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Sample records for oil based lubricants

  1. Carbon-based tribofilms from lubricating oils.

    PubMed

    Erdemir, Ali; Ramirez, Giovanni; Eryilmaz, Osman L; Narayanan, Badri; Liao, Yifeng; Kamath, Ganesh; Sankaranarayanan, Subramanian K R S

    2016-08-04

    Moving mechanical interfaces are commonly lubricated and separated by a combination of fluid films and solid 'tribofilms', which together ensure easy slippage and long wear life. The efficacy of the fluid film is governed by the viscosity of the base oil in the lubricant; the efficacy of the solid tribofilm, which is produced as a result of sliding contact between moving parts, relies upon the effectiveness of the lubricant's anti-wear additive (typically zinc dialkyldithiophosphate). Minimizing friction and wear continues to be a challenge, and recent efforts have focused on enhancing the anti-friction and anti-wear properties of lubricants by incorporating inorganic nanoparticles and ionic liquids. Here, we describe the in operando formation of carbon-based tribofilms via dissociative extraction from base-oil molecules on catalytically active, sliding nanometre-scale crystalline surfaces, enabling base oils to provide not only the fluid but also the solid tribofilm. We study nanocrystalline catalytic coatings composed of nitrides of either molybdenum or vanadium, containing either copper or nickel catalysts, respectively. Structurally, the resulting tribofilms are similar to diamond-like carbon. Ball-on-disk tests at contact pressures of 1.3 gigapascals reveal that these tribofilms nearly eliminate wear, and provide lower friction than tribofilms formed with zinc dialkyldithiophosphate. Reactive and ab initio molecular-dynamics simulations show that the catalytic action of the coatings facilitates dehydrogenation of linear olefins in the lubricating oil and random scission of their carbon-carbon backbones; the products recombine to nucleate and grow a compact, amorphous lubricating tribofilm.

  2. Carbon-based tribofilms from lubricating oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdemir, Ali; Ramirez, Giovanni; Eryilmaz, Osman L.; Narayanan, Badri; Liao, Yifeng; Kamath, Ganesh; Sankaranarayanan, Subramanian K. R. S.

    2016-08-01

    Moving mechanical interfaces are commonly lubricated and separated by a combination of fluid films and solid ‘tribofilms’, which together ensure easy slippage and long wear life. The efficacy of the fluid film is governed by the viscosity of the base oil in the lubricant; the efficacy of the solid tribofilm, which is produced as a result of sliding contact between moving parts, relies upon the effectiveness of the lubricant’s anti-wear additive (typically zinc dialkyldithiophosphate). Minimizing friction and wear continues to be a challenge, and recent efforts have focused on enhancing the anti-friction and anti-wear properties of lubricants by incorporating inorganic nanoparticles and ionic liquids. Here, we describe the in operando formation of carbon-based tribofilms via dissociative extraction from base-oil molecules on catalytically active, sliding nanometre-scale crystalline surfaces, enabling base oils to provide not only the fluid but also the solid tribofilm. We study nanocrystalline catalytic coatings composed of nitrides of either molybdenum or vanadium, containing either copper or nickel catalysts, respectively. Structurally, the resulting tribofilms are similar to diamond-like carbon. Ball-on-disk tests at contact pressures of 1.3 gigapascals reveal that these tribofilms nearly eliminate wear, and provide lower friction than tribofilms formed with zinc dialkyldithiophosphate. Reactive and ab initio molecular-dynamics simulations show that the catalytic action of the coatings facilitates dehydrogenation of linear olefins in the lubricating oil and random scission of their carbon-carbon backbones; the products recombine to nucleate and grow a compact, amorphous lubricating tribofilm.

  3. Automotive gear oil lubricant from soybean oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of lubricants that are based on renewable materials is rapidly increasing. Vegetable oils have good lubricity, wear protection and low volatility which are desired properties for automotive gear lubricant applications. Soybean oil is used widely in the lubricant industry due to its properti...

  4. Process for preparing lubricating oil from used waste lubricating oil

    DOEpatents

    Whisman, Marvin L.; Reynolds, James W.; Goetzinger, John W.; Cotton, Faye O.

    1978-01-01

    A re-refining process is described by which high-quality finished lubricating oils are prepared from used waste lubricating and crankcase oils. The used oils are stripped of water and low-boiling contaminants by vacuum distillation and then dissolved in a solvent of 1-butanol, 2-propanol and methylethyl ketone, which precipitates a sludge containing most of the solid and liquid contaminants, unspent additives, and oxidation products present in the used oil. After separating the purified oil-solvent mixture from the sludge and recovering the solvent for recycling, the purified oil is preferably fractional vacuum-distilled, forming lubricating oil distillate fractions which are then decolorized and deodorized to prepare blending stocks. The blending stocks are blended to obtain a lubricating oil base of appropriate viscosity before being mixed with an appropriate additive package to form the finished lubricating oil product.

  5. Research into Oil-based Colloidal-Graphite Lubricants for Forging of Al-based Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Petrov, A.; Petrov, P.; Petrov, M.

    2011-05-04

    The presented paper describes the topical problem in metal forging production. It deals with the choice of an optimal lubricant for forging of Al-based alloys. Within the scope of the paper, the properties of several oil-based colloidal-graphite lubricants were investigated. The physicochemical and technological properties of these lubricants are presented. It was found that physicochemical properties of lubricant compositions have an influence on friction coefficient value and quality of forgings.The ring compression method was used to estimate the friction coefficient value. Hydraulic press was used for the test. The comparative analysis of the investigated lubricants was carried out. The forging quality was estimated on the basis of production test. The practical recommendations were given to choose an optimal oil-based colloidal-graphite lubricant for isothermal forging of Al-based alloy.

  6. Pyrolysis bio-oils as additives for vegetable oil based lubricants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Softwood and hardwood lignins, along with hardwood as such, were pyrolyzed to afford bio-oil distillates in which phenols were major products. Extraction with alkali gave a range of lignin-related phenols having molecular weights (MWs) from 110 to 344. Because vegetable oil based lubricants have dra...

  7. Tribological effects of oxide based nanoparticles in lubricating oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Cai-Xiang; Zhu, Guan-Jun; Li, Lei; Tian, Xiao-Yu; Zhu, Guang-Yao

    2009-03-01

    In order to enhance the tribological properties of lubricating oil, suitable surfactants such as Tween-20, Tween-60, Span-20 and Sodium sodecylbenzenesulfonate were selected and lubricating oils containing CeO2 and TiO2 nanoparticles were prepared. The morphology and size of CeO2 and TiO2 nanoparticles were examined with a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The tribological properties of the oils were tested using an MRS-1J four-ball tribotester. The research results show that when the proportion by weight of CeO2 nanoparticles to TiO2 nanoparticles is 1:3, and the total weight fraction is 0.6%, the lubricating oil has optimal anti-wear and friction reducing properties. The addition of CeO2 nanoparticles reduces the required amount of TiO2 nanoparticles.

  8. Research into oil-based high-dispersion graphite lubricants for extrusion of Ni-based alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, Alexander N.; Petrov, Mikhail A.; Petrov, Pavel A.

    2016-10-01

    The presented paper deals with oil-based high-dispersion graphite lubricants for hot extrusion Ni-based alloys. This paper emphasize an influence of the lubricant's flash point and oil burning on composition changing of the lubricants. It was found out that oil-based lubricants increase heat shielding properties of the die during extrusion. The temperature of a die surface was estimated on the base of production tests on the mechanical press with nominal force of 1,6MN. The practical recommendations were presented and should help to choose lubricants properly in accordance to the analysis.

  9. Natural oils as lubricants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is currently an availability of vegetable oil lubricants, with the exception of engine oils. Vegetable oils are environmentally friendly, renewable, contribute to the reduction of our dependence on imported petroleum, and add value to the farmer. However, there are inherent weaknesses in veg...

  10. Lubrication from mixture of boric acid with oils and greases

    SciTech Connect

    Erdemir, A.

    1995-07-11

    Lubricating compositions are disclosed including crystalline boric acid and a base lubricant selected from oils, greases and the like. The lubricity of conventional oils and greases can also be improved by adding concentrates of boric acid.

  11. Lubrication from mixture of boric acid with oils and greases

    SciTech Connect

    Erdemir, Ali

    1995-01-01

    Lubricating compositions including crystalline boric acid and a base lubricant selected from oils, greases and the like. The lubricity of conventional oils and greases can also be improved by adding concentrates of boric acid.

  12. Oxidation and low temperature stability of polymerized soybean oil-based lubricants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxidation and low temperature stability of polymerized soybean oil (PSO)-based lubricants have been investigated by the pressurized differential scanning calorimetry (PDSC) method. It was found that PSO samples have lower oxidative stability than their precursor, soybean oil. The main reason for the...

  13. Potential of vegetable oils for lubricants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable oils offer significant advantages in terms of resource renewability, biodegradability, and comparable performance properties to petroleum-based products. The petroleum-based lubricants render unfavorable impact on the environment. With the growing environmental concerns, seed oils are find...

  14. Lubricating oil composition

    SciTech Connect

    Malec, R.E.

    1980-01-29

    The reaction product of (A) high molecular weight hydrocarbon-substituted phenols, (B) aldehydes, (C) ammonia or amines having a reactive hydrogen atom, and (D) alkylene oxides are effective dispersants for lubricating oil and impart detergent properties to liquid hydrocarbon fuels such as gasoline.

  15. Solid Lubricants for Oil-Free Turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DellaCorte, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    Recent breakthroughs in gas foil bearing solid lubricants and computer based modeling has enabled the development of revolulionary Oil-Free turbomachinery systems. These innovative new and solid lubricants at low speeds (start-up and shut down). Foil bearings are hydrodynamic, self acting fluid film bearings made from thin, flexible sheet metal foils. These thin foils trap a hydrodynamic lubricating air film between their surfaces and moving shaft surface. For low temperature applications, like ainrafl air cycle machines (ACM's), polymer coatings provide important solid lubrication during start-up and shut down prior to the development of the lubricating fluid film. The successful development of Oil-Free gas turbine engines requires bearings which can operate at much higher temperatures (greater than 300 C). To address this extreme solid lubrication need, NASA has invented a new family of compostie solid lubricant coatings, NASA PS300.

  16. Fuel-efficient lubricating oil

    SciTech Connect

    Erdman, T.R.

    1986-04-22

    A method is described of improving the fuel economy of an internal combustion engine comprising lubricating the crankcase of the engine with a lubricating composition consisting of a hydrocarbon oil of lubricating viscosity and from 15 to 25 millimols per kilogram of zinc O,O-di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphorodithioate and from 0.25 to 2 weight percent of pentaerythritol monooleate.

  17. Inverse gas chromatographic study of the oxidation stability of lubricating base oils via solubility parameter calculations.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Nagy Emam; Eissa, Elham Ahmed

    2007-11-01

    The Flory-Huggins interaction parameter (chi1, 2(infinity)) and solubility parameter (delta2) and its hydrogen bonding sensing component (delta(h)) were determined using inverse gas chromatography (IGC). These parameters were successfully used in the probes of chemical changes that occur during the oxidation of naphthenic and paraffinic base oils in a GC column. Changes in chi1, 2(infinity) values reflect the different types of intermolecular interactions (dispersive, polar, hydrogen bonding) of the given lubricating base oil during oxidation. The obtained results showed that delta(h) component of solubility parameter is the most important parameter for probing the oxidative-chemical changes during the oxidation of given lubricating oils.

  18. Base Oil-Extreme Pressure Additive Synergy in Lubricants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extreme pressure (EP) additives are those containing reactive elements such as sulfur, phosphorus, and chlorine. In lubrication processes that occur under extremely severe conditions (e.g., high pressure and/or slow speed), these elements undergo chemical reactions generating new materials (tribofi...

  19. Detergent Additive for Lubricating Oils,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The Russian patent pertains to a method of producing additives for lubricating oils . A method is known for producing an antiwear additive for... lubricating oils by processing phenols with phosphorus oxychloride, phosphoric acid esters are obtained. In order to give the additive detergent properties

  20. A proposed measurement method for void fraction in lubricant oil based on the image processing technique.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianwen; An, Qi

    2008-02-01

    A new method for measuring void fraction in lubricating oils is presented based on the image processing technique. The problem here differs from the bubbles detection problem in two-phase fluids in that our interest lies in the gross amount of gas voids in oils. Our method is based on an observation that gas voids in oils change the color of the mixed gas-oil material. Therefore, a measurement technique was established based on the change in color. In particular, the relationship between the change in color and amount of voids was established experimentally. The experiment and testing were performed on a particular setup which consists of a pipe, oil, and air. The test result has shown that this method is effective. The method is the simplest and most accurate one among the existing methods.

  1. Lubricants based on renewable resources--an environmentally compatible alternative to mineral oil products.

    PubMed

    Willing, A

    2001-04-01

    The development of lubricants like, e.g. engine and hydraulic oils was traditionally based on mineral oil as a base fluid. This fact is related to the good technical properties and the reasonable price of mineral oils. The Report to the Club of Rome (W.W. Behrens III, D.H. Meadows, D.I. Meadows, J. Randers, The limits of growth, A Report to the Club of Rome, 1972) and the two oil crises of 1979 and 1983, however, elucidated that mineral oil is on principle a limited resource. In addition, environmental problems associated with the production and use of chemicals and the limited capacity of nature to tolerate pollution became obvious (G.H. Brundtland, et al., in: Hauff, Volker (Ed.), World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED), Report of the Brundtland-Commission, Oxford, UK, 1987), and the critical discussion included besides acid rain, smog, heavy metals, and pesticides also mineral oil (especially oil spills like the case Exxon Valdes). A disadvantage of mineral oil is its poor biodegradability and thus its potential for long-term pollution of the environment. From the early development of lubricants for special applications (e.g. turbojet engine oils) it was known, that fatty acid polyol esters have comparable or even better technical properties than mineral oil. Subsequently, innumerable synthetic esters have been synthesized by systematic variation of the fatty acid and the alcohol components. Whereas the alcohol moiety of the synthetic esters are usually of petrochemical origin, the fatty acids are almost exclusively based on renewable resources. The physico-chemical properties of oleochemical esters can cover the complete spectrum of technical requirements for the development of high-performance industrial oils and lubricants (e.g. excellent lubricating properties, good heat stability, high viscosity index, low volatility and superior shear stability). For a comprehensive review of their technical properties see F. Bongardt, in: Jahrbuchf

  2. Tribological properties of few-layer graphene oxide sheets as oil-based lubricant additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhe; Liu, Yuhong; Luo, Jianbin

    2016-03-01

    The performance of a lubricant largely depends on the additives it involves. However, currently used additives cause severe pollution if they are burned and exhausted. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a new generation of green additives. Graphene oxide (GO) consists of only C, H and O and thus is considered to be environmentally friendly. So the tribological properties of the few-layer GO sheet as an additive in hydrocarbon base oil are investigated systematically. It is found that, with the addition of GO sheets, both the coefficient of friction (COF) and wear are decreased and the working temperature range of the lubricant is expanded in the positive direction. Moreover, GO sheets has better performance under higher sliding speed and the optimized concentration of GO sheets is determined to be 0.5wt%. After rubbing, GO is detected on the wear scars through Raman spectroscopy. And it is believed that, during the rubbing, GO sheets adhere to the sliding surfaces, behaving like protective films and preventing the sliding surfaces from contacting with each other directly. This paper proves that the GO sheet is an effective lubricant additive, illuminates the lubrication mechanism, and provides some critical parameters for the practical application of GO sheets in lubrication.

  3. Solvent extraction of lubricating oils

    SciTech Connect

    Sequeira, A. Jr.

    1991-08-13

    This patent describes improvement in a process for solvent refining a hydrocarbon based lubricating oil stock containing aromatics and non-aromatics components with an extraction solvent wherein the lubricating oil stock is contacted with the extraction solvent in a first extraction zone at a first extraction temperature in the range of 100{degrees} F to 250{degrees} F and a solvent to oil dosage in the range of 75 to 500 vol % forming an aromatics-rich primary extract and an aromatics-lean primary raffinate of high viscosity index of at least 85. The improvement comprises: withdrawing and cooling the primary extract to a temperature 10{degrees} F to 120{degrees} F below the extraction temperature and admixing with 0.0 vol % to 10 vol % anti-solvent thereby forming a secondary extract and a secondary raffinate, passing the secondary raffinate to a second extraction zone wherein the secondary raffinate is contacted with the extraction solvent at a second extraction temperature in the range of 100{degrees} F to 250{degrees} F and solvent to oil dosage in the range of 75 to 500 vol %, to form an aromatics-lean tertiary raffinate phase of viscosity index 65 or greater.

  4. Surface roughness effects with solid lubricants dispersed in mineral oils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cusano, C.; Goglia, P. R.; Sliney, H. E.

    1983-01-01

    The lubricating effectiveness of solid-lubricant dispersions are investigated in both point and line contacts using surfaces with both random and directional roughness characteristics. Friction and wear data obtained at relatively low speeds and at room temperature, indicate that the existence of solid lubricants such as graphite, MoS2, and PTFE in a plain mineral oil generally will not improve the effectiveness of the oil as a lubricant for such surfaces. Under boundary lubrication conditions, the friction force, as a function of time, initially depends upon the directional roughness properties of the contacting surfaces irrespective of whether the base oil or dispersions are used as lubricants.

  5. Used lubricating oil recycling using hydrocarbon solvents.

    PubMed

    Hamad, Ahmad; Al-Zubaidy, Essam; Fayed, Muhammad E

    2005-01-01

    A solvent extraction process using new hydrocarbon solvents was employed to treat used lubricant oil. The solvents used were liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) condensate and stabilized condensate. A demulsifier was used to enhance the treatment process. The extraction process using stabilized condensate demonstrated characteristics that make it competitive with existing used oil treatment technologies. The process is able to reduce the asphaltene content of the treated lubricating oil to 0.106% (w/w), the ash content to 0.108%, and the carbon residue to 0.315% with very low levels of contaminant metals. The overall yield of oil is 79%. The treated used oil can be recycled as base lubricating oil. The major disadvantage of this work is the high temperature of solvent recovery. Experimental work and results are presented in detail.

  6. Support of Oil Lubrication by Bonded Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holinski, R.

    1984-01-01

    A new generation of lubricating lacquers for treatment of metal surfaces has been developed. These coatings have proved to be oil-compatible and are used in oil-lubricated systems. The oil lubrication is supported thereby through reduction of friction and increase of load-carrying capacity during boundary conditions. For difficult tribological systems, the problem-solving lubricating concept has proved to be the beneficial combination of lubricating oil and bonded coatings. A number of practical applications are presented.

  7. Wear Studies of MIL-L-23699 Aircraft Turbine Engine. Synthetic Base Lubricating Oils - I. The Development of a Procedure and Initial Findings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    and contaminants in MIL-L-23699 aircraft turbine engine synthetic base lubricating oils . The procedure employs a linear ball-on-flat principle and is...wear of water in gas-turbine lubricating oils . The MIL-L-23699 oils exhibit a linear relationship between the removal of bearing surface material (wear

  8. Process for producing lubricating oils and white oils

    SciTech Connect

    Everett, G.L.; Hu, W.C.

    1982-04-20

    The preparation of high quality, e.g., high viscosity index, base lubricating oils and white oils, particularly food grade white mineral oils, of suitable viscosity in high yield from a mineral oil distillate of suitable lubricating oil viscosity comprises contacting the distillate with hydrogen in four catalytic stages. The first reaction stage employs hydrocracking conditions. Subsequent reaction stages employ hydrogenation conditions. The second reaction stage, preferably employs a sulfur-resistant hydrogenation catalyst and produces a product suitable as a high quality lubricating oil base stock. The third reaction stage preferably employs a sulfur-resistant hydrogenation catalyst to obtain further aromatic saturation. The final stage employs a selective hydrogenation catalyst, optionally activated with a halogen, and produces a product suitable as a white oil, preferably a food grade white oil.

  9. Study on the oxidative stability of poly a-olefin aviation lubricating base oil using PDSC method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, N.; Fei, Y. W.; Yang, H. W.; Wang, Y. M.; Zong, Z. M.

    2016-08-01

    The oxidation stability of the domestic and import PAO aviation lubricating base oil was studied by the method of pressurized differential scanning calorimetry testing the initial oxidation temperature. The effects of anti-oxidants were investigated, and the best ratio of antioxidants was determined.

  10. Method of removing hydroperoxides from lubricating oils

    SciTech Connect

    Shaub, H.; Brownawell, D.W.; DiBenedetto, A.

    1991-03-05

    This patent describes a method of decomposing hydroperoxides present in a lubricating oil. It comprises: contacting the lubricating oil with a heterogenous hydroperoxide decomposer for a period of time sufficient to cause a reduction in the amount of hydroperoxides present in the oil, the hydroperoxide decomposer being immobilized when contacting the oil so as not to pass into the oil.

  11. New Method to Produce an Industrial Lubrication Fluid from Vegetable Oil-based Materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The projected demand for industrial and automotive lubricants in the U.S. is ~2.6 billion gallons by 2017, where bio-based lubricants will play an increasing role, from a share of 0.6% today to a possible 1.2% by 2017. This is accompanied by the expected price increase to >$7.00/gallon which will g...

  12. Toxicological characteristics of refinery streams used to manufacture lubricating oils.

    PubMed

    Kane, M L; Ladov, E N; Holdsworth, C E; Weaver, N K

    1984-01-01

    In the past, reports on the tumorigenic potential of lubricating oils in experimental animals have poorly defined the materials under study. In this paper the results of mouse skin painting studies with 46 clearly defined samples of refinery streams associated with lubricating oil processing show that modern conventional solvent refining of distillates removes tumorigenic potential while conventional acid refining may not. Furthermore, dewaxing, hydrofinishing, and clay treatments do not appear to mitigate the tumorigenicity of the lubricant distillates. Lubricant processing has changed over the years and assessments of the carcinogenicity of present-day lubricating materials must be based on knowledge of modern processing.

  13. Evaluation of PS 212 Coatings Under Boundary Lubrication Conditions with an Ester-based Oil to 300 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, Harold E.; Loomis, William R.; Dellacorte, Christopher

    1994-01-01

    High friction and wear of turbine engine components occur during high temperature excursions above the oxidation threshold of the liquid lubricant. This paper reports on research to study the use of a high temperature self lubricating coating, PS 212 for back-up lubrication in the event of failure of the liquid lubricant. Pin on disk tests were performed under dry and boundary-lubricated conditions at disk temperatures up to 300 C. The liquid lubricant was a formulated polyol ester qualified under MIL L-23699. At test temperatures above the oil's thermal degradation level, the use of PS 212 reduced wear, providing a back-up lubricant effect.

  14. 41 CFR 101-26.602-1 - Procurement of lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants. 101-26.602-1 Section 101-26.602-1 Public Contracts and...-26.602-1 Procurement of lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants. (a) The Defense Fuel Supply Center will make annual procurements of lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants for ground...

  15. 41 CFR 101-26.602-1 - Procurement of lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants. 101-26.602-1 Section 101-26.602-1 Public Contracts and...-26.602-1 Procurement of lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants. (a) The Defense Fuel Supply Center will make annual procurements of lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants for ground...

  16. 41 CFR 101-26.602-1 - Procurement of lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants. 101-26.602-1 Section 101-26.602-1 Public Contracts and...-26.602-1 Procurement of lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants. (a) The Defense Fuel Supply Center will make annual procurements of lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants for ground...

  17. 41 CFR 101-26.602-1 - Procurement of lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants. 101-26.602-1 Section 101-26.602-1 Public Contracts and...-26.602-1 Procurement of lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants. (a) The Defense Fuel Supply Center will make annual procurements of lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants for ground...

  18. 41 CFR 101-26.602-1 - Procurement of lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants. 101-26.602-1 Section 101-26.602-1 Public Contracts and...-26.602-1 Procurement of lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants. (a) The Defense Fuel Supply Center will make annual procurements of lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants for ground...

  19. Lubricating oil containing VII pour depressant

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, W.P.; Mays, D.L.

    1986-08-19

    Lubricating oils for internal combustion engines typically contain a multitude of additives which function as detergents, dispersants, viscosity index improvers, pour depressants, etc. in order to improve the properties of the oil. It is found that it is particularly necessary to improve the properties exhibited by lubricating oil compositions at low temperatures. It is an object of this invention to provide a lubricating oil containing an additive which provides improved properties at low temperatures.

  20. Low Viscosity Lubricating Oils with Superior Cold Properties,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The invention concerns low viscosity lubricating oils based on polyakylbenzenes. The patent claims the use of low boiling portions of the...distillation residues occurring in the alkylation of benzene with chloroparaffins or olefins of the C10 to C14 chain length, as low viscosity and low congealing lubricating oils or as congealing point lowering mix components.

  1. Lubricating oil compositions containing hydroxy polyether polyamines

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, C.B.

    1987-09-29

    This patent describes a hydroxy polyether amine or polyamine additive, and a lubricating oil composition containing a major amount of oil of lubricating viscosity and from about 0.01 to about 10 weight percent of the additive. The additives consist of certain lubricating oil soluble hydroxy polyoxyalkylene polyamines. The compositions may be either mono or polyamines, but polyamines are preferred. The additive compounds have molecular weights of from about 500 to 2000, and preferably from about 700 to 1200.

  2. Low-Friction Adsorbed Layers of a Triblock Copolymer Additive in Oil-Based Lubrication.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Shinji; Fujihara, Ami; Yusa, Shin-ichi; Tanabe, Tadao; Kurihara, Kazue

    2015-11-10

    The tribological properties of the dilute solution of an ABA triblock copolymer, poly(11-acrylamidoundecanoic acid)-block-poly(stearyl methacrylate)-block-poly(11-acrylamidoundecanoic acid (A5S992A5), in poly(α-olefin) (PAO) confined between mica surfaces were investigated using the surface forces apparatus (SFA). Friction force was measured as a function of applied load and sliding velocity, and the film thickness and contact geometry during sliding were analyzed using the fringes of equal chromatic order (FECO) in the SFA. The results were contrasted with those of confined PAO films; the effects of the addition of A5S992A5 on the tribological properties were discussed. The thickness of the A5S992A5/PAO system varied with time after surface preparation and with repetitive sliding motions. The thickness was within the range from 40 to 70 nm 1 day after preparation (the Day1 film), and was about 20 nm on the following day (the Day2 film). The thickness of the confined PAO film was thinner than 1.4 nm, indicating that the A5S992A5/PAO system formed thick adsorbed layers on mica surfaces. The friction coefficient was about 0.03 to 0.04 for the Day1 film and well below 0.01 for the Day2 film, which were 1 or 2 orders of magnitude lower than the values for the confined PAO films. The time dependent changes of the adsorbed layer thickness and friction properties should be caused by the relatively low solubility of A5S992A5 in PAO. The detailed analysis of the contact geometry and friction behaviors implies that the particularly low friction of the Day2 film originates from the following factors: (i) shrinkage of the A5S992A5 molecules (mainly the poly(stearyl methacrylate) blocks) that leads to a viscoelastic properties of the adsorbed layers; and (ii) the intervening PAO layer between the adsorbed polymer layers that constitutes a high-fluidity sliding interface. Our results suggest that the block copolymer having relatively low solubility in a lubricant base oil is

  3. Bio-based lubricants for numerical solution of elastohydrodynamic lubrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cupu, Dedi Rosa Putra; Sheriff, Jamaluddin Md; Osman, Kahar

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents a programming code to provide numerical solution of elastohydrodynamic lubrication problem in line contacts which is modeled through an infinite cylinder on a plane to represent the application of roller bearing. In this simulation, vegetable oils will be used as bio-based lubricants. Temperature is assumed to be constant at 40°C. The results show that the EHL pressure for all vegetable oils was increasing from inlet flow until the center, then decrease a bit and rise to the peak pressure. The shapes of EHL film thickness for all tested vegetable oils are almost flat at contact region.

  4. The ecotoxicology of vegetable versus mineral based lubricating oils: 3. Coral fertilization and adult corals.

    PubMed

    Mercurio, Philip; Negri, Andrew P; Burns, Kathryn A; Heyward, Andrew J

    2004-05-01

    Biodegradable vegetable-derived lubricants (VDL) might be less toxic to marine organisms than mineral-derived oils (MDL) due to the absence of high molecular weight aromatics, but this remains largely untested. In this laboratory study, adult corals and coral gametes were exposed to various concentrations of a two-stroke VDL-1A and a corresponding MDL to determine which lubricant type was more toxic to each life stage. In the fertilization experiment, gametes from the scleractinian coral Acropora microphthalma were exposed to water-accommodated fractions (WAF) of VDL-1A and MDL for four hours. The MDL and VDL-1A WAFs inhibited normal fertilization of the corals at 200 microg l(-1) total hydrocarbon content (THC) and 150 microg l(-1) THC respectively. Disturbance of a stable coral-dinoflagellate symbiosis is regarded as a valid measure of sub-lethal stress in adult corals. The state of the symbiosis in branchlets of adult colonies of Acropora formosa was monitored using indicators such as dinoflagellate expulsion and dark-adapted photosystem II yields of dinoflagellate (using pulse amplitude modulation fluorescence). An effect on symbiosis was measurable following 48 h exposure to the lubricants at concentrations of 190 microg l(-1) and 37 microg l(-1) THC for the MDL and VDL-1A respectively. GC/MS revealed that the main constituent of the VDL-1A WAF was the compound coumarin, added by the manufacturer to improve odour. The fragrance containing coumarin was removed from the lubricant formulation and the toxicity towards adult corals re-examined. The coumarin-free VDL-2 exhibited significantly less toxicity towards the adult corals than all of the other oil types tested, with the only measurable effect being a slight but significant drop in photosynthetic efficiency at 280 microg l(-1).

  5. Polyetherurethane oligomers with aldehyde groups as additives for lubricating oils

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolaev, V.N.; Abramov, E.G.; Tenyushev, A.I.

    1995-01-01

    Polyetherurethane oligomers with aldehyde groups, which we synthesized from polyoxypropylene diols (molecular weight 500, 1000, 1500, 2000, or 3000) with toluene diisocyanate and salicylaldehyde, are of interest as additives for lubricating oils. The effects of these oligomers on the service properties and physicochemical characteristics of lubricating oils were investigated by methods prreviously described. As the lube base stocks we used castor oil, a polyoxypropylene diol and a polyethoxysiloxane. The oligomers are readily soluble in organic solvents and in the lube base stocks, and their solutions are stable during storage and use. We found that the optimal concentration of oligomers is 5%, providing the best lubricating properties, in particular the best antiwear properties.

  6. Fuel detergent compositions containing lubricating oil

    SciTech Connect

    Bagnetto, L.J.

    1982-04-20

    A motor fuel additive composition comprising a fuel detergent composition and a lubricating oil is disclosed. In preferred embodiments aminosuccinimide and amide-sulfonate fuel additive compositions are combined with lubricating oil in a fuel composition which exhibits reduced formation of engine deposits, particularly under additive-overdose conditions.

  7. Lubricating oil compositions containing modified succinimides

    SciTech Connect

    Wollenberg, R.H.

    1987-05-05

    A lubricating oil composition is described comprising an oil of lubricating viscosity and from 0.2 to 10 percent by weight of a product produced by the process. A temperature is contacted sufficient to cause reaction. A polyamino alkenyl or alkyl succinimide contains at least one primary or secondary amine and a compound. A formula is given.

  8. Lubricant Basestock Potential of Chemically Modified Vegetable Oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The environment must be protected against pollution caused by lubricants based on petroleum oils. The pollution problem is so severe that approximately 50% of all lubricants sold worldwide end up in the environment via volatility, spills, and total loss applications. This threat to the environment...

  9. Anti-friction additives for lubricating oils

    SciTech Connect

    Karol, T.J.; Magaha, H.S.; Schlicht, R.C.

    1987-03-03

    A lubricating oil composition is described comprising (i) a major portion of lubricant oil; and (ii) from about 0.05 to about 10.0 wt.% of, as an additive, a product prepared by reacting a natural oil selected from the group consisting of coconut, babassu, palm, palm kernel, olive, castor, peanut, beef tallow and lard, with a (C/sub 2/-C/sub 10/) hydroxy acid and a polyamine.

  10. Modified vegetable oils for environmentally friendly lubricant applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Synthetic lubricant base oils offer improved stability and performance characteristics over refined petroleum oils, but at a price. Most of the biodegradable synthetic oils are chemical esters that offer superior thermal and oxidative stability [8.9]. Prices for these niche products are higher tha...

  11. Testing the ecotoxicology of vegetable versus mineral based lubricating oils: 2. Induction of mixed function oxidase enzymes in barramundi, Lates calcarifer, a tropical fish species.

    PubMed

    Mercurio, Philip; Burns, Kathryn A; Cavanagh, Joanne

    2004-05-01

    An increasing number of vegetable-based oils are being developed as environmentally friendly alternatives to petroleum products. However, toxicity towards key tropical marine species has not been investigated. In this study we used laboratory-based biomarker induction experiments to compare the relative stress of a vegetable-based lubricating oil for marine 2-stroke engines with its mineral oil-based counterpart on tropical fish. The sub-lethal stress of 2-stoke outboard lubricating oils towards the fish Lates calcarifer (barramundi) was examined using liver microsomal mixed function oxidase (MFO) induction assays. This study is the first investigation into the use of this key commercial species in tropical North Queensland, Australia in stress assessment of potential hydrocarbon pollution using ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) induction. Our results indicated that barramundi provide a wide range of inducible rates of EROD activity in response to relevant organic stressors. The vegetable- and mineral-based lubricants induced significant EROD activity at 1.0 mg kg(-1) and there was no significant difference between the two oil treatments at that concentration. At increasing concentrations of 2 and 3 mg kg(-1), the mineral-based lubricant resulted in slightly higher EROD activity than the vegetable-based lubricant. The EROD activity of control and treated barramundi are found to be within ranges for other species from temperate and tropical environments. These results indicate that vegetable-based lubricants may be less stressful to barramundi than their mineral counterparts at concentrations of lubricant > or =2 mg kg(-1). There is great potential for this species to be used in the biomonitoring of waterways around tropical North Queensland and SE Asia.

  12. Tribological performance of nanoparticles as lubricating oil additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulzar, M.; Masjuki, H. H.; Kalam, M. A.; Varman, M.; Zulkifli, N. W. M.; Mufti, R. A.; Zahid, Rehan

    2016-08-01

    The prospect of modern tribology has been expanded with the advent of nanomaterial-based lubrication systems, whose development was facilitated by the nanotechnology in recent years. In literature, a variety of nanoparticles have been used as lubricant additives with potentially interesting friction and wear properties. To date, although there has been a great deal of experimental research on nanoparticles as lubricating oil additives, many aspects of their tribological behavior are yet to be fully understood. With growing number of possibilities, the key question is: what types of nanoparticles act as a better lubricating oil additive and why? To answer this question, this paper reviews main types of nanoparticles that have been used as lubricants additives and outlines the mechanisms by which they are currently believed to function. Significant aspects of their tribological behavior such as dispersion stability and morphology are also highlighted.

  13. Method for reclaiming waste lubricating oils

    DOEpatents

    Whisman, Marvin L.; Goetzinger, John W.; Cotton, Faye O.

    1978-01-01

    A method for purifying and reclaiming used lubricating oils containing additives such as detergents, antioxidants, corrosion inhibitors, extreme pressure agents and the like and other solid and liquid contaminants by preferably first vacuum distilling the used oil to remove water and low-boiling contaminants, and treating the dried oil with a solvent mixture of butanol, isopropanol and methylethyl ketone which causes the separation of a layer of sludge containing contaminants, unspent additives and oxidation products. After solvent recovery, the desludged oil is then subjected to conventional lubricating oil refining steps such as distillation followed by decolorization and deodorization.

  14. Characterization of lubrication oil emissions from aircraft engines.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhenhong; Liscinsky, David S; Winstead, Edward L; True, Bruce S; Timko, Michael T; Bhargava, Anuj; Herndon, Scott C; Miake-Lye, Richard C; Anderson, Bruce E

    2010-12-15

    In this first ever study, particulate matter (PM) emitted from the lubrication system overboard breather vent for two different models of aircraft engines has been systematically characterized. Lubrication oil was confirmed as the predominant component of the emitted particulate matter based upon the characteristic mass spectrum of the pure oil. Total particulate mass and size distributions of the emitted oil are also investigated by several high-sensitivity aerosol characterization instruments. The emission index (EI) of lubrication oil at engine idle is in the range of 2-12 mg kg(-1) and increases with engine power. The chemical composition of the oil droplets is essentially independent of engine thrust, suggesting that engine oil does not undergo thermally driven chemical transformations during the ∼4 h test window. Volumetric mean diameter is around 250-350 nm for all engine power conditions with a slight power dependence.

  15. Formation of carbonaceous nano-layers under high interfacial pressures during lubrication with mineral and bio-based oils

    SciTech Connect

    Baltrus, John P.

    2014-01-01

    In order to better protect steel surfaces against wear under high loads, understanding of chemical reactions between lubricants and metal at high interfacial pressures and elevated temperatures needs to be improved. Solutions at 5 to 20 wt. % of zinc di-2-ethylhexyl dithio phosphate (ZDDP) and chlorinated paraffins (CP) in inhibited paraffinic mineral oil (IPMO) and inhibited soy bean oil (ISBO) were compared on a Twist Compression Tribotester (TCT) at 200 MPa. Microscopy of wear tracks after 10 seconds tribotesting showed much smoother surface profiles than those of unworn areas. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) coupled with Ar-ion sputtering demonstrated that additive solutions in ISBO formed 2–3 times thicker carbon-containing nano-layers compared to IPMO. The amounts of Cl, S or P were unexpectedly low and detectable only on the top surface with less than 5 nm penetration. CP blends in IPMO formed more inorganic chlorides than those in ISBO. It can be concluded that base oils are primarily responsible for the thickness of carbonaceous nano-layers during early stages of severe boundary lubrication, while CP or ZDDP additive contributions are important, but less significant.

  16. A Multipurpose Additive for Lubricating Oils,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The report describes the synthesis and properties of S-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzyl)-O-O-(alkyl or aryl) phosphorodithioate. This compound was synthesized as wear inhibitor and antioxidant for lubricating oils .

  17. A note on the use of the CEC L-33-A-93 test to predict the potential biodegradation of mineral oil based lubricants in soil.

    PubMed

    Battersby, N S; Morgan, P

    1997-10-01

    The biodegradabilities of five unformulated mineral oils (brightstock, 150 SN base oil, white oil and two gas oils) were determined in the CEC L-33-A-93 test and during 20 weeks incubation in nutrient-supplemented soil microcosms. Biodegradation in both studies was measured as the loss of extractable hydrocarbon ('primary' biodegradation). There was a statistically significant (P < 0.01) rectilinear relationship between the extents of biodegradation in both test systems. The results indicate that the CEC method could be used as a relatively simple, quick and inexpensive test for assessing the potential biodegradation of mineral oil based lubricants in soil.

  18. Optical fiber spectroscopy for measuring quality indicators of lubricant oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grazia Mignani, Anna; Ciaccheri, Leonardo; Díaz-Herrera, Natalia; Azelio Mencaglia, Andrea; Ottevaere, Heidi; Thienpont, Hugo; Francalanci, Stefano; Paccagnini, Alessandro; Pavone, Francesco S.

    2009-03-01

    A collection of lubricant oils from different types of turbines, which were characterized by different degrees of degradation, were analyzed by means of wide-range absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy and scattering measurements. All these measurements were performed by means of optical fiber-based instrumentation that made use of compact lamps or LED illumination, and miniaturized spectrometers for detection. Multivariate data analysis was used to successfully correlate the wide optical spectral signature of lubricant oils with some of the most important parameters indicating the degree of oil degradation, such as TAN, JOAP index, water content and phosphorus.

  19. Optical fiber spectroscopy for measuring quality indicators of lubricant oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignani, A. G.; Ciaccheri, L.; Díaz-Herrera, N.; Mencaglia, A. A.; Ottevaere, H.; Thienpont, H.; Francalanci, S.; Paccagnini, A.; Pavone, F.

    2008-04-01

    A collection of lubricant oils from different types of turbines, which were characterized by different degrees of degradation, were analyzed by means of UV-VIS-NIR absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy and scattering measurements. All these measurements were performed by means of optical fiber-based instrumentation that made use of LEDs or compact lamps for illumination and miniaturized spectrometers for detection. Multivariate data analysis was used to successfully correlate the wide optical spectral signature of lubricant oils to some of the most important parameters for indicating the degree of degradation of the oil, such as TAN, JOAP-index, water content, and phosphorus.

  20. New crop oils - Properties as potential lubricants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New crops oils such as lesquerella, field pennycress, meadowfoam and cuphea were investigated and compared to common commodity vegetable oils for their fatty acid profiles, low temperature and lubricating properties. The fatty acid profile investigation showed that lesquerella is high in hydroxy fat...

  1. Lubricants from chemically modified vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Campanella, Alejandrina; Rustoy, Eduardo; Baldessari, Alicia; Baltanás, Miguel A

    2010-01-01

    This work reports laboratory results obtained from the production of polyols with branched ether and ester compounds from epoxidized vegetable oils pertaining to annual, temperate climate crops (soybean, sunflower and high-oleic sunflower oils), focusing on their possible use as components of lubricant base stocks. To this end, two different opening reactions of the epoxide ring were studied. The first caused by the attack with glacial acetic acid (exclusively in a single organic phase) and the second using short-chain aliphatic alcohols, methanol and ethanol, in acid media. Both reactions proceed under mild conditions: low synthesis temperature and short reaction times and with conversions above 99%. Spectroscopic (NMR), thermal (DSC) and rheological techniques were used to characterize the oils, their epoxides and polyols, to assess the impact of the nature of the vegetable oil and the chemical modifications introduced, including long-term storage conditions. Several correlations were employed to predict the viscosity of the vegetable oils with temperature, and good agreement with the experimental data was obtained.

  2. Camshaft with lubricating oil supplying function

    SciTech Connect

    Umeha, G.; Hirakawa, O.

    1986-10-07

    A camshaft with a lubricating-oil supplying function is described comprising a tubular shaft and a filter element disposed in the tubular shaft to control the amount or rate of oil distribution. The filler element contains projections extending along its length from the outer surface thereof and resiliently contacting the inner surface of the tubular shaft. The projections together with the inner surface of the tubular shaft define oil passages.

  3. Gravimetric Determination of Sediment in Turbine Engine Lubricating Oils.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    noncombustible sediment present in aircraft turbine engine lubricating oils . Both MIL-L-7808 and MIL-L-23699 lubricants were investigated. These...temperature. When these oils were heated to 140 F, they easily passed through a silver membrane filter. A test procedure for the gravimetric measurement of particulate contamination in turbine engine lubricating oils is proposed. (Author)

  4. Engine wear and lubricating oil contamination from plant oil fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Darcey, C.L.; LePori, W.A.; Yarbrough, C.M.

    1982-12-01

    Engine disassembly with wear measurements, and lubricating oil analysis were used to determine wear rates on a one cylinder diesel engine. Results are reported from short duration tests on the wear rates of various levels of processed sunflower oil, a 25% blend with diesel fuel, and processed cottonseed oil.

  5. Evaluation of the dermal carcinogenicity of lubricant base oils by the mouse skin painting bioassay and other proposed methods.

    PubMed

    Chasey, K L; McKee, R H

    1993-01-01

    Lubricant base oils are petroleum products that are predominantly derived from the vacuum distillation of crude oil. Various types of refinement can be employed during the manufacturing process, and evidence suggests that certain of the associated process streams produce skin cancer. Polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs), some of which are considered as the causative agents, are removed, concentrated or chemically converted during the refinement process. In order to understand the effects of various types of refinement processes on carcinogenic potential, 94 oils were evaluated in the mouse epidermal cancer bioassay. This Exxon database is unique, because of the wide range of crude oils and processing histories represented. Seven processing history classifications are described, and conclusions concerning the impacts of each refinement process on dermal carcinogenicity are discussed. This research also included an evaluation of selected biological and chemical test methods for predicting carcinogenic potential. These included a modified version of the Ames test for mutagenicity, as well as analytical characterizations of the polycyclic aromatic structures in the oils. For classification purposes, a sample was considered to be carcinogenic if it resulted in the production of two or more tumor-bearing animals (in test groups of either 40 or 50 animals). The modified Ames test was considered to be positive if the mutagenicity index was > or = 2.0, and PAC analyses were similarly designated as positive or negative according to proposed guidelines. All of the alternative test methods showed similar agreement with dermal carcinogenicity bioassay data; concordance values were > or = 80%. However, each test was incorrect in ca. 10%-20% of the cases evaluated.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Reduced Need of Lubricity Additives in Soybean Oil Blends Under Boundary Lubrication Conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Converging prices of vegetable oils and petroleum, along with increased focus on renewable resources, gave more momentum to vegetable oil lubricants. Boundary lubrication properties of four Extreme Pressure (EP) additive blends in conventional Soy Bean Oil (SBO) and Paraffinic Mineral Oil (PMO) of ...

  7. 33 CFR 155.320 - Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil discharge containment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil... VESSELS Vessel Equipment § 155.320 Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil discharge containment. (a) A ship of... area under or around each fuel oil or bulk lubricating oil tank vent, overflow, and fill pipe, that:...

  8. 33 CFR 155.320 - Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil discharge containment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil... VESSELS Vessel Equipment § 155.320 Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil discharge containment. (a) A ship of... area under or around each fuel oil or bulk lubricating oil tank vent, overflow, and fill pipe, that:...

  9. 33 CFR 155.320 - Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil discharge containment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil... VESSELS Vessel Equipment § 155.320 Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil discharge containment. (a) A ship of... area under or around each fuel oil or bulk lubricating oil tank vent, overflow, and fill pipe, that:...

  10. Cold forming of steel with lubricating oils

    SciTech Connect

    Komatsuzaki, S.; Uematsu, T.; Narahara, T.

    1996-03-01

    In forward extrusions, the antiseizure property could be improved fairly simply when condensed phosphoric acids were directly added to lubricating oils together with monoalkyl phosphates or dialkyl phosphites. The condensed phosphoric acids had poor forming load-lowering properties despite their high antiseizure property, while the phosphates and phosphites had good forming load-lowering properties. When used in combination, both properties supplemented each other and the antiseizure property was enhanced (Maximum workable die temperature: over 312{degrees}C at a reduction rate of cross-sectional area of 75 percent). However, seizure occured more readily in backward extrusion, since a larger active nascent surface was formed, and a sufficient amount of oil could not be supplied to the nascent surface. Powdery ureas or amide compounds helped the formation of micropools (oil pockets) and played an effective role in preventing seizure between the workpiece and the tool. Such powders acted as a good oil trapping agent and indirectly improved the effectiveness of lubricating oils. Their particles could remain at the deformed surface in the form of micropools to improve lubrication at a high piercing ration (ratio of piercing distance and punch diameter). 4 refs., 14 fig., 7 tab.

  11. Physical and chemical properties of industrial mineral oils affecting lubrication

    SciTech Connect

    Godfrey, D.; Herguth, W.R.

    1995-05-01

    The physical and chemical properties of mineral oils that affect lubrication are reviewed. Recognition of these properties is useful for designing lubrication systems, diagnostics, friction and wear problems, and selecting appropriate test methods.

  12. Testing the ecotoxicology of vegetable versus mineral based lubricating oils: 1. Degradation rates using tropical marine microbes.

    PubMed

    Mercurio, Philip; Burns, Kathryn A; Negri, Andrew

    2004-05-01

    Vegetable-derived lubricants (VDL) might be more biodegradable than mineral-derived lubricants (MDL) due to the absence of high molecular weight aromatics, but this remains largely untested in tropical conditions. In this laboratory study, the degradation rates of 2-stroke, 4-stroke and hydraulic VDLs were compared with their MDL counterparts in the presence of mangrove and coral reef microbial communities. While MDLs were comprised largely of unresolved saturated and some aromatic hydrocarbons, their VDL counterparts contained, potentially more degradable, fatty acid methyl esters. Degradation of some VDL was observed by day 7, with the 2-stroke VDL markedly consumed by mangrove microorganisms and the hydraulic VDL degraded by both microorganism communities after this short period. All of the VDL groups were significantly more degraded than the comparable MDLs mineral oil lubricants over 14 days in the presence of either mangrove or coral reef microbial communities. In general the mangrove-sourced microorganisms more efficiently degraded the lubricants than reef-sourced microorganisms.

  13. Influence of temperature on the lubricating effectiveness of MoS2 dispersed in mineral oils

    SciTech Connect

    Rolek, R.J.; Cusano, C.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of oil viscosity, base oil temperature, and surface-active agents naturally present in mineral oils on the lubricating effectiveness of MoS2 dispersions under boundary lubrication conditions are investigated. Friction and wear data are obtained from tests conducted under a wide range of oil viscosities and operating temperatures. The dispersion temperature at which the friction dropped below that obtained with the base oils, depended upon the base oil viscosity and the concentration of surface-active agents present in the oil. White oils showed reductions in friction before mineral oils of like viscosity, and lower viscosity oils showed reductions in friction before heavier viscosity oils. The results show that for a given base oil, wear increases as temperature increases, while the wear obtained from a MoS2 dispersion made from the base oil remains approximately constant as temperature is increased. 19 references.

  14. Application of Symbolic Regression to Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Data for Lubricating Oil Health Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-27

    nitration, soot content, total base number, total acid number, and viscosity . 1. INTRODUCTION An on-line oil condition monitoring device for...Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Data for Lubricating Oil Health Evaluation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W56HZV-10-C-0364 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...tools to evaluation of diesel engine lubricating oil health (based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy data) is detailed. It is demonstrated that

  15. An integrated lubricant oil conditioning sensor using signal multiplexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiaoliang; Du, Li; Zhe, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    One effective approach to detect signs of potential failure of a rotating or reciprocating machine is to examine the conditions of its lubrication oil. Here we present an integrated oil condition sensor for detecting both wear debris and lubricant properties. The integrated sensor consists of miniature multiplexed sensing elements for detection of wear debris and measurements of viscosity and moisture. The oil debris sensing element consists of eight sensing channels to detect wear debris in parallel; the elements for measuring oil viscosity and moisture, based on interdigital electrode sensing, were fabricated using micromachining. The integrated sensor was installed and tested in a laboratory lubricating system. Signal multiplexing was applied to the outputs of the three sensing elements such that responses from all sensing elements were obtained within two measurements, and the signal-to-noise ratio was improved. Testing results show that the integrated sensor is capable of measuring wear debris (>50 µm), moisture (>50 ppm) and viscosity (>12.4 cSt) at a high throughput (200 ml min-1). The device can be potentially used for online health monitoring of rotating machines.

  16. Physical and chemical properties of industrial mineral oils affecting lubrication

    SciTech Connect

    Godfrey, D.; Herguth, W.R.

    1996-02-01

    The lubricating properties of mineral oils, and contaminants which affect those properties, are discussed. A contaminant is any material not in the original fresh oil, whether it is generated within the system or ingested. 5 refs.

  17. METHOD OF OBTAINING AN ADDITIVE FOR LUBRICATING OILS,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The method of obtaining an additive to lubricating oils , consisting of treating boron trifluoride with alkylphenol and alkylamine, is known. In this...case, (aminotrifluoralkyl)phenoxyborate is obtained which may be used as an antiwear additive for lubricating oils . The proposed method differs from

  18. Electrical techniques for monitoring the condition of lubrication oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, J. D.; Austin, L.

    2003-10-01

    The lubricating oil used in engines for vehicle and other applications is renewed according to a schedule specified by the manufacturer. This timetable is, naturally, very conservative, and makes no allowance for the way in which the engine is operated. Constant-speed operation (such as motorway use) is much less harmful to the lubricant than variable-speed operation, such as urban driving, during which the oil experiences extreme variations of temperature and engine speed. The net result of the conservative lubricant replacement schedule is that most engine oil is discarded well before it has reached the end of its useful life. This paper reports a study in which changes to the dielectric and magnetic properties of the oil are assessed as methods of measuring the degradation of lubricating oil. The relationship between oil use (measured by the distance a vehicle has travelled) and oil viscosity is also measured. The conclusions from this work are that simple distance travelled (miles/kilometres) is not a good indicator of the state of an oil, as estimated by measuring its viscosity. The magnetic characteristics of lubricating oil (i.e. its magnetic permeability) do change as the oil degrades, but the measurements were poorly correlated with viscosity and do not seem to offer much promise as the basis of an oil monitoring system. The dielectric properties of lubricating oil are reasonably well correlated with viscosity, and it is proposed that this could form the basis of a useful sensing technique.

  19. 33 CFR 155.320 - Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil discharge containment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Vessel Equipment § 155.320 Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil discharge containment. (a) A ship...

  20. Krytox Lubrication Tape Study. [fluorinated lubricating oil for video tape recorders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, F.

    1978-01-01

    The use of Krytox, a fluorinated oil, as a tape surface lubricant was studied for a wideband video tape recorder. In spite of the 5 to 1 head wear reduction credited to the surface lubricant, the resultant head life fell short of the 1500 hour goal.

  1. 30 CFR 75.1104 - Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease... Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease. Underground storage places for lubricating oil and grease..., lubricating oil and grease kept in all underground areas in a coal mine shall be in fireproof, closed...

  2. 30 CFR 75.1104 - Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease... Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease. Underground storage places for lubricating oil and grease..., lubricating oil and grease kept in all underground areas in a coal mine shall be in fireproof, closed...

  3. 30 CFR 75.1104 - Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease... Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease. Underground storage places for lubricating oil and grease..., lubricating oil and grease kept in all underground areas in a coal mine shall be in fireproof, closed...

  4. 30 CFR 75.1104 - Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease... Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease. Underground storage places for lubricating oil and grease..., lubricating oil and grease kept in all underground areas in a coal mine shall be in fireproof, closed...

  5. 30 CFR 75.1104 - Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease... Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease. Underground storage places for lubricating oil and grease..., lubricating oil and grease kept in all underground areas in a coal mine shall be in fireproof, closed...

  6. Lubricating oils for cold forward extrusion of aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Komatsuzaki, S.; Uematsu, T.

    1995-08-01

    In cold metal-forming applications, where processing is carried out continuously at high speeds, the die temperature rises due to accumulation of heat generated by friction and deformation. This heat leads to lubricant film breakdown and, subsequently, to seizure between the die and the workpiece. Actual process conditions were taken into consideration in evaluating antiseizure properties of lubricants by their maximum workable die temperature (MWT), where workpieces were formed without seizure. MWTs of lubricating oils were as follows: mineral oils: 100{degrees}-120{degrees}C; poly-{alpha}-olefin oils: 160{degrees}-170{degrees}C; polybutene oil: 150{degrees}C; ester oils: 90{degrees}C. MWTs of mineral oils or poly-{alpha}-olefins could be enhanced to around 300{degrees}C by combining them with phosphorous extreme pressure (EP) agents. An ordinary chemical conversion film, the lubricating film formed on the workpiece surface prior to working, was examined for reference. This film had an MWT of over 360{degrees}C. In addition to good antiseizure properties than lubricating oils, it had an unavoidable drawback of a color change to dark gray. With lubricating oils, the products had good luster, as long as seizure did not occur. However, in the case of oils containing phosphorus EP agents, surface degradation was recognized when the die temperature was over 250{degrees}C due to the reaction between the EP agent and the workpieces. 13 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Talc as friction reducing additive to lubricating oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudenko, Pavlo; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2013-07-01

    Reduction of friction and wear by colloidal suspensions of ceramic powders in lubricating oils is an approach that can allow to formulate environment friendly energy saving lubricants. Commercial talc powder was evaluated as an extreme pressure additive to a lubricating oil under different temperatures and concentrations. The best lubricity was achieved at the temperature of 100 °C and the concentration of 0.15 wt% when dynamic and static friction coefficients were reduced by over 30% in comparison to reference lubricating oil alone. At high temperature, talc forms transfer film on metal surface, which reduce both friction and wear behavior in mating surfaces. However, at room temperature, film formation was not observed. Results are explained using pressure and temperature induced lamellar dehydration mechanism when products of dehydration form oxide transfer films on the friction surface.

