocampus. PMID:23838013

  9. Foot-Ground Reaction Force During Resistance Exercise in Parabolic Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Stuart M. C.; Cobb, Kendall; Loehr, James A.; Nguyen, Daniel; Schneider, Suzanne M.

    2003-01-01

    An interim Resistance Exercise Device (iRED) was designed to provide resistive exercise as a countermeasure to space flight-induced loss of muscle strength and endurance as well as decreased bone mineral density. The purpose of this project was to compare foot-ground reaction force during iRED exercise in normal gravity (l-g) versus micro gravity (O-g) achieved during parabolic flight. METHODS: Four subjects performed three exercises using the iRED (squat, heel raise, and deadlift) during I-g and O-g at a moderate intensity (60% of maximum strength during deadlift exercise). Foot-ground reaction force was measured in three axes (x,y,z) using a force plate, and the magnitude of the resultant force vector was calculated (r = X 2 + y2 + Z2 ). Range of motion (ROM) was measured using a linear encoder. Peak force (PkF) and total work (TW) were calculated using a customized computer program. Paired t-tests were used to test if significant differences (p.::::0.05) were observed between I-g and O-g exercise. RESULTS: PkF and TW measured in the resultant axis were significantly less in O-g for each of the exercises tested. During O-g, PkF was 42-46% and TW was 33- 37% of that measured during I-g. ROM and average time to complete each repetition were not different from I-g to O-g. CONCLUSIONS: When performing exercises in which body mass is a portion of the resistance during I-g, PkF and TW measured during resistive exercise were reduced approximately 60-70% during O-g. Thus, a resistive exercise device during O-g will be required to provided higher resistances to induce a similar training stimulus to that on Earth.

  10. 40 CFR 420.124 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... property Maximum for any 1 day Average of daily values for 30 consecutive days kg/per day TSS 5.72 2.45 O&G... New source performance standards Maximum for any 1 day Average of daily values for 30 consecutive days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.0438 0.0188 O&G 0.0188 0.00626 Lead 0.000282...

  11. 40 CFR 420.107 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of daily values for 30 consecutive days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.0751 0.0376 O&G... values for 30 consecutive days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.0225 0.0113 O&G 0.00939 0... of the best conventional technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32,...

  12. 40 CFR 420.127 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of daily values for 30 consecutive days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.701 0.300 O&G 0... values for 30 consecutive days Kilograms per day TSS 38.1 16.3 O&G 16.3 5.45 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the... best conventional technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any...

  13. Investigation into the High Voltage Shutdown of the Oxygen Generator System in the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Joyce E.; Gentry, Gregory J.; Diderich, Greg S.; Roy, Robert J.; Golden, John L.; VanKeuren, Steve; Steele, John W.; Rector, Tony J.; Varsik, Jerome D.; Montefusco, Daniel J.; Wilson, Mark E.; Worthy, Erica S.

    2012-01-01

    The Oxygen Generation System (OGS) Hydrogen Dome Assembly Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU) serial number 00001 suffered a cell stack high-voltage shutdown on July 5, 2010. The Hydrogen Dome Assembly ORU was removed and replaced with the on-board spare ORU serial number 00002 to maintain OGS operation. The Hydrogen Dome Assembly ORU was returned from ISS on STS-133/ULF-5 in March 2011 with test, teardown and evaluation (TT&E) and failure analysis to follow.

  14. Oxygen Generator System Mars In-Situ Propellant Production Precursor Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridhar, K. R.; Gottmann, M.; Baird, R. S.

    1999-01-01

    The 2001 Lander to Mars will carry the first ever In situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) payload to Mars. This payload, the Mars In-situ Propellant production Precursor (MIP), will demonstrate a variety of technologies that will be required for future ISRU Mars indigenous material processing plant designs. One of those technologies is that of extracting oxygen from the predominantly carbon dioxide atmosphere of Mars, a prerequisite for future sample return and human missions to Mars. The Oxygen Generator Subsystem (OGS) portion of the MIP will demonstrate this and is the focus of this paper. The primary objective of the OGS is to demonstrate the production of oxygen from Mars atmospheric gases. Secondary objectives are to measure the performance and reliability of oxygen generation hardware in actual mission environments over an extended time. Major constraints on the OGS design came from several sources. The Lander provides power to the system from solar power that is harnessed by photovoltaic arrays. This limited OGS to daytime only operations (six to eight hours) and a maximum power of 15W. The reliance on solar power necessitated thermal cycling of the OGS between Mars ambient and OGS operating temperatures. The Lander also limited the total mass of the MIP payload to 7.5 kg with a correspondingly small volume, and the OGS was one of six experiments in the MIP Mass and volume were to be minimized. Another constraint was cost. Mission funding, as always, was tight. Cost was to be minimized. In short the OGS design had to be low power (<15 Watts), low mass (1 kg), low volume, low cost, and be capable of cyclical operations for an extended stay on Mars. After extensive research, a zirconia based solid oxide electrolyzer design was selected.

  15. Oxygen Generator System Mars In-Situ Propellant Production Precursor Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridhar, K. R.; Gottmann, M.; Baird, R. S.

    1999-01-01

    The 2001 Lander to Mars will carry the first ever ISRU payload to Mars. This payload, the Mars In-situ Propellant production Precursor (MIP), will demonstrate a variety of technologies that will be required for future ISRU Mars indigenous material processing plant designs. One of those technologies is that of extracting oxygen from the predominantly carbon dioxide atmosphere of Mars, a prerequisite for future sample return and human missions to Mars. The Oxygen Generator Subsystem (OGS) portion of the MIP will demonstrate this and is the focus of this paper. The primary objective of the OGS is to demonstrate the production of oxygen from Mars atmospheric gases. Secondary objectives are to measure the performance and reliability of oxygen generation hardware in actual mission environments over an extended time. Major constraints on the OGS design came from several sources. The Lander provides power to the system from solar power that is harnessed by photovoltaic arrays. This limited OGS to daytime only operations (six to eight hours) and a maximum power of 15W. The reliance on solar power necessitated thermal cycling of the OGS between Mars ambient and OGS operating temperatures. The Lander also limited the total mass of the MIP payload to 7.5 kg with a correspondingly small volume, and the OGS was one of six experiments in the MIP. Mass and volume were to be minimized. Another constraint was cost. Mission funding, as always, was tight. Cost was to be minimized. In short the OGS design had to be low power (<15 Watts), low mass (1 kg), low volume, low cost, and be capable of cyclical operations for an extended stay on Mars. After extensive research, a zirconia based solid oxide electrolyzer design was selected.

  16. Characterization of the refolding and reassembly of an integral membrane protein OmpF porin by low-angle laser light scattering photometry coupled with high-performance gel chromatography.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yasushi

    2002-06-28

    The refolding and reassembly of an integral membrane protein OmpF porin denatured in sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) into its stable species by the addition of n-octyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (OG) have been studied by means of circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and low-angle laser light scattering photometry coupled with high-performance gel chromatography. The minimal concentration where change in the secondary structure was induced by the addition of OG was found to be 6.0 mg/ml in CD experiments. A species unfolded further than the SDS-denatured form of this protein was observed at an early stage (5-15 min) of refolding just above the minimal OG concentration. In addition, the CD spectrum of protein species obtained above the minimal OG concentration showed that the protein is composed of a beta-structure which is different from the native structure of this protein. In light scattering experiments, no changes in molecular assemblies were observed when the OG concentration was below its minimal refolding concentration determined by CD measurements. Above the minimal concentration, a compact monomeric species was observed when denatured OmpF porin was incubated for 5 min at 25 degrees C in a refolding medium containing 1 mg/ml SDS and 7 mg/ml OG, and then injected into columns equilibrated with the refolding medium. After an incubation of 24 h before injection into the columns, predominant dimerization of this protein was observed in addition to incorrect aggregation.

  17. Quaternized magnetic microspheres for the efficient removal of reactive dyes.

    PubMed

    Shuang, Chendong; Li, Penghui; Li, Aimin; Zhou, Qing; Zhang, Mancheng; Zhou, Yang

    2012-09-15

    In this paper, a novel quaternized magnetic resin, NDMP, was prepared and characterized. Two reactive dyes (RDs), Orange G (OG) and red RWO, were used as a small-molecular RD and large-molecular RD, respectively, to investigate their adsorption on NDMP. A common quaternized magnetic resin, MIEX, was selected for comparison. The adsorption kinetics of OG onto both resins and the adsorption kinetics of RWO onto NDMP followed pseudo-second-order kinetics, whereas the adsorption of RWO onto MIEX was better fitted by pseudo-first-order kinetics. The experimental data illustrated that the equilibrium adsorption amount of both RDs onto NDMP (1.9 mmol OG/g, 0.70 mmol RWO/g) was twice as large as that on MIEX (1.0 mmol OG/g, 0.35 mmol RWO/g). The Langmuir equation and the Freundlich model fit the isotherm data for OG and RWO adsorption, respectively. The adsorption of OG on the NDMP and MIEX resins declined in the presence of NaCl or Na₂SO₄. The effects of the salts on the adsorption of RWO were different. The recyclability of NDMP and MIEX were also evaluated. This work provides a reusable efficient adsorbent for the removal of RDs. PMID:22726352

  18. Sensory Stimulation Prior to Spinal Cord Injury Induces Post-Injury Dysesthesia in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hoschouer, Emily L.; Finseth, Taylor; Flinn, Sharon; Basso, D. Michele

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Chronic pain and dysesthesias are debilitating conditions that can arise following spinal cord injury (SCI). Research studies frequently employ rodent models of SCI to better understand the underlying mechanisms and develop better treatments for these phenomena. While evoked withdrawal tests can assess hypersensitivity in these SCI models, there is little consensus over how to evaluate spontaneous sensory abnormalities that are seen in clinical SCI subjects. Overgrooming (OG) and biting after peripheral nerve injury or spinal cord excitotoxic lesions are thought to be one behavioral demonstration of spontaneous neuropathic pain or dysesthesia. However, reports of OG after contusion SCI are largely anecdotal and conditions causing this response are poorly understood. The present study investigated whether repeated application of sensory stimuli to the trunk prior to mid-thoracic contusion SCI would induce OG after SCI in mice. One week prior to SCI or laminectomy, mice were subjected either to nociceptive and mechanical stimulation, mechanical stimulation only, the testing situation without stimulation, or no treatment. They were then examined for 14 days after surgery and the sizes and locations of OG sites were recorded on anatomical maps. Mice subjected to either stimulus paradigm showed increased OG compared with unstimulated or uninjured mice. Histological analysis showed no difference in spinal cord lesion size due to sensory stimulation, or between mice that overgroomed or did not overgroom. The relationship between prior stimulation and contusion injury in mice that display OG indicates a critical interaction that may underlie one facet of spontaneous neuropathic symptoms after SCI. PMID:20121420

  19. Calorimetric studies of the state of water in seed tissues

    PubMed Central

    Vertucci, Christina W.

    1990-01-01

    To understand the physical state of water in hydrating biological tissues, thermodynamic properties of water in cotyledons of pea and soybean with moisture contents ranging from 0.01 g H2O/g dw to 1.0 g H2O/g dw were studied using differential scanning calorimetry. The heat capacity of the tissues increased abruptly at moisture contents above 0.08 and 0.12 g H2O/g dw for soybean and pea cotyledons, respectively. Melting transitions of water were observed at moisture contents >0.23 and 0.26 g H2O/g dw for soybean and pea. However, freezing of water was not observed unless moisture contents exceeded 0.33-0.35 g H2O/g dw. In both seed tissues, the temperatures of the freezing and melting varied with moisture content and showed hysterisis. The energy of the transition also varied with moisture content and was similar to the heats of fusion and crystallization of pure water only at moisture contents >0.54 and 0.58 gH2O/g dw for soybean and pea seeds, respectively. The thermal properties of water change distinctly as seed moisture content changes: at least five states or water can be identified. PMID:19431782

  20. IMPACT OF DEFICIENT NUTRITION IN BONE MASS AFTER BARIATRIC SURGERY

    PubMed Central

    COSTA, Tatiana Munhoz da Rocha Lemos; PAGANOTO, Mariana; RADOMINSKI, Rosana Bento; BORBA, Victoria Zeghbi Cochenski

    2016-01-01

    Background: Essential nutrients are considered for the prevention of the bone loss that occurs after bariatric surgery. Aim: Evaluate nutrients involved in bone metabolism, and relate to serum concentrations of calcium, vitamin D, and parathyroid hormone, and the use of supplements and sun exposure on the bone mass of patients who had undergone gastric bypass surgery. Methods: An observational study, with patients who had undergone the surgery 12 or more months previously, operated group (OG), compared to a control group (CG). Results: Were included 56 in OG and 27 in the CG. The mean age was 36.4±8.5 years. The individuals in the OG, compared to CG, consumed inadequate amounts of protein and daily calcium. The OG had a higher prevalence of low sun exposure, lower levels of 25OH Vitamin D (21.3±10.9 vs. 32.1±11.8 ng/dl), and increased serum levels of parathyroid hormone (68.1±32.9 vs. 39.9±11.9 pg/ml, p<0.001). Secondary hyperparathyroidism was present only in the OG (41.7%). The mean lumbar spine bone mineral density was lower in the OG. Four individuals from the OG had low bone mineral density for chronological age, and no one from the CG. Conclusion: The dietary components that affect bone mass in patients undergoing bariatric surgery were inadequate. The supplementation was insufficient and the sun exposure was low. These changes were accompanied by secondary hyperparathyroidism and a high prevalence of low bone mass in lumbar spine in these subjects. PMID:27120738

  1. Constructing a Spatially Resolved Methane Emission Inventory for the Barnett Shale Region.

    PubMed

    Lyon, David R; Zavala-Araiza, Daniel; Alvarez, Ramón A; Harriss, Robert; Palacios, Virginia; Lan, Xin; Talbot, Robert; Lavoie, Tegan; Shepson, Paul; Yacovitch, Tara I; Herndon, Scott C; Marchese, Anthony J; Zimmerle, Daniel; Robinson, Allen L; Hamburg, Steven P

    2015-07-01

    Methane emissions from the oil and gas industry (O&G) and other sources in the Barnett Shale region were estimated by constructing a spatially resolved emission inventory. Eighteen source categories were estimated using multiple data sets, including new empirical measurements at regional O&G sites and a national study of gathering and processing facilities. Spatially referenced activity data were compiled from federal and state databases and combined with O&G facility emission factors calculated using Monte Carlo simulations that account for high emission sites representing the very upper portion, or fat-tail, in the observed emissions distributions. Total methane emissions in the 25-county Barnett Shale region in October 2013 were estimated to be 72,300 (63,400-82,400) kg CH4 h(-1). O&G emissions were estimated to be 46,200 (40,000-54,100) kg CH4 h(-1) with 19% of emissions from fat-tail sites representing less than 2% of sites. Our estimate of O&G emissions in the Barnett Shale region was higher than alternative inventories based on the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Greenhouse Gas Inventory, EPA Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program, and Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research by factors of 1.5, 2.7, and 4.3, respectively. Gathering compressor stations, which accounted for 40% of O&G emissions in our inventory, had the largest difference from emission estimates based on EPA data sources. Our inventory's higher O&G emission estimate was due primarily to its more comprehensive activity factors and inclusion of emissions from fat-tail sites.

  2. The role of the cerebral ganglia in the venom-induced behavioral manipulation of cockroaches stung by the parasitoid jewel wasp.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Maayan; Libersat, Frederic

    2015-04-01

    The jewel wasp stings cockroaches and injects venom into their cerebral ganglia, namely the subesophageal ganglion (SOG) and supraesophageal ganglion (SupOG). The venom induces a long-term hypokinetic state, during which the stung cockroach shows little or no spontaneous walking. It was shown that venom injection to the SOG reduces neuronal activity, thereby suggesting a similar effect of venom injection in the SupOG. Paradoxically, SupOG-ablated cockroaches show increased spontaneous walking in comparison with control. Yet most of the venom in the SupOG of cockroaches is primarily concentrated in and around the central complex (CX). Thus the venom could chiefly decrease activity in the CX to contribute to the hypokinetic state. Our first aim was to resolve this discrepancy by using a combination of behavioral and neuropharmacological tools. Our results show that the CX is necessary for the initiation of spontaneous walking, and that focal injection of procaine to the CX is sufficient to induce the decrease in spontaneous walking. Furthermore, it was shown that artificial venom injection to the SOG decreases walking. Hence our second aim was to test the interactions between the SupOG and SOG in the venom-induced behavioral manipulation. We show that, in the absence of the inhibitory control of the SupOG on walking initiation, injection of venom in the SOG alone by the wasp is sufficient to induce the hypokinetic state. To summarize, we show that venom injection to either the SOG or the CX of the SupOG is, by itself, sufficient to decrease walking.

  3. Constructing a Spatially Resolved Methane Emission Inventory for the Barnett Shale Region.

    PubMed

    Lyon, David R; Zavala-Araiza, Daniel; Alvarez, Ramón A; Harriss, Robert; Palacios, Virginia; Lan, Xin; Talbot, Robert; Lavoie, Tegan; Shepson, Paul; Yacovitch, Tara I; Herndon, Scott C; Marchese, Anthony J; Zimmerle, Daniel; Robinson, Allen L; Hamburg, Steven P

    2015-07-01

    Methane emissions from the oil and gas industry (O&G) and other sources in the Barnett Shale region were estimated by constructing a spatially resolved emission inventory. Eighteen source categories were estimated using multiple data sets, including new empirical measurements at regional O&G sites and a national study of gathering and processing facilities. Spatially referenced activity data were compiled from federal and state databases and combined with O&G facility emission factors calculated using Monte Carlo simulations that account for high emission sites representing the very upper portion, or fat-tail, in the observed emissions distributions. Total methane emissions in the 25-county Barnett Shale region in October 2013 were estimated to be 72,300 (63,400-82,400) kg CH4 h(-1). O&G emissions were estimated to be 46,200 (40,000-54,100) kg CH4 h(-1) with 19% of emissions from fat-tail sites representing less than 2% of sites. Our estimate of O&G emissions in the Barnett Shale region was higher than alternative inventories based on the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Greenhouse Gas Inventory, EPA Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program, and Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research by factors of 1.5, 2.7, and 4.3, respectively. Gathering compressor stations, which accounted for 40% of O&G emissions in our inventory, had the largest difference from emission estimates based on EPA data sources. Our inventory's higher O&G emission estimate was due primarily to its more comprehensive activity factors and inclusion of emissions from fat-tail sites. PMID:26148553

  4. Effects of Organogel Hardness and Formulation on Acceptance of Frankfurters.

    PubMed

    Barbut, S; Wood, J; Marangoni, A G

    2016-09-01

    Different organogel formulations used as beef fat (BF) replacement (0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, and 80%) were utilized to optimize the mechanical properties of frankfurters. Organogels, made of canola oil (CO), included different concentrations of ethyl cellulose (EC) and sorbitan monostearate (SMS). They consisted of: 8% EC + 1.5% SMS referred to as organogel-I (OG-I), 8% EC + 3.0% SMS (OG-II), and 10% EC + 1.5% SMS (OG-III), which were found promising in a previous study when used at 100% replacement. Replacement of BF with organogels at all levels could bring down the very high hardness values (texture profile analysis and sensory) of frankfurters prepared using CO by itself, relative to the BF control. OG-I and OG-II quantity had no significant effect on hardness and springiness, being similar in many cases to the BF and lower than the CO control. Shear force values of all organogel treatments were not significantly different from one another, and were between the BF and CO controls. Smokehouse yield showed a pattern of decreasing losses with increasing organogel replacement level. Sensory analysis revealed that using CO by itself significantly increased hardness, but structuring the oil (via organogelation), brought it down to the BF control value in all OG-I and OG-II formulations. Juiciness was significantly reduced by using liquid oil but increased with raising the amount of organogels. Oiliness sensation increased with higher organogel substitution and was actually higher than the beef control. The study demonstrates the potential use of vegetable oil structuring in replacing the more saturated BF in emulsion-type meat products. PMID:27514694

  5. Sorption-desorption of indaziflam and its three metabolites in sandy soils.

    PubMed

    Trigo, Carmen; Koskinen, William C; Kookana, Rai S

    2014-01-01

    Indaziflam is a relatively new herbicide for which sorption-desorption information is lacking, and nothing is available on its metabolites. Information is needed on the multiple soil and pesticide characteristics known to influence these processes. For four soils, the order of sorption was indaziflam (N-[1R,2S)-2,3-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-1H-inden-1-yl]-6-[(1R)-1-fluoroethyl]-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine) (sandy clay loam: Kf = 5.9, 1/nf = 0.7, Kfoc = 447; sandy loam: Kf = 3.9, 1/nf = 0.9, Kfoc = 276) > triazine indanone metabolite (N-[(1R,2S)-2,3-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-3-oxo-1H-inden-1-yl]-6-[(1R)-1-fluoroethyl]-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine) (sandy clay loam: Kf = 2.1, 1/nf = 0.8, Kfoc = 177; sandy loam: Kf = 1.7, 1/nf = 0.9, Kfoc = 118) > fluoroethyldiaminotriazine metabolite (6-[(1R-1-Fluoroethyl]-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine) (sandy clay loam: Kf = 0.3, 1/nf = 0.9, Kfoc = 28; sandy loam: Kf = 0.3, 1/nf = 0.9, Kfoc = 22) = indaziflam carboxylic acid metabolite (2S,3R)-3-[[4-amino-6-[(1R)-1-fluoroethyl]-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl]amino]-2,3-dihydro-2-methyl-1H-indene-5-carboxylic acid) (sandy clay loam: Kf = 0.3, 1/nf = 0.9, Kfoc = 22; sandy loam: Kf = 0.5, 1/nf = 0.8, Kfoc = 32). The metabolites being more polar than the parent compound showed lower sorption. Desorption was hysteretic for indaziflam and triazine indanone metabolite, but not for the other two metabolites. Unsaturated transient flow Kd's were lower than batch Kd's for indaziflam, but similar for fluoroethyldiaminotriazine metabolite. Batch Kd's would overpredict potential offsite transport if desorption hysteresis is not taken into account.

  6. Silylene extrusion from organosilanes via double geminal Si-H bond activation by a Cp*Ru(kappa2-P,N)+ complex: observation of a key stoichiometric step in the glaser-tilley alkene hydrosilylation mechanism.

    PubMed

    Rankin, Matthew A; MacLean, Darren F; Schatte, Gabriele; McDonald, Robert; Stradiotto, Mark

    2007-12-26

    Treatment of Cp*RuCl(kappa2-P,N-2b) (2b = 2-NMe2-3-PiPr2-indene) with TlSO3CF3 produced the cyclometalated complex [4]+SO3CF3- in 94% isolated yield. Exposure of [4]+X- (X = B(C6F5)4 or SO3CF3) to Ph2SiH2 (10 equiv) or PhSiH3 afforded the corresponding [Cp*(mu-P,N-2b)(H)2Ru=SiRPh]+X- complexes, [5]+X- (R = Ph; X = B(C6F5)4, 82%; X = SO3CF3, 39%) and [6]+X- (R = H; X = B(C6F5)4, 94%; X = SO3CF3, 95%). Notably, these transformations represent the first documented examples of Ru-mediated silylene extrusion via double geminal Si-H bond activation of an organosilane-a key step in the recently proposed Glaser-Tilley (G-T) alkene hydrosilylation mechanism. Treatment of [5]+B(C6F5)4- with KN(SiMe3)2 or [6]+SO3CF3- with NaN(SiMe3)2 afforded the corresponding zwitterionic Cp*(mu-2-NMe2-3-PiPr2-indenide)(H)2Ru=SiRPh complex in 69% (R = Ph, 7) or 86% (R = H, 8) isolated yield. Both [6]+X- and 8 proved unreactive toward 1-hexene and styrene and provided negligible catalytic turnover in the attempted metal-mediated hydrosilylation of these substrates with PhSiH3, thereby providing further empirical evidence for the required intermediacy of base-free Ru=Si species in the G-T mechanism. Isomerization of the P,N-indene ligand backbone in [6]+X-, giving rise to [Cp*(mu-1-PiPr2-2-NMe2-indene)(H)2Ru=SiHPh]+X- ([9]+X-), was observed. In the case of [9]+SO3CF3-, net intramolecular addition of the Ru=Si-H group across the styrene-like C=C unit within the ligand backbone to give 10 (96% isolated yield) was observed. Crystallographic characterization data are provided for [4]+X-, [5]+X-, [6]+X-, 8, and 10.

  7. Mechanism for repair of thymine dimers by photoexcitation of proximal 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine.

    PubMed

    Anusiewicz, Iwona; Świerszcz, Iwona; Skurski, Piotr; Simons, Jack

    2013-02-14

    A wide range of experimental data from earlier studies by other workers are combined with recent data from the Burrows group to interpret that group's thymine dimer (T = T) repair rate data for 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (OG)-containing DNA duplexes. The focus of this effort is to explain (i) how and why the repair rates vary as the sequence location and distance of the OG relative to the T═T is changed and (ii) why the spatial extent over which repair is observed is limited to OG-T═T distances of ~6 Å. It is proposed that, if the OG and T═T are within ~5-6 Å, a Coulomb potential moves the energy of the OG(+)···T═T(-) ion-pair state below the photoexcited OG*···T═T state, even in the absence of full solvent relaxation, thus enhancing forward electron transfer from OG* to T═T by allowing it to occur as a radiationless internal conversion process rather than by overcoming a solvation-related barrier. The rate of this forward electron transfer is estimated to be ~10% of the decay rate of the photoexcited OG*. For OG-to-T═T distances beyond 5-6 Å, electron transfer is still exothermic, but it must occur through solvent reorganization, overcoming an energy barrier, which presumably renders this rate too slow to be detected in the experiments under study here. Once an electron has been injected into the T═T, as many other workers have shown, the reaction proceeds through two low-energy barriers first connecting T═T(-) to an intermediate in which the C(5)-C(5') bond of the cyclobutane unit is cleaved, and onward to where the cyclobutane unit is fully broken and two intact thymine sites are established. Our ab initio data show that the energy landscape for these bond cleavages is altered very little by the presence of the proximal OG(+) cation, which therefore allows us to use data from the earlier studies to conclude that it takes ~100 ps for complete bond cleavage to occur. The experimentally determined overall T═T repair quantum yield of 1

  8. Long-term Outcomes of Laparoscopic Versus Open Surgery for Clinical Stage I Gastric Cancer: The LOC-1 Study

    PubMed Central

    Honda, Michitaka; Hiki, Naoki; Kinoshita, Takahiro; Yabusaki, Hiroshi; Abe, Takayuki; Nunobe, Souya; Terada, Mitsumi; Matsuki, Atsushi; Sunagawa, Hideki; Aizawa, Masaki; Healy, Mark A.; Iwasaki, Manabu; Furukawa, Toshi A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Clinical trials comparing laparoscopic gastrectomy (LG) versus traditional open gastrectomy (OG) have been planned, their surgical outcomes reported but their oncologic outcomes are still pending. Consequently, we have conducted this large-scale historical cohort study to provide relevant information rapidly to guide our current practice. Methods: Through a consensus meeting involving surgeons, biostatisticians, and epidemiologists, 30 variables of preoperative information possibly influencing surgeons’ choice between LG versus OG and potentially associating with outcomes were identified to enable rigorous estimation of propensity scores. A total of 4235 consecutive patients who underwent gastrectomy for gastric adenocarcinoma were identified and their relevant data were gathered from the participating hospitals. After propensity score matching, 1848 patients (924 each for LG and OG) were selected for comparison of long-term outcomes. Results: In the propensity-matched population, the 5-year overall survival was 96.3% [95% confidence interval (CI) 95.0–97.6] in the OG as compared with 97.1% (95% CI, 95.9–98.3) in LG. The number of all-cause death was 33/924 in the OG and 24/924 in the LG through the entire period, and the hazard ratio (LG/OG) for overall death was 0.75 (95% CI, 0.44–1.27; P = 0.290). The 3-year recurrence-free survival was 97.4% (95% CI, 96.4–98.5) in the OG and 97.7% (95% CI, 96.5–98.8) in the LG. The number of recurrence was 22/924 in the OG and 21/924 in the LG through the entire period, and the hazard ratio was 1.01 (95% CI, 0.55–1.84; P = 0.981). Conclusions: This observational study adjusted for all-known confounding factors seems to provide strong enough evidence to suggest that LG is oncologically comparable to OG for gastric cancer. PMID:27115899

  9. Searching for the Blind fault: Haiti Subsurface Imaging Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocel, E.; Stewart, R.; Mann, P.; Dowla, N.

    2013-12-01

    The impact of the 12 January 2010 Haiti earthquake was catastrophic, causing serious damage to infrastructure and more than 200000 deaths. Initially, the Haiti earthquake was assumed to occur with the movement of Enriquillo Plantain Garden Fault Zone (EPGFZ), but recent scientific studies have shown that the primary rupture occurred on an unmapped blind thrust fault in the Léogâne fan (associated as Léogâne fault) near the EPGFZ (Figure 1a and 1b). The main purpose of this project are: characterizing and analyzing subsurface structures and associated hazards, characterizing the physical properties of near-surface, locating and understanding the blind faults theorized to have caused the 2010 earthquake (Léogâne fault). Surveys were conducted by a research group from the University of Houston in 2013 to address some of these goals. Surveys were mainly concentrated on Léogâne fan (Figure 1c) and Lake Enriquillo (Figure 1d). For Léogâne surveys, multiple 2D Seismic lines were deployed with approximately N-S orientation. We performed both P wave and S wave refraction analyses and time-migrated the P wave data. The prominent change in both P wave and S wave velocities are interpreted as the effects of faulting. The CMP stacked section shows a multiple discontinuity profile whose location coincides with the anomalies observed at P wave and S wave refraction velocity profile. Extracted reflection coefficients also support a reflective structure at these offsets. We interpret the anomalous structure as North dipping thrust fault. The dip of the fault is estimated around 60°. Near-surface reflection seismic analysis provided deeper information indicating multiple layers with varying velocities, intersected by a number of faults. Gravity surveys were conducted along the main seismic line over Léogâne fan, with additional surveys conducted from Jacmel to Léogâne and around the Port Au Prince area. The estimated Free air gravity profile suggests that the

  10. Linear algebra algorithms for divisors on an algebraic curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khuri-Makdisi, Kamal

    We use an embedding of the symmetric $d$th power of any algebraic curve $C$ of genus $g$ into a Grassmannian space to give algorithms for working with divisors on $C$, using only linear algebra in vector spaces of dimension $O(g)$, and matrices of size $O(g^2)\\times O(g)$. When the base field $k$ is finite, or if $C$ has a rational point over $k$, these give algorithms for working on the Jacobian of $C$ that require $O(g^4)$ field operations, arising from the Gaussian elimination. Our point of view is strongly geometric, and our representation of points on the Jacobian is fairly simple to work with; in particular, none of our algorithms involves arithmetic with polynomials. We note that our algorithms have the same asymptotic complexity for general curves as the more algebraic algorithms in Hess' 1999 Ph.D. thesis, which works with function fields as extensions of $k[x]$. However, for special classes of curves, Hess' algorithms are asymptotically more efficient than ours, generalizing other known efficient algorithms for special classes of curves, such as hyperelliptic curves (Cantor), superelliptic curves (Galbraith, Paulus, and Smart), and $C_{ab}$ curves (Harasawa and Suzuki); in all those cases, one can attain a complexity of $O(g^2)$.

  11. Nerve stretch injury induced pain pattern and changes in sensory ganglia in a clinically relevant model of limb-lengthening in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Pap, K; Berta, Á; Szőke, G; Dunay, M; Németh, T; Hornok, K; Marosfői, L; Réthelyi, M; Kozsurek, M; Puskár, Z

    2015-01-01

    We used a model of tibial lengthening in rabbits to study the postoperative pain pattern during limb-lengthening and morphological changes in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG), including alteration of substance P (SP) expression. Four groups of animals (naive; OG: osteotomized only group; SDG/FDG: slow/fast distraction groups, with 1 mm/3 mm lengthening a day, respectively) were used. Signs of increasing postoperative pain were detected until the 10(th) postoperative day in OG/SDG/FDG, then they decreased in OG but remained higher in SDG/FDG until the distraction finished, suggesting that the pain response is based mainly on surgical trauma until the 10(th) day, while the lengthening extended its duration and increased its intensity. The only morphological change observed in the DRGs was the presence of large vacuoles in some large neurons of OG/SDG/FDG. Cell size analysis of the S1 DRGs showed no cell loss in any of the three groups; a significant increase in the number of SP-positive large DRG cells in the OG; and a significant decrease in the number of SP-immunoreactive small DRG neurons in the SDG/FDG. Faster and larger distraction resulted in more severe signs of pain sensation, and further reduced the number of SP-positive small cells, compared to slow distraction.

  12. Impact of surgical approach on postoperative delirium in elderly patients undergoing gastrectomy: laparoscopic versus open approaches

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Young-Hee; Jeong, Hee-Joon

    2015-01-01

    Background Postoperative delirium is a frequent complication in elderly patients undergoing major abdominal surgery and is associated with a poor outcome. We compared postoperative delirium in elderly patients following laparoscopic gastrectomy (LG) versus open gastrectomy (OG). Methods In total, 130 patients aged ≥ 65 years with gastric cancer undergoing LG and OG were enrolled prospectively. Postoperative delirium and cognitive status were assessed daily using the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) and Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE), respectively, for 3 days postoperatively. For CAM-positive patients, delirium severity was then assessed using the Delirium Index (DI). Results In total, 123 subjects (LG, n = 60; OG, n = 63) were included in the analysis. In both groups, the overall incidences of postoperative delirium were similar: 31.6% (19/60) in the LG group and 41.2% (26/63) in the OG group. When considering only those with delirium, the severity, expressed as the highest DI score, was similar between the groups. A decline in cognitive function (reduction in MMSE ≥ 2 points from baseline) during 3 days postoperatively was observed in 23 patients in the LG group (38.3%) and 27 patients in the OG group (42.9%) (P = 0.744). In both groups, postoperative cognitive decline was significantly associated with postoperative delirium (P < 0.001). Conclusions We found that, compared with traditional open gastrectomy, laparoscopic gastrectomy did not reduce either postoperative delirium or cognitive decline in elderly patients with gastric cancer. PMID:26257851

  13. Platelet-derived growth factor inhibits bone regeneration induced by osteogenin, a bone morphogenetic protein, in rat craniotomy defects.

    PubMed Central

    Marden, L J; Fan, R S; Pierce, G F; Reddi, A H; Hollinger, J O

    1993-01-01

    Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is a potent moderator of soft tissue repair through induction of the inflammatory phase of repair and subsequent enhanced collagen deposition. We examined the effect of recombinant BB homodimer PDGF (rPDGF-BB) applied to rat craniotomy defects, treated with and without bovine osteogenin (OG), to see if bone regeneration would be stimulated. Implants containing 0, 20, 60, or 200 micrograms rPDGF-BB, reconstituted with insoluble rat collagenous bone matrix containing 0, 30, or 150 micrograms OG, were placed into 8-mm craniotomies. After 11 d, 21 of the 144 rats presented subcutaneous masses superior to the defect sites. The masses, comprised of serosanguinous fluid encapsulated by fibrous connective tissue, were larger and occurred more frequently in rats treated with 200 micrograms rPDGF-BB, and were absent in rats not treated with rPDGF-BB. The masses underwent resorption within 28 d after surgery. OG (2-256 micrograms) caused a dose-dependent increase in radiopacity and a marked regeneration of calcified tissue in a dose-dependent fashion within defect sites. However, OG-induced bone regeneration was inhibited 17-53% in the presence of rPDGF-BB. These results suggest that rPDGF-BB inhibited OG-induced bone regeneration and stimulated a soft tissue repair wound phenotype and response. Images PMID:8254045

  14. Effects of dietary hull-less barley β-glucan on the cholesterol metabolism of hypercholesterolemic hamsters.

    PubMed

    Tong, Li-Tao; Zhong, Kui; Liu, Liya; Zhou, Xianrong; Qiu, Ju; Zhou, Sumei

    2015-02-15

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the hypocholesterolemic effects of dietary hull-less barley β-glucan (HBG) on cholesterol metabolism in hamsters which were fed a hypercholesterolemic diet. The hamsters were divided into 3 groups and fed experimental diets, containing 5‰ HBG or 5‰ oat β-glucan (OG), for 30days. The HBG, as well as OG, lowered the concentration of plasma LDL-cholesterol significantly. The excretion of total lipids and cholesterol in feces were increased in HBG and OG groups compared with the control group. The activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase in liver was reduced significantly in the HBG group compared with the control and OG groups. The activity of cholesterol 7-α hydroxylase (CYP7A1) in the liver, in the HBG and OG groups, was significantly increased compared with the control group. The concentrations of acetate, propionate and total short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were not significantly different between the HBG and control groups. These results indicate that dietary HBG reduces the concentration of plasma LDL cholesterol by promoting the excretion of fecal lipids, and regulating the activities of HMG-CoA reductase and CYP7A1 in hypercholesterolemic hamsters.

  15. The trpE gene negatively regulates differentiation of heterocysts at the level of induction in Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120.

    PubMed

    Videau, Patrick; Cozy, Loralyn M; Young, Jasmine E; Ushijima, Blake; Oshiro, Reid T; Rivers, Orion S; Burger, Andrew H; Callahan, Sean M

    2015-01-01

    Levels of 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG) reflect nitrogen status in many bacteria. In heterocystous cyanobacteria, a spike in the 2-OG level occurs shortly after the removal of combined nitrogen from cultures and is an integral part of the induction of heterocyst differentiation. In this work, deletion of one of the two annotated trpE genes in Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 resulted in a spike in the 2-OG level and subsequent differentiation of a wild-type pattern of heterocysts when filaments of the mutant were transferred from growth on ammonia to growth on nitrate. In contrast, 2-OG levels were unaffected in the wild type, which did not differentiate under the same conditions. An inverted-repeat sequence located upstream of trpE bound a central regulator of differentiation, HetR, in vitro and was necessary for HetR-dependent transcription of a reporter fusion and complementation of the mutant phenotype in vivo. Functional complementation of the mutant phenotype with the addition of tryptophan suggested that levels of tryptophan, rather than the demonstrated anthranilate synthase activity of TrpE, mediated the developmental response of the wild type to nitrate. A model is presented for the observed increase in 2-OG in the trpE mutant.

  16. [Research on the separation of limonoid glucosides by reversed-phase preparative high performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Tian, Q G; Dai, J; Ding, X L

    2000-03-01

    Obacunone-17-beta-D-glucopyranoside (OG) was isolated from the seeds of Citrus Sinensis Osbeck by using solvent extraction, classical polymer adsorption column separation and weak base anion ion-exchange separation, OG was finally purified by C18 reversed-phase preparative high performance liquid chromatography and was identified by thin-layer chromatography. The purity of OG was analyzed by analytical reversed-phase HPLC. At last the structure of OG was determined by 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (NMR). In this work, the conditions of the reversed-phase preparative HPLC technique to purify limonoid glucosides was optimized. The reversed-phase preparative HPLC on a C18 column with a mobile phase of acidic acetonitrile-water (about 0.2% TFA, V/V) at pH 3 enabled the baseline separation of limonoid glucosides in the extract. The results show that OG is the predominant limonoid glucoside in the seeds of Citrus Sinensis Osbeck and nomilin glucoside is the second one. The results also show that the classical polymer adsorption column separation and weak base anion ion-exchange separation are effective for purifying limonoid glucosides.

