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Sample records for oil dietary treatments

  1. Effect of dietary Lorenzo's oil and docosahexaenoic acid treatment for Zellweger syndrome.

    PubMed

    Arai, Yasuhiro; Kitamura, Yohei; Hayashi, Masaharu; Oshida, Kyoichi; Shimizu, Toshiaki; Yamashiro, Yuichiro

    2008-12-01

    We investigated the possible therapeutic effect of decreasing plasma levels of very-long-chain fatty acids (C26:0) with a synthetic oil containing trioleate and trielucate (Lorenzo's oil) as well as increasing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in red blood cells (RBC) with DHA ethyl ester in four patients with Zellweger syndrome. We investigated serial changes of plasma C26:0 levels and DHA levels in RBC membranes by gas-liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). After death, the fatty acid composition of each patient's cerebrum and liver was studied. Dietary administration of Lorenzo's oil diminished plasma C26:0 levels. Earlier administration of Lorenzo's oil was more effective and the response did not depend on the duration of administration. DHA was incorporated into RBC membrane lipids when administrated orally, and its level increased for several months. The final DHA level was correlated with the duration of administration and was not related to the timing of initiation of treatment. DHA levels in the brains and livers of treated patients were higher than in untreated patients. Early initiation of Lorenzo's oil and the long-term administration of DHA may be useful for patients with Zellweger syndrome.

  2. Early dietary treatments with Lorenzo's oil and docosahexaenoic acid for neurological development in a case with Zellweger syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kyoko; Shimizu, Toshiaki; Ohtsuka, Yoshikazu; Yamashiro, Yuichiro; Oshida, Kyoichi

    2007-10-01

    We treated a girl with Zellweger syndrome using a special infant formula supplemented with middle chain triglyceride (MCT) milk, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), Lorenzo's oil, and Lunaria oil, which is rich in nervonic acid (C24:1). We examined the fatty acid contents of the plasma and red blood cell (RBC) membrane. Neurological development was evaluated using Denver developmental screening test and auditory brainstem response (ABR). Her delayed neurological development, liver dysfunction, and cholestasis were all improved 2 weeks after starting the dietary treatment. DHA level in RBC membranes was increased and very long chain fatty acid (VLCFA,C26:0) levels were decreased. Our findings suggest that the dietary treatment with combination of MCT milk, DHA, Lorenzo's oil, and Lunaria oil in the patients with Zellweger syndrome bring some benefits for neurological development.

  3. Interactions between dietary oil treatments and genetic variants modulate fatty acid ethanolamides in plasma and body weight composition.

    PubMed

    Pu, Shuaihua; Eck, Peter; Jenkins, David J A; Connelly, Philip W; Lamarche, Benoît; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; West, Sheila G; Liu, Xiaoran; Jones, Peter J H

    2016-03-28

    Fatty acid ethanolamides (FAE), a group of lipid mediators derived from long-chain fatty acids (FA), mediate biological activities including activation of cannabinoid receptors, stimulation of fat oxidation and regulation of satiety. However, how circulating FAE levels are influenced by FA intake in humans remains unclear. The objective of the present study was to investigate the response of six major circulating FAE to various dietary oil treatments in a five-period, cross-over, randomised, double-blind, clinical study in volunteers with abdominal obesity. The treatment oils (60 g/12 552 kJ per d (60 g/3000 kcal per d)) provided for 30 d were as follows: conventional canola oil, high oleic canola oil, high oleic canola oil enriched with DHA, flax/safflower oil blend and corn/safflower oil blend. Two SNP associated with FAE degradation and synthesis were studied. Post-treatment results showed overall that plasma FAE levels were modulated by dietary FA and were positively correlated with corresponding plasma FA levels; minor allele (A) carriers of SNP rs324420 in gene fatty acid amide hydrolase produced higher circulating oleoylethanolamide (OEA) (P=0·0209) and docosahexaenoylethanolamide (DHEA) levels (P=0·0002). In addition, elevated plasma DHEA levels in response to DHA intake tended to be associated with lower plasma OEA levels and an increased gynoid fat mass. In summary, data suggest that the metabolic and physiological responses to dietary FA may be influenced via circulating FAE. Genetic analysis of rs324420 might help identify a sub-population that appears to benefit from increased consumption of DHA and oleic acid.

  4. Interactions between dietary oil treatments and genetic variants modulate fatty acid ethanolamides in plasma and body weight composition.

    PubMed

    Pu, Shuaihua; Eck, Peter; Jenkins, David J A; Connelly, Philip W; Lamarche, Benoît; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; West, Sheila G; Liu, Xiaoran; Jones, Peter J H

    2016-03-28

    Fatty acid ethanolamides (FAE), a group of lipid mediators derived from long-chain fatty acids (FA), mediate biological activities including activation of cannabinoid receptors, stimulation of fat oxidation and regulation of satiety. However, how circulating FAE levels are influenced by FA intake in humans remains unclear. The objective of the present study was to investigate the response of six major circulating FAE to various dietary oil treatments in a five-period, cross-over, randomised, double-blind, clinical study in volunteers with abdominal obesity. The treatment oils (60 g/12 552 kJ per d (60 g/3000 kcal per d)) provided for 30 d were as follows: conventional canola oil, high oleic canola oil, high oleic canola oil enriched with DHA, flax/safflower oil blend and corn/safflower oil blend. Two SNP associated with FAE degradation and synthesis were studied. Post-treatment results showed overall that plasma FAE levels were modulated by dietary FA and were positively correlated with corresponding plasma FA levels; minor allele (A) carriers of SNP rs324420 in gene fatty acid amide hydrolase produced higher circulating oleoylethanolamide (OEA) (P=0·0209) and docosahexaenoylethanolamide (DHEA) levels (P=0·0002). In addition, elevated plasma DHEA levels in response to DHA intake tended to be associated with lower plasma OEA levels and an increased gynoid fat mass. In summary, data suggest that the metabolic and physiological responses to dietary FA may be influenced via circulating FAE. Genetic analysis of rs324420 might help identify a sub-population that appears to benefit from increased consumption of DHA and oleic acid. PMID:26806592

  5. Dietary treatments of obesity.

    PubMed

    Bennett, W

    1987-01-01

    Dietary treatment of obesity is based on one or another of two premises: that the obese eat too much or that they eat the wrong things. The first is a tautology lacking explanatory power. The second is a meaningful and promising hypothesis but has yet to be effectively applied. At present, virtually all outpatient treatments of obesity, including behavior modification, are based on the first premise and consist of strategies for reducing the subject's caloric intake. Most such interventions produce short-term weight loss. Regain after the end of treatment remains the usual outcome. A survey of studies published in the period 1977-1986 and reporting on dietary or behavioral treatment of obesity reveals that the maximum percentage of body weight lost is, on average, 8.5 percent--no different from the value, 8.9%, in similar studies from 1966-1976, as reviewed by Wing and Jeffery. The principal determinant of success in such programs appears to be the intake weight of the subjects: the higher the intake weight, the more successful the intervention will appear to be. The goals and research methods of studies on dietary treatments for obesity are overdue for ethical as well as scientific reevaluation. The same may be said for the numerous programs providing such treatment outside the context of research.

  6. Dietary supplementation of chloroquine with nigella sativa seed and oil extracts in the treatment of malaria induced in mice with plasmodium berghei

    PubMed Central

    Emeka, Promise Madu; Badger-Emeka, Lorina Ineta; Eneh, Chiamaka Maryann; Khan, Tahir Mahmood

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of dietary combination of Nigella sativa seed and oil extracts with chloroquine (CQ), and how these combinations enhance CQ efficacy in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei and their survival rates. Materials and Methods: Chloroquine sensitive P. berghei, NK65 strain was used for the study. This was passaged intraperitoneally into albino mice with a 0.2ml standard inoculum consisting of 106 parasitized erythrocyte suspension in phosphate buffer solution (PBS). Parasitaemia was ascertained by microscopical examination of blood films under oil immersion at X100 magnification. Results: Nigella sativa seed in feed (NSSF), NSSF + CQ on day 4, produced 86.1% and 86.0% suppression respectively, while Nigella sativa oil extract in feed (NSOF) and in combination with CQ had 86.0% and 99.9% suppression respectively. The degree of suppression with the combination was significantly higher compared to CQ alone (P < 0.001) (36.1%). Complete parasitaemia clearance was obtained on the 20th and 15th day of treatment for NSSF, NSSF + CQ respectively, while that for NSOF and NSOF + CQ was on days 26 and 12 respectively. For CQ parasite clearance was 12 days with treatment. Also, the combinastion of 10 mg/kg Nigella sativa oil treatment injected intraperitoneally with oral CQ produced very significant parasite suppression (P < 0.0001) (93%). Survival rate in NSSF and NSOF and in combination with CQ groups was 100 and 60.0% for CQ alone. Conclusions: This study shows that the use of Nigella sativa seed and oil extract as dietary supplements in combination with CQ has a potential in enhancing the efficacy of CQ and could be of benefit in management of malaria. PMID:24991115

  7. Dietary treatment of eosinophilic esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Gonsalves, Nirmala; Kagalwalla, Amir F

    2014-06-01

    Emerging evidence supports impaired epithelial barrier function as the key initial event in the development of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) and other allergic diseases. Symptom resolution, histologic remission, and prevention of both disease and treatment-related complications are the goals of treatment. Successful dietary treatments include elemental, empirical elimination and allergy test directed diets. Dietary therapy with exclusive elemental diet offers the best response. Cow's milk, wheat, egg, soy, peanut/tree nut, and fish/shellfish are the 6 food antigens most likely to induce esophageal inflammation.