  8. Laboratory Based Axle Lubricant Efficiency Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    SUBJECT TERMS Axle lubricant efficiency; FMTV, SCPL, Gear Oil, Engine Oil, HMMWV, Stationary Axle Test, SAE J2360 16. SECURITY...Seconds ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials CAT Caterpillar cSt CentiStoke FMTV Family of Medium Tactical Vehicles GO Gear Oil GVW...engine, transmission, and axle gear lubricants as used in the Family of Medium Tactical Vehicles (FMTV) [3]. Fuel consumption changes were determined

  9. Estolides: Bioderived synthetic base oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One novel technology to reach the lubricant market in recent years is the estolide, a class of high-performance, environmentally acceptable lubricant base oils. Estolides have been tested against a set of similar competing base oils from the marketplace, and the results show that they have excellent...

  10. Detail view of lubricating oil pumps used in maintenance of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of lubricating oil pumps used in maintenance of the engines and compressors. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

  11. Detail view of oil container designed as part of lubricating ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of oil container designed as part of lubricating system for unit 43. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

  12. DETAIL VIEW OF OIL CONTAINER DESIGNED AS PART OF LUBRICATING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF OIL CONTAINER DESIGNED AS PART OF LUBRICATING SYSTEM FOR UNIT #3. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

  13. Engineered silica nanoparticles as additives in lubricant oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-Faes López, Teresa; Fernández González, Alfonso; Del Reguero, Ángel; Matos, María; Díaz-García, Marta E.; Badía-Laíño, Rosana

    2015-10-01

    Silica nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs) synthesized by the sol-gel approach were engineered for size and surface properties by grafting hydrophobic chains to prevent their aggregation and facilitate their contact with the phase boundary, thus improving their dispersibility in lubricant base oils. The surface modification was performed by covalent binding of long chain alkyl functionalities using lauric acid and decanoyl chloride to the SiO2 NP surface. The hybrid SiO2 NPs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, simultaneous differential thermal analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance and dynamic light scattering, while their dispersion in two base oils was studied by static multiple light scattering at low (0.01% w/v) and high (0.50%w/v) concentrations. The nature of the functional layer and the functionalization degree seemed to be directly involved in the stability of the suspensions. The potential use of the functional SiO2 NPs as lubricant additives in base oils, specially designed for being used in hydraulic circuits, has been outlined by analyzing the tribological properties of the dispersions. The dendritic structure of the external layer played a key role in the tribological characteristics of the material by reducing the friction coefficient and wear. These nanoparticles reduce drastically the waste of energy in friction processes and are more environmentally friendly than other additives.

  14. Engineered silica nanoparticles as additives in lubricant oils

    PubMed Central

    López, Teresa Díaz-Faes; González, Alfonso Fernández; Del Reguero, Ángel; Matos, María; Díaz-García, Marta E; Badía-Laíño, Rosana

    2015-01-01

    Silica nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs) synthesized by the sol–gel approach were engineered for size and surface properties by grafting hydrophobic chains to prevent their aggregation and facilitate their contact with the phase boundary, thus improving their dispersibility in lubricant base oils. The surface modification was performed by covalent binding of long chain alkyl functionalities using lauric acid and decanoyl chloride to the SiO2 NP surface. The hybrid SiO2 NPs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, simultaneous differential thermal analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance and dynamic light scattering, while their dispersion in two base oils was studied by static multiple light scattering at low (0.01% w/v) and high (0.50%w/v) concentrations. The nature of the functional layer and the functionalization degree seemed to be directly involved in the stability of the suspensions. The potential use of the functional SiO2 NPs as lubricant additives in base oils, specially designed for being used in hydraulic circuits, has been outlined by analyzing the tribological properties of the dispersions. The dendritic structure of the external layer played a key role in the tribological characteristics of the material by reducing the friction coefficient and wear. These nanoparticles reduce drastically the waste of energy in friction processes and are more environmentally friendly than other additives. PMID:27877840

  15. Identification of lubrication oil in the particulate matter emissions from engine exhaust of in-service commercial aircraft.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhenhong; Herndon, Scott C; Ziemba, Luke D; Timko, Michael T; Liscinsky, David S; Anderson, Bruce E; Miake-Lye, Richard C

    2012-09-04

    Lubrication oil was identified in the organic particulate matter (PM) emissions of engine exhaust plumes from in-service commercial aircraft at Chicago Midway Airport (MDW) and O'Hare International Airport (ORD). This is the first field study focused on aircraft lubrication oil emissions, and all of the observed plumes described in this work were due to near-idle engine operations. The identification was carried out with an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF AMS) via a collaborative laboratory and field investigation. A characteristic mass marker of lubrication oil, I(85)/I(71), the ratio of ion fragment intensity between m/z = 85 and 71, was used to distinguish lubrication oil from jet engine combustion products. This AMS marker was based on ion fragmentation patterns measured using electron impact ionization for two brands of widely used lubrication oil in a laboratory study. The AMS measurements of exhaust plumes from commercial aircraft in this airport field study reveal that lubrication oil is commonly present in organic PM emissions that are associated with emitted soot particles, unlike the purely oil droplets observed at the lubrication system vent. The characteristic oil marker, I(85)/I(71), was applied to quantitatively determine the contribution from lubrication oil in measured aircraft plumes, which ranges from 5% to 100%.

  16. Failure Analysis and Regeneration Performances Evaluation on Engine Lubricating Oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X. L.; Zhang, G. N.; Zhang, J. Y.; Yin, Y. L.; Xu, Y.

    To investigate the behavior of failure and recycling of lubricating oils, three sorts of typical 10w-40 lubricating oils used in heavy-load vehicle including the new oil, waste oil and regeneration oil regenerated by self-researched green regeneration technology were selected. The tribology properties were tested by four-ball friction wear tester as well. The results indicated that the performance of anti-extreme pressure of regeneration oil increase by 34.1% compared with the waste one and its load- carrying ability is close to the new oil; the feature of wear spot are better than those of the waste oil and frictional coefficient almost reach the level of the new oil's. As a result, the performance of anti-wear and friction reducing are getting better obviously.

  17. Dynamics of solid dispersions in oil during the lubrication of point contacts. Part 1: Graphite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cusano, C.; Sliney, H. E.

    1981-01-01

    A Hertzian contact was lubricated with dispersed graphite in mineral oils under boundary lubrication conditions. The contact was optically observed under pure rolling, combined rolling and sliding, and pure sliding conditions. The contact was formed with a steel ball on the flat surface of a glass disk. Photomicrographs are presented which show the distribution of the graphite in and around the contact. Friction and surface damage are also shown for conditions when the base oils are used alone and when graphite is added to the base oils. Under pure rolling and combined rolling and sliding conditions, it is found that, for low speeds, a graphite film can form which will separate the contacting surfaces. Under pure sliding conditions, graphite accumulates at the inlet and sweeps around the contact, but very little of the graphite passes through the contact. The accumulated graphite appears to act as a barrier which reduces the supply of oil available to the contact for boundary lubrication. Friction data show no clear short term beneficial or detrimental effect caused by addition of graphite to the base oil. However, during pure sliding, more abrasion occurs on the polished balls lubricated with the dispersion than on those lubricated with the base oil alone. All observations were for the special case of a highly-polished ball on a glass surface and may not be applicable to other geometries and materials, or to rougher surfaces.

  18. Characteristics of lubricating grease produced from Nigerian tarsand-derived heavy oil

    SciTech Connect

    Ogunsola, O.I.; Agoi-George, S.O. )

    1990-01-01

    The results of a study involving the laboratory production of lubricating grease from heavy oil extracted from the Nigerian tarsands are reported. Toluene-extracted oil from the tarsands was used in making a soap-based grease and a clay-based grease. The grease produced was then tested in accordance with the standard National Laboratory for Grease Institute (NLGI) specifications. The two types of grease produced from the tarsands oil conformed with the NLGI specifications and were in the category of grease suitable for use as lubricant for plain and roller bearings and as sealants.

  19. Factors affecting the forensic examination of automotive lubricating oils.

    PubMed

    Hibbard, Ryan; Goodpaster, John V; Evans, Michelle R

    2011-05-01

    Lubricating oil comparisons impact a variety of forensic investigations, including cases where oil was transferred from a suspect vehicle to the crime scene or victim. In this study, high-temperature gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to examine the influence of oil mixtures and oil changes over time on the comparison of known and questioned lubricating oils. Varying concentrations of oil mixtures were prepared and showed the potential for identifying individual components. Motor oils from 18 automobiles monitored over a 2-month period did not demonstrate significant changes in the chromatographic data. Chemometric analysis of motor oil mass spectral data provided little information regarding differentiation of, or changes in, the samples. Power steering fluid (PSF) from a naturally occurring leak collected from several locations was consistent with the PSF in the automobile's reservoir, and the PSF composition did not change over time.

  20. The influence of temperature on the lubricating effectiveness of MoS2 dispersed in mineral oils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rolek, R. J.; Cusano, C.; Sliney, H. E.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of oil viscosity, base oil temperature, and surface-active agents naturally present in mineral oils on the lubricating effectiveness of MoS2 dispersions under boundary lubrication conditions are investigated. Friction and wear data are obtained from tests conducted under a wide range of oil viscosities and operating temperatures. The dispersion temperature at which the friction dropped below that obtained with the base oils, depended upon the base oil viscosity and the concentration of surface-active agents present in the oil. White oils showed reductions in friction before mineral oils of like viscosity, and lower viscosity oils showed reductions in friction before heavier viscosity oils. The results show that for a given base oil, wear increases as temperature increases, while the wear obtained from a MoS2 dispersion made from the base oil remains approximately constant as temperature is increased.

  1. Surfactant effects on bio-based emulsions used as lubrication fluids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The successful formulation of a lubricating emulsion requires carefully balancing the mixture of base oil, water and a plethora of additives. The factors that affect the performance of lubrication emulsions range from the macroscopic stability to the microscopic surface properties of the base oil. ...

  2. Rise of Air Bubbles in Aircraft Lubricating Oils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, J. V.

    1950-01-01

    Lubricating and antifoaming additives in aircraft lubricating oils may impede the escape of small bubbles from the oil by forming shells of liquid with a quasi-solid or gel structure around the bubbles. The rates of rise of small air bubbles, up to 2 millimeters in diameter, were measured at room temperature in an undoped oil, in the same oil containing foam inhibitors, and in an oil containing lubricating additives. The apparent diameter of the air bubbles was measured visually through an ocular micrometer on a traveling telescope. The bubbles in the undoped oil obeyed Stokes' Law, the rate of rise being proportional to the square of the apparent diameter and inversely proportional to the viscosity of the oil. The bubbles in the oils containing lubricating additives or foam inhibitors rose more slowly than the rate predicted by Stokes 1 Law from the apparent diameter, and the rate of rise decreased as the length of path the bubbles traveled increased. A method is derived to calculate the thickness of the liquid shell which would have to move with the bubbles in the doped oils to account for the abnoi'I!l8.lly slow velocity. The maximum thickness of this shell, calculated from the velocities observed, was equal to the bubble radius.

  3. Effects of Chlorinated Paraffin and ZDDP Concentrations on Boundary Lubrication Properties of Mineral and Soybean Oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of chlorinated paraffin (CP) and zinc di-ethylhexyl dithio phosphate (ZDDP) concentration in polar and non-polar base fluids on boundary lubrication properties was investigated. The non-polar fluid was a solvent refined low sulfur heavy paraffinic mineral oil (150N oil); and the polar fl...

  4. Low phosphorus- and sulfur-containing lubricating oils

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, K.E.

    1986-04-15

    A lubricating oil composition is described containing less than about 0.1% by weight of phosphorus and comprising a major amount of an oil of lubricating viscosity, and a minor amount of at least one oil-soluble sulfur-containing material which comprises the reaction product of sulfur and a Diels-Alder adduct in a molar ratio of less than 1.7:1 wherein the adduct is an adduct of at least one dienophile with at least one aliphatic conjugated diene.

  5. Emulsification of chemically modified vegetable oils for lubricant use

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several previously uncharacterized emulsions were studied in this paper, including those made form epoxidized vegetable oils. A series of different surfactants were studied in order to obtain emulsions suitable for lubrication applications. The epoxidized oils were found to form stable emulsions i...

  6. Lubricity characteristics of seed oils modified by acylation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chemically modified seed oils via acylation of epoxidized and polyhydroxylated derivatives were investigated for their potential as candidates for lubrication. The native oil was preliminarily epoxidized and ring-opened in a one-pot reaction using formic acid-H2O2 followed by aqueous HCl treatment t...

  7. Lubricating oil having improved rust inhibition and demulsibility

    SciTech Connect

    Pillon, L.Z.; Asselin, A.E.

    1993-07-13

    A lubricating oil is described which comprises a major amount of a lubricating oil base stock and a synergistic additive combination comprising (a) a rust inhibiting amount of a rust inhibitor wherein the rust inhibitor contains a succinic acid derivative of the formula, HOOC-C-(R[sub 4])[sub 2]-(R[sub 5])[sub 2]-C-COOH, and partially esterified alkyl succinic acid of the formula, HOOC-C-(R[sub 4])[sub 2]-(R[sub 5])[sub 2]-C-COOR[sub 6]-OH where R[sub 4], R[sub 5], and R[sub 6] may be the same or different and are each an alkyl group containing from about 2 to about 10 carbon atoms, and (b) a pyridine derivative having the formula C[sub 5]H[sub 2]NR[sub 1]R[sub 2]R[sub 3] where R[sub 1], R[sub 2], and R[sub 3] are independently an alkyl group containing from 1 to 3 carbon atoms, wherein the weight ratio of (b) to (a) is greater than zero and less than about 0.06.

  8. Environmentally Acceptable Lubricants

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-30

    referred to as environmentally friendly lubricants ( EFLs ) or biolubricants. EPA, wastewater, lubricants, oil, biolubricants, VGP, vessels U U U UU 27...qualities, but have not been demonstrated to meet these standards, are referred to as environmentally friendly lubricants ( EFLs ) or biolubricants...clarify the difference between EAL and EFL products in the marketplace. Because the majority of a lubricant is composed of the base oil, the base oil

  9. Lubricant oil production: The proper marriage of process and catalyst technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Everett, G.L.; Suchanek, A.

    1996-12-01

    As the industry moves into the next millennium, higher product quality demands to meet the higher performance needs of modern engine technology and rising costs of traditional good quality lube crudes are driving lubricant base oil manufacturers to select hydroprocessing options versus traditional solvent refining techniques. This paper discusses how to properly select the best economic hydroprocessing technology necessary to produce high quality lubricant base oils and waxes. The economic success of such operations depends on the proper combination of process and catalyst technologies that maximizes yields of high quality products with minimum consumption of hydrogen resources and process utilities. This is particular true on the extreme end of the quality spectrum, namely, Very High Viscosity Index (VHVI) base oils and food grade white oils and waxes where there is no room for marginal product quality. Multiplicity of operations is also becoming more important as refiners try to upgrade their facilities with as little capital expense as possible, while at the same time, broaden their high valued product slate to recoup these expenses in the shortest possible payback period. Lyondell Licensing and Criterion Catalyst have put together an effective alliance based on years of development and commercial experience in both the process and catalyst areas to assist lubricant oil manufacturers in meeting these future challenges using as much existing equipment and infrastructure as is practical. Their experience will permit the proper fitting of the chemistry of hydroprocessing to make lubricant base oils to existing or new operations.

  10. Recycling used lubricating oil at the deep space stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koh, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    A comparison is made of the lubricating oil recycling methods used in the Deep Space Station 43 test and the basic requirements which could favor recycling of oil for continuous reuse. The basic conditions for successful recycling are compared to the conditions that exist in the Deep Space Network (DSN). This comparison shows that to recycle used oil in the DSN would not only be expensive but also nonproductive.

  11. Development of an instrumentation system for measurement of degradation of lubricating oil using optical fiber sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laskar, S.; Bordoloi, S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an instrumentation system to measure the degradation in lubricating oil using a bare, tapered and bent multi-mode optical fiber (BTBMOF) sensor probe and a temperature probe. The sensor system consists of (i) a bare, tapered and bent multi-mode optical fiber (BTBMOF) as optical sensor along with a laser source and a LDR (Light Dependent Resistor) as detector (ii) a temperature sensor (iii) a ATmega microcontroller based data acquisition system and (iv) a trained ANN for processing and calibration. The BTBMOF sensor and the temperature sensor are used to provide the measure of refractive index (RI) and the temperature of a lubricating oil sample. A microcontroller based instrumentation system with trained ANN algorithm has been developed to determine the degradation of the lubricating oil sample by sampling the readings of the optical fiber sensor, and the temperature sensor.

  12. Determination of Zinc-Based Additives in Lubricating Oils by Flow-Injection Analysis with Flame-AAS Detection Exploiting Injection with a Computer-Controlled Syringe.

    PubMed

    Pignalosa, Gustavo; Knochen, Moisés; Cabrera, Noel

    2005-01-01

    A flow-injection system is proposed for the determination of metal-based additives in lubricating oils. The system, operating under computer control uses a motorised syringe for measuring and injecting the oil sample (200 muL) in a kerosene stream, where it is dispersed by means of a packed mixing reactor and carried to an atomic absorption spectrometer which is used as detector. Zinc was used as model analyte. Two different systems were evaluated, one for low concentrations (range 0-10 ppm) and the second capable of providing higher dilution rates for high concentrations (range 0.02%-0.2% w/w). The sampling frequency was about 30 samples/h. Calibration curves fitted a second-degree regression model (r(2) = 0.996). Commercial samples with high and low zinc levels were analysed by the proposed method and the results were compared with those obtained with the standard ASTM method. The t test for mean values showed no significant differences at the 95% confidence level. Precision (RSD%) was better than 5% (2% typical) for the high concentrations system. The carryover between successive injections was found to be negligible.

  13. Determination of Zinc-Based Additives in Lubricating Oils by Flow-Injection Analysis with Flame-AAS Detection Exploiting Injection with a Computer-Controlled Syringe

    PubMed Central

    Pignalosa, Gustavo; Cabrera, Noel

    2005-01-01

    A flow-injection system is proposed for the determination of metal-based additives in lubricating oils. The system, operating under computer control uses a motorised syringe for measuring and injecting the oil sample (200 μL) in a kerosene stream, where it is dispersed by means of a packed mixing reactor and carried to an atomic absorption spectrometer which is used as detector. Zinc was used as model analyte. Two different systems were evaluated, one for low concentrations (range 0–10 ppm) and the second capable of providing higher dilution rates for high concentrations (range 0.02%–0.2% w/w). The sampling frequency was about 30 samples/h. Calibration curves fitted a second-degree regression model (r 2 = 0.996). Commercial samples with high and low zinc levels were analysed by the proposed method and the results were compared with those obtained with the standard ASTM method. The t test for mean values showed no significant differences at the 95% confidence level. Precision (RSD%) was better than 5% (2% typical) for the high concentrations system. The carryover between successive injections was found to be negligible. PMID:18924720

  14. Dynamics of solid dispersions in oil during the lubrication of point contacts. I - Graphite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cusano, C.; Sliney, H. E.

    1981-01-01

    A Hertzian contact is lubricated with dispersed graphite in mineral oils under boundary lubrication conditions. The contacts are optically observed under pure rolling, combined rolling and sliding, and pure sliding conditions. The contact is formed with a steel ball on the flat surface of a glass disk. Under pure rolling and combined rolling and sliding conditions, it is found that, for low speeds, a graphite film can form which will separate the contacting surfaces. In contrast, under pure sliding conditions, graphite accumulates at the inlet and sweeps around the contact, but very little of graphite passes through the contact. The accumulated graphite appears to act as a barrier which reduces the supply of oil available to the contact for boundary lubrication. Friction data show no clear short-term beneficial or detrimental effect caused by addition of graphite to the base oil. However, during pure sliding, more abrasion occurs on the polished balls lubricated with the dispersion than on those lubricated with the base oil alone.

  15. Tribological behavior of oil-lubricated, TiN-coated steel

    SciTech Connect

    Ajayi, O.O.; Erdemir, A.; Fenske, G.R.; Nichols, F.A.; Sproul, W.D.; Graham, M.; Rudnik, P.J.

    1992-02-01

    The effects of titanium nitride (TiN) coatings on the tribological behavior of M50 and 52100 steels under both dry and synthetic polyol ester-based oil lubrication were evaluated using a reciprocating sliding pin-on-flat test machine. Under dry conditions, the TiN coating reduced the wear, which occurred by abrasion as well as the oxidation of the sliding surface. It also reduced the amount of wear-debris accumulation at the contact interface. During oil lubrication, wear and roughening of the contact area, usually associated with the boundary lubrication regime, was eliminated by the TiN coating. Formation of boundary film by the chemical interaction between the oil additives and wearing surface was also prevented by the TiN coating.

  16. [Acidity and temperature effect on the fluorescence characteristics of hydraulic oils and lubricants].

    PubMed

    Deng, Hu; Zhou, Xun; Shang, Li-ping; Zhang, Ze-lin; Wang, Shun-li

    2014-12-01

    By analyzing HyJet V phosphate ester hydraulic oil environmental impacts (oil, etc.) and confounding factors (pH, temperature, etc.), the feasibility was studied for the fluorescence detection of aircraft hydraulic oil leaks. By using the fluorescence spectrophotometer at various acidities and temperatures, the fluorescence properties of HyJet V phosphate ester hydraulic oil, Jet Oil II lubricant and 2197 lubricant were gained. The experimental results are shown as following: The fluorescence peaks of HyJet V phosphate ester hydraulic oil, Jet Oil II lubricant and 2197 lubricant are at 362, 405 and 456 nm, respectively. The impact of temperature on HyJet V phosphate ester hydraulic oil is less effective; Jet Oil II lubricant and 2197 lubricant fluorescence intensity decreases with increasing temperature. When acidity increases, the fluorescence peak of HyJet V phosphate ester hydraulic oil gradient shifts from 370 to 362 nm, and the fluorescence intensity decreases; the fluorescence peak of Jet Oil II lubricant is always 405 nm, while the fluorescence intensity decreases; the fluorescence peak of 2197 lubricant at 456 nm red shifts to 523 nm, and double fluorescence peaks appeare. The results are shown as following: under the influence of the environment and interference factors, the fluorescence characteristics of HyJet V phosphate ester hydraulic oil remain unchanged, and distinguish from Jet Oil II lubricant and 2197 lubricant. Therefore, the experiments indicate that the detection of HyJet V phosphate ester hydraulic oil leak is feasible by using fluorescence method.

  17. 39. DIABLO POWERHOUSE: GRAVITY LUBRICATING OIL TANKS. THESE TANKS ARE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. DIABLO POWERHOUSE: GRAVITY LUBRICATING OIL TANKS. THESE TANKS ARE LOCATED AT ROOF LEVEL AT THE NORTHEAST REAR CORNER OF DIABLO POWERHOUSE, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Diablo Powerhouse, On Skagit River, 6.1 miles upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  18. 46 CFR 56.50-80 - Lubricating-oil systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... driven main propelling machinery, an independent auxiliary lubricating pump shall be provided. (c) Oil coolers on steam driven machinery shall be provided with two separate means of circulating water through... before starting is not necessary and an attached pump is normally used, the independent auxiliary pump...

  19. 46 CFR 56.50-80 - Lubricating-oil systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... driven main propelling machinery, an independent auxiliary lubricating pump shall be provided. (c) Oil coolers on steam driven machinery shall be provided with two separate means of circulating water through... before starting is not necessary and an attached pump is normally used, the independent auxiliary pump...

  20. 46 CFR 56.50-80 - Lubricating-oil systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... driven main propelling machinery, an independent auxiliary lubricating pump shall be provided. (c) Oil coolers on steam driven machinery shall be provided with two separate means of circulating water through... before starting is not necessary and an attached pump is normally used, the independent auxiliary pump...

  1. 46 CFR 56.50-80 - Lubricating-oil systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... driven main propelling machinery, an independent auxiliary lubricating pump shall be provided. (c) Oil coolers on steam driven machinery shall be provided with two separate means of circulating water through... before starting is not necessary and an attached pump is normally used, the independent auxiliary pump...

  2. 46 CFR 56.50-80 - Lubricating-oil systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... driven main propelling machinery, an independent auxiliary lubricating pump shall be provided. (c) Oil coolers on steam driven machinery shall be provided with two separate means of circulating water through... before starting is not necessary and an attached pump is normally used, the independent auxiliary pump...

  3. Oil-air mist lubrication for helicopter gearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgrogan, F.

    1976-01-01

    The applicability of a once-through oil mist system to the lubrication of helicopter spur gears was investigated and compared to conventional jet spray lubrication. In the mist lubrication mode, cooling air was supplied at 366K (200 F) to the out of mesh location of the gear sets. The mist air was also supplied at 366K (200 F) to the radial position mist nozzle at a constant rate of 0.0632 mol/s (3 SCFM) per nozzle. The lubricant contained in the mist air varied between 32 - 44 cc/hour. In the recirculating jet spray mode, the flow rate was varied between 1893 - 2650 cc/hour. Visual inspection revealed the jet spray mode produced a superior surface finish on the gear teeth but a thermal energy survey showed a 15 - 20% increase in heat generated. The gear tooth condition in the mist lubrication mode system could be improved if the cooling air and lubricant/air flow ratio were increased. The test gearbox and the procedure used are described.

  4. Effect of metallic coating properties on the tribology of oil- lubricated coated-ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Ajayi, O.O.; Fenske, G.R.; Erdemir, A.; Erck, R.A.; Hsieh, J.H.; Nichols, F.A.

    1992-04-01

    The friction and wear behavior of zirconia ceramics lubricated with solid coatings (AG, Au, and Nb), deposited by ion-beam-assisted-deposition (IBAD) techniques, and a polyol-ester-based synthetic oil are presented. These results demonstrate that, although the simultaneous use of soft (e.g. Ag and Au) solid lubricants in conjunction with the synthetic lubricant significantly reduces the friction and wear under boundary lubrication at temperatures up to 250{degree}C, the durability of the soft films was poor. In contrast, durability of Nb coating (in terms of chemical reactivity and adhesion during the tribo-tests) was better than that of the Ag or Au films. However, the friction and wear behavior of the Nb-coated films was poorer than that of the ceramics coated with Ag or Au.

  5. Effect of metallic coating properties on the tribology of oil- lubricated coated-ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Ajayi, O.O.; Fenske, G.R.; Erdemir, A.; Erck, R.A.; Hsieh, J.H.; Nichols, F.A.

    1992-01-01

    The friction and wear behavior of zirconia ceramics lubricated with solid coatings (AG, Au, and Nb), deposited by ion-beam-assisted-deposition (IBAD) techniques, and a polyol-ester-based synthetic oil are presented. These results demonstrate that, although the simultaneous use of soft (e.g. Ag and Au) solid lubricants in conjunction with the synthetic lubricant significantly reduces the friction and wear under boundary lubrication at temperatures up to 250{degree}C, the durability of the soft films was poor. In contrast, durability of Nb coating (in terms of chemical reactivity and adhesion during the tribo-tests) was better than that of the Ag or Au films. However, the friction and wear behavior of the Nb-coated films was poorer than that of the ceramics coated with Ag or Au.

  6. Antiwear performance and mechanism of an oil-miscible ionic liquid as a lubricant additive.

    PubMed

    Qu, Jun; Bansal, Dinesh G; Yu, Bo; Howe, Jane Y; Luo, Huimin; Dai, Sheng; Li, Huaqing; Blau, Peter J; Bunting, Bruce G; Mordukhovich, Gregory; Smolenski, Donald J

    2012-02-01

    An ionic liquid (IL) trihexyltetradecylphosphonium bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate has been investigated as a potential antiwear lubricant additive. Unlike most other ILs that have very low solubility in nonpolar fluids, this IL is fully miscible with various hydrocarbon oils. In addition, it is thermally stable up to 347 °C, showed no corrosive attack to cast iron in an ambient environment, and has excellent wettability on solid surfaces (e.g., contact angle on cast iron <8°). Most importantly, this phosphonium-based IL has demonstrated effective antiscuffing and antiwear characteristics when blended with lubricating oils. For example, a 5 wt % addition into a synthetic base oil eliminated the scuffing failure experienced in neat oil and, as a result, reduced the friction coefficient by 60% and the wear rate by 3 orders of magnitude. A synergistic effect on wear protection was observed with the current antiwear additive when added into a fully formulated engine oil. Nanostructure examination and composition analysis revealed a tribo-boundary film and subsurface plastic deformation zone for the metallic surface lubricated by the IL-containing lubricants. This protective boundary film is believed to be responsible for the IL's antiscuffing and antiwear functionality.

  7. Oil-Miscible and Non-Corrosive Phosphonium Ionic Liquids as Candidate Lubricant Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Bo; Bansal, Dinesh G; Qu, Jun; Sun, Xiaoqi; Luo, Huimin; Dai, Sheng; Blau, Peter Julian; Bunting, Bruce G; Mordukhovich, Gregory; Smolenski, Donald

    2012-01-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) have been receiving considerable attention from the lubricants industry as potential friction and wear-reducing additives, but their solubility in oils is an issue. Unlike most ionic liquids that are insoluble in non-polar hydrocarbon oils, this study reports phosphonium-based ILs (PP-ILs) that are fully miscible with both mineral oil-based and synthetic lubricants. Both the cation and anion in quaternary structures, long alkyl chains, and capability of pairing the cation and the anion via a H-O bond are hypothesized to improve the compatibility between ions and neutral oil molecules. The measured viscosities of the oil-IL blends agree well with the Refutas equation that is for solutions containing multiple components. High thermal stability and non-corrosiveness were observed for the PP-ILs. Effective friction reduction and anti-wear functionality have been demonstrated in tribological tests when adding 5 wt% of a PP-IL into a base oil, suggesting potential applications for using the oil-miscible PP-ILs as lubricant additives.

  8. 76 FR 49525 - Advisory Circular 20-24C, Approval of Propulsion Fuels and Lubricating Oils

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Advisory Circular 20-24C, Approval of Propulsion Fuels and Lubricating... Propulsion Fuels and Lubricating Oils. This AC provides guidance on regulations and policy applicable to... aircraft, engines, or APUs to operate with specified propulsion fuels and lubricating oils. DATES:...

  9. Mixed film lubrication with biobased oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most tribological processes (e.g. metalworking), occur in the mixed film regime where the boundary and hydrodynamic properties of the oils play critical roles. In the work described here, the boundary and hydrodynamic properties of various biobased oils were evaluated. The oils were then investiga...

  10. Palm oil derived trimethylolpropane triesters synthetic lubricants and usage in industrial metalworking fluid.

    PubMed

    Chang, Teck-Sin; Yunus, Robiah; Rashid, Umer; Choong, Thomas S Y; Awang Biak, Dayang Radiah; Syam, Azhari M

    2015-01-01

    Trimethylolpropane triesters are biodegradable synthetic lubricant base oil alternative to mineral oils, polyalphaolefins and diesters. These oils can be produced from trimethylolpropane (TMP) and fatty acid methyl esters via chemical or enzymatic catalyzed synthesis methods. In the present study, a commercial palm oil derived winter grade biodiesel (ME18) was evaluated as a viable and sustainable methyl ester source for the synthesis of high oleic trimethylolpropane triesters (HO-TMPTE). ME18 has fatty acid profile containing 86.8% oleic acid, 8.7% linoleic acid with the remaining minor concentration of palmitic acid, stearic acid and linolenic acid. It's high oleic property makes it superior to produce synthetic lubricant base oil that fulfills both the good low temperature property as well as good oxidative stability. The synthetic base oil produced had a viscosity of 44.3 mm(2)/s at 40°C meeting the needs for ISO 46 oils. It also exhibited an excellent viscosity index of 219 that is higher than some other commercial brands of trimethylolpropane trioleate. Properties of base oil such as cloud point, density, acid value, demulsibility and soap content were also examined. The oil was then used in the formulation of tapping oil and appraised in term of adaptability, stability and field test performance.

  11. Effect of metallic-coating properties on the tribology of coated and oil-lubricated ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Ajayi, O.O.; Erdemir, A.; Fenske, G.R.; Erck, R.A.; Hsieh, J.H.; Nichols, F.A.

    1992-09-01

    Friction and wear behavior was determined for zirconia ceramics lubricated with solid coatings (Ag, Au, and Nb) deposited by ion-beam-assisted-deposition (IBAD) techniques, and a polyol-ester-based synthetic oil. Although the use of soft Ag and Au coatings as solid lubricants in conjunction with the synthetic oil significantly reduced the friction and wear under boundary lubrication at temperatures up to 250[degrees]C, these films had poor durability. In contrast, the Nb coating was more durable (in terms of chemical reactivity and adhesion during the tribo-tests) than were the Ag or Au films. However, the friction and wear behavior of the Nb-coated zirconia was poorer than that of the ceramics coated with Ag or Au.

  12. 33 CFR 155.320 - Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil discharge containment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel oil and bulk lubricating oil discharge containment. 155.320 Section 155.320 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS...

  13. Food contamination by hydrocarbons from lubricating oils and release agents: determination by coupled LC-GC.

    PubMed

    Grob, K; Artho, A; Biedermann, M; Egli, J

    1991-01-01

    We have found that many foods are contaminated with mineral oil products used as lubricating oils/greases or as release agents. The mineral oil base of such products usually consists of branched alkanes ranging between C17 and C35. It forms a broad 'hump' of unresolved compounds in the gas chromatogram. Examples of such products are described; contamination is shown for a sample of bread, bonbon, and chocolate, respectively. The results suggest that contamination of foodstuffs with mineral oils does not always receive the required attention. However, there is also a lack of guidelines.

  14. Effects of two lubricant oils on marine nematode assemblages in a laboratory microcosm experiment.

    PubMed

    Beyrem, H; Louati, H; Essid, N; Aïssa, P; Mahmoudi, E

    2010-05-01

    The effects of two lubricating oils on nematode assemblages of a Tunisian lagoon were investigated in a microcosm experiment. Sediment from a pristine site in Ghar El Melh lagoon (Western Mediterranean) was treated with either mineral oil (Mobil 20 W-50), a synthetic lubricant (Mobil 0 W-40), the same two lubricants after use in a vehicle, and effects were examined after 5 weeks. Univariate analysis showed significant differences between most univariate indices of the nematode assemblages in all the lubricant treatments as compared to the control. Total nematode abundance (I), species richness (d) and number of species (S) decreased significantly in all lubricant contaminated microcosms. However, evenness was not affected in all treated replicates except in used mineral lubricant treatment where it was significantly higher than in the control. Diversity (H') was only altered in synthetic lubricant treatments. Results from multivariate analyses of the species abundance data demonstrated that responses of nematode species to the two lubricants treatments were varied: Daptonema trabeculosum was eliminated in all lubricant treatments and seemed to be an intolerant species to oil contamination. Spirinia gerlachi increased in mineral lubricant treatments ("clean" and used) but was eliminated in all synthetic lubricant treatments. This species could be categorized as "resistant" to mineral oil contamination and intolerant to synthetic lubricant contamination. Terschellingia longicaudata increased only in synthetic lubricant treatments ("clean" and used) and appeared to be a "synthetic oil-resistant" species.

  15. Lubrication properties of new crop oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oils from new crops such as lesquerella (Lesquerella fendleri), field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.), meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba L.), and cuphea PSR-23 (Cuphea viscosissima × Cuphea lanceolata) were investigated and compared with vegetable oils from commodity crops such as castor, corn, and soybea...

  16. Lubricants and functional fluids from lesquerella oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lesquerella fendleri is an oilseed crop belonging to the Brassicaceae (mustard) family that is native to the desert of the southwestern United States. The interest in this crop is due to the high level of hydroxy fatty acids (HFA) in the oil. The seed contains 33% oil, 23% protein, and 15% gums. The...

  17. Oil-Soluble Polymer Brush Grafted Nanoparticles as Effective Lubricant Additives for Friction and Wear Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Roger A. E.; Wang, Kewei; Qu, Jun; Zhao, Bin

    2016-06-06

    Developments of high performance lubricants are driven by increasingly growing industrial demands and environmental concerns. We demonstrate oil-soluble polymer brush-grafted inorganic nanoparticles (hairy NPs) as highly effective lubricant additives for friction and wear reduction. A series of oil-miscible poly(lauryl methacrylate) brush-grafted silica and titania NPs were synthesized by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization. Moreover, these hairy NPs showed exceptional stability in poly(alphaolefin) (PAO) base oil; no change in transparency was observed after being kept at -20, 22, and 100°C for ≥55 days. High-contact stress ball-on-flat reciprocating sliding tribological tests at 100°C showed that addition of 1 wt% of hairy NPs into PAO led to significant reductions in coefficient of friction (up to ≈40%) and wear volume (up to ≈90%). The excellent lubricating properties of hairy NPs were further elucidated by the characterization of the tribofilm formed on the flat. These hairy NPs represent a new type of lubricating oil additives with high efficiency in friction and wear reduction.

  18. Oil-Soluble Polymer Brush Grafted Nanoparticles as Effective Lubricant Additives for Friction and Wear Reduction

    DOE PAGES

    Wright, Roger A. E.; Wang, Kewei; Qu, Jun; ...

    2016-06-06

    Developments of high performance lubricants are driven by increasingly growing industrial demands and environmental concerns. We demonstrate oil-soluble polymer brush-grafted inorganic nanoparticles (hairy NPs) as highly effective lubricant additives for friction and wear reduction. A series of oil-miscible poly(lauryl methacrylate) brush-grafted silica and titania NPs were synthesized by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization. Moreover, these hairy NPs showed exceptional stability in poly(alphaolefin) (PAO) base oil; no change in transparency was observed after being kept at -20, 22, and 100°C for ≥55 days. High-contact stress ball-on-flat reciprocating sliding tribological tests at 100°C showed that addition of 1 wt% of hairy NPsmore » into PAO led to significant reductions in coefficient of friction (up to ≈40%) and wear volume (up to ≈90%). The excellent lubricating properties of hairy NPs were further elucidated by the characterization of the tribofilm formed on the flat. These hairy NPs represent a new type of lubricating oil additives with high efficiency in friction and wear reduction.« less

  19. Oil-Soluble Polymer Brush Grafted Nanoparticles as Effective Lubricant Additives for Friction and Wear Reduction.

    PubMed

    Wright, Roger A E; Wang, Kewei; Qu, Jun; Zhao, Bin

    2016-07-18

    The development of high performance lubricants has been driven by increasingly growing industrial demands and environmental concerns. Herein, we demonstrate oil-soluble polymer brush-grafted inorganic nanoparticles (hairy NPs) as highly effective lubricant additives for friction and wear reduction. A series of oil-miscible poly(lauryl methacrylate) brush-grafted silica and titania NPs were synthesized by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization. These hairy NPs showed exceptional stability in poly(alphaolefin) (PAO) base oil; no change in transparency was observed after being kept at -20, 22, and 100 °C for ≥55 days. High-contact stress ball-on-flat reciprocating sliding tribological tests at 100 °C showed that addition of 1 wt % of hairy NPs into PAO led to significant reductions in coefficient of friction (up to ≈40 %) and wear volume (up to ≈90 %). The excellent lubricating properties of hairy NPs were further elucidated by the characterization of the tribofilm formed on the flat. These hairy NPs represent a new type of lubricating oil additives with high efficiency in friction and wear reduction.

  20. Rheological and tribological behaviour of lubricating oils containing platelet MoS2 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Qingming; Jin, Yi; Sun, Pengcheng; Ding, Yulong

    2014-05-01

    This work concerns rheological and frictional behaviour of lubricating oils containing platelet molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanoparticles (average diameter 50 nm; single layer thickness 3 nm). Stable nano-MoS2 lubricants were formulated and measured for their rheological behaviour and tribological performance. Rheological experiments showed that the nano-MoS2 oils were non-Newtonian following the Bingham plastic fluid model. The viscosity data fitted the classic Hinch-Leal (H-L) model if an agglomeration factor of 1.72 was introduced. Tribological experiments indicated that the use of MoS2 nanoparticles could enhance significantly the tribological performance of the base lubricating oil (reduced frictional coefficient, reduced surface wear and increased stability). Scanning electron microscopy, laser confocal microscope and x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy analyses suggested that the reduced frictional coefficient and surface wear be associated with surface patching effects. Such patching effects were shown to depend on the concentration of MoS2 nanoparticles, and an effective patching required a concentration over approximately 1 wt%. The increased stability could be attributed to the enhanced heat transfer and lubricating oil film strength due to the presence of nanoparticles.

  1. Effect of corrosive contaminants on lubricating properties of turbine oil

    SciTech Connect

    Spirkin, V.G.; Gil`mutdinov, Sh.K.

    1995-01-01

    In the operation of centrifugal and piston compressors on natural gas transmission lines, it is found that air, moisture, and hydrogen sulfide get into the lubricating oil. These contaminants, especially hydrogen sulfide, affect the lubricating properties of the oil to a great degree; however, this problem, which is directly related to the operating reliability of the moving parts of compressors, has not been studied adequately. Oxygen dissolved in the oil forms an iron oxide film on rubbing metal surfaces, protecting them from wear. When no oxygen is present, the wear becomes much more severe, all the way up to grabbing of the rubbing surfaces and pitting. Oil contaminants that form surface films with a different composition and structure, for example oxysulfide films, have received less attention. Using a procedure that we had developed, in which the oil can be saturated with hydrogen sulfide or other gases, we investigated the effects on wear rate and coefficient of friction from the presence of corrosive contaminants that find their way into turbine oil in the process of natural gas transmission.

  2. The quantitative surface analysis of an antioxidant additive in a lubricant oil matrix by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Da Costa, Caitlyn; Reynolds, James C; Whitmarsh, Samuel; Lynch, Tom; Creaser, Colin S

    2013-01-01

    RATIONALE Chemical additives are incorporated into commercial lubricant oils to modify the physical and chemical properties of the lubricant. The quantitative analysis of additives in oil-based lubricants deposited on a surface without extraction of the sample from the surface presents a challenge. The potential of desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) for the quantitative surface analysis of an oil additive in a complex oil lubricant matrix without sample extraction has been evaluated. METHODS The quantitative surface analysis of the antioxidant additive octyl (4-hydroxy-3,5-di-tert-butylphenyl)propionate in an oil lubricant matrix was carried out by DESI-MS in the presence of 2-(pentyloxy)ethyl 3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)propionate as an internal standard. A quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometer fitted with an in-house modified ion source enabling non-proximal DESI-MS was used for the analyses. RESULTS An eight-point calibration curve ranging from 1 to 80 µg/spot of octyl (4-hydroxy-3,5-di-tert-butylphenyl)propionate in an oil lubricant matrix and in the presence of the internal standard was used to determine the quantitative response of the DESI-MS method. The sensitivity and repeatability of the technique were assessed by conducting replicate analyses at each concentration. The limit of detection was determined to be 11 ng/mm2 additive on spot with relative standard deviations in the range 3–14%. CONCLUSIONS The application of DESI-MS to the direct, quantitative surface analysis of a commercial lubricant additive in a native oil lubricant matrix is demonstrated. © 2013 The Authors. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24097398

  3. Health, safety and environmental aspects of used crankcase lubricating oils.

    PubMed

    Hewstone, R K

    1994-12-01

    This paper indicates the health, safety and environmental concerns which have been expressed regarding the handling, re-use and disposal of used crankcase lubricating oils and discusses the factors which are believed to these concerns. It also indicates the current and developing situation with regard to legislation in this area, discusses briefly the disposal of used oils in cement kilns and sets out the views of the industry sectors most involved. Finally, it describes the simple safeguards the adoption of which should enable these materials to be handled with a high degree of safety.

  4. Intermetallic Nickel-Titanium Alloys for Oil-Lubricated Bearing Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DellaCorte, C.; Pepper, S. V.; Noebe, R.; Hull, D. R.; Glennon, G.

    2009-01-01

    An intermetallic nickel-titanium alloy, NITINOL 60 (60NiTi), containing 60 wt% nickel and 40 wt% titanium, is shown to be a promising candidate material for oil-lubricated rolling and sliding contact applications such as bearings and gears. NiTi alloys are well known and normally exploited for their shape memory behavior. When properly processed, however, NITINOL 60 exhibits excellent dimensional stability and useful structural properties. Processed via high temperature, high-pressure powder metallurgy techniques or other means, NITINOL 60 offers a broad combination of physical properties that make it unique among bearing materials. NITINOL 60 is hard, electrically conductive, highly corrosion resistant, less dense than steel, readily machined prior to final heat treatment, nongalling and nonmagnetic. No other bearing alloy, metallic or ceramic encompasses all of these attributes. Further, NITINOL 60 has shown remarkable tribological performance when compared to other aerospace bearing alloys under oil-lubricated conditions. Spiral orbit tribometer (SOT) tests were conducted in vacuum using NITINOL 60 balls loaded between rotating 440C stainless steel disks, lubricated with synthetic hydrocarbon oil. Under conditions considered representative of precision bearings, the performance (life and friction) equaled or exceeded that observed with silicon nitride or titanium carbide coated 440C bearing balls. Based upon this preliminary data, it appears that NITINOL 60, despite its high titanium content, is a promising candidate alloy for advanced mechanical systems requiring superior and intrinsic corrosion resistance, electrical conductivity and nonmagnetic behavior under lubricated contacting conditions.

  5. Improving vegetable oil properties for lubrication methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The inherent problems of vegetable oils, such as poor oxidation and low-temperature properties, can be improved by attaching functional groups at the sites of unsaturation through chemical modifications. In this article, you will see how functionalization helps overcome these disadvantages....

  6. Polymerization of sunflower oil diesel fuel: Copper catalysis in contaminated lubrication oil

    SciTech Connect

    Jette, S.J.; Shaffer, D.L.

    1988-01-01

    Diesel lubrication oil contaminated with sunflower oil fuel was exposed to conditions simulating an engine crankcase environment to study the role of copper catalysts in oil mixture thickening. Trace levels of dissolved copper species appear to dominate catalysis of triglyceride autooxidative polymerization with metallic copper surface seemingly only functioning as a dissolution interface. The importance of soluble copper forms was confirmed by replacing copper foil catalysts with a soluble complex, cupric acetylacetonate, to yield equivalent viscosity increases.

  7. Structured free-water clusters near lubricating surfaces are essential in water-based lubrication.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jiapeng; Veeregowda, Deepak H; de Vries, Joop; Van der Mei, Henny C; Busscher, Henk J

    2016-10-01

    Water-based lubrication provides cheap and environmentally friendly lubrication and, although hydrophilic surfaces are preferred in water-based lubrication, often lubricating surfaces do not retain water molecules during shear. We show here that hydrophilic (42° water contact angle) quartz surfaces facilitate water-based lubrication to the same extent as more hydrophobic Si crystal surfaces (61°), while lubrication by hydrophilic Ge crystal surfaces (44°) is best. Thus surface hydrophilicity is not sufficient for water-based lubrication. Surface-thermodynamic analyses demonstrated that all surfaces, regardless of their water-based lubrication, were predominantly electron donating, implying water binding with their hydrogen groups. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that Ge crystal surfaces providing optimal lubrication consisted of a mixture of -O and =O functionalities, while Si crystal and quartz surfaces solely possessed -O functionalities. Comparison of infrared absorption bands of the crystals in water indicated fewer bound-water layers on hydrophilic Ge than on hydrophobic Si crystal surfaces, while absorption bands for free water on the Ge crystal surface indicated a much more pronounced presence of structured, free-water clusters near the Ge crystal than near Si crystal surfaces. Accordingly, we conclude that the presence of structured, free-water clusters is essential for water-based lubrication. The prevalence of structured water clusters can be regulated by adjusting the ratio between surface electron-donating and electron-accepting groups and between -O and =O functionalities.

  8. Effects of syringe material and silicone oil lubrication on the stability of pharmaceutical proteins.

    PubMed

    Krayukhina, Elena; Tsumoto, Kouhei; Uchiyama, Susumu; Fukui, Kiichi

    2015-02-01

    Currently, polymer-based prefillable syringes are being promoted to the pharmaceutical market because they provide an increased break resistance relative to traditionally used glass syringes. Despite this significant advantage, the possibility that barrel material can affect the oligomeric state of the protein drug exists. The present study was designed to compare the effect of different syringe materials and silicone oil lubrication on the protein aggregation. The stability of a recombinant fusion protein, abatacept (Orencia), and a fully human recombinant immunoglobulin G1, adalimumab (Humira), was assessed in silicone oil-free (SOF) and silicone oil-lubricated 1-mL glass syringes and polymer-based syringes in accelerated stress study. Samples were subjected to agitation stress, and soluble aggregate levels were evaluated by size-exclusion chromatography and verified with analytical ultracentrifugation. In accordance with current regulatory expectations, the amounts of subvisible particles resulting from agitation stress were estimated using resonant mass measurement and dynamic flow-imaging analyses. The amount of aggregated protein and particle counts were similar between unlubricated polymer-based and glass syringes. The most significant protein loss was observed for lubricated glass syringes. These results suggest that newly developed SOF polymer-based syringes are capable of providing biopharmaceuticals with enhanced physical stability upon shipping and handling.

  9. Effects of Syringe Material and Silicone Oil Lubrication on the Stability of Pharmaceutical Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Krayukhina, Elena; Tsumoto, Kouhei; Uchiyama, Susumu; Fukui, Kiichi

    2015-01-01

    Currently, polymer-based prefillable syringes are being promoted to the pharmaceutical market because they provide an increased break resistance relative to traditionally used glass syringes. Despite this significant advantage, the possibility that barrel material can affect the oligomeric state of the protein drug exists. The present study was designed to compare the effect of different syringe materials and silicone oil lubrication on the protein aggregation. The stability of a recombinant fusion protein, abatacept (Orencia), and a fully human recombinant immunoglobulin G1, adalimumab (Humira), was assessed in silicone oil-free (SOF) and silicone oil-lubricated 1-mL glass syringes and polymer-based syringes in accelerated stress study. Samples were subjected to agitation stress, and soluble aggregate levels were evaluated by size-exclusion chromatography and verified with analytical ultracentrifugation. In accordance with current regulatory expectations, the amounts of subvisible particles resulting from agitation stress were estimated using resonant mass measurement and dynamic flow-imaging analyses. The amount of aggregated protein and particle counts were similar between unlubricated polymer-based and glass syringes. The most significant protein loss was observed for lubricated glass syringes. These results suggest that newly developed SOF polymer-based syringes are capable of providing biopharmaceuticals with enhanced physical stability upon shipping and handling. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 104:527–535, 2015 PMID:25256796

  10. Ionic liquids based on phosphonium cations as neat lubricants or lubricant additives for a steel/steel contact.

    PubMed

    Otero, Inés; López, Enriqueta R; Reichelt, Manuela; Villanueva, María; Salgado, Josefa; Fernández, Josefa

    2014-08-13

    After doing several miscibility essays with eight ionic liquids (ILs) and four base oils, the ILs tri(butyl)ethylphosphonium diethylphosphate [P4,4,4,2][C2C2PO4] and trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate [P6,6,6,14][(C2F5)3PF3] were selected to be studied as lubricant additives. The neat IL [P4,4,4,2][C2C2PO4], the base oils, and several blends were characterized in terms of density, viscosity, and thermal stability. The tribological performance of the miscible base oil/IL blends (1 wt %) and the neat [P4,4,4,2][C2C2PO4] were evaluated for the lubrication of an AISI 420 steel-100Cr6 steel contact pair. The friction coefficients and wear volumes obtained are also compared with those corresponding to the pure base oils and their mixtures with conventional additive zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP). As neat lubricants, [P4,4,4,2][C2C2PO4] showed the best antifriction ability, whereas in terms of wear, better results were obtained with [P6,6,6,14][(C2F5)3PF3]. However, higher improvements in both friction and wear were found for blends containing [P4,4,4,2][C2C2PO4]. XPS analyses of the worn surfaces lubricated with these mixtures indicated the presence of phosphorus in the tribofilm formed on the wear track. However, this compound was slightly detected on tribosamples lubricated with blends containing [P6,6,6,14][(C2F5)3PF3].

  11. High-Temperature Solid Lubricants Developed by NASA Lewis Offer Virtually "Unlimited Life" for Oil-Free Turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Valco, Mark J.

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center is capitalizing on breakthroughs in foil air bearing performance, tribological coatings, and computer analyses to formulate the Oil-free Turbomachinery Program. The program s long-term goal is to develop an innovative, yet practical, oil-free aeropropulsion gas turbine engine that floats on advanced air bearings. This type of engine would operate at higher speeds and temperatures with lower weight and friction than conventional oil-lubricated engines. During startup and shutdown, solid lubricant coatings are required to prevent wear in such engines before the self-generating air-lubrication film develops. NASA s Tribology Branch has created PS304, a chrome-oxide-based plasma spray coating specifically tailored for shafts run against foil bearings. PS304 contains silver and barium fluoride/calcium fluoride eutectic (BaF2/CaF2) lubricant additives that, together, provide lubrication from cold start temperatures to over 650 C, the maximum use temperature for foil bearings. Recent lab tests show that bearings lubricated with PS304 survive over 100 000 start-stop cycles without experiencing any degradation in performance due to wear. The accompanying photograph shows a test bearing after it was run at 650 C. The rubbing process created a "polished" surface that enhances bearing load capacity.

  12. Evaporation rate and vapor pressure of selected polymeric lubricating oils.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardos, M. N.

    1973-01-01

    A recently developed ultrahigh-vacuum quartz spring mass sorption microbalance has been utilized to measure the evaporation rates of several low-volatility polymeric lubricating oils at various temperatures. The evaporation rates are used to calculate the vapor pressures by the Langmuir equation. A method is presented to accurately estimate extended temperature range evaporation rate and vapor pressure data for polymeric oils, incorporating appropriate corrections for the increases in molecular weight and the change in volatility of the progressively evaporating polymer fractions. The logarithms of the calculated data appear to follow linear relationships within the test temperature ranges, when plotted versus 1000/T. These functions and the observed effusion characteristics of the fluids on progressive volatilization are useful in estimating evaporation rate and vapor pressure changes on evaporative depletion.

  13. The ASTM viscosity index and other systems for classifying lubricating oils

    SciTech Connect

    Zakarian, J.A.

    1982-11-01

    Even though the ASTM V.I. is based on an arbitrary and inconsistent series of reference oils, the system still persists as an industry standard to rate the viscosity-temperature characteristics of lubricating oils. There is need for an industry wide reassessment of the value of the V.I., particularly to answer the question, ''What does the V.I. measure.''. Before defining an alternative classification system, it is important to clearly formulate the problem and to realize that both relative and nonrealtive indices suffer from inherent assumptions and limitations, and that the choice of no rating index may be better than the choice of a misleading one.

