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Sample records for oil affects blood

  1. High dose flaxseed oil supplementation may affect fasting blood serum glucose management in human type 2 diabetics.

    PubMed

    Barre, Douglas E; Mizier-Barre, Kazimiera A; Griscti, Odette; Hafez, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is characterized partially by elevated fasting blood serum glucose and insulin concentrations and the percentage of hemoglobin as HbA1c. It was hypothesized that each of blood glucose and its co-factors insulin and HbA1c and would show a more favorable profile as the result of flaxseed oil supplementation. Patients were recruited at random from a population pool responding to a recruitment advertisement in the local newspaper and 2 area physicians. Completing the trial were 10 flaxseed oil males, 8 flaxseed oil females, 8 safflower (placebo) oil males and 6 safflower oil females. Patients visited on two pre-treatment occasions each three months apart (visits 1 and 2). At visit 2 subjects were randomly assigned in double blind fashion and in equal gender numbers to take flaxseed oil or safflower oil for three further months until visit 3. Oil consumption in both groups was approximately 10 g/d. ALA intake in the intervention group was approximately 5.5 g/d. Power was 0.80 to see a difference of 1 mmol of glucose /L using 12 subjects per group with a p < 0.05. Flaxseed oil had no impact on fasting blood serum glucose, insulin or HbA1c levels. It is concluded that high doses of flaxseed oil have no effect on glycemic control in type 2 diabetics.

  2. Fish oil diet affects on oxidative senescence of red blood cells linked to degeneration of spleen cells in mice.

    PubMed

    Oarada, M; Furukawa, H; Majima, T; Miyazawa, T

    2000-08-24

    The effect of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and alpha-tocopherol supplementation on erythrocyte lipid peroxidation and immunocompetent cells in mice was studied comparatively using seven dietary oils (15% oil/diet, w/w) including fish oil rich in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5, n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6, n-3). A 43% increase in spleen weight, about twice as many spleen cells and no change in the subpopulations of spleen cells, as well as a significant depression of mitogen-induced blastogenesis of both T and B cells in the spleen were observed in mice fed fish oil for 30 days in comparison with soybean oil diet-fed mice. In the fish oil diet-fed mice, membranous lipid hydroperoxide (hydroperoxides of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine) accumulation as a marker of oxidative senescence in red blood cells (RBC) was 2.7-3.5 times higher than that in mice fed soybean oil, although there was no difference in the plasma phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide concentration. In spite of the supplementation of alpha-tocopherol to up to 10 times the level in the basal diet, the degeneration of spleen cells and the stimulated oxidative senescence of RBC found by the fish oil feeding could not be prevented. The results suggest that oral intake of excess polyunsaturated fatty acids, i.e. EPA and DHA, in a fish oil diet can lead to acceleration of membrane lipid peroxidation resulting in RBC senescence linked to the lowering of immune response of spleen cells, and that supplementation of alpha-tocopherol as antioxidant does not always effectively prevent such oxidative degeneration as observed in spleen cells and RBC in vivo.

  3. Maternal fish oil supplementation during lactation may adversely affect long-term blood pressure, energy intake, and physical activity of 7-year-old boys.

    PubMed

    Asserhøj, Marie; Nehammer, Sofie; Matthiessen, Jeppe; Michaelsen, Kim F; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2009-02-01

    Early nutrition may program obesity and cardiovascular risk later in life, and one of the potential agents is (n-3) long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA). In this study, our objective was to examine whether fish oil (FO) supplementation during lactation affects blood pressure and body composition of children. Danish mothers (n = 122) were randomized to FO [1.5 g/d (n-3) LCPUFA] or olive oil (OO) supplementations during the first 4 mo of lactation. The trial also included a high-fish intake reference group (n = 53). Ninety-eight children were followed-up with blood pressure and anthropometry measurements at 7 y. Diet and physical activity level (PAL) were assessed by 4-d weighed dietary records and ActiReg. The PAL value was 4% lower (P = 0.048) and energy intake (EI) of the boys was 1.1 +/- 0.4 MJ/d higher (P = 0.014) in the FO group than in the OO group. Starch intake was 15 +/- 6 g/d higher (P = 0.012) in the FO group, but there were no other differences in diet. Body composition did not differ between the randomized groups with or without adjustment for starch intake, EI, and PAL. FO boys had 6 mm Hg higher diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure than OO boys (P < 0.01), but girls did not differ. Within the randomized groups, blood pressure was not correlated with maternal RBC (n-3) LCPUFA after the intervention, but PAL values were (r = -0.277; P = 0.038). We previously found higher BMI at 2.5 y in the FO group, but the difference did not persist. The differences in blood pressure, EI, and PAL, particularly among boys, suggest that early (n-3) LCPUFA intake may have adverse effects, which should be investigated in future studies.

  4. How Does Lupus Affect the Blood?

    MedlinePlus

    ... on Twitter Facebook Pinterest Email Print How lupus affects the blood Lupus Foundation of America September 26, ... be safely treated with blood transfusions? How lupus affects white blood cells Blood test may indicate lupus ...

  5. Alcohol: Does It Affect Blood Pressure?

    MedlinePlus

    ... pressure (hypertension) Does drinking alcohol affect your blood pressure? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Drinking too much alcohol can raise blood pressure to unhealthy levels. Having more than three drinks ...

  6. Physical and chemical properties of industrial mineral oils affecting lubrication

    SciTech Connect

    Godfrey, D.; Herguth, W.R.

    1996-02-01

    The lubricating properties of mineral oils, and contaminants which affect those properties, are discussed. A contaminant is any material not in the original fresh oil, whether it is generated within the system or ingested. 5 refs.

  7. Echium oil and linseed oil as alternatives for fish oil in the maternal diet: Blood fatty acid profiles and oxidative status of sows and piglets.

    PubMed

    Tanghe, S; Millet, S; De Smet, S

    2013-07-01

    Echium oil (source of stearidonic acid) and linseed oil (source of α-linolenic acid) were evaluated as alternatives for fish oil in the diet of sows to increase the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) status of the offspring. The hypothesis was that echium oil would be more efficient than linseed oil to increase the DHA concentration, as it bypasses the enzyme Δ6-desaturase. In addition, it was determined whether adding PUFA to the diet affected the plasma oxidative status. Sows were fed either a palm oil diet or a diet containing 1% linseed oil, echium oil, or fish oil from d 73 of gestation and during lactation (n = 16 per dietary treatment). Total oil concentrations in the diets were similar among dietary treatments. Blood samples were taken for fatty acid analysis and oxidative status of sows on d 73 and 93 of gestation and at parturition and the lightest and heaviest piglet per litter at birth and weaning. Colostrum was also sampled. No effect of diet was observed on total number of piglets born (13.7 ± 0.4), number of weaned piglets (10.8 ± 0.4), and gestation length (114.8 ± 0.2 d). Piglets from sows fed fish oil had lighter birth weights (1.41 ± 0.03 kg) than piglets from the linseed oil diet (1.54 ± 0.03 kg; P = 0.006), with no difference between the palm oil (1.45 ± 0.03 kg) and echium oil diet (1.49 ± 0.03 kg). Daily BW gain until weaning was less for piglets from sows fed the fish oil diet (214 ± 5 g) compared with piglets from sows fed the echium oil (240 ± 5 g; P < 0.001) or linseed oil diet (234 ± 5 g; P = 0.02). Compared with the palm oil diet, echium and linseed oil in the maternal diet increased the DHA concentration in the colostrum and the sow and piglet plasma to the same extent (1.1 to 1.4-fold; P < 0.001). On the fish oil diet, 20.7-fold, 10-fold, and 2.4-fold increases in DHA in colostrum, sow, and piglet plasma, respectively, were observed (P < 0.001). At 1% in the maternal diet, echium oil had, thus, no benefit over linseed oil and

  8. How will oil palm expansion affect biodiversity?

    PubMed

    Fitzherbert, Emily B; Struebig, Matthew J; Morel, Alexandra; Danielsen, Finn; Brühl, Carsten A; Donald, Paul F; Phalan, Ben

    2008-10-01

    Oil palm is one of the world's most rapidly increasing crops. We assess its contribution to tropical deforestation and review its biodiversity value. Oil palm has replaced large areas of forest in Southeast Asia, but land-cover change statistics alone do not allow an assessment of where it has driven forest clearance and where it has simply followed it. Oil palm plantations support much fewer species than do forests and often also fewer than other tree crops. Further negative impacts include habitat fragmentation and pollution, including greenhouse gas emissions. With rising demand for vegetable oils and biofuels, and strong overlap between areas suitable for oil palm and those of most importance for biodiversity, substantial biodiversity losses will only be averted if future oil palm expansion is managed to avoid deforestation.

  9. Oil spills abatement: factors affecting oil uptake by cellulosic fibers.

    PubMed

    Payne, Katharine C; Jackson, Colby D; Aizpurua, Carlos E; Rojas, Orlando J; Hubbe, Martin A

    2012-07-17

    Wood-derived cellulosic fibers prepared in different ways were successfully employed to absorb simulated crude oil, demonstrating their possible use as absorbents in the case of oil spills. When dry fibers were used, the highest sorption capacity (six parts of oil per unit mass of fiber) was shown by bleached softwood kraft fibers, compared to hardwood bleached kraft and softwood chemithermomechanical pulp(CTMP) fibers. Increased refining of CTMP fibers decreased their oil uptake capacity. When the fibers were soaked in water before exposure to the oil, the ability of the unmodified kraft fibers to sorb oil was markedly reduced, whereas the wet CTMP fibers were generally more effective than the wet kraft fibers. Predeposition of lignin onto the surfaces of the bleached kraft fibers improved their ability to take up oil when wet. Superior ability to sorb oil in the wet state was achieved by pretreating the kraft fibers with a hydrophobic sizing agent, alkenylsuccinic anhydride (ASA). Contact angle tests on a model cellulose surface showed that some of the sorption results onto wetted fibers could be attributed to the more hydrophobic nature of the fibers after treatment with either lignin or ASA.

  10. Physical and chemical properties of industrial mineral oils affecting lubrication

    SciTech Connect

    Godfrey, D.; Herguth, W.R.

    1995-05-01

    The physical and chemical properties of mineral oils that affect lubrication are reviewed. Recognition of these properties is useful for designing lubrication systems, diagnostics, friction and wear problems, and selecting appropriate test methods.

  11. Does Schumann resonance affect our blood pressure?

    PubMed Central

    Mitsutake, G.; Otsuka, K.; Hayakawa, M.; Sekiguchi, M.; Cornélissen, G.; Halberg, F.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To investigate whether Schumann resonance (SR) affects blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and depression and, if so, whether the putative BP reactivity to SR (BPR-SR) is associated with health-related lifestyle (HLS), disease-related illnesses (DRI), and depression. Methods A sample of 56 adults in Urausu, Hokkaido, Japan, wore an ambulatory BP monitor, except for the time in the shower, for seven consecutive days. They completed the Geriatric Depression Scale-Short Form and a health survey questionnaire on HLS and DRI. Group mean differences and within-individual differences in systolic (S) and diastolic (D) BP, mean arterial pressure (MAP), double product (DP), and HR were, respectively, compared between normal and enhanced SR days, using Student’s t-test. Correlations between BPR-SR and other characteristics (i.e. age, gender, HLS, DRI, subjective health, and depression) were analyzed, using Pearson’s product moment correlation. Results and discussion Group mean SBP, DBP, MAP, and DP for enhanced SR days were lower than those for normal days (P = 0.005-0.036). DRI was negatively associated with BPR-SR in SBP, DBP, MAP, and DP (P = 0.003-0.024), suggesting a better health status for those who showed lower BP on enhanced SR days. HLS was negatively associated with BPR-SR in DBP and MAP (P = 0.016-0.029). Males showed higher BPR-SR in DBP and MAP than females (P = 0.0044-0.016). Neither subjective health nor depression was significantly associated with BPR-SR. Future studies based on larger sample sizes are planned to see whether possible health effects can be generalized. PMID:16275477

  12. Melissa officinalis oil affects infectivity of enveloped herpesviruses.

    PubMed

    Schnitzler, P; Schuhmacher, A; Astani, A; Reichling, Jürgen

    2008-09-01

    Extracts and essential oils of medicinal plants are increasingly of interest as novel drugs of antimicrobial and antiviral agents, since herpes simplex virus (HSV) might develop resistance to commonly used antiviral agents. Melissa officinalis essential oil was phytochemically examined by GC-MS analysis, its main constituents were identified as monoterpenaldehydes citral a, citral b and citronellal. The antiviral effect of lemon balm oil, the essential oil of Melissa officinalis, on herpes simplex virus was examined. The inhibitory activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1)and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) was tested in vitro on monkey kidney cells using a plaque reduction assay. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of balm oil for herpes simplex virus plaque formation was determined at high dilutions of 0.0004% and 0.00008% for HSV-1 and HSV-2, respectively. At noncytotoxic concentrations of the oil,plaque formation was significantly reduced by 98.8% for HSV-1 and 97.2% for HSV-2, higher concentrations of lemon balm oil abolished viral infectivity nearly completely. In order to determine the mode of antiviral action of this essential oil, time-on-addition assays were performed. Both herpesviruses were significantly inhibited by pretreatment with balm oil prior to infection of cells. These results indicate that Melissa oil affected the virus before adsorption, but not after penetration into the host cell, thus lemon balm oil is capable of exerting a direct antiviral effect on herpesviruses. Considering the lipophilic nature of lemon balm essential oil, which enables it to penetrate the skin, and a high selectivity index, Melissa officinalis oil might be suitable for topical treatment of herpetic infections.

  13. Blood Pressure: Is It Affected by Cold Weather?

    MedlinePlus

    ... your narrowed veins and arteries. In addition to cold weather, blood pressure may also be affected by a sudden change in weather patterns, such as a weather front or a storm. Your body — and blood vessels — ...

  14. The Glycemic Potential of White and Red Rice Affected by Oil Type and Time of Addition.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Bhupinder; Ranawana, Viren; Teh, Ai-Ling; Henry, C Jeya K

    2015-10-01

    Limited research exists on how different oil types and time of addition affect starch digestibility of rice. This study aimed to assess the starch digestibility of white and red rice prepared with 2 oil types: vegetable oil (unsaturated fat) and ghee (clarified butter, saturated fat) added at 3 different time points during the cooking process ("before": frying raw rice in oil before boiling, "during": adding oil during boiling, and "after": stir-frying cooked rice in oil). Red rice produced a slower digestion rate than white rice. White rice digestibility was not affected by oil type, but was affected by addition time of oil. Adding oil "after" (stir-frying) to white or red rice resulted in higher slowly digestible starch. Red rice cooked using ghee showed the lowest amount of glucose release during in vitro digestion. The addition of ghee "during" (that is boiling with ghee) or "before" (that is frying rice raw with ghee then boiling) cooking showed potential for attenuating the postprandial glycemic response and increasing resistant starch content. This is the first report to show healthier ways of preparing rice. White rice with oil added "after" (stir-fried) may provide a source of sustained glucose and stabilize blood glucose levels. Boiling red rice with ghee or cooking red rice with ghee pilaf-style may provide beneficial effects on postprandial blood glucose and insulin concentrations, and improve colonic health. The encouraging results of the present study justify extending it to an in vivo investigation to conclusively determine the effect of time of addition of fat when rice is cooked on blood glucose homeostasis. Rice is a predominant source of energy in most of Asia with excessive consumption of rice being implicated in the rise of type 2 diabetes. Stir-frying white rice can be a source of sustained glucose and provide a stabilizing effect on blood glucose levels. Boiling red rice with ghee or cooking red rice with ghee pilaf-style may provide

  15. Caffeine: How Does It Affect Blood Pressure?

    MedlinePlus

    ... M.D. References Zhang Z, et al. Habitual coffee consumption and risk of hypertension: A systematic review and ... 1212. Steffen M, et al. The effect of coffee consumption on blood pressure and the development of hypertension: ...

  16. [Study on material basis of essential oil from Yin Teng Gu Bi Kang prescription on activating blood circulation].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan-Qing; Yan, Jian-Ye; Gong, Li-Min; Luo, Kun; Li, Shun-Xiang; Yang, Yan-Tao; Xie, Yu

    2014-08-01

    To explore the component difference of the serum containing essential oil from Yin Teng Gu Bi Kang prescription in pathologic and physiologic rat models, and to reveal the material basis of its efficacy of activating blood circulation. The essential oils were obtained by CO2 supercritical fluid extraction and the ingredients of the essential oils in vitro and in vivo (under physiological and pathological status) were analyzed by GC-MS to compare differences of the essential oil under physiological and pathological status in rats. 32 components were identified with the main components of Z-ligustilide (39.23%) and d-limonene (21.7%) in the essential oil. In vivo analysis on the essential oil indicated that 16 components were identified, 7 existed originally in essential oil and 9 were metabolites under physiological status; while 22 components were identified, 10 existed originally in essential oil and 12 were metabolites under pathological status (acute blood stasis). There were 7 common prototypes and 8 common metabolites under different physiological status. The absorption and metabolism of essential oils were affected by blood stasis and the compounds migrating to blood may be the effective substance in activating blood circulation.

  17. Antifungal Activity of Cinnamon Oil and Olive Oil against Candida Spp. Isolated from Blood Stream Infections

    PubMed Central

    Rohilla, Hina; Singh, Gajender; Punia, Parul

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Recently non-albicans Candida has emerged as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in blood stream infections. Some species of the Candida are becoming increasingly resistant to first line and second line antifungals such as echinocandins and fluconazole. In view of increasing global antifungal resistance, role of alternative and better antifungals like natural plant products need to be explored. Essential oils are known to exhibit antimicrobial activity against various fungi. Hence, we evaluated the efficacy of cinnamon oil and olive oil against Candida spp. Aim To evaluate the invitro antifungal activity of olive oil and cinnamon oil against blood stream Candida isolates. Materials and Methods The present prospective observational study was conducted in the Department of Microbiology at a tertiary care teaching hospital during one year June 2011-July 2012. Blood samples were collected from 1376 patients clinically suspected to have fungal septicaemia, out of which 100 (7.2%) Candida isolates obtained, were speciated by conventional methods. Antifungal susceptibility testing of all the isolates was done against fluconazole, voriconazole as per NCCL (M27-A2) and against olive oil and cinnamon oil by agar well diffusion method. Results Prevalence of Candidemia was 7.26%. C. albicans (85.3%) and C. parapsilosis (85.7%) were most sensitive to fluconazole followed by C. tropicalis (67.4%). All isolates were 100% sensitive to voriconazole. Both oils were found to be effective against nearly 50% of the Candida isolates. About 55.5% of fluconazole resistant C. krusei strains were sensitive to olive and cinnamon oil. Conclusion Fluconazole resistant non-albicans Candida has emerged as major cause of Candidemia. Cinnamon and olive oil show marked sensitivity against albicans and non-albicans spp. PMID:27656437

  18. Olive oil supplemented with menaquinone-7 significantly affects osteocalcin carboxylation.

    PubMed

    Brugè, Francesca; Bacchetti, Tiziana; Principi, Federica; Littarru, Gian Paolo; Tiano, Luca

    2011-10-01

    Menaquinone-7 (MK-7), a member of the vitamin K2 family, performs several functions, all related to its recognised effect on post-translational carboxylation of certain protein-bound glutamate residues. Due to its lipophilic structure MK-7 is soluble in olive oil, so the aim of the present study was to test whether extra-virgin (EV) olive oil enriched with MK-7 significantly increases MK-7 plasma levels and has an effect on osteocalcin and its carboxylation status. Healthy young volunteers (n 12) were administered 20 ml EV olive oil per d for 2 weeks, followed by 2 weeks of the same amount of olive oil enriched with 45 μg and then 90 μg MK-7, with an appropriate washout time in between. Blood was collected and plasma separated in each phase of the study. We found that integration of the diet with EV olive oil alone did not produce any significant variation of MK-7 plasma levels compared with baseline. Supplementation with MK-7-enriched olive oil resulted in a significant and dose-dependent increase in plasma levels. The high dose also significantly increased carboxylated osteocalcin (cOC) and decreased undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC) plasma levels, resulting in a significant increase in the cOC:ucOC ratio. A significant correlation was also found between percentage variation of plasma cOCA:ucOC ratio and increase in plasma MK-7 levels. We conclude that regular consumption of MK-7-enriched olive oil may constitute a valid approach in order to preserve some key biochemical mechanisms controlling bone mineralisation.

  19. Coconut oil affects lipoprotein composition and structure of neonatal chicks.

    PubMed

    Castillo, M; Hortal, J H; García-Fuentes, E; Zafra, M F; García-Peregrín, E

    1996-04-01

    Supplementation of 10 or 20% coconut oil in the diet for 1-2 weeks produced a significant hypercholesterolemia in neonatal chicks. Plasma triacylglycerol concentration significantly increased after the addition of 20% coconut oil for 2 weeks. These results show that newborn chicks are more sensitive to saturated fatty acids from coconut oil than adult animals. The effects of this saturated fat on lipoprotein composition were studied for the first 1-2 weeks of neonatal chick life. Coconut oil supplementation in the diet (20%) for 2 weeks increased cholesterol concentration in all the lipoprotein fractions, while 10% coconut oil only increased cholesterol in low-density and very-low-density lipoproteins, an increase that was significant after 1 week of treatment. Similar results were obtained for triacylglycerol concentration after 2 weeks of treatment. Changes in phospholipid and total protein levels were less profound. Coconut oil decreased low-density and very-low-density lipoprotein fluidity, measured as total cholesterol/phospholipid ratio. Changes in esterified cholesterol/phospholipid and triacylglycerol/phospholipid ratios suggest that coconut oil affects the distribution of lipid components in the core of very-low-density particles. Likewise, the esterified cholesterol/triacylglycerol ratio was clearly increased in the low-density, and especially in the very-low-density, fraction after the first week of coconut oil feeding. Our results show that neonatal chick provides a suitable model in which to study the role of very-low-density lipoproteins in atherogenesis and the rapid response to saturated fatty acids with 12-14 carbons.

  20. Application of dried blood spot cards to determine olive oil phenols (hydroxytyrosol metabolites) in human blood.

    PubMed

    de Las Hazas, María Carmen López; Motilva, Maria José; Piñol, Carme; Macià, Alba

    2016-10-01

    In this study, a fast and simple blood sampling and sample pre-treatment method based on the use of the dried blood spot (DBS) cards and ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) for the quantification of olive oil phenolic metabolites in human blood was developed and validated. After validation, the method was applied to determine hydroxytyrosol metabolites in human blood samples after the acute intake of an olive oil phenolic extract. Using the FTA DMPK-A DBS card under optimum conditions, with 20µL as the blood solution volume, 100µL of methanol/Milli-Q water (50/50, v/v) as the extraction solvent and 7 disks punched out from the card, the main hydroxytyrosol metabolites (hydroxytyrosol-3-O-sulphate and hydroxytyrosol acetate sulphate) were identified and quantified. The developed methodology allowed detecting and quantifying the generated metabolites at low μM levels. The proposed method is a significant improvement over existing methods to determine phenolic metabolites circulating in blood and plasma samples, thus making blood sampling possible with the volunteer pricking their own finger, and the subsequent storage of the blood in the DBS cards prior to chromatographic analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Sensory and affective pain discrimination after inhalation of essential oils.

    PubMed

    Gedney, Jeffrey J; Glover, Toni L; Fillingim, Roger B

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of olfactory absorption of two commonly used therapeutic essential oils on sensory and affective responses to experimentally induced pain. A sex-balanced (13 men and 13 women) randomized crossover design was used to obtain pre- and posttreatment change scores for quantitative sensory ratings of contact heat, pressure, and ischemic pain across separate inhalation treatment conditions using essential oil of lavender, essential oil of rosemary, and distilled water (control). Subjective reports of treatment-related changes in pain intensity and pain unpleasantness were obtained for each condition using a visual analog scale. We interpret our findings with respect to the separate dimensions of sensory and affective processing of pain. Analyses revealed the absence of changes in quantitative pain sensitivity ratings between conditions. However, retrospectively, subjects' global impression of treatment outcome indicated that both pain intensity and pain unpleasantness were reduced after treatment with lavender and marginally reduced after treatment with rosemary, compared with the control condition. These findings suggest that aromatherapy may not elicit a direct analgesic effect but instead may alter affective appraisal of the experience and consequent retrospective evaluation of treatment-related pain.

  2. Use of oil-affected habitats by birds after the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    Day, R.H.; Murphy, S.M.; Smith, L.N.; Wiens, J.A.; Hayward, G.D.; Harner, E.J.

    1995-12-31

    This study investigated the effects of the Exxon Valdez oil spill o the use of oil-affected habitats by birds during 1989--1991. The authors measured densities of birds in bays that had been subjected to various levels of oiling from the spill during survey cruises that were conducted throughout the year in Prince William Sound (PWS) and during summer along the Kenai Peninsula. Overall, 23 of 42 (55%) species in PWS and 22 of 34 (65%) species on the Kenai showed no evidence of oiling impacts on their use of habitats. Most species that did not show initial negative impacts had recovered by late summer 1991 when the study concluded, although 6 of the 19 species initially impacted in PWS and 6 of the 12 species initially impacted along the Kenai did not exhibit clear signs of recovery by this time. A Principal Components Analysis of species examined from PWS revealed extensive overlap in ecological attributes among species that were and were not negatively impacted in their use of oil-affected habitats. Species that did not show clear evidence of recovery tended to be intertidal feeders and residents of PWS, but other ecologically similar species evidenced either no initial impacts or rapid recovery. These similarities suggest that the prognosis is good for the species for which they were unable to document recovery in habitat use. These findings, together with the rapid rates of recovery in habitat features reported in other studies, suggest that impacts of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on avian use of oil-affected habitats generally were not persistent. 48 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Fish oil LC-PUFAs do not affect blood coagulation parameters and bleeding manifestations: Analysis of 8 clinical studies with selected patient groups on omega-3-enriched medical nutrition.

    PubMed

    Jeansen, Stephanie; Witkamp, Renger F; Garthoff, Jossie A; van Helvoort, Ardy; Calder, Philip C

    2017-03-29

    The increased consumption of fish oil enriched-products exposes a wide diversity of people, including elderly and those with impaired health to relatively high amounts of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFAs). There is an ongoing debate around the possible adverse effects of n-3 LC-PUFAs on bleeding risk, particularly relevant in people with a medical history of cardiovascular events or using antithrombotic drugs. This analysis of 8 clinical intervention studies conducted with enteral medical nutrition products containing fish oil as a source of n-3 LC-PUFAs addresses the occurrence of bleeding-related adverse events and effects on key coagulation parameters (Prothrombin Time [PT], (activated) and Partial Thromboplastin Time [(a)PTT]). In all the patients considered (over 600 subjects treated with the active product in total), with moderate to severe disease, with or without concomitant use of antithrombotic agents, at home or in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU), no evidence of increased risk of bleeding with use of n-3 LC-PUFAs was observed. Furthermore there were no statistically significant changes from baseline in measured coagulation parameters. These findings further support the safe consumption of n-3 LC-PUFAs, even at short-term doses up to 10 g/day of eicosapentaenoic acid + docosahexaenoic acid (EPA + DHA) or consumed for up to 52 weeks above 1.5 g/day, in selected vulnerable and sensitive populations such as subjects with gastrointestinal cancer or patients in an ICU. We found no evidence to support any concern raised with regards to the application of n-3 LC-PUFAs and the potentially increased risk for the occurrence of adverse bleeding manifestations in these selected patient populations consuming fish oil enriched medical nutrition. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Degradation of fuel oil in salt marsh soils affected by the Prestige oil spill.

    PubMed

    Vega, Flora A; Covelo, Emma F; Reigosa, Manuel J; Andrade, María Luisa

    2009-07-30

    We assessed natural degradation of fuel oil in three marshes from Galicia (Spain) affected by the Prestige oil spill (Baldaio, Barizo, and Muxía). Soil samples collected from polluted and unpolluted areas on four different dates were used to determine total petroleum hydrocarbon content and fuel-oil components. Natural degradation was monitored by analysing changes in the proportion of saturated hydrocarbons, aromatics, asphaltenes and resins in the soils, and also by evaluating the degree of depletion of saturated hydrocarbons on each sampling date. We additionally assessed the phytoremediation potential of Lolium perenne, L., Convolvulus arvensis L. and Raphanus raphanistrum L. All marsh soils exhibited natural degradation of saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons to between 85 and 95% in most cases. In contrast, asphaltenes and resins were degraded to a lesser extent (viz. 64-76% in Barizo 1, Muxía and Traba; 39-44% in Baldaio; and only 12% in Barizo 2, where flooding by the river continues to introduce balls of fuel oil into the soil). Monitoring analyses revealed natural degradation to be dependent on the thickness of the pollutant layer. Field plots sown with L. perenne L. exhibited no significant differences in fuel-oil degradation from untreated plots.

  5. Effect of diallyl trisulfide-rich garlic oil on blood coagulation and plasma activity of anticoagulation factors in rats.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kung-chi; Yin, Mei-chin; Chao, Wan-ju

    2007-03-01

    Diallyl trisulfide (DAT)-rich garlic oil was fed to Sprague-Dawley rats and the effects of this DAT-rich garlic oil on bleeding time, clotting time and anticoagulation factors were examined. Garlic oil supplement at 5 or 50mg garlic oil/kg bodyweight significantly prolonged bleeding time and thrombin time, and enhanced anticoagulation factor activity, such as antithrombin III and protein C (P<0.05). These results suggested that the anticoagulant action of DAT-rich garlic oil was due to inhibition and/or inactivation of thrombin. In addition, DAT-rich garlic oil benefits blood anticoagulation factors, which might further prevent the development of thrombus formation. However, the intake of garlic oil at high dose significantly increased plasma fibrinogen concentration (P<0.05), and affected the levels of several hematological parameters such as erythrocyte count, hemoglobin and platelets (P<0.05). The adverse effect of high doses of garlic oil might further influence the hemostatic balance. Therefore, the concentration of DAT-rich garlic oil should be carefully considered in its application. Supplementation of garlic oil at 5mg/kg bodyweight has anticoagulation effect in this animal study.

  6. Factors affecting Brucella spp. blood cultures positivity in children.

    PubMed

    Apa, Hurşit; Devrim, Ilker; Memur, Seyma; Günay, Ilker; Gülfidan, Gamze; Celegen, Mehmet; Bayram, Nuri; Karaarslan, Utku; Bağ, Ozlem; Işgüder, Rana; Oztürk, Aysel; Inan, Seyhan; Unal, Nurrettin

    2013-03-01

    Brucella infections have a wide spectrum of symptoms especially in children, making the diagnosis a complicated process. The gold standard for the final diagnosis for brucellosis is to identify the Brucella spp. isolated from blood or bone marrow cultures. The main purpose of this work was to evaluate the factors affecting the isolation of Brucella spp. from blood cultures. In our study, the ratio of fever, presence of hepatomegaly, and splenomegaly were found to be higher in the bacteremic group. In addition, C-reactive protein levels and liver function enzymes were found to be higher in the bacteremic group. In our opinion, while evaluating the febrile child with suspected Brucella infection, we highly recommend sampling blood cultures regardless of the history of previous antimicrobial therapy and duration of the symptoms.

  7. Factors affecting banking quality of umbilical cord blood for transplantation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hongyou; Loutfy, Mona R; Mayerhofer, Stephanie; Shuen, Paul

    2011-02-01

    The most important objective for cord blood banks is to store cord blood units of high quality, which is determined by total nucleated cells (TNCs) and CD34+ cells. Determining the factors affecting the stored life-saving cells would be beneficial to the field. A total of 4930 cord blood units were collected between January 2007 and October 2009 and processed using a double extraction technique to sediment red blood cells with variable centrifugation time determined by the formula CT = KL - M, where CT is centrifuge time, K is 7.7227, M is 29.742, and L is ln (volume of cord blood with anticoagulant). The recovery rate of TNCs and other relevant factors affecting banking quality were analyzed. The mean recovery rate of TNCs was 97.7 ± 2.5% with 0.04% (2/4930) units below 80% and 10.8% (532/4930) units below 95%. The TNCs per unit was affected by gestation duration (p < 0.01), sex of infant (p < 0.01), mode of delivery (p < 0.01), collection method (p < 0.01), and ethnicity (p < 0.001). The number of postprocessing CD34+ cells was affected only by sex of the infant (p < 0.05). The viability of nucleated cells after processing was 94.8 ± 4.8% and was affected by the number of hours between collection and processing (p < 0.01). In contrast, the viability of CD34+ cells was 99.5 ± 1.0% (n = 30) when samples with low viability of TNCs were assessed. The results did not reveal a significant correlation (r = 0.07, p = 0.38). The double extraction technique provides a high and consistent recovery of TNCs, which ensures that more life-saving cells will be banked for transplants. © 2010 American Association of Blood Banks.

  8. Pesticide interactions with soils affected by olive oil mill wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keren, Yonatan; Bukhanovsky, Nadezhda; Borisover, Mikhail

    2013-04-01

    Soil pesticide sorption is well known to affect the fate of pesticides, their bioavailability and the potential to contaminate air and water. Soil - pesticide interactions may be strongly influenced by soil organic matter (SOM) and organic matter (OM)-rich soil amendments. One special OM source in soils is related to olive oil production residues that may include both solid and liquid wastes. In the Mediterranean area, the olive oil production is considered as an important field in the agricultural sector. Due to the significant rise in olive oil production, the amount of wastes is growing respectively. Olive oil mill waste water (OMWW) is the liquid byproduct in the so-called "three phase" technological process. Features of OMWW include the high content of fatty aliphatic components and polyphenols and their often-considered toxicity. One way of OMWW disposal is the land spreading, e.g., in olive orchards. The land application of OMWW (either controlled or not) is supposed to affect the multiple soil properties, including hydrophobicity and the potential of soils to interact with pesticides. Therefore, there is both basic and applied interest in elucidating the interactions between organic compounds and soils affected by OMWW. However, little is known about the impact of OMWW - soil interactions on sorption of organic compounds, and specifically, on sorption of agrochemicals. This paper reports an experimental study of sorption interactions of a series of organic compounds including widely used herbicides such as diuron and simazine, in a range of soils that were affected by OMWW (i) historically or (ii) in the controlled land disposal experiments. It is demonstrated that there is a distinct increase in apparent sorption of organic chemicals in soils affected by OMWW. In selected systems, this increase may be explained by increase in SOM content. However, the SOM quality places a role: the rise in organic compound - soil interactions may both exceed the SOM

  9. In vitro red blood cell assay for oxidant toxicity of petroleum oil

    SciTech Connect

    Couillard, C.M.; Leighton, F.A. )

    1993-05-01

    Petroleum oil has caused hemolytic anemia in birds and mammals. In birds, an oxidant damage on circulating red cells has been identified as the primary toxic effect of ingested petroleum oils. An in vitro red blood cell assay was developed to discriminate among the oxidant activities of different petroleum oils. The assay used rabbit red blood cells with a rat liver enzyme system and formation of methemoglobin was measured as an indicator of oxidant damage to the red cells. The assay was applied to five different petroleum oils and to naphthalene, a petroleum hydrocarbon known to cause hemolytic anemia. Different petroleum oils differed in their capacity to induce methemoglobin formation. Methemoglobin levels varied from 2.9% with Arabian light crude oil to 6.2% with South Louisiana crude oil. Naphthalene induced formation of up to 37% methemoglobin. Naphthalene and the five petroleum oils generated methemoglobin only in the presence of liver enzymes.

  10. Postharvest management affects spearmint and calamint essential oils.

    PubMed

    Tibaldi, Giorgio; Fontana, Emanuela; Nicola, Silvana

    2013-02-01

    The objectives of this work were to evaluate the phytomass yield, essential oil (EO) content and EO yield of Mentha spicata L. var. rubra, M. spicata L. var. viridis and Calamintha nepeta Savi in Piedmont (Italy), and to study how postharvest management (hydrodistillation of EO from fresh, dehumidified or oven-dried herbs) can affect the EO content and profile of the three species. Mentha spicata L. var. rubra gave the greatest phytomass yield (1997 g m(-2)), which was statistically different from M. spicata L. var. viridis and C. nepeta. The highest EO yield was obtained from C. nepeta (3.75 g m(-2)), which was significantly different from the Mentha genus. Postharvest management significantly affected both the EO content and the EO profile of each species, with the dehumidifying process leading to a significantly higher EO content than the oven-drying process. The EO profile was different not only from species to species but also because of the postharvest management. The dehumidifying process is a relatively new postharvest technology that has shown positive results in terms of EO yield, and it can be applied to species which have a high EO value, after evaluation of the resulting EO profile. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Inherited neurovascular diseases affecting cerebral blood vessels and smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Sam, Christine; Li, Fei-Feng; Liu, Shu-Lin

    2015-10-01

    Neurovascular diseases are among the leading causes of mortality and permanent disability due to stroke, aneurysm, and other cardiovascular complications. Cerebral autosomal-dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) and Marfan syndrome are two neurovascular disorders that affect smooth muscle cells through accumulation of granule and osmiophilic materials and defective elastic fiber formations respectively. Moyamoya disease, hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPD II), and Fabry's disease are disorders that affect the endothelium cells of blood vessels through occlusion or abnormal development. While much research has been done on mapping out mutations in these diseases, the exact mechanisms are still largely unknown. This paper briefly introduces the pathogenesis, genetics, clinical symptoms, and current methods of treatment of the diseases in the hope that it can help us better understand the mechanism of these diseases and work on ways to develop better diagnosis and treatment.

  12. Migration, speciation and distribution of heavy metals in an oil-polluted soil affected by crude oil extraction processes.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiaowen; Cui, Zhaojie; Zang, Guolong

    2014-07-01

    Heavy metals are among the major pollutants in the worldwide soil environment. In oilfields, the crude oil extraction process results in the simultaneous contamination of the soil with petroleum and heavy metals. In this work, we investigated the influence of oil extraction on the migration, speciation, and temporal distribution of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr, Mn, Ni, V, and Mn) in soils of an oil region of Shengli Oilfield, China. The results showed that oil-polluted soils were contaminated with Cu, Zn, Cd and Ni, with mean concentrations of 27.63, 67.12, 0.185 and 33.80 mg kg(-1), respectively (greater than the background values of local surface soils). Compared with the control profile, the vertical distributions of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni, and V were affected in oil-polluted soils, particularly those of Cd and Ni. The concentrations of Zn, Cd, Ni, V, and Mn in oil-polluted soils increased with the duration of oil well development, which indicated the levels of these metals in the oil field were enhanced by human activities. Fractionation analysis revealed that the mobility potential of heavy metals in oil polluted soil decreased in the sequence Cd > Mn > Zn > Ni > Pb > Cu > Cr > V. The most important proportion of Cd is ion exchangeable and acid soluble, which indicates that Cd is the most labile, available, and harmful heavy metal among the elements that damage the soil environment in oil-polluted soil.

  13. Linalool Affects the Antimicrobial Efficacy of Essential Oils.

    PubMed

    Herman, Anna; Tambor, Krzysztof; Herman, Andrzej

    2016-02-01

    The high concentrations of essential oils are generally required to receive microbial purity of the products (cosmetics, medicine). On the other hand, their application due to the high concentration of essential oils may be limited by changes in organoleptic and textural quality of the products, as well as they cause irritation and allergies in users. Addition of linalool to essential oil may significantly enhance its antimicrobial effectiveness and reduce their concentrations in products, taking advantage of their synergistic and additive effects. The aim of the study was to compare antimicrobial activity of essential oil alone and in combination with linalool. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Thymus vulgaris, Juniperus communis, Pelargonium graveolens, Citrus bergamia, Citrus grandis, Lavandula angustifolia, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Melaleuca alternifolia, Syzygium aromaticum, linalool and their combination was investigated against bacteria and fungi using the disc diffusion method. The addition of linalool to S. aromaticum oil in a synergistic manner enhanced its antimicrobial efficacy against P. aeruginosa and A. brasiliensis. Moreover, the additive interaction between this oil and linalool was observed against S. aureus, E. coli and C. albicans. It was also found that linalool in an additive manner increased the antimicrobial effectiveness of T. vulgaris oil against P. aeruginosa. The antimicrobial properties of mixture of essential oils with their active constituents may be used for creating new strategies to maintain microbiological purity of products.

  14. Health of domestic mallards (Anas platyrhynchos domestica) following exposure to oil sands process-affected water.

    PubMed

    Beck, Elizabeth M; Smits, Judit E G; St Clair, Colleen Cassady

    2014-01-01

    Bitumen extraction from the oil sands of northern Alberta produces large volumes of process-affected water that contains substances toxic to wildlife. Recent monitoring has shown that tens of thousands of birds land on ponds containing this water annually, creating an urgent need to understand its effects on bird health. We emulated the repeated, short-term exposures that migrating water birds are thought to experience by exposing pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domestica) to recycled oil sands process-affected water (OSPW). As indicators of health, we measured a series of physiological (electrolytes, metabolites, enzymes, hormones, and blood cells) and toxicological (metals and minerals) variables. Relative to controls, juvenile birds exposed to OSPW had higher potassium following the final exposure, and males had a higher thyroid hormone ratio (T3/T4). In adults, exposed birds had higher vanadium, and, following the final exposure, higher bicarbonate. Exposed females had higher bile acid, globulin, and molybdenum levels, and males, higher corticosterone. However, with the exception of the metals, none of these measures varied from available reference ranges for ducks, suggesting OSPW is not toxic to juvenile or adult birds after three and six weekly, 1 h exposures, but more studies are needed to know the generality of this result.

  15. Factors affecting the forensic examination of automotive lubricating oils.

    PubMed

    Hibbard, Ryan; Goodpaster, John V; Evans, Michelle R

    2011-05-01

    Lubricating oil comparisons impact a variety of forensic investigations, including cases where oil was transferred from a suspect vehicle to the crime scene or victim. In this study, high-temperature gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to examine the influence of oil mixtures and oil changes over time on the comparison of known and questioned lubricating oils. Varying concentrations of oil mixtures were prepared and showed the potential for identifying individual components. Motor oils from 18 automobiles monitored over a 2-month period did not demonstrate significant changes in the chromatographic data. Chemometric analysis of motor oil mass spectral data provided little information regarding differentiation of, or changes in, the samples. Power steering fluid (PSF) from a naturally occurring leak collected from several locations was consistent with the PSF in the automobile's reservoir, and the PSF composition did not change over time. 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences. Published 2011. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the U.S.A.

  16. Virgin Coconut Oil Prevents Blood Pressure Elevation and Improves Endothelial Functions in Rats Fed with Repeatedly Heated Palm Oil

    PubMed Central

    Nurul-Iman, Badlishah Sham; Kamisah, Yusof; Jaarin, Kamsiah; Qodriyah, Hj Mohd Saad

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed to explore the effects of virgin coconut oil (VCO) in male rats that were fed with repeatedly heated palm oil on blood pressure, plasma nitric oxide level, and vascular reactivity. Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: (i) control (basal diet), (ii) VCO (1.42 mL/kg, oral), (iii) five-times-heated palm oil (15%) (5HPO), and (iv) five-times-heated palm oil (15%) and VCO (1.42 mL/kg, oral) (5HPO + VCO). Blood pressure was significantly increased in the group that was given the 5HPO diet compared to the control group. Blood pressure in the 5HPO + VCO group was significantly lower than the 5HPO group. Plasma nitric oxide (NO) level in the 5HPO group was significantly lower compared to the control group, whereas in the 5HPO + VCO group, the plasma NO level was significantly higher compared to the 5HPO group. Aortic rings from the 5HPO group exhibited attenuated relaxation in response to acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside as well as increased vasoconstriction to phenylephrine compared to the control group. Aortic rings from the 5HPO + VCO group showed only attenuated vasoconstriction to phenylephrine compared to the 5HPO group. In conclusion, VCO prevents blood pressure elevation and improves endothelial functions in rats fed with repeatedly heated palm oil. PMID:23861707

  17. Virgin coconut oil prevents blood pressure elevation and improves endothelial functions in rats fed with repeatedly heated palm oil.

    PubMed

    Nurul-Iman, Badlishah Sham; Kamisah, Yusof; Jaarin, Kamsiah; Qodriyah, Hj Mohd Saad

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed to explore the effects of virgin coconut oil (VCO) in male rats that were fed with repeatedly heated palm oil on blood pressure, plasma nitric oxide level, and vascular reactivity. Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: (i) control (basal diet), (ii) VCO (1.42 mL/kg, oral), (iii) five-times-heated palm oil (15%) (5HPO), and (iv) five-times-heated palm oil (15%) and VCO (1.42 mL/kg, oral) (5HPO + VCO). Blood pressure was significantly increased in the group that was given the 5HPO diet compared to the control group. Blood pressure in the 5HPO + VCO group was significantly lower than the 5HPO group. Plasma nitric oxide (NO) level in the 5HPO group was significantly lower compared to the control group, whereas in the 5HPO + VCO group, the plasma NO level was significantly higher compared to the 5HPO group. Aortic rings from the 5HPO group exhibited attenuated relaxation in response to acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside as well as increased vasoconstriction to phenylephrine compared to the control group. Aortic rings from the 5HPO + VCO group showed only attenuated vasoconstriction to phenylephrine compared to the 5HPO group. In conclusion, VCO prevents blood pressure elevation and improves endothelial functions in rats fed with repeatedly heated palm oil.

  18. Diesel oil volatilization processes affected by selected porous media.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yanfei; Zheng, Xilai; Anderson, S H; Lu, Jie; Feng, Xuedong

    2014-03-01

    Volatilization plays an important role in attenuating petroleum products in contaminated soils. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of wind speed, vessel diameter and mean grain size of porous media on diesel oil volatilization. Experiments were conducted to investigate the volatilization behavior of diesel oil from porous media by weighing contaminated samples pre- and post-volatilization. Three selected field porous media materials were evaluated: Silty Clay Loam, Fine Sand, and Coarse Sand along with six individual sand fractions of the Coarse Sand. Results indicate that increasing wind speed accelerates the diesel oil volatilization process, especially for wind speeds below 2.10ms(-1). The low-carbon components of diesel oil volatilize more rapidly, with the effects of wind speed more pronounced on C10 to C15 volatilization than on C16 and higher. The volatilization rate coefficient of diesel oil increases with decreasing mean grain size of porous media, and with increasing vessel diameter. A power function expressed the relationship with mean grain size. All processes (wind speed, vessel diameter, and mean grain size) were included in an equation which explained over 92% of the measured diesel oil volatilization rate coefficient variations for the experiments. Diesel oil volatilization appears to be boundary-layer regulated to some extent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Dietary effects of bitter gourd oil on blood and liver lipids of rats.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, R; Yasui, Y; Suzuki, R; Hosokawa, M; Fukunaga, K; Miyashita, K

    2001-12-15

    Bitter gourd is widely used as an edible plant in Asia. In this study, we evaluated the effects of bitter gourd oil (BGO) on the blood and liver lipids of rats. Three groups of rats were given a basal diet (AIN-93G) containing 7% fat by weight. The dietary fat consisted of soybean oil (control), soybean oil + BGO (6.5:0.5, w/w; 0.5% BGO), or soybean oil + BGO (5:2, w/w; 2.0% BGO). This fat treatment gave 3.4 and 15.4% of cis(c)9,trans(t)11,t13-18:3 in the dietary fat of 0.5 and 2.0% BGO, respectively. Fatty acid analysis showed the occurrence of c9,t11-18:2 in the liver of rats fed BGO diets, whereas this conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomer was not detected in the liver of rats fed the control diet. Furthermore, dietary BGO decreased the concentration of 18:2n-6 and increased the concentration of 22:6n-3. The formation of the CLA isomer in the liver lipids of rats fed BGO diets could be explained by either of the following two metabolic pathways, namely, enzymatic biohydrogenation of c9,t11,t13-18:3 or enzymatic isomerization of c9,c12-18:2. The BGO diets had significantly reduced free cholesterol levels with a trend toward an increase in HDL cholesterol, but there was no significant change in the total cholesterol. The dietary BGO also affected the level of plasma hydroperoxides. A slight but significant increase in hydroperoxides was found in the rats fed 2.0% BGO. This may be attributed to the lower oxidative stability of c9,t11,t13-18:3 in BGO.

  20. Concentrations in human blood of petroleum hydrocarbons associated with the BP/Deepwater Horizon oil spill, Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Sammarco, Paul W; Kolian, Stephan R; Warby, Richard A F; Bouldin, Jennifer L; Subra, Wilma A; Porter, Scott A

    2016-04-01

    During/after the BP/Deepwater Horizon oil spill, cleanup workers, fisherpersons, SCUBA divers, and coastal residents were exposed to crude oil and dispersants. These people experienced acute physiological and behavioral symptoms and consulted a physician. They were diagnosed with petroleum hydrocarbon poisoning and had blood analyses analyzed for volatile organic compounds; samples were drawn 5-19 months after the spill had been capped. We examined the petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in the blood. The aromatic compounds m,p-xylene, toluene, ethylbenzene, benzene, o-xylene, and styrene, and the alkanes hexane, 3-methylpentane, 2-methylpentane, and iso-octane were detected. Concentrations of the first four aromatics were not significantly different from US National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey/US National Institute of Standards and Technology 95th percentiles, indicating high concentrations of contaminants. The other two aromatics and the alkanes yielded equivocal results or significantly low concentrations. The data suggest that single-ring aromatic compounds are more persistent in the blood than alkanes and may be responsible for the observed symptoms. People should avoid exposure to crude oil through avoidance of the affected region, or utilizing hazardous materials suits if involved in cleanup, or wearing hazardous waste operations and emergency response suits if SCUBA diving. Concentrations of alkanes and PAHs in the blood of coastal residents and workers should be monitored through time well after the spill has been controlled.

  1. Fabrication of Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Sites on Polypropylene Nonwoven for Oil Spill Cleanup: Two Dilemmas Affecting Oil Sorption.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiangyu; Wang, Feifei; Ji, Yali; Chen, Weiting; Wei, Junfu

    2016-04-05

    This article mainly deals with the following dilemmas, which affect oil sorption and sorbent preparation: (1) hydrophobization could facilitate oil sorption but has adverse impacts on emulsion sorption; (2) micropores of conventional oil sorbent do not exhibit effective emulsion sorption. To solve the above contradictions, hydrophilic and hydrophobic sites were fabricated onto polypropylene (PP) nonwoven through electron beam radiation and subsequent ring-opening reaction. Further, a similar structure without a hydrophilic site was constructed as comparison to verify the dilemmas. An oil sorption and emulsion adsorption experiment revealed that the PP nonwoven with specific hydrophilic and hydrophobic sites is more suitable for oil cleanup. The hydrophobic site preserved its hydrophobicity and sorption capacity, and the hydrophilic site on PP surface effectively increased the affinity between the hydrophilic interface of emulsion and sorbent. The overlapped and intertwined structures could provide spaces large enough to accommodate oil and emulsion. In addition, the oil and emulsion sorption behaviors were systematically analyzed. The PP nonwoven fabricated in this study may find practical application in the cleanup of oil spills and the removal of organic pollutants from water surfaces.

  2. Role of dietary fish oil on nitric oxide synthase activity and oxidative status in mice red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Martins, Marcela A; Moss, Monique B; Mendes, Iara K S; Águila, Márcia B; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos Alberto; Brunini, Tatiana M C; Mendes-Ribeiro, Antônio Cláudio

    2014-12-01

    The consumption of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) derived from fish oil concomitant with a reduced intake of saturated fats is associated with cardiovascular benefits, which may result from the participation of nitric oxide (NO). In contrast, PUFAs are vulnerable to peroxidation, which could affect the oxidative stability of the cell and reduce NO bioavailability. Therefore, we investigated the effects of high fat diets with increasing amounts of fish oil (0-40% of energy) in place of lard on the l-arginine-NO pathway, the arginase pathway and oxidative status in mice red blood cells (RBC). We found that l-arginine transport, as well as NO synthase (NOS) expression and activity, was enhanced by the highest doses of fish oil (30 and 40%). In contrast, diets rich in lard led to NOS expression and activity impairment. Arginase expression was not significantly affected by any of the dietary regimens. No significant difference in protein and lipid oxidative markers was observed among any of the fish-oil fed mice; only lard feeding induced protein damage in addition to a decreased superoxide dismutase activity. These data suggest that a substantial dose of fish oil, but not low doses, activates the RBC l-arginine-NO pathway without resulting in oxidative damage.

  3. Variables affecting the yields of fatty esters from transesterified vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    Freedman, B.; Pryde, E.H.; Mounts, T.L.

    1984-10-01

    Transesterification reaction variables that affect yield and purity of the product esters from cottonseed, peanut, soybean and sunflower oils include molar ratio of alcohol to vegetable oil, type of catalyst (alkaline vs acidic), temperature and degree of refinement of the vegetable oil. With alkaline catalysts (either sodium hydroxide or methoxide), temperatures of 60 degrees C or higher, molar ratios of at least 6 to 1 and with fully refined oils, conversion to methyl, ethyl and butyl esters was essentially complete in 1 hr. At moderate temperatures (32 degrees C), vegetable oils were 99% transesterified in ca. 4 hr with an alkaline catalyst. Transesterification by acid catalysis was much slower than by alkali catalysis. Although the crude oils could be transesterified, ester yields were reduced because of gums and extraneous material present in the crude oils. 30 references.

  4. Perilla oil improves blood flow through inhibition of platelet aggregation and thrombus formation

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Ja-Young; Kim, Tae-Su; Cai, Jingmei; Kim, Jihyun; Kim, Youngeun; Shin, Kyungha; Kim, Kwang-Sei; Lee, Sung-Pyo; Kang, Myung-Hwa; Choi, Ehn-Kyoung

    2014-01-01

    The inhibitory effects of perilla oil on the platelet aggregation in vitro and thrombosis in vivo were investigated in comparison with aspirin, a well-known blood flow enhancer. Rabbit platelet-rich plasma was incubated with perilla oil and aggregation inducers collagen or thrombin, and the platelet aggregation rate was analyzed. Perilla oil significantly inhibited both the collagen- and thrombin-induced platelet aggregations, in which the thromboxane B2 formation from collagen-activated platelets were reduced in a concentration-dependent manner. Rats were administered once daily by gavage with perilla oil for 1 week, carotid arterial thrombosis was induced by applying 35% FeCl3-soaked filter paper for 10 min, and the blood flow was monitored with a laser Doppler probe. Perilla oil delayed the FeCl3-induced arterial occlusion in a dose-dependent manner, doubling the occlusion time at 0.5 mL/kg. In addition, a high dose (2 mL/kg) of perilla oil greatly prevented the occlusion, comparable to the effect of aspirin (30 mg/kg). The results indicate that perilla oil inhibit platelet aggregation by blocking thromboxane formation, and thereby delay thrombosis following oxidative arterial wall injury. Therefore, it is proposed that perilla oil could be a good candidate without adverse effects for the improvement of blood flow. PMID:24707301

  5. Cooperative Agreements to Support Communities Affected by the BP Oil Spill

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The environmental justice cooperative agreements are designed to support communities in Alabama, Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas that are directly affected by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico.

  6. The effects of heated vegetable oils on blood pressure in rats

    PubMed Central

    Jaarin, Kamsiah; Mustafa, Mohd Rais; Leong, Xin-Fang

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to determine the possible mechanism that is involved in the blood pressure-raising effect of heated vegetable oils. METHODS: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 11 groups; the control group was fed with rat chow, and the other groups were fed with chow that was mixed with 15% weight/weight palm or soy oils, which were either in a fresh form or heated once, twice, five, or ten times. Blood pressures were measured at the baseline and throughout the 24-week study. Plasma nitric oxide levels were assessed prior to treatment and at the end of the study. Following 24 weeks, the rats were sacrificed to investigate their vascular reactivity using the thoracic aorta. RESULTS: Palm and soy oils had no detrimental effects on blood pressure, and they significantly elevated the nitric oxide contents and reduced the contractile responses to phenylephrine. However, trials using palm and soy oils that were repeatedly heated showed an increase in blood pressure, enhanced phenylephrine-induced contractions, reduced acetylcholine- and sodium nitroprusside-induced relaxations relative to the control and rats that were fed fresh vegetable oils. CONCLUSIONS: The blood pressure-raising effect of the heated vegetable cooking oils is associated with increased vascular reactivity and a reduction in nitric oxide levels. The chronic consumption of heated vegetable oils leads to disturbances in endogenous vascular regulatory substances, such as nitric oxide. The thermal oxidation of the cooking oils promotes the generation of free radicals and may play an important contributory role in the pathogenesis of hypertension in rats. PMID:22189740

  7. Some factors affecting the oil-spill risk to sea otters in California. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tinney, R.T.

    1984-10-01

    Sea otters in California, with their limited range and numbers, are exposed to the threat of oil spills from a number of sources including offshore oil and gas development, transportation of crude oil and refined products, and the bunker fuel of vessels transiting the otter range. This report explores some of the direct and indirect ways otters may be affected by oil spills, including hypothermia, pneumonia, toxic effects, and destruction of preferred prey. The report also examines the possibility of mitigating the effects of oil spills through spill containment and cleanup, otter capture, cleaning and rehabilitation, and otter relocation. The report concludes with a description of the amount of shoreline affected by some major spills in various parts of the world.

  8. Visual display of reservoir parameters affecting enhanced oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, J.R.

    1996-04-30

    This project consists of two parts. In Part 1, well logs, other well data, drilling, and production data for the Pioneer Field in the southern San Joaquin Valley of California were obtained, assembled, and input to a commercial relational database manager. These data are being used in PC-based geologic mapping, evaluation, and visualization software programs to produce 2-D and 3-D representations of the reservoir geometry, facies and subfacies, stratigraphy, porosity, oil saturation, and other measured and model parameters. Petrographic and petrophysical measurements made on samples from Pioneer Field, including core, cuttings and liquids, are being used to calibrate the log suite. In Part 2, these data sets are being used to develop algorithms to correlate log response to geologic and engineering measurements. Rock alteration due to interactions with hot fluids are being quantitatively modeled and used to predict the reservoir response if the rock were subjected to thermally enhanced oil recovery (TEOR).

  9. Skin Blood Perfusion and Oxygenation Colour Affect Perceived Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Stephen, Ian D.; Coetzee, Vinet; Law Smith, Miriam; Perrett, David I.

    2009-01-01

    Skin blood perfusion and oxygenation depends upon cardiovascular, hormonal and circulatory health in humans and provides socio-sexual signals of underlying physiology, dominance and reproductive status in some primates. We allowed participants to manipulate colour calibrated facial photographs along empirically-measured oxygenated and deoxygenated blood colour axes both separately and simultaneously, to optimise healthy appearance. Participants increased skin blood colour, particularly oxygenated, above basal levels to optimise healthy appearance. We show, therefore, that skin blood perfusion and oxygenation influence perceived health in a way that may be important to mate choice. PMID:19337378

  10. Factors affecting Israeli women's decision whether to donate cord blood.

    PubMed

    Ben Natan, Merav; Grinberg, Keren; Galula, Sharon; Biton, Michal

    2014-01-01

    To examine whether Israeli mothers' intention to donate cord blood can be predicted using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). A descriptive correlation study, employing the TPB. A questionnaire constructed based on a literature review of research on cord blood donation and on the TPB was administered to 207 Israeli women of childbearing age. Behavioral attitudes (women's total appraisal of cord blood donation), subjective norms (women's perception of the opinion of significant others regarding the specific behavior), and perceived behavioral control (women's total appraisal of their control of the behavior and perceived ease or difficulty of cord blood donation) were found to predict women's intention to donate cord blood. Since behavioral attitudes, subjective norms, and behavioral control can predict cord blood donations, it is important for the medical and nursing staff to understand and use these concepts if they hope to obtain women's cooperation concerning cord blood donation. Nurses should receive education on the subject of cord blood donation, increasing their awareness. It is possible that this could lead to a rise in such donations in the future. Both mothers and fathers should be consulted about the option of donating cord blood.

  11. Parameters Affecting the Characteristics of Oil Shale-Derived Fuels.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    syncrude), or refined directly into liquid fuels and petrochemicals . The gaseous products can also be used as fuels in or near the retorting plant , or... petrochemical industry in the Rocky Mountain region, but this remains to be seen. The use of shale oil as a refinery feedstock for the production of...were conducted on bench-scale equipment under carefully controlled conditions. If present or future petrochem - ical plants do not have the capability

  12. A blend of sesame oil and rice bran oil lowers blood pressure and improves the lipid profile in mild-to-moderate hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Devarajan, Sankar; Singh, Ravinder; Chatterjee, Biprabuddha; Zhang, Bo; Ali, Amanat

    2016-01-01

    Sesame oil and rice bran oil are known for their unsaturated fatty acids and antioxidants contents and have been reported to reduce the cardiovascular risk. To determine the effect of a blend of 20% unrefined cold-pressed lignans-rich sesame oil and 80% physically refined γ-oryzanol-rich rice bran oil (Vivo) as cooking oil in mild-to-moderate hypertensive patients. In this prospective, open-label dietary approach, 300 hypertensive patients and 100 normotensives were divided into groups as: (1) normotensives treated with sesame oil blend, (2) hypertensives treated with sesame oil blend, (3) hypertensives treated with nifedipine, a calcium channel blocker (20 mg/d), and (4) hypertensives receiving the combination of sesame oil blend and nifedipine (20 mg/d). Sesame oil blend was supplied to respective groups, and they were instructed to use it as the only cooking oil for 60 days. Resting blood pressure was measured at days 0, 15, 30, 45, and 60, whereas the fasting lipid profile was measured at days 0 and 60. Significant reduction in blood pressure (systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial) from days 0 to 15, 30, 45, and 60 were observed in hypertensives treated with sesame oil blend alone (P < .001), nifedipine alone (P < .001), and combination of sesame oil blend and nifedipine (P < .001). Sesame oil blend with nifedipine-treated group showed greatest reduction in blood pressure. Total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels reduced, whereas high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels increased significantly only in hypertensives treated with sesame oil blend alone and the combination of sesame oil blend and nifedipine (P < .001). We demonstrate for the first time that using a blend of sesame oil and rice bran oil as cooking oil showed a significant antihypertensive and lipid-lowering action and had noteworthy additive effect with antihypertensive medication. Copyright © 2016 National

  13. How Does Smoking Affect the Heart and Blood Vessels?

    MedlinePlus

    ... hardens and narrows your arteries. This limits the flow of oxygen-rich blood to your organs and other parts of your body. Coronary heart disease (CHD) occurs if plaque builds up in the coronary ... high blood pressure , and overweight or obesity —smoking further ...

  14. Factors affecting blood sample haemolysis: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Barnard, Ed B G; Potter, David L; Ayling, Ruth M; Higginson, Ian; Bailey, Andrew G; Smith, Jason E

    2016-04-01

    To determine the effect of blood sampling through an intravenous catheter compared with a needle in Emergency Department blood sampling. We undertook a prospective, cross-sectional study in a UK university teaching hospital Emergency Department. A convenience sample of 985 patients who required blood sampling via venepuncture was collected. A total of 844 complete sets of data were analysed. The median age was 63 years, and 57% of patients were male. The primary outcome measure was the incidence of haemolysis in blood samples obtained via a needle compared with samples obtained via an intravenous catheter. Secondary outcome measures defined the effect on sample haemolysis of the side of the patient the sample was obtained from, the anatomical location of sampling, the perceived difficulty in obtaining the sample, the order of sample tubes collected, estimated tourniquet time and bench time. Data were analysed with logistic regression, and expressed as odds ratios (95% confidence intervals; P-values). Blood samples obtained through an intravenous catheter were more likely to be haemolysed than those obtained via a needle, odds ratio 5.63 (95% confidence interval 2.49-12.73; P<0.001). Blood sampling via an intravenous catheter was significantly associated with an increase in the likelihood of sample haemolysis compared with sampling with a needle. Wherever practicable, blood samples should be obtained via a needle in preference to an intravenous catheter. Future research should include both an economic evaluation, and staff and patient satisfaction of separating blood sampling and intravenous catheter placement.

  15. Detecting oil sands process-affected waters in the Alberta oil sands region using synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kavanagh, Richard J; Burnison, B Kent; Frank, Richard A; Solomon, Keith R; Van Der Kraak, Glen

    2009-06-01

    Large volumes of oil sands process-affected waters (OSPW) are produced during the extraction of bitumen from oil sand. There are approximately 10(9) m(3) of OSPW currently being stored in settling basins on oil sands mining sites in Northern Alberta. Developers plan to create artificial lakes with OSPW and it is expected that this water may eventually enter the environment. This study was conducted in order to determine if synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS) could detect OSPW contamination in water systems. Water samples collected from ponds containing OSPW and selected sites in the Alberta oil sands region were evaluated using SFS with an offset value of 18 nm. OSPW ponds consistently displayed a minor peak at 282.5 nm and a broad major peak ranging between 320 and 340 nm. Water from reference sites within the oil sands region had little fluorescence at 282.5 nm but greater fluorescence beyond 345 nm. Naphthenic acids are the major toxic component of OSPW. Both a commercial naphthenic acid and a naphthenic acid extract prepared from OSPW had similar fluorescent spectra with peaks at 280 nm and 320 nm and minor shoulders at approximately 303 and 331 nm. The presence of aromatic acids closely associated with the naphthenic acids may be responsible for unique fluorescence at 320-340 nm. SFS is proposed to be a simple and fast method to monitor the release of OSPW into ground and surface waters in the oil sands region.

  16. Chronic effects of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on blood and enzyme chemistry of river otters

    SciTech Connect

    Duffy, L.K.; Bowyer, R.T.; Testa, J.W. ); Faro, J.B. )

    1994-04-01

    River otters (Lutra canadensis) living in marine environments of Prince William Sound, Alaska, and exposed to crude oil from the Exxon Valdez spill in March 1989 showed elevated levels of blood haptoglobins, and interleukin-6 ir, as well as elevated activities of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and creatine kinase in summer 1991. Stepwise logistic regression, using a subset of these and other blood proteins and enzyme activities as potential independent variables, correctly classified 86.4% of 22 otters as inhabiting oiled or nonoiled areas. River otters abandoned latrine sites (an index to their abundance) over three times more often in oiled than in nonoiled areas, suggesting there may have been a delayed response in river otter populations to exposure to crude oil. This is the first clear model for the long-term effects of an oil spill on blood parameters of a free-ranging mammal using a nonlethal methodology. These effects occurred two years after the spill and following a major effort to clean oil from the shorelines of Prince William Sound.

  17. Palm oil and ground nut oil supplementation effects on blood glucose and antioxidant status in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Adewale, Olabiyi Folorunso; Isaac, OlatunjiOlusola; Tunmise, Makinwa Temitope; Omoniyi, OguntibejuOluwafemi

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of two common cooking oils (palm oil, PO) and (groundnut oil, GO) supplementation on the antioxidant status and diabetic indices in Alloxan (100mg/kg) induced diabetic Wistar rats. A total of forty-eight Wistar rats of both sexes were used for this study. They were divided into four groups of 12 animals each as: control, diabetic non-supplemented, diabetic supplemented with PO (200mg/kg/day) and diabetic supplemented with GO (200mg/kg/day) rats. Blood glucose, plasma vitamin E, SOD, Total Protein and Albumin levels were measured using standard laboratory procedures. After three weeks of supplementation there was a significant (p<0.05) reduction in blood glucose of supplemented groups compared with the diabetic non-supplemented group. Plasma Vitamins C and E, SOD, and Albumin levels were significantly (p<0.05) increased in the supplemented groups when compared with the diabetic non-supplemented group. However, the plasma levels of these parameters were found to be significantly (p<0.05) higher in the GO supplemented rats compared with the PO supplemented group. The plasma vitamin C levels in the diabetic groups were lower than in other groups while increased levels in the plasma total protein were not significant. There was no significant difference in the measured parameters in reference to the gender of the animals. It was concluded from this study that GO exhibited superior antioxidant activities and that the supplementation of red palm oil and ground nut oil as a source of antioxidant was beneficial in diabetic state as it reduced blood glucose and enhance antioxidant status.

  18. Factors affecting postoperative blood loss in children undergoing cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Faraoni, David; Van der Linden, Philippe

    2014-02-11

    We hypothesized that the influence of cyanotic disease on postoperative blood loss is closely related to age in children undergoing cardiac surgery. Here, we demonstrate that the presence of a cyanotic disease is associated with increased postoperative blood loss in children aged 1 to 6 months. Children with cyanotic disease and aged<1 month who received fresh frozen plasma during cardiopulmonary bypass had less postoperative blood loss and higher maximal clot firmness on FIBTEM than cyanotic children from all other groups. Additional studies are needed to define optimal pathophysiology-based management in children undergoing cardiac surgery.

  19. Consumption of echium oil increases EPA and DPA in blood fractions more efficiently compared to linseed oil in humans.

    PubMed

    Kuhnt, Katrin; Weiß, Stefanie; Kiehntopf, Michael; Jahreis, Gerhard

    2016-02-18

    A plant-based strategy to improve long-chain (LC) omega (n)-3 PUFA supply in humans involves dietary supplementation with oils containing α-linolenic acid (ALA) alone or in combination with stearidonic acid (SDA). The study aimed to compare the effects of echium oil (EO) and linseed oil (LO) on LC n-3 PUFA accumulation in blood and on clinical markers. In two double-blind, parallel-arm, randomized controlled studies, all volunteers started with 17 g/d run-in oil (2 weeks). Thereafter, subjects received diets enriched in study 1 with EO (5 g ALA + 2 g SDA; n = 59) or in study 2 with LO (5 g ALA; n =  9) daily for 8 weeks. The smaller control groups received fish oil (FO; n = 19) or olive oil (OO; n = 18). Participants were instructed to restrict their dietary n-3 PUFA intake throughout the studies (e.g., no fish). To investigate the influence of age and BMI on the conversion of ALA and SDA as well as clinical markers, the subjects recruited for EO and LO treatment were divided into three subgroups (two age groups 20-35 y; 49-69 y with BMI 18-25 kg/m(2) and one group with older, overweight subjects (age 49-69 y; BMI >25 kg/m(2)). In plasma, red blood cells (RBC), and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), EPA and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) were ~25 % higher following EO compared to LO. Comparing all treatments, the effectiveness of increasing EPA and DPA in plasma, RBC, and PBMC was on average 100:25:10:0 and 100:50:25:0 for FO:EO:LO:OO, respectively. EO led to a lower arachidonic acid/EPA-ratio compared to LO in plasma, RBC, and PBMC. Following EO, final DHA was not greater compared to LO. Higher BMI correlated negatively with increases in plasma EPA and DPA after EO supplementation, but not after LO supplementation. Decreasing effect on plasma LDL-C and serum insulin was greater with EO than with LO. Daily intake of SDA-containing EO is a better supplement than LO for increasing EPA and DPA in blood. However, neither EO nor LO maintained blood DHA status in

  20. Noncontact discrimination of animal and human blood with vacuum blood vessel and factors affect the discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Linna; Zhang, Shengzhao; Sun, Meixiu; Li, Hongxiao; Li, Yingxin; Fu, Zhigang; Guan, Yang; Li, Gang; Lin, Ling

    2017-03-01

    Discrimination of human and nonhuman blood is crucial for import-export ports and inspection and quarantine departments. Current methods are usually destructive, complicated and time-consuming. We had previously demonstrated that visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy combining PLS-DA method can successfully realize human blood discrimination. In that research, the spectra were measured with the fiber probe under the surface of blood samples. However, open sampling may pollute the blood samples. Virulence factors in blood samples can also endanger inspectors. In this paper, we explored the classification effect with the blood samples measured in the original containers-vacuum blood vessel. Furthermore, we studied the impact of different conditions of blood samples, such as coagulation and hemolysis, on the prediction ability of the discrimination model. The calibration model built with blood samples in different conditions displayed a satisfactory prediction result. This research demonstrated that visible and near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy method was potential for noncontact discrimination of human blood.

  1. Blood culture results do not affect treatment in complicated cellulitis.

    PubMed

    Paolo, William F; Poreda, Andrew R; Grant, William; Scordino, David; Wojcik, Susan

    2013-08-01

    Cellulitis, a frequently encountered complaint in the Emergency Department, is typically managed with antibiotics. There is some debate as to whether obtaining blood cultures and knowing their results would change the management of cellulitis, although most authors argue that information from blood cultures does not change the empirical management of uncomplicated cellulitis. However, for complicated cellulitis (as defined by the presence of significant comorbidity), there is considerable disagreement and lack of evidence as to the utility of blood cultures. Our aim was to determine the role of blood cultures in the management of complicated cellulitis. This retrospective chart review assessed the utility of obtaining blood cultures in complicated cellulitis (as defined by active chemotherapy, dialysis, human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome, diabetes, or organ transplantation) vs. a cohort of individuals without medical comorbidity. Six hundred and thirty-nine patients were identified, 314 of which were deemed cases and 325 controls. Within the cases, 29 of 314 returned as positive blood cultures vs. 17 of 325 positive blood culture controls within the cases (p = 0.05; odds ratio = 1.84; 95% confidence interval 0.99-3.43). A clinically significant change in management (a change in the class of antibiotic) was found in 6 of 314 cases vs. 4 of 325 controls (p = 0.578; odds ratio = 1.5525; 95% confidence interval 0.434-5.5541). Within this cohort of patients with complicated cellulitis, blood cultures rarely changed management from empirical coverage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Soil moisture affects fatty acids and oil quality parameters in peanut

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Drought affects yield of peanut, but its effect on oleic and linoleic acids that influence its oil quality of peanut genotypes with different levels of drought resistance has not been clearly investigated. Therefore, the aims of this research were to determine whether soil water levels could affect...

  3. Comparison of pigeon guillemot, Cepphus columba, blood parameters from oiled and unoiled areas of Alaska eight years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seiser, P.E.; Duffy, L.K.; McGuire, David A.; Roby, D.D.; Golet, Gregory H.; Litzow, Michael A.