  8. Effect of dietary palm oil and its fractions on rat plasma and high density lipoprotein lipids.

    PubMed

    Sundram, K; Khor, H T; Ong, A S

    1990-04-01

    Male Sprague Dawley rats were fed semipurified diets containing 20% fat for 15 weeks. The dietary fats were corn oil, soybean oil, palm oil, palm olein and palm stearin. No differences in the body and organ weights of rats fed the various diets were evident. Plasma cholesterol levels of rats fed soybean oil were significantly lower than those of rats fed corn oil, palm oil, palm olein or palm stearin. Significant differences between the plasma cholesterol content of rats fed corn oil and rats fed the three palm oils were not evident. HDL cholesterol was raised in rats fed the three palm oil diets compared to the rats fed either corn oil or soybean oil. The cholesterol-phospholipid molar ratio of rat platelets was not influenced by the dietary fat type. The formation of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha was significantly enhanced in palm oil-fed rats compared to all other dietary treatments. Fatty acid compositional changes in the plasma cholesterol esters and plasma triglycerides were diet regulated with significant differences between rats fed the polyunsaturated corn and soybean oil compared to the three palm oils.

  9. Induction of lipid peroxidation in biomembranes by dietary oil components.

    PubMed

    Udilova, Natalia; Jurek, Daniela; Marian, Brigitte; Gille, Lars; Schulte-Hermann, Rolf; Nohl, Hans

    2003-11-01

    Prooxidant formation and resulting lipid peroxidation are supposed to be involved in the pathogenesis of various diseases including cancer. Cancer risk is possibly influenced by the composition of diet with high intake of fat and red meat being harmful and high consumption of fruits and vegetables being protective. Since dietary oils may contain potential prooxidants, the aim of the present study was to prove (i) whether oxidative stress in biomembranes may be induced by dietary oils and if, (ii) which impact it has on the viability and proliferation of cultured colon (carcinoma) cells. Lipid hydroperoxide content in dietary oils increased after heating. Linoleic acid hydroperoxide (LOOH) and/or oils with different hydroperoxide contents induced lipid peroxidation in liposomes, erythrocyte ghosts and colon cells. Upon incubation with liposomes, both LOOH and heated oil induced lipid peroxidation only in the presence of iron and ascorbate. LOOH was sufficient to start lipid peroxidation of erythrocyte ghosts. LOOH incorporates into the lipid bilayer decreasing membrane fluidity and initiating lipid peroxidation in the lipid phase. When cultured cells (IEC18 intestinal epithelial cells, SW480 and HT29/HI1 colon carcinoma cells) were exposed to LOOH, they responded by cell death both via apoptosis and necrosis. Cells with higher degree of membrane unsaturation were more susceptible and antioxidants (vitamin E and selenite) were protective indicating the involvement of oxidative stress. Thus, peroxidation of biomembranes can be initiated by lipid hydroperoxides from heated oils. Dietary consumption of heated oils may lead to oxidative damage and to cell death in the colon. This may contribute to the enhanced risk of colon cancer due to regenerative cell proliferation.

  10. Palm oil: a healthful and cost-effective dietary component.

    PubMed

    Ong, A S H; Goh, S H

    2002-03-01

    Palm oil is an excellent choice for food manufacturers because of its nutritional benefits and versatility. The oil is highly structured to contain predominantly oleic acid at the sn2-position in the major triacylglycerols to account for the beneficial effects described in numerous nutritional studies. Oil quality and nutritional benefits have been assured for the variety of foods that can be manufactured from the oil directly or from blends with other oils while remaining trans-free. The oxidative stability coupled with the cost-effectiveness is unparalleled among cholesterol-free oils, and these values can be extended to blends of polyunsaturated oils to provide long shelf-life. Presently the supply of genetic-modification-free palm oil is assured at economic prices, since the oil palm is a perennial crop with unparalleled productivity. Numerous studies have confirmed the nutritional value of palm oil as a result of the high monounsaturation at the crucial 2-position of the oil's triacylglycerols, making the oil as healthful as olive oil. It is now recognized that the contribution of dietary fats to blood lipids and cholesterol modulation is a consequence of the digestion, absorption, and metabolism of the fats. Lipolytic hydrolysis of palm oil glycerides containing predominantly oleic acid at the 2 position and palmitic and stearic acids at the 1 and 3 positions allows for the ready absorption of the 2-monoacrylglycerols while the saturated free fatty acids remain poorly absorbed. Dietary palm oil in balanced diets generally reduced blood cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides while raising the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Improved lipoprotein(a) and apo-A1 levels were also demonstrated from palm oil diets; an important benefits also comes from the lowering of blood triglycerides (or reduced fat storage) as compared with those from polyunsaturated fat diets. Virgin palm oil also provides carotenes apart from

  11. Differential effects of dietary oils on emotional and cognitive behaviors.

    PubMed

    Kato, Keiko

    2015-01-01

    Several dietary oils have been used preventatively and therapeutically in the setting of neurological disease. However, the mechanisms underlying their influence on brain function and metabolism remain unknown. It was investigated whether 3 types of dietary oils affected emotional behaviors in mice. Wild-type (WT) mice and sialyltransferase ST3Gal IV-knockout (KO) mice, which exhibit increased emotional and cognitive behaviors, were fed diets containing 20% dietary oils from post-weaning to adulthood. Mice were fed pellets made from control feed AIN93G powder containing 18% fish oil, soybean oil, or a mixture of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-3-palmitoyl glycerol (POP) and 1-stearoyl-2-oleoyl-3-stearoyl glycerol (SOS), plus 2% soybean oil. Once mice reached adulthood, they were subjected to fear conditioning test to measure cognitive anxiety and forced swim test to measure depression. WT mice fed the POP-SOS diet showed a 0.6-fold decrease in percent freezing with contextual fear compared with WT mice fed the control diet. KO mice fed the fish oil diet showed a 1.4-fold increase in percent freezing with contextual fear compared with KO mice fed the control diet. These findings indicate that response to contextual fear was improved in WT mice that consumed POP-SOS but aggravated in KO mice that consumed fish oils. Furthermore, KO mice showed a 0.4-fold decrease in percent freezing in response to tone fear when they were fed POP-SOS diet compared to a control diet. Thus, POP-SOS diet reduced tone fear level of KO mice until the same level of WT mice. Finally, KO mice fed the soybean oil diet showed a 1.7-fold increase in immobility in the forced swim test compared to KO mice fed the control diet. Taken together, oil-rich diets differentially modulate anxiety and depression in normal and anxious mice. Oils rich in saturated fatty acids may alleviate anxiety more strongly than other oils.

  12. Differential Effects of Dietary Oils on Emotional and Cognitive Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Keiko

    2015-01-01

    Several dietary oils have been used preventatively and therapeutically in the setting of neurological disease. However, the mechanisms underlying their influence on brain function and metabolism remain unknown. It was investigated whether 3 types of dietary oils affected emotional behaviors in mice. Wild-type (WT) mice and sialyltransferase ST3Gal IV-knockout (KO) mice, which exhibit increased emotional and cognitive behaviors, were fed diets containing 20% dietary oils from post-weaning to adulthood. Mice were fed pellets made from control feed AIN93G powder containing 18% fish oil, soybean oil, or a mixture of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-3-palmitoyl glycerol (POP) and 1-stearoyl-2-oleoyl-3-stearoyl glycerol (SOS), plus 2% soybean oil. Once mice reached adulthood, they were subjected to fear conditioning test to measure cognitive anxiety and forced swim test to measure depression. WT mice fed the POP-SOS diet showed a 0.6-fold decrease in percent freezing with contextual fear compared with WT mice fed the control diet. KO mice fed the fish oil diet showed a 1.4-fold increase in percent freezing with contextual fear compared with KO mice fed the control diet. These findings indicate that response to contextual fear was improved in WT mice that consumed POP-SOS but aggravated in KO mice that consumed fish oils. Furthermore, KO mice showed a 0.4-fold decrease in percent freezing in response to tone fear when they were fed POP-SOS diet compared to a control diet. Thus, POP-SOS diet reduced tone fear level of KO mice until the same level of WT mice. Finally, KO mice fed the soybean oil diet showed a 1.7-fold increase in immobility in the forced swim test compared to KO mice fed the control diet. Taken together, oil-rich diets differentially modulate anxiety and depression in normal and anxious mice. Oils rich in saturated fatty acids may alleviate anxiety more strongly than other oils. PMID:25799588

  13. Modification of sympathetic neuronal function in the rat tail artery by dietary lipid treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Panek, R.L.; Dixon, W.R.; Rutledge, C.O.