  14. The dermal carcinogenic potential of unrefined and hydrotreated lubricating oils.

    PubMed

    McKee, R H; Daughtrey, W C; Freeman, J J; Federici, T M; Phillips, R D; Plutnick, R T

    1989-08-01

    Unrefined lubricating oils contain relatively high levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and have been shown to induce tumors in mouse skin. Exxon has developed a new method of refining these materials, a severe hydrotreatment process that is optimized for PAH removal. The specific objectives of the current study were to assess PAH reduction and then to evaluate directly the dermal carcinogenic potential of the materials that spanned the range of products produced by this method. The test samples included unrefined light and heavy vacuum distillates from a naphthenic crude oil, as well as the corresponding severely hydrotreated products. Two sets of samples were prepared to assess the effects of various operating parameters in the reactor. Additionally, positive (benzo[a]pyrene), negative (white mineral oil) and vehicle (toluene) control groups were included to assess the sensitivity and specificity of the bioassay. Each sample was applied in twice-weekly aliquots to the backs of 40 male C3H mice. In the analytical studies, significant reductions in the levels of several specific PAH were demonstrated. In the dermal carcinogenesis studies, the unrefined oils and the positive control induced tumors and also significantly reduced survival. None of the mice treated with severely hydrotreated oils or with the negative or vehicle controls developed skin tumors, and survival of these mice was not significantly different from the control. Thus, the data demonstrated that this new, severe hydrotreatment process was an effective means of converting carcinogenic feedstocks to non-carcinogenic products.

  15. Effect of Inertial Force on Thermal Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication of Oil Film Bearing in Rolling Mill Lubricated by the Oil-water Two-phase Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tao; Wang, You-Qiang; Wang, Jian; Fan, Xiao-Meng

    2016-05-01

    The oil film bearing in rolling mill as the research object in this paper is established oilwater two-phase flow of thermal elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) model with the inertia force and thermal effect of the Reynolds equation. The oil film bearing in rolling mill in oil-water two-phase flow is analyzed the effect on the pyrolysis with considering inertia force, and the lubricant film pressure, film thickness with the changes in the relationship between water content, rolling force and spindle speed. The results showed that the lubricant film thickness is increased and carrying capacity is also increased with considering inertial force. With the increase of water content, lubricant film thickness is increased and the carrying capacity is decreased.

  16. A Systems Approach to the Solid Lubrication of Foil Air Bearings for Oil-Free Turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Zaldana, Antonio R.; Radil, Kevin C.

    2002-01-01

    Foil air bearings are self-acting hydrodynamic bearings which rely upon solid lubricants to reduce friction and minimize wear during sliding which occurs at start-up and shut-down when surface speeds are too low to allow the formation of a hydrodynamic air film. This solid lubrication is typically accomplished by coating the non-moving foil surface with a thin, soft polymeric film. The following paper introduces a systems approach in which the solid lubrication is provided by a combination of self lubricating shaft coatings coupled with various wear resistant and lubricating foil coatings. The use of multiple materials, each providing different functions is modeled after oil-lubricated hydrodynamic sleeve bearing technology which utilizes various coatings and surface treatments in conjunction with oil lubricants to achieve optimum performance. In this study, room temperature load capacity tests are performed on journal foil air bearings operating at 14,000 rpm. Different shaft and foil coating technologies such as plasma sprayed composites, ceramic, polymer and inorganic lubricant coatings are evaluated as foil bearing lubricants. The results indicate that bearing performance is improved through the individual use of the lubricants and treatments tested. Further, combining several solid lubricants together yielded synergistically better results than any material alone.

  17. Biodegradation of Diesel, Crude Oil and Spent Lubricating Oil by Soil Isolates of Bacillus spp.

    PubMed

    Raju, Maddela Naga; Leo, Rodriguez; Herminia, Sanaguano Salguero; Morán, Ricardo Ernesto Burgos; Venkateswarlu, Kadiyala; Laura, Scalvenzi

    2017-02-16

    Two species of Bacillus, B. thuringiensis B3 and B. cereus B6, isolated from crude oil-contaminated sites in Ecuador, were tested for their capability in degrading polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in diesel (shake-flask), and to remove total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) from crude oil- or spent lubricating oil-polluted soils (plot-scale). TPHs and PAHs were analyzed by Gas chromatography-Flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), respectively. Degradation percentages of PAHs by strain B6 were in the range of 11-83 after 30 days. A mixed culture of both the strains removed 84% and 28% of TPHs from crude oil- and spent lubricating oil-polluted soils, respectively. Reduction in the abundance of total n-alkane fractions (C8-C40) of spent lubricating oil was 94%, which was 18% higher than the control. Our results clearly indicate that the selected strains have great potential in degrading petroleum hydrocarbons at both laboratory- and field-scales.

  18. The filling of powdered herbs into two-piece hard capsules using hydrogenated cotton seed oil as lubricant.

    PubMed

    Aling, Joanna; Podczeck, Fridrun

    2012-11-20

    The aim of this work was to investigate the plug formation and filling properties of powdered herbal leaves using hydrogenated cotton seed oil as an alternative lubricant. In a first step, unlubricated and lubricated herbal powders were studied on a small scale using a plug simulator, and low-force compression physics and parameterization techniques were used to narrow down the range in which the optimum amount of lubricant required would be found. In a second step these results were complemented with investigations into the flow properties of the powders based on packing (tapping) experiments to establish the final optimum lubricant concentration. Finally, capsule filling of the optimum formulations was undertaken using an instrumented tamp filling machine. This work has shown that hydrogenated cotton seed oil can be used advantageously for the lubrication of herbal leaf powders. Stickiness as observed with magnesium stearate did not occur, and the optimum lubricant concentration was found to be less than that required for magnesium stearate. In this work, lubricant concentrations of 1% or less hydrogenated cotton seed oil were required to fill herbal powders into capsules on the instrumented tamp-filling machine. It was found that in principle all powders could be filled successfully, but that for some powders the use of higher compression settings was disadvantageous. Relationships between the particle size distributions of the powders, their flow and consolidation as well as their filling properties could be identified by multivariate statistical analysis. The work has demonstrated that a combination of the identification of plug formation and powder flow properties is helpful in establishing the optimum lubricant concentration required using a small quantity of powder and a powder plug simulator. On an automated tamp-filling machine, these optimum formulations produced satisfactory capsules in terms of coefficient of fill weight variability and capsule weight.

  19. Fuel and lubricant additives from acid treated mixtures of vegetable oil derived amides and esters

    SciTech Connect

    Bonazza, B.R.; Devault, A.N.

    1981-05-26

    Vegetable oils such as corn oil, peanut oil, and soy oil are reacted with polyamines to form a mixture containing amides, imides, half esters, and glycerol with subsequent treatment with a strong acid such as sulfonic acid to produce a product mix that has good detergent properties in fuels and lubricants.

  20. Anti-Wear Performance and Mechanism of an Oil-Miscible Ionic Liquid as a Lubricant Additive

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Jun; Bansal, Dinesh G; Yu, Bo; Howe, Jane Y; Luo, Huimin; Dai, Sheng; Li, Huaqing; Blau, Peter Julian; Bunting, Bruce G; Mordukhovich, Gregory; Smolenski, Donald

    2012-01-01

    An ionic liquid (IL) trihexyltetradecylphosphonium bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate has been investigated as a potential anti-wear lubricant additive. Unlike most other ILs that have very low solubility in non-polar fluids, this IL is fully miscible with various hydrocarbon oils. In addition, it is thermally stable up to 347 oC, showed no corrosive attack to cast iron in ambient environment, and has excellent wettability on solid surfaces (e.g., contact angle on cast iron <8o). Most importantly, this phosphonium-based IL has demonstrated effective anti-scuffing and anti-wear characteristics when blended with lubricating oils. For example, a 5 wt.% addition into a synthetic base oil eliminated the scuffing failure experienced by the neat oil and, as a result, reduced the friction coefficient by 60% and the wear rate by three orders of magnitude. A synergistic effect on wear protection was observed with the current anti-wear additive when added into a fully-formulated engine oil. Nanostructure examination and composition analysis revealed a tribo-boundary film and subsurface plastic deformation zone for the metallic surface lubricated by the IL-containing lubricants. This protective boundary film is believed to be responsible for the IL s anti-scuffing and anti-wear functionality.

  1. AN AZERBAIDZHAN SSR. INSTITUTE OF ADDITIVE CHEMISTRY ADDITIVES TO LUBRICATING OILS. PROBLEMS OF SYNTHESIS, INVESTIGATION AND USE OF OIL ADDITIVES; FUELS AND POLYMER MATERIALS (SELECTED ARTICLES),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    An Azerbaidzhan SSR. Institute of additive chemistry additives to lubricating oils . Problems of synthesis, investigation and use of oil additives; fuels and polymer materials (Selected articles)--Translation.

  2. Development and validation of an environmentally friendly attenuated total reflectance in the mid-infrared region method for the determination of ethanol content in used engine lubrication oil.

    PubMed

    Hatanaka, Rafael Rodrigues; Sequinel, Rodrigo; Gualtieri, Carlos Eduardo; Tercini, Antônio Carlos Bergamaschi; Flumignan, Danilo Luiz; de Oliveira, José Eduardo

    2013-05-15

    Lubricating oils are crucial in the operation of automotive engines because they both reduce friction between moving parts and protect against corrosion. However, the performance of lubricant oil may be affected by contaminants, such as gasoline, diesel, ethanol, water and ethylene glycol. Although there are many standard methods and studies related to the quantification of contaminants in lubricant oil, such as gasoline and diesel oil, to the best of our knowledge, no methods have been reported for the quantification of ethanol in used Otto cycle engine lubrication oils. Therefore, this work aimed at the development and validation of a routine method based on partial least-squares multivariate analysis combined with attenuated total reflectance in the mid-infrared region to quantify ethanol content in used lubrication oil. The method was validated based on its figures of merit (using the net analyte signal) as follows: limit of detection (0.049%), limit of quantification (0.16%), accuracy (root mean square error of prediction=0.089% w/w), repeatability (0.05% w/w), fit (R(2)=0.9997), mean selectivity (0.047), sensitivity (0.011), inverse analytical sensitivity (0.016% w/w(-1)) and signal-to-noise ratio (max: 812.4 and min: 200.9). The results show that the proposed method can be routinely implemented for the quality control of lubricant oils.

  3. Comparison of Extreme Pressure Additive Treat Rates in Soybean and Mineral Oils Under Boundary Lubrication Conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traditionally, it is considered that, under boundary lubrication conditions, the reduction in friction and wear is mostly dependent on Extreme Pressure (EP) additives, rather than the basestock. However, several studies indicate that vegetable oils also contribute to the lubricity under this regime...

  4. Determination of the total iron content of used lubricating oils by atomic-absorption with use of emulsions.

    PubMed

    Salvador, A; de la Guardia, M; Berenguer, V

    1983-12-01

    A new method is proposed for the determination of the total iron content of used lubricating oils. It is based on treatment of the samples with a mixture of hydrofluoric and nitric acids (without destruction of the organic matter) and emulsification, followed by atomic-absorption measurement. This allows the use of aqueous standards and provides a simple, rapid, inexpensive and accurate method, that is not affected by the particle size of the solids in the oil.

  5. Research on the Injection Performance of a Novel Lubricating Device Based on Piezoelectric Micro-Jet Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kai; Liu, Jun-kao; Chen, Wei-shan; Ye, Le; Zhang, Lu

    2016-08-01

    In order to solve the problem of lubrication failure in bearing systems, a novel lubricating device which can achieve drop-on-demand lubrication is proposed based on piezoelectric micro-jet technology. The injection performance of the novel piezoelectric micro-jet lubricating device are analyzed in this paper. The influences of the fluid-structure interaction to the working frequency are studied by comparing the results of tests with simulations. A method used to forecast the working frequency of the micro-jet is proved to be available. A velocity inlet boundary model at the nozzle is derived under the assumption that the lubricating oil cannot be pressed. Combined with this model, the influences of density, dynamic viscosity and surface tension of the lubricating oil on the injection performance are discussed according to the simulation results. An experiment on the injection performance of the micro-jet for ejecting lubricating oil with different dilution ratios is performed. The recommended excitations are given for ejecting lubricating oil with different properties by analyzing the results.

  6. Lubricant oil condition monitoring using a scattering-free single-wavelength optical scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignani, A. G.; Ciaccheri, L.; Mencaglia, Andrea A.; Adriani, G.; Paccagnini, A.; Campatelli, M.; Ottevaere, H.; Thienpont, H.

    2014-05-01

    A simple and low-cost optical setup can be used for monitoring online the condition of lubricant oil in big machineries, as an action of preventive maintenance. The total acid number and the water content, as indicators of the lubricant oil quality, can be assessed by means of an integrating sphere for achieving scattering-free absorption measurements. For each indicator, spectroscopy showed that a peculiar wavelength is enough for predicting with good accuracy the value of the indicator.

  7. Lubricant

    SciTech Connect

    Shubkin, R.L.

    1980-08-19

    Hydrogenated dimers of /sup 12 -18/C alpha olefins (e.g., 1-tetradecene) made using a friedel-crafts catalyst (e.g., /sup 3/Bf promoted with water) have low pour points, low volatility and viscosities which make them suitable as crankcase lubricants for internal combustion engines.

  8. Marine Lubricants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, B. H.; Green, D.

    Marine diesel engines are classified by speed, either large (medium speed) or very large (slow speed) with high efficiencies and burning low-quality fuel. Slow-speed engines, up to 200 rpm, are two-stroke with separate combustion chamber and sump connected by a crosshead, with trunk and system oil lubricants for each. Medium-speed diesels, 300-1500 rpm, are of conventional automotive design with one lubricant. Slow-speed engines use heavy fuel oil of much lower quality than conventional diesel with problems of deposit cleanliness, acidity production and oxidation. Lubricants are mainly SAE 30/40/50 monogrades using paraffinic basestocks. The main types of additives are detergents/dispersants, antioxidants, corrosion inhibitors, anti-wear/load-carrying/ep, pour-point depressants and anti-foam compounds. There are no simple systems for classifying marine lubricants, as for automotive, because of the wide range of engine design, ratings and service applications they serve. There are no standard tests; lubricant suppliers use their own tests or the Bolnes 3DNL, with final proof from field tests. Frequent lubricant analyses safeguard engines and require standard sampling procedures before determination of density, viscosity, flash point, insolubles, base number, water and wear metal content.

  9. Influence of lubricant contamination by methylesters of plant oils on oxidation stability and life

    SciTech Connect

    Siekmann, R.W.; Blackman, D.; Pischinger, G.H.; Carvalho, L.D.

    1982-01-01

    Lubricating oil deterioration due to contamination by methylester of plant oil is studied in laboratory tests in MacCoull apparatus and, for comparison, bench and mixed-driving tests. Methylester of soybean oil (MESO) is added intentionally to the lubricating oil. Laboratory tests show that the amount of double bonds introduced is significant in increasing viscosity and reducing TBN. Gas-chromatographic analysis of extracted ester shows degradation mainly in fatty acids with conjugated double bonds. Tests in engines, both bench and mixed-driving, gave results similar to MacCoull but respectively and much less pronounced.

  10. Lubrication characteristics of nano-oil with different degrees of surface hardness of sliding members.

    PubMed

    Ku, Boncheol; Han, Youngcheol; Lee, Kwangho; Choi, Youngmin; Koo, Bonyoung; Hwang, Yujin; Lee, Jaekeun

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the lubrication characteristics of sliding members were compared with the changes in the hardness of friction surfaces and the application of nano-oil. The materials of the specimens were gray cast iron (AISI 35 and AISI 60) and nickel chromium molybdenum steel (AISI 4320). The friction coefficients and the temperature variations of the frictional surfaces were measured with a disk-on-disk tribotester under a fixed rotation speed. The friction surfaces were observed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The friction coefficients of the plate surface increased as the hardness difference increased. The friction coefficient after the lubrication with nano-oil was less than that after lubrication with mineral oil. This is because a spherical nanoparticle plays the role of a tiny ball bearing between the frictional surfaces that improve the lubrication characteristics.

  11. Lubricating properties of molybdenum disulfide. Part 3: Performance of molybdenum disulfide-containing oils in fluid lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soda, Norimune; Miyahara, Yoshinori

    1988-01-01

    The lubricating properties of a straight mineral oil with and without MoS2 powder were studied. Bearing testers of thrust-collar type and of journal bearing type were used for thin- and fluid-film conditions, respectively. The effectiveness of the MoS2 powder in the oil differed depending on the conditions of the rubbing surfaces. For fluid film conditions, considerable effects of the MoS2 were observed, in contrast to the thin-film cases. The addition of MoS2 powder was effective only when the lubricant film was formed between surfaces thickly enough to allow the inflow of MoS2 particles.

  12. The use of surface layer with boron in friction pairs lubricated by engine oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szczypiński-Sala, W.; Lubas, J.

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present work is to determine the influence of surface layers with boron and engine oil on the processes of friction and wear in friction pairs. The ring samples with borided surface layer cooperated under test conditions with counterparts made with CuPb30 and AlSn20 bearing alloys. During the tests, the friction pairs were lubricated with 15W/40 Lotos mineral oil and 5W/40 Lotos synthetic oil. The lubrication of friction area with Lotos mineral oil causes the reduction of the friction force, the temperature in the friction area and the wear of the bearing alloys under study, whereas the lubrication with Lotos synthetic oil reduces the changes in the geometrical structure of the cooperating friction pair elements. Lubrication of the friction area in the start-up phase of the friction pair by mineral oil causes faster stabilization of the friction conditions in the contact area than in the cause of lubrication of the friction pair by synthetic oil. The intensity of wear of the AlSn20 bearing alloy cooperating with the borided surface layer is three times smaller than the intensity of use of the CuPb30 alloy bearing.

  13. Observations of Spacecraft Bearing Lubricant Redistribution Based on Thermal Conductance Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takeuchi, Yoshimi R.; Frantz, Peter P.; Hilton, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    The performance and life of precision ball bearings are critically dependent on maintaining a quantity of oil at the ball/race interface that is sufficient to support a robust protective film. In space applications, where parched conditions are intentionally the norm, harsh operating conditions can displace the small reserves of oil, resulting in reduced film thickness and premature wear. In the past, these effects have proven difficult to model or to measure experimentally. This paper describes a study addressing this challenge, where bearing thermal conductance measurements are employed to infer changes in lubricant quantity at the critical rolling interfaces. In the first part of the paper, we explain how the lubricant's presence and its quantity impacts bearing thermal conductance measurements. For a stationary bearing, we show that conductance is directly related to the lubricant quantity in the ball/race contacts. Hence, aspects of bearing performance related to oil quantity can be understood and insights improved with thermal conductance data. For a moving bearing, a different mechanism of heat transfer dominates and is dependent on lubricant film thickness on the ball. In the second part of the report, we discuss lubricant quantity observations based on bearing thermal conductance measurements. Lubricant quantity, and thus bearing thermal conductance, depends on various initial and operating conditions and is impacted further by the run-in process. A significant effect of maximum run-in speed was also observed, with less oil remaining after obtaining higher speeds. Finally, we show that some of the lubricant that is displaced between the ball and race during run-in operation can be recovered during rest, and we measure the rate of recovery for one example.

  14. Quantitative Analysis for Monitoring Formulation of Lubricating Oil Using Terahertz Time-Domain Transmission Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Lu; Zhao, Kun; Zhou, Qing-Li; Shi, Yu-Lei; Zhang, Cun-Lin

    2012-04-01

    The quantitative analysis of zinc isopropyl-isooctyl-dithiophosphate (T204) mixed with lube base oil from Korea with viscosity index 70 (T204-Korea70) is presented by using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). Compared with the middle-infrared spectra of zinc n-butyl-isooctyl-dithiophosphate (T202) and T204, THz spectra of T202 and T204 show the weak broad absorption bands. Then, the absorption coefficients of the T204-Korea70 system follow Beer's law at the concentration from 0.124 to 4.024%. The experimental absorption spectra of T204-Korea70 agree with the calculated ones based on the standard absorption coefficients of T204 and Korea70. The quantitative analysis enables a strategy to monitor the formulation of lubricating oil in real time.

  15. New method of simulation to evaluate the sensitivity to oxidation of lubricating oils: an aging cell coupled with fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Priéri, F; Gresser, E; Le Dréau, Y; Obiols, J; Kister, J

    2008-07-01

    This study presents a new method for evaluating the oxidation of lubricating oils. An aging cell adapted to a Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometer allows the continuous and direct study of the oxidative aging of base oils. During the test, oxidation bands appeared in the spectra (carbonyl bands around 1730 cm(-1)). The graphic representation of the carbonyl band modification--using a spectroscopic index--makes it possible to monitor the evolution of the lubricant composition. Comparing the oxidation constants, determined from the kinetic plots of several base oils, makes it possible to evaluate their relative sensitivity.

  16. A comparative life cycle assessment of petroleum and soybean-based lubricants.

    PubMed

    Miller, Shelie A; Landis, Amy E; Theis, Thomas L; Reich, Ronald A

    2007-06-01

    A comparative life cycle assessment examining soybean and petroleum-based lubricants is compiled using Monte Carlo analysis to assess system variability. Experimental data obtained from an aluminum manufacturing facility indicate significantly less soybean lubricant is required to achieve similar or superior performance. With improved performance and a lower use rate, a transition to soybean oil results in lower aggregate impacts of acidification, smog formation, and human health from criteria pollutants. Regardless of quantity consumed, soybean-based lubricants exhibit significant climate change and fossil fuel use benefits; however, eutrophication impacts are much greater due to non-point nutrient emissions. Fundamental tradeoffs in the carbon and nitrogen cycles are addressed in the analysis, demonstrating that a transition to soybean oil may result in climate change benefits at the expense of regional water quality.

  17. Effect of ZnO nanoparticles in R290/R600a (50/50) based vapour compression refrigeration system added via lubricant oil on compressor suction and discharge characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ravinder; Singh, Jagdev

    2016-10-01

    The primary source of energy consumption in a vapour compression refrigeration system is a compressor. The possibility of a reduction in the work of compression may leads to enhance the compressor suction and discharge characteristics and the overall performance of the refrigeration system. The present experimental investigation based upon the study of ZnO nanoparticles in a vapour compression refrigeration system using hydrocarbon blend R290/R600a (50/50) as a refrigerant. The zinc oxide nanoparticles are appended with system refrigerant via compressor lubricating oil. The results observed that by using different weight concentrations of nanoparticles in R290/R600a refrigeration system, both the compressor suction and discharge pressures and temperatures were reduced compared to conventional system. The viscosity of mineral oil with the addition of nanoparticles increases. The compressor energy consumption was reduced by 7.48 % using (0.2-1.0) wt% concentrations of nanoparticles. The COP of the refrigeration system has been increased by about 46 % with the addition of nanoparticles. Thus, the ZnO nanoparticles worked efficiently in the R290/R600a refrigeration system.

  18. Confirmation of heavy metal ions in used lubricating oil from a passenger car using chelating self-assembled monolayer.

    PubMed

    Ko, Young Gun; Kim, Choong Hyun

    2006-09-01

    In order to prevent engine failure, the oil must be changed before it loses its protective properties. It is necessary to monitor the actual physical and chemical condition of the oil to reliably determine the optimum oil-change interval. Our study focuses on the condition of the lubricating oil in an operated car engine. Shear stress curves and viscosity curves as a function of the shear rate for fresh and used lubricating oil were examined. Metal nitrate was detected in the lubricating oil from the operated car engine through the use of a chelating self-assembled monolayer.

  19. Properties of dry film lubricants prepared by spray application of aqueous starch-oil composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aqueous dispersions of starch-soybean oil (SBO) and starch-jojoba oil (JO) composites, prepared by excess steam jet cooking, form effective dry film lubricants when applied as thick coatings to metal surfaces by doctor blade. This application method necessitates long drying times, is wasteful, requ...

  20. Adsorption Behavior of Heat Modified Soybean Oil via Boundary Lubrication Coefficient of Friction Measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The frictional behaviors of soybean oil and heat modified soybean oils with different Gardner scale viscosities as additives in hexadecane have been examined in a boundary lubrication test regime (steel contacts) using Langmuir adsorption model. The free energy of adsorption (delta-Gads) of various...

  1. Simulated aging of lubricant oils by chemometric treatment of infrared spectra: potential antioxidant properties of sulfur structures.

    PubMed

    Amat, Sandrine; Braham, Zeineb; Le Dréau, Yveline; Kister, Jacky; Dupuy, Nathalie

    2013-03-30

    Lubricant oils are complex mixtures of base oils and additives. The evolution of their performance over time strongly depends on its resistance to thermal oxidation. Sulfur compounds revealed interesting antioxidant properties. This study presents a method to evaluate the lubricant oil oxidation. Two samples, a synthetic and a paraffinic base oils, were tested pure and supplemented with seven different sulfur compounds. An aging cell adapted to a Fourier Transform InfraRed (FT-IR) spectrometer allows the continuous and direct analysis of the oxidative aging of base oils. Two approaches were applied to study the oxidation/anti-oxidation phenomena. The first one leads to define a new oxidative spectroscopic index based on a reduced spectral range where the modifications have been noticed (from 3050 to 2750 cm(-1)). The second method is based on chemometric treatments of whole spectra (from 4000 to 400 cm(-1)) to extract underlying information. A SIMPLe-to-use Interactive Self Modeling Analysis (SIMPLISMA) method has been used to identify more precisely the chemical species produced or degraded during the thermal treatment and to follow their evolution. Pure spectra of different species present in oil were obtained without prior information of their existence. The interest of this tool is to supply relative quantitative information reflecting evolution of the relative abundance of the different products over thermal aging. Results obtained by these two ways have been compared to estimate their concordance.

  2. Determination of the aromatic hydrocarbon to total hydrocarbon ratio of mineral oil in commercial lubricants.

    PubMed

    Uematsu, Yoko; Suzuki, Kumi; Ogimoto, Mami

    2016-01-01

    A method was developed to determine the aromatic hydrocarbon to total hydrocarbon ratio of mineral oil in commercial lubricants; a survey was also conducted of commercial lubricants. Hydrocarbons in lubricants were separated from the matrix components of lubricants using a silica gel solid phase extraction (SPE) column. Normal-phase liquid chromatography (NPLC) coupled with an evaporative light-scattering detector (ELSD) was used to determine the aromatic hydrocarbon to total hydrocarbon ratio. Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) coupled with a diode array detector (DAD) and a refractive index detector (RID) was used to estimate carbon numbers and the presence of aromatic hydrocarbons, which supplemented the results obtained by NPLC/ELSD. Aromatic hydrocarbons were not detected in 12 lubricants specified for use for incidental food contact, but were detected in 13 out of 22 lubricants non-specified for incidental food contact at a ratio up to 18%. They were also detected in 10 out of 12 lubricants collected at food factories at a ratio up to 13%. The centre carbon numbers of hydrocarbons in commercial lubricants were estimated to be between C16 and C50.

  3. Comparison Between Oil-mist and Oil-jet Lubrication of High-speed, Small-bore, Angular-contact Ball Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinel, Stanley I.; Signer, Hans R.; Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    2001-01-01

    Parametric tests were conducted with an optimized 35-mm-bore-angular-contact ball bearing on a high-speed, high-temperature bearing tester. Results from both air-oil mist lubrication and oil-jet lubrication systems used to lubricate the bearing were compared to speeds of 2.5 x 10(exp 6) DN. The maximum obtainable speed with air-oil mist lubrication is 2.5 x 10(exp 6) DN. Lower bearing temperatures and higher power losses are obtained with oil-jet lubrication than with air-oil mist lubrication. Bearing power loss is a direct function of oil flow to the bearing and independent of oil delivery system. For a given oil-flow rate, bearing temperature and power loss increase with increases in speed. Bearing life is an inverse function of temperature, the difference in temperature between the individual bearing ring components, and the resultant elastohydrodynamic (EHD) film thicknesses. Bearing life is independent of the oil delivery system except as it affects temperature. Cage slip increased with increases in speed. Cage slip as high as 7 percent was measured and was generally higher with air-oil mist lubrication than with oil-jet lubrication.

  4. Comparison Between Oil-Mist and Oil-Jet Lubrication of High-Speed, Small-Bore, Angular-Contact Ball Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinel, Stanley I.; Signer, Hans R.; Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    2001-01-01

    Parametric tests were conducted with an optimized 35-mm-bore-angular-contact ball bearing on a high-speed, high-temperature bearing tester. Results from both air-oil mist lubrication and oil-jet lubrication systems used to lubricate the bearing were compared to speeds of 2.5x10(exp 6) DN. The maximum obtainable speed with air-oil mist lubrication is 2.5x10(exp 6) DN. Lower bearing temperatures and higher power losses are obtained with oil-jet lubrication than with air-oil mist lubrication. Bearing power loss is a direct function of oil flow to the bearing and independent of oil delivery system. For a given oil-flow rate, bearing temperature and power loss increase with increases in speed. Bearing life is an inverse function of temperature, the difference in temperature between the individual bearing ring components, and the resultant elastohydrodynamic (EHD) film thicknesses. Bearing life is independent of the oil delivery system except as it affects temperature. Cage slip increased with increases in speed. Cage slip as high as 7% was measured and was generally higher with air-oil mist lubrication than with oil-jet lubrication.

  5. Effect of temperature on lubrication with biobased oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temperature is an important parameter affecting the performance of lubricant ingredients. It affects such important tribological characteristics as viscosity, film thickness, adsorption, desorption, friction, and wear. Temperature also promotes oxidation, polymerization, and degradation which nega...

  6. Quantifying the Contribution of Lubrication Oil Carbon to Particulate Emissions from a Diesel Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Buchholz, B A; Dibble, R W; Rich, D; Cheng, A S

    2003-01-31

    The contribution of lubrication oil to particulate matter (PM) emissions from a Cummins B5.9 Diesel engine was measured using accelerator mass spectrometry to trace carbon isotope concentrations. The engine operated at fixed medium load (285 N-m (210 ft.lbs.) at 1600 rpm) used 100% biodiesel fuel (8100) with a contemporary carbon-14 ({sup 14}C) concentration of 103 amol {sup 14}C mg C. The {sup 14}C concentration of the exhaust CO{sub 2} and PM were 102 and 99 amol {sup 14}C/mg C, respectively. The decrease in {sup 14}C content in the CO, and PM are due to the consumption of lubrication oil which is {sup 14}C-free. Approximately 4% of the carbon in PM came from lubrication oil under these operating conditions.

  7. Contribution of Lubricating Oil to Particulate Matter Emissions from Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicles in Kansas City

    EPA Science Inventory

    The contribution of lubricating oil to particulate matter (PM) emissions representative of the in-use 2004 light-duty gasoline vehicles fleet is estimated from the Kansas City Light-Duty Vehicle Emissions Study (KCVES). PM emissions are apportioned to lubricating oil and gasoline...

  8. Contribution of Lubricating Oil to Particulate Matter Emissions from Light-duty Gasoline Vehicles in Kansas City

    EPA Science Inventory

    The contribution of lubricating oil to particulate matter (PM) emissions representative of the in-use 2004 light-duty gasoline vehicles fleet is estimated from the Kansas City Light-Duty Vehicle Emissions Study (KCVES). PM emissions are apportioned to lubricating oil and gasoline...

  9. Evaluating lubricating capacity of vegetal oils using Abbott-Firestone curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgescu, C.; Cristea, G. C.; Dima, C.; Deleanu, L.

    2017-02-01

    The paper presents the change of functional parameters defined on the Abbott-Firestone curve in order to evaluate the surface quality of the balls from the four ball tester, after tests done with several vegetable oils. The tests were done using two grades of rapeseed oil (degummed and refined) and two grades of soybean oil (coarse and degummed) and a common transmission oil (T90). Test parameters were 200 N and 0.576 m/s (1500 rpm) for 60 minutes. For the refined rapeseed oil, the changes in shape of the Abbott-Firestone curves are more dramatic, these being characterized by high values of Spk (the average value for the wear scars on the three balls), thus being 40% of the sum Svk + Sk + Spk, percentage also obtained for the soybean oil, but the value Spk being lower. For the degummed soybean oil, the profile height of the wear scars are taller than those obtained after testing the coarse soybean oil, meaning that the degumming process has a negative influence on the worn surface quality and the lubricating capacity of this oil. Comparing the surface quality of the wear scars on fixed tested balls is a reliable method to point out the lubricant properties of the vegetable oils, especially if they are compared to a “classical” lubricant as a non-additivated transmission mineral oil T90. The best surface after testing was obtained for the soybean oil, followed by T90 oil and the degummed grades of the soybean oil and rapeseed oil (these three giving very close values for the functional parameters), but the refined rapeseed oil generated the poorest quality of the wear scars on the balls, under the same testing conditions.

  10. Applications of Electrostatic Sensor for Wear Debris Detecting in the Lubricating Oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Z.; Yin, X.; Jiang, Z.

    2013-10-01

    In this study, an advanced monitoring technology has been presented based on the electrostatic induction principle to monitor timely wear fault on-line. The paper begins with the principle of the electrostatic monitoring technology, then we focus on the electrostatic sensor, the most important component in the electrostatic monitoring system, establish a measurement model for an electrostatic sensor with the given structure parameters. Based on the measurement model, we use the finite element method to analyze the characteristics of an electrostatic sensor for wear debris detecting in lubricating oil. Lastly we build an experiment platform to validate the feasibility of the electrostatic monitoring method. The experiment results show, to some extent, that the electrostatic signal can reflect the relative density of wear debris, and the sensor proposed can satisfy the primary demand of wear debris on-line monitoring.

  11. Evaluation of replacement thread lubricants for red lead and graphite in mineral oil

    SciTech Connect

    Jungling, T.L.; Rauth, D.R.; Goldberg, D.

    1998-04-30

    Eight commercially available thread lubricants were evaluated to determine the best replacement for Red Lead and Graphite in Mineral Oil (RLGMO). The evaluation included coefficient of friction testing, high temperature anti-seizing testing, room temperature anti-galling testing, chemical analysis for detrimental impurities, corrosion testing, off-gas testing, and a review of health and environmental factors. The coefficient of friction testing covered a wide variety of factors including stud, nut, and washer materials, sizes, manufacturing methods, surface coatings, surface finishes, applied loads, run-in cycles, and relubrication. Only one lubricant, Dow Corning Molykote P37, met all the criteria established for a replacement lubricant. It has a coefficient of friction range similar to RLGMO. Therefore, it can be substituted directly for RLGMO without changing the currently specified fastener torque values for the sizes, materials and conditions evaluated. Other lubricants did not perform as well as Molykote P37 in one or more test or evaluation categories.

  12. Determination of metals in used lubricating oils by AAS using emulsified samples.

    PubMed

    Goncalves, I M; Murillo, M; González, A M

    1998-11-01

    An efficient method was developed for the determination of metals in used lubricating oils, by atomic absorption spectrometry. Oil samples were treated with an acid mixture and then emulsified in water (10% w/w) using ethoxy nonylphenol (6% w/w) as surfactant. Emulsion characteristics (oil, surfactant content and acid mixture) were optimized to obtain the best AAS signal. Good agreement was found between calibration curves of aqueous and emulsified standard solutions when a peristaltic pump was used to introduce the solutions into the flame. The emulsion methodology was comparable, within 95% of confidence, to traditional ashing methodologies when a standard reference oil and a used lubricating oil were analyzed. Precision between 0.4 and 5% RSD was obtained when real sample was analyzed using emulsions.

  13. The search for higher lubricant stability properties in modified vegetable oil derivatives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this decade, great interest has been stirred up toward the use of renewable resources as industrial fuels, such as bio-ethanol and bio-diesel. Bio-lubricants are also playing a more prominent role and becoming competitive with petroleum-based lubricants. The main draw here is that we can, from y...

  14. Contribution of unburned lubricating oil and diesel fuel to particulate emission from passenger cars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandenberger, Sandro; Mohr, Martin; Grob, Koni; Neukom, Hans Peter

    In this study we determined particle-bound paraffins in the exhaust of six light-duty diesel vehicles on a chassis dynamometer for different driving cycles and ambient temperatures. The filters containing particulate matter were extracted with dichloromethane in a Soxhlet apparatus, and the paraffin analysis was performed using two-dimensional normal phase high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled on-line to gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID). The different molecular mass of lubricant and diesel paraffins facilitated the distinction between diesel and lubricant contribution to the emission. Although all vehicles were certified according to the same emission class, there were considerable variations between vehicles. The study showed that under cold-start conditions the organic mass fraction ranged from 10% to 30% with respect to particle mass and the paraffins from 30% to 60% with respect to the organic mass. With cold engine, falling ambient temperature increased the emission of unburned diesel fuel, whereas that from unburned lubricating oil was less affected. Under warm-start conditions, the ambient temperature had less impact on the emission of paraffins. The emissions were also affected by the operating conditions of the engine: driving cycles with higher mean load tend towards higher emissions of lubricant. The operating conditions also affected the distribution of paraffins: the emission of light paraffins seemed to be lower with higher load in the driving cycle. With an urban and a highway cycle, roughly 40% and 80% w/w, respectively, of unburned paraffins were contributed by the lubricant. Measurements of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in lubricating oil showed lubricant to be a sink for PAHs. As lubricant significantly contributes to the organic emission, as shown in this study, it can be assumed that it is also a significant source of PAH emissions.

  15. Separation of short-chain fatty acids on a gas chromatographic column coated with oxidized lubricating oil.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Nagy Emam

    2007-07-01

    The oxidized lubricating naphthenic base oil was used as a stationary phase for the separation of short-chain free fatty acids (SFFA) either as a pure sample or an aqueous solution containing 0.9-1.2 mg/L of each acid. It is found that the oil oxidation for 20 h improved the separation of SFFA in these two sample forms. This separation improvement represents not only the increase in retention volume intervals and peak symmetries in case of the pure sample but also in acid peak areas in case of the aqueous solution sample.

  16. Monitoring of the molecular structure of lubricant oil using a FT-Raman spectrometer prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega Clavero, Valentin; Weber, Andreas; Schröder, Werner; Curticapean, Dan; Javahiraly, Nicolas; Meyrueis, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    The determination of the physical state of the lubricant materials in complex mechanical systems is highly critical from different points of view: operative, economical, environmental, etc. Furthermore, there are several parameters that a lubricant oil must meet for a proper performance inside a machine. The monitoring of these lubricants can represent a serious issue depending on the analytical approach applied. The molecular change of aging lubricant oils have been analyzed using an all-standard-components and self-designed FT-Raman spectrometer. This analytical tool allows the direct and clean study of the vibrational changes in the molecular structure of the oils without having direct contact with the samples and without extracting the sample from the machine in operation. The FT-Raman spectrometer prototype used in the analysis of the oil samples consist of a Michelson interferometer and a self-designed photon counter cooled down on a Peltier element arrangement. The light coupling has been accomplished by using a conventional 62.5/125μm multi-mode fiber coupler. The FT-Raman arrangement has been able to extract high resolution and frequency precise Raman spectra, comparable to those obtained with commercial FT-Raman systems, from the lubricant oil samples analyzed. The spectral information has helped to determine certain molecular changes in the initial phases of wearing of the oil samples. The proposed instrument prototype has no additional complex hardware components or costly software modules. The mechanical and thermal irregularities influencing the FT-Raman spectrometer have been removed mathematically by accurately evaluating the optical path difference of the Michelson interferometer. This has been achieved by producing an additional interference pattern signal with a λ= 632.8 nm helium-neon laser, which differs from the conventional zero-crossing sampling (also known as Connes advantage) commonly used by FT-devices. It enables the FT-Raman system to

  17. Pipe flow of pumping wet shotcrete based on lubrication layer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lianjun; Liu, Guoming; Cheng, Weimin; Pan, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Wet shotcrete can reduce dust and improve supporting strength, however, safe and efficient pipage is a key technical part of wet shotcrete process. The paper studied the pipe flow law of wet shotcrete based on lubrication layer by build the experimental pumping circuit of wet shotcrete that can carry out a number of full-scale pumping tests. The experimental results show there was a linear relationship between pressure loss and flow rate. Combined with the Buckingham rheological equation, the computing equations of the yield shear stress and plastic viscosity were deduced through linear regression. A simple analytical method allowing for a rough estimation of the pumping pressure was proposed and used when considering the lubrication layer of wet shotcrete in pipes. In addition, two kinds of particulate distributive models were established along the time axial to analyze the formation of lubrication layer which is related with particles migration. By computational fluid dynamics simulation, the lubrication layer thickness of different mix proportions was estimated. A new method for measuring the thickness of lubrication layer was proposed to verify it by binarization processing. Finally, according to the comparative analysis of experiments, simulation and computed value, it can be seen that the lubrication layer plays a key role in the process of wet shotcrete flow and with the increase of lubrication layer thickness pipe pressure declines gradually.

  18. Corrosion protection of steel by thin coatings of starch-oil dry lubricants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corrosion of materials is one of the most serious and challenging problems faced 3 worldwide by industry. This research investigated the inhibition of corrosive behavior a 4 dry lubricant formulation consisting of jet-cooked corn starch and soybean oil on SAE 5 1010 steel. Electrochemical Impedance ...

  19. Rapid chelometric determination of lead in lubricating oils via mercaptoacetate extraction.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, S; Dutta, R K

    1973-01-01

    A rapid complexometric method for the estimation of lead in lubricating oil has been developed. The lead naphthenate present in the oil is extracted with a mixture of dilute thioglycollic acid and nitric acid. The aqueous extract containing lead mercaptoacetate is titrated with EDTA at pH 5 with Xylenol Orange as indicator. The lead content can be determined within 15-20 min.

  20. Biobased lubricant additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fully biobased lubricants are those formulated using all biobased ingredients, i.e. biobased base oils and biobased additives. Such formulations provide the maximum environmental, safety, and economic benefits expected from a biobased product. Currently, there are a number of biobased base oils that...

  1. CHARACTERIZATION AND TRIBOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF 1-BENZYL-3-METHYLIMIDAZOLIUM BIS(TRIFLUOROMETHYLSULFONYL)IMIDE AS NEAT LUBRICANT AND OIL ADDITIVE

    SciTech Connect

    Bansal, Dinesh G; Qu, Jun; Yu, Bo; Luo, Huimin; Dai, Sheng; Bunting, Bruce G; Blau, Peter Julian; Mordukhovich, Gregory; Smolenski, Donald

    2011-01-01

    Selected physical and chemical properties and tribological data for a newly-developed, imidazolium-based ionic liquid (IL) are presented. The IL is soluble in the SAE 5W-30 oil up to a certain weight percentage, and is as a promising candidate for use in lubrication applications, either in its neat version or as an oil additive. Characterization of the IL included dynamic viscosity at different temperatures, corrosion effects on cast iron cylinder liners, and thermal stability analysis. The tribological performance was evaluated using a reciprocating ring-on-liner test arrangement. When used in neat version this IL demonstrated friction coefficient comparable to a fully formulated engine oil, and when used as an oil additive it produced less wear.

  2. Bioremediation of diesel and lubricant oil-contaminated soils using enhanced landfarming system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sih-Yu; Kuo, Yu-Chia; Hong, Andy; Chang, Yu-Min; Kao, Chih-Ming

    2016-12-01

    Lubricant and diesel oil-polluted sites are difficult to remediate because they have less volatile and biodegradable characteristics. The goal of this research was to evaluate the potential of applying an enhanced landfarming to bioremediate soils polluted by lubricant and diesel. Microcosm study was performed to evaluate the optimal treatment conditions with the addition of different additives (nutrients, addition of activated sludge from oil-refining wastewater facility, compost, TPH-degrading bacteria, and fern chips) to enhance total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) removal. To simulate the aerobic landfarming biosystem, air in the microcosm headspace was replaced once a week. Results demonstrate that the additives of activated sludge and compost could result in the increase in soil microbial populations and raise TPH degradation efficiency (up to 83% of TPH removal with 175 days of incubation) with initial (TPH = 4100 mg/kg). The first-order TPH degradation rate reached 0.01 1/d in microcosms with additive of activated sludge (mass ratio of soil to inocula = 50:1). The soil microbial communities were determined by nucleotide sequence analyses and 16S rRNA-based denatured gradient gel electrophoresis. Thirty-four specific TPH-degrading bacteria were detected in microcosm soils. Chromatograph analyses demonstrate that resolved peaks were more biodegradable than unresolved complex mixture. Results indicate that more aggressive remedial measures are required to enhance the TPH biodegradation, which included the increase of (1) microbial population or TPH-degrading bacteria, (2) biodegradable carbon sources, (3) nutrient content, and (4) soil permeability.

  3. NASA PS304 Lubricant Tested in World's First Commercial Oil-Free Gas Turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, Harold F.

    2003-01-01

    In a marriage of research and commercial technology, a 30-kW Oil-Free Capstone microturbine electrical generator unit has been installed and is serving as a test bed for long-term life-cycle testing of NASA-developed PS304 shaft coatings. The coatings are used to reduce friction and wear of the turbine engine s foil air bearings during startup and shut down when sliding occurs, prior to the formation of a lubricating air film. This testing supports NASA Glenn Research Center s effort to develop Oil-Free gas turbine aircraft propulsion systems, which will employ advanced foil air bearings and NASA s PS304 high temperature solid lubricant to replace the ball bearings and lubricating oil found in conventional engines. Glenn s Oil-Free Turbomachinery team s current project is the demonstration of an Oil-Free business jet engine. In anticipation of future flight certification of Oil-Free aircraft engines, long-term endurance and durability tests are being conducted in a relevant gas turbine environment using the Capstone microturbine engine. By operating the engine now, valuable performance data for PS304 shaft coatings and for industry s foil air bearings are being accumulated.

  4. Synthesis of epoxy jatropha oil and its evaluation for lubricant properties.

    PubMed

    Sammaiah, Arukali; Padmaja, Korlipara Venkata; Prasad, Rachapudi Badari Narayna

    2014-01-01

    Vegetable oils are being investigated as potential source of environmentally favorable lubricants over synthetic products. Jatropha curcas L. oil (JO) identified as a potential raw material for biodiesel was explored for its use as a feedstock for biolubricants. Epoxidized jatropha oil (EJO) was prepared by peroxyformic acid generated in situ by reacting formic acid and hydrogen peroxide in the presence of sulfuric acid as catalyst. Almost complete conversion of unsaturated bonds in the oil into oxirane was achieved with oxirane value 5.0 and iodine value of oil reduced from 92 to 2 mg I2/g. EJO exhibited superior oxidative stability compared to JO. This study employed three antioxidants such as butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT), zinc dimethyl dithiocarbamate (ZDDC), and diphenyl amine (DPA) and found that DPA antioxidant performed better than ZDDC and BHT over EJO compared to JO. The lubricating properties of EJO and epoxy soybean oil (ESBO) are comparable. Hence, EJO can be projected as a potential lubricant basestock for high temperature applications.

  5. Simulated 'On-Line' Wear Metal Analysis of Lubricating Oils by X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelliher, Warren C.; Partos, Richard D.; Nelson, Irina

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this project was to assess the sensitivity of X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (XFS) for quantitative evaluation of metal particle content in engine oil suspensions and the feasibility of real-time, dynamic wear metal analysis. The study was focused on iron as the majority wear metal component. Variable parameters were: particle size, particle concentration and oil velocity. A commercial XFS spectrometer equipped with interchangeable static/dynamic (flow cell) sample chambers was used. XFS spectra were recorded for solutions of Fe-organometallic standard and for a series of DTE oil suspensions of high purity spherical iron particles of 2g, 4g, and 8g diameter, at concentrations from 5 ppm to 5,000 ppm. Real contaminated oil samples from Langley Air Force Base aircraft engines and NASA Langley Research Center wind tunnels were also analyzed. The experimental data conform the reliability of XFS as the analytical method of choice for this project. Intrinsic inadequacies of the instrument for precise analytic work at low metal concentrations were identified as being related to the particular x-ray beam definition, system geometry, and flow-cell materials selection. This work supports a proposal for the design, construction and testing of a conceptually new, miniature XFS spectrometer with superior performance, dedicated to on-line, real-time monitoring of lubricating oils in operating engines. Innovative design solutions include focalization of the incident x-ray beam, non-metal sample chamber, and miniaturization of the overall assembly. The instrument would contribute to prevention of catastrophic engine failures. A proposal for two-year funding has been presented to NASA Langley Research Center Internal Operation Group (IOG) Management, to continue the effort begun by this summer's project.

  6. Grease versus Oil Lubrication of Wheel Bearings in Army Equipment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    and David A. Brown 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT, PROJECT, TASK Fuels and Lubricants Div, STRBE-VF; Materials, Fuels...I Commander-. M60 Tank Development US Army Troop Support Command US Army Tank-Automotive Command ATTN: DRSTS-M Bradely Fighting Vehicle Systems 4300...Mr. Layne) Program Planning, STRBE-HP Washington, DC 20362 Program Support, STRBE-HR Systems Analysis, STRBE-HA 2 Commander CIRCULATE David Taylor

  7. Determination of metals in lubricating oils by flame atomic absorption spectrometry using a single-bore high-pressure pneumatic nebulizer.

    PubMed

    Mora, J; Todolí, J L; Sempere, F J; Canals, A; Hernandis, V

    2000-12-01

    The behaviour of a single-bore high-pressure pneumatic nebulizer (SBHPPN) as a tool for the analysis of lubricating oils by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) was investigated. The effects of the sample oil content [from 10% to 100% (w/w) oil in 4-methylpentan-2-one, IBMK] and the carrier nature (IBMK and methanol) on the characteristics of the aerosols generated, on the analyte transport efficiency and on the analytical figures of merit in FAAS were studied. A pneumatic concentric nebulizer (PCN) was used for comparison. Increasing the oil content increases the viscosity of the sample. With the PCN this gives rise to coarser aerosols, making it impossible to nebulize samples with an oil content higher than 70% (w/w). Using the SBHPPN, the viscosity of the sample scarcely affects the characteristics of the primary aerosols. Hence, the SBHPPN is able, by using the appropriate carrier, to nebulize pure lubricating oils. Among the carriers tested, IBMK is the most advisable because it is fully miscible with all the oil samples. The SBHPPN provides higher sensitivities and lower limits of detection than the PCN. Compared with a method based on organic dilution, the use of the SBHPPN for the direct analysis of lubricating oils by FAAS makes it possible, in addition to increasing the analysis throughput, to detect elements at lower concentrations. Moreover, the SBHPPN provides similar results to those obtained using a previous acid digestion step.

  8. The detection of lubricating oil viscosity changes in gearbox transmission systems driven by sensorless variable speed drives using electrical supply parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abusaad, S.; Brethee, K.; Assaeh, M.; Zhang, R.; Gu, F.; Ball, A. D.

    2015-07-01

    Lubrication oil plays a decisive role to maintain a reliable and efficient operation of gear transmissions. Many offline methods have been developed to monitor the quality of lubricating oils. This work focus on developing a novel online method to diagnose oil degradation based on the measurements from power supply system to the gearbox. Experimental studies based on an 10kW industrial gearbox fed by a sensorless variable speed drive (VSD) shows that measurable changes in both static power and dynamic behaviour are different with lube oils tested. Therefore, it is feasible to use the static power feature to indicate viscosity changes at low and moderate operating speeds. In the meantime, the dynamic feature can separate viscosity changes for all different tested cases.

  9. Synthesis of lubrication fluids and surfactant precursors from soybean oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Starting with soybean oil or soybean oil derived methyl oleate, a variety of compounds have been synthesized. The epoxidation of oleochemicals is a simple way to use the unsaturation naturally available in the vegetable oil and convert it into a variety of other useful chemicals. Epoxidized methyl...

  10. On the performance of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for direct determination of trace metals in lubricating oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Lijuan; Cao, Fan; Xiu, Junshan; Bai, Xueshi; Motto-Ros, Vincent; Gilon, Nicole; Zeng, Heping; Yu, Jin

    2014-09-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) provides a technique to directly determine metals in viscous liquids and especially in lubricating oils. A specific laser ablation configuration of a thin layer of oil applied on the surface of a pure aluminum target was used to evaluate the analytical figures of merit of LIBS for elemental analysis of lubricating oils. Among the analyzed oils, there were a certified 75cSt blank mineral oil, 8 virgin lubricating oils (synthetic, semi-synthetic, or mineral and of 2 different manufacturers), 5 used oils (corresponding to 5 among the 8 virgin oils), and a cooking oil. The certified blank oil and 4 virgin lubricating oils were spiked with metallo-organic standards to obtain laboratory reference samples with different oil matrix. We first established calibration curves for 3 elements, Fe, Cr, Ni, with the 5 sets of laboratory reference samples in order to evaluate the matrix effect by the comparison among the different oils. Our results show that generalized calibration curves can be built for the 3 analyzed elements by merging the measured line intensities of the 5 sets of spiked oil samples. Such merged calibration curves with good correlation of the merged data are only possible if no significant matrix effect affects the measurements of the different oils. In the second step, we spiked the remaining 4 virgin oils and the cooking oils with Fe, Cr and Ni. The accuracy and the precision of the concentration determination in these prepared oils were then evaluated using the generalized calibration curves. The concentrations of metallic elements in the 5 used lubricating oils were finally determined.

  11. Lubricating oil and fuel contributions to particulate matter emissions from light-duty gasoline and heavy-duty diesel vehicles.

    PubMed

    Kleeman, Michael J; Riddle, Sarah G; Robert, Michael A; Jakober, Chris A

    2008-01-01

    Size-resolved particulate matter emissions from heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs) and light-duty gasoline vehicles (LDGVs) operated under realistic driving cycles were analyzed for elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), hopanes, steranes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Measured hopane and sterane size distributions did not match the total carbon size distribution in most cases, suggesting that lubricating oil was not the dominant source of particulate carbon in the vehicle exhaust. A regression analysis using 17alpha(H)-21beta(H)-29-norhopane as a tracer for lubricating oil and benzo[ghi/perylene as a tracer for gasoline showed that gasoline fuel and lubricating oil both make significant contributions to particulate EC and OC emissions from LDGVs. A similar regression analysis performed using 17alpha(H)-21beta(H)-29-norhopane as a tracer for lubricating oil and flouranthene as a tracerfor diesel fuel was able to explain the size distribution of particulate EC and OC emissions from HDDVs. The analysis showed that EC emitted from all HDDVs operated under relatively high load conditions was dominated by diesel fuel contributions with little EC attributed to lubricating oil. Particulate OC emitted from HDDVs was more evenly apportioned between fuel and oil contributions. EC emitted from LDGVs operated underfuel-rich conditions was dominated by gasoline fuel contributions. OC emitted from visibly smoking LDGVs was mostly associated with lubricating oil, but OC emitted from all other categories of LDGVs was dominated by gasoline fuel. The current study clearly illustrates that fuel and lubricating oil make separate and distinct contributions to particulate matter emissions from motor vehicles. These particles should be tracked separately during ambient source apportionment studies since the atmospheric evolution and ultimate health effects of these particles may be different. The source profiles for fuel and lubricating oil contributions to EC and OC

  12. Analysis of chain saw lubricating oils commonly used in Thailand's southern border provinces for forensic science purpose.