    2000-01-01

    In 1997, we compared the haematological and plasma biochemical profiles among populations of pigeon guillemots, Cepphus columba, in areas oiled and not oiled by the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) that occurred in Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska. Pigeon guillemot populations in PWS were injured by EVOS and have not returned to pre-spill levels. If oil contamination is limiting recovery of pigeon guillemots in PWS, then we expected that blood parameters of pigeon guillemots would differ between oiled and unoiled areas and that these differences would be consistent with either toxic responses or lower fitness. We collected blood samples from chicks at approximately 20 and 30 days after hatching. Physiological changes associated with chick growth were noted in several blood parameters. We found that only calcium and mean cell volume were significantly different between the chicks in oiled and unoiled areas. Despite these differences, blood biomarkers provided little evidence of continuing oil injury to pigeon guillemot chicks, eight years after the EVOS. Preliminary data from adults indicated elevated aspartate aminotransferase activity in the adults from the oiled area, which is consistent with hepatocellular injury. Because adults have greater opportunities for exposure to residual oil than nestlings, we recommend studies that fully evaluate the health of adults residing in oiled areas. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  4. Lifelong inorganic arsenic compounds consumption affected blood pressure in rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hui-Ting; Chou, Hsin-Ju; Han, Bor-Chen; Huang, Shih-Yi

    2007-12-01

    Chronic arsenic exposure is a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease and has a strong correlation with hypertension. Oxidative stress may be one of the major contributors to arsenic-induced hypertension. To investigate the antioxidative and CYP systems through which inorganic arsenic compounds may contribute to blood pressure elevation in rats, we administered 50ppm arsenic (as arsenite and arsenate) in drinking water to Wistar rats for 200 successive days. Systolic blood pressure was determined every 20 days, and blood samples and tissues were collected at each time point for biological analysis. Compared to the control group, weight gain in the arsenic-exposed animals was slightly but significantly lower, whereas the relative weights of the various tissues was higher. Blood pressure was elevated until day 80 in both arsenic groups followed by a time-dependent change in the antioxidative enzyme system. The hypertensive effect remained until day 200 for arsenite when the change by arsenate was minimized. Patterns of antioxidative enzyme change differed between arsenite and arsenate. However, the most common marker of hypertension, the angiotensin-converting enzyme, showed no significant change in either arsenic group. CYP4A was highly expressed in both arsenic groups, particularly in the arsenite group. These results indicate that low but chronic arsenic exposure might cause elevated blood pressure and antioxidative interference. Furthermore, CYP4A might be more important than ACE in contributing to arsenic-induced hypertension.

  5. Factors affecting impairment of blood rheology in obese subjects.

    PubMed

    Hitsumoto, Takashi

    2012-11-01

    Impairment of blood rheology has been reported to be associated with cardiovascular diseases. Recently, visible micro channel methods [micro channel array flow analyzer (MC-FAN)] have been developed to clinically evaluate blood rheology. The aim of this cross-sectional study is to clarify the factors important for impairment of blood rheology in obese subjects using MC-FAN. One hundred and fifty-nine obese subjects and 100 non-obese subjects with no history of cardiovascular diseases were enrolled. Blood passage time (BPT) was measured using MC-FAN and relationships between BPT and various clinical parameters were examined. BPT was significantly higher in obese subjects than in non-obese subjects (obesity vs. non-obesity: 62.8 ± 17.9s vs. 54.1 ± 14.6s, p<0.001); however, there were no significant relationships between BPT and body mass index or waist circumference in obese subjects. BPT was significantly related to systolic blood pressure levels (r=0.21; p<0.001), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentrations (r=0.37; p<0.001), a marker of inflammation, and derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites test (r=0.38; p<0.001), a marker of oxidative stress, smoking, and exercise habits in obese subjects. Furthermore, multivariate analysis revealed that derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites test (t=5.2; p<0.001), high sensitivity C-reactive protein concentration (t=3.6; p<0.01), smoking (t=3.2; p<0.001), and exercise habits (t=-2.4; p<0.05) were independent variables for BPT. Data indicate that inflammation, oxidative stress, and lifestyle choices are more important factors for impairment of blood rheology, which is evaluated by MC-FAN, than the degree of adiposity in obese subjects. Copyright © 2012 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Melatonin differentially affects vascular blood flow in humans.

    PubMed

    Cook, Jonathan S; Sauder, Charity L; Ray, Chester A

    2011-02-01

    Melatonin is synthesized and released into the circulation by the pineal gland in a circadian rhythm. Melatonin has been demonstrated to differentially alter blood flow to assorted vascular beds by the activation of different melatonin receptors in animal models. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of melatonin on blood flow to various vascular beds in humans. Renal (Doppler ultrasound), forearm (venous occlusion plethysmography), and cerebral blood flow (transcranial Doppler), arterial blood pressure, and heart rate were measured in 10 healthy subjects (29±1 yr; 5 men and 5 women) in the supine position for 3 min. The protocol began 45 min after the ingestion of either melatonin (3 mg) or placebo (sucrose). Subjects returned at least 2 days later at the same time of day to repeat the trial after ingesting the other substance. Melatonin did not alter heart rate and mean arterial pressure. Renal blood flow velocity (RBFV) and renal vascular conductance (RVC) were lower during the melatonin trial compared with placebo (RBFV, 40.5±2.9 vs. 45.4±1.5 cm/s; and RVC, 0.47±0.02 vs. 0.54±0.01 cm·s(-1)·mmHg(-1), respectively). In contrast, forearm blood flow (FBF) and forearm vascular conductance (FVC) were greater with melatonin compared with placebo (FBF, 2.4±0.2 vs. 1.9±0.1 ml·100 ml(-1)·min(-1); and FVC, 0.029±0.003 vs. 0.023±0.002 arbitrary units, respectively). Melatonin did not alter cerebral blood flow measurements compared with placebo. Additionally, phentolamine (5-mg bolus) after melatonin reversed the decrease in RVC, suggesting that melatonin increases sympathetic outflow to the kidney to mediate renal vasoconstriction. In summary, exogenous melatonin differentially alters vascular blood flow in humans. These data suggest the complex nature of melatonin on the vasculature in humans.

  7. Vasovagal syncope and blood donor return: examination of the role of experience and affective expectancies.

    PubMed

    Olatunji, Bunmi O; Etzel, Erin N; Ciesielski, Bethany G

    2010-03-01

    Vasovagal sensations (e.g., dizziness, nausea, and fainting) are one of the main reasons people find blood donation unpleasant. A better understanding of predictors of vasovagal sensations during blood donation could inform interventions designed to increase donor return rates. The present investigation examined the extent to which experience with blood donation and vasovagal sensations during blood donation uniquely predict the likelihood of donor return, even when controlling for affective expectancies. Participants presenting at community blood drives indicated how many times they have given blood and provided ratings of expected anxiety, pain, disgust, as well as fear of fainting before giving blood. After donating, participants completed a measure of vasovagal sensations experienced during blood donation. They also rated the pleasantness of the experience and willingness to donate blood in the future. The findings showed that experience with blood donation and vasovagal sensations during blood donation uniquely predicted willingness to donate blood in the future even when controlling for age and negative affective expectancies about giving blood. This finding suggests that vasovagal sensations and experience with blood donation have unique (and perhaps additive) effects on willingness to donate blood in the future, suggesting that behavior modification interventions that directly target these variables could potentially increase donor retention.

  8. CHILDHOOD BLOOD LEAD LEVELS NOT AFFECTED BY HOUSING COMPLIANCE STATUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In a secondary analysis of data from the Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program of Philadelphia (July 1, 1999 through September 1, 2004), the authors evaluated the effect of housing compliance status and time to achieve compliance on changes in children's blood lead levels. ...

  9. CHILDHOOD BLOOD LEAD LEVELS NOT AFFECTED BY HOUSING COMPLIANCE STATUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In a secondary analysis of data from the Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program of Philadelphia (July 1, 1999 through September 1, 2004), the authors evaluated the effect of housing compliance status and time to achieve compliance on changes in children's blood lead levels. ...

  10. Linking Positive Affect to Blood Lipids: A Cultural Perspective.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jiah; Miyamoto, Yuri; Rigotti, Attilio; Ryff, Carol D

    2017-10-01

    Higher levels of positive affect have been associated with better physical health. While positive affect is seen as highly desirable among Westerners, East Asians tend to deemphasize positive affect. Using large probability samples of Japanese and U.S. adult populations, the present study examined the relations of positive affect with serum lipid profiles, known to be strongly predictive of risk for cardiovascular disease, and tested whether their associations depend on cultural contexts. As predicted, positive affect was associated with healthier lipid profiles for Americans but not for Japanese. Further analyses showed that this cultural moderation was mediated by body mass index. This study highlights the role of culture in the link between positive emotions and key biological risk factors of cardiovascular disease.

  11. Visual display of reservoir parameters affecting enhanced oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, J.R.

    1996-01-27

    This project will provide a detailed example, based on a field trial, of how to evaluate a field for EOR operations utilizing data typically available in an older field which has under gone primary development. The approach will utilize readily available, affordable PC-based computer software and analytical services. This study will illustrate the steps involved in: (1) setting up a relational database to store geologic, well-log, engineering, and production data, (2) integration of data typically available for oil and gas fields with predictive models for reservoir alteration, and (3) linking these data and models with modern computer software to provide 2-D and 3-D visualizations of the reservoir and its attributes. The techniques are being demonstrated through a field trial on a reservoir, Pioneer Field, a field that produces from the Monterey Formation, which is a candidate for thermal EOR. Technical progress is summarized for the following tasks: (1) project administration and management; (2) data collection; (3) data analysis and measurement; (4) modeling; and (5) technology transfer.

  12. Performance, blood parameters and meat yield in broiler chickens supplemented with Mexican oregano oil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study was conducted to evaluate the inclusion of Mexican oregano oil (MOO) Lippia berlandieri Schauer in broiler diets during grow-out on performance, blood parameters, and meat yield. One hundred and sixty-two one-day-old broilers, randomly divided into three equal groups (treatments): CON =...

  13. Anticoagulant modulation of blood cells and platelet reactivity by garlic oil in experimental diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Ohaeri, O C; Adoga, G I

    2006-02-01

    Multiple blood cell types and metabolic pathways involved in the modulation of platelet reactivity were investigated in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats treated with garlic oil. Platelet counts of diabetic rats treated with garlic oil were significantly (P<0.01) reduced as compared to diabetic control rats. Garlic oil also increased the leucocyte counts of diabetic rats as compared to diabetic control rats. The significant (P<0.001) decreases by garlic oil of plasma concentration factors, V, VII, VIII: C, IX and X in diabetic rats may be interpreted to mean that there was a modulation of factor VII similar to that brought about by thrombin on factors V and VIII: C. This reversal of hypercoagulation through integrated biochemical reaction is suggestive of multicellular modulation of platelet reactivity, erythrocytes and neutrophils and the functional interactions between plasma coagulation factors and platelet cofactors.

  14. Subinhibitory Concentrations of Perilla Oil Affect the Expression of Secreted Virulence Factor Genes in Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Mingjing; Li, Hongen; Dong, Jing; Wang, Jianfeng; Leng, Bingfeng; Wang, Xiaoliang; Feng, Haihua; Ren, Wenzhi; Deng, Xuming

    2011-01-01

    Background The pathogenicity of staphylococcus aureus is dependent largely upon its ability to secrete a number of virulence factors, therefore, anti-virulence strategy to combat S. aureus-mediated infections is now gaining great interest. It is widely recognized that some plant essential oils could affect the production of staphylococcal exotoxins when used at subinhibitory concentrations. Perilla [Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton], a natural medicine found in eastern Asia, is primarily used as both a medicinal and culinary herb. Its essential oil (perilla oil) has been previously demonstrated to be active against S. aureus. However, there are no data on the influence of perilla oil on the production of S. aureus exotoxins. Methodology/Principal Findings A broth microdilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of perilla oil against S. aureus strains. Hemolysis, tumour necrosis factor (TNF) release, Western blot, and real-time RT-PCR assays were performed to evaluate the effects of subinhibitory concentrations of perilla oil on exotoxins production in S. aureus. The data presented here show that perilla oil dose-dependently decreased the production of α-toxin, enterotoxins A and B (the major staphylococcal enterotoxins), and toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1) in both methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Conclusions/Significance The production of α-toxin, SEA, SEB, and TSST-1 in S. aureus was decreased by perilla oil. These data suggest that perilla oil may be useful for the treatment of S. aureus infections when used in combination with β-lactam antibiotics, which can increase exotoxins production by S. aureus at subinhibitory concentrations. Furthermore, perilla oil could be rationally applied in food systems as a novel food preservative both to inhibit the growth of S. aureus and to repress the production of exotoxins, particularly staphylococcal enterotoxins. PMID:21283822

  15. Sweet future: fluctuating blood glucose levels affect future discounting.

    PubMed

    Wang, X T; Dvorak, Robert D

    2010-02-01

    This study explored metabolic mechanisms of future (delay) discounting, a choice phenomenon where people value present goods over future goods. Using fluctuating blood glucose as an index of body-energy budget, optimal discounting should regulate choice among rewards as a function of temporal caloric requirement. We identified this novel link between blood glucose levels measured in the lab and future-discounting rates of participants, who made choices between a "smaller and sooner" reward and a "larger but later" option, with possible actual monetary rewards. A group of participants who drank a soft drink that contained sugar showed a reduced rate of future discounting afterward, when we controlled for sex, age, body mass index, and the taste of the drink. In contrast, a group of participants who drank a soft drink that contained artificial sweetener showed an increased rate of future discounting. Blood glucose levels not only varied as a result of caloric intake but also regulated the rate of future discounting, according to participants' dynamic body-energy budget.

  16. Oleic acid content is responsible for the reduction in blood pressure induced by olive oil.

    PubMed

    Terés, S; Barceló-Coblijn, G; Benet, M; Alvarez, R; Bressani, R; Halver, J E; Escribá, P V

    2008-09-16

    Numerous studies have shown that high olive oil intake reduces blood pressure (BP). These positive effects of olive oil have frequently been ascribed to its minor components, such as alpha-tocopherol, polyphenols, and other phenolic compounds that are not present in other oils. However, in this study we demonstrate that the hypotensive effect of olive oil is caused by its high oleic acid (OA) content (approximately 70-80%). We propose that olive oil intake increases OA levels in membranes, which regulates membrane lipid structure (H(II) phase propensity) in such a way as to control G protein-mediated signaling, causing a reduction in BP. This effect is in part caused by its regulatory action on G protein-associated cascades that regulate adenylyl cyclase and phospholipase C. In turn, the OA analogues, elaidic and stearic acids, had no hypotensive activity, indicating that the molecular mechanisms that link membrane lipid structure and BP regulation are very specific. Similarly, soybean oil (with low OA content) did not reduce BP. This study demonstrates that olive oil induces its hypotensive effects through the action of OA.

  17. Growth performance, carcass traits, meat chemical composition and blood serum metabolites of broiler chicken fed on diets containing flaxseed oil.

    PubMed

    Lopes, D C N; Xavier, E G; Santos, V L; Gonçalves, F M; Anciuti, M A; Roll, V F B; Del Pino, F A B; Feijó, J O; Catalan, A A S

    2013-01-01

    1. This study evaluated the effects of diets with partial and total substitution of soya bean oil (SO) with flaxseed (linseed) oil (FO) on broiler chicken performance, carcass traits, meat chemical composition and blood serum metabolites. 2. A total of 448 one-d-old Cobb 500 broiler chicken were used. They were allotted among 4 treatments with 8 replications, using a completely randomised design, for 35 d. Four diets were compared: T1 = 100% SO (3%, 1-7 d; 4%, 8-21 d; and 5%, 22-35 d); T2 = 50% SO + 50% FO; T3 = 25% SO + 75% FO and T4 = 100% FO. 3. No significant differences were observed in body weight (BW), body weight gain (BWG), feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and blood serum metabolites (total triglycerides, TRI; total cholesterol, CHO; high-density lipoprotein, HDL; low-density lipoprotein, LDL; glucose, GLU; albumin, ALB; globulin, GLO; and total proteins, TPs). Significant effects were observed for TRI, CHO, HDL, GLU, HDL, LDL, ALB and GLO with regard to the day of collection. 4. Carcass traits did not show significant differences for the treatments. No significant differences were observed for breast and drumstick chemical compositions, with the exception of drumstick fat concentration (quadratic effect). 5. In conclusion, the partial or total substitution of SO with FO did not affect growth performance, carcass traits, meat chemical composition or blood serum profile in broiler chicken. Therefore, FO can be an alternative to SO in the diet formulation for broiler chicken.

  18. Aloysia triphylla essential oil as additive in silver catfish diet: Blood response and resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila infection.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Alessandro C; Sutili, Fernando J; Heinzmann, Berta M; Cunha, Mauro A; Brusque, Isabel C M; Baldisserotto, Bernardo; Zeppenfeld, Carla C

    2017-03-01

    The essential oil of Aloysia triphylla (EOAT) is a promising product with potential use in aquaculture systems. This study evaluated hematological/biochemical responses and survival of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) fed a diet containing EOAT and infected by Aeromonas hydrophila. After 21 days of feeding trial, fish were infected with A. hydrophila following a 10-day period of observation. Blood collection was performed before and after the bacterial challenge. Dietary EOAT by itself seems to affect some blood parameters, decreasing total leukocyte, lymphocyte, and neutrophil counts and increasing total protein values. However, 2.0 mL EOAT/kg diet showed a possible potential protective effect after A. hydrophila infection, maintaining the evaluated parameters similar to basal values (from healthy fish before the feeding trial) and promoting survival of silver catfish.

  19. AGT and RH blood group polymorphisms affect blood pressure and lipids in Afro-Caribbeans.

    PubMed

    Robinson, M T; Wilson, T W; Nicholson, G A; Grell, G A C; Etienne, C; Grim, C M; Wilson, D; Grim, C E

    2004-05-01

    Population blood pressure variation is most likely due to multiple genes. This is likely the reason why monogenic testing with the angiotensinogen (AGT) gene polymorphisms on chromosome 1 (1q42-43), especially M235T, has met with negative results, especially in those of African descent. The RH blood group system, also on chromosome 1 (1 p36.2-34), has likewise been associated with blood pressure variation in African-Americans and with the rise in blood pressure with age in whites. Using a random sample of the population, we investigated the combined effects of single and combined variation of the AGTN M235T and RH genotypes on blood pressure, lipids, and lipoprotein concentrations in Afro-Caribbeans aged 18-60 years from the island nation of Dominica. In monogenic analysis, AGT M235T was not associated with blood pressure. However, it was associated with HDL (MM 42+/-23, MT 44+/-12, TT 52+/-14 (P=0.002)). RH genotype was significantly associated with systolic blood pressure (P=0.006) and Apo-A (P=0.003). These effects remained after adjustment for age, gender, weight, and BMI. In the polygenetic analysis, AGT M235T and RH were significantly associated with systolic blood pressure (P=0.037; interaction effects, P=0.068). The association of the AGT M235T with blood pressure across RH blood group haplotypes was then tested. Of the five RH haplotypes available for analysis, the AGT M235T was significantly associated with blood pressure within the "D" haplotype (P=0.01). The RH blood group and gender were significantly associated with systolic blood pressure and Apo-A levels (P=0.005 and 0.012, respectively). All interactions were independent of age and weight. In conclusion, we demonstrate a significant association of AGT M235T with blood pressure and cholesterol metabolism in an Afro-Caribbean population in the "genetic context" of the RH blood group system. Further investigation of these interactions may help understand the effects of genetic factors on

  20. Colorimetric method for identifying plant essential oil components that affect biofilm formation and structure.

    PubMed

    Niu, C; Gilbert, E S

    2004-12-01

    The specific biofilm formation (SBF) assay, a technique based on crystal violet staining, was developed to locate plant essential oils and their components that affect biofilm formation. SBF analysis determined that cinnamon, cassia, and citronella oils differentially affected growth-normalized biofilm formation by Escherichia coli. Examination of the corresponding essential oil principal components by the SBF assay revealed that cinnamaldehyde decreased biofilm formation compared to biofilms grown in Luria-Bertani broth, eugenol did not result in a change, and citronellol increased the SBF. To evaluate these results, two microscopy-based assays were employed. First, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was used to examine E. coli biofilms cultivated in flow cells, which were quantitatively analyzed by COMSTAT, an image analysis program. The overall trend for five parameters that characterize biofilm development corroborated the findings of the SBF assay. Second, the results of an assay measuring growth-normalized adhesion by direct microscopy concurred with the results of the SBF assay and CLSM imaging. Viability staining indicated that there was reduced toxicity of the essential oil components to cells in biofilms compared to the toxicity to planktonic cells but revealed morphological damage to E. coli after cinnamaldehyde exposure. Cinnamaldehyde also inhibited the swimming motility of E. coli. SBF analysis of three Pseudomonas species exposed to cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, or citronellol revealed diverse responses. The SBF assay could be useful as an initial step for finding plant essential oils and their components that affect biofilm formation and structure.

  1. Blood pressure and vascular reactivity changes in spontaneously hypertensive rats fed fish oil.

    PubMed Central

    Yin, K.; Chu, Z. M.; Beilin, L. J.

    1991-01-01

    1. To examine possible mechanisms of antihypertensive effects of feeding fish oil rich in n-3 fatty acids, we have studied vascular reactivity of aortic rings and perfused mesenteric resistance vessels of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) given such a diet. 2. In two experiments, rats were fed a semi-synthetic diet containing either 'fish oil' (10 and 20% by weight) or hydrogenated coconut oil (control) (10 and 20%) for 4 weeks. 3. Blood pressure rose significantly less in the fish oil group than in controls in both experiments. 4. Aortic rings from control rats showed endothelium-dependent relaxations to low concentrations of acetylcholine (ACh) but relaxed less at higher concentrations. In contrast, rings from the fish oil group had relaxations which increased through the range of concentrations used. Indomethacin (10 microM) also increased the relaxation responses seen in rings from control rats, suggesting that fish oil inhibits a contractile cyclo-oxygenase product. This contractile substance may be thromboxane A2 (TxA2) or its endoperoxide precursor, prostaglandin H2 (PGH2) as aortic incubates and serum levels of TxB2 (the stable product of TxA2) were greatly reduced in fish oil-fed rats, and the decrease of relaxant responses to high concentrations of ACh were also blocked by a TxA2/PGH2 receptor blocker (SQ 29548). 5. In contrast to aortic rings, perfused preconstricted mesenteric resistance vessels of control rats relaxed to ACh in a similar fashion to tissues from fish oil-fed rats. However, in this preparation, fish oil feeding enhanced relaxations to sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and contractile responses to noradrenaline were less than controls.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1855129

  2. Incorporation of sunflower oil or linseed oil in equine compound feedstuff: 1 Effects on haematology and on fatty acids profiles in the red blood cells membranes.

    PubMed

    Patoux, S; Istasse, L

    2016-10-01

    Eight trained horses (6 mares - 2 geldings, 6 Selle Français, 2 Trotteur Français, 12 ± 5.8 years old, 538 ± 72.5 kg) were offered three diets to potentially affect haematology and the fatty acids (FA) profiles in red blood cells (RBC) membranes. The control diet was composed of 50% hay and 50% concentrate containing mainly rolled barley (48%) and whole spelt (48%). In the case of sunflower oil diet, sunflower oil (62.0% of α-linoleic acid, LA) was incorporated at a rate of 8% and substituted by an equal proportion of barley. In the linseed oil diet, first cold-pressed linseed oil (56.0% of α-linolenic acid, ALA) was utilised at a similar incorporation rate of 8%. The experimental design consisted of three 3 × 3 latin squares with one being incomplete. Each period lasted 8 weeks. On average, the total feed intake (straw excluded) was 6.2 kg/day and the oil intake 0.278 kg/day. The oils significantly increased the concentrations of RBC, haemoglobin and haematocrit. The oils had no significant impact on the haematology profiles except that platelets tended to decrease in both oil-based diets. The most abundant FA in the RBC membranes of the control diet samples were in the decreasing order LA, C18:1n9-7, C18:0, C16:0 and the arachidonic acid (ARA) respectively. The sunflower oil supplementation slightly increased the amount of LA (36.23 vs. 34.72 mg/dl, p = 0.55) and C22:4n-6 (0.21 vs. 0.09 mg/dl, p = 0.22), while the decrease was observed in case of other FA (C16:1n-7, 1.08 vs. 1.42 mg/dl, p = 0.03), C20:3n-6 (0.22 vs. 0.31 mg/dl, p = 0.02), and ARA (1.17 vs. 1.63 mg/dl, p = 0.08). Linseed oil induced similar effects in the n-6 series FA profiles. In the context of practical applications, our results show that linseed oil incorporation in the diet could improve the haematology and the n-3 FA profiles potentially leading to an increased performance. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Growth Performance, Relative Meat and Organ Weights, Cecal Microflora, and Blood Characteristics in Broiler Chickens Fed Diets Containing Different Nutrient Density with or without Essential Oils

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang-Jin; Lee, Kyung-Woo; Kang, Chang-Won; An, Byoung-Ki

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate whether dietary essential oils could affect growth performance, relative organ weights, cecal microflora, immune responses and blood profiles of broiler chickens fed on diets containing different nutrient densities. A total of eight hundred-forty 1-d-old male broiler chicks were randomly allotted into twenty-eight pens (7 pens per treatment, 30 chicks per pen). There were four experimental diets containing two different nutrient densities and supplemented with or without essential oils. Experimental period lasted for 35 days. No clear interaction between nutrient density and essential oils on any of growth performance-related parameters was observed. Live body weights were affected (p<0.05) by nutrient density at 21 days and by dietary essential oils at 35 days. Essential oils significantly (p<0.05) increased daily body weight gain and feed conversion ratio during the periods of 22 to 35 and 1 to 35 days, but failed to affect feed intake during the entire experimental period. Daily weight gain at 1 to 21 days and feed intake at 1 to 21 and 1 to 35 days were significantly impaired (p<0.05) by nutrient density. There were significant treatment interactions (p<0.05) on relative weights of bursa of Fabricius and abdominal fat contents. Finally, either essential oil or nutrient density did not influence the relative percentages of breast and leg meats, the population of cecal microflora, blood parameters and antibody titers against Newcastle disease and infectious bronchitis in broiler chickens. It was concluded that dietary essential oils, independent to nutrient density, failed to stimulate feed intake, but increased growth performance in broiler chickens. PMID:26949956

  4. Beneficial effects of argan oil on blood pressure, insulin resistance, and oxidative stress in rat.

    PubMed

    El Midaoui, Adil; Haddad, Youssef; Couture, Réjean

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether a 5-wk treatment with argan oil, which is known for its antioxidant properties, can reduce arterial hypertension, hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and enhanced basal superoxide anion production and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase activity in the aorta of glucose-fed rats. Sprague-Dawley rats had free access to a drinking solution containing 10% d-glucose or tap water (control) for 5 wk. The effect of argan oil in glucose-fed rats was compared with that of corn oil given daily by gavage (5 mL/kg) over a 5-wk period. Oxidative stress was evaluated by measuring the superoxide anion production and the NADPH oxidase activity using the lucigenin method. The 5-wk treatment with glucose led to increases in systolic blood pressure, plasma glucose, and insulin levels as well as an increase in the insulin resistance index in association with a rise in superoxide anion production and NADPH oxidase activity (sensitive to diphenyleneiodonium) in the aorta. The simultaneous treatment with argan oil prevented or significantly reduced all of these effects, yet the same treatment with corn oil had a positive effect only on hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance. The findings from the present study demonstrated that argan oil treatment reduced elevation of blood pressure, hyperglycemia, and insulin resistance through its antioxidative properties in glucose-fed rats. Hence, argan oil, which is now available in the market as a consumable food, may be of potential therapeutic value in the treatment of arterial hypertension and insulin resistance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Energy fluxes in oil palm plantations as affected by water storage in the trunk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meijide, Ana; Röll, Alexander; Fan, Yuanchao; Herbst, Mathias; Niu, Furong; Tiedemann, Frank; June, Tania; Rauf, Abdul; Hölscher, Dirk; Knohl, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    Oil palm is increasingly expanding, particularly in Indonesia, but information on water and energy fluxes in oil palm plantations is still very limited and on how those are affected by environmental conditions or oil palm age. Using the eddy covariance technique, we studied turbulent fluxes of sensible (H) and latent (LE) heat and gross primary production (GPP) for 8 months each in a young oil palm plantation (1-year old) and subsequently in a mature plantation (12-year old) in Jambi Province, Sumatra, Indonesia. We measured transpiration (T) simultaneously using a sap flux technique. The energy budget was dominated by LE in both plantations, particularly in the mature one, where it represented up to 70% of the available energy. In the young oil palm plantation, evapotranspiration (ET) was significantly reduced and H fluxes were higher. This affected the Bowen ratio, defined as the ratio of H and LE, which was higher in the 1-year old plantation (0.67±0.33), where it remained constant during the day, than in the mature plantation (0.14±0.09), where it varied considerably over the day, suggesting that water accumulated inside the canopy. Using the Community Land Model (CLM), a process based land surface model that has been adapted to oil palm functional traits (i.e. CLM-Palm), we investigated the contribution of different water sources to the measured fluxes. CLM-Palm differentiates leaf and stem surfaces in modelling water interception and is therefore able to diagnose the fraction of dry leaves that contribute to T and the wet fraction of all vegetation surfaces (leaf and stem) that contributes to evaporation. Results from our simulations strengthen our hypothesis of significant contribution of canopy evaporation to ET. As observed in the field, water accumulates inside the canopy in the mature plantation in oil palm trunk surfaces including epiphytes, creating water reservoirs in the trunk, which potentially contribute to ET when they evaporate. The decoupling

  6. Water-triacylglycerol interactions affect oil body structure and seed viability

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We are investigating interactions between water and triacylglycerols (TAG) that appear to affect oil body stability and viability of seeds. Dried seeds are usually stored at freezer temperatures (-20oC) for long-term conservation of genetic resources. This globally accepted genebanking practice is...

  7. Overview of U.S. Legislation and Regulations Affecting Offshore Natural Gas and Oil Activity

    EIA Publications

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a summary of the legislative and regulatory regime that affects natural gas and oil exploration and production in offshore regions of the United States. It discusses the role and importance of these areas as well as the competing interests surrounding ownership, production, exploration and conservation.

  8. Essential oils reduce autonomous response to pain sensation during self-monitoring of blood glucose among children with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Małachowska, Beata; Fendler, Wojciech; Pomykała, Agnieszka; Suwała, Szymon; Młynarski, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    Essential oils were proven to possess analgesic activity in adults. Children with diabetes are exposed to highly painful interventions such as self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG). An evaluation of the analgesic properties of two essential oils during SMBG in diabetic children. We included 73 hospitalized children (age<18 years) with well-controlled type 1 diabetes. The study extended over a period of 1 month (2 weeks for control group and 1 week for orange and lavender oil application). The measurements were performed four times per day in a shared room during SMBG. Pain intensity was evaluated by visual analog scale (VAS) and change of baseline heart rate (ΔHR%). An aromatherapy device was used to disperse essential oils in the testing room. We performed 647 individual measurements of pain intensity and ΔHR%. Girls reported higher VAS scores [median, Me 0.5 (interquartile range, IQR 0-1) vs. 0 (IQR 0-0.5), p=0.0036]. Both age and duration of diabetes correlated with ΔHR% [r=-0.14, p=0.0005; r=-0.12, p=0.0025]. Negative correlations were also noted for VAS/age [r=-0.12, p=0.0030] and VAS/duration of diabetes [r=-0.12, p=0.0034]. Aromatherapy did not alter the VAS score (p=0.40), while ΔHR% decreased with borderline significance (p=0.0639). After adjustment for patient's age and sex lower ΔHR% was associated with essential oil application (p=0.0252). Aromatherapy did not have any influence on VAS scores in multivariate analysis (p=0.35). Aromatherapy decreased the autonomic response to a painful stimulus by lowering ΔHR%, but did not affect the perception of pain reported by VAS.

  9. Association of elevated blood pressure and impaired vasorelaxation in experimental Sprague-Dawley rats fed with heated vegetable oil

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Poor control of blood pressure leads to hypertension which is a major risk factor for development of cardiovascular disease. The present study aimed to explore possible mechanisms of elevation in blood pressure following consumption of heated vegetable oil. Methods Forty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were equally divided into six groups: Group I (control) - normal rat chow, Group II - fresh soy oil, Group III - soy oil heated once, Group IV - soy oil heated twice, Group V - soy oil heated five times, Group VI - soy oil heated ten times. Blood pressure was measured at the baseline level and at a monthly interval for six months. Plasma nitric oxide, heme oxygenase and angiotensin-converting enzyme levels were measured prior to treatment, at month-three and month-six later. At the end of treatment, the rats were sacrificed and thoracic aortas were taken for measurement of vascular reactivity. Results Blood pressure increased significantly (p < 0.01) in the repeatedly heated oil groups compared to the control and fresh soy oil groups. Consumption of diet containing repeatedly heated oil resulted higher plasma angiotensin-converting enzyme level and lower nitric oxide content and heme oxygenase concentration. Reheated soy oil groups exhibited attenuated relaxation in response to acetylcholine or sodium nitroprusside, and greater contraction to phenylephrine. Conclusion As a result of consumption of repeatedly heated soy oil, an elevation in blood pressure was observed which may be due to the quantitative changes in endothelium dependent and independent factors including enzymes directly involved in the regulation of blood pressure. PMID:20573259

  10. HIV and chronic methamphetamine dependence affect cerebral blood flow.

    PubMed

    Ances, Beau M; Vaida, Florin; Cherner, Mariana; Yeh, Melinda J; Liang, Christine L; Gardner, Carly; Grant, Igor; Ellis, Ronald J; Buxton, Richard B

    2011-09-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and methamphetamine (METH) dependence are independently associated with neuronal dysfunction. The coupling between cerebral blood flow (CBF) and neuronal activity is the basis of many task-based functional neuroimaging techniques. We examined the interaction between HIV infection and a previous history of METH dependence on CBF within the lenticular nuclei (LN). Twenty-four HIV-/METH-, eight HIV-/METH+, 24 HIV+/METH-, and 15 HIV+/METH+ participants performed a finger tapping paradigm. A multiple regression analysis of covariance assessed associations and two-way interactions between CBF and HIV serostatus and/or previous history of METH dependence. HIV+ individuals had a trend towards a lower baseline CBF (-10%, p = 0.07) and greater CBF changes for the functional task (+32%, p = 0.01) than HIV- subjects. Individuals with a previous history of METH dependence had a lower baseline CBF (-16%, p = 0.007) and greater CBF changes for a functional task (+33%, p = 0.02). However, no interaction existed between HIV serostatus and previous history of METH dependence for either baseline CBF (p = 0.53) or CBF changes for a functional task (p = 0.10). In addition, CBF and volume in the LN were not correlated. A possible additive relationship could exist between HIV infection and a history of METH dependence on CBF with a previous history of METH dependence having a larger contribution. Abnormalities in CBF could serve as a surrogate measure for assessing the chronic effects of HIV and previous METH dependence on brain function.

  11. Monitoring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon pollution in the marine environment after the Prestige oil spill by means of seabird blood analysis.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Cristóbal; Velando, Alberto; Munilla, Ignacio; López-Alonso, Marta; Oro, Daniel

    2008-02-01

    In this study we tested the use of seabird blood as a bioindicator of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollution in the marine environment. Blood cells of breeding yellow-legged gulls (Larus michahellis) were able to track spatial and temporal changes consistent with the massive oil pollution pulse that resulted from the Prestige oil spill. Thus, in 2004, blood samples from yellow-legged gulls breeding in colonies that were in the trajectory of the spill doubled in theirtotal PAH concentrations when compared to samples from unoiled colonies. Furthermore, PAH levels in gulls from an oiled colony decreased by nearly a third in two consecutive breeding seasons (2004 and 2005). Experimental evidence was gathered by means of an oil-ingestion field experiment. The total concentration of PAHs in the blood of gulls given oil supplements was 30% higher compared to controls. This strongly suggested that measures of PAHs in the blood of gulls are sensitive to the ingestion of small quantities of oil. Our study provides evidence that seabirds were exposed to residual Prestige oil 17 months after the spill commenced and gives support to the nondestructive use of seabirds as biomonitors of oil pollution in marine environments.

  12. The Effect of Walnut Oil Consumption on Blood Sugar in Patients With Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

    PubMed Central

    Zibaeenezhad, Mohammadjavad; Aghasadeghi, Kamran; Hakimi, Hossein; Yarmohammadi, Hassan; Nikaein, Farzad

    2016-01-01

    Background Prevalence of diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM) is increasing globally. Considering the potential role of poly-unsaturated fatty acids in prevention of DM type 2 and lipid profiles improvement, some studies have been carried out on walnut. However, there are no studies on control of blood sugar in DM type 2 patients using walnut. Objectives The current study aimed to evaluate the effect of walnut oil on blood sugar in DM type 2 patients. Methods This randomized control clinical trial was performed on 100 patients with DM type 2. For the experiment group (n = 50), walnut oil (15 g/day for three months) was added to their diet, while the control group (n = 50) did not undergo any interventions. Before initiation of the experiment and after the experiment, the systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) levels, fasting blood sugar (FBS) and HbA1c were measured. Results The two groups were not significantly different for SBP, DBP, body weight, and Body Mass Index. HbA1c level decreased significantly in the experiment group by 7.86% ± 21.97 (P = 0.005) from 7.00 ± 1.08 before the intervention to 6.37 ± 1.29 after the intervention. Also, FBS level decreased significantly by 8.24% ± 16.77 (P = 0.001); from 158.37 ± 48.16 before the intervention to 137.91 ± 23.24 after the intervention in the experimental group. These changes in the control group were not significant. Conclusions Consumption of walnut oil (15 g/day for three months) was shown to improve blood glucose level but, no changes were noted for bodyweight and blood pressure in type two diabetic patients. PMID:28115966

  13. The effect of essential oil on heart rate and blood pressure among solus por aqua workers.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Kai-Jen; Chen, Hua-Wei; Liu, I-Jung; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Lin, Lian-Yu

    2014-07-01

    Aromatherapy is widely used around the world for stress relief. Whether exposure to essential oil increases the risk of cardiovascular events is still unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of essential oil on heart rate and blood pressure among solus por aqua (spa) workers. We recruited 100 healthy workers from various spa centres in Taipei, Taiwan. Between July and August of 2010, three repeated measurements - resting heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) - were taken of each spa worker in our study room. Participants were exposed to essential oil vapour generated from an ultrasonic atomizer in the study room for two consecutive hours. The total volatile organic compound (VOC) level in the study room was measured during the study period. We used a linear mixed-effect model to determine the association between the total VOC level and the participants' HR, SBP, and DBP. For the times from 15 to 60 min after start of exposure, we found that the VOC level was significantly associated with reduced 15-min mean BP and HR. After exposure for more than 1 hour, from 75 to 120 min after start of exposure, we found that the VOC levels were associated with increased 15-min mean BP and HR. Exposure to essential oil for 1 hour was found to be an effective method of relaxation, as indicated by decreases in the HR and BP. Prolonged exposure for longer than 1 hour to essential oils may be harmful to cardiovascular health among spa workers. © The European Society of Cardiology 2012.

  14. Argan (Argania spinosa) oil lowers blood pressure and improves endothelial dysfunction in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Berrougui, Hicham; Alvarez de Sotomayor, Maria; Pérez-Guerrero, Concepción; Ettaib, Abdelkader; Hmamouchi, Mohamed; Marhuenda, Elisa; Herrera, Maria Dolores

    2004-12-01

    Traditionally hand-pressed argan oil, obtained from Argania spinosa seeds, is eaten raw in south-west Morocco; its rich composition of tocopherols, MUFA and PUFA make a study of its actions on risk factors for CVD, such as hypertension, interesting. The effects of 7 weeks of treatment with argan oil (10 ml/kg) on the blood pressure and endothelial function of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats were investigated. Systolic blood pressure and heart rate were measured every week by the tail-cuff method and endothelial function was assessed by carbachol (10(-8) to 10(-4) M)-induced relaxations of aortic rings and small mesenteric arteries pre-contracted with phenylephrine. Argan-oil administration reduced the mean blood pressure of SHR after the fifth week of treatment (P<0.05) and increased (P<0.01) the endothelial responses of arteries from SHR. The NO synthase inhibitor, L-N-omega-nitroarginine (3 x 10(-5) M) revealed a greater participation of NO in the relaxant effect after the treatment. When cyclooxygenase (COX) was blocked with indomethacin (10(-5) M), an involvement of COX products in the endothelium-dependent response was characterized. Enzyme immunoassay of thromboxane B2 showed a significant decrease (P<0.05) in the release of thromboxane A2 in both aorta and small mesenteric artery after argan-oil treatment of SHR. Experiments in the presence of the thromboxane A2-prostaglandin H2 receptor antagonist ICI 192,605 (10(-5) M) confirmed this result. Results after incubation with the antioxidants superoxide dismutase and catalase suggested that a decreased oxidative stress might contribute to explain the beneficial effects of argan-oil treatment.

  15. Increasing Oil Concentration Affects Consumer Perception and Physical Properties of Mayonnaise-type Spreads Containing KCl.

    PubMed

    Torrico, Damir Dennis; Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon

    2017-08-01

    Reducing sodium intakes remains a global challenge for the food industry. KCl is a potential salt substitute but imparts bitterness when used at high concentrations. Little is known about how oil concentrations (OC) affect consumers' perception of saltiness and bitterness in emulsion products such as mayonnaise containing KCl. We evaluated consumers' perception and physical properties of mayonnaise-type spreads at various oil and tastant (NaCl or KCl) concentrations. Consumers (N = 306) evaluated saltiness, bitterness, overall taste liking (OTL) and purchase intent (PI). Viscosity, pH, water activity, and consistency/texture were also measured. Oil and tastant (NaCl or KCl) concentrations had significant effects on saltiness, viscosity, and pH. As OC increased, saltiness intensity slightly decreased for spreads. Increasing oil concentration increased viscosity. Generally, spreads containing KCl had higher bitterness and pH than spreads containing NaCl. All spreads containing KCl were penalized for being "too bitter." PI was affected by OTL for all spreads but OC was also a significant factor in the purchase decision of spreads containing NaCl. This study demonstrated that increasing OC affected consumers' taste perception (saltiness and bitterness) and spreads' physical properties including pH and viscosity. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  16. Involvement of Inflammation and Adverse Vascular Remodelling in the Blood Pressure Raising Effect of Repeatedly Heated Palm Oil in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Chun-Yi; Kamisah, Yusof; Faizah, Othman; Jubri, Zakiah; Qodriyah, Hj Mohd Saad; Jaarin, Kamsiah

    2012-01-01

    Oil thermoxidation during deep frying generates harmful oxidative free radicals that induce inflammation and increase the risk of hypertension. This study aimed to investigate the effect of repeatedly heated palm oil on blood pressure, aortic morphometry, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups: control, fresh palm oil (FPO), one-time-heated palm oil (1HPO), five-time-heated palm oil (5HPO), or ten-time-heated palm oil (10HPO). Feeding duration was six months. Blood pressure was measured at baseline and monthly using tail-cuff method. After six months, the rats were sacrificed and the aortic arches were dissected for morphometric and immunohistochemical analyses. FPO group showed significantly lower blood pressure than all other groups. Blood pressure was increased significantly in 5HPO and 10HPO groups. The aortae of 5HPO and 10HPO groups showed significantly increased thickness and area of intima-media, circumferential wall tension, and VCAM-1 than other groups. Elastic lamellae were disorganised and fragmented in 5HPO- and 10HPO-treated rats. VCAM-1 expression showed a significant positive correlation with blood pressure. In conclusion, prolonged consumption of repeatedly heated palm oil causes blood pressure elevation, adverse remodelling, and increased VCAM-1, which suggests a possible involvement of inflammation. PMID:22778962

  17. Blood iron stores reduction affects lipoprotein status--a potential benefit of blood donation.

    PubMed

    Jadrić, Radivoj; Hasić, Sabaheta; Kiseljaković, Emina; Corić, Jozo; Prnjavorac, Besim; Winterhalter-Jadrić, Mira

    2011-02-01

    To determine the lipoprotein profile of voluntary blood donors, and on the basis of parameters to evaluate the risk of atherosclerosis. The study included voluntary blood donors of both sexes. Participants were divided into two groups. The first group of subjects consisted of men and women in menopause (BD 1). The second group consisted of women in reproductive age (BD 2). Analysis of concentration of lipoproteins was performed by direct determination of total cholesterol, LDL-C and HDL-C. From the total serum cholesterol and concentration of lipoproteins ratios of total cholesterol/HDL-C ratio and LDL-C/HDL-C were calculated. Significantly higher concentration of LDL-C was obtained in the serum of BD 1, compared to LDL-C in the serum of BD 2, within the reference range. Mean concentration of HDL-C in the serum of BD 2 group was higher than the values measured in the BD group 1, without significant difference. The ratio of total cholesterol/HDL-C showed significantly higher values in the BD 1 group compared with results in the BD 2 group. Significantly higher values in the BD group 1 were observed for the ratio of LDL-C/HDL-C. Obtained results showed that all voluntary blood donors had a concentration of individual lipoprotein fractions in a lower risk range for atherosclerosis development. Female voluntary blood donors in reproductive age have a more favorable lipid status in relation to the voluntary blood donors, men and women in menopause, indicating that this population of women is exposed to lower risk of developing atherosclerosis.

  18. Proteomics identifies molecular networks affected by tetradecylthioacetic acid and fish oil supplemented diets.

    PubMed

    Wrzesinski, Krzysztof; R León, Ileana; Kulej, Katarzyna; Sprenger, Richard R; Bjørndal, Bodil; Christensen, Bjørn J; Berge, Rolf K; Jensen, Ole N; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina

    2013-06-12

    Fish oil (FO) and tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA) - a synthetic modified fatty acid have beneficial effects in regulating lipid metabolism. In order to dissect the mechanisms underlying the molecular action of those two fatty acids we have investigated the changes in mitochondrial protein expression in a long-term study (50weeks) in male Wistar rats fed 5 different diets. The diets were as follows: low fat diet; high fat diet; and three diets that combined high fat diet with fish oil, TTA or combination of those two as food supplements. We used two different proteomics techniques: a protein centric based on 2D gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, and LC-MS(E) based peptide centric approach. As a result we provide evidence that fish oil and TTA modulate mitochondrial metabolism in a synergistic manner yet the effects of TTA are much more dramatic. We demonstrate that fatty acid metabolism; lipid oxidation, amino acid metabolism and oxidative phosphorylation pathways are involved in fish oil and TTA action. Evidence for the involvement of PPAR mediated signalling is provided. Additionally we postulate that down regulation of components of complexes I and II contributes to the strong antioxidant properties of TTA. This study for the first time explores the effect of fish oil and TTA - tetradecyl-thioacetic acid and the combination of those two as diet supplements on mitochondria metabolism in a comprehensive and systematic manner. We show that fish oil and TTA modulate mitochondrial metabolism in a synergistic manner yet the effects of TTA are much more dramatic. We demonstrate in a large scale that fatty acid metabolism and lipid oxidation are affected by fish oil and TTA, a phenomenon already known from more directed molecular biology studies. Our approach, however, shows additionally that amino acid metabolism and oxidative phosphorylation pathways are also strongly affected by TTA and also to some extent by fish oil administration. Strong evidence for the

  19. [Analysis on establishment and affecting factors of qi stagnation and blood stasis rat model].

    PubMed

    Wang, Tingting; Jia, Cheng; Chen, Yu; Li, Xin; Cheng, Jiayi

    2012-06-01

    To study on the method for establishing the Qi stagnation and blood stasis rat model and analyze the affecting factors. The orthogonal design was adopted to study the influences of joint stimulations including noise, light, electricity, ice water bath, tail-clamping on model rats. The 'flying spot' method was used to dynamically simulate blood flow velocity in microcirculation. the pressure sensing technology of MOTO was adopted to detect hemorheology-related indicators. And the coagulation method was used to detect blood coagulation-related indicators. Compared with the negative control group, all model groups showed significant reduction in the blood flow velocity in mesenteric microcirculation and increase in the whole blood viscosity at high, medium and low shear rate, the plasma viscosity and the fibrinogen content in four blood coagulation indicators. Noise, light, electricity, tail-clamping, bondage and icewater-bath make significant impact on model rats.

  20. Level of Mercury Manometer With Respect to Heart: Does it Affect Blood Pressure Measurement?

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Raj; Roy, V K; Manna, S; Bhattacharjee, M

    2015-01-01

    Measurement of blood pressure is an integral part of clinical examination. Over the years various types of instruments have been used to measure blood pressure but till date the mercury sphygmomanometer is regarded as the gold standard. However, there is a myth prevalent among health professionals regarding the level of the manometer in relation to heart at the time of measuring of blood pressure. Many professionals insist that it has to be placed at the level of the heart. We argue that the limb from which pressure is measured must be at the heart level rather than the manometer. We conducted a study in which we measured the blood pressure in adults by placing the manometer at three different levels with respect to the heart. The values of blood pressure obtained at all levels were similar and did not show any statistically significant difference. We therefore conclude that the level of sphygmomanometer per se does not affect blood pressure measurement.

  1. Whole Blood Donation Affects the Interpretation of Hemoglobin A1c

    PubMed Central

    Lenters-Westra, Erna; de Kort, Wim; Bokhorst, Arlinke G.; Bilo, Henk J. G.; Slingerland, Robbert J.; Vos, Michel J.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Several factors, including changed dynamics of erythrocyte formation and degradation, can influence the degree of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) formation thereby affecting its use in monitoring diabetes. This study determines the influence of whole blood donation on HbA1c in both non-diabetic blood donors and blood donors with type 2 diabetes. Methods In this observational study, 23 non-diabetic blood donors and 21 blood donors with type 2 diabetes donated 475 mL whole blood and were followed prospectively for nine weeks. Each week blood samples were collected and analyzed for changes in HbA1c using three secondary reference measurement procedures. Results Twelve non-diabetic blood donors (52.2%) and 10 (58.8%) blood donors with type 2 diabetes had a significant reduction in HbA1c following blood donation (reduction >-4.28%, P < 0.05). All non-diabetic blood donors with a normal ferritin concentration predonation had a significant reduction in HbA1c. In the non-diabetic group the maximum reduction was -11.9%, in the type 2 diabetes group -12.0%. When eligible to donate again, 52.2% of the non-diabetic blood donors and 41.2% of the blood donors with type 2 diabetes had HbA1c concentrations significantly lower compared to their predonation concentration (reduction >-4.28%, P < 0.05). Conclusion Patients with type 2 diabetes contributing to whole blood donation programs can be at risk of falsely lowered HbA1c. This could lead to a wrong interpretation of their glycemic control by their general practitioner or internist. PMID:28118412

  2. Emulsion oil droplet size significantly affects satiety: A pre-ingestive approach.

    PubMed

    Lett, Aaron M; Norton, Jennifer E; Yeomans, Martin R

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that the manipulation of oil droplet size within oil-in-water emulsions significantly affects sensory characteristics, hedonics and expectations of food intake, independently of energy content. Smaller oil droplets enhanced perceived creaminess, increased Liking and generated greater expectations of satiation and satiety, indicating that creaminess is a satiety-relevant sensory cue within these systems. This paper extends these findings by investigating the effect of oil droplet size (d4,3: 2 and 50 μm) on food intake and appetite. Male participants (n = 34 aged 18-37; BMI of 22.7 ± 1.6 kg/m(2); DEBQ restricted eating score of 1.8 ± 0.1.) completed two test days, where they visited the laboratory to consume a fixed-portion breakfast, returning 3 h later for a "drink", which was the emulsion preload containing either 2 or 50 μm oil droplets. This was followed 20 min later with an ad libitum pasta lunch. Participants consumed significantly less at the ad libitum lunch after the preload containing 2 μm oil droplets than after the 50 μm preload, with an average reduction of 12% (62.4 kcal). Despite the significant differences in intake, no significant differences in sensory characteristics were noted. The findings show that the impact that an emulsion has on satiety can be enhanced without producing significantly perceivable differences in sensory properties. Therefore, by introducing a processing step which results in a smaller droplets, emulsion based liquid food products can be produced that enhance satiety, allowing covert functional redesign. Future work should consider the mechanism responsible for this effect.

  3. Do peat amendments to oil sands wet sediments affect Carex aquatilis biomass for reclamation success?

    PubMed

    Roy, Marie-Claude; Mollard, Federico P O; Foote, A Lee

    2014-06-15

    The oil sands industries of Alberta (Canada) have reclamation objectives to return the mined landscape to equivalent pre-disturbance land capability. Industrial operators are charged with reclaiming a vast landscape of newly exposed sediments on saline-sodic marine-shales sediments. Incorporated in these sediments are by-products resulting from bitumen extraction (consolidated tailings (CT), tailings-sand (TS), and oil sands processed water (OSPW)). A sedge community dominated by Carex aquatilis was identified as a desirable and representative late-succession community for wet-meadow zones of oil sands-created marshes. However, the physical and chemical conditions, including high salinity and low nutrient content of CT and TS sediments suppress plant growth and performance. We experimentally tested the response of C. aquatilis to amendments with peat-mineral-mix (PM) on oil sand sediments (CT and TS). In a two factorial design experiment, we also tested the effects of OSPW on C. aquatilis. We assessed survival, below- and aboveground biomass, and physiology (chlorophyll a fluorescence). We demonstrated that PM amendments to oil sands sediments significantly increased C. aquatilis survival as well as below and aboveground biomass. The use of OSPW significantly reduced C. aquatilis belowground biomass and affected its physiological performance. Due to its tolerance and performance, we verified that C. aquatilis was a good candidate for use in reclaiming the wet-meadow zones of oil sands-created marshes. Ultimately, amending CT and TS with PM expedited the reclamation of the wetland to a C. aquatilis-community which was similar in gross structure to undisturbed wetlands of the region.

  4. Chromosomal Bands Affected by Acute Oil Exposure and DNA Repair Errors

    PubMed Central

    Zock, Jan-Paul; Giraldo, Jesús; Pozo-Rodríguez, Francisco; Espinosa, Ana; Rodríguez-Trigo, Gema; Verea, Hector; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Gómez, Federico P.; Antó, Josep M.; Coll, Maria Dolors; Barberà, Joan Albert; Fuster, Carme

    2013-01-01

    Background In a previous study, we showed that individuals who had participated in oil clean-up tasks after the wreckage of the Prestige presented an increase of structural chromosomal alterations two years after the acute exposure had occurred. Other studies have also reported the presence of DNA damage during acute oil exposure, but little is known about the long term persistence of chromosomal alterations, which can be considered as a marker of cancer risk. Objectives We analyzed whether the breakpoints involved in chromosomal damage can help to assess the risk of cancer as well as to investigate their possible association with DNA repair efficiency. Methods Cytogenetic analyses were carried out on the same individuals of our previous study and DNA repair errors were assessed in cultures with aphidicolin. Results Three chromosomal bands, 2q21, 3q27 and 5q31, were most affected by acute oil exposure. The dysfunction in DNA repair mechanisms, expressed as chromosomal damage, was significantly higher in exposed-oil participants than in those not exposed (p= 0.016). Conclusion The present study shows that breaks in 2q21, 3q27 and 5q31 chromosomal bands, which are commonly involved in hematological cancer, could be considered useful genotoxic oil biomarkers. Moreover, breakages in these bands could induce chromosomal instability, which can explain the increased risk of cancer (leukemia and lymphomas) reported in chronically benzene-exposed individuals. In addition, it has been determined that the individuals who participated in clean-up of the oil spill presented an alteration of their DNA repair mechanisms two years after exposure. PMID:24303039

  5. Chromosomal bands affected by acute oil exposure and DNA repair errors.

    PubMed

    Monyarch, Gemma; de Castro Reis, Fernanda; Zock, Jan-Paul; Giraldo, Jesús; Pozo-Rodríguez, Francisco; Espinosa, Ana; Rodríguez-Trigo, Gema; Verea, Hector; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Gómez, Federico P; Antó, Josep M; Coll, Maria Dolors; Barberà, Joan Albert; Fuster, Carme

    2013-01-01

    In a previous study, we showed that individuals who had participated in oil clean-up tasks after the wreckage of the Prestige presented an increase of structural chromosomal alterations two years after the acute exposure had occurred. Other studies have also reported the presence of DNA damage during acute oil exposure, but little is known about the long term persistence of chromosomal alterations, which can be considered as a marker of cancer risk. We analyzed whether the breakpoints involved in chromosomal damage can help to assess the risk of cancer as well as to investigate their possible association with DNA repair efficiency. Cytogenetic analyses were carried out on the same individuals of our previous study and DNA repair errors were assessed in cultures with aphidicolin. Three chromosomal bands, 2q21, 3q27 and 5q31, were most affected by acute oil exposure. The dysfunction in DNA repair mechanisms, expressed as chromosomal damage, was significantly higher in exposed-oil participants than in those not exposed (p= 0.016). The present study shows that breaks in 2q21, 3q27 and 5q31 chromosomal bands, which are commonly involved in hematological cancer, could be considered useful genotoxic oil biomarkers. Moreover, breakages in these bands could induce chromosomal instability, which can explain the increased risk of cancer (leukemia and lymphomas) reported in chronically benzene-exposed individuals. In addition, it has been determined that the individuals who participated in clean-up of the oil spill presented an alteration of their DNA repair mechanisms two years after exposure.

  6. Effects of deep-frying oil on blood pressure and oxidative stress in spontaneously hypertensive and normotensive rats.

    PubMed

    Yen, Pei-Ling; Chen, Bing-Huei; Yang, Feili Lo; Lu, Yi-Fa

    2010-03-01

    Ingestion of deep-frying oil has been reported to cause physiologic and histologic changes in experimental animals' tissue, increase the oxidative stress, and possibly lead to death. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of deep-frying oil on oxidative stress and blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. Deep-frying oil was prepared by frying fresh soybean oil at 180 +/- 5 degrees C for 8 h each day, for 4 consecutive days. Male SHR and WKY rats were fed diets containing 15% fresh soybean oil or deep-frying oil (DO) for 10 wk. Rats ingesting the DO diet had lower feed efficiency and higher relative liver and kidney weights but deep frying had no significant influence on blood pressure in WKY or SHR rats. The DO diet had no effect on plasma renin activity, aldosterone content, or tissue angiotension-I-converting enzyme activity. WKY rats fed the DO diet showed significantly increased urinary thromboxane B(2) and 8-iso-prostaglandin F(2alpha) excretion, but not urinary 6-keto-prostaglandin F(1alpha) excretion. Diets containing deep-frying oil resulted in increased plasma thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and nitric oxide contents and decreased plasma total antioxidant capacity in SHR and WKY rats. The ingestion of deep-frying oil seemed not to influence blood pressure or its related parameters, but altered eicosanoid metabolism and elevated oxidative stress in SHR and WKY rats. Copyright (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Bioremediation potential of microorganisms from a sandy beach affected by a major oil spill.

    PubMed

    Reis, Izabela; Almeida, C Marisa R; Magalhães, Catarina M; Cochofel, Jaqueline; Guedes, Paula; Basto, M Clara P; Bordalo, Adriano A; Mucha, Ana P

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the bioremediation potential of microorganisms from intertidal sediments of a sandy beach affected by a major oil spill 7 years before and subject to chronic petroleum contamination since then. For that, the response of microorganisms to a new oil contamination was assessed in terms of community structure, abundance, and capacity to degrade hydrocarbons. Experiments were carried out under laboratory-controlled conditions by mixing sediment with crude oil with three different nitrogen supplementations in 50 ml serum bottles under constant shake for 15 days. Autochthonous microorganisms were able to respond to the new oil contamination by increasing their abundance (quantified by DAPI) and changing the community structure (evaluated by DGGE). This response was particularly clear for some specific bacterial groups such as Pseudomonas, Actinomycetales, and Betaproteobacteria. These communities presented an important potential for hydrocarbon degradation (up to 85 % for TPHs and 70 % for total PAHs), being the biodegradation stimulated by addition of an appropriate amount of nitrogen.

  8. Stromal Claudin14-Heterozygosity, but Not Deletion, Increases Tumour Blood Leakage without Affecting Tumour Growth

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Marianne; Reynolds, Louise E.; Robinson, Stephen D.; Lees, Delphine M.; Parsons, Maddy; Elia, George; Hodivala-Dilke, Kairbaan

    2013-01-01

    The maintenance of endothelial cell-cell junctions is vital for the control of blood vessel leakage and is known to be important in the growth and maturation of new blood vessels during angiogenesis. Here we have investigated the role of a tight junction molecule, Claudin14, in tumour blood vessel leakage, angiogenesis and tumour growth. Using syngeneic tumour models our results showed that genetic ablation of Claudin14 was not sufficient to affect tumour blood vessel morphology or function. However, and surprisingly, Claudin14-heterozygous mice displayed several blood vessel-related phenotypes including: disruption of ZO-1-positive cell-cell junctions in tumour blood vessels; abnormal distribution of basement membrane laminin around tumour blood vessels; increased intratumoural leakage and decreased intratumoural hypoxia. Additionally, although total numbers of tumour blood vessels were increased in Claudin14-heterozygous mice, and in VEGF-stimulated angiogenesis ex vivo, the number of lumenated vessels was not changed between genotypes and this correlated with no difference in syngeneic tumour growth between wild-type, Claudin14-heterozygous and Claudin14-null mice. Lastly, Claudin14-heterozygosity, but not complete deficiency, also enhanced endothelial cell proliferation significantly. These data establish a new role for Claudin14 in the regulation of tumour blood vessel integrity and angiogenesis that is evident only after the partial loss of this molecule in Claudin14-heterozyous mice but not in Claudin14-null mice. PMID:23675413

  9. Camphor Tree Seed Kernel Oil Reduces Body Fat Deposition and Improves Blood Lipids in Rats.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jing; Wang, Baogui; Gong, Deming; Zeng, Cheng; Jiang, Yihao; Zeng, Zheling

    2015-08-01

    The total and positional fatty acid composition in camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora) seed kernel oil (CKO) were analyzed, and for the first time, the effect of CKO on body fat deposition and blood lipids in rats was studied. The major fatty acids in CKO were determined to be decanoic acid (C10:0, 51.49%) and dodecanoic acid (C12:0, 40.08%), and uniformly distributed at Sn-1, 3, and Sn-2 positions in triglyceride (TG). Rats were randomly divided into control, CKO, lard, and soybean oil groups. At the end of the experiment, levels of blood lipids and the fats of abdomen in the rats were measured. The main organ were weighted and used for the histological examination. The results showed that body weight and fat deposition in CKO group were significantly lower than the lard and soybean groups. Moderate consumption of CKO was found to improve the levels of blood TG and low density lipoprotein cholesterol. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Soybean oil increases SERCA2a expression and left ventricular contractility in rats without change in arterial blood pressure

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Our aim was to evaluate the effects of soybean oil treatment for 15 days on arterial and ventricular pressure, myocardial mechanics and proteins involved in calcium handling. Methods Wistar rats were divided in two groups receiving 100 μL of soybean oil (SB) or saline (CT) i.m. for 15 days. Ventricular performance was analyzed in male 12-weeks old Wistar rats by measuring left ventricle diastolic and systolic pressure in isolated perfused hearts according to the Langendorff technique. Protein expression was measured by Western blot analysis. Results Systolic and diastolic arterial pressures did not differ between CT and SB rats. However, heart rate was reduced in the SB group. In the perfused hearts, left ventricular isovolumetric systolic pressure was higher in the SB hearts. The inotropic response to extracellular Ca2+ and isoproterenol was higher in the soybean-treated animals than in the control group. Myosin ATPase and Na+-K+ATPase activities, the expression of sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium pump (SERCA2a) and sodium calcium exchanger (NCX) were increased in the SB group. Although the phosfolamban (PLB) expression did not change, its phosphorylation at Ser16 was reduced while the SERCA2a/PLB ratio was increased. Conclusions In summary, soybean treatment for 15 days in rats increases the left ventricular performance without affecting arterial blood pressure. These changes might be associated with an increase in the myosin ATPase activity and SERCA2a expression. PMID:20504316

  11. An Evaluation of Select Test Variables Potentially Affecting Acute Oil Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Echols, Brandi S; Smith, A; Gardinali, P; Rand, G

    2016-02-01

    In the wake of the Deepwater Horizon incident (2010) in the Gulf of Mexico, an abundance of research studies have been performed, but the methodologies used have varied making comparisons and replication difficult. In this study, acute toxicity tests with mysids and inland silversides were performed to examine the effect of different variables on test results. The toxicity test variables evaluated in this study included (1) open versus closed static test chambers, (2) natural versus artificial diluent, (3) aerated versus nonaerated test solution, and (4) low versus medium energy water-accommodated (WAF) mixing energies. The use of tests using natural or artificial diluent showed no difference in either toxicity test or analytical chemistry results. Based on median lethal concentrations (LC50) of WAFs of unweathered oil (MASS), mysid tests performed in closed chambers were approximately 41 % lower than LC50 values from open-chamber studies, possibly a result of the presence of low-molecular weight volatile aromatics (i.e., naphthalenes). This research also showed that using a medium-energy WAF (with a 20–25 % vortex) increases the number of chemical components compared with low-energy WAF, thus affecting the composition of the exposure media and increasing toxicity. The comparison of toxic units as a measure of the potential toxicity of fresh and weathered oils showed that weathered oils (e.g., Juniper, CTC) are less toxic than the unweathered MASS oil. In the event of future oil spills, these variables should be considered to ensure that data regarding the potential toxicity and environmental risk are of good quality and reproducible.

  12. Rapid assessment of the toxicity of oil sands process-affected waters using fish cell lines.

    PubMed

    Sansom, Bryan; Vo, Nguyen T K; Kavanagh, Richard; Hanner, Robert; Mackinnon, Michael; Dixon, D George; Lee, Lucy E J

    2013-01-01

    Rapid and reliable toxicity assessment of oil sands process-affected waters (OSPW) is needed to support oil sands reclamation projects. Conventional toxicity tests using whole animals are relatively slow, costly, and often subjective, while at the same time requiring the sacrifice of test organisms as is the case with lethal dosage/concentration assays. A nonlethal alternative, using fish cell lines, has been developed for its potential use in supporting oil sands reclamation planning and to help predict the viability of aquatic reclamation models such as end-pit lakes. This study employed six fish cell lines (WF-2, GFSk-S1, RTL-W1, RTgill-W1, FHML, FHMT) in 24 h viability assays for rapid fluorometric assessment of cellular integrity and functionality. Forty-nine test water samples collected from the surface of oil sands developments in the Athabasca Oil Sands deposit, north of Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada, were evaluated in blind. Small subsample volumes (8 ml) were mixed with 2 ml of 5× concentrated exposure media and used for direct cell exposures. All cell line responses in terms of viability as measured by Alamar blue assay, correlated well with the naphthenic acids (NA) content in the samples (R (2) between 0.4519 and 0.6171; p<0.0001) when data comparisons were performed after the bioassays. NA or total acid-extractable organics group has been shown to be responsible for most of the acute toxicity of OSPW and our results further corroborate this. The multifish cell line bioassay provides a strong degree of reproducibility among tested cell lines and good relative sensitivity of the cell line bioassay as compared to available in vivo data that could lead to cost effective, high-throughput screening assays.

  13. The macroinfauna of the Galician sandy beaches (NW Spain) affected by the Prestige oil-spill.

    PubMed

    Junoy, J; Castellanos, C; Viéitez, J M; de la Huz, M R; Lastra, M

    2005-05-01

    Eighteen sandy beaches were sampled along the 1659 km of the Galician coast (NW Spain) six months after the Prestige oil-spill to study the impact of the fuel and the clean-up activities on the macroinfauna community. A transect was extended at each beach, from above the drift line to below the swash line at five sampled levels; at each level six 0.05 m2 replicates were taken to a depth of 30 cm and sieved through a 1mm mesh, and the organisms collected and preserved. Results were compared with previous data obtained using the same procedures. The macroinfauna was numerically dominated by the amphipod Pontocrates arenarius, the isopod genus Eurydice, the polychaete Scolelepis squamata, and the amphipod Talitrus saltator. As a result of the Prestige oil-spill and the clean-up activities, beach populations were reduced, with Eurydice and S. squamata as the most affected taxa.

  14. Supplemental safflower oil affects the fatty acid profile, including conjugated linoleic acid, of lamb.

    PubMed

    Boles, J A; Kott, R W; Hatfield, P G; Bergman, J W; Flynn, C R

    2005-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether increasing levels of dietary safflower oil would alter unsaturated fat (especially CLA) and tocopherol content of lamb, animal performance, carcass characteristics, or color stability of lamb muscle tissue. Targhee x Rambouillet wethers (n = 60) were assigned to one of three diets (four pens per treatment with five lambs per pen) in a completely random design. Diets were formulated with supplemental safflower oil at 0 (control), 3, or 6% (as-fed basis) of the diet. Diets containing approximately 80% concentrate and 20% roughage were formulated, on a DM basis, to be isocaloric and isonitrogenous and to meet or exceed NRC requirements for Ca, P, and other nutrients. A subsample of 12 wethers per treatment was selected based on average BW (54 kg) and slaughtered. Carcass data (LM area, fat thickness, and internal fat content) and wholesale cut weight (leg, loin, rack, shoulder, breast, and foreshank), along with fatty acid, tocopherol, and color analysis, were determined on each carcass. The LM and infraspinatus were sampled for fatty acid profile. Increasing safflower oil supplementation from 0 to 3 or 6% increased the proportion of linoleic acid in the diet from 49.93 to 55.32 to 62.38%, respectively, whereas the percentage of oleic acid decreased from 27.94 to 23.80 to 20.73%, respectively. The percentage of oil in the diet did not (P > or = 0.11) alter the growth and carcass characteristics of lambs, nor did it alter the tocopherol content or color stability of meat. Increasing levels of safflower oil in lamb diets decreased (P < 0.01) the weight percentage of oleic acid in the infraspinatus and LM, and increased linoleic acid (P < 0.01). Oil supplementation increased (P < 0.01) the weight percentage of various isomers of CLA in muscle, with the greatest change in the cis-9,trans-11 isomer. Supplementation of sheep diets with safflower oil, up to 6% of the diet, resulted in increasing levels of unsaturated fatty

  15. Quantitative trait loci affecting oil content, oil composition, and other agronomically important traits in Oat (Avena sativa L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Groat oil content and composition are important determinants of oat quality. We investigated these traits in a population of 146 recombinant inbred lines from a cross between 'Dal' (high oil) and 'Exeter' (low oil). A linkage map consisting of 475 DArT markers spanning 1271.8 cM across 40 linkage gr...

  16. Anesthesia of Epinephelus marginatus with essential oil of Aloysia polystachya: an approach on blood parameters.

    PubMed

    Fogliarini, Carine O; Garlet, Quelen I; Parodi, Thaylise V; Becker, Alexssandro G; Garcia, Luciano O; Heinzmann, Berta M; Pereira, Ana Maria S; Baldisserotto, Bernardo

    2017-05-01

    This study investigated the anesthetic potential of the essential oil (EO) of Aloysia polystachya in juveniles of dusky grouper (Epinephelus marginatus). Fish were exposed to different concentrations of EO of A. polystachya to evaluate time of induction and recovery from anesthesia. In the second experiment, fish were divided into four groups: control, ethanol and 50 or 300 µL L-1 EO of A. polystachya, and each group was submitted to induction for 3.5 min and recovery for 5 or 10 min. The blood gases and glucose levels showed alterations as a function of the recovery times, but Na+ and K+ levels did not show any alteration. In conclusion, the EO from leaves of A. polystachya is an effective anesthetic for dusky grouper, because anesthesia was reached within the recommended time at EO concentrations of 300 and 400 µL L-1. However, most evaluated blood parameters showed compensatory responses due to EO exposure.

  17. Comparison of the effects of evening primrose oil and triglycerides containing gamma-linolenic acid on nerve conduction and blood flow in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Dines, K C; Cameron, N E; Cotter, M A

    1995-04-01

    The aim was to ascertain whether the ability of evening primrose oil (EPO) treatment to correct peripheral nerve dysfunction in streptozotocin-diabetic rats depends on a gamma-linolenic acid (GLA)-containing triglyceride constituent, di-linolein mono-gamma-linolenate (DLMG). A second objective was to investigate whether the triglyceride conformation of GLA affects efficacy, using tri-gamma-linolenate (TGLA), which is not present in EPO. Third, we examined the actions of these omega-6 essential fatty acid-containing oils on sciatic nerve blood flow to establish a common mechanism. After 6 weeks of diabetes, sciatic motor nerve conduction velocity (NCV) was 21% reduced. EPO treatment caused dose-dependent increases in NCV that reached asymptote within 7 days. DLMG and TGLA, at doses matched for GLA content, had effects indistinguishable from those of EPO. Sciatic blood flow, 47.2% reduced by diabetes, was partially normalized by EPO, DLMG and TGLA. In contrast, sunflower oil (which does not contain GLA) did not alter NCV or blood flow. The data therefore provide strong evidence that DLMG is the active component of EPO and suggest that correction of nerve dysfunction involves a vascular action. The precise triglyceride configuration of GLA does not appear crucial to its effects in experimental diabetic neuropathy.

  18. Are intertidal soft sediment assemblages affected by repeated oil spill events? A field-based experimental approach.

    PubMed

    Sandrini-Neto, Leonardo; Martins, César C; Lana, Paulo C

    2016-06-01

    This study investigates the impact of repeated diesel spills on the structure of intertidal macrofaunal assemblages of a subtropical estuary. Three frequencies of exposure events were compared against two dosages of oil in a factorial experiment with asymmetrical controls. Hypotheses were tested to distinguish between (i) the overall effect of oil spills, (ii) the effect of diesel dosage via different exposure regimes, and (iii) the effect of time since last spill. Repeated oil spills dramatically altered the overall structure of assemblages and reduced the total density of macrofauna and densities of dominant taxa. Increasing the frequency of oil spills negatively affected macrofauna. In general, frequent low-dosage oil spills were more deleterious than infrequent high-dosage ones. However, increases in densities of some taxa, mainly the gastropod Heleobia australis, were observed in response to infrequent spills. Our results highlight the importance of repeated exposure events in determining the extent of oil impacts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Oil sands process-affected water impairs feeding by Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Lari, Ebrahim; Steinkey, Dylan; Morandi, Garrett; Rasmussen, Joseph B; Giesy, John P; Pyle, Greg G

    2017-05-01

    Growth in extraction of bitumen from oil sands has raised concerns about influences of this industry on surrounding environments. Water clearance rate (a surrogate of feeding rate by Daphnia magna) in water containing D. magna exposed to oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) and its principal components, dissolved component (DC) and suspended particulate matter (SPM), was reduced to 72, 29, and 59% of controls, respectively. This study also examined several possible mechanisms for the observed changes algal cell density (i.e., feeding rate). There was no change in the digestive enzymes trypsin or amylase when D. magna were exposed to DC or SPM; however, exposure to total OSPW reduced trypsin activity. Mandible rolling or post-abdominal rejections, which are indicators of feeding and palatability of food, were not affected by any exposures to OSPW. Beating of thoracic limbs, which provides water flow toward the feeding groove, was reduced by exposure to SPM or total OSPW. Peristaltic activity was reduced by exposure to DC, which then might result in reduced digestion time in D. magna exposed to DC, SPM or whole OSPW. All treatments caused an increase in numbers of intact algae cells in the hindgut and excreted material. These results suggest that both DC and SPM affect feeding of D. magna by impairing actions of the digestive system, but most probably not by reducing rates of ingestion.