    1985-06-01

    The effect of dietary lipid treatment on sympathetic neuronal function was examined in isolated perfused tail arteries of adult rats. The hypothesis that dietary manipulations alter the lipid environment of receptor proteins which may result in the perturbation of specific membrane-associated processes that regulate peripheral adrenergic neurotransmission in the vasculature was the basis for this investigation. In the present study, rats were fed semisynthetic diets enriched in either 16% coconut oil (saturated fat) or 16% sunflower oil (unsaturated fat). The field stimulation-evoked release of endogenous norepinephrine and total /sup 3/H was decreased significantly in rats receiving the coconut oil diet when compared to either sunflower oil- or standard lab chow-fed rats. Norepinephrine content in artery segments from coconut oil-treated rats was significantly higher compared to either sunflower oil- or standard lab chow-fed rats. Tail arteries from rats receiving the coconut oil diet displayed significantly lower perfusion pressure responses to nerve stimulation at all frequencies tested when compared to the sunflower oil- or standard lab chow-fed rats. Vasoconstrictor responses of perfused tail arteries exposed to exogenous norepinephrine resulted in an EC50 for norepinephrine that was not changed by the dietary treatment, but adult rats receiving the sunflower oil diet displayed a significantly greater maximum response to exogenous norepinephrine (10(-5) M) compared to arteries from either coconut oil- or standard lab chow-fed rats.

  14. Avian retinal oil droplets: dietary manipulation of colour vision?

    PubMed

    Knott, Ben; Berg, Mathew L; Morgan, Eric R; Buchanan, Katherine L; Bowmaker, James K; Bennett, Andrew T D

    2010-03-22

    Avian vision is highly developed, with bird retinas containing rod and double-cone photoreceptors, plus four classes of single cones subserving tetrachromatic colour vision. Cones contain an oil droplet, rich in carotenoid pigments (except VS/ultraviolet-sensitive cones), that acts as a filter, substantially modifying light detected by the photoreceptor. Using dietary manipulations, we tested the effects of carotenoid availability on oil droplet absorbance properties in two species: Platycercus elegans and Taeniopygia guttata. Using microspectrophotometry, we determined whether manipulations affected oil droplet carotenoid concentration and whether changes would alter colour discrimination ability. In both species, increases in carotenoid concentration were found in carotenoid-supplemented birds, but only in the double cones. Magnitudes of effects of manipulations were often dependent on retinal location. The study provides, to our knowledge, the first experimental evidence of dietary intake over a short time period affecting carotenoid concentration of retinal oil droplets. Moreover, the allocation of carotenoids to the retina by both species is such that the change potentially preserves the spectral tuning of colour vision. Our study generates new insights into retinal regulation of carotenoid concentration of oil droplets, an area about which very little is known, with implications for our understanding of trade-offs in carotenoid allocation in birds.

  15. Replacement of dietary fish oil with vegetable oils improves the growth and flesh quality of large yellow croaker ( Larmichthys crocea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Qingyuan; Mai, Kangsen; Shentu, Jikang; Ai, Qinghui; Zhong, Huiying; Jiang, Yujian; Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Chunxiao; Guo, Sitong

    2014-06-01

    We investigated the effect of the replacement of dietary fish oil with vegetable oils on the growth and flesh quality of large yellow croaker ( Larmichthys crocea). The basal diet (FO) was formulated to contain 66.5% fish meal and 6.4% menhaden fish oil; whereas the other 3 experimental diets were formulated by replacing the fish oil with 50% soybean oil (SO50), 100% soybean oil (SO100) and 100% palm oil (PO100), respectively. The 4 diets were randomly assigned to 4 floating sea cages (3.0 m × 3.0 m × 3.0 m), and each was stocked with 250 fish individuals with an initial average weight of 245.29 g ± 7.45 g. The fish were fed to apparent satiation twice a day at 5:00 and 17:00, respectively, for 12 weeks. Experimental analysis showed that the specific growth rate of fish fed SO50 or PO100 were significantly higher than that of fish fed FO or SO100 ( P<0.05), and crude lipid contents of ventral muscle and viscera were significantly lower in fish fed FO than in those fed the other 3 diets ( P<0.05). No significant differences in condition factor, viscerosomatic index, hepatosomatic index, gutted yield and colorimetric values of fish among the dietary treatments were observed ( P>0.05). Compared to FO diet, SO50, SO100 and PO100 diets led to substantial decreases in the liquid loss and water loss from fresh fillets (1 d, 4°C) ( P<0.05). Similarly, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values of fillets under different storage conditions (1 d, 4°C; 7 d, 4°C; 4 weeks, -20°C; 8 weeks, -20°C) decreased significantly after partial or complete replacement of fish oil with vegetable oils. These findings indicated that the growth performance and selected flesh quality properties (liquid holding capacity and TBARS value) of large yellow croaker were substantially improved by replacing dietary fish oil with vegetable oils.

  16. Treatment of vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    Bessler, T.R.

    1986-05-13

    A process is described for preparing an injectable vegetable oil selected from the group consisting of soybean oil and sunflower oil and mixtures thereof which comprise: (a) first treating the vegetable oil at a temperature of 80/sup 0/C to about 130/sup 0/C with an acid clay; (b) deodorizing the vegetable oil with steam at a temperature of 220/sup 0/C to about 280/sup 0/C and applying a vacuum to remove volatilized components; (c) treating the deodorized vegetable oil, at a temperature of from about 10/sup 0/C to about 60/sup 0/C, with an acid clay to reduce the content of a member selected from the group consisting of diglycerides, tocopherol components, and trilinolenin and mixtures thereof, wherein the acid clay is added in a weight ratio to the deoderized vegetable oil of from about 1:99 to about 1:1; and (d) thereafter conducting a particulate filtration to remove a substantial portion of the acid clay from the vegetable oil, wherein the filtration is accomplished with filters having a pore size of from about 0.1 to 0.45 microns, thereby obtaining the injectable oil.

  17. Influence of dietary menhaden oil on 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene induced mammary tumorigenesis in rats

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, T.P.; Peterson, F.; Campbell, T.C.

    1986-03-05

    The effect of dietary menhaden oil on 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA) induced mammary tumorigenesis was examined in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were obtained at age 28 days and acclimated until age 50 days when they received a single i.g. dose of 5 mg DMBA dissolved in 1 ml corn oil. Rats were then randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups with 25 rats per group. One group was fed a diet based on fish protein (freeze-dried cod) and corn oil (F/C). The second group received a diet based on fish protein and menhaden oil (F/M). The third group received a casein based diet with corn oil as the lipid source (C/C). The fourth group was fed a casein based diet with menhaden oil as the lipid source (C/M). Both the protein and lipid sources were fed at a level of 20% by weight of the diets. Rats were palpated weekly to check for mammary tumor development and the experiment was terminated 24 weeks after DMBA administration. Rats fed menhaden oil as a lipid source (F/M and C/M groups) developed significantly fewer mammary tumors than animals on the corn oil based diets (F/C and C/C groups, respectively). Thus, menhaden oil, rich in omega-3 fatty acids, significantly inhibited the development of DMBA induced mammary tumors in this experiment.

  18. Milk cytokines and subclinical breast inflammation in Tanzanian women: effects of dietary red palm oil or sunflower oil supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Filteau, S M; Lietz, G; Mulokozi, G; Bilotta, S; Henry, C J K; Tomkins, A M

    1999-01-01

    Previously, we have found that subclinical breast inflammation, as indicated by raised breastmilk concentrations of sodium and the inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-8 (IL-8), was highly prevalent in Bangladesh and associated with poor infant growth. In order to investigate further the prevalence of subclinical breast inflammation and to assess the impact of dietary intervention, we studied rural Tanzanian women taking part in a study of dietary sunflower or red palm oil supplementation during late pregnancy and lactation. We measured breastmilk concentrations of IL-8, the anti-inflammatory cytokine, transforming growth factor-β2 (TGF-β) and the ratio of sodium to potassium. We also estimated systemic inflammation by plasma concentrations of the acute phase proteins, α1-acid glycoprotein and C-reactive protein. There were highly significant intercorrelations among milk Na/K ratio and concentrations of IL-8 and TGF-β, the last only after treatment with bile salts which also improved TGF-β recovery in the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Plasma acute phase protein concentrations tended to correlate with milk Na/K ratio and IL-8, suggesting that subclinical breast inflammation was related to systemic inflammation. Dietary supplementation with vitamin E-rich sunflower oil but not provitamin A-containing red palm oil decreased milk Na/K, IL-8 and TGF-β at 3 months postpartum; however, the effect was significant only for Na/K ratio. The results suggest that milk Na/K ratio, IL-8, and TGF-β all measure the same phenomenon of subclinical breast inflammation but that Na/K ratio, having the lowest assay variability, is the most useful. Subclinical breast inflammation may result in part from systemic inflammation and may be improved by increased dietary intake of vitamin E-rich sunflower oil. PMID:10457212