    PubMed

    Choodum, Aree; Tripuwanard, Kijja; Daeid, Niamh Nic

    2014-08-01

    In recent years, Thailand's southern border provinces (Malay-Muslim-majority border provinces) have become the scene of violence and insurgency. One of the attack patterns is the blocking of roads with perennial plants followed by planned attacks using improvised explosive devices (IEDs) or weapons on first responders. Containers of viscous dark lubricating oil and traces of lubricants on the felled trees were usually found at the scene. These were suspected to be chain oil lubricant from the chainsaws used to cut down the trees used for the roadblock. This work aimed to differentiate the chromatographic patterns of used lubricating oils available in automobile repair shops from various locations across Thailand's southern border provinces. Lubricating oils were analyzed using gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (GC/FID) every two weeks to study their variation in chemical compositions over time. The results obtained from GC/FID were normalized for differentiation. This included four two-stroke, six four-stroke, and three recycled oils. Two lubricating oils found at an incident scene were also analyzed and the results compared with the chain oil from five seized chainsaws.

  13. Relative toxicity of spent lubricant oil and detergent against benthic macro-invertebrates of a west African estuarine lagoon.

    PubMed

    Chukwu, L O; Odunzeh, C C

    2006-07-01

    The relative acute toxicity of spent lubricant oil and detergent was evaluated against hermit crab, Clibanarius africanus (Aurivillus) and periwinkle, Tympanotonus fuscatus (L) from the Lagos lagoon in laboratory bioassays. Based on the derived toxicity indices, the detergent (96 hr LC50 = 5.77ml/l) was found to be 1.73 times more toxic than spent engine oil (96 hr LC50 = 10.01 ml/l) when acting singly against C africanus and 18.73 times (96 hr LC50-48.67 ml/l) more toxic (96 hr LC50 = 911.57 ml/l) when acting singly against T. fuscatus. On the basis of the computed susceptibility factors, C. africanus was found to be about eight times and ninety-one times more susceptible to the toxic effect of detergent and spent lubricant oil respectively. The randomized analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that there was significant difference (Fcal 58.83 Ftab 3.87; DF 13; p > 0.05) between all treatments of spent lubricant oil and detergent during the 96 hr exposure period of test animals. At 5% level of significance the Student Neuman-Keuls (SNK) test further revealed significant differences in the mean mortality response of test animals exposed to toxicants at all concentrations and untreated control. The results obtained in this study suggest that the estuarine benthic macroinvertebrates, which play key roles in the environment, may serve as useful in-situ sentinels for biomonitoring studies of petroleum pollutants in fragile aquatic ecosystems such as the Lagos lagoon.

  14. A low cost mid-infrared sensor for on line contamination monitoring of lubricating oils in marine engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Mohammadi, L.; Kullmann, F.; Holzki, M.; Sigloch, S.; Klotzbuecher, T.; Spiesen, J.; Tommingas, T.; Weismann, P.; Kimber, G.

    2010-04-01

    The chemical and physical condition of oils in marine engines must be monitored to ensure optimum performance of the engine and to avoid damage by degraded oil not adequately lubricating the engine. Routine monitoring requires expensive laboratory testing and highly skilled analysts. This work describes the adaptation and implementation of a mid infrared (MIR) sensor module for continued oil condition monitoring in two-stroke and four-stroke diesel engines. The developed sensor module will help to reduce costs in oil analysis by eliminating the need to collect and send samples to a laboratory for analysis. The online MIR-Sensor module measures the contamination of oil with water, soot, as well as the degradation indicated by the TBN (Total Base Number) value. For the analysis of water, TBN, and soot in marine engine oils, four spectral regions of interest have been identified. The optical absorption in these bands correlating with the contaminations is measured simultaneously by using a four-field thermopile detector, combined with appropriate bandpass filters. Recording of the MIR-absorption was performed in a transmission mode using a flow-through cell with appropriate path length. Since in this case no spectrometer is required, the sensor including the light source, the flowthrough- cell, and the detector can be realised at low cost and in a very compact manner. The optical configuration of the sensor with minimal component number and signal intensity optimisation at the four-field detector was implemented by using non-sequential ray tracing simulation. The used calibration model was robust enough to predict accurately the value for soot, water, and TBN concentration for two-stroke and four-stroke engine oils. The sensor device is designed for direct installation on the host engine or machine and, therefore, becoming an integral part of the lubrication system. It can also be used as a portable stand-alone system for machine fluid analysis in the field.

  15. Waste lubricating oil removal in a batch reactor by mixed bacterial consortium: a kinetic study.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Munna; Guchhait, Sugata; Biswas, Dipa; Datta, Sriparna

    2015-11-01

    The growth kinetics and biodegradation of two waste lubricating oil samples including waste engine oil (WEO) and waste transformer oil (WTO) were studied using pure isolates and mixed culture of Ochrobactrum sp. C1 and Bacillus sp. K1. The mixed culture significantly influenced degradation efficiency of the pure isolates through bioaugmentation process. In particular, the mixed culture was capable of growing on various n-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and was able to tolerate unusually high concentrations of waste lubricants (WEO-86.0 g/L and WTO-81.5 g/L). The initial concentration of waste lubricating oils has been varied in the range of 1-10 % (v/v). Under this experimental range, the bacterial growth has been observed to follow Haldane-type kinetics characterizing the presence of substrate inhibition. Haldane model was used to fit the exponential growth data and the following kinetic parameters were obtained: μ max = 0.078 h(-1), K S = 23.101 g/L, K i = 43.844 g/L for WEO; and μ max = 0.044 h(-1), K S = 10.662 g/L, K i = 58.310 g/L for WTO. The values of intrinsic kinetic parameters, like specific growth rate μ max, half saturation constant, K S, inhibition constant, K i and the maximum substrate concentration, S max and growth yield coefficient Y x/s , have been determined using each model hydrocarbon and their mixture as limiting substrate. Relative changes in the values of the kinetic parameters have been correlated to the number of carbon atoms present in n-alkanes. The metabolites from degradation of model hydrocarbon compounds have been identified by GC-MS to elucidate the possible pathway of waste lubricating oil degradation process.

  16. Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions: November 28, 2006 - March 31, 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, J. N.; Khalek, I. A.; Smith, L. R.; Fujita, E.; Zielinska, B.

    2011-10-01

    The Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions (CLOSE) project was a pilot investigation of how fuels and crankcase lubricants contribute to the formation of particulate matter (PM) and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC) in vehicle exhaust. As limited vehicles were tested, results are not representative of the whole on-road fleet. Long-term effects were not investigated. Pairs of vehicles (one normal PM emitting, one high-PM emitting) from four categories were selected: light-duty (LD) gasoline cars, medium-duty (MD) diesel trucks, heavy-duty (HD) natural-gas-fueled buses, and HD diesel buses. HD vehicles procured did not exhibit higher PM emissions, and thus were labeled high mileage (HM). Fuels evaluated were non-ethanol gasoline (E0), 10 percent ethanol (E10), conventional low-sulfur TxLED diesel, 20% biodiesel (B20), and natural gas. Temperature effects (20 degrees F, 72 degrees F) were evaluated on LD and MD vehicles. Lubricating oil vintage effects (fresh and aged) were evaluated on all vehicles. LD and MD vehicles were operated on a dynamometer over the California Unified Driving Cycle, while HD vehicles followed the Heavy Duty Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule. Regulated and unregulated emissions were measured. Chemical markers from the unregulated emissions measurements and a tracer were utilized to estimate the lubricant contribution to PM.

  17. Absorption of water and lubricating oils into porous nylon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertrand, P. A.

    1995-01-01

    Oil and water absorption from air into sintered porous nylon can be described by infiltration into the pores of the material. This process can be modeled by a diffusion-like mechanism. For water absorption, we find a formal diffusion coefficient of 1.5 x 10(exp -4)sq cm/min when the nylon is initially dry. The diffusion coefficient is 4 x 10(exp -6)sq cm/min when the nylon is oil-impregnated prior to air exposure. In a 52% RH atmosphere, dry nylon absorbs 3% w/w water, and oil-impregnated nylon absorbs 0.6% w/w water. For oil absorption there are three steps: (1) surface absorption and infiltration into (2) larger and (3) smaller pores. Surface absorption is too fast to be measured in these experiments. The diffusion coefficient for the second step is 6 x 10(exp -4)sq cm/min for SRG-60 oil into dry nylon and 4 x 10(exp -4)sq cm/min for air-equilibrated nylon. The diffusion coefficient for the third step is about 1 x 10(exp -6)sq cm/min for both cases. The total amount of oil absorbed is 31% w/w. The interaction between water and nylon is not as strong as that between water and cotton-phenolic: oil can replace water, and only a small amount of water can enter previously oil-impregnated nylon.

  18. Feasibility of observing small differences in friction mean effective pressure between different lubricating oil formations using small, single-cylinder motored engine rig

    DOE PAGES

    Rohr, William F.; Nguyen, Ke; Bunting, Bruce G.; ...

    2015-09-01

    Here, the feasibility of using a motored single-cylinder 517 cc diesel engine to observe small frictional differences between oil formulations is investigated. Friction mean effective pressure (FMEP) is measured and compared for an SAE 10W-30 and an SAE 5W-20 oil in three stages of production: base oil, commercial oil without a friction and wear reducing additive, and fully formulated commercial oil. In addition, a commercial SAE 5W-30 engine oil is investigated. Friction mean effective pressure is plotted versus oil dynamic viscosity to compare the lubricant FMEP at a given viscosity. Linear regressions and average friction mean effective pressure are usedmore » as a secondary means of comparing FMEP for the various oil formulations. Differences between the oils are observed with the base oil having higher friction at a given viscosity but a lower average FMEP due to the temperature distribution of the test and lower viscosities reached by the base oil. The commercial oil is shown to have both a higher FMEP at a given viscosity and a higher average FMEP than the commercial oil without a friction and wear reducing additive. The increase in friction for the oil without a friction and wear reduction additive indicates that the operational regime of the engine may be out of the bounds of the optimal regime for the additive or that the additive is more optimized for wear reduction. Results show that it is feasible to observe small differences in FMEP between lubricating oil formulations using a small, single-cylinder motored engine.« less

  19. Feasibility of observing small differences in friction mean effective pressure between different lubricating oil formations using small, single-cylinder motored engine rig

    SciTech Connect

    Rohr, William F.; Nguyen, Ke; Bunting, Bruce G.; Qu, Jun

    2015-09-01

    Here, the feasibility of using a motored single-cylinder 517 cc diesel engine to observe small frictional differences between oil formulations is investigated. Friction mean effective pressure (FMEP) is measured and compared for an SAE 10W-30 and an SAE 5W-20 oil in three stages of production: base oil, commercial oil without a friction and wear reducing additive, and fully formulated commercial oil. In addition, a commercial SAE 5W-30 engine oil is investigated. Friction mean effective pressure is plotted versus oil dynamic viscosity to compare the lubricant FMEP at a given viscosity. Linear regressions and average friction mean effective pressure are used as a secondary means of comparing FMEP for the various oil formulations. Differences between the oils are observed with the base oil having higher friction at a given viscosity but a lower average FMEP due to the temperature distribution of the test and lower viscosities reached by the base oil. The commercial oil is shown to have both a higher FMEP at a given viscosity and a higher average FMEP than the commercial oil without a friction and wear reducing additive. The increase in friction for the oil without a friction and wear reduction additive indicates that the operational regime of the engine may be out of the bounds of the optimal regime for the additive or that the additive is more optimized for wear reduction. Results show that it is feasible to observe small differences in FMEP between lubricating oil formulations using a small, single-cylinder motored engine.

  20. n-alkane profiles of engine lubricating oil and particulate matter by molecular sieve extraction.

    PubMed

    Caravaggio, Gianni A; Charland, Jean-Pierre; Macdonald, Penny; Graham, Lisa

    2007-05-15

    As part of the Canadian Atmospheric Fine Particle Research Program to obtain reliable primary source emission profiles, a molecular sieve method was developed to reliably determine n-alkanes in lubricating oils, vehicle emissions, and mobile source dominated ambient particulate matter (PM). This work was also initiated to better calculate carbon preference index values (CPI: the ratio of the sums of odd over even n-alkanes), a parameter for estimating anthropogenic versus biogenic contributions in PM. n-Alkanes in lubricating oil and mobile source dominated PM are difficult to identify and quantify by gas chromatography due to the presence of similar components that cannot be fully resolved. This results in a hump, the unresolved complex mixture (UCM) that leads to incorrect n-alkane concentrations and CPI values. The sieve method yielded better chromatography, unambiguous identification of n-alkanes and allowed examination of differences between n-alkane profiles in light (LDV) and heavy duty vehicle (HDV) lubricating oils that would have been otherwise difficult. These profile differences made it possible to relate the LDV profile to that of the PM samples collected during a tunnel study in August 2001 near Vancouver (British Columbia, Canada). The n-alkane PM data revealed that longer sampling times result in a negative artifact, i.e., the desorption of the more volatile n-alkanes from the filters. Furthermore, the sieve procedure yielded n-alkane data that allowed calculation of accurate CPI values for lubricating oils and PM samples. Finally, this method may prove helpful in estimating the respective diesel and gasoline contributions to ambient PM.

  1. Carcinogenicity of petroleum lubricating oil distillates: effects of solvent refining, hydroprocessing, and blending.

    PubMed

    Halder, C A; Warne, T M; Little, R Q; Garvin, P J

    1984-01-01

    Certain refining processes were investigated to determine their influence on the dermal carcinogenic activity of petroleum-derived lubricating oil distillates. Specifically, the effects of solvent refining, hydroprocessing, a combination of both processes, and the blending of oils processed using each technique were evaluated in standard mouse skin-painting bioassays. The refining process used as well as the level or severity of treatment greatly influenced the carcinogenic outcome of processed lubricating oils. Solvent refining at severities normally used appeared to eliminate carcinogenicity. In contrast, hydroprocessing alone at mild levels of treatment was successful only in reducing the carcinogenic potency; severe hydroprocessing conditions were necessary to eliminate carcinogenic activity without the use of additional refining processes. Carcinogenic activity could also be eliminated by following moderate solvent refining with mild hydroprocessing. Blending of hydroprocessed oils with solvent-refined oils resulted in a substantial reduction or even elimination of carcinogenic activity. However, the degree of protection obtained varied with the particular distillates used and appeared largely dependent on the inherent biological activity of the hydroprocessed oil.

  2. Effect of dissolved lubricating oils on the viscosity of alternative refrigerants

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Y.N.; Nagashima, A. )

    1993-09-01

    The operation of refrigeration systems involves the circulation of a working fluid which is actually a mixture of refrigerant and lubricant oil. Since the viscosity of oil and that of refrigerants normally differ by up to a factor of 4, the effect of dissolved oil is very large. In order to use new alternative refrigerants, accurate information on thermophysical properties of refrigerant-oil mixtures is needed. In the present study, the viscosity of refrigerant oil mixtures was measured for HCFC-123 + 3GSD and HFC-134a + PAG in the compressed liquid region with a falling-ball viscometer. The temperature range of the measurements was 253-333 K. 15 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Thermally stable derivatives or propylenepolyamines as protective additives for lubricating oils used in compressors handling hydrogen sulfide-containing gas

    SciTech Connect

    Trofimov, V.A.; Panidi, I.S.; Spirkin, V.G.

    1995-09-01

    In the transmission of natural, associated, and petroleum gases containing hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, water, and other corrosive impurities, problems are created by the saturation of the compressor lubricating oil with these impurities and failure of components of the lubricating and sealing system. Hydrogen sulfide is distinguished by the greatest affinity for oil and the highest corrosivity. Its solubility in oils may be as high as 10 g/liter under standard conditions. In the work reported here, we investigated the protective properties of salts and amides based on higher aliphatic, alkylaromatic, and unsaturated carboxylic acids with certain substituted propylenepolyamines. In synthesizing the additives, we used the following: a commercial C{sub 17} - C{sub 20} fraction of synthetic fatty acids (SFA): C{sub 25+} still bottoms; technical alkyl (C{sub 16} - C {sub 18}) salicylic acids; and oleic acid. From these materials, we obtained salts and amides of N,N-dimethylpropanediamine, N-benzylpropanediamine, N-cyanoethylpropanediamine, N,N,N`,N`-tetramethyldipropylenetriamine, and N,N-dimethyldipropylenetriamine.

  4. Characteristics of gas and residues produced from electric arc pyrolysis of waste lubricating oil.

    PubMed

    Song, Geum-Ju; Seo, Yong-Chil; Pudasainee, Deepak; Kim, In-Tae

    2010-07-01

    An attempt has been made to recover high-calorific fuel gas and useful carbonaceous residue by the electric arc pyrolysis of waste lubricating oil. The characteristics of gas and residues produced from electric arc pyrolysis of waste lubricating oil were investigated in this study. The produced gas was mainly composed of hydrogen (35-40%), acetylene (13-20%), ethylene (3-4%) and other hydrocarbons, whereas the concentration of CO was very low. Calorific values of gas ranged from 11,000 to 13,000 kcal kg(-1) and the concentrations of toxic gases, such as NO(x), HCl and HF, were below the regulatory emissions limit. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of liquid-phase residues showed that high molecular-weight hydrocarbons in waste lubricating oil were pyrolyzed into low molecular-weight hydrocarbons and hydrogen. Dehydrogenation was found to be the main pyrolysis mechanism due to the high reaction temperature induced by electric arc. The average particle size of soot as carbonaceous residue was about 10 microm. The carbon content and heavy metals in soot were above 60% and below 0.01 ppm, respectively. The utilization of soot as industrial material resources such as carbon black seems to be feasible after refining and grinding.

  5. Determination of phosphorus in lubricating oils by cool-flame emission spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Elliott, W N; Heathcote, C; Mostyn, R A

    1972-03-01

    The phosphorus content of lubricating oils is determined by measurement of the emission from the HPO molecular species at 528 nm in a cool hydrogen-nitrogen diffusion flame. The oil is ashed in the presence of potassium hydroxide and an aqueous extract of the melt is treated with ion-exchange resin to remove interferents, before aspiration into the flame. Analytical results are presented on samples containing phosphorus in the range 0.009-0.2%. The precision of the method is +/- 5% at the 0.04% phosphorus level.

  6. The dynamics and stability of lubricating oil films during droplet transport by electrowetting in microfluidic devices

    PubMed Central

    Kleinert, Jairus; Srinivasan, Vijay; Rival, Arnaud; Delattre, Cyril; Velev, Orlin D.; Pamula, Vamsee K.

    2015-01-01

    The operation of digital microfluidic devices with water droplets manipulated by electrowetting is critically dependent on the static and dynamic stability and lubrication properties of the oil films that separate the droplets from the solid surfaces. The factors determining the stability of the films and preventing surface fouling in such systems are not yet thoroughly understood and were experimentally investigated in this study. The experiments were performed using a standard digital microfluidic cartridge in which water droplets enclosed in a thin, oil-filled gap were transported over an array of electrodes. Stable, continuous oil films separated the droplets from the surfaces when the droplets were stationary. During droplet transport, capillary waves formed in the films on the electrode surfaces as the oil menisci receded. The waves evolved into dome-shaped oil lenses. Droplet deformation and oil displacement caused the films at the surface opposite the electrode array to transform into dimples of oil trapped over the centers of the droplets. Lower actuation voltages were associated with slower film thinning and formation of fewer, but larger, oil lenses. Lower ac frequencies induced oscillations in the droplets that caused the films to rupture. Films were also destabilized by addition of surfactants to the oil or droplet phases. Such a comprehensive understanding of the oil film behavior will enable more robust electrowetting-actuated lab-on-a-chip devices through prevention of loss of species from droplets and contamination of surfaces at points where films may break. PMID:26045729

  7. Recycling of the used automotive lubricating oil by ionizing radiation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scapin, M. A.; Duarte, C.; Sampa, M. H. O.; Sato, I. M.

    2007-11-01

    The recycling process of the used mineral oils has been gaining a very important gap in the context of environmental protection. Among mineral oils from petroleum, the lubricating oils are not entirely consumed during their use; therefore, it is necessary to apply a treatment for recuperation seeking their reuse. Moreover, the environmental legislation of countries does not allow their discard in any type of soils, rivers, lakes, oceans or sewerage systems. The conventional treatment has shown certain difficulties in the recuperation process for used oils. The ionizing radiation process is renowned in the industrial effluents treatments due to its high efficiency in the degradation of organic compounds and in the removal of metals by the action of OH rad , rad H and e aq radicals. In this work, used automotive lubricating oil was treated by the ionizing radiation process for metal removal and degradation of organic compounds. The samples were irradiated with 100 and 200 kGy irradiation doses. Determination of the elements Mg, Al, P, S, Cl, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Mo, Nb, Cd, Sn, Ba, Bi and Pb, before and after the irradiation, was done by X-ray fluorescence technique and the organic profile was obtained by infrared spectroscopy.

  8. Recycling and re-refining used lubricating oils

    SciTech Connect

    Pyziak, T.; Brinkman, D.W.

    1993-05-01

    This article will point out the advantages and disadvantages of current oil and oily water disposal techniques in operation today. The emphasis will be on the environmental (long- and short-term) ramifications which may be encountered by each disposal technique.

  9. Biobased lubricants and functional products from Cuphea oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cuphea (Lythraceae) is an annual plant that produces a small seed rich in saturated medium-chain triacylglycerols (TAGs). With the need for higher seed yields, oil content, and less seed shattering, Oregon State University began developing promising cuphea crosses. Cuphea PSR23 is a hybrid between C...

  10. [Safety forms for industrial lubricating oils: a working proposal at the national level].

    PubMed

    Menichini, E; Reggiani, A; Rossi, L

    1989-01-01

    The health and safety data sheets for lubricating oils currently in use present considerable differences regarding the information they provide. Often, the information is either too generalized or incomplete--particularly on the chemical aspects of oils--and therefore the sheets are inadequate for the prevention and control of the occupational risks. For the purposes of harmonization, a data sheet has been prepared which takes into account the specific features of the products, and particularly the handling of confidential data. The most important oil manufacturers have been consulted, and they have agreed to use the data sheet in order to provide information on their products to the local health authorities. The widespread use of this data sheet should enable an easier comparison of the health and safety data of oils to be made, provide a better understanding of the information received and, consequently, evaluate the risks involved.

  11. On the direct determination of metals in lubricating oils by ICP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Algeo, J. D.; Heine, D. R.; Phillips, H. A.; Hoek, F. B. G.; Schneider, M. R.; Freelin, J. M.; Denton, M. B.

    New equipment and procedures are evaluated for the direct analysis of metals in lubricating oils without the need for sample pretreatment or dilution. A modified Babington principle nebulizer equipped with a sample heater is shown to be capable of producing aerosols from undiluted oils, which are suitable for introduction into an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrophotometer. Heating the samples immediately prior to nebulization greatly increases the output of aerosol and reduces output variations in emission intensity due to differences in oil manufacture and viscosity. The type of organometallic complex used in the preparation of standards is shown to be unimportant if the plasma observation region is properly chosen. Performance of a conventional plasma geometry and an inverted torch geometry on analysis of field collected oil samples is presented.

  12. Auto-ignition of lubricating oil working at high pressures in a compressor for an air conditioner.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chul Jin; Choi, Hyo Hyun; Sohn, Chae Hoon

    2011-01-15

    Auto-ignition of lubricating oil working in a compressor for an air conditioner is studied experimentally. The adopted lubricating oil is an unknown mixture with multi-components and known to have flash point temperature of 170 °C. First, its auto-ignition temperature is measured 365 °C at atmospheric pressure. The lubricating oil works under high-pressure condition up to 30 atm and it is heated and cooled down repeatedly. Accordingly, auto-ignition temperatures or flammable limits of lubricating oil are required at high pressures with respect to fire safety. Because there is not a standard test method for the purpose, a new ignition-test method is proposed in this study and thereby, auto-ignition temperatures are measured over the pressure range below 30 atm. The measured temperatures range from 215 °C to 255 °C and they strongly depend on pressure of gas mixture consisting of oil vapor, nitrogen, and oxygen. They are close to flash point temperature and the lubricating oil can be hazardous when it works for high-pressure operating condition and abundant air flows into a compressor.

  13. Synthesis and evaluation of novel acyl derivatives from jatropha oil as potential lubricant basestocks.

    PubMed

    Sammaiah, Arukali; Padmaja, Korlipara V; Prasad, Rachapudi B N

    2014-05-21

    A novel class of jatropha oil-based acylated derivatives from hydroxy alkyl esters of jatropha fatty acids (C1, C3, C4, and C8) and various anhydrides (C2, C3, C4, and C6) were synthesized and their physicochemical and lubricant properties reported. Jatropha fatty acid alkyl esters were dihydroxylated using the in situ performic acid method and further acylated with different anhydrides to produce acylated derivatives. Acylated derivatives of dihydroxy jatropha fatty acid alkyl esters were charaterized by NMR, FTIR, GC, and GC-MS analysis and were evaluated for their viscosity, viscosity index, pour and flash points, and oxidation stability. Most of the derivatives are either in ISO VG 22 or 32 viscosity grade with good viscosity index. It was observed that increase in acyl chain length and branching in the end-chain ester improved the pour point of the diacyl derivatives. All of the hexanoylated esters exhibited better oxidation stability compared to other acylated products, and their pour points are comparable to those of synthetic esters such as TMP trioleates. In general, isoalcohol esters with longer acyl chains showed promise as potential candidates for hydraulic fluids and metal-working fluids in ISO VG 22 and 32 viscosity range.

  14. Third-Party Evaluation of Petro Tex Hydrocarbons, LLC, ReGen Lubricating Oil Re-refining Process

    SciTech Connect

    Compere, A L; Griffith, William {Bill} L

    2009-04-01

    This report presents an assessment of market, energy impact, and utility of the PetroTex Hydrocarbons, LLC., ReGen process for re-refining used lubricating oil to produce Group I, II, and III base oils, diesel fuel, and asphalt. PetroTex Hydrocarbons, LLC., has performed extensive pilot scale evaluations, computer simulations, and market studies of this process and is presently evaluating construction of a 23 million gallon per year industrial-scale plant. PetroTex has obtained a 30 acre site in the Texas Industries RailPark in Midlothian Texas. The environmental and civil engineering assessments of the site are completed, and the company has been granted a special use permit from the City of Midlothian and air emissions permits for the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality.

  15. Effectiveness of liquid crystal admixtures in the lubricating oil for a multi-operational machine

    SciTech Connect

    Vekteris, V.; Murachver, A.

    1995-10-01

    Reliable cyclic operation of modern multioperational, numerically controlled (N/C) machine tools strongly depends not only on the precision manufacturing of kinematic pairs, but also on the conditions of their maintenance and running-in periods. In the machine tool industry, the running-in of the most important newly assembled kinematic units and mechanisms of machines, i.e., spindle head units, gearboxes, ball screw paris, etc., is attained during a 2- to 36-hour period in the plant and subsequent long-term operational running-in of all units on the assembled machine. For the reduction of the running-in duration, low-viscosity oil, sulfurized lubricants and various additives are used. However, the usage of low viscosity oil may cause scoring and increase the wear due to squeezing-out of the oil and contact between mating surfaces. In other cases the low effectiveness of the additives in the running-in process is observed, as well as surface corrosion and the long duration of the run-in process itself. The influence of lubricants and their additives on the running-in process of gearboxes of metal-cutting machine tools is investigated. Theoretical and experimental analysis proved the expediency of adding liquid crystals (fatty acid esters of cholesterol) into the oil. 6 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  16. Changes in bacterial diversity associated with bioremediation of used lubricating oil in tropical soils.

    PubMed

    Meeboon, Naruemon; Leewis, Mary-Cathrine; Kaewsuwan, Sireewan; Maneerat, Suppasil; Leigh, Mary Beth

    2017-03-13

    Used lubricating oil (ULO) is a widespread contaminant, particularly throughout tropical regions, and may be a candidate for bioremediation. However, little is known about the biodegradation potential or basic microbial ecology of ULO-contaminated soils. This study aims to determine the effects of used ULO on bacterial community structure and diversity. Using a combination of culture-based (agar plate counts) and molecular techniques (16S rRNA gene sequencing and DGGE), we investigated changes in soil bacterial communities from three different ULO-contaminated soils collected from motorcycle mechanical workshops (soil A, B, and C). We further explored the relationship between bacterial community structure, physiochemical soil parameters, and ULO composition in three ULO-contaminated soils. Results indicated that the three investigated soils had different community structures, which may be a result of the different ULO characteristics and physiochemical soil parameters of each site. Soil C had the highest ULO concentration and also the greatest diversity and richness of bacteria, which may be a result of higher nutrient retention, organic matter and cation exchange capacity, as well as freshness of oil compared to the other soils. In soils A and B, Proteobacteria (esp. Gammaproteobacteria) dominated the bacterial community, and in soil C, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes dominated. The genus Enterobacter, a member of the class Gammaproteobacteria, is known to include ULO-degraders, and this genus was the only one found in all three soils, suggesting that it could play a key role in the in situ degradation of ULO-contaminated tropical Thai soils. This study provides insights into our understanding of soil microbial richness, diversity, composition, and structure in tropical ULO-contaminated soils, and may be useful for the development of strategies to improve bioremediation.

  17. Effect of extrusion ratio on paraffinic mineral oil lubricant in cold forward extrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafis, S. M.; Ridzuan, M. J. M.; Imaduddin Helmi, W. N.; Syahrullail, S.

    2012-06-01

    A finite element (FE) analysis is made for steady-state two-dimensional forward extrusion with three different extrusion ratio values. Predicting extrusion force of aluminum billet extruded with palm oil lubricant will definitely be helpful in deciding the right extrusion ratio. Hence, the finite element method was applied to investigate the influence of extrusion ratio on palm oil lubricant. The extrusion ratios evaluated were 1.5, 2, and 3. The reference of the study was in accordance to the experiment results of 0.1 mg paraffinic mineral oil grade 95 (Pr95) with kinematic viscosity of 90.12 mm2/s at 40 °C for the extrusion ratio of 3. The result was found to be reliable once the FE model was validated by the established work. The extrusion force for each extrusion ratio was described and evaluated. The FE analysis also accounts for plasticity material flow and equivalent plastic strains in the deformation region. The analysis agreed that the extrusion ratio of 1.5 reduced the extrusion force compared to the extrusion ratio of 2 and 3. This was confirmed by the plotted equivalent plastic strain deformation which shows that the high value of equivalent plastic strain near the extrusion die surface was decreased. As a result, the extrusion force becomes greater with the increasing of extrusion ratio.

  18. Tribology of steel/steel interaction in oil-in-water emulsion; a rationale for lubricity.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Deepak; Daniel, Jency; Biswas, S K

    2010-05-15

    Oil droplets are dispersed in water by an anionic surfactant to form an emulsion. The lubricity of this emulsion in steel/steel interaction is explored in a ball on flat nanotribometer. The droplet size and charge are measured using dynamic light scattering, while the substrate charge density is estimated using the pH titration method. These data are combined to calculate the DLVO forces for the droplets generated for a range of surfactant concentration and two oil to water volume ratios. The droplets have a clear bi-modal size distribution. The study shows that the smaller droplets which experience weak repulsion are situated (at the highest DLVO barrier) much closer to the substrate than the bigger droplets, which experience the same DLVO force, are. We suggest that the smaller droplets thus play a more important role in lubricity than what the bigger droplets do. The largest volume of such small droplets occurs in the 0.5 mM-1 mM range of surfactant concentration and 1% oil to water volume ratio, where the coefficient of friction is also observed to be the least.

  19. Determination of metals in lubricating oils by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Pouzar, M; Cernohorský, T; Krejcová, A

    2001-06-21

    The determination of common wear metals, namely iron, chromium, copper, zinc and lead, in a wide range of lubricating oil samples was investigated for the use of a low-cost, wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. The procedure provided results in satisfactory agreement with inductively coupled plasma spectrometry used as reference method after microwave digestion of the samples in concentrated nitric acid. Statistical tests following extensive regression analyses of the data indicated that interelement effects were not statistically significant and that a simple linear regression was adequate for the calibration of individual metals.

  20. Diagnosis of lubricating oil by evaluating cyanide and carbon molecular emission lines in laser induced breakdown spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elnasharty, I. Y.; Kassem, A. K.; Sabsabi, M.; Harith, M. A.

    2011-08-01

    To prevent engine failure it is essential to change lubricating oil regularly before it loses its protective properties. It is also necessary to monitor the physical and chemical conditions of the oil to reliably determine the optimum oil-change intervals. The present work focuses on studying evolution of the cyanide (CN) and carbon (C 2) molecular spectral emission lines in the laser induced breakdown spectra of lubricating oil as a function of its consumption. The intensities of these molecular bands have been taken as indicator of engine oil degradation at certain mileage. Furthermore, the percentage of decay of CN and C 2 integral intensity values at the corresponding mileage was calculated in order to relate it to the degree of consumption of the motor oil. Such percentage decay of the CN and C 2 integral intensities have been found to increase gradually with increasing mileage which is accompanied with increasing depletion of engine oil. The results of using LIBS technique in the present measurements proved that it is possible to have a direct, straightforward and easy method for prediction of lubricating oil degree of consumption. This may facilitate scheduling the proper time and/or mileage intervals for changing the oil to avoid any possibility of engine failure.

  1. Graphene based composite grease for elastohydrodynamic lubricated point contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Jayant; Anand, Gautam; Kumar, Deepak; Tandon, Naresh

    2016-09-01

    This paper present tribological and dynamic evaluation of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets as an additive in lithium grease. Highly dispersion mixing method is used to mix rGO in commercial lithium grease to prepare composite grease. Tribological contact under investigation is established by ball-on-disc configuration. Friction, noise and vibration responses are recorded for the point contact lubricated with composite grease and base lithium grease in rolling and sliding- induced-rolling conditions. Relative speed of disc with the speed of ball is varied in order to get sliding-induced-rolling contact. Observations are performed at different nornal loads and fixed speed in elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) regime. Results show existence of an optimum concentration (0.4% w/w) of rGO in commercial lithium grease. Friction, noise and vibration are recorded minimum for concentration of 0.4% w/w of rGO in commercial lithium grease. Reduction in friction coefficient is recorded up to 30% and 20% for rolling contact and sliding-induced-rolling contact respectively at optimum concentration of rGO in lithium grease. The lamellar structure of rGO in base grease controls the lubricity of concentrated point contact.

  2. Comparison of the constituents of two jet engine lubricating oils and their volatile pyrolytic degradation products.

    PubMed

    van Netten, C; Leung, V

    2000-03-01

    Leaking oil seals in jet engines, at locations prior to the compressor stage, can be a cause of smoke in the cabins of BAe-146 aircraft. Compressed combustion air is bled off to pressurize the cabin and to provide a source of fresh air. Bleed air is diverted from a location just prior to the combustion chamber at a temperature around 500 degrees C. To prevent oil breakdown products from entering the cabin air, catalytic converters have been used to clean the air. During an oil seal failure this device becomes overloaded and smoke is observed in the cabin. Some aircraft companies have removed the catalytic converters and claim an improvement in air quality. During an oil seal failure, however, the flight crew is potentially exposed to the thermal breakdown products of the engine oils. Because very little is known regarding the thermal breakdown products of jet engine lubrication oils, two commercially available oils were investigated under laboratory conditions at 525 degrees C to measure the release of CO, CO2,NO2, and HCN as well as volatiles which were analyzed using GC-Mass spectrometry in an attempt to see if the neurotoxic agents tricresyl phosphates (TCPs) and trimethyl propane phosphate (TMPP) would be present or formed. TMPP was not found in these experiments. Some CO2 was generated along with CO which reached levels in excess of 100 ppm. HCN and NO2 were not detected. GC compositions of the two bulk oils and their breakdown products were almost identical. The presence of TCPs was confirmed in the bulk oils and in the volatiles. Localized condensation in the ventilation ducts and filters in the air conditioning packs are likely the reason why the presence of TCPs has not been demonstrated in cabin air. It was recommended that this needed to be verified in aircraft.

  3. Wear behavior of electroless Ni-P-W coating under lubricated condition - a Taguchi based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Arkadeb; Duari, Santanu; Barman, Tapan Kumar; Sahoo, Prasanta

    2016-09-01

    The present study aims to investigate the tribological behavior of electroless Ni-P-W coating under engine oil lubricated condition to ascertain its suitability in automotive applications. Coating is deposited onto mild steel specimens by the electroless method. The experiments are carried out on a pin - on - disc type tribo tester under lubrication. Three tribotesting parameters namely the applied normal load, sliding speed and sliding duration are varied at their three levels and their effects on the wear depth of the deposits are studied. The experiments are carried out based on the combinations available in Taguchi's L27 orthogonal array (OA). Optimization of the tribo-testing parameters is carried out using Taguchi's S/N ratio method to minimize the wear depth. Analysis of variance carried out at a confidence level of 99% indicates that the sliding speed is the most significant parameter in controlling the wear behavior of the deposits. Coating characterization is done using scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray analysis and X-ray diffraction techniques. It is seen that the wear mechanism under lubricated condition is abrasive in nature.

  4. Biobased, environmentally friendly lubricants for processing plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable oil based lubricants have excellent lubricity, biodegradability, good viscosity temperature characteristics and low evaporation loss, but poor thermos-oxidative stability and cold flow properties. This paper presents a systematic approach to improve the oxidative and cold flow behavior of...

  5. Role of lubrication oil in particulate emissions from a hydrogen-powered internal combustion engine.

    PubMed

    Miller, Arthur L; Stipe, Christopher B; Habjan, Matthew C; Ahlstrand, Gilbert G

    2007-10-01

    Recent studies suggest that trace metals emitted by internal combustion engines are derived mainly from combustion of lubrication oil. This hypothesis was examined by investigation of the formation of particulate matter emitted from an internal combustion engine in the absence of fuel-derived soot. Emissions from a modified CAT 3304 diesel engine fueled with hydrogen gas were characterized. The role of organic carbon and metals from lubrication oil on particle formation was investigated under selected engine conditions. The engine produced exhaust aerosol with log normal-size distributions and particle concentrations between 10(5) and 10(7) cm(-3) with geometric mean diameters from 18 to 31 nm. The particles contained organic carbon, little or no elemental carbon, and a much larger percentage of metals than particles from diesel engines. The maximum total carbon emission rate was estimated at 1.08 g h(-1), which is much lower than the emission rate of the original diesel engine. There was also evidence that less volatile elements, such as iron, self-nucleated to form nanoparticles, some of which survive the coagulation process.

  6. Dynamic-reservoir lubricating device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ficken, W. H.; Schulien, H. E.

    1968-01-01

    Dynamic-reservoir lubricating device supplies controlled amounts of lubricating oil to ball bearings during operation of the bearings. The dynamic reservoir lubricating device includes a rotating reservoir nut, a hollow cylinder filled with lubricating oil, flow restrictors and a ball bearing retainer.

  7. Design of Oil-Lubricated Machine for Life and Reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    2007-01-01

    In the post-World War II era, the major technology drivers for improving the life, reliability, and performance of rolling-element bearings and gears have been the jet engine and the helicopter. By the late 1950s, most of the materials used for bearings and gears in the aerospace industry had been introduced into use. By the early 1960s, the life of most steels was increased over that experienced in the early 1940s, primarily by the introduction of vacuum degassing and vacuum melting processes in the late 1950s. The development of elastohydrodynamic (EHD) theory showed that most rolling bearings and gears have a thin film separating the contacting bodies during motion and it is that film which affects their lives. Computer programs modeling bearing and gear dynamics that incorporate probabilistic life prediction methods and EHD theory enable optimization of rotating machinery based on life and reliability. With improved manufacturing and processing, the potential improvement in bearing and gear life can be as much as 80 times that attainable in the early 1950s. The work presented summarizes the use of laboratory fatigue data for bearings and gears coupled with probabilistic life prediction and EHD theories to predict the life and reliability of a commercial turboprop gearbox. The resulting predictions are compared with field data.

  8. Application of Carbon Based Nano-Materials to Aeronautics and Space Lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Street, Kenneth W., Jr.; Miyoshi, Kazuhisa; Wal, Randy L. Vander

    2007-01-01

    The tribology program at NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio, is investigating carbon based nano-particles for their potential in advanced concept lubrication products. Service conditions range from high temperature atmospheric to low temperature vacuum. Some of the lubricants and surface coatings of tribological significance that we have evaluated include neat nano-particles, both grown in-situ and as bulk material deposited on the substrate, and nano-particles dispersed in oils which are all highly substrate interactive. We discuss results of testing these systems in a spiral orbit tribometer (SOT) and a unidirectional pin-on-disc (PoD) tribometer. A nano-onions/Krytox mixture evaluated as a lubricant for angular contact bearings in air caused a marked lowering of the coefficient of friction (CoF) (0.04 to 0.05) for the mixture with an eight-fold improvement in lifetime over that of the Krytox alone. In vacuum, no effect was observed from the nano-onions. Multi-walled nanotubes (MWNT) and graphitized MWNT were tested under sliding friction in both air and vacuum. The MWNT which were grown in-situ oriented normal to the sliding surface exhibited low CoF (0.04) and long wear lives. Bulk MWNT also generate low CoF (0.01 to 0.04, vacuum; and 0.06, air) and long wear life (>1 million orbits, vacuum; and >3.5 million, air). Dispersed graphitized MWNT were superior to MWNT and both were superior to aligned MWNT indicating that orientation is not an issue for solid lubrication. Single-walled nanotubes (SWNT) were modified by cutting into shorter segments and by fluorination. All SWNTs exhibited low CoF in air, with good wear lives. The SWNT with slight fluorination yielded an ultra-low CoF of 0.002 although the best wear life was attributed to the nascent SWNT.

  9. Coated carbide drill performance under soluble coconut oil lubricant and nanoparticle enhanced MQL in drilling AISI P20

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamil, N. A. M.; Azmi, A. I.; Fairuz, M. A.

    2016-02-01

    This research experimentally investigates the performance of a TiAlN coated carbide drill bit in drilling AISI P20 through two different kinds of lubricants, namely; soluble coconut oil (SCO) and nanoparticle-enhanced coconut oil (NECO) under minimum quantity lubrication system. The tool life and tool wear mechanism were studied using various cutting speeds of 50, 100 and 150 m/min with a constant feed of 0.01 mm/rev. Since the flank wear land was not regular along the cutting edge, the average flank wear (VB) was measured at several points using image analysis software. The drills were inspected using a scanning electron microscope to further elucidate the wear mechanism. The result indicates that drilling with the nanoparticle- enhanced lubricant was better in resisting the wear and improving the drill life to some extent

  10. Object shape-based optical sensing methodology and system for condition monitoring of contaminated engine lubricants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordatchev, Evgueni; Aghayan, Hamid; Yang, Jun

    2014-03-01

    Presence of contaminants, such as gasoline, moisture, and coolant in the engine lubricant indicates mechanical failure within the engine and significantly reduces lubricant quality. This paper describes a novel sensing system, its methodology and experimental verifications for analysis of the presence of contaminants in the engine lubricants. The sensing methodology is based on the statistical shape analysis methodology utilizing optical analysis of the distortion effect when an object image is obtained through a thin random optical medium. The novelty of the proposed sensing system lies within the employed methodology which an object with a known periodic shape is introduced behind a thin film of the contaminated lubricant. In this case, an acquired image represents a combined lubricant-object optical appearance, where an a priori known periodical structure of the object is distorted by a contaminated lubricant. The object, e.g. a stainless steel woven wire cloth with a mesh size of 65×65 µm2 and a circular wire diameter of 33 µm was placed behind a microfluidic channel, containing engine lubricant and optical images of flowing lubricant with stationary object were acquired and analyzed. Several parameters of acquired optical images, such as, color of lubricant and object, object shape width at object and lubricant levels, object relative color, and object width non-uniformity coefficient, were proposed. Measured on-line parameters were used for optical analysis of fresh and contaminated lubricants. Estimation of contaminant presence and lubricant condition was performed by comparison of parameters for fresh and contaminated lubricants. Developed methodology was verified experimentally showing ability to distinguish lubricants with 1%, 4%, 7%, and 10% coolant, gasoline and water contamination individually and in a combination form of coolant (0%-5%) and gasoline (0%-5%).

  11. Lubrication System 1. Check and Change the Engine Oil. Student Manual. Small Engine Repair Series. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Pamela

    This student manual on checking and changing the engine oil is the second of three in an instructional package on the lubrication system in the Small Engine Repair Series for handicapped students. The stated purpose for the booklet is to help students learn what tools and equipment to use and all the steps of the job. Informative material and…

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strain Hex1T Isolated from Soils Contaminated with Used Lubricating Oil in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Luján, Adela M.; Feliziani, Sofía

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pseudomonas aeruginosa Hex1T was isolated from soils contaminated with used lubricating oil from a garage in Córdoba, Argentina. This strain is capable of utilizing this pollutant as the sole carbon and energy source. Here, we present the 6.9-Mb draft genome sequence of Hex1T, which contains many heavy metal-resistance genes. PMID:28082504

  13. Worldwide lubricant trends

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on lubricating oils for internal combustion engines. Topics considered at the conference included worldwide environmental regulations and their impact on lubricant additives, passenger car gasoline engine oils in Japan, valve train wear, the field performance of super premium engine oils, wear resistance, deposits, scale control, oil thickening, low-phosphorus engine oils, bore polishing, the Tornado test, the coordination of international needs for lubricant quality,and the corrosive wear of cast iron under reciprocating lubrication.

  14. Lubrication with solids.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.; Johnson, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    Brief discussion of the historical background, variety range, chemistry, physics, and other properties of solid lubricants, and review of their current uses. The widespread use of solid lubricants did not occur until about 1947. At present, they are the object of such interest that a special international conference on their subject was held in 1971. They are used at temperatures beyond the useful range of conventional lubricating oils and greases. Their low volatility provides them with the capability of functioning effectively in vacuum and invites their use in space applications. Their high load carrying ability makes them useful with heavily loaded components. Solid lubricants, however, do lack some of the desirable properties of conventional lubricants. Unlike oils and greases, which have fluidity and can continuously be carried back into contact with lubricated surfaces, solid lubricants, because of their immobility, have finite lives. Also, oils and greases can carry away frictional heat from contacting surfaces, while solid lubricants cannot.

  15. Application of the extraction induced by emulsion breaking for the determination of Cu, Fe and Mn in used lubricating oils by flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Caldas, Luiz Fernando S; Brum, Daniel M; de Paula, Carlos Eduardo R; Cassella, Ricardo J

    2013-06-15

    A novel approach is proposed for the sample preparation of used lubricating oils to determine Cu, Fe and Mn by FAAS. The method is based on the extraction induced by emulsion breaking, in which the elements of interest are transferred to an aqueous phase before the measurement by FAAS. In the method, each sample of used lubricating oil was diluted with toluene (20% v/v) and the resulting solution was emulsified with a Triton X-114 solution containing HNO3. Further, the water-in-oil emulsion was broken by centrifugation for 30 min at 3500 rpm, originating a system with two well-separated phases: (i) the upper phase, containing the used lubricating oil diluted in toluene and (ii) the lower aqueous phase, containing the analytes that were extracted from oil. The lower phase was collected, diluted with water and the analytes were determined by FAAS. The optimization of the methodology was performed by studying the influence of different parameters that could affect the extraction efficiency such as the nature and concentration of the solvent used for sample dilution, the concentrations of HNO3 and Triton X-114 in the solution employed for emulsification and the operational conditions for extraction (extraction, centrifugation and sampling times). The limits of quantification for Cu, Fe and Mn were 2.9, 77 and 8.2 ng g(-1), respectively. The accuracy of the method was evaluated by comparison with the reference method based on the total digestion of the samples in a closed-vessel microwave oven. There were no statistical differences between the results obtained with the proposed method and the reference one, except for Fe in the cases where its concentration was higher than 80 µg g(-1).

  16. Effect of Ultrasonic Vibration on the Behavior of Antifriction and Wear Resistance of Al2O3/Al2O3 Ceramic Friction Pairs Under Oil Lubrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, X. Y.; Qiao, Y. L.; Zang, Y.; Cui, Q. S.

    The behavior of antifriction and wear resistance of Al2O3/Al2O3 ceramic friction pairs lubricated by four different lubrication oils under ultrasonic vibration was studied. The surface morphologies of wear scare was analyzed by metallographic microscope. The effect mechanism of ultrasonic vibration on frictional pairs under different lubrication oils was discussed. The studied results showed that, ultrasonic vibration would improve the behavior of antifriction and wear resistance of the Al2O3/Al2O3 ceramic friction pairs under various lubrication oils.The improving would be dramaticer when the viscosity of lubrication oil was low. Ultrasonic vibration decreased the friction coefficient and wear volume 12.9% and 38.7% respectively, when the lubrication oil was 6#,the viscosity of which is 39.77 mm2/s. When the lubrication oil was 150BS, the viscosity of which is 549.69 mm2/s, ultrasonic vibration made friction coefficient and wear volume decreased 4.6% and 11.6% respectively.The effect of ultrasonic vibration on the behavior of antifriction and wear resistance of Al2O3/Al2O3 ceramic friction pairs was determined by the formation and the destruction of oil film on the friction surface and the upward floatage created by ultrasonic vibration.

  17. Experimental Studies on a Single Stage Stirling Type Pulse Tube Cryocooler Driven by Oil-Lubricated Compressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Ren; Jianying, Hu; Ercang, Luo; Xiaotao, Wang

    2010-04-01

    Because lubricating oil for moving parts is not allowed to go into the pulse tube cryocooler, Stirling type pulse tube cryocoolers are generally driven by oil-free compressors although oil-lubricated compressors are much cheaper and facile. Recently, it was proposed that an acoustic transparent and oil blocking diaphragm could be employed to separate the compressor and the cryocooler. Thus, the cryocooler can be driven by oil-lubricated compressors. In this paper, a pulse tube cryocooler is designed to match a crankcase compressor. Although the efficiency of the crankcase compressor is lower compared with the oil-free linear compressor, the crankcase compressor can easily work at lower frequency which results in higher efficiency for the cryocooler. So the relative high performance of the whole system can be maintained. In this system, the cryocooler delivers 28.5 W of cooling at 80 K with 680 W of electrical input power and operates at 15 Hz. The corresponding Carnot efficiency is 11.52%.

  18. Biosurfactant Production by Bacillus salmalaya for Lubricating Oil Solubilization and Biodegradation

    PubMed Central

    Dadrasnia, Arezoo; Ismail, Salmah

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the capability of a biosurfactant produced by a novel strain of Bacillus salmalaya to enhance the biodegradation rates and bioavailability of organic contaminants. The biosurfactant produced by cultured strain 139SI showed high physicochemical properties and surface activity in the selected medium. The biosurfactant exhibited a high emulsification index and a positive result in the drop collapse test, with the results demonstrating the wetting activity of the biosurfactant and its potential to produce surface-active molecules. Strain 139SI can significantly reduce the surface tension (ST) from 70.5 to 27 mN/m, with a critical micelle concentration of 0.4%. Moreover, lubricating oil at 2% (v/v) was degraded on Day 20 (71.5). Furthermore, the biosurfactant demonstrated high stability at different ranges of salinity, pH, and temperature. Overall, the results indicated the potential use of B. salmalaya 139SI in environmental remediation processes. PMID:26295402

  19. Determination of calcium, magnesium and zinc in unused lubricating oils by atomic absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Udoh, A P

    1995-12-01

    Varying concentrations of lanthanum and strontium were added to solutions of ashed unused lubricating oils for the determination of calcium, magnesium and zinc content using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. At least 3000 mug g(-1) of lanthanum or strontium was required to completely overcome the interference of the phosphate ion, PO(3-)(4), and give peak values for calcium. The presence of lanthanum or strontium did not cause an appreciable increase in the amount of magnesium and zinc obtained from the analyses. The method is fast and reproducible, and the coefficients of variation calculated for the elements using one of the samples were 1.6% for calcium, 3.5% for magnesium and 0.2% for zinc. Results obtained by this method were better than those obtained by other methods for the same samples.

  20. Variable resistance constant tension and lubrication device. [using oil-saturated leather wiper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, H. J. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A variable resistance device is described which includes a cylindrical housing having elongated resistance wires. A movable arm having a supporting block carried on the outer end is rotatably carried by the cylindrical housing. An arcuate steel spring member is pivotally supported by the movable arm. A leather wiper member is carried adjacent to one end of the spring steel member, and an electrically conductive surface is carried adjacent to the other end. The supporting block maintains the spring steel member in compression so that a constant pressure is applied to the conductive end of the spring steel member and the leather wiper. The leather wiper is saturated with a lubricating oil for maintaining the resistance wire clean as the movable arm is manipulated.

  1. [Simultaneous determination of three inorganic anions in food-grade lubricating oils by chromatography with suppressed conductivity detection].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liyuan; Fei, Xudong; Qiu, Feng; Lin, Miao

    2015-02-01

    An ion chromatographic (IC) method with suppressed conductivity detection was developed for the simultaneous determination of Cl-, NO3(-), SO(2-)(4) in food-grade lubricating oils. After ultrasonic extraction with 50% (v/v) methanol aqueous solution and centrifugation, the sample in aqueous phase was purified with 0. 22 µm hybrid fiber membranes, then analyzed by IC using 15 mmol/L KOH solution as eluent, and detected by a suppressed conductivity detector. Effects of the concentration and flow rate of the eluent, and the concentration of the methanol aqueous solution on the detection of the three anions were investigated. Under the optimized separation conditions, the three anions were separated completely and the system peaks didn't interfere with the determination. The calibration curves showed good linearity (R2> 0. 999) in the range of 0. 10-20. 00 mg/L. The limits of detection (LODs, S/N= 3) were 0. 01 - 0. 03 mg/kg. The average recoveries of Cl-, NO(-)3, SO(2-)4 anions were 90. 0% - 103. 6% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 2. 8% - 5. 7%. This method avoids the time-consuming pretreatment process to burn or ash the oil phase matrix, and can determine the amounts of three inorganic anions (Cl-, NO(-)3, SO(2-)(4)) in food-grade lubricating oils fast and accurately. It is suitable for simultaneously separating and detecting trace inorganic anions in lubricating oils or other oil products.

  2. High-Efficient Production of Boron Nitride Nanosheets via an Optimized Ball Milling Process for Lubrication in Oil

    PubMed Central

    Deepika, D; Li, Lu Hua; Glushenkov, Alexey M.; Hait, Samik K.; Hodgson, Peter; Chen, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Although tailored wet ball milling can be an efficient method to produce a large quantity of two-dimensional nanomaterials, such as boron nitride (BN) nanosheets, milling parameters including milling speed, ball-to-powder ratio, milling ball size and milling agent, are important for optimization of exfoliation efficiency and production yield. In this report, we systematically investigate the effects of different milling parameters on the production of BN nanosheets with benzyl benzoate being used as the milling agent. It is found that small balls of 0.1–0.2 mm in diameter are much more effective in exfoliating BN particles to BN nanosheets. Under the optimum condition, the production yield can be as high as 13.8% and the BN nanosheets are 0.5–1.5 μm in diameter and a few nanometers thick and of relative high crystallinity and chemical purity. The lubrication properties of the BN nanosheets in base oil have also been studied. The tribological tests show that the BN nanosheets can greatly reduce the friction coefficient and wear scar diameter of the base oil. PMID:25470295

  3. High-efficient production of boron nitride nanosheets via an optimized ball milling process for lubrication in oil.

    PubMed

    Deepika; Li, Lu Hua; Glushenkov, Alexey M; Hait, Samik K; Hodgson, Peter; Chen, Ying

    2014-12-03

    Although tailored wet ball milling can be an efficient method to produce a large quantity of two-dimensional nanomaterials, such as boron nitride (BN) nanosheets, milling parameters including milling speed, ball-to-powder ratio, milling ball size and milling agent, are important for optimization of exfoliation efficiency and production yield. In this report, we systematically investigate the effects of different milling parameters on the production of BN nanosheets with benzyl benzoate being used as the milling agent. It is found that small balls of 0.1-0.2 mm in diameter are much more effective in exfoliating BN particles to BN nanosheets. Under the optimum condition, the production yield can be as high as 13.8% and the BN nanosheets are 0.5-1.5 μm in diameter and a few nanometers thick and of relative high crystallinity and chemical purity. The lubrication properties of the BN nanosheets in base oil have also been studied. The tribological tests show that the BN nanosheets can greatly reduce the friction coefficient and wear scar diameter of the base oil.