  17. Freezing and melting behavior of an octyl β-D-glucoside-water binary system--inhibitory effect of octyl β-D-glucoside on ice crystal formation.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Shigesaburo; Asakura, Kouichi; Osanai, Shuichi

    2012-12-21

    Phase transition behavior of lyotropic liquid crystals of an octyl β-D-glucoside (OG)-water binary system during ice freezing and melting was studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and polarizing optical microscopy (POM). Not the thermotropic, but the lyotropic phase transition due to the change of OG concentration during ice freezing and melting was observed. The concentration-temperature phase diagram of the binary system was constructed. Melting temperature of ice, T(m), lyotropic phase transition temperature, T(tr), and glass transition temperatures of unfrozen phases in the absence and presence of ice, T(g) and T(g)', were shown in the phase diagram. The phase diagram indicated that the OG aqueous system was concentrated to ca. 90-92 wt% by ice freezing and exhibited glass transition at T(g)'. An observation of the concentration-gradient specimen by the cryo-POM showed the evidence of the inhibitory effects of OG on nucleation and growth of ice crystals in the extremely high OG concentration system in which the lamellar liquid crystalline phase was formed. This study provided the importance of the influence of concentration change by ice freezing on the behaviour of the sugar-based surfactant-water system under low temperature conditions.

  18. Okra (Hibiscus esculentus) gum-alginate blend mucoadhesive beads for controlled glibenclamide release.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Priyanka; Ubaidulla, U; Nayak, Amit Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The utility of isolated okra (Hibiscus esculentus) gum (OG) was evaluated as a potential sustained drug release polymer-blends with sodium alginate in the development of controlled glibenclamide release ionically-gelled beads for oral use. OG was isolated from okra fruits and its solubility, pH, viscosity and moisture content were studied. Glibenclamide-loaded OG-alginate blend beads were prepared using CaCl2 as cross-linking agent through ionic-gelation technique. These ionically gelled beads showed drug entrapment efficiency of 64.19 ± 2.02 to 91.86 ± 3.24%. The bead sizes were within 1.12 ± 0.11 to 1.28 ± 0.15 mm. These glibenclamide-loaded OG-alginate blend beads exhibited sustained in vitro drug release over a prolonged period of 8 h. The in vitro drug release from these OG-alginate beads were followed controlled-release (zero-order) pattern with super case-II transport mechanism. The beads were also characterized by SEM and FTIR. The swelling and degradation of these beads was influenced by the pH of the test medium. These beads also exhibited good mucoadhesivity with goat intestinal mucosa.

  19. The trpE gene negatively regulates differentiation of heterocysts at the level of induction in Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120.

    PubMed

    Videau, Patrick; Cozy, Loralyn M; Young, Jasmine E; Ushijima, Blake; Oshiro, Reid T; Rivers, Orion S; Burger, Andrew H; Callahan, Sean M

    2015-01-01

    Levels of 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG) reflect nitrogen status in many bacteria. In heterocystous cyanobacteria, a spike in the 2-OG level occurs shortly after the removal of combined nitrogen from cultures and is an integral part of the induction of heterocyst differentiation. In this work, deletion of one of the two annotated trpE genes in Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 resulted in a spike in the 2-OG level and subsequent differentiation of a wild-type pattern of heterocysts when filaments of the mutant were transferred from growth on ammonia to growth on nitrate. In contrast, 2-OG levels were unaffected in the wild type, which did not differentiate under the same conditions. An inverted-repeat sequence located upstream of trpE bound a central regulator of differentiation, HetR, in vitro and was necessary for HetR-dependent transcription of a reporter fusion and complementation of the mutant phenotype in vivo. Functional complementation of the mutant phenotype with the addition of tryptophan suggested that levels of tryptophan, rather than the demonstrated anthranilate synthase activity of TrpE, mediated the developmental response of the wild type to nitrate. A model is presented for the observed increase in 2-OG in the trpE mutant. PMID:25384479

  20. Okra (Hibiscus esculentus) gum-alginate blend mucoadhesive beads for controlled glibenclamide release.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Priyanka; Ubaidulla, U; Nayak, Amit Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The utility of isolated okra (Hibiscus esculentus) gum (OG) was evaluated as a potential sustained drug release polymer-blends with sodium alginate in the development of controlled glibenclamide release ionically-gelled beads for oral use. OG was isolated from okra fruits and its solubility, pH, viscosity and moisture content were studied. Glibenclamide-loaded OG-alginate blend beads were prepared using CaCl2 as cross-linking agent through ionic-gelation technique. These ionically gelled beads showed drug entrapment efficiency of 64.19 ± 2.02 to 91.86 ± 3.24%. The bead sizes were within 1.12 ± 0.11 to 1.28 ± 0.15 mm. These glibenclamide-loaded OG-alginate blend beads exhibited sustained in vitro drug release over a prolonged period of 8 h. The in vitro drug release from these OG-alginate beads were followed controlled-release (zero-order) pattern with super case-II transport mechanism. The beads were also characterized by SEM and FTIR. The swelling and degradation of these beads was influenced by the pH of the test medium. These beads also exhibited good mucoadhesivity with goat intestinal mucosa. PMID:25312603

  1. Crystal Structure and Functional Analysis of Homocitrate Synthase, an Essential Enzyme in Lysine Biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Bulfer, Stacie L.; Scott, Erin M.; Couture, Jean-François; Pillus, Lorraine; Trievel, Raymond C.

    2010-01-12

    Homocitrate synthase (HCS) catalyzes the first and committed step in lysine biosynthesis in many fungi and certain Archaea and is a potential target for antifungal drugs. Here we report the crystal structure of the HCS apoenzyme from Schizosaccharomyces pombe and two distinct structures of the enzyme in complex with the substrate 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG). The structures reveal that HCS forms an intertwined homodimer stabilized by domain-swapping between the N- and C-terminal domains of each monomer. The N-terminal catalytic domain is composed of a TIM barrel fold in which 2-OG binds via hydrogen bonds and coordination to the active site divalent metal ion, whereas the C-terminal domain is composed of mixed {alpha}/{beta} topology. In the structures of the HCS apoenzyme and one of the 2-OG binary complexes, a lid motif from the C-terminal domain occludes the entrance to the active site of the neighboring monomer, whereas in the second 2-OG complex the lid is disordered, suggesting that it regulates substrate access to the active site through its apparent flexibility. Mutations of the active site residues involved in 2-OG binding or implicated in acid-base catalysis impair or abolish activity in vitro and in vivo. Together, these results yield new insights into the structure and catalytic mechanism of HCSs and furnish a platform for developing HCS-selective inhibitors.

  2. Laser-induced optogalvanic signal oscillations in miniature neon glow discharge plasma.

    PubMed

    Saini, V K

    2013-06-20

    Laser-induced optogalvanic (OG) signal oscillations detected in miniature neon glow discharge plasma are investigated using a discharge equivalent-circuit model. The damped oscillations in OG signal are generated when a pulsed dye laser is tuned to a specific neon transition (1s5→2p2) at 588.2 nm under the discharge conditions where dynamic resistance changes its sign. Penning ionization via quasi-resonant energy transfer collisions between neon gas atoms in metastable state and sputtered electrode atoms in ground state is discussed to explain the negative differential resistance properties of discharge plasma that are attributed to oscillations in the OG signal. The experimentally observed results are simulated by analyzing the behavior of an equivalent discharge-OG circuit. Good agreement between theoretically calculated and experimental results is observed. It is found that discharge plasma is more sensitive and less stable in close vicinity to dynamic resistance sign inversion, which can be useful for weak-optical-transition OG detection.

  3. [The genotoxic action of uranyl ions on DNA in vitro caused by the generation of reactive oxygen species].

    PubMed

    Smirnova, V S; Gudkov, S V; Shtarkman, I N; Chernikov, A V; Bruskov, V I

    2005-01-01

    8-Oxoguanine (8-OG) is an important biomarker of oxidative DNA damage induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). By using ELISA with monoclonal antibodies against 8-OG, the formation of 8-OG in DNA by the action of uranyl ions, gamma-irradiation, and heating at 37 degrees C and their combined action was investigated in view of environmental pollution by uranium oxides as a result of the use of armor piercing shells with depleted uranium. The content of 8-OG in DNA induced by the action of gamma-irradiation, 5 microM uranyl ions and heating changes with time in a complicated manner. These results suggest that, by the action of uranyl ions, an additional generation of ROS occurs, which leads both to the formation of 8-OG in DNA and its further oxidation. Uranyl ions at a conceptration of 5 microM increase the thermal deamination of cytosine in DNA several times but do not influence DNA thermal depurination. It is shown that uranyl ions essentially increase the production of hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals by the action of heat on water. The results indicate a high chemical genotoxicity of uranyl ions and their enhancing effect on DNA base damage by the action of heat and gamma-irradiation.

  4. Detection of genes for alkane and naphthalene catabolism in Rhodococcus sp. strain 1BN.

    PubMed

    Andreoni, V; Bernasconi, S; Colombo, M; van Beilen, J B; Cavalca, L

    2000-10-01

    Rhodococcus sp. 1BN was isolated from a contaminated site and showed various biodegradative capabilities. Besides naphthalene, strain 1BN degraded medium- (C6) and long-chain alkanes (C16-C28), benzene and toluene, alone or when the hydrocarbons were mixed in equal proportions. The nucleotide sequence of an alk polymerase chain reaction (PCR) fragment revealed a 59% nucleotide homology to the Pseudomonas oleovorans alkB gene. The nar fragments were highly homologous to genes coding for large and small subunits of cis-naphthalene 1,2-dioxygenase (narAa and narAb) and to cis-naphthalene dihydrodiol dehydrogenase (narB) from other rhodococci. The oxidation of indene to cis-(1S,2R)-1,2-dihydroxyindan by toluene-induced cells allows to hypothesize that strain 1BN also carries a toluene dioxygenase-like system. PMID:11233165

  5. Structures and comparative characterization of biosynthetic gene clusters for cyanosporasides, enediyne-derived natural products from marine actinomycetes.

    PubMed

    Lane, Amy L; Nam, Sang-Jip; Fukuda, Takashi; Yamanaka, Kazuya; Kauffman, Christopher A; Jensen, Paul R; Fenical, William; Moore, Bradley S

    2013-03-20

    Cyanosporasides are marine bacterial natural products containing a chlorinated cyclopenta[a]indene core of suspected enediyne polyketide biosynthetic origin. Herein, we report the isolation and characterization of novel cyanosporasides C-F (3-6) from the marine actinomycetes Salinispora pacifica CNS-143 and Streptomyces sp. CNT-179, highlighted by the unprecedented C-2' N-acetylcysteamine functionalized hexose group of 6. Cloning, sequencing, and mutagenesis of homologous ~50 kb cyanosporaside biosynthetic gene clusters from both bacteria afforded the first genetic evidence supporting cyanosporaside's enediyne, and thereby p-benzyne biradical, biosynthetic origin and revealed the molecular basis for nitrile and glycosyl functionalization. This study provides new opportunities for bioengineering of enediyne derivatives and expands the structural diversity afforded by enediyne gene clusters.

  6. Three-Dimensionally Homoconjugated Carbon-Bridged Oligophenylenevinylene for Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Yan, Qifan; Guo, Yunlong; Ichimura, Anna; Tsuji, Hayato; Nakamura, Eiichi

    2016-08-31

    Stabilization of the radical cationic state of a donor molecule by 3-D homoconjugation was probed using a substituted carbon-bridged oligophenylenevinylene backbone (COPV, or 5,5-diarylindeno[2,1-a]indenes). For molecules bearing electron-donating groups as the 5,5-aryl moieties, a one-electron oxidation of the COPV backbone results in delocalization of the cationic charge over the whole molecule with a small reorganization energy. The compounds forming a stable radical cation by 3-D homoconjugation produce a uniform amorphous film and show high short-circuit current, high fill factor, and hence high power-conversion efficiency when used as a hole-transporting layer of an organic-inorganic hybrid lead perovskite solar cell. This material thus shows a performance and stability in air comparable to those obtained with the benchmark material, spiro-MeOTAD. PMID:27494602

  7. Chemical reaction fouling model for single-phase heat transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Panchal, C.B.; Watkinson, A.P.

    1993-08-01

    A fouling model was developed on the premise that the chemical reaction for generation of precursor can take place in the bulk fluid, in the thermalboundary layer, or at the fluid/wall interface, depending upon the interactive effects of flu id dynamics, heat and mass transfer, and the controlling chemical reaction. The analysis was used to examine the experimental data for fouling deposition of polyperoxides produced by autoxidation of indene in kerosene. The effects of fluid and wall temperatures for two flow geometries were analyzed. The results showed that the relative effects of physical parameters on the fouling rate would differ for the three fouling mechanisms; therefore, it is important to identify the controlling mechanism in applying the closed-flow-loop data to industrial conditions.

  8. Molecular packing and solar cell performance in blends of polymers with a bisadduct fullerene.

    PubMed

    Miller, Nichole Cates; Sweetnam, Sean; Hoke, Eric T; Gysel, Roman; Miller, Chad E; Bartelt, Jonathan A; Xie, Xinxin; Toney, Michael F; McGehee, Michael D

    2012-03-14

    We compare the solar cell performance of several polymers with the conventional electron acceptor phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) to fullerenes with one to three indene adducts. We find that the multiadduct fullerenes with lower electron affinity improve the efficiency of the solar cells only when they do not intercalate between the polymer side chains. When they intercalate between the side chains, the multiadduct fullerenes substantially reduce solar cell photocurrent. We use X-ray diffraction to determine how the fullerenes are arranged within crystals of poly-(2,5-bis(3-tetradecylthiophen-2-yl)thieno[3,2-b]thiophene) (PBTTT) and suggest that poor electron transport in the molecularly mixed domains may account for the reduced solar cell performance of blends with fullerene intercalation.

  9. Pollutant emissions during the pyrolysis and combustion of flexible polyurethane foam.

    PubMed

    Garrido, María A; Font, Rafael; Conesa, Juan A

    2016-06-01

    Thermal decomposition of flexible polyurethane foam (FPUF) was studied under nitrogen and air atmospheres at 550°C and 850°C using a laboratory scale reactor to analyse the evolved products. Ammonia, hydrogen cyanide and nitrile compounds were obtained in high yields in pyrolysis at the lower temperature, whereas at 850°C polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other semivolatile compounds, especially compounds containing nitrogen (benzonitrile, aniline, quinolone and indene) were the most abundant products. Different behaviour was observed in the evolution of polychlorodibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) at 550°C and 850°C. At 550°C, the less chlorinated congeners, mainly PCDF, were more abundant. Contrarily, at 850°C the most chlorinated PCDD were dominant. In addition, the total yields of PCDD/Fs in the pyrolysis and combustion runs at 850°C were low and quite similar. PMID:27095290

  10. Pollutant emissions during the pyrolysis and combustion of flexible polyurethane foam.

    PubMed

    Garrido, María A; Font, Rafael; Conesa, Juan A

    2016-06-01

    Thermal decomposition of flexible polyurethane foam (FPUF) was studied under nitrogen and air atmospheres at 550°C and 850°C using a laboratory scale reactor to analyse the evolved products. Ammonia, hydrogen cyanide and nitrile compounds were obtained in high yields in pyrolysis at the lower temperature, whereas at 850°C polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other semivolatile compounds, especially compounds containing nitrogen (benzonitrile, aniline, quinolone and indene) were the most abundant products. Different behaviour was observed in the evolution of polychlorodibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) at 550°C and 850°C. At 550°C, the less chlorinated congeners, mainly PCDF, were more abundant. Contrarily, at 850°C the most chlorinated PCDD were dominant. In addition, the total yields of PCDD/Fs in the pyrolysis and combustion runs at 850°C were low and quite similar.

  11. Studies of a pyridino-crown ether-based chiral stationary phase on the enantioseparation of biogenic chiral aralkylamines and α-amino acid esters by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Lévai, Sándor; Németh, Tamás; Fődi, Tamás; Kupai, József; Tóth, Tünde; Huszthy, Péter; Balogh, György Tibor

    2015-11-10

    This paper reports the enantioseparation ability of a pyridino-18-crown-6 ether-based chiral stationary phase [(S,S)-CSP-1]. The enantiomeric discrimination of chiral stationary phase (S,S)-CSP-1 was evaluated by HPLC using the mixtures of enantiomers of various protonated primary aralkylamines [1-phenylethylamine hydrogen perchlorate (PEA), 2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-amine (1-aminoindan), 2,2'-(1,2-diaminoethane-1,2-diyl) diphenol (HPEN)] and perchlorate salts of α-amino acid esters [alanine benzyl ester (Ala-OBn), phenylalanine benzyl ester (Phe-OBn), phenylalanine methyl ester (Phe-OMe), phenylglycine methyl ester (PhGly-OMe), glutamic acid dibenzyl ester (Glu-diOBn), and valine benzyl ester (Val-OBn)]. The best enantioseparation was achieved in the case of PEA. The high enantioselectivity was rationalized by the strong π-π interaction of the extended π system of the aryl-substituted pyridine unit.

  12. GaCl3 -Mediated Reactions of Donor-Acceptor Cyclopropanes with Aromatic Aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Borisov, Denis D; Novikov, Roman A; Tomilov, Yury V

    2016-09-26

    A new strategy for cascade assembly of substituted indenes and polycyclic lactones based on reactions of donor-acceptor cyclopropanes and styrylmalonates with aromatic aldehydes in the presence of GaCl3 has been developed. The use of GaCl3 makes it possible to principally change the direction of the reaction known in this series of substrates and to perform the process in a multicomponent version. Generation of formal 1,2-zwitterionic intermediates owing to complexation of dicarboxylate groups with GaCl3 is the driving force of the reactions discovered. This method makes it possible to assemble indenylmalonates or indano[1',2':2,3]indano[2,1-b]furan-2-ones in one synthetic stage from readily available starting compounds with high regio- and diastereoselectivity. A mechanism of the reactions has been suggested using the (18) O label in benzaldehyde. PMID:27573178

  13. Structures and comparative characterization of biosynthetic gene clusters for cyanosporasides, enediyne-derived natural products from marine actinomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Amy L.; Nam, Sang Jip; Fukuda, Takashi; Yamanaka, Kazuya; Kauffman, Christopher A.; Jensen, Paul R.; Fenical, William; Moore, Bradley S.

    2013-01-01

    Cyanosporasides are marine bacterial natural products containing a chlorinated cyclopenta[a]indene core of suspected enediyne polyketide biosynthetic origin. Herein, we report the isolation and characterization of novel cyanosporasides C–F (3–6) from the marine actinomycetes “Salinispora pacifica” CNS-143 and Streptomyces sp. CNT-179, highlighted by the unprecedented C-2' N-acetylcysteamine functionalized hexose group of 6. Cloning, sequencing, and mutagenesis of homologous ~50 kb cyanosporaside biosynthetic gene clusters from both bacteria afforded the first genetic evidence supporting cyanosporaside's enediyne, and thereby p-benzyne biradical, biosynthetic origin and revealed the molecular basis for nitrile and glycosyl functionalization. This study provides new opportunities for bioengineering of enediyne derivatives and expands the structural diversity afforded by enediyne gene clusters. PMID:23458364

  14. Biomimetic total synthesis of cyanosporaside aglycons from a single enediyne precursor through site-selective p-benzyne hydrochlorination.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Kei; Lear, Martin J; Yamaguchi, Takaya; Yamashita, Shuji; Gridnev, Ilya D; Hayashi, Yujiro; Hirama, Masahiro

    2014-12-01

    The cyanosporasides A-F are a collection of monochlorinated benzenoid derivatives isolated from the marine actinomycetes Salinispora and Streptomyces sp. All derivatives feature one of two types of cyanocyclopenta[a]indene frameworks, which are regioisomeric in the position of a single chlorine atom. It is proposed that these chloro-substituted benzenoids are formed biosynthetically through the cycloaromatization of a bicyclic nine-membered enediyne precursor. Herein, we report the synthesis of such a bicyclic precursor, its spontaneous transannulation into a p-benzyne, and its differential 1,4 hydrochlorination reactivity under either organochlorine or chloride-salt conditions. Our bioinspired approach culminated in the first regiodivergent total synthesis of the aglycons A/F and B/C, as well as cyanosporasides D and E. In addition, empirical insights into the site selectivity of a natural-like p-benzyne, calculated to be a ground-state triplet diradical, to hydrogen, chlorine, and chloride sources are revealed.

  15. Fused 1,2,3-Dithiazoles: Convenient Synthesis, Structural Characterization, and Electrochemical Properties.

    PubMed

    Konstantinova, Lidia S; Baranovsky, Ilia V; Irtegova, Irina G; Bagryanskaya, Irina Y; Shundrin, Leonid A; Zibarev, Andrey V; Rakitin, Oleg A

    2016-01-01

    A new general protocol for synthesis of fused 1,2,3-dithiazoles by the reaction of cyclic oximes with S₂Cl₂ and pyridine in acetonitrile has been developed. The target 1,2,3-dithiazoles fused with various carbocycles, such as indene, naphthalenone, cyclohexadienone, cyclopentadiene, and benzoannulene, were selectively obtained in low to high yields. In most cases, the hetero ring-closure was accompanied by chlorination of the carbocyclic moieties. With naphthalenone derivatives, a novel dithiazole rearrangement (15→13) featuring unexpected movement of the dithiazole ring from α- to β-position, with respect to keto group, was discovered. Molecular structure of 4-chloro-5H-naphtho[1,2-d][1,2,3]dithiazol-5-one 13 was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Electrochemical properties of 13 were studied by cyclic voltammetry and a complex behavior was observed, most likely including hydrodechlorination at a low potential. PMID:27164072

  16. Evolution of the electron mobility in polymer solar cells with different fullerene acceptors.

    PubMed

    Gao, Dong; Djukic, Brandon; Shi, Weiqing; Bridges, Colin R; Kozycz, Lisa M; Seferos, Dwight S

    2013-08-28

    We investigate the evolution of the electron mobility of two different acceptors, [6,6]-phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM) and indene-C60 bisadduct (ICBA), in a poly(3-hexylthiophene) blend solar cell during a prolonged thermal aging process. High electron mobility does not correlate with the best device performance in our study of the P3HT:PC71BM and P3HT:ICBA systems. Very little changes are observed in the polymer crystallinity as a function of time. The evolution of the acceptor appears to be the dominant factor that leads to long-term changes in the device performance. The electron mobility evolves differently in PC71BM and ICBA systems, which highlights the importance of the fullerene molecular structure. PMID:23845022

  17. How big is a Cp? Cycloheptatrienyl zirconium complexes with bulky cyclopentadienyl and indenyl ligands.

    PubMed

    Glöckner, Andreas; Bauer, Heiko; Maekawa, Miyuki; Bannenberg, Thomas; Daniliuc, Constantin G; Jones, Peter G; Sun, Yu; Sitzmann, Helmut; Tamm, Matthias; Walter, Marc D

    2012-06-14

    A combination of phase-transfer and traditional alkylation strategies has been employed to synthesise sterically encumbered 1,3-di(cyclohexyl) and 1,3-di(tert-butyl) substituted indenes in multi-gram quantities. These indenyl ligands and sterically demanding alkyl cyclopentadienyl ligands have been used to prepare a series of [(η(7)-C(7)H(7))Zr(η(5)-L)] (L = Cp and Ind) complexes by straightforward salt metathesis between [(η(7)-C(7)H(7))ZrCl(tmeda)] and the corresponding sodium indenide or cyclopentadienide. All of these Zr complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis, NMR spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray diffraction. The structural information derived from these studies was employed to evaluate the steric demand of these ligands in a realistic manner.

  18. Crystal structure of a bioactive sesquiterpene isolated from Artemisia reticulata.

    PubMed

    Bauri, A K; Foro, Sabine; Do, Nhu Quynh Nguyen

    2016-04-01

    The title compound, C15H24O2 {systematic name: 1-[6-hy-droxy-7-(propan-2-yl)-4-methyl-idene-2,3,3a,4,5,6,7,7a-octa-hydro-1H-inden-1-yl]ethanone} was iso-la-ted from A. reticulata by column chromatography over silica gel by gradient solvent elution. The mol-ecule comprises a bi-cyclo-[4.3.0]nonane ring bearing acet-oxy, hy-droxy and isopropyl substituents, and an exocyclic double bond on the cyclo-hexane ring. In the bicyclic skeleton, the cyclo-hexane ring adopts a chair conformation ring and the cyclo-pentane ring is in an envelope conformation. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked by O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming chains along [010]. These chains are cross-linked by C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds. PMID:27375864

  19. Discovery of Potent Carbonic Anhydrase and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors: 2-Aminoindan β-Lactam Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Genç, Hayriye; Kalin, Ramazan; Köksal, Zeynep; Sadeghian, Nastaran; Kocyigit, Umit M.; Zengin, Mustafa; Gülçin, İlhami; Özdemir, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    β-Lactams are pharmacologically important compounds because of their various biological uses, including antibiotic and so on. β-Lactams were synthesized from benzylidene-inden derivatives and acetoxyacetyl chloride. The inhibitory effect of these compounds was examined for human carbonic anhydrase I and II (hCA I, and II) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The results reveal that β-lactams are inhibitors of hCA I, II and AChE. The Ki values of β-lactams (2a–k) were 0.44–6.29 nM against hCA I, 0.93–8.34 nM against hCA II, and 0.25–1.13 nM against AChE. Our findings indicate that β-lactams (2a–k) inhibit both carbonic anhydrases (CA) isoenzymes and AChE at low nanomolar concentrations. PMID:27775608

  20. Studies of a pyridino-crown ether-based chiral stationary phase on the enantioseparation of biogenic chiral aralkylamines and α-amino acid esters by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Lévai, Sándor; Németh, Tamás; Fődi, Tamás; Kupai, József; Tóth, Tünde; Huszthy, Péter; Balogh, György Tibor

    2015-11-10

    This paper reports the enantioseparation ability of a pyridino-18-crown-6 ether-based chiral stationary phase [(S,S)-CSP-1]. The enantiomeric discrimination of chiral stationary phase (S,S)-CSP-1 was evaluated by HPLC using the mixtures of enantiomers of various protonated primary aralkylamines [1-phenylethylamine hydrogen perchlorate (PEA), 2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-amine (1-aminoindan), 2,2'-(1,2-diaminoethane-1,2-diyl) diphenol (HPEN)] and perchlorate salts of α-amino acid esters [alanine benzyl ester (Ala-OBn), phenylalanine benzyl ester (Phe-OBn), phenylalanine methyl ester (Phe-OMe), phenylglycine methyl ester (PhGly-OMe), glutamic acid dibenzyl ester (Glu-diOBn), and valine benzyl ester (Val-OBn)]. The best enantioseparation was achieved in the case of PEA. The high enantioselectivity was rationalized by the strong π-π interaction of the extended π system of the aryl-substituted pyridine unit. PMID:26218505

  1. Optically monitored spray coating system for the controlled deposition of the photoactive layer in organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vak, Doojin; van Embden, Joel; Wong, Wallace W. H.; Watkins, Scott

    2015-01-01

    A spray deposition process equipped with an in situ optical thickness monitoring system has been developed to fabricate the photoactive layer of solar cells. Film thickness is monitored by a photodiode-LED couple after each deposition cycle. Using optimized conditions, the thickness of the spray deposited photoactive films can be tuned to increase linearly with the number of deposition cycles over a wide range of deposition conditions. After instrument calibration, optimization of the active layer thickness can be accomplished by simply setting the desired absorbance of the film. The simple process outlined here may be used for the rapid optimization of thin film photovoltaic devices. As proof of this, we fabricate a poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester as well as a P3HT and indene-C60 bis-adduct organic solar cells, which achieve a champion power conversion efficiency of 4.2%.

  2. Évidences paléomagnétiques et paléontologiques en faveur d'une position antipodale du craton Ouest-Africain et de la Chine du Nord : conséquences paléogéographiquesPalaeomagnetic and palaeontologic evidence for an antipodal position of the West African Craton and of northern China in the Rodinia puzzle: palaeogeographic consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefort, Jean-Pierre; Aı̈fa, Tahar; Bourrouilh, Robert

    2004-02-01

    Reappraisal of the palaeomagnetic data previously published about the West African Craton and their comparison with the most recent information obtained on doleritic dykes and stromatolite-bearing formations allow us to propose, after a critical examination of the old geochronological data, a new path for the West African Craton between 2200 and 700 Ma. This path has been compared with that of eastern China (which can be simply divided into a northern and a southern China block) between 1400 and 700 Ma. We can observe that these two blocks show a common path before their accretion to the Rodinia super-continent. These two blocks, which were located close the equator and at the outboard of Rodinia at about 1000 Ma, were also characterized by identical stromatolitic assemblages. This result shows that West Africa and Eastern China represented the antipodal continental margins of Rodinia. One can also deduce from our data that the accretion of Rodinia mainly resulted from north-south-oriented displacements. To cite this article: J.-P. Lefort et al., C. R. Geoscience 336 (2004).

  3. Triphenyl group containing molecular glasses of azobenzene for photonic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarins, Elmars; Tokmakovs, Andrejs; Kokars, Valdis; Ozols, Andris; Augustovs, Peteris; Rutkis, Martins

    2016-03-01

    D-π-A type organic molecules have attracted considerable attention of scientists due to their potential applications in nonlinear optics and holographic data storage as light, flexible and low-cost photonic materials. To provide a better understanding on the relation between the compound chemical structure and their physical properties necessary for the mentioned purposes, eight glassy triphenyl group containing derivatives of azobenzene with incorporated 5,5-dimethylcyclohex-2-enylidene or 4H-pyran-4-ylidene structural fragments and dicyanomethylene, indene-1,3-dione and pyrimidine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-trione acceptor groups have been synthesized and investigated. Thermal stability of synthesized glasses is no lower than 250 °C and glass transition in higher than 70 °C which both further increases (up to 120 °C) by additional number of attached triphenyl-moieties and incorporated structural fragments. Almost all of the synthesized azodyes form good optical quality transparent amorphous films from volatile organic solvents with their light absorption in thin solid films in the range of 400-660 nm. Azocompounds with sterically small cyclohex-2-ene-1-ylidene fragment in their molecules proved to be most efficient materials for holographic data storage and nonlinear optics with diffraction efficiency up to 20.40%, self diffraction efficiency up to 12.94% and NLO coefficient d33 up to 125.7 pm/V. Azodyes with no additionally incorporated structural fragments and indene-1,3-dione electron acceptor group were least efficient materials for these purposes, however may show potential as photoactive components in organic solar cells due to their remarkable light absorption properties in the solid state.

  4. Solution-processed vanadium oxide as a hole collection layer on an ITO electrode for high-performance polymer solar cells.

    PubMed

    Tan, Zhan'ao; Zhang, Wenqing; Cui, Chaohua; Ding, Yuqin; Qian, Deping; Xu, Qi; Li, Liangjie; Li, Shusheng; Li, Yongfang

    2012-11-14

    A solution-processed vanadium oxide (s-VO(x)) anode buffer layer on an indium-tin-oxide (ITO) electrode was used instead of PEDOT:PSS for improving the stability and photovoltaic performance of the polymer solar cells (PSCs). The s-VO(x) layer was prepared by spin-coating a vanadyl acetylacetonate (VO(acac)(2)) isopropyl alcohol solution on the ITO electrode and then thermal annealing at 150 °C for 10 min. The s-VO(x) oxide layer is highly transparent in the visible range and shows effective hole collection property. The photovoltaic performance of the s-VO(x) buffer layer was studied by fabricating the PSCs based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) as an electron donor and four soluble fullerene derivatives, [6,6]-phenyl-C(61)-butyric acid methyl ester (PC(60)BM), [6,6]-phenyl-C(71)-butyric acid methyl ester (PC(70)BM), indene-C(60) bisadduct (IC(60)BA), and indene-C(70) bisadduct (IC(70)BA), as electron acceptors. The PSCs with the s-VO(x) buffer layer show improved performance in comparison with the traditional devices with the PEDOT:PSS buffer layer on ITO, no matter which fullerene derivative was used as an acceptor. The power conversion efficiency of the PSC based on P3HT:IC(70)BA (1 : 1, w/w) with the s-VO(x) anode buffer layer reached 6.35% under the illumination of AM1.5G 100 mW cm(-2).

  5. Time- and isomer-resolved measurements of sequential addition of acetylene to the propargyl radical

    SciTech Connect

    Savee, John D.; Selby, Talitha M.; Welz, Oliver; Taatjes, Craig A.; Osborn, David L.

    2015-10-06

    Soot formation in combustion is a complex process in which polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are believed to play a critical role. Recent works concluded that three consecutive additions of acetylene (C2H2) to propargyl (C3H3) create a facile route to the PAH indene (C9H8). However, the isomeric forms of C5H5 and C7H7 intermediates in this reaction sequence are not known. We directly investigate these intermediates using time- and isomer-resolved experiments. Both the resonance stabilized vinylpropargyl (vp-C5H5) and 2,4-cyclopentadienyl (c-C5H5) radical isomers of C5H5 are produced, with substantially different intensities at 800 K vs 1000 K. In agreement with literature master equation calculations, we find that c-C5H5 + C2H2 produces only the tropyl isomer of C7H7 (tp-C7H7) below 1000 K, and that tp-C7H7 + C2H2 terminates the reaction sequence yielding C9H8 (indene) + H. Lastly, this work demonstrates a pathway for PAH formation that does not proceed through benzene.

  6. a First-Principles Model of Fermi Resonance in the Alkyl CH Stretch Region: Application to Hydronaphthalenes, Indanes, and Cyclohexane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibert, Edwin; Kidwell, Nathanael; Zwier, Timothy S.

    2014-06-01

    The infrared (IR) spectroscopy of the alkyl CH stretch region (2750-3000 cm-1) of a series of bicyclic hydrocarbons and free radicals has been studied under supersonic expansion cooling in the gas phase, and compared with a theoretical model that describes the local mode stretch-bend Fermi resonance interactions. The double resonance method of fluorescence-dip infrared (FDIR) spectroscopy was used on the stable molecules 1,2-dihydronaphthalene, 1,4-dihydronaphthalene, tetralin, indene, and indane using the S_0-S_1 origin transition as a monitor of transitions. Resonant ion-dip infrared (RIDIR) spectra were recorded for the trihydronaphthyl (THN) and inden-2-yl methyl (I2M) radicals. The previously developed model Hamiltonian [J. Chem. Phys. 138 064308 (2013)] incorporates cubic stretch-bend coupling with parameters obtained from density functional theory methods. Full dimensional calculations are compared to reduced dimensional Hamiltonian results in which anharmonic CH streches and CH_2 scissor modes are Fermi coupled. Excellent agreement between theoretical results is found. Scale factors of select terms in the reduced dimensional Hamiltonian, obtained by fitting the theoretical Hamiltonian predictions to the experimental spectra, are found to be similar to previous work. The resulting Hamiltonian predicts successfully all the major spectral features considered in this study. A simplified model is introduced in which the CH_2 groups are decoupled. This model enables the assignment of many of the spectral features. The model results are extended to describe the CH stretch spectrum of the chair and twist-boat conformers of cyclohexane. The chair conformer is used to illustrate the shortcomings of the CH_2 coupling model.

  7. A first-principles model of Fermi resonance in the alkyl CH stretch region: application to hydronaphthalenes, indanes, and cyclohexane.

    PubMed

    Sibert, Edwin L; Kidwell, Nathanael M; Zwier, Timothy S

    2014-07-17

    The infrared (IR) spectroscopy of the alkyl CH stretch region (2750-3000 cm(-1)) of a series of bicyclic hydrocarbons and free radicals has been studied under supersonic expansion cooling in the gas phase, and compared with a theoretical model that describes the local mode stretch-bend Fermi resonance interactions. The double resonance method of fluorescence-dip infrared (FDIR) spectroscopy was used on the stable molecules 1,2-dihydronaphthalene, 1,4-dihydronaphthalene, tetralin, indene, and indane using the S0-S1 origin transition as a monitor of transitions. Resonant ion-dip infrared (RIDIR) spectra were recorded for the trihydronaphthyl (THN) and inden-2-yl methyl (I2M) radicals. The previously developed model Hamiltonian (J. Chem. Phys. 2013, 138, 064308) incorporates cubic stretch-bend coupling with parameters obtained from density functional theory methods. Full dimensional calculations are compared to reduced dimensional Hamiltonian results in which anharmonic CH stretches and CH2 scissor modes are Fermi coupled. Excellent agreement between theoretical results is found. Scale factors of select terms in the reduced dimensional Hamiltonian, obtained by fitting the theoretical Hamiltonian predictions to the experimental spectra, are found to be similar to previous work. The resulting Hamiltonian predicts successfully all the major spectral features considered in this study. A simplified model is introduced in which the CH2 groups are decoupled. This model enables the assignment of many of the spectral features. The model results are extended to describe the CH stretch spectrum of the chair and twist-boat conformers of cyclohexane. The chair conformer is used to illustrate the shortcomings of the CH2 decoupling model. PMID:24666228

  8. Isomer-Specific Infrared Spectroscopy as a Diagnostic Tool for Reactive Intermediates Towards Naphthalene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidwell, Nathanael M.; Mehta, Deepali N.; Korn, Joseph A.; Zwier, Timothy S.; Sebree, Joshua A.

    2012-06-01

    In the context of combustion, both the formation and destruction of fused-ring aromatics are important to understand in some detail. Determining the principal pathways from benzene to naphthalene and on to larger polyaromatic hydrocarbons is imperative, but with increased chemical complexity is likely to involve free radicals as intermediates which are themselves structurally complex, necessitating more detailed spectroscopic characterization for their identification. Our group has recently studied the vibronic spectroscopy of a series of C10H9 and C10H11 hydronaphthyl radicals, in which their thermochemical properties were evaluated with isomer specificity. Here, we extend this characterization to include infrared spectra in the alkyl CH stretch region, and explore the spectroscopic consequences of electronic excitation on these CH stretch absorptions. Utilizing resonant ion-dip infrared spectroscopy (RIDIRS), we report the infrared spectra of 2,3,4-Trihydronaphthyl (C10H11) and Inden-2-ylmethyl (C10H9) radicals taken in the alkyl and aromatic CH stretch regions. The latter radical was misidentified in earlier studies by our groupa as 2-Hydronaphthyl radical, appearing in a discharge of 1,2-Dihydronaphthalene in close proximity to 1-Hydronaphthyl radical. The alkyl CH stretch IR spectrum positively identifies the radical as Inden-2-ylmethyl radical, as recently reported by Schmidt and co-workers. RIDIR spectra in the D1 excited state will also be reported. These spectra show significant changes that reflect the response of the CH stretch absorptions to electronic excitation. The implications of such measurements for future studies of free radicals will be discussed. J. A. Sebree, V. V. Kislov, A. M. Mebel, and T. S. Zwier {J. Phys. Chem. A} 114 (6255-6262), 2010. T. P. Troy, N. Chalyavi, A. S. Menon, G. D. O'Connor, B. Fuckel, K. Nauta, L. Radom, and T. W. Schmidt {Chem. Sci.} 2 (1755-1765), 2011.

  9. Effects of land use on ground-water quality in central Florida; preliminary results, US Geological Survey Toxic Waste-Ground Water Contamination Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rutledge, A.T.

    1987-01-01

    Groundwater is the principal source of drinking water in central Florida. The most important hydrogeologic unit is the Floridan aquifer system, consisting of fractured limestone and dolomite limestone. Activities of man in areas of recharge to the Floridian aquifer system that may be affecting groundwater quality include: (1) the use of drainage wells for stormwater disposal in urban areas, (2) the use of pesticides and fertilizers in citrus groves, and (3) the mining and processing of phosphate ore in mining areas. Preliminary findings about the impacts of these land uses on ground-water quality by comparison with a fourth land use representing the absence of human activity in another area of recharge are presented. Drainage wells convey excess urban stormwater directly to the Upper Floridian aquifer. The volatile organic compounds are the most common contaminants in ground water. Trace elements such as chromium and lead are entering the aquifer but their movement is apparently attenuated by precipitation reactions associated with high pH or by cation-exchange reactions. Among the trace elements and organic chemicals, most ground-water contamination in citrus production areas is caused by pesticides, which include the organic compounds simazine, ametryne, chlordane, DDE , bromacil, aldicarb, EDB, trifluralin, and diazinon, and the trace elements zinc and copper; other contaminants include benzene, toluene, napthalene, and indene compounds. In the phosphate mining area, constituents of concern are arsenic, selenium, and mercury, and secondarily lead, chromium, cadmium, and others. Organic compounds such as fluorene, naphthalene, di-n-butyl phthalate, alkylated benzenes and naphthalenes, and indene compounds also are entering groundwater. (Author 's abstract)

  10. Biochemistry and Occurrence of O-Demethylation in Plant Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Hagel, Jillian M.; Facchini, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    Demethylases play a pivitol role in numerous biological processes from covalent histone modification and DNA repair to specialized metabolism in plants and microorganisms. Enzymes that catalyze O- and N-demethylation include 2-oxoglutarate (2OG)/Fe(II)-dependent dioxygenases, cytochromes P450, Rieske-domain proteins and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-dependent oxidases. Proposed mechanisms for demethylation by 2OG/Fe(II)-dependent enzymes involve hydroxylation at the O- or N-linked methyl group followed by formaldehyde elimination. Members of this enzyme family catalyze a wide variety of reactions in diverse plant metabolic pathways. Recently, we showed that 2OG/Fe(II)-dependent dioxygenases catalyze the unique O-demethylation steps of morphine biosynthesis in opium poppy, which provides a rational basis for the widespread occurrence of demethylases in benzylisoquinoline alkaloid metabolism. PMID:21423357

  11. Hubble Space Telescope Reduced-Gyro Control Law Design, Implementation, and On-Orbit Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clapp, Brian R.; Ramsey, Patrick R.; Wirzburger, John H.; Smith, Daniel C.; VanArsadall, John C.