  20. Amino acids in human blood plasma after single meals of meat, oil, sucrose and whiskey.

    PubMed

    Nasset, E S; Heald, F P; Calloway, D H; Margen, S; Schneeman, P

    1979-04-01

    Six healthy men (21 to 38 years; 58 to 80 kg) consumed an adequate diet in a metabolism unit. At 4-day intervals they ingested test meals and venous blood was drawn before and after ingestion at intervals for 8 hours. Test meals were 100, 200, and 300 g of cooked lean meat and quantities of corn oil, sucrose, and whiskey isoenergetic with 200 g of meat. Plasma was analyzed for 20 amino acids. Mean totals of amino acids (micromoles per liter) were maximally elevated at 1 or 2 hours post cibum for all meals and remained above fasting values at 4 hours, with one exception (glucose meal). At 8 hours they were all below fasting values with one exception (whiskey meal). Individual responses varied so much that mean values are misleading. One subject responded well to ingestion of 100 or 200 g of meat but failed to respond to 300 g of meat, oil, or sucrose. Another subject responded well to oil and sucrose, but failed to respond to 100 or 200 g of meat. Mean total fasting amino acid values for all subjects were relatively constant but values for individual subjects ranged from 16% above to 18% below their own fasting means. Ingestion of whiskey invariably resulted in a significant decline in molar ratios for histidine and a significant increase for threonine.

  1. Retaining biodiversity in intensive farmland: epiphyte removal in oil palm plantations does not affect yield

    PubMed Central

    Prescott, Graham W; Edwards, David P; Foster, William A

    2015-01-01

    The expansion of agriculture into tropical forest frontiers is one of the primary drivers of the global extinction crisis, resulting in calls to intensify tropical agriculture to reduce demand for more forest land and thus spare land for nature. Intensification is likely to reduce habitat complexity, with profound consequences for biodiversity within agricultural landscapes. Understanding which features of habitat complexity are essential for maintaining biodiversity and associated ecosystem services within agricultural landscapes without compromising productivity is therefore key to limiting the environmental damage associated with producing food intensively. Here, we focus on oil palm, a rapidly expanding crop in the tropics and subject to frequent calls for increased intensification. One promoted strategy is to remove epiphytes that cover the trunks of oil palms, and we ask whether this treatment affects either biodiversity or yield. We experimentally tested this by removing epiphytes from four-hectare plots and seeing if the biodiversity and production of fruit bunches 2 months and 16 months later differed from equivalent control plots where epiphytes were left uncut. We found a species-rich and taxonomically diverse epiphyte community of 58 species from 31 families. Epiphyte removal did not affect the production of fresh fruit bunches, or the species richness and community composition of birds and ants, although the impact on other components of biodiversity remains unknown. We conclude that as they do not adversely affect palm oil production, the diverse epiphyte flora should be left uncut. Our results underscore the importance of experimentally determining the effects of habitat complexity on yield before introducing intensive methods with no discernible benefits. PMID:26045947

  2. Bacterial communities from shoreline environments (costa da morte, northwestern Spain) affected by the prestige oil spill.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Gutiérrez, Jorge; Figueras, Antonio; Albaigés, Joan; Jiménez, Núria; Viñas, Marc; Solanas, Anna M; Novoa, Beatriz

    2009-06-01

    The bacterial communities in two different shoreline matrices, rocks and sand, from the Costa da Morte, northwestern Spain, were investigated 12 months after being affected by the Prestige oil spill. Culture-based and culture-independent approaches were used to compare the bacterial diversity present in these environments with that at a nonoiled site. A long-term effect of fuel on the microbial communities in the oiled sand and rock was suggested by the higher proportion of alkane and polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) degraders and the differences in denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis patterns compared with those of the reference site. Members of the classes Alphaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria were the prevailing groups of bacteria detected in both matrices, although the sand bacterial community exhibited higher species richness than the rock bacterial community did. Culture-dependent and -independent approaches suggested that the genus Rhodococcus could play a key role in the in situ degradation of the alkane fraction of the Prestige fuel together with other members of the suborder Corynebacterineae. Moreover, other members of this suborder, such as Mycobacterium spp., together with Sphingomonadaceae bacteria (mainly Lutibacterium anuloederans), were related as well to the degradation of the aromatic fraction of the Prestige fuel. The multiapproach methodology applied in the present study allowed us to assess the complexity of autochthonous microbial communities related to the degradation of heavy fuel from the Prestige and to isolate some of their components for a further physiological study. Since several Corynebacterineae members related to the degradation of alkanes and PAHs were frequently detected in this and other supralittoral environments affected by the Prestige oil spill along the northwestern Spanish coast, the addition of mycolic acids to bioremediation amendments is proposed to favor the presence of these degraders in long-term fuel pollution-affected

  3. Retaining biodiversity in intensive farmland: epiphyte removal in oil palm plantations does not affect yield.

    PubMed

    Prescott, Graham W; Edwards, David P; Foster, William A

    2015-05-01

    The expansion of agriculture into tropical forest frontiers is one of the primary drivers of the global extinction crisis, resulting in calls to intensify tropical agriculture to reduce demand for more forest land and thus spare land for nature. Intensification is likely to reduce habitat complexity, with profound consequences for biodiversity within agricultural landscapes. Understanding which features of habitat complexity are essential for maintaining biodiversity and associated ecosystem services within agricultural landscapes without compromising productivity is therefore key to limiting the environmental damage associated with producing food intensively. Here, we focus on oil palm, a rapidly expanding crop in the tropics and subject to frequent calls for increased intensification. One promoted strategy is to remove epiphytes that cover the trunks of oil palms, and we ask whether this treatment affects either biodiversity or yield. We experimentally tested this by removing epiphytes from four-hectare plots and seeing if the biodiversity and production of fruit bunches 2 months and 16 months later differed from equivalent control plots where epiphytes were left uncut. We found a species-rich and taxonomically diverse epiphyte community of 58 species from 31 families. Epiphyte removal did not affect the production of fresh fruit bunches, or the species richness and community composition of birds and ants, although the impact on other components of biodiversity remains unknown. We conclude that as they do not adversely affect palm oil production, the diverse epiphyte flora should be left uncut. Our results underscore the importance of experimentally determining the effects of habitat complexity on yield before introducing intensive methods with no discernible benefits.

  4. Grapefruit gland oil composition is affected by wax application, storage temperature, and storage time.

    PubMed

    Sun, D; Petracek, P D

    1999-05-01

    The effect of wax application, storage temperature (4 or 21 degrees C), and storage time (14 or 28 days after wax application) on grapefruit gland oil composition was examined by capillary gas chromatography. Wax application decreases nonanal and nootkatone levels. beta-Pinene, alpha-phellandrene, 3-carene, ocimene, octanol, trans-linalool oxide, and cis-p-mentha-2,8-dien-1-ol levels increase, but limonene levels decrease, with temperature. Levels of alpha-pinene, limonene, linalool, citronellal, alpha-terpineol, neral, dodecanal, and alpha-humulene decrease with time. Levels of alpha-phellandrene, 3-carene, ocimene, and trans-linalool oxide increase with time. No compound level was affected by the interactive action of temperature and wax application, suggesting that these two factors cause grapefruit oil gland collapse (postharvest pitting) through means other than changing gland oil composition. Compounds that are toxic to the Caribbean fruit fly (alpha-pinene, limonene, alpha-terpineol, and some aldehydes) decrease with time, thus suggesting grapefruit becomes increasingly susceptible to the fly during storage.

  5. Application of forward osmosis membrane technology for oil sands process-affected water desalination.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yaxin; Liang, Jiaming; Liu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    The extraction process used to obtain bitumen from the oil sands produces large volumes of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW). As a newly emerging desalination technology, forward osmosis (FO) has shown great promise in saving electrical power requirements, increasing water recovery, and minimizing brine discharge. With the support of this funding, a FO system was constructed using a cellulose triacetate FO membrane to test the feasibility of OSPW desalination and contaminant removal. The FO systems were optimized using different types and concentrations of draw solution. The FO system using 4 M NH4HCO3 as a draw solution achieved 85% water recovery from OSPW, and 80 to 100% contaminant rejection for most metals and ions. A water backwash cleaning method was applied to clean the fouled membrane, and the cleaned membrane achieved 77% water recovery, a performance comparable to that of new FO membranes. This suggests that the membrane fouling was reversible. The FO system developed in this project provides a novel and energy efficient strategy to remediate the tailings waters generated by oil sands bitumen extraction and processing.

  6. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, brachial artery distensibility and blood pressure among children residing near an oil refinery

    PubMed Central

    Trasande, Leonardo; Urbina, Elaine M.; Khoder, Mamdouh; Alghamdi, Mansour; Shabaj, Ibrahim; Alam, Mohammed S.; Harrison, Roy M.; Shamy, Magdy

    2017-01-01

    Background Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are produced by the burning and processing of fuel oils, and have been associated with oxidant stress, insulin resistance and hypertension in adults. Few studies have examined whether adolescents are susceptible to cardiovascular effects of PAHs. Objective To study associations of PAH exposure with blood pressure (BP) and brachial artery distensibility (BAD), an early marker of arterial wall stiffness, in young boys attending three schools in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia in varying proximity to an oil refinery. Methods Air samples collected from the three schools were analyzed for PAHs. PAH metabolites (total hydroxyphenanthrenes and 1-hydroxypyrene) were measured in urine samples from 184 adolescent males, in whom anthropometrics, heart rate, pulse pressure, brachial artery distensibility and blood pressure were measured. Descriptive, bivariate and multivariable analyses were performed to assess relationships of school location and urinary PAH metabolites with cardiovascular measures. Results Total suspended matter was significantly higher (444 ± 143 µg/m3) at the school near the refinery compared to a school located near a ring road (395 ± 65 µg/m3) and a school located away from vehicle traffic (232 ± 137 µg/m3), as were PAHs. Systolic (0.47 SD units, p = 0.006) and diastolic (0.53 SD units, p < 0.001) BP Z-scores were highest at the school near the refinery, with a 4.36-fold increase in prehypertension (p = 0.001), controlling for confounders. No differences in pulse pressure, BAD and heart rate were noted in relationship to school location. Urinary total hydroxyphenanthrenes and 1-hydroxypyrene were not associated with cardiovascular outcomes. Conclusions Proximity to an oil refinery in Saudi Arabia is associated with prehypertension and increases in PAH and particulate matter exposures. Further study including insulin resistance measurements, better control for confounding, and longitudinal measurement is

  7. How dietary arachidonic- and docosahexaenoic- acid rich oils differentially affect the murine hepatic transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Alvin; Roberts, Matthew A; Hoff, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    transcriptomic, signaling cascades, and predicted affects on murine liver metabolism have been elucidated for 20:4n6-rich dietary oils, 22:6n3-rich oils, and a surprisingly distinct set of genes were affected by the combination of the two. Our results emphasize that the balance of dietary n6 and n3 LC-PUFA provided for infants and in nutritional and neutraceutical applications could have profoundly different affects on metabolism and cell signaling, beyond that previously recognized. PMID:16623957

  8. Effects of rice bran oil on the blood lipids profiles and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes patients.

    PubMed

    Lai, Ming-Hoang; Chen, Yi-Ting; Chen, Ya-Yen; Chang, Jui-Hung; Cheng, Hsing-Hsien

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of rice bran oil consumption on plasma lipids and insulin resistance in patients with type 2 diabetes. Thirty-five patients with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to a placebo group or a rice bran oil group. The placebo group consumed 250 mL soybean oil-modified milk (18 g soybean oil) daily for 5 weeks, and the rice bran oil group consumed 250 mL rice bran oil modified milk (18 g rice bran oil) daily for 5 weeks. At week 0 and week 5, anthropometric measurements, hematology tests, and an oral-glucose-tolerance test were conducted. The results showed that the homeostasis model assessment index of insulin resistance, the area under the curve for postprandial serum insulin, and serum low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations increased significantly in the placebo group. In the rice bran oil group, fasting and 2-h postprandial blood glucose concentrations and the area under the curve for postprandial plasma glucose increased significantly; however, total serum cholesterol and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations decreased significantly. However, the homeostasis model assessment index of insulin resistance was not significantly different. Consumption of 18 g rice bran oil modified milk daily for 5 weeks significantly decreased total serum cholesterol concentrations and tended to decrease low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes. However, no significant influence on insulin resistance was observed.

  9. Influence of extra virgin olive oil on blood pressure and kidney angiotensinase activities in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Villarejo, Ana Belén; Ramírez-Sánchez, Manuel; Segarra, Ana Belén; Martínez-Cañamero, Magdalena; Prieto, Isabel

    2015-06-01

    High-fat diets are associated with the development of cardiovascular diseases. The efficacy of the current strategies of treatment is still not entirely satisfactory, and new approaches are being considered. To analyze the beneficial effects of extra virgin olive oil as a major component of the Mediterranean diet, we studied systolic blood pressure and angiotensinase activities, since this enzyme is involved in the metabolism of angiotensins, in the kidney of hypertensive rats fed during 12 weeks with a diet enriched with extra virgin olive oil compared with a standard diet. As a reflex of oxidative stress, 8-isoprostanes and nitric oxide were quantified in urine. Results demonstrated a progressive increase in systolic blood pressure until the end of the feeding period in both groups. However, this increase was delayed in the extra virgin olive oil group until week six, with the systolic blood pressure being always lower in this group. Nitric oxide and 8-isoprostanes were lower in the extra virgin olive oil group. While we can deduce a higher formation of angiotensin 2-10 in the renal cortex, a higher availability of angiotensin II may be presumed in the renal medulla of animals fed an extra virgin olive oil diet than in animals fed a standard diet. Our results support the beneficial influence of extra virgin olive oil on cardiovascular function and suggest that the Mediterranean diet may be beneficial in itself but it may also be an effective tool in the treatment of hypertension.

  10. Assessing the bioremediation potential of algal species indigenous to oil sands process-affected waters on mixtures of oil sands acid extractable organics.

    PubMed

    Ruffell, Sarah E; Frank, Richard A; Woodworth, Adam P; Bragg, Leslie M; Bauer, Anthony E; Deeth, Lorna E; Müller, Kirsten M; Farwell, Andrea J; Dixon, D George; Servos, Mark R; McConkey, Brendan J

    2016-11-01

    Surface mining extraction of bitumen from oil sand in Alberta, Canada results in the accumulation of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW). In attempts to maximize water recycling, and because its constituents are recognized as being toxic, OSPW is retained in settling basins. Consequently, research efforts are currently focused on developing remediation strategies capable of detoxifying OSPW to allow for eventual release. One potential bioremediation strategy proposes to utilize phytoplankton native to the Alberta oil sand region to sequester, break down, or modify the complex oil sands acid extractable organic (AEO) mixtures in OSPW. Preliminary attempts to quantify changes in total oil sands AEO concentration in test solutions by ESI-MS following a 14-day algal remediation period revealed the presence of unknown organic acids in control samples, likely released by the phytoplankton strains and often of the same atomic mass range as the oil sands AEO under investigation. To address the presence of these "biogenic" organic acids in test samples, ESI-MS in MRM mode was utilized to identify oil sands AEO "marker ions" that were a) present within the tested oil sands AEO extract and b) unique to the oil sands AEO extract only (e.g. atomic masses different from biogenic organic acids). Using this approach, one of the 21 tested algal strains, Stichococcus sp. 1, proved capable of significantly reducing the AEO marker ion concentration at test concentrations of 10, 30, and 100mgL(-1). This result, along with the accelerated growth rate and recalcitrance of this algal strain with exposure to oil sands AEO, suggests the strong potential for the use of the isolated Stichococcus sp. 1 as a candidate for bioremediation strategies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Labetalol decreases cerebral perfusion pressure without negatively affecting cerebral blood flow in hypertensive gravidas.

    PubMed

    Belfort, Michael A; Tooke-Miller, Cathy; Allen, John C; Dizon-Townson, Donna; Varner, Michael A

    2002-01-01

    To research the cerebral hemodynamic effects of labetalol in pregnant women with hypertension. Prospective observational study. Tertiary Care Medical Center. Pregnant patients with hypertension. Transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasound was used to measure the blood velocity in the middle cerebral arteries (MCA) of eight pregnant patients with hypertension, before and after the administration of a 200 mg oral dose of labetalol. Five patients had severe preeclampsia, and three had chronic hypertension with superimposed preeclampsia. MCA blood velocity and systemic blood pressure were measured simultaneously at the baseline, and at 60 and 180 min after labetalol. Selected cerebral hemodynamic parameters were compared with normative curves. Values outside of the 5th and 95th percentiles were regarded as abnormal. Cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), resistance area product (RAP), and cerebral flow index (CFI). Patient age, gestational age, and parity were similar to those of the normal women from whom the normative data were obtained. Women with hypertension had higher baseline CPP, MAP, and RAP than normal pregnant women, but their CFI was within the normal range. Labetalol reduced the CPP, as well as the systolic, diastolic, and mean BP significantly at 60 and 180 min without significantly affecting the heart rate, MCA velocities, RAP, or CFI. Labetalol effectively reduces CPP, without affecting cerebral perfusion, primarily by a decrease in systemic blood pressure. This makes it an ideal agent for blood pressure control in severely hypertensive pregnant women.

  12. Changes in growth, essential oil yield and composition of geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L.) as affected by growing media.

    PubMed

    Rezaei Nejad, Abdolhossein; Ismaili, Ahmad

    2014-03-30

    Using proper growing medium is known to be an effective way to improve crop growth and yield. However, the effects of growing media on geranium essential oil have scarcely ever been examined in detail. In this research, the effects of different growing media (soil, sand, pumice, perlite and perlite + cocopeat) on growth, oil yield and composition of geranium were studied. Growth was significantly improved in soilless-grown plants compared with soil-grown plants. Oil yield of soilless-grown plants (except for pumice) was about threefold higher than that of soil-grown plants. The increase in oil yield was correlated with higher leaf dry weight (r²  = 0.96), as oil content was not affected. The citronellol/geranium ratio of oil was clearly affected by growing media, ranging from 5:1 in soil culture to 3:1 in soilless culture. The latter is acceptable for perfumery. Compared with soil, soilless media could produce higher yields of high-quality geranium oil that fits market requirements. Growth, oil yield and composition of plants grown in sand (a cheap and abundant growing medium) were not significantly different from those of plants grown in perlite and perlite + cocopeat. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) reproduction is impaired in aged oil sands process-affected waters.

    PubMed

    Kavanagh, Richard J; Frank, Richard A; Oakes, Ken D; Servos, Mark R; Young, Rozlyn F; Fedorak, Phillip M; MacKinnon, Mike D; Solomon, Keith R; Dixon, D George; Van Der Kraak, Glen

    2011-01-17

    Large volumes of fluid tailings are generated during the extraction of bitumen from oil sands. As part of their reclamation plan, oil sands operators in Alberta propose to transfer these fluid tailings to end pit lakes and, over time, these are expected to develop lake habitats with productive capabilities comparable to natural lakes in the region. This study evaluates the potential impact of various oil sands process-affected waters (OSPW) on the reproduction of adult fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) under laboratory conditions. Two separate assays with aged OPSW (>15 years) from the experimental ponds at Syncrude Canada Ltd. showed that water containing high concentrations of naphthenic acids (NAs; >25 mg/l) and elevated conductivity (>2000 μS/cm) completely inhibited spawning of fathead minnows and reduced male secondary sexual characteristics. Measurement of plasma sex steroid levels showed that male fathead minnows had lower concentrations of testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone whereas females had lower concentrations of 17β-estradiol. In a third assay, fathead minnows were first acclimated to the higher salinity conditions typical of OSPW for several weeks and then exposed to aged OSPW from Suncor Energy Inc. (NAs ∼40 mg/l and conductivity ∼2000 μS/cm). Spawning was significantly reduced in fathead minnows held in this effluent and male fathead minnows had lower concentrations of testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone. Collectively, these studies demonstrate that aged OSPW has the potential to negatively affect the reproductive physiology of fathead minnows and suggest that aquatic habitats with high NAs concentrations (>25 mg/l) and conductivities (>2000 μS/cm) would not be conducive for successful fish reproduction.

  14. Replacement of dietary fish oil by vegetable oils affects humoral immunity and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines genes in gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata.

    PubMed

    Montero, D; Mathlouthi, F; Tort, L; Afonso, J M; Torrecillas, S; Fernández-Vaquero, A; Negrin, D; Izquierdo, M S

    2010-12-01

    Commercial gilthead sea bream feeds are highly energetic, fish oil traditionally being the main lipid source. But the decreased fish oil production together with the increased prices of this oil encourages its substitution by vegetable oils, imposing new nutritional habits to aquaculture species. Partial replacement of fish oil by vegetable oils in diets for marine species allows good feed utilization and growth but may affect fish health, since imbalances in dietary fatty acids may alter fish immunological status. The effect of dietary oils on different aspects of fish immune system has been reported for some species, but very little is known about the effect of dietary oils on immune-related genes expression in fish. Thus, the objective of this study was to elucidate the role of dietary oils on the expression of two pro-inflammatory cytokines, Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α) and Interleukine 1β (IL-1β) on intestine and head kidney after exposure to the bacterial pathogen Photobacterium damselae sp. piscicida. For that purpose, 5 iso-nitrogenous and iso-lipidic diets (45% crude protein, 22% crude lipid content) were formulated. Anchovy oil was the only lipid source used in the control diet (FO), but in the other diets, fish oil was totally (100%) or partially (70%) substituted by linseed (rich in n-3 fatty acids) or soybean (rich in n-6 fatty acids) (100L, 100S, 70L, 70S). Fish were fed experimental diets during 80 days and after this period were exposed to an experimental intestinal infection with the pathogen. Serum and tissue samples were obtained at pre-infection and after 1, 3 and 7 days of infection. RNA was extracted and cDNA was synthesized by reverse transcription from intestine and head kidney and the level expression of TNF-α and IL-1β were assayed by using quantitative real time PCR. The expression level of genes analysed was represented as relative value, using the comparative Ct method (2(-ΔΔCt)). Serum anti-bacterial activity was measured as

  15. Temperature and duration of heating of sunflower oil affect ruminal biohydrogenation of linoleic acid in vitro.

    PubMed

    Privé, F; Combes, S; Cauquil, L; Farizon, Y; Enjalbert, F; Troegeler-Meynadier, A

    2010-02-01

    Sunflower oil heated at 110 or 150 degrees C for 1, 3, or 6h was incubated with ruminal content in order to investigate the effects of temperature and duration of heating of oil on the ruminal biohydrogenation of linoleic acid in vitro. When increased, these 2 parameters acted together to decrease the disappearance of linoleic acid in the media by inhibiting the isomerization of linoleic acid, which led to a decrease in conjugated linoleic acids and trans-C18:1 production. Nevertheless, trans-10 isomer production increased with heating temperature, suggesting an activation of Delta(9)-isomerization, whereas trans-11 isomer production decreased, traducing an inhibition of Delta(12)-isomerization. The amount of peroxides generated during heating was correlated with the proportions of biohydrogenation intermediates so that they might explain, at least in part, the observed effects. The effects of heating temperature and duration on ruminal bacteria community was assessed using capillary electrophoresis single-strand conformation polymorphism. Ruminal bacterial population significantly differed according to heating temperature, but was not affected by heating duration. Heating of fat affected ruminal biohydrogenation, at least in part because of oxidative products generated during heating, by altering enzymatic reactions and bacterial population.

  16. Changes in blood profile in sheep receiving raw garlic, garlic oil or monensin.

    PubMed

    Anassori, E; Dalir-Naghadeh, B; Pirmohammadi, R; Hadian, M

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of supplementing a basal diet (CTR) with raw garlic (GAR) or garlic oil (GAO) on blood profile in sheep. Monensin (MON, 33 mg/kg DM) was used as positive control. Four ruminally fistulated rams were used in three experiments each arranged in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with 28-day periods. Experiments 1 and 2 differed in the dose of GAR (75 vs. 100 g/kg DM) and GAO (500 vs. 750 mg/kg DM), while experiment 3 was designed to compare the two doses of each additive (GAR and GAO). The animals were fed a basal diet as TMR consisting of 77.83% forage (alfalfa hay and corn silage) and 22.17% concentrate, providing 10.50 MJ/kg DM (metabolizable energy) and 16.5% crude protein to cover maintenance energy and protein requirements. Supplementation of monensin decreased (P < 0.05) β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations in the blood compared with other treatments. There was no significant effect of additives on serum concentration of glucose, total triglycerides, cholesterol, total protein, albumin and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). Although the serum insulin concentration was elevated in sheep receiving MON and GAO (P < 0.01), no change was observed in blood glucose concentration. No significant effect of GAO and GAR was observed in key energy and protein-related blood metabolites. However, administration of monensin had a positive influence on energy indices. In conclusion, whereas parameters characterizing the energy balance did not show a significant effect of GAR supplementation, a higher insulin concentration in GAO-treated animals was observed. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Thyroid Hormone Disruption by Water-Accommodated Fractions of Crude Oil and Sediments Affected by the Hebei Spirit Oil Spill in Zebrafish and GH3 Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sujin; Sohn, Ju Hae; Ha, Sung Yong; Kang, Habyeong; Yim, Un Hyuk; Shim, Won Joon; Khim, Jong Seong; Jung, Dawoon; Choi, Kyungho

    2016-06-07

    A crude oil and the coastal sediments that were affected by the Hebei Spirit Oil Spill (HSOS) of Taean, Korea were investigated for thyroid hormone disruption potentials. Water-accommodated fractions (WAFs) of Iranian Heavy crude oil, the major oil type of HSOS, and the porewater or leachate of sediment samples collected along the coast line of Taean were tested for thyroid disruption using developing zebrafish and/or rat pituitary GH3 cells. Major polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their alkylated forms were also measured from the test samples. In zebrafish larvae, significant decreases in whole-body thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) levels, along with transcriptional changes of thyroid regulating genes, were observed following 5 day exposure to WAFs. In GH3 cells, transcriptions of thyroid regulating genes were influenced following the exposure to the sediment samples, but the pattern of the regulatory change was different from those observed from the WAFs. Composition of PAHs and their alkylated homologues in the WAFs could partly explain this difference. Our results clearly demonstrate that WAFs of crude oil can disrupt thyroid function of larval zebrafish. Sediment samples also showed thyroid disrupting potentials in the GH3 cell, even several years after the oil spill. Long-term ecosystem consequences of thyroid hormone disruption due to oil spill deserve further investigation.

  18. Maternal fish oil supplementation during lactation is associated with reduced height at 13 years of age and higher blood pressure in boys only.

    PubMed

    Lauritzen, L; Eriksen, S E; Hjorth, M F; Nielsen, M S; Olsen, S F; Stark, K D; Michaelsen, K F; Damsgaard, C T

    2016-12-01

    Dietary long-chain n-3 PUFA (n-3 LCPUFA) in infancy may have long-term effects on lifestyle disease risk. The present follow-up study investigated whether maternal fish oil (FO) supplementation during lactation affected growth and blood pressure in adolescents and whether the effects differed between boys and girls. Mother-infant pairs (n 103) completed a randomised controlled trial with FO (1·5 g/d n-3 LCPUFA) or olive oil (OO) supplements during the first 4 months of lactation; forty-seven mother-infant pairs with high fish intake were followed-up for 4 months as the reference group. We also followed-up 100 children with assessment of growth, blood pressure, diet by FFQ and physical activity by 7-d accelerometry at 13·5 (sd 0·4) years of age. Dried whole-blood fatty acid composition was analysed in a subgroup (n 49). At 13 years of age, whole-blood n-3 LCPUFA, diet, physical activity and body composition did not differ between the three groups. The children from the FO group were 3·4 (95 % CI 0·2, 6·6) cm shorter (P=0·035) than those from the OO group, and tended to have less advanced puberty (P=0·068), which explained the difference in height. There was a sex-specific effect on diastolic blood pressure (P sex×group=0·020), which was driven by a 3·9 (95 % CI 0·2, 7·5) mmHg higher diastolic blood pressure in the FO compared with the OO group among boys only (P=0·041). Our results indicate that early n-3 LCPUFA intake may reduce height in early adolescence due to a delay in pubertal maturation and increase blood pressure specifically in boys, thereby tending to counteract existing sex differences.

  19. Effect of olive oil phenolic compounds on the expression of blood pressure-related genes in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Martín-Peláez, Sandra; Castañer, Olga; Konstantinidou, Valentini; Subirana, Isaac; Muñoz-Aguayo, Daniel; Blanchart, Gemma; Gaixas, Sonia; de la Torre, Rafael; Farré, Magí; Sáez, Guillermo T; Nyyssönen, Kristina; Zunft, Hans Joachim; Covas, Maria Isabel; Fitó, Montse

    2017-03-01

    To investigate whether the ingestion of olive oil having different phenolic contents influences the expression of blood pressure-related genes, involved in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, in healthy humans. A randomized, double-blind, crossover human trial with 18 healthy subjects, who ingested 25 mL/day of olive oils (1) high (366 mg/kg, HPC) and (2) low (2.7 mg/kg, LPC) in phenolic compounds for 3 weeks, preceded by 2-week washout periods. Determination of selected blood pressure-related gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNC) by qPCR, blood pressure and systemic biomarkers. HPC decreased systolic blood pressure compared to pre-intervention values and to LPC, and maintained diastolic blood pressure values compared to LPC. HPC decreased ACE and NR1H2 gene expressions compared with pre-intervention values, and IL8RA gene expression compared with LPC. The introduction to the diet of an extra-virgin olive oil rich in phenolic compounds modulates the expression of some of the genes related to the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. These changes could underlie the decrease in systolic blood pressure observed.

  20. How the Addition of Spices and Herbs to Virgin Olive Oil to Produce Flavored Oils Affects Consumer Acceptance.

    PubMed

    Issaoui, Manel; Flamini, Guido; Souid, Sondess; Bendini, Alessandra; Barbieri, Sara; Gharbi, Ines; Toschi, Tullia Gallina; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Hammami, Mohamed

    2016-06-01

    With the aim to expand the olive oil market to a larger number of consumers who are not familiar with the sensory characteristics of virgin olive oil, the use of novel products known as "flavored olive oils", obtained by adding different kind of spices and aromatic herbs, is spreading in many countries. In order to test consumer acceptability of this type of product, in a country (Tunisia) in which virgin olive oil is regularly consumed, flavored olive oils were prepared by adding aromatic extracts of thyme, oregano, a mix of herbs (used as pizza seasoning), rosemary, and basil to a monovarietal Chemlali virgin olive oil and a consumer test on 206 subjects was performed. Selected quality parameters (free acidity, peroxide number, oxidative stability, specific absorption at K232 nm and K270 nm) were also measured and no significant variations were detected. Slight differences were found concerning the content of minor compounds (chlorophylls, carotenoids and total phenols). On the other hand, notable differences were seen in the profiles of volatile compounds, which appeared to be responsible for the observed variability in consumer acceptance. Although the unflavored oil was more appreciated than the flavored ones, among the latter, thyme flavored olive oil was the most appreciated.

  1. Effect of virgin olive oil and thyme phenolic compounds on blood lipid profile: implications of human gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Martín-Peláez, Sandra; Mosele, Juana Ines; Pizarro, Neus; Farràs, Marta; de la Torre, Rafael; Subirana, Isaac; Pérez-Cano, Francisco José; Castañer, Olga; Solà, Rosa; Fernandez-Castillejo, Sara; Heredia, Saray; Farré, Magí; Motilva, María José; Fitó, Montserrat

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the effect of virgin olive oil phenolic compounds (PC) alone or in combination with thyme PC on blood lipid profile from hypercholesterolemic humans, and whether the changes generated are related with changes in gut microbiota populations and activities. A randomized, controlled, double-blind, crossover human trial (n = 12) was carried out. Participants ingested 25 mL/day for 3 weeks, preceded by 2-week washout periods, three raw virgin olive oils differing in the concentration and origin of PC: (1) a virgin olive oil (OO) naturally containing 80 mg PC/kg, (VOO), (2) a PC-enriched virgin olive oil containing 500 mg PC/kg, from OO (FVOO), and (3) a PC-enriched virgin olive oil containing a mixture of 500 mg PC/kg from OO and thyme, 1:1 (FVOOT). Blood lipid values and faecal quantitative changes in microbial populations, short chain fatty acids, cholesterol microbial metabolites, bile acids, and phenolic metabolites were analysed. FVOOT decreased seric ox-LDL concentrations compared with pre-FVOOT, and increased numbers of bifidobacteria and the levels of the phenolic metabolite protocatechuic acid compared to VOO (P < 0.05). FVOO did not lead to changes in blood lipid profile nor quantitative changes in the microbial populations analysed, but increased the coprostanone compared to FVOOT (P < 0.05), and the levels of the faecal hydroxytyrosol and dihydroxyphenylacetic acids, compared with pre-intervention values and to VOO, respectively (P < 0.05). The ingestion of a PC-enriched virgin olive oil, containing a mixture of olive oil and thyme PC for 3 weeks, decreases blood ox-LDL in hypercholesterolemic humans. This cardio-protective effect could be mediated by the increases in populations of bifidobacteria together with increases in PC microbial metabolites with antioxidant activities.

  2. Effects of liquid oil vs. oleogel co-ingested with a carbohydrate-rich meal on human blood triglycerides, glucose, insulin and appetite.

    PubMed

    Tan, Sze-Yen; Wan-Yi Peh, Elaine; Marangoni, Alejandro G; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar

    2017-01-25

    We examined the differences in how coconut oil in a liquid or oleogel form affects blood triglycerides, glucose, insulin, and appetite when co-ingested with a carbohydrate-rich meal. This was a randomised, controlled, crossover study where eligible participants attended a screening visit where baseline demographics were measured. On test days, participants arrived at the laboratory after an overnight fast of 10 hours. Upon arrival, cannulation of the antecubital vein was performed and fasting capillary blood glucose, plasma insulin and triglyceride levels, and appetite sensations were measured. Following that, orange juice and rice porridge alone (control), or with 22.25 g of coconut oil (CO) or 25 g of coconut oleogel (CG) (22.25 g coconut oil + 2.75 g ethylcellulose to form an oleogel) was consumed. Subsequently, capillary blood glucose and plasma insulin and triglyceride levels were measured at fixed intervals for 6 hours. Appetite sensations were also measured using visual analog scales every 30 minutes. Sixteen healthy young adult males completed the study (age = 27 ± 6 years, weight = 65.5 ± 5.5 kg, BMI = 21.9 ± 1.7 kg m(-2)). After test meals, glucose, insulin, triglycerides and appetite sensations changed significantly (time effects, p < 0.001). Significant time × treatment effects were found only in postprandial glucose (p = 0.015) and triglyceride (p = 0.001) changes. CO reduced the peak of the glucose response, and increased the incremental area under the curve for postprandial triglycerides. CG produced outcomes comparable to those of the control treatment. Appetite sensations did not differ between all treatments. The gelling of coconut oil with ethylcellulose into an oleogel form reversed its effects on postprandial glucose and triglycerides.

  3. Energized by love: thinking about romantic relationships increases positive affect and blood glucose levels.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Sarah C E; Campbell, Lorne; Loving, Timothy J

    2014-10-01

    We assessed the impact of thinking of a current romantic partner on acute blood glucose responses and positive affect over a short period of time. Participants in romantic relationships were randomly assigned to reflect on their partner, an opposite-sex friend, or their morning routine. Blood glucose levels were assessed prior to reflection, as well as at 10 and 25 min postreflection. Results revealed that individuals in the routine and friend conditions exhibited a decline in glucose over time, whereas individuals in the partner condition did not exhibit this decline (rather, a slight increase) in glucose over time. Reported positive affect following reflection was positively associated with increases in glucose, but only for individuals who reflected on their partner, suggesting this physiological response reflects eustress. These findings add to the literature on eustress in relationships and have implications for relationship processes.

  4. RETRACTED: Bosentan attenuates cardiac fibrosis in diabetic mice without affecting blood glucose.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bo; Chen, Yun-Dai; Li, Min; Zhou, Fei-Hu; Xu, Yong; Wang, Guang-Yi; Li, Tian-De; Xing, You-Hong

    2015-12-01

    At the request of the authors, 'Bosentan attenuates cardiac fibrosis in diabetic mice without affecting blood glucose' Journal of Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System, published ahead of print August 15, 2011 as doi: 10.1177/1470320311417274 has been retracted. This is due to mistakes in the published data at Figure 3. For clarification: this problem came to the attention of Bo Yang only after publication in the journal. Bo Yang immediately brought it to the attention of the Journal.

  5. Microbial ecology of the rumen evaluated by 454 GS FLX pyrosequencing is affected by starch and oil supplementation of diets.

    PubMed

    Zened, Asma; Combes, Sylvie; Cauquil, Laurent; Mariette, Jérôme; Klopp, Christophe; Bouchez, Olivier; Troegeler-Meynadier, Annabelle; Enjalbert, Francis

    2013-02-01

    To provide a comprehensive examination of the bacterial diversity in the rumen content of cows fed different diets, high-throughput 16S rRNA gene-based pyrosequencing was used. Four rumen fistulated nonlactating Holstein cows received 12 kg of dry matter per day of four diets based on maize silage during four periods: the low-starch diet (22% starch, 3% fat); the high-starch diet, supplemented with wheat plus barley (35% starch, 3% fat); the low-starch plus oil diet, supplemented with 5% of sunflower oil (20% starch, 7.6% fat) and the high-starch plus oil diet (33% starch, 7.3% fat). Samples were taken after 12 days of adaptation, 5 h postfeeding. Whatever the diet, bacterial community of sieved rumen contents was dominated by Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae, Prevotellaceae, and Rikenellaceae families were highly present and were clearly affected by cow diet. The highest abundance of Prevotellaceae and the lowest abundance of Ruminococcaceae and Rikenellaceae were found with the high-starch plus oil diet. Dietary starch increased the relative abundance of only three genera: Barnesiella, Oribacterium and Olsenella, but decreased the relative abundances of several genera, with very significant effects for Rikenellaceae_RC9 and Butyrivibrio-Pseudobutyrivibrio. Oil alone had a limited effect, but interestingly, starch plus oil addition differently affected the bacterial populations compared to starch addition without oil.

  6. Impact of the Sea Empress oil spill on lysosomal stability in mussel blood cells.

    PubMed

    Fernley, P W; Moore, M N; Lowe, D M; Donkin, P; Evans, S

    2000-01-01

    Coastal zones are among the most productive and vulnerable areas on the planet. An example of impact on these fragile environments was shown in the case of the "Sea Empress" oil tanker, which ran aground in the Bristol Channel in 1996, spilling 72,000 tons of "Forties" crude oil. The objective was to investigate the sub-lethal cellular pathology and tissue hydrocarbon contamination in marine mussel populations, 4 months after the initial spill, using the neutral red retention (NRR) assay for lysosomal stability in blood cells. NRR was reduced in mussels, and indicative of cell injury, from the two sites closest to the spill in comparison with more distant and reference sites. Lysosomal stability was inversely correlated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in mussel tissues. Reduced lysosomal stability has previously been shown to contribute to impaired immunocompetence and to autophagic loss of body tissues. The use of this type of technique is discussed in the context of cost-effective, ecotoxicological tools for Integrated Coastal Zone Management.

  7. Static magnetic fields affect capillary flow of red blood cells in striated skin muscle.

    PubMed

    Brix, Gunnar; Strieth, Sebastian; Strelczyk, Donata; Dellian, Marc; Griebel, Jürgen; Eichhorn, Martin E; Andrā, Wilfried; Bellemann, Matthias E

    2008-01-01

    Blood flowing in microvessels is one possible site of action of static magnetic fields (SMFs). We evaluated SMF effects on capillary flow of red blood cells (RBCs) in unanesthetized hamsters, using a skinfold chamber technique for intravital fluorescence microscopy. By this approach, capillary RBC velocities (v(RBC)), capillary diameters (D), arteriolar diameters (D(art)), and functional vessel densities (FVD) were measured in striated skin muscle at different magnetic flux densities. Exposure above a threshold level of about 500 mT resulted in a significant (P < 0.001) reduction of v(RBC) in capillaries as compared to the baseline value. At the maximum field strength of 587 mT, v(RBC) was reduced by more than 40%. Flow reduction was reversible when the field strength was decreased below the threshold level. In contrast, mean values determined at different exposure levels for the parameters D, D(art), and FVD did not vary by more than 5%. Blood flow through capillary networks is affected by strong SMFs directed perpendicular to the vessels. Since the influence of SMFs on blood flow in microvessels directed parallel to the field as well as on collateral blood supply could not be studied, our findings should be carefully interpreted with respect to the setting of safety guidelines.

  8. Properties of oil/water emulsions affecting the deposition, clearance, and after-feel sensory perception of oral coatings.

    PubMed

    Camacho, Sara; den Hollander, Elyn; van de Velde, Fred; Stieger, Markus

    2015-03-04

    The aims of this study were to investigate the influence of (i) protein type, (ii) protein content, and (iii) viscosity of o/w emulsions on the deposition and clearance of oral oil coatings and after-feel perception. Oil fraction (m(oil)/cm(2)(tongue)) and after-feel perception differed considerably between emulsions which do not flocculate under in mouth conditions (Na-caseinate) and emulsions which flocculate under in mouth conditions (lysozyme). The irreversible flocculation of lysozyme stabilized emulsions caused slower oil clearance from the tongue surface compared to emulsions stabilized with Na-caseinate. Protein content had a negative relation with oil fraction for lysozyme stabilized emulsions and no relation for Na-caseinate stabilized emulsions immediately after expectoration. Viscosity differences did not affect oil fraction, although the presence of thickener decreased deposition of oil on tongue. We conclude that after-feel perception of o/w emulsions is complex and depends on the deposited oil fraction, the behavior of proteins in mouth, and thickeners.

  9. A High-Fat Diet Differentially Affects the Gut Metabolism and Blood Lipids of Rats Depending on the Type of Dietary Fat and Carbohydrate

    PubMed Central

    Jurgoński, Adam; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Zduńczyk, Zenon

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this model study was to investigate how selected gut functions and serum lipid profile in rats on high-fat diets differed according to the type of fat (saturated vs. unsaturated) and carbohydrate (simple vs. complex). The experiment was conducted using 32 male Wistar rats distributed into 4 groups of 8 animals each. For 4 weeks, the animals were fed group-specific diets that were either rich in lard or soybean oil (16% of the diet) as the source of saturated or unsaturated fatty acids, respectively; further, each lard- and soybean oil-rich diet contained either fructose or corn starch (45.3% of the diet) as the source of simple or complex carbohydrates, respectively. Both dietary factors contributed to changes in the caecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations, especially to the butyrate concentration, which was higher in rats fed lard- and corn starch-rich diets compared to soybean oil- and fructose-rich diets, respectively. The lowest butyrate concentration was observed in rats fed the soybean oil- and fructose-rich diet. On the other hand, the lard- and fructose-rich diet vs. the other dietary combinations significantly increased serum total cholesterol concentration, to more than two times serum triglyceride concentration and to more than five times the atherogenic index. In conclusion, a high-fat diet rich in fructose can unfavorably affect gut metabolism when unsaturated fats are predominant in the diet or the blood lipids when a diet is rich in saturated fats. PMID:24496299

  10. A high-fat diet differentially affects the gut metabolism and blood lipids of rats depending on the type of dietary fat and carbohydrate.

    PubMed

    Jurgoński, Adam; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Zduńczyk, Zenon

    2014-02-03

    The aim of this model study was to investigate how selected gut functions and serum lipid profile in rats on high-fat diets differed according to the type of fat (saturated vs. unsaturated) and carbohydrate (simple vs. complex). The experiment was conducted using 32 male Wistar rats distributed into 4 groups of 8 animals each. For 4 weeks, the animals were fed group-specific diets that were either rich in lard or soybean oil (16% of the diet) as the source of saturated or unsaturated fatty acids, respectively; further, each lard- and soybean oil-rich diet contained either fructose or corn starch (45.3% of the diet) as the source of simple or complex carbohydrates, respectively. Both dietary factors contributed to changes in the caecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations, especially to the butyrate concentration, which was higher in rats fed lard- and corn starch-rich diets compared to soybean oil- and fructose-rich diets, respectively. The lowest butyrate concentration was observed in rats fed the soybean oil- and fructose-rich diet. On the other hand, the lard- and fructose-rich diet vs. the other dietary combinations significantly increased serum total cholesterol concentration, to more than two times serum triglyceride concentration and to more than five times the atherogenic index. In conclusion, a high-fat diet rich in fructose can unfavorably affect gut metabolism when unsaturated fats are predominant in the diet or the blood lipids when a diet is rich in saturated fats.

  11. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) detection, avoidance, and chemosensory effects of oil sands process-affected water.

    PubMed

    Lari, Ebrahim; Pyle, Greg G

    2017-06-01

    Oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) - a byproduct of the oil sands industry in Northern Alberta, Canada - is currently stored in on-site tailings ponds. The goal of the present study was to investigate the interaction of OSPW with the olfactory system and olfactory-mediated behaviours of fish upon the first encounter with OSPW. The response of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to different concentrations (0.1, 1, and 10%) of OSPW was studied using a choice maze and electro-olfactography (EOG), respectively. The results of the present study showed that rainbow trout are capable of detecting and avoiding OSPW at a concentration as low as 0.1%. Exposure to 1% OSPW impaired (i.e. reduced sensitivity) the olfactory response of rainbow trout to alarm and food cues within 5 min or less. The results of the present study demonstrated that fish could detect and avoid minute concentrations of OSPW. However, if fish were exposed to OSPW-contaminated water and unable to escape, their olfaction would be impaired. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Homogenization conditions affect the oxidative stability of fish oil enriched milk emulsions: lipid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Let, Mette B; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Sørensen, Ann-Dorit M; Meyer, Anne S

    2007-03-07

    In this study fish oil was incorporated into commercial homogenized milk using different homogenization temperatures and pressures. The main aim was to understand the significance of homogenization temperature and pressure on the oxidative stability of the resulting milks. Increasing homogenization temperature from 50 to 72 degrees C decreased droplet size only slightly, whereas a pressure increase from 5 to 22.5 MPa decreased droplet size significantly. Surprisingly, emulsions having small droplets, and therefore large interfacial area, were less oxidized than emulsions having bigger droplets. Emulsions with similar droplet size distributions, but resulting from different homogenization conditions, had significantly different oxidative stabilities, indicating that properties of significance to oxidation other than droplet size itself were affected by the different treatments. In general, homogenization at 72 degrees C appeared to induce protective effects against oxidation as compared to homogenization at 50 degrees C. The results thus indicated that the actual composition of the oil-water interface is more important than total surface area itself.

  13. Solar photocatalytic degradation of naphthenic acids in oil sands process-affected water.

    PubMed

    Leshuk, Tim; Wong, Timothy; Linley, Stuart; Peru, Kerry M; Headley, John V; Gu, Frank

    2016-02-01

    Bitumen mining in the Canadian oil sands creates large volumes of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW), the toxicity of which is due in part to naphthenic acids (NAs) and other acid extractable organics (AEO). The objective of this work was to evaluate the potential of solar photocatalysis over TiO2 to remove AEO from OSPW. One day of photocatalytic treatment under natural sunlight (25 MJ/m(2) over ∼14 h daylight) eradicated AEO from raw OSPW, and acute toxicity of the OSPW toward Vibrio fischeri was eliminated. Nearly complete mineralization of organic carbon was achieved within 1-7 day equivalents of sunlight exposure, and degradation was shown to proceed through a superoxide-mediated oxidation pathway. High resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) analysis of oxidized intermediate compounds indicated preferential degradation of the heavier and more cyclic NAs (higher number of double bond equivalents), which are the most environmentally persistent fractions. The photocatalyst was shown to be recyclable for multiple uses, and thus solar photocatalysis may be a promising "green" advanced oxidation process (AOP) for OSPW treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Petroleum coke adsorption as a water management option for oil sands process-affected water.

    PubMed

    Zubot, Warren; MacKinnon, Michael D; Chelme-Ayala, Pamela; Smith, Daniel W; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2012-06-15

    Water is integral to both operational and environmental aspects of the oil sands industry. A water treatment option based on the use of petroleum coke (PC), a by-product of bitumen upgrading, was examined as an opportunity to reduce site oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) inventories and net raw water demand. Changes in OSPW quality when treated with PC included increments in pH levels and concentrations of vanadium, molybdenum, and sulphate. Constituents that decreased in concentration after PC adsorption included total acid-extractable organics (TAO), bicarbonate, calcium, barium, magnesium, and strontium. Changes in naphthenic acids (NAs) speciation were observed after PC adsorption. A battery of bioassays was used to measure the OSPW toxicity. The results indicated that untreated OSPW was toxic towards Vibrio fischeri and rainbow trout. However, OSPW treated with PC at appropriate dosages was not acutely toxic towards these test organisms. Removal of TAO was found to be an adsorption process, fitting the Langmuir and Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm models. For TAO concentrations of 60 mg/L, adsorption capacities ranged between 0.1 and 0.46 mg/g. This study demonstrates that freshly produced PC from fluid cokers provides an effective treatment of OSPW in terms of key constituents' removal and toxicity reduction.

  15. Power generation and oil sands process-affected water treatment in microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeongdong; Liu, Yang

    2014-10-01

    Oil sands process-affected water (OSPW), a product of bitumen isolation in the oil sands industry, is a source of pollution if not properly treated. In present study, OSPW treatment and voltage generation were examined in a single chamber air-cathode microbial fuel cell (MFC) under the effect of inoculated carbon source and temperature. OSPW treatment with an anaerobic sludge-inoculated MFC (AS-MFC) generated 0.55 ± 0.025 V, whereas an MFC inoculated with mature-fine tailings (MFT-MFC) generated 0.41 ± 0.01 V. An additional carbon source (acetate) significantly improved generated voltage. The voltage detected increased to 20-23% in MFCs when the condition was switched from ambient to mesophilic. The mesophilic condition increased OSPW treatment efficiency in terms of lowering the chemical oxygen demand and acid-extractable organics. Pyrosequencing analysis of microbial consortia revealed that Proteobacteria were the most abundant in MFCs and microbial communities in the AS-MFC were more diverse than those in the MFT-MFC.

  16. Blood pressure and serum lipids from SHR after diets supplemented with evening primrose, sunflowerseed or fish oil.

    PubMed

    Singer, P; Moritz, V; Wirth, M; Berger, I; Forster, D

    1990-05-01

    Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) at 4 weeks of age were fed a diet supplemented with sunflowerseed oil (SO), evening primrose oil (EPO), fish oil (FO) or EPO + FO for 22 weeks. A diet with commercially available pellets served as control. Systolic blood pressure was significantly lower during and after FO, EPO and EPO + FO, whereas the lower level after SO was not significant when compared with the controls. Serum triglycerides and total cholesterol were lowest after EPO followed FO. The combination of both EPO and FO resulted in unexpected high values of triglycerides and cholesterol. HDL-cholesterol was likewise highest after EPO + FO. The results indicate a quantitatively different depression of blood pressure and serum lipids from SHR by individual polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA).

  17. Tea tree oil exhibits antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea by affecting mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Li, Yonghua; Shao, Xingfeng; Xu, Jiayu; Wei, Yingying; Xu, Feng; Wang, Hongfei

    2017-11-01

    In order to investigate the effects of tea tree oil (TTO) on mitochondrial morphology and function in Botrytis cinerea, mycelia were treated with TTO at different concentrations. TTO at 2ml/l severely damaged mitochondria, resulting in matrix loss and increased mitochondrial irregularity. Mitochondrial membrane permeability was increased by TTO, as evidenced by a decrease in intracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content and an increase in extracellular ATP content. Increasing concentrations of TTO decreased the activities of enzymes related to mitochondrial function and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, affecting malic dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, ATPase, citrate synthetase, isocitrate dehydrogenase and α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, while sharply increasing the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS). These results suggest that mitochondrial damage, resulting in the disruption of the TCA cycle and accumulation of ROS, is involved in the mechanism of TTO antifungal activity against B. cinerea. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cheek cell fatty acids reflect n-3 PUFA in blood fractions during linseed oil supplementation: a controlled human intervention study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Adequate biomarkers for the dietary supply of fatty acids (FA) are FA of adipose tissue and blood fractions. In human studies, invasive sample collection is unpleasant for subjects. In contrast, cheek cell sampling can be considered as a non-invasive alternative to investigate FA status. The aim of this study was to analyze whether cheek cell FA composition reflect the supplementation of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) using a linseed oil mixture compared to olive oil supplementation. Additionally, it was investigated if cheek cell FA composition correlates with the FA composition of plasma, red blood cells (RBC) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) before and during both interventions. Methods During a 10-week randomized, controlled, double-blind human intervention study, 38 subjects provided cheek cell and blood samples. After a two-week run-in period, the test group (n = 23) received 17 g/d of an ALA-rich linseed oil mixture, while the control group (n = 15) received 17 g/d of an omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated FA (PUFA)-free olive oil. Cheek cells and blood were collected on days 0, 7 and 56 of the 8-week intervention period. Results Compared to olive oil, the linseed oil intervention increased ALA and also the endogenously converted long-chain n-3 metabolites eicosatetraenoic-, eicosapentaenoic- and docosapentaenoic acid in cheek cells (P ≤ 0.05). Docosahexaenoic acid remained unchanged. Reflecting the treatment, the n-6/n-3 ratio decreased in the test group. In general, cheek cell FA reflected the changes of FA in blood fractions. Independent of treatment, significant correlations (P ≤ 0.05) of n-6 PUFA and n-3 PUFA between cheek cells and plasma, RBC and PBMC were found, except for linoleic acid and ALA. Conclusions The changes in FA composition of cheek cells confirmed that ALA from linseed oil increased endogenously derived n-3 PUFA in cheek cell lipids. These changes in cheek cells and their correlation to the respective

  19. Cheek cell fatty acids reflect n-3 PUFA in blood fractions during linseed oil supplementation: a controlled human intervention study.

    PubMed

    Grindel, Annemarie; Staps, Frank; Kuhnt, Katrin

    2013-11-14

    Adequate biomarkers for the dietary supply of fatty acids (FA) are FA of adipose tissue and blood fractions. In human studies, invasive sample collection is unpleasant for subjects. In contrast, cheek cell sampling can be considered as a non-invasive alternative to investigate FA status.The aim of this study was to analyze whether cheek cell FA composition reflect the supplementation of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) using a linseed oil mixture compared to olive oil supplementation. Additionally, it was investigated if cheek cell FA composition correlates with the FA composition of plasma, red blood cells (RBC) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) before and during both interventions. During a 10-week randomized, controlled, double-blind human intervention study, 38 subjects provided cheek cell and blood samples. After a two-week run-in period, the test group (n = 23) received 17 g/d of an ALA-rich linseed oil mixture, while the control group (n = 15) received 17 g/d of an omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated FA (PUFA)-free olive oil. Cheek cells and blood were collected on days 0, 7 and 56 of the 8-week intervention period. Compared to olive oil, the linseed oil intervention increased ALA and also the endogenously converted long-chain n-3 metabolites eicosatetraenoic-, eicosapentaenoic- and docosapentaenoic acid in cheek cells (P ≤ 0.05). Docosahexaenoic acid remained unchanged. Reflecting the treatment, the n-6/n-3 ratio decreased in the test group. In general, cheek cell FA reflected the changes of FA in blood fractions. Independent of treatment, significant correlations (P ≤ 0.05) of n-6 PUFA and n-3 PUFA between cheek cells and plasma, RBC and PBMC were found, except for linoleic acid and ALA. The changes in FA composition of cheek cells confirmed that ALA from linseed oil increased endogenously derived n-3 PUFA in cheek cell lipids. These changes in cheek cells and their correlation to the respective FA in blood fractions indicate the cheek

  20. Restoration of soils affected by oil exploitation activities based in functional diversity studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villacis, Jaime; Casanoves, Fernando; Hang, Susana; Armas, Cristina

    2017-04-01

    The functional characteristics of 25 forest species used in the restoration of areas affected by oil extraction activities were determined and species functional groups were constructed. Subsequently, the functional characteristics of the groups were related with performance variables of the species obtained in complementary studies, to make use recommendations. Three functional groups of species with similar responses and / or performance were characterized that showed significant differences between them for quantitative and qualitative traits. The first group formed by all shrubs and the rest of trees, most do not fix nitrogen, have single leaves and all species are evergreen and characterized by having lower values of specific foliar area, foliar nitrogen, dry matter leaf content and wood density, was denominated as intermediate acquisitions. The second group composed only for trees that do not fix nitrogen and with deciduous leaves and characterized by having the highest values of dry matter leaf content and foliar tensile force and intermediate values of specific foliar area and foliar nitrogen, was denominated as low conservative. Finally the third group formed only by trees that fix nitrogen, composed of leaves and mostly evergreen and characterized by having higher values of specific foliar area, foliar nitrogen, foliar phosphorus and lower foliar tensile force, was denominated as acquisitive. The intermediary acquisitions species Apeiba membranacea, Myrcia aff. fallax and Zygia longifolia, and the acquisitive species Cedrelinga cateniformis, Inga densiflora, Myroxylon balsamum, Piptadenia pteroclada and Platymiscium pinnatum, which showed excellent performance in nursery and / or field, represent the most suitable species to be used in reforestation programs of the sites affected by oil extraction activities in the Amazon region of Ecuador, because they have greater potential to protect soil and recycle nutrients in the initial stages of planting.

  1. Differences in blood haptoglobin and length-mass relationships in river otters (Lutra canadensis) from oiled and nonoiled areas of Prince William Sound, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Duffy, L K; Bowyer, R T; Testa, J W; Faro, J B

    1993-04-01

    Significant differences in levels of blood haptoglobin occurred between river otters (Lutra canadensis) inhabiting oiled (mean = 361 mg/100 ml, SD = 38, n = 6) and nonoiled (mean = 306 mg/100 ml, SD = 87, n = 8) areas of Prince William Sound, Alaska (USA) following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989. Additionally, male river otters from oiled areas had significantly lower body mass (1.13 kg) than male otters from nonoiled areas. We propose oil-related causes for these differences.

  2. Differences in blood haptoglobin and length-mass relationships in river otters (Lutra canadensis) from oiled and nonoiled areas of Prince William Sound, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Duffy, L.K.; Bowyer, R.T.; Testa, J.W.; Faro, J.B. )

    1993-04-01

    Significant differences in levels of blood haptoglobin occurred between river otters (Lutra canadensis) inhabiting oiled (mean = 361 mg/100 ml, SD = 38, n = 6) and nonoiled (mean = 306 mg/100 ml, SD = 87, n = 8) areas of Prince William Sound, Alaska (USA) following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989. Additionally, male river otters from oiled areas had significantly lower body mass (1.13 kg) than male otters from nonoiled areas. We propose oil-related causes for these differences.

  3. Essential oils from clove affect growth of Penicillium species obtained from lemons.

    PubMed

    Martínez, J A; González, R

    2013-01-01

    Continuous use of fungicides to control citrus postharvest diseases has led to increasing resistant strains of pathogens. Since the appearance of fungicide resistance has become an important factor in limiting the efficacy fungicide treatments, new studies have been needed in order to improve control methods. There is a growing consumer's concern about the possible harmful effects of synthetic fungicides on the human health and the environment. Alternatives to synthetic fungicides for citrus decay control include essential oils. These compounds are known for their natural components and they are searched for potential bioactive plant extracts against fungi. In this study, two isolates of P. digitatum and P. italicum each were collected from lemon fruits affected by green and blue mould, respectively. Isolates were purified in potato dextrose agar (PDA) in order to separate the two species which we are demonstrated that they commonly grow together in nature. In vitro assays, in which isolates were grown at 26 degrees C on Petri dishes containing PDA for up to 17 days, were carried out by pouring several doses of essential oils from clove (Syzygium aromaticum L.) on PDA to obtain the following concentrations (v/v): 1.6; 8, 40, 200 and 500 microL L(-1) + tween 80 (0.1 mL L(-1)). Mycelial growth curves and growth, conidiation, mass of aerial mycelium and conidial size were measured. Penicillium isolates showed a slight degree of variability in their growth kinetics, depending on the isolate. 500 microL L(-1) inhibited the growth of all the isolates, whereas concentrations lower than 40 microL L(-1) slightly increased the growth. 200 microL L(-1) reduced both growth and conidiation in all isolates. Aerial mycelium of P. digitatum was not affected by clove, whereas reduced the mass of mycelium of P. italicum at concentrations higher than 8 microL L(-1). In vivo experiment was carried out inoculating a drop of an extract of conidia with a hypodermal syringe though a

  4. Mapping of QTL affecting incidence of blood and meat inclusions in egg layers.

    PubMed

    Honkatukia, Mervi; Tuiskula-Haavisto, Maria; Ahola, Virpi; Uimari, Pekka; Schmutz, Matthias; Preisinger, Rudolf; Cavero, David; Vennerström, Pia; Arango, Jesus; O'Sullivan, Neil; Fulton, Janet; Vilkki, Johanna

    2011-06-13

    Occurrence of blood and meat inclusions is an internal egg quality defect. Mass candling reveals most of the spots, but because brown eggshell hampers selection in brown chicken lines it has not been possible to eliminate the defect by selection. Estimated frequency of blood and meat inclusions in brown layers is about 18% whereas it is 0.5% in white egg layers. Several factors are known to increase the incidence of this fault: genetic background, low level of vitamin A and/or D, stress or infections, for instance. To study the genetic background of the defect, a mapping population of 1599 F2 hens from a cross of White Rock and Rhode Island Red lines was set up. Our histopathological analyses show that blood spots consist of mainly erythrocytes and that meat spots are accumulations of necrotic material. Linkage analysis of 27 chromosomes with 162 microsatellite markers revealed one significant quantitative trait locus (QTL) affecting blood spot and meat spot frequency. We sequenced a fragment of a candidate gene within the region, ZO-2, coding for a tight junction protein. Nine polymorphisms were detected and two of them were included in fine-mapping and association analysis. Fine-mapping defined the QTL result. To further verify the QTL, association analyses were carried out in two independent commercial breeding lines with the marker MCW241 and surrounding SNPs. Association was found mainly in a 0.8 Mb-wide chromosomal area on GGAZ. There was good agreement between the location of the QTL region on chromosome Z and the association results in the commercial breeds analyzed. Variations found in tight junction protein ZO-2 and microRNA gga-mir-1556 may predispose egg layers to blood and meat spot defects. This paper describes the first results of detailed QTL analyses of the blood and meat spots trait(s) in chickens. © 2011 Honkatukia et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  5. Jugular venous pooling during lowering of the head affects blood pressure of the anesthetized giraffe.

    PubMed

    Brøndum, E; Hasenkam, J M; Secher, N H; Bertelsen, M F; Grøndahl, C; Petersen, K K; Buhl, R; Aalkjaer, C; Baandrup, U; Nygaard, H; Smerup, M; Stegmann, F; Sloth, E; Ostergaard, K H; Nissen, P; Runge, M; Pitsillides, K; Wang, T

    2009-10-01

    How blood flow and pressure to the giraffe's brain are regulated when drinking remains debated. We measured simultaneous blood flow, pressure, and cross-sectional area in the carotid artery and jugular vein of five anesthetized and spontaneously breathing giraffes. The giraffes were suspended in the upright position so that we could lower the head. In the upright position, mean arterial pressure (MAP) was 193 +/- 11 mmHg (mean +/- SE), carotid flow was 0.7 +/- 0.2 l/min, and carotid cross-sectional area was 0.85 +/- 0.04 cm(2). Central venous pressure (CVP) was 4 +/- 2 mmHg, jugular flow was 0.7 +/- 0.2 l/min, and jugular cross-sectional area was 0.14 +/- 0.04 cm(2) (n = 4). Carotid arterial and jugular venous pressures at head level were 118 +/- 9 and -7 +/- 4 mmHg, respectively. When the head was lowered, MAP decreased to 131 +/- 13 mmHg, while carotid cross-sectional area and flow remained unchanged. Cardiac output was reduced by 30%, CVP decreased to -1 +/- 2 mmHg (P < 0.01), and jugular flow ceased as the jugular cross-sectional area increased to 3.2 +/- 0.6 cm(2) (P < 0.01), corresponding to accumulation of approximately 1.2 l of blood in the veins. When the head was raised, the jugular veins collapsed and blood was returned to the central circulation, and CVP and cardiac output were restored. The results demonstrate that in the upright-positioned, anesthetized giraffe cerebral blood flow is governed by arterial pressure without support of a siphon mechanism and that when the head is lowered, blood accumulates in the vein, affecting MAP.

  6. Risk factors affecting blood PCDDs and PCDFs in residents living near an industrial incinerator in Korea.

    PubMed

    Leem, J H; Lee, D S; Kim, J

    2006-10-01

    The contamination sources of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), such as industrial incinerators, can potentially change the blood levels and isomer patterns of PCDD/DFs in residents living near the incinerators. In this study, we estimated whether the blood levels and isomer patterns of PCDD/DFs in residents living near an incinerator were affected by its presence and investigated factors that characterize the risk of high exposure to PCDD/DFs in the area. We estimated the blood levels and homologue patterns of PCDD/DFs in a group of 40 residents living within 5 km of an industrial incinerator and in a group of 20 residents living 20 km away from an incinerator. We cannot assert that the operation of incinerator facilities was only cause of increased PCDD/DFs in these residents; however, the operation of incinerator facilities in agricultural areas increased PCDD/DF exposure to individuals. The group living next to the industrial incinerator especially represented the typical isomer pattern in which the proportions of OCDDs were lower and those of PCDFs higher than those in the other groups. The high-risk population with increased blood levels of PCDD/DFs included those who had lived longer in the contaminated area as well as those who frequently ate contaminated foods.

  7. Leukocyte count affects expression of reference genes in canine whole blood samples

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The dog is frequently used as a model for hematologic human diseases. In this study the suitability of nine potential reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR studies in canine whole blood was investigated. Findings The expression of these genes was measured in whole blood samples of 263 individual dogs, representing 73 different breeds and a group of 40 mixed breed dogs, categorized into healthy dogs and dogs with internal and hematological diseases, and dogs that underwent a surgical procedure. GeNorm analysis revealed that a combination of 5 to 6 of the most stably expressed genes constituted a stable normalizing factor. Evaluation of the expression revealed different ranking of reference genes in Normfinder and GeNorm. The disease category and the white blood cell count significantly affected reference gene expression. Conclusions The discrepancy between the ranking of reference genes in this study by Normfinder and Genorm can be explained by differences between the experimental groups such as "disease category" and "WBC count". This stresses the importance of assessing the expression stability of potential reference genes for gene experiments in canine whole blood anew for each specific experimental condition. PMID:21303565

  8. Stress and chewing affect blood flow and oxygen levels in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Shinjiro; Wada-Takahashi, Satoko; Honda, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Shun-Suke; Sasaguri, Kenichi; Sato, Sadao; Lee, Masaichi-Chang-Il

    2012-11-01

    Mastication, including chewing, would be of great importance not only for food intake, but also for the mental, physical and physiological functioning of the body. Our study showed that mastication, especially chewing, suppresses the stress response and was regarded as a biological response to defend against various stresses. Although mastication altered brain function during stress, the underlying mechanisms have not been elucidated. The effects of chewing during restraint stress on blood flow and oxygen partial pressure (PO(2)) levels in the rat amygdala and hypothalamus were measured using laser Doppler flowmetry and O(2)-selective electrodes. Amygdaloidal and hypothalamic blood flow were not affected by restraint stress, but PO(2) levels were significantly reduced by restraint stress for 180 min compared to unrestrained control rats. The decrease in amygdaloidal and hypothalamic PO(2) levels during restraint stress was reduced after chewing for 30 min. These results suggested that it is possible to evaluate hypothalamic and amygdaloidal blood flow and PO(2) levels in rat brains during restraint stress. Restraint stress reduced cerebral PO(2) levels. In addition, chewing would lead to increased blood flow and to recover cerebral PO(2) levels. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The structural and functional effects of fine particulate matter from cooking oil fumes on rat umbilical cord blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaoxia; Hou, Lijuan; Zhang, Jian; Yao, Cijiang; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Chao; Xu, Yachun; Cao, Jiyu

    2016-08-01

    A growing body of epidemiological evidence has supported the association between maternal exposure to airborne fine particulate matter (PM2.5) during pregnancy and adverse pregnancy outcomes. However, the specific biological mechanisms implicated in the causes of adverse pregnancy outcomes are not well defined. In this study, a pregnant rat model of exposure to different doses of cooking oil fumes (COFs)-derived PM2.5 by tail intravenous injection in different pregnant stages was established. The results indicated that exposure to COFs-derived PM2.5 was associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, changed the structure of umbilical cord blood vessels, decreased the diameter and lumen area, and increased wall thickness. What's more, a significant increase of maximum contraction tension was observed in the early pregnancy high-dose exposure group and pregnant low-dose exposure group compared to the control group. Based on the maximum contraction tension, acetylcholine (ACh) did not induce vasodilation but caused a dose-dependent constriction, and there were significant differences in the two groups compared to the control group. Exposure to COFs-derived PM2.5 impaired the vasomotor function of umbilical veins by affecting the expression of NO and ET-1. This is the first study that evaluated the association of risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes and pregnant rats exposed to COFs-derived PM2.5 and primarily explored the potential mechanisms of umbilical cord blood vessels injury on a rat model. More detailed vitro and vivo studies are needed to further explore the mechanism in the future.

  10. Sex and storage affect cholinesterase activity in blood plasma of Japanese quail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, E.F.

    1989-01-01

    Freezing at -25?C had confounding effects on cholinesterase (ChE) activity in blood plasma from breeding female quail, but did not affect ChE activity in plasma from males. Plasma ChE activity of control females increased consistently during 28 days of storage while both carbamate- and cidrotophos-inhibited ChE decreased. Refrigeration of plasma at 4?C for 2 days had little effect of ChE activity. Plasma ChE activity was averaged about 34% higher in breeding males than in females. Extreme caution should be exercised in use of blood plasma for evaluation of anti ChE exposure in free-living birds.

  11. Lagrangian methods for blood damage estimation in cardiovascular devices - How numerical implementation affects the results

    PubMed Central

    Marom, Gil; Bluestein, Danny

    2016-01-01

    Summary This paper evaluated the influence of various numerical implementation assumptions on predicting blood damage in cardiovascular devices using Lagrangian methods with Eulerian computational fluid dynamics. The implementation assumptions that were tested included various seeding patterns, stochastic walk model, and simplified trajectory calculations with pathlines. Post processing implementation options that were evaluated included single passage and repeated passages stress accumulation and time averaging. This study demonstrated that the implementation assumptions can significantly affect the resulting stress accumulation, i.e., the blood damage model predictions. Careful considerations should be taken in the use of Lagrangian models. Ultimately, the appropriate assumptions should be considered based the physics of the specific case and sensitivity analysis, similar to the ones presented here, should be employed. PMID:26679833

  12. Lagrangian methods for blood damage estimation in cardiovascular devices--How numerical implementation affects the results.

    PubMed

    Marom, Gil; Bluestein, Danny

    2016-01-01

    This paper evaluated the influence of various numerical implementation assumptions on predicting blood damage in cardiovascular devices using Lagrangian methods with Eulerian computational fluid dynamics. The implementation assumptions that were tested included various seeding patterns, stochastic walk model, and simplified trajectory calculations with pathlines. Post processing implementation options that were evaluated included single passage and repeated passages stress accumulation and time averaging. This study demonstrated that the implementation assumptions can significantly affect the resulting stress accumulation, i.e., the blood damage model predictions. Careful considerations should be taken in the use of Lagrangian models. Ultimately, the appropriate assumptions should be considered based the physics of the specific case and sensitivity analysis, similar to the ones presented here, should be employed.

  13. Hydrodistillation time affects dill seed essential oil yield, composition, and bioactivity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dill (Anethum graveolens L.) essential oil is widely used by the food and pharmaceutical industries. We hypothesized that the chemical constituents of dill seed essential oil are eluted at different times during the hydrodistillation process, resulting in oils with different composition and bioactiv...

  14. L-propionylcarnitine increases postischemic blood flow but does not affect recovery of energy charge.

    PubMed

    Sassen, L M; Bezstarosti, K; Van der Giessen, W J; Lamers, J M; Verdouw, P D

    1991-07-01

    Effects of pretreatment with L-propionylcarnitine (50 mg/kg, n = 9) or saline (n = 10) were studied in open-chest anesthetized pigs, in which ischemia was induced by decreasing left anterior descending coronary artery blood flow to 20% of baseline. After 60 min of ischemia, myocardium was reperfused for 2 h. In both groups, flow reduction abolished contractile function of the affected myocardium and caused similar decreases in ATP (by 55%) and energy charge [(ATP + 0.5ADP)/(ATP + ADP + AMP); decrease from 0.91 to 0.60], mean arterial blood pressure (by 10-24%), the maximum rate of rise in left ventricular pressure (by 26-32%), and cardiac output (by 20-30%). During reperfusion, "no-reflow" was attenuated by L-propionylcarnitine, because myocardial blood flow returned to 61 and 82% of baseline in the saline- and L-propionylcarnitine-treated animals, respectively. Cardiac output of the saline-treated animals further decreased (to 52% of baseline), and systemic vascular resistance increased from 46 +/- 3 to 61 +/- 9 mmHg.min.l-1, thereby maintaining arterial blood pressure. In L-propionylcarnitine-treated pigs, cardiac output remained at 75% of baseline, and systemic vascular resistance decreased from 42 +/- 3 to 38 +/- 4 mmHg.min.l-1. In both groups, energy charge but not the ATP level of the ischemic-reperfused myocardium tended to recover, whereas the creatine phosphate level showed significantly more recovery in saline-treated animals. We conclude that L-propionylcarnitine partially preserved vascular patency in ischemic-reperfused porcine myocardium but had no immediate effect on "myocardial stunning." Potential markers for long-term recovery were not affected by L-propionylcarnitine.

  15. Effects of Clove Oil as a Euthanasia Agent on Blood Collection Efficiency and Serum Cortisol Levels in Danio rerio.

    PubMed

    Davis, Daniel J; Klug, Jenna; Hankins, Miriam; Doerr, Holly M; Monticelli, Stephanie R; Song, Ava; Gillespie, Catherine H; Bryda, Elizabeth C

    2015-09-01

    Zebrafish are an important laboratory animal model for biomedical research and are increasingly being used for behavioral neuroscience. Tricaine methanesulfonate (MS222) is the standard agent used for euthanasia of zebrafish. However, recent studies of zebrafish behavior suggest that MS222 may be aversive, and clove oil might be a possible alternative. In this study, we compared the effects of MS222 or clove oil as a euthanasia agent in zebrafish on the volume of blood collected and on serum levels of cortisol. Greater amounts of serum could be collected and lower serum levels of cortisol were present in fish euthanized with clove oil compared with equipotent dose of MS222. Euthanasia with clove oil did not blunt the expected elevation of serum cortisol levels elicited by an acute premortem stress. According to our findings, clove oil is a fast-acting agent that minimizes the cortisol response to euthanasia in zebrafish and allows the collection of large volumes of blood postmortem. These results represent a significant refinement in euthanasia methods for zebrafish.