  4. High-Efficient Production of Boron Nitride Nanosheets via an Optimized Ball Milling Process for Lubrication in Oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deepika; Li, Lu Hua; Glushenkov, Alexey M.; Hait, Samik K.; Hodgson, Peter; Chen, Ying

    2014-12-01

    Although tailored wet ball milling can be an efficient method to produce a large quantity of two-dimensional nanomaterials, such as boron nitride (BN) nanosheets, milling parameters including milling speed, ball-to-powder ratio, milling ball size and milling agent, are important for optimization of exfoliation efficiency and production yield. In this report, we systematically investigate the effects of different milling parameters on the production of BN nanosheets with benzyl benzoate being used as the milling agent. It is found that small balls of 0.1-0.2 mm in diameter are much more effective in exfoliating BN particles to BN nanosheets. Under the optimum condition, the production yield can be as high as 13.8% and the BN nanosheets are 0.5-1.5 μm in diameter and a few nanometers thick and of relative high crystallinity and chemical purity. The lubrication properties of the BN nanosheets in base oil have also been studied. The tribological tests show that the BN nanosheets can greatly reduce the friction coefficient and wear scar diameter of the base oil.

  5. Lubricating compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, J.J.; Campbell, C.B.

    1993-08-03

    A lubricating composition is described comprising a major amount of oil of lubricating viscosity and a minor amount of an oil-soluble composition selected from the group consisting of: (A) an alkali metal salt of a polyalkenyl succinimide which is the reaction product of (a) a polyalkenyl succinic acid or polyalkenyl succinic anhydride, with (b) an amine selected from the group consisting of polyamines and hydroxy-substituted polyamines; and (B) a mixture comprising: (1) an oil-soluble alkali metal compound; and (2) a polyalkenyl succinimide which is the reaction product of (a) a polyalkenyl succinic acid or polyalkenyl succinic anhydride, with (b) an amine selected from the group consisting of polyamines and hydroxy-substituted polyamines; wherein the polyalkenyl succinic acid and polyalkenyl succinic anhydride are prepared by a thermal reaction, and the lubricating composition has a sufficient amount of basic nitrogen content so that the use of from 7.91 to about 50 mmoles of alkali metal/kg lubricant composition provides for reductions in the lower piston deposits as compared to the lubricant composition not containing alkali.

  6. Bio-lubricants derived from waste cooking oil with improved oxidation stability and low-temperature properties.

    PubMed

    Li, Weimin; Wang, Xiaobo

    2015-01-01

    Waste cooking oil (WCO) was chemically modified via epoxidation using H2O2 followed by transesterification with methanol and branched alcohols (isooctanol, isotridecanol and isooctadecanol) to produce bio-lubricants with improved oxidative stability and low temperature properties. Physicochemical properties of synthesized bio-lubricants such as pour point (PP), cloud point (CP), viscosity, viscosity index (VI), oxidative stability, and corrosion resistant property were determined according to standard methods. The synthesized bio-lubricants showed improved low temperature flow performances compared with WCO, which can be attributing to the introduction of branched chains in their molecular structures. What's more, the oxidation stability of the WCO showed more than 10 folds improvement due to the elimination of -C=C-bonds in the WCO molecule. Tribological performances of these bio-lubricants were also investigated using four-ball friction and wear tester. Experimental results showed that derivatives of WCO exhibited favorable physicochemical properties and tribological performances which making them good candidates in formulating eco-friendly lubricants.

  7. Effects of fresh lubricant oils on particle emissions emitted by a modern gasoline direct injection passenger car.

    PubMed

    Pirjola, Liisa; Karjalainen, Panu; Heikkilä, Juha; Saari, Sampo; Tzamkiozis, Theodoros; Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Kulmala, Kari; Keskinen, Jorma; Rönkkö, Topi

    2015-03-17

    Particle emissions from a modern turbocharged gasoline direct injection passenger car equipped with a three-way catalyst and an exhaust gas recirculation system were studied while the vehicle was running on low-sulfur gasoline and, consecutively, with five different lubrication oils. Exhaust particle number concentration, size distribution, and volatility were determined both at laboratory and on-road conditions. The results indicated that the choice of lubricant affected particle emissions both during the cold start and warm driving cycles. However, the contribution of engine oil depended on driving conditions being higher during acceleration and steady state driving than during deceleration. The highest emission factors were found with two oils that had the highest metal content. The results indicate that a 10% decrease in the Zn content of engine oils is linked with an 11-13% decrease to the nonvolatile particle number emissions in steady driving conditions and a 5% decrease over the New European Driving Cycle. The effect of lubricant on volatile particles was even higher, on the order of 20%.

  8. Solubility of Carbon Dioxide in Pentaerythritol Hexanoate: Molecular Dynamics Simulation of a Refrigerant-Lubricant Oil System.

    PubMed

    Sugii, Taisuke; Ishii, Eiji; Müller-Plathe, Florian

    2015-09-17

    We have investigated the solubility and the solvation structure between a refrigerant (carbon dioxide, CO2) and a lubricant oil (pentaerythritol hexanoate, PEC6) by molecular dynamics simulations. First, to investigate the solubility, we calculated the vapor-liquid equilibrium pressure. The chemical potential of the liquid phase and the gas phase were calculated, and the equilibrium state was obtained from the crossing point of these chemical potentials. The equilibrium pressures agreed well with experimental data over a wide range of temperatures and mole fractions of CO2. Second, the solvation structure was also investigated on a molecular scale. We found the following characteristics. First, the tails of the lubricant oil are relatively rigid inside the ester groups but flexible beyond. Second, CO2 molecules barely enter the lubricant core as delimited by the ester groups. Third, the double-bonded oxygen atoms of the ester groups are good sorption sites for CO2. Fourth, only a few CO2 molecules are attached to more than one carbonyl oxygen simultaneously. Finally, there is also significant unspecific sorption of CO2 in the alkane tail region. These results indicate that increasing the size of the rigid lubricant core would probably decrease the solubility, whereas increasing the number of polar groups would increase it.

  9. Condoms and condiments: compatibility and safety of personal lubricants and their use in Africa.

    PubMed

    Geibel, Scott

    2013-07-09

    Previous research on the use of personal lubricants for sexual intercourse is limited and has primarily focused on condom compatibility and breakage, with only recent limited assessment of lubricant safety and possible epidemiologic implications. This article discusses the global evidence of lubricant compatibility with latex condoms and biological safety of lubricants, as well as documentation of lubricant use and current guidelines for HIV prevention programming in Africa. Data on lubricant compatibility with condoms are less available than commonly realized, and many lubricant products may not have been thoroughly tested for safety due to flexible regulatory environments. Recent laboratory and study findings from microbicides research also suggest that some water-based lubricants may have safety issues. Some African populations are using several types of lubricants, especially oil-based petroleum jellies, and receive little evidence-based guidance. More research is needed from the medical community to guide prevention programming.

  10. Condoms and condiments: compatibility and safety of personal lubricants and their use in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Geibel, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Previous research on the use of personal lubricants for sexual intercourse is limited and has primarily focused on condom compatibility and breakage, with only recent limited assessment of lubricant safety and possible epidemiologic implications. This article discusses the global evidence of lubricant compatibility with latex condoms and biological safety of lubricants, as well as documentation of lubricant use and current guidelines for HIV prevention programming in Africa. Data on lubricant compatibility with condoms are less available than commonly realized, and many lubricant products may not have been thoroughly tested for safety due to flexible regulatory environments. Recent laboratory and study findings from microbicides research also suggest that some water-based lubricants may have safety issues. Some African populations are using several types of lubricants, especially oil-based petroleum jellies, and receive little evidence-based guidance. More research is needed from the medical community to guide prevention programming. PMID:23841994

  11. Storage of Synthetic Turbine Lubricants under Adverse Conditions.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-01

    lubricants is the quantity of base, expressed in milligrams of potassium hydroxide required to neutralize all ac.idic constituents present in one...Bright Scum at Scum at Scum at Scum at Dark Scun in Water Dark Scum in Wart , Oil/Wa- Oil/Wa- Oil/Wa- Oil/Wa- Layer. Layer. ter In- ter In- ter In- ter In

  12. Lubrication of Nitinol 60

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepper, Stephen V.; DellaCorte, Christopher; Glennon, Glenn

    2010-01-01

    The mechanical properties of Nitinol 60, 60 wt% Ni, 40 wt% Ti (55 at.% Ni, 45 at.% Ti) are sufficiently attractive to warrant its consideration as a lubricated triboelement. Triboelements are always run lubricated. The ability to lubricate Nitinol 60 by the oils usually used on spacecraft mechanisms--Pennzane 2001A, Krytox 143AC and Castrol 815Z--was experimentally determined. These oils were run in the boundary lubrication regime for Nitinol 60 balls running against Nitinol 60 counterfaces in the vacuum spiral orbit tribometer. Test results consisting of the coefficient of friction versus time (friction traces) and relative degradation rates of the oils are presented. Contrary to the inability to successfully lubricate other metal alloys with high titanium content, it was found that Nitinol 60 is able to be lubricated by these oils. Overall, the results presented here indicate that Nitinol 60 is a credible candidate material for bearing applications.

  13. Influence of boric acid additive size on green lubricant performance.

    PubMed

    Lovell, Michael R; Kabir, M A; Menezes, Pradeep L; Higgs, C Fred

    2010-10-28

    As the industrial community moves towards green manufacturing processes, there is an increased demand for multi-functional, environmentally friendly lubricants with enhanced tribological performance. In the present investigation, green (environmentally benign) lubricant combinations were prepared by homogeneously mixing nano- (20 nm), sub-micrometre- (600 nm average size) and micrometre-scale (4 μm average size) boric acid powder additives with canola oil in a vortex generator. As a basis for comparison, lubricants of base canola oil and canola oil mixed with MoS(2) powder (ranging from 0.5 to 10 μm) were also prepared. Friction and wear experiments were carried out on the prepared lubricants using a pin-on-disc apparatus under ambient conditions. Based on the experiments, the nanoscale (20 nm) particle boric acid additive lubricants significantly outperformed all of the other lubricants with respect to frictional and wear performance. In fact, the nanoscale boric acid powder-based lubricants exhibited a wear rate more than an order of magnitude lower than the MoS(2) and larger sized boric acid additive-based lubricants. It was also discovered that the oil mixed with a combination of sub-micrometre- and micrometre-scale boric acid powder additives exhibited better friction and wear performance than the canola oil mixed with sub-micrometre- or micrometre-scale boric acid additives alone.

  14. Tribology and energy efficiency: from molecules to lubricated contacts to complete machines.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Robert Ian

    2012-01-01

    The impact of lubricants on energy efficiency is considered. Molecular details of base oils used in lubricants can have a great impact on the lubricant's physical properties which will affect the energy efficiency performance of a lubricant. In addition, molecular details of lubricant additives can result in significant differences in measured friction coefficients for machine elements operating in the mixed/boundary lubrication regime. In single machine elements, these differences will result in lower friction losses, and for complete systems (such as cars, trucks, hydraulic circuits, industrial gearboxes etc.) lower fuel consumption or lower electricity consumption can result.

  15. Elastohydrodynamic properties of blends of plant-based and petroleum-based oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant-based oils are mostly triglycerides but can also be esters of long chain fatty acids and fatty alcohols. They are renewable and biodegradable materials, and display certain lubrication characteristics that are superior to petroleum-based products. However, for some applications, plant-based ...

  16. Ionic liquids as lubricant additives: A review

    DOE PAGES

    Zhou, Yan; Qu, Jun

    2016-12-28

    In pursuit of energy efficiency and durability throughout human history, advances in lubricants have always played important roles. Ionic liquids (ILs) are room-temperature molten salts that possess unique physicochemical properties and have shown great potential in many applications with lubrication as one of the latest. While earlier work (2001–2011) primarily explored the feasibility of using ILs as neat or base lubricants, using ILs as lubricant additives has become the new focal research topic since the breakthrough in ILs’ miscibility in nonpolar hydrocarbon oils in early 2012. This work reviews the recent advances in developing ILs as additives for lubrication withmore » an attempt to correlate among the cationic and anionic structures, oil-solubility, and other relevant physicochemical properties, and lubricating behavior. Effects of the concentration of ILs in lubricants and the compatibility between ILs and other additives in the lubricant formulation on the tribological performance are described followed by a discussion of wear protection mechanism based on tribofilm characterization. As a result, future research directions are suggested at the end.« less

  17. Ionic liquids as lubricant additives: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Yan; Qu, Jun

    2016-12-28

    In pursuit of energy efficiency and durability throughout human history, advances in lubricants have always played important roles. Ionic liquids (ILs) are room-temperature molten salts that possess unique physicochemical properties and have shown great potential in many applications with lubrication as one of the latest. While earlier work (2001–2011) primarily explored the feasibility of using ILs as neat or base lubricants, using ILs as lubricant additives has become the new focal research topic since the breakthrough in ILs’ miscibility in nonpolar hydrocarbon oils in early 2012. This work reviews the recent advances in developing ILs as additives for lubrication with an attempt to correlate among the cationic and anionic structures, oil-solubility, and other relevant physicochemical properties, and lubricating behavior. Effects of the concentration of ILs in lubricants and the compatibility between ILs and other additives in the lubricant formulation on the tribological performance are described followed by a discussion of wear protection mechanism based on tribofilm characterization. As a result, future research directions are suggested at the end.

  18. Preparation of high thermal stability polysulfone microcapsules containing lubricant oil and its tribological properties of epoxy composites.

    PubMed

    Li, Haiyan; Wang, Qing; Li, Meiling; Cui, Yexiang; Zhu, Yanji; Wang, Baohui; Wang, Huaiyuan

    2016-05-01

    Polysulfone (PSF) microcapsules containing lubricant oil have been successfully prepared using solvent evaporation method. The results show that lubricant oil was successfully encapsulated and the encapsulation capacity of about 56.0 wt.% was achieved. The uniform microcapsules have nearly spherical shape and quite smooth outer surface. The mean diameter is approximately 156 and 169 μm by using different dispersant solutions. The wall material is porous in structure with wall thickness of about 20 μm. The initial decomposition temperature of PSF is 480 °C. It is higher than traditional poly(urea-formaldehyde) (PUF) and poly(melamine-formaldehyde) (PMF) wall materials with 245 °C and 260 °C initial decomposition temperature, respectively. High thermal stability of PSF microcapsules can be considered as additives in high temperature resistant polymer materials. The frictional coefficient and wear rate of epoxy composites decreased significantly by incorporating microcapsules containing lubricant oil into epoxy. When the concentration of microcapsules was 25 wt.%, the frictional coefficient and specific wear rate were reduced by 2.3 and 18.3 times, respectively, as compared to the neat epoxy.

  19. Lubricant compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, A.L.; Lawson, R.D.; Root, J.C.

    1981-12-15

    Lubricant compositions adapted for use under extreme pressure conditions are disclosed. They comprise a major proportion of a lubricating grease, and a minor proportion of an additive consisting essentially of a solid, oil insoluble arylene sulfide polymer, and a metal salt, particularly an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal salt, particularly an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal salt of a phosphorus acid, for example, mono- or dicalcium phosphate, or an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal carbonate exemplified by calcium carbonate, or a mixture of such a phosphate salt and carbonate.

  20. Contribution of lubricating oil to particulate matter emissions from light-duty gasoline vehicles in Kansas City.

    PubMed

    Sonntag, Darrell B; Bailey, Chad R; Fulper, Carl R; Baldauf, Richard W

    2012-04-03

    The contribution of lubricating oil to particulate matter (PM) emissions representative of the in-use 2004 light-duty gasoline vehicles fleet is estimated from the Kansas City Light-Duty Vehicle Emissions Study (KCVES). PM emissions are apportioned to lubricating oil and gasoline using aerosol-phase chemical markers measured in PM samples obtained from 99 vehicles tested on the California Unified Driving Cycle. The oil contribution to fleet-weighted PM emission rates is estimated to be 25% of PM emission rates. Oil contributes primarily to the organic fraction of PM, with no detectable contribution to elemental carbon emissions. Vehicles are analyzed according to pre-1991 and 1991-2004 groups due to differences in properties of the fitting species between newer and older vehicles, and to account for the sampling design of the study. Pre-1991 vehicles contribute 13.5% of the KC vehicle population, 70% of oil-derived PM for the entire fleet, and 33% of the fuel-derived PM. The uncertainty of the contributions is calculated from a survey analysis resampling method, with 95% confidence intervals for the oil-derived PM fraction ranging from 13% to 37%. The PM is not completely apportioned to the gasoline and oil due to several contributing factors, including varied chemical composition of PM among vehicles, metal emissions, and PM measurement artifacts. Additional uncertainties include potential sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons into the oil, contributions of semivolatile organic compounds from the oil to the PM measurements, and representing the in-use fleet with a limited number of vehicles.

  1. Automatic determination of insolubles in lubricating oils by flow injection analysis employing an LED-photometer detector.

    PubMed

    Pignalosa, Gustavo; Sixto, Alexandra; Knochen, Moisés

    2007-10-31

    A flow injection system is presented for the determination of the insolubles content in used lubricating oil samples. The system is based on the injection of an aliquot of the sample in a stream of organic solvent where it is dispersed, and measurement of the scattered radiation (measured as apparent absorbance) in the visible range (lambda=640nm). An LED-based photometer was used for this purpose. The whole system including sample injection and data acquisition was controlled by a personal computer. Calibration curves exhibited good linearity (h=0.415+/-0.016C+0.00+/-0.03, r(2)=0.9995, confidence level of 95%) in the range up to 2.68% (insolubles in pentane). Detection and quantification limits were respectively 0.07% and 0.16% (w/w). The method was validated by analysis of 25 real samples by the proposed method and the FTIR method finding high correlation. Waste generation and reactive consumption is much less than in the official method (ASTM D-893). The proposed method employs 25mL of kerosene per sample while the official method employs 200mL of pentane.

  2. Determination of calcium, magnesium and zinc in lubricating oils by flame atomic absorption spectrometry using a three-component solution.

    PubMed

    Zmozinski, Ariane V; de Jesus, Alexandre; Vale, Maria G R; Silva, Márcia M

    2010-12-15

    Lubricating oils are used to decrease wear and friction of movable parts of engines and turbines, being in that way essential for the performance and the increase of that equipment lifespan. The presence of some metals shows the addition of specific additives such as detergents, dispersals and antioxidants that improve the performance of these lubricants. In this work, a method for determination of calcium, magnesium and zinc in lubricating oil by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (F AAS) was developed. The samples were diluted with a small quantity of aviation kerosene (AVK), n-propanol and water to form a three-component solution before its introduction in the F AAS. Aqueous inorganic standards diluted in the same way have been used for calibration. To assess the accuracy of the new method, it was compared with ABNT NBR 14066 standard method, which consists in diluting the sample with AVK and in quantification by F AAS. Two other validating methods have also been used: the acid digestion and the certified reference material NIST (SRM 1084a). The proposed method provides the following advantages in relation to the standard method: significant reduction of the use of AVK, higher stability of the analytes in the medium and application of aqueous inorganic standards for calibration. The limits of detection for calcium, magnesium and zinc were 1.3 μg g(-1), 0.052 μg g(-1) and 0.41 μg g(-1), respectively. Concentrations of calcium, magnesium and zinc in six different samples obtained by the developed method did not differ significantly from the results obtained by the reference methods at the 95% confidence level (Student's t-test and ANOVA). Therefore, the proposed method becomes an efficient alternative for determination of metals in lubricating oil.

  3. Advanced Petroleum-Based Fuels -- Diesel Emissions Control Project (APBF-DEC): Lubricants Project, Phase 2 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-06-01

    This report summarizes the results of the second phase of a lubricants project, which investigated the impact of engine oil formulation on diesel vehicle emissions and the performance of a nitrogen oxide adsorber catalyst (NAC).

  4. Optofluidic multi-measurement system for the online monitoring of lubricant oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verschooten, Tom; Callewaert, Manly; Ciaccheri, Leonardo; Vervaeke, Michael; Van Erps, Jürgen; De Malsche, Wim; Grazia Mignani, Anna; Thienpont, Hugo; Ottevaere, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    We show a detection system that simultaneously allows absorbance (ABS), laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and scattering detection excited by two different laser sources at 405 nm and 450 nm. The heart of the system consists of a mass manufacturable polymer optofluidic chip. The chip is mounted in an optical detection assembly that aligns the chip to the rest of the system, seals the chip from leakage, fixes the position and connects the channels to the rest of the fluidic system. The fluidics exhibit a reduced susceptibility to perturbations caused by air bubbles, this is accomplished by making use of a serpentine channel layout. For coumarin 480, detection limits of 100 nM and 10 pM are observed for ABS and LIF respectively. An effective detection range of 4000 down to 1 nephelometric turbidity units is shown for the detection of scattered light. The viscous behaviour of the sample is analysed by a secondary FFT processing step of which the result is further processed by multivariate data analysis. This allows the identification of samples and prediction of their quality parameters. We apply this system for the monitoring of lubricant oil, demonstrating its ability to compete with spectroscopic detection techniques. The low-cost approach and multi-measurement architecture shown in this paper pave the way for miniaturized on-line monitoring of liquids in an industrial environment.

  5. Lubrication Handbook For The Space Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmurtrey, Ernest L.

    1988-01-01

    A 458-page handbook covers many of solid and liquid lubricants used in space industry. Also useful reference in industrial and military applications of lubricants. Part A of handbook compilation of data on chemical and physical properties of over 250 solid lubricants, including bonded solid lubricants, dispersions, and composites. Part B covers over 250 liquid lubricants, greases, oils, compounds, and fluids.

  6. Automated acid and base number determination of mineral-based lubricants by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy: commercial laboratory evaluation.

    PubMed

    Winterfield, Craig; van de Voort, F R

    2014-12-01

    The Fluid Life Corporation assessed and implemented Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)-based methods using American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)-like stoichiometric reactions for determination of acid and base number for in-service mineral-based oils. The basic protocols, quality control procedures, calibration, validation, and performance of these new quantitative methods are assessed. ASTM correspondence is attained using a mixed-mode calibration, using primary reference standards to anchor the calibration, supplemented by representative sample lubricants analyzed by ASTM procedures. A partial least squares calibration is devised by combining primary acid/base reference standards and representative samples, focusing on the main spectral stoichiometric response with chemometrics assisting in accounting for matrix variability. FTIR(AN/BN) methodology is precise, accurate, and free of most interference that affects ASTM D664 and D4739 results. Extensive side-by-side operational runs produced normally distributed differences with mean differences close to zero and standard deviations of 0.18 and 0.26 mg KOH/g, respectively. Statistically, the FTIR methods are a direct match to the ASTM methods, with superior performance in terms of analytical throughput, preparation time, and solvent use. FTIR(AN/BN) analysis is a viable, significant advance for in-service lubricant analysis, providing an economic means of trending samples instead of tedious and expensive conventional ASTM(AN/BN) procedures.

  7. Influence of lubricant oil on heat transfer performance of refrigerant flow boiling inside small diameter tubes. Part II: Correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Wenjian; Ding, Guoliang; Hu, Haitao; Wang, Kaijian

    2007-10-15

    The predictive ability of the available state-of-the-art heat transfer correlations of refrigerant-oil mixture is evaluated with the present experiment data of small tubes with inside diameter of 6.34 mm and 2.50 mm. Most of these correlations can be used to predict the heat transfer coefficient of 6.34 mm tube, but none of them can predict heat transfer coefficient of 2.50 mm tube satisfactorily. A new correlation of two-phase heat transfer multiplier with local properties of refrigerant-oil mixture is developed. This correlation approaches the actual physical mechanism of flow boiling heat transfer of refrigerant-oil mixture and can reflect the actual co-existing conditions of refrigerant and lubricant oil. More than 90% of the experiment data of both test tubes have less than {+-}20% deviation from the prediction values of the new correlations. (author)

  8. Boundary friction in liquid and dry film biobased lubricants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Farm-based raw materials such as fats, seed oils, starches, proteins, and gums can be subjected to various degrees of processing to make them suitable for use in lubrication. The resulting biobased ingredients are then blended with each other and/or with synthetic ingredients to formulate lubricant...

  9. Highly Branched Polyethylenes as Lubricant Viscosity and Friction Modifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Joshua W.; Zhou, Yan; Qu, Jun; Bays, John T.; Cosimbescu, Lelia

    2016-10-08

    A series of highly branched polyethylenes (BPE) were prepared and used in a Group I base oil as potential viscosity and friction modifiers. The lubricating performance of these BPEs supports the expected dual functionality. Changes in polarity, topology, and molecular weight of the BPEs showed significant effects on the lubricants’ performance, which provide scientific insights for polymer design in future lubricant development.

  10. Feasibility of Department of Defense Used Lubricating Oil Re-refining.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    0.1 95.1 5078 Great Lakes IL 3190 0.1 95.2 5163 Pittsburgh PA 3158 0.1 95.3 5055 Cecil Field FL 3139 0.1 95.4 5072 Chanute Air Force Base IL 3125 0.1...Fort Benning, GA, April 1983. 11. Booth , George, "Choosing to Re-refine," from Used Oil the Hidden Asset, Proceedings of the Fourth International...Hydrophobic, Michel & Pelton Company, Emeryville, CA, 1983. A’ 19. Coenen, Hubert , Re-refining Used Oil by Supercritical Fluid Ex- traction, Used Oil the

  11. Novel acyloxy derivatives of branched mono- and polyol esters of sal fat: multiviscosity grade lubricant base stocks.

    PubMed

    Kamalakar, Kotte; Sai Manoj, Gorantla N V T; Prasad, Rachapudi B N; Karuna, Mallampalli S L

    2014-12-10

    Sal fat, a nontraditional seed oil, was chemically modified to obtain base stocks with a wide range of specifications that can replace mineral oil base stocks. Sal fatty acids were enriched to 72.6% unsaturation using urea adduct method and reacted with branched mono alcohol, 2-ethylhexanol (2-EtH), and polyols namely neopentyl glycol (NPG) and trimethylolpropane (TMP) to obtain corresponding esters. The esters were hydroxylated and then acylated using propionic, butyric, and hexanoic anhydrides to obtain corresponding acylated derivatives. The acylated TMP esters exhibited very high viscosities (427.35-471.93 cSt at 40 °C) similar to those of BS 150 mineral oil base stock range, ISO VG 460, while the acylated NPG esters (268.81-318.84 cSt at 40 °C) and 2-EtH esters viscosities (20.94-24.44 cSt at 40 °C) exhibited viscosities in the range of ISO VG 320 and 22 respectively with good viscosity indices. Acylated NPG esters were found suitable for high temperature and acylated 2-ethylhexyl esters for low viscosity grade industrial applications. It was observed that the thermo-oxidative stabilities of all acylated products were found better compared to other vegetable oil based base stocks. Overall, all the sal fat based lubricant base stocks are promising candidates with a wide range of properties, which can replace most of the mineral oil base stocks with appropriate formulations.

  12. Corrosion protection of steel by thin coatings of starch-oil dry lubricants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corrosion of materials is one of the most serious and challenging problems faced worldwide by industry. Dry lubricants reduce friction between two metal surfaces. This research investigated the inhibition of corrosive behavior a dry lubricant formulation consisting of jet-cooked corn starch and soyb...

  13. Supramolecular ionogel lubricants with imidazolium-based ionic liquids bearing the urea group as gelator.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qiangliang; Wu, Yang; Li, DongMei; Cai, Meirong; Zhou, Feng; Liu, Weimin

    2017-02-01

    A new class of ionic liquid gels (ionogels) is prepared through the supramolecular self-assembly of imidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs) bearing the urea group as gelators in normal ILs. The ILs gelator can self-assemble through hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interaction to form analogous lamellar structures and solidify base ILs. The obtained ionogels exhibit superior anticorrosion and conductivity characteristics. Moreover, ionogels show fully thermoreversible and favorable thixotropic characteristics, such that they can be used as high-performance semisolid conductive lubricants. The tribological tests reveal that these ionogels lubricants can effectively reduce the friction of sliding pairs effectively and have better tribological performance than the pure ILs under harsh conditions. Ionogel lubricants not only maintain the excellent tribological properties and conductivity of ILs, but also prevent base liquids from creeping and leakage. Therefore, ionogel lubricants can be potentially used in the conductive parts of electrical equipments.

  14. Production of an alternative fuel by the co-pyrolysis of landfill recovered plastic wastes and used lubrication oils.

    PubMed

    Breyer, Sacha; Mekhitarian, Loucine; Rimez, Bart; Haut, B

    2017-02-01

    This work is a preliminary study for the development of a co-pyrolysis process of plastic wastes excavated from a landfill and used lubrication oils, with the aim to produce an alternative liquid fuel for industrial use. First, thermogravimetric experiments were carried out with pure plastics (HDPE, LDPE, PP and PS) and oils (a motor oil and a mixture of used lubrication oils) in order to highlight the interactions occurring between a plastic and an oil during their co-pyrolysis. It appears that the main decomposition event of each component takes place at higher temperatures when the components are mixed than when they are alone, possibly because the two components stabilize each other during their co-pyrolysis. These interactions depend on the nature of the plastic and the oil. In addition, co-pyrolysis experiments were led in a lab-scale reactor using a mixture of excavated plastic wastes and used lubrication oils. On the one hand, the influence of some key operating parameters on the outcome of the process was analyzed. It was possible to produce an alternative fuel for industrial use whose viscosity is lower than 1Pas at 90°C, from a plastic/oil mixture with an initial plastic mass fraction between 40% and 60%, by proceeding at a maximum temperature included in the range 350-400°C. On the other hand, the amount of energy required to successfully co-pyrolyze, in lab conditions, 1kg of plastic/oil mixture with an initial plastic mass fraction of 60% was estimated at about 8MJ. That amount of energy is largely used for the thermal cracking of the molecules. It is also shown that, per kg of mixture introduced in the lab reactor, 29MJ can be recovered from the combustion of the liquid resulting from the co-pyrolysis. Hence, this co-pyrolysis process could be economically viable, provided heat losses are addressed carefully when designing an industrial reactor.

  15. Assessment of gamma radiolytic degradation in waste lubricating oil by GC/MS and UV/VIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scapin, Marcos A.; Duarte, Celina L.; Bustillos, José Oscar W. V.; Sato, Ivone M.

    2009-07-01

    The hydrocarbons degradation by gamma irradiation of the waste automotive lubricating oil at different absorbed doses has was investigated. The waste automotive oil in a Brazilian oil recycling company was collected. This sample was fractioned and 50% and 70% (v/v) Milli-Q water were added. Each sample was irradiated with 100, 200 and 500 kGy doses using a gamma source Co-60—GAMMACELL type, with 5×10 3 Ci total activity. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to identify degraded organic compounds. The mass spectra were analyzed using the mass spectral library from NIST, installed in the spectrometer. The sample irradiated at 500 kGy dose with 70% (v/v) Milli-Q water addition formed eight degradation products, namely diethanolmethylamine (C 5H 13NO), diethyldiethylene glycol (C 8H 18O 3), 1-octyn-3-ol, 4-ethyl (C 10H 18O) and 1.4-pentanediamine, N1, N1-diethyl (C 9H 22N 2). The color changing of the waste lubricating oil, for different absorbed doses, was determined by UV/VIS spectrophotometer. The related sample showed the lowest absorbance value evidencing the formation of 2-ethoxyethyl ether (C 8H 18O 3) compound.

  16. Dynamics of solid dispersions in oil during the lubrication of point of contacts. Part 2: Molybdenum disulfide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cusano, C.; Sliney, H. E.

    1981-01-01

    A Hertzian contact consisting of a steel ball in contact with a glass disk is lubricated with MoS2 dispersions and observed by optical microscopy at various slide/roll conditions. In general the behavior of MoS2 and graphite are similar. That is, the solids tend to enter the contact and form a film on the contacting surfaces whenever a rolling component of motion is used, but solid particles seldom enter the contact during pure sliding. The MoS2 has more pronounced plastic flow behavior than graphite. However, the polished steel ball is more readily scratched by MoS2 than by graphite. Under the conditions of these studies, lower friction and wear are observed with pure oil rather than with the dispersions. However under other conditions (such as different contact geometry or rougher surfaces) the solid lubricant dispersions might be beneficial.

  17. Into Mesh Lubrication of Spur Gears with Arbitrary Offset Oil Jet. 2: for Jet Velocities Equal to or Greater than Great Velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akin, L. S.; Townsend, D. P.

    1982-01-01

    An analysis was conducted for into mesh oil jet lubrication with an arbitrary offset and inclination angle from the pitch point for the case where the oil jet velocity is equal to or greater than gear pitch line velocity. Equations were developed for minimum and maximum oil jet impingement depth. The analysis also included the minimum oil jet velocity required to impinge on the gear or pinion and the optimum oil jet velocity required to obtain the best lubrication condition of maximum impingement depth and gear cooling. It was shown that the optimum oil jet velocity for best lubrication and cooling is when the oil jet velocity equals the gear pitch line velocity. When the oil jet velocity is slightly greater than the pitch line velocity the loaded side of the driven gear and the unloaded side of the pinion receive the best lubrication and cooling with slightly less impingement depth. As the jet velocity becomes much greater than the pitch line velocity the impingement depth is considerably reduced and may completely miss the pinion.

  18. Experimental and analytical determination of gear tooth temperatures with oil jet lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, D. P.; Akin, L. S.

    1982-01-01

    Gear tooth average and instantaneous surface temperatures were measured with a fast response infrared radiometric microscope, while operating at arious speeds, loads and oil jet pressures. Increased oil jet pressure had a significant effect on both average and peak surface temperatures at all test conditions, increasing the speed at constant load and increasing the load at constant speed causes a significant rise in average and peak surface temperatures of gear teeth. A gear tooth temperature analysis was conducted by a finite element method combined with a calculated heat input and oil jet impingment depth with estimated heat transfer coefficients based on the experimental data. It is concluded that oil jet pressures required for adequate cooling at high load and speed conditions must be high enough to get full penetration depth of the teeth.

  19. Isolation and application of Gordonia sp. JC11 for removal of boat lubricants.

    PubMed

    Chanthamalee, Jirapat; Luepromchai, Ekawan

    2012-01-01

    Boat lubricants are continuously released into the marine environment and thereby cause chronic oil pollution. This study aims to isolate lubricant-degrading microorganisms from Thai coastal areas as well as to apply a selected strain for removal of boat lubricants. Ten microorganisms in the genera of Gordonia, Microbacterium, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Brucella, Enterococcus and Candida were initially isolated by crude oil enrichment culture techniques. The lubricant-removal activity of these isolates was investigated with mineral-based lubricants that had been manufactured for the 4-stroke diesel engines of fishing boats. Gordonia sp. JC11, the most effective strain was able to degrade 25-55% of 1,000 mg L(-1) total hydrocarbons in six tested lubricants, while only 0-15% of the lubricants was abiotically removed. The bacterium had many characteristics that promoted lubricant degradation such as hydrocarbon utilization ability, emulsification activity and cell surface hydrophobicity. For bioaugmentation treatment of lubricant contaminated seawater, the inoculum of Gordonia sp. JC11 was prepared by immobilizing the bacterium on polyurethane foam (PUF). PUF-immobilized Gordonia sp. JC11 was able to remove 42-56% of 100-1,000 mg L(-1) waste lubricant No. 2 within 5 days. This lubricant removal efficiency was higher than those of free cells and PUF without bacterial cells. The bioaugmentation treatment significantly increased the number of lubricant-degrading microorganisms in the fishery port seawater microcosm and resulted in rapid removal of waste lubricant No. 2.

  20. Lubricant composition

    SciTech Connect

    Baile, G.H.

    1980-12-16

    Lubricating compositions and shaped articles composed thereof are described which consist essentially of about 30 to about 60% by weight of an oil of lubricating viscosity, about 20 to about 50% by weight of a high molecular weight polymer, and about 20 about 50% by weight of a heat conductive agent capable of conducting heat away from a bearing surface where it is generated. The high molecular weight polymer may, for example, be polyethylene, having average molecular weights in the range from about 1.0 X 105 to about 5.0 X 106. The oil may be a mineral oil, a diester oil or preferably a synthetic hydrocarbon oil having a viscosity in the range from about 13 to about 1200 mm''/s (Mm2/s) at 38/sup 0/C. (100/sup 0/F.) the heat conductive agent may be powdered zinc oxide, aluminum powder, or equivalents thereof in this invention. The compositions are semi-rigid gels which may be formed in a mold and used as is, or which may be shaped further after molding. The gels are formed by blending the heat conductive agent and polymer and then blending that mixture with the oil and heating to a temperature above the softening temperature of the polymer for a period of time (About 5 to about 75 minutes) sufficient that the mixture will form a firm, tough solid gel on cooling having an oily surface provided by oil exuding from the gel thus producing a lubricative mass operable for extended periods of time. The heat conductive substance dispersed in the gel aids in dissipating heat produced at the bearing surfaces during use thus improving the performance of the gel both in withstanding higher bulk operating temperatures and in resisting breakdown of the gel under prolonged use.

  1. Surface investigation and tribological mechanism of a sulfate-based lubricant deposited on zinc-coated steel sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timma, Christian; Lostak, Thomas; Janssen, Stella; Flock, Jörg; Mayer, Christian

    2016-12-01

    Phosphatation is a well-known technique to improve friction and wear behaviour of zinc coated steel, but has a variety of economic and ecologic limitations. In this study an alternative coating based on ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4) is applied on skin-passed hot-dip galvanized steel sheets in order to investigate its surface chemical and tribological behaviour in a Pin-on-Disk Tribometer. Raman- and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic results revealed a formation of ammonium zinc sulfate ((NH4)2Zn(SO4)2 * xH2O) on the surface, which is primarily located in the skin-passed areas of the steel material. Sulfate coated samples exhibited a superior friction behaviour in Pin-on-Disk Tests using squalane as a model substance for oil-like lubricated conditions and a formation of a thin lubrication film is obtained in the wear track. Squalane acts as a carrier substance for ammonium zinc sulfate, leading to an effective lubrication film in the wear track.

  2. Sputtered silver films to improve chromium carbide based solid lubricant coatings for use to 900 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dellacorte, Christopher; Sliney, Harold E.; Deadmore, Daniel L.

    1988-01-01

    Thin silver films, 250 to 3500 A thick, were sputtered onto PS200, a plasma sprayed, chromium carbide based solid lubricant coating, to reduce run-in wear and improve tribological properties. The coating contains bonded chromium carbide as the wear resistant base stock with silver and barium fluoride/calcium fluoride eutectic added as low and high temperature lubricants, respectively. Potential applications for the PS200 coating are cylinder wall/piston ring lubrication for Stirling engines and foil bearing journal lubrication. In this preliminary program, the silver film overlay thickness was optimized based on tests using a pin-on-disk tribometer. The friction and wear studies were performed in a helium atmosphere at temperatures from 25 to 760 C with a sliding velocity of 2.7 m/s under a 4.9 N load. Films between 1000 and 1500 A provide the best lubrication of the counterface material. The films enrich the sliding surface with lubricant and reduce the initial abrasiveness of the as ground, plasma-sprayed coating surface, thus reducing wear.

  3. Sputtered silver films to improve chromium carbide based solid lubricant coatings for use to 900 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dellacorte, Christopher; Sliney, Harold E.; Deadmore, Daniel L.

    1988-01-01

    Thin silver films, 250 to 3500 A thick, were sputtered onto PS200, a plasma sprayed, chromium carbide based solid lubricant coating, to reduce run-in wear and improve tribological properties. The coating contains bonded chromium carbide as the wear resistant base stock with silver and barium fluoride/calcium fluoride eutectic added as low and high temperature lubricants respectively. Potential applications for the PS200 coating are cylinder wall/piston ring lubrication for Stirling engines and foil bearing journal lubrication. In this preliminary program, the silver film overlay thickness was optimized based on tests using a pin-on-disk tribometer. The friction and wear studies were performed in a helium atmosphere at temperatures from 25 to 760 C with a sliding velocity of 2.7 m/s under a 4.9 N load. Films between 1000 and 1500 A provide the best lubrication of the counterface material. The films enrich the sliding surface with lubricant and reduce the initial abrasiveness of the as ground, plasma-sprayed coating surface, thus reducing wear.

  4. Into Mesh Lubrication of Spur Gears with Arbitrary Offset Oil Jet. I: For Jet Velocity Less than or Equal to Gear Velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akin, L. S.; Townsend, D. P.

    1982-01-01

    An analysis was conducted for into mesh oil jet lubrication with an arbitrary offset and inclination angle from the pitch point for the case where the oil jet velocity is equal to or less than pitch line velocity. The analysis includes the case for the oil jet offset from the pitch point in the direction of the pinion and where the oil jet is inclined to intersect the common pitch point. Equations were developed for the minimum oil jet velocity required to impinge on the pinion or gear and the optimum oil jet velocity to obtain the maximum impingement depth.

  5. Into mesh lubrication of spur gears with arbitrary offset oil jet. I - For jet velocity less than or equal to gear velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akin, L. S.; Townsend, D. P.

    1983-01-01

    An analysis was conducted for into mesh oil jet lubrication with an arbitrary offset and inclination angle from the pitch point for the case where the oil jet velocity is equal to or less than pitch line velocity. The analysis includes the case for the oil jet offset from the pitch point in the direction of the pinion and where the oil jet is inclined to intersect the common pitch point. Equations were developed for the minimum oil jet velocity required to impinge on the pinion or gear and the optimum oil jet velocity to obtain the maximum impingement depth.

  6. Mineral oils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Furby, N. W.

    1973-01-01

    The characteristics of lubricants made from mineral oils are discussed. Types and compositions of base stocks are reviewed and the product demands and compositions of typical products are outlined. Processes for commercial production of mineral oils are examined. Tables of data are included to show examples of product types and requirements. A chemical analysis of three types of mineral oils is reported.

  7. Positive lubrication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Dennis W.; Hooper, Fred L.

    1990-01-01

    As part of the development of an autonomous lubrication system for spin bearings, a system was developed to deliver oil to grease-lubricated bearings upon demand. This positive oil delivery system (PLUS) consists of a pressurized reservoir with a built-in solenoid valve that delivers a predictable quantity of oil to the spin bearing through a system of stainless steel tubes. Considerable testing was performed on the PLUS to characterize its performance and verify its effectiveness, along with qualifying it for flight. Additional development is underway that will lead to the fully autonomous active lubrication system.

  8. Determination of aluminum by electrothermal atomic absorption spectroscopy in lubricating oils emulsified in a sequential injection analysis system.

    PubMed

    Burguera, José L; Burguera, Marcela; Antón, Raquel E; Salager, Jean-Louis; Arandia, María A; Rondón, Carlos; Carrero, Pablo; de Peña, Yaneira Petit; Brunetto, Rosario; Gallignani, Máximo

    2005-12-15

    The sequential injection (SIA) technique was applied for the on-line preparation of an "oil in water" microemulsion and for the determination of aluminum in new and used lubricating oils by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ET AAS) with Zeeman-effect background correction. Respectively, 1.0, 0.5 and 1.0ml of surfactants mixture, sample and co-surfactant (sec-butanol) solutions were sequentially aspirated to a holding coil. The sonication and repetitive change of the flowing direction improved the stability of the different emulsion types (oil in water, water in oil and microemulsion). The emulsified zone was pumped to fill the sampling arm of the spectrometer with a sub-sample of 200mul. Then, 10mul of this sample solution were introduced by means of air displacement in the graphite tube atomizer. This sequence was timed to synchronize with the previous introduction of 15mug of Mg(NO(3))(2) (in a 10mul) by the spectrometer autosampler. The entire SIA system was controlled by a computer, independent of the spectrometer. The furnace program was carried out by employing a heating cycle in four steps: drying (two steps at 110 and 130 degrees C), pyrolisis (at 1500 degrees C), atomization (at 2400 degrees C) and cleaning (at 2400 degrees C). The calibration graph was linear from 7.7 to 120mugAll(-1). The characteristic mass (mo) was 33.2pg/0.0044s and the detection limit was 2.3mugAll(-1). The relative standard (RSD) of the method, evaluated by replicate analyses of different lubricating oil samples varied in all cases between 1.5 and 1.7%, and the recovery values found in the analysis of spiked samples ranged from 97.2 to 100.4%. The agreement between the observed and reference values obtained from two NIST Standard Certified Materials was good. The method was simple and satisfactory for determining aluminum in new and used lubricating oils.

  9. Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication with Polyolester Lubricants and HFC Refrigerants, Final Report, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Gunsel, Selda; Pozebanchuk, Michael

    1999-04-01

    Lubrication properties of refrigeration lubricants were investigated in high pressure nonconforming contacts under different conditions of temperature, rolling speed, and refrigerant concentration. The program was based upon the recognition that the lubrication regime in refrigeration compressors is generally elastohydrodynamic or hydrodynamic, as determined by the operating conditions of the compressor and the properties of the lubricant. Depending on the compressor design, elastohydrodynamic lubrication conditions exist in many rolling and sliding elements of refrigeration compressors such as roller element bearings, gears, and rotors. The formation of an elastohydrodynamic film separating rubbing surfaces is important in preventing the wear and failure of compressor elements. It is, therefore, important to predict the elastohydrodynamic (EHD) performance of lubricants under realistic tribocontact renditions. This is, however, difficult as the lubricant properties that control film formation are critically dependent upon pressure and shear, and cannot be evaluated using conventional laboratory instruments. In this study, the elastohydrodynamic behavior of refrigeration lubricants with and without the presence of refrigerants was investigated using the ultrathin film EHD interferometry technique. This technique enables very thin films, down to less than 5 nm, to be measured accurately within an EHD contact under realistic conditions of temperature, shear, and pressure. The technique was adapted to the study of lubricant refrigerant mixtures. Film thickness measurements were obtained on refrigeration lubricants as a function of speed, temperature, and refrigerant concentration. The effects of lubricant viscosity, temperature, rolling speed, and refrigerant concentration on EHD film formation were investigated. From the film thickness measurements, effective pressure-viscosity coefficients were calculated. The lubricants studied in this project included two

  10. Advanced airbreathing engine lubricants study with a tetraester fluid and a synthetic paraffinic oil at 492 K (425 F)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaretsky, E. V.; Bamberger, E. N.

    1972-01-01

    Groups of 120-mm-bore angular-contact ball bearings made from AISI M-50 steel were fatigue tested with a tetraester and a synthetic paraffinic oil at a bearing temperature of 492 K (425 F) in an air environment. Bearing life exceeded AFBMA-predicted (catalog) life by factors in excess of 4 and 10 for the tetraester and synthetic paraffinic fluids, respectively. The final viscosities after 500 hours of operation were 14 and 6 times the initial values, respectively. During the same time period, when the test oil is replaced at a rate approximating the replenishment rate in actual commerical engine usage, no significant increase in lubricant viscosity with time was observed.

  11. Assessment of infrared spectroscopy and multivariate techniques for monitoring the service condition of diesel-engine lubricating oils.

    PubMed

    Caneca, Arnobio Roberto; Pimentel, M Fernanda; Galvão, Roberto Kawakami Harrop; da Matta, Cláudia Eliane; de Carvalho, Florival Rodrigues; Raimundo, Ivo M; Pasquini, Celio; Rohwedder, Jarbas J R

    2006-09-15

    This paper presents two methodologies for monitoring the service condition of diesel-engine lubricating oils on the basis of infrared spectra. In the first approach, oils samples are discriminated into three groups, each one associated to a given wear stage. An algorithm is proposed to select spectral variables with good discriminant power and small collinearity for the purpose of discriminant analysis classification. As a result, a classification accuracy of 93% was obtained both in the middle (MIR) and near-infrared (NIR) ranges. The second approach employs multivariate calibration methods to predict the viscosity of the lubricant. In this case, the use of absorbance measurements in the NIR spectral range was not successful, because of experimental difficulties associated to the presence of particulate matter. Such a problem was circumvented by the use of attenuated total reflectance (ATR) measurements in the MIR spectral range, in which an RMSEP of 3.8cSt and a relative average error of 3.2% were attained.

  12. New nanotechnology solid lubricants for superior dry lubrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleischer, N.; Genut, M.; Rapoport, L.; Tenne, R.

    2003-09-01

    This paper presents a new commercial breakthrough for advanced anti-friction materials based on unique inorganic nanospheres that can be used as dry lubricants, coatings, and for impregnating parts. The new material reduces friction and wear significantly better than other layered solid lubricants and is especially useful in self-lubricating, maintenance-free, and oil-free applications of the types encountered in aerospace markets. The material, NanoLubTM, is the world's first commercial lubricant based on spherical inorganic nanoparticles. NanoLub's particles have a unique structure of hollow nested spheres of about only 0.1 micron in diameter. This paper presents tribological evaluations of tungsten and molybdenum disulphide NanoLubTM. The material reduces friction and wear under conditions that are especially relevant for space such as ultra-high vacuum, UV radiation, and high loads. Suitable applications could include rotors, bearings, robots, planetary rovers, space vehicles and transport devices. Extensive testing by a number of independent groups clearly shows that these special nanoparticles improve considerably the tribological properties of different contact pairs in comparison to other solid lubricants.

  13. Comparison of parallel flow and concentric micronebulizers for elemental determination in lubricant oil, residual fuel oil and biodiesel by Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, Jefferson R.; dos Santos, Eider Fernando; Duyck, Christiane B.; Saint'Pierre, Tatiana D.

    2011-05-01

    Two micronebulizers, PFA-100 and Miramist, were evaluated using a method for elemental determination by Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP OES) in lubricant and residual fuel oils diluted in xylene. The facility and speed of direct sample dilution in organic solvents, without additional pretreatment, combined with the multielemental capacity and robustness of ICP OES are advantageous. The operational conditions were optimized through factorial design. Improvement in the signal-to-background ratio was observed for Ag, Al, B, Ba, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Si, Ti and V. Higher sensitivity was obtained with the PFA-100 micronebulizer, although the limits of detection (LOD) obtained for both micronebulizers were similar, between 0.3 μg kg -1 (Mg) and 18 μg kg -1 (Ni). The certified reference materials NIST 1634c and NIST 1085b were used for method validation and good recoveries were obtained with values between 93% (Pb) and 102% (P) for PFA-100 and 90% (Pb) and 103% (P) for Miramist. The method was also validated for analysis of biodiesel samples by recovery tests, with results from 89% to 103%. The proposed method was employed for the analysis of crude oil, lubricant oil and biodiesel from different raw materials.

  14. Multi-elemental analysis of jet engine lubricating oils and hydraulic fluids and their implication in aircraft air quality incidents.

    PubMed

    van Netten, C

    1999-05-07

    The flight crews of aircraft often report symptoms including dizziness, nausea, disorientation, blurred vision and tingling in legs and arms. Many of these incidents have been traced to contamination of cabin air with lubricating oil, as well as hydraulic fluid, constituents. Considering that these air contaminants are often subjected to temperatures in excess of 500 degrees C, a large number of different exposures can be expected. Although the reported symptoms are most consistent with exposures to volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, and the organophosphate constituents in these oils and fluids, the involvement of these agents has not been clearly demonstrated. Possible exposure to toxic elements, such as lead, mercury, thallium and others, have not been ruled out. In order to assess the potential of exposure to toxic elements a multi-elemental analysis was done on two hydraulic fluids and three lubricating oils which have been implicated in a number of air quality incidents. A secondary objective was to establish if the multi-elemental concentrations of the fluids tested are different enough to allow such an analysis to be used as a possible method of identifying the source of exposure that might have been present during aircraft air quality incidents. No significant concentrations of toxic elements were identified in any of the oils or hydraulic fluids. The elemental compositions of the samples were different enough to be used for identification purposes and the measurement of only three elements was able to achieve this. Whether these findings have an application, in aircraft air quality incident investigations, needs to be established with further studies.

  15. The determination of wear metals in used lubricating oils by flame atomic absorption spectrometry using sulphanilic acid as ashing agent.

    PubMed

    Ekanem, E J; Lori, J A; Thomas, S A

    1997-11-01

    A simple and reliable ashing procedure is proposed for the preparation of used lubricating oil samples for the determination of calcium, magnesium, zinc, iron, chromium and nickel by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Sulphanilic acid was added to oil samples and the mixture coked and the coke ashed at 550 degrees C. The solutions of the ash were analysed by flame AAS for the metals. The release of calcium, zinc, iron and chromium was improved by the addition of sulphanilic acid to samples. The relative standard deviations of metal concentration results in the initial oil samples were 1.5% for Ca (1500 mg l(-1) level), 0.3% for Mg (100 mg l(-1) level), 3.1% for Zn (1500 mg l(-1) level), 0.7% for Fe (500 mg l(-1) level), 0.02% for Cr (50 mg l(-1) level) and 0.002% for Ni (10 mg l(-1) level). The optimum sample size for efficient metal release was 20 g while the optimum sulphanilic acid to oil ratio was 0.05 g per gram of oil for Zn and Cr and 0.10 g for Ca and Fe. Results obtained by this procedure were highly reproducible and comparable with those obtained for the same samples using standard procedures.

  16. Tribological performances of multilayer-MoS2 nanoparticles in water-based lubricating fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, B. M.; Sun, J. L.

    2017-03-01

    Multilayer-MoS2 nanoparticles were dispersed in water-based lubricating fluid in a convenient and economical way. Oleic acid and triethanolamine were used as the main surfactants in this solution. Tribological performances of this fluid were tested under high pressure and high rotating speed. FEI Tecnai G20 TEM, Malvern Zetasizer Nano ZS were used to study the particle size and Zeta potential of the lubricants. Tribological performances of this water system with multilayer-MoS2 nanoparticles and the 3D-surfaces of wear scars after the experiments were analyzed by means of four-ball wear test machine and Olympus laser confocal microscope. According to Hertz theory and experimental data, it is practical significance to combine MoS2 nanoparticles with water-based lubricating fluid. Under high loading and high rotating speed the mixed suspension can provide good lubricating properties. On the basis of calculation the binding energy of layers in MoS2 nanoparticles is less than the energy of shearing in friction pairs. The layers in MoS2 nanoparticles slide in the process of friction. The best lubrication effects can be displayed when friction process lasts about 500 s.