    2008-01-01

    Following gyro failures in April 2001 and April 2003, HST Pointing Control System engineers designed reduced-gyro control laws to extend the spacecraft science mission. The Two-Gyro Science (TGS) and One-Gyro Science (OGS) control laws were designed and implemented using magnetometers, star trackers, and Fine Guidance Sensors in succession to control vehicle rate about the missing gyro axes. Both TGS and OGS have demonstrated on-orbit pointing stability of 7 milli-arcseconds or less, which depends upon the guide star magnitude used by the Fine Guidance Sensor. This paper describes the design, implementation, and on-orbit performance of the TGS and OGS control law fine-pointing modes using Fixed Head Star Trackers and Fine Guidance Sensors, after successfully achieving coarse-pointing control using magnetometers.

  12. A prebiotic role for 8-oxoguanosine as a flavin mimic in pyrimidine dimer photorepair.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Khiem Van; Burrows, Cynthia J

    2011-09-21

    Redox-active enzyme cofactors derived from ribonucleotides have been called "fossils of the RNA world," suggesting that early catalysts employed modified nucleobases to facilitate redox chemistry in primitive metabolism. Here, we show that the common oxidative damage product 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (OG), when incorporated into a DNA or RNA strand in proximity to a cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer, can mimic the function of a flavin in photorepair. The OG nucleotide acts catalytically in a mechanism consistent with that of photolyase in which the photoexcited state of the purine donates an electron to a pyrimidine dimer to initiate bond cleavage; subsequent back electron transfer regenerates OG. This unusual example of one form of DNA damage, oxidation, functioning to repair another, photodimerization, may provide insight into the origins of prebiotic redox processes. PMID:21877686

  13. A new overgrowth syndrome is due to mutations in RNF125.

    PubMed

    Tenorio, Jair; Mansilla, Alicia; Valencia, María; Martínez-Glez, Víctor; Romanelli, Valeria; Arias, Pedro; Castrejón, Nerea; Poletta, Fernando; Guillén-Navarro, Encarna; Gordo, Gema; Mansilla, Elena; García-Santiago, Fé; González-Casado, Isabel; Vallespín, Elena; Palomares, María; Mori, María A; Santos-Simarro, Fernando; García-Miñaur, Sixto; Fernández, Luis; Mena, Rocío; Benito-Sanz, Sara; del Pozo, Ángela; Silla, Juan Carlos; Ibañez, Kristina; López-Granados, Eduardo; Martín-Trujillo, Alex; Montaner, David; Heath, Karen E; Campos-Barros, Ángel; Dopazo, Joaquín; Nevado, Julián; Monk, David; Ruiz-Pérez, Víctor L; Lapunzina, Pablo

    2014-12-01

    Overgrowth syndromes (OGS) are a group of disorders in which all parameters of growth and physical development are above the mean for age and sex. We evaluated a series of 270 families from the Spanish Overgrowth Syndrome Registry with no known OGS. We identified one de novo deletion and three missense mutations in RNF125 in six patients from four families with overgrowth, macrocephaly, intellectual disability, mild hydrocephaly, hypoglycemia, and inflammatory diseases resembling Sjögren syndrome. RNF125 encodes an E3 ubiquitin ligase and is a novel gene of OGS. Our studies of the RNF125 pathway point to upregulation of RIG-I-IPS1-MDA5 and/or disruption of the PI3K-AKT and interferon signaling pathways as the putative final effectors.

  14. Development of Osaka gas type planar SOFC

    SciTech Connect

    Iha, M.; Shiratori, A.; Chikagawa, O.

    1996-12-31

    Osaka Gas Co. has been developing a planar type SOFC (OG type SOFC) which has a suitable structure for stacking. Murata Mfg. Co. has begun to develop the OG type SOFC stack through joint program since 1993. Figure 1 shows OG type cell structure. Because each cell is sustained by cell holders acting air manifold, the load of upper cell is not put on the lower cells. Single cell is composed of 3-layered membrane and LaCrO{sub 3} separator. 5 single cells are mounted on the cell holder, connected with Ni felt electrically, and bonded by glassy material sealant. We call the 5-cell stack a unit. Stacking 13 units, we succeeded 870 W generation in 1993. But the power density was low, 0.11 Wcm{sup -2} because of crack in the electrolyte and gas leakage at some cells.

  15. Performance, forage utilization, and ergovaline consumption by beef cows grazing endophyte fungus-infected tall fescue, endophyte fungus-free tall fescue, or orchardgrass pastures.

    PubMed

    Peters, C W; Grigsby, K N; Aldrich, C G; Paterson, J A; Lipsey, R J; Kerley, M S; Garner, G B

    1992-05-01

    Two 120-d trials (May to September, 1988 and 1989) determined the effects of grazing tall fescue (two varieties) or orchardgrass on forage intake and performance by beef cows. Each summer, 48 cow-calf pairs grazed endophyte-infected Kentucky-31 tall fescue (KY-31), endophyte-free Mozark tall fescue (MOZARK), or Hallmark orchardgrass (OG) pastures (16 pairs/treatment). Forage OM intakes and digestibilities were determined during June and August each year. Cow and calf BW and milk production were determined every 28 d. During June of both years, OM intakes did not differ (P greater than .10) among treatments. During August of 1988, intakes were 18% lower (P less than .05) by KY-31 cows (1.6% of BW) than by MOZARK or OG cows (average 1.95% of BW); however, no differences (P greater than .10) were measured in August of 1989. Estimates of ergovaline consumption during June from KY-31 were between 4.2 (1988) and 6.0 mg/d (1989), whereas August estimates were between 1.1 (1988) and 2.8 mg/d (1989). Ergovaline in MOZARK estrusa was below detection limits, except in August of 1989. Cows that grazed KY-31 lost three times (P less than .01) more BW than cows that grazed MOZARK or OG (42 vs 9 and 13 kg, respectively). Milk production by KY-31 cows was 25% lower (P less than .01) than that by cows that grazed MOZARK or OG (6.0 vs average of 8.0 kg/d). Similarly, slower (P less than .01) calf gains were noted for KY-31 than for MOZARK or OG (.72 vs .89 and .88 kg/d, respectively). Cows grazing KY-31 experienced accelerated BW loss and reduced milk production and weaned lighter calves than did cows grazing MOZARK or OG. Decreased performance was not explained by consistently reduced forage intakes; hence, altered nutrient utilization was suspected.

  16. Effects of forage family on apparent ruminal synthesis of B vitamins in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Castagnino, D S; Seck, M; Beaudet, V; Kammes, K L; Voelker Linton, J A; Allen, M S; Gervais, R; Chouinard, P Y; Girard, C L

    2016-03-01

    Effects of forage family (legume vs. grass) on apparent ruminal synthesis (ARS) and postruminal supply of B vitamins were evaluated in 2 experiments. Diets containing either alfalfa (AL) or orchardgrass (OG) silages as the sole forage were offered to ruminally and duodenally cannulated lactating Holstein cows in crossover design experiments. Experiment 1 compared diets containing AL and OG [~23% forage neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and ~27% total NDF] offered to 8 cows in two 15-d treatment periods. Experiment 2 compared diets containing AL and OG (~25% forage NDF and ~30% total NDF) offered to 13 cows in two 18-d treatment periods. Thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folates, and vitamin B12 were analyzed in feeds and duodenal digesta. Apparent ruminal synthesis was calculated as the duodenal flow of each vitamin minus its intake. Forage family affected B vitamin intakes, duodenal flow, and ARS. In both experiments, AL diets increased vitamin B6 and decreased folate intakes. In experiment 1, riboflavin and niacin intakes were greater with the OG diet, whereas in experiment 2 thiamin intake was greater but riboflavin intake was smaller with the OG diet. In spite of the low contribution of either silage to the dietary folate content, folate intake was greater with OG diets than AL due to the difference in soybean meal contribution between diets. Niacin and folate ARS were not affected by the forage family. Duodenal microbial nitrogen flow was positively correlated with ARS of riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folates, and vitamin B12, but tended to be negatively correlated with thiamin ARS. Apparent ruminal synthesis of folates and vitamin B12 appear to be related to microbial biomass activity. Changes in nutrient composition of the diets likely affected the microbial population in the rumen and their B vitamin metabolism. PMID:26774713

  17. Six Novel O Genotypes from Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Iguchi, Atsushi; Iyoda, Sunao; Seto, Kazuko; Nishii, Hironobu; Ohnishi, Makoto; Mekata, Hirohisa; Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Hayashi, Tetsuya

    2016-01-01

    Serotyping is one of the typing techniques used to classify strains within the same species. O-serogroup diversification shows a strong association with the genetic diversity of O-antigen biosynthesis genes. In a previous study, based on the O-antigen biosynthesis gene cluster (O-AGC) sequences of 184 known Escherichia coli O serogroups (from O1 to O187), we developed a comprehensive and practical molecular O serogrouping (O genotyping) platform using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method, named E. coli O-genotyping PCR. Although, the validation assay using the PCR system showed that most of the tested strains were successfully classified into one of the O genotypes, it was impossible to classify 6.1% (35/575) of the strains, suggesting the presence of novel O genotypes. In this study, we conducted sequence analysis of O-AGCs from O-genotype untypeable Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) strains and identified six novel O genotypes; OgN1, OgN8, OgN9, OgN10, OgN12 and OgN31, with unique wzx and/or wzy O-antigen processing gene sequences. Additionally, to identify these novel O-genotypes, we designed specific PCR primers. A screen of O genotypes using O-genotype untypeable strains showed 13 STEC strains were classified into five novel O genotypes. The O genotyping at the molecular level of the O-AGC would aid in the characterization of E. coli isolates and will assist future studies in STEC epidemiology and phylogeny.

  18. Six Novel O Genotypes from Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Iguchi, Atsushi; Iyoda, Sunao; Seto, Kazuko; Nishii, Hironobu; Ohnishi, Makoto; Mekata, Hirohisa; Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Hayashi, Tetsuya

    2016-01-01

    Serotyping is one of the typing techniques used to classify strains within the same species. O-serogroup diversification shows a strong association with the genetic diversity of O-antigen biosynthesis genes. In a previous study, based on the O-antigen biosynthesis gene cluster (O-AGC) sequences of 184 known Escherichia coli O serogroups (from O1 to O187), we developed a comprehensive and practical molecular O serogrouping (O genotyping) platform using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method, named E. coli O-genotyping PCR. Although, the validation assay using the PCR system showed that most of the tested strains were successfully classified into one of the O genotypes, it was impossible to classify 6.1% (35/575) of the strains, suggesting the presence of novel O genotypes. In this study, we conducted sequence analysis of O-AGCs from O-genotype untypeable Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) strains and identified six novel O genotypes; OgN1, OgN8, OgN9, OgN10, OgN12 and OgN31, with unique wzx and/or wzy O-antigen processing gene sequences. Additionally, to identify these novel O-genotypes, we designed specific PCR primers. A screen of O genotypes using O-genotype untypeable strains showed 13 STEC strains were classified into five novel O genotypes. The O genotyping at the molecular level of the O-AGC would aid in the characterization of E. coli isolates and will assist future studies in STEC epidemiology and phylogeny. PMID:27242776

  19. Analysis of a long-term measurement of air pollutants (2007-2011) in North China Plain (NCP); Impact of emission reduction during the Beijing Olympic Games.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ruiguang; Tang, Guiqian; Wang, Yuesi; Tie, Xuexi

    2016-09-01

    Five years measurements were used to evaluate the effect of emission controls on the changes of air pollutants in Beijing and its surroundings in the NCP during 2008 Olympic Games (2008OG). The major challenge of this study was to filter out the effect of variability of meteorological conditions, when compared the air pollutants during the game to non-game period. We used four-year (2007, 2009-2011) average as the Non-2008OG to smooth the temporal variability caused by meteorological parameters. To study the spatial variability and regional transport, 6 sites (urban, rural, a mega city, a heavy industrial city, and a remote site) were selected. The result showed that the annually meteorological variability was significantly reduced. Such as, in BJ the differences between 2008OG and 5-years averaged values were 2.7% for relative humidity and 0.6% for wind speed. As a result, the anomaly of air pollutants between 2008OG and Non-2008OG can largely attribute to the emission control. The comparison showed that the major pollutants (PM10, PM2.5, NO, NOx) at the 6 sites in 2008OG were consistently lowered. For example, PM2.5 in BJ decreased from 75 to 45 μg/m(3) (40% reduction). However, the emission controls had minor effect on O3 concentrations (1% reduction). In contrast, the O3 precursor (NOx) reduced from 19.7 to 13.2 ppb (33% reduction). The in-sensitivity between NOx and O3 suggested that the O3 formation was under VOCs control condition in NCP, showing that strong VOC emission control is needed in order to significantly reduce O3 concentration in the region.

  20. Analysis of a long-term measurement of air pollutants (2007-2011) in North China Plain (NCP); Impact of emission reduction during the Beijing Olympic Games.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ruiguang; Tang, Guiqian; Wang, Yuesi; Tie, Xuexi

    2016-09-01

    Five years measurements were used to evaluate the effect of emission controls on the changes of air pollutants in Beijing and its surroundings in the NCP during 2008 Olympic Games (2008OG). The major challenge of this study was to filter out the effect of variability of meteorological conditions, when compared the air pollutants during the game to non-game period. We used four-year (2007, 2009-2011) average as the Non-2008OG to smooth the temporal variability caused by meteorological parameters. To study the spatial variability and regional transport, 6 sites (urban, rural, a mega city, a heavy industrial city, and a remote site) were selected. The result showed that the annually meteorological variability was significantly reduced. Such as, in BJ the differences between 2008OG and 5-years averaged values were 2.7% for relative humidity and 0.6% for wind speed. As a result, the anomaly of air pollutants between 2008OG and Non-2008OG can largely attribute to the emission control. The comparison showed that the major pollutants (PM10, PM2.5, NO, NOx) at the 6 sites in 2008OG were consistently lowered. For example, PM2.5 in BJ decreased from 75 to 45 μg/m(3) (40% reduction). However, the emission controls had minor effect on O3 concentrations (1% reduction). In contrast, the O3 precursor (NOx) reduced from 19.7 to 13.2 ppb (33% reduction). The in-sensitivity between NOx and O3 suggested that the O3 formation was under VOCs control condition in NCP, showing that strong VOC emission control is needed in order to significantly reduce O3 concentration in the region. PMID:27355197

  1. Effects of forage family on apparent ruminal synthesis of B vitamins in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Castagnino, D S; Seck, M; Beaudet, V; Kammes, K L; Voelker Linton, J A; Allen, M S; Gervais, R; Chouinard, P Y; Girard, C L

    2016-03-01

    Effects of forage family (legume vs. grass) on apparent ruminal synthesis (ARS) and postruminal supply of B vitamins were evaluated in 2 experiments. Diets containing either alfalfa (AL) or orchardgrass (OG) silages as the sole forage were offered to ruminally and duodenally cannulated lactating Holstein cows in crossover design experiments. Experiment 1 compared diets containing AL and OG [~23% forage neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and ~27% total NDF] offered to 8 cows in two 15-d treatment periods. Experiment 2 compared diets containing AL and OG (~25% forage NDF and ~30% total NDF) offered to 13 cows in two 18-d treatment periods. Thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folates, and vitamin B12 were analyzed in feeds and duodenal digesta. Apparent ruminal synthesis was calculated as the duodenal flow of each vitamin minus its intake. Forage family affected B vitamin intakes, duodenal flow, and ARS. In both experiments, AL diets increased vitamin B6 and decreased folate intakes. In experiment 1, riboflavin and niacin intakes were greater with the OG diet, whereas in experiment 2 thiamin intake was greater but riboflavin intake was smaller with the OG diet. In spite of the low contribution of either silage to the dietary folate content, folate intake was greater with OG diets than AL due to the difference in soybean meal contribution between diets. Niacin and folate ARS were not affected by the forage family. Duodenal microbial nitrogen flow was positively correlated with ARS of riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folates, and vitamin B12, but tended to be negatively correlated with thiamin ARS. Apparent ruminal synthesis of folates and vitamin B12 appear to be related to microbial biomass activity. Changes in nutrient composition of the diets likely affected the microbial population in the rumen and their B vitamin metabolism.

  2. 40 CFR 420.107 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.00125 0.000626 O&G 0.000522 0.000209 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6...) of product TSS 0.00626 0.00313 O&G 0.00261 0.00104 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (3... 0.0313 0.0125 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (4) Direct application—single...

  3. “Fast-track” and “Minimally Invasive” Surgery for Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin-Xin; Pan, Hua-Feng; Jiang, Zhi-Wei; Zhang, Shu; Wang, Zhi-Ming; Chen, Ping; Zhao, Yan; Wang, Gang; Zhao, Kun; Li, Jie-Shou

    2016-01-01

    Background: Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocols or fast-track (FT) programs enable a shorter hospital stay and lower complication rate. Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) is associated with a lesser trauma and a quicker recovery in many elective abdominal surgeries. However, little is known of the safety and effectiveness made by ERAS protocols combined with MIS for gastric cancer. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and effectiveness made by FT programs and MIS in combination or alone. Methods: We summarized an 11-year experience on gastric cancer patients undergoing elective laparotomy or minimally invasive gastric resection in standard cares (SC) or FT programs during January 2004 to December 2014. A total of 984 patients were enrolled and assigned into four groups: open gastrectomies (OG) with SC (OG + SC group, n = 167); OG with FT programs (OG + FT group, n = 277); laparoscopic gastrectomies (LG) with FT programs (LG + FT group, n = 248); and robot-assisted gastrectomies (RG) with FT programs (RG + FT group, n = 292). Patients’ data were collected to evaluate the clinical outcome. The primary end point was the length of postoperative hospital stay. Results: The OG + SC group showed the longest postoperative hospital stay (mean: 12.3 days, median: 11 days, interquartile range [IQR]: 6–16 days), while OG + FT, LG + FT, and RG + FT groups recovered faster (mean: 7.4, 6.4, and 6.6 days, median: 6, 6, and 6 days, IQR: 3–9, 4–8, and 3–9 days, respectively, all P < 0.001). The postoperative rehabilitation parameters such as flatus time after surgery (4.7 ± 0.9, 3.1 ± 0.8, 3.0 ± 0.9, and 3.1 ± 0.9 days) followed the same manner. After 30 postoperative days’ follow-up, the total incidence of complications was 9.6% in OG + SC group, 10.1% in OG + FT group, 8.1% in LG + FT group, and 10.3% in RG + FT group. The complications showed no significant differences between the four groups (all P > 0.05). Conclusions: ERAS protocols

  4. Catalytic Mechanisms of Fe(II)- and 2-Oxoglutarate-dependent Oxygenases*

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Salette; Hausinger, Robert P.

    2015-01-01

    Mononuclear non-heme Fe(II)- and 2-oxoglutarate (2OG)-dependent oxygenases comprise a large family of enzymes that utilize an Fe(IV)-oxo intermediate to initiate diverse oxidative transformations with important biological roles. Here, four of the major types of Fe(II)/2OG-dependent reactions are detailed: hydroxylation, halogenation, ring formation, and desaturation. In addition, an atypical epimerization reaction is described. Studies identifying several key intermediates in catalysis are concisely summarized, and the proposed mechanisms are explained. In addition, a variety of other transformations catalyzed by selected family members are briefly described to further highlight the chemical versatility of these enzymes. PMID:26152721

  5. 40 CFR 420.74 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... product TSS 0.0150 0.00563 O&G 0.00373 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2) With scarfing...&G 0.00584 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (b) Section mills—(1) Carbon. Subpart G... values for 30 consecutive days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.0334 0.0125 O&G 0.00834...

  6. 40 CFR 420.77 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.150 0.0561 O&G 0.0374 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2...&G 0.0553 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (b) Section mills—(1) Carbon. Subpart G... 30 consecutive days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.357 0.134 O&G 0.0894 pH (1) (1)...

  7. 40 CFR 420.72 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...&G 0.0374 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2) With scarfing. Subpart G Pollutant or... days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.221 0.0830 O&G 0.0553 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range...) of product TSS 0.357 0.134 O&G 0.0894 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2)...

  8. 40 CFR 420.72 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...&G 0.0374 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2) With scarfing. Subpart G Pollutant or... days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.221 0.0830 O&G 0.0553 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range...) of product TSS 0.357 0.134 O&G 0.0894 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2)...

  9. 40 CFR 420.77 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.150 0.0561 O&G 0.0374 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2...&G 0.0553 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (b) Section mills—(1) Carbon. Subpart G... 30 consecutive days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.357 0.134 O&G 0.0894 pH (1) (1)...

  10. 40 CFR 420.72 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...&G 0.0374 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2) With scarfing. Subpart G Pollutant or... days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.221 0.0830 O&G 0.0553 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range...) of product TSS 0.357 0.134 O&G 0.0894 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2)...

  11. 40 CFR 420.74 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... product TSS 0.0150 0.00563 O&G 0.00373 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2) With scarfing...&G 0.00584 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (b) Section mills—(1) Carbon. Subpart G... values for 30 consecutive days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.0334 0.0125 O&G 0.00834...

  12. 40 CFR 420.72 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...&G 0.0374 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2) With scarfing. Subpart G Pollutant or... days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.221 0.0830 O&G 0.0553 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range...) of product TSS 0.357 0.134 O&G 0.0894 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2)...

  13. 40 CFR 420.74 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... product TSS 0.0150 0.00563 O&G 0.00373 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2) With scarfing...&G 0.00584 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (b) Section mills—(1) Carbon. Subpart G... values for 30 consecutive days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.0334 0.0125 O&G 0.00834...

  14. 40 CFR 420.107 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.00125 0.000626 O&G 0.000522 0.000209 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6...) of product TSS 0.00626 0.00313 O&G 0.00261 0.00104 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (3... 0.0313 0.0125 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (4) Direct application—single...

  15. 40 CFR 420.74 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... product TSS 0.0150 0.00563 O&G 0.00373 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2) With scarfing...&G 0.00584 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (b) Section mills—(1) Carbon. Subpart G... values for 30 consecutive days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.0334 0.0125 O&G 0.00834...

  16. 40 CFR 420.72 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...&G 0.0374 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2) With scarfing. Subpart G Pollutant or... days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.221 0.0830 O&G 0.0553 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range...) of product TSS 0.357 0.134 O&G 0.0894 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2)...

  17. 40 CFR 420.77 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.150 0.0561 O&G 0.0374 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2...&G 0.0553 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (b) Section mills—(1) Carbon. Subpart G... 30 consecutive days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.357 0.134 O&G 0.0894 pH (1) (1)...

  18. 40 CFR 420.77 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.150 0.0561 O&G 0.0374 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2...&G 0.0553 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (b) Section mills—(1) Carbon. Subpart G... 30 consecutive days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.357 0.134 O&G 0.0894 pH (1) (1)...

  19. 40 CFR 420.107 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.00125 0.000626 O&G 0.000522 0.000209 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6...) of product TSS 0.00626 0.00313 O&G 0.00261 0.00104 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (3... 0.0313 0.0125 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (4) Direct application—single...

  20. 40 CFR 420.77 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.150 0.0561 O&G 0.0374 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2...&G 0.0553 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (b) Section mills—(1) Carbon. Subpart G... 30 consecutive days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.357 0.134 O&G 0.0894 pH (1) (1)...

  1. 40 CFR 420.74 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... product TSS 0.0150 0.00563 O&G 0.00373 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2) With scarfing...&G 0.00584 pH (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (b) Section mills—(1) Carbon. Subpart G... values for 30 consecutive days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.0334 0.0125 O&G 0.00834...

  2. Structure, thermodynamic and transport properties of liquid MgSiO 3: Comparison of molecular models and laboratory results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spera, Frank J.; Ghiorso, Mark S.; Nevins, Dean

    2011-03-01

    Liquid MgSiO 3 is a model for the Earth's magma ocean and of remnant melt present near the core-mantle boundary. Here, models for molten MgSiO 3 are computed employing empirical potential molecular dynamics (EPMD) and results are compared to published results including two EPMD studies and three first-principles molecular dynamics (FPMD) models and to laboratory data. The EPMD results derived from the Oganov (OG) potential come closest to the density of MgSiO 3 liquid at the 1-bar melting point inferred from the melting curve. At higher P, EPMD densities calculated from the OG potential and FPMD broadly match shock wave studies, with the OG potential yielding the better comparison. Matsui (M) potential results deviate from other studies above ˜50 GPa. Overall, results based on the OG potential compare best to experimental densities over the P-T range of the mantle. Isothermally, upon increasing P the mean coordination numbers ( CN¯) of oxygen around Si and Mg monotonically increase with pressure. Tetrahedral Si and octahedral Si monotonically increase and decrease, respectively, whereas pentahedral Si maximizes at 10-20 GPa. Tetrahedral Mg decreases monotonically as P increases whereas pentahedral, octahedral and higher coordination polyhedra each show similar behavior first increasing and then decreasing after attaining a maximum; the P of the maximum for each polyhedra type migrates to higher P as the CN increases. Free oxygen and oxygen with one nearest neighbor of either Si or Mg decreases whereas Si or Mg with two or three nearest oxygens (i.e., tricluster oxygen) increases with increasing P isothermally. The increase of tricluster oxygen is consistent with spectroscopy on MgSiO 3 glass quenched from 2000 K and 0-40 GPa and high-energy X-ray studies constraining the coordination of O around Mg and around Si at 2300 K and 1 bar. Coordination statistics from FPMD studies for O around Si and Si around O are in agreement with the EPMD results based on the M and

  3. Octyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside partitioning into lipid bilayers: thermodynamics of binding and structural changes of the bilayer.

    PubMed

    Wenk, M R; Alt, T; Seelig, A; Seelig, J

    1997-04-01

    The interaction of the nonionic detergent octyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (OG) with lipid bilayers was studied with high-sensitivity isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and solid-state 2H-NMR spectroscopy. The transfer of OG from the aqueous phase to lipid bilayers composed of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) can be investigated by employing detergent at concentrations below the critical micellar concentration; it can be defined by a surface partition equilibrium with a partition coefficient of K = 120 +/- 10 M-1, a molar binding enthalpy of delta H degrees D = 1.3 +/- 0.15 kcal/mol, and a free energy of binding of delta G degrees D = -5.2 kcal/mol. The heat of transfer is temperature dependent, with a molar heat capacity of delta CP = -75 cal K-1 mol-1. The large heat capacity and the near-zero delta H are typical for a hydrophobic binding equilibrium. The partition constant K decreased to approximately 100 M-1 for POPC membranes mixed with either negatively charged lipids or cholesterol, but was independent of membrane curvature. In contrast, a much larger variation was observed in the partition enthalpy. delta H degrees D increased by about 50% for large vesicles and by 75% for membranes containing 50 mol% cholesterol. Structural changes in the lipid bilayer were investigated with solid-state 2H-NMR. POPC was selectively deuterated at the headgroup segments and at different positions of the fatty acyl chains, and the measurement of the quadrupolar splittings provided information on the conformation and the order of the bilayer membrane. Addition of OG had almost no influence on the lipid headgroup region, even at concentrations close to bilayer disruption. In contrast, the fluctuations of fatty acyl chain segments located in the inner part of the bilayer increased strongly with increasing OG concentration. The 2H-NMR results demonstrate that the headgroup region is the most stable structural element of the lipid membrane, remaining intact

  4. FUEL ELEMENT FOR NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Carney, K.G. Jr.

    1959-07-14

    A nuclear fuel element comprising a large number og wafers of fissionable material and a protective jacket having compartments holding these wafers is described. The compartments of the jacket aid the removal of heat from the wafers, keep the wafers or fragments thereof from migrating in the jacket, and permit the escape of gaseous fission products.

  5. Two-stage SBR for treatment of oil refinery wastewater.

    PubMed

    Lee, L Y; Hu, J Y; Ong, S L; Ng, W J; Ren, J H; Wong, S H

    2004-01-01

    A two-stage sequencing batch reactor (SBR) system was used for treatment of oily wastewater with COD and oil and grease (O&G) concentrations ranging from 1,722-7,826 mg/L and 5,365-13,350 mg/L, respectively. A suitable start-up protocol was developed using gradual increase in oily wastewater composition with methanol as the co-substrate. This strategy enabled a short acclimation period of 12 days for the sludge in the two-stage SBR to adapt to the oily wastewater. After acclimation, the 1st stage and 2nd stage SBRs were able to achieve COD removals of 47.0+/-2.4% and 95.3+/-0.5%, respectively. The 1st stage SBR was able to achieve 99.8+/-0.1% of O&G removal and effluent O&G from the 1st stage SBR was only 6+/-2 mg/L. The 2nd stage SBR was used to further remove COD in the effluent from the 1st stage SBR. The final effluent from the 2nd stage SBR had a COD concentration of 97+/-16 mg/L with no detectable O&G content. Thus, a two-stage SBR system was shown to be feasible for treating high strength oily wastewater to meet the local discharge standards.

  6. Commitment to and preparedness for sustainable supply chain management in the oil and gas industry.

    PubMed

    Wan Ahmad, Wan Nurul K; Rezaei, Jafar; Tavasszy, Lóránt A; de Brito, Marisa P

    2016-09-15

    Our current dependency on the oil and gas (O&G) industry for economic development and social activities necessitates research into the sustainability of the industry's supply chains. At present, studies on sustainable supply chain management (SSCM) practices in the industry do not include firm-internal factors that affect the sustainability strategies employed by different functional areas of its supply chains. Our study aims to address this gap by identifying the relevant internal factors and exploring their relationship with SSCM strategies. Specifically, we discuss the commitment to and preparedness for sustainable practices of companies that operate in upstream and downstream O&G supply chain. We study the impact of these factors on their sustainability strategies of four key supply chain functions: supplier management, production management, product stewardship and logistics management. The analyses of data collected through a survey among 81 companies show that management preparedness may enhance sustainable supply chain strategies in the O&G industry more than commitment does. Among the preparedness measures, management of supply chain operational risks is found to be vital to the sustainability of all supply chain functions except for production management practices. The findings also highlight the central importance of supplier and logistics management to the achievement of sustainable O&G supply chains. Companies must also develop an organizational culture that encourages, for example, team collaboration and proactive behaviour to finding innovative sustainability solutions in order to translate commitment to sustainable practices into actions that can produce actual difference to their SSCM practices. PMID:27233046

  7. Comparison of Oogenesis and Sex Steroid Profiles between Twice and Once Annually Spawning of Rainbow Trout Females (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    PubMed Central

    Estay, Francisco; Colihueque, Nelson; Araneda, Cristian

    2012-01-01

    This study compares the gonadosomatic index (GSI), oocyte growth (OG), gonadal histology, and plasma level concentrations of sex hormones (estradiol-17β (E2) and vitellogenin (V)) of twice-spawning (T-SP) and once-spawning (O-SP) females of rainbow trout throughout the additional and the normal reproductive cycle, respectively. In T-SP, the GSI values rapidly increase from May to November, in contrast to O-SP, which showed low and constant GSI values (1.19 to 14.5 and 1.19 to 0.63, resp.). T-SP exhibited a marked increase of OG in the same period, reaching a maximum diameter of 4,900 ± 141.42 μm, in contrast to O-SP, which presented a slow OG. The gonadal histology of T-SP agreed with the general pattern of ovogenesis observed for O-SP (vitellogenesis, ovulation, and recrudescence); however, this process was nonsynchronous between the two breeder groups. Plasma steroid levels showed significant variation during oogenesis, which agreed with the GSI, OG, and gonadal histology patterns. The level of E2 increased to a maximum value of 26.2 ng/mL and 36.0 ng/mL in O-SP and T-SP, respectively, one or two months before the spawning event where vitellogenesis was fully active. The V concentrations followed a pattern similar to those of E2. PMID:23213308

  8. PEE-PEO block copolymer exchange rate between micelles is detergent and temperature activated

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schantz, Allen; Saboe, Patrick; Lee, Hee-Young; Sines, Ian; Butler, Paul; Bishop, Kyle; Maranas, Janna; Kumar, Manish

    We examine the kinetics of polymer chain exchange between polymer/detergent micelles, a system relevant to the synthesis of protein-containing biomimetic membranes. Although chain exchange between polymer aggregates in water is too slow to observe, adding detergent allows us to determine chain exchange rates using time-resolved small-angle neutron scattering (TR-SANS). We examine a membrane-protein-relevant, vesicle-forming ultra-short polymer, Poly(ethyl ethylene)20-Poly(ethylene oxide)18 (PEE20-PEO18). PEE20-PEO18 is solubilized in mixed micelles with the membrane-protein-compatible non-ionic detergent octyl- β -D-glucoside (OG). We show that OG activates block copolymer exchange, and obtain rate constants at two detergent concentrations above the CMC (critical micellar concentration) of OG. We find that chain exchange increases two orders of magnitude when temperature increases from 308 to 338 K, and that even a 1 mg/mL increase in OG concentration leads to a noticeable increase in exchange rate. We also calculate the activation energy for chain exchange and find that it is much higher than for lipid exchange. These findings explain the need for high detergent concentration and/or temperature to synthesize densely packed polymer/protein membranes.

  9. OpenGeoSys: an open-source initiative for numerical simulation of thermo-hydro-mechanical/chemical (THM/C) processes in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolditz, O.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper we describe the OpenGeoSys (OGS) project, which is a scientific open-source initiative for numerical simulation of thermo-hydro-mechanical/chemical processes in porous media. The basic concept is to provide a flexible numerical framework (using primarily the Finite Element Method (FEM)) for solving multifield problems in porous and fractured media for applications in geoscience and hydrology. To this purpose OGS is based on an object-oriented FEM concept including a broad spectrum of interfaces for pre- and postprocessing. The OGS idea has been in development since the mid-eighties; meanwhile we are working on its 6th version. We provide a short historical note about the continuous process of concept and software development having evolved through Fortran, C, and C++ implementations. The idea behind OGS is to provide an open platform to the community, outfitted with professional software-engineering tools such as platform-independent compiling and automated benchmarking. A comprehensive benchmarking book has been prepared for publication. Benchmarking has been proven to be a valuable tool for cooperation between different developer teams, for example, for code comparison and validation purposes (DEVOVALEX, CO2BENCH and SSBENCH projects). On one hand, object-orientation (OO) provides a suitable framework for distributed code development; however, the parallelization of OO codes still lacks efficiency. High-performance-computing efficiency of OO codes is subject to future research (accompanying poster).

  10. Lipid bilayer elasticity measurements in giant liposomes in contact with a solubilizing surfactant.

    PubMed

    Ménager, Christine; Guemghar, Dihya; Perzynski, Régine; Lesieur, Sylviane; Cabuil, Valérie

    2008-05-01

    A new method to probe the modification of the elasticity of phospholipid bilayers is presented. The purpose here concerns the action of a solubilizing surfactant on a vesicle bilayer. This method is based on the measure of the under-field elongation of giant magnetic-fluid-loaded liposomes. The addition of the nonionic surfactant octyl-beta-d-glucopyranoside (OG) to vesicles at sublytic levels increases the elasticity of the membrane, as shown by the value of the bending modulus K(b), which decreases. K(b) measured around 20 kT for a pure 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) bilayer indeed reaches a few kT in the case of the mixed OG-DOPC bilayer. The purpose and interest of this study are to allow the determination of the membrane bending modulus before and after the addition of OG on the same magnetic liposome. Moreover, the experimental conditions used in this work allow the control of lipid and surfactant molar fractions in the mixed aggregates. Then, optical microscopy observation can be performed on samples in well-defined regions of the OG-phospholipid state diagram. PMID:18363418

  11. Examination of Science Achievement in the 8th Grade Level in Turkey in Terms of National and International Exams Depending upon Various Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atalmis, Erkan H.; Avgin, Sakine S.; Demir, Papatya; Yildirim, Bilal

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to examine the effect of demographic characteristics of students in Turkey upon their performance in TIMSS, an international assessment exam and Secondary Education Transition Examination which is a national exam (OGS). One of the fields of sciences, biology is taken into account as student performance. As a result…

  12. Maturation and experience in action representation: Bilateral deficits in unilateral congenital amelia.

    PubMed

    Philip, B A; Buckon, C; Sienko, S; Aiona, M; Ross, S; Frey, S H

    2015-08-01

    Congenital unilateral absence of the hand (amelia) completely deprives individuals of sensorimotor experiences with their absent effector. The consequences of such deprivation on motor planning abilities are poorly understood. Fourteen patients and matched controls performed two grip selection tasks: 1) overt grip selection (OGS), in which they used their intact hand to grasp a three-dimensional object that appeared in different orientations using the most natural (under-or over-hand) precision grip, and 2) prospective grip selection (PGS), in which they selected the most natural grip for either the intact or absent hand without moving. For the intact hand, we evaluated planning accuracy by comparing concordance between grip preferences expressed in PGS vs. OGS. For the absent hand, we compared PGS responses with OGS responses for the intact hand that had been phase shifted by 180°, thereby accounting for mirror symmetrical biomechanical constraints of the two limbs. Like controls, amelic individuals displayed a consistent preference for less awkward grips in both OGS and PGS. Unexpectedly, however, they were slower and less accurate for PGS based on either the intact or the absent hand. We conclude that direct sensorimotor experience with both hands may be important for the typical development or refinement of effector-specific internal representations of either limb. PMID:26092768

  13. Improvement in nutrient handling in STZ induced diabetic rats treated with Ocimum gratissimum

    PubMed Central

    Okon, Uduak Akpan; Davies, Koofreh Godwin; Olubobokun, Titilope Helen

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Alteration in digestive and absorptive enzymatic activities has been reported in diabetes mellitus (DM), but not with Ocimum gratissimum (OG) treatment. This study was, therefore, designed to indirectly assess the effect of DM and treatment with OG on nutrient digestion and absorption, through estimation of their fecal excretion. Materials and Methods: Animals were randomly assigned into three groups of six per group for control, DM and diabetic mellitus treated (DMT). Diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of 65 mg/kg streptozotocin in the test groups. OG was administered to the DMT group at dose of 1500 mg/kg once daily for 28 days. Fecal glucose, protein and cholesterol were determined. Results: Fecal glucose was significantly (P < 0.001) lower in the DM group compared to the control and DMT groups, with the DMT groups significantly (P < 0.001) lower than the control. Fecal protein was significantly (P < 0.001) lower in the DM group than the control whereas it was significantly lower in the DMT groups than the DM. Fecal cholesterol was significantly (P < 0.001) higher in the DM than the DMT and control groups with DMT significantly (P < 0.01) higher than the control. Conclusion: This result indicates the propensity of OG to reverse impairment of nutrient digestion and absorption in DM. PMID:25664269

  14. 78 FR 759 - Notice of Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease WYW145615, Wyoming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-04

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease WYW145615... reinstatement from Meagher O&G Properties, Inc., for competitive oil and gas lease WYW145615 for land in Johnson... the lease terminated under the law. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Bureau of Land Management,...