  16. Sub-inhibitory stress with essential oil affects enterotoxins production and essential oil susceptibility in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Turchi, Barbara; Mancini, Simone; Pistelli, Luisa; Najar, Basma; Cerri, Domenico; Fratini, Filippo

    2017-06-08

    Fourteen wild strains of Staphylococcus aureus positive for gene sea were tested for enterotoxins production and the minimum inhibitory concentration of Leptospermum scoparium, Origanum majorana, Origanum vulgare, Satureja montana and Thymus vulgaris essential oils (EOs) were determined. After this trial, bacteria stressed with sub-inhibitory concentration of each EO were tested for enterotoxins production by an immunoenzymatic assay and resistance to the same EO. Oregano oil exhibited the highest antibacterial activity followed by manuka and thyme oils. After the exposure to a sub-inhibitory concentration of EOs, strains displayed an increased sensitivity in more than 95% of the cases. After treatment with oregano and marjoram EOs, few strains showed a modified enterotoxins production, while 43% of the strains were no longer able to produce enterotoxins after treatment with manuka EO. The results obtained in this study highlight that exposure to sub-inhibitory concentration of EO modifies strains enterotoxins production and EOs susceptibility profile.

  17. Effects of dietary supplemental fish oil during the peripartum period on blood metabolites and hepatic fatty acid compositions and total triacylglycerol concentrations of multiparous Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Ballou, M A; Gomes, R C; Juchem, S O; DePeters, E J

    2009-02-01

    The objectives were to evaluate the effects of dietary fish oil on plasma metabolite, hepatic fatty acid composition, and total triacylglycerol concentrations. Multiparous Holstein cows (n = 42) were completely randomized to 1 of 3 treatments at 3 wk prepartum. Treatments were no supplemental lipid or supplemental lipid from either Energy Booster (Milk Specialties Co., Dundee, IL) or fish oil. Treatment diets were fed from -21 d relative to expected date of parturition until 10 d postpartum. Treatments were fed as a bolus before the a.m. feeding. The dose of lipid fed during the prepartum period was 250 g, whereas approximately 0.92% of the previous day's dry matter intake was supplemented postpartum. Blood was collected 3 times weekly for determination of plasma metabolites. Liver biopsies were performed at 21 and 10 d before expected date of parturition and 1 and 14 d after parturition to determine fatty acid compositions and total triacylglycerol concentrations. Dry matter intake, milk yield, and loss of body weight or body condition score were not affected by supplementing the diet with lipid or by the source of lipid. Supplemental lipid tended to increase plasma glucose and decrease nonesterified fatty acids during the postpartum period. Furthermore, plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate was reduced during the postpartum period in the lipid-supplemented treatments. However, source of supplemental lipid had no influence on any blood metabolite. Supplemental fish oil altered the fatty acid composition of liver phospholipids and triacylglycerols, decreasing total saturated fatty acids and increasing total n-3 and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (>20 carbon fatty acids). Despite the altered fatty acid composition, hepatic total triacylglycerol concentrations were unaffected by supplemental fish oil. Furthermore, the improved metabolic profile following lipid supplementation did not decrease hepatic total triacylglycerol concentrations.

  18. Blood pressure-lowering effects of long chain n-3 fatty acids from meals enriched with liquid fish oil and from microencapsulated powder.

    PubMed

    Sveinsdottir, Kolbrun; Martinsdottir, Emilia; Ramel, Alfons

    2016-12-01

    Diet plays an important role in the etiology of hypertension. Blood pressure (BP)-lowering properties of long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) are promising. The aim was to investigate whether different formulations of fish oil differently affect blood pressure in community-dwelling adults. The hypothesis was that fish oil formulations would improve BP in comparison with a placebo. In this 4-week randomized, placebo-controlled, doubly-blinded dietary intervention study, participants (N = 99, >50 years) from the capital area of Iceland were randomized into three groups. Group 1 (n = 38) received 6 meals/week fortified with a liquid fish oil and placebo powder. Group 2 (n = 30) received conventional (unfortified) meals and microencapsulated powder. Group 3 (n = 31) was the control group which received conventional meals and placebo powder. Calculated on a weekly basis, the amount of EPA + DHA provided was 1.5 g/d. Systolic (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) were measured before and after the intervention period. Seventy-seven subjects finished the study (77.8%). Drop-out rates were not different between groups. According to multivariate statistics, endpoint SBP was lower in Group 1 (-7.0 mmHg, p = 0.037) and in Group 2 (-7.2 mmHg, p = 0.037) as compared with Group 3. There was no significant difference in DBP between the groups. Our study shows that LC n-3 PUFA from microencapsulated powder are equally effective to meaningfully reduce SBP as LC n-3 PUFA from meals enriched with liquid fish oil in comparison with a control group.

  19. MORTALITY DURING TREATMENT: FACTORS AFFECTING THE SURVIVAL OF OILED, REHABILITATED COMMON MURRES (URIA AALGE).

    PubMed

    Duerr, Rebecca S; Ziccardi, Michael H; Massey, J Gregory

    2016-07-01

    After major oil spills, hundreds to thousands of live stranded birds enter rehabilitative care. To target aspects of rehabilitative efforts for improvement and to evaluate which initial physical examination and biomedical parameters most effectively predict survival to release, medical records were examined from 913 Common Murres ( Uria aalge ; COMUs) oiled during the November 2001-January 2003 oil spill associated with the sunken S.S. Jacob Luckenbach off San Francisco, California, US. Results showed that 52% of all deaths occurred during the first 2 days of treatment. Birds stranding closest to the wreck had greater amounts of oil on their bodies than birds stranding farther away. More heavily oiled birds were in better clinical condition than birds with lesser amounts of oil, as shown by higher body mass (BM), packed cell volumes (PCV), total plasma protein (TP), and higher survival proportions. Additionally, BM, PCV, TP, and body temperature were positively correlated. For comparison, medical records from all nonoiled COMUs admitted for rehabilitation at the same facility during 2007-09 (n=468) were examined, and these variables were also found to be positively correlated. Oiled birds with BM under 750 g had approximately 5% lower PCV than BM-matched nonoiled COMUs. More heavily oiled COMUs may be in better condition than less oiled birds because heavily oiled birds must beach themselves immediately to avoid drowning and hypothermia, whereas lightly oiled birds may postpone beaching until exhausted due to extreme body catabolism. The strong relationship of PCV to BM regardless of oiling provides evidence that anemia commonly encountered in oiled seabirds may be a sequela to overall loss of body condition rather than solely due to toxic effects of oiling. Clinical information garnered in this study provides guidance for triage decisions during oil spills.

  20. Screening of genotoxicity and mutagenicity in extractable organics from oil sands process-affected water.

    PubMed

    Zetouni, Nikolas C; Siraki, Arno G; Weinfeld, Michael; Pereira, Alberto Dos Santos; Martin, Jonathan W

    2016-11-01

    Large volumes of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) are produced by the oil sands surface mining industry during alkaline hot-water extraction of bitumen. It is well documented that the acid extractable organics (AEOs) in OSPW, a highly complex mixture of acidic and polar neutral substances, are acutely toxic; but few studies have examined the genotoxicity or mutagenicity of this mixture. In the present study, the in vitro SOS Chromotest and the Ames test (TA98 and TA100 strains) were used to evaluate genotoxicity and mutagenicity for whole OSPW AEOs in the presence and absence of biotransformation by rat S9 liver enzymes. Two subfractions were also examined in the same assays: neutral extractable fraction (F1-NE), and the subsequent acid extractable fraction (F2-AE). In the SOS assay, whole AEO was cytotoxic when concentrated 2× (i.e., twice as concentrated as the environmental sample) and showed increasing genotoxic response above 6×. Co-exposure with S9 had a protective effect on the cell SOS-inducing factor and survival but did not eliminate genotoxicity above 6× concentrations. Most of the cytotoxicity was attributable to F2-AE, but both F1-NE and F2-AE had similar genotoxic dose-responses above 6×. In the Ames test without S9, whole AEO was mutagenic in both strains above 10× concentrations. Co-incubation with S9 had little effect on the TA100 strain but with TA98 resulted in bioactivation at midlevel doses (1.5-6.3×) and protection at higher doses (10-25×). The 2 subfractions were mutagenic in both strains but with different dose-responses. Further research in vivo or in more relevant cells is warranted to investigate the carcinogenic risks of OSPW. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;9999:1-8. © 2016 SETAC.

  1. Characterization of oil sands process-affected waters by liquid chromatography orbitrap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Alberto S; Bhattacharjee, Subir; Martin, Jonathan W

    2013-05-21

    Recovery of bitumen from oil sands in northern Alberta, Canada, occurs by surface mining or in situ thermal recovery, and both methods produce toxic oil sands process-affected water (OSPW). A new characterization strategy for surface mining OSPW (sm-OSPW) and in situ OSPW (is-OSPW) was achieved by combining liquid chromatography with orbitrap mass spectrometry (MS). In electrospray positive and negative ionization modes (ESI(+)/ESI(-)), mass spectral data were acquired with high resolving power (RP > 100,000-190,000) and mass accuracy (<2 ppm). The additional chromatographic resolution allowed for separation of various isomers and interference-free MS(n) experiments. Overall, ∼3000 elemental compositions were revealed in each OSPW sample, corresponding to a range of heteroatom-containing homologue classes: Ox (where x = 1-6), NOx (where x = 1-4), SOx (where x = 1-4), NO₂S, N, and S. Despite similarities between the OSPW samples at the level of heteroatom class, the two samples were very different when considering isomer patterns and double-bond equivalent profiles. The chromatographic separations also allowed for confirmation that, in both OSPW samples, the O₂ species detected in ESI(-) (i.e., naphthenic acids) were chemically distinct from the corresponding O₂ species detected in ESI(+). In comparison to model compounds, tandem MS spectra of these new O₂ species suggested a group of non-acidic compounds with dihydroxy, diketo, or ketohydroxy functionality. In light of the known endocrine-disrupting potential of sm-OSPW, the toxicity of these O₂ species deserves attention and the method should be further applied to environmental forensic analysis of water in the region.

  2. Magnetic Susceptibility Analysis of Soil Affected by Hydrocarbon in Wonocolo Traditional Oil Field, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulfah, Melianna; Wijatmoko, Bambang; Fitriani, Dini

    2017-04-01

    Magnetic susceptibility of soil affected by hydrocarbon was studied through cored soil samples in two zones (Zone One and Zone Two) of an oil field in Wonocolo Village, East Java. We also collected soil samples as the background from a residential area near the oil field (Zone Three). The Zone One, consisted two cores near producing well; the Zone Two consisted two cores obtained from near a dry hole well and a discontinued well; and the Zone Three consisted two cores to validate the initial soil magnetic susceptibility value in this area. The hydrocarbon content measurement was also done for the upper part of each cores using distillation method to identify the correlation between magnetic susceptibility and hydrocarbon content. From magnetic susceptibility measurement in dual frequency, samples from the Zone One and Zone Two have magnetic susceptibility range from 6,1 × 10-8 m3kg-1 - 160 × 10-8 m3kg-1 and 15,7 × 10-8 m3kg-1 - 417,9 × 10-8 m3kg-1, respectively. Whereas background samples from Zone Three have magnetic susceptibility range from 4,8 × 10-8 m3kg-1 to 81,1 × 10-8 m3kg-1. We found low χfd (%) in samples with high magnetic susceptibility values, shown that there was no indication of superparamagnetic minerals in the samples. The hydrocarbon content measurement shows the value range of 8% - 14% only exists in the upper part of all cores in Zone One and one core in Zone Two. From this analysis, we assume that other than the volume of the hydrocarbon content in soil, the period of petroleum hydrocarbon deposition in soil and the fossil fuel combustion generated in the study site could differently increase the soil magnetic susceptibility value in this area. Positive correlation between the two parameters hopefully could contribute to develop environmental magnetic methods for detecting oil spills in soil, especially to remediate former hydrocarbon exploration and production area.

  3. Comparing sediment quality in Spanish littoral areas affected by acute (Prestige, 2002) and chronic (Bay of Algeciras) oil spills.

    PubMed

    Morales-Caselles, C; Kalman, J; Riba, I; DelValls, T A

    2007-03-01

    The quality of sediments collected from two areas of the Spanish coast affected by different sources of contaminants has been compared in this study. The areas studied are the coast of Galicia affected by the oil spill from the tanker Prestige (November 2002) and the Gulf of Cádiz which suffers continuous inputs of contaminants from industries located in the area and from oil spills. Contamination by several chemicals (metals, PCBs and PAHs) that bind to sediments was analyzed, and two toxicity tests (Microtox) and amphipod 10-day bioassay) were conducted. PAHs were identified as the compounds responsible for the toxic effects. Results show differences between an acute impact related to the sinking of the tanker Prestige and the chronic impact associated with continuous oil spills associated with the maritime and industrial activities in the Bay of Algeciras, this being the most polluted part of the two coastal areas studied in this work.

  4. Vegetable oils used as vitamin E vehicle affect the electrical activity of the rat heart.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, S; Ayaz, M; Tuncer, T; Ugur, M; Turan, B

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study is to define the possible effects of vegetable oils used as vitamin E vehicle on the electrical activity of the rat heart. To test the possible effects of vitamin E vehicles we studied the effect of i.p. injected corn oil, hazelnut oil or peanut oil on the action potential parameters recorded in both papillary and left atrial muscle strips. Four experimental groups were used. The control group was injected (i.p.) with distilled water, while the three remaining groups received injections of corn oil, hazelnut oil, or peanut oil for five weeks (in a dose of 0.4 ml/kg/day--minimum amount of oil in which vitamin E could be dissolved). We used borosilicated (15-20 megaohms) capillary electrodes and intracellular action potentials (AP) were recorded in isolated papillary and left atrium muscle strips. While administration of three different types of vegetable oil had no significant effect on AP parameters of papillary muscle, they significantly prolonged the repolarization phase of AP in atrial strips. These results show that vegetable oils used as vitamin E vehicles may alter the electrical activity of the heart in a tissue-dependent manner. The present data indicate that the possible effect of vegetable oil vehicles should be kept in mind while evaluating the possible effects of in vivo vitamin E administration.

  5. Seed protein, oil, fatty acids, and minerals concentration as affected by foliar K-glyphosate application in soybean cultivars

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Previous studies showed that glyphosate (Gly) may chelate cation nutrients, including potassium (K), which might affect the nutritional status of soybean seed. The objective of this study was to evaluate seed composition (protein, oil, fatty acids, and minerals) as influenced by foliar applications ...

  6. 25OHD analogues and vacuum blood collection tubes dramatically affect the accuracy of automated immunoassays

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Songlin; Cheng, Xinqi; Fang, Huiling; Zhang, Ruiping; Han, Jianhua; Qin, Xuzhen; Cheng, Qian; Su, Wei; Hou, Li’an; Xia, Liangyu; Qiu, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Variations in vitamin D quantification methods are large, and influences of vitamin D analogues and blood collection methods have not been systematically examined. We evaluated the effects of vitamin D analogues 25OHD2 and 3-epi 25OHD3 and blood collection methods on vitamin D measurement, using five immunoassay systems and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Serum samples (332) were selected from routine vitamin D assay requests, including samples with or without 25OHD2 or 3-epi 25OHD3, and analysed using various immunoassay systems. In samples with no 25OHD2 or 3-epi 25OHD3, all immunoassays correlated well with LC-MS/MS. However, the Siemens system produced a large positive mean bias of 12.5 ng/mL and a poor Kappa value when using tubes with clot activator and gel separator. When 25OHD2 or 3-epi 25OHD3 was present, correlations and clinical agreement decreased for all immunoassays. Serum 25OHD in VACUETTE tubes with gel and clot activator, as measured by the Siemens system, produced significantly higher values than did samples collected in VACUETTE tubes with no additives. Bias decreased and clinical agreement improved significantly when using tubes with no additives. In conclusion, most automated immunoassays showed acceptable correlation and agreement with LC-MS/MS; however, 25OHD analogues and blood collection tubes dramatically affected accuracy. PMID:26420221

  7. Factors affecting the oil agglomeration of Sivas-Divrigi Ulucayir lignite

    SciTech Connect

    Unal, I.; Gorgun Ersan, M.

    2007-07-01

    In the coal industry, the coal particles need to be decreased to a very fine size because of the need of removing inorganic materials from coal. Oil agglomeration is a kind of coal cleaning technique that is used for separation of organic and inorganic parts of fine sized coal. In this study, the oil agglomeration of Sivas-Divrigi (S-D) Ulucayir lignite was carried out by using kerosene, diesel oil, fuel oil, poppy oil, and sunflower oil. The amount of bridging oil was varied from 5% to 25% of the amount of lignite. The effect of oil amount, oil type, solid content, agitation rate and time, pH on agglomeration performance was investigated. Maximum recovery value of 98.18% was observed by using poppy oil. In order to investigate the effect of pH on agglomeration NaOH and HCl is added to the slurry in various amounts. It is decided that the best agglomeration condition is obtained at low pH values. The effect of nonionic surface active agent (Igepal-CA 630) on agglomeration is investigated by adding to the slurry and it is observed that the grade is increased with the amount of surface active agent.

  8. Urbanicity Affects Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Reactivity to a Speech Stressor in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Armstead, Cheryl A.; Anderson, Norman B.; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L.; Hébert, James R.; Muna, Walinjom F. T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the interactive influence of urbanicity on cardiovascular reactivity to speech stressors among 103 urban and 93 rural Cameroonians. Method Heart rate, systolic, and diastolic blood pressure (HR, SBP, and DBP) changes from baseline were assessed during a speech preparation period, speech stressor task, and post-speech recovery period. Results After adjusting for income, age, BMI, and sex, urban subjects showed greater diastolic reactivity to the pre-speech and speech conditions than to recovery. Urban subjects also showed greater reactivity to the speech stressor than to other conditions. Urban subjects showed greater HR reactivity to the speech stressor. Rural subjects showed greater diastolic reactivity to the pre-speech and speech stressor and less recovery. Conclusion Urbanicity affects blood pressure and heart rate differently for urban and rural Cameroonians. It also affects recovery from stressors. More exploration into the influence of urbanization on hypertension risk factors in developing countries is warranted. (Ethn Dis. 2010;20:251–256) PMID:20828098

  9. Factors affecting initial training success of blood glucose testing in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Reamer, Lisa A; Haller, Rachel L; Thiele, Erica J; Freeman, Hani D; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steven J

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes can be a problem for captive chimpanzees. Accurate blood glucose (BG) readings are necessary to monitor and treat this disease. Thus, obtaining voluntary samples from primates through positive reinforcement training (PRT) is critical. The current study assessed the voluntary participation of 123 chimpanzees in BG sampling and investigated factors that may contribute to individual success. All subjects participate in regular PRT sessions as part of a comprehensive behavioral management program. Basic steps involved in obtaining BG values include: voluntarily presenting a finger/toe; allowing digit disinfection; holding for the lancet device; and allowing blood collection onto a glucometer test strip for analysis. We recorded the level of participation (none, partial, or complete) when each chimpanzee was first asked to perform the testing procedure. Nearly 30% of subjects allowed the entire procedure in one session, without any prior specific training for the target behavior. Factors that affected this initial successful BG testing included sex, personality (chimpanzees rated higher on the factor "openness" were more likely to participate with BG testing), and past training performance for "present-for-injection" (chimpanzees that presented for their most recent anesthetic injection were more likely to participate). Neither age, rearing history, time since most recent anesthetic event nor social group size significantly affected initial training success. These results have important implications for captive management and training program success, underlining individual differences in training aptitude and the need for developing individual management plans in order to provide optimal care and treatment for diabetic chimpanzees in captivity.

  10. Coagulation is more affected by quick than slow bleeding in patients with massive blood loss.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Juan; Yang, Dejuan; Zheng, Dongyou

    2017-03-01

    Profuse blood loss affects blood coagulation to various degrees. However, whether bleeding speed affects coagulation remains uncertain. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of bleeding speed on coagulation function. A total of 141 patients in the Department of Thoracic Surgery of our hospital were evaluated between January 2007 and February 2014. There are two groups of patients, those who received decortication for chronic encapsulated empyema were called the slow-bleeding group, and those who received thoracoscopic upper lobectomy were called the fast bleeding group; each group was further subdivided into three: group A, 1000 ml ≤ bleeding amount < 1500 ml; group B, 1500 ml ≤ bleeding amount < 1700 ml; group C, 1700 ml ≤ bleeding amount < 2000 ml. Then, coagulation function was assessed in all patients before and during surgery and at 1, 2, and 24 h after surgery, measuring prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), fibrinogen, blood pressure, hematocrit, hemoglobin, and platelets. Bleeding duration was overtly longer in the slow-bleeding group than that in quick bleeding individuals (2.3 ± 0.25 h vs. 0.41 ± 0.13 h, P < 0.001). Fibrinogen, hematocrit, hemoglobin, and platelets strikingly decreased, whereas prothrombin time and APTT values significantly increased with bleeding amounts in both quick and slow-bleeding groups. Interestingly, compared with slow-bleeding patients, coagulation indices at each time point and bleeding amounts had significant differences in the quick bleeding group.Increased consumption of coagulation factors in quick bleeding may have greater impact on coagulation function.

  11. Fish oil supplementation decreases oxidative stress but does not affect platelet-activating factor bioactivity in lungs of asthmatic rats.

    PubMed

    Zanatta, A L; Miranda, D T S Z; Dias, B C L; Campos, R M; Massaro, M C; Michelotto, P V; West, A L; Miles, E A; Calder, P C; Nishiyama, A

    2014-07-01

    Dietary fish oil supplementation increases the content of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in cellular membranes. The highly unsaturated nature of n-3 PUFA could result in an enhanced lipid peroxidation in the oxidative environment characteristic of asthma. The oxidative reaction cascade culminates in an increased production of components associated to oxidative stress and of an important proinflammatory mediator platelet-activating factor (PAF)-like lipid. We evaluated the effect of fish oil supplementation in asthmatic rats upon the PAF bioactivity and parameters related to oxidative stress in the lung. Fish oil supplementation of asthmatic rats resulted in lower concentrations of nitrite (1.719 ± 0.137 vs. 2.454 ± 0.163 nmol/mL) and lipid hydroperoxide (72.190 ± 7.327 vs. 120.200 ± 11.270 nmol/mg protein). In asthmatic animals, fish oil increased the activities of superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1) (33.910 ± 2.325 vs. 24.110 ± 0.618 U/mg protein) and glutathione peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.9) (164.100 ± 31.250 vs. 12.590 ± 5.234 U/mg protein). However, fish oil did not affect PAF bioactivity in lung tissue of asthmatic rats (0.545 ± 0.098 340/380 vs. 0.669 ± 0.101 340/380 nm ratio). Considering the two-step process--oxidative stress and PAF bioactivity--fish oil exhibited a divergent action on these aspects of asthmatic inflammation, since the supplement lowered oxidative stress in the lungs of asthmatic rats, presenting an antioxidant effect, but did not affect PAF bioactivity. This suggests a dual effect of fish oil on oxidative stress and inflammation in asthma.

  12. Persistent fetal infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus differentially affects maternal blood cell signal transduction pathways.

    PubMed

    Smirnova, Natalia P; Ptitsyn, Andrey A; Austin, Kathleen J; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Van Campen, Hana; Han, Hyungchul; van Olphen, Alberto L; Hansen, Thomas R

    2009-02-02

    The consequences of viral infection during pregnancy include impact on fetal and maternal immune responses and on fetal development. Transplacental infection in cattle with noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (ncpBVDV) during early gestation results in persistently infected (PI) fetuses with life-long viremia and susceptibility to infections. Infection of the fetus during the third trimester or after birth leads to a transient infection cleared by a competent immune system. We hypothesized that ncpBVDV infection and presence of an infected fetus would alter immune response and lead to downregulation of proinflammatory processes in pregnant dams. Naïve pregnant heifers were challenged with ncpBVDV2 on day 75 (PI fetus) and day 175 [transiently infected (TI) fetus] or kept uninfected (healthy control fetus). Maternal blood samples were collected up to day 190 of gestation. Genome-wide microarray analysis of gene expression in maternal peripheral white blood cells, performed on days 160 and 190 of gestation, revealed multiple signal transduction pathways affected by ncpBVDV infection. Acute infection and presence of a TI fetus caused upregulation of the type I interferon (IFN) pathway genes, including dsRNA sensors and IFN-stimulated genes. The presence of a PI fetus caused prolonged downregulation of chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) and T cell receptor (TCR) signaling in maternal blood cells. We conclude that: 1) infection with ncpBVDV induces a vigorous type I IFN response, and 2) presence of a PI fetus causes downregulation of important signaling pathways in the blood of the dam, which could have deleterious consequences on fetal development and the immune response.

  13. Oil droplets do not affect assimilation and survival probability of first feeding larvae of North-East Arctic cod.

    PubMed

    Nordtug, Trond; Olsen, Anders Johny; Altin, Dag; Overrein, Ingrid; Storøy, Werner; Hansen, Bjørn Henrik; De Laender, Frederik

    2011-12-15

    Oil exploration and production in the Atlantic moves northwards towards spawning and nursery areas of fish species that sustain some of the world's largest fisheries. Models are therefore needed that can simulate the effects of accidental oil spills on early life stages of these fish. In this study, we combined an individual based model and a microcosm approach to infer effects of the water soluble fraction (WSF) and of an oil dispersion (WSF and droplets) on two key endpoints of North East Arctic cod (Gadus morhua) larvae: food assimilation rate and survival probability. Both exposure types (WSF and dispersion) decreased assimilation rate (control: 0.4 d(-1)) and survival probability (control: 0.96) in a concentration-dependent fashion, with EC(50)s of about 2 (feeding) and 40 μg/L ∑PAH in the WSF (survival probability). No consistent differences were found between the ECs from the two exposure types indicating no additional oil droplet effects in the oil dispersion. During post exposure, effects on the two endpoints disappeared, which was confirmed by an image analyses we performed of gut content fluorescence. Our results also show that the larvae model fitted the experimental data from the two exposure types equally well, indicating that the presence of oil droplets did not affect model performance. More complex models that explicitly consider possible mechanisms of oil droplet toxicity - in addition to the toxicity of the WSF - on the two examined endpoints during a 17 day time frame do therefore not have a higher accuracy than simpler models that neglect oil droplet toxicity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Factors affecting emulsion stability and quality of oil recovered from enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction of soybeans.

    PubMed

    Jung, S; Maurer, D; Johnson, L A

    2009-11-01

    The objectives of the present study were to assess how the stability of the emulsion recovered from aqueous extraction processing of soybeans was affected by characteristics of the starting material and extraction and demulsification conditions. Adding endopeptidase Protex 6L during enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction processing (EAEP) of extruded soybean flakes was vital to obtaining emulsions that were easily demulsified with enzymes. Adding salt (up to 1.5 mM NaCl or MgCl(2)) during extraction and storing extruded flakes before extraction at 4 and 30 degrees C for up to 3 months did not affect the stabilities of emulsions recovered from EAEP of soy flour, flakes and extruded flakes. After demulsification, highest free oil yield was obtained with EAEP of extruded flakes, followed by flour and then flakes. The same protease used for the extraction step was used to demulsify the EAEP cream emulsion from extruded full-fat soy flakes at concentrations ranging from 0.03% to 2.50% w/w, incubation times ranging from 2 to 90 min, and temperatures of 25, 50 or 65 degrees C. Highest free oil recoveries were achieved at high enzyme concentrations, mild temperatures, and short incubation times. Both the nature of enzyme (i.e., protease and phospholipase), added alone or as a cocktail, concentration of enzymes (0.5% vs. 2.5%) and incubation time (1 vs. 3 h), use during the extraction step, and nature of enzyme added for demulsifying affected free oil yield. The free oil recovered from EAEP of extruded flakes contained less phosphorus compared with conventional hexane-extracted oil. The present study identified conditions rendering the emulsion less stable, which is critical to increasing free oil yield recovered during EAEP of soybeans, an environmentally friendly alternative processing method to hexane extraction.

  15. Oxidation of Oil Sands Process-Affected Water by Potassium Ferrate(VI).

    PubMed

    Wang, Chengjin; Klamerth, Nikolaus; Huang, Rongfu; Elnakar, Haitham; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2016-04-19

    This paper investigates the oxidation of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) by potassium ferrate(VI). Due to the selectivity of ferrate(VI) oxidation, two-ring and three-ring fluorescing aromatics were preferentially removed at doses <100 mg/L Fe(VI), and one-ring aromatics were removed only at doses ≥100 mg/L Fe(VI). Ferrate(VI) oxidation achieved 64.0% and 78.4% removal of naphthenic acids (NAs) at the dose of 200 mg/L and 400 mg/L Fe(VI) respectively, and NAs with high carbon number and ring number were removed preferentially. (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) spectra indicated that the oxidation of fluorescing aromatics resulted in the opening of some aromatic rings. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) analysis detected signals of organic radical intermediates, indicating that one-electron transfer is one of the probable mechanisms in the oxidation of NAs. The inhibition effect of OSPW on Vibrio fischeri and the toxicity effect on goldfish primary kidney macrophages (PKMs) were both reduced after ferrate(VI) oxidation. The fluorescing aromatics in OSPW were proposed to be an important contributor to this acute toxicity. Degradation of model compounds with ferrate(VI) was also investigated and the results confirmed our findings in OSPW study.

  16. Modelling how incorporation of divalent cations affects calcite wettability–implications for biomineralisation and oil recovery

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, M. P.; Dideriksen, K.; Sakuma, H.; Stipp, S. L. S.

    2016-01-01

    Using density functional theory and geochemical speciation modelling, we predicted how solid-fluid interfacial energy is changed, when divalent cations substitute into a calcite surface. The effect on wettability can be dramatic. Trace metal uptake can impact organic compound adsorption, with effects for example, on the ability of organisms to control crystal growth and our ability to predict the wettability of pore surfaces. Wettability influences how easily an organic phase can be removed from a surface, either organic compounds from contaminated soil or crude oil from a reservoir. In our simulations, transition metals substituted exothermically into calcite and more favourably into sites at the surface than in the bulk, meaning that surface properties are more strongly affected than results from bulk experiments imply. As a result of divalent cation substitution, calcite-fluid interfacial energy is significantly altered, enough to change macroscopic contact angle by tens of degrees. Substitution of Sr, Ba and Pb makes surfaces more hydrophobic. With substitution of Mg and the transition metals, calcite becomes more hydrophilic, weakening organic compound adsorption. For biomineralisation, this provides a switch for turning on and off the activity of organic crystal growth inhibitors, thereby controlling the shape of the associated mineral phase. PMID:27352933

  17. Modelling how incorporation of divalent cations affects calcite wettability-implications for biomineralisation and oil recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, M. P.; Dideriksen, K.; Sakuma, H.; Stipp, S. L. S.

    2016-06-01

    Using density functional theory and geochemical speciation modelling, we predicted how solid-fluid interfacial energy is changed, when divalent cations substitute into a calcite surface. The effect on wettability can be dramatic. Trace metal uptake can impact organic compound adsorption, with effects for example, on the ability of organisms to control crystal growth and our ability to predict the wettability of pore surfaces. Wettability influences how easily an organic phase can be removed from a surface, either organic compounds from contaminated soil or crude oil from a reservoir. In our simulations, transition metals substituted exothermically into calcite and more favourably into sites at the surface than in the bulk, meaning that surface properties are more strongly affected than results from bulk experiments imply. As a result of divalent cation substitution, calcite-fluid interfacial energy is significantly altered, enough to change macroscopic contact angle by tens of degrees. Substitution of Sr, Ba and Pb makes surfaces more hydrophobic. With substitution of Mg and the transition metals, calcite becomes more hydrophilic, weakening organic compound adsorption. For biomineralisation, this provides a switch for turning on and off the activity of organic crystal growth inhibitors, thereby controlling the shape of the associated mineral phase.

  18. Pseudomonads biodegradation of aromatic compounds in oil sands process-affected water.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanyan; McPhedran, Kerry N; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2015-07-15

    Aromatic naphthenic acids (NAs) have been shown to be more toxic than the classical NAs found in oil sands process-affected water (OSPW). To reduce this toxicity, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas putida were used to determine their ability to biodegrade aromatic compounds including treatments considering the impacts of external carbon and iron addition. Results showed that with added carbon P. fluorescens and P. putida have the capability of biodegrading these aromatics. In the presence of external carbon, gene expression of a functional PAH-ring hydroxylating dioxygenase (PAH-RHDα) was determined through reverse transcription real-time PCR, suggesting active degradation of OSPW aromatic compounds. Although no significant classical NAs removal was observed during this process, toxicity was reduced by 49.3% under optimal conditions. OSPW toxicity was eliminated with the combination of ozonation at a dose of 80 mg/L followed by biodegradation, indicating that it is a promising combined OSPW treatment approach for the safe discharge to the aquatic environment.

  19. Early high-sodium solid diet does not affect sodium intake, sodium preference, blood volume and blood pressure in adult Wistar-Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Ufnal, Marcin; Drapala, Adrian; Sikora, Mariusz; Zera, Tymoteusz

    2011-07-01

    A high-Na diet may lead to the development of hypertension in both humans and rats; however, the causes of Na intake in amounts greater than physiologically needed as well as the mechanisms whereby high-Na food elevates blood pressure are not clear. Therefore, we decided to test the hypothesis that a high-Na diet introduced after suckling affects Na intake, food preference, resting blood pressure and blood volume in adult rats. Male Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, 4 weeks old, were divided into three groups and placed on either a high-Na (3.28%), a medium-Na (0.82%) or a regular diet (0.22%) with the same energy content for 8 weeks. Subsequently, food preference, resting arterial blood pressure, blood volume, plasma osmolality and Na blood level were evaluated. When offered a choice of diets, all the groups preferred the regular chow, and there was no significant difference in total Na intake between the groups. When the rats experienced the change from their initial chow to a new one with different Na content, they continued to eat the same amount of food. Body weight, resting arterial blood pressure, blood volume, plasma osmolality and Na blood level were comparable between the groups. In conclusion, the results show that a high-Na diet introduced immediately after suckling does not affect Na preference and Na intake in adult WKY rats. Furthermore, the findings provide evidence that both blood volume and arterial blood pressure are highly protected in normotensive rats on a high-Na diet.

  20. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... The liquid part, called plasma, is made of water, salts, and protein. Over half of your blood is plasma. The solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Red ...

  1. Higher whole-blood selenium is associated with improved immune responses in footrot-affected sheep

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We reported previously that sheep affected with footrot (FR) have lower whole-blood selenium (WB-Se) concentrations and that parenteral Se-supplementation in conjunction with routine control practices accelerates recovery from FR. The purpose of this follow-up study was to investigate the mechanisms by which Se facilitates recovery from FR. Sheep affected with FR (n = 38) were injected monthly for 15 months with either 5 mg Se (FR-Se) or saline (FR-Sal), whereas 19 healthy sheep received no treatment. Adaptive immune function was evaluated after 3 months of Se supplementation by immunizing all sheep with a novel protein, keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH). The antibody titer and delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin test to KLH were used to assess humoral immunity and cell-mediated immunity, respectively. Innate immunity was evaluated after 3 months of Se supplementation by measuring intradermal responses to histamine 30 min after injection compared to KLH and saline, and after 15 months of Se supplementation by isolating neutrophils and measuring their bacterial killing ability and relative abundance of mRNA for genes associated with neutrophil migration. Compared to healthy sheep, immune responses to a novel protein were suppressed in FR-affected sheep with smaller decreases in FR-affected sheep that received Se or had WB-Se concentrations above 250 ng/mL at the time of the immune assays. Neutrophil function was suppressed in FR-affected sheep, but was not changed by Se supplementation or WB-Se status. Sheep FR is associated with depressed immune responses to a novel protein, which may be partly restored by improving WB-Se status (> 250 ng/mL). PMID:21896161

  2. Warming-Up Affects Performance and Lactate Distribution between Plasma and Red Blood Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wahl, Patrick; Zinner, Christoph; Yue, Zengyuan; Bloch, Wilhelm; Mester, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    Warming-up (WU) is a widely used preparation for training and competition. However, little is known about the potential mechanisms of WU on performance and on the lactate distribution in the blood compartment. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether different WU procedures affect performance and lactate distribution between plasma and red blood cells (RBCs) after maximal exercise. At three different occasions eleven subjects performed one 30 s maximal effort exercise on a cycle ergometer. Before each exercise, subjects warmed up at different intensities: 1. no WU (NWU); 2. extensive WU (EWU); 3. intensive WU (IWU). Blood samples were taken under resting conditions, after WU, and in 1 minute intervals during recovery to determine lactate concentrations [LA] in whole blood ([LA]WB), plasma ([LA]plasma) and erythrocytes ([LA]RBC). Mean power output was +58 Watt (EWU) and +60 Watt (IWU) higher compared to NWU. For each WU condition [LA]plasma and [LA]RBC differed significantly at any time point, showing greater [LA]plasma compared to [LA]RBC. The maximal effort exercise caused a rapid decrease of the [LA]RBC/[LA]plasma ratio. [LA]RBC reached the peak 3-5 minutes later than [LA]plasma depending on the WU condition. The initial increments in [LA]RBC were 10-16% lower after IWU compared to NWU and EWU. The lower increment of [LA]RBC after IWU might be due to a “higher preloading” with lactate before exercise, causing a smaller initial [LA] gradient between plasma and RBCs. It seems that the influx decreases with increasing intracellular [LA]. Another possibility one could speculate about is, that the extracellular increase in [LA] inhibits the outflux of lactate produced by the RBC itself. This inhibited export of lactate from RBCs may lead to an intracellular lactate accumulation. But the relatively fast increase in [LA]RBC and other investigations partly contradicts this possibility. Key points Warm-up significantly improves performance during 30

  3. Influence of a diet rich in fish oil on blood pressure, body weight and cardiac hypertrophy in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    von Au, D; Brändle, M; Rupp, H; Jacob, R

    1988-01-01

    The effects of a diet rich in fish oil on arterial blood pressure, body weight, left ventricular weight and heart rate have been investigated in 8 month old spontaneously hypertensive male rats (SHR) as compared to age-matched hypertensive controls. A diet containing 10% fish oil decreased blood pressure by about 40 mmHg within 20 days of starting the experiment, and this effect persisted over the observation period of 80 days. Permitting the animals free access to food, the body weight of the diet group increased by 25%. The degree of hypertrophy as evaluated by relating left ventricular weight to tibial length was significantly reduced (10%) in the diet fed group. Heart rate was increased by 53%. The study demonstrates that a diet rich in fish oil can lower arterial blood pressure over several weeks without a recognizable loss in function despite a considerable increase in body weight. It can be assumed that a more marked regression of left ventricular hypertrophy is counteracted by a reflex increase in sympathetic efferentation to the heart.

  4. Performance, egg quality, and blood plasma chemistry of laying hens fed hempseed and hempseed oil.

    PubMed

    Neijat, M; Gakhar, N; Neufeld, J; House, J D

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the performance of hens (feed intake, rate of lay, egg weight, and BW gain), egg quality and blood biochemistry (enzymes, electrolytes, proteins, and other plasma constituents) of laying hens fed diets containing hemp products. Forty-eight Lohmann LSL-Classic (white-egg layers; 19 wk of age) were individually caged and fed 1 of 6 wheat-barley-soybean-based diets for a period of 12 wk. The diets consisted of hempseed (HS; 10, 20, or 30%), hempseed oil (HO; 4.5 or 9.0%), or a control diet (corn oil-based). All diets were formulated to contain similar levels of crude fat (11%), energy (2,800 kcal/kg), and CP (17%). Data were analyzed as a completely randomized design using the repeated measure analysis of the PROC MIXED procedure of SAS. The results indicated that the inclusion of up to 30 and 9.0% HS and HO, respectively, to diets of laying hens had no significant effects on hen performance, egg quality, or plasma level of metabolites (proteins, glucose, uric acid, and cholesterol) and electrolytes (Na, K, Cl, P, and Ca). Overall plasma enzyme concentrations, particularly gamma-glutamyl transferase, were significantly (P < 0.01) lowest at the 10 and 20% levels of HS inclusion, or at the 4.5% HO level of inclusion of the hempseed products compared with the higher levels or control fed hens. Similar effects were also observed for plasma aspartate aminotransferase levels but with the HS enriched diets only (P < 0.05), particularly being lowest at the inclusion levels of 10 and 20% HS compared with the control. The results may imply a possible protective effect of HS- and HO-containing diets, particularly at 10% HS, 20% HS, and 4.5% HO levels, on liver damage/injury. In summary, both HO and HS appear to be well tolerated by laying hens as judged by markers of plasma clinical chemistry supporting the safety and efficacy of hemp products for use in laying hen rations.

  5. Factors Affecting Oil Analysis of DDGS as Compared with Ground Corn

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There are a few official methods for measuring oil/fat content in grains and feed. Yet guidelines on which method to be used for dried distiller grains with solubles (DDGS) are yet to be fully developed. In this study, a rapid determination of oil/fat utilizing high temperature solvent extraction (A...

  6. Inclusion of fish or fish oil in weight-loss diets for young adults: effects on blood lipids.

    PubMed

    Gunnarsdottir, I; Tomasson, H; Kiely, M; Martinéz, J A; Bandarra, N M; Morais, M G; Thorsdottir, I

    2008-07-01

    To assess the effects of fish (lean or oily) and fish oil consumption on blood lipid concentration during weight loss. Randomized, controlled 8-week trial of energy-restricted diet varying in fish and fish oil content. Subjects, 324 men and women, aged 20-40 years, body mass index 27.5-32.5 kg m(-2), from Iceland, Spain and Ireland, were randomized to one of four groups: (1) control (sunflower oil capsules, no seafood), (2) cod diet (3 x 150 g week(-1)), (3) salmon diet (3 x 150 g week(-1)), (4) fish oil (DHA/EPA capsules, no seafood). The macronutrient composition of the diets was similar between the groups and the capsule groups were single-blinded. Total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triacylglycerol (TG) and anthropometrics were measured at baseline and end point. The difference in logTG lowering between the control group and the cod diet, salmon diet and fish oil from baseline to end point was -0.036 (95% CI -0.079 to 0.006), -0.060 (-0.101 to -0.018) and -0.037 (-0.079 to 0.006), respectively. Reduction in TC was about 0.2 mmol l(-1) greater in the fish groups (cod and salmon) than in the control group, but only of borderline significance when adjusting for weight loss. HDL tended to decrease less in the diet groups consuming a significant amount of n-3 fatty acids (salmon and fish oil). Weight-loss diet including oily fish resulted in greater TG reduction than did a diet without fish or fish oil. Controlled trials using whole fish as a test meal are encouraged to be able to elucidate the role of different constituents of fish for human health.

  7. Comparative study of diets enriched with evening primrose, black currant, borage or fungal oils on blood pressure and pressor responses in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Engler, M M

    1993-10-01

    The effects of oils enriched with gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) on blood pressure and pressor responses were examined in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Rats were fed purified diets containing evening primrose (EPO), black currant (BCO), borage (BOR) or fungal (FGO) oils for 7 weeks. Significant reductions in blood pressure were obtained in SHR rats maintained on diets enriched with GLA oils. The antihypertensive effect was not associated with enhanced pressor responsiveness to norepinephrine or angiotensin II. Moreover, no differences were found in blood pressure responses to the calcium channel blocker, verapamil. The results suggest that GLA-enriched oils inhibit the development of hypertension in the SHR rat. The blood pressure lowering effect is not mediated by altered pressor responses to vasoconstrictor hormones or intracellular calcium mechanisms.

  8. Determination of PCQs by HPLC and its application to the analysis of Yusho patient blood and toxic rice oil and to the distribution of synthetic PCQs in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Mochiike, A.; Matsuo, T.; Kanamori, H.; Hoshita, N.; Sakamoto, I.

    1986-01-01

    An excellent separation of six PCQ skeletal isomers was achieved by HPLC. This method was applied to the analysis of Yusho patient blood, toxic rice oil causing Yusho and various tissues and feces of mice dosed with synthetic PCQs.

  9. Processes affecting the fate of monoaromatic hydrocarbons in an aquifer contaminated by crude oil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eganhouse, R.P.; Dorsey, T.F.; Phinney, C.S.; Westcott, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    Crude oil spilled from a subsurface pipeline in north-central Minnesota has dissolved in the groundwater, resulting in the formation of a plume of aliphatic, aromatic, and alicyclic hydrocarbons. Comparison of paired oil and groundwater samples collected along the central axis of the residual oil body shows that the trailing edge of the oil is depleted in the more soluble aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g., benzene, toluene, etc.) when compared with the leading edge. At the same time, concentrations of monoaromatic hydrocarbons in groundwater beneath the oil increase as the water moves toward the leading edge of the oil. Immediately downgradient from the leading edge of the oil body, certain aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g., benzene) are found at concentrations near those expected of a system at equilibrium, and the concentrations exhibit little variation over time (???8-20%). Other compounds (e.g., toluene) appear to be undersaturated, and their concentrations show considerably more temporal variation (???20-130%). The former are persistent within the anoxic zone downgradient from the oil, whereas concentrations of the latter decrease rapidly. Together, these observations suggest that the volatile hydrocarbon composition of the anoxic groundwater near the oil body is controlled by a balance between dissolution and removal rates with only the most persistent compounds reaching saturation. Examination of the distributions of homologous series and isomeric assemblages of alkylbenzenes reveals that microbial degradation is the dominant process controlling the fate of these compounds once groundwater moves away from the oil. For all but the most persistent compounds, the distal boundary of the plume at the water table extends no more than 10-15 m down-gradient from the oxic/anoxic transition zone. Thus, transport of the monoaromatic hydrocarbons is limited by redox conditions that are tightly coupled to biological degradation processes.

  10. Dietary combination of fish oil and taurine decreases fat accumulation and ameliorates blood glucose levels in type 2 diabetic/obese KK-A(y) mice.

    PubMed

    Mikami, Nana; Hosokawa, Masashi; Miyashita, Kazuo

    2012-06-01

    n-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and taurine are functional compounds abundantly present in seafoods. In this study, we examined the combined effects of EPA- and DHA-rich fish oil and taurine on white adipose tissue (WAT) weight and blood glucose levels in diabetic/obese KK-A(y) mice. After a 4-wk administration of experimental diets (soybean oil or fish oil, supplemented with 0%, 2%, or 4% taurine), the increase in WAT weight of the mice fed the "fish oil + 4% taurine" diet was significantly suppressed compared to the "soybean oil + 4% taurine" and "fish oil only" diets. Serum triglycerides, free fatty acids, and total cholesterol levels decreased by fish oil administration. In addition, fish oil and taurine increased the activity of acyl-CoA oxidase, which is the rate-limiting enzyme of peroxisomal β-oxidation, increased in the liver of KK-A(y) mice. The activity of fatty acid synthase decreased by fish oil diets. Furthermore, blood glucose and insulin levels were significantly lower in the mice fed fish oil than in the soybean oil-fed mice. In fish oil + 4% taurine group, hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia were effectively improved in KK-A(y) mice compared to the fish oil only groups. In particular, the combination of fish oil and taurine enhanced the glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) distribution in the plasma membrane of muscle tissue. These results suggest that EPA- and DHA-rich fish oil, especially in combination with taurine, exhibits preventive effects on WAT weight gain and hyperglycemia in diabetic/obese KK-A(y) mice. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. Launch Conditions Might Affect the Formation of Blood Vessel in the Quail Chorioallantoic Membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, M. K.; Unsworth, B. R.; Sychev, B. R.; Guryeva, T. S.; Dadasheva, O. A.; Piert, S. J.; Lagel, K. E.; Dubrovin, L. C.; Jahns, G. C.; Boda, K.; hide

    1998-01-01

    AS 2 part of the first joint USA-Russian MIR/Shuttle program, fertilized quail eggs were flown on the MIR 18 mission. Post-flight examination indicated impaired survival of both the embryos in space and also of control embryos exposed to vibrational and g-forces simulating the conditions experienced during the launch of Progress 227. We hypothesized that excess mechanical forces and/or other conditions during the launch might cause abnormal development of the blood supply in the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) leading to the impaired survival of the embryos. The CAM, a highly vascularized extraembryonic organ, provides for the oxygen exchange across the egg shell and is thus pivotal for proper embryonic development. To test our hypothesis, we compared angiogenesis In CAMS of eggs which were either exposed to the vibration and g-force profile simulating the conditions at launch of Progress 227 (synchronous controls), or kept under routine conditions in a laboratory Incubator (laboratory controls). At various time points during Incubation, the eggs were fixed in paraformaldehyde for subsequent dissection. At the time of dissection, the CAM was carefully lifted from the egg shell and examined as whole mounts by bright-field and fluorescent microscopy. The development or the vasculature (angiogenesis) was assessed from the density of blood vessels per viewing field and evaluated by computer aided image analysis. We observed a significant decrease In blood-vessel density in the synchronous controls versus "normal" laboratory controls beginning from day 10 of Incubation. The decrease in vascular density was restricted to the smallest vessels only, suggesting that conditions during the launch and/or during the subsequent Incubation of the eggs may affect the normal progress of angiogenesis in the CAM. Abnormal angiogenesis In the CAM might contribute to the impaired survival of the embryos observed in synchronous controls as well as in space.

  12. Launch conditions might affect the formation of blood vessels in the quail chorioallantoic membrane.

    PubMed

    Henry, M K; Unsworth, B R; Sychev, V; Guryeva, T S; Dadasheva, O A; Piert, S J; Lagel, K E; Dubrovin, L C; Jahns, G C; Boda, K; Sabo, V; Samet, M M; Lelkes, P I

    1998-01-01

    As a part of the first joint USA-Russian MIR/Shuttle program, fertilized quail eggs were flown on the MIR 18 mission. Post-flight examination indicated impaired survival of both the embryos in space and also of control embryo exposed to vibrational and g-forces simulating the condition experienced during the launch of Progress 227. We hypothesized that excess mechanical forces and/or other conditions during the launch might cause abnormal development or the blood supply in the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) leading to the impaired survival of the embryos. The CAM, a highly vascularized extraembryonic organ, provides for the oxygen exchange across the egg shell and is thus pivotal for proper embryonic development. To test our hypothesis, we compared angiogenesis in CAMs of eggs which were either exposed to the vibration and g-force profile simulating the conditions at launch of Progress 227 (synchronous controls), or kept under routine conditions in a laboratory incubator (laboratory controls). At various time points during incubation, the eggs were fixed in paraformaldehyde for subsequent dissection. At the time of dissection, the CAM was carefully lifted from the egg shell and examined as whole mounts by bright-field and fluorescent microscopy. The development of the vasculature (angiogenesis) was assessed from the density of blood vessels per viewing field and evaluated by computer aided image analysis. We observed a significant decrease in blood-vessel density in the synchronous controls versus "normal" laboratory controls beginning from day 10 of incubation. The decrease in vascular density was restricted to the smallest vessels only, suggesting that conditions during the launch and/or during the subsequent incubation of the eggs may affect the normal progress of angiogenesis in the CAM. Abnormal angiogensis in the CAM might contribute to the impaired survival of the embryos observed in synchronous controls as well as in space.

  13. An evaluation of some factors affecting the detection of blood group antibodies by automated methods.

    PubMed

    Kolberg, J; Nordhagen, R

    1975-01-01

    Some factors affecting the sensitivity of the automated methods for blood group antibody detection have been evaluated. The experiments revealed influencing differences between various albumin preparations. In the BMC method, one lot of albumin permitted no significant antibody detection. In the LISP technique, a plateau of maximum Polybrene activity was found. The beginning of this plateau depended on both the albumin preparation and the Polybrene lot. In the BMC method, methyl cellulose gave optimal sensitivity within a concentration range of 0.3 to 0.5 per cent. The stability of test cells stored in ACD at 4 C was studied. All test cells could be used safely up to two weeks. Cells from different donors showed variable reactivity after three weeks.

  14. Classification accuracy of algorithms for blood chemistry data for three aquaculture-affected marine fish species.

    PubMed

    Coz-Rakovac, R; Topic Popovic, N; Smuc, T; Strunjak-Perovic, I; Jadan, M

    2009-11-01

    The objective of this study was determination and discrimination of biochemical data among three aquaculture-affected marine fish species (sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax; sea bream, Sparus aurata L., and mullet, Mugil spp.) based on machine-learning methods. The approach relying on machine-learning methods gives more usable classification solutions and provides better insight into the collected data. So far, these new methods have been applied to the problem of discrimination of blood chemistry data with respect to season and feed of a single species. This is the first time these classification algorithms have been used as a framework for rapid differentiation among three fish species. Among the machine-learning methods used, decision trees provided the clearest model, which correctly classified 210 samples or 85.71%, and incorrectly classified 35 samples or 14.29% and clearly identified three investigated species from their biochemical traits.

  15. Odors generated from the Maillard reaction affect autonomic nervous activity and decrease blood pressure through the olfactory system.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lanxi; Ohata, Motoko; Owashi, Chisato; Nagai, Katsuya; Yokoyama, Issei; Arihara, Keizo

    2017-07-12

    Systolic blood pressure (SBP) of rats decreases significantly following exposure to the odor generated from the Maillard reaction of protein digests with xylose. This study identified active odorants that affect blood pressure and demonstrated the mechanism of action. Among the four potent odorants that contribute most to the odor of the Maillard reaction sample, 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone (DMHF) and 5-methyl-2-pyrazinemethanol (MPM) decreased SBP significantly. The earliest decrease in blood pressure was observed 5 min after exposure to DMHF. Application of zinc sulfate to the nasal cavity eliminated the effect. Furthermore, gastric vagal (parasympathetic) nerve activity was elevated and renal sympathetic nerve activity was lowered after exposure to DMHF. It is indicated that DMHF affects blood pressure through the olfactory system, and the mechanism for the effect of DMHF on blood pressure involves the autonomic nervous system. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. The Effects of Thyme and Cinnamon Essential Oils on Performance, Rumen Fermentation and Blood Metabolites in Holstein Calves Consuming High Concentrate Diet

    PubMed Central

    Vakili, A. R.; Khorrami, B.; Mesgaran, M. Danesh; Parand, E.

    2013-01-01

    Essential oils have been shown to favorably effect in vitro ruminal fermentation, but there are few in vivo studies that have examined animal responses. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of thyme (THY) and cinnamon (CIN) essential oils on feed intake, growth performance, ruminal fermentation and blood metabolites in feedlot calves fed high-concentrate diets. Twelve growing Holstein calves (213±17 kg initial BW) were used in a completely randomized design and received their respective dietary treatments for 45 d. Treatments were: 1-control (no additive), 2-THY (5 g/d/calf) and 3-CIN (5 g/d/calf). Calves were fed ad libitum diets consisting of 15% forage and 85% concentrate, and adapted to the finishing diet by gradually increasing the concentrate ratio with feeding a series of transition diets 5 wk before the experiment started. Supplementation of THY or CIN did not affect DMI and ADG, and feed efficiency was similar between treatment groups. There were no effects of additives on ruminal pH and rumen concentrations of ammonia nitrogen and total VFA; whereas molar proportion of acetate and ratio of acetate to propionate decreased, and the molar proportion of propionate increased with THY and CIN supplementation. Rumen molar concentration of butyrate was significantly increased by adding CIN compared to control; but no change was observed with THY compared with control group. No effects of THY, or CIN were observed on valerate, isobutyrate or isovalerate proportions. Plasma concentrations of glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, urea-N, β-hydroxybutyrate, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were not changed by feeding THY or CIN. Results from this study suggest that supplementing a feedlot finishing diet with THY or CIN essential oil might be useful as ruminal fermentation modifiers in beef production systems, but has minor impacts on blood metabolites. PMID:25049871

  17. The effects of thyme and cinnamon essential oils on performance, rumen fermentation and blood metabolites in holstein calves consuming high concentrate diet.

    PubMed

    Vakili, A R; Khorrami, B; Mesgaran, M Danesh; Parand, E

    2013-07-01

    Essential oils have been shown to favorably effect in vitro ruminal fermentation, but there are few in vivo studies that have examined animal responses. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of thyme (THY) and cinnamon (CIN) essential oils on feed intake, growth performance, ruminal fermentation and blood metabolites in feedlot calves fed high-concentrate diets. Twelve growing Holstein calves (213±17 kg initial BW) were used in a completely randomized design and received their respective dietary treatments for 45 d. Treatments were: 1-control (no additive), 2-THY (5 g/d/calf) and 3-CIN (5 g/d/calf). Calves were fed ad libitum diets consisting of 15% forage and 85% concentrate, and adapted to the finishing diet by gradually increasing the concentrate ratio with feeding a series of transition diets 5 wk before the experiment started. Supplementation of THY or CIN did not affect DMI and ADG, and feed efficiency was similar between treatment groups. There were no effects of additives on ruminal pH and rumen concentrations of ammonia nitrogen and total VFA; whereas molar proportion of acetate and ratio of acetate to propionate decreased, and the molar proportion of propionate increased with THY and CIN supplementation. Rumen molar concentration of butyrate was significantly increased by adding CIN compared to control; but no change was observed with THY compared with control group. No effects of THY, or CIN were observed on valerate, isobutyrate or isovalerate proportions. Plasma concentrations of glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, urea-N, β-hydroxybutyrate, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were not changed by feeding THY or CIN. Results from this study suggest that supplementing a feedlot finishing diet with THY or CIN essential oil might be useful as ruminal fermentation modifiers in beef production systems, but has minor impacts on blood metabolites.

  18. Solidifying agent and processing of blood used for the larval diet affect screwworm (Diptera: Calliphoridae) life-history parameters.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, M F; Skoda, S R; Sagel, A

    2011-06-01

    Spray-dried whole bovine blood and a sodium polyacrylate polymer gel as a bulking and solidifying agent are among the constituents of the current larval diet for mass rearing screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Locally available, inexpensive dietary materials could reduce rearing cost and address an uncertain commercial supply of spray-dried blood. We compared efficacy of diet prepared from fresh bovine blood after decoagulation with sodium citrate or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) or after mechanical defibrination, with the diet containing spray-dried blood using either gel or cellulose fiber as the bulking and solidifying agent. Several life-history parameters were compared among insects reared on each of the blood and bulking agent diets combination. Diets containing citrated blood yielded the lightest larval and pupal weights and fewest pupae. EDTA-treated blood with the gel also caused reductions. EDTA-treated blood with fiber yielded screwworms that were heavier and more numerous than those from the diet with citrated blood but lighter than those from the control diet using spray-dried blood. A reduction in percentage of adults emerging from pupae occurred from diets with both bulking agents using citrated blood and the diet using EDTA mixed with the gel bulking agent. As a group, the cellulose-fiber diets performed better than the gel diets. Larval diet did not affect adult longevity, weight of the eggs deposited by the females that emerged or subsequent egg hatch. Parameter measurements of insects from both defibrinated blood diets were similar to those from the spray-dried blood diets, indicating that fresh, defibrinated bovine blood can successfully replace the dry blood in the screwworm rearing medium.

  19. Plant species affect colonization patterns and metabolic activity of associated endophytes during phytoremediation of crude oil-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Fatima, K; Imran, A; Amin, I; Khan, Q M; Afzal, M

    2016-04-01

    Plants coupled with endophytic bacteria hold great potential for the remediation of polluted environment. The colonization patterns and activity of inoculated endophytes in rhizosphere and endosphere of host plant are among the primary factors that may influence the phytoremediation process. However, these colonization patterns and metabolic activity of the inoculated endophytes are in turn controlled by none other than the host plant itself. The present study aims to determine such an interaction specifically for plant-endophyte systems remediating crude oil-contaminated soil. A consortium (AP) of two oil-degrading endophytic bacteria (Acinetobacter sp. strain BRSI56 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain BRRI54) was inoculated to two grasses, Brachiaria mutica and Leptochloa fusca, vegetated in crude oil-contaminated soil. Colonization patterns and metabolic activity of the endophytes were monitored in the rhizosphere and endosphere of the plants. Bacterial augmentation enhanced plant growth and crude oil degradation. Maximum crude oil degradation (78%) was achieved with B. mutica plants inoculated with AP consortium. This degradation was significantly higher than those treatments, where plants and bacteria were used individually or L. fusca and endophytes were used in combination. Moreover, colonization and metabolic activity of the endophytes were higher in the rhizosphere and endosphere of B. mutica than L. fusca. The plant species affected not only colonization pattern and biofilm formation of the inoculated bacteria in the rhizosphere and endosphere of the host plant but also affected the expression of alkane hydroxylase gene, alkB. Hence, the investigation revealed that plant species can affect colonization patterns and metabolic activity of inoculated endophytic bacteria and ultimately the phytoremediation process.

  20. Alterations in seed development gene expression affect size and oil content of Arabidopsis seeds.

    PubMed

    Fatihi, Abdelhak; Zbierzak, Anna Maria; Dörmann, Peter

    2013-10-01

    Seed endosperm development in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) is under control of the polycomb group complex, which includes Fertilization Independent Endosperm (FIE). The polycomb group complex regulates downstream factors, e.g. Pheres1 (PHE1), by genomic imprinting. In heterozygous fie mutants, an endosperm develops in ovules carrying a maternal fie allele without fertilization, finally leading to abortion. Another endosperm development pathway depends on MINISEED3 (a WRKY10 transcription factor) and HAIKU2 (a leucine-rich repeat kinase). While the role of seed development genes in the embryo and endosperm establishment has been studied in detail, their impact on metabolism and oil accumulation remained unclear. Analysis of oil, protein, and sucrose accumulation in mutants and overexpression plants of the four seed development genes revealed that (1) seeds carrying a maternal fie allele accumulate low oil with an altered composition of triacylglycerol molecular species; (2) homozygous mutant seeds of phe1, mini3, and iku2, which are smaller, accumulate less oil and slightly less protein, and starch, which accumulates early during seed development, remains elevated in mutant seeds; (3) embryo-specific overexpression of FIE, PHE1, and MINI3 has no influence on seed size and weight, nor on oil, protein, or sucrose content; and (4) overexpression of IKU2 results in seeds with increased size and weight, and oil content of overexpressed IKU2 seeds is increased by 35%. Thus, IKU2 overexpression represents a novel strategy for the genetic manipulation of the oil content in seeds.

  1. Anti-inflammatory and blood stasis activities of essential oil extracted from Artemisia argyi leaf in animals.

    PubMed

    Ge, Yue-Bin; Wang, Zhi-Gang; Xiong, Ying; Huang, Xian-Ju; Mei, Zhi-Nan; Hong, Zong-Guo

    2016-07-01

    Artemisia argyi leaf is a well-known species in traditional Chinese medicine. However, the anti-inflammatory and activating blood stasis activities of its essential oil (AAEO) have not been explored in vivo. The present study measured the contents of three chemical components by gas chromatography (GC). The anti-acute inflammatory effects of AAEO were investigated in dimethyl benzene, glacial acetic acid and carrageenan-induced animals through skin administration or by oral gavage, respectively. The effects of AAEO on haemorheology were studied in a rat acute blood stasis model. The contents of eucalyptol, camphor and borneol in AAEO were 254.4, 51.6 and 58.7 mg/g, respectively. All dosages of AAEO by skin administration significantly decreased the swelling in dimethyl benzene-induced ear oedema and carrageenan-induced paw oedema, and reduced the permeability in glacial acetic acid-induced abdominal blood capillary (p < 0.01). Meanwhile, haemorheology indexes such as whole blood viscosity and the erythrocyte aggregation index significantly decreased only in the high dosage group. In addition, the effects of AAEO by oral gavage were weaker than skin administration at the medium dose in the experiments. It suggests that AAEO has better absorption bioavailability and pharmacological effects through skin administration due to the better skin permeability of essential oil than gastrointestinal absorption.

  2. Effect of anaesthetics MS-222 and clove oil on blood biochemical parameters of juvenile Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feng, G.; Zhuang, P.; Zhang, L.; Kynard, B.; Shi, X.; Duan, M.; Liu, J.; Huang, X.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of MS-222 and clove oil on blood biochemical parameters of juvenile Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii) were studied. MS-222 caused higher glucose (GLU) concentrations in anaesthetic test groups than for the control group. Triglyceride (TGL) concentrations of fish in the 140 and 160mgL-1 groups were also significantly higher than those of other groups. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity in the 140mgL-1 group was significantly higher than the level in 80, 100 and 120mgL-1 groups. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity in the 140mgL-1 group was significantly higher than those in the 100 and 120mgL-1 groups. Levels of total protein (TP), cholesterol (CHOL) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in anaesthetic test groups were not significantly influenced by MS-222. Clove oil did not have significant effects on levels of GLU, TP, CHOL, ALT and ALP. TGL concentration of fish exposed to 180mgL-1 clove oil was significantly higher than those of the rest anaesthetic groups. AST activities of fish exposed to 120, 150 and 180mgL-1 were significantly higher than those of 60 and 90mgL-1. Overall, TGL and AST could be potentially used as indicators of anaesthetic stress for juvenile Siberian sturgeon. Based on blood biochemical parameters, the appropriate anaesthetic concentrations of MS-222 and clove oil were 80-120mgL-1 and 60-90mgL-1, respectively. Clove oil was a promising alternative to MS-222. ?? 2011 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin.

  3. Inhibition of ABC transport proteins by oil sands process affected water.

    PubMed

    Alharbi, Hattan A; Saunders, David M V; Al-Mousa, Ahmed; Alcorn, Jane; Pereira, Alberto S; Martin, Jonathan W; Giesy, John P; Wiseman, Steve B

    2016-01-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily of transporter proteins is important for detoxification of xenobiotics. For example, ABC transporters from the multidrug-resistance protein (MRP) subfamily are important for excretion of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their metabolites. Effects of chemicals in the water soluble organic fraction of relatively fresh oil sands process affected water (OSPW) from Base Mine Lake (BML-OSPW) and aged OSPW from Pond 9 (P9-OSPW) on the activity of MRP transporters were investigated in vivo by use of Japanese medaka at the fry stage of development. Activities of MRPs were monitored by use of the lipophilic dye calcein, which is transported from cells by ABC proteins, including MRPs. To begin to identify chemicals that might inhibit activity of MRPs, BML-OSPW and P9-OSPW were fractionated into acidic, basic, and neutral fractions by use of mixed-mode sorbents. Chemical compositions of fractions were determined by use of ultrahigh resolution orbitrap mass spectrometry in ESI(+) and ESI(-) mode. Greater amounts of calcein were retained in fry exposed to BML-OSPW at concentration equivalents greater than 1× (i.e., full strength). The neutral and basic fractions of BML-OSPW, but not the acidic fraction, caused greater retention of calcein. Exposure to P9-OSPW did not affect the amount of calcein in fry. Neutral and basic fractions of BML-OSPW contained relatively greater amounts of several oxygen-, sulfur, and nitrogen-containing chemical species that might inhibit MRPs, such as O(+), SO(+), and NO(+) chemical species, although secondary fractionation will be required to conclusively identify the most potent inhibitors. Naphthenic acids (O2(-)), which were dominant in the acidic fraction, did not appear to be the cause of the inhibition. This is the first study to demonstrate that chemicals in the water soluble organic fraction of OSPW inhibit activity of this important class of proteins. However, aging of OSPW attenuates

  4. Fat high in stearic acid favorably affects blood lipids and factor VII coagulant activity in comparison with fats high in palmitic acid or high in myristic and lauric acids.

    PubMed

    Tholstrup, T; Marckmann, P; Jespersen, J; Sandström, B

    1994-02-01

    The effect of fats high in individual, prevalent saturated dietary fatty acids on lipoproteins and hemostatic variables in young healthy subjects was evaluated in a randomized strictly controlled metabolic feeding study. Three experimental diets: shea butter (S; 42% stearic acid), palm oil (P; 43% palmitic palmitic acid), and palm-kernel oil with high-oleic sunflower oil (ML; 10% myristic acid, 30% lauric acid) were served to 15 men for 3 wk each, separated by washout periods. Diet S compared with diet P resulted in significant reduction in plasma cholesterol (22%) LDL cholesterol (26%), apolipoprotein B (18%), HDL cholesterol (12%), apolipoprotein A-I (13%), and a 13% lower factor VII coagulant activity (P = 0.001). Similar differences were observed between diets S and ML. In conclusion, intake of shea butter high in stearic acid favorably affects blood lipids and factor VII coagulant activity in young men, compared with fats high in saturated fatty acids with 12-16 carbons.

  5. How 'ground-picked' olive fruits affect virgin olive oil ethanol content, ethyl esters and quality.

    PubMed

    Beltran, Gabriel; Sánchez, Raquel; Sánchez-Ortiz, Araceli; Aguilera, Maria P; Bejaoui, Mohamed A; Jimenez, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    Olives dropped on the ground naturally sometimes are not separated from those fresh and healthy collected from the tree for harvest and processing. In this work we compared the quality, ethanol content and bioactive components of virgin olive oils from ground-picked olives, tree-picked fruits and their mixture. Ground-picked olives produced 'Lampante' virgin olive oils; these are of a lower quality category, because of important alterations in chemical and sensory characteristics. Ethyl esters showed the highest values, although under the regulated limit. The mixture of ground and tree-picked olives gave oils classified as 'virgin' because of sensory defects, although the quality parameters did not exceed the limits for the 'extra' category. Ethanol content showed a significant increase in the oils from ground- picked olives and their mixture with respect to those from tree-picked fruits. Furthermore, bioactive compounds showed a significant decrease as fruit quality was poorer. Ground-picked olives must be harvested and processed separately since they produce low-quality virgin olive oils with sensory defects and lower concentrations of bioactive compounds. The higher acidity and ethanol concentration observed in oils from ground-picked fruits or their mixture may help ethyl ester synthesis during storage. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Cytosolic phosphorylating glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenases affect Arabidopsis cellular metabolism and promote seed oil accumulation.

    PubMed

    Guo, Liang; Ma, Fangfang; Wei, Fang; Fanella, Brian; Allen, Doug K; Wang, Xuemin

    2014-07-01

    The cytosolic enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPC) catalyzes a key reaction in glycolysis, but its contribution to plant metabolism and growth are not well defined. Here, we show that two cytosolic GAPCs play important roles in cellular metabolism and seed oil accumulation. Knockout or overexpression of GAPCs caused significant changes in the level of intermediates in the glycolytic pathway and the ratios of ATP/ADP and NAD(P)H/NAD(P). Two double knockout seeds had ∼3% of dry weight decrease in oil content compared with that of the wild type. In transgenic seeds under the constitutive 35S promoter, oil content was increased up to 42% of dry weight compared with 36% in the wild type and the fatty acid composition was altered; however, these transgenic lines exhibited decreased fertility. Seed-specific overexpression lines had >3% increase in seed oil without compromised seed yield or fecundity. The results demonstrate that GAPC levels play important roles in the overall cellular production of reductants, energy, and carbohydrate metabolites and that GAPC levels are directly correlated with seed oil accumulation. Changes in cellular metabolites and cofactor levels highlight the complexity and tolerance of Arabidopsis thaliana cells to the metabolic perturbation. Further implications for metabolic engineering of seed oil production are discussed. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  7. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... that die or are lost from the body. White Blood Cells White blood cells (WBCs, and also ... of severe pain. previous continue Diseases of the White Blood Cells Neutropenia (pronounced: new-truh-PEE-nee- ...

  8. Blood clearance and tissue uptake of intravenous lipid emulsions containing long-chain and medium-chain triglycerides and fish oil in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Treskova, E; Carpentier, Y A; Ramakrishnan, R; Al-Haideri, M; Seo, T; Deckelbaum, R J

    1999-01-01

    Increasing interest in using different triglycerides (TGs) for specific clinical applications raised the question as to how the emulsion TG composition would affect blood clearance and emulsion delivery to hepatic and extrahepatic tissues. Emulsions used were long-chain soy oil TG (long-chain triglyceride [LCT]), LCT/ medium-chain triglyceride (MCT; 1:1, wt/wt), LCT/MCT/C/omega-3 (5:4:1, wt/wt) and pure fish oil (omega-3 TG) labeled with non-degradable 3H-cholesteryl oleoyl ether (3H-CE) as a particle marker. Mice (C57BL/6J) were injected with four different commercial emulsions at a nonsaturating dose of 0.4 mg TG/20 to 25 g per mouse to obtain 1st order kinetics. Blood was sampled at 0.5, 2, 5, 10, 15, and 25 minutes, and the fractional catabolic rate was determined by fitting a straight line to the logarithm of the blood 3H-CE radioactivity. Retention of 3H-CE for each tissue at 25 minutes reflected organ uptake of the emulsion. Blood clearance of pure omega-3 TG (10.40% +/- 0.54% pools/h; mean +/- SE) was significantly slower than that of LCT, LCT/MCT, and LCT/MCT/omega-3 emulsion (18.9 +/- 0.6 pools/h, 17.0 +/- 0.96 pools/h, 16.5 +/- 1.08 pools/h, respectively) (p < .01). Based on 3H-CE uptake, LCT, LCT/MCT, and omega-3 TG emulsions showed similar delivery to liver (39% +/- 3.9%, 46% +/- 3.6%, 34% +/- 3.2%). Liver uptake of LCT/MCT/omega-3, (23% +/- 2.2%) was less than LCT/MCT (46% +/-3.6%, p < .0001) and LCT (39% +/- 3.9%, p = .002). Results indicate slow blood clearance of pure omega-3 TG emulsion from the blood compared with emulsion in which omega-3 TG was mixed with LCT and MCT. Earlier data showed that omega-3 TG are poorly hydrolyzed in extracellular media and therefore are delivered to tissues as part of the core of emulsion remnants. Thus, our data suggest that the incorporation of omega-3 TG with LCT/MCT will result in greater delivery of omega-3 fatty acids to extrahepatic tissue, which could be important in modulating immune and other responses.

  9. Detection of naphthenic acids in fish exposed to commercial naphthenic acids and oil sands process-affected water.

    PubMed

    Young, R F; Orr, E A; Goss, G G; Fedorak, P M

    2007-06-01

    Naphthenic acids are a complex mixture of carboxylic acids that occur naturally in petroleum. During the extraction of bitumen from the oil sands in northeastern Alberta, Canada, naphthenic acids are released into the aqueous phase and these acids become the most toxic components in the process-affected water. Although previous studies have exposed fish to naphthenic acids or oil sands process-affected waters, there has been no analytical method to specifically detect naphthenic acids in fish. Here, we describe a qualitative method to specifically detect these acids. In 96-h static renewal tests, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fingerlings were exposed to three different treatments: (1) fed pellets that contained commercial naphthenic acids (1.5mg g(-1) of food), (2) kept in tap water that contained commercial naphthenic acids (3mg l(-1)) and (3) kept in an oil sands process-affected water that contained 15mg naphthenic acids l(-1). Five-gram samples of fish were homogenized and extracted, then the mixture of free fatty acids and naphthenic acids was isolated from the extract using strong anion exchange chromatography. The mixture was derivatized and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Reconstructed ion chromatograms (m/z=267) selectively detected naphthenic acids. These acids were present in each fish that was exposed to naphthenic acids, but absent in fish that were not exposed to naphthenic acids. The minimum detectable concentration was about 1microg naphthenic acids g(-1) of fish.