  17. Effect of five lubricants on life of AISI 9310 spur gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, D. P.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1985-01-01

    Spur-gear surface fatigue tests were conducted with five lubricants using a single lot of consumable-electrode vacuum melted (CVM) AISI 9310 spur gears. The lot of gears was divided into five groups, each of which was tested with a different lubricant. The test lubricants are classified as either a synthetic hydrocarbon, mineral oil, or ester-based lubricant. All five lubricants have imilar viscosity and pressure-viscosity coefficients. A pentaerythritol base stock without sufficient antiwear additives produced a surface fatigue life pproximately 22 percent that of the same base stock with chlorine and phosphorus type additives. The presence of sulfur type antiwear additives in the lubricant did not appear to affect the surface fatigue life of the gears tested. No statistical difference in the 10-percent surface fatigue life was produced with four of the five lubricants.

  18. Interdisciplinary Approach to Liquid Lubricant Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, P. M. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    The proceedings of a conference of liquid lubricant technology are presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) requirements and functions of liquid lubricants, (2) mineral oils, (3) greases, (4) theory of rheology, (5) mechanics and thermodynamics in lubrication, (6) environmental capability of liquid lubricants, and (7) wear corrosion and erosion.

  19. Indium-Tin-Oxide coated optical fibers for temperature-viscosity sensing applications in synthetic lubricant oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, P.; Mendizabal, D.; R. Zamarreño, C.; Arregui, F. J.; Matias, I. R.

    2015-09-01

    In this work, is presented the fabrication and characterization of optical fiber refractometer based on lossy mode resonances (LMR). Indium-Tin-Oxide (ITO) thin films deposited on optical fibers are used as the LMR supporting coatings. These resonances shift to the red as a function of the external refractive index. The refractometer has been used to characterize temperature variations related to the viscosity of synthetic industrial gear lubricant.

  20. Large-scale Manufacturing of Nanoparticulate-based Lubrication Additives for Improved Energy Efficiency and Reduced Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Erdemir, Ali

    2013-09-26

    This project was funded under the Department of Energy (DOE) Lab Call on Nanomanufacturing for Energy Efficiency and was directed toward the development of novel boron-based nanocolloidal lubrication additives for improving the friction and wear performance of machine components in a wide range of industrial and transportation applications. Argonne's research team concentrated on the scientific and technical aspects of the project, using a range of state-of-the art analytical and tribological test facilities. Argonne has extensive past experience and expertise in working with boron-based solid and liquid lubrication additives, and has intellectual property ownership of several. There were two industrial collaborators in this project: Ashland Oil (represented by its Valvoline subsidiary) and Primet Precision Materials, Inc. (a leading nanomaterials company). There was also a sub-contract with the University of Arkansas. The major objectives of the project were to develop novel boron-based nanocolloidal lubrication additives and to optimize and verify their performance under boundary-lubricated sliding conditions. The project also tackled problems related to colloidal dispersion, larger-scale manufacturing and blending of nano-additives with base carrier oils. Other important issues dealt with in the project were determination of the optimum size and concentration of the particles and compatibility with various base fluids and/or additives. Boron-based particulate additives considered in this project included boric acid (H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}), hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), boron oxide, and borax. As part of this project, we also explored a hybrid MoS{sub 2} + boric acid formulation approach for more effective lubrication and reported the results. The major motivation behind this work was to reduce energy losses related to friction and wear in a wide spectrum of mechanical systems and thereby reduce our dependence on imported oil. Growing concern over greenhouse gas

  1. Characterization of ageing products of ester-based synthetic lubricants by liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and by electrospray ionization (tandem) mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kohler, M; Heeb, N V

    2001-08-10

    Ageing products of a commercial jet engine oil based on pentaerythritol tetraesters which were formed upon operation in an aviation turbine were detected by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and characterized by LC-ESI-MS. The fatty acid composition of these ageing products was investigated by ESI-MS-MS analysis. The ammonium adducts of the newly formed pentaerythritol tetraester degradation products were found to be suitable parent ions for further structure elucidation work. ESI-MS, LC-ESI-MS and ESI-MS-MS proved to be versatile tools to study the chemical composition (distribution of homologues) as well as the mechanism of ageing of ester based lubricants on a molecular level. Due to its high sensitivity, ESI-MS can also be used to characterize and identify trace levels of ester-based lubricants.

  2. Liquid lubricants for advanced aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loomis, William R.; Fusaro, Robert L.

    1992-01-01

    An overview of liquid lubricants for use in current and projected high performance turbojet engines is discussed. Chemical and physical properties are reviewed with special emphasis placed on the oxidation and thermal stability requirements imposed upon the lubrication system. A brief history is given of the development of turbine engine lubricants which led to the present day synthetic oils with their inherent modification advantages. The status and state of development of some eleven candidate classes of fluids for use in advanced turbine engines are discussed. Published examples of fundamental studies to obtain a better understanding of the chemistry involved in fluid degradation are reviewed. Alternatives to high temperature fluid development are described. The importance of continuing work on improving current high temperature lubricant candidates and encouraging development of new and improved fluid base stocks are discussed.

  3. Overview of liquid lubricants for advanced aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loomis, W. R.

    1982-01-01

    An overall status report on liquid lubricants for use in high-performance turbojet engines is presented. Emphasis is placed on the oxidation and thermal stability requirements imposed upon the lubrication system. A brief history is iven of the development of turbine engine lubricants which led to synthetic oils with their inherent modification advantages. The status and state of development of some nine candidate classes of fluids for use in advanced turbine engines are discussed. Published examples of fundamental studies to obtain a better understanding of the chemistry involved in fluid degradation are reviewed. Also, alternatives to high temperature fluid development are described. The importance of of continuing work on improving high temperature lubricant candidates and encouraging development of fluid base stocks is discussed.

  4. Liquid lubricants for advanced aircraft engines

    SciTech Connect

    Loomis, W.R.; Fusaro, R.L.

    1992-08-01

    An overview of liquid lubricants for use in current and projected high performance turbojet engines is discussed. Chemical and physical properties are reviewed with special emphasis placed on the oxidation and thermal stability requirements imposed upon the lubrication system. A brief history is given of the development of turbine engine lubricants which led to the present day synthetic oils with their inherent modification advantages. The status and state of development of some eleven candidate classes of fluids for use in advanced turbine engines are discussed. Published examples of fundamental studies to obtain a better understanding of the chemistry involved in fluid degradation are reviewed. Alternatives to high temperature fluid development are described. The importance of continuing work on improving current high temperature lubricant candidates and encouraging development of new and improved fluid base stocks are discussed.

  5. Liquid lubricants for advanced aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loomis, William R.; Fusaro, Robert L.

    1993-01-01

    An overview of liquid lubricants for use in current and projected high performance turbojet engines is discussed. Chemical and physical properties are reviewed with special emphasis placed on the oxidation and thermal stability requirements imposed upon the lubrication system. A brief history is given of the development of turbine engine lubricants which led to the present day synthetic oils with their inherent modification advantages. The status and state of development of some eleven candidate classes of fluids for use in advanced turbine engines are discussed. Published examples of fundamental studies to obtain a better understanding of the chemistry involved in fluid degradation are reviewed. Alternatives to high temperature fluid development are described. The importance of continuing work on improving current high temperature lubricant candidates and encouraging development of new and improved fluid base stocks are discussed.

  6. Foaming characteristics of refigerant/lubricant mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Goswami, D.Y.; Shah, D.O.; Jotshi, C.K.; Bhagwat, S.; Leung, M.; Gregory, A.

    1997-04-01

    The air-conditioning and refrigeration industry has moved to HFC refrigerants which have zero ozone depletion and low global warming potential due to regulations on CFC and HCFC refrigerants and concerns for the environment. The change in refrigerants has prompted the switch from mineral oil and alkylbenzene lubricants to polyolester-based lubricants. This change has also brought about a desire for lubricant, refrigerant and compressor manufacturers to understand the foaming properties of alternative refrigerant/ lubricant mixtures, as well as the mechanisms which affect these properties. The objectives of this investigation are to experimentally determine the foaming absorption and desorption rates of HFC and blended refrigerants in polyolester lubricant and to define the characteristics of the foam formed when the refrigerant leaves the refrigerant/ lubricant mixture after being exposed to a pressure drop. The refrigerants being examined include baseline refrigerants: CFC-12 (R-12) and HCFC-22 (R-22); alternative refrigerants: HFC-32 (R-32), R-125, R-134a, and R-143a; and blended refrigerants: R-404A, R-407C, and R-410A. The baseline refrigerants are tested with ISO 32 (Witco 3GS) and ISO 68 (4GS) mineral oils while the alternative and blended refrigerants are tested with two ISO 68 polyolesters (Witco SL68 and ICI RL68H).

  7. Influence of steel type on the propensity for tribochemical wear in boundary lubrication with a wind turbine gear oil

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Ryan D.; Doll, Gary L.; Hager, C H; Howe, Jane Y

    2010-01-01

    Tribochemical wear may occur at the interface between a surface and a lubricant as a result of chemical and mechanical interactions in a tribological contact. Understanding the onset of tribochemical wear damage on component surfaces requires the use of high resolution techniques such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In this study, two steel types, case carburized AISI 3310 and through-hardened AISI 52100, were wear tested using a ball-on-disk rolling/sliding contact tribometer in fully formulated commercial wind turbine gearbox oil under boundary lubrication conditions with 10% slip. With the exception of steel type, all other test conditions were held constant. Conventional tribofilm analysis in the wear tracks was performed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and no significant composition differences were detected in the tribofilms for the different steel disk types. However, TEM analysis revealed significant tribochemical wear differences between the two steel types at multiple length scales, from the near-surface material microstructure (depth < 500 nm) to the tribofilm nanostructure. Nanometer-scale interfacial cracking and surface particle detachment was observed for the AISI 52100 case, whereas the tribofilm/substrate interface was abrupt and undamaged for the AISI 3310 case. Differences in tribofilm structure, including the location and orientation of MoS{sub 2} single sheet inclusions, were observed as a function of steel type as well. It is suggested that the tribochemical wear modes observed in these experiments may be origins of macroscopic surface-initiated damage such as micropitting in bearings and gears.

  8. Estolides: A developing and versatile lubricant base stock

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article provides a general overview of estolide technology and compares the four major types of estolides: synthetic estolides from unsaturated fatty acids, natural estolides from hydroxy oils, synthetic estolides from hydroxy oils, and synthetic estolides from hydroxy fatty acids. The syntheti...

  9. The Evaluation of a Modified Chrome Oxide Based High Temperature Solid Lubricant Coating for Foil Gas Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DellaCorte, Chris

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the friction and wear performance of PS304, a modified chrome oxide based coating, for foil gas bearings. PS304 contains 60 wt% NiCr binder, 20 wt% Cr2O3 hardener, and 10 wt% each Ag, and BaF2/CaF2 lubricants. For evaluation, the coating is plasma spray deposited onto test journals which are slid against a superalloy partial arc foil bearing. The test load was 10 KPa (1.5 psi) and the bearings were run under start/stop cyclic conditions. The data show good wear performance of the bearing, especially at temperatures above 25 deg. C. Bearing friction was moderate (micron approx. or equal to 0.4) over the entire temperature range. Based upon the results obtained, the PS304 coating has promise for high temperature, oil-free turbomachinery applications.

  10. Metal-containing lubricant compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, M.W.; Kennedy, S.

    1987-05-12

    A lubricating oil composition is described comprising: a major amount of a lubricating oil; from 1 to 10 (wt)% of an ashless dispersant compound; or from 0.3 to 10 (wt)% of a nitrogen or ester containing polymeric viscosity index improver dispersant.

  11. A Novel Methodology for the Synthesis of Acyloxy Castor Polyol Esters: Low Pour Point Lubricant Base Stocks.

    PubMed

    Kamalakar, Kotte; Mahesh, Goli; Prasad, Rachapudi B N; Karuna, Mallampalli S L

    2015-01-01

    Castor oil, a non-edible oil containing hydroxyl fatty acid, ricinoleic acid (89.3 %) was chemically modified employing a two step procedure. The first step involved acylation (C(2)-C(6) alkanoic anhydrides) of -OH functionality employing a green catalyst, Kieselguhr-G and solvent free medium. The catalyst after reaction was filtered and reused several times without loss in activity. The second step is esterification of acylated castor fatty acids with branched mono alcohol, 2-ethylhexanol and polyols namely neopentyl glycol (NPG), trimethylolpropane (TMP) and pentaerythritol (PE) to obtain 16 novel base stocks. The base stocks when evaluated for different lubricant properties have shown very low pour points (-30 to -45°C) and broad viscosity ranges 20.27 cSt to 370.73 cSt, higher viscosity indices (144-171), good thermal and oxidative stabilities, and high weld load capacities suitable for multi-range industrial applications such as hydraulic fluids, metal working fluids, gear oil, forging and aviation applications. The study revealed that acylated branched mono- and polyol esters rich in monounsaturation is desirable for developing low pour point base stocks.

  12. One-pot synthesis of chemically modified vegetable oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable oils are promising candidates as substitutes for petroleum-base oils in lubricants applications, such as total loss lubrication, military applications and outdoor activities. Although vegetable oils have some advantages, they also have poor oxidation and low temperature stability. One of...

  13. Refinery operating variables key to enhanced lube oil quality

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, A.K.

    1993-01-04

    This paper reports that lubricating oils are being used under increasingly severe conditions. Meanwhile, the growing use of synthetic and unconventional base stocks makes it more difficult to produce lube oils by simply modifying additive technology. These factors heighten the importance of developing high-quality lubricating oils with good oxidation stability and high viscosity index (VI).

  14. Chemicals derived from pyrolysis bio-oils as antioxidants in fuels and lubricants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Softwood and hardwood lignins and hardwood were pyrolyzed to produce bio-oils to produce lignin-derived bio-oils of which phenols were the major component. These bio-oils were extracted with alkali to yield a range of lignin-related phenols having molecular weights (MWs) from 110 to 344. When tested...

  15. ORNL-GM: Development of Ionic Liquid-Additized, GF-5/6 Compatible Low-Viscosity Oils for Automotive Engine and Rear Axle Lubrication for 4% Improved Fuel Economy

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Jun; Zhou, Yan; Luo, Huimin; Toops, Todd J.; Brookshear, Daniel W.; Stump, Benjamin C.; Viola, Michael B.; Zreik, Khaled; Ahmed, Tasfia

    2017-01-01

    The overall objective of this project are as follows: Further develop ionic liquid (IL)-additized lowviscosity engine oils meeting the GF-5/6 specifications and possessing superior lubricating characteristics; Expand the IL additive technology to rear axle lubricants; and Seek a combined improvement in the vehicle fuel economy

  16. Factors Associated with Use of Latex Condom-Compatible Lubricants by Men Who Have Sex with Men in India: Implications for HIV Prevention.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, Shreena; Chakrapani, Venkatesan; Ramakrishnan, Lakshmi; Goswami, Prabuddhagopal; Yadav, Diwakar; George, Bitra; Sen, Shrabanti; Rachakulla, Harikumar; Subramanian, Thilakavathi; Paranjape, Ramesh S

    2013-01-01

    We examined the prevalence and type of rectal lubricants use and factors associated with exclusive use of latex-condom compatible lubricants (water-based lubricants) among men who have sex with men (MSM) using data from a large-scale cross-sectional survey conducted in 2009/10 in three Indian states. Using time-location cluster sampling, 3880 MSM were recruited from cruising sites. We used multiple logistic regression to assess the association between type of lubricants used and sociodemographic and programmatic indicators. Among those who reported using lubricants (64%) more than half (53%) exclusively used water-based lubricants, less than one-tenth used exclusively oil-based lubricants, and nearly 40% used both water-based and oil-based lubricants. Factors associated with exclusive use of water-based lubricants were exposure to HIV prevention interventions (AOR: 6.18, 95% CI 4.82 to 7.92) and kothi-identified MSM-feminine/anal-receptive (AOR: 2.56, 95% CI 2.12 to 3.10). Targeted HIV interventions among MSM need to promote and distribute latex condom-compatible lubricants for use during anal sex-irrespective of their presumed or stated sexual role in anal sex, and educate them not to use oil-based lubricants with condoms.

  17. Investigation of some characteristics of polyhydroxy milkweed triglycerides and their acylated derivatives in relation to lubricity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most industrial lubricants are derived from non-renewable petroleum-based sources. As useful as these lubricants are, their unintended consequences are the pollution of our environment as a result of the very slow degradation of the spent materials. Native seed oils, on the other hand, are renewa...

  18. Mechanics of a gaseous film barrier to lubricant wetting of elastohydrodynamically lubricated conjunctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prahl, J. M.; Hamrock, B. J.

    1985-01-01

    Two analytical models, one based on simple hydrodynamic lubrication and the other on soft elastohydrodynamic lubrication, are presented and compared to delineate the dominant physical parameters that govern the mechanics of a gaseous film between a small droplet of lubricant and the outer race of a ball bearing. Both models are based on the balance of gravity forces, air drag forces, and air film lubrication forces and incorporate a drag coefficient C sub D and a lubrication coefficient C sub L to be determined from experiment. The soft elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) model considers the effects of droplet deformation and solid-surface geometry; the simpler hydrodynamic lubrication (HL) model assumes that the droplet remains essentially spherical. The droplet's angular position depended primarily on the ratio of gas inertia to droplet gravity forces and on the gas Reynolds number and weakly on the ratio of droplet gravity forces to surface tension forces (Bond number) and geometric ratios for the soft EHL. An experimental configuration in which an oil droplet is supported by an air film on the rotating outer race of a ball bearing within a pressure-controlled chamber produced measurements of droplet angular position as a function of outer-race velocity droplet size and type, and chamber pressure.

  19. Metalworking corrosion inhibition/drawing lubricant

    SciTech Connect

    Lipinski, H.F.; Wantling, S.J.

    1980-05-06

    A metalworking lubricant composition is disclosed which is effective as both a corrosion inhibitor and drawing lubricant and comprises a mineral oil and an additive combination of barium lanolate soap and barium sulfonate.

  20. In-situ, On-demand Lubrication System for Space Mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchetti, Mario; Jones, William R., Jr.; Pepper, Stephen V.; Jansen, Mark J.; Predmore, Roamer E.

    2002-01-01

    Many of today's spacecraft have long mission lifetimes. Whatever the lubrication method selected, the initial lubricant charge is required to last the entire mission. Fluid lubricant losses are mainly due to evaporation, tribo-degradation, and oil creep out of the tribological regions. In the past, several techniques were developed to maintain the appropriate amount of oil in the system. They were based on oil reservoirs (cartridges, impregnated porous parts), barrier films, and labyrinth seals. Nevertheless, all these systems have had limited success or have not established a proven record for space missions. The system reported here provides to the ball-race contact fresh lubricant in-situ and on demand. The lubricant is stored in a porous cartridge attached to the inner or the outer ring of a ball bearing. The oil is released by heating the cartridge to eject oil, taking advantage of the greater thermal expansion of the oil compared to the porous network. The heating may be activated by torque increases that signal the depletion of oil in the contact. The low surface tension of the oil compared to the ball bearing material is utilized and the close proximity of the cartridge to the moving balls allows the lubricant to reach the ball-race contacts. This oil resupply system can be used to avoid a mechanism failure or reduce torque to an acceptable level and extend the life of the component.

  1. X-ray fluorescence analysis of wear metals in used lubricating oils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maddox, W. E.; Kelliher, W. C.

    1986-01-01

    Used oils from several aircraft at NASA's Langley Research Center were analyzed over a three year period using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and atomic emission spectrometry. The results of both analyses are presented and comparisons are made. Fe and Cu data for oil from four internal combustion engines are provided and XRF and atomic emission spectrometry measurements were found to be in perfect agreement. However, distributions were found in the case of oil from a jet aircraft engine whereby the latter method gave values for total iron concentration in the oil and did not distinguish between suspended particles and oil additives. XRF does not have these particle-size limitations; moreover, it is a faster process. It is concluded that XRF is the preferred method in the construction of a man-portable oil wear analysis instrument.

  2. Determination of metallo-organic and particulate wear metals in lubricating oils associated with hybrid ceramic bearings by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Robin Ann

    It is possible to increase both the performance and operating environment of jet engines by using hybrid ceramic bearings. Our laboratory is concerned with investigating lubricating fluids for wear metals associated with silicon nitride ball bearings and steel raceways. Silicon nitride is characterized by low weight, low thermal expansion, high strength, and corrosion resistance. These attributes result in longer engine lifetimes than when metallic ball bearings are used. Before the routine use of ceramic ball bearings can be realized, the wear mechanisms of the materials should be thoroughly understood. One important variable in determining wear degradation is the concentration of metal present in the lubricating oils used with the bearings. A complete method for analyzing used lubricating oils for wear metal content must accurately determine all metal forms present. Oil samples pose problems for routine analysis due to complex organic matrices. Nebulizing these types of samples into an Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometer introduces many problems including clogging of the sample cone with carbon and increasing interferences. In addition, other techniques such as Atomic Absorption Spectrometry and Atomic Emission Spectrometry are particle size dependent. They are unable to analyze particles greater than 10 mum in size. This dissertation describes a method of analyzing lubricating oils for both metallo-organic and particulate species by ICP-MS. Microwave digestion of the oil samples eliminates the need for elaborate sample introduction schemes as well as the use of a modified carrier gas. Al, Cr, Fe, Mg, Mo, Ni, Ti, and Y have been determined in both aqueous and organic media. Metallo-organic solutions of these metals were successfully digested, nebulized into the ICP, and the singly charged ions measured by mass spectrometry. Metal particulates in oil matrices have also been quantitatively determined by the above method. Linear analytical curves were

  3. Engine oils: Rheology and tribology

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    This publication focuses on experimental methods, environmental issues, and friction and wear studies. A variety of problems are considered, including valve train friction, bearing lubrication, testing of piston materials, and transfer pump wear. Contents include: Experimental study on viscosity-shear characteristics of lubricating oils; Effects of lubricant composition on fuel efficiency in modern engines; Oxidation and corrosion characteristics of vegetable-base biodegradable hydraulic oils; Analysis of cam/roller follower friction and slippage in valve train systems; Tribological analysis of the transfer pump vane/bore interface using a mixed lubrication model; and more.

  4. Combination of ultrasonic extraction and stripping analysis: an effective and reliable way for the determination of Cu and Pb in lubricating oils.

    PubMed

    Munoz, Rodrigo A A; Oliveira, Pedro V; Angnes, Lúcio

    2006-01-15

    The determination of metals in lubricating oil has been used as an important way to prevent components failures, to provide environmental information and in some cases, to identify adulteration. In this work, an effective and simple procedure is proposed for Cu and Pb determination in lubricating oils. An ultrasonic bath was employed for extraction of these elements from oil samples in a mixture 1:1 (v/v) of concentrated HCl and H(2)O(2). A very efficient extraction of Cu and Pb (approximately 100%) was attained after 30 min of ultrasound, allowing the simultaneous determination of both metals using square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry at thin-film gold electrodes. The extraction procedure was performed in 4 mL polypropylene closed vessels and dozens of samples could be treated simultaneously in the same ultrasonic bath. The regions of the ultrasonic bath, where the maximum efficiency of extraction was attained were evaluated. Over the optimized region, 30 samples can be treated simultaneously. Used lubricating oils from automotive engines were analyzed by using the optimized extraction procedure.

  5. Experimental study on transmission rattle noise behaviour with particular regard to lubricating oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, Axel; Bertsche, Bernd

    2015-04-01

    This article presents an experimental study on the gear rattle noise phenomenon of automotive transmissions. A single-stage gear transmission has been designed and applied to a gear rattle noise test bench. The gear transmission allows the variation of several parameters affecting the rattle noise level, e.g. tooth backlash variation. High resolution incremental encoders on the transmission input and output shaft, as well as on the idler gear, enable the acquisition of the angular relative motion of the gear pair within the range of tooth backlash. The angular relative motion evaluates the sequence of meshing gear teeth along the path of contact under rattling conditions. The analysis of the angular relative motion indicates that gear tooth impacts during rattling lead to elastic deformation of meshing gear pairs. High contact forces during impacts cause Hertzian flattening of gear tooth flanks and rising fluid viscosity with pressure in the contact zone (elastohydrodynamic lubrication regime). The elastic deformation of meshing gear pairs lead to deviations from the angular velocity ratio between two gears of a gear pair and thus from the Law of Gearing. The main source for the gear rattle noise level is the additional presence of meshing impacts at the beginning of each gear pair meshing. Gear rattle noise reduction can be achieved by avoiding meshing impacts, e.g. by using low traction gear lubricants.

  6. Highly branched polyethylenes as lubricant viscosity and friction modifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Joshua W.; Zhou, Yan; Qu, Jun; Bays, J. Timothy; Cosimbescu, Lelia

    2016-10-08

    A series of highly branched polyethylene (BPE) were prepared and evaluated in a Group I base oil as potential viscosity and friction modifiers. The performance of these BPEs supports the expected dual functionality. Changes in polarity, topology, and molecular weight of the BPEs showed significant effects on the lubricants' performance with respect to viscosity index and friction reduction. In conclusion, this study provides scientific insights into polymer design for future lubricant development activities.

  7. Antioxidants from slow pyrolysis bio-oil of birch wood: Application for biodiesel and biobased lubricants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Birch wood was slowly pyrolyzed to produce bio-oil and biochar. Slow pyrolysis conditions including reaction temperature, residence time, and particle size of the feed were optimized to maximize bio-oil yield. Particle size had an insignificant effect, whereas yields of up to 56% were achieved using...

  8. Synthetic Lubricating Oil Greases Containing Metal Chelates of Schiff Bases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-15

    the load cr’-ying sulfonates , molybdates. nitrites and alike are known to surfaces such as bearings, splines, gears and a!.,e in 15 inhibit corrosion...such as the copper cde- ship, submarines and particularly in the aircraft indus- ates, etc. The preferred products are derived from the try. reaction...under an R-4 size stan- dianiinc less steel bearings at 2.2 radial load, 22 axiWi load, is; 6. Phthalocyanine 12,000 rpm and at 204* C. The data in

  9. Thermo-chemical extraction of fuel oil from waste lubricating grease.

    PubMed

    Pilusa, Tsietsi Jefrey; Muzenda, Edison; Shukla, Mukul

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated the recovery of oil from waste grease through the process of thermal degradation in an aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide (KOH) followed by solvent extraction. Waste high temperature metal bearing grease was dissolved in a 15 w/w% KOH solution at 80°C while being agitated at 2000 rpm using a shear action agitator for a period of 15 min. Two distinct layers were observed after 8 min of settling time. The top layer being of dark brown oil and the bottom layer was a heterogeneous mixture. The two layers were separated by decantation. The bottom layer was cooled down to 45°C followed by slow addition of toluene (C7H8) while agitating at 1200 rpm for 15 min to prevent solids settling and minimise rapid volatilisation of the organic compounds in the mixture. Two distinct layers were also formed, the top homogeneous mixture of light brown oil-toluene mixture and the bottom sludge layer. The solvent was recovered from the oil for re-use by fractional distillation of the homogenous mixture. It was observed that 15 w/w% potassium hydroxide solution can chemically degrade the soap matrix in the grease and extract up to 49 w/w% of the fuel oil when subjected to high shear stress at a temperature of 80°C. The 26 w/w% extraction of oil in the remaining sludge was obtained by solvent extraction process with mass ratios of sludge to solvent of 2:1. Solvent recovery of 88% by mass was obtained via fractional distillation method. The combined extraction processes brought an overall oil yield of 75 w/w% from the waste grease. The fuel oil obtained from this process has similar properties to paraffin oil and can be blended with other oils as an alternative energy source.

  10. Self lubrication of bitumen froth in pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph, D.D.

    1997-12-31

    In this paper I will review the main properties of water lubricated pipelines and explain some new features which have emerged from studies of self-lubrication of Syncrudes` bitumen froth. When heavy oils are lubricated with water, the water and oil are continuously injected into a pipeline and the water is stable when in a lubricating sheath around the oil core. In the case of bitumen froth obtained from the Alberta tar sands, the water is dispersed in the bitumen and it is liberated at the wall under shear; water injection is not necessary because the froth is self-lubricating.

  11. Fabrication and Wear Behavior Analysis on AlCrFeNi High Entropy Alloy Coating Under Dry Sliding and Oil Lubrication Test Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yipin; Wang, Shouren; Sun, Bin; Wang, Yan; Qiao, Yang

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, AlCrFeNi high entropy alloy coating was fabricated on the surface of Q235 steel using hot pressing sintering process. The coating has the controlled thickness size and excellent mechanical properties. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), XRD and hardness testing method were used to study the morphology, phase structure and hardness of high entropy alloys coating. The lattice distortion plays a significant role in increasing the hardness. Coating formation mechanism caused by the element diffusion under the hot pressing effect is also discussed in the paper. Simultaneously, the dry sliding and oil lubrication wear tests, wear morphology observation and wear mechanism discussion were completed. As the result shows, AlCrFeNi high entropy alloys coating exhibits superior wear resistance either at dry sliding or oil lubrication tests owing to its hard high entropy solid solution structure.

  12. Study on a Miniature Mixed-gases Joule-Thomson Cooler Driven by an Oil-lubricated Mini-compressor for 120 K Temperature Ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, M. Q.; Wu, J. F.; Yan, B.; Zou, X.; Zhuang, X. R.; Hu, Q. G.

    In this paper, a miniature J-T cooler using multicomponent mixtures was developed and tested, in which an oil-lubricated mini-compressor was used. Experimental tests on the performance of the miniature J-T cooler were carried out with two kinds of recuperative heat exchangers. One is a shell-and-tube heat exchanger, and the other is a plate-fin type recuperative heat exchanger with whereas a micro-channel configuration fabricated by the wire-electrode cutting method. The former one gave a no-load minimum temperature of 140 K, while the later one showsbetter performance. No-load minimum temperature of 110 K and about 4 W cooling capacity at 118 K were achieved with the plate-fin micro J-T cooler. Such miniature J-T coolers driven by oil-lubricated mini-compressors show good prospects in many applications.

  13. Investigations on the effect of chlorine in lubricating oil and the presence of a diesel oxidation catalyst on PCDD/F releases from an internal combustion engine.

    PubMed

    Dyke, Patrick H; Sutton, Mike; Wood, David; Marshall, Jonathan

    2007-04-01

    This paper reports on an intensive study into releases of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD), polychlorinated furans (PCDF) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) from a diesel engine and the analysis of PCDD/F and PCB in crankcase lubricating oil. Experimental conditions were set and carefully controlled in order to maximize the possible impact of, and our ability to measure the effect of, changes in the levels of chlorine in the lubricant. Emissions to air were measured using modified EPA methods following the principles of the European EN 1948 standards. A series of 40 experimental runs were completed using three reference lubricants formulated to have three levels of chlorine present as a residual component (at levels of 12, 131 and 259 mg kg(-1) or ppm). The engine was run with and without the diesel oxidation catalyst. All lubricants were realistic oils and the use of unrealistic additives or doping of components - particularly chlorine - in the fuel and lubricant was carefully avoided. Analysis of fuel and lubricant (before and after testing) samples required strenuous attention to achieve acceptable recoveries and showed non-detectable levels of PCB and PCDD/F at a detection limit of around 1.5 ng I-TEQ kg(-1) (ppt), indistinguishable from the laboratory blank. The testing demonstrated the need for extreme care to be taken in developing measurement methods that are sufficiently sensitive for measuring chlorine content of fluids and PCDD/F in oils, the latter being particularly challenging. Mean emissions of PCDD/F with the diesel oxidation catalyst in place were 23 pg I-TEQ l(-1) of fuel and with the diesel oxidation catalyst removed 97 pg I-TEQ l(-1) of fuel. The results of this testing showed that the emissions of PCDD/F were greatly reduced by the presence of a diesel oxidation catalyst in the exhaust, a finding that has not been explicitly tested in previous work. They also show that emissions from the engine were not controlled by the level of

  14. Environmental liability and life-cycle management of used lubricating oils.

    PubMed

    Guerin, Turlough F

    2008-12-30

    Used oil handling, as a business, requires an extensive understanding by management that environmental liabilities exist through its supply chain. Findings from a review of the legal requirements of operating a used oil handling business were: understanding the transfer of ownership of used petroleum hydrocarbons is critical to any such business and how this is documented; used oil handlers are responsible for providing training to their staff, including site personnel and any third party waste contractors, and for communicating best practice procedures relating to the management of used petroleum hydrocarbons to all those individuals and organisations involved in business relationships that the used oil handling companies have; used oil handlers should audit the performance of any third party contractors that it engages to conduct work on behalf of its customers. Hypothetical situations of a company planning to enter the used oil handling market are described in relation to petroleum hydrocarbon wastes it handles to illustrate the range of potential liabilities. Companies proposing to establish a used oil handling business should ensure that they provide accurate advice to its employees, its customer's employees and to its third party contractors, all of which may be responsible for handling used petroleum hydrocarbons as part of the service it intends to provide, and that it has a well documented system addressing how environmental issues are managed.

  15. Deposit information in gasoline engines: Part I. Base oil effects in sequence VE deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Supp, J.A.; Kornbrekke, R.E.; Roby, S.H.

    1994-12-01

    Base oil effects on sludge and deposit formation in the ASTM Sequence VE were studied with blends made using the same American Petroleum Institute (API) SG performance package and the same viscosity improver. One percent of the dispersant was removed from the formulation to accentuate base oil effects. Nine tests on six different 100N base oils were run. Sequence VE test lubricant drain analyses show differences in insolubles, viscosity, and particle size with base stock variations. The most significant base oil factors which can be used to predict Sequence VE sludge ratings are the base oil saturate content, polar content, and volatility. While all oils studied passed the Sequence VE API SG engine varnish and piston varnish requirements, higher levels of poly-nuclear aromatics (PNA`s) are shown to increase the severity of these ratings.

  16. Synthesis of new high performance lubricants and solid lubricants

    SciTech Connect

    Lagow, R.J.

    1993-04-01

    Synthesis and testing was begun on a number of new classes of lubricants: perfluoropolyethers (branching effects), perfluoromethylene oxide ethers, chlorine-substituted fluorocarbon polyethers, fluorine-containing branched ether lubricants, glycerine- based perfluoropolyesters, perfluoro epoxy ether chains, etc.

  17. Tribological properties and lubricating mechanism of SiO2 nanoparticles in water-based fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Y. Y.; Sun, J. L.; Kong, L. H.

    2017-03-01

    The tribological properties of surface modified SiO2 nanoparticles suspension in water-based lubricant have been studied. SiO2 (30 nm) nanoparticles were dispersed through surface modification with polyethylene glycol-200. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy show that SiO2 nanoparticles disperse well and stably in the water-based lubricant. The diameter of the nanoparticles is about 60 nm. Tribological properties of the water-based lubricant were evaluated using four-ball wear test machine and pin-on-disk tester under different loads and different concentrations of SiO2 nanoparticles. Wear surface morphology, element chemistry configuration of steel balls and steel rings were studied by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results show that the tribological properties of the water-based fluid have been improved by addition of nanoparticles ranging from 0.1% to 0.3% concentrations. SiO2 nanoparticles deposited onto the wear surface during the sliding, which helped to reduce the friction coefficients and increase the anti-wear properties due to the miniature ball bearing effect and self-repairing performance of nanoparticles between the friction pairs. With the increase of test load, the friction coefficients decrease but the wear of the surface increase.

  18. Molecular dynamics study on the mechanism of AFM-based nanoscratching process with water-layer lubrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Jiaqi; Zhao, Jinsheng; Dong, Zeguang; Liu, Pinkuan

    2015-08-01

    The atomic force microscopy (AFM) based direct nanoscratching has been thoroughly studied but the mechanism of nanoscratching with water-layer lubrication is yet to be well understood. In current study, three-dimensional molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are conducted to evaluate the effects of the water-layer lubrication on the AFM-based nanoscratching process on monocrystalline copper. Comparisons of workpiece deformation, scratching forces, and friction coefficients are made between the water-lubricated and dry scratching under various thickness of water layer, scratching depth and scratching velocity. Simulation results reveal that the water layer has positive impact on the surface quality and significant influence on the scratching forces (normal forces and tangential forces). The friction coefficients of the tip in water-lubricated nanoscratching are significantly bigger than those in the dry process. Our simulation results shed lights on a promising AFM-based nanofabrication method, which can assist to get nanoscale surface morphologies with higher quality than traditional approaches.

  19. Lubrication handbook for the space industry. Part A: Solid lubricants. Part B: Liquid lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmurtrey, E. L.

    1985-01-01

    This handbook is intended to provide a ready reference for many of the solid and liquid lubricants used in the space industry. Lubricants and lubricant properties are arranged systematically so that designers, engineers, and maintenance personnel can conveniently locate data needed for their work. This handbook is divided into two major parts (A and B). Part A is a compilation of solid lubricant suppliers information on chemical and physical property of data of more than 250 solid lubricants, bonded solid lubricants, dispersions, and composites. Part B is a compilation of chemical and physical porperty data of more then 250 liquid lubricants, greases, oils, compounds, and fluids. The listed materials cover a broad spectrum from manufacturing and ground support to hardware applications of spacecraft.

  20. Dynamic characterization of viscoelastic polymer solutions in a lubricated cylinder - Plate apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doremus, P.; Piau, J. M.; Altman, R. L.

    1987-01-01

    The characterization of several viscoelastic lubricants which are oil or water based has been studied in an apparatus consisting of a lubricated cylinder-plate contact. The friction loads were measured as a function of speed. The experimental results show the influence of the molecular weight and of the concentration of the polymeric additive as well as the influence of the viscosity of the oil-base on the load and friction coefficient. Also a test for mechanical degradation was performed on the polymer solutions. Several additives can favor a viscoelastic lubrication.

  1. Study on the applicability of a precise, accurate method for rapid evaluation of engine and lubricant performance. [determination of wear metal in used lubricating oils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinard, J. T.

    1975-01-01

    The development of a procedure for obtaining data related to wear metal determinations in used lubricants is discussed. The procedure makes it possible to obtain rapid, simultaneous determinations of a number of wear metals at levels of parts per thousand to low parts per billion using a small amount of sample. The electrode assembly and instrumentation used in the process are described. Samples of data obtained from tests conducted under controlled conditions are tabulated.

  2. Hydrodynamic optimization of trust ring pump and lubricating oil system for large hydroelectric units thrust bearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, X.; Lu, Z.; Zhang, X.; Yang, S.

    2014-03-01

    Thrust-ring-pump is a kind of extreme-low specific speed centrifugal pump with special structure as numerous restrictions form thrust bearing and operation conditions of hydro turbine generator unit. Because the oil circulating and cooling system with thrust-ring- pump has a lot of advantages in maintenance and compactness in structure, it has widely been used in large and medium-sized hydro-generator units. Since the diameter and the speed of the thrust ring is limited by the generator set, the matching relationship between the flow passage inside the thrust ring (equivalent to impeller) and oil bath (equivalent to volute) has great influence on hydrodynamic performance of thrust-ring-pump, additionally, the head and discharge are varying with the operation conditions of hydro-generator unit and characteristic of the oil circulating and cooling system. As so far, the empirical calculation method is employed during the actual engineering design, in order to guarantee the operating performance of the oil circulating and cooling system with thrust-ring-pump at different conditions, a collaborative hydrodynamic design and optimization of both the oil circulating and cooling system and thrust-ring-pump is purposed in this paper. Firstly, the head and discharge required at different conditions are decided by 1D flow numerical simulation of the oil circulating and cooling system. Secondly, the flow passages of thrust-ring-pump are empirically designed under the restrictions of diameter and the speed of the thrust ring according to the head and discharge from the simulation. Thirdly, the flow passage geometry matching optimization between holes inside the thrust ring and oil bath is implemented by means of 3D flow simulation and performance prediction. Then, the pumps and the oil circulating and cooling system are collaborative hydrodynamic optimized with predicted head- discharge curve and the efficiency-discharge curve of thrust-ring-pump. The presented methodology has

  3. Novel aliphatic lipid-based diesters for use in lubricant formulations: Structure property investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghunanan, Latchmi Cindy

    Structure-property relationships are increasingly valued for the identification of specifically engineered materials with properties optimized for targeted application(s). In this work, linear and branched diesters for use in lubricant formulations are prepared from lipid-based oleochemicals and their structure-property relationships reported. It is shown that the branched diesters possess exceptional physical property profiles, including suppression of crystallization, and are superior alternatives for use in lubricant formulations. For the linear aliphatic diesters, both high and low temperature properties were predictable functions of total chain length, and both were differently influenced by the fatty acid versus diol chain length. Symmetry did not influence either, although thermal stability decreased and thermal transition temperatures increased with increasing saturation. All of the linear diesters demonstrated Newtonian flow behaviour. Viscosity was also predictable as a function of total chain length; any microstructural features due to structural effects were superseded by mass effects.

  4. Transient Shear Flow of Model Lithium Lubricating Greases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, M. A.; Franco, J. M.; Valencia, C.; Kuhn, E.; Gallegos, C.

    2008-07-01

    This work deals with the analysis of the transient shear flow behaviour of lithium lubricating greases differing in soap concentration and base oil viscosity. The shear-induced evolution of lithium grease microstructure has been studied by means of stress-growth experiments. With this aim, different lubricating grease formulations were manufactured by modifying lithium 12-hydroxystearate concentration and base oil viscosity. Different rheological parameters, related to both the elastic response and the structural breakdown of greases, have been analysed. In this sense, it has been found that the elastic properties of lithium lubricating greases were highly influenced by soap concentration and oil viscosity. Moreover, an asymptotic tendency has been found for the stress overshoot by increasing shear rate. The asymptotic values of this parameter have been correlated to the friction coefficient obtained in a ball-disc tribometer.

  5. Analysis of wear properties of aluminium based journal bearing alloys with and without lubrication.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathavan, J. Joy; Patnaik, Amar

    2016-09-01

    Apart from classical bearing materials, Aluminium alloys are used as bearing materials these days because of their superior quality. In this analysis, new Aluminium based bearing materials, with filler metals Si, Ni, and Cr are prepared by metal mould casting in burnout furnace machine, and tribological properties of these alloys with and without lubrication were tested. The experiments for wear with lubrication are conducted on multiple specimen tester and experiments without lubrication is conducted on Pin on disk tribometer. The disc material used was SAE 1050 steel. Wear tests were conducted at a sliding speed of 0.785 m/s and at a normal load of 20 N. Coefficient of friction values, temperature changes and wear of the specimens were plotted on graph according to the above mentioned working conditions. Hardness and weight losses of the specimens were calculated. The obtained results demonstrate how the friction and wear properties of these samples have changed with the % addition of Silicon, Chromium and Nickel to the base metal aluminium.

  6. A 3×3 wear debris sensor array for real time lubricant oil conditioning monitoring using synchronized sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiaoliang; Du, Li; Zhe, Jiang

    2017-01-01

    A high throughput wear debris sensor consisting of 3×3 sensing channels is presented for real time online lubricant oil conditioning monitoring. Time division multiplexing was applied to the sensing channels for measuring responses of multiple channels using one set of measurement electronics. Crosstalk among the 3×3 sensing channels was eliminated by diodes that are connected in series with each channel. Parallel L-C-R resonance was also applied to each sensing coil to increase the sensitivity. Furthermore, a unique synchronized sampling method was used to reduce the date size 50 times. Finally, we demonstrated that the sensor is capable of real time detection of wear debris as small as 50 μm in SAE 0W-5 at a flow rate of 460 ml/min; the measured debris concentration is in good agreement with the estimated actual concentration. The design can be extended to a N×N sensor array for an extremely high throughput without sacrificing the sensitivity, and can potentially be used for real time wear debris monitoring for health condition of rotating or reciprocating machineries.

  7. Succinimide complexes of borated alkyl catechols and lubricating oil compositions containing same

    SciTech Connect

    Liston, T.V.

    1986-12-16

    A composition is described comprising a complex prepared by reacting a borated alkyl catechol and an oil soluble alkyl or alkenyl succinimide wherein the weight percent ratio of the alkyl or alkenyl succinimide to the borated alkyl catechol ranges from 3:1 to 16:1.

  8. Process for recovering uranium from waste hydrocarbon oils containing the same. [Uranium contaminated lubricating oils from gaseous diffusion compressors

    DOEpatents

    Conrad, M.C.; Getz, P.A.; Hickman, J.E.; Payne, L.D.

    1982-06-29

    The invention is a process for the recovery of uranium from uranium-bearing hydrocarbon oils containing carboxylic acid as a degradation product. In one aspect, the invention comprises providing an emulsion of water and the oil, heating the same to a temperature effecting conversion of the emulsion to an organic phase and to an acidic aqueous phase containing uranium carboxylate, and recovering the uranium from the aqueous phase. The process is effective, simple and comparatively inexpensive. It avoids the use of toxic reagents and the formation of undesirable intermediates.

  9. Multifunctional lubricant additives and compositions thereof

    SciTech Connect

    Farng, L.O.; Horodysky, A.G.

    1991-03-26

    This paper discusses an antioxidant/ antiwear/extreme pressure/load carrying lubricant composition. It comprises a major proportion of an oil of lubricating viscosity or grease or other solid lubricant prepared therefrom and a minor amount of an ashless multifunctional antioxidant/antiwear/extreme pressure/load carrying additive product comprising a thiophosphate derived from a dihydrocarbyl dithiocarbamate.

  10. Characterizing and classifying water-based lubricants using direct analysis in real time(®)-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Maric, Mark; Bridge, Candice

    2016-09-01

    Lubricant analysis is a relatively recent addition to the examination protocol in sexual assault cases by the forensic science community. Currently, lubricants cannot be unequivocally identified, although their presence can be determined based on the detection of a few chemical components, i.e. polydimethylsiloxane, polyethylene glycol, glycerol or nonoxynol-9. Confirmation of their presence typically requires that an authentic reference sample be submitted and compared to the unknown sample to determine if they potentially came from the same source. In this study, 33 individual personal water-based lubricants were characterized by direct analysis in real time-time of flight mass spectroscopy (DART-TOFMS). The resultant mass spectral data were evaluated using well-established multivariate statistical techniques, such as principal component and linear discriminant analysis. Statistical analysis revealed six different groupings within the data that could be correlated to sub-categories of water-based lubricants that contain additives in the form of anesthetics, sensation enhancers and flavorings. This variability in the personal lubricant sources can be utilized to aid in identifying the specific type of lubricant when only a questioned sample is available.

  11. Analysis of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content of petrol and diesel engine lubricating oils and determination of DNA adducts in topically treated mice by 32P-postlabelling.

    PubMed

    Carmichael, P L; Jacob, J; Grimmer, G; Phillips, D H

    1990-11-01

    Engine lubricating oils are known to accumulate carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during engine running. Oils from nine petrol-powered and 11 diesel-powered vehicles, in addition to samples of unused oil, were analysed for PAH content and ability to form DNA adducts when applied topically to mouse skin. The levels of 19 PAHs, determined by GC, were in total, approximately 22 times higher in used oils from petrol engines than in oils from diesel engines. Male Parkes mice were treated with 50 microliters of oil daily for 4 days before they were killed and DNA isolated from skin and lung tissue. DNA samples were analysed by nuclease P1-enhanced 32P-postlabelling. Used oils from both diesel and petrol engines showed several adduct spots on PEI-cellulose plates at total adduct levels of up to 0.57 fmol/microgram DNA [approximately 60 times greater than in experiments with samples of unused oil in which adduct levels (0.01-0.02 fmol adducts/microgram DNA) were close to the limit of detection]. Higher adduct levels were generally formed by petrol engine oils than by diesel engine oils. Lung DNA contained similar total adduct levels to those in skin although the adduct maps were less complex. Total adduct levels correlated with extent of oil use in the engine, the total PAH concentration in oils and with the concentrations of certain individual PAHs present in the oils. An adduct spot that co-eluted with that of the major benzo[a]pyrene-DNA adduct accounted for 9-26% of the total adducts in skin DNA, and approximately 8% of the adducts in lung DNA, of mice treated with petrol engine oils. A major, and as yet unidentified, adduct spot comprised up to 30% of the total adducts in skin DNA, and up to 89% of the total adducts in lung DNA, of these animals.

  12. Determination of lubricant selection based on elastohydrodynamic film thickness and traction measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dow, T. A.; Kannel, J. W.

    1979-01-01

    The project was conducted to aid in the development of an elastohydrodynamic specification for military lubricants. Experiments were conducted with a rolling disk apparatus designed to simulate a bearing or gear type contact. Measurements included lubricant film thickness, lubricant breakdown and traction for a range of loads, speeds, temperatures, and surface roughnesses. Several lubricants were used in the investigations including a traction fluid, two synthetic paraffinic lubricants and several lubricants conforming to MIL-L 7808 and 23699 specifications. Recommendations regarding an EHD specification are included.

  13. Assessment of the influence of use on ecotoxicological characteristics of synthetic ester lubricants.

    PubMed

    Maxam, Gudrun; Hahn, Stefan; Dott, Wolfgang; Eisentraeger, Adolf

    2002-10-01

    Synthetic ester lubricants need optimisation about their technical and their ecotoxicological characteristics. To determine the ecotoxicological potential the required examinations can be based on the procedure for a risk assessment of chemicals. At present risk classification of lubricant oils is carried out with new oil fluids that are normally prepared before application in aqueous bioassays. In order to improve the ecotoxicological characteristics of some lubricant oils, the quality of the preparation method has been optimised. The resulting preparation protocol leads to aqueous extracts of the oil fluids that can be tested using biological assays. The extent of the changes of the chemical composition caused by the use as well as the ecotoxicological effects caused by additives have to be taken into consideration. For this reason various used lubricants are tested in addition to new oil fluids. In this work various lubricant samples were examined with standardised bacterial growth assays with Vibrio fischeri and Pseudomonas putida, luminescence inhibition assay with V. fischeri, survival assay with Daphnia magna and algal growth inhibition assay with Scenedesmus subspicatus. The chemical characterisation of the aqueous extracts included the determination of pH, conductivity, heavy metals, the content of dissolved organic carbon, inorganic anions and the content of phosphorus. The results emphasize the thesis that environmentally acceptable lubricants can undergo a change of their ecotoxicological potential during the use. Some of the substances that are normally added to base fluids in order to enhance the applicability of the oils may possess a high toxicological potential.

  14. KSC lubricant testing program. [lubrication characteristics and corrosion resistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockhart, B. J.; Bryan, C. J.

    1973-01-01

    A program was conducted to evaluate the performance of various lubricants in use and considered for use at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The overall objectives of the program were to: (1) determine the lubrication characteristics and relative corrosion resistance of lubricants in use and proposed for use at KSC; (2) identify materials which may be equivalent to or better than KELF-90 and Krytox 240 AC greases; and (3) identify or develop an improved lubricating oil suitable for use in liquid oxygen (LOX) pumps at KSC. It was concluded that: (1) earth gel thickened greases are very poor corrosion preventive materials in the KSC environment; (2) Halocarbon 25-5S and Braycote 656 were suitable substiutes for KELF-90 and Krytox 240 AC respectively; and (3) none of the oils evaluated possessed the necessary inertness, lubricity, and corrosion prevention characteristics for the KSC LOX pumping systems in their present configuration.

  15. Lip seals: Lubrication and wear resistance. (Latest citations from Fluidex data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, development, friction wear, and lubrication of lip seals. Lubrication film thickness, friction forces, cylinder scoring, seal leakage theory, elastohydrodynamic lubrication of metal lip seals, standards and specifications, and lip seal failures and strengths are considered. Geothermal, dredge pump, and rotary shaft applications are discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  16. Sporting Good Lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Sun Coast Chemicals was originally contracted by Lockheed Martin Space Operations to formulate a spray lubricant free of environmental drawbacks for the Mobile Launch Platform used to haul the Space Shuttle from the Kennedy Space Center Vehicle Assembly Building to a launch pad. From this work, Sun Coast introduced Train Track Lubricant, Penetrating Spray Lube, and Biodegradable Hydraulic Fluid. Based on the original lubricant work, two more products have also been introduced. First, the X-1R Super Gun Cleaner and Lubricant protects guns from rust and corrosion caused by environmental conditions. Second, the X-1R Tackle Pack, endorsed by both fresh and saltwater guides and certain reel manufacturers, penetrates, cleans, reduces friction, lubricates, and provides extra protection against rust and corrosion.

  17. Lubrication handbook for use in the space industry. Part A: Solid lubricants. Part B: Liquid lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, M. E.; Thompson, M. B.

    1972-01-01

    This handbook provides a ready reference for many of the solid and liquid lubricants used in the space industry. Lubricants and lubricant properties are arranged systematically so that designers, engineers, and maintenance personnel in the space industry can conveniently locate data needed for their work. The handbook is divided into two major parts. Part A is a compilation of chemical and physical property data of more than 250 solid lubricants, bonded solid lubricants, dispersions and composites. Part B is a compilation of chemical and physical property data of more than 250 liquid lubricants, greases, oils, compounds and fluids. The listed materials cover a broad spectrum, from manufacturing and ground support to hardware applications for missiles and spacecraft.

  18. Comparison of the Performance of Lubricants in Rolling Based on Temperature Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, V.; Singh, A. K.; Joshi, S. N.; Dixit, U. S.

    2011-05-01

    Lubricants are used in rolling process mainly to reduce the friction. Thus, the measurement of friction can give the idea about the performance of a lubricant. However, the measurement of friction by no means is an easy task. In the past, various methods have been employed for measuring the friction in rolling. Some of these methods require damaging of the surface of the rolls. The methods based on the measurement of roll force, roll torque and the slip can be easily used, but their reliability is dependent on reliability of measuring devices and the mathematical model. A possible way of measuring the average coefficient of friction in rolling is to measure the exit temperature of the strip. It can be easily done by means of temperature sensors. In this work, an inverse method of estimating the approximate value of friction coefficient is proposed based on the exit temperature measurement. The inverse model makes use of a direct model of temperature determination, which is based on finite element analysis and analytical models available in the literature. For a given exit temperature, the inverse model searches the appropriate value of friction coefficient using golden section search algorithm. The methodology is tested by carrying out a number of numerical experiments on the cold strip rolling. Some preliminary experiments have been conducted. It is planned to carry out more experiments in future. Although the direct model used in this work is highly approximate, the entire methodology displays its high potentiality in an industrial setting. In any case, the methodology can compare two lubricants with respect to their ability to reduce the coefficient of friction, even if the estimated coefficient of friction may be approximate.

  19. A study of oil lubrication in a rotating engine using stroboscopic neutron imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schillinger, Burkhard; Brunner, Johannes; Calzada, Elbio

    2006-11-01

    Even at modern high-flux neutron sources, the required exposure time for one neutron radiography image with high counting statistics is in the order of 1 s. Continuous time-resolved imaging of objects in motion is thus very limited in time resolution and signal dynamics. However, repetitive motions can be recorded with a stroboscopic technique: A triggerable accumulating detector is triggered for many identical time windows of the cyclic motion until sufficient fluence is accumulated for one image. The image is read out, the delay for the time window is shifted and the recording repeated until a complete movie of the cyclic motion can be put together. We report about a study of oil flux in a running, electrically driven BMW engine out of current production.

  20. Shearing stability of lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiba, Y.; Gijyutsu, G.

    1984-01-01

    Shearing stabilities of lubricating oils containing a high mol. wt. polymer as a viscosity index improver were studied by use of ultrasound. The oils were degraded by cavitation and the degradation generally followed first order kinetics with the rate of degradation increasing with the intensity of the ultrasonic irradiation and the cumulative energy applied. The shear stability was mainly affected by the mol. wt. of the polymer additive and could be determined in a short time by mechanical shearing with ultrasound.