  19. Dietary fats and oils: technologies for improving cardiovascular health.

    PubMed

    Flickinger, Brent D; Huth, Peter J

    2004-11-01

    The role of dietary lipids in the etiology of coronary heart disease (CHD) continues to evolve as we gain a better understanding of the metabolic effects of individual fatty acids and their impact on surrogate markers of risk. A recent meta-analysis of 60 human studies suggests that for each 1% energy replacement of carbohydrates in the diet with saturated fat or trans fat, serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations increase by 0.032 (1.23 mg/dL) and 0.04 mmol/L (1.54 mg/dL), respectively. Current dietary recommendations to keep saturated fat and trans fat intake as low as possible, and to increase the intake of cis mono-unsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, as well as growing recognition of these recommendations by consumers and food regulatory agencies in the United States, have been major driving forces for the edible oil industry and food manufacturers to develop alternative fats and oils with nutritionally improved fatty acid compositions. As solutions for use of trans fatty acids are being sought, oilseeds with modified fatty acid compositions are being viewed as a means to provide such solutions. Additionally, oilseeds with modified fatty acid composition, such as enhanced content of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids or conjugated linoleic acid, have been developed as a way to increase delivery of these fatty acids directly into the food supply or indirectly as use for feed ingredients for livestock. New processing technologies are being utilized around the world to create dietary fats and oils with specific physiologic functions relevant to risk factors for cardiovascular disease. PMID:15485593

  20. Dietary unsaponifiable fraction from extra virgin olive oil supplementation attenuates acute ulcerative colitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Fidalgo, S; Cárdeno, A; Sánchez-Hidalgo, M; Aparicio-Soto, M; Villegas, I; Rosillo, M A; de la Lastra, C Alarcón

    2013-02-14

    Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) has demonstrated immunomodulatory and antiinflammatory properties in murine experimental ulcerative colitis (UC). In addition to its high monounsaturated fatty acid content, evidences have accumulated on the favorable properties of minor, although highly bioactive, components present in the unsaponifiable fraction (UF). The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of dietary EVOO's UF supplementation on acute UC. C57BL/6 mice were fed from weaning with sunflower oil (SD), EVOO diet and UF-enriched SD at 5% oil (SD+UF). After 30 days, mice were exposed to 3% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) for 5 days developing acute colitis. After 4 days of DSS removal, animals were sacrificed and colons were histological and biochemically processed. Disease activity index and microscopic damage score were significantly improved in EVOO and SD+UF dietary groups versus SD group. In addition, both dietary treatments significantly induced decreases in MCP-1 and TNF-α levels, iNOS and COX-2 overexpression and p38 MAPKs activation in colon mucosa. Moreover, an upregulation of IκB expression was also observed after feeding the animals with both diets. However, no statistically differences between data from mice fed with EVOO or UF+SD diets were observed. Dietary enrichment with EVOO's UF reduces the damage in acute colitis model, alleviating the oxidative events and returning proinflammatory proteins expression to basal levels probably through p38 MAPK and NFκB signalling pathways. EVOO's UF diet might provide a basis for developing a new strategy in dietary supplementation for the prevention of UC.

  1. Effect of Dietary Treatment with Olive Oil By-Product (Olive Cake) on Physicochemical, Sensory and Microbial Characteristics of Beef During Storage

    PubMed Central

    Ranucci, David; Miraglia, Dino; Urbani, Stefania; Esposto, Sonia; Servili, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that the use of natural preservatives through animal diets could increase the shelf life of meat and meat products since many plant-derived substances show antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. The aim of this work was to study the effect of olive cake dietary supplementation on beef oxidative stability and antimicrobial activity during storage. Beef cattle were randomly divided into three homogeneous groups that were assigned to one of the three diets: a commercial unified based diet administered for 90 days until slaughter (CTR), CTR diet supplemented with 0.5% olive cake administered for 90 days until slaughter (OC1), and CTR diet supplemented with 0.5% olive cake and administered for 60 days followed by the administration of the CTR diet for 30 days until slaughter (OC2). Beefsteaks were overwrapped with oxygen-permeable packaging and analysed at four different storage times (zero, three, six and nine days). At the four sampling times considered from all of the samples, total viable count (TVC), Enterobacteriaceae counts, colour coordinates (CIE L*a*b* colour system), peroxide value (PV), thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARs) determinations and descriptive sensory analyses were performed. No differences in TVC and Enterobacteriaceae count were detected among the groups over all of the sampling times considered. Differences were recorder among groups for PV, TBARS, colour and sensory analysis. The addition of olive cake in the animal diet had an effect on lipid oxidation reducing the level of PV, TBARS and retarding colour deterioration and the development of off odour in OC meat during storage. PMID:27800420

  2. Influence of sources of dietary oils on the life span of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Ratnayake, W M; Plouffe, L; Hollywood, R; L'Abbé, M R; Hidiroglou, N; Sarwar, G; Mueller, R

    2000-04-01

    In recent studies, the life span of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive (SHRSP) rats was altered by a variety of dietary fats. It was relatively shorter in rats fed canola oil as the sole source of fat. The present study was performed to find out whether the fatty acid profile and the high content of sulfur compounds in canola oil could modulate the life span of SHRSP rats. SHRSP rats (47 d old, n = 23/group) were matched by body weight and systolic blood pressure and fed semipurified diets containing 10% canola oil, high-palmitic canola oil, low-sulfur canola oil, soybean oil, high-oleic safflower oil, a fat blend that mimicked the fatty acid composition of canola oil, or a fat blend high in saturated fatty acids. A 1% sodium chloride solution was used as drinking water to induce hypertension. After consuming the diets for 37 d, five rats from each dietary group were killed for collection of blood and tissue samples for biochemical analysis. The 18 remaining animals from each group were used for determining their life span. The mean survival time of SHRSP rats fed canola oil (87.4+/-4.0 d) was not significantly different (P > 0.05) from those fed low-sulfur canola oil (89.7+/-8.5 d), suggesting that content of sulfur in canola oil has no effect on the life span of SHRSP rats. The SHRSP rats fed the noncanola oil-based diets lived longer (mean survival time difference was 6-13 d, P < 0.05) than those fed canola and low-sulfur canola oils. No marked differences in the survival times were observed among the noncanola oil-based groups. The fatty acid composition of the dietary oils and of red blood cells and liver of SHRSP rats killed after 37 d of treatment showed no relationship with the survival times. These results suggest that the fatty acid profile of vegetable oils plays no important role on the life span of SHRSP rat. However, phytosterols in the dietary oils and in liver and brain were inversely correlated with the mean survival times,indicating that the

  3. Dietary oregano essential oil alleviates experimentally induced coccidiosis in broilers.

    PubMed

    Mohiti-Asli, M; Ghanaatparast-Rashti, M

    2015-06-15

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of oregano essential oil on growth performance and coccidiosis prevention in mild challenged broilers. A total of 250 1-d-old chicks were used in a completely randomized design with 5 treatments and 5 replicates with 10 birds in each replication. Experimental treatments included: (1) negative control (NC; unchallenged), (2) positive control (PC; challenged with sporulated oocysts of Eimeria), (3) PC fed 200 ppm Diclazuril in diet, (4) PC fed 300 ppm oregano oil in diet, and (5) PC fed 500 ppm oregano oil in diet. At 22 d of age, all the experimental groups except for NC were challenged with 50-fold dose of Livacox T as a trivalent live attenuated coccidiosis vaccine. On d 28, two birds were slaughtered and intestinal coccidiosis lesions were scored 0-4. Moreover, dropping was scored in the scale of 0-3, and oocysts per gram feces (OPG) were measured. Oregano oil at either supplementation rate increased body weight gain (P=0.039) and improved feed conversion ratio (P=0.010) from d 22 to 28, when compared with PC group. Using 500 ppm oregano oil in challenged broilers diet increased European efficiency factor than PC group (P=0.020). Moreover, challenged broilers fed 500 ppm oregano oil or Diclazuril in diets displayed lower coccidiosis lesions scores in upper (P=0.003) and middle (P=0.018) regions of intestine than PC group, with the effect being similar to unchallenged birds. In general, challenged birds fed 500 ppm oregano oil or Diclazuril in diets had lower OPG (P=0.001), dropping scores (P=0.001), litter scores (P=0.001), and pH of litter (P=0.001) than PC group. It could be concluded that supplementation of oregano oil at the dose of 500 ppm in diet may have beneficial effect on prevention of coccidiosis in broilers. PMID:25864115

  4. Dietary oregano essential oil alleviates experimentally induced coccidiosis in broilers.

    PubMed

    Mohiti-Asli, M; Ghanaatparast-Rashti, M

    2015-06-15

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of oregano essential oil on growth performance and coccidiosis prevention in mild challenged broilers. A total of 250 1-d-old chicks were used in a completely randomized design with 5 treatments and 5 replicates with 10 birds in each replication. Experimental treatments included: (1) negative control (NC; unchallenged), (2) positive control (PC; challenged with sporulated oocysts of Eimeria), (3) PC fed 200 ppm Diclazuril in diet, (4) PC fed 300 ppm oregano oil in diet, and (5) PC fed 500 ppm oregano oil in diet. At 22 d of age, all the experimental groups except for NC were challenged with 50-fold dose of Livacox T as a trivalent live attenuated coccidiosis vaccine. On d 28, two birds were slaughtered and intestinal coccidiosis lesions were scored 0-4. Moreover, dropping was scored in the scale of 0-3, and oocysts per gram feces (OPG) were measured. Oregano oil at either supplementation rate increased body weight gain (P=0.039) and improved feed conversion ratio (P=0.010) from d 22 to 28, when compared with PC group. Using 500 ppm oregano oil in challenged broilers diet increased European efficiency factor than PC group (P=0.020). Moreover, challenged broilers fed 500 ppm oregano oil or Diclazuril in diets displayed lower coccidiosis lesions scores in upper (P=0.003) and middle (P=0.018) regions of intestine than PC group, with the effect being similar to unchallenged birds. In general, challenged birds fed 500 ppm oregano oil or Diclazuril in diets had lower OPG (P=0.001), dropping scores (P=0.001), litter scores (P=0.001), and pH of litter (P=0.001) than PC group. It could be concluded that supplementation of oregano oil at the dose of 500 ppm in diet may have beneficial effect on prevention of coccidiosis in broilers.