  15. Commitment to and preparedness for sustainable supply chain management in the oil and gas industry.

    PubMed

    Wan Ahmad, Wan Nurul K; Rezaei, Jafar; Tavasszy, Lóránt A; de Brito, Marisa P

    2016-09-15

    Our current dependency on the oil and gas (O&G) industry for economic development and social activities necessitates research into the sustainability of the industry's supply chains. At present, studies on sustainable supply chain management (SSCM) practices in the industry do not include firm-internal factors that affect the sustainability strategies employed by different functional areas of its supply chains. Our study aims to address this gap by identifying the relevant internal factors and exploring their relationship with SSCM strategies. Specifically, we discuss the commitment to and preparedness for sustainable practices of companies that operate in upstream and downstream O&G supply chain. We study the impact of these factors on their sustainability strategies of four key supply chain functions: supplier management, production management, product stewardship and logistics management. The analyses of data collected through a survey among 81 companies show that management preparedness may enhance sustainable supply chain strategies in the O&G industry more than commitment does. Among the preparedness measures, management of supply chain operational risks is found to be vital to the sustainability of all supply chain functions except for production management practices. The findings also highlight the central importance of supplier and logistics management to the achievement of sustainable O&G supply chains. Companies must also develop an organizational culture that encourages, for example, team collaboration and proactive behaviour to finding innovative sustainability solutions in order to translate commitment to sustainable practices into actions that can produce actual difference to their SSCM practices.

  16. Telecom and scintillation first data analysis for DOMINO: laser communication between SOTA, onboard SOCRATES satellite, and MEO optical ground station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phung, D.-H.; Samain, E.; Maurice, N.; Albanesse, D.; Mariey, H.; Aimar, M.; M. Lagarde, G.; Artaud, G.; Issler, J.-L.; Vedrenne, N.; Velluet, M.-T.; Toyoshima, M.; Akioka, M.; Kolev, D.; Munemasa, Y.; Takenaka, H.; Iwakiri, N.

    2016-03-01

    In collaboration between CNES, NICT, Geoazur, the first successful lasercom link between the micro-satellite SOCRATES and an OGS in Europe has been established. This paper presents some results of telecom and scintillation first data analysis for 4 successful links in June & July 2015 between SOTA terminal and MEO optical ground station (OGS) at Caussols France. The telecom and scintillation data have been continuously recorded during the passes by using a detector developed at the laboratory. An irradiance of 190 nW/m2 and 430 nW/m2 has been detected for 1549 nm and 976 nm downlinks at 35° elevation. Spectrums of power fluctuation measured at OGS are analyzed at different elevation angles and at different diameters of telescope aperture to determine fluctuations caused by pointing error (due to satellite & OGS telescope vibrations) and caused by atmospheric turbulence. Downlink & Uplink budgets are analyzed, the theoretical estimation matches well to measured power levels. Telecom signal forms and bit error rates (BER) of 1549 nm and 976 nm downlink are also shown at different diameters of telescope aperture. BER is 'Error Free' with full-aperture 1.5m telescope, and almost in `good channel' with 0.4 m sub-aperture of telescope. We also show the comparison between the expected and measured BER distributions.

  17. Evaluation of the bone healing process in an experimental tibial bone defect model in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Kido, Hueliton Wilian; Bossini, Paulo Sérgio; Tim, Carla Roberta; Parizotto, Nivaldo Antônio; da Cunha, Anderson Ferreira; Malavazi, Iran; Renno, Ana Claudia Muniz

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of postmenopausal bone loss (induced by ovariectomy) in the process of bone healing in a tibial bone defect model in rats by means of histological evaluation of bone defects and the analysis of the expression of genes and proteins involved in bone consolidation. Twenty female Wistar rats (12 weeks old, weighing ±250 g) were randomly divided into two groups: control group (CG) and ovariectomized group (OG). Rats of OG were submitted to ovariectomy and after 8 weeks post-surgery, all animals were submitted to the tibial bone defect model. The main histological finding analysis revealed that ovariectomized animals showed a higher amount of granulation tissue and immature newly formed bone compared to CG. Furthermore, quantitative histological analysis showed that OG presented a significant decrease in the amount of newly formed bone (p = 0.0351). RT-PCR analysis showed no difference in Runx2, ALP, RANK, RANKL and Osterix gene expression 14-day post-surgery. Interestingly, immunohistochemical evaluation showed that Runx2 was down expressed (p = 0.0001) and RANKL was up expressed (p = 0.0022) in the OG. In conclusion, these data highlight that bone loss induced by ovariectomy causes an impairment in the capacity of bone to heal mainly probably because of alterations in the imbalance of osteoblasts and osteoclasts activities. PMID:24532218

  18. 77 FR 3745 - Establishment of a One-Year Retention Period for Trademark-Related Papers That Have Been Scanned...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... Registration System, 76 FR 59114 (September 23, 2011), 1371 OG 168 (October 18, 2011). The USPTO received no... That Have Been Scanned Into the Trademark Initial Capture Registration System AGENCY: United States... disposal would otherwise have occurred. The one-year retention period for papers scanned into TICRS...

  19. Unity in diversity, a systems approach to regulating plant cell physiology by 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Siddhartha

    2015-01-01

    Could a disjoint group of enzymes synchronize their activities and execute a complex multi-step, measurable, and reproducible response? Here, I surmise that the alpha-ketoglutarate dependent superfamily of non-haem iron (II) dioxygenases could influence cell physiology as a cohesive unit, and that the broad spectra of substrates transformed is an absolute necessity to this portrayal. This eclectic group comprises members from all major taxa, and participates in pesticide breakdown, hypoxia signaling, and osmotic stress neutralization. The oxidative decarboxylation of 2-oxoglutarate to succinate is coupled with a concomitant substrate hydroxylation and, in most cases, is followed by an additional specialized conversion. The domain profile of a protein sequence was used as an index of miscellaneous reaction chemistry and interpreted alongside existent kinetic data in a linear model of integrated function. Statistical parameters were inferred by the creation of a novel, empirically motivated flat-file database of over 3800 sequences (DB2OG) with putative 2-oxoglutarate dependent activity. The collated information was categorized on the basis of existing annotation schema. The data suggests that 2OG-dependent enzymes incorporate several desirable features of a systems level player. DB2OG, is free, accessible without a login to all users, and available at the following URL (http://comp-biol.theacms.in/DB2OG.html).

  20. 40 CFR 420.02 - General definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... iodometric titration with an amperometric endpoint method specified in 40 CFR 136.3. (g) The term chromium.... In addition to the definitions set forth in 40 CFR part 401, the following definitions apply to this... by the method specified in 40 CFR 136.3. (b) The term oil and grease (or O&G) means the...

  1. 40 CFR 420.02 - General definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... iodometric titration with an amperometric endpoint method specified in 40 CFR 136.3. (g) The term chromium.... In addition to the definitions set forth in 40 CFR part 401, the following definitions apply to this... by the method specified in 40 CFR 136.3. (b) The term oil and grease (or O&G) means the...

  2. 40 CFR 420.02 - General definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... iodometric titration with an amperometric endpoint method specified in 40 CFR 136.3. (g) The term chromium.... In addition to the definitions set forth in 40 CFR part 401, the following definitions apply to this... by the method specified in 40 CFR 136.3. (b) The term oil and grease (or O&G) means the...

  3. 40 CFR 420.02 - General definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... iodometric titration with an amperometric endpoint method specified in 40 CFR 136.3. (g) The term chromium.... In addition to the definitions set forth in 40 CFR part 401, the following definitions apply to this... by the method specified in 40 CFR 136.3. (b) The term oil and grease (or O&G) means the...

  4. 40 CFR 420.02 - General definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... iodometric titration with an amperometric endpoint method specified in 40 CFR 136.3. (g) The term chromium.... In addition to the definitions set forth in 40 CFR part 401, the following definitions apply to this... by the method specified in 40 CFR 136.3. (b) The term oil and grease (or O&G) means the...

  5. 40 CFR 432.122 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart that further... daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 Ammonia (as N) 8.0 4.0 BOD5 26 16 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G (as HEM)...

  6. 40 CFR 432.52 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve... Regulatedparameter Maximum daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 BOD5 2.0 1.0 Fecal Coliform (2) (2) O&G 3 1.0 0.5 TSS 2.4...

  7. 40 CFR 432.122 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart that further... daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 Ammonia (as N) 8.0 4.0 BOD5 26 16 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G (as HEM)...

  8. 40 CFR 432.102 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve the... Maximum daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 BOD5 0.34 0.17 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G 4 0.20 0.10 TSS 0.42...

  9. 40 CFR 432.52 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve... Regulatedparameter Maximum daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 BOD5 2.0 1.0 Fecal Coliform (2) (2) O&G 3 1.0 0.5 TSS 2.4...

  10. 40 CFR 432.112 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart that slaughters... avg. 1 Ammonia (as N) 8.0 4.0 BOD5 26 16 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G (as HEM) 14 8.0 TSS 30 20 1...

  11. 40 CFR 432.112 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart that slaughters... avg. 1 Ammonia (as N) 8.0 4.0 BOD5 26 16 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G (as HEM) 14 8.0 TSS 30 20 1...

  12. 5. Photocopy of painting (original in the possession of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photocopy of painting (original in the possession of the Handel og Sofartsmuseet pea Kronborg Trade and Seafaring Museum, Helsingor, Denmark) H. P. Thorsoe, painter, c. 1825 VIEW OF CHRISTIANSTED HARBOR FROM SEA, SHIPS IN FOREGROUND, HARBOR IN BACKGROUND - City of Christiansted (General Views), Christiansted, St. Croix, VI

  13. 76 FR 40386 - Federal Property Suitable as Facilities To Assist the Homeless

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-08

    ..., 1988 Court Order in National Coalition for the Homeless v. Veterans Administration, No. 88-2503-OG (D.D... Unsuitable Properties Building Illinois Bldg. 649 Philip H. Sheridan Reserve Ctr. Ft. Sheridan IL Landholding...: Secured Area New Mexico Santa Rosa State Park ] 2528 Joe & Louise Page Rd. Santa Rosa NM 88435...

  14. 78 FR 61851 - Federal Property Suitable as Facilities To Assist the Homeless

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-04

    ..., 1988 Court Order in National Coalition for the Homeless v. Veterans Administration, No. 88-2503-OG (D.D... for info. on accessibility reqs. Georgia Building 931 1501 First St. Dobbins Air Reserve GA 30069... Naval Air Station Joint Reserve Base New Orleans LA 70143 Landholding Agency: Air Force Property...

  15. 40 CFR 437.11 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... available (BPT). (a) Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32 or 437.10(b), any existing point... Parameters O&G 205 50.2 pH (2) (2) TSS 60.0 31.0 Metal Parameters Antimony 0.249 0.206 Arsenic 0.162...

  16. 40 CFR 437.21 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... available (BPT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32 or 437.20(b), any existing point source... O&G 127 38.0 pH (2) (2) TSS 74.1 30.6 Metal Parameters Arsenic 2.95 1.33 Cadmium 0.0172...

  17. Maturation and experience in action representation: Bilateral deficits in unilateral congenital amelia

    PubMed Central

    Philip, B.A.; Buckon, C.; Sienko, S.; Aiona, M.; Ross, S.; Frey, S.H.

    2016-01-01

    Congenital unilateral absence of the hand (amelia) completely deprives individuals of sensorimotor experiences with their absent effector. The consequences of such deprivation on motor planning abilities are poorly understood. Fourteen patients and matched controls performed two grip selection tasks: 1) overt grip selection (OGS), in which they used their intact hand to grasp a three-dimensional object that appeared in different orientations using the most natural (under-or over-hand) precision grip, and 2) prospective grip selection (PGS), in which they selected the most natural grip for either the intact or absent hand without moving. For the intact hand, we evaluated planning accuracy by comparing concordance between grip preferences expressed in PGS vs. OGS. For the absent hand, we compared PGS responses with OGS responses for the intact hand that had been phase shifted by 180°, thereby accounting for mirror symmetrical biomechanical constraints of the two limbs. Like controls, amelic individuals displayed a consistent preference for less awkward grips in both OGS and PGS. Unexpectedly, however, they were slower and less accurate for PGS based on either the intact or the absent hand. We conclude that direct sensorimotor experience with both hands may be important for the typical development or refinement of effector-specific internal representations of either limb. PMID:26092768

  18. Requirement for pectin methyl esterase and preference for fragmented over native pectins for wall-associated kinase-activated, EDS1/PAD4-dependent stress response in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Kohorn, Bruce D; Kohorn, Susan L; Saba, Nicholas J; Martinez, Victoriano Meco

    2014-07-01

    The wall-associated kinases (WAKs) have a cytoplasmic protein kinase domain that spans the plasma membrane and binds pectin in the extracellular matrix of plants. WAKs are required for cell expansion during Arabidopsis seedling development but are also an integral part of the response to pathogens and stress that present oligogalacturonides (OGs), which subsequently bind to WAKs and activate a MPK6 (mitogen-activated protein kinase)-dependent pathway. It was unclear how WAKs distinguish native pectin polymers and OGs to activate one or the other of these two pathways. A dominant allele of WAK2 constitutively activates the stress response, and we show here that the effect is dependent upon EDS1 and PAD4, transcriptional activators involved in the pathogen response. Moreover, the WAK2 dominant allele is suppressed by a null allele of a pectin methyl esterase (PME3) whose activity normally leads to cross-linking of pectins in the cell wall. Although OGs activate a transcriptional response in wild type, the response is enhanced in a pme3/pme3 null, consistent with a competition by OG and native polymers for activation of WAKs. This provides a plausible mechanism for WAKs to distinguish an expansion from a stress pathway.

  19. Preliminary results of the in-orbit test of ARTEMIS with the Optical Ground Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes Garcia-Talavera, Marcos; Sodnik, Zoran; Lopez, Pablo; Alonso, Angel; Viera, Teodora; Oppenhauser, Gotthard

    2002-04-01

    ESA and the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC) reached an agreemenet for building the Optical Ground Station (OGS), in the IAC Teide Observatory, in order to perform In Orbit Testing (IOT) of Optical Data Relay payloads onboard communication satellites, the first being ARTEMIS. During its recent launch, ARTEMIS was put into a degraded orbit due to a malfunction on the launcher's upper stage. ESA rapidly adopted a recovery strategy aimed to take the satellite to its nominal geostationary position. After completion of the first manoeuvres, ARTEMIS was successfully positioned in a circular parking orbit, at about 31,000 kilometers, and turned into full operation. In this orbit, its optical payload has been tested with the OGS, before establishing the link with SPOT IV. New tracking algorithms were developed at OGS control system in order to correct for ARTEMIS new orbit. The OGS has established a bi-directional link to ARTEMIS, behaving, seen from ARTEMIS, as a LEO terminal. Preliminary results are presented on the space-to- ground bi-directional link, including pointing acquisition and tracking (PAT) performance, received beam characterization and BER measurements.

  20. Parent-of-origin dependent gene-specific knock down in mouse embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Iqbal, Khursheed; Kues, Wilfried A.; Niemann, Heiner . E-mail: niemann@tzv.fal.de

    2007-07-06

    In mice hemizygous for the Oct4-GFP transgene, the F1 embryos show parent-of-origin dependent expression of the marker gene. F1 embryos with a maternally derived OG2 allele (OG2{sup mat}/-) express GFP in the oocyte and during preimplantation development until the blastocyst stage indicating a maternal and embryonic expression pattern. F1-embryos with a paternally inherited OG2 allele (OG2{sup pat}/-) express GFP from the 4- to 8-cell stage onwards showing only embryonic expression. This allows to study allele specific knock down of GFP expression. RNA interference (RNAi) was highly efficient in embryos with the paternally inherited GFP allele, whereas embryos with the maternally inherited GFP allele showed a delayed and less stringent suppression, indicating that the initial levels of the target transcript and the half life of the protein affect RNAi efficacy. RT-PCR analysis revealed only minimum of GFP mRNA. These results have implications for studies of gene silencing in mammalian embryos.

  1. Unity in diversity, a systems approach to regulating plant cell physiology by 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases

    PubMed Central

    Kundu, Siddhartha

    2015-01-01

    Could a disjoint group of enzymes synchronize their activities and execute a complex multi-step, measurable, and reproducible response? Here, I surmise that the alpha-ketoglutarate dependent superfamily of non-haem iron (II) dioxygenases could influence cell physiology as a cohesive unit, and that the broad spectra of substrates transformed is an absolute necessity to this portrayal. This eclectic group comprises members from all major taxa, and participates in pesticide breakdown, hypoxia signaling, and osmotic stress neutralization. The oxidative decarboxylation of 2-oxoglutarate to succinate is coupled with a concomitant substrate hydroxylation and, in most cases, is followed by an additional specialized conversion. The domain profile of a protein sequence was used as an index of miscellaneous reaction chemistry and interpreted alongside existent kinetic data in a linear model of integrated function. Statistical parameters were inferred by the creation of a novel, empirically motivated flat-file database of over 3800 sequences (DB2OG) with putative 2-oxoglutarate dependent activity. The collated information was categorized on the basis of existing annotation schema. The data suggests that 2OG-dependent enzymes incorporate several desirable features of a systems level player. DB2OG, is free, accessible without a login to all users, and available at the following URL (http://comp-biol.theacms.in/DB2OG.html). PMID:25814993

  2. Cardiovascular Fitness in Obese versus Nonobese 8-11-Year-Old Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mastrangelo, M. Alysia; Chaloupka, Edward C.; Rattigan, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare cardiovascular fitness between obese and nonobese children. Based on body mass index, 118 were classified as obese (boys [OB] = 62, girls [OG] = 56), while 421 were nonobese (boys [NOB] = 196, girls [NOG] = 225). Cardiovascular fitness was determined by a 1-mile [1.6 km] run/walk (MRW) and estimated peak…

  3. Heifer growth performance from fall-oat pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fall-grown oat has shown promise as an emergency fall forage option, or to extend the grazing season in Wisconsin. Our objectives for this project were: i) to assess the pasture productivity and forage characteristics of 2 fall-grown oat cultivars (Ogle and ForagePlus; OG and FP, respectively) using...

  4. 40 CFR 432.85 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... coliform, O&G, and TSS specified in § 432.82(b) and the limitations for ammonia (as N) and total nitrogen....85 of title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations, revised as of July 1, 2003, must continue to... specified in 40 CFR 122.29(d)(1) after which it must achieve the effluent limitations specified in §§...

  5. 40 CFR 432.85 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... coliform, O&G, and TSS specified in § 432.82(b) and the limitations for ammonia (as N) and total nitrogen....85 of title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations, revised as of July 1, 2003, must continue to... specified in 40 CFR 122.29(d)(1) after which it must achieve the effluent limitations specified in §§...

  6. 40 CFR 432.105 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 0.18 0.09 Fecal coliform (2) (3) O&G 1,4 0.10 0.05 Total Nitrogen 5 194 134 TSS 1 0.22 0.11 1 Pounds... period specified in 40 CFR 122.29(d)(1) after which it must achieve the effluent limitations specified...

  7. 40 CFR 432.85 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... coliform, O&G, and TSS specified in § 432.82(b) and the limitations for ammonia (as N) and total nitrogen... specified in 40 CFR 122.29(d)(1) after which it must achieve the effluent limitations specified in §§...

  8. Cosmic Ray Origin, Acceleration and Propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baring, Matthew G.

    2000-01-01

    This paper summarizes highlights of the OG3.1, 3.2 and 3.3 sessions of the 26th International Cosmic Ray Conference in Salt Lake City, which were devoted to issues of origin/composition, acceleration and propagation.

  9. Effects of cultivar and grazing initiation date on fall-grown oat for replacement dairy heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fall-grown oat has shown promise for extending the grazing season in Wisconsin, but the optimum date for initiating grazing has not been evaluated. Our objectives for this project were: i) to assess the pasture productivity and nutritive value of 2 oat cultivars (Ogle and ForagePlus; OG and FP, resp...

  10. A novel detection of radon based on its decay product inducing conformational changes of an aptamer probe.

    PubMed

    Long, Minzhi; Deng, Han; Tian, Gang; Song, Chunli; Liu, Hongwen; Shen, Yi; Lv, Changyin

    2016-09-14

    This study proposes a novel method for the detection of inert gas radon using a label-free, specific, fluorescence-sensing aptamer in the context of PW17-OG system. This method utilizes the cyanine dye OliGreen (OG) as a signal reactor and the aptamer PW17 as a fluorescent identification probe. When OG integrates into the free curling PW17, a strong fluorescence signal is generated. After radon decays, the long lived naturally occurring radon progeny Pb being disposed and introduced to the system. Lead ions induce PW17 to form a stable G-quadruplex, thereby inhibiting the interaction between OG and PW17 and resulting in a reduction of the fluorescence intensity. The fluorescence intensity show a good linear relationship with lead ion and the radon concentration (D), thereinto, We fitted linear regression of radon concentration in the range of 0.92-4.22 (×10(4) Bqhm(-3)) to receive a good relationship between ΔF and the concentration of radon with the detection limit of 1963 Bqhm(-3). This method has been successfully applied for detecting standard cumulative concentration of radon and the detection limit reached the national standard of China. This sensitive method can exclude radiation damage in field testing, furthermore, it explores a new field in biological analysis using an aptamer to detected inorganic, gaseous, and radioactive materials.

  11. The Synchrony and Diachrony of Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian Adjectival Long-Form Allomorphy (ALFA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, James Joshua

    2010-01-01

    In Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian (BCS), the gentive (G) and dative/locative (DL) cases exhibit adjectival long-form allomorphy (ALFA). The genitive -"og" -"oga" and the DL -"om" -"ome" -"omu" stand in free variation, inasmuch as when one form is substituted for another the truth value of an utterance remains unchanged. Some sociolinguists (particularly…

  12. Structure and Mechanism of a Viral Collagen Prolyl Hydroxylase

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The Fe(II)- and 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG)-dependent dioxygenases comprise a large and diverse enzyme superfamily the members of which have multiple physiological roles. Despite this diversity, these enzymes share a common chemical mechanism and a core structural fold, a double-stranded β-helix (DSBH), as well as conserved active site residues. The prolyl hydroxylases are members of this large superfamily. Prolyl hydroxylases are involved in collagen biosynthesis and oxygen sensing in mammalian cells. Structural–mechanistic studies with prolyl hydroxylases have broader implications for understanding mechanisms in the Fe(II)- and 2-OG-dependent dioxygenase superfamily. Here, we describe crystal structures of an N-terminally truncated viral collagen prolyl hydroxylase (vCPH). The crystal structure shows that vCPH contains the conserved DSBH motif and iron binding active site residues of 2-OG oxygenases. Molecular dynamics simulations are used to delineate structural changes in vCPH upon binding its substrate. Kinetic investigations are used to report on reaction cycle intermediates and compare them to the closest homologues of vCPH. The study highlights the utility of vCPH as a model enzyme for broader mechanistic analysis of Fe(II)- and 2-OG-dependent dioxygenases, including those of biomedical interest. PMID:26368022

  13. The Effect of Vision on Postural Strategies in Prader-Willi Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cimolin, Veronica; Galli, Manuela; Vismara, Luca; Grugni, Graziano; Priano, Lorenzo; Capodaglio, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the role of visual contribution in patients with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) on balance maintenance using a force platform. We enrolled 14 individuals with PWS free from conditions associated with impaired balance, 44 obese (OG) and 20 healthy controls (CG). Postural sway was measured for 60 s while standing…

  14. "[We're on the Right Track, Baby], We Were Born This Way!" Exploring Sports Participation in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Ken; Thurston, Miranda; Vaage, Odd; Roberts, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Based on quantitative data from the Norwegian Statistisk Sentralbyrå (Statistics Norway) study of "Mosjon, Friluftsliv og Kulturaktiviteter," this paper explores trends in Norwegians' participation in sports, with a focus on young people. Norway boasts particularly high levels of sports participation as well as sports club…

  15. Compensatory Vowel Lengthening for Omitted Coda Consonants: A Phonetic Investigation of Children's Early Representations of Prosodic Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Jae Yung; Demuth, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    Children's early word productions often differ from the target form, sometimes exhibiting vowel lengthening when word-final coda consonants are omitted (e.g., "dog" /d[open o]g/ [arrow right] [d[open o]:]). It has typically been assumed that such lengthening compensates for a missing prosodic unit (a mora). However, this study raises the…

  16. Influence of the ADP/ATP ratio, 2-oxoglutarate and divalent ions on Azospirillum brasilense PII protein signalling.

    PubMed

    Gerhardt, Edileusa C M; Araújo, Luíza M; Ribeiro, Ronny R; Chubatsu, Leda S; Scarduelli, Marcelo; Rodrigues, Thiago E; Monteiro, Rose A; Pedrosa, Fábio O; Souza, Emanuel M; Huergo, Luciano F

    2012-06-01

    Proteins belonging to the P(II) family coordinate cellular nitrogen metabolism by direct interaction with a variety of enzymes, transcriptional regulators and transporters. The sensing function of P(II) relies on its ability to bind the nitrogen/carbon signalling molecule 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG). In Proteobacteria, P(II) is further subject to reversible uridylylation according to the intracellular levels of glutamine, which reflect the cellular nitrogen status. A number of P(II) proteins have been shown to bind ADP and ATP in a competitive manner, suggesting that P(II) might act as an energy sensor. Here, we analyse the influence of the ADP/ATP ratio, 2-OG levels and divalent metal ions on in vitro uridylylation of the Azospirillum brasilense P(II) proteins GlnB and GlnZ, and on interaction with their targets AmtB, DraG and DraT. The results support the notion that the cellular concentration of 2-OG is a key factor governing occupation of the GlnB and GlnZ nucleotide binding sites by ATP or ADP, with high 2-OG levels favouring the occupation of P(II) by ATP. Both P(II) uridylylation and interaction with target proteins responded to the ADP/ATP ratio within the expected physiological range, supporting the concept that P(II) proteins might act as cellular energy sensors.

  17. Ultrasound body composition traits response to an endotoxin challenge in Brahman heifers supplemented with Omnigen-AF

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined the effect of feeding OmniGen-AF (OG; Prince Agri Products) on the body composition traits response of newly-weaned heifers to an endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) challenge. Brahman heifers (n=24; 183 ± 5 kg) from the Texas AgriLife Research Center in Overton, TX, were separat...

  18. The effect of active video gaming on children's physical activity, behavior preferences and body composition.

    PubMed

    Graves, Lee E F; Ridgers, Nicola D; Atkinson, Greg; Stratton, Gareth

    2010-11-01

    Active video game interventions typically provide children a single game that may become unappealing. A peripheral device (jOG) encourages step-powered gaming on multiple games. This trial evaluated the effect of jOG on children's objectively measured PA, body fat and self-reported behaviors. 42 of 58 eligible children (8-10 y) randomly assigned to an intervention (jOG) or control (CON) completed the trial. Intervention children received two jOG devices for home use. Analyses of covariance compared the intervention effect at 6 and 12 weeks from baseline. No differences were found between groups for counts per minute (CPM; primary outcome) at 6 and 12 weeks (p > .05). Active video gaming increased (adjusted change 0.95 (95% CI 0.25, 1.65) h·d⁻¹, p <.01) and sedentary video gaming decreased (-0.34 (-1.24, 0.56) h·d⁻¹, p > .05) at 6 weeks relative to CON. No body fat changes were observed between groups. Targeted changes in video game use did not positively affect PA. Larger trials are needed to verify the impact of active video games on children's PA and health. PMID:21242603

  19. Bioinformatics analysis of thousands of TCGA tumors to determine the involvement of epigenetic regulators in human cancer

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Many cancer cells show distorted epigenetic landscapes. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project profiles thousands of tumors, allowing the discovery of somatic alterations in the epigenetic machinery and the identification of potential cancer drivers among members of epigenetic protein families. Methods We integrated mutation, expression, and copy number data from 5943 tumors from 13 cancer types to train a classification model that predicts the likelihood of being an oncogene (OG), tumor suppressor (TSG) or neutral gene (NG). We applied this predictor to epigenetic regulator genes (ERGs), and used differential expression and correlation network analysis to identify dysregulated ERGs along with co-expressed cancer genes. Furthermore, we quantified global proteomic changes by mass spectrometry after EZH2 inhibition. Results Mutation-based classifiers uncovered the OG-like profile of DNMT3A and TSG-like profiles for several ERGs. Differential gene expression and correlation network analyses revealed that EZH2 is the most significantly over-expressed ERG in cancer and is co-regulated with a cell cycle network. Proteomic analysis showed that EZH2 inhibition induced down-regulation of cell cycle regulators in lymphoma cells. Conclusions Using classical driver genes to train an OG/TSG predictor, we determined the most predictive features at the gene level. Our predictor uncovered one OG and several TSGs among ERGs. Expression analyses elucidated multiple dysregulated ERGs including EZH2 as member of a co-expressed cell cycle network. PMID:26110843

  20. The plant limonoid 7-oxo-deacetoxygedunin inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis by suppressing activation of the NF-κB and MAPK pathways.

    PubMed

    Wisutsitthiwong, Chonnaree; Buranaruk, Chayanit; Pudhom, Khanitha; Palaga, Tanapat

    2011-11-18

    Osteoclasts together with osteoblasts play pivotal roles in bone remodeling. Aberrations in osteoclast differentiation and activity contribute to osteopenic disease. Osteoclasts differentiate from monocyte/macrophage progenitors, a process that is initiated by the interaction between receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK) and its ligand, RANKL. In this study, we identified 7-oxo-7-deacetoxygedunin (7-OG), a gedunin type limonoid from seeds of the mangrove Xylocarpus moluccensis, as a potent inhibitor of osteoclastogenesis. Additionally, 7-OG showed strong anti-osteoclastogenic activity with low cytotoxicity against the monocyte/macrophage progenitor cell line, RAW264.7. The IC50 for anti-osteoclastogenic activity was 4.14μM. Treatment with 7-OG completely abolished the appearance of multinucleated giant cells with tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity in RAW264.7 cells stimulated with RANKL. When the expression of genes related to osteoclastogenesis was investigated, a complete downregulation of NFATc1 and cathepsin K and a delayed downregulation of irf8 were observed upon 7-OG treatment in the presence of RANKL. Furthermore, treatment with this limonoid suppressed RANKL-induced activation of p38, MAPK and Erk and nuclear localization of NF-κB p65. Taken together, we present evidence indicating a plant limonoid as a novel osteoclastogenic inhibitor that could be used for osteoporosis and related conditions. PMID:22037580

  1. Orchardgrass ley for improved manure management in Wisconsin: II. Nutritive value and voluntary intake by dairy heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Confinement dairy feeding operations in the Upper Midwest could benefit from utilizing a wider range of forages than alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and corn silage (Zea mays L.). A short cycle, frequently manured, orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) ley (OG) was compared with corn silage (CS) in a 2 ...

  2. 40 CFR 432.32 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve... daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 BOD 5 0.34 0.17 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G 4 0.16 0.08 TSS 0.48 0.24...

  3. Studies on pulsed optogalvanic effect in Eu/Ne hollow cathode discharge.

    PubMed

    Saini, V K; Kumar, P; Dixit, S K; Nakhe, S V

    2014-07-01

    The optogalvanic (OG) effect has been observed in a Eu/Ne hollow cathode discharge lamp using pulsed laser irradiation. An OG spectrum is recorded in dye laser wavelength region 574–602 nm using a boxcar-averager. In total 41 atomic lines are observed. Of these, 38 lines are assigned to neon transitions. Two lines observed corresponding to wavelengths 576.519 and 601.815 nm are assigned to europium transitions; (4f 7 6s 2 , S 8 7/2 →4f 7 6s6p , zP 6 7/2 ) and (4f 7 6s 2 , S 8 7/2 →4f 7 6s6p , zP 8 9/2 ), respectively, and the remaining line at 582.475 nm could not be assigned. The effect of the discharge current on europium as well as neon OG signals is also studied. At moderate discharge current values, an extra positive peak is observed in neon OG signal for the transition (1s 5 →2p 2 ) at 588.189 nm, which is explained by Penning-ionization process using the quasi-resonant energy transfer interactions between excited neon and europium atoms lying in 2p 2 and D 10 9/2 states, respectively. PMID:25089996

  4. Propagation experiments in the near infrared along a 150-km path and from stars in the Canarian archipelago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comeron, Adolfo; Rubio, Juan A.; Belmonte, Aniceto M.; Garcia, Enrique; Prud'homme, Tony; Sodnik, Zoran; Connor, Chris

    2002-03-01

    Within the framework of the European Space Agency (ESA) SILEX project, aimed at experimentally demonstrating the feasibility of inter-satellite optical communications links, an Optical Ground Station (OGS) has been built by ESA in the premises of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC, Institute of Astrophysics of the Canary Islands) Observatory of Teide, in the Tenerife island. The OGS is designed to test the optical communications payload on board the ESA's Artemis satellite and to perform ground-satellite optical communications experiments. As part of the OGS design study, an assessment of the impact of the atmosphere on the ground- satellite links was carried out. This assessment included experimental characterizations of the atmospheric effects through both measurements from stars in positions close to the Artemis one in bands comprising the SILEX wavelengths, using the IAC's Mons telescope in the Observatory of Teide, and measurements on a horizontal link with a transmitter near the IAC's Roque de los Muchachos Observatory in La Palma island, based on a laser diode similar to those to be used in SILEX, and a receiver in the Teide Observatory, almost 150 km apart, in the Tenerife island. The 830-nm wavelength horizontal measurements allowed checking the variations in the behavior of the atmospheric turbulence through the diurnal cycle. Besides the information relevant to assess the OGS performance, the horizontal-propagation experiments allowed to gather a considerable amount of propagation data on a very long path, most of it 2400 m above the sea.

  5. Plant immunity triggered by engineered in vivo release of oligogalacturonides, damage-associated molecular patterns.

    PubMed

    Benedetti, Manuel; Pontiggia, Daniela; Raggi, Sara; Cheng, Zhenyu; Scaloni, Flavio; Ferrari, Simone; Ausubel, Frederick M; Cervone, Felice; De Lorenzo, Giulia

    2015-04-28

    Oligogalacturonides (OGs) are fragments of pectin that activate plant innate immunity by functioning as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). We set out to test the hypothesis that OGs are generated in planta by partial inhibition of pathogen-encoded polygalacturonases (PGs). A gene encoding a fungal PG was fused with a gene encoding a plant polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP) and expressed in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. We show that expression of the PGIP-PG chimera results in the in vivo production of OGs that can be detected by mass spectrometric analysis. Transgenic plants expressing the chimera under control of a pathogen-inducible promoter are more resistant to the phytopathogens Botrytis cinerea, Pectobacterium carotovorum, and Pseudomonas syringae. These data provide strong evidence for the hypothesis that OGs released in vivo act as a DAMP signal to trigger plant immunity and suggest that controlled release of these molecules upon infection may be a valuable tool to protect plants against infectious diseases. On the other hand, elevated levels of expression of the chimera cause the accumulation of salicylic acid, reduced growth, and eventually lead to plant death, consistent with the current notion that trade-off occurs between growth and defense.

  6. Arabidopsis MPK3 and MPK6 play different roles in basal and oligogalacturonide- or flagellin-induced resistance against Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Galletti, Roberta; Ferrari, Simone; De Lorenzo, Giulia

    2011-10-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are fundamental components of the plant innate immune system. MPK3 and MPK6 are Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) MAPKs activated by pathogens and elicitors such as oligogalacturonides (OGs), which function as damage-associated molecular patterns, and flg22, a well-known microbe-associated molecular pattern. However, the specific contribution of MPK3 and MPK6 to the regulation of elicitor-induced defense responses is not completely defined. In this work we have investigated the roles played by these MAPKs in elicitor-induced resistance against the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea. Analysis of single mapk mutants revealed that lack of MPK3 increases basal susceptibility to the fungus, as previously reported, but does not significantly affect elicitor-induced resistance. Instead, lack of MPK6 has no effect on basal resistance but suppresses OG- and flg22-induced resistance to B. cinerea. Overexpression of the AP2C1 phosphatase leads to impaired OG- and flg22-induced phosphorylation of both MPK3 and MPK6, and to phenotypes that recapitulate those of the single mapk mutants. These data indicate that OG- and flg22-induced defense responses effective against B. cinerea are mainly dependent on MAPKs, with a greater contribution of MPK6.

  7. The effect of active video gaming on children's physical activity, behavior preferences and body composition.

    PubMed

    Graves, Lee E F; Ridgers, Nicola D; Atkinson, Greg; Stratton, Gareth

    2010-11-01

    Active video game interventions typically provide children a single game that may become unappealing. A peripheral device (jOG) encourages step-powered gaming on multiple games. This trial evaluated the effect of jOG on children's objectively measured PA, body fat and self-reported behaviors. 42 of 58 eligible children (8-10 y) randomly assigned to an intervention (jOG) or control (CON) completed the trial. Intervention children received two jOG devices for home use. Analyses of covariance compared the intervention effect at 6 and 12 weeks from baseline. No differences were found between groups for counts per minute (CPM; primary outcome) at 6 and 12 weeks (p > .05). Active video gaming increased (adjusted change 0.95 (95% CI 0.25, 1.65) h·d⁻¹, p <.01) and sedentary video gaming decreased (-0.34 (-1.24, 0.56) h·d⁻¹, p > .05) at 6 weeks relative to CON. No body fat changes were observed between groups. Targeted changes in video game use did not positively affect PA. Larger trials are needed to verify the impact of active video games on children's PA and health.

  8. Modulation of the metabolic response to an endotoxin challenge in Brahman heifers through OmniGen-AF supplementation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined the effect of feeding OmniGen-AF (OG; Prince Agri Products) on the metabolic response of newly-weaned heifers to an endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) challenge. Brahman heifers (n=24; 183±5 kilograms) from the Texas AgriLife Research Center in Overton, TX, were separated into 2...

  9. OmniGen-AF supplementation modulated the physiological and acute phase responses of Brahman heifers to an endotoxin challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined the effect of feeding OmniGen-AF (OG; Prince Agri Products) on the physiological and acute phase responses (APR) of newly-weaned heifers to an endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) challenge. Brahman heifers (n=24; 183±5 kilograms) from the Texas AgriLife Research Center in Overton...

  10. A novel detection of radon based on its decay product inducing conformational changes of an aptamer probe.

    PubMed

    Long, Minzhi; Deng, Han; Tian, Gang; Song, Chunli; Liu, Hongwen; Shen, Yi; Lv, Changyin

    2016-09-14

    This study proposes a novel method for the detection of inert gas radon using a label-free, specific, fluorescence-sensing aptamer in the context of PW17-OG system. This method utilizes the cyanine dye OliGreen (OG) as a signal reactor and the aptamer PW17 as a fluorescent identification probe. When OG integrates into the free curling PW17, a strong fluorescence signal is generated. After radon decays, the long lived naturally occurring radon progeny Pb being disposed and introduced to the system. Lead ions induce PW17 to form a stable G-quadruplex, thereby inhibiting the interaction between OG and PW17 and resulting in a reduction of the fluorescence intensity. The fluorescence intensity show a good linear relationship with lead ion and the radon concentration (D), thereinto, We fitted linear regression of radon concentration in the range of 0.92-4.22 (×10(4) Bqhm(-3)) to receive a good relationship between ΔF and the concentration of radon with the detection limit of 1963 Bqhm(-3). This method has been successfully applied for detecting standard cumulative concentration of radon and the detection limit reached the national standard of China. This sensitive method can exclude radiation damage in field testing, furthermore, it explores a new field in biological analysis using an aptamer to detected inorganic, gaseous, and radioactive materials. PMID:27566356

  11. Rostral Prefrontal Cortex and the Focus of Attention in Prospective Memory

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Sam J.; Frith, Chris D.; Burgess, Paul W.