  10. Blood cell count in antipsychotic-naive patients with non-affective psychosis.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Rizo, Clemente; Casanovas, Marta; Fernandez-Egea, Emilio; Oliveira, Cristina; Meseguer, Ana; Cabrera, Bibiana; Mezquida, Gisela; Bioque, Miquel; Kirkpatrick, Brian; Bernardo, Miquel

    2017-08-08

    Schizophrenia is a complex medical entity with a reduced life expectancy, mostly due to an increased prevalence of cardiovascular diseases compared to the general population. An unbalanced immune response and a pro-inflammatory state might underlie this process. In treated patients, abnormal white blood cell (WBC), lymphocyte and neutrophil count suggests atypical immune response related to clinical variables. We aimed to test the hypothesis that newly diagnosed naïve patients with non-affective psychosis would show abnormal blood cell count values after controlling for potential confounding factors compared to matched controls. Seventy-five patients were compared with 80 controls matched for age, gender, body mass index and smoking. Analyses were conducted before and after controlling for smoking. Patients and controls displayed similar mean values (×10(3) /μL [SD]) for WBC count 7.02 [2.2] vs 6.50 [1.7] (P = .159), neutrophil count 4.25 [1.8] vs 3.84 [1.3] (P = .110) and monocyte count 0.43 [0.2] vs 0.40 [0.1] (P = .326). After controlling for smoking, 38 non-smoking patients showed a higher WBC and neutrophil count compared with 49 matched controls. Respective means of 7.01 [2.2] vs 5.97 [1.4] (P = .011) for WBC and 4.24 [1.9] vs 3.51 [1.2] (P = .028) for neutrophil count. Monocyte count showed an increased mean value 0.43 [0.2] vs 0.36 [0.1] with a trend towards signification (P = .063). These results suggest that abnormal immune response is present before the effects of medication and other confounders had taken place. Increased immune parameters might underlie the high ratio of medical co-morbidities described in schizophrenia. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  11. Palm Oil

    MedlinePlus

    ... A deficiency, cancer, brain disease, aging; and treating malaria, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and cyanide poisoning. ... oils, such as soybean, canola, or sunflower oil. Malaria. Some research suggests that dietary consumption of palm ...

  12. The influence of 'time since last blood meal' on the toxicity of essential oils to the poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae).

    PubMed

    George, D R; Smith, T J; Sparagano, O A E; Guy, J H

    2008-08-17

    The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer) is a serious ectoparasitic pest of layer hens that can survive for long periods in the poultry house sub-structure without taking a blood meal from its host. The research undertaken in this study found that 'time since last blood meal' had a notable effect on how toxic a selection of plant essential oils were to D. gallinae under laboratory conditions. In general, the essential oils had a greater toxic effect on D. gallinae if mites had been starved of a blood meal for around 3 weeks, than if they had been more recently fed 3-13 days prior to tests. This result was consistent across the four essential oils used (thyme, palmarosa, caraway and juniper leaf). This suggests that plant essential oils may be of use in management schemes for D. gallinae, particularly if used to sanitise houses between flocks, when mites will have been starved.

  13. Increased inspiratory resistance affects the dynamic relationship between blood pressure changes and subarachnoid space width oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Wszedybyl-Winklewska, Magdalena; Wolf, Jacek; Swierblewska, Ewa; Kunicka, Katarzyna; Mazur, Kamila; Gruszecki, Marcin; Winklewski, Pawel J.; Frydrychowski, Andrzej F.; Bieniaszewski, Leszek; Narkiewicz, Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    Background and objective Respiration is known to affect cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) movement. We hypothesised that increased inspiratory resistance would affect the dynamic relationship between blood pressure (BP) changes and subarachnoid space width (SAS) oscillations. Methods Experiments were performed in a group of 20 healthy volunteers undergoing controlled intermittent Mueller Manoeuvres (the key characteristic of the procedure is that a studied person is subjected to a controlled, increased inspiratory resistance which results in marked potentiation of the intrathoracic negative pressure). BP and heart rate (HR) were measured using continuous finger-pulse photoplethysmography; oxyhaemoglobin saturation with an ear-clip sensor; end-tidal CO2 with a gas analyser; cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV), pulsatility and resistive indices with Doppler ultrasound. Changes in SAS were recorded with a new method i.e. near-infrared transillumination/backscattering sounding. Wavelet transform analysis was used to assess the BP and SAS oscillations coupling. Results Initiating Mueller manoeuvres evoked cardiac SAS component decline (-17.8%, P<0.001), systolic BP, diastolic BP and HR increase (+6.3%, P<0.001; 6.7%, P<0.001 and +2.3%, P<0.05, respectively). By the end of Mueller manoeuvres, cardiac SAS component and HR did not change (+2.3% and 0.0%, respectively; both not statistically significant), but systolic and diastolic BP was elevated (+12.6% and +8.9%, respectively; both P<0.001). With reference to baseline values there was an evident decrease in wavelet coherence between BP and SAS oscillations at cardiac frequency in the first half of the Mueller manoeuvres (-32.3%, P<0.05 for left hemisphere and -46.0%, P<0.01 for right hemisphere) which was followed by subsequent normalization at end of the procedure (+3.1% for left hemisphere and +23.1% for right hemisphere; both not statistically significant). Conclusions Increased inspiratory resistance is associated with

  14. Increased inspiratory resistance affects the dynamic relationship between blood pressure changes and subarachnoid space width oscillations.

    PubMed

    Wszedybyl-Winklewska, Magdalena; Wolf, Jacek; Swierblewska, Ewa; Kunicka, Katarzyna; Mazur, Kamila; Gruszecki, Marcin; Winklewski, Pawel J; Frydrychowski, Andrzej F; Bieniaszewski, Leszek; Narkiewicz, Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    Respiration is known to affect cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) movement. We hypothesised that increased inspiratory resistance would affect the dynamic relationship between blood pressure (BP) changes and subarachnoid space width (SAS) oscillations. Experiments were performed in a group of 20 healthy volunteers undergoing controlled intermittent Mueller Manoeuvres (the key characteristic of the procedure is that a studied person is subjected to a controlled, increased inspiratory resistance which results in marked potentiation of the intrathoracic negative pressure). BP and heart rate (HR) were measured using continuous finger-pulse photoplethysmography; oxyhaemoglobin saturation with an ear-clip sensor; end-tidal CO2 with a gas analyser; cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV), pulsatility and resistive indices with Doppler ultrasound. Changes in SAS were recorded with a new method i.e. near-infrared transillumination/backscattering sounding. Wavelet transform analysis was used to assess the BP and SAS oscillations coupling. Initiating Mueller manoeuvres evoked cardiac SAS component decline (-17.8%, P<0.001), systolic BP, diastolic BP and HR increase (+6.3%, P<0.001; 6.7%, P<0.001 and +2.3%, P<0.05, respectively). By the end of Mueller manoeuvres, cardiac SAS component and HR did not change (+2.3% and 0.0%, respectively; both not statistically significant), but systolic and diastolic BP was elevated (+12.6% and +8.9%, respectively; both P<0.001). With reference to baseline values there was an evident decrease in wavelet coherence between BP and SAS oscillations at cardiac frequency in the first half of the Mueller manoeuvres (-32.3%, P<0.05 for left hemisphere and -46.0%, P<0.01 for right hemisphere) which was followed by subsequent normalization at end of the procedure (+3.1% for left hemisphere and +23.1% for right hemisphere; both not statistically significant). Increased inspiratory resistance is associated with swings in the cardiac contribution to the dynamic

  15. Factors affecting the yield of bio-oil from the pyrolysis of coconut shell.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yun; Yang, Yi; Qin, Zhanbin; Sun, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Coconut is a high-quality agricultural product of the Asia-Pacific region. In this paper, coconut shell which mainly composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin was used as a raw material for coconut shell oil from coconut shell pyrolysis. The influence of the pyrolysis temperature, heating rate and particle size on coconut oil yield was investigated, and the effect of heating rate on coconut oil components was discussed. Experimental results show that the maximum oil yield of 75.74 wt% (including water) were obtained under the conditions that the final pyrolysis temperature 575 °C, heating rate 20 °C/min, coconut shell diameter about 5 mm. Thermal gravimetric analysis was used and it can be seen that coconut shell pyrolysis process can be divided into three stages: water loss, pyrolysis and pyrocondensation. The main components of coconut-shell oil are water (about 50 wt%), aromatic, phenolic, acid, ketone and ether containing compounds.

  16. Trials of bioremediation on a beach affected by the heavy oil spill of the Prestige.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Alvarez, P; Vila, J; Garrido-Fernández, J M; Grifoll, M; Lema, J M

    2006-10-11

    The objective of this study was to assess the efficiency of several bioremediation products in accelerating the in situ biodegradation of the heavy fuel oil spill of the Prestige. Trials of bioremediation were conducted in sand, rocks and granite tiles on the beach of Sorrizo (A Coruña, NW Spain) that was polluted by the spill. Neither the added microorganisms nor the nutrients significantly enhanced the degradation rate of the fuel oil in rocks, granite tiles or sand. PAH degradation up to 80% was determined in sand and tiles. In tiles the oxygen content of the residual oil increased from 1.6% up to 8% in 90 days, which could be explained by the accumulation of products coming from the partial oxidation of the hydrocarbons. Eighteen months after the spill, the rocks of the beach were still coated by a black layer of weathered fuel oil. For this reason an oleophilic product, sunflower biodiesel was tested on a rock. The application of biodiesel accelerated the gradually clean-up of the polluted surface and could also accelerate the degradation of the residual oil.

  17. Plant oils thymol and eugenol affect cattle and swine waste emissions differently.

    PubMed

    Varel, V H; Miller, D N; Lindsay, A D

    2004-01-01

    Wastes generated from the production of cattle and swine in confined facilities create the potential for surface and groundwater pollution, emission of greenhouse gases, transmission of pathogens to food and water sources, and odor. It is our hypothesis that something which inhibits microbial fermentation in livestock wastes will be beneficial to solving some of the environmental problems. Our work has concentrated on the use of antimicrobial plant oils, thymol, thyme oil, carvacrol, eugenol and clove oil. Anaerobic one-litre flasks with a working volume of 0.5 L cattle or swine manure were used to evaluate the effect of thymol and eugenol on production of fermentation gas, short-chain volatile fatty acids, lactate, and bacterial populations. Either oil at 0.2% in both wastes essentially stopped all production of gas and volatile fatty acids, and eliminated all fecal coliform bacteria. In cattle but not swine waste, thymol prevented the accumulation of lactate. However, eugenol stimulated lactate formation in cattle and swine wastes. Thus, eugenol may offer a distinct advantage over thymol, because lactate accumulation in the wastes causes the pH to drop more rapidly, further inhibiting microbial activity and nutrient emissions. We conclude that plant oils may offer solutions to controlling various environmental problems associated with livestock wastes, assuming that they are cost-effective.

  18. Determination of micronucleus frequency by acridine orange fluorescent staining in peripheral blood reticulocytes of mice treated topically with different lubricant oils and cyclophosphamide.

    PubMed

    Oliveira-Martins, C R; Grisolia, C K

    2007-09-30

    To ascertain whether used and re-refined lubricant oil absorbed through the skin can produce a genotoxic effect or cytotoxicity in mouse bone marrow cells, we examined the induction of micronucleated erythrocytes of peripheral blood after cutaneous application. Both re-refined and used lubricant oils showed a weak but significant induction of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes compared with control, while virgin oil did not show micronucleus induction. Cyclophosphamide (CP) was used not only as positive control but also to compare the sensitivity between intraperitoneal and dermal routes of administration of the test compounds in mice. The efficacy of intraperitoneal injection of CP is well known. On the other hand, dermal exposure is not so common and when CP was diluted in glycerin statistically significant values (P = 0.0036) of micronuclei were also found. Topically applied lubricant oils (virgin, re-refined and used) have the capacity to interfere with mouse bone marrow hematopoiesis evidenced by a statistically significant decrease in the proportion of polychromatic erythrocytes in the peripheral blood. Physical and chemical analysis revealed that used oil is more viscous than other lubricants, suggesting the presence of insoluble compounds, oxidized products and water as well as aromatic hydrocarbons. Used oil differs from other lubricant oils in metal and polyaromatic hydrocarbon content. Re-refined oil revealed a neutral value typical of pure mineral oil. This assay is an important tool to evaluate environmental pollutants that cause genotoxicity and/or cytotoxicity through skin exposure.

  19. [Effects of Frankincense and Myrrh essential oil on transdermal absorption in vitro of Chuanxiong and penetration mechanism of skin blood flow].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiao-Fang; Luo, Jing; Guan, Yong-Mei; Yu, Ya-Ting; Jin, Chen; Zhu, Wei-Feng; Liu, Hong-Ning

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this paper was to explore the effects of Frankincense and Myrrh essential oil on transdermal absorption in vitro of Chuanxiong, and to investigate the possible penetration mechanism of their essential oil from the perspective of skin blood perfusion changes. Transdermal tests were performed in vitro with excised mice skin by improved Franz diffusion cells. The cumulative penetration amounts of ferulic acid in Chuanxiong were determined by HPLC to investigate the effects of Frankincense and Myrrh essential oil on transdermal permeation properties of Chuanxiong. Simultaneously, the skin blood flows were determined by laser flow doppler. The results showed that the cumulative penetration amount of ferulic acid in Chuanxiong was (8.13±0.76) μg•cm⁻² in 24 h, and was (48.91±4.87), (57.80±2.86), (63.34±4.56), (54.17±4.40), (62.52±7.79) μg•cm⁻² respectively in Azone group, Frankincense essential oil group, Myrrh essential oil, frankincense and myrrh singly extracted essential oil mixture group, and frankincense and myrrh mixed extraction essential oil group. The enhancement ratios of each essential oil groups were 7.68, 8.26, 7.26, 8.28, which were slightly greater than 6.55 in Azone group. In addition, as compared with the conditions before treatment, there were significant differences and obvious increasing trend in blood flow of rats in Frankincense essential oil group, Myrrh essential oil group, frankincense and myrrh singly extracted essential oil mixture group, and frankincense and myrrh mixed extraction essential oil group when were dosed at 10, 20, 30, 10 min respectively, indicating that the skin blood flows were increased under the effects of Frankincense and Myrrh essential oil to a certain extent. Thus, Frankincense and Myrrh essential oil had certain effect on promoting permeability of Chuanxiong both before and after drug combination, and may promote the elimination of drugs from epidermis to dermal capillaries through increase of

  20. Acute arginine supplementation fails to improve muscle endurance or affect blood pressure responses to resistance training.

    PubMed

    Greer, Beau K; Jones, Brett T

    2011-07-01

    Dietary supplement companies claim that arginine supplements acutely enhance skeletal muscular endurance. The purpose of this study was to determine whether acute arginine α-ketoglutarate supplementation (AAKG) will affect local muscle endurance of the arm and shoulder girdle or the blood pressure (BP) response to anaerobic exercise. Twelve trained college-aged men (22.6 ± 3.8 years) performed 2 trials of exercise separated by at least 1 week. At 4 hours before, and 30 minutes before exercise, a serving of an AAKG supplement (3,700 mg arginine alpha-ketoglutarate per serving) or placebo was administered. Resting BP was assessed pre-exercise after 16 minutes of seated rest, and 5 and 10 minutes postexercise. Three sets each of chin-ups, reverse chin-ups, and push-ups were performed to exhaustion with 3 minutes of rest between each set. Data were analyzed using repeated-measures analysis of variance and paired t-tests. The AAKG supplementation did not improve muscle endurance or significantly affect the BP response to anaerobic work. Subjects performed fewer total chin-ups (23.75 ± 6.38 vs. 25.58 ± 7.18) and total trial repetitions (137.92 ± 28.18 vs. 141.08 ± 28.57) in the supplement trial (p ≤ 0.05). Subjects executed fewer reverse chin-ups (5.83 ± 1.85 vs. 6.75 ± 2.09) during set 2 after receiving the supplement as compared to the placebo (p < 0.05). Because AAKG supplementation may hinder muscular endurance, the use of these supplements before resistance training should be questioned.

  1. Olanzapine and aripiprazole differentially affect glucose uptake and energy metabolism in human mononuclear blood cells.

    PubMed

    Stapel, Britta; Kotsiari, Alexandra; Scherr, Michaela; Hilfiker-Kleiner, Denise; Bleich, Stefan; Frieling, Helge; Kahl, Kai G

    2017-05-01

    The use of antipsychotics carries the risk of metabolic side effects, such as weight gain and new onset type-2 diabetes mellitus. The mechanisms of the observed metabolic alterations are not fully understood. We compared the effects of two atypical antipsychotics, one known to favor weight gain (olanzapine), the other not (aripiprazole), on glucose metabolism. Primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated and stimulated with olanzapine or aripiprazole for 72 h. Cellular glucose uptake was analyzed in vitro by 18F-FDG uptake. Further measurements comprised mRNA expression of glucose transporter (GLUT) 1 and 3, GLUT1 protein expression, DNA methylation of GLUT1 promoter region, and proteins involved in downstream glucometabolic processes. We observed a 2-fold increase in glucose uptake after stimulation with aripiprazole. In contrast, olanzapine stimulation decreased glucose uptake by 40%, accompanied by downregulation of the cellular energy sensor AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK). GLUT1 protein expression increased, GLUT1 mRNA expression decreased, and GLUT1 promoter was hypermethylated with both antipsychotics. Pyruvat-dehydrogenase (PDH) complex activity decreased with olanzapine only. Our findings suggest that the atypical antipsychotics olanzapine and aripiprazole differentially affect energy metabolism in PBMC. The observed decrease in glucose uptake in olanzapine stimulated PBMC, accompanied by decreased PDH point to a worsening in cellular energy metabolism not compensated by AMKP upregulation. In contrast, aripiprazole stimulation lead to increased glucose uptake, while not affecting PDH complex expression. The observed differences may be involved in the different metabolic profiles observed in aripiprazole and olanzapine treated patients.

  2. Did smoke from the Kuwait oil well fires affect Iranian archaeological heritage?

    PubMed

    Bonazza, Alessandra; Sabbioni, Cristina; Ghedini, Nadia; Hermosin, Bernardo; Jurado, Valme; Gonzalez, Juan Miguel; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2007-04-01

    The combustion of crude oil produces a wide range of pollutants, including gases, volatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, acid compounds (e.g., sulfuric acid), and soot. Several of these pollutants have been linked with the deterioration and blackening of monuments. The paper reports the results of an investigation on the causes of the soiling of cultural remains at important archaeological sites in the provinces of Khuzestan and Fars, in southern Iran, assumed to be an effect of the Persian Gulf oil well fires of 1991. Different analytical techniques were applied to characterize the mineralogical composition of the damage layers, investigate the deposition of atmospheric particles, measure the anion concentrations, and identify and quantify the carbon components. The results showed that the black deposits on the surfaces of the Iranian monuments considered are mainly microbiotic crusts produced by cyanobacterial growth. No evidence was found of the deposition of particulate matter (smoke) produced by the Kuwait oil fires during the Gulf War.

  3. Pedologic Factors Affecting Virgin Olive Oil Quality of "Chemlali" Olive Trees (Olea europaea L.).

    PubMed

    Rached, Mouna Ben; Galaverna, Gianni; Cirlini, Martina; Boujneh, Dalenda; Zarrouk, Mokhtar; Guerfel, Mokhtar

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study examined the characterization of extra virgin olive oil samples from the main cultivar Chemlali, grown in five olive orchards with different soil type (Sandy, Clay, Stony, Brown, Limestone and Gypsum). Volatile compounds were studied using headspace-solid phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technics. Moreover, the sterol profile was established using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. 35 different volatile compounds were identified: alcohols, esters, aldehydes, ketones and hydrocarbons. The chemical composition of the volatile fraction was characterized by the preeminence of 2-hexenal (32.75%) and 1-hexanol (31.88%). Three sterols were identified and characterized. For all olive oil samples, ß-sitosterol (302.25 mg/kg) was the most abundant sterol. Interestingly, our results showed significant qualitative and quantitative differences in the levels of the volatile compounds and sterols from oils obtained from olive trees grown in different soil type.

  4. Physiologic Variations in Blood Plasminogen Levels Affect Outcomes after Acute Cerebral Thromboembolism in Mice: A Pathophysiologic Role for Microvascular Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Satish; Houng, Aiilyan K.; Wang, Dong; Reed, Guy L.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background and Objectives Plasminogen appears to affect brain inflammation, cell movement, fibrinolysis, neuronal excitotoxicity and cell death. However, brain tissue and circulating blood plasminogen may have different roles and, there is large individual variation in blood plasminogen levels. The aim of this study was to determine the integrated effect of blood plasminogen levels on ischemic brain injury. Methods We examined thromboembolic stroke in mice with varying, experimentally-determined, blood plasminogen levels. Ischemic brain injury, blood-brain barrier breakdown, matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression and microvascular thrombosis were determined. Results Within the range of normal variation, plasminogen levels were strongly associated with ischemic brain injury (p<0.0001); higher blood plasminogen levels had dose-related, protective effects (p<0.0001). Higher plasminogen levels were associated with increased dissolution of the middle cerebral artery thrombus (p<0.0001). Higher plasminogen levels decreased blood-brain barrier breakdown (p<0.05), matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression (p<0.01) and reduced microvascular thrombosis (p<0.0001) in the ischemic brain. In plasminogen-deficient mice, selective restoration of blood plasminogen levels reversed the harmful effects of plasminogen deficiency on ischemic brain injury. Specific inhibition of thrombin also reversed the effect of plasminogen deficiency on ischemic injury by diminishing microvascular thrombosis, blood-brain barrier breakdown and matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression. Conclusions Variation in blood plasminogen levels, within the range seen in normal individuals, had marked effects on experimental ischemic brain injury. Higher plasminogen levels protected against ischemic brain injury, decreased blood-brain barrier breakdown, matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression and microvascular thrombosis. The protective effects of blood plasminogen appear to be mediated largely through reduction

  5. Naphthenic Acid Mixtures from Oil Sands Process-Affected Water Enhance Differentiation of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells and Affect Development of the Heart.

    PubMed

    Mohseni, Paria; Hahn, Noah A; Frank, Richard A; Hewitt, L Mark; Hajibabaei, Mehrdad; Van Der Kraak, Glen

    2015-08-18

    Extraction of petrochemicals from the surface mining of oil sand deposits results in generation of large volumes of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW). Naphthenic acids (NA) are generally considered to be among the most toxic components of OSPW. Previous studies have shown that NAs are toxic to aquatic organisms, however knowledge of their effects on mammalian health and development is limited. In the present study, we evaluated the developmental effects of an NA extract prepared from fresh OSPW on differentiating mouse embryonic stem cells (ESC). We found that treatment of differentiating cells with the NA extract at noncytotoxic concentrations alters expression of various lineage specification markers and development of the heart. Notably, expression of cardiac specific markers such as Nkx2.5, Gata4, and Mef2c were significantly up-regulated. Moreover, exposure to the NA extract enhanced differentiation of embryoid bodies and resulted in the early appearance of spontaneously beating clusters. Interestingly, exposure of undifferentiated mouse ESCs to the NA extract did not change the expression level of pluripotency markers (i.e., Oct4, Nanog, and Sox2). Altogether, these data identify some of the molecular pathways affected by components within this NA extract during differentiation of mammalian cells.

  6. D-limonene rich volatile oil from blood oranges inhibits angiogenesis, metastasis and cell death in human colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chidambara Murthy, Kotamballi N; Jayaprakasha, Guddadarangavvanahally K; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2012-10-05

    To identify the chemical constituents of volatile oil from blood orange (Citrus sinensis (L) Osbeck) and understand the possible mechanisms of inhibition of colon cancer cell proliferation. Volatile oil was obtained from blood oranges by hydro-distillation. Nineteen compounds were identified by GC-MS and d-limonene was found to be the major component. The blood orange volatile oil was formulated into an emulsion (BVOE) and examined for its effects on viability of colon cancer cells. In addition, experiments were performed to understand the possible mechanism of proliferation inhibition, angiogenesis and metasasis by BVOE. BVOE exhibited dose-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in the colon cancer cells, as confirmed by flow cytometry. Immunoblotting of colon cancer cells treated with BVOE shows dose-dependent induction of Bax/Bcl2) and inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Furthermore, treatment of serum starved SW480 and HT-29 cells with 100μg/ml BVOE suggested the inhibition of VEGF and markers associated with inhibition of angiogenesis. The antiangiogenic activity of BVOE was also confirmed by inhibition of in vitro tube formation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Dose-dependent anti-metastasis activity and blockage of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR1) binding following treatment with BVOE were confirmed by cell migration assays and immunoblots to detect decreased expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-9). The results of this study provide persuasive evidence of the apoptotic and anti-angiogenesis potential of BVOE in colon cancer cells. The extent of induction of apoptosis and inhibition of angiogenesis suggest that BVOE may offer great potential for prevention of cancer and may be appropriate for further studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone affect the response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to mycobacterial antigens during tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Mahuad, C; Bay, M L; Farroni, M A; Bozza, V; Del Rey, A; Besedovsky, H; Bottasso, O A

    2004-12-01

    The effect of cortisol and/or dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on the immune response to antigens obtained from Mycobacterium tuberculosis was studied in vitro by using peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from patients at various stages of lung tuberculosis (TB) and from healthy control people (HCo). The results obtained show for the first time that addition of cortisol within concentrations of physiological range can inhibit the mycobacterial antigen-driven proliferation of cells from HCo and TB patients and the production of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), indicating that endogenous levels of cortisol may contribute to the decreased lymphoid cell response to mycobacterium antigens observed in TB patients. DHEA did not affect lymphoid cell proliferation, IFN-gamma production and the cortisol-mediated inhibitory effects. Interestingly, we found that DHEA, but not cortisol, suppressed the in vitro transforming growth factor-beta production by lymphoid cells from TB patients with an advanced disease, which is indicative of a selective direct effect of this hormone.

  8. Systematic Functional Dissection of Common Genetic Variation Affecting Red Blood Cell Traits

    PubMed Central

    Ulirsch, Jacob C.; Nandakumar, Satish K.; Wang, Li; Giani, Felix C.; Zhang, Xiaolan; Rogov, Peter; Melnikov, Alexandre; McDonel, Patrick; Do, Ron; Mikkelsen, Tarjei S.; Sankaran, Vijay G.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have successfully identified thousands of associations between common genetic variants and human disease phenotypes, but the majority of these variants are non-coding, often requiring genetic fine-mapping, epigenomic profiling, and individual reporter assays to delineate potential causal variants. We employ a massively parallel reporter assay (MPRA) to simultaneous screen 2756 variants in strong linkage-disequilibrium with 75 sentinel variants associated with red blood cell traits. We show that this assay identifies elements with endogenous erythroid regulatory activity. Across 23 sentinel variants, we conservatively identified 32 MPRA functional variants (MFVs). We demonstrate endogenous enhancer activity across 3 MFVs that predominantly affect the transcription of SMIM1, RBM38, and CD164 using targeted genome editing. Functional follow up of RBM38 delineates a key role for this gene in the alternative splicing program occurring during terminal erythropoiesis. Finally, we provide evidence for how common GWAS-nominated variants can disrupt cell-type specific transcriptional regulatory pathways. PMID:27259154

  9. Systematic Functional Dissection of Common Genetic Variation Affecting Red Blood Cell Traits.

    PubMed

    Ulirsch, Jacob C; Nandakumar, Satish K; Wang, Li; Giani, Felix C; Zhang, Xiaolan; Rogov, Peter; Melnikov, Alexandre; McDonel, Patrick; Do, Ron; Mikkelsen, Tarjei S; Sankaran, Vijay G

    2016-06-02

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have successfully identified thousands of associations between common genetic variants and human disease phenotypes, but the majority of these variants are non-coding, often requiring genetic fine-mapping, epigenomic profiling, and individual reporter assays to delineate potential causal variants. We employ a massively parallel reporter assay (MPRA) to simultaneously screen 2,756 variants in strong linkage disequilibrium with 75 sentinel variants associated with red blood cell traits. We show that this assay identifies elements with endogenous erythroid regulatory activity. Across 23 sentinel variants, we conservatively identified 32 MPRA functional variants (MFVs). We used targeted genome editing to demonstrate endogenous enhancer activity across 3 MFVs that predominantly affect the transcription of SMIM1, RBM38, and CD164. Functional follow-up of RBM38 delineates a key role for this gene in the alternative splicing program occurring during terminal erythropoiesis. Finally, we provide evidence for how common GWAS-nominated variants can disrupt cell-type-specific transcriptional regulatory pathways. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Migratory behavior of birds affects their coevolutionary relationship with blood parasites.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Tania; Thomas, Gavin H; Hellgren, Olof; Owens, Ian P F

    2012-03-01

    Host traits, such as migratory behavior, could facilitate the dispersal of disease-causing parasites, potentially leading to the transfer of infections both across geographic areas and between host species. There is, however, little quantitative information on whether variation in such host attributes does indeed affect the evolutionary outcome of host-parasite associations. Here, we employ Leucocytozoon blood parasites of birds, a group of parasites closely related to avian malaria, to study host-parasite coevolution in relation to host behavior using a phylogenetic comparative approach. We reconstruct the molecular phylogenies of both the hosts and parasites and use cophylogenetic tools to assess whether each host-parasite association contributes significantly to the overall congruence between the two phylogenies. We find evidence for a significant fit between host and parasite phylogenies in this system, but show that this is due only to associations between nonmigrant parasites and their hosts. We also show that migrant bird species harbor a greater genetic diversity of parasites compared with nonmigrant species. Taken together, these results suggest that the migratory habits of birds could influence their coevolutionary relationship with their parasites, and that consideration of host traits is important in predicting the outcome of coevolutionary interactions.

  11. Impact of negative affectivity and trait forgiveness on aortic blood pressure and coronary circulation.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Gonzalez, Marcos A; May, Ross W; Koutnik, Andrew P; Fincham, Frank D

    2015-02-01

    Prior research suggests that negative affectivity (NA) may have a direct adverse effect on coronary circulation, whereas forgiveness may provide cardioprotection. This study examined whether NA and forgiveness were independently related to aortic hemodynamics and the subendocardial viability index (SVI), a marker of coronary perfusion. A sample of 131 adults (M = 21.11 years, SD = 2.52) were evaluated for NA (depression, anxiety, and anger symptoms) and forgiveness (Tendency to Forgive Scale; TTF). Aortic hemodynamic parameters via applanation tonometry were assessed at rest and during sympathostimulation (cold pressor test; CPT). Hierarchical multiple regression analyses of resting values showed that NA was related to higher aortic blood pressure (ABP) and lower SVI. After controlling for demographics and for NA, TTF scores were significantly associated with decreased ABP, but increased SVI. CPT changes from baseline indicated that, after controlling for demographics and NA, TTF scores were significantly associated with SVI. Results indicate that NA significantly predicts ABP and decreased SVI. Conversely, forgiveness seems to provide cardioprotection by evoking decreased ABP while improving SVI. © 2014 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  12. Timing of adding blood to prime affects inflammatory response to neonatal cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Benjamin S; Jordan, James E; Lane, Magan R; DiPasquale, Vanessa M; Graf, Lori P; Ootaki, Yoshio; Ungerleider, Ross M

    2016-07-08

    Complications from systemic inflammation are reported in neonates following exposure to cardiopulmonary bypass. Although the use of asanguinous primes can reduce these complications, in neonates, this can result in significant haemodilution, requiring addition of blood. This study investigates whether the addition of blood after institution of bypass alters the inflammatory response compared with a blood prime. Neonatal swine were randomised into four groups: blood prime, blood after bypass but before cooling, blood after cooling but before low flow, and blood after re-warming. All groups were placed on central bypass, cooled, underwent low flow, and then re-warmed for a total bypass time of 2 hours. Although haematocrit values between groups varied throughout bypass, all groups ended with a similar value. Although they spent time with a lower haematocrit, asanguinous prime groups did not have elevated lactate levels at the end of bypass compared with blood prime. Asanguinous primes released less tumour necrosis factor α than blood primes (p=0.023). Asanguinous primes with blood added on bypass produced less interleukin 10 and tumour necrosis factor α (p=0.006, 0.019). Animals receiving blood while cool also showed less interleukin 10 and tumour necrosis factor α production than those that received blood warm (p=0.026, 0.033). Asanguinous primes exhibited less oedema than blood primes, with the least body weight gain noted in the end cool group (p=0.011). This study suggests that using an asanguinous prime for neonates being cooled to deep hypothermia is practical, and the later addition of blood reduces inflammation.

  13. Bioaccessibility and Antioxidant Activity of Calendula officinalis Supercritical Extract as Affected by in Vitro Codigestion with Olive Oil.

    PubMed

    Martin, Diana; Navarro Del Hierro, Joaquín; Villanueva Bermejo, David; Fernández-Ruiz, Ramón; Fornari, Tiziana; Reglero, Guillermo

    2016-11-23

    Supercritical extracts of marigold (ME) were produced and characterized. The bioaccessibility of terpenes, especially that of pentacyclic triterpenes (PT), the particle-size distribution, and antioxidant activity after the in vitro codigestion of ME with olive oil (OO) were determined. ME produced without cosolvent was richer in taraxasterol, lupeol, α-amyrin, and β-amyrin than extracts with cosolvent. All terpenes showed high bioaccessibility without OO (>75%). Significant correlations were found between the molecular properties of compounds (logP and number of rotatable bonds) and their bioaccessibility. Codigestion with OO enhanced the bioaccessibility (around 100% for PT), which could be related to a higher abundance of low-size particles of the digestion medium. The antioxidant activity of the digested ME increased around 50%, regardless of OO. PT-rich extracts from marigold display high bioaccessibility and improved antioxidant activity after in vitro digestion, although complete bioaccessibility of PT can be reached by codigestion with oil, without affecting antioxidant activity.

  14. Pathological features in marine birds affected by the prestige's oil spill in the north of Spain.

    PubMed

    Balseiro, A; Espí, A; Márquez, I; Pérez, V; Ferreras, M C; Marín, J F García; Prieto, J M

    2005-04-01

    A total of 2,465 seabirds, mainly common murres (Uria aalge), razorbills (Alca torda), and puffins (Fratercula arctica) that beached in the northwestern part of Spain after the "Prestige" oil spill on 19 November 2002 were examined by pathological methods. Birds were divided into three groups: dead birds with the body covered (group 1) or uncovered (group 2) by oil and birds recovered alive but which died after being treated at a rescue center (group 3). The main gross lesions were severe dehydration and emaciation. Microscopically, hemosiderin deposits, related to cachexia and/or hemolytic anemia, were observed in those birds harboring oil in the intestine. Severe aspergillosis and ulcers in the ventriculus were found only in group 3 birds, probably because of stress associated with attempted rehabilitation at the rescue center. The mild character of the pathological changes suggests that petroleum oil toxicosis causes multiple sublethal changes that have an effect on the ability of the birds to survive at sea, especially weak and young, inexperienced animals. Dehydration and exhaustion seem to be the most likely cause of death.

  15. Impact of hurricane Isaac on recovery of saltmarshes affected by the BP oil spill in Barataria Bay in the Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanna, S.; Haverkamp, P. J.; Santos, M. J.; Shapiro, K.; Lay, M.; Koltunov, A.; Ustin, S.

    2013-12-01

    Saltmarshes of the Gulf of Mexico have a long history of being impacted by oil spills. The Deep Water Horizon BP Oil spill was the biggest spill in US history. Its effects are still noticeable on these coastal wetlands. While it is expected that over time these ecosystems will recover from oil spill impacts, disturbances can alter the pathway to recovery. In August 2012, hurricane Isaac traced the same path as the 2010 oil spill. We questioned whether the hurricane had a detrimental effect on the recovery of wetland communities previously affected by the oil spill. We analyzed AVIRIS hyperspectral imagery acquired over Bay Jimmy in Barataria Bay in September of 2010, in August of 2011, and after hurricane Isaac in October of 2012. We estimated oil and hurricane impact extent, and effects on plant stress based on change detection and trajectories of narrow band vegetation indexes. In September 2010, the oil impact extended 14m inland from the shore. Four plant stress indexes (NDVI, mNDVI, ANIR, ARed) and three water content indexes (NDII, WA980, WA1240) consistently showed that plant stress was significantly negatively correlated with distance from the shore. A year after the oil spill, in August 2011, we found that the vegetation was regenerating rapidly in more than 80% of the affected area. However, after hurricane Isaac, in October 2012, 24% of the 14-m green vegetation belt next to the shore disappeared under water in regions previously impacted by oil and 21% of the oil-free shoreline also lost its land to water. In the first 7 m adjacent to the shore, 38.5% of the land disappeared in oil-impacted zones and 32% in the oil-free zones. These results suggest that post-oil disturbance events can delay vegetation recovery in an already fragile wetland community.

  16. Gill and liver histopathological changes in yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and goldfish (Carassius auratus) exposed to oil sands process-affected water.

    PubMed

    Nero, V; Farwell, A; Lister, A; Van der Kraak, G; Lee, L E J; Van Meer, T; MacKinnon, M D; Dixon, D G

    2006-03-01

    The extraction of bitumen from the Athabasca oil sands (Alberta, Canada) produces significant volumes of process-affected water containing elevated levels of naphthenic acids (NAs), ions, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The sublethal response of aquatic organisms exposed to oil sands constituents in experimental aquatic environments that represent possible reclamation options has been studied. In this study, the effects of process-affected waters on gill and liver tissues in yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and caged goldfish (Carassius auratus) held in several reclamation ponds at Syncrude's Mildred Lake site have been assessed. Following a 3-week exposure, significant gill (epithelial cell necrosis, mucous cell proliferation) and liver (hepatocellular degeneration, inflammatory cell infiltration) histopathological changes were noted in fish held in waters containing high levels of oil sands process-affected water. In addition, measurements of gill dimensions (gill morphometrical indices) proved sensitive and provided evidence of a physiological disturbance (gas exchange) with exposure to oil sands materials. Due to the complexity of oil sands process-affected water, the cause of the alterations could not be attributed to specific oil sands constituents. However, the histopathological parameters were strong indicators of exposure to oil sands process-affected water and morphometrical data were sensitive indicators of pathological response, which can be used to identify the interactive effects of ionic content, NAs, and PAHs in future laboratory studies.

  17. Randomized controlled trial examining the effects of fish oil and multivitamin supplementation on the incorporation of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids into red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Pipingas, Andrew; Cockerell, Robyn; Grima, Natalie; Sinclair, Andrew; Stough, Con; Scholey, Andrew; Myers, Stephen; Croft, Kevin; Sali, Avni; Pase, Matthew P

    2014-05-14

    The present randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-groups clinical trial examined the effects of fish oil and multivitamin supplementation on the incorporation of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids into red blood cells. Healthy adult humans (n = 160) were randomized to receive 6 g of fish oil, 6 g of fish oil plus a multivitamin, 3 g of fish oil plus a multivitamin or a placebo daily for 16 weeks. Treatment with 6 g of fish oil, with or without a daily multivitamin, led to higher eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) composition at endpoint. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) composition was unchanged following treatment. The long chain LC n-3 PUFA index was only higher, compared to placebo, in the group receiving the combination of 6 g of fish oil and the multivitamin. Analysis by gender revealed that all treatments increased EPA incorporation in females while, in males, EPA was only significantly increased by the 6 g fish oil multivitamin combination. There was considerable individual variability in the red blood cell incorporation of EPA and DHA at endpoint. Gender contributed to a large proportion of this variability with females generally showing higher LC n-3 PUFA composition at endpoint. In conclusion, the incorporation of LC n-3 PUFA into red blood cells was influenced by dosage, the concurrent intake of vitamin/minerals and gender.

  18. Hydrodynamic factors affecting the persistence of the Exxon Valdez oil in a shallow bedrock beach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Yuqiang; Li, Hailong; Boufadel, Michel C.; Sharifi, Youness

    2010-10-01

    We report a field study and numerical modeling of multicomponent flow in a tidal gravel beach in Knight Island, Prince William Sound, Alaska, where oil from the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill persisted. Field measurements of water table, salinity, and tracer (lithium) concentration were obtained for around a week during the summer of 2008. The numerical model MARUN was used to simulate the field observations. On the basis of field experiments and numerical simulations, the beach was identified to have a two-layered hydraulic structure: a high-permeability surface layer underlain by a low-permeability lower layer. The hydraulic conductivity was found to be 5 × 10-2 m s-1 for the surface layer and 7 × 10-6 m s-1 for the lower layer. The simulations reproduced the observed water table, salinity, and lithium concentrations accurately. The small flow entering the beach from the land side resulted in a beach water table dropping below the interface of the two layers. This seems to be the major reason for the presence of oil in the lower layer. The exchange flow between the beach and the sea due to tidal influence was ˜2.12 m3 d-1 m-1. The patterns of inflow and outflow rates showed that the maximum seawater-groundwater exchange occurred in the middle to high intertidal zone, which explains the persistence of oil in the lower intertidal zone. To explore bioremediation of the beach with nutrient amendment, a numerical simulation of nutrient application on the beach surface was conducted, where the applied nutrient concentration was 5,000 mg L-1. The results showed that the nutrient concentration remaining in oiled areas after a week was larger than 50 mg L-1, which is larger than that needed for maximum microbial growth (2-10 mg L-1). This implies that the bioremediation via nutrient application on the beach surface could be adopted if nutrients were the only limiting factor.

  19. Water movement in LURGI-combusted oil shale affected by time-dependent hydraulic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Sri Ranjan, R.

    1989-01-01

    Oil shale is a sedimentary rock that contains organic matter which is insoluble in petroleum based solvents under normal conditions. When oil shale is heated to cause pyrolysis, destructive distillation or retorting, molecules are freed and form simpler petroleum liquids and gases. The remaining inorganic matrix, after the oil extraction process is completed, is known as retorted or spent shale. Retorted oil shale contains many chemical species that present the potential for leaching and the creation of adverse impacts on the ground water beneath the disposal sites. This leachate could result from internal drainage of liquids emplaced with the solids and from infiltration in excess of that which can be stored and returned to the atmosphere by evapotranspiration. This dissertation describes the determination of the time-dependent hydraulic properties of LURGI-combusted oil shale. The determination is accomplished through a combination of indirect electromagnetic measurements and direct hydraulic techniques. The time-dependent properties are incorporated into a partial differential equation for which an exact solution is derived for the case of horizontal flow. The exact solution is evaluated using the time-dependent properties measured for the LURGI material and is compared with an independent horizontal flow experiment. Such comparison independently confirms the measured hydraulic properties and the tendency for the LURGI shale to be self-sealing. The exact solution for horizontal flow and an approximate solution for vertical flow are used to explore the effects of time-dependent hydraulic properties on water movement under field conditions. Means by which the tendency to self-seal can be exploited to minimize penetration of water in disposed shale are discussed.

  20. Protective Effect of Pulp Oil Extracted from Canarium odontophyllum Miq. Fruit on Blood Lipids, Lipid Peroxidation, and Antioxidant Status in Healthy Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Shakirin, Faridah Hanim; Azlan, Azrina; Ismail, Amin; Amom, Zulkhairi; Cheng Yuon, Lau

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to compare the effects of pulp and kernel oils of Canarium odontophyllum Miq. (CO) on lipid profile, lipid peroxidation, and oxidative stress of healthy rabbits. The oils are rich in SFAs and MUFAs (mainly palmitic and oleic acids). The pulp oil is rich in polyphenols. Male New Zealand white (NZW) rabbits were fed for 4 weeks on a normal diet containing pulp (NP) or kernel oil (NK) of CO while corn oil was used as control (NC). Total cholesterol (TC), HDL-C, LDL-c and triglycerides (TG) levels were measured in this paper. Antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidise), thiobarbiturate reactive substances (TBARSs), and plasma total antioxidant status (TAS) were also evaluated. Supplementation of CO pulp oil resulted in favorable changes in blood lipid and lipid peroxidation (increased HDL-C, reduced LDL-C, TG, TBARS levels) with enhancement of SOD, GPx, and plasma TAS levels. Meanwhile, supplementation of kernel oil caused lowering of plasma TC and LDL-C as well as enhancement of SOD and TAS levels. These changes showed that oils of CO could be beneficial in improving lipid profile and antioxidant status as when using part of normal diet. The oils can be used as alternative to present vegetable oil. PMID:22685623

  1. Evidence of low toxicity of oil sands process-affected water to birds invites re-evaluation of avian protection strategies

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Elizabeth M.; Smits, Judit E. G.; St Clair, Colleen Cassady

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to water containing petroleum waste products can generate both overt and subtle toxicological responses in wildlife, including birds. Such exposure can occur in the tailings ponds of the mineable oil sands, which are located in Alberta, Canada, under a major continental flyway for waterfowl. Over the 40 year history of the industry, a few thousand bird deaths have been reported following contact with bitumen on the ponds, but a new monitoring programme demonstrated that many thousands of birds land annually without apparent harm. This new insight creates an urgent need for more information on the sublethal effects on birds from non-bitumen toxicants that occur in the water, including naphthenic acids, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, heavy metals and salts. Ten studies have addressed the effects of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW), and none reported acute or substantial adverse health effects. Interpretive caution is warranted, however, because nine of the studies addressed reclaimed wetlands that received OSPW, not OSPW ponds per se, and differences between experimental and reference sites may have been reduced by shared sources of pollution in the surrounding air and water. Two studies examined eggs of birds nesting >100 km from the mine sites. Only one study exposed birds directly and repeatedly to OSPW and found no consistent differences between treated and control birds in blood-based health metrics. If it is true that aged forms of OSPW do not markedly affect the health of birds that land briefly on the ponds, then the extensiveness of current bird-deterrent programmes is unwarranted and could exert negative net environmental effects. More directed research on bird health is urgently needed, partly because birds that land on these ponds subsequently migrate to destinations throughout North America where they are consumed by both humans and wildlife predators. PMID:27293723

  2. Evidence of low toxicity of oil sands process-affected water to birds invites re-evaluation of avian protection strategies.

    PubMed

    Beck, Elizabeth M; Smits, Judit E G; St Clair, Colleen Cassady

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to water containing petroleum waste products can generate both overt and subtle toxicological responses in wildlife, including birds. Such exposure can occur in the tailings ponds of the mineable oil sands, which are located in Alberta, Canada, under a major continental flyway for waterfowl. Over the 40 year history of the industry, a few thousand bird deaths have been reported following contact with bitumen on the ponds, but a new monitoring programme demonstrated that many thousands of birds land annually without apparent harm. This new insight creates an urgent need for more information on the sublethal effects on birds from non-bitumen toxicants that occur in the water, including naphthenic acids, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, heavy metals and salts. Ten studies have addressed the effects of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW), and none reported acute or substantial adverse health effects. Interpretive caution is warranted, however, because nine of the studies addressed reclaimed wetlands that received OSPW, not OSPW ponds per se, and differences between experimental and reference sites may have been reduced by shared sources of pollution in the surrounding air and water. Two studies examined eggs of birds nesting >100 km from the mine sites. Only one study exposed birds directly and repeatedly to OSPW and found no consistent differences between treated and control birds in blood-based health metrics. If it is true that aged forms of OSPW do not markedly affect the health of birds that land briefly on the ponds, then the extensiveness of current bird-deterrent programmes is unwarranted and could exert negative net environmental effects. More directed research on bird health is urgently needed, partly because birds that land on these ponds subsequently migrate to destinations throughout North America where they are consumed by both humans and wildlife predators.

  3. Effects of dietary chromium picolinate and peppermint essential oil on growth performance and blood biochemical parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbari, Mohsen; Torki, Mehran

    2014-08-01

    A study was conducted using 240 female day-old broiler chicks to evaluate the effects of dietary chromium picolinate (CrPic), peppermint essential oil (P.mint), or their combination on growth performance and blood biochemical parameters of female broiler chicks raised under heat stress conditions (HS, 23.9 to 38 °C cycling). Average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were obtained from 1 to 42 days of age. Furthermore, at the end of the experiment (day 42), birds were bled to determine some blood biochemical parameters and weighed for final body weight (BW). ADFI, ADG, and BW were not influenced significantly by dietary CrPic and P.mint ( P > 0.05). A significant interaction between dietary CrPic and P.mint on FCR ( P = 0.012) was detected. FCR significantly decreased in chicks fed the diet including both CrPic and P.mint compared with the CrPic group. Significant interaction between dietary P.mint and CrPic on serum concentrations of triglycerides, glucose, and albumin were observed ( P < 0.05), but the other measured blood biochemical parameters were not statistically affected by dietary treatments ( P > 0.05). The serum concentrations of glucose, triglycerides were decreased ( P < 0.05) in broilers fed the diet including both CrPic and P.mint. Plasma chromium (Cr) content increased significantly ( P < 0.05) in birds fed the CrPic-included diet compared with the control group ( P < 0.05). From the results of the present experiment it can be concluded that dietary supplementation with combined P.mint and CrPic could have beneficial effects on some blood biochemical parameters of female chicks reared under heat stress conditions.

  4. Effects of dietary chromium picolinate and peppermint essential oil on growth performance and blood biochemical parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Akbari, Mohsen; Torki, Mehran

    2014-08-01

    A study was conducted using 240 female day-old broiler chicks to evaluate the effects of dietary chromium picolinate (CrPic), peppermint essential oil (P.mint), or their combination on growth performance and blood biochemical parameters of female broiler chicks raised under heat stress conditions (HS, 23.9 to 38 °C cycling). Average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were obtained from 1 to 42 days of age. Furthermore, at the end of the experiment (day 42), birds were bled to determine some blood biochemical parameters and weighed for final body weight (BW). ADFI, ADG, and BW were not influenced significantly by dietary CrPic and P.mint (P>0.05). A significant interaction between dietary CrPic and P.mint on FCR (P=0.012) was detected. FCR significantly decreased in chicks fed the diet including both CrPic and P.mint compared with the CrPic group. Significant interaction between dietary P.mint and CrPic on serum concentrations of triglycerides, glucose, and albumin were observed (P<0.05), but the other measured blood biochemical parameters were not statistically affected by dietary treatments (P>0.05). The serum concentrations of glucose, triglycerides were decreased (P<0.05) in broilers fed the diet including both CrPic and P.mint. Plasma chromium (Cr) content increased significantly (P<0.05) in birds fed the CrPic-included diet compared with the control group (P<0.05). From the results of the present experiment it can be concluded that dietary supplementation with combined P.mint and CrPic could have beneficial effects on some blood biochemical parameters of female chicks reared under heat stress conditions.

  5. How does the connectivity of open-framework conglomerates within multi-scale hierarchical fluvial architecture affect oil sweep efficiency in waterflooding?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominic, D. F.; Gershenzon, N. I.; Soltanian, M. R.; Ritzi, R. W., Jr.; Keefer, D. A.; Shaffer, E.; Storsved, B.

    2014-12-01

    We studied the effects on oil sweep efficiency of the proportion, hierarchical organization, and connectivity of high-permeability open-framework conglomerate (OFC) cross-sets within the multi-scale stratal architecture found in fluvial deposits. Utilizing numerical simulations and the RVA/Paraview open-source visualization package, we analyzed oil production rate, water breakthrough time, and spatial and temporal distribution of residual oil saturation. The effective permeability of the reservoir exhibits large-scale anisotropy created by the organization of OFC cross-sets within unit bars, and the organization of unit bars within compound bars. As a result, oil sweep efficiency critically depends on the direction of the pressure gradient. When pressure gradient is oriented normal to paleoflow direction, the total oil production and the water breakthrough time are larger, and remaining oil saturation is smaller. This result is found regardless of the proportion or connectivity of the OFC cross-sets, within the ranges examined. Contrary to expectations, the total amount of trapped oil due to the effect of capillary trapping does not depend on the pressure gradient within the examined range. Hence the pressure difference between production and injection wells does not affect sweep efficiency, although the spatial distribution of oil remaining in the reservoir depends on this value. Whether or not clusters of connected OFC span the domain does not affect sweep efficiency, only the absolute rate of oil production. The RVA/Paraview application allowed us to visualize and examine these non-intuitive results.

  6. Blood storage affects the detection of cellular prion protein on peripheral blood leukocytes and circulating dendritic cells in part by promoting platelet satellitism.

    PubMed

    Glier, Hana; Holada, Karel

    2012-06-29

    Flow cytometry represents an attractive approach for developing currently unavailable screening tests for prion diseases. Several studies have reported significant differences in the binding of antibodies directed against cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) to blood cells of prion-infected subjects compared with healthy controls. However, flow cytometry data usually show large individual variations in detected PrP(C) levels in both infected and control groups, rendering the interpretation of individual patient data difficult. To determine how pre-analytical variables, such as the choice of anticoagulant, whether or not the blood was stored, and the storage temperature, affect the detection of PrP(C) in blood cells. Blood from healthy donors was collected in EDTA or citrate anticoagulant and processed either immediately or after storage overnight at room temperature or at 4°C. The expression of PrP(C) by T cells, B cells, NK cells, monocytes and circulating dendritic cells was evaluated using quantitative flow cytometry with the PrP(C) monoclonal antibodies AG4 and AH6. The anticoagulation of blood with citrate resulted in decreased levels of PrP(C) on monocytes but not the other cell types. The storage of blood prior to analysis led to a significant decrease in the levels of PrP(C) on the cells studied, although there were substantial differences between the cell populations. This decrease was more pronounced when using mAb AG4, which targets the N-terminal portion of the PrP(C) molecule, or following storage at room temperature. Moreover, we identified platelet satellitism on leukocytes, especially on monocytes and granulocytes, as an additional factor contributing to the heterogeneity of PrP(C) detection in stored blood. Our study demonstrates that the storage of blood prior to analysis greatly affects the detection of PrP(C) by flow cytometry. To limit the inclusion of storage-generated artifacts, we recommend the processing of blood samples immediately after their

  7. Hospital blood inventory practice: the factors affecting stock level and wastage.

    PubMed

    Perera, G; Hyam, C; Taylor, C; Chapman, J F

    2009-04-01

    To analyse the Issuable Stock Index (days worth of stock) and wastage in relation to data continuously collected by the Blood Stocks Management Scheme (BSMS) with aspects of blood inventory management practice determined by the 2006 hospital inventory practice survey (IPS). The BSMS collects blood inventory data from hospitals and blood services in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. Data sets were constructed from information obtained from the 2006 IPS, which included questions on the crossmatch reservation period, methods for calculating the blood order and stock share relationships between hospitals. Two of the Scheme's measures that can indicate a hospital's blood inventory management performance were used to present blood stock and wastage data in a comparable format. Data were analysed using the Student's t-test. The results showed significantly lower inventory and wastage in hospitals which used a 24-h reservation period compared with 48 h (P = 0.02 and P = 0.04, respectively), and for hospitals that used their computer for calculating the blood order compared with those that used a 'visual review' (P = 0.02 and P < or = 0.001, respectively). A strong correlation co-efficient (0.61) was found for a relationship between a hospital's stock level and wastage. The study showed that differences in stock management practice between hospitals are associated with significant differences in stock levels and wastage of blood. The paper identifies examples of best practice.

  8. A risk-based approach for identifying constituents of concern in oil sands process-affected water from the Athabasca Oil Sands region.

    PubMed

    McQueen, Andrew D; Kinley, Ciera M; Hendrikse, Maas; Gaspari, Daniel P; Calomeni, Alyssa J; Iwinski, Kyla J; Castle, James W; Haakensen, Monique C; Peru, Kerry M; Headley, John V; Rodgers, John H

    2017-04-01

    Mining leases in the Athabasca Oil Sands (AOS) region produce large volumes of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) containing constituents that limit beneficial uses and discharge into receiving systems. The aim of this research is to identify constituents of concern (COCs) in OSPW sourced from an active settling basin with the goal of providing a sound rational for developing mitigation strategies for using constructed treatment wetlands for COCs contained in OSPW. COCs were identified through several lines of evidence: 1) chemical and physical characterization of OSPW and comparisons with numeric water quality guidelines and toxicity endpoints, 2) measuring toxicity of OSPW using a taxonomic range of sentinel organisms (i.e. fish, aquatic invertebrates, and a macrophyte), 3) conducting process-based manipulations (PBMs) of OSPW to alter toxicity and inform treatment processes, and 4) discerning potential treatment pathways to mitigate ecological risks of OSPW based on identification of COCs, toxicological analyses, and PBM results. COCs identified in OSPW included organics (naphthenic acids [NAs], oil and grease [O/G]), metals/metalloids, and suspended solids. In terms of species sensitivities to undiluted OSPW, fish ≥ aquatic invertebrates > macrophytes. Bench-scale manipulations of the organic fractions of OSPW via PBMs (i.e. H2O2+UV254 and granular activated charcoal treatments) eliminated toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia (7-8 d), in terms of mortality and reproduction. Results from this study provide critical information to inform mitigation strategies using passive or semi-passive treatment processes (e.g., constructed treatment wetlands) to mitigate ecological risks of OSPW to aquatic organisms.

  9. A geoprocessing model for the selection of populations most affected by diffuse industrial contamination: the case of oil refinery plants.

    PubMed

    Pasetto, Roberto; De Santis, Marco

    2013-01-01

    A method to select populations living in areas affected by diffuse environmental contamination is presented, with particular regard to oil refineries, in the Italian context. The reasons to use municipality instead of census tract populations for environment and health small-area studies of contaminated sites are discussed. Populations most affected by diffuse environmental contamination are identified through a geoprocessing model. Data from the national census 2001 were used to estimate census tract level populations. A geodatabase was developed using the municipality and census tract layers provided by the Italian National Bureau of Statistics (ISTAT). The orthophotos of the Italian territory - year 2006 - available on the geographic information systems (GIS) of the National Cartographic Portal, were considered. The area within 2 km from the plant border was used as an operational definition to identify the area at major contamination. The geoprocessing model architecture is presented. The results of its application to the selection of municipality populations in a case study are shown. The application of the proposed geoprocessing model, the availability of long time series of mortality and morbidity data, and a quali-quantitative estimate of contamination over time, could allow an appraisal of the health status of populations affected by oil refinery emissions.

  10. STUDIES IN RESUSCITATION: I. THE GENERAL CONDITIONS AFFECTING RESUSCITATION, AND THE RESUSCITATION OF THE BLOOD AND OF THE HEART

    PubMed Central

    Pike, F. H.; Guthrie, C. C.; Stewart, G. N.

    1908-01-01

    Our results may be briefly summarized: 1. Blood, when defibrinated, soon loses its power to maintain the activity of the higher nervous centers, and its nutritive properties for all tissues quickly diminish. 2. Artificial fluids, as a substitute for blood, are not satisfactory. 3. The proper oxygenation of the blood is an indispensable adjunct in the resuscitation of an animal. 4. The heart usually continues to beat for some minutes after it ceases to affect a mercury manometer, and resuscitation of it within this period by extra-thoracic massage and artificial respiration is sometimes successful. 5. Resuscitation of the heart by direct massage is the most certain method at our command. 6. A proper blood-pressure is an indispensable condition for the continued normal activity of the heart. 7. Anæsthetics, hemorrhage and induced currents applied to the heart render resuscitation more difficult than asphyxia alone. PMID:19867138

  11. Choice of solvent extraction technique affects fatty acid composition of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) oil.

    PubMed

    Abdolshahi, Anna; Majd, Mojtaba Heydari; Rad, Javad Sharifi; Taheri, Mehrdad; Shabani, Aliakbar; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A

    2015-04-01

    Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) oil has important nutritional and therapeutic properties because of its high concentration of essential fatty acids. The extraction method used to obtain natural compounds from raw material is critical for product quality, in particular to protect nutritional value. This study compared the fatty acid composition of pistachio oil extracted by two conventional procedures, Soxhlet extraction and maceration, analyzed by a gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Four solvents with different polarities were tested: n-hexane (Hx), dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EtAc) and ethanol (EtOH). The highest unsaturated fatty acid content (88.493 %) was obtained by Soxhlet extraction with EtAc. The Soxhlet method extracted the most oleic and linolenic acids (51.99 % and 0.385 %, respectively) although a higher concentration (36.32 %) of linoleic acid was extracted by maceration.

  12. Bacterial Communities from Shoreline Environments (Costa da Morte, Northwestern Spain) Affected by the Prestige Oil Spill▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Gutiérrez, Jorge; Figueras, Antonio; Albaigés, Joan; Jiménez, Núria; Viñas, Marc; Solanas, Anna M.; Novoa, Beatriz

    2009-01-01

    The bacterial communities in two different shoreline matrices, rocks and sand, from the Costa da Morte, northwestern Spain, were investigated 12 months after being affected by the Prestige oil spill. Culture-based and culture-independent approaches were used to compare the bacterial diversity present in these environments with that at a nonoiled site. A long-term effect of fuel on the microbial communities in the oiled sand and rock was suggested by the higher proportion of alkane and polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) degraders and the differences in denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis patterns compared with those of the reference site. Members of the classes Alphaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria were the prevailing groups of bacteria detected in both matrices, although the sand bacterial community exhibited higher species richness than the rock bacterial community did. Culture-dependent and -independent approaches suggested that the genus Rhodococcus could play a key role in the in situ degradation of the alkane fraction of the Prestige fuel together with other members of the suborder Corynebacterineae. Moreover, other members of this suborder, such as Mycobacterium spp., together with Sphingomonadaceae bacteria (mainly Lutibacterium anuloederans), were related as well to the degradation of the aromatic fraction of the Prestige fuel. The multiapproach methodology applied in the present study allowed us to assess the complexity of autochthonous microbial communities related to the degradation of heavy fuel from the Prestige and to isolate some of their components for a further physiological study. Since several Corynebacterineae members related to the degradation of alkanes and PAHs were frequently detected in this and other supralittoral environments affected by the Prestige oil spill along the northwestern Spanish coast, the addition of mycolic acids to bioremediation amendments is proposed to favor the presence of these degraders in long-term fuel pollution-affected

  13. Cooking with soyabean oil increases whole-blood α-linolenic acid in school-aged children: results from a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Villamor, Eduardo; Marín, Constanza; Mora-Plazas, Mercedes; Casale, Mia; Vargas, Luz N; Baylin, Ana

    2015-12-01

    Supply of essential n-3 PUFA is limited worldwide. While fish-oil supplementation effectively improves n-3 PUFA status, it may not be a sustainable intervention. The use of α-linolenic acid (ALA)-rich cooking oils in the household may be a suitable alternative but its effect on PUFA status is unclear. We aimed to compare the effect of providing families with soyabean oil, an ALA-rich cooking oil, v. sunflower oil on whole-blood PUFA levels of children aged 11-18 years. In a randomized, masked, parallel trial, we assigned families to receive a one-month supply of either soyabean or sunflower oil. Fatty acid concentrations were quantified in whole-blood samples obtained from the children before and at the end of the intervention. Changes in fatty acids were compared between treatment arms with use of linear regression for repeated measures. Sixty low- and middle-income families. Bogotá, Colombia. Soyabean oil significantly increased ALA concentrations by 0.05 percentage points of total serum fatty acids whereas sunflower oil decreased them by 0.12 percentage points (soyabean v. sunflower oil effect=0.17; 95% CI 0.11, 0.24). Concentrations of both n-3 and n-6 very-long-chain PUFA, including docosapentaenoic acid, DHA, dihomo-γ-linolenic acid and arachidonic acid, increased significantly in both intervention arms. Levels of oleic acid and palmitic acid decreased, irrespective of oil assignment. Total energy or energy intake from saturated fat did not change. Replacing cooking oils at the household level is an effective intervention to improve essential PUFA status of children.

  14. Differential effects of natural palm oil, chemically- and enzymatically-modified palm oil on weight gain, blood lipid metabolites and fat deposition in a pediatric pig model

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Increasing prevalence of obesity and overweight in the Western world, continue to be a major health threat and is responsible for increased health care costs. Dietary intervention studies show a strong positive association between saturated fat intake and the development of obesity and cardiovascular disease. This study investigated the effect of positional distribution of palmitic acid (Sn-1, 2 & 3) of palm oil on cardiovascular health and development of obesity, using weaner pigs as a model for young children. Methods Male and female weaner piglets were randomly allocated to 4 dietary treatment groups: 1) pork lard (LRD); 2) natural palm olein (NPO); 3) chemically inter-esterified PO (CPO) and 4) enzymatically inter-esterified PO (EnPO) as the fat source. Diets were formulated with 11% lard or with palm olein in order to provide 31% of digestible energy from fat in the diet and were balanced for cholesterol, protein and energy across treatments. Results From 8 weeks onwards, pigs on EnPO diet gained (P < 0.05) more weight than all other groups. Feed conversion efficiency (feed to gain) over the 12 week experimental period did not vary between treatment groups. Plasma LDL-C content and LDL-C/HDL-C ratio in pigs fed natural PO tended to be lower compared to all other diets. The natural PO lowered (P < 0.02) the plasma triglyceride (TG) content relative to the lard or EnPO diets, but was not different from the CPO diet. The natural PO diet was associated with lower (P < 0.05) saturated fat levels in subcutaneous adipose tissue than the CPO and EnPO diets that had lower saturated fat levels than the lard diet. Female pigs had lower lean and higher fat and fat:lean ratio in the body compared with male pigs. No difference in weight gain or blood lipid parameters was observed between sexes. Conclusions The observations on plasma TG, muscle and adipose tissue saturated fatty acid contents and back fat (subcutaneous) thickness suggest that natural palm oil may

  15. Blood Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. Blood disorders affect one or more parts of the blood ... They can be acute or chronic. Many blood disorders are inherited. Other causes include other diseases, side ...

  16. Does the essential oil of Lippia sidoides Cham. (pepper-rosmarin) affect its endophytic microbial community?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lippia sidoides Cham., also known as pepper-rosmarin, produces an essential oil in its leaves that is currently used by the pharmaceutical, perfumery and cosmetic industries for its antimicrobial and aromatic properties. Because of the antimicrobial compounds (mainly thymol and carvacrol) found in the essential oil, we believe that the endophytic microorganisms found in L. sidoides are selected to live in different parts of the plant. Results In this study, the endophytic microbial communities from the stems and leaves of four L. sidoides genotypes were determined using cultivation-dependent and cultivation-independent approaches. In total, 145 endophytic bacterial strains were isolated and further grouped using either ERIC-PCR or BOX-PCR, resulting in 76 groups composed of different genera predominantly belonging to the Gammaproteobacteria. The endophytic microbial diversity was also analyzed by PCR-DGGE using 16S rRNA-based universal and group-specific primers for total bacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria and 18S rRNA-based primers for fungi. PCR-DGGE profile analysis and principal component analysis showed that the total bacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria and fungi were influenced not only by the location within the plant (leaf vs. stem) but also by the presence of the main components of the L. sidoides essential oil (thymol and/or carvacrol) in the leaves. However, the same could not be observed within the Actinobacteria. Conclusion The data presented here are the first step to begin shedding light on the impact of the essential oil in the endophytic microorganisms in pepper-rosmarin. PMID:23387945

  17. Fertilization and colors of plastic mulch affect biomass and essential oil of sweet-scented geranium.

    PubMed

    Silva, Anderson de Carvalho; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; dos Santos, Wallace Melo; Prata, Paloma Santana; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Arrigoni-Blank, Maria de Fátima

    2014-01-01

    Sweet-scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L'Hér), a plant belonging to the Geraniaceae family, has medicinal and aromatic properties and is widely used in the cosmetic, soap, perfume, aromatherapy, and food industries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of fertilization and the use of different colors of plastic mulch on sweet-scented geranium biomass and essential oil. Three colors of plastic mulch (black, white, and silver-colored) and a control without plastic mulch were assessed along with three fertilizers (20,000 L · ha(-1) of cattle manure; 1,000 kg · ha(-1) of NPK 3-12-6; and 20,000 L · ha(-1) of cattle manure + 1,000 kg · ha(-1) of NPK 3-12-6 fertilizer) and a control without fertilizer. The absence of a soil cover negatively influenced the agronomical variables, while coverage with plastic mulch was associated with increased biomass. The use of fertilizer had no effect on the evaluated agronomic variables. When cattle manure and NPK 3-12-6 were used together, combined with white or black plastic mulch, the highest yields of essential oil were obtained. For the silver-colored plastic mulch, higher amounts of essential oil (6,9-guaiadien) were obtained with mineral fertilizer.

  18. Resistance to essential oils affects survival of Salmonella enterica serovars in growing and harvested basil.

    PubMed

    Kisluk, Guy; Kalily, Emmanuel; Yaron, Sima

    2013-10-01

    The number of outbreaks of food-borne illness associated with consumption of fresh products has increased. A recent and noteworthy outbreak occurred in 2007. Basil contaminated with Salmonella enterica serovar Senftenberg was the source of this outbreak. Since basil produces high levels of antibacterial compounds the aim of this study was to investigate if the emerging outbreak reflects ecological changes that occurred as a result of development of resistance to ingredients of the basil oil. We irrigated basil plants with contaminated water containing two Salmonella serovars, Typhimurium and Senftenberg, and showed that Salmonella can survive on the basil plants for at least 100 days. S. Senftenberg counts in the phyllosphere were significantly higher than S. Typhimurium, moreover, S. Senftenberg was able to grow on stored harvested basil leaves. Susceptibility experiments demonstrated that S. Senftenberg is more resistant to basil oil and to its antimicrobial constituents: linalool, estragole and eugenol. This may indicate that S. Senftenberg had adapted to the basil environment by developing resistance to the basil oil. The emergence of resistant pathogens has a significant potential to change the ecology, and opens the way for pathogens to survive in new niches in the environment such as basil and other plants.

  19. Fertilization and Colors of Plastic Mulch Affect Biomass and Essential Oil of Sweet-Scented Geranium

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Anderson de Carvalho; dos Santos, Wallace Melo; Prata, Paloma Santana; Alves, Péricles Barreto

    2014-01-01

    Sweet-scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L'Hér), a plant belonging to the Geraniaceae family, has medicinal and aromatic properties and is widely used in the cosmetic, soap, perfume, aromatherapy, and food industries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of fertilization and the use of different colors of plastic mulch on sweet-scented geranium biomass and essential oil. Three colors of plastic mulch (black, white, and silver-colored) and a control without plastic mulch were assessed along with three fertilizers (20,000 L·ha−1 of cattle manure; 1,000 kg·ha−1 of NPK 3-12-6; and 20,000 L·ha−1 of cattle manure + 1,000 kg·ha−1 of NPK 3-12-6 fertilizer) and a control without fertilizer. The absence of a soil cover negatively influenced the agronomical variables, while coverage with plastic mulch was associated with increased biomass. The use of fertilizer had no effect on the evaluated agronomic variables. When cattle manure and NPK 3-12-6 were used together, combined with white or black plastic mulch, the highest yields of essential oil were obtained. For the silver-colored plastic mulch, higher amounts of essential oil (6,9-guaiadien) were obtained with mineral fertilizer. PMID:24757440

  20. Cardiac function and survival are affected by crude oil in larval red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus.

    PubMed

    Khursigara, Alexis J; Perrichon, Prescilla; Martinez Bautista, Naim; Burggren, Warren W; Esbaugh, Andrew J

    2017-02-01

    Following exposure to weathered and non-weathered oil, lethal and sub-lethal impacts on red drum larvae were assessed using survival, morphological, and cardiotoxicity assays. The LC50 for red drum ranged from 14.6 (10.3-20.9) to 21.3 (19.1-23.8) μgl(-1) ΣPAH with no effect of exposure timing during the pre-hatch window or oil weathering. Similarly, morphological deformities showed dose responses in the low ppb range. Cardiac output showed similar sensitivity resulting in a major 70% reduction after exposure to 2.6μgl(-1) ΣPAH. This cardiac failure was driven by reduced stroke volume rather than bradycardia, meaning that in some species, cardiac function is more sensitive than previously thought. After the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, much of this type of work has primarily focused on pelagic species with little known about fast developing estuarine species. These results demonstrate similarity sensitivity of the red drum as their pelagic counter parts, and more importantly, that cardiac function is dramatically reduced in concert with pericardial edema.

  1. Wood species affect the degradation of crude oil in beach sand.

    PubMed

    Jandl, Gerald; Rodríguez Arranz, Alberto; Baum, Christel; Leinweber, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The addition of wood chips as a co-substrate can promote the degradation of oil in soil. Therefore, in the present study, the tree species-specific impact of wood chips of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies L.) and Western balsam poplar (Populus trichocarpa L.) on the degradation of crude oil was tested in beach sand in a 4-week incubation experiment. The CO2-C release increased in the order of control without wood chips < +spruce < +pine < +poplar. Initial and final hydrocarbon concentrations (C10 to C40), as indicators for the oil degradation, were determined with gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID). The degradation increased for the light fraction (C10 to C22), the heavy fraction (C23 to C40) as well as the whole range (C10 to C40) in the order of control without wood chips (f(degrad.) = 23% vs. 0% vs. 12%) < +poplar (f(degrad.) = 49% vs. 19% vs. 36%) < +spruce (f(degrad.) = 55% vs. 34% vs. 46%) < +pine (f(degrad.) = 60% vs. 44% vs. 53%), whereas the heavy fraction was less degraded in comparison to the light fraction. It can be concluded, that the tree species-specific wood quality is a significant control of the impact on the degradation of hydrocarbons, and pine wood chips might be promising, possibly caused by their lower decomposability and lower substrate replacement than the other wood species.

  2. Vasovagal Syncope and Blood Donor Return: Examination of the Role of Experience and Affective Expectancies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olatunji, Bunmi O.; Etzel, Erin N.; Ciesielski, Bethany G.

    2010-01-01

    Vasovagal sensations (e.g., dizziness, nausea, and fainting) are one of the main reasons people find blood donation unpleasant. A better understanding of predictors of vasovagal sensations during blood donation could inform interventions designed to increase donor return rates. The present investigation examined the extent to which experience with…

  3. Vasovagal Syncope and Blood Donor Return: Examination of the Role of Experience and Affective Expectancies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olatunji, Bunmi O.; Etzel, Erin N.; Ciesielski, Bethany G.

    2010-01-01

    Vasovagal sensations (e.g., dizziness, nausea, and fainting) are one of the main reasons people find blood donation unpleasant. A better understanding of predictors of vasovagal sensations during blood donation could inform interventions designed to increase donor return rates. The present investigation examined the extent to which experience with…

  4. Influence of some coccidiostatics on blood carotenoids and fatty acids in coccidiosis affected chicken.

    PubMed

    Suteu, E; Constantinescu, V; Tămas, V; Kandar, L; Ciurdaru, V

    1981-01-01

    Blood and liver carotenoids and A-vitamin and blood fatty acid modifications were observed in Eimeria tenella infested chicken. 125 chicken were alloted in 5 groups: 3 infested groups were given Amprol, Suldrazin and Clopindol respectively, in their diet. A control group was infested, a second one non-infested. Biochemical examinations were performed 10 days following treatment when chicken were slaughtered and samples collected. In control groups and in Amprol and Clopindol treated groups were seen significant decreases of liver and blood carotenoids; blood and liver A-vitamin levels were higher in Amprol treated chicken; in Suldrazin treated group no significant modifications could be shown as compared to the non-infested controls. Blood fatty acid levels were higher (43.5-47.8%) in the four infested groups and lower in the non-infested controls (39.4%). Non-saturated fatty acid levels varied within 51 and 56.4% in infested groups.