  5. A nutritional-toxicological assessment of Antarctic krill oil versus fish oil dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Bengtson Nash, Susan M; Schlabach, Martin; Nichols, Peter D

    2014-08-28

    Fish oil dietary supplements and complementary medicines are pitched to play a role of increasing strategic importance in meeting daily requirements of essential nutrients, such as long-chain (≥ C20, LC) omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin D. Recently a new product category, derived from Antarctic krill, has been launched on the omega-3 nutriceutical market. Antarctic krill oil is marketed as demonstrating a greater ease of absorption due to higher phospholipid content, as being sourced through sustainable fisheries and being free of toxins and pollutants; however, limited data is available on the latter component. Persistent Organic Pollutants (POP) encompass a range of toxic, man-made contaminants that accumulate preferentially in marine ecosystems and in the lipid reserves of organisms. Extraction and concentration of fish oils therefore represents an inherent nutritional-toxicological conflict. This study aimed to provide the first quantitative comparison of the nutritional (EPA and DHA) versus the toxicological profiles of Antarctic krill oil products, relative to various fish oil categories available on the Australian market. Krill oil products were found to adhere closely to EPA and DHA manufacturer specifications and overall were ranked as containing intermediate levels of POP contaminants when compared to the other products analysed. Monitoring of the pollutant content of fish and krill oil products will become increasingly important with expanding regulatory specifications for chemical thresholds.

  6. A Nutritional-Toxicological Assessment of Antarctic Krill Oil versus Fish Oil Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Bengtson Nash, Susan M.; Schlabach, Martin; Nichols, Peter D.

    2014-01-01

    Fish oil dietary supplements and complementary medicines are pitched to play a role of increasing strategic importance in meeting daily requirements of essential nutrients, such as long-chain (≥C20, LC) omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin D. Recently a new product category, derived from Antarctic krill, has been launched on the omega-3 nutriceutical market. Antarctic krill oil is marketed as demonstrating a greater ease of absorption due to higher phospholipid content, as being sourced through sustainable fisheries and being free of toxins and pollutants; however, limited data is available on the latter component. Persistent Organic Pollutants (POP) encompass a range of toxic, man-made contaminants that accumulate preferentially in marine ecosystems and in the lipid reserves of organisms. Extraction and concentration of fish oils therefore represents an inherent nutritional-toxicological conflict. This study aimed to provide the first quantitative comparison of the nutritional (EPA and DHA) versus the toxicological profiles of Antarctic krill oil products, relative to various fish oil categories available on the Australian market. Krill oil products were found to adhere closely to EPA and DHA manufacturer specifications and overall were ranked as containing intermediate levels of POP contaminants when compared to the other products analysed. Monitoring of the pollutant content of fish and krill oil products will become increasingly important with expanding regulatory specifications for chemical thresholds. PMID:25170991

  7. Biochemically enhanced oil recovery and oil treatment

    DOEpatents

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.

    1994-03-29

    This invention relates to the preparation of new, modified organisms, through challenge growth processes, that are viable in the extreme temperature, pressure and pH conditions and salt concentrations of an oil reservoir and that are suitable for use in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The modified microorganisms of the present invention are used to enhance oil recovery and remove sulfur compounds and metals from the crude oil. 62 figures.

  8. Biochemically enhanced oil recovery and oil treatment

    DOEpatents

    Premuzic, Eugene T.; Lin, Mow

    1994-01-01

    This invention relates to the preparation of new, modified organisms, through challenge growth processes, that are viable in the extreme temperature, pressure and pH conditions and salt concentrations of an oil reservoir and that are suitable for use in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The modified microorganisms of the present invention are used to enhance oil recovery and remove sulfur compounds and metals from the crude oil.

  9. Dietary fish oil replacement with canola oil up-regulates glutathione peroxidase 1 gene expression in yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi).

    PubMed

    Bowyer, Jenna N; Rout-Pitt, Nathan; Bain, Peter A; Stone, David A J; Schuller, Kathryn A

    2012-08-01

    The marine carnivore yellowtail kingfish (YTK, Seriola lalandi) was fed diets containing 5% residual fish oil (from the dietary fish meal) plus either 20% fish oil (FO), 20% canola oil (CO), 20% poultry oil (PO), 10% fish oil plus 10% canola oil (FO/CO) or 10% fish oil plus 10% poultry oil (FO/PO) and the effects on fish growth and hepatic expression of two glutathione peroxidase (GPx 1 and GPx 4) and two peroxiredoxin (Prx 1 and Prx 4) antioxidant genes were investigated. Partial (50%) replacement of the added dietary fish oil with poultry oil significantly improved fish growth whereas 100% replacement with canola oil significantly depressed fish growth. The fatty acid profiles of the fish fillets generally reflected those of the dietary oils except that there was apparent selective utilization of palmitic acid (16:0) and oleic acid (18:1n-9) and apparent selective retention of eicospentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3). The Prx 1 and 4 genes were expressed at 10- and 100-fold the level of the GPx 4 and 1 genes, respectively, and at one-tenth the level of the highly expressed β-actin reference gene. Dietary fish oil replacement with canola oil significantly up-regulated GPx 1 gene expression and there was a non-significant tendency towards down-regulation of Prx 1 and Prx 4. The results are discussed in terms of the effects of fish oil replacement on the peroxidation index of the diets and the resulting effects on the target antioxidant enzymes. PMID:22521527

  10. Dietary Rosa mosqueta (Rosa rubiginosa) oil prevents high diet-induced hepatic steatosis in mice.

    PubMed

    D'Espessailles, Amanda; Dossi, Camila G; Espinosa, Alejandra; González-Mañán, Daniel; Tapia, Gladys S

    2015-09-01

    The effects of dietary Rosa mosqueta (RM, Rosa rubiginosa) oil, rich in α-linolenic acid, in the prevention of liver steatosis were studied in mice fed a high fat diet (HFD). C57BL/6j mice were fed either a control diet or HFD with or without RM oil for 12 weeks. The results indicate that RM oil supplementation decreases fat infiltration of the liver from 43.8% to 6.2%, improving the hepatic oxidative state, insulin levels, HOMA index, and both body weight and adipose tissue weight of HFD plus RM treated animals compared to HFD without supplementation. In addition, the DHA concentration in the liver was significantly increased in HFD fed mice with RM oil compared to HFD (3 vs. 1.6 g per 100 g FAME). The n-6/n-3 ratio was not significantly modified by treatment with RM. Our findings suggest that RM oil supplementation prevents the development of hepatic steatosis and the obese phenotype observed in HFD fed mice.

  11. Dietary supplementation of pyrroloquinoline quinone disodium protects against oxidative stress and liver damage in laying hens fed an oxidized sunflower oil-added diet.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Zhang, H J; Xu, L; Long, C; Samuel, K G; Yue, H Y; Sun, L L; Wu, S G; Qi, G H

    2016-07-01

    The protective effects of dietary pyrroloquinoline quinone disodium (PQQ.Na2) supplementation against oxidized sunflower oil-induced oxidative stress and liver injury in laying hens were examined. Three hundred and sixty 53-week-old Hy-Line Gray laying hens were randomly allocated into one of the five dietary treatments. The treatments included: (1) a diet containing 2% fresh sunflower oil; (2) a diet containing 2% thermally oxidized sunflower oil; (3) an oxidized sunflower oil diet with 100 mg/kg of added vitamin E; (4) an oxidized sunflower oil diet with 0.08 mg/kg of PQQ.Na2; and (5) an oxidized sunflower oil diet with 0.12 mg/kg of PQQ.Na2. Birds fed the oxidized sunflower oil diet showed a lower feed intake compared to birds fed the fresh oil diet or oxidized oil diet supplemented with vitamin E (P=0.009). Exposure to oxidized sunflower oil increased plasma malondialdehyde (P<0.001), hepatic reactive oxygen species (P<0.05) and carbonyl group levels (P<0.001), but decreased plasma glutathione levels (P=0.006) in laying hens. These unfavorable changes induced by the oxidized sunflower oil diet were modulated by dietary vitamin E or PQQ.Na2 supplementation to levels comparable to the fresh oil group. Dietary supplementation with PQQ.Na2 or vitamin E increased the activities of total superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in plasma and the liver, when compared with the oxidized sunflower oil group (P<0.05). PQQ.Na2 or vitamin E diminished the oxidized sunflower oil diet induced elevation of liver weight (P=0.026), liver to BW ratio (P=0.001) and plasma activities of alanine aminotransferase (P=0.001) and aspartate aminotransferase (P<0.001) and maintained these indices at the similar levels to the fresh oil diet. Furthermore, oxidized sunflower oil increased hepatic DNA tail length (P<0.05) and tail moment (P<0.05) compared with the fresh oil group. Dietary supplementation of PQQ.Na2 or vitamin E decreased the oxidized oil diet induced DNA tail length

  12. Increased adiposity induced by high dietary butter oil increases vertebrae trabecular structural indices in rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Obesity has been associated with both improved and impaired bone health, and other dietary factors apparently affect the nature of the association. An experiment was performed to determine whether increased adiposity induced by high dietary butter oil impairs bone structure and whether that effect ...