  1. Layered Double Hydroxide Nanoplatelets with Excellent Tribological Properties under High Contact Pressure as Water-Based Lubricant Additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongdong; Liu, Yuhong; Chen, Zhe; Wu, Bibo; Xu, Sailong; Luo, Jianbin

    2016-03-01

    High efficient and sustainable utilization of water-based lubricant is essential for saving energy. In this paper, a kind of layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanoplatelets is synthesized and well dispersed in water due to the surface modification with oleylamine. The excellent tribological properties of the oleylamine-modified Ni-Al LDH (NiAl-LDH/OAm) nanoplatelets as water-based lubricant additives are evaluated by the tribological tests in an aqueous environment. The modified LDH nanoplatelets are found to not only reduce the friction but also enhance the wear resistance, compared with the water-based cutting fluid and lubricants containing other particle additives. By adding 0.5 wt% LDH nanoplatelets, under 1.5 GPa initial contact pressure, the friction coefficient, scar diameter, depth and width of the wear track dramatically decrease by 83.1%, 43.2%, 88.5% and 59.5%, respectively. It is considered that the sufficiently small size and the excellent dispersion of NiAl-LDH/OAm nanoplatelets in water are the key factors, so as to make them enter the contact area, form a lubricating film and prevent direct collision of asperity peaks. Our investigations demonstrate that the LDH nanoplatelet as a water-based lubricant additive has a great potential value in industrial application.

  2. Layered Double Hydroxide Nanoplatelets with Excellent Tribological Properties under High Contact Pressure as Water-Based Lubricant Additives

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongdong; Liu, Yuhong; Chen, Zhe; Wu, Bibo; Xu, Sailong; Luo, Jianbin

    2016-01-01

    High efficient and sustainable utilization of water-based lubricant is essential for saving energy. In this paper, a kind of layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanoplatelets is synthesized and well dispersed in water due to the surface modification with oleylamine. The excellent tribological properties of the oleylamine-modified Ni-Al LDH (NiAl-LDH/OAm) nanoplatelets as water-based lubricant additives are evaluated by the tribological tests in an aqueous environment. The modified LDH nanoplatelets are found to not only reduce the friction but also enhance the wear resistance, compared with the water-based cutting fluid and lubricants containing other particle additives. By adding 0.5 wt% LDH nanoplatelets, under 1.5 GPa initial contact pressure, the friction coefficient, scar diameter, depth and width of the wear track dramatically decrease by 83.1%, 43.2%, 88.5% and 59.5%, respectively. It is considered that the sufficiently small size and the excellent dispersion of NiAl-LDH/OAm nanoplatelets in water are the key factors, so as to make them enter the contact area, form a lubricating film and prevent direct collision of asperity peaks. Our investigations demonstrate that the LDH nanoplatelet as a water-based lubricant additive has a great potential value in industrial application. PMID:26951794

  3. Combined solid and liquid lubrication of silicon nitride under boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajayi, O. O.; Erdemir, A.; Hsieh, J. H.; Erck, R. A.; Fenske, G. R.

    1992-07-01

    The present study showed that an effective way of lubricating ceramic surfaces under boundary conditions both at room temperature and at high temperatures of 150 and 250 C was the combined effect of solid, i.e., soft metal-Ag, and liquid lubricants, i.e., polyol-ester-based synthetic oil. Compared to dry sliding of uncoated materials, oil-lubricated sliding of silver-coated silicon nitride surfaces resulted, for the conditions tested, in a decrease of the friction coefficient by a factor of 18 and of specific wear rate by more than four orders of magnitude. The Ag coating, which was formed in part by ion-beam-assisted deposition, was effective in preventing ceramic-to-ceramic contact under boundary-lubricated regimes. The only observed drawback was the occurrence of a chemical interaction between the Ag film and sulfur from the oil, which reduced the durability of the Ag film.

  4. Railway diesel crankcase lubricant

    SciTech Connect

    Sung, R.L.; Zoleski, B.H.; O'Rourke, R.L.

    1987-06-30

    A railway diesel crankcase lubricant composition is described comprising a diesel lubricating oil and from about 0.25 to 2.0 weight percent of minor amount of oxidation and corrosion inhibiting agent. The reaction product is of a polyoxyisopropylene diamine, diabasic acid anhydride and polyalkylene polyamine wherein: (i) reacting a dibasic acid anhydride with a polyoxyisopropylenediamine where x is a numeral of about 2 to about 50, forming a maleamic acid; (ii) reacting the maleamic acid with a polyalkylene polyamine, forming a condensate product and; (iii) recovering the condensate product.

  5. Lubricants in conveyor applications

    SciTech Connect

    Paton, C.G.; Bland, S.B.; Melley, R.E.

    1995-01-01

    This paper looks at four critical lubricants used in the conveyor systems of the northern Albertan oil sand facility. The requirements for the lubricants used in the electric motors and gear boxes of the drive systems, the pulley bearings and the idler bearings are discussed in terms of the application and the environment. A number of developments that have occurred in recent years are presented. Data from the field and from custom designed testing in the laboratory are used to support the role of simulation testing in problem solving in this area of technology. 9 refs., 21 figs.

  6. Experimental evaluation of chromium-carbide-based solid lubricant coatings for use to 760 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dellacorte, Christopher

    1987-01-01

    A research program is described which further developed and investigated chromium carbide based self-lubricating coatings for use to 760 C. A bonded chromium carbide was used as the base stock because of the known excellent wear resistance and the chemical stability of chromium carbide. Additives were silver and barium fluoride/calcium fluoride eutectic. The three coating components were blended in powder form, applied to stainless steel substrates by plasma spraying and then diamond ground to the desired coating thickness. A variety of coating compositions was tested to determine the coating composition which gave optimum tribological results. Coatings were tested in air, helium, and hydrogen at temperatures from 25 to 760 C. Several counterface materials were evaluated with the objective of discovering a satisfactory metal/coating sliding combination for potential applications, such as piston ring/cylinder liner couples for Stirling engines. In general, silver and fluoride additions to chromium carbide reduced the friction coefficient and increased the wear resistance relative to the unmodified coating. The lubricant additives acted synergistically in reducing friction and wear.

  7. Relationship between wettability and lubrication characteristics of the surfaces of contacting phospholipid-based membranes.

    PubMed

    Pawlak, Zenon; Petelska, Aneta D; Urbaniak, Wieslaw; Yusuf, Kehinde Q; Oloyede, Adekunle

    2013-04-01

    The wettability of the articular surface of cartilage depends on the condition of its surface active phospholipid overlay, which is structured as multi-bilayer. Based on a hypothesis that the surface of cartilage facilitates the almost frictionless lubrication of the joint, we examined the characteristics of this membrane surface entity in both its normal and degenerated conditions using a combination of atomic force microscopy, contact angle measurement, and friction test methods. The observations have led to the conclusions that (1) the acid-base equilibrium condition influences the lubrication effectiveness of the surface of cartilage and (2) the friction coefficient is significantly dependent on the hydrophobicity of the surface of the tissue, thereby confirming the hypothesis tested in this paper. Both wettability angle and interfacial energy were obtained for varying conditions of the cartilage surface both in its wet, dry and lipid-depleted conditions. The interfacial energy also increased with mole fraction of the lipid species reaching an asymptotic value after 0.6. Also, the friction coefficient was found to decrease to an asymptotic level as the wettability angle increased. The result reveal that the interfacial energy increased with pH till pH = 4.0, and then decreased from pH = 4.0 to reach equilibrium at pH = 7.0.

  8. SYNTHETIC LUBRICANTS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    of synthetic lubricants for use at low and high temperatures. The diesters of straight-chain dibasic acids lead the field of esters mutable as...lubricants for use at both low and high temperatures, because of their desirable combinations of properties and potentially good availability. Adipic ...azelaic, and sebacic acids are the most readily available dibasic acids suitable for ester lubricant production, while the petroleum derived Oxo alcohols

  9. Solid lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, Harold E.

    1991-01-01

    The state of knowledge of solid lubricants is reviewed. The results of research on solid lubricants from the 1940's to the present are presented from a historical perspective. Emphasis is placed largely, but not exclusively, on work performed at NASA Lewis Research Center with a natural focus on aerospace applications. However, because of the generic nature of the research, the information presented in this review is applicable to most areas where solid lubricant technology is useful.

  10. Solid lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, Harold E.

    1993-01-01

    The state of knowledge of solid lubricants is reviewed. The results of research on solid lubricants from the 1940's to the present are presented from a historical perspective. Emphasis is placed largely, but not exclusively, on work performed at NASA Lewis Research Center with a natural focus on aerospace applications. However, because of the generic nature of the research, the information presented in this review is applicable to most areas where solid lubricant technology is useful.

  11. Ionic Liquids as Novel Lubricants and Additives for Diesel Engine Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Jun; Blau, Peter Julian; Dai, Sheng; Luo, Huimin; Meyer III, Harry M

    2009-01-01

    The lubricating properties of two ionic liquids with the same anion but different cations, one ammonium IL [C8H17]3NH.Tf2N and one imidazolium IL C10mim.Tf2N, were evaluated both in neat form and as oil additives. Experiments were conducted using a standardized reciprocating sliding test using a segment of a Cr-plated diesel engine piston ring against a grey cast iron flat specimen with simulated honing marks as on the engine cylinder liner. The selected ionic liquids were benchmarked against conventional hydrocarbon oils. Substantial friction and wear reductions, up to 55% and 34%, respectively, were achieved for the neat ionic liquids compared to a fully-formulated 15W40 engine oil. Adding 5 vol% ILs into mineral oil has demonstrated significant improvement in the lubricity. One blend even outperformed the 15W40 engine oil with 9% lower friction and 34% less wear. Lubrication regime modeling, worn surface morphology examination, and surface chemical analysis were conducted to help understand the lubricating mechanisms for ionic liquids. Results suggest great potential for using ionic liquids as base lubricants or lubricant additives for diesel engine applications.

  12. Primary biodegradability of mineral base oils in relation to their chemical and physical characteristics.

    PubMed

    Haus, F; German, J; Junter, G A

    2001-11-01

    The primary biodegradability of 32 mineral base (i.e., unformulated) oils of paraffinic nature was evaluated using the CEC L-33-A-93 test. These oils were refinery products obtained by varying manufacturing processes. Biodegradation percentages ranged between 15% and 75%, i.e., below the commonly accepted standards for environmentally-compatible lubricants. Biodegradability values were compared to the overall chemical composition and main physical properties of base oils. Biodegradability decreased with increasing levels of aromatic and/or polar compounds in the tested oils. For most oils, the biodegradation percentage increased with the viscosity index, but was a decreasing function of the kinematic viscosity (KV), the pour point, the flash point (FP) and the refractive index (RI). Linear relationships between biodegradability and FP or RI values were observed. These results show that, beside chemical features such as the contents in polar and aromatic compounds, simple physical magnitudes such as KV and RI, commonly used to characterize lubricant properties, may be useful parameters for predicting the biodegradability of mineral base oils.

  13. Oil base drilling fluid composition

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, A.D.; Salandanan, C.

    1988-04-26

    This patent describes an improved oil-base drilling fluid composition characterized by thixotropic properties resulting in a yield point of from about 10 to about 75 comprising an oil-base continuous phase and a gelling composition. The gelling composition includes a latex material copolymerized with one or more functional monomers selected from the group consisting of: amides, amines, sulfonates, monocarboxylic acids, dicarboxylic acids and combinations thereof and wherein at least one of the one or more functional monomers is an amide selected from the group consisting of: acrylamide, N-methylolacrylamide, N-alkyl-acrylamide, vinylacetamide, vinylpyrrolidone, N-vinyl-N-methylacetamide, vinylformamide and combinations thereof.

  14. Evaluation of Replacement Thread Lubricants for Red Lead and Graphite in Mineral Oil

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    power plants, employing fastener materials including high-strength alloy steels , nickel-based alloys, copper-nickel, austenitic stainless steels and...with RLGMO on many alloy steel fasteners as well as in high temperature applications on nickel-based alloys. Objectives The objective of the...UNS) S30400) stainless steel studs and nuts, alloy steel (AISI4140 - Grade B7 (UNS G41400)) studs and carbon steel (UNS K04002) nuts and Monel K-500

  15. Transparency and damage tolerance of patternable omniphobic lubricated surfaces based on inverse colloidal monolayers

    DOE PAGES

    Vogel, Nicolas; Belisle, Rebecca A.; Hatton, Benjamin; ...

    2013-07-31

    A transparent coating that repels a wide variety of liquids, prevents staining, is capable of self-repair and is robust towards mechanical damage can have a broad technological impact, from solar cell coatings to self-cleaning optical devices. Here we employ colloidal templating to design transparent, nanoporous surface structures. A lubricant can be firmly locked into the structures and, owing to its fluidic nature, forms a defect-free, self-healing interface that eliminates the pinning of a second liquid applied to its surface, leading to efficient liquid repellency, prevention of adsorption of liquid-borne contaminants, and reduction of ice adhesion strength. We further show howmore » this method can be applied to locally pattern the repellent character of the substrate, thus opening opportunities to spatially confine any simple or complex fluids. The coating is highly defect-tolerant due to its interconnected, honeycomb wall structure, and repellency prevails after the application of strong shear forces and mechanical damage. The regularity of the coating allows us to understand and predict the stability or failure of repellency as a function of lubricant layer thickness and defect distribution based on a simple geometric model.« less

  16. Self-lubricating, low-friction, wear-resistant Al-based quasicrystalline coatings

    PubMed Central

    Silva Guedes de Lima, Bruno Alessandro; Medeiros Gomes, Rodinei; Guedes de Lima, Severino Jackson; Dragoe, Diana; Barthes-Labrousse, Marie-Geneviève; Kouitat-Njiwa, Richard; Dubois, Jean-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Abstract After gas atomization, a quasicrystalline powder based on aluminium was used to prepare a thick coating by high-velocity oxygen-fuel flame torch spraying. This layer was deposited on top of a bond-coat layer on a steel plate. A post-spraying annealing treatment turned the two layers to their stable state, a γ-brass crystal and an icosahedral quasicrystal, respectively. The projection parameters were selected in such a way that the coating behaved like a self-lubricating material, which offered very good wear resistance (duration of pin-on-disk tests superior to 5 km with negligible material loss) and low friction (µ ≤ 6% against sintered tungsten carbide), in contrast to the state of the art. This property was achieved thanks to, on the one hand, excellent bonding to the substrate via the bound coat, and on the other hand, presence at the boundaries between quasicrystalline flakes of a mixture of both threefold and fourfold coordinated carbon originating from spray processing. Application to hard materials used in mechanical devices is appealing, especially because soft, lubricating additives may not be needed, thus considerably increasing the lifetime of the devices and reducing waste of materials. PMID:27877859

  17. Self-lubricating, low-friction, wear-resistant Al-based quasicrystalline coatings.

    PubMed

    Silva Guedes de Lima, Bruno Alessandro; Medeiros Gomes, Rodinei; Guedes de Lima, Severino Jackson; Dragoe, Diana; Barthes-Labrousse, Marie-Geneviève; Kouitat-Njiwa, Richard; Dubois, Jean-Marie

    2016-01-01

    After gas atomization, a quasicrystalline powder based on aluminium was used to prepare a thick coating by high-velocity oxygen-fuel flame torch spraying. This layer was deposited on top of a bond-coat layer on a steel plate. A post-spraying annealing treatment turned the two layers to their stable state, a γ-brass crystal and an icosahedral quasicrystal, respectively. The projection parameters were selected in such a way that the coating behaved like a self-lubricating material, which offered very good wear resistance (duration of pin-on-disk tests superior to 5 km with negligible material loss) and low friction (µ ≤ 6% against sintered tungsten carbide), in contrast to the state of the art. This property was achieved thanks to, on the one hand, excellent bonding to the substrate via the bound coat, and on the other hand, presence at the boundaries between quasicrystalline flakes of a mixture of both threefold and fourfold coordinated carbon originating from spray processing. Application to hard materials used in mechanical devices is appealing, especially because soft, lubricating additives may not be needed, thus considerably increasing the lifetime of the devices and reducing waste of materials.

  18. Transparency and damage tolerance of patternable omniphobic lubricated surfaces based on inverse colloidal monolayers

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, Nicolas; Belisle, Rebecca A.; Hatton, Benjamin; Wong, Tak-Sing; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2013-07-31

    A transparent coating that repels a wide variety of liquids, prevents staining, is capable of self-repair and is robust towards mechanical damage can have a broad technological impact, from solar cell coatings to self-cleaning optical devices. Here we employ colloidal templating to design transparent, nanoporous surface structures. A lubricant can be firmly locked into the structures and, owing to its fluidic nature, forms a defect-free, self-healing interface that eliminates the pinning of a second liquid applied to its surface, leading to efficient liquid repellency, prevention of adsorption of liquid-borne contaminants, and reduction of ice adhesion strength. We further show how this method can be applied to locally pattern the repellent character of the substrate, thus opening opportunities to spatially confine any simple or complex fluids. The coating is highly defect-tolerant due to its interconnected, honeycomb wall structure, and repellency prevails after the application of strong shear forces and mechanical damage. The regularity of the coating allows us to understand and predict the stability or failure of repellency as a function of lubricant layer thickness and defect distribution based on a simple geometric model.

  19. Study on water lubricated bearings of high speed pump based on numerical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Y. X.; Kong, F. Y.; Sun, J. R.; Yuan, X.

    2016-05-01

    A method is presented for calculating and analyzing the performance of water lubricated bearing of high speed pump under different structure. In present work, six kinds of bearings in different radial clearance(C), which are 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, 0.10and0.12 respectively, under the same minimum water film thickness, have been designed. The models are built by CREO and numerical simulated by ansys. The main content of the present work is to analyze the relationship between the pressure and the load carrying capacity with different radial clearance(C) by ansys workbench based on Fluid-Solid coupling through ansys workbench.The stress deformations of bearings are also acquired through thermal-structure coupling. From the comparing result among the numerical analysis under the six different model of water lubricated bearing, the relationship between radial clearance(C) and load carrying capacity, as well as the deformation of bearing under different radial clearance(C), are obtained. Further, results indicates that, a proper selection of radial clearance(C) is essential to enhance the bearing performance.

  20. Ionic Liquids as Novel Lubricants and /or Lubricant Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, J.; Viola, M. B.

    2013-10-31

    This ORNL-GM CRADA developed ionic liquids (ILs) as novel lubricants or oil additives for engine lubrication. A new group of oil-miscible ILs have been designed and synthesized with high thermal stability, non-corrosiveness, excellent wettability, and most importantly effective anti-scuffing/anti-wear and friction reduction characteristics. Mechanistic analysis attributes the superior lubricating performance of IL additives to their physical and chemical interactions with metallic surfaces. Working with a leading lubricant formulation company, the team has successfully developed a prototype low-viscosity engine oil using a phosphonium-phosphate IL as an anti-wear additive. Tribological bench tests of the IL-additized formulated oil showed 20-33% lower friction in mixed and elastohydrodynamic lubrication and 38-92% lower wear in boundary lubrication when compared with commercial Mobil 1 and Mobil Clean 5W-30 engine oils. High-temperature, high load (HTHL) full-size engine tests confirmed the excellent anti-wear performance for the IL-additized engine oil. Sequence VID engine dynamometer tests demonstrated an improved fuel economy by >2% for this IL-additized engine oil benchmarked against the Mobil 1 5W-30 oil. In addition, accelerated catalyst aging tests suggest that the IL additive may potentially have less adverse impact on three-way catalysts compared to the conventional ZDDP. Follow-on research is needed for further development and optimization of IL chemistry and oil formulation to fully meet ILSAC GF-5 specifications and further enhance the automotive engine efficiency and durability.

  1. The Applications of Ionic Liquids into Space Lubricants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okaniwa, Takashi; Hayama, Makoto

    2013-09-01

    Perfluoropolyether (PFPE) and Multiplyalkylated cyclopentane (MAC) are currently the most widely used space lubricating oils. Although PFPE can be used over wide temperature ranges, it has some issues such as the poor solubility of additives making it difficult to improve rust preventive property or friction wear characteristics and unfavourable decomposition behaviour in boundary lubrication [1, 2]. Thus PFPE is being replaced by MAC. On the other hand, MAC withstands operating temperatures of -20oC but has difficulty functioning at -40oC due to an increase in kinematic viscosity. Another issue is that some additives are effective in improving load capacity of MAC but can adversely affect the vacuum property under high vacuum.In this study, ionic liquids were investigated as a possible base oil of next-generation space grease to solve these issues. Table 1 summarizes key properties of typical ionic liquids and currently-used space lubricants.

  2. Torque Characteristics of Solid Lubricated Precision Bearings during Oscillatory Motion.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-31

    such as MoS2 and PTFE) rather than fluid lubricants (oils or greases). Factors favoring the use of solid lubricants are (a) low or negligible... outgassing properties, (b) low- temperature lubrication (compared to liquids), (c) simplified mechanical design (no need for labyrinth seals, reservoirs, or...lubricant applied to the races. 6 ൗ When solid lubricants are used, certain precautions depending on the material are necessary. For example, if MoS2

  3. Energy efficient reduced graphene oxide additives: Mechanism of effective lubrication and antiwear properties.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Bhavana; Kumar, N; Panda, Kalpataru; Dash, S; Tyagi, A K

    2016-01-04

    Optimized concentration of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) in the lube is one of the important factors for effective lubrication of solid body contacts. At sufficiently lower concentration, the lubrication is ineffective and friction/wear is dominated by base oil. In contrast, at sufficiently higher concentration, the rGO sheets aggregates in the oil and weak interlayer sliding characteristic of graphene sheets is no more active for providing lubrication. However, at optimized concentration, friction coefficient and wear is remarkably reduced to 70% and 50%, respectively, as compared to neat oil. Traditionally, such lubrication is described by graphene/graphite particle deposited in contact surfaces that provides lower shear strength of boundary tribofilm. In the present investigation, graphene/graphite tribofilm was absent and existing traditional lubrication mechanism for the reduction of friction and wear is ruled out. It is demonstrated that effective lubrication is possible, if rGO is chemically linked with PEG molecules through hydrogen bonding and PEG intercalated graphene sheets provide sufficiently lower shear strength of freely suspended composite tribofilm under the contact pressure. The work revealed that physical deposition and adsorption of the graphene sheets in the metallic contacts is not necessary for the lubrication.

  4. Energy efficient reduced graphene oxide additives: Mechanism of effective lubrication and antiwear properties

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Bhavana; Kumar, N.; Panda, Kalpataru; Dash, S.; Tyagi, A. K.

    2016-01-01

    Optimized concentration of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) in the lube is one of the important factors for effective lubrication of solid body contacts. At sufficiently lower concentration, the lubrication is ineffective and friction/wear is dominated by base oil. In contrast, at sufficiently higher concentration, the rGO sheets aggregates in the oil and weak interlayer sliding characteristic of graphene sheets is no more active for providing lubrication. However, at optimized concentration, friction coefficient and wear is remarkably reduced to 70% and 50%, respectively, as compared to neat oil. Traditionally, such lubrication is described by graphene/graphite particle deposited in contact surfaces that provides lower shear strength of boundary tribofilm. In the present investigation, graphene/graphite tribofilm was absent and existing traditional lubrication mechanism for the reduction of friction and wear is ruled out. It is demonstrated that effective lubrication is possible, if rGO is chemically linked with PEG molecules through hydrogen bonding and PEG intercalated graphene sheets provide sufficiently lower shear strength of freely suspended composite tribofilm under the contact pressure. The work revealed that physical deposition and adsorption of the graphene sheets in the metallic contacts is not necessary for the lubrication. PMID:26725334

  5. Magnetorheology of suspensions based on graphene oxide coated or added carbonyl iron microspheres and sunflower oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kaikai; Zhang, Wen Ling; Shan, Lei; Zhang, Xiangjun; Meng, Yonggang; Choi, Hyoung Jin; Tian, Yu

    2014-10-01

    Magnetorheological (MR) fluids based on carbonyl iron (CI) particles coated with graphene oxide (GO) and sunflower oils were studied and compared with MR fluids (MRFs) prepared with CI particles added with GO sheets. Adding GO sheets into CI had a negligible effect on the rheological properties of the MRF. Coating the spheres with GO markedly decreased the shear strength at high shear rates due to the remarkable lubricating function of the GO surface. Different behaviors were observed in the shear thickening phenomenon when the GO surface changed the mechanical interaction between particles. The results demonstrated the importance of the role of interparticle friction for MRF in shear mode and discussed the weak shear thickening phenomenon with fine lubricating coating layers and oils.

  6. A multicommuted flow system for the determination of copper, chromium, iron and lead in lubricating oils with detection by flame AAS.

    PubMed

    Reis, B F; Knochen, M; Pignalosa, G; Cabrera, N; Giglio, J

    2004-12-15

    In this work, a flow analysis procedure for the determination of copper, chromium, iron and lead in lubricating oils using flame AAS as detection technique is described. The flow manifold was designed to implement the multicommutation approach and it comprised three 3-way solenoid valves controlled by a personal computer. The flow system presented allowed to process the oil samples to determine wear metals without any prior preparation. Aiming to assess accuracy the results were compared with those obtained by manual procedure using flame AAS. Applying the joint-confidence ellipse test, no significant difference at the 95% confidence level was observed. Other profitable features such as a sample throughput of 50 determinations per hour; relative standard deviations (n = 5) below 2% for Cu, and below 8% for Cr, Fe and Pb; and linear responses in the range 0-40ppm (w/w) (Cu, Fe) and 0-15ppm (w/w) (Cr, Pb) were also achieved.

  7. Lubrication background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, B. J.; Dowson, D.

    1981-01-01

    Surface topography, including the various physical methods of measuring surfaces, and the various lubrication regimes (hydrodynamic, elastohydrodynamic, boundary, and mixed) are discussed. The historical development of elastohydrodynamic lubrication is outlined. The major accomplishments in four periods, the pre-1950's, the 1950's, the 1960's, and the 1970's are presented.

  8. A randomized, double-blind, crossover trial comparing a silicone- versus water-based lubricant for sexual discomfort after breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Hickey, Martha; Marino, Jennifer L; Braat, Sabine; Wong, Swee

    2016-07-01

    Discomfort during sexual activity is common after breast cancer. Vaginal estrogens are effective but commonly avoided due to systemic absorption. Despite the large commercial market for vaginal lubricants, no randomized studies have compared products. We aimed to compare efficacy and acceptability of two major types of lubricant for discomfort during sexual activity in postmenopausal breast cancer patients. In a single-center, randomized, double-blind, AB/BA crossover design, sexually active postmenopausal breast cancer patients used each lubricant for 4 weeks. The primary patient-reported efficacy outcome was total discomfort related to sexual activity (Fallowfield Sexual Activity Questionnaire Discomfort subscale SAQ-D). Acceptability was measured by patient preference and reported intention to continue using the products. Of 38 women analyzed, over 90 % experienced clinically significant sexually related distress at baseline. Water- and silicone-based lubricants did not differ statistically in efficacy based on total sexual discomfort (difference 0.7, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0-1.4, p = 0.06). In a post hoc analysis, pain/discomfort during penetration improved more during silicone-based lubricant use than during water-based lubricant use (odds ratio 5.4, 95 % CI 1.3-22.1, p = 0.02). All aspects of sexual discomfort measured with diaries were reported more commonly with water- than silicone-based lubricant. Almost twice as many women preferred silicone-based to water-based lubricant than the converse (n = 20, 65 %, vs. n = 11, 35 %). 88 % continued to experience clinically significant sexually related distress despite use of either lubricant. Total sexual discomfort was lower after use of silicone-based lubricant than water-based, but many women continue to experience sexually related distress.

  9. Dynamic analysis of turbulent annular seals based on Hirs' lubrication equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Childs, D. W.

    1982-01-01

    Expressions are derived which define dynamic coefficients for high-pressure annular seals typical of neck-ring and interstage seals employed in multistage centrifugal pumps. Completely developed turbulent flow is assumed in both the circumferential and axial directions, and is modeled in this analysis by Hirs' turbulent lubrication equations. Linear zeroth and first-order 'short-bearing' perturbation solutions are developed by an expansion in the eccentricity ratio. The influence of inlet swirl is accounted for in the development of the circumferential flow field. Comparisons are made between the stiffness, damping, and inertia coefficients derived herein based on Hirs' model and previously published results based on other models. Finally, numerical results are presented for interstage seals in the Space Shuttle Main Engine High Pressure Fuel Turbopump and a water pump.

  10. Biobased lubricants via ruthenium catalysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The development of effective lubricants from natural oils is an ongoing mission. A few of the efforts have led to some promise, but many others have led elsewhere. An alternative approach to the direct use of natural oils may be needed. The drop-in replacement strategy allows industry to utilize mon...

  11. Lubrication of Articular Cartilage.

    PubMed

    Jahn, Sabrina; Seror, Jasmine; Klein, Jacob

    2016-07-11

    The major synovial joints such as hips and knees are uniquely efficient tribological systems, able to articulate over a wide range of shear rates with a friction coefficient between the sliding cartilage surfaces as low as 0.001 up to pressures of more than 100 atm. No human-made material can match this. The means by which such surfaces maintain their very low friction has been intensively studied for decades and has been attributed to fluid-film and boundary lubrication. Here, we focus especially on the latter: the reduction of friction by molecular layers at the sliding cartilage surfaces. In particular, we discuss such lubrication in the light of very recent advances in our understanding of boundary effects in aqueous media based on the paradigms of hydration lubrication and of the synergism between different molecular components of the synovial joints (namely hyaluronan, lubricin, and phospholipids) in enabling this lubrication.

  12. Method of recovering oil-based fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Brinkley, H.E.

    1993-07-13

    A method is described of recovering oil-based fluid, said method comprising the steps of: applying an oil-based fluid absorbent cloth of man-made fiber to an oil-based fluid, the cloth having at least a portion thereof that is napped so as to raise ends and loops of the man-made fibers and define voids; and absorbing the oil-based fluid into the napped portion of the cloth.

  13. A review on graphite and hybrid nano-materials as lubricant additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anand, Gautam; Saxena, Prateek

    2016-09-01

    The paper presents a review on use of nano-particles as lubricant additives. Nanoparticles have a strong potential to improve the lubrication property of grease when they are used as additives. Nano-grease has several advantages such as improved frictional behaviour, high load bearing capacity and reduced wear, as compared to base oil grease. Current advancements, limitations and challenges in use of nano-grease as a lubricant are discussed. Although, nanogrease has shown outstanding results, more research is required in this field for the commercialization of technology related to nano-grease.

  14. Tribological composition optimization of chromium-carbide-based solid lubricant coatings for foil gas bearings at temperatures to 650 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dellacorte, Christopher

    1988-01-01

    The determination of the tribilogically optimum composition of chromium-carbide-based solid lubricant coatings using a foil gas bearing test apparatus is described. The coatings contain a wear resistant chromium carbide `base stock' with the lubricant additives silver and BaF2-CaF2 eutectic. The coating composition is optimized for air-lubricated foil gas bearings at temperatures ranging from 25 to 650 C. The various compositions were prepared by powder blending, then plasma sprayed onto Inconel 718 test journals and diamond ground to the desired coating thickness and surface finish. The journals were operated against preoxidized Ni-Cr alloy foils, and the test bearings were subjected to repeated start-stop cycles under a bearing unit of 14 kPa. Sliding contact between the coated journal and the smooth foil occurs during bearing start-up before lift-off or hydrodynamic lubrication by the air film and during bearing coast-down. The bearings were tested for 9000 start-stop cycles or until specimen reached a predetermined failure level.

  15. Study on the engine oil's wear based on the flash point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niculescu, R.; Iorga-Simăn, V.; Trică, A.; Clenci, A.

    2016-08-01

    Increasing energy performance of internal combustion engines is largely influenced by frictional forces that arise between moving parts. Thus, in this respect, the nature and quality of the engine oil used is an important factor. Equally important is the effect of various engine injection strategies upon the oil quality. In other words, it's of utmost importance to maintain the quality of engine oil during engine's operation. Oil dilution is one of the most common causes that lead to its wear, creating lubrication problems. Moreover, at low temperatures operating conditions, the oil dilution with diesel fuel produces wax. When starting the engine, this may lead to lubrication deficiencies and even oil starvation with negative consequences on the engine mechanism parts wear (piston, rings and cylinders) but also crankcase bearings wear.Engine oil dilution with diesel fuel have several causes: wear of rings and/or injectors, late post-injection strategy for the sake of particulate filter regeneration, etc.This paper presents a study on the degree of deterioration of engine oils as a result of dilution with diesel fuel. The analysed oils used for this study were taken from various models of engines equipped with diesel particulate filter. The assessment is based on the determination of oil flash point and dilution degree using the apparatus Eraflash produced by Eralytics, Austria. Eraflash measurement is directly under the latest and safest standards ASTM D6450 & D7094), which are in excellent correlation with ASTM D93 Pensky - Martens ASTM D56 TAG methods; it uses the Continuous Closed Cup method for finding the Flash Point (CCCFP).

  16. Properties of Canadian re-refined base oils

    SciTech Connect

    Strigner, P.L.

    1980-11-01

    The Fuels and Lubricants Laboratory of NRC (Canada) has been examining for over 10 years, as a service, the properties of base stocks made by Canadian re-refiners. Nineteen samples of acid/clay processed base stocks from six Canadian re-refiners were examined. When well re-refined, the base stocks have excellent properties including a good response to anti-oxidants and a high degree of cleanliness. Since traces of additives and/or polar compounds do remain, the quality of the base stocks is judged to be slightly inferior to that of comparable virgin refined base stocks. Some suggested specification limits for various properties and some indication of batch-to-batch consistency were obtained. Any usage of the limits should be done with caution, e.g., sulfur, bearing in mind the rapidly changing crude oil picture and engine and machine technology leading to oil products of differing compositions. Certainly modifications are in order; it may even be desirable to have grades of base stocks.

  17. 32P-postlabelling analysis of DNA adducts in the skin of mice treated with petrol and diesel engine lubricating oils and exhaust condensates.

    PubMed

    Schoket, B; Hewer, A; Grover, P L; Phillips, D H

    1989-08-01

    Samples of unused or used petrol and diesel engine lubricating oils were applied to the shaved dorsal skin of 4- to 6-week-old male Parkes mice, either as a single treatment (50 microliters/mouse) or as four consecutive daily treatments (50 microliters/application). DNA isolated from the skin 24 h after the final treatment was digested to 3'-mononucleotides and analysed by 32P-postlabelling for the presence of aromatic adducts. Enhancement of sensitivity using butanol extraction or nuclease P1 digestion of the DNA hydrolysates led to the detection of up to eight adduct spots on polyethyleneimine-cellulose thin-layer chromatograms with samples of DNA from skin treated with used engine oils, at levels of 40-150 amol total adducts/micrograms DNA. Multiple treatments with the used oils gave rise to similar patterns of adducts in lung DNA. A single treatment of mouse skin with petrol engine exhaust condensate (50 microliters), or diesel engine exhaust condensate (50 microliters), containing 20 and 46 micrograms benzo[a]pyrene (BaP)/g respectively, gave rise to approximately 75 amol total adducts/micrograms DNA in skin. A significant proportion, 31 and 48% respectively, of the adducts formed by the petrol and diesel engine exhaust condensates co-chromatographed with the major BaP-DNA adduct, but with the used engine oils, only petrol engine oil, and not diesel engine oil, produced significant amounts of an adduct (22% of total) that corresponded to the BaP-DNA adduct.

  18. Boundary cartilage lubrication: review of current concepts.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Matej

    2014-03-01

    Effective lubrication of synovial joints is important to prevent cartilage degeneration and to keep the joints healthy. This paper sets out the basics of engineering lubrication with respect to the composition and properties of synovial fluid constituents. Two basic types of boundary lubrication are discussed: the presence of highly hydrophilic proteoglycans that provide a water liquid film, and the existence of multilamellar phospholipids lubricating layers at the surface ofarticular cartilage. Based on current knowledge, we may conclude that no single mechanism of boundary lubrication exists, and that effective boundary lubrication of synovial joints is maintained by the synergic effect of all synovial fluid constituents.

  19. Transesterification reaction for synthesis of palm-based ethylhexyl ester and formulation as base oil for synthetic drilling fluid.

    PubMed

    Abdul Habib, Nor Saiful Hafiz; Yunus, Robiah; Rashid, Umer; Taufiq-Yap, Yun H; Abidin, Zurina Zainal; Syam, Azhari Muhammad; Irawan, Sonny

    2014-01-01

    The use of vegetable oil-based ester as a base fluid in synthetic drilling fluid has become a trend in drilling operations due to its environmental advantages. The transesterification reaction of palm oil methyl ester (POME) with 2-ethylhexanol (2EH) produced 98% of palm oil-based ethylhexyl ester in less than 30 minutes. Since the transesterification reaction of POME with 2EH is a reversible reaction, its kinetics was studied in the presence of excess EH and under vacuum. The POME-to-EH molar ratio and vacuum pressure were held constant at 1:2 and 1.5 mbar respectively and the effects of temperature (70 to 110°C) were investigated. Using excess of EH and continual withdrawal of methanol via vacuum promoted the reaction to complete in less than 10 minutes. The rate constant of the reaction (k) obtained from the kinetics study was in the range of 0.44 to 0.66 s⁻¹ and the activation energy was 15.6 kJ.mol⁻¹. The preliminary investigations on the lubrication properties of drilling mud formulated with palm oil-based 2EH ester indicated that the base oil has a great potential to substitute the synthetic ester-based oil for drilling fluid. Its high kinematic viscosity provides better lubrication to the drilling fluid compared to other ester-based oils. The pour point (-15°C) and flash point (204°C) values are superior for the drilling fluid formulation. The plastic viscosity, HPHT filtrate loss and emulsion stability of the drilling fluid had given acceptable values, while gel strength and yield point could be improved by blending it with proper additives.

  20. Extraction and preconcentration of copper from water, soils, lubricating oils and plant materials and its subsequent determination by atomic-absorption spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Ejaz, M; Shamus-Zuha; Dil, W; Akhtar, A; Chaudhri, S A

    1981-07-01

    The extraction and preconcentration of the cupric thiocyanate complex with 4-(5-nonyl)pyridine in benzene is possible from neutral or up to 2M HCl, 0.5M HNO(3) or 0.25M H(2)SO(4) solutions. The method has considerable advantages over previously recommended extraction procedures because of selectivity, completeness of extraction in a single operation, short contact period, minimum amount of complexing agents needed and wide tolerance to various solution parameters. The complex formed from as little as 1 mug of copper can be extracted quantitatively into 1 ml of the organic phase from 500 ml of natural water. An extraction method is described which in combination with AAS can be used to determine copper in water, soils, fresh and used lubricating oils and plant-ash solutions down to the ng/ml or ng/g level.

  1. Combined Effect of Textured Patterns and Graphene Flake Additives on Tribological Behavior under Boundary Lubrication.

    PubMed

    Cai, Zhen-bing; Zhao, Lei; Zhang, Xu; Yue, Wen; Zhu, Min-hao

    2016-01-01

    A ball-on-plate wear test was employed to investigate the effectiveness of graphene (GP) nanoparticles dispersed in a synthetic-oil-based lubricant in reducing wear. The effect by area ratio of elliptically shaped dimple textures and elevated temperatures were also explored. Pure PAO4 based oil and a mixture of this oil with 0.01 wt% GP were compared as lubricants. At pit area ratio of 5%, GP-base oil effectively reduced friction and wear, especially at 60 and 100 °C. Under pure PAO4 oil lubrication, the untextured surfaces gained low friction coefficients (COFs) and wear rates under 60 and 100 °C. With increasing laser--texture area ratio, the COF and wear rate decreased at 25 and 150 °C but increased at 60 and 100 °C. Under the GP-based oil lubrication, the textured surface with 5% area ratio achieved the lowest COF among those of the area ratios tested at all test temperatures. Meanwhile, the textured surface with 20% area ratio obtained the highest COF among those of the area ratios. With the joint action of GP and texture, the textured surface with 10% area ratio exhibited the best anti-wear performance among all of the textured surfaces at all test temperatures.

  2. Combined Effect of Textured Patterns and Graphene Flake Additives on Tribological Behavior under Boundary Lubrication

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Zhen-bing; Zhao, Lei; Zhang, Xu; Yue, Wen; Zhu, Min-hao

    2016-01-01

    A ball-on-plate wear test was employed to investigate the effectiveness of graphene (GP) nanoparticles dispersed in a synthetic-oil-based lubricant in reducing wear. The effect by area ratio of elliptically shaped dimple textures and elevated temperatures were also explored. Pure PAO4 based oil and a mixture of this oil with 0.01 wt% GP were compared as lubricants. At pit area ratio of 5%, GP-base oil effectively reduced friction and wear, especially at 60 and 100°C. Under pure PAO4 oil lubrication, the untextured surfaces gained low friction coefficients (COFs) and wear rates under 60 and 100°C. With increasing laser—texture area ratio, the COF and wear rate decreased at 25 and 150°C but increased at 60 and 100°C. Under the GP-based oil lubrication, the textured surface with 5% area ratio achieved the lowest COF among those of the area ratios tested at all test temperatures. Meanwhile, the textured surface with 20% area ratio obtained the highest COF among those of the area ratios. With the joint action of GP and texture, the textured surface with 10% area ratio exhibited the best anti-wear performance among all of the textured surfaces at all test temperatures. PMID:27054762

  3. Evaluation of lubricating oil preparation procedures for the determination of Al, Ba, Mo, Si and V by high-resolution continuum source FAAS.

    PubMed

    Amorim Filho, Volnei Resta; Gomes Neto, José Anchieta

    2009-01-01

    Microwave-assisted acid decomposition and oil-in-water emulsification were evaluated as sample pretreatment procedures to determine Al, Ba, Mo, Si and V in lubricating oils by high-resolution continuum source flame atomic absorption spectrometry (HR-CS FAAS). Average recoveries of Al, Ba and V in oil digests (107, 103 and 101%) were close to those obtained for emulsions prepared in kerosene medium (94, 113 and 95%). Average recoveries for Mo were close to 105 and 46% for emulsions and digests, respectively. Improved average recoveries (101%) were obtained for Mo in digests using the analyte addition technique. Silicon was successfully quantified only in digested samples. Limits of quantification for Al, Ba, Mo and V were 1.4, 31.5, 1.5 and 11.4-fold lower than those obtained by line-source FAAS. Enhanced sensitivity, multi-elemental capability, and high sample throughput are among the main advantages of HR-CS FAAS in comparison with the line-source FAAS technique.

  4. Measurement of 238U and 232Th in Petrol, Gas-oil and Lubricant Samples by Using Nuclear Track Detectors and Resulting Radiation Doses to the Skin of Mechanic Workers.

    PubMed

    Misdaq, M A; Chaouqi, A; Ouguidi, J; Touti, R; Mortassim, A

    2015-10-01

    Workers in repair shops of vehicles (cars, buses, truck, etc.) clean carburetors, check fuel distribution, and perform oil changes and greasing. To explore the exposure pathway of (238)U and (232)Th and its decay products to the skin of mechanic workers, these radionuclides were measured inside petrol, gas-oil, and lubricant material samples by means of CR-39 and LR-115 type II solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs), and corresponding annual committed equivalent doses to skin were determined. The maximum total equivalent effective dose to skin due to the (238)U and (232)Th series from the application of different petrol, gas-oil, and lubricant samples by mechanic workers was found equal to 1.2 mSv y(-1) cm(-2).

  5. Positive commandable oiler for satellite bearing lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, G. E.

    1977-01-01

    The results of a feasibility study showed that on-orbit commandable lubrication of ball bearings can be accomplished by direct oil application to the moving ball surfaces. Test results for the lubricant applicator portion of the system are presented, in conjunction with a design approach for the reservoir and metering components.

  6. Lubricating Holes for Corroded Nuts and Bolts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penn, B. G.; Clemons, J. M.; Ledbetter, Frank E., III

    1986-01-01

    Corroded fasteners taken apart more easily. Lubricating holes bored to thread from three of flats. Holes facilitate application of penetrating oil to help loosen nut when rusted onto bolt. Holes make it possible to apply lubricants and rust removers directly to more of thread than otherwise reachable.

  7. Glass molding process with mold lubrication

    DOEpatents

    Davey, Richard G.

    1978-06-27

    Improvements are provided in glass forming processes of the type wherein hot metal blank molds are employed by using the complementary action of a solid film lubricant layer, of graphite dispersed in a cured thermoset organopolysiloxane, along with an overspray of a lubricating oil.

  8. Penetrating oil and method of preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Dulin, C.A.

    1987-03-10

    A penetrating oil is described comprising: (a) from about 1 part to about 5 parts of a formula oil comprising a lubricating oil and surface active agents, the lubricating oil having a viscosity of from between about 135 to about 220 SSU at 100/sup 0/F; (b) from about 20 parts to about 30 parts of a hydrocarbon-based viscosity controller having a viscosity of from between about 75 to 200 SSU 100/sup 0/F; and, (c) from about 65 to about 80 parts of a hydrocarbon-based volatility controller having a viscosity of from between about 32 to about 45 SSU 100/sup 0/F.

  9. New Generation of MoSx Based Solid Lubricant Coatings: Recent Developments and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Haider, Julfikar; Hashmi, M. S. J.

    2011-01-17

    In recent times, there is a growing interest in applying Molybdenum disulphide (MoS{sub x}) solid lubricant coatings on components to improve the tribological performance (i.e. lower friction coefficient and wear rate). The tribological performance of MoS{sub x} coating is strongly dependent on coating properties and tribological environment. MoS{sub x} coatings are highly successful in certain applications such as in space/vacuum technology, but its effectiveness is questioned in other terrestrial applications such as in cutting tool industry due to its lower hardness and poor oxidation resistance leading to shorter life. In order to circumvent this drawback, the paper identifies that current research is being concentrated on developing MoS{sub x} based coatings using three different approaches: (1) Metal or compound addition in MoS{sub x} coating (2)MoS{sub x} layer on hard coating and (3)MoS{sub x} addition in hard coating matrix. Although the primary objective is same in all three cases, the third approach is considered to be more effective in improving the tribological properties of the coating. Finally, the potential applications of MoS{sub x} based coatings in different industrial sectors have been briefly outlined.

  10. Research on Liquid Lubricants for Space Mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, William R., Jr.; Shogrin, Bradley A.; Jansen, Mark J.

    1999-01-01

    Four research areas at the NASA Glenn Research Center involving the tribology of space mechanisms are highlighted. These areas include: soluble boundary lubrication additives for perfluoropolyether liquid lubricants, a Pennzane dewetting phenomenon, the effect of ODC-free bearing cleaning processes on bearing lifetimes and the development of a new class of liquid lubricants based on silahydrocarbons.

  11. Research on liquid lubricants for space mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, William R., Jr.; Shogrin, Bradley A.; Jansen, Mark J.

    1998-01-01

    Four research areas at the NASA Lewis Research Center involving the tribology of space mechanisms are highlighted. These areas include: soluble boundary lubrication additives for perfluoropolyether liquid lubricants, a Pennzane dewetting phenomenon, the effect of ODC-free bearing cleaning processes on bearing lifetimes, and the development of a new class of liquid lubricants based on silahydrocarbons.

  12. Advanced Lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Three Sun Coast Chemicals (SCC) of Daytona, Inc. products were derived from NASA technology: Train Track Lubricant, Penetrating Spray Lube, and Biodegradable Hydraulic Fluid. NASA contractor Lockheed Martin Space Operations contacted SCC about joining forces to develop an environmentally safe spray lubricant for the Shuttle Crawler. The formula was developed over an eight-month period resulting in new products which are cost effective and environmentally friendly. Meeting all Environmental Protection Agency requirements, the SCC products are used for applications from train tracks to bicycle chains.

  13. Computational Chemistry and Lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zehe, Michael J.

    1998-01-01

    Members of NASA Lewis Research Center's Tribology and Surface Science Branch are applying high-level computational chemistry techniques to the development of new lubrication systems for space applications and for future advanced aircraft engines. The next generation of gas turbine engines will require a liquid lubricant to function at temperatures in excess of 350 C in oxidizing environments. Conventional hydrocarbon-based lubricants are incapable of operating in these extreme environments, but a class of compounds known as the perfluoropolyether (PFAE) liquids (see the preceding illustration) shows promise for such applications. These commercially available products are already being used as lubricants in conditions where low vapor pressure and chemical stability are crucial, such as in satellite bearings and composite disk platters. At higher temperatures, however, these compounds undergo a decomposition process that is assisted (catalyzed) by metal and metal oxide bearing surfaces. This decomposition process severely limits the applicability of PFAE's at higher temperatures. A great deal of laboratory experimentation has revealed that the extent of fluid degradation depends on the chemical properties of the bearing surface materials. Lubrication engineers would like to understand the chemical breakdown mechanism to design a less vulnerable PFAE or to develop a chemical additive to block this degradation.

  14. Oil-based paint poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Hydrocarbons are the primary poisonous ingredient in oil paints. Some oil paints have heavy metals such as ... Gummin DD. Hydrocarbons. In: Nelson LS, Lewin NA, Howland MA, Hoffman RS, Goldfrank LR, Flomenbaum NE, eds. Goldfrank's Toxicologic Emergencies . 9th ...

  15. Canola-Based Automotive Oil Research and Development

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, Ira N.; Kammerman, Steven B.

    2009-12-07

    This research project establishes data on the ability of the bioindustry to provide sufficient production of Canola/rapeseed, functioning as a biolubricant, to replace petroleum-based automotive lubricants at competitive prices. In 2005 total sales for lubricants amounted to 2.5 billion gallons. Research was also conducted to determine the attitudes toward adoption of bioproducts, specifically among industries that are large-scale users of automotive lubricants, including government and private industry users. The green technology industry, or bioindustry, uses a variety of plant- and crop-based resources, known as biomass, to produce energy, fuel and many different bioproducts. Rapeseed is categorized as a lignocellulosic biomass. High erucic acid rapeseed is not intended for human consumption thereby negating the food vs. fuel issue that arose with the increased production of corn as a feedstock for use in ethanol. Key findings show that the oil from Canola/rapeseed provides about twice the yield than soybean oil. These seeds also have significantly higher natural lubricity than petroleum, enabling Canola/rapeseed to function in many different capacities where oxidation issues are critical. It also has the most positive energy balance of all common vegetable oils, making it an excellent potential replacement for petroleum-based fuels as well. As a rotating crop, it enhances farm lands, thereby increasing subsequent yields of barley and wheat, thus increasing profit margins. Petroleum-based bioproducts negatively impact the environment by releasing greenhouse gases, sulfur, heavy metals and other pollutants into the air, ground and water. Replacing these products with bio-alternatives is a significant step toward preserving the country’s natural resources and the environment. Further to this, promoting the growth of the green biotechnology industry will strengthen the nation’s economy, creating jobs in the agriculture, science and engineering sectors, while

  16. Tribological properties of self-lubricating NiAl/Mo-based composites containing AgVO{sub 3} nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Eryong; Gao, Yimin; Bai, Yaping; Yi, Gewen; Wang, Wenzhen; Zeng, Zhixiang; Jia, Junhong

    2014-11-15

    Silver vanadate (AgVO{sub 3}) nanowires were synthesized by hydrothermal method and self-lubricating NiAl/Mo-AgVO{sub 3} composites were fabricated by powder metallurgy technique. The composition and microstructure of NiAl/Mo-based composites were characterized and the tribological properties were investigated from room temperature to 900 °C. The results showed that NiAl/Mo-based composites were consisted of nanocrystalline B2 ordered NiAl matrix, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Mo{sub 2}C, metallic Ag and vanadium oxide phase. The appearance of metallic Ag and vanadium oxide phase can be attributed to the decomposition of AgVO{sub 3} during sintering. Wear testing results confirmed that NiAl/Mo-based composites have excellent tribological properties over a wide temperature range. For example, the friction coefficient and wear rate of NiAl/Mo-based composites containing AgVO{sub 3} were significantly lower than the composites containing only metallic Mo or AgVO{sub 3} lubricant when the temperature is above 300 °C, which can be attributed to the synergistic lubricating action of metallic Mo and AgVO{sub 3} lubricants. Furthermore, Raman results indicated that the composition on the worn surface of NiAl-based composites was self-adjusted after wear testing at different temperatures. For example, Ag{sub 3}VO{sub 4} and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} lubricants were responsible for the improvement of tribological properties at 500 °C, AgVO{sub 3}, Ag{sub 3}VO{sub 4} and molybdate for 700 °C, and AgVO{sub 3} and molybdate for 900 °C of NiAl-based composites with the addition of metallic Mo and AgVO{sub 3}. - Highlights: • NiAl/Mo-AgVO{sub 3} nanocomposites were prepared by mechanical alloying and sintering. • AgVO{sub 3} decomposed to metallic Ag and vanadium oxide during the sintering process. • NiAl/Mo-AgVO{sub 3} exhibited superior tribological properties at a board temperature range. • Phase composition on the worn surface was varied with temperatures. • Self-adjusted action

  17. Solid lubrication design methodology, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pallini, R. A.; Wedeven, L. D.; Ragen, M. A.; Aggarwal, B. B.

    1986-01-01

    The high temperature performance of solid lubricated rolling elements was conducted with a specially designed traction (friction) test apparatus. Graphite lubricants containing three additives (silver, phosphate glass, and zinc orthophosphate) were evaluated from room temperature to 540 C. Two hard coats were also evaluated. The evaluation of these lubricants, using a burnishing method of application, shows a reasonable transfer of lubricant and wear protection for short duration testing except in the 200 C temperature range. The graphite lubricants containing silver and zinc orthophosphate additives were more effective than the phosphate glass material over the test conditions examined. Traction coefficients ranged from a low of 0.07 to a high of 0.6. By curve fitting the traction data, empirical equations for slope and maximum traction coefficient as a function of contact pressure (P), rolling speed (U), and temperature (T) can be developed for each lubricant. A solid lubricant traction model was incorporated into an advanced bearing analysis code (SHABERTH). For comparison purposes, preliminary heat generation calculations were made for both oil and solid lubricated bearing operation. A preliminary analysis indicated a significantly higher heat generation for a solid lubricated ball bearing in a deep groove configuration. An analysis of a cylindrical roller bearing configuration showed a potential for a low friction solid lubricated bearing.

  18. Full Life Wind Turbine Gearbox Lubricating Fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Lutz, Glenn A.; Jungk, Manfred; Bryant, Jonathan J.; Lauer, Rebecca S.; Chobot, Anthony; Mayer, Tyler; Palmer, Shane; Kauffman, Robert E.