  5. Modified biopolymers as sorbents for the removal of naphthenic acids from oil sands process affected water (OSPW).

    PubMed

    Arshad, Muhammad; Khosa, M A; Siddique, Tariq; Ullah, Aman

    2016-11-01

    Oil sands operations consume large volumes of water in bitumen extraction process and produce tailings that express pore water to the surface of tailings ponds known as oil sands process-affected water (OSPW). The OSPW is toxic and cannot be released into the environment without treatment. In addition to metals, dissolved solids, dissolved gases, hydrocarbons and polyaromatic compounds etc., OSPW also contains a complex mixture of dissolved organic acids, referred to as naphthenic acids (NAs). The NAs are highly toxic and react with metals to develop highly corrosive functionalities which cause corrosion in the oil sands processing and refining processes. We have chemically modified keratin biopolymer using polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS) nanocages and goethite dopant to unfold keratinous structure for improving functionality. The untreated neat keratin and two modified sorbents were characterized to investigate structural, morphological, dimensional and thermal properties. These sorbents were then tested for the removal of NAs from OSPW. The NAs were selectively extracted and quantified before and after sorption process. The biosorption capacity (Q), rejection percentage (R%) and isotherm models were studied to investigate NAs removal efficiency of POSS modified keratin biopolymer (PMKB) and goethite modified keratin biopolymer (GMKB) from aliquots of OSPW. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The effect of citrus-derived oil on bovine blood neutrophil response in vitro

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Research on the use of products with germicidal activity to treat or prevent microbial invasion as alternatives to antibiotic drug use is expanding. To our knowledge, potential for cold-pressed terpeneless Valencia orange oil (TCO) to control mastitis in dairy cows as an alternative therapy has not...

  7. Estimating upper bounds for occupancy and number of manatees in areas potentially affected by oil from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    PubMed

    Martin, Julien; Edwards, Holly H; Bled, Florent; Fonnesbeck, Christopher J; Dupuis, Jérôme A; Gardner, Beth; Koslovsky, Stacie M; Aven, Allen M; Ward-Geiger, Leslie I; Carmichael, Ruth H; Fagan, Daniel E; Ross, Monica A; Reinert, Thomas R

    2014-01-01

    The explosion of the Deepwater Horizon drilling platform created the largest marine oil spill in U.S. history. As part of the Natural Resource Damage Assessment process, we applied an innovative modeling approach to obtain upper estimates for occupancy and for number of manatees in areas potentially affected by the oil spill. Our data consisted of aerial survey counts in waters of the Florida Panhandle, Alabama and Mississippi. Our method, which uses a Bayesian approach, allows for the propagation of uncertainty associated with estimates from empirical data and from the published literature. We illustrate that it is possible to derive estimates of occupancy rate and upper estimates of the number of manatees present at the time of sampling, even when no manatees were observed in our sampled plots during surveys. We estimated that fewer than 2.4% of potentially affected manatee habitat in our Florida study area may have been occupied by manatees. The upper estimate for the number of manatees present in potentially impacted areas (within our study area) was estimated with our model to be 74 (95%CI 46 to 107). This upper estimate for the number of manatees was conditioned on the upper 95%CI value of the occupancy rate. In other words, based on our estimates, it is highly probable that there were 107 or fewer manatees in our study area during the time of our surveys. Because our analyses apply to habitats considered likely manatee habitats, our inference is restricted to these sites and to the time frame of our surveys. Given that manatees may be hard to see during aerial surveys, it was important to account for imperfect detection. The approach that we described can be useful for determining the best allocation of resources for monitoring and conservation.

  8. Estimating Upper Bounds for Occupancy and Number of Manatees in Areas Potentially Affected by Oil from the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Julien; Edwards, Holly H.; Bled, Florent; Fonnesbeck, Christopher J.; Dupuis, Jérôme A.; Gardner, Beth; Koslovsky, Stacie M.; Aven, Allen M.; Ward-Geiger, Leslie I.; Carmichael, Ruth H.; Fagan, Daniel E.; Ross, Monica A.; Reinert, Thomas R.

    2014-01-01

    The explosion of the Deepwater Horizon drilling platform created the largest marine oil spill in U.S. history. As part of the Natural Resource Damage Assessment process, we applied an innovative modeling approach to obtain upper estimates for occupancy and for number of manatees in areas potentially affected by the oil spill. Our data consisted of aerial survey counts in waters of the Florida Panhandle, Alabama and Mississippi. Our method, which uses a Bayesian approach, allows for the propagation of uncertainty associated with estimates from empirical data and from the published literature. We illustrate that it is possible to derive estimates of occupancy rate and upper estimates of the number of manatees present at the time of sampling, even when no manatees were observed in our sampled plots during surveys. We estimated that fewer than 2.4% of potentially affected manatee habitat in our Florida study area may have been occupied by manatees. The upper estimate for the number of manatees present in potentially impacted areas (within our study area) was estimated with our model to be 74 (95%CI 46 to 107). This upper estimate for the number of manatees was conditioned on the upper 95%CI value of the occupancy rate. In other words, based on our estimates, it is highly probable that there were 107 or fewer manatees in our study area during the time of our surveys. Because our analyses apply to habitats considered likely manatee habitats, our inference is restricted to these sites and to the time frame of our surveys. Given that manatees may be hard to see during aerial surveys, it was important to account for imperfect detection. The approach that we described can be useful for determining the best allocation of resources for monitoring and conservation. PMID:24670971

  9. Essential oils affect populations of some rumen bacteria in vitro as revealed by microarray (RumenBactArray) analysis

    PubMed Central

    Patra, Amlan K.; Yu, Zhongtang

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study origanum oil (ORO), garlic oil (GAO), and peppermint oil (PEO) were shown to effectively lower methane production, decrease abundance of methanogens, and change abundances of several bacterial populations important to feed digestion in vitro. In this study, the impact of these essential oils (EOs, at 0.50 g/L) on the rumen bacterial community composition and population was further examined using the recently developed RumenBactArray. Species richness (expressed as number of operational taxonomic units, OTUs) in the phylum Firmicutes, especially those in the class Clostridia, was decreased by ORO and GAO, but increased by PEO, while that in the phylum Bacteroidetes was increased by ORO and PEO. Species richness in the genus Butyrivibrio was lowered by all the EOs. Increases of Bacteroidetes OTUs mainly resulted from increases of Prevotella OTUs. Overall, 67 individual OTUs showed significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) in relative abundance across the EO treatments. The predominant OTUs affected by EOs were diverse, including those related to Syntrophococcus sucromutans, Succiniclasticum ruminis, and Lachnobacterium bovis, and those classified to Prevotella, Clostridium, Roseburia, Pseudobutyrivibrio, Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae, Prevotellaceae, Bacteroidales, and Clostridiales. In total, 60 OTUs were found significantly (P ≤ 0.05) correlated with feed degradability, ammonia concentration, and molar percentage of volatile fatty acids. Taken together, this study demonstrated extensive impact of EOs on rumen bacterial communities in an EO type-dependent manner, especially those in the predominant families Prevotellaceae, Lachnospiraceae, and Ruminococcaceae. The information from this study may aid in understanding the effect of EOs on feed digestion and fermentation by rumen bacteria. PMID:25914694

  10. Does whey protein supplementation affect blood pressure in hypoalbuminemic peritoneal dialysis patients?

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Kamal; Hassan, Fadi

    2017-01-01

    Objective Hypertension and hypoalbuminemia are common risk factors for cardiovascular complications in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Data are limited regarding the effects of whey protein consumption on blood pressure in this population. The aim of the present study was to examine if whey protein supplementation for 12 weeks to hypoalbuminemic PD patients affects their blood pressure. Patients and methods This prospective randomized study included 36 stable PD patients with serum albumin levels <3.8 g/dL. During 12 weeks, 18 patients were instructed to consume 1.2 g/kg/day of protein and an additional whey protein supplement at a dose of 25% of the instructed daily protein (whey protein group). Eighteen patients were instructed to consume protein in the amount of 1.2 g/kg/day and an additional 25%, without whey protein supplementation (control group). Results Compared to the control group, in the whey protein group, serum albumin levels, oncotic pressure, and dialysate ultrafiltration significantly increased (3.55±0.14 to 4.08±0.15 g/dL, P<0.001; 21.81±2.03 to 24.06±1.54 mmHg, P<0.001; 927.8±120.3 to 1,125.0±125.1 mL/day, P<0.001; respectively) and were significantly higher after 12 weeks (4.08±0.15 vs 3.41±0.49 g/dL, P<0.001; 24.06±1.54 vs 22.71±1.77 mmHg, P=0.010; 1,125.0±125.1 vs 930.6±352.8 mL/day, P=0.017; respectively) in the whey protein group compared to the control group. Fluid overload, the extracellular to intracellular ratio and mean arterial pressure (MAP) significantly decreased (2.46±1.08 to 1.52±0.33, P<0.001; 1.080±0.142 to 0.954±0.124, P<0.001; 102.6±3.80 to 99.83±3.85, P=0.018; respectively) and were significantly lower in the whey protein group after 12 weeks (1.52±0.33 vs 2.23±0.73, P<0.001, 0.954±0.124 vs 1.048±0.111, P=0.002; 99.83±3.85 vs 102.8±3.93, P=0.018; respectively). Conclusion Whey protein supplementation for 12 weeks decreased MAP in hypoalbuminemic PD patients. PMID:28860783

  11. Tissue PAH, blood cell and tissue changes following exposure to water accommodated fractions of crude oil in alligator gar, Atractosteus spatula.

    PubMed

    Omar-Ali, Ahmad; Hohn, Claudia; Allen, Peter J; Rodriguez, Jose; Petrie-Hanson, Lora

    2015-07-01

    Alligator gar Atractosteus spatula acclimated to brackish water (9 ppt) were exposed to water accommodated fraction oil loadings (surrogate to Macondo Deepwater Horizon, northern Gulf of Mexico) of 0.5 and 4.0 gm oil/L tank water for 48 h. The surrogate oil was approximately 98% alkanes and alkynes and 2% petroleum aromatic hydrocarbons. The 2% petroleum aromatic hydrocarbons were predominately naphthalene. After 48 h, naphthalene levels in fish liver exposed to 0.5 or 4 gm oil/L were 547.79 and 910.68 ppb, while muscle levels were 214.11 and 253.84 ppb. There was a significant decrease in peripheral blood lymphocyte numbers and a significant reduction of granulocytes in the kidney marrow of the same fish. Tissue changes included hepatocellular vacuolization and necrosis, necrotizing pancreatitis, renal eosinophilia, and splenic congestion. After 7 days recovery, liver naphthalene levels decreased to 43.59 and 43.20 ppb, while muscle levels decreased to 9.74, and 16.78 ppb for oil exposures of 0, 0.5 or 4 g/L. In peripheral blood and kidney marrow, blood cell counts returned to normal. The severity of liver and kidney lesions lessened after 7 days recovery in non-oiled water, but splenic congestion remained in all gar. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Diamondoid diacids ('O4' species) in oil sands process-affected water.

    PubMed

    Lengger, Sabine K; Scarlett, Alan G; West, Charles E; Rowland, Steven J

    2013-12-15

    As a by-product of oil sands extraction, large volumes of oil sands process water (OSPW) are generated, which are contaminated with a large range of water-soluble organic compounds. The acids are thought to be derived from hydrocarbons via natural biodegradation pathways such as α- and β-oxidation of alkyl substituents, which could produce mono- and diacids, for example. However, while several monoacids ('O2' species) have been identified, the presence of diacids (i.e. 'O4' species) has only been deduced from results obtained via Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance high-resolution mass spectrometry (FTICR-HRMS) and nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H-NMR) spectroscopy and the structures have never been confirmed. An extract of an OSPW from a Canadian tailings pond was analysed and the retention times and the electron ionization mass spectra of some analytes were compared with those of bis-methyl esters of authentic diacids by gas chromatography × gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC/TOFMS) in nominal and accurate mass configurations. Two diamondoid diacids (3-carboxymethyladamantane-1-carboxylic acid and adamantane-1,3-dicarboxylic acid) were firmly identified as their bis-methyl esters by retention time and mass spectral matching and several other structural isomers were more tentatively assigned. Diacids have substantially increased polarity over the hydrocarbon and monoacid species from which they probably derive: as late members of biodegradation processes they may be useful indicators of weathering and ageing, not only of OSPW, but potentially of crude oil residues more generally. Structures of O4 species in OSPW have been identified. This confirms pathways of microbial biodegradation, which were only postulated previously, and may be a further indication that remediation of OSPW toxicity can occur by natural microbial action. The presence and abundance of these diacids might

  13. Blood lactate concentrations are mildly affected by mobile gas exchange measurements.

    PubMed

    Scharhag-Rosenberger, F; Wochatz, M; Otto, C; Cassel, M; Mayer, F; Scharhag, J

    2014-06-01

    We sought to investigate the effects of wearing a mobile respiratory gas analysis system during a treadmill test on blood lactate (bLa) concentrations and commonly applied bLa thresholds. A total of 16 recreational athletes (31±3 years, VO2max: 58±6 ml · min(-1) · kg(-1)) performed one multistage treadmill test with and one without gas exchange measurements (GEM and noGEM). The whole bLa curve, the lactate threshold (LT), the individual anaerobic thresholds according to Stegmann (IATSt) and Dickhuth (IATDi), and a fixed bLa concentration of 4 mmol ∙ l(-1) (OBLA) were evaluated. The bLa curve was shifted slightly leftward in GEM compared to noGEM (P<0.05), whereas the heart rate response was not different between conditions (P=0.89). There was no difference between GEM and noGEM for LT (2.61±0.34 vs. 2.64±0.39 m · s(-1), P=0.49) and IATSt (3.47±0.42 vs. 3.55±0.47 m · s(-1), P=0.12). However, IATDi (3.57±0.39 vs. 3.66±0.44 m · s(-1), P<0.01) and OBLA (3.85±0.46 vs. 3.96±0.47 m · s(-1), P<0.01) occurred at slower running velocities in GEM. The bLa response to treadmill tests is mildly affected by wearing a mobile gas analysis system. This also applies to bLa thresholds located at higher exercise intensities. While the magnitude of the effects is of little importance for recreational athletes, it might be relevant for elite athletes and scientific studies.

  14. Odor detection thresholds of naphthenic acids from commercial sources and oil sands process-affected water.

    PubMed

    Edge, Kristyn; Barona, Brenda; Young, Rozlyn F; Fedorak, Phillip M; Wismer, Wendy V

    2010-11-01

    Naphthenic acids (NAs) occur naturally in various petroleums and in oil sands tailings waters and have been implicated as potential fish tainting compounds. In this study, trained sensory panels and the general population from a university were used to determine the odor detection thresholds of two commercial NAs preparations (Acros and Merichem) and of NAs extracted from an oil sands experimental reclamation pond (Pond 9). Using the three-alternative forced choice method, a concentration series of NAs were presented to the sensory panels in phosphate buffer (pH 8) and in steamed fish (Sander vitreus). In buffer, the odor detection thresholds of Acros, Merichem and Pond 9 NAs, as evaluated by the trained panelists, were 1.5, 0.04, and 1.0 mg L(-1), respectively. Only the detection threshold for the Merichem NAs was significantly different (p<0.01) than the other two sources. Based on the general population assessments, all three odor detection thresholds were significantly different from one another; 4.8, 0.2, and 2.5 mg L(-1) for Acros, Merichem, and Pond 9 NAs, respectively (p<0.01). The odor detection thresholds of Merichem and Pond 9 NAs in steamed fish were 0.6 and 12 mg kg(-1), respectively and were significantly different from each other (p<0.01). The detection threshold of Acros NAs was estimated to be >21 mg kg(-1). For the steamed fish evaluations, the odor descriptors of all three of the NAs preparations was given as chemical in nature (Acros: oil, plastic; Merichem: gasoline; Pond 9: gasoline, tar). Exposure of live rainbow trout to a non-lethal concentration of Merichem NAs (3 mg L(-1) for 10 d) imparted an odor to the fish flesh. Analyses of the three NAs preparations by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed that each had a unique distribution of acids. We conclude that the source of the NAs is important when interpreting odor threshold data and that the two commercial preparations of NAs that were tested do not represent oil sands waters

  15. Physiological activities of the combination of fish oil and α-lipoic acid affecting hepatic lipogenesis and parameters related to oxidative stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Ide, Takashi

    2017-03-20

    We studied the combined effect of fish oil and α-lipoic acid on hepatic lipogenesis and fatty acid oxidation and parameters of oxidative stress in rats fed lipogenic diets high in sucrose. A control diet contained a saturated fat (palm oil) that gives high rate of hepatic lipogenesis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed diets supplemented with 0 or 2.5 g/kg α-lipoic acid and containing 0, 20, or 100 g/kg fish oil, for 21 days. α-Lipoic acid significantly reduced food intake during 0-8 days but not the later period of the experiment. Fish oil and α-lipoic acid decreased serum lipid concentrations and their combination further decreased the parameters in an additive fashion. The combination of fish oil and α-lipoic acid decreased the activity and mRNA levels of hepatic lipogenic enzymes in an additive fashion. Fish oil increased the parameters of hepatic fatty acid oxidation enzymes. α-Lipoic acid appeared to antagonize the stimulating effects of fish oil of fatty acid oxidation through reductions in the activity of some fatty acid oxidation enzymes. α-Lipoic acid attenuated fish oil-dependent increases in serum and liver malondialdehyde levels, and this compound also reduced the serum 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine level. α-Lipoic acid affected various parameters related to the antioxidant system; fish oil also affected some of the parameters. The combination of fish oil and α-lipoic acid effectively reduced serum lipid levels through the additive down-regulation of hepatic lipogenesis. α-Lipoic acid was effective in attenuating fish oil-mediated oxidative stress.

  16. Increased cerebral blood flow during hypercapnia is not affected by lesion of the nucleus locus ceruleus

    SciTech Connect

    Harik, S.I.; Prado, R.; Busto, R.; Ginsberg, M.D.

    1986-11-01

    To test the hypothesis that the putative noradrenergic innervation of intraparenchymal cerebral blood vessels from the nucleus locus ceruleus mediates the vasodilatory response to hypercapnia, regional cerebral blood flow was measured by iodo-(/sup 14/C)antipyrine autoradiography in awake and restrained rats with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesion of the nucleus locus ceruleus and in unlesioned control rats. Hypercapnia, induced by the inhalation of 5% or 8% CO/sub 2/ in air for 8 minutes caused a 2 to 5-fold increase in regional cerebral blood flow. However, despite a marked reduction of about 90% in cortical norepinephrine levels ipsilateral to the lesion, blood flow to the frontal and parietal cortex, hippocampus, striatum and cerebellum increased to the same extent in ipsilateral and contralateral regions. Thus, lesion of the locus ceruleus and the resultant depletion of endogenous cortical and hippocampal norepinephrine, does not influence the cerebrovascular response to hypercapnia.

  17. Photocatalytic degradation kinetics of naphthenic acids in oil sands process-affected water: Multifactorial determination of significant factors.

    PubMed

    Leshuk, Tim; de Oliveira Livera, Diogo; Peru, Kerry M; Headley, John V; Vijayaraghavan, Sucharita; Wong, Timothy; Gu, Frank

    2016-12-01

    Oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) is generated as a byproduct of bitumen extraction in Canada's oil sands. Due to the water's toxicity, associated with dissolved acid extractable organics (AEO), especially naphthenic acids (NAs), along with base-neutral organics, OSPW may require treatment to enable safe discharge to the environment. Heterogeneous photocatalysis is a promising advanced oxidation process (AOP) for OSPW remediation, however, predicting treatment efficacy can be challenging due to the unique water chemistry of OSPW from different tailings ponds. The objective of this work was to study various factors affecting the kinetics of photocatalytic AEO degradation in OSPW. The rate of photocatalytic treatment varied significantly in two different OSPW sources, which could not be accounted for by differences in AEO composition, as studied by high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). The effects of inorganic water constituents were investigated using factorial and response surface experiments, which revealed that hydroxyl (HO) radical scavenging by iron (Fe(3+)) and bicarbonate (HCO3(-)) inhibited the NA degradation rate. The effects of NA concentration and temperature on the treatment kinetics were also evaluated in terms of Langmuir-Hinshelwood and Arrhenius models; pH and temperature were identified as weak factors, while dissolved oxygen (DO) was critical to the photo-oxidation reaction. Accounting for all of these variables, a general empirical kinetic expression is proposed, enabling prediction of photocatalytic treatment performance in diverse sources of OSPW.

  18. Reproductive and stress hormone levels in goldfish (Carassius auratus) exposed to oil sands process-affected water.

    PubMed

    Lister, A; Nero, V; Farwell, A; Dixon, D G; Van Der Kraak, G

    2008-05-01

    Athabasca oil sands mining in northern Alberta produces process-affected waters that are characterized by the presence of naphthenic acids, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and high salinity. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of these process-affected waters on reproductive and stress related endpoints in mature goldfish, Carassius auratus. In two separate studies, testosterone and 17beta-estradiol levels in the plasma were significantly reduced in both male and female goldfish caged for 19 days in process-affected waters relative to controls. This effect was most pronounced in goldfish caged at a site containing mature fine tailing and tailings pond water (P5). Ovarian and testicular tissues from fish in the caging studies were incubated in vitro to evaluate potential differences in basal steroid production levels and responsiveness to human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). Basal levels of testosterone were reduced significantly in males and females from P5 compared with the control pond (P1) demonstrating that the gonads from exposed fish had a diminished steroidogenic capacity. Gonadal tissues of fish from all ponds responded similarly to hCG suggesting that the steroid biosynthetic pathway remained functionally intact. Plasma cortisol levels were significantly higher in male goldfish caged in a pond containing mature fine tailings and capped with uncontaminated water (P3) and in P5 compared with P1. Collectively, these studies suggest that waste products of oil sands mining have the potential to disrupt the normal endocrine functioning in exposed fish through alterations to both reproductive and glucocorticoid hormone biosynthesis. In additional laboratory studies, exposure of goldfish to a naphthenic acid extract for 7 days failed to replicate the effects of processes-affected waters on plasma steroid levels and the causative agent(s) responsible for the effects on steroid biosynthesis remains to be identified.

  19. The effects of fish oil and high or low linoleic acid intake on fatty acid composition of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Damsgaard, Camilla T; Frøkiaer, Hanne; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2008-01-01

    Dietary intake of 18: 2n-6 and 18: 3n-3 may affect endogenous production and incorporation of n-3 long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) from fish oils (FO). This double-blinded controlled 2 x 2-factorial 8-week intervention investigates the effects of high and low 18: 2n-6 intake in combination with FO-supplementation on tissue fatty acid composition. Healthy young men (n 64) were randomized to capsules with FO or olive oil (control) (4.4 (2.0-5.6) ml/d) and to either sunflower oil and margarine (S/B) or rapeseed oil and a butter spread (R/K) to provide a high or a low 18: 2n-6 intake. Diet was measured by 4-d weighed dietary records at baseline, during and 8 weeks after the intervention and tissue incorporation as fatty acid composition of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). The fat intervention gave a mean difference in the 18: 2n-6 intake of 7.3 g/d (95 % CI 4.6, 10.0) and a similar 18: 3n-3 intake in the groups. The R/K groups had a 0.2 % fatty acid (FA%) (95 % CI 0.0, 0.4, P = 0.02) higher content of 22: 5n-3 in the PBMC, a tendency of slightly higher 20: 5n-3 (P = 0.06), but no more 22: 6n-3 (P = 0.83) than the S/B groups. FO effectively raised the PBMC content of all n-3 LCPUFA (P < 0.001). The fat intervention did not markedly influence the effect of FO; the mean PBMC content of n-3 LCPUFA was 10.3 (sem 0.3) FA% in the FO+S/B group and 10.6 (sem 0.2) FA% in the FO+R/K group. In conclusion, increasing the 18: 2n-6 intake did not have any pronounced effect on incorporation of n-3 LCPUFA in PBMC, either alone or with simultaneous FO supplementation.

  20. The effects of perceived discrimination on ambulatory blood pressure and affective responses to interpersonal stress modeled over 24 hours.

    PubMed

    Smart Richman, Laura; Pek, Jolynn; Pascoe, Elizabeth; Bauer, Daniel J

    2010-07-01

    This research examined the impact of perceived discrimination on ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) and daily level affect during social interaction. For 24 hrs, adult Black and White participants wore an ABP monitor and completed palm pilot diary entries about their social interactions. Mean level and time-trend trajectories of blood pressure and heart rate were examined as well as mean level measures of positive and negative affect after stressful and nonstressful social interactions. Analyses showed that, after controlling for important covariates, perceived discrimination predicted the slopes of both wake and nocturnal ABP responses, with those who reported more discrimination having steeper daytime trajectories for systolic and diastolic blood pressure and less nighttime dipping in heart rate over time as compared to those who had reported relatively infrequent discrimination. High levels of perceived discrimination were also related to positive and negative affective responses after stressful encounters. These results suggest that, regardless of race, perceived discrimination is related to cardiovascular and affective responses that may increase vulnerability to pathogenic processes. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  1. Microbial Community Analysis of a Coastal Salt Marsh Affected by the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    PubMed Central

    Beazley, Melanie J.; Martinez, Robert J.; Rajan, Suja; Powell, Jessica; Piceno, Yvette M.; Tom, Lauren M.; Andersen, Gary L.; Hazen, Terry C.; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Zhou, Jizhong; Mortazavi, Behzad; Sobecky, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    Coastal salt marshes are highly sensitive wetland ecosystems that can sustain long-term impacts from anthropogenic events such as oil spills. In this study, we examined the microbial communities of a Gulf of Mexico coastal salt marsh during and after the influx of petroleum hydrocarbons following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Total hydrocarbon concentrations in salt marsh sediments were highest in June and July 2010 and decreased in September 2010. Coupled PhyloChip and GeoChip microarray analyses demonstrated that the microbial community structure and function of the extant salt marsh hydrocarbon-degrading microbial populations changed significantly during the study. The relative richness and abundance of phyla containing previously described hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria (Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria) increased in hydrocarbon-contaminated sediments and then decreased once hydrocarbons were below detection. Firmicutes, however, continued to increase in relative richness and abundance after hydrocarbon concentrations were below detection. Functional genes involved in hydrocarbon degradation were enriched in hydrocarbon-contaminated sediments then declined significantly (p<0.05) once hydrocarbon concentrations decreased. A greater decrease in hydrocarbon concentrations among marsh grass sediments compared to inlet sediments (lacking marsh grass) suggests that the marsh rhizosphere microbial communities could also be contributing to hydrocarbon degradation. The results of this study provide a comprehensive view of microbial community structural and functional dynamics within perturbed salt marsh ecosystems. PMID:22815990

  2. Partitioning and bioaccumulation of metals from oil sands process affected water in indigenous Parachlorella kessleri.

    PubMed

    Mahdavi, Hamed; Liu, Yang; Ulrich, Ania C

    2013-02-01

    This paper studies the partitioning and bioaccumulation of ten target metals ((53)Cr, Mn, Co, (60)Ni, (65)Cu, (66)Zn, As, (88)Sr, (95)Mo and Ba) from oil sands tailings pond water (TPW) by indigenous Parachlorella kessleri. To determine the role of extracellular and intracellular bioaccumulation in metal removal by P. kessleri, TPW samples taken from two oil sands operators (Syncrude Canada Ltd. and Albian Sands Energy Inc.) were enriched with nutrient supplements. Results indicate that intracellular bioaccumulation played the main role in metal removal from TPW; whereas extracellular bioaccumulation was only observed to some extent for Mn, Co, (60)Ni, (65)Cu, (88)Sr, (95)Mo and Ba. The FTIR scan and titration of functional groups on the cell surface indicated low metal binding capacity by indigenous P. kessleri. However, it is believed that the dissolved cations and organic ligand content in TPW (such as naphthenic acids) may interfere with metal binding on the cell surface and lower extracellular bioaccumulation. In addition, the total bioaccumulation and bioconcentration factor (BCF) varied during the cultivation period in different growth regimes.

  3. Effects of evening primrose oil treatment on sciatic nerve blood flow and endoneurial oxygen tension in streptozotocin-diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Cameron, N E; Cotter, M A

    1994-12-01

    Evening primrose oil (EPO) is rich in the omega-6 essential fatty acid component, gamma-linolenic acid. The aim of the investigation was to determine whether EPO treatment prevented a reduction in sciatic nerve perfusion and oxygenation in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Rats were treated from diabetes induction with 10 g EPO kg-1 day-1. Sciatic blood flow was measured by microelectrode polarography and hydrogen clearance. Diabetes caused 47.7% +/- 3.4% (P < 0.001) and 58.8% +/- 4.8% (P < 0.001) reduction in the nutritive (capillary) and the non-nutritive (large vessel) components of endoneurial blood flow, respectively, which were prevented by EPO. Treatment had no significant effect on nutritive flow in non-diabetic rats; however, the rate of non-nutritive flow increased by 97.7% +/- 38.9% (P < 0.01). Sciatic endoneurial oxygen tension was measured by microelectrode polarography. Diabetes resulted in a 44.7% +/- 3.4% reduction in mean oxygen tension (P < 0.001), which was largely (82.3% +/- 10.2%) prevented by EPO treatment (P < 0.001). Thus, EPO prevents impairment of blood flow and endoneurial oxygenation in experimental diabetes. It is likely that this neurovascular action accounts for the beneficial effects of treatment on nerve function in diabetic rats and patients.

  4. Renoprotective effect of virgin coconut oil in heated palm oil diet-induced hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Kamisah, Yusof; Ang, Shu-Min; Othman, Faizah; Nurul-Iman, Badlishah Sham; Qodriyah, Hj Mohd Saad

    2016-10-01

    Virgin coconut oil, rich in antioxidants, was shown to attenuate hypertension. This study aimed to investigate the effects of virgin coconut oil on blood pressure and related parameters in kidneys in rats fed with 5-times-heated palm oil (5HPO). Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups. Two groups were fed 5HPO (15%) diet and the second group was also given virgin coconut oil (1.42 mL/kg, oral) daily for 16 weeks. The other 2 groups were given basal diet without (control) and with virgin coconut oil. Systolic blood pressure was measured pre- and post-treatment. After 16 weeks, the rats were sacrificed and kidneys were harvested. Dietary 5HPO increased blood pressure, renal thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), and nitric oxide contents, but decreased heme oxygenase activity. Virgin coconut oil prevented increase in 5HPO-induced blood pressure and renal nitric oxide content as well as the decrease in renal heme oxygenase activity. The virgin coconut oil also reduced the elevation of renal TBARS induced by the heated oil. However, neither dietary 5HPO nor virgin coconut oil affected renal histomorphometry. In conclusion, virgin coconut oil has a potential to reduce the development of hypertension and renal injury induced by dietary heated oil, possibly via its antioxidant protective effects on the kidneys.

  5. Chemical factors affecting the interpretation of blood cyanide concentrations in fire victims.

    PubMed

    Moriya, Fumio; Hashimoto, Yoshiaki

    2003-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of methemoglobinemia caused by fire gases on blood cyanide concentrations in fire victims. Twenty-two fire victims with postmortem intervals of 8-48 h were involved. Blood cyanide concentrations at the time of death (C(0)) were estimated using the formula: C(0)=Ce(0.046 t) (C=blood cyanide concentration detected at autopsy, 0.046=first-order rate constant of cyanide disappearing from blood in corpses, and t=postmortem interval). Total (free and combined with cyanide) methemoglobin (MetHb) content was used to estimate the maximum capacity of MetHb for combining cyanide. Blood cyanide concentrations at the time of death were very high (5.32-6.47 mg/l) in five victims. Three showed high saturation (54.7-63.0%) of carboxyhemoglobin (CO-Hb) and elevated total MetHb contents (2.6-5.0%). MetHb at these levels is capable of scavenging up to 8.6-11.4 mg/l of blood cyanide. Thus, blood cyanide might have been completely combined with MetHb at the time of their death. In the remaining two victims, CO-Hb saturation was not high (30.9 and 37.9%) and no free MetHb was detected. As a result they may have exhibited severe toxic effects of cyanide at the time of their death. Our results indicate that MetHb contents and CO-Hb saturation should be determined to evaluate the toxic effects of cyanide in fire victims.

  6. Does hormone therapy affect blood pressure changes in the Diabetes Prevention Program?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Catherine; Golden, Sherita H.; Kong, Shengchun; Nan, Bin; Mather, Kieren J.; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether blood pressure reductions differ by estrogen use among overweight glucose-intolerant women. Methods We conducted a secondary analysis of postmenopausal Diabetes Prevention Program participants who used oral estrogen with or without progestogen at baseline and at 1-year follow-up (n=324) vs. those who did not use at either time point (n=382). Systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) changes were examined by randomization arm (intensive lifestyle change (ILS), metformin 850 mg twice daily, or placebo). Associations between changes in blood pressure with changes in sex hormone binding globulin, estradiol, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone were also examined. Results Estrogen users and non-users had similar prevalences of baseline hypertension (33% vs. 34%, p=0.82) and use of blood pressure medications at baseline (p=0.25) and follow-up (p=0.10). Estrogen users and non-users randomized to ILS had similar decreases in SBP (-3.3 vs. -4.7 mmHg, p=0.45) and DBP (-3.1 vs. -4.7 mmHg, p=0.16). Among estrogen users, women randomized to ILS had significant declines in SBP (p=0.016) and DBP (p=0.009) vs. placebo. Among non-users, women randomized to ILS had significant declines in DBP (p=0.001) vs. placebo, but declines in SBP were not significant (p=0.11). Metformin was not associated with blood pressure reductions vs. placebo regardless of estrogen therapy. Blood pressure changes were not associated with changes in sex hormones regardless of estrogen therapy. Conclusions Among overweight women with dysglycemia, the magnitude of blood pressure reductions after ILS was unrelated to postmenopausal estrogen use. PMID:23942251

  7. Polarimetric Retrievals of Surface and Cirrus Clouds Properties in the Region Affected by the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ottaviani, Matteo; Cairns, Brian; Chowdhary, Jacek; Van Diedenhoven, Bastiaan; Knobelspiesse, Kirk; Hostetler, Chris; Ferrare, Rich; Burton, Sharon; Hair, John; Obland, Michael D.; hide

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP) performed several aerial surveys over the region affected by the oil spill caused by the explosion of the Deepwater Horizon offshore platform. The instrument was deployed on the NASA Langley B200 aircraft together with the High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL), which provides information on the distribution of the aerosol layers beneath the aircraft, including an accurate estimate of aerosol optical depth. This work illustrates the merits of polarization measurements in detecting variations of ocean surface properties linked to the presence of an oil slick. In particular, we make use of the degree of linear polarization in the glint region, which is severely affected by variations in the refractive index but insensitive to the waviness of the water surface. Alterations in the surface optical properties are therefore expected to directly affect the polarization response of the RSP channel at 2264 nm, where both molecular and aerosol scattering are negligible and virtually all of the observed signal is generated via Fresnel reflection at the surface. The glint profile at this wavelength is fitted with a model which can optimally estimate refractive index, wind speed and direction, together with aircraft attitude variations affecting the viewing geometry. The retrieved refractive index markedly increases over oil-contaminated waters, while the apparent wind speed is significantly lower than in adjacent uncontaminated areas, suggesting that the slick dampens high-frequency components of the ocean wave spectrum. The constraint on surface reflectance provided by the short-wave infrared channels is a cornerstone of established procedures to retrieve atmospheric aerosol microphysical parameters based on the inversion of the RSP multispectral measurements. This retrieval, which benefits from the ancillary information provided by the HSRL, was in this specific case hampered by

  8. Dragon's Blood extract has antithrombotic properties, affecting platelet aggregation functions and anticoagulation activities.

    PubMed

    Xin, Nian; Li, Yu-Juan; Li, Yan; Dai, Rong-Ji; Meng, Wei-Wei; Chen, Yan; Schlappi, Michael; Deng, Yu-Lin

    2011-05-17

    Dragon's Blood from Dracaena cochinchinensis (Lour.) S.C. Chen (Yunnan, China), as a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, was shown to have certain antithrombotic effects. A new preparation process was used to extract effective components from Dragon's Blood. A 95% ethanol extract A (EA) and a precipitate B (PB) fraction were obtained and compared. Reliability of the preparation process was validated by pharmacodynamic experiments. A rat/mouse thrombosis and blood stasis model was developed for this study, and EA and PB effects on thrombosis, platelet functions and blood coagulation activities were analyzed. It was observed that the EA fraction had significantly better inhibitory effects than the PB fraction on thrombosis (p<0.05), platelet aggregation function (p<0.01) and anticoagulation activity (p<0.05-0.01). The results obtained here showed that EA fraction from Dragon's Blood contained pharmacologically effective compounds with antithrombotic effects, partially improving platelet function and anticoagulation activity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Tobacco smoke exposure during pregnancy increases maternal blood lead levels affecting neonate birth weight.

    PubMed

    Chelchowska, Magdalena; Ambroszkiewicz, Jadwiga; Jablonka-Salach, Katarzyna; Gajewska, Joanna; Maciejewski, Tomasz M; Bulska, Ewa; Laskowska-Klita, Teresa; Leibschang, Jerzy

    2013-11-01

    To assess the effect of lead exposure from cigarette smoke on fetal growth, blood lead concentrations were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in 150 healthy pregnant women. Mean lead concentrations in plasma and whole blood were significantly higher in the smoking group compared with the nonsmoking group in each trimester of pregnancy (p < 0.001). Logistic regression analysis showed the highest impact of the number of cigarettes smoked per day for serum lead concentration (β = 0.238; p < 0.05), while in whole blood, it was duration of smoking before conception (β = 0.297; p < 0.001). Birth weight of the smoking mothers' infants was significantly lower (mean ± SEM, 3,192 ± 50.8 and 3,569 ± 49.6 g, respectively; p < 0.001) and negatively correlated with lead levels in plasma (r = -0.38; p < 0.001) and in whole blood (r = -0.27; p < 0.001). Therefore, it is suggested that smoking during pregnancy increases lead concentrations in maternal blood. Fetal exposure to low doses of lead in utero may be a serious risk factor causing lower birth weight.

  10. Factors affecting the blood concentration of ionized magnesium in patients in the acute phase of myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Ueshima, Kenji; Tachibana, Hideaki; Suzuki, Tomomi; Hiramori, Katsuhiko

    2004-11-01

    Magnesium is physiologically active in its free state (Mg2+). In the present study, we attempted to clarify factors affecting blood concentrations of Mg2+ in the acute phase of myocardial infarction (AMI). Subjects were 84 consecutive patients with AMI. Blood samples were collected at the time of admission, 24h after admission, and 1 week after admission, to measure blood concentration of Mg2+ and noradrenaline (NA). Furthermore, to assess daily Mg intake the hardness of local drinking water was determined, and a survey was conducted regarding dietary preferences and habits. Based on the results of this survey, the patients were defined as having a low Mg intake (L Group) or not. In addition, based on chronological shifts in blood Mg2+ concentrations, subjects were divided into the following four groups: Normal group, blood concentration of Mg2+ within normal range at all measurement points; Early recovery group, low at time of admission, but normalized on the next day; Delayed recovery group, low at time of admission, but normalized 1 week after admission; and Unrecovered group, below normal range at all measurement points. The mean blood Mg2+ concentration on admission was 0.52 +/- 0.06 mmol/l, significantly lower than the normal range (P < 0.05). A negative correlation between blood Mg2+ and NA concentrations on admission was observed (r = 0.49, P < 0.005). As a result, blood Mg2+ concentrations were normalized in 94% of subjects by 1 week after admission. Mean blood Mg2+ concentration on admission in the L Group was 0.47 +/- 0.05 mmol/l, significantly lower than that found in other subjects (0.52 +/- 0.05 mmol/l, P < 0.01). Eighty percent of the patients classified into the Unrecovered group belonged to the L Group. These findings suggest that lower blood concentrations of Mg2+ and higher plasma NA levels may be a result of serious AMI. However, chronic Mg intake deficiency may play a partial role in patients whose blood concentrations of Mg2+ remain low for

  11. Visual display of reservoir parameters affecting enhanced oil recovery. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, J.R.

    1996-07-31

    This project consists of two parts. In Part 1, well logs, other well data, drilling, and production data for the Pioneer Field in the southern San Joaquin Valley of California were obtained, assembled, and input to a commercial relational database manager. These data are being used in PC-based geologic mapping,e valuation, and visualization software programs to produce 2-D and 3-D representations of the reservoir geometry, facies and subfacies, stratigraphy, porosity, oil saturation, and other measured and model parameters. Petrographic and petrophysical measurements made on samples from Pioneer Field, including core, cuttings, and liquids, are being used to calibrate the log suite. In Part 2, these data sets are being used to develop algorithms to correlate log response to geologic and engineering measurements. This project provides a detailed example, based on a field trial, of how to evaluate a field for EOR operations utilizing data typically available in older fields which have undergone primary development. The approach utilizes readily available, affordable PC-based computer software and analytical services. This study will illustrate the steps involved in: (1) setting up a relational database to store geologic, well-log, engineering, and production data; (2) integration of data typically available for oil and gas fields with predictive models for reservoir alteration; and (3) linking these data and models with modern computer software to provide 2-D and 3-D visualizations of the reservoir and its attributes. The techniques are being demonstrated through a field trial in Pioneer Field, that produces from the Monterey Formation, a reservoir which is a candidate for thermal EOR.

  12. Factors affecting radioactive microsphere measurement of blood flow in pregnant guinea pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, S.; Sparks, J.W.; Makowski, E.L.

    1986-10-01

    Comparative blood flow studies were performed in pregnant guinea pigs using radioactive microspheres to test the effects of different sphere sizes on blood flow measurements and the relationship between flows obtained intraoperatively and those performed after 5 days of recovery from anesthesia and surgery. We observed that 1.5% of the cardiac output was shunted through the microcirculation of the carcass, gut, skin and endomyometrium when 15 mu microspheres were used. Intraoperative measurements of heart rate, cardiac output and placental blood flow are significantly lower than measurements made after 5 days recovery. These reductions were ameliorated with the addition of a continuous infusion of isoproterenol and the deletion of atropine from the anesthetic.

  13. Antibiotics in ingested human blood affect the mosquito microbiota and capacity to transmit malaria

    PubMed Central

    Gendrin, Mathilde; Rodgers, Faye H.; Yerbanga, Rakiswendé S.; Ouédraogo, Jean Bosco; Basáñez, María-Gloria; Cohuet, Anna; Christophides, George K.

    2015-01-01

    Malaria reduction is most efficiently achieved by vector control whereby human populations at high risk of contracting and transmitting the disease are protected from mosquito bites. Here, we identify the presence of antibiotics in the blood of malaria-infected people as a new risk of increasing disease transmission. We show that antibiotics in ingested blood enhance the susceptibility of Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes to malaria infection by disturbing their gut microbiota. This effect is confirmed in a semi-natural setting by feeding mosquitoes with blood of children naturally infected with Plasmodium falciparum. Antibiotic exposure additionally increases mosquito survival and fecundity, which are known to augment vectorial capacity. These findings suggest that malaria transmission may be exacerbated in areas of high antibiotic usage, and that regions targeted by mass drug administration programs against communicable diseases may necessitate increased vector control. PMID:25562286

  14. Skin blood flow differentially affects near-infrared spectroscopy-derived measures of muscle oxygen saturation and blood volume at rest and during dynamic leg exercise.

    PubMed

    Tew, Garry A; Ruddock, Alan D; Saxton, John M

    2010-11-01

    The impact of skin blood flow changes on near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)-derived measures of muscle oxygen saturation (SmO(2)) and blood volume has not been fully established. We measured SmO(2) and total hemoglobin concentration ([tHb]) responses of the right vastus lateralis during rest and dynamic knee extension exercise in ten young, healthy males. The protocol was repeated four times: twice without thigh heating for reliability, and twice with different grades of thigh heating for assessing the impact of cutaneous vasodilation on SmO(2) and Δ[tHb]. The reliability of our SmO(2) and [tHb] measurements was good. Thigh heating at 37 and 42°C caused marked increases in cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) during rest and exercise (P < 0.001 between each condition), and small increases in SmO(2) during rest (from 69 ± 8% to 71 ± 7% and 73 ± 6%, respectively; P < 0.05 between each condition), but not during exercise (e.g. 1 min exercise: 51 ± 11% vs. 51 ± 11% and 52 ± 11%, respectively; P > 0.05 at all time points). In contrast, heating-induced increases in %CVC(peak) were accompanied by increases in [tHb] at rest and during exercise and a decrease in Δ[tHb] during exercise (all P < 0.05). Our findings suggest that NIRS-derived measures of SmO(2) and blood volume are differentially affected by skin blood flow at rest and during exercise. The findings from this study should be considered in NIRS experiments where skin blood flow can change markedly (e.g. high-intensity and/or prolonged exercise).

  15. [Factors affecting the control of blood pressure and lipid levels in patients with cardiovascular disease: the PREseAP Study].

    PubMed

    Orozco-Beltrán, Domingo; Brotons, Carlos; Moral, Irene; Soriano, Nuria; Del Valle, María A; Rodríguez, Ana I; Pepió, Josep M; Pastor, Ana

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this observational study was to identify factors influencing the control of blood pressure (i.e., <140/90 mmHg, or <130/80 mmHg in diabetic patients) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level (<100 mg/dL) in 1223 patients with cardiovascular disease. Overall, 70.2% of patients were men, and their mean age was 66.4 years. Blood pressure was poorly controlled in 50.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 46.9%-54.8%) and the LDL cholesterol level was poorly controlled in 60.1% (95% CI, 56.3%-63.9%). Determinants of poor blood pressure control were diabetes, hypertension, no previous diagnosis of heart failure, previous diagnosis of peripheral artery disease or stroke, obesity, and no lipid-lowering treatment. Determinants of poor LDL cholesterol control were no lipid-lowering treatment, no previous diagnosis of ischemic heart disease, no antihypertensive treatment, and dyslipidemia. The factors affecting blood pressure control were different from those affecting LDL cholesterol control, an observation that should be taken into account when implementing treatment recommendations for achieving therapeutic objectives in secondary prevention.

  16. Factors affecting transfusion requirement after hip fracture: Can we reduce the need for blood?

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Sagar J.; Wood, Kristi S.; Marsh, Jackie; Bryant, Dianne; Abdo, Hussein; Lawendy, Abdel-Rahman; Sanders, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Hip fractures are common injuries that result in blood loss and frequently require the transfusion of blood products. We sought to identify risk factors leading to increased blood transfusion in patients presenting with hip fractures, especially those factors that are modifiable. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the cases of all patients who had fixation of their hip fractures between October 2005 and February 2010. The need for transfusion was correlated with potential risk factors, including age, sex, preoperative hemoglobin, fracture type, fixation method and more. Results A total of 835 patients had fixation of their hip fractures during the study period; 631 met the inclusion criteria and 249 of them (39.5%) were transfused. We found an association between need for blood transfusion and female sex (p = 0.018), lower preoperative hemoglobin (p < 0.001), fracture type (p < 0.001) and fixation method (p < 0.001). Compared with femoral neck fractures, there was a 2.37 times greater risk of blood transfusion in patients with intertrochanteric fractures (p < 0.001) and a 4.03 times greater risk in those with subtrochanteric fractures (p < 0.001). Dynamic hip screw (DHS) fixation decreased the risk of transfusion by about half compared with intramedullary nail or hemiarthroplasty. We found no association with age, delay to operation (p = 0.17) or duration of surgery (p = 0.30). Conclusion The only modifiable risk factor identified was fixation method. When considering blood transfusion requirements in isolation, we suggest a potential benefit in using a DHS for intertrochanteric and femoral neck fractures amenable to DHS fixation. PMID:25265109

  17. Does tropicamide affect choroidal blood flow in humans? a laser Doppler flowmetry study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palanisamy, Nithiyanantham; Riva, Charles E.; Rovati, Luigi; Cellini, Mauro; Gizzi, Corrado; Strobbe, Ernesto; Campos, Emilio C.

    2012-03-01

    The measurement of blood flow in the ocular fundus is of scientific and clinical interest. Investigating ocular blood flow in the choroid may be important to understand the pathogenesis of numerous ocular diseases, such as glaucoma or agerelated macular degeneration (AMD). Laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) was applied to measure relative velocity, volume and flux of red blood cells in the tissues of human eye. Its main application lies in the possibility of assessing alterations in blood flow early in the course of diseases. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of pupil dilatation with one drop of 1% tropicamide on blood flow in the foveal region of the choroid of the human fundus. The blood flow parameters were measured in 24 eyes during 30 minutes (one measurement in every 3 minutes) after the application of the drop. Since the Doppler parameters depend on the scattering geometry, which may change as the pupil dilates; an artificial pupil of 4mm in diameter was placed directly in front the eye. Following the administration of tropicamide the mean pupil diameter was increased from 3.29 mm to 8.25 mm (P<0.0001, Paired student t-test). In comparison to the baseline values, the data shows no significant increases were observed in velocity, volume, and flow with 4 mm artificial pupil (0.2%, 1.3%, 0.8% respectively) and a statistically significant increases were observed without artificial pupil (10.7%, 13.9%, 12.8% respectively) following the application of tropicamide.

  18. Coconut Oil

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat eczema and a skin condition called psoriasis. Coconut oil is also used in hair products ... not affect weight or body mass index (BMI). Psoriasis. Applying coconut oil to the skin before treatment ...

  19. Petroleum Oils

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Different types of crude oil and refined product, of all different chemical compositions, have distinct physical properties. These properties affect the way oil spreads and breaks down, its hazard to marine and human life, and the likelihood of threat.

  20. The effects of oil exposure on peripheral blood leukocytes and splenic melano-macrophage centers of Gulf of Mexico fishes.

    PubMed

    Ali, Ahmad Omar; Hohn, Claudia; Allen, Peter J; Ford, Lorelei; Dail, Mary Beth; Pruett, Stephen; Petrie-Hanson, Lora

    2014-02-15

    In August and November 2010 we collected and examined peripheral blood and tissues from three species of Gulf of Mexico fish. Findings were compared to non-exposed control fish. The leukocyte counts of exposed alligator gar were not significantly different from controls, while exposed Gulf killifish and sea trout had significantly decreased lymphocyte counts. Liver ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) values from sea trout were significantly greater than control sea trout EROD values, suggesting poly aromatic hydrocarbon exposure. Splenic melano-macrophage centers (MMCs) from exposed sea trout and Gulf killifish showed a significant increase in number compared to non-exposed fish. Sea trout splenic MMCs were also significantly greater in size. These findings suggest that Gulf fish sampled were exposed to crude oil from the Macondo well and were in a lymphopenic or immuno-compromised state.

  1. Accessibility of blood affects the attractiveness of cattle to horn flies.

    PubMed

    Breijo, M; Rocha, S; Ures, X; Pedrana, G; Alonzo, P; Meikle, A

    2014-03-01

    The burden of infestation of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Muscidae), differs among bovines within the same herd. We hypothesized that these differences might be related to the epidermal thickness of the cattle and the blood intake capacity of the fly. Results showed that dark animals carried more flies and had a thinner epidermis than light-coloured animals, which was consistent with the greater haemoglobin content found in flies caught on darker cattle. Similarly, epidermal thickness increased with body weight, whereas haemoglobin content decreased. Overall, we suggest that accessibility of blood is a factor that partially explains cattle attractiveness to flies.

  2. The injury of fine particulate matter from cooking oil fumes on umbilical cord blood vessels in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hou, Lijuan; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Chao; Xu, Yachun; Zhu, Xiaoxia; Yao, Cijiang; Liu, Ying; Li, Tao; Cao, Jiyu

    2017-01-01

    Cooking oil fumes (COFs) derived PM2.5 is the major source of indoor air pollution in Asia. For this, a pregnant rat model within different doses of cooking oil fumes (COFs) derived PM2.5 was established in pregnancy in our research. Our previous studies have showed that exposure to COFs-derived PM2.5 was related to adverse pregnancy outcomes. However, the mechanisms of signaling pathways remain unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the underlying mechanisms induced by COFs-derived PM2.5 injury on umbilical cord blood vessels (UCs) in vitro. Exposure to COFs-derived PM2.5 resulted in changing the expression of eNOS, ET-1, ETRA, and ETRB. In additions, western blot analysis indicated that the HIF-1α/iNOS/NO signaling pathway and VEGF/VEGFR1/iNOS signaling pathway were involved in UCs injury triggered by COFs-derived PM2.5. In conclusion, our data suggested that exposure to COFs-derived PM2.5 resulted in increasing of oxidative stress and inflammation, as well as dysfunction of UCs.

  3. Suppression of Oral Sweet Taste Sensation with Gymnema sylvestre Affects Postprandial Gastrointestinal Blood Flow and Gastric Emptying in Humans.

    PubMed

    Kashima, Hideaki; Eguchi, Kohei; Miyamoto, Kanae; Fujimoto, Masaki; Endo, Masako Yamaoka; Aso-Someya, Nami; Kobayashi, Toshio; Hayashi, Naoyuki; Fukuba, Yoshiyuki

    2017-05-01

    An oral sweet taste sensation (OSTS) exaggerates digestive activation transiently, but whether it has a role after swallowing a meal is not known. Gymnema sylvestre (GS) can inhibit the OSTS in humans. We explored the effect of the OSTS of glucose intake on gastrointestinal blood flow, gastric emptying, blood-glucose, and plasma-insulin responses during the postprandial phase. Eight participants ingested 200 g (50 g × 4 times) of 15% glucose solution containing 100 mg of 13C-sodium acetate after rinsing with 25 mL of 2.5% roasted green tea (control) or 2.5% GS solution. During each protocol, gastrointestinal blood flow and gastric emptying were measured by ultrasonography and 13C-sodium acetate breath test, respectively. Decreased subjective sweet taste intensity was observed in all participants in the GS group. The time to attain a peak value of blood flow in the celiac artery and gastric emptying were delayed in the GS group compared with the control group. At the initial phase after glucose intake, blood-glucose and plasma-insulin responses were lower in the GS group than those for the control group. These results suggest that the OSTS itself has a substantial role in controlling postprandial gastrointestinal activities, which may affect subsequent glycemic metabolism. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Does the Presence of Blood in the Catheter or the Degree of Difficulty of Embryo Transfer Affect Live Birth?

    PubMed

    Plowden, Torie C; Hill, Micah J; Miles, Shana M; Hoyt, Benjamin; Yauger, Belinda; Segars, James H; Csokmay, John M; Chason, Rebecca J

    2016-09-21

    The technique used for embryo transfer (ET) can affect implantation. Prior research that evaluated the effect of postprocedural blood of the transfer catheter tip have yielded mixed results, and it is unclear whether this is actually a marker of difficulty of the transfer. Our objective was to estimate the effect of blood at the time of ET and the difficulty of ET on live birth rates (LBR). This retrospective cohort study utilized generalized estimating equations (GEEs) with nesting for repeated cycles for all analyses. Univariate modeling was performed and a final multivariate (adjusted) GEE model accounted for all significant confounders. Embryo transfers were subjectively graded (easy, medium, or hard) by a physician at the time of transfer. The presence of blood at ET was associated with more difficult ETs, retained embryos, and presence of mucous in the catheter. In the univariate analysis, ET with blood was not associated with live birth, while the degree of difficulty for ET had a negative impact on LBR. In the final multivariate GEE model, which accounts for repeated cycles from a patient, the only factors associated with an increased LBR were the degree of difficulty of the ET, female age, and blastocyst transfer. After controlling for confounding variables, the presence of blood in the transfer catheter was not associated with the likelihood of pregnancy and thus was not an independent predictor of cycle outcome. This indicates that the difficulty of the transfer itself was a strong negative predictor of pregnancy.

  5. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... spans vary from a few days to months. New cells are constantly being formed in the bone marrow. ... the bloodstream and are constantly being replaced by new cells. Blood also contains important proteins called clotting factors , ...

  6. Degradation and aquatic toxicity of naphthenic acids in oil sands process-affected waters using simulated wetlands.

    PubMed

    Toor, Navdeep S; Franz, Eric D; Fedorak, Phillip M; MacKinnon, Michael D; Liber, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    Oil sands process-affected waters (OSPWs) produced during the extraction of bitumen at the Athabasca Oil Sands (AOS) located in northeastern Alberta, Canada, are toxic to many aquatic organisms. Much of this toxicity is related to a group of dissolved organic acids known as naphthenic acids (NAs). Naphthenic acids are a natural component of bitumen and are released into process water during the separation of bitumen from the oil sand ore by a caustic hot water extraction process. Using laboratory microcosms as an analogue of a proposed constructed wetland reclamation strategy for OSPW, we evaluated the effectiveness of these microcosms in degrading NAs and reducing the aquatic toxicity of OSPW over a 52-week test period. Experimental manipulations included two sources of OSPW (one from Syncrude Canada Ltd. and one from Suncor Energy Inc.), two different hydraulic retention times (HRTs; 40 and 400 d), and increased nutrient availability (added nitrate and phosphate). Microcosms with a longer HRT (for both OSPWs) showed higher reductions in total NAs concentrations (64-74% NAs reduction, p<0.05) over the test period, while nutrient enrichment appeared to have little effect. A 96 h static acute rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) bioassay showed that the initial acute toxicity of Syncrude OSPW (LC50=67% v/v) was reduced (LC50>100% v/v) independent of HRT. However, EC20s from separate Microtox® bioassays were relatively unchanged when comparing the input and microcosm waters at both HRTs over the 52-week study period (p>0.05), indicating that some sub-lethal toxicity persisted under these experimental conditions. The present study demonstrated that given sufficiently long HRTs, simulated wetland microcosms containing OSPW significantly reduced total NAs concentrations and acute toxicity, but left behind a persistent component of the NAs mixture that appeared to be associated with residual chronic toxicity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Consumption of Oxidized Soybean Oil Increased Intestinal Oxidative Stress and Affected Intestinal Immune Variables in Yellow-feathered Broilers.

    PubMed

    Liang, Fangfang; Jiang, Shouqun; Mo, Yi; Zhou, Guilian; Yang, Lin

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of oxidized soybean oil in the diet of young chickens on growth performance and intestinal oxidative stress, and indices of intestinal immune function. Corn-soybean-based diets containing 2% mixtures of fresh and oxidized soybean oil provided 6 levels (0.15, 1.01, 3.14, 4.95, 7.05, and 8.97 meqO2/kg) of peroxide value (POV) in the diets. Each dietary treatment, fed for 22 d, had 6 replicates, each containing 30 birds (n = 1,080). Increasing POV levels reduced average daily feed intake (ADFI) of the broilers during d 1 to 10, body weight and average daily gain at d 22 but did not affect overall ADFI. Concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) increased in plasma and jejunum as POV increased but total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC) declined in plasma and jejunum. Catalase (CAT) activity declined in plasma and jejunum as did plasma glutathione S-transferase (GST). Effects were apparent at POV exceeding 3.14 meqO2/kg for early ADFI and MDA in jejunum, and POV exceeding 1.01 meqO2/kg for CAT in plasma and jejunum, GST in plasma and T-AOC in jejunum. Relative jejunal abundance of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) P50 and NF-κB P65 increased as dietary POV increased. Increasing POV levels reduced the jejunal concentrations of secretory immunoglobulin A and cluster of differentiation (CD) 4 and CD8 molecules with differences from controls apparent at dietary POV of 3.14 to 4.95 meqO2/kg. These findings indicated that growth performance, feed intake, and the local immune system of the small intestine were compromised by oxidative stress when young broilers were fed moderately oxidized soybean oil.

  8. rhG-CSF does not affect the phenotype of adult donor peripheral blood NK cells.

    PubMed

    Lassailly, F; Sielleur, I; Blaise, D; Chabannon, C

    2005-01-01

    Considerable evidence in preclinical models as well as in human transplantation now suggests that donor-derived natural killer (NK) cells can contribute to alloimmune recognition of recipient residual tumour cells. This makes the NK cell population an attractive target for in vitro or in vivo manipulations, in order to improve the antitumour effect of allogeneic transplantation. However, conditions in which allogeneic donor cells are collected vary; several reports have emphasised the different phenotypic and functional properties of T cells derived from marrow, cord blood or mobilised peripheral blood grafts; others have demonstrated different clinical outcomes following blood or marrow transplantation after myeloablative conditioning regimens. NK cells have been examined in this setting; the availability of new tools to study the expression of a variety of surface antigens that are involved in the control of NK cell activity offered us an opportunity to extensively characterise the phenotypic properties of NK cells from donors, before and after administration of pharmacological doses of rhG-CSF used for haematopoietic progenitor mobilisation. Our study suggests that rhG-CSF does not reproducibly alter blood NK cell phenotype in normal individuals, and thus that donor-derived cells are fully equipped to exert their potential antitumour effect.

  9. Heavy metal and trace element concentrations in blood and follicular fluid affect ART outcome.

    PubMed

    Tolunay, Harun Egemen; Şükür, Yavuz Emre; Ozkavukcu, Sinan; Seval, Mehmet Murat; Ateş, Can; Türksoy, Vugar Ali; Ecemiş, Tolga; Atabekoğlu, Cem Somer; Özmen, Batuhan; Berker, Bülent; Sönmezer, Murat

    2016-03-01

    To assess the effects of heavy metal and trace element concentrations in blood and follicular fluid on assisted reproductive technology cycle outcome. A prospective study was conducted between January 2012 and July 2012 in a university hospital infertility clinic. One hundred and one patients with unexplained infertility who underwent intracytoplasmic sperm injection using GnRH-antagonist protocol were recruited. Concentrations of four toxic metals (Cd, Pb, Hg, As) and three trace elements (Cu, Zn, Fe) were measured both in blood and follicular fluid specimens. Patients were evaluated in two groups; the study group consisted of patients with ongoing pregnancy (n=20) and the reference group consisted of patients experienced assisted reproductive technology failure, miscarriage or biochemical pregnancy (n=81). Demographics and cycle parameters were comparable between the groups except for median number of day 3 Grade A embryos. Statistically significant negative correlations were found between blood Pb levels and number of MII oocytes, implantation, clinical pregnancy and ongoing pregnancy rates. Results of the log binomial regression revealed 2.2% lower risk for ongoing pregnancy for each 1μg/dL higher blood Pb concentration while holding the other variables in the model constant (RR 0.978; 95% CI 0.956-0.998; P=.041). Also, the results revealed 71.9% lower risk for ongoing pregnancy for each 1μg/dL higher follicular fluid Cu concentration while holding the other variables in the model constant (RR 0.288; 95% CI 0.085-0.92; P=.039). Blood concentrations of Pb and follicular fluid concentrations of Cu seem to have significant impacts on assisted reproductive technology cycle outcome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Elucidating mechanisms of toxic action of dissolved organic chemicals in oil sands process-affected water (OSPW).

    PubMed

    Morandi, Garrett D; Wiseman, Steve B; Guan, Miao; Zhang, Xiaowei W; Martin, Jonathan W; Giesy, John P

    2017-11-01

    Oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) is generated during extraction of bitumen in the surface-mining oil sands industry in Alberta, Canada, and is acutely and chronically toxic to aquatic organisms. It is known that dissolved organic compounds in OSPW are responsible for most toxic effects, but knowledge of the specific mechanism(s) of toxicity, is limited. Using bioassay-based effects-directed analysis, the dissolved organic fraction of OSPW has previously been fractionated, ultimately producing refined samples of dissolved organic chemicals in OSPW, each with distinct chemical profiles. Using the Escherichia coli K-12 strain MG1655 gene reporter live cell array, the present study investigated relationships between toxic potencies of each fraction, expression of genes and characterization of chemicals in each of five acutely toxic and one non-toxic extract of OSPW derived by use of effects-directed analysis. Effects on expressions of genes related to response to oxidative stress, protein stress and DNA damage were indicative of exposure to acutely toxic extracts of OSPW. Additionally, six genes were uniquely responsive to acutely toxic extracts of OSPW. Evidence presented supports a role for sulphur- and nitrogen-containing chemical classes in the toxicity of extracts of OSPW. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Granular activated carbon for simultaneous adsorption and biodegradation of toxic oil sands process-affected water organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Shahinoor; Zhang, Yanyan; McPhedran, Kerry N; Liu, Yang; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2015-04-01

    Naphthenic acids (NAs) released into oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) during bitumen processing in Northern Alberta are problematic for oil sands industries due to their toxicity in the environment and resistance to degradation during conventional wastewater treatment processes. Granular activated carbon (GAC) has shown to be an effective media in removing biopersistent organics from wastewater using a combination of adsorption and biodegradation removal mechanisms. A simultaneous GAC (0.4 g GAC/L) adsorption and biodegradation (combined treatment) study was used for the treatment of raw and ozonated OSPW. After 28 days of batch treatment, classical and oxidized NAs removals for raw OSPW were 93.3% and 73.7%, and for ozonated OSPW were 96.2% and 77.1%, respectively. Synergetic effects of the combined treatment process were observed in removals of COD, the acid extractable fraction, and oxidized NAs, which indicated enhanced biodegradation and bioregeneration in GAC biofilms. A bacteria copy number >10(8) copies/g GAC on GAC surfaces was found using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction after treatment for both raw and ozonated OSPW. A Microtox(®) acute toxicity test (Vibrio fischeri) showed effective toxicity removal (>95.3%) for the combined treatments. Therefore, the simultaneous GAC adsorption and biodegradation treatment process is a promising technology for the elimination of toxic OSPW NAs.

  12. Effect of age and affection status on blood pressure, serum potassium and stature in familial hyperkalaemia and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Farfel, Alon; Mayan, Haim; Melnikov, Semyon; Holtzman, Eliezer J; Pinhas-Hamiel, Orit; Farfel, Zvi

    2011-05-01

    The rare autosomal dominant genetic disorder familial hyperkalemia and hypertension which is caused by mutations in WNK4 kinase, is characterized by childhood hyperkalemia and hypercalciuria, and appearance of hypertension in the third to fourth decade. Accompanying short stature is often described. We determined height, blood pressure and blood and urinary biochemical parameters in members of a very large family of FHHt with the WNK4 Q565E mutation. The family has 57 members, 30 of whom (including 14 children) are affected. Prehypertension occurred in 7/11 affected and 1/10 unaffected children (P = 0.024). Serum potassium (SK) was ~0.5 mmol/L higher in affected children vs adults [5.98 ± 0.42 vs 5.46 ± 0.40 mmol/L, respectively (P < 0.0001)] (33 samples from 11 children and 36 samples from eight adults). SK of ≥ 6.0 mmol/L occurred in 16/33 children's samples and in 3/36 adults' samples (P = 0.0003). Hyperkalaemia in children is currently untreated. Children also had more severe hyperchloraemia and hypercalciuria. The family contains four large subfamilies, and each includes 8-10 siblings. In one subfamily, height Z-score was lower in affected vs unaffected subjects [- 2.69 ± 0.36 vs -1.05 ± 0.16, respectively (P < 0.0001)]. In the other three subfamilies, no such difference was found. Short stature is not part of FHHt with the WNK4 Q565E mutation. Children affected with FHHt have a high prevalence of prehypertension, and their hyperkalaemia is more severe than that of affected adults. Children may have a more severe defect in the basic mechanism that produces hyperkalaemia. We suggest that, in affected adults, the attenuation of hyperkalaemia and appearance of hypertension may be the result of a late rise in the activity of renal transporters or channels such as the epithelial sodium channel.

  13. Visual display of reservoir parameters affecting enhanced oil recovery. Quarterly report, July 1--September 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, J.R.

    1996-07-31

    This project consists of two parts. In Part 1, well logs, other well data, drilling, and production data for the Pioneer Field in the southern San Joaquin Valley of California were obtained, assembled, and input to a commercial relational database manager. These data were used in PC-based geologic mapping, evaluation, and visualization software programs to produce 2-D and 3-D representations of the reservoir. Petrographic and petrophysical measurements made on samples from Pioneer Field, including core, cuttings and liquids, were used to calibrate the log suite. In Part 2, these data sets were used to develop algorithms to correlate log response to geologic and engineering measurements. This project provides a detailed example, based on a field trial, of how to evaluate a field for EOR operations utilizing data typically available in older fields which have undergone primary development. The approach utilizes readily available, affordable PC-based computer software and analytical services. This study illustrates the steps involved in: (1) setting up a relational database to store geologic, well-log, engineering, and production data; (2) integration of data typically available for oil and gas fields with predictive models for reservoir alteration, and (3) linking these data and models with modern computer software to provide 2-D and 3-D visualizations of the reservoir and its attributes. The techniques were demonstrated through a field trial in Pioneer Field, that produces from the Monterey Formation, a reservoir which is a candidate for thermal EOR.

  14. Visual display of reservoir parameters affecting enhanced oil recovery. Third quarterly report, [April 1995--June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, J.R.

    1995-07-01

    This project will provide a detailed example, based on a field trial, of how to evaluate a field for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) operations utilizing data typically available in a filed that has undergone primary development. The approach will utilize readily available, affordable computer software and analytical services. The GeoGraphix Exploration System (GES) software package was acquired this quarter and installed. Well logging, formation tops and other data are being loaded into the program. We also acquired and installed GeoGraphix`s well-log evaluation package, QLA2. Miocene tops for the entire Pioneer Anticline were loaded into the GES system and contour maps and 3D surface visualizations were constructed. Fault data have been digitized and will soon be loaded into the GeoGraphix mapping module and combined with formation-top data to produce structure maps which will display all fault traces. The versatile program MatLab can be used to perform time series analysis and to produce spatial displays of data. MatLab now has a 3D volume visualization package. In the coming quarter we will test MatLab using Pioneer data set.

  15. Arbuscular mycorrhiza differentially affects synthesis of essential oils in coriander and dill.

    PubMed

    Rydlová, Jana; Jelínková, Marcela; Dušek, Karel; Dušková, Elena; Vosátka, Miroslav; Püschel, David

    2016-02-01

    Research on the role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in the synthesis of essential oils (EOs) by aromatic plants has seldom been conducted in field-relevant conditions, and then, only limited spectra of EO constituents have been analyzed. The effect was investigated of inoculation with AMF on the synthesis of a wide range of EO in two aromatic species, coriander (Coriandrum sativum) and dill (Anethum graveolens), in a garden experiment under outdoor conditions. Plants were grown in 4-l pots filled with soil, which was either γ-irradiated (eliminating native AMF) or left non-sterile (containing native AMF), and inoculated or not with an isolate of Rhizophagus irregularis. AMF inoculation significantly stimulated EO synthesis in both plant species. EO synthesis (total EO and several individual constituents) was increased in dill in all mycorrhizal treatments (containing native and/or inoculated AMF) compared to non-mycorrhizal plants. In contrast, EO concentrations in coriander (total EO and most constituents) were increased only in the treatment combining both inoculated and native AMF. A clear positive effect of AMF on EO synthesis was found for both aromatic plants, which was, however, specific for each plant species and modified by the pool of AMF present in the soil.

  16. Magnesium and manganese affect photosynthesis, essential oil composition and phenolic compounds of Tanacetum parthenium.

    PubMed

    Farzadfar, Soudeh; Zarinkamar, Fatemeh; Hojati, Mostafa

    2017-03-01

    The accumulation of plant defense metabolites is closely associated with the concentration of nutrient elements, yet data related to the interactive effects of two nutrients on the deployment of phenolics and terpenoids are scare. In the present study, the interaction between magnesium (Mg) and manganese (Mn) on nutrient uptake, photosynthesis, oxidative status and the accumulation of phenolics and terpenoids in the leaves of feverfew plants grown at different concentrations of Mg and Mn was investigated. Nutrient uptake and photosynthesis were associated with the amount of applied Mg but could be modified by the concentration of Mn. Phenolic biosynthetic enzymes and individual phenolics were not only induced by Mg, but their levels were also dependent on the Mn supply. Additionally, the proportion of monoterpenes was enhanced by a deficiency of Mg rather than an excess of Mn. Deprivation of Mg also decreased the proportion of sesquiterpenes in the essential oil. Therefore, it appears that a high Mg and a low Mn supply lead to a marked shift from monoterpene to sesquiterpene production. Phenolic compounds also differentially accumulated under varying Mg and Mn concentrations. These results suggest a profound effect of the combined supply of Mg and Mn on the biosynthesis of terpenes and phenolics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Extra virgin olive oil use is associated with improved post-prandial blood glucose and LDL cholesterol in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Violi, F; Loffredo, L; Pignatelli, P; Angelico, F; Bartimoccia, S; Nocella, C; Cangemi, R; Petruccioli, A; Monticolo, R; Pastori, D; Carnevale, R

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is a key component of the Mediterranean diet and seems to account for the protective effect against cardiovascular disease. However, the underlying mechanism is still elusive. Design: We tested the effect of EVOO, added to Mediterranean-type meal, on post-prandial glycemic and lipid profile. Subjects: Post-prandial glycemic and lipid profile were investigated in 25 healthy subjects who were randomly allocated in a cross-over design to a Mediterranean-type meal added with or without 10 g EVOO (first study), or Mediterranean-type meal with EVOO (10 g) or corn oil (10 g; second study). Glycemic profile, which included glucose, insulin, dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 (DPP-4) protein and activity, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and lipid profile, which included, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (LDL-C), oxidized LDL (ox-LDL), triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (HDL-C), were analyzed before and 2 h after the meal. Results: In the first study, 2 h after meal, subjects who assumed a meal with EVOO had significantly lower blood glucose (P<0.001), DPP-4 protein (P<0.001) and activity (P<0.001), LDL-C (P<0.001) and ox-LDL (P<0.001) and higher insulin (P<0.05), GLP-1 (P<0.001) and GIP (P<0.05) compared with those without EVOO. The second study showed that compared with corn oil, EVOO improved both glycemic and lipid profile. Thus, a significantly smaller increase of glucose (P<0.05), DPP4 protein (P<0.001) and activity (P<0.05) and higher increase of insulin (P<0.001) and GLP-1 (P<0.001) were observed. Furthermore, compared with corn oil, EVOO showed a significantly less increase of LDL-C (P<0.05) and ox-LDL (P<0.001). Conclusions: We report for the first time that EVOO improves post-prandial glucose and LDL-C, an effect that may account for the antiatherosclerotic effect of the Mediterranean diet. PMID:26192450

  18. Single and combined effects of vitamin C and oregano essential oil in diet, on growth performance, and blood parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazi, Shahab; Amjadian, Tahere; Norouzi, Shokufeh

    2015-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding vitamin C (VC), oregano essential oil (OR), or their combination in diet, on growth performance, and blood parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress (HS) condition (38 °C). One-day-old 240 male broilers were randomly assigned to four treatment groups, six replicates of ten birds each. The birds were fed with either a basal diet or a basal diet supplemented with either 200 mg L-ascorbic acid/kg of diet, 250 mg of oregano essential oil/kg of diet, or 200 mg L-ascorbic acid plus 250 mg of oregano essential oil/kg of diet. Average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were obtained for 42 days of age and at the end of the experiment (day 42); birds were bled to determine some blood parameters and weighted for final body weight (BW). Feeding birds with diets supplemented with oregano essential oil and vitamin C in a single or combined form increased ADG ( P > 0.05). Also BW increased and feed efficiency decreased ( P < 0.05) in the birds fed with diets including VC and OR (in a single or combined form), compared to those fed the basal diet. ADFI was not significantly influenced by dietary oregano essential oil and vitamin C ( P > 0.05). Supplemental oregano essential oil and vitamin C in a combined form decreased the serum concentration of corticosterone, triglycerides, glucose, and MDA ( P < 0.05) compared with other groups. An increase in the serum concentrations of vitamin C were seen in broiler chicks supplemented with vitamin C. From the results of the present experiment, it can be concluded that diet supplementation by combined oregano essential oil and vitamin C could have beneficial effects on some blood parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress condition.