  13. Dietary Agents and Phytochemicals in the Prevention and Treatment of Experimental Ulcerative Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Arpit; Kaur, Kamaljeet; Hegde, Shweta; Kalekhan, Faizan M; Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath; Fayad, Raja

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), consisting mainly of ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), are important immune-mediated diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. The etiology of the disease includes environmental and genetic factors. Its management presents a constant challenge for gastroenterologists and conventional surgeon. 5-Amninosalicylates, antibiotics, steroids, and immune modulators have been used to reduce the symptoms and for maintenance of remission. Unfortunately, long-term usage of these agents has been found to lead to severe toxicities, which are deterrent to the users. Pre-clinical studies carried out in the recent past have shown that certain dietary agents, spices, oils, and dietary phytochemicals that are consumed regularly possess beneficial effects in preventing/ameliorating UC. For the first time, this review addresses the use of these dietary agents and spices in the treatment and prevention of IBD and also emphasizes on the mechanisms responsible for their effects. PMID:25379461

  14. The effect of dietary and/or cosmetic argan oil on postmenopausal skin elasticity

    PubMed Central

    Qiraouani Boucetta, Kenza; Charrouf, Zoubida; Aguenaou, Hassan; Derouiche, Abdelfattah; Bensouda, Yahya

    2015-01-01

    Background During menopause, the decrease of estrogenic secretion induces the disruption of skin functioning, thus causing the decline in skin elasticity characteristic of skin aging. The purpose of this study was to evaluate in postmenopausal women the effect of daily consumption and/or application of argan oil on skin elasticity. Materials and methods Sixty postmenopausal women consumed butter during the stabilization period and were randomly divided into two groups for the intervention period: the treatment group of 30 participants received dietary argan oil, the control group of 30 participants received olive oil, and both groups applied cosmetic argan oil in the left volar forearm during a 60-day period. Assessments of skin elasticity parameters, ie, the three R-parameters (R2 or gross-elasticity of the skin, R5 or net elasticity of the skin, and R7 or biological elasticity), and the resonance running time (RRT) at both volar forearms of the two groups were performed during three visits: before starting oils consumption and application, after 30 days of oils consumption and application, and after 60 days of oils consumption and application. Results The consumption of argan oil led to a significant increase of gross-elasticity of the skin (R2) (P<0.001), net elasticity of the skin (R5) (P<0.001), biological elasticity (R7) (P<0.001), and a significant decrease of RRT (P=0.002). The application of argan oil led to a significant increase of gross-elasticity of the skin (R2) (P<0.001), net elasticity of the skin (R5) (P<0.001), biological elasticity (R7) (P=0.001), and a significant decrease of RRT (P<0.001). Conclusion Our findings suggest that the daily consumption and/or topical application of argan oil have an anti-aging effect on the skin demonstrated by the improvement of skin elasticity, characterized by an increase of R-parameters (R2, R5, and R7) and a decrease of RRT. PMID:25673976

  15. Dietary fatty acids in athero-thrombogenesis: influence of palm oil ingestion.

    PubMed

    de Bosch, N B; Bosch, V; Apitz, R

    1996-10-01

    Dietary experiments, performed in metabolic wards, gave rise to predictive regression equations relating changes of plasma cholesterol concentration to the intake of fatty acids of the diet. It has been established that polyunsaturated fatty acids diminish and most saturated fatty acids increase plasma cholesterol concentration. This information led to expect that dietary use of palm oil may induce an unfavorable plasma lipoprotein profile. This has not been the case as shown in various dietary experiments. The reasons for this discrepancy is discussed. The influence of palm oil enriched diets on prothrombotic variables show that platelets are not affected in their function during prolonged dietary intervention. It is important to continue research on the effects of palm oil based diet on plasma fibrinogen, factor VII. There is still discordant information in this field.

  16. Effects of age and dietary soybean oil level on eggshell quality, bone strength and blood biochemistry in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Jiang, S; Cui, L Y; Hou, J F; Shi, C; Ke, X; Yang, L C; Ma, X P

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the differences in eggshell quality, bone quality and serum bone biochemistry markers associated with changes in age and dietary soybean oil levels in laying hens. A total of 54, 19-week-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens were housed in 18 battery cages (3 birds/cage) and randomly divided into three diet treatments for 90 d: control-fat (CF, 1.9% soybean oil), moderate-fat (MF, 7% soybean oil) and high-fat (HF, 10% soybean oil). The hens' body weights (BW), egg production, egg weights, eggshell thickness and femoral diameter were higher at d 90 than at d 60 or d 30. Meanwhile, feed intake, relative bone weights, all bone strength parameters and serum Ca were lower at d 90 or 60 than at d 30. Compared to the CF hens, the feed intake, BW, abdominal fat pad weights and serum alkaline phosphatase activity were elevated in MF or HF hens. The eggshell thickness, relative femoral and tibial weight, femoral stiffness, femoral modulus, tibial mixed force and serum calcium and phosphorus levels were lower in MF or HF hens than CF hens. These findings suggest that bone loss in caged hens starts from an early stage of the laying period, and dietary oil (particularly with diets over 10% soybean oil) has harmful effects on eggshell quality, bone strength and bone mineralisation from an early stage of the laying period.

  17. Design of automated oil sludge treatment unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chukhareva, N.; Korotchenko, T.; Yurkin, A.

    2015-11-01

    The article provides the feasibility study of contemporary oil sludge treatment methods. The basic parameters of a new resource-efficient oil sludge treatment unit that allows extracting as much oil as possible and disposing other components in efficient way have been outlined. Based on the calculation results, it has been revealed that in order to reduce the cost of the treatment unit and the expenses related to sludge disposal, it is essential to apply various combinations of the existing treatment methods.

  18. Effects of Herbal Essential Oil Mixture as a Dietary Supplement on Egg Production in Quail

    PubMed Central

    Çabuk, Metin; Eratak, Serdar; Alçicek, Ahmet; Bozkurt, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    One hundred and eighty 7-week-old laying quail were fed various diets over a 12-week period. The diets included a control diet (without essential oil mixture (EOM) or antibiotics (ANTs)), a basal diet including EOM (24 mg/kg feed), and a basal diet including an ANT (avilamycin, 10 mg/kg feed). Each treatment comprised 4 replications with 4 cages (15 quail per cage), amounting to 60 quail per treatment group. Diets (in mash form) and water were provided for ad libitum consumption. EOM consisted of 6 different essential oils derived from the following herbs: oregano (Origanum sp.), laurel leaf (Laurus nobilis L.), sage leaf (Salvia triloba L.), myrtle leaf (Myrtus communis), fennel seeds (Foeniculum vulgare), and citrus peel (Citrus sp.). In comparison with the control diet, adding supplements such as EOM and ANTs to the basal diet increased egg production in quail (P < 0.001). However, egg production was similar between EOM and ANT treatment groups. Moreover, there were no differences between the treatment groups with regard to egg weight. Feed intake was not affected by EOM or ANT supplementation, whereas feed conversion ratio was significantly improved by EOM and ANT supplementation. Thus, we concluded that EOM has beneficial effects as a dietary supplement on egg production and feed conversion ratio. PMID:24587729

  19. Effects of herbal essential oil mixture as a dietary supplement on egg production in quail.

    PubMed

    Çabuk, Metin; Eratak, Serdar; Alçicek, Ahmet; Bozkurt, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    One hundred and eighty 7-week-old laying quail were fed various diets over a 12-week period. The diets included a control diet (without essential oil mixture (EOM) or antibiotics (ANTs)), a basal diet including EOM (24 mg/kg feed), and a basal diet including an ANT (avilamycin, 10 mg/kg feed). Each treatment comprised 4 replications with 4 cages (15 quail per cage), amounting to 60 quail per treatment group. Diets (in mash form) and water were provided for ad libitum consumption. EOM consisted of 6 different essential oils derived from the following herbs: oregano (Origanum sp.), laurel leaf (Laurus nobilis L.), sage leaf (Salvia triloba L.), myrtle leaf (Myrtus communis), fennel seeds (Foeniculum vulgare), and citrus peel (Citrus sp.). In comparison with the control diet, adding supplements such as EOM and ANTs to the basal diet increased egg production in quail (P < 0.001). However, egg production was similar between EOM and ANT treatment groups. Moreover, there were no differences between the treatment groups with regard to egg weight. Feed intake was not affected by EOM or ANT supplementation, whereas feed conversion ratio was significantly improved by EOM and ANT supplementation. Thus, we concluded that EOM has beneficial effects as a dietary supplement on egg production and feed conversion ratio. PMID:24587729

  20. Response of milk fatty acid composition to dietary supplementation of soy oil, conjugated linoleic acid, or both.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y; Schoonmaker, J P; Bradford, B J; Beitz, D C