    2012-01-01

    Prospective memory (PM) denotes the function to realize intentions after a delay while being immersed in distracting ongoing (OG) activity. Here, we scrutinize the often-reported involvement of rostral prefrontal cortex (rPFC; approximating Brodmann area 10) in such situations: This region might mediate attention between external stimuli and the internally maintained intention, that is, between stimulus-oriented (SO) and stimulus-independent (SI) processing. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) we orthogonally crossed 1) PM versus OG activity only, with 2) SO versus SI attention. In support of the hypothesis, common regions of medial rPFC exhibited greater blood oxygen level–dependent (BOLD) signal for the contrasts of both OG task only versus PM and SO versus SI attending. However, activation related to the former contrast extended more superiorly, suggesting a functional gradient along a dorsal–ventral axis within this region. Moreover, region-of-interest analyses revealed that PM versus OG task only was associated with greater BOLD signal in left lateral rPFC, reflecting the requirement to maintain delayed intentions. Distinct aspects of this region were also transiently engaged at transitions between SO and SI conditions. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that some of the rostral prefrontal signal changes associated with PM performance reflect relative differences in SO versus SI processing. PMID:21976356

  12. Desiccation tolerance during different desiccation strategies in A. angustifolia embryos

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brazilian pine (Araucaria angustifolia) is native to the Atlantic Rainforest of Brazil and is an endangered species. The mature seeds are recalcitrant and have large embryos (about 2.5 cm in length) that contain more than 1 g H2O.g dry mass (dm)-1. Successful cryopreservation requires reduction of ...

  13. Oxygen amendment on growth and nitrogen-use efficiency of flooded Italian Basil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flooding is a frequent and often unavoidable cause of stress, in vegetable production in Florida. Flooding results in hypoxia i.e., oxygen deficiency. This study was conducted with traditional Italian basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), cv. Genovese OG, treated with either a fast- or slow-release solid oxy...

  14. The Adoption of Systems Innovations in Educational Organizations: A Case Study of Operation Guidance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kester, Ralph J.; Howard, John, Jr.

    To identify factors which affect the acceptance of innovation in school organizations, a career development product entitled Operation Guidance (OG) was the object of a case study. Five basic organizational characteristics were used to roughly quantify attributes of the organization of the six schools studied. The characteristics were:…

  15. 40 CFR 420.64 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... pollutant property New source performance standards Maximum for any 1 day Average of daily values for 30 consecutive days Kg/kkg (pounds per 1,000 lb) of product TSS 0.00730 0.00261 O&G 0.00313 0.00104 Lead...

  16. Plant immunity triggered by engineered in vivo release of oligogalacturonides, damage-associated molecular patterns

    PubMed Central

    Benedetti, Manuel; Pontiggia, Daniela; Raggi, Sara; Cheng, Zhenyu; Scaloni, Flavio; Ferrari, Simone; Ausubel, Frederick M.; Cervone, Felice; De Lorenzo, Giulia

    2015-01-01

    Oligogalacturonides (OGs) are fragments of pectin that activate plant innate immunity by functioning as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). We set out to test the hypothesis that OGs are generated in planta by partial inhibition of pathogen-encoded polygalacturonases (PGs). A gene encoding a fungal PG was fused with a gene encoding a plant polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP) and expressed in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. We show that expression of the PGIP–PG chimera results in the in vivo production of OGs that can be detected by mass spectrometric analysis. Transgenic plants expressing the chimera under control of a pathogen-inducible promoter are more resistant to the phytopathogens Botrytis cinerea, Pectobacterium carotovorum, and Pseudomonas syringae. These data provide strong evidence for the hypothesis that OGs released in vivo act as a DAMP signal to trigger plant immunity and suggest that controlled release of these molecules upon infection may be a valuable tool to protect plants against infectious diseases. On the other hand, elevated levels of expression of the chimera cause the accumulation of salicylic acid, reduced growth, and eventually lead to plant death, consistent with the current notion that trade-off occurs between growth and defense. PMID:25870275

  17. Interaction of NaCl(g) and HCl(g) with condensed NA2SO4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stearns, C. A.; Kohl, F. J.; Fryburg, G. C.; Miller, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    The interaction of Na2SO4(l) with NaCl(g), HCl(g) and H2O(g) was studied in atmospheric pressure flowing air and oxygen at Na2SO4(l) temperatures of 900 and 1000 C. Thermomicrogravimetric and high pressure mass spectrometric sampling techniques were used. Experimental results establish that previously reported enhanced rates of weight loss of Na2SO4(l) in the presence of NaCl(g) are due to the reaction: Na2SO4(c) + 2HCl(g) = 2NaCl(g) + SO2(g) + H2O(g) + 1/2O2(g) being driven to the right in flowing gas systems. The HCl(g) is the product of hydrolysis of NaCl caused by small but significant amounts of H2O(g) present in the system. Thermochemical calculations are used to show that even with sub-ppm levels of H2O(g) present, significant quantities of HCl(g) are produced.

  18. Integrating Oil and Gas Measurement Data to Estimate Spatially-Gridded Methane Emissions in the Barnett Shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyon, D. R.; Zavala Araiza, D.; Alvarez, R.; Harriss, R. C.; Palacios, V.; Lan, X.; Talbot, R. W.; Shepson, P. B.; Lavoie, T. N.; Yacovitch, T. I.; Herndon, S. C.; Marchese, A.; Zimmerle, D.; Robinson, A. L.; Hamburg, S.

    2015-12-01

    In October 2013, a dozen research teams measured methane emissions from oil and gas (O&G) and other sources in the Barnett Shale region of Texas at multiple scales ranging from bottom-up component measurements to top-down regional emission measurements. This work integrates ground- and aircraft-based measurements of site-level emissions from the campaign and a recent national study of gathering and processing facilities to construct a spatially resolved emission inventory for the Barnett Shale. Spatially referenced activity data including O&G site locations were obtained from multiple databases. O&G site emission factors were estimated with two-step Monte Carlo simulations that integrated emission rates from unbiased datasets with higher measurements obtained with targeted sampling. Emissions from other fossil and biogenic sources were estimated from reported emissions data or published emission factors. We constructed a 4 km x 4 km gridded emission inventory to estimate emissions by source category in the 25-county Barnett region. Total methane emissions in October 2013 were estimated to be 72.3 (+10.1/-8.9) Mg CH4 h-1 with 46.2 (+7.9/-6.2) from O&G sources. Fat-tail sites, which were defined as emission rates above the unbiased sampling distributions, accounted for 19% of O&G emissions but less than 2% of sites. In comparison to alternative estimates of O&G emissions based on the United States Environmental Protection Agency Greenhouse Gas Inventory, EPA Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program, and Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research, our custom inventory was higher by factors of 1.5, 2.7, and 4.3, respectively, similar to published ratios of top-down and bottom up estimates. Our custom inventory was higher than alternatives primarily due to more complete activity data and the inclusion of fat-tail site emissions. Gathering facilities, which accounted for 40% of our O&G emission estimate, had the largest difference from alternative inventories.

  19. Land use change from forest to olive grove soils in a toposequence in Mediterranean areas (South of Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Maria Luisa; Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Lozano-García, Beatriz

    2014-05-01

    Olive grove (OG) is the most important crop in Andalusia (South of Spain), the main production area in the world. Throughout its development over the years, land use change (LUC) has been one of the most common phenomena, causing soil erosion and the loss of soil quality. This effect is aggravated by the climatic conditions and poor soil management practices. This study examined the effect of LUC from natural forest to OG in a toposequence (summit, backslope, toeslope) of a calcisols-regosols-vertisols sequence in Torredecampo (South of Spain). The studied parameters were soil organic carbon (SOC) and nitrogen content; C and N stock; and stratification ratio (SR). Total SOC (T-SOC) was low for both forest and OG soils, with a pattern of decrease from the highest (summit) to the lowest topographical position (toeslope) in forest soils, but not for OG soils, where the highest T-SOC was found in the lowest topographical position. T-SOC was more than 40% higher in forest soils than in OG soils in the summit and backslope, but not in the toeslope. This can be explained by the difference in tree and vegetative coverage from both soil uses. Natural vegetation prevents that erosion diminishes soil quality and carbon content, as well as excessive erosion from higher to lower topographical positions. SOC stock in forest soils remained evenly distributed in the three topographical positions. However, the trend for the studied olive OG soils was to have the highest SOC stock in the toeslope and the lowest in the summit. Erosion and subsequent sediment deposition in the toeslope could also be the reason behind this difference between forest and OG soils. TN followed a pattern of decrease with depth in the OG soils, but not in the forest soils. This could be because of increased erosion and fertiliser leaching caused by the lack of vegetative cover. As for TN stock, it was higher in forest soils than in OG soils, with an exception (toeslope). In this case, the exception can also

  20. Novel strategy for the selection of human recombinant Fab fragments to membrane proteins from a phage-display library.

    PubMed

    Labrijn, Aran F; Koppelman, Marco H G M; Verhagen, Janneke; Brouwer, Mieke C; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Hack, C Erik; Huisman, Han G

    2002-03-01

    Traditionally, the selection of phage-display libraries is performed on purified antigens (Ags), immobilized to a solid substrate. However, this approach may not be applicable for some Ags, such as membrane proteins, which for structural integrity strongly rely on their native environment. Here we describe an approach for the selection of phage-libraries against membrane proteins. The envelope glycoproteins (Env) of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus type-1 (HIV-1) were used as a model for a type-1 integral membrane protein. HIV-1IHI Env, expressed on the surface of Rabbit Kidney cells (RK13) with a recombinant vaccinia virus (rVV), was solubilized using the non-ionic detergent n-Octyl beta-D-glucopyranoside (OG). Membrane associated Env was reconstituted into vesicles by the simultaneous removal of detergent and free monomeric Env subunits by gel-filtration. The resulting antigen preparation, termed OG-P1IHI, was captured on microtiter plates coated with Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA) and used for rounds of selection (panning) of a well-characterized phage-display library derived from an HIV-1 seropositive donor. Simultaneously, an identical experiment was performed with OG-P1IHI vesicles disrupted by Nonidet P-40 (NP-P1IHI). Both membrane-associated and soluble Ags were selected for vaccinia-specific clones (OG-P1IHI: 59/75 and NP-P1IHI: 1/75) and HIV-1-specific clones (OG-P1IHI: 11/75 and NP-P1IHI: 65/75) using our approach. Hence, the novel panning strategy described here may be applicable for selection of phage-libraries against membrane proteins.

  1. Human oxygen sensing may have origins in prokaryotic elongation factor Tu prolyl-hydroxylation.

    PubMed

    Scotti, John S; Leung, Ivanhoe K H; Ge, Wei; Bentley, Michael A; Paps, Jordi; Kramer, Holger B; Lee, Joongoo; Aik, WeiShen; Choi, Hwanho; Paulsen, Steinar M; Bowman, Lesley A H; Loik, Nikita D; Horita, Shoichiro; Ho, Chia-hua; Kershaw, Nadia J; Tang, Christoph M; Claridge, Timothy D W; Preston, Gail M; McDonough, Michael A; Schofield, Christopher J

    2014-09-16

    The roles of 2-oxoglutarate (2OG)-dependent prolyl-hydroxylases in eukaryotes include collagen stabilization, hypoxia sensing, and translational regulation. The hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) sensing system is conserved in animals, but not in other organisms. However, bioinformatics imply that 2OG-dependent prolyl-hydroxylases (PHDs) homologous to those acting as sensing components for the HIF system in animals occur in prokaryotes. We report cellular, biochemical, and crystallographic analyses revealing that Pseudomonas prolyl-hydroxylase domain containing protein (PPHD) contain a 2OG oxygenase related in structure and function to the animal PHDs. A Pseudomonas aeruginosa PPHD knockout mutant displays impaired growth in the presence of iron chelators and increased production of the virulence factor pyocyanin. We identify elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) as a PPHD substrate, which undergoes prolyl-4-hydroxylation on its switch I loop. A crystal structure of PPHD reveals striking similarity to human PHD2 and a Chlamydomonas reinhardtii prolyl-4-hydroxylase. A crystal structure of PPHD complexed with intact EF-Tu reveals that major conformational changes occur in both PPHD and EF-Tu, including a >20-Å movement of the EF-Tu switch I loop. Comparison of the PPHD structures with those of HIF and collagen PHDs reveals conservation in substrate recognition despite diverse biological roles and origins. The observed changes will be useful in designing new types of 2OG oxygenase inhibitors based on various conformational states, rather than active site iron chelators, which make up most reported 2OG oxygenase inhibitors. Structurally informed phylogenetic analyses suggest that the role of prolyl-hydroxylation in human hypoxia sensing has ancient origins.

  2. Evidence for the Slow Reaction of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor Prolyl Hydroxylase 2 with Oxygen

    PubMed Central

    Flashman, Emily; Hoffart, Lee M.; Hamed, Refaat B.; Bollinger, J. Martin; Krebs, Carsten; Schofield, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY The response of animals to hypoxia is mediated by the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (HIF). Human HIF is regulated by four Fe(II) and 2-oxoglutarate (2OG) dependent oxygenases: Prolyl hydroxylase domain enzymes (PHDs or EGLNs) 1–3 catalyse hydroxylation of two prolyl-residues in HIF, triggering its degradation by the proteasome. Factor inhibiting HIF (FIH) catalyses hydroxylation of an asparagine-residue in HIF, inhibiting its transcriptional activity. Collectively, the HIF hydroxylases negatively regulate HIF in response to increasing oxygen concentration. Prolyl hydroxylase domain 2 (PHD2) is the most important oxygen sensor in human cells; however the underlying kinetic basis of the oxygen sensing function of PHD2 is unclear. We report analyses of the reaction of PHD2 with oxygen. Chemical quench/mass spectrometry experiments showed that reaction of a complex of PHD2, Fe(II), 2OG and the C-terminal oxygen-dependent degradation domain of HIF-α (CODD) with oxygen to form hydroxylated CODD and succinate is much slower (~100 fold) than for other similarly studied 2OG oxygenases. Stopped flow/UV-visible spectroscopy experiments showed that the reaction produces a relatively stable species absorbing at 320nm; Mössbauer spectroscopic experiments implied that this species is likely not a Fe(IV)=O intermediate, as observed for other 2OG oxygenases. Overall the results suggest that, at least compared to other studied 2OG oxygenases, PHD2 reacts relatively slowly with oxygen, a property that may be associated with its function as an oxygen sensor. PMID:20840591

  3. Data inconsistencies from states with unconventional oil and gas activity.

    PubMed

    Malone, Samantha; Kelso, Matthew; Auch, Ted; Edelstein, Karen; Ferrar, Kyle; Jalbert, Kirk

    2015-01-01

    The quality and availability of unconventional oil and gas (O&G) data in the United States have never been compared methodically state-to-state. By conducting such an assessment, this study seeks to better understand private and publicly sourced data variability and to identify data availability gaps. We developed an exploratory data-grading tool - Data Accessibility and Usability Index (DAUI) - to guide the review of O&G data quality. Between July and October 2013, we requested, collected, and assessed 5 categories of unconventional O&G data (wells drilled, violations, production, waste, and Class II disposal wells) from 10 states with active drilling activity. We based our assessment on eight data quality parameters (accessibility, usability, point location, completeness, metadata, agency responsiveness, accuracy, and cost). Using the DAUI, two authors graded the 10 states and then averaged their scores. The average score received across all states, data categories, and parameters was 67.1 out of 100, largely insufficient for proper data transparency. By state, Pennsylvania received the highest average ( = 93.5) and ranked first in all but one data category. The lowest scoring state was Texas ( = 44) largely due to its policy of charging for certain data. This article discusses the various reasons for scores received, as well as methodological limitations of the assessment metrics. We argue that the significant variability of unconventional O&G data-and its availability to the public-is a barrier to regulatory and industry transparency. The lack of transparency also impacts public education and broader participation in industry governance. This study supports the need to develop a set of data best management practices (BMPs) for state regulatory agencies and the O&G industry, and suggests potential BMPs for this purpose.

  4. Modeled Oil and Gas Atmospheric Impacts in National Parks and Wilderness Areas in the Western US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, T. M.; Barna, M. G.; Schichtel, B. A.; Vimont, J.; Moore, C. T.

    2014-12-01

    Oil and gas production in the Western United States has increased considerably over the past 10 years. While many of the still limited oil and gas impact assessments have focused on potential human health impacts, the typically remote locations of production in the Intermountain West suggests that the impacts of oil and gas production on national parks and wilderness areas (class 1&2 areas) could also be important. To evaluate this, we utilize the Comprehensive Air quality Model with Extensions (CAMx) with two year-long modeling episodes representing 2008 and 2011, meteorology and emissions. The model inputs for the 2008 and 2011 episodes were generated as part of the West-wide Jump-start Air Quality Modeling Study (WestJumpAQMS) and Three State Air Quality Study (3SAQS) respectively. Both studies included a detailed assessment of oil and gas (O&G) emissions in Western States for the respective years. Each year-long modeling episode was run both with and without emissions from O&G production. The difference between these two runs provides an estimate of the contribution of the O&G production to air quality. These data were used to assess the contribution of O&G to the 8 hour average ozone concentrations, daily and annual fine particulate concentrations, annual nitrogen deposition totals and visibility in the modeling domain. We present the results for the class 1&2 areas in the Western US. We also present temporal trends of O&G impacts, differentiating between trends in urban and rural areas.

  5. Functional analysis and association state of water channel (AQP-1) isoforms purified from six mammals.

    PubMed

    Schulte, D J; van Hoek, A N

    1997-09-01

    Aquaporin-1 (AQP-1) or CHIP28 occurs in glycosylated (glyCHIP) and non-glycosylated (CHIP) forms and solubilization in octyl-beta-D-glucoside (OG) results in a tight association of glyCHIP and CHIP to form a heterodimer. The tight association did not permit separation of the two forms by affinity chromatography. We examined the mechanism of the tight association by enzymatic removal of sugar moieties, utilized organic solvents for preferential solubilization and purified CHIP28 from six mammals for inspection of glycosylation and association state in OG. Removal of terminal saccharides sustained the dimeric state of human CHIP28, while endo-glycosidases induced the transition into monomers, without leaving an affinity tag for separation purposes. Separation was achieved by preferential solubilization of non-glycosylated CHIP28 in CHCl3/MeOH/H2O mixtures. The two CHIP28 forms were solubilized in SDS, chromatographed in OG, and reconstituted into proteoliposomes; pf values were 1.5 and 1.6 x 10(-14) cm3/s (10 degrees C). Among erythrocytes from cow, pig, sheep, rabbit, dog, and horse CHIP28, one out of two molecules was glycosylated and High Performance Size Exclusion Chromatography (HPSEC) analysis also indicated heterodimers in OG; functional analysis of reconstituted proteoliposomes gave single channel water permeabilities, pf's, ranging from 2.0-3.4 x 10(-14) cm3/s (10 degrees C). The results indicate that CHIP28 structure, function, and association in OG are conserved among mammals and establish procedures to obtain glycosylated and non-glycosylated CHIP28 in functional form. PMID:9417990

  6. Data inconsistencies from states with unconventional oil and gas activity.

    PubMed

    Malone, Samantha; Kelso, Matthew; Auch, Ted; Edelstein, Karen; Ferrar, Kyle; Jalbert, Kirk

    2015-01-01

    The quality and availability of unconventional oil and gas (O&G) data in the United States have never been compared methodically state-to-state. By conducting such an assessment, this study seeks to better understand private and publicly sourced data variability and to identify data availability gaps. We developed an exploratory data-grading tool - Data Accessibility and Usability Index (DAUI) - to guide the review of O&G data quality. Between July and October 2013, we requested, collected, and assessed 5 categories of unconventional O&G data (wells drilled, violations, production, waste, and Class II disposal wells) from 10 states with active drilling activity. We based our assessment on eight data quality parameters (accessibility, usability, point location, completeness, metadata, agency responsiveness, accuracy, and cost). Using the DAUI, two authors graded the 10 states and then averaged their scores. The average score received across all states, data categories, and parameters was 67.1 out of 100, largely insufficient for proper data transparency. By state, Pennsylvania received the highest average ( = 93.5) and ranked first in all but one data category. The lowest scoring state was Texas ( = 44) largely due to its policy of charging for certain data. This article discusses the various reasons for scores received, as well as methodological limitations of the assessment metrics. We argue that the significant variability of unconventional O&G data-and its availability to the public-is a barrier to regulatory and industry transparency. The lack of transparency also impacts public education and broader participation in industry governance. This study supports the need to develop a set of data best management practices (BMPs) for state regulatory agencies and the O&G industry, and suggests potential BMPs for this purpose. PMID:25734825

  7. Human oxygen sensing may have origins in prokaryotic elongation factor Tu prolyl-hydroxylation.

    PubMed

    Scotti, John S; Leung, Ivanhoe K H; Ge, Wei; Bentley, Michael A; Paps, Jordi; Kramer, Holger B; Lee, Joongoo; Aik, WeiShen; Choi, Hwanho; Paulsen, Steinar M; Bowman, Lesley A H; Loik, Nikita D; Horita, Shoichiro; Ho, Chia-hua; Kershaw, Nadia J; Tang, Christoph M; Claridge, Timothy D W; Preston, Gail M; McDonough, Michael A; Schofield, Christopher J

    2014-09-16

    The roles of 2-oxoglutarate (2OG)-dependent prolyl-hydroxylases in eukaryotes include collagen stabilization, hypoxia sensing, and translational regulation. The hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) sensing system is conserved in animals, but not in other organisms. However, bioinformatics imply that 2OG-dependent prolyl-hydroxylases (PHDs) homologous to those acting as sensing components for the HIF system in animals occur in prokaryotes. We report cellular, biochemical, and crystallographic analyses revealing that Pseudomonas prolyl-hydroxylase domain containing protein (PPHD) contain a 2OG oxygenase related in structure and function to the animal PHDs. A Pseudomonas aeruginosa PPHD knockout mutant displays impaired growth in the presence of iron chelators and increased production of the virulence factor pyocyanin. We identify elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) as a PPHD substrate, which undergoes prolyl-4-hydroxylation on its switch I loop. A crystal structure of PPHD reveals striking similarity to human PHD2 and a Chlamydomonas reinhardtii prolyl-4-hydroxylase. A crystal structure of PPHD complexed with intact EF-Tu reveals that major conformational changes occur in both PPHD and EF-Tu, including a >20-Å movement of the EF-Tu switch I loop. Comparison of the PPHD structures with those of HIF and collagen PHDs reveals conservation in substrate recognition despite diverse biological roles and origins. The observed changes will be useful in designing new types of 2OG oxygenase inhibitors based on various conformational states, rather than active site iron chelators, which make up most reported 2OG oxygenase inhibitors. Structurally informed phylogenetic analyses suggest that the role of prolyl-hydroxylation in human hypoxia sensing has ancient origins. PMID:25197067

  8. OpenGeoSys-GEMS: Hybrid parallelization of a reactive transport code with MPI and threads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosakowski, G.; Kulik, D. A.; Shao, H.

    2012-04-01

    OpenGeoSys-GEMS is a generic purpose reactive transport code based on the operator splitting approach. The code couples the Finite-Element groundwater flow and multi-species transport modules of the OpenGeoSys (OGS) project (http://www.ufz.de/index.php?en=18345) with the GEM-Selektor research package to model thermodynamic equilibrium of aquatic (geo)chemical systems utilizing the Gibbs Energy Minimization approach (http://gems.web.psi.ch/). The combination of OGS and the GEM-Selektor kernel (GEMS3K) is highly flexible due to the object-oriented modular code structures and the well defined (memory based) data exchange modules. Like other reactive transport codes, the practical applicability of OGS-GEMS is often hampered by the long calculation time and large memory requirements. • For realistic geochemical systems which might include dozens of mineral phases and several (non-ideal) solid solutions the time needed to solve the chemical system with GEMS3K may increase exceptionally. • The codes are coupled in a sequential non-iterative loop. In order to keep the accuracy, the time step size is restricted. In combination with a fine spatial discretization the time step size may become very small which increases calculation times drastically even for small 1D problems. • The current version of OGS is not optimized for memory use and the MPI version of OGS does not distribute data between nodes. Even for moderately small 2D problems the number of MPI processes that fit into memory of up-to-date workstations or HPC hardware is limited. One strategy to overcome the above mentioned restrictions of OGS-GEMS is to parallelize the coupled code. For OGS a parallelized version already exists. It is based on a domain decomposition method implemented with MPI and provides a parallel solver for fluid and mass transport processes. In the coupled code, after solving fluid flow and solute transport, geochemical calculations are done in form of a central loop over all finite

  9. Land use and land management effects on soil organic carbon stock in Mediterranean agricultural areas (Southern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Lozano-García, Beatriz

    2014-05-01

    INTRODUCTION Soils play a key role in the carbon geochemical cycle. Agriculture contributes to carbon sequestration through photosynthesis and the incorporation of carbon into carbohydrates. Soil management is one of the best tools for climate change mitigation. Small increases or decreases in soil carbon content due to changes in land use or management practices, may result in a significant net exchange of carbon between the soil carbon pool and the atmosphere. In the last decades arable crops (AC) have been transformed into olive grove cultivations (OG) or vineyards (V) in Mediterranean areas. A field study was conducted to determine long-term effects of land use change (LUC) (AC by OG and V) on soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), C:N ratio and their stratification in Calcic-Chromic Luvisols (LVcc/cr) in Mediterranean conditions. MATERIAL AND METHODS An unirrigated farm in Montilla-Moriles (Córdoba, Spain) cultivated under conventional tillage (animal power with lightweight reversible plows and non-mineral fertilization or pesticides) was selected for study in 1965. In 1966, the farm was divided into three plots with three different uses (AC, OG and V). The preliminary analyses were realized in 1965 for AC (AC1), and the second analyses were realized in 2011 for AC (AC2 - winter crop rotation with annual wheat and barley, receiving mineral fertilization or pesticides), OG (annual passes with disk harrow and cultivator in the spring, followed by a tine harrow in the summer receiving mineral fertilization and weed control with residual herbicides), and V (with three or five chisel passes a year from early spring to early autumn with mineral fertilization or pesticides.). In all cases (AC1, AC2, OG and V) were collected soil entire profiles. Soil properties determined were: soil particle size, bulk density, SOC, TN, C:N ratio, stocks and SRs. The statistical significance of the differences in the variables between land use practices was tested using the

  10. Dioxin-ähnliche Wirkungen durch Grundwasser am Industriestandort Zeitz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schirmer, Kristin; Bopp, Stephanie; Russold, Sandra; Popp, Peter

    Kurzfassung Im Rahmen der Etablierung des Standortes Zeitz (Sachsen-Anhalt) als Referenztestfeld zur Implementierung des Natural-Attenuation-Ansatzes, haben wir Grundwasser auf seine Fähigkeit untersucht, eine Dioxin-ähnliche Wirkung hervorzurufen. Die Dioxin-ähnliche Wirkung ist die Arylhydrocarbon Rezeptor-vermittelte Induktion des Proteinkomplexes Cytochrom CYP1A, welches als 7-Ethoxyresorufin-O-Deethylase (EROD) Enzymaktivität in einer Fischleberzelllinie gemessen wurde. Von 32 Probennahmestellen wiesen sieben eine signifikante EROD-Induktion auf, welche zu einem geringen Teil auf Polyzyklische Aromatische Kohlenwasserstoffe zurückzuführen war. Ein weiterer Teil der EROD-Induktion konnte den Substanzen Benzofuran, Indan und Inden zugesprochen werden, welche hier erstmalig als EROD-Induktoren identifiziert wurden. Alle Probennahmestellen mit signifikanter EROD-Induktion lagen im Anstrom bzw. westlich des früheren Standortes der Benzolanlage in Zeitz, was einen signifikanten Einfluss von Benzol vor allem auf den Transport und das Lösungsverhalten EROD-induzierender Grundwasserkontaminanten vermuten lässt. Insgesamt zeigen diese Untersuchungen, wie eine Kombination von chemischer und biologischer Analytik zu einer deutlich verbesserten Aussagekraft führt und somit zu einer nachhaltigen Überwachung der Qualität von Grundwasser beitragen kann. As part of setting up the test field Zeitz (Saxony-Anhalt, Germany) as a reference site for the implementation of Natural Attenuation as a remediation option, we have investigated groundwater for its ability to cause a dioxin-like response. The dioxin-like response is the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated induction of the protein complex cytochrome CYP1A, which was measured as 7-Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) enzyme activity in a fish liver cell line. Out of 32 sampling locations, seven showed significant EROD induction, which could be explained, to a minor extent, by the presence of polycyclic aromatic

  11. Microbial in situ degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons in a contaminated aquifer monitored by carbon isotope fractionation.

    PubMed

    Richnow, Hans H; Annweiler, Eva; Michaelis, Walter; Meckenstock, Rainer U

    2003-08-01

    groundwater flow path. In the wells at the end of the plume, the bioavailable toluene and o-xylene fractions had been almost completely reduced by in situ microbial degradation. Although indane and indene showed decreasing concentrations downstream of the groundwater flow path, suggesting microbial degradation, their carbon isotope ratios remained constant. As the physical properties of these compounds are similar to those of BTEX compounds, the constant isotope values of indane and indene indicated that microbial degradation did not lead to isotope fractionation of all aromatic hydrocarbons. In addition, physical interaction with the aquifer material during the groundwater passage did not significantly alter the carbon isotope composition of aromatic hydrocarbons.

  12. Treatment of newly diagnosed symptomatic pure low-grade oligodendrogliomas with PCV chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Lebrun, C; Fontaine, D; Bourg, V; Ramaioli, A; Chanalet, S; Vandenbos, F; Lonjon, M; Fauchon, F; Paquis, P; Frenay, M

    2007-04-01

    Based on studies relating to anaplastic oligodendroglioma (OG) chemosensitivity and benefit of time to progression or overall survival, chemotherapy for pure OG has been proposed. Several studies have reported the efficacy of various chemotherapeutic agents in a small number of patients with low-grade gliomas, e.g. pure astrocytomas, OG or mixed histologies. The 5-year survival rate varies from 61% to 89% with a mean time to progression of 5 years. We report the outcome of 33 consecutive patients with pure low-grade OG diagnosed between 1990 and 2006 systematically treated for residual or non-removable tumor with PCV chemotherapy regimen as the front-line treatment after surgery. All the tumors were low grade (grade II) pure OG according to the WHO classification. All patients were symptomatic at presentation and underwent neurosurgical procedure for histological diagnosis. Response was evaluated by clinical assessment and brain magnetic resonance imaging. Twenty-one men and 12 women with a mean age at pathological diagnosis of 46.5 years were studied. The most common first symptom was partial epileptic seizure (73.7%). Six patients (18%) had initial gadolinium enhancement, associated with methoxyisobutyl (MIBI) hypermetabolism (P < 0.001). The resection was partial in seven cases (21%), and 26 patients (79%) had biopsy only. Eleven patients (36%) had a malignant transformation during the follow-up with a median time to progression of 19 months. Favorable prognostic factors were lack of contrast enhancement (P < 0.0001), and age <40 years (P < 0.0003); 90% of patients were progression-free at 1 year. Survival rates at 2, 5 and 10 years were 85%, 75% and 50%, respectively. Up-front chemotherapy with PCV regimen is a good treatment for symptomatic pure low-grade OG, as it increases the number of progression-free patients and time to progression. These results suggest that radiotherapy could be postponed until the malignant transformation occurs to delay cognitive

  13. Long-term survival outcomes of laparoscopic versus open gastrectomy for gastric cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xin-Zu; Wen, Lei; Rui, Yuan-Yi; Liu, Chao-Xu; Zhao, Qing-Chuan; Zhou, Zong-Guang; Hu, Jian-Kun

    2015-01-01

    Many meta-analyses have confirmed the technical feasibility and favorable short-term surgical outcomes of laparoscopic gastrectomy (LG) for gastric cancer patients, but the long-term survival outcome of LG remains controversial compared with open gastrectomy (OG). This study aimed to compare the 5-year overall survival (OS), recurrence, and gastric cancer-related death of LG with OG among gastric cancer patients. PubMed was searched to February 2014. The resectable gastric cancer patients who underwent curative LG or OG were eligible. The studies that compared 5-year OS, recurrence, or gastric cancer-related death in the LG and OG groups were included. A meta-analysis, meta-regression, sensitivity analysis, subgroup analysis, and stage-specific analysis were performed to estimate the survival outcome between the two groups and identify the potential confounders. Quality assessment was based on a tailored comparability scoring system. Twenty-three studies with 7336 patients were included. The score of comparability between two groups and the extent of lymphadenectomy were two independent confounders. Based on the well-balanced studies, the 5-year OS (OR = 1.07, 95% CI 0.90-1.28, P = 0.45), recurrence (OR = 0.83, 95% CI 0.68-1.02, P = 0.08), and gastric cancer-related death (OR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.65-1.13, P = 0.28) rates were comparable in LG and OG. Several subsets such as the publication year, study region, sample size, gastrectomy pattern, extent of lymphadenectomy, number of nodes harvested, and proportion of T1-2 or N0-1 did not influence the estimates, if they were well balanced. Particularly, the stage-specific estimates obtained comparable results between the two groups. Randomized controlled trials comparing LG with OG remain sparse to assess their long-term survival outcomes. The major contributions of this systematic review compared with other meta-analyses are a comprehensive collection of available long-term survival outcomes within

  14. Quantifying, Assessing, and Mitigating Methane Emissions from Super-emitters in the Oil and Gas Supply Chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyon, David Richard

    Methane emissions from the oil and gas (O&G) supply chain reduce potential climate benefits of natural gas as a replacement for other fossil fuels that emit more carbon dioxide per energy produced. O&G facilities have skewed emission rate distributions with a small fraction of sites contributing the majority of emissions. Knowledge of the identity and cause of these high emission facilities, referred to as super-emitters or fat-tail sources, is critical for reducing supply chain emissions. This dissertation addresses the quantification of super-emitter emissions, assessment of their prevalence and relationship to site characteristics, and mitigation with continuous leak detection systems. Chapter 1 summarizes the state of the knowledge of O&G methane emissions. Chapter 2 constructs a spatially-resolved emission inventory to estimate total and O&G methane emissions in the Barnett Shale as part of a coordinated research campaign using multiple top-down and bottom-up methods to quantify emissions. The emission inventory accounts for super-emitters with two-phase Monte Carlo simulations that combine site measurements collected with two approaches: unbiased sampling and targeted sampling of super-emitters. More comprehensive activity data and the inclusion of super-emitters, which account for 19% of O&G emissions, produces a emission inventory that is not statistically different than top-down regional emission estimates. Chapter 3 describes a helicopter-based survey of over 8,000 well pads in seven basins with infrared optical gas imaging to assess high emission sources. Four percent of sites are observed to have high emissions with over 90% of observed sources from tanks. The occurrence of high emissions is weakly correlated to site parameters and the best statistical model explains only 14% of variance, which demonstrates that the occurrence of super-emitters is primarily stochastic. Chapter 4 presents a Gaussian dispersion model for optimizing the placement of

  15. Aerosol Optical Extinction during the Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment (FRAPPE) 2014 Summertime Field Campaign, Colorado U.S.A.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dingle, J. H.; Vu, K. K. T.; Bahreini, R.; Apel, E. C.; Campos, T. L.; Cantrell, C. A.; Cohen, R. C.; Ebben, C. J.; Flocke, F. M.; Fried, A.; Herndon, S. C.; Hills, A. J.; Hornbrook, R. S.; Huey, L. G.; Kaser, L.; Mauldin, L.; Montzka, D. D.; Nowak, J. B.; Richter, D.; Roscioli, J. R.; Shertz, S.; Stell, M. H.; Tanner, D.; Tyndall, G. S.; Walega, J.; Weibring, P.; Weinheimer, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    Aerosol optical extinction (βext) was measured in the Colorado Front Range Denver Metropolitan Area as part of the summertime air quality airborne field campaign to characterize the influence of sources, photochemical processing, and transport of pollution on local air quality. An Aerodyne Cavity Attenuated Phase Shift particle light extinction monitor (CAPS-PMex) was deployed to measure dry βext at λ=632 nm at 1 Hz. Data from a suite of gas-phase instrumentation were used to interpret the βext under various categories of aged air masses and sources. Extinction enhancement ratios of Δβext/ΔCO were evaluated under 3 differently aged air mass categories (fresh, intermediately aged, and aged) to investigate impacts of photochemistry on βext. Δβext/ΔCO was significantly increased in heavily aged air masses compared to fresh air masses (0.17 Mm-1/ppbv and 0.094 Mm-1/ppbv respectively). The resulting increase in Δβext/ΔCO under heavily aged air masses was represented by secondary organic aerosols (SOA) formation. Aerosol composition and sources from urban, natural oil and gas wells (OG), and agriculture and livestock operations were also evaluated for their impacts on βext. Linear regression fits to βext vs. organic aerosol mass showed higher correlation coefficients under the urban and OG plumes (r=0.55 and r=0.71 respectively) and weakest under agricultural and livestock plumes (r=0.28). The correlation between βext and nitrate aerosol mass however was best under the agriculture and livestock plumes (r=0.81), followed by OG plumes (r=0.74), suggesting co-location of aerosol nitrate precursor sources with OG emissions. Finally, non-refractory mass extinction efficiency (MEE) was analyzed. MEE was observed to be 1.37 g/m2 and 1.30 g/m2 in OG and urban+OG plumes, respectively.

  16. Mouse alpha1(I)-collagen promoter is the best known promoter to drive efficient Cre recombinase expression in osteoblast.

    PubMed

    Dacquin, Romain; Starbuck, Michael; Schinke, Thorsten; Karsenty, Gérard

    2002-06-01

    Cell- and time-specific gene inactivation should enhance our knowledge of bone biology. Implementation of this technique requires construction of transgenic mouse lines expressing Cre recombinase in osteoblasts, the bone forming cell. We tested several promoter fragments for their ability to drive efficient Cre expression in osteoblasts. In the first mouse transgenic line, the Cre gene was placed under the control of the 2.3-kb proximal fragment of the alpha1(I)-collagen promoter, which is expressed at high levels in osteoblasts throughout their differentiation. Transgenic mice expressing this transgene in bone were bred with the ROSA26 reporter (R26R) strain in which the ROSA26 locus is targeted with a conditional LacZ reporter cassette. In R26R mice, Cre expression and subsequent Cre-mediated recombination lead to expression of the LacZ reporter gene, an event that can be monitored by LacZ staining. LacZ staining was detected in virtually all osteoblasts of alpha1(I)-Cre;R26R mice indicating that homologous recombination occurred in these cells. No other cell type stained blue. In the second line studied, the 1.3-kb fragment of osteocalcin gene 2 (OG2) promoter, which is active in differentiated osteoblasts, was used to drive Cre expression. OG2-Cre mice expressed Cre specifically in bone. However, cross of OG2-Cre mice with R26R mice did not lead to any detectable LacZ staining in osteoblasts. Lastly, we tested a more active artificial promoter derived from the OG2 promoter. The artificial OG2-Cre transgene was expressed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in cartilage and bone samples. After cross of the artificial OG2-Cre mice with R26R mice, we detected a LacZ staining in articular chondrocytes but not in osteoblasts. Our data suggest that the only promoter able to drive Cre expression at a level sufficient to induce recombination in osteoblasts is the alpha1(I)-collagen promoter. PMID:12112477

  17. Phylogenomics Using Transcriptome Data.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Johanna Taylor; Kocot, Kevin Michael

    2016-01-01

    This chapter presents a generalized protocol for conducting phylogenetic analyses using large-scale molecular datasets, specifically using transcriptome data from the Illumina sequencing platform. The general molecular lab bench protocol consists of RNA extraction, cDNA synthesis, and sequencing, in this case via Illumina. After sequences have been obtained, bioinformatics methods are used to assemble raw reads, identify coding regions, and categorize sequences from different species into groups of orthologous genes (OGs). The specific OGs to be used for phylogenetic inference are selected using a custom shell script. Finally, the selected orthologous groups are concatenated into a supermatrix. Generalized methods for phylogenomic inference using maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference software are presented. PMID:27460370

  18. Development of algorithms to link the static model of Petrel with the dynamic model of OpenGeoSys and application to CO2 storage in a saline aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, C.; Shinn, Y.