  19. Single and combined effects of vitamin C and oregano essential oil in diet, on growth performance, and blood parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress condition.

    PubMed

    Ghazi, Shahab; Amjadian, Tahere; Norouzi, Shokufeh

    2015-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding vitamin C (VC), oregano essential oil (OR), or their combination in diet, on growth performance, and blood parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress (HS) condition (38 °C). One-day-old 240 male broilers were randomly assigned to four treatment groups, six replicates of ten birds each. The birds were fed with either a basal diet or a basal diet supplemented with either 200 mg L-ascorbic acid/kg of diet, 250 mg of oregano essential oil/kg of diet, or 200 mg L-ascorbic acid plus 250 mg of oregano essential oil/kg of diet. Average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were obtained for 42 days of age and at the end of the experiment (day 42); birds were bled to determine some blood parameters and weighted for final body weight (BW). Feeding birds with diets supplemented with oregano essential oil and vitamin C in a single or combined form increased ADG (P > 0.05). Also BW increased and feed efficiency decreased (P < 0.05) in the birds fed with diets including VC and OR (in a single or combined form), compared to those fed the basal diet. ADFI was not significantly influenced by dietary oregano essential oil and vitamin C (P > 0.05). Supplemental oregano essential oil and vitamin C in a combined form decreased the serum concentration of corticosterone, triglycerides, glucose, and MDA (P < 0.05) compared with other groups. An increase in the serum concentrations of vitamin C were seen in broiler chicks supplemented with vitamin C. From the results of the present experiment, it can be concluded that diet supplementation by combined oregano essential oil and vitamin C could have beneficial effects on some blood parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress condition.

  20. Comparison of blood volume pulse and skin conductance responses to mental and affective stimuli at different anatomical sites.

    PubMed

    Kushki, Azadeh; Fairley, Jillian; Merja, Satyam; King, Gillian; Chau, Tom

    2011-10-01

    Measurements of blood volume pulse (BVP) and skin conductance are commonly used as indications of psychological arousal in affective computing and human-machine interfaces. To date, palmar surfaces remain the primary site for these measurements. Placement of sensors on palmar surfaces, however, is undesirable when recordings are fraught with motion and pressure artifacts. These artifacts are frequent when the human participant has involuntary movements as in hyperkinetic cerebral palsy. This motivates the use of alternative measurement sites. The present study examined the correlation between measurements of blood volume pulse and skin conductance obtained from three different sites on the body (fingers, toes and ear for BVP; fingers, toes and arch of the foot for skin conductance) in response to cognitive and affective stimuli. The results of this pilot study indicated significant inter-site correlation among signal features derived from different sites, with the exception of BVP amplitude, the number of electrodermal reactions and the slope of the electrodermal activity response. We attribute these differences in part to inter-site discrepancies in local skin conditions, such as skin temperature. Despite these differences, significant changes from baseline were present in the responses to the cognitive and affective stimuli at non-palmar sites, suggesting that these sites may provide viable signal measurements for use in affective computing and human-machine interface applications.

  1. Do GSM 900MHz signals affect cerebral blood circulation? A near-infrared spectrophotometry study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Martin; Haensse, Daniel; Morren, Geert; Froehlich, Juerg

    2006-06-01

    Effects of GSM 900MHz signals (EMF) typical for a handheld mobile phone on the cerebral blood circulation were investigated using near-infrared spectrophotometry (NIRS) in a three armed (12W/kg, 1.2W/kg, sham), double blind, randomized crossover trial in 16 healthy volunteers. During exposure we observed borderline significant short term responses of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin concentration, which correspond to a decrease of cerebral blood flow and volume and were smaller than regular physiological changes. Due to the relatively high number of statistical tests, these responses may be spurious and require further studies. There was no detectable dose-response relation or long term response within 20min. The detection limit was a fraction of the regular physiological changes elicited by functional activation. Compared to previous studies using PET, NIRS provides a much higher time resolution, which allowed investigating the short term effects efficiently, noninvasively, without the use of radioactive tracers and with high sensitivity.

  2. Hypercholesterolemia screening. Does knowledge of blood cholesterol level affect dietary fat intake?

    PubMed Central

    Aubin, M.; Godin, G.; Vézina, L.; Maziade, J.; Desharnais, R.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether knowing blood cholesterol test results influences people's intention to lower their dietary fat intake and to assess changes in diet after 3 months. DESIGN: Randomized clinical study. SETTING: Two hospital-based family medicine centres. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 526 patients aged 18 to 65, without prior knowledge of their blood cholesterol levels, were recruited. Seventy did not appear for their appointments, and 37 did not meet study criteria, leaving 419 participants. From that group, 391 completed the study. INTERVENTIONS: Patients submitted to cholesterol screening were randomly assigned to one of two groups, completing the study questionnaires either before (control group) or after (experimental group) being informed of their screening test results. All participants were called 3 months after transmission of test results to assess their dietary fat intake at that time. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Differences in intention to adopt a low-fat diet reported between the experimental and control groups and differences in dietary fat intake modification after 3 months between patients with normal and abnormal blood cholesterol test results. RESULTS: Knowledge of test results influenced patients' intentions to adopt low-fat diets (F1,417 = 5.4, P = .02). Patients reported lower mean dietary fat intake after 3 months than at baseline (P < .0001). The reduction was greater in patients with abnormal screening results (F2,388 = 3.6, P = .03). CONCLUSIONS: Being informed of personal blood cholesterol levels effects an immediate change in eating habits that translates into reduced dietary fat intake. PMID:9640523

  3. Novel Genes Affecting Blood Pressure Detected Via Gene-Based Association Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huan; Mo, Xing-Bo; Xu, Tan; Bu, Xiao-Qing; Lei, Shu-Feng; Zhang, Yong-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension is a common disorder and one of the most important risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to identify more novel genes for blood pressure. Based on the publically available SNP-based P values of a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies, we performed an initial gene-based association study in a total of 69,395 individuals. To find supplementary evidence to support the importance of the identified genes, we performed GRAIL (gene relationships among implicated loci) analysis, protein–protein interaction analysis, functional annotation clustering analysis, coronary artery disease association analysis, and other bioinformatics analyses. Approximately 22,129 genes on the human genome were analyzed for blood pressure in gene-based association analysis. A total of 43 genes were statistically significant after Bonferroni correction (P < 2.3×10−6). The evidence obtained from the analyses of this study suggested the importance of ID1 (P = 2.0×10−6), CYP17A1 (P = 4.58×10−9), ATXN2 (P = 1.07×10−13), CLCN6 (P = 4.79×10−9), FURIN (P = 1.38×10−6), HECTD4 (P = 3.95×10−11), NPPA (P = 1.60×10−6), and PTPN11 (P = 8.89×10−10) in the genetic basis of blood pressure. The present study found some important genes associated with blood pressure, which might provide insights into the genetic architecture of hypertension. PMID:25820152

  4. Low perfusion index affects the difference in glucose level between capillary and venous blood

    PubMed Central

    Acar, Nurdan; Ozcelik, Hamit; Cevik, Arif Alper; Ozakin, Engin; Yorulmaz, Goknur; Kebapci, Nur; Bilge, Ugur; Bilgin, Muzaffer

    2014-01-01

    Aim In emergency cases, finger stick testing is primarily used to check the blood glucose value of patients since it takes longer to obtain the venous value. In critical patients, under conditions that cause an increase in metabolic state and level of stress, there occurs considerable difference in glucose levels between capillary and venous measurements. This study aimed to investigate the comparability of capillary and venous glucose values, according to the perfusion index level obtained with the Masimo Radical-7® device, in critical patients aged 18 years and over. Method We conducted this prospective and observational study in the emergency department of the Eskisehir Osmangazi University hospital between November 3, 2008 and February 2, 2009. Results The blood glucose of 300 critical patients was checked by finger stick in the emergency unit. The participants with normal vital signs had perfusion index between 0 and 5; the results obtained by the two methods were more consistent for perfusion index values of 6 and over. The results were most consistent in aged participants with normal vital sign findings and low perfusion index and in young patients with high perfusion index. In the cases where at least one of the vital signs was abnormal, the glucose values obtained by the two methods were more consistent when the perfusion index was 6 or over. In this group, independently from the perfusion index value, the consistency was higher in younger patients compared with aged patients. Conclusion In the emergency department, perfusion index value measured by Masimo Radical-7 and capillary blood glucose levels can serve in blood sugar management in critically ill patients. PMID:25429227

  5. Systemic blood loss affects NF-kappa B regulatory mechanisms in the lungs.

    PubMed

    Moine, P; Shenkar, R; Kaneko, D; Le Tulzo, Y; Abraham, E

    1997-07-01

    The nuclear regulatory factor (NF)-kappa B is activated in the lungs of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). In experimental models of acute lung injury, activation of NF-kappa B contributes to the increased expression of immunoregulatory cytokines and other proinflammatory mediators in the lungs. Because of the important role that NF-kappa B activation appears to play in the development of acute lung injury, we examined cytoplasmic and nuclear NF-kappa B counterregulatory mechanisms in lung mononuclear cells, using a murine model in which inflammatory lung injury develops after blood loss. Sustained activation of NF-kappa B was present in lung mononuclear cells over the 4-h period after blood loss. The activation of NF-kappa B after hemorrhage was accompanied by alterations in levels of the NF-kappa B regulatory proteins I kappa B alpha and Bcl-3. Cytoplasmic and nuclear I kappa B alpha were increased and nuclear Bcl-3 was decreased during the first hour after blood loss, but, by 4 h posthemorrhage, cytoplasmic and nuclear I kappa B alpha levels were decreased and nuclear levels of Bcl-3 were increased. Inhibition of xanthine oxidase activity in otherwise unmanipulated unhemorrhaged mice resulted in increased levels of I kappa B alpha and decreased amounts of Bcl-3 in nuclear extracts from lung mononuclear cells. No changes in the levels of nuclear I kappa B alpha or Bcl-3 occurred after hemorrhage when xanthine oxidase activity was inhibited. These results demonstrate that blood loss, at least partly through xanthine oxidase-dependent mechanisms, produces alterations in the levels of both I kappa B alpha and Bcl-3 in lung mononuclear cell populations. The effects of hemorrhage on proteins that regulate activation of NF-kappa B may contribute to the frequent development of inflammatory lung injury in this setting.

  6. Oxidative status assessment of the endemic bivalve Pinna nobilis affected by the oil spill from the sinking of the Don Pedro.

    PubMed

    Capó, Xavier; Tejada, Silvia; Box, Antonio; Deudero, Salud; Sureda, Antoni

    2015-09-01

    Several biomarkers were determined to evaluate the effects of the Don Pedro spillage on the digestive gland of the fan mussel Pinna nobilis (Linnaeus, 1758). Two areas in the southeast of Ibiza Island (Western Mediterranean) were selected; one affected by the oil spill (Talamanca) and one did not affected (Espardell). Mussels were sampled one, six and twelve months after the accident. PAH levels were elevated in P. nobilis from the affected area one month after the accident and, although they were decreasing gradually, they were always higher than in the control area. An increase in enzyme activities, reduced glutathione and lipid peroxidation were evidenced one month after the spillage, with no changes in acetylcholinesterase. All biomarkers progressively returned to basal levels one year after the oil spill. In conclusion, the Don Pedro oil spill induced an acute situation of oxidative stress on P. nobilis that were recovered twelve months later.

  7. Factors affecting drug and gene delivery: effects of interaction with blood components.

    PubMed

    Opanasopit, Praneet; Nishikawa, Makiya; Hashida, Mitsuru

    2002-01-01

    Targeted drug delivery systems have been used extensively to improve the pharmacological and therapeutic activities of a wide variety of drugs and genes. In this article, we summarize the factors determining the tissue disposition of delivery systems: the physicochemical and biological characteristics of the delivery system and the anatomic and physiological characteristics of the tissues. There are several modes of drug and gene targeting, ranging from passive to active targeting, and each of these can be achieved by optimizing the design of the delivery system to suit a specific aim. After entering the systemic circulation, either by an intravascular injection or through absorption from an administration site, however, a delivery system encounters a variety of blood components, including blood cells and a range of serum proteins. These components are by no means inert as far as interaction with the delivery system is concerned, and they can sometimes markedly effect its tissue disposition. The interaction with blood components is known to occur with particulate delivery systems, such as liposomes, or with cationic charge-mediated delivery systems for genes. In addition to these rather nonspecific ones, interactions via the targeting ligand of the delivery system can occur. We recently found that mannosylated carriers interact with serum mannan binding protein, greatly altering their tissue disposition in a number of ways that depend on the properties of the carriers involved.

  8. Predictive Blood Chemistry Parameters for Pansteatitis-Affected Mozambique Tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus).

    PubMed

    Bowden, John A; Cantu, Theresa M; Chapman, Robert W; Somerville, Stephen E; Guillette, Matthew P; Botha, Hannes; Hoffman, Andre; Luus-Powell, Wilmien J; Smit, Willem J; Lebepe, Jeffrey; Myburgh, Jan; Govender, Danny; Tucker, Jonathan; Boggs, Ashley S P; Guillette, Louis J

    2016-01-01

    One of the largest river systems in South Africa, the Olifants River, has experienced significant changes in water quality due to anthropogenic activities. Since 2005, there have been various "outbreaks" of the inflammatory disease pansteatitis in several vertebrate species. Large-scale pansteatitis-related mortality events have decimated the crocodile population at Lake Loskop and decreased the population at Kruger National Park. Most pansteatitis-related diagnoses within the region are conducted post-mortem by either gross pathology or histology. The application of a non-lethal approach to assess the prevalence and pervasiveness of pansteatitis in the Olifants River region would be of great importance for the development of a management plan for this disease. In this study, several plasma-based biomarkers accurately classified pansteatitis in Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) collected from Lake Loskop using a commercially available benchtop blood chemistry analyzer combined with data interpretation via artificial neural network analysis. According to the model, four blood chemistry parameters (calcium, sodium, total protein and albumin), in combination with total length, diagnose pansteatitis to a predictive accuracy of 92 percent. In addition, several morphometric traits (total length, age, weight) were also associated with pansteatitis. On-going research will focus on further evaluating the use of blood chemistry to classify pansteatitis across different species, trophic levels, and within different sites along the Olifants River.

  9. Predictive Blood Chemistry Parameters for Pansteatitis-Affected Mozambique Tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus)

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Robert W.; Somerville, Stephen E.; Guillette, Matthew P.; Botha, Hannes; Hoffman, Andre; Luus-Powell, Wilmien J.; Smit, Willem J.; Lebepe, Jeffrey; Myburgh, Jan; Govender, Danny; Tucker, Jonathan; Boggs, Ashley S. P.

    2016-01-01

    One of the largest river systems in South Africa, the Olifants River, has experienced significant changes in water quality due to anthropogenic activities. Since 2005, there have been various “outbreaks” of the inflammatory disease pansteatitis in several vertebrate species. Large-scale pansteatitis-related mortality events have decimated the crocodile population at Lake Loskop and decreased the population at Kruger National Park. Most pansteatitis-related diagnoses within the region are conducted post-mortem by either gross pathology or histology. The application of a non-lethal approach to assess the prevalence and pervasiveness of pansteatitis in the Olifants River region would be of great importance for the development of a management plan for this disease. In this study, several plasma-based biomarkers accurately classified pansteatitis in Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) collected from Lake Loskop using a commercially available benchtop blood chemistry analyzer combined with data interpretation via artificial neural network analysis. According to the model, four blood chemistry parameters (calcium, sodium, total protein and albumin), in combination with total length, diagnose pansteatitis to a predictive accuracy of 92 percent. In addition, several morphometric traits (total length, age, weight) were also associated with pansteatitis. On-going research will focus on further evaluating the use of blood chemistry to classify pansteatitis across different species, trophic levels, and within different sites along the Olifants River. PMID:27115488

  10. Drinking Water Sodium and Elevated Blood Pressure of Healthy Pregnant Women in Salinity-Affected Coastal Areas.

    PubMed

    Scheelbeek, Pauline F D; Khan, Aneire E; Mojumder, Sontosh; Elliott, Paul; Vineis, Paolo

    2016-08-01

    Coastal areas in Southeast Asia are experiencing high sodium concentrations in drinking water sources that are commonly consumed by local populations. Salinity problems caused by episodic cyclones and subsequent seawater inundations are likely (partly) related to climate change and further exacerbated by changes in upstream river flow and local land-use activities. Dietary (food) sodium plays an important role in the global burden of hypertensive disease. It remains unknown, however, if sodium in drinking water-rather than food-has similar effects on blood pressure and disease risk. In this study, we examined the effect of drinking water sodium on blood pressure of pregnant women: increases in blood pressure in this group could severely affect maternal and fetal health. Data on blood pressure, drinking water source, and personal, lifestyle, and environmental confounders was obtained from 701 normotensive pregnant women residing in coastal Bangladesh. Generalized linear mixed regression models were used to investigate association of systolic and diastolic blood pressure of these-otherwise healthy-women with their water source. After adjustment for confounders, drinkers of tube well and pond water (high saline sources) were found to have significantly higher average systolic (+4.85 and +3.62 mm Hg) and diastolic (+2.30 and +1.72 mm Hg) blood pressures than rainwater drinkers. Drinking water salinity problems are expected to exacerbate in the future, putting millions of coastal people-including pregnant women-at increased risk of hypertension and associated diseases. There is an urgent need to further explore the health risks associated to this understudied environmental health problem and feasibility of possible adaptation strategies. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Understanding How Space Travel Affects Blood Vessels: Arterial Remodeling and Functional Adaptations Induced by Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delp, Michael; Vasques, Marilyn; Aquilina, Rudy (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Ever rise quickly from the couch to get something from the kitchen and suddenly feel dizzy? With a low heart rate and relaxed muscles, the cardiovascular system does not immediately provide the resistance necessary to keep enough blood going to your head. Gravity wins, at least for a short time, before your heart and blood vessels can respond to the sudden change in position and correct the situation. Actually, the human cardiovascular system is quite well adapted to the constant gravitational force of the Earth. When standing, vessels in the legs constrict to prevent blood from collecting in the lower extremities. In the space environment, the usual head-to-foot blood pressure and tissue fluid gradients that exist during the upright posture on Earth are removed. The subsequent shift in fluids from the lower to the upper portions of the body triggers adaptations within the cardiovascular system to accommodate the new pressure and fluid gradients. In animal models that simulate microgravity, the vessels in the head become more robust while those in the lower limbs become thin and lax. Similar changes may also occur in humans during spaceflight and while these adaptations are appropriate for a microgravity environment, they can cause problems when the astronauts return to Earth or perhaps another planet. Astronauts often develop orthostatic intolerance which means they become dizzy or faint when standing upright. This dizziness can persist for a number of days making routine activities difficult. In an effort to understand the physiological details of these cardiovascular adaptations, Dr. Michael Delp at Texas A&M University, uses the rat as a model for his studies. For the experiment flown on STS-107, he will test the hypothesis that blood vessels in the rats' hindlimbs become thinner, weaker, and constrict less in response to pressure changes and to chemical signals when exposed to microgravity. In addition, he will test the hypothesis that arteries in the brain

  12. Understanding How Space Travel Affects Blood Vessels: Arterial Remodeling and Functional Adaptations Induced by Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delp, Michael; Vasques, Marilyn; Aquilina, Rudy (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Ever rise quickly from the couch to get something from the kitchen and suddenly feel dizzy? With a low heart rate and relaxed muscles, the cardiovascular system does not immediately provide the resistance necessary to keep enough blood going to your head. Gravity wins, at least for a short time, before your heart and blood vessels can respond to the sudden change in position and correct the situation. Actually, the human cardiovascular system is quite well adapted to the constant gravitational force of the Earth. When standing, vessels in the legs constrict to prevent blood from collecting in the lower extremities. In the space environment, the usual head-to-foot blood pressure and tissue fluid gradients that exist during the upright posture on Earth are removed. The subsequent shift in fluids from the lower to the upper portions of the body triggers adaptations within the cardiovascular system to accommodate the new pressure and fluid gradients. In animal models that simulate microgravity, the vessels in the head become more robust while those in the lower limbs become thin and lax. Similar changes may also occur in humans during spaceflight and while these adaptations are appropriate for a microgravity environment, they can cause problems when the astronauts return to Earth or perhaps another planet. Astronauts often develop orthostatic intolerance which means they become dizzy or faint when standing upright. This dizziness can persist for a number of days making routine activities difficult. In an effort to understand the physiological details of these cardiovascular adaptations, Dr. Michael Delp at Texas A&M University, uses the rat as a model for his studies. For the experiment flown on STS-107, he will test the hypothesis that blood vessels in the rats' hindlimbs become thinner, weaker, and constrict less in response to pressure changes and to chemical signals when exposed to microgravity. In addition, he will test the hypothesis that arteries in the brain

  13. Reclamation of peat-based wetlands affected by Alberta, Canada's oil sands development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foote, Lee; Ciborowski, Jan; Dixon, D. George; Liber, Karsten; Smits, Judit

    2013-04-01

    The ability to construct or reclaim functional peat-based wetlands as a replacement for those lost to development activity is uncertain. Oil sands development in northern Alberta, Canada will ultimately result in the removal of over 85 km2 of peat-based wetlands. To examine potential replacement of these lost peatlands we compared four treatments assigned to 16 known-age wetlands where we followed plant community, carbon dynamics, water quality, invertebrates and top predators for 5 years. Key questions followed by a synopsis of findings include: (1) Will wetland communities become more natural with age? - Yes, however industrial effluents of salinity and napthenates will slow succession and may truncate development compared to natural systems; (2) Can community succession be accelerated? - Yes, the addition of carbon-rich soils can facilitate development in some zones but cautions are raised about a "green desert" of vigorous plant stands with low insect and vertebrate diversity; (3) Is productivity sustainable? - Maybe, limitations of water chemistry (salinity and napthenates) and hydrologic regime appear to play large roles; (4) Will production support top predators? Sometimes; insectivorous birds, some small fish and a few amphibians persisted under all except the most saline and napthenate-enriched sites; (5) What is the role of the compromised water quality in reclamation? - Reduced diversity of plants, insects and vertebrates, reduced plant physiological efficiency and thus slower rates of reclamation. It is axiomatic and well demonstrated throughout Europe that it is easier and more cost effective to protect peatlands than it is to reclaim or create them. This is complicated, though, where mineral or property values soar to over 1 million per hectare. Industrial planners, governments and the public need to understand the options, possibilities, time frames and costs of peatland replacement to make the best land use decisions possible. Our research provides

  14. Composition of The Essential Oil From Danggui-zhiqiao Herb-Pair and Its Analgesic Activity and Effect on Hemorheology in Rats With Blood Stasis Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuanqing; Yan, Jianye; Li, Shunxiang; Wang, Wei; Cai, Xiong; Huang, Dan; Gong, Limin; Li, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Angelica sinensis and Aurantii fructu used in a pair, named Danggui-Zhiqiao herb-pair (DZHP), which was rich in essential oil and has been adopted to promote blood circulation, dispel blood stasis, and relieve pain in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). To analyze the composition and pharmacological effects of essential oil from DZHP. The composition of the essential oil from DZHP was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Its analgesic activity was evaluated by acetic acid-induced writhing test and hot plate test. The hemorheology test was carried out to evaluate the effect on hemorheology in rats with blood stasis syndrome. Twenty-eight components were identified and the main components were α-pinene (3.07%), β-pinene (2.0%), β-myrcene (3.71%), D-limonene (49.28%), γ-terpinen (9.53%), α-terpinolene (1.80%), α-terpineol (2.02%), β-bisabolene (1.13%), butylidenephthalide (1.43%), and Z-ligustilide (16.08%). The pharmacology test showed that the essential oil significantly inhibited the number of writhes induced by acetic acid with inhibition rate of 44.64% and significantly increased hot-plate latency compared with control group from 30 to 90 min after oral administration of drugs in mice. It could significantly decrease plasma viscosity, whole blood relative index at high and low shear rate, whole blood reduced viscosity at high and low shear rate, and erythrocyte rigidity index in hemorheology test. The composition of the essential oil of DZHP was determined successfully and it had analgesic and promoting blood circulation activities. Angelica sinensis and Aurantii fructu used in a pair, named Danggui-Zhiqiao herb-pair (DZHP), which was rich in Essential oil and has been adopted to promote blood circulation, dispel blood stasis and relieve pain in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM).Twenty-eight components were identified and the main components were α-pinene (3.07%), β-pinene (2.0%), β-myrcene (3.71%), D-limonene (49.28%),

  15. Composition of The Essential Oil From Danggui-zhiqiao Herb-Pair and Its Analgesic Activity and Effect on Hemorheology in Rats With Blood Stasis Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuanqing; Yan, Jianye; Li, Shunxiang; Wang, Wei; Cai, Xiong; Huang, Dan; Gong, Limin; Li, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Angelica sinensis and Aurantii fructu used in a pair, named Danggui-Zhiqiao herb-pair (DZHP), which was rich in essential oil and has been adopted to promote blood circulation, dispel blood stasis, and relieve pain in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) Objective: To analyze the composition and pharmacological effects of essential oil from DZHP Materials and Methods: The composition of the essential oil from DZHP was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Its analgesic activity was evaluated by acetic acid-induced writhing test and hot plate test. The hemorheology test was carried out to evaluate the effect on hemorheology in rats with blood stasis syndrome Results: Twenty-eight components were identified and the main components were α-pinene (3.07%), β-pinene (2.0%), β-myrcene (3.71%), D-limonene (49.28%), γ-terpinen (9.53%), α-terpinolene (1.80%), α-terpineol (2.02%), β-bisabolene (1.13%), butylidenephthalide (1.43%), and Z-ligustilide (16.08%). The pharmacology test showed that the essential oil significantly inhibited the number of writhes induced by acetic acid with inhibition rate of 44.64% and significantly increased hot-plate latency compared with control group from 30 to 90 min after oral administration of drugs in mice. It could significantly decrease plasma viscosity, whole blood relative index at high and low shear rate, whole blood reduced viscosity at high and low shear rate, and erythrocyte rigidity index in hemorheology test Conclusion: The composition of the essential oil of DZHP was determined successfully and it had analgesic and promoting blood circulation activities. SUMMARY Angelica sinensis and Aurantii fructu used in a pair, named Danggui-Zhiqiao herb-pair (DZHP), which was rich in Essential oil and has been adopted to promote blood circulation, dispel blood stasis and relieve pain in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM).Twenty-eight components were identified and the main components were α-pinene (3

  16. Alcohol affects executive cognitive functioning differentially on the ascending versus descending limb of the blood alcohol concentration curve.

    PubMed

    Pihl, Robert O; Paylan, Sheila S; Gentes-Hawn, Alyson; Hoaken, Peter N S

    2003-05-01

    Executive cognitive functioning (ECF), a construct that includes cognitive abilities such as planning, abstract reasoning, and the capacity to govern self-directed behavior, has been recently researched as an antecedent to many forms of psychopathology and has been implicated in alcohol-related aggression. This study was designed to examine whether differential ECF impairments can be noted on the ascending versus the descending limbs of the blood alcohol concentration curve. Forty-one male university students participated in this study. Twenty-one subjects were given 1.32 ml of 95% alcohol per kilogram of body weight, mixed with orange juice, and the remaining 20 were given a placebo. Participants were randomly assigned to either an ascending or descending blood alcohol group and were tested on six tests of ECF on their assigned limb. Subjective mood data were also collected. Intoxicated participants on both limbs demonstrated ECF impairment; the descending-limb group showed greater impairment than their ascending-limb counterparts. Intoxicated subjects were significantly more anxious at baseline than placebo subjects. The introduction of this covariate nullified any significant differences in subjective mood found on either limb of the blood alcohol concentration curve, but ECF impairments remained robust. Our results support the conclusion that alcohol negatively affects cognitive performance and has a differential effect on the descending versus the ascending limb of the blood alcohol concentration curve. The latter finding may have important ramifications relating to the detrimental consequences of alcohol intoxication.

  17. Blood and tissue fatty acid compositions, lipoprotein levels, performance and meat flavor of broilers fed fish oil: changes in the pre- and post-withdrawal design.

    PubMed

    Aghaei, N; Safamehr, A; Mehmannavaz, Y; Chekaniazar, S

    2012-12-01

    Administration of fish oil (FO) in broiler diets can elevate α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) and docosahexanoic acid (DHA) levels, which are protective against cardiovascular disease. However, optimization based solely on n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) enrichment in chicken meat could lead to lower meat quality, unless the withdrawal period (plan) is applied for 1 week. The present study investigated whether the incorporation of FO in the diet for 32 days followed by its withdrawal for 1 week affected blood lipid profiles, lipoprotein particles, performance and meat flavor in male broiler chickens. Two hundred and forty birds (1-day-old, Ross 308) were assigned to 1 of 4 dietary groups: 0%, 1%, 2% or 3% FO with four replicates. Broilers were fed for 49 days according to a 4-phase feeding program. The experimental phase comprised day 11 to 42, and FO was removed on day 42. Blood samples were collected during the pre- and post-withdrawal period after the recordings before slaughter. The FO groups demonstrated decreased low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and increased high-density lipoprotein levels on day 42 (P < 0.01); however, these values were not significant after design withdrawal. Diet supplementation with FO elevated the blood levels of palmitic acid (C16:0) and n-3 PUFAs, especially long-chain (LC) PUFAs (EPA, C20:5n-3 and DHA, C22:6n-3), and caused a decline in the level of arachidonic acid (AA, C20:4n-6; P < 0.05). Application of a one-week withdrawal period resulted in a decrease in (P < 0.05) linoleic acid (C18:2n-6) and an increase in the level of AA, unlike their amounts on day 42. Although blood and tissue LC n-3 PUFA levels on day 49 were significantly higher in the FO groups compared with the control, they demonstrated a substantial decrease on day 49 compared with day 42. The best results, mainly the lowest n-6/n-3 fatty acids (FAs) and feed conversion ratio (FCRs), were observed for 3% FO (group T4), even after institution

  18. DNA Methylation of Lipid-Related Genes Affects Blood Lipid Levels

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, Liliane; Wahl, Simone; Pilling, Luke C.; Reischl, Eva; Sandling, Johanna K.; Kunze, Sonja; Holdt, Lesca M.; Kretschmer, Anja; Schramm, Katharina; Adamski, Jerzy; Klopp, Norman; Illig, Thomas; Hedman, Åsa K.; Roden, Michael; Hernandez, Dena G.; Singleton, Andrew B.; Thasler, Wolfgang E.; Grallert, Harald; Gieger, Christian; Herder, Christian; Teupser, Daniel; Meisinger, Christa; Spector, Timothy D.; Kronenberg, Florian; Prokisch, Holger; Melzer, David; Peters, Annette; Deloukas, Panos; Ferrucci, Luigi; Waldenberger, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    Background Epigenetic mechanisms might be involved in the regulation of interindividual lipid level variability and thus may contribute to the cardiovascular risk profile. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between genome-wide DNA methylation and blood lipid levels high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and total cholesterol. Observed DNA methylation changes were also further analyzed to examine their relationship with previous hospitalized myocardial infarction. Methods and Results Genome-wide DNA methylation patterns were determined in whole blood samples of 1776 subjects of the Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg F4 cohort using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip (Illumina). Ten novel lipid-related CpG sites annotated to various genes including ABCG1, MIR33B/SREBF1, and TNIP1 were identified. CpG cg06500161, located in ABCG1, was associated in opposite directions with both high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (β coefficient=−0.049; P=8.26E-17) and triglyceride levels (β=0.070; P=1.21E-27). Eight associations were confirmed by replication in the Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg F3 study (n=499) and in the Invecchiare in Chianti, Aging in the Chianti Area study (n=472). Associations between triglyceride levels and SREBF1 and ABCG1 were also found in adipose tissue of the Multiple Tissue Human Expression Resource cohort (n=634). Expression analysis revealed an association between ABCG1 methylation and lipid levels that might be partly mediated by ABCG1 expression. DNA methylation of ABCG1 might also play a role in previous hospitalized myocardial infarction (odds ratio, 1.15; 95% confidence interval=1.06–1.25). Conclusions Epigenetic modifications of the newly identified loci might regulate disturbed blood lipid levels and thus contribute to the development of complex lipid-related diseases. PMID:25583993

  19. Hydrogen-rich water affected blood alkalinity in physically active men.

    PubMed

    Ostojic, Sergej M; Stojanovic, Marko D

    2014-01-01

    Possible appliance of effective and safe alkalizing agent in the treatment of metabolic acidosis could be of particular interest to humans experiencing an increase in plasma acidity, such as exercise-induced acidosis. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that the daily oral intake of 2L of hydrogen-rich water (HRW) for 14 days would increase arterial blood alkalinity at baseline and post-exercise as compared with the placebo. This study was a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial involving 52 presumably healthy physically active male volunteers. Twenty-six participants received HRW and 26 a placebo (tap water) for 14 days. Arterial blood pH, partial pressure for carbon dioxide (pCO2), and bicarbonates were measured at baseline and postexercise at the start (day 0) and at the end of the intervention period (day 14). Intake of HRW significantly increased fasting arterial blood pH by 0.04 (95% confidence interval; 0.01 - 0.08; p < 0.001), and postexercise pH by 0.07 (95% confidence interval; 0.01 - 0.10; p = 0.03) after 14 days of intervention. Fasting bicarbonates were significantly higher in the HRW trial after the administration regimen as compared with the preadministration (30.5 ± 1.9 mEq/L vs. 28.3 ± 2.3 mEq/L; p < 0.0001). No volunteers withdrew before the end of the study, and no participant reported any vexatious side effects of supplementation. These results support the hypothesis that HRW administration is safe and may have an alkalizing effect in young physically active men.

  20. Changes in extracellular muscle volume affect heart rate and blood pressure responses to static exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baum, K.; Essfeld, D.; Stegemann, J.

    To investigate the effect of μg-induced peripheral extracellular fluid reductions on heart rate and blood pressure during isometric exercise, six healthy male subjects performed three calf ergometer test with different extracellular volumes of working muscles. In all tests, body positions during exercise were identical (supine with the knee joint flexed to 900). After a pre-exercise period of 25 min, during which calf volumes were manipulated, subjects had to counteract an external force of 180 N for 5 min. During the pre-exercise period three different protocols were applied. Test A: Subjects rested in the exercise position; test B: Body position was the same as in A but calf volume was increased by venous congestion (cuffs inflated to 80 mm Hg); test C: Calf volumes were decreased by a negative hydrostatic pressure (calves about 40 cm above heart level with the subjects supine). To clamp the changed calf volumes in tests B and C, cuffs were inflated to 300 mm Hg 5 min before the onset of exercise. This occlusion was maintained until termination of exercise. Compared to tests A and B, the reduced volume of test C led to significant increases in heart rate and blood pressure during exercise. Oxygen uptake did not exceed resting levels in B and C until cuffs were deflated, indicating that exclusively calf muscles contributed to the neurogenic peripheral drive. It is concluded that changes in extracellular muscle volume have to be taken into account when comparing heart rate and blood pressure during lg- and μg- exercise.

  1. Sesame ingestion affects sex hormones, antioxidant status, and blood lipids in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wen-Huey; Kang, Yu-Ping; Wang, Nai-Hung; Jou, Hei-Jen; Wang, Tzong-An

    2006-05-01

    Sesame ingestion has been shown to improve blood lipids in humans and antioxidative ability in animals. Sesamin, a sesame lignan, was recently reported to be converted by intestinal microflora to enterolactone, a compound with estrogenic activity and also an enterometabolite of flaxseed lignans, which are known to be phytoestrogens. Whether sesame can be a source of phytoestrogens is unknown. This study was designed to investigate the effect of sesame ingestion on blood sex hormones, lipids, tocopherol, and ex vivo LDL oxidation in postmenopausal women. Twenty-six healthy subjects attended, and 24 completed, this randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Half of them consumed 50 g sesame seed powder daily for 5 wk, followed by a 3-wk washout period, then a 5-wk 50-g rice powder placebo period. The other half received the 2 supplements in reverse order. After sesame treatment, plasma total cholesterol (TC), LDL-C, the ratio of LDL-C to HDL-C, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in oxidized LDL, and serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate decreased significantly by 5, 10, 6, 23, and 18%, respectively. The ratio of alpha- and gamma-tocopherol to TC increased significantly by 18 and 73%, respectively. All of these variables differed significantly between the 2 treatments. Serum sex hormone-binding globulin and urinary 2-hydroxyestrone (n = 8) increased significantly by 15 and 72%, respectively, after sesame treatment, and these concentrations tended to differ (P = 0.065 and P = 0.090, respectively) from those after the placebo treatment. These results suggest that sesame ingestion benefits postmenopausal women by improving blood lipids, antioxidant status, and possibly sex hormone status.

  2. Identification and characterization of large DNA deletions affecting oil quality traits in soybean seeds through transcriptome sequencing analysis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Understanding the molecular and genetic mechanisms underlying variation in seed composition and contents among different genotypes is important for soybean oil quality improvement. We designed a bioinformatics approach to compare seed transcriptomes of 9 soybean genotypes varying in oil composition ...

  3. Evaluation of biodiesel as bioremediation agent for the treatment of the shore affected by the heavy oil spill of the Prestige.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Alvarez, P; Vila, J; Garrido, J M; Grifoll, M; Feijoo, G; Lema, J M

    2007-08-25

    The efficiency of different bioremediation products (nutrients, microorganisms and biodiesel) was tested using tiles located in both the supra-littoral and intertidal zones of a beach that was affected by the heavy oil spill of the Prestige. Neither nutrients nor microorganisms meant an improvement with respect to the natural processes. The addition of biodiesel improved the appearance of the treated tiles and apparently accelerated the degradation of the aliphatic and aromatic fractions of the residual fuel oil. Nevertheless, PAHs degradation was similar and very high in all the treatments (80-85% after 60 days). On the other hand, the evolution with time of the amount of vanadium was similar to that of 17alpha(H),21beta(H)-hopane, so it was concluded that vanadium could also be used to estimate the extent of oil degradation in the field. These results also suggested that the residual fuel oil mineralization was very low throughout 1 year in all the treatments. Moreover, the increase of the oxygen content of the residual oil from around 1% till 4-8% indicated that the partial oxidation of hydrocarbons took place, and that the hydrocarbon oxidation products accumulated in the polar fractions. In general, the results pointed out that bioremediation techniques were not suitable for the recovery of shores affected by heavy oil spills.

  4. Fibroblast growth factor signaling affects vascular outgrowth and is required for the maintenance of blood vessel integrity.

    PubMed

    De Smet, Frederik; Tembuyser, Bieke; Lenard, Anna; Claes, Filip; Zhang, Jie; Michielsen, Christof; Van Schepdael, Ann; Herbert, Jean-Marc; Bono, Françoise; Affolter, Markus; Dewerchin, Mieke; Carmeliet, Peter

    2014-10-23

    Angiogenesis contributes to the development of numerous disorders. Even though fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) were discovered as mediators of angiogenesis more than 30 years ago, their role in developmental angiogenesis still remains elusive. We use a recently described chemical probe, SSR128129E (SSR), that selectively inhibits the action of multiple FGF receptors (FGFRs), in combination with the zebrafish model to examine the role of FGF signaling in vascular development. We observe that while FGFR signaling is less important for vessel guidance, it affects vascular outgrowth and is especially required for the maintenance of blood vessel integrity by ensuring proper cell-cell junctions between endothelial cells. In conclusion, our work illustrates the power of a small molecule probe to reveal insights into blood vessel formation and stabilization and thus of broad interest to the vascular biology community.

  5. Homocysteine and its thiolactone-mediated modification of fibrinogen affect blood platelet adhesion.

    PubMed

    Malinowska, Joanna; Olas, Beata

    2012-01-01

    Homocysteine (Hcys) and homocysteine thiolactone (HTL) concentrations in organism are correlated with a number of serious pathologies. In the literature, there are few papers describing studies on the effects of homocysteine on proteins that participate in blood coagulation and fibrinolysis in human. However, mechanisms involved in the relationship between hyperhomocysteinemia and hemostatic process are still unclear. The role of N- or S-homocysteinylation (induced by Hcys and its derivatives) of different hemostatic proteins, including fibrinogen is also still poorly known. The aim of this study was to establish the functional changes of the fibrinogen molecule induced by Hcys (at final doses of 10-100 µM) and the most reactive form of Hcys - its cyclic thioester, homocysteine thiolactone (0.1-1 µM), and to examine the effects of these changes on the capability of fibrinogen to interact with human blood platelets (by measuring the platelet adhesion). Our present results demonstrated that Hcys-treated fibrinogen in comparison with native molecule had a distinct capability to mediate platelet adhesion. Both, unstimulated and thrombin-activated platelets showed a reduced ability to adhere to Hcys-mediated fibrinogen. HTL (at all tested concentrations) had similar properties when we used thrombin-activated platelets. In conclusion, the results reported in this study could be useful for a better understanding of changes in hemostasis during hyperhomocysteinemia.

  6. Cytapheresis in the treatment of cell-affected blood disorders and abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Balint, Bela; Ostojic, Gordana; Pavlovic, Mirjana; Hrvacevic, Rajko; Pavlovic, Miodrag; Tukic, Ljiljana; Radovic, Milan

    2006-08-01

    This report presents our experience with cytaphereses performed in treatment of 476 patients. Leukapheresis was used in management of 68 patients with hyperleukocytosis leukostasis (WBC > or = 150 x 10(9)L(-1)). Average decrease in cell count after treatment was 73.3%. Plateletapheresis for 32 patients (platelets > or = 1500 x 10(9)L(-1)) was applied in order to prevent the thrombotic-hemorrhagic syndrome and resulted in a moderate platelet count reduction (84.3%). Erythrocytaphereses performed in treatment of 376 patients by manual or automated technique resulted in a rapid blood viscosity drop (42.4+/-7.1%). Patients with red blood cell exchanges (severe malaria and autoimmune hemolytic crisis) were in life-threatening situations and resulted in a prompt reduction of parasitized or antibody-coated RBCs and anemia correction. This study indicates that "conventional" TCs resulted in considerable cytoreduction only in patients with especially high cell count. This effect was not associated with bone marrow remission. The best clinical effect and long-term benefits were obtained using RBCX and antimalarial drugs in malaria patients who have had high-level parasitized-RBCs with multiorgan dysfunction.

  7. The sex of the foetus affects maternal blood glucose concentrations in overweight and obese pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Seneviratne, Sumudu N; Derraik, José G B; Jiang, Yannan; McCowan, Lesley M E; Gusso, Silmara; Cutfield, Wayne S; Hofman, Paul L

    2016-12-26

    There is increasing evidence that the sex of the foetus may alter the maternal metabolic milieu during pregnancy. Following a randomized controlled trial of exercise in overweight and obese pregnant women, we assessed whether the sex of the foetus was associated with changes in maternal metabolism. Data were analysed on 74 randomized participants who completed the trial, including 38 mothers carrying males and 36 mothers carrying females. At 19 weeks of gestation, mothers carrying boys had higher blood glucose concentrations than those carrying girls (5.4 vs 4.9 mmol/l; p = .046). At 36 weeks of gestation, differences were more marked, with blood glucose concentrations 15% higher in mothers carrying females (5.7 vs 5.0 mmol/l; p = .004). In addition, mothers carrying girls had higher concentrations of hs-CRP across pregnancy (5.0 vs 3.6 mg/l; p = .029). Our findings provide further evidence that the sex of the foetus appears to influence maternal metabolism.

  8. Autologous peripheral blood stem cell harvest: Collection efficiency and factors affecting it

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Aseem K.; Pandey, Prashant; Subbaraman, Harini; Bhargava, Rahul; Rawat, Ganesh; Madiraju, Shivani; Raina, Vimarsh; Bhargava, Richa

    2016-01-01

    Background: Harvest of hematopoietic progenitor cells via leukapheresis is being used increasingly for transplants in India. Adequate yield of cells per kilogram body weight of recipient is required for successful engraftment. Collection efficiency (CE) is an objective quality parameter used to assess the quality of leukapheresis program. In this study, we calculated the CE of the ComTec cell separator (Fresenius Kabi, Germany) using two different formulae (CE1 and CE2) and analyzed various patient and procedural factors, which may affect it. Materials and Methods: One hundred and one consecutive procedures in 77 autologous donors carried out over 3 years period were retrospectively reviewed. Various characteristics like gender, age, weight, disease status, hematocrit, preprocedure total leukocyte count, preprocedure CD34 positive (CD34+) cells count, preprocedure absolute CD34+ cell count and processed apheresis volume effect on CE were compared. CE for each procedure was calculated using two different formulae, and results were compared using statistical correlation and regression analysis. Results: The mean CE1 and CE2 was 41.2 and 49.1, respectively. CE2 appeared to be more accurate indicator of overall CE as it considered the impact of continued mobilization of stem cells during apheresis procedure, itself. Of all the factors affecting CE, preprocedure absolute CD34+ was the only independent factor affecting CE. Conclusion: The only factor affecting CE was preprocedure absolute CD34+ cells. Though the mean CE2 was higher than CE1, it was not statistically significant. PMID:27011680

  9. FISH OIL IMPROVES MOTOR FUNCTION, LIMITS BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER DISRUPTION, AND REDUCES MMP9 GENE EXPRESSION IN A RAT MODEL OF JUVENILE TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY

    PubMed Central

    Russell, K. L.; Berman, N. E. J.; Gregg, P. R. A.; Levant, B.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The effects of an oral fish oil treatment regimen on sensorimotor, blood-brain barrier, and biochemical outcomes of traumatic brain injury (TBI) were investigated in a juvenile rat model. Seventeen-day old Long-Evans rats were given a 15 mL/kg fish oil (2.01 g/kg EPA, 1.34 g/kg DHA) or soybean oil dose via oral gavage 30 minutes prior to being subjected to a controlled cortical impact injury or sham surgery, followed by daily doses for seven days. Fish oil treatment resulted in less severe hindlimb deficits after TBI as assessed with the beam walk test, decreased cerebral IgG infiltration, and decreased TBI-induced expression of the Mmp9h gene one day after injury. These results indicate that fish oil improved functional outcome after TBI resulting, at least in part from decreased disruption of the blood-brain barrier through a mechanism that includes attenuation of TBI-induced expression of Mmp9. PMID:24342130

  10. Preparation, characterization and blood compatibility assessment of a novel electrospun nanocomposite comprising polyurethane and ayurvedic-indhulekha oil for tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Ayyar, Manikandan; Mani, Mohan Prasath; Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Rathanasamy, Rajasekar

    2017-07-05

    Electrospun polyurethane based nanocomposite scaffolds were fabricated by mixing with indhulekha oil. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) portrayed the nanofibrous nature of the composite and the average diameters of the composite scaffold were smaller than the pristine scaffolds. The fabricated scaffold was found to be hydrophobic (114°) due to the inclusion of indhulekha oil, which was displayed in contact angle measurement analysis. The fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results indicated that the indhulekha oil was dispersed in PU matrix identified by formation of hydrogen bond and peak shifting of CH group. The PU/indhulekha oil nanocomposite exhibits a higher decomposition onset temperature and also residual weight percentage at 900°C was more compared to the pure PU. Surface roughness was found to be increased in the composite compared to the pristine PU as indicated by the atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis. In order to investigate the blood compatibility of electrospun nanocomposites the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) assay, prothrombin time (PT) assay and hemolytic assay were performed. The blood compatibility results APTT and PT revealed that the developed nanocomposites demonstrated delayed clotting time indicating the anticoagulant nature of the composite in comparison with the pristine PU. Further, it was also observed that the hemolytic index of nanocomposites was reduced compared to pure PU suggesting the non-hemolytic nature of the fabricated scaffold. Hence, the fabricated nanocomposites might be considered as a potent substitute for scaffolding damaged tissue due to their inherent physicochemical and blood compatibility properties.

  11. Blood pressure lowering effect of Nigella sativa L. seed oil in healthy volunteers: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Fallah Huseini, H; Amini, M; Mohtashami, R; Ghamarchehre, M E; Sadeqhi, Z; Kianbakht, S; Fallah Huseini, A

    2013-12-01

    Nigella sativa L. seeds (N. sativa) have been used as a traditional remedy for a wide range of diseases including hypertension. The present study was performed to explore the effects of N. sativa oil on blood pressure (BP) in healthy volunteers. In a double-blind, randomized study, 70 healthy volunteers aged 34 to 63 years with systolic BP from 110 to 140 mmHg and diastolic BP from 60 to 90 mmHg were randomly allocated to receive 2.5 mL N. sativa oil or placebo two times a day for 8 weeks. The systolic and diastolic BPs, body mass index and blood levels of aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine and blood urea nitrogen were determined at baseline and endpoint. Results showed that in N. sativa oil treated group the systolic and diastolic BPs decreased significantly compared with baseline and placebo group at the endpoint. Other parameters did not significantly change in both groups at the endpoint. No adverse effects were reported. In conclusion, oral daily administration of 5 mL N. sativa oil to healthy volunteers for 8 weeks lowers systolic and diastolic BPs without any adverse effects. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. The effect of citrus-derived oil on bovine blood neutrophil response in vitro

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Research on the use of natural products to treat or prevent microbial invasion as alternatives to antibiotic use is growing.Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) play a vital role with regard to the innate immune response that affects severity and or duration of mastitis. To our knowledge, effect of c...

  13. Genome damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes of diabetic and non-diabetic individuals after intervention with vegetables and plant oil.

    PubMed

    Müllner, Elisabeth; Brath, Helmut; Toferer, Daniela; Adrigan, Sonja; Bulla, Marie-Therese; Stieglmayer, Roswitha; Wallner, Marlies; Marek, Reinhard; Wagner, Karl-Heinz

    2013-03-01

    Recent studies suggest increased cancer risk in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) compared with healthy individuals. The present study aims to assess whether T2DM is associated with increased genome instability and whether a healthy diet with natural foods can improve genome stability in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs). Seventy-six diabetic and 21 non-diabetic individuals were randomly assigned to either an 'intervention' or an 'information only' group. All participants received information about the beneficial effects of a healthy diet, while subjects of the intervention group received additionally 300g of vegetables and 25ml of plant oil rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids per day for 8 weeks. Chromosomal damage was assessed using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus (MN) cytome assay. Levels of chromosomal damage did not differ between diabetic and non-diabetic individuals. However, diabetic individuals with MN frequency above the high 50th percentile had significantly higher levels of fasting plasma glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin and were at higher risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD), assessed by the Framingham general cardiovascular risk score. Non-diabetic individuals with MN frequency above the 50th percentile had significantly lower vitamin B12 levels. The intervention with vegetables and plant oil led to significant increases in folate, γ-tocopherol, α- and β-carotene while vitamin B12 was significantly reduced. Levels of chromosomal damage were not altered, only apoptosis was slightly increased. The results suggest interactions between glycaemic control, CVD risk and genome stability in individuals with T2DM. However, a healthy diet does not improve genome damage in PBLs.

  14. Environmental temperature affects prevalence of blood parasites of birds on an elevation gradient: implications for disease in a warming climate.

    PubMed

    Zamora-Vilchis, Itzel; Williams, Stephen E; Johnson, Christopher N

    2012-01-01

    The rising global temperature is predicted to expand the distribution of vector-borne diseases both in latitude and altitude. Many host communities could be affected by increased prevalence of disease, heightening the risk of extinction for many already threatened species. To understand how host communities could be affected by changing parasite distributions, we need information on the distribution of parasites in relation to variables like temperature and rainfall that are predicted to be affected by climate change. We determined relations between prevalence of blood parasites, temperature, and seasonal rainfall in a bird community of the Australian Wet Tropics along an elevation gradient. We used PCR screening to investigate the prevalence and lineage diversity of four genera of blood parasites (Plasmodium, Haemoproteus, Leucocytozoon and Trypanosoma) in 403 birds. The overall prevalence of the four genera of blood parasites was 32.3%, with Haemoproteus the predominant genus. A total of 48 unique lineages were detected. Independent of elevation, parasite prevalence was positively and strongly associated with annual temperature. Parasite prevalence was elevated during the dry season. Low temperatures of the higher elevations can help to reduce both the development of avian haematozoa and the abundance of parasite vectors, and hence parasite prevalence. In contrast, high temperatures of the lowland areas provide an excellent environment for the development and transmission of haematozoa. We showed that rising temperatures are likely to lead to increased prevalence of parasites in birds, and may force shifts of bird distribution to higher elevations. We found that upland tropical areas are currently a low-disease habitat and their conservation should be given high priority in management plans under climate change.

  15. Thrombolytic therapy reduces red blood cell aggregation in plasma without affecting intrinsic aggregability.

    PubMed

    Ben-Ami, R; Sheinman, G; Yedgar, S; Eldor, A; Roth, A; Berliner, A S; Barshtein, G

    2002-03-15

    Red blood cell (RBC) aggregation may contribute to occlusion of the coronary microcirculation during myocardial infarction. We studied the effect of thrombolytic therapy on RBC aggregation in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Compared with patients with myocardial infarction who did not receive thrombolytic therapy, those treated with systemic thrombolysis exhibited significantly reduced RBC aggregation, reduced plasma fibrinogen levels and increased plasma D-dimer levels. Using measurement of RBC aggregation in a standardized dextran-500 solution, reduction in RBC aggregation after thrombolysis was shown to be plasma dependent. Thrombolytic therapy had no direct effect on intrinsic RBC aggregability in patients with AMI. We conclude that thrombolytic therapy has rheologic consequences that may contribute to its overall efficacy. Inhibition of RBC aggregation by thrombolytic therapy may result from the degradation of fibrinogen, a key factor in the formation of RBC aggregates, and from the generation of fibrinogen degradation products capable of disaggregating RBCs.

  16. Recipient inflammation affects the frequency and magnitude of immunization to transfused red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Hendrickson, Jeanne E; Desmarets, Maxime; Deshpande, Seema S; Chadwick, Traci E; Hillyer, Christopher D; Roback, John D; Zimring, James C

    2006-09-01

    Most alloantigens on transfused red blood cells (RBCs) are weakly immunogenic, with only a 2 to 6 percent overall immunization rate even in patients receiving multiple transfusions. Although recipient genetics may contribute to responder and/or nonresponder status, in most cases HLA type does not predict humoral response to RBC antigens. In contrast, rates of alloimmunization do correspond to the underlying disease status of transfusion recipients, suggesting that acquired host factors may play an important role. In this context, it was hypothesized that the inflammatory status of a transfusion recipient would influence immunization to transfused RBCs. A novel murine model for alloimmunization to RBC antigens was developed with the mHEL mouse, which expresses hen egg lysozyme (HEL) as a model blood group antigen. Leukoreduced mHEL RBCs were transfused into wild-type recipient mice, and anti-HEL responses were monitored. To test the stated hypothesis, some recipient animals were injected with polyinosinic polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)), a synthetic double-stranded RNA molecule that induces viral-like inflammation. Similar to the immunogenicity of most RBC antigens in humans, transfusion of mHEL RBCs into uninflamed mice was only a weak immunogen. In contrast, poly(I:C)-treated mice had a significant increase in both the frequency and the magnitude of alloimmunization to the mHEL antigen. These findings demonstrate that recipient inflammation with poly(I:C) significantly enhances humoral immunization to transfused alloantigens in a murine model. Moreover, these data suggest that the inflammatory status of human transfusion recipients may regulate the immunogenicity of transfused RBCs.

  17. Key Immune Cell Cytokines Affects the Telomere Activity of Cord Blood Cells In vitro

    PubMed Central

    Brazvan, Balal; Farahzadi, Raheleh; Mohammadi, Seyede Momeneh; Montazer Saheb, Soheila; Shanehbandi, Dariush; Schmied, Laurent; Soleimani Rad, Jafar; Darabi, Masoud; Nozad Charoudeh, Hojjatollah

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Telomere is a nucleoprotein complex at the end of eukaryotic chromosomes and its length is regulated by telomerase. The number of DNA repeat sequence (TTAGGG)n is reduced with each cell division in differentiated cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of SCF (Stem Cell Factor), Flt3 (Fms- Like tyrosine kinase-3), Interleukin-2, 7 and 15 on telomere length and hTERT gene expression in mononuclear and umbilical cord blood stem cells (CD34+ cells) during development to lymphoid cells. Methods: The mononuclear cells were isolated from umbilical cord blood by Ficoll-Paque density gradient. Then cells were cultured for 21 days in the presence of different cytokines. Telomere length and hTERT gene expression were evaluated in freshly isolated cells, 7, 14 and 21 days of culture by real-time PCR. The same condition had been done for CD34+ cells but telomere length and hTERT gene expression were measured at initial and day 21 of the experiment. Results: Highest hTERT gene expression and maximum telomere length were measured at day14 of MNCs in the presence of IL-7 and IL-15. Also, there was a significant correlation between telomere length and telomerase gene expression in MNCs at 14 days in a combination of IL-7 and IL-15 (r = 0.998, p =0.04). In contrast, IL-2 showed no distinct effect on telomere length and hTERT gene expression in cells. Conclusion: Taken together, IL-7 and IL-15 increased telomere length and hTERT gene expression at 14 day of the experiment. In conclusion, it seems likely that cells maintain naïve phenotype due to prolonged exposure of IL-7 and IL-15. PMID:27478776

  18. Blood withdrawal affects iron store dynamics in primates with consequences on monoaminergic system function.

    PubMed

    Hyacinthe, C; De Deurwaerdere, P; Thiollier, T; Li, Q; Bezard, E; Ghorayeb, I

    2015-04-02

    Iron homeostasis is essential for the integrity of brain monoaminergic functions and its deregulation might be involved in neurological movement disorders such as the restless legs syndrome (RLS). Although iron metabolism breakdown concomitantly appears with monoaminergic system dysfunction in iron-deficient rodents and in RLS patients, the direct consequences of peripheral iron deficiency in the central nervous system (CNS) of non-human primates have received little attention. Here, we evaluated the peripheral iron-depletion impact on brain monoamine levels in macaque monkeys. After documenting circadian variations of iron and iron-related proteins (hemoglobin, ferritin and transferrin) in both serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of normal macaques, repeated blood withdrawals (RBW) were used to reduce peripheral iron-related parameter levels. Decreased serum iron levels were paradoxically associated with increased CSF iron concentrations. Despite limited consequences on tissue monoamine contents (dopamine - DA, 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid - DOPAC, homovanillic acid, L-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine - L-DOPA, 5-8 hydroxytryptamine - 5-HT, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid - 5-HIAA and noradrenaline) measured with post-mortem chromatography, we found distinct and region-dependent relationships of these tissue concentrations with CSF iron and/or serum iron and/or blood hemoglobin. Additionally, striatal extracellular DA, DOPAC and 5-HIAA levels evaluated by in vivo microdialysis showed a substantial increase, suggesting an overall increase in both DA and 5-HT tones. Finally, a trending increase in general locomotor activity, measured by actimetry, was observed in the most serum iron-depleted macaques. Taken together, our data are compatible with an increase in nigrostriatal DAergic function in the event of iron deficiency and point to a specific alteration of the 5-HT/DA interaction in the CNS that is possibly involved in the etiology of RLS.

  19. Naphthenic acids speciation and removal during petroleum-coke adsorption and ozonation of oil sands process-affected water.

    PubMed

    Gamal El-Din, Mohamed; Fu, Hongjing; Wang, Nan; Chelme-Ayala, Pamela; Pérez-Estrada, Leonidas; Drzewicz, Przemysław; Martin, Jonathan W; Zubot, Warren; Smith, Daniel W

    2011-11-01

    The Athabasca Oil Sands industry produces large volumes of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) as a result of bitumen extraction and upgrading processes. Constituents of OSPW include chloride, naphthenic acids (NAs), aromatic hydrocarbons, and trace heavy metals, among other inorganic and organic compounds. To address the environmental issues associated with the recycling and/or safe return of OSPW into the environment, water treatment technologies are required. This study examined, for the first time, the impacts of pretreatment steps, including filtration and petroleum-coke adsorption, on ozonation requirements and performance. The effect of the initial OSPW pH on treatment performance, and the evolution of ozonation and its impact on OSPW toxicity and biodegradability were also examined. The degradation of more than 76% of total acid-extractable organics was achieved using a semi-batch ozonation system at a utilized ozone dose of 150 mg/L. With a utilized ozone dose of 100 mg/L, the treated OSPW became more biodegradable and showed no toxicity towards Vibrio fischeri. Changes in the NA profiles in terms of carbon number and number of rings were observed after ozonation. The filtration of the OSPW did not improve the ozonation performance. Petroleum-coke adsorption was found to be effective in reducing total acid-extractable organics by a 91%, NA content by an 84%, and OSPW toxicity from 4.3 to 1.1 toxicity units. The results of this study indicate that the combination of petroleum-coke adsorption and ozonation is a promising treatment approach to treat OSPW. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Tight junctional abnormality in multiple sclerosis white matter affects all calibres of vessel and is associated with blood-brain barrier leakage and active demyelination.

    PubMed

    Kirk, John; Plumb, Jonnie; Mirakhur, Meenakshi; McQuaid, Stephen

    2003-10-01

    Blood-brain barrier (BBB) hyperpermeability in multiple sclerosis (MS) is associated with lesion pathogenesis and has been linked to pathology in microvascular tight junctions (TJs). This study quantifies the uneven distribution of TJ pathology and its association with BBB leakage. Frozen sections from plaque and normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) in 14 cases were studied together with white matter from six neurological and five normal controls. Using single and double immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy, the TJ-associated protein zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) was examined across lesion types and tissue categories, and in relation to fibrinogen leakage. Confocal image data sets were analysed for 2198 MS and 1062 control vessels. Significant differences in the incidence of TJ abnormalities were detected between the different lesion types in MS and between MS and control white matter. These were frequent in oil-red O (ORO)(+) active plaques, affecting 42% of vessel segments, but less frequent in ORO(-) inactive plaques (23%), NAWM (13%), and normal (3.7%) and neurological controls (8%). A similar pattern was found irrespective of the vessel size, supporting a causal role for diffusible inflammatory mediators. In both NAWM and inactive lesions, dual labelling showed that vessels with the most TJ abnormality also showed most fibrinogen leakage. This was even more pronounced in active lesions, where 41% of vessels in the highest grade for TJ alteration showed severe leakage. It is concluded that disruption of TJs in MS, affecting both paracellular and transcellular paths, contributes to BBB leakage. TJ abnormality and BBB leakage in inactive lesions suggests either failure of TJ repair or a continuing pathological process. In NAWM, it suggests either pre-lesional change or secondary damage. Clinically inapparent TJ pathology has prognostic implications and should be considered when planning disease-modifying therapy.

  1. THC and CBD in blood samples and seizures in Norway: Does CBD affect THC-induced impairment in apprehended subjects?

    PubMed

    Havig, Stine Marie; Høiseth, Gudrun; Strand, Maren Cecilie; Karinen, Ritva Anneli; Brochmann, Gerd-Wenche; Strand, Dag Helge; Bachs, Liliana; Vindenes, Vigdis

    2017-07-01

    Several publications have suggested increasing cannabis potency over the last decade, which, together with lower amounts of cannabidiol (CBD), could contribute to an increase in adverse effects after cannabis smoking. Naturalistic studies on tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and CBD in blood samples are, however, missing. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between THC- and CBD concentrations in blood samples among cannabis users, and to compare cannabinoid concentrations with the outcome of a clinical test of impairment (CTI) and between traffic accidents and non-accident driving under the influence of drugs (DUID)-cases. Assessment of THC- and CBD contents in cannabis seizures was also included. THC- and CBD concentrations in blood samples from subjects apprehended in Norway from April 2013-April 2015 were included (n=6134). A CTI result was compared with analytical findings in cases where only THC and/or CBD were detected (n=705). THC- and CBD content was measured in 41 cannabis seizures. Among THC-positive blood samples, 76% also tested positive for CBD. There was a strong correlation between THC- and CBD concentrations in blood samples (Pearson's r=0.714, p<0.0005). Subjects judged as impaired by a CTI had significantly higher THC- (p<0.001) and CBD (p=0.008) concentrations compared with not impaired subjects, but after multivariate analyses, impairment could only be related to THC concentration (p=0.004). Analyzing seizures revealed THC/CBD ratios of 2:1 for hashish and 200:1 for marijuana. More than ¾ of the blood samples testing positive for THC, among subjects apprehended in Norway, also tested positive for CBD, suggesting frequent consumption of high CBD cannabis products. The simultaneous presence of CBD in blood does, however, not appear to affect THC-induced impairment on a CTI. Seizure sample analysis did not reveal high potency cannabis products, and while CBD content appeared high in hashish, it was almost absent in marijuana. Copyright

  2. Is platelet function as measured by Thrombelastograph monitoring in whole blood affected by platelet inhibitors?

    PubMed

    Bailey, Lori A; Sistino, Joseph J; Uber, Walter E

    2005-03-01

    Platelet inhibitors, especially the glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa receptor antagonists, have demonstrated their effectiveness in reducing the acute ischemic complications of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and in improving clinical outcomes in patients with acute coronary crisis. Three common platelet inhibitors observed in emergent cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) for failed PCI are abciximab, eptifibatide, and tirofiban. An in vitro model was constructed in two parts to determine whether platelet aggregation inhibition induced by platelet inhibitors would be demonstrated by the Thrombelastograph (TEG) monitor when compared with baseline samples with no platelet inhibitor. In part A, 20 mL of fresh whole blood was divided into four groups: group I = baseline, group A = abcix-imab microg/mL, group E = eptifibatide ng/mL, and group T = tirofiban ng/mL. Platelet inhibitor concentrations in whole blood were derived starting with reported serum concentrations with escalation to achieve 80% platelet inhibition using the Medtronic hemoSTATUS and/or Lumi-aggregometer. A concentration range determined by our in vitro tests were chosen for each drug using concentrations achieving less than, equal to, or greater than 80% platelet inhibition. In part B, TEG analysis was then performed using baseline and concentrations for each drug derived in part A. Parameters measured were clot formation reaction time (R), coagulation time (K), maximum amplitude (MA) and alpha angle (A). Groups E1000 and E2000 extended R over control by 37% and 23%, respectively (p = 0.01 and 0.03). Groups E1000 and E2000 increased K times by 45% and 58% (p = .02 and .04). T160 samples prolonged K by 20% (p = 0.01). The angle or clot strength (A) was decreased in groups T160 and E1000 by 23% (+ 7.06 SD) and 18% (+ 11.23 SD), respectively (p = 0.001 and 0.01). The MA decrease was statistically significant in the T160, E1000 and E2000 by 9%, 6% and 13% respectively (p = 0.01). Samples treated with abciximab

  3. Effects of natural blend of essential oil on growth performance, blood biochemistry, cecal morphology, and carcass quality of broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Khattak, F.; Ronchi, A.; Castelli, P.; Sparks, N.

    2014-01-01

    The study evaluated the effect of a novel commercial preparation of natural blend of essential oils from basil, caraway, laurel, lemon, oregano, sage, tea, and thyme (Tecnaroma Herbal Mix PL) on growth performance, blood biochemistry, cecal morphology, and carcass quality of broilers. Six nutritionally adequate wheat and soybean-based diets were generated by the addition of Tecnaroma Herbal Mix PL at 0, 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 g/t of feed. The diets were fed as crumbs in the starter phase (d 0–10) and as pellets during the grower (d 10–24) and finisher (d 24–42) phases. Nine hundred sixty 1-d-old chicks were allocated to the 6 dietary treatments each having 8 replicate pens with 20 birds per pen. The data obtained were analyzed using ANOVA with a P < 0.05 level of significance. Birds fed diets supplemented with Tecnaroma Herbal Mix PL had significantly heavier BW and higher (P < 0.05) weight gain and had improved (P < 0.05) feed to gain ratio compared with the control group during grower phase and overall performance. The blood biochemistry results showed no differences (P > 0.05) between treatments. The carcass weight, breast weight, and relative percentage of breast meat increased (P < 0.05) when diets were supplemented with Tecnaroma Herbal Mix PL compared with that from birds fed the control diet. The inclusion level of 300 g of Tecnaroma Herbal Mix PL/t of feed was optimum for enhancing breast meat yield and nutrient utilization as indicated by increased (P < 0.05) cecal villus surface area. PMID:24570432

  4. Effects of natural blend of essential oil on growth performance, blood biochemistry, cecal morphology, and carcass quality of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Khattak, F; Ronchi, A; Castelli, P; Sparks, N

    2014-01-01

    The study evaluated the effect of a novel commercial preparation of natural blend of essential oils from basil, caraway, laurel, lemon, oregano, sage, tea, and thyme (Tecnaroma Herbal Mix PL) on growth performance, blood biochemistry, cecal morphology, and carcass quality of broilers. Six nutritionally adequate wheat and soybean-based diets were generated by the addition of Tecnaroma Herbal Mix PL at 0, 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 g/t of feed. The diets were fed as crumbs in the starter phase (d 0-10) and as pellets during the grower (d 10-24) and finisher (d 24-42) phases. Nine hundred sixty 1-d-old chicks were allocated to the 6 dietary treatments each having 8 replicate pens with 20 birds per pen. The data obtained were analyzed using ANOVA with a P < 0.05 level of significance. Birds fed diets supplemented with Tecnaroma Herbal Mix PL had significantly heavier BW and higher (P < 0.05) weight gain and had improved (P < 0.05) feed to gain ratio compared with the control group during grower phase and overall performance. The blood biochemistry results showed no differences (P > 0.05) between treatments. The carcass weight, breast weight, and relative percentage of breast meat increased (P < 0.05) when diets were supplemented with Tecnaroma Herbal Mix PL compared with that from birds fed the control diet. The inclusion level of 300 g of Tecnaroma Herbal Mix PL/t of feed was optimum for enhancing breast meat yield and nutrient utilization as indicated by increased (P < 0.05) cecal villus surface area.

  5. Combined non-adaptive light and smell stimuli lowered blood pressure, reduced heart rate and reduced negative affect.

    PubMed

    Dong, Shan; Jacob, Tim J C

    2016-03-15

    Bright light therapy has been shown to have a positive impact on seasonal affective disorder (SAD), depression and anxiety. Smell has also has been shown to have effects on mood, stress, anxiety and depression. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the combination of light and smell in a non-adaptive cycle. Human subjects were given smell (lemon, lavender or peppermint) and light stimuli in a triangular wave (60scycle) for 15min. Blood pressure and heart rate were monitored before and after each session for 5 consecutive days and a Profile of Mood States (POMS) test was administered before and after the sensory stimulation on days 1, 3 and 5. The light-smell stimulus lowered blood pressure, both systolic and diastolic, and reduced heart rate for all odours compared to control. Of the two sensory stimuli, the odour stimulus contributed most to this effect. The different aromas in the light-smell combinations could be distinguished by their different effects on the mood factors with lemon inducing the greatest mood changes in Dejection-Depression, Anger-Hostility, Tension-Anxiety. In conclusion, combined light and smell stimulation was effective in lowering blood pressure, reducing heart rate and improving mood. The combination was more effective than either smell or light stimuli alone, suggesting that a light-smell combination would be a more robust and efficacious alternative treatment for depression, anxiety and stress. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Serum fatty acid composition in normal Japanese and its relationship with dietary fish and vegetable oil contents and blood lipid levels.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, T; Takebe, K; Tando, Y; Arai, Y; Yamada, N; Ishii, M; Kikuchi, H; Machida, K; Imamura, K; Terada, A

    1995-01-01

    A survey was conducted on 110 normal Japanese adults (55 men and 55 women) to determine their caloric intake, dietary fat content and its origin (animal, plant, or marine). In addition, their blood lipid levels and fatty acid compositions were examined. Men in their 30s-50s consumed 2,600-2,800 calories and 60 g of fats, while women in the same age range consumed 2,000-2,200 calories and 52-58 g of fats. In both sexes, caloric, fat, and cholesterol intakes were lower for those in their 60s but protein and crude fiber consumption remained generally unchanged. When the dietary fats were classified according to origin, men and women in their 30s were found to consume less oil of marine origin. This appeared to be the result of a western style diet for Japanese adults in their 30s. Compared with men, women exhibited lower blood lipid levels. As age increased, the total cholesterol level of the blood rose in women. Thus the blood lipid level was generally equal in the two groups in their 60s. There was a positive correlation between the blood eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels and dietary consumption of fish oil. The marine/plant lipid ratio was positively correlated with the blood EPA/arachidonic acid ratio. Therefore, it was believed that the origin of the dietary fats consumed is a factor in determining the blood fatty acid profile. The linoleic acid (18:2), arachidonic acid (20:4), and 18:2 + 20:4 contents were negatively correlated to the total cholesterol level in the blood but positively correlated to the HDL-cholesterol level. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (18:2 + 20:4 + 20:5 + 22:6) were negatively correlated with the blood triglyceride level. From the findings presented above, we concluded that dietary fats not derived from animal sources should be classified into fish and vegetable oils to evaluate their dietary significance. We also noted that Japanese in their 30s consume less fish oil, indicating the western trend in their

  7. Perfectionism Affects Blood Pressure in Response to Repeated Exposure to Stress.

    PubMed

    Albert, Phebe; Rice, Kenneth G; Caffee, Lauren

    2016-04-01

    This pilot study examined the effects of perfectionism on blood pressure (BP) in response to repeated exposure to mental arithmetic stressors. College students (N = 30) in a laboratory setting were administered a series of challenging mathematical tasks. BP was measured at baseline and after each task. Multilevel modelling analyses revealed that BP tended to decline over the course of the mathematical tasks. However, higher levels of performance standards predicted relatively stable levels of systolic BP, whereas moderate and lower levels of standards predicted declines in systolic BP. Higher levels of self-critical perfectionism predicted generally sustained levels of diastolic BP, with moderate and low self-criticism predicting declines in diastolic BP during the repeated stressors. These preliminary results suggest that students with higher levels of perfectionism may be at risk for physiological problems associated with stress reactivity, perhaps especially so in situations in which they experience persistent stress. Although results were qualified by a relatively small sample size, effects were statistically significant and supported the importance of examining the short-term and long-term implications of the effects of perfectionism on cardiovascular function and the different implications of elevations in systolic and diastolic BP.

  8. Rock squirrel (Spermophilus variegatus) blood sera affects proteolytic and hemolytic activities of rattlesnake venoms.