    2008-01-01

    Thirty-six Holstein cows were blocked by parity and allotted by stage of lactation to 6 treatments to evaluate the effects of dietary soy oil, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; free acid or calcium salt), or both, on CLA content of milk. Diets were fed for 4 wk and are as follows: (1) control, (2) control + 5% soy oil, (3) control + 1% CLA, (4) control + 1% Ca(CLA)2, (5) control + 1% CLA + 4% soy oil, and (6) control + 1% Ca(CLA)2 + 4% soy oil. Rumen volatile fatty acid concentrations, blood fatty acid concentrations, milk yield, and milk composition were measured weekly or biweekly. Dry matter intake and milk yield were recorded daily. Dietary supplementation of soy oil or CLA had no effect on daily milk yield, milk protein concentration and production, or milk lactose concentration and production. Supplementation of unsaturated fatty acids as soy oil, CLA, or Ca(CLA)2 increased total fatty acid concentration in plasma, decreased milk fat concentration and production, and had no effect on rumen volatile fatty acid concentrations. The weight percentage of CLA in milk was increased from 0.4 to 0.7% with supplementation of 1% CLA, to 1.2% with supplementation of soy oil, and to 1.3% with supplementation of 1% CLA plus soy oil. Supplementation with Ca(CLA)2 or Ca(CLA)2 + soy oil increased the CLA content of milk fat to 0.9 and 1.4%, respectively. In summary, adding 5% soy oil was as effective as supplementing CLA, Ca(CLA)2, or a combination of 1% CLA (free acid or calcium salt) + 4% soy oil at increasing CLA concentrations in milk fat. Feeding CLA as the calcium salt resulted in greater concentrations of CLA in milk fat than did feeding CLA as the free acid. Dietary supplementation of 5% soy oil or 4% soy oil + 1% CLA as the free acid or the calcium salt increased the yield of CLA in milk.

  1. Can the dietary element content of virgin argan oils really be used for adulteration detection?

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Faez A E; Bchitou, Rahma; Bouhaouss, Ahmed; Gharby, Saïd; Harhar, Hicham; Guillaume, Dominique; Charrouf, Zoubida

    2013-01-01

    Levels of eight dietary elements were assessed by ICP-AES in virgin edible and beauty argan oil samples prepared from four remote locations of the argan forest, and over a three-year period. The data showed sufficiently little variability to assess that all argan oil samples present, in terms of dietary elements, a similar composition, independently from the tree location within the argan forest. Therefore, adulteration detection by trace element analysis in edible and beauty argan oil is a method that can be generalised. PMID:23017399

  2. Can the dietary element content of virgin argan oils really be used for adulteration detection?

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Faez A E; Bchitou, Rahma; Bouhaouss, Ahmed; Gharby, Saïd; Harhar, Hicham; Guillaume, Dominique; Charrouf, Zoubida

    2013-01-01

    Levels of eight dietary elements were assessed by ICP-AES in virgin edible and beauty argan oil samples prepared from four remote locations of the argan forest, and over a three-year period. The data showed sufficiently little variability to assess that all argan oil samples present, in terms of dietary elements, a similar composition, independently from the tree location within the argan forest. Therefore, adulteration detection by trace element analysis in edible and beauty argan oil is a method that can be generalised.

  3. Effect of dietary vegetable oils on the fatty acid profile of plasma lipoproteins in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Bello-Pérez, Einar; Íñiguez-González, Gonzalo; Cancino-Padilla, Nathaly; Loor, Juan J; Garnsworthy, Philip C

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the effect of dietary supplementation of soybean oil (SO) and hydrogenated palm oil (HPO) on the transport of fatty acids (FA) within plasma lipoproteins in lactating and non-lactating cows. Three lactating and three non-lactating Holstein cows were used in two different 3 × 3 Latin square experiments that included three periods of 21 d. Dietary treatments for lactating cows consisted of a basal diet (control; no fat supplement) and fat-supplemented diets containing SO (500 g/d per cow) or HPO (500 g/d per cow). For non-lactating cows, dietary treatments consisted of a basal diet (control; no fat supplement) and fat-supplemented diets containing SO (170 g/d per cow) or HPO (170 g/d per cow). Compared with the control and SO diet, HPO addition increased (p < 0.05) the concentration of C16:0, C18:0, C18:2cis-9,12, C18:3cis-9,12,15 and total saturated and polyunsaturated FA in the plasma of lactating cows. In non-lactating cows, the SO addition increased the plasma concentration of C18:1trans-11. In lactating cows, concentrations of C16:0, C18:0 and total saturated FA were increased (p < 0.05) by HPO addition in the high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Total saturated FA were increased (p < 0.05) by HPO in very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL). In non-lactating cows, the concentration of C18:0 was increased (p < 0.05) by HPO in HDL, whereas C18:1trans-11 was increased (p < 0.05) by SO in the low-density lipoprotein. Overall, it was found that distribution and transport of FA within the bovine plasma lipoproteins may be influenced by chain length and degree of unsaturation of dietary lipids. Also, the distribution of individual FA isomers such as C18:1trans-11 and C18:2cis-9,trans-11 may vary depending on the physiological state of the cow (lactating or non-lactating), and are increased in plasma (lactating cows) and the HDL (non-lactating cows) when cows are fed SO. PMID:27216557

  4. Effect of dietary replacement of sunflower oil with linseed oil on intramuscular fatty acids of lamb meat.

    PubMed

    Jerónimo, Eliana; Alves, Susana P; Prates, José A M; Santos-Silva, José; Bessa, Rui J B

    2009-11-01

    The effect of stepwise replacement of dietary sunflower oil (SO) with linseed oil (LO) on carcass composition, meat colour and fatty acid (FA) composition of intramuscular lipids of lamb meat was investigated. Thirty-six lambs were fed one of four diets consisting of pellets of lucerne with oil (60g/kg): the diet varied in the composition of oil added and were: 100% SO; 66.6% SO plus 33.3% LO; 33.3% SO plus 66.6% LO and 100% LO. The experimental period was 7weeks. Live slaughter weight, hot carcass weight and intermuscular fat percentage of chump and shoulder increased linearly with replacement of SO by LO. Total FA content of longissimus dorsi muscle and polar and neutral lipids were not affected by the treatments. Replacement of SO with LO increased the content of 18:3n-3 and total n-3 long chain (⩾C(20)) PUFA (LC-PUFA) and decreased the 18:2n-6, total n-6 LC-PUFA and 18:2 cis-9, trans-11 in meat lipids. Maximum CLA concentration (42.9mg/100g fresh muscle) was observed with 100% of SO, decreasing linearly by SO with LO replacement. Maximum n-3 LC-PUFA was predicted to be 27mg/100g of fresh muscle at 78% of SO with LO replacement. Considering both CLA and n-3 LC-PUFA, the maximum levels were estimated to be reached at 52% of replacement of SO with LO. The utilization of blends of SO and LO is a good approach for obtaining lamb meat enriched with both CLA and n-3 LC-PUFA.

  5. Dietary treatments for childhood constipation: efficacy of dietary fiber and whole grains.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Maria L; Schroeder, Natalia M

    2013-02-01

    Constipation in children is defined on the basis of several clusters of symptoms, and these symptoms are likely to persist into adulthood. The aim of this review article is to summarize the current literature on the use of dietary fiber and whole grains as treatments for childhood constipation. Current recommendations for fiber intake in children vary substantially among organizations, suggesting that the function of fiber in children is not fully understood. Additionally, no formal definition of "whole grain" exists, which further complicates the interpretation of the literature. Few randomized controlled trials have examined the effect of dietary fiber supplementation in children with constipation. Currently, no randomized controlled trials have investigated the efficacy of whole grains in treating childhood constipation. This is an area that warrants further attention. Increasing the intake of dietary fiber and/or whole grain has the potential to relieve childhood constipation; however, additional randomized controlled trials are necessary to make a formal recommendation.

  6. Dietary Natural Products for Prevention and Treatment of Liver Cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Zhou, Tong; Zheng, Jie; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-03-01

    Liver cancer is the most common malignancy of the digestive system with high death rate. Accumulating evidences suggests that many dietary natural products are potential sources for prevention and treatment of liver cancer, such as grapes, black currant, plum, pomegranate, cruciferous vegetables, French beans, tomatoes, asparagus, garlic, turmeric, ginger, soy, rice bran, and some edible macro-fungi. These dietary natural products and their active components could affect the development and progression of liver cancer in various ways, such as inhibiting tumor cell growth and metastasis, protecting against liver carcinogens, immunomodulating and enhancing effects of chemotherapeutic drugs. This review summarizes the potential prevention and treatment activities of dietary natural products and their major bioactive constituents on liver cancer, and discusses possible mechanisms of action. PMID:26978396

  7. Dietary Natural Products for Prevention and Treatment of Liver Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Zhou, Tong; Zheng, Jie; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Liver cancer is the most common malignancy of the digestive system with high death rate. Accumulating evidences suggests that many dietary natural products are potential sources for prevention and treatment of liver cancer, such as grapes, black currant, plum, pomegranate, cruciferous vegetables, French beans, tomatoes, asparagus, garlic, turmeric, ginger, soy, rice bran, and some edible macro-fungi. These dietary natural products and their active components could affect the development and progression of liver cancer in various ways, such as inhibiting tumor cell growth and metastasis, protecting against liver carcinogens, immunomodulating and enhancing effects of chemotherapeutic drugs. This review summarizes the potential prevention and treatment activities of dietary natural products and their major bioactive constituents on liver cancer, and discusses possible mechanisms of action. PMID:26978396

  8. Dietary Natural Products for Prevention and Treatment of Liver Cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Zhou, Tong; Zheng, Jie; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-03-01

    Liver cancer is the most common malignancy of the digestive system with high death rate. Accumulating evidences suggests that many dietary natural products are potential sources for prevention and treatment of liver cancer, such as grapes, black currant, plum, pomegranate, cruciferous vegetables, French beans, tomatoes, asparagus, garlic, turmeric, ginger, soy, rice bran, and some edible macro-fungi. These dietary natural products and their active components could affect the development and progression of liver cancer in various ways, such as inhibiting tumor cell growth and metastasis, protecting against liver carcinogens, immunomodulating and enhancing effects of chemotherapeutic drugs. This review summarizes the potential prevention and treatment activities of dietary natural products and their major bioactive constituents on liver cancer, and discusses possible mechanisms of action.