    2013-12-01

    A set of three algorithms named PET2OGS is developed to integrate the static model (Petrel) with the dynamic model (OpenGeoSys). PET2OGS consists of three sub-algorithms that convert finite difference methods (FDMs) grids to finite element methods (FEMs) grids. The algorithms and the workflow of the integration procedures are described in detail. After the proposed algorithms are tested on a variety of grids both in homogeneous and heterogeneous media, the integrated platform of the static and dynamic models is applied to model CO2 storage in a saline aquifer. A successful demonstration of the proposed algorithms proved a robust integration of the platform. With some minor modifications of the algorithms in the part of input and output, the proposed algorithms can be extended to integrate different combinations of FDM-based static models and FEM-based dynamic models beyond the example combination.

  19. Maxima in antioxidant distributions and efficiencies with increasing hydrophobicity of gallic acid and its alkyl esters. The pseudophase model interpretation of the "cutoff effect".

    PubMed

    Losada Barreiro, Sonia; Bravo-Díaz, Carlos; Paiva-Martins, Fátima; Romsted, Laurence S

    2013-07-01

    Antioxidant (AO) efficiencies are reported to go through maxima with increasing chain length (hydrophobicity) in emulsions. The so-called "cutoff" after the maxima, indicating a decrease in efficiency, remains unexplained. This paper shows, for gallic acid (GA) and propyl, octyl, and lauryl gallates (PG, OG, and LG, respectively), that at any given volume fraction of emulsifier, the concentrations of antioxidants in the interfacial region of stripped corn oil emulsions and their efficiency order follow PG > GA > OG > LG. These results provide clear evidence that an AO's efficiency correlates with its fraction in the interfacial region. AO distributions were obtained in intact emulsions by using the pseudophase kinetic model to interpret changes in observed rate constants of the AOs with a chemical probe, and their efficiencies were measured by employing the Schaal oven test. The model provides a natural explanation for the maxima with increasing AO hydrophobicity.

  20. Improvement of efficiency in the enzymatic synthesis of lactulose palmitate.

    PubMed

    Bernal, Claudia; Illanes, Andres; Wilson, Lorena

    2015-04-15

    Sugar esters are considered as surfactants due to its amphiphilic balance that can lower the surface tension in oil/water mixtures. Enzymatic syntheses of these compounds are interesting both from economic and environmental considerations. A study was carried out to evaluate the effect of four solvents, temperature, substrate molar ratio, biocatalyst source, and immobilization methodology on the yield and specific productivity of lactulose palmitate monoester synthesis. Lipases from Pseudomonas stutzeri (PsL) and Alcaligenes sp. (AsL), immobilized in porous silica functionalized with octyl groups (adsorption immobilization, OS) and with glyoxyl-octyl groups (both adsorption and covalent immobilization, OGS), were used. The highest lactulose palmitate yields were obtained at 47 °C in acetone, for all biocatalysts, while the best lactulose:palmitic acid molar ratio differed according to the immobilization methodology, being 1:1 for AsL-OGS biocatalyst (20.7 ± 3%) and 1:3 for the others (30-50%).

  1. Cumulative Haploinsufficiency and Triplosensitivity Drive Aneuploidy Patterns to Shape the Cancer Genome

    PubMed Central

    Davoli, Teresa; Xu, Andrew Wei; Mengwasser, Kristen E.; Sack, Laura M.; Yoon, John C.; Park, Peter J.; Elledge, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Aneuploidy has been recognized as a hallmark of cancer for over 100 years, yet no general theory to explain the recurring patterns of aneuploidy in cancer has emerged. Here we develop Tumor Suppressor and Oncogene (TUSON) Explorer, a computational method that analyzes the patterns of mutational signatures in tumors and predicts the likelihood that any individual gene functions as a tumor suppressor (TSG) or oncogene (OG). By analyzing >8200 tumor-normal pairs we provide statistical evidence suggesting many more genes possess cancer driver properties than anticipated, forming a continuum of oncogenic potential. Integrating our driver predictions with information on somatic copy number alterations, we find that the distribution and the potency of TSGs (STOP genes), OGs and essential genes (GO genes) on chromosomes can predict the complex patterns of aneuploidy and copy number variation characteristic of cancer genomes. We propose that the cancer genome is shaped through a process of cumulative haploinsufficiency and triplosensitivity. PMID:24183448

  2. Integrated testing of an electrochemical depolarized CO2 concentrator /EDC/ and a Bosch CO2 reduction subsystem /BRS/. [in spaceborne oxygen reclamation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, F. H.; Clark, D. C.; Quattrone, P. D.

    1976-01-01

    An oxygen reclamation system (ORS) in a spacecraft has the task to revitalize the spacecraft atmosphere by recovering the elementary oxygen from metabolically produced carbon dioxide and water vapor. Life support subsystems which can form such an ORS are an electrochemical depolarized carbon dioxide concentrator (EDC), a Bosch carbon dioxide reduction subsystem (BRS), and an oxygen generation subsystem (OGS). A total recovery of the oxygen from metabolically generated carbon dioxide can be obtained with the aid of system composed of the considered three subsystems. Attention is given to the control concept which assures an integrated operation of the EDC, BRS, and OGS. A description is presented of the test results obtained during 86 days of testing.

  3. Indian data on bone and soft tissue sarcomas: A summary of published study results

    PubMed Central

    Ramaswamy, Anant; Rekhi, Bharat; Bakhshi, Sameer; Hingmire, Sachin; Agarwal, Manish

    2016-01-01

    Bone sarcomas are rare tumors, approximating 0.2% of all cancers, with osteosarcoma (OGS), chondrosarcoma, and Ewing sarcoma being the most common cancers in this subset. The formation of disease management groups/clinics focused on sarcomas has resulted in better understanding and management of these uncommon tumors. Multiple large-scale retrospective data from Tata Memorial Hospital (TMH) and All India Institute of Medical Sciences have reported outcomes comparable to Western data in the field of OGS and Ewing sarcoma, with interesting prognostic factors identified for further evaluation. Soft tissue sarcomas are a rare heterogeneous group of tumors, more than 50 different tumor entities. The common subtypes identified in India include Ewing sarcoma and synovial sarcoma. Valuable work regarding brachytherapy has been done by radiation oncologists from the TMH, especially in pediatric patients. PMID:27606300

  4. Using NK Cell Lipid Raft Fractionation to Understand the Role of Lipid Rafts in NK Cell Receptor Signaling.

    PubMed

    Serrano-Pertierra, Esther; López-Larrea, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Lipid rafts were first defined as detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs) due to their relative insolubility in non-ionic detergents. Although they should not be confused with lipid rafts, DRMs are a valuable starting point for the study of these membrane domains and the interactions of proteins with rafts.Here we describe the isolation of DRMs by ultracentrifugation on a sucrose gradient, a method we have used to study the role of lipid rafts in NKG2D-mediated signaling. We also describe raft fractionation of NK cells involving the selective solubility of β-octylglucoside (β-OG). OG is a non-ionic detergent that efficiently dissolves DRMs but does not disrupt protein associations with the cytoskeleton. Using these two techniques may yield useful information about the proteins involved in receptor recruitment into lipid rafts and the interactions of the actin cytoskeleton with lipid rafts.

  5. Investigation of the Makeup, Source, and Removal Strategies for Total Organic Carbon in the Oxygen Generation System Recirculation Loop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowman, Elizabeth M.; Carpenter, Joyce; Roy, Robert J.; Van Keuren, Steve; Wilson, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    Since 2007, the Oxygen Generation System (OGS) on board the International Space Station (ISS) has been producing oxygen for crew respiration via water electrolysis. As water is consumed in the OGS recirculating water loop, make-up water is furnished by the ISS potable water bus. A rise in Total Organic Carbon (TOC) was observed beginning in February, 2011, which continues through the present date. Increasing TOC is of concern because the organic constituents responsible for the TOC were unknown and had not been identified; hence their impacts on the operation of the electrolytic cell stack components and on microorganism growth rates and types are unknown. Identification of the compounds responsible for the TOC increase, their sources, and estimates of their loadings in the OGA as well as possible mitigation strategies are presented.

  6. Indian data on bone and soft tissue sarcomas: A summary of published study results

    PubMed Central

    Ramaswamy, Anant; Rekhi, Bharat; Bakhshi, Sameer; Hingmire, Sachin; Agarwal, Manish

    2016-01-01

    Bone sarcomas are rare tumors, approximating 0.2% of all cancers, with osteosarcoma (OGS), chondrosarcoma, and Ewing sarcoma being the most common cancers in this subset. The formation of disease management groups/clinics focused on sarcomas has resulted in better understanding and management of these uncommon tumors. Multiple large-scale retrospective data from Tata Memorial Hospital (TMH) and All India Institute of Medical Sciences have reported outcomes comparable to Western data in the field of OGS and Ewing sarcoma, with interesting prognostic factors identified for further evaluation. Soft tissue sarcomas are a rare heterogeneous group of tumors, more than 50 different tumor entities. The common subtypes identified in India include Ewing sarcoma and synovial sarcoma. Valuable work regarding brachytherapy has been done by radiation oncologists from the TMH, especially in pediatric patients.

  7. CONSTRAINING PULSAR MAGNETOSPHERE GEOMETRY WITH {gamma}-RAY LIGHT CURVES

    SciTech Connect

    Romani, Roger W.; Watters, Kyle P. E-mail: kwatters@stanford.ed

    2010-05-01

    We demonstrate a method for quantitatively comparing {gamma}-ray pulsar light curves with magnetosphere beaming models. With the Fermi LAT providing many pulsar discoveries and high-quality pulsar light curves for the brighter objects, such a comparison allows greatly improved constraints on the emission zone geometry and the magnetospheric physics. Here we apply the method to Fermi LAT light curves of a set of bright pulsars known since EGRET or before. We test three approximate models for the magnetosphere structure and two popular schemes for the location of the emission zone, the two pole caustic model and the outer gap (OG) model. We find that OG models and relatively physical B fields approximating force-free dipole magnetospheres are preferred at high statistical significance. An application to the full LAT pulsar sample will allow us to follow the emission zone's evolution with pulsar spindown.

  8. Indian data on bone and soft tissue sarcomas: A summary of published study results.

    PubMed

    Ramaswamy, Anant; Rekhi, Bharat; Bakhshi, Sameer; Hingmire, Sachin; Agarwal, Manish

    2016-01-01

    Bone sarcomas are rare tumors, approximating 0.2% of all cancers, with osteosarcoma (OGS), chondrosarcoma, and Ewing sarcoma being the most common cancers in this subset. The formation of disease management groups/clinics focused on sarcomas has resulted in better understanding and management of these uncommon tumors. Multiple large-scale retrospective data from Tata Memorial Hospital (TMH) and All India Institute of Medical Sciences have reported outcomes comparable to Western data in the field of OGS and Ewing sarcoma, with interesting prognostic factors identified for further evaluation. Soft tissue sarcomas are a rare heterogeneous group of tumors, more than 50 different tumor entities. The common subtypes identified in India include Ewing sarcoma and synovial sarcoma. Valuable work regarding brachytherapy has been done by radiation oncologists from the TMH, especially in pediatric patients. PMID:27606300

  9. Formation of anion-selective channels in the cell plasma membrane by the toxin VacA of Helicobacter pylori is required for its biological activity.

    PubMed Central

    Szabò, I; Brutsche, S; Tombola, F; Moschioni, M; Satin, B; Telford, J L; Rappuoli, R; Montecucco, C; Papini, E; Zoratti, M

    1999-01-01

    The vacuolating toxin VacA, a major determinant of Helicobacter pylori-associated gastric diseases, forms anion-selective channels in artificial planar lipid bilayers. Here we show that VacA increases the anion permeability of the HeLa cell plasma membrane and determines membrane depolarization. Electrophysiological and pharmacological approaches indicated that this effect is due to the formation of low-conductance VacA pores in the cell plasma membrane and not to the opening of Ca(2+)- or volume-activated chloride channels. VacA-dependent increase of current conduction both in artificial planar lipid bilayers and in the cellular system was effectively inhibited by the chloride channel blocker 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino) benzoic acid (NPPB), while2-[(2-cyclopentenyl-6,7dichloro-2, 3-dihydro-2-methyl-1-oxo-1H-inden-5-yl)oxy]acetic acid (IAA-94) was less effective. NPPB inhibited and partially reversed the vacuolation of HeLa cells and the increase of ion conductivity of polarized Madine Darby canine kidney cell monolayers induced by VacA, while IAA-94 had a weaker effect. We conclude that pore formation by VacA accounts for plasma membrane permeabilization and is required for both cell vacuolation and increase of trans-epithelial conductivity. PMID:10523296

  10. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), Infrared (IR) and Mass Spectrometry (MS) study of keto-enol tautomerism of isobenzofuran-1(3H)-one derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires, Diego Arantes Teixeira; Pereira, Wagner Luiz; Teixeira, Róbson Ricardo; Figueroa-Villar, José Daniel; Nascimento, Claudia Jorge do

    2016-06-01

    The keto-enol tautomerism of 3-(2-hydroxy-4,4-dimethyl-6-oxo-cyclohexen-1-yl)isobenzofuran-1(3H-one (1), 3-(2-hydroxy-6-oxocyclohex-1-enyl)isobenzofuran-1(3H)-one (2), 3-(2-hydroxy-4-methyl-6-oxocyclohex-1-enyl)isobenzofuran-1(3H)-one (3), 3-(2-hydroxy-5-oxocyclopent-1-enyl)isobenzofuran-1(3H)-one (4) and 2-(3-oxo-1,3-dihydroisobenzofuran-1-yl)-1H-indene-1,3(2H)-dione (5) were investigated. We noticed that for compounds 1 to 4 only the enol form is observed in solid, in solution or in the gas phase. Their tautomeric equilibria are not affected by the solvent, temperature or physical state. Compound 5 was observed in its keto form in solution (NMR) and solid state (IR). The enol species of 5 was also observed upon Mass Spectrometry analysis. These findings were supported by NMR, IR, MS/MS and molecular modeling analyses.

  11. Development of an analytical model for organic-fluid fouling

    SciTech Connect

    Panchal, C.B.; Watkinson, A.P.

    1994-10-01

    The research goal of this project is to determine ways to effectively mitigate fouling in organic fluids: hydrocarbons and derived fluids. The fouling research focuses on the development of methodology for determining threshold conditions for fouling. Initially, fluid containing chemicals known to produce foulant is analyzed; subsequently, fouling of industrial fluids is investigated. The fouling model developed for determining the effects of physical parameters is the subject of this report. The fouling model is developed on the premise that the chemical reaction for generation of precursor can take place in the bulk fluid, in the thermal-boundary layer, or at the fluid/wall interface, depending upon the interactive effects of fluid dynamics, heat and mass transfer, and the controlling chemical reaction. In the analysis, the experimental data are examined for fouling deposition of polyperoxide produced by autoxidation of indene in kerosene. The effects of fluid and wall temperatures for two flow geometries are analyzed. The results show that the relative effects of physical parameters on the fouling rate differ for the three fouling mechanisms. Therefore, to apply the closed-flow-loop data to industrial conditions, the controlling mechanism must be identified.

  12. Trangmolins A-F with an Unprecedented Structural Plasticity of the Rings A and B: New Insight into Limonoid Biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Li, Wanshan; Shen, Li; Bruhn, Torsten; Pedpradab, Patchara; Wu, Jun; Bringmann, Gerhard

    2016-08-01

    The absolute stereostructures of trangmolins A-F (1-6), limonoids with three new and one known topologies of the rings A and B, were unambiguously determined by NMR spectroscopic investigations, single-crystal XRD analysis, and quantum-chemical electronic circular dichroism calculations. Compounds 1-3 contain a hexahydro-1H-inden-4-one motif, compound 4 comprises a hexahydro-2,6-methanobenzofuran-7-one cage, and compound 5 consists of a hexahydro-2H-2,8-epoxychromene scaffold. The C1-C30 linkage in 1-3 and the C3-C30 connection in 4 form two unprecedented types of ring A/B-fused carbobicyclic cores: viii and ix. The oxidative cleavage of the C2-C3 bond in 5 and heterocyclization in 4 and 5 constitute the unprecedented tricyclic 6/6/5 ring A/B(1) /B(2) - and 6/5/6 ring A(1) A(2) /B-fused topologies, respectively, which are uncovered, for the first time, in the construction of limonoid architectures. The diverse cyclization patterns of 1-6 reveal an unparalleled structural plasticity of rings A and B in limonoid biosynthesis. PMID:27383693

  13. Oxidative metabolism of ferrocene analogues of tamoxifen: characterization and antiproliferative activities of the metabolites.

    PubMed

    Richard, Marie-Aude; Hamels, Didier; Pigeon, Pascal; Top, Siden; Dansette, Patrick M; Lee, Hui Zhi Shirley; Vessières, Anne; Mansuy, Daniel; Jaouen, Gérard

    2015-06-01

    Ferrociphenols have been found to have high antiproliferative activity against estrogen-independent breast cancer cells. The rat and human liver microsome-mediated metabolism of three compounds of the ferrocifen (FC) family, 1,1-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-ferrocenyl-but-1-ene (FC1), 1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1-(phenyl)-2-ferrocenyl-but-1-ene (FC2), and 1-[4-(3-dimethylaminopropoxy)phenyl]-1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-ferrocenyl-but-1-ene (FC3), was studied. Three main metabolite classes were identified: quinone methides (QMs) deriving from two-electron oxidation of FCs, cyclic indene products (CPs) deriving from acid-catalyzed cyclization of QMs, and allylic alcohols (AAs) deriving from hydroxylation of FCs. These metabolites are generated by cytochromes P450 (P450s), as shown by experiments with either N-benzylimidazole as a P450 inhibitor or recombinant human P450s. Such P450-dependent oxidation of the phenol function and hydroxylation of the allylic CH2 group of FCs leads to the formation of QM and AA metabolites, respectively. Some of the new ferrociphenols obtained in this study were found to exhibit remarkable antiproliferative effects toward MDA-MB-231 hormone-independent breast cancer cells.

  14. Evaluating the Effects of Aromatics Content in Gasoline on Gaseous and Particulate Matter Emissions from SI-PFI and SIDI Vehicles.

    PubMed

    Karavalakis, Georgios; Short, Daniel; Vu, Diep; Russell, Robert; Hajbabaei, Maryam; Asa-Awuku, Akua; Durbin, Thomas D

    2015-06-01

    We assessed the emissions response of a fleet of seven light-duty gasoline vehicles for gasoline fuel aromatic content while operating over the LA92 driving cycle. The test fleet consisted of model year 2012 vehicles equipped with spark-ignition (SI) and either port fuel injection (PFI) or direct injection (DI) technology. Three gasoline fuels were blended to meet a range of total aromatics targets (15%, 25%, and 35% by volume) while holding other fuel properties relatively constant within specified ranges, and a fourth fuel was formulated to meet a 35% by volume total aromatics target but with a higher octane number. Our results showed statistically significant increases in carbon monoxide, nonmethane hydrocarbon, particulate matter (PM) mass, particle number, and black carbon emissions with increasing aromatics content for all seven vehicles tested. Only one vehicle showed a statistically significant increase in total hydrocarbon emissions. The monoaromatic hydrocarbon species that were evaluated showed increases with increasing aromatic content in the fuel. Changes in fuel composition had no statistically significant effect on the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), formaldehyde, or acetaldehyde. A good correlation was also found between the PM index and PM mass and number emissions for all vehicle/fuel combinations with the total aromatics group being a significant contributor to the total PM index followed by naphthalenes and indenes. PMID:25938171

  15. The influence of polymer purification on the efficiency of poly(3-hexylthiophene):fullerene organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bannock, James H.; Treat, Neil D.; Chabinyc, Michael; Stingelin, Natalie; Heeney, Martin; de Mello, John C.

    2016-03-01

    We report the influence of different polymer purification procedures on the photovoltaic performance of bulk heterojunction solar cells formed from binary blends of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and fullerenes. Selective Soxhlet extractions and metal scavenging agents were used to remove residual monomer, magnesium salt by-products and catalyst from high-weight P3HT (Mw 121 kg/mol, PDI 1.8, RR 99%) synthesised by the Grignard metathesis (GRIM) polymerization route. Using phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC60BM) as an electron acceptor, we observed an increase in average power conversion efficiency from 2.3 to 4.8% in going from crude to fully purified material. Using indene-C60 bisadduct (IC60BA) in place of PC60BM, we observed a further increase to an average value of 6.6% - high for a bulk heterojunction formed from a binary blend of P3HT and C60 fullerene derivatives.

  16. Fullerene derivatives as electron donor for organic photovoltaic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuang, Taojun; Wang, Xiao-Feng E-mail: ziruo@yz.yamagata-u.ac.jp; Sano, Takeshi; Kido, Junji; Hong, Ziruo E-mail: ziruo@yz.yamagata-u.ac.jp; Yang, Yang

    2013-11-11

    We demonstrated the performance of unconventional, all-fullerene-based, planar heterojunction (PHJ) organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells using fullerene derivatives indene-C{sub 60} bisadduct (ICBA) and phenyl C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester as the electron donors with fullerene C{sub 70} as the electron acceptor. Two different charge generation processes, including charge generation in the fullerene bulk and exciton dissociation at the donor-acceptor interface, have been found to exist in such all-fullerene-based PHJ cells and the contribution to the total photocurrent from each process is strongly dependent on the thickness of fullerene donor. The optimized 5 nm ICBA/40 nm C{sub 70} PHJ cell gives clear external quantum efficiency responses for the long-wavelength photons corresponding to the dissociation of strongly bound Frenkel excitons, which is hardly observed in fullerene-based single layer reference devices. This approach using fullerene as a donor material provides further possibilities for developing high performance OPV cells.

  17. Effect of beta-adrenoceptors on the behaviour induced by the neuropeptide glutamic acid isoleucine amide.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Borzone, Mariela E; Attademo, Andrés; Baiardi, Gustavo; Celis, María Ester

    2007-07-30

    Excessive grooming behaviour is induced by intracerebroventricular injections of the neuropeptide glutamic acid isoleucine amide (neuropeptide-EI), via the activation of A-10 dopaminergic neurons and the noradrenergic system. Our object was to study the latter system involved in these behaviours, using male Wistar rats weighing 250-300 g with i.c.v. implants. The results show that all the adrenoceptor antagonists "per se" do not affect excessive grooming behaviour or motor activity. Intracerebroventricular administration of propranolol, a general beta-adrenoceptor antagonist, before neuropeptide-EI, inhibited the induced excessive grooming behaviour in a dose dependent manner. Metoprolol, a beta(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist, also blocked this behaviour. However, intracerebroventricular injections of phentolamine, an alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist, and ((+/-)-1-[2,3-(Dihydro-7-methyl-1H-inden-4-yl)oxy]-3-[(1-methylethyl)amino]-2-butanol), a beta(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist, had no effect on the behaviour induced by neuropeptide-EI induced behaviour for any of the doses tested. On the other hand, isoproterenol, a general beta-adrenoceptor agonist and dobutamine, a beta(1)-adrenoceptor agonist, both elicited similar behaviours as those induced by neuropeptide-EI. These results support the hypothesis that a relationship exists between neuropeptide-EI and beta-adrenoceptors, more specifically the beta(1)-adrenoceptor, as found with other similar endogenous peptides such as neurotensin, cholecystin, substance P and alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone. Hence, neuropeptide-EI could probably be exerting a neuromodulating effect on the central nervous system.

  18. Origin of organic matter in the early solar system. VII - The organic polymer in carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayatsu, R.; Matsuoka, S.; Anders, E.; Scott, R. G.; Studier, M. H.

    1977-01-01

    Degradation techniques, including pyrolysis, depolymerization, and oxidation, were used to study the insoluble polymer from the Murchison C2 chondrite. Oxidation with Cr2O7(2-) or O2/UV led to the identification of 15 aromatic ring systems. Of 11 aliphatic acids identified, three dicarboxylic acids presumably came from hydroaromatic portions of the polymer, whereas eight monocarboxylic acids probably derive from bridging groups or ring substituents. Depolymerization with CF3COO4 yielded some of the same ring systems, as well as alkanes (C1 through C8) and alkenes (C2 through C8), alkyl (C1 through C5) benzenes and naphthalenes, and methyl- or dimethyl -indene, -indane, -phenol, -pyrrole, and -pyridine. All these compounds were detected below 200 C, and are therefore probably indigenous constituents. The properties of the meteoritic polymer were compared with the properties of a synthetic polymer produced by the Fischer-Tropsch reaction. It is suggested that the meteoritic polymer was also produced by surface catalysis.

  19. Treatment of petrochemical secondary effluent by an up-flow biological aerated filter (BAF).

    PubMed

    Fu, L Y; Wu, C Y; Zhou, Y X; Zuo, J E; Ding, Y

    2016-01-01

    In this study, petrochemical secondary effluent was treated by a 55 cm diameter pilot-scale biological aerated filter (BAF) with a media depth of 220 cm. Volcanic rock grains were filled as the BAF media. Median removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) was 29.35 and 57.98%, respectively. Moreover, the removal profile of the COD, NH3-N, total nitrogen and total organic carbon demonstrated that the filter height of 140 cm made up to 90% of the total removal efficiency of the final effluent. By gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, removal efficiencies of 2-chloromethyl-1,3-dioxolane, and benzonitrile, indene and naphthalene were obtained, ranging from 30.12 to 63.01%. The biomass and microbial activity of the microorganisms on the filter media were in general reduced with increasing filter height, which is consistent with the removal profile of the contaminants. The detected genera Defluviicoccus, Betaproteobacteria_unclassified and the Blastocatella constituted 1.86-6.75% of the identified gene, enhancing the COD and nitrogen removal in BAF for treating petrochemical secondary effluent. PMID:27120658

  20. Molecular Structure and Photoinduced Intramolecular Hydrogen Bonding in 2-Pyrrolylmethylidene Cycloalkanones.

    PubMed

    Sigalov, Mark; Shainyan, Bagrat; Chipanina, Nina; Oznobikhina, Larisa; Strashnikova, Natalia; Sterkhova, Irina

    2015-11-01

    The structures of pyrrolylmethylidene derivatives of 2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-one (3), 3,4-dihydro-naphthalen-1(2H)-one (4), and cycloalkanones (5-7) were studied for the first time in the solid state and solution by NMR, IR, and UV spectroscopies supported by DFT quantum mechanical calculations. It was shown that all studied compounds except cycloheptanone derivative 7 both in crystal and in solution exist in the form of dimers where single E or E,E configuration with respect to the exocyclic C═C bond is stabilized by intermolecular hydrogen bonds N-H···O═C. UV irradiation at a wavelength of 365 nm of MeCN or DMSO solutions of 3-6 results, depending on the exposition time and solvent, partial to complete isomerization to the Z or Z,E isomers (in the case of 6, also the Z,Z isomer). The NMR and IR spectroscopy data show the existence of a strong intramolecular hydrogen bond N-H···O═C in the Z moieties of isomerized compounds. The studied compounds are protonated by trifluoroacetic acid at the carbonyl oxygen, in spite of the reverse order of basicity and nucleophilicity of the carbonyl group and the pyrrole ring. Investigation of the behavior of compound 6 with respect to acetate and fluoride anions allows one to consider it as a potential fluoride sensor. PMID:26457975

  1. Flexible inverted polymer solar cells fabricated in air at low temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwabara, Takayuki; Wang, Xiaofan; Kusumi, Takuji; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Taima, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Kohshin

    2016-08-01

    A series of modified indium tin oxide (ITO) materials, including sol-gel zinc-oxide-coated ITO (ITO/ZnO), ZnO nanoparticle-coated ITO (ITO/ZnO-NP), 1,4-bis(3-aminopropyl)piperazine (BAP)-modified ITO, and polyethylenimine ethoxylated (PEIE)-modified ITO, were used for electron-collection electrodes in inverted polymer solar cells (PSCs). The modified ITO electrodes were prepared in air at temperatures below 100 °C, using various ITO films on flexible poly(ethylene terephthalate) substrates (PET-ITO) with sheet resistances ranging from 12 to 60 Ω sq-1. The PET-ITO (12 Ω sq-1)/ZnO-NP PSC exhibited an improved power conversion efficiency (PCE) (2.93%), and this PCE was ˜90% of that observed for a cell using glass-ITO/ZnO-NP (sheet resistance = 10 Ω sq-1 PCE = 3.28%). Additionally, we fabricated a flexible inverted ZnO-NP PSC using an indene-C60 bisadduct (ICBA) as the acceptor material in place of [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and obtained a PCE of 4.18%.

  2. Effects of kappa opioid agonists alone and in combination with cocaine on heart rate and blood pressure in conscious squirrel monkeys.

    PubMed

    Schindler, Charles W; Graczyk, Zofi; Gilman, Joanne P; Negus, S Stevens; Bergman, Jack; Mello, Nancy K; Goldberg, Steven R

    2007-12-01

    As kappa agonists have been proposed as treatments for cocaine abuse, the cardiovascular effects of the kappa opioid receptor agonists ethylketocyclazocine (EKC) and enadoline were investigated in conscious squirrel monkeys. Both EKC and enadoline increased heart rate with little effect on blood pressure. This effect appeared to be specific for kappa receptors as the mu opioid agonist morphine did not mimic the effects of the kappa agonists. The opioid antagonist naltrexone, at a dose of 1.0 mg/kg, blocked the effect of EKC. An action at both central and peripheral receptors may be responsible for the heart rate increase following kappa agonist treatment. The ganglionic blocker chlorisondamine partially antagonized the effect of EKC on heart rate, suggesting central involvement, while the peripherally-acting agonist ICI 204,448 ((+/-)-1-[2,3- (Dihydro-7-methyl-1H-inden-4-yl)oxy]-3-[(1-methylethyl)amino]-2-butanol hydrochloride) also increased heart rate, supporting a peripheral site of action. When given in combination with cocaine, EKC produced effects that were sub-additive, suggesting that the kappa agonists may be used safely as cocaine abuse treatments.

  3. New recombinant cyclohexylamine oxidase variants for deracemization of secondary amines by orthogonally assaying designed mutants with structurally diverse substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guangyue; Yao, Peiyuan; Cong, Peiqian; Ren, Jie; Wang, Lei; Feng, Jinhui; Lau, Peter C. K.; Wu, Qiaqing; Zhu, Dunming

    2016-05-01

    To further expand the substrate range of the cyclohexylamine oxidase (CHAO) from Brevibacterium oxydans, a library of diverse mutants was created and assayed toward a group of structurally diverse substrates. Among them, mutants T198A and M226A exhibited enhanced activity relative to wt CHAO for most (S)-enantiomers of primary amines and some secondary amines. While mutants T198I, L199I, L199F, M226I and M226T were more active than wt CHAO toward the primary amines, mutants T198F, L199T, Y321A, Y321T, Y321I and Y321F enhanced the enzyme activity toward the secondary amines. In particular, mutant Y321I displayed an enhanced catalytic efficiency toward 1-(4-methoxybenzyl)-1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8-octahydroisoquinoline (13). Whereas a double mutant, Y321I/M226T, acted on (S)-N-(prop-2-yn-1-yl)-2, 3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-amine [(S)-8]. Since (R)-8 is an irreversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase and (S)-13 is an intermediate of dextromethorphan, a cough suppressant drug, deracemizations of 8 and 13 were carried out with crude enzyme extracts of the respective mutants. This resulted in 51% and 78% isolated yields of (R)-8 and (S)-13, respectively, each with high enantiomeric excess (93% and 99% ee). The results demonstrated the application potential of the evolved CHAO mutants in drug synthesis requiring chiral secondary amines.

  4. Discovery and optimization of antibacterial AccC inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Cliff C.; Shipps, Jr., Gerald W.; Yang, Zhiwei; Sun, Binyuan; Kawahata, Noriyuki; Soucy, Kyle A.; Soriano, Aileen; Orth, Peter; Xiao, Li; Mann, Paul; Black, Todd

    2010-09-17

    The biotin carboxylase (AccC) is part of the multi-component bacterial acetyl coenzyme-A carboxylase (ACCase) and is essential for pathogen survival. We describe herein the affinity optimization of an initial hit to give 2-(2-chlorobenzylamino)-1-(cyclohexylmethyl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazole-5-carboxamide (1), which was identified using our proprietary Automated Ligand Identification System (ALIS). The X-ray co-crystal structure of 1 was solved and revealed several key interactions and opportunities for further optimization in the ATP site of AccC. Structure Based Drug Design (SBDD) and parallel synthetic approaches resulted in a novel series of AccC inhibitors, exemplified by (R)-2-(2-chlorobenzylamino)-1-(2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-yl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine-5-carboxamide (40). This compound is a potent and selective inhibitor of bacterial AccC with an IC{sub 50} of 20 nM and a MIC of 0.8 {micro}g/mL against a sensitized strain of Escherichia coli (HS294 E. coli).

  5. Radical/π-bond addition between o-benzyne and cyclic C5 hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Comandini, Andrea; Brezinsky, Kenneth

    2012-02-01

    Recent theoretical investigations of the radical/π-bond addition between single-ring aromatic hydrocarbons highlight the importance of this category of reactions for the formation of PAH intermediates and soot. The present investigation extends the theory of the radical/π-bond addition reactions to the o-benzyne + cyclic C(5) hydrocarbons systems. The calculations, performed using the uB3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) method, have addressed the possible role of the reaction between o-benzyne and cyclopentadiene in the formation of indene through the fragmentation of the bicyclo intermediate benzonorbornadiene. The complex potential energy surface for the reaction between o-benzyne and cyclopentadienyl radical was also investigated. In this case, the formation of the bicyclo benzonorbornadienyl radical and its subsequent fragmentation to indenyl radical and acetylene is not the main reaction pathway, although it could be relevant at relatively high temperatures. At lower temperatures, the isomerization reactions, which lead to the formation of a variety of multiring compounds, are dominant.

  6. The properties and Roles of Resonance-Stabilized Radicals in Photochemical Pathways in Titan's Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebree, Joshua A.; Kidwell, Nathan; Zwier, Timothy

    2010-11-01

    In recent years, the Cassini satellite has been providing details about the composition of Titan's atmosphere. Recent data has shown the existence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at higher altitudes than previously expected including masses tentatively ascribed to naphthalene and anthracene. The formation of indene (C9H9) and naphthalene (C10H8), the simplest PAHs, and their derivatives are of great interest as similar mechanisms may lead to the formation of larger fused-ring systems. In recent years it has been proposed that resonance-stabilized radicals (RSRs) may play an important role as intermediates along these pathways. RSRs gain extra stability by delocalizing the unpaired electron through a neighboring conjugated π-system. Because of this extra stability, RSRs are able to build up in concentration, allowing for the creation of larger, more complex systems through their recombination with other RSRs. Mass-selective UV-visible spectra of two RSRs, phenylallyl and benzylallenyl radicals, have been recorded under jet-cooled conditions. These two radicals, while sharing the same radical conjugation, have unique properties. The roles these radicals may play in the formation of fused ring systems will be discussed along with recent photochemical results on reaction pathways starting from benzylallene through the benzylallenyl radical.

  7. Treatment of petrochemical secondary effluent by an up-flow biological aerated filter (BAF).

    PubMed

    Fu, L Y; Wu, C Y; Zhou, Y X; Zuo, J E; Ding, Y

    2016-01-01

    In this study, petrochemical secondary effluent was treated by a 55 cm diameter pilot-scale biological aerated filter (BAF) with a media depth of 220 cm. Volcanic rock grains were filled as the BAF media. Median removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) was 29.35 and 57.98%, respectively. Moreover, the removal profile of the COD, NH3-N, total nitrogen and total organic carbon demonstrated that the filter height of 140 cm made up to 90% of the total removal efficiency of the final effluent. By gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, removal efficiencies of 2-chloromethyl-1,3-dioxolane, and benzonitrile, indene and naphthalene were obtained, ranging from 30.12 to 63.01%. The biomass and microbial activity of the microorganisms on the filter media were in general reduced with increasing filter height, which is consistent with the removal profile of the contaminants. The detected genera Defluviicoccus, Betaproteobacteria_unclassified and the Blastocatella constituted 1.86-6.75% of the identified gene, enhancing the COD and nitrogen removal in BAF for treating petrochemical secondary effluent.

  8. Appling hydrolysis acidification-anoxic-oxic process in the treatment of petrochemical wastewater: From bench scale reactor to full scale wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Wu, Changyong; Zhou, Yuexi; Sun, Qingliang; Fu, Liya; Xi, Hongbo; Yu, Yin; Yu, Ruozhen

    2016-05-15

    A hydrolysis acidification (HA)-anoxic-oxic (A/O) process was adopted to treat a petrochemical wastewater. The operation optimization was carried out firstly by a bench scale experimental reactor. Then a full scale petrochemical wastewater treatment plant (PCWWTP, 6500 m(3) h(-1)) was operated with the same parameters. The results showed that the BOD5/COD of the wastewater increased from 0.30 to 0.43 by HA. The effluent COD was 54.4 mg L(-1) for bench scale reactor and 60.9 mg L(-1) for PCWWTP when the influent COD was about 480 mg L(-1) on optimized conditions. The organics measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) reduced obviously and the total concentration of the 5 organics (1,3-dioxolane, 2-pentanone, ethylbenzene, 2-chloromethyl-1,3-dioxolane and indene) detected in the effluent was only 0.24 mg L(-1). There was no obvious toxicity of the effluent. However, low acute toxicity of the effluent could be detected by the luminescent bacteria assay, indicating the advanced treatment is needed. The clone library profiling analysis showed that the dominant bacteria in the system were Acidobacteria, Proteobacteria and Bacteriodetes. HA-A/O process is suitable for the petrochemical wastewater treatment.

  9. Raman spectra of nitrogen-containing organic compounds obtained in high altitude sites using a portable spectrometer: Possible application for remote robotic Titan studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jehlicka, Jan; Culka, Adam; Edwards, Howell G. M.

    2010-04-01

    Well-resolved Raman spectra of examples of nitrogen-containing compounds were detected using a portable Raman instrument (Ahura First Defender XL) outdoors at a low temperature of -15 °C at an altitude of 2860 m (Pitztall, Austria). The portable Raman spectrometer tested here is equipped with a 785 nm diode laser and fixed frontal probe. Solid forms of formamide, urea, 3-methylpyridine, aniline, indene, 1-(2-aminoethyl)piperazine, benzofuran and indoline were detected unambiguously under field high-mountain conditions. The main Raman features (strong, medium and partially weak bands) were observed at their correct wavenumber positions (spectral resolution 7-10 cm -1) in the range 200-2000 cm -1. The results obtained demonstrate the possibility of applying a miniaturised Raman spectrometer as key instrument for investigating the presence of nitrogen-containing organic compounds and biomolecules under low temperature field conditions. Within the payload designed by ESA and NASA for future missions focusing not only on Mars, Raman spectroscopy will be an important non-destructive analytical tool for the in-situ identification of both organic and inorganic compounds relevant to life detection on planetary surfaces or near sub-surfaces.

  10. Cis-Chlorobenzene dihydrodiol dehydrogenase (TcbB) from Pseudomonas sp. strain P51, expressed in Escherichia coli DH5{alpha}(pTCB149), catalyzes enantioselective dehydrogenase reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Raschke, H.; Fleischmann, T.; Meer, J.R. van der; Kohler, H.P.E.

    1999-12-01

    cis-Chlorobenzene dihydrodiol dehydrogenase (CDD) from Pseudomonas sp. strain P51, cloned into Escherichia coli DH5{alpha}(pTCB149) was able to oxidize cis-dihydrodihydroxy derivatives (cis-dihydrodiols) of dihydronaphthalene, indene, and four para-substituted toluenes to the corresponding catechols. During the incubation of a nonracemic mixture of cis-1,2-indandiol, only the (+)-cis-(1R,2S) enantiomer was oxidized; the (-)-cis-(S,2R) enantiomer remained unchanged, CDD oxidized both enantiomers of cis-1,2-dihydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene, but oxidation of the (+)-cis-(1S,2R) enantiomer was delayed until the (-)-cis-(1R,2S) enantiomer was completely depleted. When incubated with nonracemic mixtures of para-substituted cis-toluene dihydrodiols, CDD always oxidized the major enantiomer at a higher rate than the minor enantiomer. When incubated with racemic 1-indanol, CDD enantioselectively transformed the (+)-(1S) enatiomer to 1-indanone. This stereoselective transformation shows that CDD also acted as an alcohol dehydrogenase. Additionally, CDD was able to oxidize (+)-cis-(1R,2S)-dihydroxy-1,2-dihydronaphthalene, (+)-cis-monochlorobiphenyl dihydrodiols, and (+)-cis-toluene dihydrodiol to the corresponding catechols.