    PubMed

    Biardi, James E; Coss, Richard G

    2011-02-01

    Rock squirrels (Spermophilus variegatus) from two sites in south central New Mexico, where prairie (Crotalus viridis viridis) and western diamondback (Crotalus atrox) rattlesnakes are common predators, were assayed for inhibition of rattlesnake venom digestive and hemostatic activities. At statistically significant levels rock squirrel blood sera reduced the metalloprotease and hemolytic activity of venoms from C. v. viridis and C. atrox more than venom from an allopatric snake species, the northern Pacific rattlesnake (Crotalus oreganus). In contrast, general proteolytic activity of venom from C. oreganus was inhibited more by S. variegatus serum defenses than activity of venom from sympatric snakes. For all three venoms, incubation with squirrel sera increased the level of fibrinolysis over venom-only treatments. These results suggest that rock squirrels (S. variegatus) can defend against metalloproteases and other proteases after envenomation from at least two of five rattlesnake predators they might encounter. However, there were statistically significant differences between general proteolytic activity and fibrinolytic activity of C. v. viridis and C. atrox venom, suggesting that rock squirrels might be differentially vulnerable to these two predators. The hypothesis that prey resistance influences snake venom evolution in a predator-prey arms race is given further support by the previously cryptic variation in venoms detected when assayed against prey defenses. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. MicroRNA-155 negatively affects blood-brain barrier function during neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Ramirez, Miguel Alejandro; Wu, Dongsheng; Pryce, Gareth; Simpson, Julie E; Reijerkerk, Arie; King-Robson, Josh; Kay, Oliver; de Vries, Helga E; Hirst, Mark C; Sharrack, Basil; Baker, David; Male, David Kingsley; Michael, Gregory J; Romero, Ignacio Andres

    2014-06-01

    Blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction is a hallmark of neurological conditions such as multiple sclerosis (MS) and stroke. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying neurovascular dysfunction during BBB breakdown remain elusive. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have recently emerged as key regulators of pathogenic responses, although their role in central nervous system (CNS) microvascular disorders is largely unknown. We have identified miR-155 as a critical miRNA in neuroinflammation at the BBB. miR-155 is expressed at the neurovascular unit of individuals with MS and of mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In mice, loss of miR-155 reduced CNS extravasation of systemic tracers, both in EAE and in an acute systemic inflammation model induced by lipopolysaccharide. In cultured human brain endothelium, miR-155 was strongly and rapidly upregulated by inflammatory cytokines. miR-155 up-regulation mimicked cytokine-induced alterations in junctional organization and permeability, whereas inhibition of endogenous miR-155 partially prevented a cytokine-induced increase in permeability. Furthermore, miR-155 modulated brain endothelial barrier function by targeting not only cell-cell complex molecules such as annexin-2 and claudin-1, but also focal adhesion components such as DOCK-1 and syntenin-1. We propose that brain endothelial miR-155 is a negative regulator of BBB function that may constitute a novel therapeutic target for CNS neuroinflammatory disorders. © FASEB.

  10. Sodium fluoride and sulfur dioxide affected male reproduction by disturbing blood-testis barrier in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianhai; Li, Zhihui; Qie, Mingli; Zheng, Ruibo; Shetty, Jagathpala; Wang, Jundong

    2016-08-01

    Fluoride and sulfur dioxide (SO2), two well-known environmental toxicants, have been implicated to have adverse effects on male reproductive health in humans and animals. The objective of this study to investigate if the BTB is one of the pathways that lead to reproductive toxicity of sodium fluoride and sulfur dioxide alone or in combination, in view of the key role of blood testis barrier (BTB) in testis. The results showed that a marked decrease in sperm quality, and altered morphology and ultrastructure of BTB in testis of mice exposure to fluoride (100 mg NaF/L in drinking water) or/and sulfur dioxide (28 mg SO2/m(3), 3 h/day). Meanwhile, the mRNA expression levels of some vital BTB-associated proteins, including occluding, claudin-11, ZO-1, Ncadherin, α-catenin, and connexin-43 were all strikingly reduced after NaF exposure, although only the reduction of DSG-2 was statistically significant in all treatment groups. Moreover, the proteins expressions also decreased significantly in claudin-11, N-cadherin, α-catenin, connexin-43 and desmoglein-2 in mice treated with fluoride and/or SO2. These changes in BTB structure and constitutive proteins may therefore be connected with the low sperm quality in these mice. The role of fluoride should deserves more attention in this process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Dietary sodium intake deleteriously affects blood pressure in a normotensive population.

    PubMed

    Chateau-Degat, M L; Ferland, A; Déry, S; Dewailly, E

    2012-04-01

    Western dietary pattern, and particularly high dietary sodium intake (DSI), is recognized for its detrimental impact on blood pressure (BP). This paper examined the association of DSI with BP in Nunavik Inuit (Québec), a population known to have an optimal BP on average. In a population-based study, we recruited 421 normotensive participants aged 18-74 years from 14 coastal villages, situated north of the 55th parallel. BP, biochemistry and anthropometry were obtained. DSI was assessed by a 24-h dietary recall. Mean (s.e.) DSI was higher in men than in women (2358 (101) vs. 1702 (100) mg/d, P<0.0001). Similar gender difference was found in systolic BP (118 (0.7) vs. 111 (0.6) mm Hg; P<0.0001). After adjustment for confounders, we found a positive association between BP and DSI (all P<0.05). In a normotensive population, BP shows a linear relationship with DSI. Our results emphasize the potent deleterious impact of DSI on BP.

  12. Does Magnetic Field Affect Malaria Parasite Replication in Human Red Blood Cells?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chanturiya, Alexandr N.; Glushakova, Svetlana; Yin, Dan; Zimmerberg, Joshua

    2004-01-01

    Digestion of red blood cell (RBC) hemoglobin by the malaria parasite results in the formation of paramagnetic hemazoin crystals inside the parasite body. A number of reports suggest that magnetic field interaction with hamazoin crystals significantly reduces the number of infected cells in culture, and thus magnetic field can be used to combat malaria. We studies the effects of magnetic filed on the Plasmodium falciparum asexual life cycle inside RBCs under various experimental conditions. No effect was found during prolonged exposure of infected RBCs to constant magnetic fields up to 6000 Gauss. Infected RBCs were also exposed, under temperature-controlled conditions, to oscillating magnetic fields with frequencies in the range of 500-20000 kHz, and field strength 30-600 Gauss. This exposure often changed the proportion of different parasite stages in treated culture compared to controls. However, no significant effect on parasitemia was observed in treated cultures. This result indicates that the magnetic field effect on Plasmodium falciparum is negligible, or that hypothetical negative and positive effects on different stages within one 48-hour compensate each other.

  13. Endurance exercise beneficially affects ambulatory blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Cornelissen, Véronique A; Buys, Roselien; Smart, Neil A

    2013-04-01

    Exercise is widely recommended as one of the key preventive lifestyle changes to reduce the risk of hypertension and to manage high blood pressure (BP), but individual studies investigating the effect of exercise on ambulatory BP have remained inconclusive. Therefore, the primary purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine the effect of aerobic endurance training on daytime and night-time BP in healthy adults. A systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed and Cochrane Controlled Clinical trial registry from their inception to May 2012. Randomized controlled trials of at least 4 weeks investigating the effects of aerobic endurance training on ambulatory BP in healthy adults were included. Inverse weighted random effects models were used for analyses, with data reported as weighted means and 95% confidence limits. We included 15 randomized controlled trials, involving 17 study groups and 633 participants (394 exercise participants and 239 control participants). Overall, endurance training induced a significant reduction in daytime SBP [-3.2 mmHg, 95% confidence interval (CI), -5.0 to-1.3] and daytime DBP (-2.7 mmHg, 95% CI, -3.9 to -1.5). No effect was observed on night-time BP. The findings from this meta-analysis suggest that aerobic endurance exercise significantly decreases daytime, but not night-time, ambulatory BP.

  14. Cerebral blood volume affects blood–brain barrier integrity in an acute transient stroke model

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shuning; Kim, Jeong Kon; Atochin, Dmitriy N; Farrar, Christian T; Huang, Paul L; Suh, Ji Yeon; Kwon, Seon Joo; Shim, Woo Hyun; Cho, Hyungjoon; Cho, Gyunggoo; Kim, Young Ro

    2013-01-01

    Insufficient vascular reserve after an ischemic stroke may induce biochemical cascades that subsequently deteriorate the blood–brain barrier (BBB) function. However, the direct relationship between poor cerebral blood volume (CBV) restoration and BBB disruption has not been examined in acute stroke. To quantify BBB integrity at acute stages of transient stroke, in particular for cases in which extravasation of the standard contrast agent (Gd-DTPA) is not observed, we adopted the water exchange index (WEI), a novel magnetic resonance image-derived parameter to estimate the water permeability across the BBB. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and R2 relaxation rate constant were also measured for outlining the tissue abnormality, while fractional CBV and WEI were quantified for assessing vascular alterations. The significantly decreased ADC and R2 in the ischemic cortices did not correlate with the changes in CBV or WEI. In contrast, a strong negative correlation between the ipsilesional WEI and CBV was found, in which stroke mice were clustered into two groups: (1) high WEI and low CBV and (2) normal WEI and CBV. The low CBV observed for mice with a disrupted BBB, characterized by a high WEI, indicates the importance of CBV restoration for maintaining BBB stability in acute stroke. PMID:23462571

  15. Maternal Fish Oil Supplementation Affects the Social Behavior, Brain Fatty Acid Profile, and Sickness Response of Piglets.

    PubMed

    Clouard, Caroline; Souza, Adriana S; Gerrits, Walter Jj; Hovenier, Robert; Lammers, Aart; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth

    2015-09-01

    Maternal dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) intake is thought to affect development in the offspring. We assessed the impact of maternal dietary DHA on behavior, brain fatty acid (FA) profile, and sickness response of offspring in pigs, a pertinent model for human nutrition. Sows (n = 24) were fed a diet with DHA-rich fish oil (FO) (20 g/kg) or high-oleic acid sunflower oil (HOSF) (20 g/kg) from day 61 of gestation through lactation. At 4 wk of age, 4 piglets per litter were weaned and mixed with piglets from other litters. Behavior was observed in 4- to 8-wk-old piglets, and brain FA composition was analyzed at 4 (n = 15) and 14 (n = 12) wk. Thirteen-week-old piglets (n = 48) were subjected to a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Body temperature, plasma cytokines, and motivation to approach a familiar human, indicative of a sickness response, were measured. FO-fed pigs displayed more social activities (+262%, P = 0.02), played more (+61%, P = 0.03), and tended to show fewer oral manipulative behaviors directed at pen mates (-25%, P = 0.06) than did HOSF-fed pigs up to 4 wk after weaning. Brain DHA concentrations were higher in FO- than in HOSF-fed pigs up to 10 wk after supplementation (+10-50%, P < 0.001), although differences declined with age. Body temperature (P < 0.001) and tumor necrosis factor α and interferon γ concentrations (P < 0.05) increased after LPS injection, but no diet effect was found (P > 0.10). LPS-treated pigs were less likely to approach the human than saline-treated pigs in the HOSF-fed (-29%, P = 0.0003), but not in the FO-fed group (-13%, P = 0.11). Maternal DHA beneficially affected offspring social behavior after weaning and mildly attenuated sickness behavior after an inflammatory challenge in pigs. These behavioral changes may be mediated by increased brain DHA proportions. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. Polarimetric Retrievals of Surface and Aerosol Properties in the Region Affected by the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ottaviani, M.; Cairns, B.; Chowdhary, J.; Knobelspiesse, K. D.; Ferrare, R. A.; Hostetler, C. A.; Hair, J. W.; Rogers, R.; Obland, M. D.; Zhai, P.; Hu, Y.

    2010-12-01

    In July 2010, the Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP) effectuated two flights in two consecutive days over the region affected by the oil spill of the Deepwater Horizon offshore platform. Integrated on the NASA Langley B-200 aircraft, the instrument is deployed together with the High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL), which provides information on the distribution of the aerosol layers beneath the aircraft including an accurate estimate of aerosol optical depth. We present a sensitivity study to illustrate the merits of polarization measurements in detecting variations of ocean surface properties linked to the presence of an oil slick. In particular, the Degree of Linear Polarization (DoLP) in the glint region does not depend on the surface roughness, while is severely affected by variations in the refractive index of the ocean surface. Exploiting the RSP channel at 2250nm, where virtually all the signal is generated by the Fresnel reflection at the surface, the DoLP at any angle well into the glint region can therefore be used to detect alterations in the ocean surface. More specifically, the glint profile at this wavelength is fitted to the Cox-Munk model with a routine which can optimally estimate wind speed and direction, while taking into account aircraft attitude variations in determining the viewing geometry. The surveyed area also presents a complex mix of aerosol types. At least one major urban layer originating in the US Southeast mixes in the central portion of the flight trajectory with smoke caused by controlled burns around the damaged platform. The constrain on surface reflectance provided by the SWIR RSP channel, together with the aerosol optical depth provided by the HSRL, are used in Radiative Transfer computations to model the channels at shorter wavelengths and retrieve aerosol descriptive parameters such as aerosol size distribution and refractive index. Finally, the presence of smoke is ground for a discussion on the possibility to infer

  17. Blood pressure decrease with ingestion of a soya product (kinako) or fish oil in women with the metabolic syndrome: role of adiponectin and nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Simão, Andréa Name Colado; Lozovoy, Marcell Alysson Batisti; Bahls, Larissa Danielle; Morimoto, Helena Kaminami; Simão, Tathiana Name Colado; Matsuo, Tiemi; Dichi, Isaias

    2012-10-28

    The aim of the present study was to verify the effects of fish oil and a soya-based product on inflammatory markers and endothelial function measured by NO in women with the metabolic syndrome (MetS). A total of sixty-five women (mean age: 47·9 (SD 9·98) years) were studied in a 90-d parallel, randomised design. A control group maintained their usual diet; the second group received 29 g/d of soyabean (kinako); the third group received 3 g/d of fish oil n-3 fatty acids; and the fourth group received fish oil (3 g/d) and kinako (29 g/d). Anthropometric, blood pressure (BP), inflammatory markers, anti-inflammatory marker (adiponectin) and NO concentrations were evaluated. In relation to the baseline values, the group that received fish oil and kinako concomitantly presented a statistically significant decrease in systolic BP (SBP; P < 0·05), whereas there was a significant decrease in diastolic BP (DBP) in the control group (P < 0·05), kinako group (P < 0·01) and fish oil group (P < 0·01) after 90 d. There was a significant increase in adiponectin (P < 0·01) and NO values (P < 0·05) after 90 d in the kinako and fish oil groups. Differences between treatment groups verified a significant decrease (P < 0·05) in DBP in the kinako group after 90 d when compared to the results obtained from the fish oil and kinako groups. In conclusion, the findings of increased serum adiponectin and NO metabolite levels after 90 d, both in the fish oil and soya groups, reinforce the importance of the influence of adiponectin and NO levels on BP decrease in patients with the MetS.

  18. Factors affecting photooxidation of oil constituents in the marine environment. I. Photochemical transformations of dimethyl-naphthalenes in an aqueous environment in the presence of absence of oil

    SciTech Connect

    Sydnes, L.K.; Hansen, S.H.; Burkow, I.C.

    1985-01-01

    Photooxidation studies 1,3-, 1,4-, 1,8- and 2,3-dimethylnaphthalene (DMN) suspended in and layered on seawater and distilled water have been performed in the presence and absence of crude Ekofisk oil, methylene blue and dibenzothiophene. With the exception of 2,3-DMN which was very insensitive to the reaction conditions, the course of reaction was generally, influenced by the structure of the substrate, the salinity of the water, the oil and the presence of sulfur-containing compounds. In the absence of oil the photooxidation was fairly inefficient and took place exclusively in benzylic positions. In the presence of oil, oxidation of the naphthalene moiety abundant formation of singlet oxygen.

  19. Mugil cephalus roe oil obtained by supercritical fluid extraction affects the lipid profile and viability in cancer HeLa and B16F10 cells.

    PubMed

    Rosa, A; Piras, A; Nieddu, M; Putzu, D; Cesare Marincola, F; Falchi, A M

    2016-09-14

    We explored the changes in viability and lipid profile occurring in cancer cells, murine melanoma cells (B16F10 cells) and human cervical carcinoma cells (HeLa cells), when exposed to 24 h-treatments with an n-3 PUFA-rich oil obtained by supercritical extraction with CO2 from Mugil cephalus processed roe (bottarga). The composition of the major lipid classes of bottarga oil was determined by the (13)C NMR technique. Reversed-phase HPLC with DAD/ELSD detection was performed to analyze cells' total fatty acid profile and the levels of phospholipids, total/free cholesterol, triacylglycerols, and cholesteryl esters. Cell-based fluorescent measurements of intracellular membranes and lipid droplets were performed on bottarga oil-treated cells using the Nile red staining technique. The treatments of cancer cells with bottarga oil reduced the viability and affected the fatty acid profile, with a significant n-3 PUFA increase in treated cells. Mullet roe oil uptake modulated the cancer cell lipid composition, inducing a remarkable incorporation of health beneficial n-3 PUFA in the polar and neutral lipid fractions. Bottarga oil treatment influenced the synthesis of intracellular membranes and accumulation of cytoplasmic lipid droplets in cancer cells.

  20. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid affects blood parameters, liver morphology and expression of selected hepatic genes in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Koronowicz, A A; Banks, P; Szymczyk, B; Leszczyńska, T; Master, A; Piasna, E; Szczepański, W; Domagała, D; Kopeć, A; Piątkowska, E; Laidler, P

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this research were to investigate the effect of a conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-enriched diet on Isa Brown laying hen health status and to provide a comprehensive analysis of changes in blood parameters, liver morphology and selected hepatic gene expression. Hens were allocated to the control and experimental group (diet enriched with 0.75% CLA) for a total period of 4 m. At the end of the experiment half of the hens from each group were slaughtered for analyses. The remaining hens were transferred to an organic farm for the next 5 m and fed on the diet without CLA supplementation. The CLA-enriched diet resulted in significant changes in blood and serum parameters; specifically, haematocrit (HCT), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and white blood cells (WBC) count were decreased compared to the control. The total cholesterol (TC) was not significantly affected while the triacylglycerol's (TG) concentration was elevated. The activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was significantly increased in the CLA-supplemented group, while aspartate aminotransferase (AST) showed an increasing tendency. Liver biopsies showed pathological changes classified as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Additionally, the expression of hepatic genes involved in fatty acids synthesis (ME1, ACLY, ACC, FASN, SCD1), oxidation (CPT1α, PPARA), detoxification processes (Cytochrome P450, CYP, Flavin-containing monooxygenase, FMO3), oxidative stress (NOX4, XbP1) and inflammation (IL6, TNFα) were elevated. Cessation of CLA supplementation for 5 m of organic farming resulted in normalisation of blood and hepatic parameters to the levels observed in control hens. The results of this study indicate that dietary CLA triggers an integrated stress response in laying hens and activates mechanisms involved in liver detoxification.

  1. Blood-Injection-Injury (B-I-I) Specific Phobia Affects the Outcome of Hypoxic Challenge Testing.

    PubMed

    Spurling, Kristofer J; McGoldrick, Veronica P

    2017-05-01

    Blood-injection-injury (B-I-I) phobia is capable of producing inaccurate hypoxic challenge testing results due to anxiety-induced hyperventilation. A 69-yr-old woman with a history of hypersensitivity pneumonitis, restrictive spirometry, exercise desaturation requiring supplementary oxygen on mobilizing, reduced DLco, and B-I-I phobia was referred for hypoxic challenge testing (HCT) to assess in-flight oxygen requirements. HCT was performed by breathing a 15% FIo2 gas mixture, simulating the available oxygen in ambient air onboard aircraft pressurized to an equivalent altitude of 8000 ft. Spo2 fell to a nadir value of 81% during HCT, although it rapidly increased to 89% during the first of two attempts at blood gas sampling. A resultant blood gas sample showed an acceptable Po2 outside the criteria for recommending in-flight oxygen and a reduced Pco2. Entering the nadir Spo2 value into the Severinghaus equation gives an estimated arterial Po2 of 6 kPa (45 mmHg), which was felt to be more representative of resting values during HCT, and in-flight oxygen was recommended. While hyperventilation is an expected response to hypoxia, transient rises in Spo2 coinciding with threat of injury are likely to be attributable to emotional stress-induced hyperventilation, characteristic of B-I-I specific phobia and expected during the anticipation of exteroceptive threat, even in normal subjects. In summary, should excessive hyperventilation be detected during HCT and coincide with transient increases in Spo2, HCT should be repeated using Spo2 only as a guide to the level of hypoxemia, and Spo2 maintained using supplementary oxygen in accordance with alternative methods described in guidelines.Spurling KJ, McGoldrick VP. Blood-injection-injury (B-I-I) specific phobia affects the outcome of hypoxic challenge testing. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(5):503-506.

  2. Does sodium intake affect the relationship between blood pressure and vascular damage?

    PubMed

    Jankowski, Piotr; Stolarz-Skrzypek, Katarzyna; Kawecka-Jaszcz, Kalina; Wojciechowska, Wiktoria; Olszanecka, Agnieszka; Cwynar, Marcin; Grodzicki, Tomasz; Czarnecka, Danuta

    2015-01-01

    Although the differences between central and peripheral blood pressure (BP) values have been known for decades, the consequences of decision making based on peripheral rather than central BP have only recently been recognized. Recently, a U-shaped relation between sodium intake and cardiovascular risk has been suggested. The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between intima-media thickness (IMT) and central and peripheral BP as well as the effect of 24-hour urinary sodium excretion on this relationship. The study included 182 subjects (mean age, 37.3 ±14.0 years, 92 men and 90 women) who were members of families randomly selected from one of the gminas (administrative regions) in southern Poland. In all patients, peripheral and central BP (using applanation tonometry), IMT, and 24-hour sodium excretion were measured. Hypertension was observed in 44.5% of the participants. The mean urinary sodium excretion was 243 ±81 mmol/d. IMT was significantly more correlated with central pulse pressure (PP) compared with peripheral PP (r = 0.54 vs r = 0.27; P <0.01). After multivariate adjustments, IMT remained significantly related to central systolic BP and central and peripheral PP. When the study group was divided according to the tertiles of sodium excretion, central PP was related to IMT only in the second and third tertiles. When the study group was divided according to sex and sex-specific median values of sodium excretion, IMT was associated with central PP only in subjects with sodium excretion exceeding the median values (both in men and women). IMT is more correlated with central than with peripheral BP. The association between IMT and central PP may be modulated by sodium intake. This hypothesis should be tested in larger studies.

  3. Ethanol affects acylated and total ghrelin levels in peripheral blood of alcohol-dependent rats.

    PubMed

    Szulc, Michal; Mikolajczak, Przemyslaw L; Geppert, Bogna; Wachowiak, Roman; Dyr, Wanda; Bobkiewicz-Kozlowska, Teresa

    2013-07-01

    There is a hypothesis that ghrelin could take part in the central effects of alcohol as well as function as a peripheral indicator of the changes which occur during long-term alcohol consumption. The aim of this study was to determine a correlation between alcohol concentration and acylated and total form of ghrelin after a single administration of alcohol (intraperitoneal, i.p.) (experiment 1) and prolonged ethanol consumption (experiment 2). The study was performed using Wistar alcohol preferring (PR) and non-preferring (NP) rats and rats from inbred line (Warsaw High Preferring, WHP; Warsaw Low Preferring, WLP). It was found that ghrelin in ethanol-naive WHP animals showed a significantly lower level when compared with the ethanol-naive WLP or Wistar rats. After acute ethanol administration in doses of 1.0; 2.0 and 4.0 g/kg, i.p., the simple (WHP) or inverse (WLP and Wistar) relationship between alcohol concentration and both form of ghrelin levels in plasma were found. Chronic alcohol intake in all groups of rats led to decrease of acylated ghrelin concentration. PR and WHP rats, after chronic alcohol drinking, had lower levels of both form of ghrelin in comparison with NP and WLP rats, respectively, and the observed differences in ghrelin levels were in inverse relationship with their alcohol intake. In conclusion, it is suggested that there is a strong relationship between alcohol administration or intake, ethanol concentration in blood and both active and total ghrelin level in the experimental animals, and that ghrelin plasma concentration can be a marker of alcohol drinking predisposition.

  4. Country of birth affects blood pressure in the French hypertensive diabetic population

    PubMed Central

    Aoun Bahous, Sola; Thomas, Frédérique; Pannier, Bruno; Danchin, Nicolas; Safar, Michel E.

    2015-01-01

    In a population of 56,242 individuals living in France, we showed that individuals born in France have significantly different levels of blood pressure (BP) and cardiovascular (CV) risk factors than African and Asian populations born in their own country but living long-term in France (average duration of stay, 5–10 years). The objective of our study was to investigate the impact of country of birth on BP and CV risk factors in a subpopulation of 9245 patients selected solely on the diagnosis of hypertension, either alone or with simultaneous type 2 diabetes. In the subgroup of individuals with hypertension alone, brachial systolic, diastolic, mean and pulse pressure (PP), heart rate (HR), augmentation index and PP amplification were significantly higher in African-born than French- and Asian-born populations. In the subgroup of individuals with both hypertension and diabetes, only augmentation index, PP amplification and brachial and central PP, but not brachial systolic, diastolic, mean BP, and HR, were elevated when the African-born subgroup was compared to the French- and Asian-born populations. Increased body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), and deprivation scores, but not increased plasma lipids or glycemia, were consistently associated with the African-born population. The combination of diabetes and hypertension in African populations was associated with increased aortic stiffness and PP, together with greater body weight and WHR. In individuals with increased PP and hence systolic hypertension, increased PP requires systolic BP to be reduced whereas notable reductions in diastolic BP may have deleterious consequences. PMID:26388785

  5. In vitro anticholinergic drugs affect CD8+ peripheral blood T-cells apoptosis in COPD.

    PubMed

    Profita, Mirella; Riccobono, Loredana; Montalbano, Angela Marina; Bonanno, Anna; Ferraro, Maria; Albano, Giusy Daniela; Gerbino, Stefania; Casarosa, Paola; Pieper, Michael Paul; Gjomarkaj, Mark

    2012-03-01

    Novel pharmacological strategies are aimed at the resolution of systemic inflammation in COPD potentiating peripheral blood T-cell (PBT-cell) apoptosis. Although muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) M(3) and choline-acetyltransferase (ChAT) participate in the airway inflammation of COPD, their role in PBT-cell apoptosis remains unexplained. We evaluated in PBT-cells from COPD patients, smoker (S) and control (C) subjects: (1) apoptosis (by annexin V binding), (2) mAChR M(3) and ChAT expression, acetylcholine (ACh)-binding; (3) choline levels in serum and PBT-cells extracts. We tested the effects of Tiotropium (Spiriva(®)) and hemicholinium-3 (HCh-3) on apoptosis, NFκB pathway, caspases 3 and 8 activity and choline levels, in PBT-cells from COPD patients. We showed that: (1) apoptosis, mAChR M(3) and ChAT expression and the CD3+ and CD8+ ACh-binding are increased in PBT-cells from COPD patients when compared to C subjects, while CD4+/CD8+ ratio of ACh-binding to PBT cells was reduced in COPD; (2) choline levels are higher in serum and PBT-cells extracts from COPD patients than in S and C; (3) Tiotropium and HCh-3 reduced CD4+ and increased CD8+ apoptosis via caspases 3 and 8 activities and via IκB mediated mechanisms in COPD patients. This study suggests the involvement of non-neuronal components of cholinergic system in the regulation of PBT-cell apoptosis in COPD and demonstrates that Tiotropium regulates CD4+ and CD8+ PBT-cell apoptosis. It provides novel putative pharmacological targets for the resolution of systemic inflammation in COPD. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Can Acupuncture Affect the Circadian Rhythm of Blood Pressure? A Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hye-Mi; Cho, Seung-Yeon; Sohn, Il-Suk; Jung, Woo-Sang; Moon, Sang-Kwan; Park, Jung-Mi; Ko, Chang-Nam; Cho, Ki-Ho

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objectives The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of acupuncture on the circadian rhythm of blood pressure (BP) in patients with hypertension. Design The study was designed as a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. Subjects were randomly divided into an active acupuncture group and a sham acupuncture group. Each patient received real or sham acupuncture treatment twice a week for 8 weeks. Acupuncture needles were inserted at bilateral ST 36 plus PC 6; placebo points. Subjects Thirty-three (33) patients with essential hypertension were the subjects. Outcome measures Twenty-four (24)-hour ambulatory BP was assessed before and after treatment. Results After the treatment period, there was a significant increase in nocturnal diastolic BP dipping compared to that at baseline (10.20±7.56 mm Hg versus 5.21±10.19 mm Hg, p=0.038) in the active acupuncture group but not in the sham acupuncture group. The nocturnal diastolic BP dipping response to active acupuncture treatment was significantly different from the response seen with the sham acupuncture treatment (p=0.041). The number of dippers also increased from 4 to 8 in the active acupuncture group. Average systolic and diastolic BP was not changed significantly except for nighttime diastolic BP (90.32±11.47 mm Hg to 87.83±9.16 mm Hg, p=0.041). Conclusions It is suggested that acupuncture treatment could be useful for improving the circadian rhythm of BP in patients with hypertension. PMID:22906144

  7. Hormonal and nonhormonal factors affecting sex hormone-binding globulin levels in blood.

    PubMed

    Thijssen, J H

    1988-01-01

    Researchers in Utrecht, the Netherlands have studied the effects of different factors, such as oral contraceptives (OCs), on sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels in blood. The SHBG levels in women who continuously used OCs consisting only of .05 mg of ethinyl estradiol (EE2) rose as high as 260% + or - 25% of those in women not using OCs. Further, mean SHBG levels of women using combination OCs of EE2 and levonorgestrel were 10-60% higher than women not using OCs. SHBG levels were significantly higher than the use of a sequential OC containing decreasing amounts of EE2 and increasing amounts of levonorgestrel than those cause by use of a continuous combined OC with .03 mg and .15 mg respectively. As the dosage of EE2 increased in combination OCs with 2.5 mg lynestrenol, the SHBG increased from 20% (.05 mg EE2) to 150% (.75 mg EE2). SHBG levels after taking EE2 and cyproterone acetate increased significantly more (240%) than levels after EE2 and desogestrel (170%), or after EE2 and gestoden (140%) [p.001]. SHBG levels of women who took OCs containing only .03 mg of levonorgestrel daily decreased 35% (p.01). These levels fell by 30% in women who received 150 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate intramuscularly every 3 months (p.001). SHBG concentrations increased when estrogens were taken orally for noncontraceptive purposes, but they did not change when they were administered percutaneously. As body weight increased the SHBG levels decreased despite hormonal status or sex. Further, the lower the fat content of one's diet the higher the SHBG levels and vice versa. SHBG levels are higher in males with flaccid lungs than they are in males with healthy lungs.

  8. Squeezing Blood From a Stone: How Income Inequality Affects the Health of the American Workforce

    PubMed Central

    Rosenstock, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Income inequality is very topical—in both political and economic circles—but although income and socioeconomic status are known determinants of health status, income inequality has garnered scant attention with respect to the health of US workers. By several measures, income inequality in the United States has risen since 1960. In addition to pressures from an increasingly competitive labor market, with cash wages losing out to benefits, workers face pressures from changes in work organization. We explored these factors and the mounting evidence of income inequality as a contributing factor to poorer health for the workforce. Although political differences may divide the policy approaches undertaken, addressing income inequality is likely to improve the overall social and health conditions for those affected. PMID:25713936

  9. Squeezing blood from a stone: how income inequality affects the health of the American workforce.

    PubMed

    Williams, Jessica Allia R; Rosenstock, Linda

    2015-04-01

    Income inequality is very topical-in both political and economic circles-but although income and socioeconomic status are known determinants of health status, income inequality has garnered scant attention with respect to the health of US workers. By several measures, income inequality in the United States has risen since 1960. In addition to pressures from an increasingly competitive labor market, with cash wages losing out to benefits, workers face pressures from changes in work organization. We explored these factors and the mounting evidence of income inequality as a contributing factor to poorer health for the workforce. Although political differences may divide the policy approaches undertaken, addressing income inequality is likely to improve the overall social and health conditions for those affected.

  10. [Effect of rations with an increased sunflower seed oil level on the rate of very low-density lipoprotein formation in the liver, secretion into the blood and composition in the blood].

    PubMed

    Liapkov, B G

    1978-01-01

    Feeding of rats on a ration with an excessive content of sunflower-oil (60 per cent of the total calorific value of the ration) for a period of 30 days resulted in lowering the rate of the apoproteins, prolipoproteins synthesis in the liver and in their loading with triglycerides and cholesterol. As a consequence of this it diminished secretion of endogenously formed tryglycerides and cholesterol from the liver into the blood and a changed lipid composition of lipoproteins of a very low density in the blood.

  11. Characterization of Coconut cadang-cadang viroid variants from oil palm affected by orange spotting disease in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Wu, Y H; Cheong, L C; Meon, S; Lau, W H; Kong, L L; Joseph, H; Vadamalai, G

    2013-06-01

    A 246-nt variant of Coconut cadang-cadang viroid (CCCVd) has been identified and described from oil palms with orange spotting symptoms in Malaysia. Compared with the 246-nt form of CCCVd from coconut, the oil palm variant substituted C(31)→U in the pathogenicity domain and G(70)→C in the central conserved domain. This is the first sequence reported for a 246-nt variant of CCCVd in oil palms expressing orange spotting symptoms.

  12. Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Cold Pressed Oils from Florida Hamlin and Valencia Oranges Affected by Huanglongbing.

    PubMed

    Xu, Brittany M; Sims, Charles A; Etxeberria, Edgardo; Schneider, Renée M Goodrich

    2017-09-01

    Cold pressed oils from huanglongbing (HLB) symptomatic (SY) and asymptomatic (AS) Hamlin and Valencia oranges were assessed for 2 y (2014 to 2015 and 2015 to 2016 seasons) with 2 harvest dates for each orange variety per year. Physicochemical properties (optical rotation, aldehyde content, ultraviolet [UV] absorbance, refractive index, and specific gravity) mandated by the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) for orange oil quality were assessed. Hamlin and Valencia oils showed minor differences in physicochemical properties based upon disease stage. However, all Hamlin oils had aldehyde contents below the USP minimum and Valencia oil from late season SY oranges had specific gravities above the USP maximum. Significant differences based on harvest year were seen for aldehyde content, refractive index, optical rotation, and UV absorbance. While none of these changes led to an oil being out of USP specifications, they indicate a need to monitor the quality of oil every year to ensure a consistent product. Flavor taste panels were performed both years by adding 0.035% oil samples to a uniform orange juice base. Aroma panels were done by smelling pure oil. There were no significant differences between SY and AS oils for flavor, although panelist race was a significant factor in several of the panels. There were significant differences between the aroma of SY and AS oils for both 2015 to 2016 Hamlin Early and Valencia Late samples. Overall, these results show HLB can have an effect on the aroma and USP mandated physicochemical properties of Florida orange oils, although flavor may be unaffected by this plant disease. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  13. Effects of partial substitution of dietary fish oil with blends of vegetable oils, on blood leucocyte fatty acid compositions, immune function and histology in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L).

    PubMed

    Mourente, Gabriel; Good, Joanne E; Thompson, Kim D; Bell, J Gordon

    2007-10-01

    Within a decade or so insufficient fish oil (FO) will be available to meet the requirements for aquaculture growth. Consequently, alternative sources are being investigated to reduce reliance on wild fish as a source of FO. Vegetable oils (VO) are a feasible alternative to FO. However, it is important to establish that alternative dietary lipids are not only supplied in the correct quantities and balance for optimal growth, but can maintain immune function and prevent infection, since it is known that the nutritional state of the fish can influence their immune function and disease resistance. A way of maintaining immune function, while replacing dietary FO, is by using a blend of VO rather than a single oil. In this study, juvenile European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) were fed diets with a 60 % substitution of FO with a blend of rapeseed, linseed and palm oils. Two oil blends were used to achieve a fatty acid composition similar to FO, in terms of energy content, and provide a similar balance of SFA, MUFA and PUFA. Fish were fed the diets for 64 weeks, after which time growth and fatty acid compositions of liver and blood leucocytes were monitored. The impact of the dietary blends on selected innate immune responses and histopathology were also assessed, together with levels of plasma prostaglandin E2. The results suggest that potential exists for replacing FO with a VO blend in farmed sea bass feeds without compromising growth, non-specific immune function or histology.

  14. Prepartal dietary energy level affects peripartal bovine blood neutrophil metabolic, antioxidant, and inflammatory gene expression.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Z; Bu, D P; Vailati Riboni, M; Khan, M J; Graugnard, D E; Luo, J; Cardoso, F C; Loor, J J

    2015-08-01

    During the dry period, cows can easily overconsume higher-grain diets, a scenario that could impair immune function during the peripartal period. Objectives were to investigate the effects of energy overfeeding on expression profile of genes associated with inflammation, lipid metabolism, and neutrophil function, in 12 multiparous Holstein cows (n=6/dietary group) fed control [CON, 1.34 Mcal/kg of dry matter (DM)] or higher-energy (HE, 1.62 Mcal/kg of DM) diets during the last 45 d of pregnancy. Blood was collected to evaluate 43 genes in polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes (PMNL) isolated at -14, 7, and 14 d relative to parturition. We detected greater expression of inflammatory-related cytokines (IL1B, STAT3, NFKB1) and eicosanoid synthesis (ALOX5AP and PLA2G4A) in HE cows than in CON cows. Around parturition, all cows had a close balance in mRNA expression of the pro-inflammatory IL1B and the anti-inflammatory IL10, with greater expression of both in cows fed HE than CON. The expression of CCL2, LEPR, TLR4, IL6, and LTC4S was undetectable. Cows in the HE group had greater expression of genes involved in PMNL adhesion, motility, migration, and phagocytosis, which was similar to expression of genes related to the pro-inflammatory cytokine. This response suggests that HE cows experienced a chronic state of inflammation. The greater expression of G6PD in HE cows could have been associated with the greater plasma insulin, which would have diverted glucose to other tissues. Cows fed the HE diet also had greater expression of transcription factors involved in metabolism of long-chain fatty acids (PPARD, RXRA), suggesting that immune cells might be predisposed to use endogenous ligands such as nonesterified fatty acids available in the circulation when glucose is in high demand for milk synthesis. The lower overall expression of SLC2A1 postpartum than prepartum supports this suggestion. Targeting interleukin-1β signaling might be of value in terms of controlling

  15. Application of a solar UV/chlorine advanced oxidation process to oil sands process-affected water remediation.

    PubMed

    Shu, Zengquan; Li, Chao; Belosevic, Miodrag; Bolton, James R; El-Din, Mohamed Gamal

    2014-08-19

    The solar UV/chlorine process has emerged as a novel advanced oxidation process for industrial and municipal wastewaters. Currently, its practical application to oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) remediation has been studied to treat fresh OSPW retained in large tailings ponds, which can cause significant adverse environmental impacts on ground and surface waters in Northern Alberta, Canada. Degradation of naphthenic acids (NAs) and fluorophore organic compounds in OSPW was investigated. In a laboratory-scale UV/chlorine treatment, the NAs degradation was clearly structure-dependent and hydroxyl radical-based. In terms of the NAs degradation rate, the raw OSPW (pH ∼ 8.3) rates were higher than those at an alkaline condition (pH = 10). Under actual sunlight, direct solar photolysis partially degraded fluorophore organic compounds, as indicated by the qualitative synchronous fluorescence spectra (SFS) of the OSPW, but did not impact NAs degradation. The solar/chlorine process effectively removed NAs (75-84% removal) and fluorophore organic compounds in OSPW in the presence of 200 or 300 mg L(-1) OCl(-). The acute toxicity of OSPW toward Vibrio fischeri was reduced after the solar/chlorine treatment. However, the OSPW toxicity toward goldfish primary kidney macrophages after solar/chlorine treatment showed no obvious toxicity reduction versus that of untreated OSPW, which warrants further study for process optimization.

  16. Treatment of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) using ozonation combined with integrated fixed-film activated sludge (IFAS).

    PubMed

    Huang, Chunkai; Shi, Yijing; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed; Liu, Yang

    2015-11-15

    Two integrated fixed-film activated sludge (IFAS) reactors were operated continuously to treat raw (untreated) and ozonated (30 mg/L) oil sands process-affected water (OSPW). After 11 months, 12.1% of the acid extractable fraction (AEF) and 43.1% of the parent naphthenic acids (NAs) were removed in the raw OSPW IFAS, while 42.0% AEF and 80.2% of parent NAs were removed in the ozonated OSPW IFAS. UPLC/HRMS analysis showed that NA biodegradation significantly decreased as the NA cyclization number increased. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) results showed that the biofilm in the ozonated OSPW IFAS was significantly thicker (94 ± 1.6 μm) than the biofilm in the raw OSPW IFAS (72 ± 2.8 μm) after 283 days of cultivation. The quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) revealed that the abundance proportions of both nitrifier genes (AomA, NSR and Nitro) and denitrifier genes (narG, nirS, nirK and nosZ) within total bacteria were significantly higher in biofilms than in flocs in the raw OSPW IFAS system, but a different trend was observed in the ozonated OSPW IFAS system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The impacts of ozonation on oil sands process-affected water biodegradability and biofilm formation characteristics in bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Geelsu; Dong, Tao; Islam, Md Sahinoor; Sheng, Zhiya; Pérez-Estrada, Leónidas A; Liu, Yang; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2013-02-01

    To examine the effects of the ozonation process (as an oxidation treatment for water and wastewater treatment applications) on microbial biofilm formation and biodegradability of organic compounds present in oil sands process-affected water (OSPW), biofilm reactors were operated continuously for 6weeks. Two types of biofilm substrate materials: polyethylene (PE) and polyvinylchloride (PVC), and two types of OSPW-fresh and ozonated OSPWs-were tested. Endogenous microorganisms, in OSPW, quickly formed biofilms in the reactors. Without ozonation, the bioreactor (using endogenous microorganisms) removed 13.8% of the total acid-extractable organics (TAO) and 18.5% of the parent naphthenic acids (NAs) from fresh OSPW. The combined ozonation and biodegradation process removed 87.2% of the OSPW TAO and over 99% of the OSPW parent NAs. Further UPLC/HRMS analysis showed that NA biodegradability decreased as the NA cyclization number increased. Microbial biofilm formation was found to depend on the biofilm substrate type. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Treatment of oil sands process-affected water using moving bed biofilm reactors: With and without ozone pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yijing; Huang, Chunkai; Rocha, Ketley Costa; El-Din, Mohamed Gamal; Liu, Yang

    2015-09-01

    Two moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBRs) were operated to treat raw (untreated) and 30 mg/L ozone-treated oil sands process-affected water (OSPW). After 210 days, the MBBR process showed 18.3% of acid-extractable fraction (AEF) and 34.8% of naphthenic acids (NAs) removal, while the ozonation combined MBBR process showed higher removal of AEF (41.0%) and NAs (78.8%). Biodegradation of raw and ozone treated OSPW showed similar performance. UPLC/HRMS analysis showed a highest NAs removal efficiency with a carbon number of 14 and a -Z number of 4. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) showed thicker biofilms in the raw OSPW MBBR (97 ± 5 μm) than in the ozonated OSPW MBBR (71 ± 12 μm). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) results showed higher abundance of gene copies of total bacteria and nitrogen removal relevant bacteria in the ozonated OSPW MBBR, but no significant difference was found. MiSeq sequencing showed Proteobacteria, Nitrospirae, and Acidobacteria were dominant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A novel solid-state fractionation of naphthenic acid fraction components from oil sands process-affected water.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Mohamed H; Wilson, Lee D; Shah, Jaimin R; Bailey, Jon; Peru, Kerry M; Headley, John V

    2015-10-01

    Various sorbent materials were evaluated for the fractionation of naphthenic acid fraction components (NAFCs) from oil sand process-affected water (OSPW). The solid phase materials include activated carbon (AC), cellulose, iron oxides (magnetite and goethite), polyaniline (PANI) and three types of biochar derived from biomass (BC-1; rice husks, BC-2; acacia low temperature and BC-3; acacia high temperature). NAFCs were semi-quantified using electrospray ionization high resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and the metals were assessed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The average removal efficacy of NAFCs by AC was 95%. The removal efficacy decreased in the following order: AC, BC-1>BC-2, BC-3, goethite>PANI>cellulose, magnetite. The removal of metals did not follow a clear trend; however, there was notable leaching of potassium by AC and biochar samples. The bound NAFCs by AC were desorbed efficiently with methanol. Methanol regeneration and recycling of AC revealed 88% removal on the fourth cycle; a 4.4% decrease from the first cycle. This fractionation method represents a rapid, cost-effective, efficient, and green strategy for NAFCs from OSPW, as compared with conventional solvent extraction.

  20. Biostimulation of Oil Sands Process-Affected Water with Phosphate Yields Removal of Sulfur-Containing Organics and Detoxification.

    PubMed

    Quesnel, Dean M; Oldenburg, Thomas B P; Larter, Stephen R; Gieg, Lisa M; Chua, Gordon

    2015-11-03

    The ability to mitigate toxicity of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) for return into the environment is an important issue for effective tailings management in Alberta, Canada. OSPW toxicity has been linked to classical naphthenic acids (NAs), but the toxic contribution of other acid-extractable organics (AEOs) remains unknown. Here, we examine the potential for in situ bioremediation of OSPW AEOs by indigenous algae. Phosphate biostimulation was performed in OSPW to promote the growth of indigenous photosynthetic microorganisms and subsequent toxicity and chemical changes were determined. After 12 weeks, the AEO fraction of phosphate-biostimulated OSPW was significantly less toxic to the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe than unstimulated OSPW. Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS) analysis of the AEO fraction in phosphate-biostimulated OSPW showed decreased levels of SO3 class compounds, including a subset that may represent linear arylsulfonates. A screen with S. pombe transcription factor mutant strains for growth sensitivity to the AEO fraction or sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate revealed a mode of toxic action consistent with oxidative stress and detrimental effects on cellular membranes. These findings demonstrate a potential algal-based in situ bioremediation strategy for OSPW AEOs and uncover a link between toxicity and AEOs other than classical NAs.

  1. Estimates of Octanol-Water Partitioning for Thousands of Dissolved Organic Species in Oil Sands Process-Affected Water.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kun; Pereira, Alberto S; Martin, Jonathan W

    2015-07-21

    In this study, the octanol-water distribution ratios (DOW, that is, apparent KOW at pH 8.4) of 2114 organic species in oil sands process-affected water were estimated by partitioning to polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) coated stir bars and analysis by ultrahigh resolution orbitrap mass spectrometry in electrospray positive ((+)) and negative ((-)) ionization modes. At equilibrium, the majority of species in OSPW showed negligible partitioning to PDMS (i.e., DOW <1), however estimated DOW's for some species ranged up to 100,000. Most organic acids detected in ESI- had negligible partitioning, although some naphthenic acids (O2(-) species) had estimated DOW ranging up to 100. Polar neutral and basic compounds detected in ESI+ generally partitioned to PDMS to a greater extent than organic acids. Among these species, DOW was greatest among 3 groups: up to 1000 for mono-oxygenated species (O(+) species), up to 127,000 for NO(+) species, and up to 203,000 for SO(+) species. A positive relationship was observed between DOW and carbon number, and a negative relationship was observed with the number of double bonds (or rings). The results highlight that nonacidic compounds in OSPW are generally more hydrophobic than naphthenic acids and that some may be highly bioaccumulative and contribute to toxicity.

  2. The effects of hazelnut oil usage on live weight, carcass, rumen, some blood parameters and femur head ash in Akkaraman lambs.

    PubMed

    Cetingul, I Sadi; Yardimci, Mehmet; Hesna Sahin, E; Bayram, Ismail; Kucukkurt, Ismail; Burhaneddin Akkaya, A

    2009-12-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effects of hazelnut oil supplementation in the diets on growth, carcass and blood parameters as well as rumen pH, protozoa quantity and femur head ash in Akkaraman lambs. Forty native Akkaraman lambs were used. The lambs were divided into two groups as treatment and control. The treatment group diet was supplemented with 3% hazelnut oil. The study was continued for 84days. The values regarding plasma malondialdehyde, cholesterol, triglyceride and antioxidant activity levels were found to be lower in the treatment group. In conclusion, supplementing 3% hazelnut oil in the diet of Akkaraman lambs had no detrimental effects on live weight, carcass and blood parameters, rumen microbial activity and femur ash. While the plasma glutathione and glucose levels increased, total cholesterol levels decreased. Considering the low level of malondialdehyde and high level of glutathione, it could be claimed that supplementation of hazelnut oil at 3% in diets plays a protective role against oxidative damage in the body. Therefore it could be used in sheep feeding.

  3. Geochemical interactions between process-affected water from oil sands tailings ponds and North Alberta surficial sediments.

    PubMed

    Holden, A A; Donahue, R B; Ulrich, A C

    2011-01-25

    In Northern Alberta, the placement of out-of-pit oil sands tailings ponds atop natural buried sand channels is becoming increasingly common. Preliminary modeling of such a site suggests that process-affected (PA) pond water will infiltrate through the underlying clay till aquitard, reaching the sand channel. However, the impact of seepage upon native sediments and groundwater resources is not known. The goal of this study is to investigate the role of adsorption and ion exchange reactions in the clay till and their effect on the attenuation or release of inorganic species. This was evaluated using batch sorption experiments (traditional and a recent modification using less disturbed sediment samples) and geochemical modeling with PHREEQC. The results show that clay till sediments have the capacity to mitigate the high concentrations of ingressing sodium (600 mg L(-1)), with linear sorption partitioning coefficients (K(d)) of 0.45 L kg(-1). Ion exchange theory was required to account for all other cation behaviour, precluding the calculation of such coefficients for other species. Qualitative evidence suggests that chloride will behave conservatively, with high concentrations remaining in solution (375 mg L(-1)). As a whole, system behaviour was found to be controlled by a combination of competitive ion exchange, dissolution and precipitation reactions. Observations, supported by PHREEQC simulations, suggest that the influx of PA water will induce the dissolution of pre-existing sulphate salts. Sodium present in the process-affected water will exchange with sediment-bound calcium and magnesium, increasing the divalent ions' pore fluid concentrations, and leading to the precipitation of a calcium-magnesium carbonate mineral phase. Thus, in similar tailings pond settings, particularly if the glacial till coverage is thin or altogether absent, it is reasonable to expect that high concentrations of sodium and chloride will remain in solution, while sulphate

  4. Fate and transport of oil sand process-affected water into the underlying clay till: a field study.

    PubMed

    Abolfazlzadehdoshanbehbazari, Mostafa; Birks, S Jean; Moncur, Michael C; Ulrich, Ania C

    2013-08-01

    The South Tailings Pond (STP) is a ~2300-ha tailing pond operated by Suncor Energy Inc. that has received oil sand process-affected (PA) water and mature fine tailings since 2006. The STP is underlain by a clay till, which is in turn underlain by the Wood Creek Sand Channel (WCSC). The sandy deposits of the WCSC provide greater geotechnical stability but could act as a potential flow pathway for PA water to migrate off site and into the Athabasca River. Preliminary modeling of the STP suggests that PA water from the pond will infiltrate into the underlying sand channel, but the extent and development of this impact is still poorly understood. Suncor Energy Inc. built interception wells and a cut-off-wall to control any potential seepage. Here we present the results of an investigation of the fate and transport of PA water in clay till underlying a 10 m × 10 m infiltration pond that was constructed on the southeastern portion of the STP. The geochemistry of pore water in the till underlying the infiltration pond was determined prior to filling with process-affected water (2008) and two years after the infiltration pond was filled with PA waters (2010). Pore water was analyzed for metals, cations, anions, and isotopes ((2)H and (18)O). The distribution of conservative tracers ((18)O and chloride) indicated migration of the PA waters to approximately 0.9 m, but the migrations of major ions and metals were significantly delayed relative to this depth. Uptake of Na and Mo and release of Ca, Mg, Mn, Ba, and Sr suggest that adsorption and ion exchange reactions are the foremost attenuation processes controlling inorganic solutes transport.

  5. Fate and transport of oil sand process-affected water into the underlying clay till: A field study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abolfazlzadehdoshanbehbazari, Mostafa; Birks, S. Jean; Moncur, Michael C.; Ulrich, Ania C.

    2013-08-01

    The South Tailings Pond (STP) is a ~ 2300-ha tailing pond operated by Suncor Energy Inc. that has received oil sand process-affected (PA) water and mature fine tailings since 2006. The STP is underlain by a clay till, which is in turn underlain by the Wood Creek Sand Channel (WCSC). The sandy deposits of the WCSC provide greater geotechnical stability but could act as a potential flow pathway for PA water to migrate off site and into the Athabasca River. Preliminary modeling of the STP suggests that PA water from the pond will infiltrate into the underlying sand channel, but the extent and development of this impact is still poorly understood. Suncor Energy Inc. built interception wells and a cut-off-wall to control any potential seepage. Here we present the results of an investigation of the fate and transport of PA water in clay till underlying a 10 m × 10 m infiltration pond that was constructed on the southeastern portion of the STP. The geochemistry of pore water in the till underlying the infiltration pond was determined prior to filling with process-affected water (2008) and two years after the infiltration pond was filled with PA waters (2010). Pore water was analyzed for metals, cations, anions, and isotopes (2H and 18O). The distribution of conservative tracers (18O and chloride) indicated migration of the PA waters to approximately 0.9 m, but the migrations of major ions and metals were significantly delayed relative to this depth. Uptake of Na and Mo and release of Ca, Mg, Mn, Ba, and Sr suggest that adsorption and ion exchange reactions are the foremost attenuation processes controlling inorganic solutes transport.

  6. Coconut oil and beef tallow, but not tricaprylin, can replace menhaden oil in the diet of red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) without adversely affecting growth or fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Craig, S R; Gatlin, D M

    1995-12-01

    The ability of juvenile red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) to utilize medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) and other saturated dietary lipids was investigated in two 6-wk feeding experiments. Diets contained solvent-extracted menhaden fish meal to which menhaden fish oil (control), coconut oil, corn oil, beef tallow or various levels of MCT as tricaprylin (30, 46, 65 and 80% of total lipid) were added. Diets were fed to triplicate groups of juvenile red drum in aquaria containing brackish (6%) water. In the first feeding experiment, red drum fed the control diet had the greatest weight gains and feed efficiencies. Weight gain, but not feed was slightly, of fish fed corn oil and fish fed coconut oil was slightly (P < 0.05) lower. In the second feeding experiment, fish fed coconut oil and those fed beef tallow had significantly higher weight gains and feed efficiencies than did fish fed the control diet. Fish fed the diets containing tricaprylin at all inclusion levels in both feeding experiments had significantly lower weight gains and feed efficiencies and higher levels of beta-hydroxybutyric acid in plasma. Fish fed diets with high levels of MCT also had lower (n-3) and greater (n-6) fatty acid levels in the neutral lipid fraction of muscle tissue compared with fish fed the control diet. Coconut oil and beef tallow consistently resulted in greater liver lipid deposition but had variable effects on other tissue indices. Saturated dietary lipids had variable effects on fatty acid composition of muscle polar and neutral lipid fractions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Deficits in plasma oxytocin responses and increased negative affect, stress, and blood pressure in mothers with cocaine exposure during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Light, Kathleen C; Grewen, Karen M; Amico, Janet A; Boccia, Maria; Brownley, Kimberly A; Johns, Josephine M

    2004-11-01

    In animals, oxytocin enhances maternal behavior and lowers blood pressure (BP) and negative affect, while parturitional cocaine disrupts oxytocin activity and increases maternal neglect and aggression. Thus, we compared oxytocin, BP, maternal behavior, and affect in mothers of infants who used cocaine (cocaine, n = 10) or did not (no drug, n = 25) during pregnancy. Laboratory BP and circulating oxytocin, catecholamines, and cortisol were examined before and during a speech stressor on 2 days, with vs. without prestress baby holding. Ambulatory monitoring assessed BP, urinary norepinephrine, and cortisol for 24 h at home. The cocaine group had lower oxytocin levels, greater hostility and depressed mood, less support from others and mastery over life events, higher BP during all events of testing without the baby, and higher ambulatory BP and urinary norepinephrine at home, while cortisol and epinephrine responses were blunted. Although they tended to hold their babies less often at home, baby holding in the laboratory led to decreased BP in cocaine mothers who then did not differ from no-drug mothers in BP or observed affect.

  8. Deficits in plasma oxytocin responses and increased negative affect, stress, and blood pressure in mothers with cocaine exposure during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Light, Kathleen C.; Grewen, Karen M.; Amico, Janet A.; Boccia, Maria; Brownley, Kimberly A.; Johns, Josephine M.

    2011-01-01

    In animals, oxytocin enhances maternal behavior and lowers blood pressure (BP) and negative affect, while parturitional cocaine disrupts oxytocin activity and increases maternal neglect and aggression. Thus, we compared oxytocin, BP, maternal behavior, and affect in mothers of infants who used cocaine (cocaine, n = 10) or did not (no drug, n = 25) during pregnancy. Laboratory BP and circulating oxytocin, catecholamines, and cortisol were examined before and during a speech stressor on 2 days, with vs. without prestress baby holding. Ambulatory monitoring assessed BP, urinary norepinephrine, and cortisol for 24 h at home. The cocaine group had lower oxytocin levels, greater hostility and depressed mood, less support from others and mastery over life events, higher BP during all events of testing without the baby, and higher ambulatory BP and urinary norepinephrine at home, while cortisol and epinephrine responses were blunted. Although they tended to hold their babies less often at home, baby holding in the laboratory led to decreased BP in cocaine mothers who then did not differ from no-drug mothers in BP or observed affect. PMID:15451123

  9. Blood profile and meat quality of Holstein-Friesian steers finished on total mixed ration or flaxseed oil-supplemented pellet mixed with reed canary grass haylage.

    PubMed

    Utama, D T; Lee, S G; Baek, K H; Chung, W S; Chung, I A; Kim, D I; Kim, G Y; Lee, S K

    2017-07-20

    Holstein-Friesian steer beef production is renowned globally as a secondary product of the milk industry. Grass feeding is a common practice in raising Holstein steers because of its low cost. Furthermore, grass feeding is an alternative way to produce beef with a balanced n-6 to n-3 fatty acids (FAs) ratio. However, the performance and meat quality of Holstein-Friesian cattle is more likely to depend on a high-quality diet. The aim of this study was to observe whether feeding two mixed diets; a corn-based total mixed ration (TMR) with winter ryegrass (Lolium perenne) or flaxseed oil-supplemented pellets with reed canary grass haylage (n-3 mix) provided benefits on carcass weight, meat quality and FA composition compared with cattle fed with reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea) haylage alone. In all, 15 21-month-old Holstein-Friesian steers were randomly assigned to three group pens, were allowed free access to water and were fed different experimental diets for 150 days. Blood samples were taken a week before slaughter. Carcass weight and meat quality were evaluated after slaughter. Plasma lipid levels and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), creatine kinase (CK) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities were determined. Diet did not affect plasma triglyceride levels and GGT activity. Plasma cholesterol levels, including low-density and high-density lipoproteins, were higher in both mixed-diet groups than in the haylae group. The highest activities of plasma AST, CK and ALP were observed in the haylage group, followed by n-3 mix and TMR groups, respectively. Carcass weight was lower in the haylage group than in the other groups and no differences were found between the TMR and n-3 mix groups. Although the n-3 mix-fed and haylage-fed beef provided lower n-6 to n-3 FAs ratio than TMR-fed beef, the roasted beef obtained from the TMR group was more acceptable with better overall meat physicochemical properties and sensory scores

  10. Acute supplementation of N-acetylcysteine does not affect muscle blood flow and oxygenation characteristics during handgrip exercise.

    PubMed

    Smith, Joshua R; Broxterman, Ryan M; Ade, Carl J; Evans, Kara K; Kurti, Stephanie P; Hammer, Shane M; Barstow, Thomas J; Harms, Craig A

    2016-04-01

    N-acetylcysteine (NAC; antioxidant and thiol donor) supplementation has improved exercise performance and delayed fatigue, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. One possibility isNACsupplementation increases limb blood flow during severe-intensity exercise. The purpose was to determine ifNACsupplementation affected exercising arm blood flow and muscle oxygenation characteristics. We hypothesized thatNACwould lead to higher limb blood flow and lower muscle deoxygenation characteristics during severe-intensity exercise. Eight healthy nonendurance trained men (21.8 ± 1.2 years) were recruited and completed two constant power handgrip exercise tests at 80% peak power until exhaustion. Subjects orally consumed either placebo (PLA) orNAC(70 mg/kg) 60 min prior to handgrip exercise. Immediately prior to exercise, venous blood samples were collected for determination of plasma redox balance. Brachial artery blood flow (BABF) was measured via Doppler ultrasound and flexor digitorum superficialis oxygenation characteristics were measured via near-infrared spectroscopy. FollowingNACsupplementaiton, plasma cysteine (NAC: 47.2 ± 20.3 μmol/L vs.PLA: 9.6 ± 1.2 μmol/L;P = 0.001) and total cysteine (NAC: 156.2 ± 33.9 μmol/L vs.PLA: 132.2 ± 16.3 μmol/L;P = 0.048) increased. Time to exhaustion was not significantly different (P = 0.55) betweenNAC(473.0 ± 62.1 sec) andPLA(438.7 ± 58.1 sec). RestingBABFwas not different (P = 0.79) withNAC(99.3 ± 31.1 mL/min) andPLA(108.3 ± 46.0 mL/min).BABFwas not different (P = 0.42) during exercise or at end-exercise (NAC: 413 ± 109 mL/min;PLA: 445 ± 147 mL/min). Deoxy-[hemoglobin+myoglobin] and total-[hemoglobin+myoglobin] were not significantly different (P = 0.73 andP = 0.54, respectively) at rest or during exercise between conditions. We conclude that acuteNACsupplementation does not alter oxygen delivery during exercise in men.

  11. Effects of flaxseed oil on anti-oxidative system and membrane deformation of human peripheral blood erythrocytes in high glucose level

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The erythrocyte membrane lesion is a serious diabetic complication. A number of studies suggested that n-3 fatty acid could reduce lipid peroxidation and elevate α- or γ-tocopherol contents in membrane of erythrocytes. However, evidence regarding the protective effects of flaxseed oil, a natural product rich in n-3 fatty acid, on lipid peroxidation, antioxidative capacity and membrane deformation of erythrocytes exposed to high glucose is limited. Methods Human peripheral blood erythrocytes were isolated and treated with 50 mM glucose to mimic hyperglycemia in the absence or presence of three different doses of flaxseed oil (50, 100 or 200 μM) in the culture medium for 24 h. The malondialdehyde (MDA) and L-glutathione (GSH) were measured by HPLC and LC/MS respectively. The phospholipids symmetry and membrane fatty acid composition of human erythrocytes were detected by flow cytometry and gas chromatograph (GC). The morphology of human erythrocyte was illuminated by ultra scanning electron microscopy. Results Flaxseed oil attenuated hyperglycemia-induced increase of MDA and decrease of GSH in human erythrocytes. Human erythrocytes treated with flaxseed oil contained higher C22:5 and C22:6 than those in the 50 mM glucose control group, indicating that flaxseed oil could reduce lipid asymmetric distribution and membrane perturbation. The ultra scanning electron microscopy and flow cytometer have also indicated that flaxseed oil could protect the membrane of human erythrocytes from deformation at high glucose level. Conclusion The flaxseed oil supplementation may prevent lipid peroxidation and membrane dysfunction of human erythrocytes in hyperglycemia. PMID:22768971

  12. The application of a weight of evidence approach to compare the quality of coastal sediments affected by acute (Prestige 2002) and chronic (Bay of Algeciras) oil spills.

    PubMed

    Morales-Caselles, Carmen; Riba, Inmaculada; Sarasquete, Carmen; Angel DelValls, T

    2008-11-01

    To evaluate sediment quality in different areas affected by oil spills, a weight of evidence approach was employed by including a complete set of parameters as part of four lines of evidence: sediment contamination, biological effects (including biomarkers) and bioaccumulation under laboratory conditions, toxicity in field conditions and benthic community structure. The methodology was applied to sediments from the Bay of Algeciras (S Spain) chronically impacted by different spills, and the Galician Coast (NW Spain) acutely impacted by an oil spill (Prestige 2002). Results obtained have elucidated the sources and fates of pollutants and the type of risk involved for the ecosystem. Factorial analysis revealed that the main factors were those containing toxicity, chemistry and benthic community variables indicating degradation in Algeciras. It has been demonstrated that the impact associated with chronic event of contamination by oil spills are significantly more dangerous and polluted than those related to acute effects.

  13. Metalloproteases Affecting Blood Coagulation, Fibrinolysis and Platelet Aggregation from Snake Venoms: Definition and Nomenclature of Interaction Sites

    PubMed Central

    Kini, R. Manjunatha; Koh, Cho Yeow

    2016-01-01

    Snake venom metalloproteases, in addition to their contribution to the digestion of the prey, affect various physiological functions by cleaving specific proteins. They exhibit their activities through activation of zymogens of coagulation factors, and precursors of integrins or receptors. Based on their structure–function relationships and mechanism of action, we have defined classification and nomenclature of functional sites of proteases. These metalloproteases are useful as research tools and in diagnosis and treatment of various thrombotic and hemostatic conditions. They also contribute to our understanding of molecular details in the activation of specific factors involved in coagulation, platelet aggregation and matrix biology. This review provides a ready reference for metalloproteases that interfere in blood coagulation, fibrinolysis and platelet aggregation. PMID:27690102

  14. Intranasal nerve growth factor bypasses the blood-brain barrier and affects spinal cord neurons in spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Aloe, Luigi; Bianchi, Patrizia; De Bellis, Alberto; Soligo, Marzia; Rocco, Maria Luisa

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate whether, by intranasal administration, the nerve growth factor bypasses the blood-brain barrier and turns over the spinal cord neurons and if such therapeutic approach could be of value in the treatment of spinal cord injury. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats with intact and injured spinal cord received daily intranasal nerve growth factor administration in both nostrils for 1 day or for 3 consecutive weeks. We found an increased content of nerve growth factor and enhanced expression of nerve growth factor receptor in the spinal cord 24 hours after a single intranasal administration of nerve growth factor in healthy rats, while daily treatment for 3 weeks in a model of spinal cord injury improved the deficits in locomotor behaviour and increased spinal content of both nerve growth factor and nerve growth factor receptors. These outcomes suggest that the intranasal nerve growth factor bypasses blood-brain barrier and affects spinal cord neurons in spinal cord injury. They also suggest exploiting the possible therapeutic role of intranasally delivered nerve growth factor for the neuroprotection of damaged spinal nerve cells. PMID:25206755

  15. Phospholipid-protein balance in affective disorders: Analysis of human blood serum using Raman and FTIR spectroscopy. A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Depciuch, Joanna; Sowa-Kućma, Magdalena; Nowak, Gabriel; Dudek, Dominika; Siwek, Marcin; Styczeń, Krzysztof; Parlińska-Wojtan, Magdalena

    2016-11-30

    Raman and FTIR (Fourier Transform Infra Red) spectroscopies provide information on the chemical structure of compounds through identification and analysis of functional groups. In the present study, both spectroscopic techniques were used for investigating the phospholipid - protein balance in blood serum of depressed subjects (major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder type I or II) taking also into account their age and gender. The obtained results were compared with those of healthy subjects. The Raman and FTIR (using ATR (Attenuated Total Reflectance) technique), spectra show that a correlation between the level of phospholipids and proteins exists. Indeed, in depressed subjects the quantity of phospholipids and proteins is lower, compared to healthy ones. The second derivative of FTIR spectra shows that phospholipids directly affect the structure of proteins and their functions. In all male depressed subjects a higher amount of phospholipids and proteins compared to female depressed subjects was measured, offering them faster recovery perspectives. Spectroscopy results show that the phospholipids' and proteins' levels are lower in depressed subjects from 41 to 65 compared to the age group between 20 and 40, independently from the gender. Consequently, this study shows that Raman and infrared spectroscopies might be applied as a diagnostic tool to evaluate the balance between phospholipids and proteins in blood serum as a potential biomarker in depressive disorders.

  16. Effects of alprostadil on blood rheology and nucleoside metabolism in patients affected with lower limb chronic ischaemia.

    PubMed

    Acciavatti, A; Laghi Pasini, F; Capecchi, P L; Messa, G L; Lazzerini, P E; De Giorgi, L; Acampa, M; Di Perri, T

    2001-01-01

    The acute (0.57 microg/kg i.v. in 2 hours) and long-term (0.57 microg/kg i.v. in 2 hours for 5 days over 4 weeks) effects of the PGE1 analogue alprostadil were studied in patients affected with intermittent claudication. Whole Blood Viscosity (WBV), Whole Blood Filterability (WBF), haematocrit (Htc) and fibrinogen plasma concentration, were studied together with P50, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, and adenosine plasma levels. Moreover, in the long-term study, pain-free (PFWD) and maximal walking distance (MWD) were measured. Single alprostadil infusion induced an improvement in WBV, WBF, and oxygen transport, and an increase in adenosine plasma levels. Long-term alprostadil administration produced a decrease in WBV only, without significant changes in WBF, Htc, fibrinogen, P50, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, also inducing a significant prolongation of PFWD and MWD. The possibility is suggested that pulse rises in adenosine plasma levels play a role in the effects of chronic alprostadil administration, maybe in a way similar to that observed in the phenomenon of ischaemic preconditioning,

  17. Dietary menhaden and corn oils and the red blood cell membrane lipid composition and fluidity in hyper- and normocholesterolemic miniature swine.

    PubMed

    Berlin, E; Bhathena, S J; McClure, D; Peters, R C

    1998-09-01

    Fatty acids in the diet are readily incorporated into lipids in various tissues. However, it is not clear whether all tissues have the same level of incorporation. Second, (n-6) unsaturated fatty acids increase the fluidity of membranes, but this has not been shown for (n-3) fatty acids. In this study, we measured the incorporation of (n-6) and (n-3) fatty acids into erythrocyte membrane lipids and studied their effects on the fluidity of erythrocyte membranes. One group of female miniature swine was made hypercholesterolemic by feeding the swine cholesterol and lard for 2 mo; the other group served as controls and was fed a stock diet. Both groups were then fed either corn oil or menhaden oil or a mixture of the two for 23 additional weeks. Blood was collected at 0, 2, 4, 12 and 23 wk after initialization of the experimental diets, and fatty acid composition of phospholipids was assessed. Membrane phospholipids of pigs fed menhaden oil had elevated (n-3) fatty acids (20:5 and 22:6), and lower 18:2 than those fed corn oil. There was no difference in 20:4 content. The fatty acid changes occurred as early as 2 wk after consumption of the corn oil or menhaden oil in pigs previously fed a stock diet, but it took longer in pigs previously fed lard + cholesterol, indicating residual effects of pretreatment. Menhaden oil increased anisotropy (indicating decreased fluidity) more than corn oil for the nonpolar probe diphenylhexatriene (DPH) at earlier time points, but not at 23 wk. Erythrocyte membrane fluidity was significantly related to membrane polyunsaturate content, with (n-6) fatty acids having a greater influence than (n-3) fatty acids. A comparison of the present red blood cell fatty acid compositions with brain synaptosome fatty acid compositions for the same animals showed poor correlations for some of the fatty acids. There was no significant direct relationship between docosahexaenoate (DHA) concentrations in erythrocyte membranes with DHA concentrations in

  18. Homogenization conditions affect the oxidative stability of fish oil enriched milk emulsions: oxidation linked to changes in protein composition at the oil-water interface.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit M; Baron, Caroline P; Let, Mette B; Brüggemann, Dagmar A; Pedersen, Lise R L; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2007-03-07

    Fish oil was incorporated into milk under different homogenization temperatures (50 and 72 degrees C) and pressures (5, 15, and 22.5 MPa). Subsequently, the oxidative stability of the milk and changes in the protein composition of the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) were examined. Results showed that high pressure and high temperature (72 degrees C and 22.5 MPa) resulted in less lipid oxidation, whereas low pressure and low temperature (50 degrees C and 5 MPa) resulted in faster lipid oxidation. Analysis of protein oxidation indicated that especially casein was prone to oxidation. The level of free thiol groups was increased by high temperature (72 degrees C) and with increasing pressure. Furthermore, SDS-PAGE and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) indicated that high temperature resulted in an increase in beta-lactoglobulin adsorbed at the oil-water interface. This was even more pronounced with higher pressure. Less casein seemed to be present at the oil-water interface with increasing pressure. Overall, the results indicated that a combination of more beta-lactoglobulin and less casein at the oil-water interface gave the most stable emulsions with respect to lipid oxidation.

  19. Unrefined and refined black raspberry seed oils significantly lower triglycerides and moderately affect cholesterol metabolism in male Syrian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Ash, Mark M; Wolford, Kate A; Carden, Trevor J; Hwang, Keum Taek; Carr, Timothy P

    2011-09-01

    Unrefined and refined black raspberry seed oils (RSOs) were examined for their lipid-modulating effects in male Syrian hamsters fed high-cholesterol (0.12% g/g), high-fat (9% g/g) diets. Hamsters fed the refined and the unrefined RSO diets had equivalently lower plasma total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in comparison with the atherogenic coconut oil diet. The unrefined RSO treatment group did not differ in liver total and esterified cholesterol from the coconut oil-fed control animals, but the refined RSO resulted in significantly elevated liver total and esterified cholesterol concentrations. The unrefined RSO diets significantly lowered plasma triglycerides (46%; P=.0126) in comparison with the coconut oil diet, whereas the refined RSO only tended to lower plasma triglyceride (29%; P=.1630). Liver triglyceride concentrations were lower in the unrefined (46%; P=.0002) and refined (36%; P=.0005) RSO-fed animals than the coconut oil group, with the unrefined RSO diet eliciting a lower concentration than the soybean oil diet. Both RSOs demonstrated a null or moderate effect on cholesterol metabolism despite enrichment in linoleic acid, significantly lowering HDL cholesterol but not non-HDL cholesterol. Dramatically, both RSOs significantly reduced hypertriglyceridemia, most likely due to enrichment in α-linolenic acid. As a terrestrial source of α-linolenic acid, black RSOs, both refined and unrefined, provide a promising alternative to fish oil supplementation in management of hypertriglyceridemia, as demonstrated in hamsters fed high levels of dietary triglyceride and cholesterol.

  20. Ionic strength affects tertiary structure and aggregation propensity of a monoclonal antibody adsorbed to silicone oil-water interfaces.

    PubMed

    Gerhardt, Alana; Bonam, Kurt; Bee, Jared S; Carpenter, John F; Randolph, Theodore W

    2013-02-01

    Therapeutic proteins formulated in prefilled syringes lubricated with silicone oil come in contact with silicone oil-water interfaces for their entire shelf lives. Thus, the interactions between protein and silicone oil were studied to determine the effect of silicone oil on a monoclonal antibody's stability, both at the interface and in the bulk solution. The influence of ionic strength on these interactions was also investigated through the addition of various monovalent and divalent salts to sample formulations. The tertiary structure of the antibody was perturbed when it adsorbed to the silicone oil-water interface in solutions at low ionic strength. However, the tertiary structure of the antibody at the interface was not perturbed when the ionic strength of the formulation was increased. Even at low ionic strength, the secondary structure of the antibody adsorbed to the silicone oil-water interface was retained, suggesting that at low ionic strength, the adsorbed antibody assumes a molten globule-like conformation. This partially unfolded species was aggregation-prone, especially during agitation. Silicone oil-induced aggregation of the antibody was inhibited at higher ionic strength. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.