    2012-02-28

    Industrial gear box lubricants typically are hydrocarbon based mineral oils with considerable amounts of additives to overcome the lack of base fluid properties like wear protection, oxidation stability, load carrying capacity, low temperature solidification and drop of viscosity at higher temperatures. For today's wind turbine gearboxes, the requirements are more severe and synthetic hydrocarbon oils are used to improve on this, but all such hydrocarbon based lubricants require significant amounts of Extreme Pressure (EP) additives to meet performance requirements. Perfluoropolyether (PFPE) fluids provide load carrying capacity as an inherent property. During the course of the project with the main tasks of 'Establish a Benchmark', 'Lubricant Evaluation', 'Full Scale Gearbox Trial' and 'Economic Evaluation', the PAO Reference oil exhibited significant changes after laboratory gear testing, in service operation in the field and full scale gearbox trial. Four hydrocarbon base oils were selected for comparison in the benchmarking exercise and showed variation with respect to meeting the requirements for the laboratory micro-pitting tests, while the PFPE fluid exceeded the requirements even with the material taken after the full scale gear box trial. This is remarkable for a lubricant without EP additives. Laboratory bearing tests performed on the PFPE fluids before and after the full scale gear box trial showed the results met requirements for the industry standard. The PFPE fluid successfully completed the full scale gear box test program which included baseline and progressive staged load testing. The evaluation of gears showed no micro-pitting or objectionable wear. By the final stage, lubricant film thickness had been reduced to just 21% of its original value, this was by design and resulted in a lambda ratio of well below 1. This test design scenario of a low lambda ratio is a very undesirable lubrication condition for real world but creates the ability to test

  19. Synthesis of new high performance lubricants and solid lubricants. Progress report, April 1992--March 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Lagow, R.J.

    1993-04-01

    Synthesis and testing was begun on a number of new classes of lubricants: perfluoropolyethers (branching effects), perfluoromethylene oxide ethers, chlorine-substituted fluorocarbon polyethers, fluorine-containing branched ether lubricants, glycerine- based perfluoropolyesters, perfluoro epoxy ether chains, etc.

  20. Lubrication Flows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papanastasiou, Tasos C.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses fluid mechanics for undergraduates including the differential Navier-Stokes equations, dimensional analysis and simplified dimensionless numbers, control volume principles, the Reynolds lubrication equation for confined and free surface flows, capillary pressure, and simplified perturbation techniques. Provides a vertical dip coating…

  1. Bonded Lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Another spinoff to the food processing industry involves a dry lubricant developed by General Magnaplate Corp. of Linden, N.J. Used in such spacecraft as Apollo, Skylab and Viking, the lubricant is a coating bonded to metal surfaces providing permanent lubrication and corrosion resistance. The coating lengthens equipment life and permits machinery to be operated at greater speed, thus increasing productivity and reducing costs. Bonded lubricants are used in scores of commercia1 applications. They have proved particularly valuable to food processing firms because, while increasing production efficiency, they also help meet the stringent USDA sanitation codes for food-handling equipment. For example, a cookie manufacturer plagued production interruptions because sticky batter was clogging the cookie molds had the brass molds coated to solve the problem. Similarly, a pasta producer faced USDA action on a sanitation violation because dough was clinging to an automatic ravioli-forming machine; use of the anti-stick coating on the steel forming plates solved the dual problem of sanitation deficiency and production line downtime.

  2. Tetrasulfide extreme pressure lubricant additives

    SciTech Connect

    Gast, L.E.; Kenney, H.E.; Schwab, A.W.

    1980-08-19

    A novel class of compounds has been prepared comprising the tetrasulfides of /sup 18/C hydrocarbons, /sup 18/C fatty acids, and /sup 18/C fatty and alkyl and triglyceride esters. These tetrasulfides are useful as extreme pressure lubricant additives and show potential as replacements for sulfurized sperm whale oil.

  3. Preparation of soybean oil-based greases: effect of composition and structure on physical properties.

    PubMed

    Adhvaryu, Atanu; Erhan, Sevim Z; Perez, Joseph M

    2004-10-20

    Vegetable oils have significant potential as a base fluid and a substitute for mineral oil in grease formulation. Preparation of soybean oil-based lithium greases using a variety of fatty acids in the soap structure is discussed in this paper. Soy greases with lithium-fatty acid soap having C12-C18 chain lengths and different metal to fatty acid ratios were synthesized. Grease hardness was determined using a standard test method, and their oxidative stabilities were measured using pressurized differential scanning calorimetry. Results indicate that lithium soap composition, fatty acid types, and base oil content significantly affect grease hardness and oxidative stability. Lithium soaps prepared with short-chain fatty acids resulted in softer grease. Oxidative stability and other performance properties will deteriorate if oil is released from the grease matrix due to overloading of soap with base oil. Performance characteristics are largely dependent on the hardness and oxidative stability of grease used as industrial and automotive lubricant. Therefore, this paper discusses the preparation methods, optimization of soap components, and antioxidant additive for making soy-based grease.

  4. New Vapor/Mist Phase Lubricant Formulated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morales, Wilfredo; Handschuh, Robert F.

    1999-01-01

    To meet the increased thermal stresses of future advanced aircraft engines, new lubricants will have to be developed to replace the currently used ester-based liquid lubricants. If a suitable conventional replacement cannot be found, a different lubrication method will have to be used. The conventional method circulates bulk lubricant (stored in a sump) through a lubricating system containing cooling and filtering elements. Solid lubricants have been studied as a replacement for bulk liquid lubricants, and have been found to provide reasonable lubrication for lightly loaded systems. Solid lubricants, however, have proved inadequate for highly loaded, high-speed applications. Vapor/mist phase lubrication (VMPL), on the other hand, may be a viable alternative. VMPL has been used successfully to lubricate high-temperature bearings or gears. It can be used as an emergency backup system or as the primary source of lubrication. With VMPL, minimal weight is added to the system and minimal debris is formed. It works over a wide temperature range.

  5. Rheology and tribology of lubricants with polymeric viscosity modifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babak, LotfizadehDehkordi

    Elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) theory has been used to model the lubrication state of antifriction machine elements, where initial viscosity and pressure viscosity coefficients are essential parameters in film thickness modeling. Since the pressures of lubricants in the contact zone can be very high, it is important to know the rheological properties of lubricants in these pressure and temperature regimes. The characteristics of viscosity behavior as a function of pressure are also essential for a universal definition of the pressure viscosity coefficient in order to estimate film thickness in an EHL regime. In this study, viscosities and pressure-viscosity coefficients of ten commercial engine and gear oils and seventeen laboratory-produced oil/polymer viscosity modifiers (VM) additives are measured up to 1.3 GPa at 40, 75 and 100 °C. For the first time, a sharp increase in the viscosity and piezoviscous factor is observed in both mineral-based and synthetic-based oils with different VMs. Analysis of the experimental results indicates that sharp increase in viscosity observed in these experiments are believed to arise from physical changes in the VMs, that is liquid-solid phase transition. Evidence is offered that polymer properties such as molecular weight, concentration and structure influence the onset of the phase transitions. A modified Yasutomi model, which normally describes the pressure dependence of the viscosity of lubricants very well, fails to predict the viscosity of the specimens above the onset of sharp increase in viscosity. A design of experiment (DOE) analysis using Design-Expert software indicates that pressure and temperature are the most critical parameters in the viscosity variation. Tribological tests demonstrate that wear in the contact, zone occurs at temperatures and stresses that coincides with the VM phase transitions in both commercial and laboratory synthesized oil/VMs. Tribological results also indicate that the onset of the

  6. Phosphate based oil well cements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natarajan, Ramkumar

    The main application of the cement in an oil well is to stabilize the steel casing in the borehole and protect it from corrosion. The cement is pumped through the borehole and is pushed upwards through the annulus between the casing and the formation. The cement will be exposed to temperature and pressure gradients of the borehole. Modified Portland cement that is being used presently has several shortcomings for borehole sealant. The setting of the Portland cement in permafrost regions is poor because the water in it will freeze even before the cement sets and because of high porosity and calcium oxide, a major ingredient it gets easily affected by the down hole gases such as carbon dioxide. The concept of phosphate bonded cements was born out of considerable work at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) on their use in stabilization of radioactive and hazardous wastes. Novel cements were synthesized by an acid base reaction between a metal oxide and acid phosphate solution. The major objective of this research is to develop phosphate based oil well cements. We have used thermodynamics along with solution chemistry principles to select calcined magnesium oxide as candidate metal oxide for temperatures up to 200°F (93.3°C) and alumina for temperatures greater than 200°F (93.3°C). Solution chemistry helped us in selecting mono potassium phosphate as the acid component for temperatures less than 200°F (93.3°C) and phosphoric acid solution greater than 200°F (93.3°C). These phosphate cements have performance superior to common Portland well cements in providing suitable thickening time, better mechanical and physical properties.

  7. Geophysical investigation using resistivity and GPR methods: a case study of a lubricant oil waste disposal area in the city of Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lago, Alexandre Lisboa; Elis, Vagner Roberto; Borges, Welitom Rodrigues; Penner, Giovanni Chaves

    2009-07-01

    Geophysics has been shown to be effective in identifying areas contaminated by waste disposal, contributing to the greater efficiency of soundings programs and the installation of monitoring wells. In the study area, four trenches were constructed with a total volume of about 25,000 m3. They were almost totally filled with re-refined lubricating oil waste for approximately 25 years. No protection liners were used in the bottoms and laterals of the disposal trenches. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the potential of the resistivity and ground penetrating radar (GPR) methods in characterizing the contamination of this lubricant oil waste disposal area in Ribeirão Preto, SP, situated on the geological domain of the basalt spills of the Serra Geral Formation and the sandstones of the Botucatu Formation. Geophysical results were shown in 2D profiles. The geophysical methods used enabled the identification of geophysical anomalies, which characterized the contamination produced by the trenches filled with lubricant oil waste. Conductive anomalies (smaller than 185 Ωm) immediately below the trenches suggest the action of bacteria in the hydrocarbons, as has been observed in several sites contaminated by hydrocarbons in previously reported cases in the literature. It was also possible to define the geometry of the trenches, as evidenced by the GPR method. Direct sampling (chemical analysis of the soil and the water in the monitoring well) confirmed the contamination. In the soil analysis, low concentrations of several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were found, mainly naphthalene and phenanthrene. In the water samples, an analysis verified contamination of the groundwater by lead (Pb). The geophysical methods used in the investigation provided an excellent tool for environmental characterization in this study of a lubricant oil waste disposal area, and could be applied in the study of similar areas.

  8. Water Lubrication of Stainless Steel using Reduced Graphene Oxide Coating

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hae-Jin; Kim, Dae-Eun

    2015-01-01

    Lubrication of mechanical systems using water instead of conventional oil lubricants is extremely attractive from the view of resource conservation and environmental protection. However, insufficient film thickness of water due to low viscosity and chemical reaction of water with metallic materials have been a great obstacle in utilization of water as an effective lubricant. Herein, the friction between a 440 C stainless steel (SS) ball and a 440 C stainless steel (SS) plate in water lubrication could be reduced by as much as 6-times by coating the ball with reduced graphene oxide (rGO). The friction coefficient with rGO coated ball in water lubrication was comparable to the value obtained with the uncoated ball in oil lubrication. Moreover, the wear rate of the SS plate slid against the rGO coated ball in water lubrication was 3-times lower than that of the SS plate slid against the uncoated ball in oil lubrication. These results clearly demonstrated that water can be effectively utilized as a lubricant instead of oil to lower the friction and wear of SS components by coating one side with rGO. Implementation of this technology in mechanical systems is expected to aid in significant reduction of environmental pollution caused by the extensive use of oil lubricants. PMID:26593645

  9. Water Lubrication of Stainless Steel using Reduced Graphene Oxide Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hae-Jin; Kim, Dae-Eun

    2015-11-01

    Lubrication of mechanical systems using water instead of conventional oil lubricants is extremely attractive from the view of resource conservation and environmental protection. However, insufficient film thickness of water due to low viscosity and chemical reaction of water with metallic materials have been a great obstacle in utilization of water as an effective lubricant. Herein, the friction between a 440 C stainless steel (SS) ball and a 440 C stainless steel (SS) plate in water lubrication could be reduced by as much as 6-times by coating the ball with reduced graphene oxide (rGO). The friction coefficient with rGO coated ball in water lubrication was comparable to the value obtained with the uncoated ball in oil lubrication. Moreover, the wear rate of the SS plate slid against the rGO coated ball in water lubrication was 3-times lower than that of the SS plate slid against the uncoated ball in oil lubrication. These results clearly demonstrated that water can be effectively utilized as a lubricant instead of oil to lower the friction and wear of SS components by coating one side with rGO. Implementation of this technology in mechanical systems is expected to aid in significant reduction of environmental pollution caused by the extensive use of oil lubricants.

  10. Cost-Cutting Powdered Lubricant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Scientists at NASA's Glenn Research Center developed a high-temperature, solid lubricant coating material that is saving the manufacturing industry millions of dollars. The material came out of 3 decades of tribological research, work studying high-temperature friction, lubrication, and the wearing of interacting surfaces that are in relative motion. It was developed as a shaft coating deposited by thermal spraying to protect foil air bearings used in oil-free turbomachinery, like gas turbines, and is meant to be part of a larger project: an oil-free aircraft engine capable of operating at high temperatures with increased reliability, lowered weight, reduced maintenance requirements, and increased power. This advanced coating, PS300, is a self-lubricating bearing material containing chromium oxide, with additions of a low-temperature start up lubricant (silver) and a high-temperature lubricant, making it remarkably stable at high temperatures, and better suited than previously available materials for high-stress conditions. It improves efficiency, lowers friction, reduces emissions, and has been used by NASA in advanced aeropropulsion engines, refrigeration compressors, turbochargers, and hybrid electrical turbogenerators. PS300 is ideal in any application where lowered weight and reduced maintenance are desired, and high-temperature uses and heavy operating speeds are expected. It has notable uses for the Space Agency, but it has even further-reaching potential for the industrial realm.

  11. Lubricating Properties of Lead-Monoxide-Base Coatings of Various Compositions at Temperatures to 1250 F

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, Harold E.

    1959-01-01

    A number of ceramic coatings of different compositions containing lead monoxide (PbO) were studied to determine their relative merits as dry-film lubricants. Lead monoxide is known to be an effective solid lubricant at elevated temperatures, and this oxide was the main component in all compositions studied. Friction and wear properties were determined at temperatures from 750 to 1250 F, at a sliding velocity of 430 feet per minute, and at a normal load of 1 kilogram. In all of the coatings, PbO was the component primarily responsible for the lubricating properties. Oxides other than PbO had an indirect effect on lubrication by influencing such properties as adhesion, hardness, vitrifying or glaze-forming tendency, melting or softening point, and chemical stability of the coatings. Notable among these oxides were magnetite (Fe3O4.), which had generally a beneficial influence on ceramic- to-metal adhesion, and silica (SiO2), which inhibited the oxidation of PbO and enhanced the tendency for glaze formation on the sliding surfaces. Several of the compositions studied provided protection against metal-to-metal adhesive wear, galling, or seizure at test temperatures from 750 to 1250 F. Coating friction coefficients ranged from 0.20 to 0.37 at 75 F but were around 0.08 to 0.20 at temperatures of 1250 F.

  12. Biobased oil structure on amphiphilic and tribological properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biobased oils are those derived from farm-based renewable raw materials. Most are vegetable oils (such as soybean, canola, corn, etc.) or chemical modifications of vegetable oils. They have a number of interesting structural features that impact their amphiphilic and lubrication properties. The basi...

  13. Effects of nano-LaF3 on the friction and wear behaviors of PTFE-based bonded solid lubricating coatings under different lubrication conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Yulong; Wan, Hongqi; Chen, Lei; Zhou, Huidi; Chen, Jianmin

    2016-09-01

    Influence of nanometer lanthanum fluoride (nano-LaF3) on the tribological behaviors of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) bonded solid lubricating coatings were investigated using a ring-on-block friction-wear tester under dry friction and RP-3 jet fuel lubrication conditions. The worn surfaces and transfer films formed on the counterpart steel rings were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and optical microscope (OM), respectively. The microstructures of the nano-LaF3 modified coatings and the distribution states of nano-LaF3 were studied by field-emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. The results show that incorporation of nano-LaF3 improves the microhardness and the friction-reduced and anti-wear abilities of PTFE bonded solid lubricating coatings. The wear life of the modified coating is about 6 times longer than that of the coating without nano-LaF3 filler at a relatively low applied load (200 N) and rotary speed (1000 rev/min) under dry friction condition. The friction coefficient and wear life of the modified coating decrease with increase of applied load under dry friction, but the friction coefficient has hardly any variation and wear life decreases under RP-3 jet fuel lubrication condition. In addition, the friction coefficient of the modified coating reduces with the rotary speed increasing under dry sliding but has little change under RP-3 lubrication, the wear life increases firstly and then decreases. The results indicated that the wear failure mechanism is dominated by applied load, which plays an important role in guidance of application of nano-LaF3 modified PTFE bonded coating under different working environment.

  14. Elastohydrodynamic film thickness formula based on X-ray measurements with a synthetic paraffinic oil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, S. H.; Parker, R. J.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1973-01-01

    An empirical elastohydrodynamic film thickness formula for heavily loaded contacts based upon X-ray film thickness measurements made with a synthetic paraffinic oil is presented. The deduced relation was found to adequately reflect the high load dependence exhibited by the measured minimum film thickness data at high Hertizian contact stresses, that is, above 1.04 x 10 to the ninth N/sq m (150,000 psi). Comparisons were made with the numerical results from a theoretical isothermal film thickness formula. The effects of changes in contact geometry, material, and lubricant properties on the form of the empirical model are also discussed.

  15. Lubricant Evaluation and Performance 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-02-01

    POWER DIRECTORATE WRIGHT LABORATORY AIR FORCE MATERIEL COMMAND WRIGHT-PATrERSON AIR FORCE BASE , OHIO 45433-7103 94 5 10 011 NOTICE When government...INTRODUCTION I R DEVELOPMENT OF IMPROVED METHODS FOR MEASURING LUBRICANT PERFORMANCE 3 1 OXIDATIVE STABILITY OF ESTER BASE LUBRICANTS 3 a. Introduction 3 b...7) Conclusions 134 i. Stability Testing of Cyclophosphazene Based Fluids 134 (1) Introduction 134 (2) Effect of Metal Specimens 134 (3) Effect of a

  16. Tethered Lubricants

    SciTech Connect

    Archer, Lynden

    2010-09-15

    We have performed extensive experimental and theoretical studies of interfacial friction, relaxation dynamics, and thermodynamics of polymer chains tethered to points, planes, and particles. A key result from our tribology studies using lateral force microscopy (LFM) measurements of polydisperse brushes of linear and branched chains densely grafted to planar substrates is that there are exceedingly low friction coefficients for these systems. Specific project achievements include: (1) Synthesis of three-tiered lubricant films containing controlled amounts of free and pendent PDMS chains, and investigated the effect of their molecular weight and volume fraction on interfacial friction. (2.) Detailed studies of a family of hairy particles termed nanoscale organic hybrid materials (NOHMs) and demonstration of their use as lubricants.

  17. Lubrication fluids from branched fatty acid methyl esters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have invented a new method for the synthesis of lubrication fluids using natural vegetable oils. Ordinary vegetable oils are good lubricants, but in their native form, they lack the stability necessary for many applications. Materials made using this new technology display significantly increas...

  18. Characteristics of polyhydroxy milkweed triglycerides and their acylated derivatives in relation to lubricity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Industrial lubricants are derived from non-renewable petroleum-based resources that can cause pollution due to poor degradation. Seed oils, however, are both renewable and readily biodegradable, but have lower thermal stability and shorter shelf-life. This drawback can be overcome and yet retain the...

  19. Liquid lubrication for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusaro, Robert L.; Khonsari, Michael M.

    1993-01-01

    Reviewed here is the state of the art of liquid lubrication for space applications. The areas discussed are types of liquid lubrication mechanisms, space environmental effects on lubrication, classification of lubricants, liquid lubricant additives, grease lubrication, mechanism materials, bearing anomalies and failures, lubricant supply techniques, and application types and lubricant needs for those applications.

  20. Liquid lubrication for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusaro, Robert L.; Khonsari, Michael M.

    1992-01-01

    Reviewed here is the state of the art of liquid lubrication for space applications. The areas discussed are types of liquid lubrication mechanisms, space environmental effects on lubrication, classification of lubricants, liquid lubricant additives, grease lubrication, mechanism materials, bearing anomalies and failures, lubricant supply techniques, and application types and lubricant needs for those applications.

  1. Castor Oil-Based Biodegradable Polyesters.

    PubMed

    Kunduru, Konda Reddy; Basu, Arijit; Haim Zada, Moran; Domb, Abraham J

    2015-09-14

    This Review compiles the synthesis, physical properties, and biomedical applications for the polyesters based on castor oil and ricinoleic acid. Castor oil has been known for its medicinal value since ancient times. It contains ∼90% ricinoleic acid, which enables direct chemical transformation into polyesters without interference of other fatty acids. The presence of ricinoleic acid (hydroxyl containing fatty acid) enables synthesis of various polyester/anhydrides. In addition, castor oil contains a cis-double bond that can be hydrogenated, oxidized, halogenated, and polymerized. Castor oil is obtained pure in large quantities from natural sources; it is safe and biocompatible.

  2. Rheology in lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, H. S.

    1973-01-01

    The rheological effects on lubrication are discussed. The types of lubrication considered are thick film hydrodynamic lubrication and thin film elastohydrodynamic lubrication. The temperature-viscosity, viscoelastic, shear-thinning, and normal stess effects on the lubrication of journal bearings are analyzed. A graph of the pressure distribution of viscoelastic liquids in journal bearings is provided. Mathematical models are developed to define the effects of various properties of the lubricants on friction reduction.

  3. Green waxes, adhesives and lubricants.

    PubMed

    Li, W; Kong, X H; Ruan, M; Ma, F M; Jiang, Y F; Liu, M Z; Chen, Y; Zuo, X H

    2010-10-28

    General characteristics of waxes, adhesives and lubricants as well as the recent fundamental investigations on their physical and mechanical behaviour are introduced. The current R&D status for new type/generation of waxes, adhesives and lubricants from natural products is reviewed, with an emphasis on their tribological applications. In particular, some crucial issues and challenges relating to technological improvement and materials development are discussed. Based on the current predicted shortage of energy resources and environmental concerns, prospective research on the development of green waxes, adhesives and lubricants is suggested.

  4. Biodegradable foam plastics based on castor oil.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong Juan; Rong, Min Zhi; Zhang, Ming Qiu; Hu, Jing; Chen, Hui Wen; Czigány, Tibor

    2008-02-01

    In this work, a simple but effective approach was proposed for preparing biodegradable plastic foams with a high content of castor oil. First of all, castor oil reacted with maleic anhydride to produce maleated castor oil (MACO) without the aid of any catalyst. Then plastic foams were synthesized through free radical initiated copolymerization between MACO and diluent monomer styrene. With changes in MACO/St ratio and species of curing initiator, mechanical properties of MACO foams can be easily adjusted. In this way, biofoams with comparable compressive stress at 25% strain as commercial polyurethane (PU) foams were prepared, while the content of castor oil can be as high as 61 wt %. The soil burial tests further proved that the castor oil based foams kept the biodegradability of renewable resources despite the fact that some petrol-based components were introduced.

  5. Synthesis of new high performance lubricants and solid lubricants

    SciTech Connect

    Lagow, Richard J.

    1993-04-08

    In our second year of funding we began the testing phase of a number of new classes of lubricants. Three different testing collaborations have already begun and a fourth one is In the works with Dr. Stephen Hsu of the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Dr. Hsu also plans to test some of the same materials for us that Shell Development is studying. With Dr. Bill Jones of NASA, we are studying the effects of branching an high temperature lubricant properties in perfluoropolyethers, Initially Bill Jones is comparing the lubrication and physical properties of perfluorotetraglyme and the following two spherical perfluoropolyethers, Note that one contains a fluorocarbon chain and the other one contains a fluorocarbon ether chain. The synthesis of these was reported in the last progress report. With Professor Patricia Thiel of Iowa State University, we are working on studies of perfluoromethylene oxide ethers and have prepared a series of four of these polyethers to study in collaboration with her research group. These perfluoromethylene oxide ethers have the best low temperature properties of any known lubricants. Thiel's group is studying their interactions with metals under extreme conditions. Thirdly, we have also begun an Interaction with W. August Birke of Shell Development Company in Houston for whom we have already prepared samples of the chlorine-substituted fluorocarbon polyether lubricants whose structures appear on page 54 of our research proposal. Each of these four structures is thought to have potential as lubricant additives to motor oils. We also have underway syntheses of other fluorine-containing branched ether lubricants. These new materials which are also promising as antifriction additives for motor oils appear ahead of the perfluoro additives as Appendix I to the progress report. Additionally for Birke and Shell Development we have at their request prepared the novel compound perfluoro salicylic acid. This synthesis was suggested by the

  6. Piston-Skirt Lubrication System For Compressor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroeder, Edgar C.; Burzynski, Marion, Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Piston-skirt lubrication system provides steady supply of oil to piston rings of gas compressor. No need for oil-filled crankcase or external oil pump. Instead, part of each piston acts as its own oil pump circulating oil from reservoir. Annular space at bottom of piston and cylinder constitutes working volume of small oil pump. Depending on application, reservoir open to atmosphere, or sealed and pressurized in bellows to prevent contact between oil and atmosphere. Filter removes particles worn away from piston rings and cylinder wall during normal operation.

  7. Engine Lubricant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    PS 212, a plasma-sprayed coating developed by NASA, is used to coat valves in a new rotorcam engine. The coating eliminates the need for a liquid lubricant in the rotorcam, which has no crankshaft, flywheel, distributor or water pump. Developed by Murray United Development Corporation, it is a rotary engine only 10 inches long with four cylinders radiating outward from a central axle. Company officials say the engine will be lighter, more compact and cheaper to manufacture than current engines and will feature cleaner exhaust emissions. A licensing arrangement with a manufacturer is under negotiation. Primary applications are for automobiles, but the engine may also be used in light aircraft.

  8. Evaluation of the lubrication properties of biodegradable fluids and their potential to replace mineral oil in heavily loaded hydrostatic transmissions

    SciTech Connect

    Feldmann, D.G.; Hinrichs, J.

    1997-12-31

    Increasing public interest in the environmental impact of technical machinery has led to the development of new hydraulic fluids. In case of leakage these fluids pose less of an environmental threat than mineral oil, because they degrade faster and are less toxic or non-toxic. The following paper describes methods and results of laboratory tests with these new, so called biodegradable fluids, in a hydrostatic transmission on a flywheel testing under high load conditions.

  9. The effect of environmental conditions on the persistence of common lubricants on skin for cases of sexual assault investigation.

    PubMed

    Tonkin, Megan; Yeap, Li Foong; Bartle, Emma K; Reeder, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    The potential for lubricant trace evidence to be used as associative evidence is often overlooked in forensic investigations. Published studies in this area have focused on the identification of analytical techniques suitable for the detection of this evidence type. However, detection of trace lubricant is also dependent on the length of time it persists on skin and mucosal surfaces. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of environmental conditions on the persistence of oil- and glycerol-based lubricants on skin surfaces. Lubricated skin samples exposed to three different test environments were swabbed at regular intervals over a 24-h period. Compounds of interest were extracted from the swabs and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The effect of glycerol derivatization prior to GC-MS analysis was also investigated. In general, oil-based lubricants persisted longer than glycerol-based. Persistence on skin was greatest in lower temperature conditions away from direct sunlight exposure. The results of this investigation are relevant in the context of sexual assault investigations given the possible detection of lubricant on the skin of the external genitalia.

  10. Characterization of protein degradation in serum-based lubricants during simulation wear testing of metal-on-metal hip prostheses.

    PubMed

    Maskiewicz, Victoria K; Williams, Paul A; Prates, Sarah J; Bowsher, John G; Clarke, Ian C

    2010-08-01

    A size exclusion high performance liquid chromatography (SEC-HPLC) method has been developed which is capable of separation and quantitation of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and bovine serum globulin (BSG) components of serum-based lubricant (SBL) solutions. This allowed characterization of the stability profiles of these proteins when acting as lubricants during hip wear simulation, and identification of wear-specific mechanisms of degradation. Using cobalt-chromium metal-on-metal (MOM) hip joints, it was observed that BSA remained stable for up to 3 days (215K cycles) of wear testing after which the protein degraded in a fairly linear fashion. BSG on the other hand, began to degrade immediately and in a linear fashion with a rate constant of 5% per day. Loss of both proteins occurred via the formation of high molecular weight aggregates which precipitated out of solution. No fragmentation of the polypeptide backbone of either protein was observed. Data obtained suggest that protein degradation was not due to microbial contamination, denaturation at the air-water interface, or frictional heating of articulating joint surfaces in these studies. We conclude that the primary source of protein degradation during MOM simulation testing occurs via high shear rates experienced by SBL solutions at articulating surfaces, possibly coupled with metal-protein interactions occurring as new and reactive metal surfaces are generated during wear testing. The development of this analytical methodology will allow new studies to clarify the role of SBL solutions in wear simulation studies and the interactions and lubricating properties of serum proteins with prosthetic surfaces other than MOM.

  11. Microfog lubrication for aircraft engine bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenlieb, J. W.

    1976-01-01

    An analysis and system study was performed to provide design information regarding lubricant and coolant flow rates and flow paths for effective utilization of the lubricant and coolant in a once through bearing oil mist (microfog) and coolant air system. Both static and dynamic tests were performed. Static tests were executed to evaluate and calibrate the mist supply system. A total of thirteen dynamic step speed bearing tests were performed using four different lubricants and several different mist and air supply configurations. The most effective configuration consisted of supplying the mist and the major portion of the cooling air axially through the bearing. The results of these tests have shown the feasibility of using a once through oil mist and cooling air system to lubricate and cool a high speed, high temperature aircraft engine mainshaft bearing.

  12. Lubrication and cooling for high speed gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, D. P.

    1985-01-01

    The problems and failures occurring with the operation of high speed gears are discussed. The gearing losses associated with high speed gearing such as tooth mesh friction, bearing friction, churning, and windage are discussed with various ways shown to help reduce these losses and thereby improve efficiency. Several different methods of oil jet lubrication for high speed gearing are given such as into mesh, out of mesh, and radial jet lubrication. The experiments and analytical results for the various methods of oil jet lubrication are shown with the strengths and weaknesses of each method discussed. The analytical and experimental results of gear lubrication and cooling at various test conditions are presented. These results show the very definite need of improved methods of gear cooling at high speed and high load conditions.

  13. Lubrication Of Nonconformal Contacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeng, Yeau-Ren

    1991-01-01

    Report discusses advances in knowledge of lubrication of nonconformal contacts in bearings and other machine elements. Reviews previous developments in theory of lubrication, presents advances in theory of lubrication to determine minimum film thickness, and describes experiments designed to investigate one of regimes of lubrication for ball bearings.

  14. Anti-wear additive derived from soybean oil and boron utilized in a gear oil formulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The synthesis of lubricant additives based on boron and epoxidized soybean oil are presented. These additives are made from a simple patent pending method involving a ring opening reaction and addition of the borate. A pair of different additives were tested in soybean oil, polyalpha olefin basestoc...

  15. Lubrication of space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusaro, Robert L.

    1994-01-01

    NASA has many high-technology programs plannned for the future, such as the space station, Mission to Planet Earth (a series of Earth-observing satellites), space telescopes, and planetary orbiters. These missions will involve advanced mechanical moving components, space mechanisms that will need wear protection and lubrication. The tribology practices used in space today are primarily based on a technology that is more than 20 years old. The question is the following: Is this technology base good enough to meet the needs of these future long-duration NASA missions? This paper examines NASA's future space missions, how mechanisms are currently lubricated, some of the mechanism and tribology challenges that may be encountered in future missions, and some potential solutions to these future challenges.

  16. Improved boundary lubrication with formulated C-ethers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loomis, W. R.

    1982-01-01

    A comparison of five recently developed C-ether-formulated fluids with an advanced formulated MIL-L-27502 candidate ester is described. Steady state wear and friction measurements were made with a sliding pin on disk friction apparatus. Conditions included disk temperatures up to 260 C, dry air test atmosphere, 1 kilogram load, 50 rpm disk speed, and test times to 130 minutes. Based on wear rates and coefficients of friction, three of the C-ether formulations as well as the C-ether base fluid gave better boundary lubrication than the ester fluid under all test conditions. The susceptibility of C-ethers to selective additive treatment (phosphinic esters or acids and other antiwear additives) was demonstrated when two of the formulations gave somewhat improved lubrication over the base fluid. The increased operating potential for this fluid was shown in relationship to bulk oil temperature limits for MIL-L-23699 and MIL-L-27502 type esters.

  17. Slippery liquid-infused porous surface based on perfluorinated lubricant/iron tetradecanoate: Preparation and corrosion protection application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shengsheng; Qiu, Ri; Song, Hongqing; Wang, Peng; Shi, Zhiqiang; Wang, Yanfang

    2015-02-01

    Corrosion and fouling have been two major enemies for materials immersed in seawater. Fluid including gas and liquid as coating for marine corrosion protection has attracted much attention, since it can also exert antifouling capability in seawater environment. Combining gas and solid phases, superhydrophobic surface is promising to protect the underlying metal from corrosion. However, the intrinsically short sustainability in underwater environment has hindered its practical application, so that its corrosion protection ability is only temporary. Originated from liquid and solid phases, slippery liquid-infused porous surface (SLIPS) has spurred wide interest due to its prominent performance in different fields. However, the exploration of corrosion protection efficiency from SLIPS remains rare. In this research, SLIPS is constructed onto steel surface via a facile two-step protocol. First, based on a dissolution-deposition strategy, iron tetradecanoate is formed by an electrochemical route. After that, fluid lubricant is infused onto the deposit, whose rough surface acts as the reservoir to entrap the fluid to form a static liquid coating. Compared to the bare and hydrophobic deposit covering low alloy steel, the SLIPS composed perfluorinated lubricant and iron tetradecanoate endows good corrosion protection property.

  18. Inkjet-based deposition of polymer thin films enabled by a lubrication model incorporating nano-scale parasitics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singhal, Shrawan; Meissl, Mario J.; Bonnecaze, Roger T.; Sreenivasan, S. V.

    2013-09-01

    Thin film lubrication theory has been widely used to model multi-scale fluid phenomena. Variations of the same have also found application in fluid-based manufacturing process steps for micro- and nano-scale devices over large areas where a natural disparity in length scales exists. Here, a novel inkjet material deposition approach has been enabled by an enhanced thin film lubrication theory that accounts for nano-scale substrate parasitics. This approach includes fluid interactions with a thin flexible superstrate towards a new process called Jet and Coat of Thin-films (JCT). Numerical solutions of the model have been verified, and also validated against controlled experiments of polymer film deposition with good agreement. Understanding gleaned from the experimentally validated model has then been used to facilitate JCT process synthesis resulting in substantial reduction in the influence of parasitics and a concomitant improvement in the film thickness uniformity. Polymer films ranging from 20 to 500 nm mean thickness have been demonstrated with standard deviation of less than 2% of the mean film thickness. The JCT process offers advantages over spin coating which is not compatible with roll-to-roll processing and large area processing for displays. It also improves over techniques such as knife edge coating, slot die coating, as they are limited in the range of thicknesses of films that can be deposited without compromising uniformity.

  19. Lubricant Evaluation and Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-04-01

    Changes on COBRA Response 313 c. Nature of Charge Carrier in COBRA Active Lubricants 313 (I) Adsorption Chromatography of Degraded Lubricants 316 (2...Lubricant 0-67-1 160 (5) Summary 162 b. Micro Carbon Residue Tester (MCRT) 163 (1) Introduction 163 (2) Test Apparatus and Procedure 164 (3) Test...Other COBRA Active Compounds 326 d. Conclusions 329 4. DIELECTRIC BREAKDOWN STRENGTH OF MIL-L-7808 LUBRICANTS 330 V LUBRICANT LOAD CARRYING

  20. Influence of Lubricant Additives on Friction and Wear Characteristics of Compressor parts under the Alternative Refrigerant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Hidehiro; Imai, Hachiro; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Yamamoto, Tsutomu; Ueki, Yutaka; Takizawa, Kikuo; Fukushima, Kiyoshi

    From the standpoint of lubricative deficit under the alternative refrigerant/lubricants coexistence, the influence of additives on friction and wear characteristics for compressor parts have been investigated by the wear tester reappeared on friction condition similarly to actual compressor. It has been shown that an ester type base oil containing TCP (tricresyl phosphate) as an extreme pressure agents indicates satisfactory lubrication because of its EP effect. However owning to the deterioration of base oil caused by a cresol which is a reactant of TCP, a hydrolysis inhibitor must be necessary. The results indicates that a hydrolysis inhibitor added to POE is able to not only prevent the base oil from deteriorating but also feed the strength into oil films. On the other hands, in such a case that TCP concentration added in an alkylbenzen type base oil is excess or wear track temperature is higher, wear amounts of compressor parts are increased on account of corrosion wear. The reactivity of TCP depends on wear track temperature and its concentration. Consequently, it is possible that EP effect of TCP has been considered in terms of its concentration and temperature to be appropriated.

  1. Graphite lubricants. June 1970-December 1988 (Citations from the Compendex data base). Report for June 1970-December 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning graphite particles used as a dry lubricant and as an additive for conventional lubricants. Effects on friction, wear performance, load bearing, contact area, and contact stress are among the topics discussed. Wear modeling, aging, particle structure, purity and particle size relative to synthetic and natural graphites are included. Other dry lubricants such as molybdenum disulfide and mica are considered. (This updated bibliography contains 120 citations, 15 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  2. Graphite lubricants. December 1976-May 1990 (A Bibliography from the COMPENDEX data base). Report for December 1976-May 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning graphite particles used as a dry lubricant and as an additive for conventional lubricants. Effects on friction, wear performance, load bearing, contact area, and contact stress are among the topics discussed. Wear modelling, aging, particle structure, purity, and particle size relative to synthetic and natural graphites are included. Other dry lubricants such as molybdenum disulfide and mica are considered. (This updated bibliography contains 124 citations, 14 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  3. Full-scale transmission testing to evaluate advanced lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewicki, David G.; Decker, Harry J.; Shimski, John T.

    1992-01-01

    Experimental tests were performed on the OH-58A helicopter main rotor transmission in the NASA Lewis 500 hp helicopter transmission test stand. The testing was part of a lubrication program. The objectives are to develop and show a separate lubricant for gearboxes with improved performance in life and load carrying capacity. The goal was to develop a testing procedure to fail certain transmission components using a MIL-L-23699 based reference oil and then to run identical tests with improved lubricants and show improved performance. The tests were directed at parts that failed due to marginal lubrication from Navy field experience. These failures included mast shaft bearing micropitting, sun gear and planet bearing fatigue, and spiral bevel gear scoring. A variety of tests were performed and over 900 hrs of total run time accumulated for these tests. Some success was achieved in developing a testing procedure to produce sun gear and planet bearing fatigue failures. Only marginal success was achieved in producing mast shaft bearing micropitting and spiral bevel gear scoring.

  4. Modified Cobalt Drills With Oil Passages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchison, E.; Richardson, D.

    1986-01-01

    Oil forced through drill shanks to lubricate cutting edges. Drill bits cooled and lubricated by oil forced through drill shanks and out holes adjacent to bits. This cooling technique increases drillbit life and allows increased drill feed rates.

  5. Potentially useful polyolester lubricant additives an overview of antioxidants, antiwear and antiseize compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Cavestri, R.C.

    1996-11-01

    Reliable service lubrication of compressors with polyolesters that do not contain additives is the optimal goal for hermetic compressor use. Chlorine derived from CFC and HCFC refrigerants is reported to have effective antiwear properties and negates the widespread use of additives in mineral oil lubricated systems. The use of antioxidants for mineral oil and polyolesters have been reported; antioxidant additive activity seems essential for polyolesters.- Antiwear and antiseize additives seem to be a short term goal for use with polyolesters. High silicone aluminum to steel wear seems to be a primary target for additive use. The interaction of specific heteroatom organic compounds with highly polar surface active synthetic polyolester lubricants is complex. Results of an extensive literature search describe results from a service base determined at ambient conditions. Known lubricant additives used in the hermetic compressor industry, the. mode of action of several types of additives and some lubricant additive chemistry that demonstrates selective thermal stability in conjunction with the chemical structure are examined.

  6. Composition optimization of self-lubricating chromium-carbide-based composite coatings for use to 760 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dellacorte, Chris; Sliney, Harold E.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes new compositions of self-lubricating coatings that contain chromium carbide. A bonded chromium carbide was used as the base stock because of the known excellent wear resistance and the chemical stability of chromium carbide. Additives were silver and barium fluoride/calcium fluoride eutectic. The coating constituents were treated as a ternary system consisting of: (1) the bonded carbide base material, (2) silver, and (3) the eutectic. A study to determine the optimum amounts of each constituent was performed. The various compositions were prepared by powder blending. The blended powders were then plasma sprayed onto superalloy substrates and diamond ground to the desired coating thickness. Friction and wear studies were performed at temperatures from 25 to 760 C in helium and hydrogen. A variety of counterface materials were evaluated with the objective of discovering a satisfactory metal/coating sliding combination for potential applications such as piston ring/cylinder liner couples for Stirling engines.

  7. Composition optimization of self-lubricating chromium carbide-based composite coatings for use to 760 deg C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dellacorte, C.; Sliney, H. E.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes new compositions of self-lubricating coatings that contain chromium carbide. A bonded chromium carbide was used as the base stock because of the known excellent wear resistance and the chemical stability of chromium carbide. Additives were silver and barium fluoride/calcium fluoride eutectic. The coating constituents were treated as a ternary system consisting of: (1) the bonded carbide base material, (2) silver, and (3) the eutectic. A study to determine the optimum amounts of each constituent was performed. The various compositions were prepared by powder blending. The blended powders were then plasma sprayed onto superalloy substrates and diamond ground to the desired coating thickness. Friction and wear studies were performed at temperatures from 25 to 760 C in helium and hydrogen. A variety of counterface materials were evaluated with the objective of discovering a satisfactory metal/coating sliding combination for potential applications such as piston ring/cylinder liner couples for Stirling engines.

  8. Theoretical and experimental analysis of the lubricating system of a high speed multiplier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marian, V. G.; Mirică, R. F.; Prisecaru, T.

    2017-02-01

    Flywheel-based energy storage systems are used for energy storage in form of kinetic energy using a flywheel rotating at high speed. In order to achieve this high rotating speed a high speed multiplier could be used in order to increase the rotation speed of a conventional motor. This article presents a theoretical and experimental analysis of the lubricating system of a high speed multiplier used in a flywheel-based energy storage system. The necessary oil flow is theoretically computed using analytical formulas. The oil is used for lubricating the gears, the roller bearings and the sliding bearings. An experimental test rig is used to measure the oil flow. Finally the two results are compared.

  9. Enhanced oil recovery projects data base

    SciTech Connect

    Pautz, J.F.; Sellers, C.A.; Nautiyal, C.; Allison, E.

    1992-04-01

    A comprehensive enhanced oil recovery (EOR) project data base is maintained and updated at the Bartlesville Project Office of the Department of Energy. This data base provides an information resource that is used to analyze the advancement and application of EOR technology. The data base has extensive information on 1,388 EOR projects in 569 different oil fields from 1949 until the present, and over 90% of that information is contained in tables and graphs of this report. The projects are presented by EOR process, and an index by location is provided.

  10. (1) H-NMR with Multivariate Analysis for Automobile Lubricant Comparison.

    PubMed

    Kim, Siwon; Yoon, Dahye; Lee, Dong-Kye; Yoon, Changshin; Kim, Suhkmann

    2017-02-23

    Identification of suspected automobile-related lubricants could provide valuable information in forensic cases. We examined that automobile lubricants might exhibit the chemometric characteristics to their individual usages. To compare the degree of clustering in the plots, we co-plotted general industrial oils that were highly dissimilar with automobile lubricants in additive compositions. (1) H-NMR spectroscopy was used with multivariate statistics as a tool for grouping, clustering, and identification of automobile lubricants in laboratory conditions. We analyzed automobile lubricants including automobile engine oils, automobile transmission oils, automobile gear oils, and motorcycle oils. In contrast to the general industrial oils, automobile lubricants showed relatively high tendencies of clustering to their usages. Our pilot study demonstrated that the comparison of known and questioned samples to their usages might be possible in forensic fields.

  11. Transient shear flow of model lithium lubricating greases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, M. A.; Franco, J. M.; Valencia, C.; Kuhn, E.; Gallegos, C.

    2009-03-01

    This paper deals with the analysis of the transient shear flow behavior of lithium lubricating greases differing in soap concentration and base oil viscosity. The shear-induced evolution of grease microstructure has been studied by means of stress-growth experiments. With this aim, different lubricating grease formulations were manufactured by modifying the concentration of lithium 12-hydroxystearate and the viscosity of the base oil, according to a RSM statistical design. Moreover, atomic force microscopy (AFM) observations were carried out. The transient stress response can be successfully described by the generalized Leider-Bird model based on two exponential terms. Different rheological parameters, related to both the elastic response and the structural breakdown of greases, have been analysed. In this sense, it has been found that the elastic properties of lithium lubricating greases were highly influenced by soap concentration and oil viscosity. The stress overshoot, τ max , depends linearly on both variables in the whole shear rate range studied, although the effect of base oil viscosity on this parameter is opposite at low and high shear rates. Special attention has been given to the first part of the stress-growth curve. In this sense, it can be deduced that the “yielding” energy density not only depends on grease composition, but also on shear rate. Moreover, an interesting asymptotic tendency has been found for both the “yielding” energy density and the stress overshoot by increasing shear rate. The asymptotic values of these parameters have been correlated to the friction coefficient obtained in a ball-disc tribometer.

  12. Tribological characteristics of aluminum alloys against steel lubricated by ammonium and imidazolium ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Jun; Blau, Peter Julian; Dai, Sheng; Luo, Huimin; Meyer III, Harry M; Truhan, John J.

    2009-01-01

    Sliding friction and wear characteristics of aluminum alloys against AISI 52100 steel lubricated by ionic liquids (ILs) were investigated at both room and elevated temperatures. The tested aluminum alloys include a commercially pure aluminum Al 1100, a wrought alloy Al 6061-T6511, and a cast alloy Al 319-T6. The lubricating performance of two ILs with the same anion, one ammonium-based [C8H17]3NH.Tf2N and one imidazolium-based C10mim.Tf2N, were compared each other and benchmarked against that of a conventional fully-formulated engine oil. Significant friction (up to 35%) and wear (up to 55%) reductions were achieved by the ammonium IL when lubricating the three aluminum alloys compared to the engine oil. The imidazolium IL performed better than the oil but not as well as the ammonium IL for Al 1100 and 319 alloys. However, accelerated wear was unexpectedly observed for Al 6061 alloy when lubricated by C10mim.Tf2N. Surface chemical analyses implied complex tribochemical reactions between the aluminum surfaces and ILs during the wear testing, which has been demonstrated either beneficial by forming a protective boundary film or detrimental by causing severe tribo-corrosion. The effects of the IL cation structure, aluminum alloy composition, and tribo-testing condition on the friction and wear results have been discussed.

  13. Preparation and properties evaluation of biolubricants derived from canola oil and canola biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rajesh V; Somidi, Asish K R; Dalai, Ajay K

    2015-04-01

    This study demonstrates the evaluation and comparison of the lubricity properties of the biolubricants prepared from the feed stocks such as canola oil and canola biodiesel. Biolubricant from canola biodiesel has a low cloud and pour point properties, better friction and antiwear properties, low phase transition temperature, is less viscous, and has the potential to substitute petroleum-based automotive lubricants. Biolubricant from canola oil has high thermal stability and is more viscous and more effective at higher temperature conditions. This study elucidates that both the biolubricants are attractive, renewable, and ecofriendly substitutes for the petroleum-based lubricants.

  14. Vermiculite as a component of thread lubricants

    SciTech Connect

    Kaminskii, S.E.; Shibryaev, S.B.; Lyubinin, I.A.; Nemets, V.L.

    1994-09-01

    Thread lubricants are used in threaded joints of piping and pump/compressor equipment of drilling units in order to protect the threads against wear and galling during the operations of making up and breaking the joints; the lubricants also serve as a seal against the pressure of liquid and gaseous media. Commercial thread lubricants contain fillers to provide the required level of antigalling, antiwear, and sealing properties. Powders of lead, copper, zinc, and their compounds are widely used as fillers; other materials that are used include finely dispersed molybdenum disulfide and polytetrafluoroethylene. The concentrations of these components in commercial thread lubricants may be as high as 60-70%,{sup *} so that the lubricants are quite expensive. Lead compounds have the further disadvantages of toxicity, requiring special protective measures in the production, storage, and application of the lubricants - i.e., these materials are ecologically hazardous. Production of specialized thread lubricants is limited by shortages of fillers, and hence general-purpose greases are almost universally used in threaded joints - greases that are inferior to thread lubricants in their set of tribotechnical properties. The end results are premature wear and leakage of the joints, losses of oil and gas, and environmental pollution. In this connection, it is of interest to use layered minerals, in particular vermiculite, in thread lubricant formulations. Heat-treated and milled vermiculite, which has a structure similar to graphite, is resistant to oxidation and to attack by corrosive media; it has a high upper temperature limit of serviceability as a lubricant, and it is readily available and inexpensive. Major reserves of vermiculite have been explored in the Kola Peninsula (Kovdor deposit), in the Urals (Potaninsk and Buldymsk deposits) and in Siberia (Sludyanka deposit).

  15. The characterisation of commercial lubricant formulations

    SciTech Connect

    Scrivens, J.; Yates, H.; Bunn, A.

    1995-12-31

    Modern lubricant formulations are complex mixtures of base esters, antiwear additives, corrosion inhibitors and other modifiers. Their characterisation poses a difficult analytical challenge. A major market for these products is in the replacement of traditional CFC based refrigerants by modern alternatives. Conventional lubricants such as mineral oil are incompatible with the new refrigerants. Soft ionisation mass spectrometry (CI, LSIMS and FID), coupled with tandem mass spectrometry where required, has been used in conjunction with GC-MS and NMR in order to characterise these formulations. Statistical analysis of the soft ionisation data has provided further information regarding the detailed composition of the complex esters. This combination of experimental approaches provides a powerful method for the characterisation of these materials. A number of different types of polyol are used in the manufacture of the base esters with tetra- and hexa-esters the most common. The acids used, in general, vary in carbon number and in isomeric distribution and this leads to considerable complexity in the product.

  16. Polymer Grafted Nanoparticle-based Oil Dispersants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Daehak; Krishnamoorti, Ramanan

    2015-03-01

    Particle-based oil dispersants mainly composed of inorganic nanoparticles such as silica nanoparticles are considered as environmentally friendly oil dispersants due to their biocompatibility and relatively low toxicity. The oil-water interfacial tension is reduced when nanoparticles segregate to the oil-water interface and this segregation is improved by grafting interfacially active polymer brushes. In this study, surfactant-like amphiphilic block copolymers were grafted from silica nanoparticles using an atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) method in order to increase their interfacial activity. We have studied the interfacial activity of such hybrid nanoparticles using pendant drop interfacial tension measurements, and their structure using small angle X-ray scattering. Amphiphilic copolymer grafted nanoparticles significantly reduced oil-water interfacial tension compared to the interfacial tension reduction induced by homopolymer grafted nanoparticles or the corresponding free ungrafted copolymer. Moreover, hard and stable oil-water emulsions were formed by applying the block copolymer grafted nanoparticles due to the formation of interparticle network structures, which were observed by cryo-scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and small angle neutron scattering (SANS)

  17. Lubrication in tablet formulations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jennifer; Wen, Hong; Desai, Divyakant

    2010-05-01

    Theoretical aspects and practical considerations of lubrication in tablet compression are reviewed in this paper. Properties of the materials that are often used as lubricants, such as magnesium stearate, in tablet dosage form are summarized. The manufacturing process factors that may affect tablet lubrication are discussed. As important as the lubricants in tablet formulations are, their presence can cause some changes to the tablet physical and chemical properties. Furthermore, a detailed review is provided on the methodologies used to characterize lubrication process during tablet compression with relevant process analytical technologies. Finally, the Quality-by-Design considerations for tablet formulation and process development in terms of lubrication are discussed.

  18. Inappropriate lubricant use with condoms by homosexual men.

    PubMed

    Martin, D J

    1992-01-01

    Use of condoms has been advocated as an important method of reducing the risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission among high-risk groups such as homosexual and bisexual men, prostitutes, intravenous drug users, adolescents, and hemophiliacs. Despite risk-reduction education campaigns directed to gay men since the early 1980s, evidence shows continued deficits in condom-use skills and knowledge among gay men. Because most failures in the use of condoms are attributed to errors in use, increasing knowledge and skills in condom use is important in preventing HIV infection. Two groups of homosexual and bisexual men were sampled, those entering a risk-reduction education program and participants in a Gay Pride event. They were surveyed on their current sex practices and their efforts to reduce their risk of HIV infection. They were asked about their numbers of sex partners, specific sexual behaviors, use of condoms, types of condoms used, and lubricants used for genital-anal sex. The characteristics of those surveyed were similar to those of respondents in other studies of risk reduction among gay men. The use of an oil-based lubricant with condoms has been shown to weaken latex and to increase the likelihood of condom breakage, which use of water-based lubricants does not. Among respondents who reported having genital-anal sex, 60 percent reported use of an oil-based lubricant with a condom at least once during the year before the survey. Gay men in sexually exclusive relationships engaged in less consistent use of condoms for receptive genital-anal sex than did single gay men. The duration of their relationship with a partner was unrelated to the consistency of risk reducing behaviors practiced by men in sexually exclusive relationships. Gay Pride participants engaged in sexual behavior that was relatively more risky for HIV transmission than did the other group. Gay Pride participants used condoms less consistently for genital-anal sex than did the

  19. Lubricating Properties of Ceramic-Bonded Calcium Fluoride Coatings on Nickel-Base Alloys from 75 to 1900 deg F

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, Harold E.

    1962-01-01

    The endurance life and the friction coefficient of ceramic-bonded calcium fluoride (CaF2) coatings on nickel-base alloys were determined at temperatures from 75 F to 1900 F. The specimen configuration consisted of a hemispherical rider (3/16-in. rad.) sliding against the flat surface of a rotating disk. Increasing the ambient temperature (up to 1500 F) or the sliding velocity generally reduced the friction coefficient and improved coating life. Base-metal selection was critical above 1500 F. For instance, cast Inconel sliding against coated Inconel X was lubricated effectively to 1500 F, but at 1600 F severe blistering of the coatings occurred. However, good lubrication and adherence were obtained for Rene 41 sliding against coated Rene 41 at temperatures up to 1900 F; no blisters developed, coating wear life was fairly good, and the rider wear rate was significantly lower than for the unlubricated metals. Friction coefficients were 0.12 at 1500 F, 0.15 at 1700 F, and 0.17 at 1800 F and 1900 F. Because of its ready availability, Inconel X appears to be the preferred substrate alloy for applications in which the temperature does not exceed 1500 F. Rene 41 would have to be used in applications involving higher temperatures. Improved coating life was derived by either preoxidizing the substrate metals prior to the coating application or by applying a very thin (less than 0.0002 in.) burnished and sintered overlay to the surface of the coating. Preoxidation did not affect the friction coefficient. The overlay generally resulted in a higher friction coefficient than that obtained without the overlay. The combination of both modifications resulted in longer coating life and in friction coefficients intermediate between those obtained with either modification alone.

  20. A review of liquid lubricant thermal/oxidative degradation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. R., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The fundamental processes occurring during the thermal and oxidative degradation of hydrocarbons are reviewed. Particular emphasis is given to various classes of liquid lubricants such as mineral oils, esters, polyphenyl ethers, C-ethers, and fluorinated polyethers. Experimental techniques for determining thermal and oxidative stabilities of lubricants are discussed. The role of inhibitors and catalysis is also covered.