  11. Iron(III)-catalyzed cyclization of alkynyl aldehyde acetals: experimental and computational studies.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tongyu; Yang, Qin; Li, Dongpo; Dong, Jinhua; Yu, Zhengkun; Li, Yuxue

    2010-08-01

    FeCl(3)6 H(2)O- and FeBr(3)-catalyzed Prins cyclization/halogenation of alkynyl aldehyde acetals has been realized with acetyl chloride or bromide as halogen source in dichloromethane to afford 2-(1-halobenzylidene or alkylidene)-substituted five-membered carbo- and heterocycles, and thus provides an alternative route for vinylic C-Cl and C-Br bond formation. Five- to eight-membered cyclic enones were efficiently synthesized by FeCl(3)6.H(2)O-catalyzed intramolecular cyclization of alkynyl aldehyde acetals in acetone under mild conditions. An oxocarbonium species generated in situ is proposed to initiate the reaction, and the target products are formed via vinylogous carbenium cation and oxete intermediates according to DFT calculations. Intermolecular reactions of alkynes and aldehyde acetals were also investigated with 20-40 mol% FeCl(3)6.H(2)O catalyst, and produced alpha,beta-unsaturated enones and chlorinated indene derivatives. The present protocol has applications in the synthesis of carbo-, oxa- and azacycles. PMID:20583061

  12. A Deep Insight into the Details of the Interisomerization and Decomposition Mechanism of o-Quinolyl and o-Isoquinolyl Radicals. Quantum Chemical Calculations and Computer Modeling.

    PubMed

    Dubnikova, Faina; Tamburu, Carmen; Lifshitz, Assa

    2016-09-29

    The isomerization of o-quinolyl ↔ o-isoquinolyl radicals and their thermal decomposition were studied by quantum chemical methods, where potential energy surfaces of the reaction channels and their kinetics rate parameters were determined. A detailed kinetics scheme containing 40 elementary steps was constructed. Computer simulations were carried out to determine the isomerization mechanism and the distribution of reaction products in the decomposition. The calculated mole percent of the stable products was compared to the experimental values that were obtained in this laboratory in the past, using the single pulse shock tube. The agreement between the experimental and the calculated mole percents was very good. A map of the figures containing the mole percent's of eight stable products of the decomposition plotted vs T are presented. The fast isomerization of o-quinolyl → o-isoquinolyl radicals via the intermediate indene imine radical and the attainment of fast equilibrium between these two radicals is the reason for the identical product distribution regardless whether the reactant radical is o-quinolyl or o-isoquinolyl. Three of the main decomposition products of o-quinolyl radical, are those containing the benzene ring, namely, phenyl, benzonitrile, and phenylacetylene radicals. They undergo further decomposition mainly at high temperatures via two types of reactions: (1) Opening of the benzene ring in the radicals, followed by splitting into fragments. (2) Dissociative attachment of benzonitrile and phenyl acetylene by hydrogen atoms to form hydrogen cyanide and acetylene.

  13. Overcoming Degradation in Organic Photovoltaics: Illuminating the Role of Fullerene Functionalization: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, M. T.; Garcia, A.; Berry, J. J.; Reese, M. O.; Ginley, D. S.; Olson, D. C.

    2011-07-01

    Photobleaching rates are investigated for thin films of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) blends employing either an indene-C60 bisadduct (ICBA) or [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) as the electron acceptor. Relative to the bisindene, PCBM significantly enhances resistance to photobleaching of the P3HT donor polymer. We tentatively attribute a decrease in the charge transfer rate as the mechanism responsible for the more rapid photobleaching in the sample containing the bisindene adduct. In order to elucidate the influence of the photobleaching rate on the initial performance of unencapsulated devices, we also monitored the time-dependent behavior for P3HT:fullerene inverted devices. Under conditions of constant illumination, we observe essentially identical behavior in device performance parameters regardless of the energy levels of the electron acceptor. We conclude that over the time frame measured for these devices, the primary degradation mechanism of the active layer is independent of the electron acceptor, despite the enhanced tolerance to photobleaching it may impart to the donor material.

  14. Apoptotic action of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma activation in human non small-cell lung cancer is mediated via proline oxidase-induced reactive oxygen species formation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Young; Ahn, Jin Hee; Cheon, Hyae Gyeong

    2007-09-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma ligands have been shown to inhibit human lung cancers by inducing apoptosis and differentiation. In the present study, we elucidated the apoptotic mechanism of PPARgamma activation in human lung cancers by using a novel PPARgamma agonist, 1-(trans-methylimino-N-oxy)-6-(2-morpholinoethoxy)-3-phenyl-(1H-indene-2-carboxylic acid ethyl ester (KR-62980), and rosiglitazone. PPARgamma activation selectively inhibited cell viability of non-small-cell lung cancer with little effect on small-cell lung cancer and normal lung cells. The cell death induced by PPARgamma activation presented apoptotic features of oligonucleosomal DNA fragmentation in A549 human non-small-cell lung cancer cell line. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was accompanied by increased expression of proline oxidase (POX), a redox enzyme expressed in mitochondria, upon incubation with the agonists. POX RNA interference treatment blocked PPARgamma-induced ROS formation and cytotoxicity, suggesting that POX plays a functional role in apoptosis through ROS formation. The apoptotic effects by the agonists were antagonized by bisphenol A diglycidyl ether, a PPARgamma antagonist, and by knockdown of PPARgamma expression, indicating the involvement of PPARgamma in these actions. The results of the present study suggest that PPARgamma activation induces apoptotic cell death in non-small-cell lung carcinoma mainly through ROS formation via POX induction.

  15. New recombinant cyclohexylamine oxidase variants for deracemization of secondary amines by orthogonally assaying designed mutants with structurally diverse substrates

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guangyue; Yao, Peiyuan; Cong, Peiqian; Ren, Jie; Wang, Lei; Feng, Jinhui; Lau, Peter C.K.; Wu, Qiaqing; Zhu, Dunming

    2016-01-01

    To further expand the substrate range of the cyclohexylamine oxidase (CHAO) from Brevibacterium oxydans, a library of diverse mutants was created and assayed toward a group of structurally diverse substrates. Among them, mutants T198A and M226A exhibited enhanced activity relative to wt CHAO for most (S)-enantiomers of primary amines and some secondary amines. While mutants T198I, L199I, L199F, M226I and M226T were more active than wt CHAO toward the primary amines, mutants T198F, L199T, Y321A, Y321T, Y321I and Y321F enhanced the enzyme activity toward the secondary amines. In particular, mutant Y321I displayed an enhanced catalytic efficiency toward 1-(4-methoxybenzyl)-1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8-octahydroisoquinoline (13). Whereas a double mutant, Y321I/M226T, acted on (S)-N-(prop-2-yn-1-yl)-2, 3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-amine [(S)-8]. Since (R)-8 is an irreversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase and (S)-13 is an intermediate of dextromethorphan, a cough suppressant drug, deracemizations of 8 and 13 were carried out with crude enzyme extracts of the respective mutants. This resulted in 51% and 78% isolated yields of (R)-8 and (S)-13, respectively, each with high enantiomeric excess (93% and 99% ee). The results demonstrated the application potential of the evolved CHAO mutants in drug synthesis requiring chiral secondary amines. PMID:27138090

  16. Mechanisms of product formation from the pyrolytic thermal degradation of catechol.

    PubMed

    Lomnicki, Slawomir; Truong, Hieu; Dellinger, Barry

    2008-09-01

    Catechol has been identified as one of the most abundant organic products in tobacco smoke and a major molecular precursor for semiquinone type radicals in the combustion of biomass material. The high-temperature gas-phase pyrolysis of catechol under hydrogen-rich and hydrogen-lean conditions was studied using a fused-silica tubular flow reactor coupled to an in-line GC/MS analytical system. Thermal degradation of catechol over temperature range of 250-1000 degrees C with a reaction time of 2.0s yielded a variety products including phenol, benzene, dibenzofuran, dibenzo-p-dioxin, phenylethyne, styrene, indene, anthracene, naphthalene, and biphenylene. Ortho-benzoquinone which is typically associated with the presence of semiquinone radicals was not observed and is proposed to be the result of fast decomposition reactions that lead to a variety of other reaction products. This is in contrast to the decomposition of hydroquinone that produced para-benzoquinone as the major product. A detailed mechanism of the degradation pathway of catechol is proposed.

  17. Phelligridins C-F: cytotoxic pyrano[4,3-c][2]benzopyran-1,6-dione and furo[3,2-c]pyran-4-one derivatives from the fungus Phellinus igniarius.

    PubMed

    Mo, Shunyan; Wang, Sujuan; Zhou, Guangxiong; Yang, Yongchun; Li, Yan; Chen, Xiaoguang; Shi, Jiangong

    2004-05-01

    Three unique pyrano[4,3-c][2]benzopyran-1,6-dione derivatives and a new furo[3,2-c]pyran-4-one, named phelligridins C-F (2-5), together with hispolon (8), (E)-4-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)but-3-en-2-one (9), 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, protocatechualdehyde, syringic acid, protocatechuic acid, caffeic acid, isoergosterone, and octadecyl ferulate were isolated and identified from the ethanolic extract of Phellinus igniarius. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods including IR, MS, and 1D and 2D NMR experiments. The structures of the new compounds were characterized as 3-(4-hydroxystyryl)-8,9-dihydroxypyrano[4,3-c]isochromene-4-one (2), 3-(3,4-hydroxystyryl)-8,9-dihydroxypyrano[4,3-c]isochromene-4-one (3), 8,9-dihydroxy-3-[5',6'-dihydroxy-5' '-methyl-3' '-oxo-spiro[fural-2' '(3' 'H),1'-indene]-2'-yl]-1H,6H-pyrano[4,3-c][2]benzopyran-1,6-dione (4), and (3Z)-3-(3,4-dihydroxybenzylidene)-6-(3,4-dihydroxystyryl)-2,3-dihydro-2-methoxy-2-(2-oxo-propyl)furo[3,2-c]pyran-4-one (5), respectively. Some compounds including 2 and 3 showed in vitro selective cytotoxicity against a human lung cancer cell line (A549) and a liver cancer cell line (Bel7402). Possible biogenetic sequences to the formation of 1-9 are postulated. PMID:15165144

  18. Organic solar cells with graded absorber layers processed from nanoparticle dispersions.

    PubMed

    Gärtner, Stefan; Reich, Stefan; Bruns, Michael; Czolk, Jens; Colsmann, Alexander

    2016-03-28

    The fabrication of organic solar cells with advanced multi-layer architectures from solution is often limited by the choice of solvents since most organic semiconductors dissolve in the same aromatic agents. In this work, we investigate multi-pass deposition of organic semiconductors from eco-friendly ethanol dispersion. Once applied, the nanoparticles are insoluble in the deposition agent, allowing for the application of further nanoparticulate layers and hence for building poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl):indene-C60 bisadduct absorber layers with vertically graded polymer and conversely graded fullerene concentration. Upon thermal annealing, we observe some degrees of polymer/fullerene interdiffusion by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Kelvin probe force microscopy. Replacing the common bulk-heterojunction by such a graded photo-active layer yields an enhanced fill factor of the solar cell due to an improved charge carrier extraction, and consequently an overall power conversion efficiency beyond 4%. Wet processing of such advanced device architectures paves the way for a versatile, eco-friendly and industrially feasible future fabrication of organic solar cells with advanced multi-layer architectures.

  19. Theoretical-computational modeling of photo-induced charge separation spectra and charge recombination kinetics in solution.

    PubMed

    Piacente, Giovanni; Amadei, Andrea; D'Abramo, Marco; Daidone, Isabella; Aschi, Massimiliano

    2014-10-14

    In this study we propose a theoretical-computational method, essentially based on molecular dynamics simulations and quantum-chemical calculations, for modelling the photo-induced charge separation (CS) and the subsequent charge recombination (CR) processes in solution. In particular we have reproduced the low-energy UV-Vis spectra of systems composed by an aromatic species (Ar = benzene or indene) and tetracyanoethylene (TCNE) in chloroform solution, dominated by the formation of the Ar(+)-TCNE(-) ion pair (IP) complex. The kinetics of the charge recombination process leading to the regeneration of Ar and TCNE has also been modelled. In both the cases the agreement with the experimental data is satisfactory. Although the presence of systematic deficiencies makes our approach unable to address some key aspects of the above processes (e.g. the ultrafast internal vibrational redistribution), it appears to be a rather promising tool for modelling the CS-CR process for atomic-molecular systems of very high complexity. The involvement of the triplet IP complex has also been discussed. PMID:25157909

  20. Phytochemical composition of the essential oil of different populations of Stachys lavandulifolia Vahl

    PubMed Central

    Pirbalouti, Abdollah Ghasemi; Mohammadi, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the chemical variability in inflorescences of wild populations of Stachys lavandulifolia Vahl (S. lavandulifolia) collected throughout two provinces (Isfahan and Chaharmahal va Bakhtiary), Southwest Iran. Methods The essential oils of S. lavandulifolia Vahl from seven locations were obtained by hydro-distillation and analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results The results revealed that distinct differences in the content of compounds depending on region of sample collection. The main constituents of the essential oils were α-thujone (0.3%-32.3%), α-pinene (trace to 37.3%), myrcene (0.5%-15.9%), β-phellandrene (1.1%-37.9%), germacrene D (0.4%-11.3%), Δ-cadinene (trace to 11.6%) and 1, 4-methano-1 H-indene (trace to 10.1%). Conclusions The results of the present study indicated that essential oil components of S. lavandulifolia Vahl can be varied with genetic (ecotype), environmental conditions and geographic origin. In general, the essential oils of various populations of S. lavandulifolia Vahl were rich in monoterpenoids and sesquiterpenoids. PMID:23593591

  1. Investigating the role of CH2 radicals in the HACA mechanism.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Lin, He; Yang, Yang; Shao, Can; Guan, Bin; Huang, Zhen

    2015-04-01

    Detailed mechanisms of PAH growth involving methylene (CH2) were studied using accurate ab initio density functional theory B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) calculations, as well as approximate QCISD(T,full)/6-311++G(3df,2pd) calculations. The PAH growth can be divided into five essential reaction steps, namely, addition C2H2 → intramolecular hydrogen migration → addition CH2 → cyclization → H-elimination. The aliphatic species of indene and 1H-phenalene are found in the pathways of PAH growth, which is in accord with the experimental results that reveal the formation of aliphatic species in flames. It was found that the simultaneous removal of two H atoms in one reaction step is feasible in PAH evolution, and this can reasonably interpret the absence of a H atom in the post-flame region. The corresponding rate coefficients at 1 atm were evaluated by using TST and RRKM theory by solving the master equations in the temperature range of 500-2500 K. The calculated branching ratios suggest that the pathways involving CH2 are competitive in PAH growth. PMID:25762412

  2. Identification of novel compounds against an R294K substitution of influenza A (H7N9) virus using ensemble based drug virtual screening.

    PubMed

    Tran, Nhut; Van, Thanh; Nguyen, Hieu; Le, Ly

    2015-01-01

    Influenza virus H7N9 foremost emerged in China in 2013 and killed hundreds of people in Asia since they possessed all mutations that enable them to resist to all existing influenza drugs, resulting in high mortality to human. In the effort to identify novel inhibitors combat resistant strains of influenza virus H7N9; we performed virtual screening targeting the Neuraminidase (NA) protein against natural compounds of traditional Chinese medicine database (TCM) and ZINC natural products. Compounds expressed high binding affinity to the target protein was then evaluated for molecular properties to determine drug-like molecules. 4 compounds showed their binding energy less than -11 Kcal/mol were selected for molecular dynamics (MD) simulation to capture intermolecular interactions of ligand-protein complexes. The molecular mechanics/Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (MM/PBSA) method was utilized to estimate binding free energy of the complex. In term of stability, NA-7181 (IUPAC namely {9-Hydroxy-10-[3-(trifluoromrthyl) cyclohexyl]-4.8-diazatricyclo [6.4.0.02,6]dodec-4-yl}(perhydro-1H-inden-5-yl)formaldehyde) achieved stable conformation after 20 ns and 27 ns for ligand and protein root mean square deviation, respectively. In term of binding free energy, 7181 gave the negative value of -30.031 (KJ/mol) indicating the compound obtained a favourable state in the active site of the protein. PMID:25589893

  3. Interactions of Enolizable Barbiturate Dyes.

    PubMed

    Schade, Alexander; Schreiter, Katja; Rüffer, Tobias; Lang, Heinrich; Spange, Stefan

    2016-04-11

    The specific barbituric acid dyes 1-n-butyl-5-(2,4-dinitro-phenyl) barbituric acid and 1-n-butyl-5-{4-[(1,3-dioxo-1H-inden-(3 H)-ylidene)methyl]phenyl}barbituric acid were used to study complex formation with nucleobase derivatives and related model compounds. The enol form of both compounds shows a strong bathochromic shift of the UV/Vis absorption band compared to the rarely coloured keto form. The keto-enol equilibria of the five studied dyes are strongly dependent on the properties of the environment as shown by solvatochromic studies in ionic liquids and a set of organic solvents. Enol form development of the barbituric acid dyes is also associated with alteration of the hydrogen bonding pattern from the ADA to the DDA type (A=hydrogen bond acceptor site, D=donor site). Receptor-induced altering of ADA towards DDA hydrogen bonding patterns of the chromophores are utilised to study supramolecular complex formation. As complementary receptors 9-ethyladenine, 1-n-butylcytosine, 1-n-butylthymine, 9-ethylguanidine and 2,6-diacetamidopiridine were used. The UV/Vis spectroscopic response of acid-base reaction compared to supramolecular complex formation is evaluated by (1)H NMR titration experiments and X-ray crystal structure analyses. An increased acidity of the barbituric acid derivative promotes genuine salt formation. In contrast, supramolecular complex formation is preferred for the weaker acidic barbituric acid. PMID:26945529

  4. In Vitro and In Vivo Studies of the Utility of Dimethyl and Diethyl Carbaporphyrin Ketals in Treatment of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis▿†

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Viviana M.; Cedeño, David L.; Muñoz, Diana L.; Jones, Marjorie A.; Lash, Timothy D.; Young, Alexandra M.; Constantino, Manuel H.; Esposito, Nicholas; Vélez, Iván D.; Robledo, Sara M.

    2011-01-01

    Carbaporphyrin ketals are porphyrinoid compounds in which a pyrrole ring of a typical porphyrin macrocycle has been replaced by a ketal-substituted indene ring. It was recently demonstrated that these compounds are effective in vitro against Leishmania tarentolae. Their in vitro effectiveness is increased when they are exposed to visible light; they act as photosensitizers capable of mediating the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Following on this evidence, the effectiveness and cytotoxicity of the dimethyl and diethyl carbaporphyrin ketals (CKOMe and CKOEt, respectively) were determined in vitro using pathogenic Leishmania species with and without exposure to visible light (2 and 4 h). The effectiveness against various pathogenic Leishmania species was determined to be in a micromolar range. Additionally, the effect of encapsulating the carbaporphyrin ketals in liposome formulations was tested. Liposomal delivery diminished their toxicity, while the effectiveness was enhanced upon exposure to visible light (photodynamic effect). The cytotoxicity levels for human U937 cells and hamster peritoneal macrophages were in the ranges of 0.3 to 9 μM and 7 to 330 μM, respectively. When tested in vivo, using a hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) model of cutaneous leishmaniasis, CKOMe was active even in the dark, suggesting that the compound, once metabolized in the animal tissue, produces an active ingredient that does not seem to be photosensitive. Reduction in lesion size, histopathologic analyses, and smears confirmed the in vivo effectiveness of the compound, since the parasitic load was diminished without noticeable toxic effects. PMID:21788471

  5. Organic photovoltaic cells with stable top metal electrodes modified with polyethylenimine.

    PubMed

    Khan, Talha M; Zhou, Yinhua; Dindar, Amir; Shim, Jae Won; Fuentes-Hernandez, Canek; Kippelen, Bernard

    2014-05-14

    Efficient organic photovoltaic cells (OPV) often contain highly reactive low-work-function calcium electron-collecting electrodes. In this work, efficient OPV are demonstrated in which calcium electrodes were avoided by depositing a thin layer of the amine-containing nonconjugated polymer, polyethylenimine (PEIE), between the photoactive organic semiconductor layer and stable metal electrodes such as aluminum, silver, or gold. Devices with structure ITO/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS)/poly(3-hexylthiophene):indene-C60-bis-adduct (P3HT:ICBA)/PEIE/Al demonstrated overall photovoltaic device performance comparable to devices containing calcium electron-collecting electrodes, ITO/PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:ICBA/Ca/Al, with open-circuit voltage of 775±6 mV, short-circuit current density of 9.1±0.5 mA cm(-2), fill factor of 0.65±0.01, and power conversion efficiency of 4.6±0.3%, averaged over 5 devices at 1 sun.

  6. Metal Evaporation-Induced Degradation of Fullerene Acceptors in Polymer/Fullerene Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wenchao; Gann, Eliot; Thomsen, Lars; Tadich, Anton; Cheng, Yi-Bing; McNeill, Christopher R

    2016-01-27

    Surface-sensitive NEXAFS spectroscopy is used to probe the interaction between low work function metal electrodes and fullerene derivatives in organic solar cells. Evaporation of either Ca or Al electrodes onto films of the fullerene derivatives (6,6)-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and indene-C60 bisadduct (ICBA) leads to a dramatic change in the observed NEXAFS spectrum. The observed changes cannot be explained only in terms of interfacial electronic doping or charge transfer, but rather point to the formation of new chemical bonds that destroy the extensive electron delocalization on the C60 cage. A combination of ex situ and in situ ultrahigh vacuum measurements indicates that metal evaporation results in a change in the electronic structure of PCBM that then facilitates chemical degradation and oxidation in the presence of oxygen. To investigate the effect of this chemical interaction on device performance, a unique transfer method to laminate the Al electrode to the top of polymer blend is used, in which case, the chemical degradation of the fullerene is not observed. Device performance of P3HT/PCBM blend solar cells in which the top metal electrode has either been thermally evaporated or transferred is then compared. These results highlight that chemical, as well as electronic, interactions between metals and organic semiconductors must be considered.

  7. Magnetic Contribution to Heat Capacity and Entropy of Nicke Ferrite (NiFe2O4)

    SciTech Connect

    S Ziemniak, L Anovitz, R Castelli

    2005-12-15

    The heat capacity of nickel ferrite was measured as a function of temperature over the range from 50 to 1200 C using a differential scanning calorimeter. A thermal anomaly was observed at 584.9 C, the expected Curie temperature, T{sub c}. The observed behavior was interpreted by recognizing the sum of three contributions: (1) lattice (vibrational), (2) a spin wave (magnetic) component and (3) a {lambda}-transition (antiferromagnetic-paramagnetic transition) at the Curie temperature. The first was modeled using vibrational frequencies derived from an experimentally-based ir absorption spectrum, while the second was modeled using a spin wave analysis that provided a T{sup 3/2} dependency in the low temperature limit, but incorporated an exchange interaction between cation spins in the octahedral and tetrahedral sites at elevated temperatures, as first suggested by Grimes [15]. The {lambda}-transition was fitted to an Inden-type model which consisted of two truncated power law series in dimensionless temperature (T/T{sub c}). Exponential equality was observed below and above T{sub c}, indicating symmetry about the Curie temperature. Application of the methodology to existing heat capacity data for other transition metal ferrites (AFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, A = Fe, Co) revealed the same exponential equality, i.e., m = n = 5.

  8. α,α'-Diarylacenaphtho[1,2-c]phosphole P-oxides: divergent synthesis and application to cathode buffer layers in organic photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Matano, Yoshihiro; Saito, Arihiro; Suzuki, Yuto; Miyajima, Tooru; Akiyama, Seiji; Otsubo, Saika; Nakamoto, Emi; Aramaki, Shinji; Imahori, Hiroshi

    2012-10-01

    A divergent method for the synthesis of α,α'-diarylacenaphtho[1,2-c]phosphole P-oxides has been established; α,α'-dibromoacenaphtho[c]phosphole P-oxide, which was prepared through a Ti(II)-mediated cyclization of 1,8-bis(trimethylsilylethynyl)naphthalene, underwent a Stille coupling with three different kinds of aryltributylstannanes to afford the α,α'-diarylacenaphtho[c]phosphole P-oxides in moderate to good yields. X-ray crystallographic analyses and UV/Vis absorption/fluorescence measurements have revealed that the degree of π-conjugation, the packing motif, the electron-accepting ability, and the thermal stability of the acenaphtho[c]phosphole π-systems are finely tunable with the α-aryl substituents. All the P=O and P=S derivatives exhibited high stability in their electrochemically reduced state. To use this class of arene-fused phosphole π-systems as n-type semiconducting materials, we evaluated device performances of the bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaics (OPV) that consist of poly(3-hexylthiophene), an indene-C(70) bisadduct, and a cathode buffer layer. The insertion of the diarylacenaphtho[c]phosphole P-oxides as the buffer layer was found to improve the power conversion efficiency of the polymer-based OPV devices.

  9. Crystal structure of a bioactive sesquiterpene isolated from Artemisia reticulata

    PubMed Central

    Bauri, A. K.; Foro, Sabine; Do, Nhu Quynh Nguyen

    2016-01-01

    The title compound, C15H24O2 {systematic name: 1-[6-hy­droxy-7-(propan-2-yl)-4-methyl­idene-2,3,3a,4,5,6,7,7a-octa­hydro-1H-inden-1-yl]ethanone} was iso­la­ted from A. reticulata by column chromatography over silica gel by gradient solvent elution. The mol­ecule comprises a bi­cyclo­[4.3.0]nonane ring bearing acet­oxy, hy­droxy and isopropyl substituents, and an exocyclic double bond on the cyclo­hexane ring. In the bicyclic skeleton, the cyclo­hexane ring adopts a chair conformation ring and the cyclo­pentane ring is in an envelope conformation. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming chains along [010]. These chains are cross-linked by C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. PMID:27375864

  10. Iron(III) Fluorinated Porphyrins: Greener Chemistry from Synthesis to Oxidative Catalysis Reactions.

    PubMed

    Rebelo, Susana L H; Silva, André M N; Medforth, Craig J; Freire, Cristina

    2016-04-12

    Iron(III) fluorinated porphyrins play a central role in the biomimetics of heme enzymes and enable cleaner routes to the oxidation of organic compounds. The present work reports significant improvements in the eco-compatibility of the synthesis of 5,10,15,20-tetrakis-pentafluorophenylporphyrin (H₂TPFPP) and the corresponding iron complex [Fe(TPFPP)Cl], and the use of [Fe(TPFPP)Cl] as an oxidation catalyst in green conditions. The preparations of H₂TPFPP and [Fe(TPFPP)Cl] typically use toxic solvents and can be made significantly greener and simpler using microwave heating and optimization of the reaction conditions. In the optimized procedure it was possible to eliminate nitrobenzene from the porphyrin synthesis and replace DMF by acetonitrile in the metalation reaction, concomitant with a significant reduction of reaction time and simplification of the purification procedure. The Fe(III)porphyrin is then tested as catalyst in the selective oxidation of aromatics at room temperature using a green oxidant (hydrogen peroxide) and green solvent (ethanol). Efficient epoxidation of indene and selective oxidation of 3,5-dimethylphenol and naphthalene to the corresponding quinones is observed.

  11. PAHs composition of surface marine sediments: a comparison to potential local sources in Todos Santos Bay, B.C., Mexico.

    PubMed

    Macías-Zamora, J V; Mendoza-Vega, E; Villaescusa-Celaya, J A

    2002-01-01

    The analysis of the 16 polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) listed as priority pollutants by EPA, was carried out on surface sediments at 32 stations at Todos Santos Bay, Baja California, Mexico. The purpose was to investigate concentration levels, distribution patterns and relate them to three suspected local sources. The PAHs composition of car exhaust, grass and shrubs combustion, and asphalt and tire dust, were all compared to the relative abundance of PAHs signature found on marine sediments of the bay. We used GC-MS analysis in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The total concentration found was low (from 7.6 to 813 ng/g of dry sediment. The average concentration was 96 ng/g). PAHs concentration was somewhat correlated (r = 0.612; P < 0.05) with organic matter content. Surface distributions suggest depositional patterns conforming to the reported water circulation in the bay. The maximum concentration was found near Todos Santos Canyon. The largest concentrations found were those of fluoranthene (120.6 ng/g), Indene(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene (115.6 ng/g) and pyrene (109.9 ng/g). Percentagewise, the main components were PAHs with three and four rings. Several indexes were used to investigate origins including simple PAH ratios and ternary plots. These indexes and plots suggest the main origin as a combination of urban air and wood and brush fires with little influence of oil.

  12. Phelligridins C-F: cytotoxic pyrano[4,3-c][2]benzopyran-1,6-dione and furo[3,2-c]pyran-4-one derivatives from the fungus Phellinus igniarius.

    PubMed

    Mo, Shunyan; Wang, Sujuan; Zhou, Guangxiong; Yang, Yongchun; Li, Yan; Chen, Xiaoguang; Shi, Jiangong

    2004-05-01

    Three unique pyrano[4,3-c][2]benzopyran-1,6-dione derivatives and a new furo[3,2-c]pyran-4-one, named phelligridins C-F (2-5), together with hispolon (8), (E)-4-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)but-3-en-2-one (9), 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, protocatechualdehyde, syringic acid, protocatechuic acid, caffeic acid, isoergosterone, and octadecyl ferulate were isolated and identified from the ethanolic extract of Phellinus igniarius. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods including IR, MS, and 1D and 2D NMR experiments. The structures of the new compounds were characterized as 3-(4-hydroxystyryl)-8,9-dihydroxypyrano[4,3-c]isochromene-4-one (2), 3-(3,4-hydroxystyryl)-8,9-dihydroxypyrano[4,3-c]isochromene-4-one (3), 8,9-dihydroxy-3-[5',6'-dihydroxy-5' '-methyl-3' '-oxo-spiro[fural-2' '(3' 'H),1'-indene]-2'-yl]-1H,6H-pyrano[4,3-c][2]benzopyran-1,6-dione (4), and (3Z)-3-(3,4-dihydroxybenzylidene)-6-(3,4-dihydroxystyryl)-2,3-dihydro-2-methoxy-2-(2-oxo-propyl)furo[3,2-c]pyran-4-one (5), respectively. Some compounds including 2 and 3 showed in vitro selective cytotoxicity against a human lung cancer cell line (A549) and a liver cancer cell line (Bel7402). Possible biogenetic sequences to the formation of 1-9 are postulated.

  13. The influence of polymer purification on the efficiency of poly(3-hexylthiophene):fullerene organic solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Bannock, James H.; Treat, Neil D.; Chabinyc, Michael; Stingelin, Natalie; Heeney, Martin; de Mello, John C.

    2016-01-01

    We report the influence of different polymer purification procedures on the photovoltaic performance of bulk heterojunction solar cells formed from binary blends of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and fullerenes. Selective Soxhlet extractions and metal scavenging agents were used to remove residual monomer, magnesium salt by-products and catalyst from high-weight P3HT (Mw 121 kg/mol, PDI 1.8, RR 99%) synthesised by the Grignard metathesis (GRIM) polymerization route. Using phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC60BM) as an electron acceptor, we observed an increase in average power conversion efficiency from 2.3 to 4.8% in going from crude to fully purified material. Using indene-C60 bisadduct (IC60BA) in place of PC60BM, we observed a further increase to an average value of 6.6% - high for a bulk heterojunction formed from a binary blend of P3HT and C60 fullerene derivatives. PMID:27029994

  14. Enhanced regeneration of degraded polymer solar cells by thermal annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Pankaj; Bilen, Chhinder; Zhou, Xiaojing; Belcher, Warwick J.; Dastoor, Paul C.; Feron, Krishna

    2014-05-12

    The degradation and thermal regeneration of poly(3-hexylethiophene) (P3HT):[6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and P3HT:indene-C{sub 60} bisadduct (ICBA) polymer solar cells, with Ca/Al and Ca/Ag cathodes and indium tin oxide/poly(ethylene-dioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate anode have been investigated. Degradation occurs via a combination of three primary pathways: (1) cathodic oxidation, (2) active layer phase segregation, and (3) anodic diffusion. Fully degraded devices were subjected to thermal annealing under inert atmosphere. Degraded solar cells possessing Ca/Ag electrodes were observed to regenerate their performance, whereas solar cells having Ca/Al electrodes exhibited no significant regeneration of device characteristics after thermal annealing. Moreover, the solar cells with a P3HT:ICBA active layer exhibited enhanced regeneration compared to P3HT:PCBM active layer devices as a result of reduced changes to the active layer morphology. Devices combining a Ca/Ag cathode and P3HT:ICBA active layer demonstrated ∼50% performance restoration over several degradation/regeneration cycles.

  15. Evaluating the Effects of Aromatics Content in Gasoline on Gaseous and Particulate Matter Emissions from SI-PFI and SIDI Vehicles.

    PubMed

    Karavalakis, Georgios; Short, Daniel; Vu, Diep; Russell, Robert; Hajbabaei, Maryam; Asa-Awuku, Akua; Durbin, Thomas D

    2015-06-01

    We assessed the emissions response of a fleet of seven light-duty gasoline vehicles for gasoline fuel aromatic content while operating over the LA92 driving cycle. The test fleet consisted of model year 2012 vehicles equipped with spark-ignition (SI) and either port fuel injection (PFI) or direct injection (DI) technology. Three gasoline fuels were blended to meet a range of total aromatics targets (15%, 25%, and 35% by volume) while holding other fuel properties relatively constant within specified ranges, and a fourth fuel was formulated to meet a 35% by volume total aromatics target but with a higher octane number. Our results showed statistically significant increases in carbon monoxide, nonmethane hydrocarbon, particulate matter (PM) mass, particle number, and black carbon emissions with increasing aromatics content for all seven vehicles tested. Only one vehicle showed a statistically significant increase in total hydrocarbon emissions. The monoaromatic hydrocarbon species that were evaluated showed increases with increasing aromatic content in the fuel. Changes in fuel composition had no statistically significant effect on the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), formaldehyde, or acetaldehyde. A good correlation was also found between the PM index and PM mass and number emissions for all vehicle/fuel combinations with the total aromatics group being a significant contributor to the total PM index followed by naphthalenes and indenes.

  16. Stimulation of protein synthesis by phosphatidic acid in rat cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Y J; Yau, L; Yu, L P; Elimban, V; Zahradka, P; Dhalla, N S

    1996-12-13

    Phosphatidic acid (PA) was observed to stimulate protein synthesis in adult cardiomyocytes in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. The maximal stimulation in protein synthesis (142 +/- 12% vs 100% as the control) was achieved at 10 microM PA within 60 min and was inhibited by actinomycin D (107 +/- 4% of the control) or cycloheximide (105 +/- 6% of the control). The increase in protein synthesis due to PA was attenuated or abolished by preincubation of cardiomyocytes with a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, genistein (94 +/- 9% of the control), phospholipase C inhibitors 2-nitro-4-carboxyphenyl N,N-diphenyl carbamate or carbon-odithioic acid O-(octahydro-4,7-methanol-1H-inden-5-yl (101 +/- 6 and 95 +/- 5% of the control, respectively), protein kinase C inhibitors staurosporine or polymyxin B (109 +/- 3 and 93 +/- 3% of the control), and chelators of extracellular and intracellular free Ca2+ EGTA or BAPTA/AM (103 +/- 6 and 95 +/- 6% of the control, respectively). PA at different concentrations (0.1 to 100 microM) also caused phosphorylation of a cell surface protein of approximately 24 kDa. In addition, mitogen-activated protein kinase was stimulated by PA in a concentration-dependent manner; maximal stimulation (217 +/- 6% of the control) was seen at 10 microM PA. These data suggest that PA increases protein synthesis in adult rat cardiomyocytes and thus may play an important role in the development of cardiac hypertrophy.

  17. KR-62980 suppresses lipid metabolism through inhibition of cytosolic NADP isocitrate dehydrogenase in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Chun, Hang-Suk; Shin, Sun Hye; Ahn, Sunjoo; Shin, Dae-Seop; Choi, Sun-Sil; Ahn, Jin Hee; Bae, Myung Ae

    2014-04-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is a target of antidiabetic drugs. However, many PPARγ activators, including rosiglitazone, show unwanted side effects, such as weight gain. The KR-62980 [1-(trans-methylimino-N-oxy)-3-phenyl-6-(3-phenylpropoxy)-1H-indene-2-carboxylic acid ethyl ester], a novel partial agonist of PPARγ, is a new compound for diabetes with antihyperglycemic activity and weak antiadipogenic activity. This study was performed to elucidate the mechanism of the weak adipogenesis induced by KR-62980 despite its being a PPARγ agonist in zebrafish. We elucidated the mechanism of KR-62980 in lipid metabolism using adipocytes and zebrafish. Since NADPH is a critical cofactor in fat metabolism, we investigated effect of KR-62980 on NADPH-producing enzymes such as cytosolic NADP(+) isocitrate dehydrogenase (cICDH). We found that the mRNA expression of cICDH was significantly decreased by KR-62980 in 3T3-L1 cells. KR-62980 inhibited lipase activity and lipid metabolism in zebrafish. Further, KR-62980 substantially suppressed cICDH in adipocytes and zebrafish. These results suggest that cICDH may be one of the targets of KR-62980 responsible for weight gain and adipogenesis.

  18. Incorporation of New Benzofulvene Derivatives Into Polymers to Give New NLO Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowens, Andrea D.; Bu, Xiu; Mintz, Eric A.; Zhang, Yue

    1996-01-01

    The need for fast electro-optic switches and modulators for optical communication, and laser frequency conversion has created a demand for new second-order non-linear optical materials. One approach to produce such materials is to align chromophores with large molecular hyperpolarizabilities in polymers. Recently fulvenes and benzofulvenes which contain electron donating groups have been shown to exhibit large second-order non-linear optical properties. The resonance structures shown below suggest that intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) should be favorable in omega - (hydroxyphenyl)benzofulvenes and even more favorable in omega-omega - (phenoxy)benzofulvenes because of the enhanced donor properties of the O group. This ICT should lead to enormously enhanced second-order hyperpolarizability. We have prepared all three new omega - (hydroxyphenyl)benzofulvenes by the condensation of indene with the appropriate hydroxyaryl aldehyde in MeOH or MeOH/H2O under base catalysis. In a similar fashion we have prepared substituted benzofulvenes with multipal donor groups. Preliminary studies show that some of our benzofulvene derivatives exhibit second order harmonic generation (SHG). Measurements were carried out by preparing host-guest polymers. The results of our work on benzofulvene derivatives in host-guest polymers when covalently bonded in the polymer will be described.

  19. New recombinant cyclohexylamine oxidase variants for deracemization of secondary amines by orthogonally assaying designed mutants with structurally diverse substrates.

    PubMed

    Li, Guangyue; Yao, Peiyuan; Cong, Peiqian; Ren, Jie; Wang, Lei; Feng, Jinhui; Lau, Peter C K; Wu, Qiaqing; Zhu, Dunming

    2016-01-01

    To further expand the substrate range of the cyclohexylamine oxidase (CHAO) from Brevibacterium oxydans, a library of diverse mutants was created and assayed toward a group of structurally diverse substrates. Among them, mutants T198A and M226A exhibited enhanced activity relative to wt CHAO for most (S)-enantiomers of primary amines and some secondary amines. While mutants T198I, L199I, L199F, M226I and M226T were more active than wt CHAO toward the primary amines, mutants T198F, L199T, Y321A, Y321T, Y321I and Y321F enhanced the enzyme activity toward the secondary amines. In particular, mutant Y321I displayed an enhanced catalytic efficiency toward 1-(4-methoxybenzyl)-1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8-octahydroisoquinoline (13). Whereas a double mutant, Y321I/M226T, acted on (S)-N-(prop-2-yn-1-yl)-2, 3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-amine [(S)-8]. Since (R)-8 is an irreversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase and (S)-13 is an intermediate of dextromethorphan, a cough suppressant drug, deracemizations of 8 and 13 were carried out with crude enzyme extracts of the respective mutants. This resulted in 51% and 78% isolated yields of (R)-8 and (S)-13, respectively, each with high enantiomeric excess (93% and 99% ee). The results demonstrated the application potential of the evolved CHAO mutants in drug synthesis requiring chiral secondary amines. PMID:27138090

  20. Organic solar cells with graded absorber layers processed from nanoparticle dispersions.

    PubMed

    Gärtner, Stefan; Reich, Stefan; Bruns, Michael; Czolk, Jens; Colsmann, Alexander

    2016-03-28

    The fabrication of organic solar cells with advanced multi-layer architectures from solution is often limited by the choice of solvents since most organic semiconductors dissolve in the same aromatic agents. In this work, we investigate multi-pass deposition of organic semiconductors from eco-friendly ethanol dispersion. Once applied, the nanoparticles are insoluble in the deposition agent, allowing for the application of further nanoparticulate layers and hence for building poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl):indene-C60 bisadduct absorber layers with vertically graded polymer and conversely graded fullerene concentration. Upon thermal annealing, we observe some degrees of polymer/fullerene interdiffusion by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Kelvin probe force microscopy. Replacing the common bulk-heterojunction by such a graded photo-active layer yields an enhanced fill factor of the solar cell due to an improved charge carrier extraction, and consequently an overall power conversion efficiency beyond 4%. Wet processing of such advanced device architectures paves the way for a versatile, eco-friendly and industrially feasible future fabrication of organic solar cells with advanced multi-layer architectures. PMID:26952692

  1. Feruloylputrescine and Caffeoylputrescine Are Not Involved in Growth and Floral Bud Formation of Stem Explants from Nicotiana tabacum L. var Xanthi nc

    PubMed Central

    Wyss-Benz, Markus; Streit, Luc; Ebert, Edith

    1990-01-01

    The role of feruloylputrescine (FP) and of caffeoylputrescine (CP) was investigated in an explant system of stem explants from day-neutral Nicotiana tabacum L. var Xanthi nc. Previously, a correlation between cortical callus formation and increase in FP content, as well as between in vitro flower formation and increase in CP content had been shown. During the explant growth in vitro, the increase of both FP and CP was inhibited by 4-fluor-(1-amino-2-phenylethyl)phosphonic acid and 2-amino-indene-2-phosphonic acid, both inhibitors of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (EC 4.3.1.5). dl-α-difluoromethylarginine, an inhibitor of arginine decarboxylase (ADC, EC 4.1.1.19), prevented only the increase in FP, while dl-α-difluoromethylornithine, an inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.17), reduced only that of CP. Increase in dry weight and the formation of cortical callus and of floral buds of explants were not affected by any of the inhibitors. We conclude, in contrast to earlier hypotheses, that FP and CP do not trigger growth and differentiation in the explants. It seems more likely that FP and CP increase in response to auxin and cytokinin in the media. Images Figure 1 PMID:16667407

  2. Limonene-1,2-Epoxide Hydrolase from Rhodococcus erythropolis DCL14 Belongs to a Novel Class of Epoxide Hydrolases

    PubMed Central

    van der Werf, Mariët J.; Overkamp, Karin M.; de Bont, Jan A. M.

    1998-01-01

    An epoxide hydrolase from Rhodococcus erythropolis DCL14 catalyzes the hydrolysis of limonene-1,2-epoxide to limonene-1,2-diol. The enzyme is induced when R. erythropolis is grown on monoterpenes, reflecting its role in the limonene degradation pathway of this microorganism. Limonene-1,2-epoxide hydrolase was purified to homogeneity. It is a monomeric cytoplasmic enzyme of 17 kDa, and its N-terminal amino acid sequence was determined. No cofactor was required for activity of this colorless enzyme. Maximal enzyme activity was measured at pH 7 and 50°C. None of the tested inhibitors or metal ions inhibited limonene-1,2-epoxide hydrolase activity. Limonene-1,2-epoxide hydrolase has a narrow substrate range. Of the compounds tested, only limonene-1,2-epoxide, 1-methylcyclohexene oxide, cyclohexene oxide, and indene oxide were substrates. This report shows that limonene-1,2-epoxide hydrolase belongs to a new class of epoxide hydrolases based on (i) its low molecular mass, (ii) the absence of any significant homology between the partial amino acid sequence of limonene-1,2-epoxide hydrolase and amino acid sequences of known epoxide hydrolases, (iii) its pH profile, and (iv) the inability of 2-bromo-4′-nitroacetophenone, diethylpyrocarbonate, 4-fluorochalcone oxide, and 1,10-phenanthroline to inhibit limonene-1,2-epoxide hydrolase activity. PMID:9748436

  3. Transition-Metal-Catalyzed Direct Addition of Aryl C-H Bonds to Unsaturated Electrophiles.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xian-Ying; Han, Wen-Jing; Li, Chao-Jun

    2016-06-01

    The direct addition of Csp(2) -H bonds onto polar C=C, C=O, and C=N bonds is both synthetically and mechanistically important, because using aromatic C-H substrates in place of organometallic reagents provides a more direct and atom-economical alternative to many important compounds without the pre-generation of organometallic compounds from stoichiometric halides and the unavoidable generation of stoichiometric metal halide waste. In this account, we summarize our contributions to the transition-metal-catalyzed addition of aromatic C-H bonds to polar C=C, C=O, and C=N bonds via directing-group-assisted regiospecific reactions. These synthetic methods provide efficient access to benzylic alcohols, alkylbenzenes, 3-substituted phthalides, N-substituted phthalimides, N-aryl benzamides, and indene derivatives from commercially available reagents. It is worth noting that valuable heterocycles such as 3-substituted phthalides and N-substituted phthalimides can be obtained in one step by this approach. PMID:27059538

  4. Discovery of a Series of Imidazo[4,5-b]pyridines with Dual Activity at Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor and Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-[gamma

    SciTech Connect

    Casimiro-Garcia, Agustin; Filzen, Gary F.; Flynn, Declan; Bigge, Christopher F.; Chen, Jing; Davis, Jo Ann; Dudley, Danette A.; Edmunds, Jeremy J.; Esmaeil, Nadia; Geyer, Andrew; Heemstra, Ronald J.; Jalaie, Mehran; Ohren, Jeffrey F.; Ostroski, Robert; Ellis, Teresa; Schaum, Robert P.; Stoner, Chad

    2013-03-07

    Mining of an in-house collection of angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonists to identify compounds with activity at the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) revealed a new series of imidazo[4,5-b]pyridines 2 possessing activity at these two receptors. Early availability of the crystal structure of the lead compound 2a bound to the ligand binding domain of human PPAR{gamma} confirmed the mode of interaction of this scaffold to the nuclear receptor and assisted in the optimization of PPAR{gamma} activity. Among the new compounds, (S)-3-(5-(2-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)phenyl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-yl)-2-ethyl-5-isobutyl-7-methyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (2l) was identified as a potent angiotensin II type I receptor blocker (IC{sub 50} = 1.6 nM) with partial PPAR{gamma} agonism (EC{sub 50} = 212 nM, 31% max) and oral bioavailability in rat. The dual pharmacology of 2l was demonstrated in animal models of hypertension (SHR) and insulin resistance (ZDF rat). In the SHR, 2l was highly efficacious in lowering blood pressure, while robust lowering of glucose and triglycerides was observed in the male ZDF rat.

  5. Flexible inverted polymer solar cells fabricated in air at low temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwabara, Takayuki; Wang, Xiaofan; Kusumi, Takuji; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Taima, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Kohshin

    2016-08-01

    A series of modified indium tin oxide (ITO) materials, including sol–gel zinc-oxide-coated ITO (ITO/ZnO), ZnO nanoparticle-coated ITO (ITO/ZnO-NP), 1,4-bis(3-aminopropyl)piperazine (BAP)-modified ITO, and polyethylenimine ethoxylated (PEIE)-modified ITO, were used for electron-collection electrodes in inverted polymer solar cells (PSCs). The modified ITO electrodes were prepared in air at temperatures below 100 °C, using various ITO films on flexible poly(ethylene terephthalate) substrates (PET–ITO) with sheet resistances ranging from 12 to 60 Ω sq‑1. The PET–ITO (12 Ω sq‑1)/ZnO-NP PSC exhibited an improved power conversion efficiency (PCE) (2.93%), and this PCE was ∼90% of that observed for a cell using glass–ITO/ZnO-NP (sheet resistance = 10 Ω sq‑1 PCE = 3.28%). Additionally, we fabricated a flexible inverted ZnO-NP PSC using an indene-C60 bisadduct (ICBA) as the acceptor material in place of [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and obtained a PCE of 4.18%.

  6. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in airborne particulate matter in Curitiba, Brazil and benzo(a)pyrene toxic equivalency factors (TEFs).

    PubMed

    Froehner, Sandro; Maceno, Marcell; Machado, Karina Scurupa; Malheiros, Andre

    2010-09-01

    The concentration of PAHs in particulate matter was investigated in the city of Curitiba, located in south of Brazil. Urban atmospheric particulate matter was collected at six sampling sites whose characteristics were representative of the prevailing conditions. The concentration of particulate matter varied from 11.02 to 177.27 ng/m(3). Particulate matter was basically composed of PAHs with 3 and 4 aromatic rings and it agrees with results of air quality monitoring performed in other cities around the world. Molecular ratios, such as (Benzo(ghi)Perilene/Indene(cd)Pyrene, B(ghi)P/I(cd)P, indicate that the source of PAHs is gasoline engines in the downtown area and diesel engines in surrounding sites representing a heavy traffic situation. It was also investigated the toxic level of particulate matter using the BaP equivalency factor. The BaP(eq) for all samples was between 0.42 to 1.12 ng/m(3). The equivalency BaP(eq) indicated low health risk associated with exposure to the total PAHs content in environmental air. PMID:20658413

  7. A Deep Insight into the Details of the Interisomerization and Decomposition Mechanism of o-Quinolyl and o-Isoquinolyl Radicals. Quantum Chemical Calculations and Computer Modeling.

    PubMed

    Dubnikova, Faina; Tamburu, Carmen; Lifshitz, Assa

    2016-09-29

    The isomerization of o-quinolyl ↔ o-isoquinolyl radicals and their thermal decomposition were studied by quantum chemical methods, where potential energy surfaces of the reaction channels and their kinetics rate parameters were determined. A detailed kinetics scheme containing 40 elementary steps was constructed. Computer simulations were carried out to determine the isomerization mechanism and the distribution of reaction products in the decomposition. The calculated mole percent of the stable products was compared to the experimental values that were obtained in this laboratory in the past, using the single pulse shock tube. The agreement between the experimental and the calculated mole percents was very good. A map of the figures containing the mole percent's of eight stable products of the decomposition plotted vs T are presented. The fast isomerization of o-quinolyl → o-isoquinolyl radicals via the intermediate indene imine radical and the attainment of fast equilibrium between these two radicals is the reason for the identical product distribution regardless whether the reactant radical is o-quinolyl or o-isoquinolyl. Three of the main decomposition products of o-quinolyl radical, are those containing the benzene ring, namely, phenyl, benzonitrile, and phenylacetylene radicals. They undergo further decomposition mainly at high temperatures via two types of reactions: (1) Opening of the benzene ring in the radicals, followed by splitting into fragments. (2) Dissociative attachment of benzonitrile and phenyl acetylene by hydrogen atoms to form hydrogen cyanide and acetylene. PMID:27583646

  8. Zn distribution and speciation in zinc-containing steelmaking wastes by synchrotron radiation induced μ-XRF and μ-XANES spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lihua; Huang, Yuying; Lu, Xiaoming

    2013-04-01

    Zinc is an important element in steelmaking industry not only for its impact on environment but also for its hazardous influence to steel production. Collecting information about the chemical association of zinc in zinc-containing steelmaking wastes is fundamental for monitoring its behavior during further treatment. In the work presented here, the spatial distribution, and chemical forms of zinc in accumulated particles of zinc-containing steelmaking wastes, including electric arc furnace dust (EAFD) and basic oxygen furnace OG sludge (BOF OG), have been investigated using synchrotron radiation induced μ-XRF and μ-XANES spectroscopy. Results of μ-XRF analysis showed that zinc distributed in two ways. One was shared with iron and its distribution showed a positive correlation with that of iron. The other was accumulated in some well-defined hot spots with high amount and its distribution showed negative correlation with that of iron. For EAFD, results of μ-XANES spectroscopy indicated that zinc was mainly present in the form of ZnFe2O4 within the whole particles no matter the spots with high or low zinc content. Whereas for BOF OG, ZnFe2O4 was the main constituent in well-defined hot spots while in other regions zinc was mainly in the form of zinc carbonate. These results indicated that chemical reaction between zinc and other components occurred during the formation of accumulated OG sludge particles. If the above findings could be confirmed by more systematic investigations, it will provide valuable information for treating and utilizing these metallurgical residues.

  9. 2-Oxoglutarate dehydrogenase and pyruvate dehydrogenase activities in plant mitochondria: interaction via a common coenzyme a pool.

    PubMed

    Dry, I B; Wiskich, J T

    1987-08-15

    2-Oxoglutarate (2-OG)-dependent O2 uptake by washed or purified turnip (Brassica rapa L.) and pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Massey Gem) leaf mitochondria, in the presence of malonate, was inhibited between 65 and 90% by micromolar levels of pyruvate. The inhibition was not observed in the absence of malonate and was reversed by alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid. The inhibition was also reversed by oxaloacetate or by malate, but not by any other tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates. The stimulation of O2 uptake by oxaloacetate was half maximal at 8-9 microM and was transient, indicating its action was not mediated through the complete metabolic removal of pyruvate. Pyruvate had not effect on 2-OG oxidation under conditions in which pyruvate dehydrogenase was not active, indicating that pyruvate metabolism, rather than pyruvate itself, was responsible for producing the inhibition of 2-OG oxidation. Similar results were obtained with detergent-treated mitochondrial extracts with the exception that the inhibition of 2-OG oxidation by pyruvate could also be reversed by coenzyme A. The results suggest that pyruvate inhibits 2-oxoglutarate oxidation, in intact plant mitochondria, by sequestering intramitochondrial CoA as acetyl-CoA and, in the absence of citrate synthase activity, reduces the amount of free coenzyme A available for 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase. These results indicate that pyruvate dehydrogenase and 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase share a common CoA pool within plant mitochondria and that the turnover of the acyl-CoA product of one enzyme will dramatically influence the activity of the other.

  10. Activating persulfate by Fe⁰ coupling with weak magnetic field: performance and mechanism.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Xinmei; Sun, Bo; Zhang, Jing; Gao, Naiyun; Shen, Jimin; Li, Jialing; Guan, Xiaohong

    2014-10-01

    Weak magnetic field (WMF) and Fe(0) were proposed to activate PS synergistically (WMF-Fe(0)/PS) to degrade dyes and aromatic contaminants. The removal rates of orange G (OG) by WMF-Fe(0)/PS generally decreased with increasing initial pH (3.0-10.0) and increased with increasing Fe(0) (0.5-3.0 mM) or PS dosages (0.5-3.0 mM). Compared to its counterpart without WMF, the WMF-Fe(0)/PS process could induce a 5.4-28.2 fold enhancement in the removal rate of OG under different conditions. Moreover, the application of WMF significantly enhanced the decolorization rate and the mineralization of OG. The degradation rates of caffeine, 4-nitrophenol, benzotriazole and diuron by Fe(0)/PS were improved by 2.1-11.1 fold due to the superimposed WMF. Compared to many other sulfate radical-based advanced oxidation technologies under similar reaction conditions, WMF-Fe(0)/PS technology could degrade selected organic contaminants with much greater rates. Sulfate radical was identified to be the primary radical species responsible for the OG degradation at pH 7.0 in WMF-Fe(0)/PS process. This study unraveled that the presence of WMF accelerated the corrosion rate of Fe(0) and thus promoted the release of Fe(2+), which induced the increased production of sulfate radicals from PS and promoted the degradation of organic contaminants. Employing WMF to enhance oxidation capacity of Fe(0)/PS is a novel, efficient, promising and environmental-friendly method since it does not need extra energy and costly reagents.

  11. Postural alignment in children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy and its relationship with balance

    PubMed Central

    Baptista, Cyntia R. J. A.; Costa, Andreia A.; Pizzato, Tatiana M.; Souza, Francine B.; Mattiello-Sverzut, Ana C.

    2014-01-01

    Background In Duchenne muscular dystrophy, functional deficits seem to arise from body misalignment, deconditioning, and obesity secondary to weakness and immobility. The question remains about the effects of postural deviations on the functional balance of these children. Objectives To identify and quantify postural deviations in children with DMD in comparison to non-affected children (eutrophic and overweight/obese), exploring relationships between posture and function. Method This case-control study evaluated 29 participants aged 6 to 11 years: 10 DMD (DG), 10 eutrophic (EG), and 9 overweight/obese (OG). Digital photogrammetry and SAPo program were used to measure postural alignment and the Pediatric Balance Scale (PBS) was used to measure balance. The Kruskall-Wallis and Dunn post-hoc tests were used for inter-group comparison of posture and balance. Spearman's coefficient tested the correlation between postural and balance variables. Results The horizontal pelvic alignment data indicated that the anteversion of the DG was similar to that of the OG and twice that of the EG (p<0.05). Compared to the EG, the DG and OG showed an increased forward position of the center of mass (p<0.05). There was a moderate and weak correlation between the PBS score and horizontal pelvic alignment (0.58 and 0.47-left/right). The PBS showed a weak correlation with asymmetries in the sagittal plane (-0.39). The PBS scores for the OG and EG suggest that obesity did not have a deleterious effect on balance. Conclusions The balance deficit in children with DMD was accompanied by an increased forward position of the center of mass and significant pelvic anteversion that constitutes a compensatory strategy to guarantee similar performance to the children not affected by the disease. PMID:24838810

  12. Back to school: what I learned teaching cross-culturally.

    PubMed

    Secor, Christy

    2011-01-01

    The need for nurse educators around the globe is prompting some to do short-term teaching internationally. Prompted by God's call and the great need at the Faculty of Nursing Science of the Episcopal University of Haiti (FSIL), the author taught in Léogâne, Haiti, for 18 days. This article shares practical insights from her experience and important revelations about teaching cross-culturally.

  13. Increased drought impacts on temperate rainforests from southern South America: results of a process-based, dynamic forest model.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Alvaro G; Armesto, Juan J; Díaz, M Francisca; Huth, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Increased droughts due to regional shifts in temperature and rainfall regimes are likely to affect forests in temperate regions in the coming decades. To assess their consequences for forest dynamics, we need predictive tools that couple hydrologic processes, soil moisture dynamics and plant productivity. Here, we developed and tested a dynamic forest model that predicts the hydrologic balance of North Patagonian rainforests on Chiloé Island, in temperate South America (42°S). The model incorporates the dynamic linkages between changing rainfall regimes, soil moisture and individual tree growth. Declining rainfall, as predicted for the study area, should mean up to 50% less summer rain by year 2100. We analysed forest responses to increased drought using the model proposed focusing on changes in evapotranspiration, soil moisture and forest structure (above-ground biomass and basal area). We compared the responses of a young stand (YS, ca. 60 years-old) and an old-growth forest (OG, >500 years-old) in the same area. Based on detailed field measurements of water fluxes, the model provides a reliable account of the hydrologic balance of these evergreen, broad-leaved rainforests. We found higher evapotranspiration in OG than YS under current climate. Increasing drought predicted for this century can reduce evapotranspiration by 15% in the OG compared to current values. Drier climate will alter forest structure, leading to decreases in above ground biomass by 27% of the current value in OG. The model presented here can be used to assess the potential impacts of climate change on forest hydrology and other threats of global change on future forests such as fragmentation, introduction of exotic tree species, and changes in fire regimes. Our study expands the applicability of forest dynamics models in remote and hitherto overlooked regions of the world, such as southern temperate rainforests.

  14. Increased Drought Impacts on Temperate Rainforests from Southern South America: Results of a Process-Based, Dynamic Forest Model

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Alvaro G.; Armesto, Juan J.; Díaz, M. Francisca; Huth, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Increased droughts due to regional shifts in temperature and rainfall regimes are likely to affect forests in temperate regions in the coming decades. To assess their consequences for forest dynamics, we need predictive tools that couple hydrologic processes, soil moisture dynamics and plant productivity. Here, we developed and tested a dynamic forest model that predicts the hydrologic balance of North Patagonian rainforests on Chiloé Island, in temperate South America (42°S). The model incorporates the dynamic linkages between changing rainfall regimes, soil moisture and individual tree growth. Declining rainfall, as predicted for the study area, should mean up to 50% less summer rain by year 2100. We analysed forest responses to increased drought using the model proposed focusing on changes in evapotranspiration, soil moisture and forest structure (above-ground biomass and basal area). We compared the responses of a young stand (YS, ca. 60 years-old) and an old-growth forest (OG, >500 years-old) in the same area. Based on detailed field measurements of water fluxes, the model provides a reliable account of the hydrologic balance of these evergreen, broad-leaved rainforests. We found higher evapotranspiration in OG than YS under current climate. Increasing drought predicted for this century can reduce evapotranspiration by 15% in the OG compared to current values. Drier climate will alter forest structure, leading to decreases in above ground biomass by 27% of the current value in OG. The model presented here can be used to assess the potential impacts of climate change on forest hydrology and other threats of global change on future forests such as fragmentation, introduction of exotic tree species, and changes in fire regimes. Our study expands the applicability of forest dynamics models in remote and hitherto overlooked regions of the world, such as southern temperate rainforests. PMID:25068869

  15. 40 CFR 420.102 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... application of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT). Except as provided in 40 CFR....000626 O&G 0.000522 0.000209 Chromium 1 0.0000209 0.0000084 Lead 0.0000094 0.0000031 Nickel 1 0.0000188 0... limitations for chromium and nickel shall be applicable in lieu of those for lead and zinc when cold...

  16. 40 CFR 420.102 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... application of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT). Except as provided in 40 CFR....000626 O&G 0.000522 0.000209 Chromium 1 0.0000209 0.0000084 Lead 0.0000094 0.0000031 Nickel 1 0.0000188 0... limitations for chromium and nickel shall be applicable in lieu of those for lead and zinc when cold...

  17. 40 CFR 420.102 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... application of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT). Except as provided in 40 CFR....000626 O&G 0.000522 0.000209 Chromium 1 0.0000209 0.0000084 Lead 0.0000094 0.0000031 Nickel 1 0.0000188 0... limitations for chromium and nickel shall be applicable in lieu of those for lead and zinc when cold...

  18. 40 CFR 420.102 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... application of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT). Except as provided in 40 CFR....000626 O&G 0.000522 0.000209 Chromium 1 0.0000209 0.0000084 Lead 0.0000094 0.0000031 Nickel 1 0.0000188 0... limitations for chromium and nickel shall be applicable in lieu of those for lead and zinc when cold...

  19. 40 CFR 420.102 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... application of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT). Except as provided in 40 CFR....000626 O&G 0.000522 0.000209 Chromium 1 0.0000209 0.0000084 Lead 0.0000094 0.0000031 Nickel 1 0.0000188 0... limitations for chromium and nickel shall be applicable in lieu of those for lead and zinc when cold...

  20. Oak loss increases foliar nitrogen, δ(15)N and growth rates of Betula lenta in a northern temperate deciduous forest.

    PubMed

    Falxa-Raymond, Nancy; Patterson, Angelica E; Schuster, William S F; Griffin, Kevin L

    2012-09-01

    Oak forests dominate much of the eastern USA, but their future is uncertain due to a number of threats and widespread failure of oak regeneration. A sudden loss of oaks (Quercus spp.) could be accompanied by major changes in forest nitrogen (N) cycles with important implications for plant nutrient uptake and tree species composition. In this study, we measured the changes in N use and growth rates of black birch trees (Betula lenta L.) following oak girdling at the Black Rock Forest in southeastern New York, USA. Data were collected from nine experimental plots composed of three treatments: 100% oaks girdled (OG), 50% oaks girdled (O50) and control (C). Foliar N concentration and foliar (15)N abundance increased significantly in the oak-girdled plots relative to the control, indicating that the loss of oaks significantly altered N cycling dynamics. As mineralization and nitrification rates increase following oak loss, black birch trees increase N absorption as indicated by higher foliar N content and increased growth rates. Foliar N concentration increased by 15.5% in the O50 and 30.6% in the OG plots relative to the control, while O50 and OG plots were enriched in (15)N by 1.08‰ and 3.33‰, respectively (P < 0.0001). A 641% increase in black birch growth rates in OG plots suggests that this species is able to respond to additional N availability and/or increased light availability. The loss of oaks and subsequent increase in black birch productivity may have a lasting impact on ecosystem form and function.

  1. [Effect of grazing on sandy grassland ecosystem in Inner Mongolia].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Halin; Zhang, Tonghui; Zhao, Xueyong; Zhou, Ruilian

    2004-03-01

    This experiment was carried out for 5 years in Horqin sandy land, lnner Mongolia, which had 4 treatments: Non-grazing (NG), light grazing (LG), moderate grazing (MG) and over grazing (OG). The results showed that different grazing intensities resulted in different development trend of the pasture ecosystem, of which, the injury of OG on pasture ecosystem was very great. The plant diversity, vegetation coverage, plant height and primary productivity under continuous overgrazing for 5 year were 87.9%, 82.1%, 94.0% and 57.0%, respectively, lower than those in NG. The biomass on the OG pasture was only 2.1% of NG, and the contents of soil clay, C and N as well as the quantities of soil microbes and small animals in OG were respectively 6.0%, 31.9%, 25.0%, 95.0% and 75.9% lower than those in NG, but the soil hardness was raised by 274.0%. Especially, the secondary productivity of the pasture became negative from the third year, and the productive foundation of the pasture ecosystem was completely destroyed. Non-grazing was beneficial to pasture, and enclosure caused an increase in vegetation coverage, plant height and primary productivity. The vegetation coverage, plant height and soil status in LG and MG were not as good as those in NG, but were stable and didn't show worsening trend. Based on the above results, it's considered that on the sandy pasture in the semi-arid area of Inner Mongolia, the rational grass utilization ratio is 45%-50%, and the suitable loading capacity is 3-4 sheep unit.hm-2. PMID:15227991

  2. Providing a Connection between a Bayesian Inverse Modeling Tool and a Coupled Hydrogeological Processes Modeling Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frystacky, H.; Osorio-Murillo, C. A.; Over, M. W.; Kalbacher, T.; Gunnell, D.; Kolditz, O.; Ames, D.; Rubin, Y.

    2013-12-01

    The Method of Anchored Distributions (MAD) is a Bayesian technique for characterizing the uncertainty in geostatistical model parameters. Open-source software has been developed in a modular framework such that this technique can be applied to any forward model software via a driver. This presentation is about the driver that has been developed for OpenGeoSys (OGS), open-source software that can simulate many hydrogeological processes, including couple processes. MAD allows the use of multiple data types for conditioning the spatially random fields and assessing model parameter likelihood. For example, if simulating flow and mass transport, the inversion target variable could be hydraulic conductivity and the inversion data types could be head, concentration, or both. The driver detects from the OGS files which processes and variables are being used in a given project and allows MAD to prompt the user to choose those that are to be modeled or to be treated deterministically. In this way, any combination of processes allowed by OGS can have MAD applied. As for the software, there are two versions, each with its own OGS driver. A Windows desktop version is available as a graphical user interface and is ideal for the learning and teaching environment. High-throughput computing can even be achieved with this version via HTCondor if large projects want to be pursued in a computer lab. In addition to this desktop application, a Linux version is available equipped with MPI such that it can be run in parallel on a computer cluster. All releases can be downloaded from the MAD Codeplex site given below.

  3. Meals on Wheels? A Decade of Megafaunal Visual and Acoustic Observations from Offshore Oil & Gas Rigs and Platforms in the North and Irish Seas.

    PubMed

    Todd, Victoria Louise Georgia; Warley, Jane Clare; Todd, Ian Boyer

    2016-01-01

    A decade of visual and acoustic detections of marine megafauna around offshore Oil & Gas (O&G) installations in the North and Irish Seas are presented. Marine megafauna activity was monitored visually and acoustically by Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC) qualified and experienced Marine Mammal Observers (MMO) and Passive Acoustic Monitoring (PAM) Operators respectively, with real-time towed PAM in combination with industry standard software, PAMGuard. Monitoring was performed during routine O&G industrial operations for underwater noise mitigation purposes, and to ensure adherence to regulatory guidelines. Incidental sightings by off-effort MMOs and installation crew were also reported. Visual and acoustic monitoring spanned 55 non-consecutive days between 2004 and 2014. A total of 47 marine mammal sightings were recorded by MMOs on dedicated watch, and 10 incidental sightings of marine megafauna were reported over 10 years. Species included: harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), Atlantic white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus), white beaked dolphin (Lagenorhynchus albirostris), common dolphin (Delphinus delphis), minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), common seal (Phoca vitulina), grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) and, basking shark (Cetorhinus maximus). Passive Acoustic Monitoring was conducted on two occasions in 2014; 160 PAM hours over 12 days recorded a total of 308 individual clicks identified as harbour porpoises. These appear to be the first such acoustic detections obtained from a North Sea drilling rig whilst using a typically configured hydrophone array designed for towing in combination with real-time PAMGuard software. This study provides evidence that marine megafauna are present around mobile and stationary offshore O&G installations during routine operational activities. On this basis, Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) for decommissioning O&G platforms should be carried-out on a case-by-case basis, and must include provisions for

  4. 40 CFR 432.42 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve... daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 BOD5 2 0.48 0.24 Fecal Coliform (3) (4) O&G 5 0.26 0.13 TSS 2 0.62 0.31 1... processing of the carcasses of animals slaughtered on-site, the limitations for BOD5, fecal coliform,...

  5. 40 CFR 432.42 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve... daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 BOD5 2 0.48 0.24 Fecal Coliform (3) (4) O&G 5 0.26 0.13 TSS 2 0.62 0.31 1... processing of the carcasses of animals slaughtered on-site, the limitations for BOD5, fecal coliform,...

  6. Water-soluble oxoglaucine-Y(III), Dy(III) complexes: in vitro and in vivo anticancer activities by triggering DNA damage, leading to S phase arrest and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jian-Hua; Chen, Zhen-Feng; Qin, Jiao-Lan; Liu, Yan-Cheng; Li, Zhu-Quan; Khan, Taj-Malook; Wang, Meng; Jiang, Yan-Hua; Shen, Wen-Ying; Liang, Hong

    2015-07-01

    Complexes of yttrium(III) and dysprosium(III) with the traditional Chinese medicine active ingredient oxoglaucine (OG), namely [Y(OG)2(NO3)3]·CH3OH (1) and [Dy(OG)2(NO3)3]·H2O (2), were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, ESI-MS, (1)H and (13)C NMR as well as single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. In vitro the complexes exhibited higher anticancer activity than the free ligand OG against the tested cancer cell lines. Among the tested cell lines, HepG2 is the most sensitive to the complexes. Complex 2 can trigger DNA damage in HepG2 cells, resulting in cell cycle arrest in the S phase and leading to cell apoptosis. The S phase cell-cycle arrest is caused via the ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated)-Chk2-Cdc25A pathway. Chk2 is phosphorylated and activated in an ATM-dependent manner. It, in turn, phosphorylates Cdc25A phosphatise on serine124, causing the inactivation of Cdc25A in ubiquitin-mediated proteolytic degradation. The cyclin-Cdk complexes of the S phase could also be inhibited by limited supply of cyclins A and E. This irreversible cell cycle arrest process ultimately induces mitochondria-involved apoptotic cell death via the activation of Bcl-2 protein. Complex e2 ffectively inhibited tumour growth in the BEL-7402 xenograft mouse model and exhibited higher safety in vivo than cisplatin. PMID:26017376

  7. 12 CFR 263.50 - Purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... under section 38 of the FDI Act (12 U.S.C. 1831o); (12) Reclassification of a member bank on grounds of unsafe or unsound condition under section 38(g)(1) of the FDI Act (12 U.S.C. 1831o(g)(1)); (13) Reclassification of a member bank on grounds of unsafe and unsound practice under section 38(g)(1) of the FDI...

  8. Regulation of nif expression in Methanococcus maripaludis: roles of the euryarchaeal repressor NrpR, 2-oxoglutarate, and two operators.

    PubMed

    Lie, Thomas J; Wood, Gwendolyn E; Leigh, John A

    2005-02-18

    The methanogenic archaean Methanococcus maripaludis can use ammonia, alanine, or dinitrogen as a nitrogen source for growth. The euryarchaeal nitrogen repressor NrpR controls the expression of the nif (nitrogen fixation) operon, resulting in full repression with ammonia, intermediate repression with alanine, and derepression with dinitrogen. NrpR binds to two tandem operators in the nif promoter region, nifOR(1) and nifOR(2). Here we have undertaken both in vivo and in vitro approaches to study the way in which NrpR, nifOR(1), nifOR(2), and the effector 2-oxoglutarate (2OG) combine to regulate nif expression, leading to a comprehensive understanding of this archaeal regulatory system. We show that NrpR binds as a dimer to nifOR(1) and cooperatively as two dimers to both operators. Cooperative binding occurs only with both operators present. nifOR(1) has stronger binding and by itself can mediate the repression of nif transcription during growth on ammonia, unlike the weakly binding nifOR(2). However, nifOR(2) in combination with nifOR(1) is critical for intermediate repression during growth on alanine. Accordingly, NrpR binds to both operators together with higher affinity than to nifOR(1) alone. NrpR responds directly to 2OG, which weakens its binding to the operators. Hence, 2OG is an intracellular indicator of nitrogen deficiency and acts as an inducer of nif transcription via NrpR. This model is upheld by the recent finding (J. A. Dodsworth and J. A. Leigh, submitted for publication) in our laboratory that 2OG levels in M. maripaludis vary with growth on different nitrogen sources.

  9. 40 CFR 432.105 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 0.18 0.09 Fecal coliform (2) (3) O&G 1 4 0.10 0.05 Total Nitrogen 5 194 134 TSS 1 0.22 0.11 1 Pounds... specified in § 432.105 of title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations, revised as of July 1, 2003, must... period specified in 40 CFR 122.29(d)(1) after which it must achieve the effluent limitations specified...

  10. 40 CFR 432.105 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Fecal coliform (2) (3) O&G 1,4 0.10 0.05 Total Nitrogen 5 194 134 TSS 1 0.22 0.11 1 Pounds per 1000 lbs....105 of title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations, revised as of July 1, 2003, must continue to... specified in 40 CFR 122.29(d)(1) after which it must achieve the effluent limitations specified in §§...

  11. 40 CFR 432.105 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 0.18 0.09 Fecal coliform (2) (3) O&G 1,4 0.10 0.05 Total Nitrogen 5 194 134 TSS 1 0.22 0.11 1 Pounds... specified in § 432.105 of title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations, revised as of July 1, 2003, must... period specified in 40 CFR 122.29(d)(1) after which it must achieve the effluent limitations specified...

  12. Design and evaluation of 1,7-naphthyridones as novel KDM5 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Labadie, Sharada S; Dragovich, Peter S; Cummings, Richard T; Deshmukh, Gauri; Gustafson, Amy; Han, Ning; Harmange, Jean-Christophe; Kiefer, James R; Li, Yue; Liang, Jun; Liederer, Bianca M; Liu, Yichin; Manieri, Wanda; Mao, Wiefeng; Murray, Lesley; Ortwine, Daniel F; Trojer, Patrick; VanderPorten, Erica; Vinogradova, Maia; Wen, Li

    2016-09-15

    Features from a high throughput screening (HTS) hit and a previously reported scaffold were combined to generate 1,7-naphthyridones as novel KDM5 enzyme inhibitors with nanomolar potencies. These molecules exhibited high selectivity over the related KDM4C and KDM2B isoforms. An X-ray co-crystal structure of a representative molecule bound to KDM5A showed that these inhibitors are competitive with the co-substrate (2-oxoglutarate or 2-OG). PMID:27499454

  13. A population-based observational study on the factors associated with the completion of palliative chemotherapy among patients with oesophagogastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Groene, Oliver; Crosby, Tom; Hardwick, Richard Henry; Riley, Stuart; Greenaway, Kimberley; Cromwell, David

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Palliative chemotherapy is routinely given to patients diagnosed with locally advanced or metastatic oesophagogastric (O-G) cancer. We examine which patients with O-G cancer in England receive palliative chemotherapy, and identify factors associated with treatment completion. Design A prospective population-based observational study. Setting All English National Health Service (NHS) trusts diagnosing patients with O-G cancer. Participants Data were prospectively collected on patients diagnosed with invasive epithelial cancer of the oesophagus or stomach between 1 October 2007 and 30 June 2009 in English NHS hospitals, and those who had palliative treatment intent. Outcome measure We calculated the proportion of patients with different characteristics (eg, age, sex, stage at diagnosis, performance status) starting palliative chemotherapy. Multiple logistic regression was used to identify characteristics associated with non-completion of chemotherapy. Results There were 9768 patients in the study whose treatment intent was palliative. Among these, 2313 (24%) received palliative chemotherapy. It was received by 51% of patients aged under 55 years but only 9% of patients aged 75 years or over. Overall, 917 patients (53%) completed their treatment among the 1741 patients for whom information on treatment completion was recorded. Treatment completion ranged from 50–60% for patients with good performance status but was under 35% for patients aged 55 years or older with poor performance status. Treatment completion was not associated with site of cancer, pretreatment stage, sex, comorbidities or histology. Conclusions Completion rates of palliative chemotherapy in patients with O-G cancer are low and elderly patients with poor performance status are very unlikely to complete a palliative chemotherapy treatment. Clinicians and patients should consider this information when balancing potential (survival) benefits, toxicity of treatment and its effect on

  14. 40 CFR 432.12 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve... daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 BOD 5 0.24 0.12 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G 4 0.12 0.06 TSS 0.40 0.20 1... Limitations Regulatedparameter Maximum daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 BOD 5 0.04 0.02 TSS 0.08 0.04 1...

  15. 40 CFR 432.12 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart... daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 BOD 5 0.24 0.12 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G 4 0.12 0.06 TSS 0.40 0.20 1... Limitations Regulatedparameter Maximum daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 BOD 5 0.04 0.02 TSS 0.08 0.04 1...

  16. 40 CFR 432.32 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart... daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 BOD 5 0.34 0.17 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G 4 0.16 0.08 TSS 0.48 0.24 1...-temperature rendering of material derived from animals slaughtered at locations off-site and dead animals,...

  17. 40 CFR 432.12 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart... daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 BOD 5 0.24 0.12 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G 4 0.12 0.06 TSS 0.40 0.20 1... Limitations Regulatedparameter Maximum daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 BOD 5 0.04 0.02 TSS 0.08 0.04 1...

  18. 40 CFR 432.32 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart... daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 BOD 5 0.34 0.17 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G 4 0.16 0.08 TSS 0.48 0.24 1...-temperature rendering of material derived from animals slaughtered at locations off-site and dead animals,...

  19. 40 CFR 432.12 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart... daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 BOD 5 0.24 0.12 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G 4 0.12 0.06 TSS 0.40 0.20 1... Limitations Regulatedparameter Maximum daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 BOD 5 0.04 0.02 TSS 0.08 0.04 1...

  20. 40 CFR 432.32 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve... daily 1 Maximum monthly avg. 1 BOD 5 0.34 0.17 Fecal Coliform (2) (3) O&G 4 0.16 0.08 TSS 0.48 0.24 1...-temperature rendering of material derived from animals slaughtered at locations off-site and dead animals,...