  9. Effect of amount and source of supplemental dietary vegetable oil on broiler chickens exposed to aflatoxicosis.

    PubMed

    Raju, M V L N; Rama Rao, S V; Radhika, K; Panda, A K

    2005-10-01

    1. Addition of sunflower oil (SFO) at 30 or 60 g/kg or three vegetable oils, namely SFO, soybean (SBO) or groundnut (GNO), at 30 g/kg to isocaloric and isonitrogenous broiler chicken diets were evaluated for possible counteractive effects against aflatoxin (AF) (0.3 microg B1/g diet) from 0 to 42 d of age. 2. Body weight, food intake and serum concentration of protein were lower in the AF group than in the control, whereas in the SFO and SBO supplemented groups they were comparable with those of the control. Sunflower oil at both concentrations exerted similar effects on growth. Groundnut oil did not improve growth or food intake in AF-fed birds. 3. The serum concentration of cholesterol and triglycerides decreased with AF feeding and was increased by supplementation of any of the three oils both in the control and in AF-fed groups. 4. Liver and giblet weight and liver fat content were increased by AF; these effects were countered by dietary oil inclusion, except for liver weight at 60 g/kg SFO. Weights of pancreas and gall bladder were increased by AF. Oil supplementation reduced the weight of pancreas in chickens given AF. 5. Humoral immune response was depressed by AF and dietary oil supplementation (particularly SFO or SBO) countered this effect. Other variables, namely, serum gamma glutamyl transferase activity, bone mineralisation, weights of lymphoid organs, kidney and adrenals, ready-to-cook yields and fat content in muscle and skin showed little or no effect of dietary oil supplementation. 6. It is concluded that dietary inclusion of SFO or SBO at 30 g/kg may alleviate the adverse effects of 0.3 microg/g of AF B1 in commercial broiler chickens. Groundnut oil, although showing beneficial effects on some biochemical variables, failed to improve growth performance.

  10. Effect of dietary antioxidant and increasing corn oil inclusion on milk fat yield and fatty acid composition in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Boerman, J P; Preseault, C L; Lock, A L

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of a dietary synthetic antioxidant on feed intake, yields of milk and milk components and milk fatty acids (FA), in combination with increasing concentrations of dietary corn oil to provide increasing rumen unsaturated fatty acid load (RUFAL) challenges. Twenty-six Holstein cows (177 ± 57 d in milk; mean ± standard deviation) were assigned to treatment in a randomized complete block design. Treatments were a control diet (CON; n=13 cows) or the same diet supplemented with a synthetic antioxidant (AOX; 6.1g/d; dry blend of ethoxyquin and propyl gallate, Novus International Inc., St. Charles, MO; n=13 cows). In period 1 (21 d), no supplemental corn oil was fed; in periods 2, 3, and 4 (14 d each), corn oil was supplemented at 0.7, 1.4, and 2.8% of the diet [dry matter (DM) basis] to incrementally increase RUFAL. For all variables measured, no significant interactions were detected between treatment and period, indicating no differences between the CON and AOX treatments at all levels of oil inclusion. Intake of DM was lower for AOX compared with CON but AOX had no effect on milk yield or milk fat concentration and yield. Milk protein yield and feed efficiency (energy-corrected milk/DM intake) tended to be greater for AOX compared with CON. Increasing dietary corn oil concentration (RUFAL) decreased DM intake, milk yield, milk fat concentration and yield, and feed efficiency. The AOX treatment increased the concentration and yield of 16-carbon milk FA, with no effect on de novo (<16 carbon) or preformed (>16 carbon) milk FA. Milk FA concentration of trans-10 C18:1, trans-10,cis-12 C18:2, and trans-9,cis-11 C18:2 were unaffected by AOX but increased with increasing RUFAL. In conclusion, supplementation with AOX did not overcome the dietary-induced milk fat depression caused by increased RUFAL.

  11. Effects of dietary oregano and garlic essential oils on carcass characteristics, meat composition, colour, pH and sensory quality of broiler meat.

    PubMed

    Kirkpinar, F; Ünlü, H B; Serdaroğlu, M; Turp, G Y

    2014-01-01

    1. An experiment was conducted to determine the individual and combined effects of two essential oils, oregano and garlic, on carcass characteristics, meat composition, colour, pH and sensory quality of broiler meat. 2. The diets were supplemented with no essential oil (control), oregano essential oil or garlic essential oil at 300 mg/kg and oregano essential oil at 150 mg/kg + garlic essential oil at 150 mg/kg. 3. Dietary oregano and garlic oil supplementation did not affect carcass yields, the relative weight of carcass parts, breast and thigh meat composition, pH or b* value of breast meat. Oregano + garlic oil supplementation significantly decreased the L* value. The a* value of breast meat in birds given a diet supplemented with oregano oil was lower than that in birds given a diet supplemented with garlic oil and oregano oil + garlic oil. The essential oil addition had no positive effect on the oxidative stability. There was no difference between the treatments in breast appearance. 4. The juiciness, flavour, oxidised flavour and acceptability of breast meat samples were affected by treatments.

  12. Substitution of dietary fish oil with plant oils is associated with shortened mid intestinal folds in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Fish meal and fish oil are increasingly replaced by ingredients from terrestrial sources in the feeds for farmed salmonids due to expanding production and reduced availability of marine feed raw material. Fish oil that is rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids is considered beneficial to human health in general and to prevent intestinal inflammation and carcinogenesis in particular. In contrast, n-6 fatty acids that are present in many vegetable oils have been associated with increased risk of colitis and colon cancer in rodents and humans, as well as lowered transcription levels of certain stress and antioxidant-related genes in Atlantic salmon. The aim of the present study was to investigate the intestinal health in Atlantic salmon fed with different vegetable oils as partial substitutes of fish oil in the diet. A feed trial lasting for 28 weeks included one reference diet containing fish oil as the sole lipid source and three diets where 80% of the fish oil was replaced by a plant oil blend with either olive oil, rapeseed oil or soybean oil as the main lipid source. These plant oils have intermediate or low n-3/n-6-ratios compared to fish oil having a high n-3/n-6-ratio. The protein and carbohydrate fractions were identical in all the feeds. Results Morphometric measurements showed significantly shorter folds in the mid intestine in all groups fed vegetable oils compared to the group fed fish oil. In the distal intestine, the complex folds were significantly shorter in the fish fed soybean oil compared to the fish fed rapeseed oil. Histological and immunohistochemical examination did not show clear difference in the degree of inflammation or proliferation of epithelial cells related to dietary groups, which was further confirmed by real-time RT-PCR which revealed only moderate alterations in the mRNA transcript levels of selected immune-related genes. Conclusions Shortened intestinal folds might be associated with reduced intestinal surface and

  13. Influence of dietary grape pomace combined with linseed oil on fatty acid profile and milk composition.

    PubMed

    Manso, T; Gallardo, B; Salvá, A; Guerra-Rivas, C; Mantecón, A R; Lavín, P; de la Fuente, M A

    2016-02-01

    Grape pomace is a by-product resulting from the winery industry that is rich in phenolic compounds. It could play a role as an antioxidant and, owing to its high fiber concentration, it would be an alternative ingredient to partially replace forage in the diet of small ruminants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of vitamin E or different doses of grape pomace associated with linseed oil on milk fatty acid profile, composition, and yield. Forty-eight Churra ewes were fed with experimental diets consisting of a total mixed ration (TMR) containing 2.7% [on a dry matter (DM) basis] of linseed oil, forage, and concentrate at a 40:60 ratio. Ewes were assigned to 1 of 4 treatments: control (without grape pomace), vitamin E (with 500 mg/kg of TMR of vitamin E), grape pomace-5 (5 g/100 g of TMR of DM of grape pomace), and grape pomace-10 (10 g/100 g of TMR of DM of grape pomace). Experimental diets did not affect DM intake and milk yield and composition. The vitamin E supplementation had only a moderate effect on milk concentration of fatty acids (increase in α-linolenic acid and 16:0 and decrease in cis-9 18:1). Grape pomace supplementation did not affect the percentages of total saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Levels of α-linolenic acid reached about 1% of total fatty acids as a consequence of the presence of linseed oil in the diets, were not modified with vitamin E, and remained unaltered in grape pomace-5 and -10 treatments. Linoleic acid was increased by the highest dose of grape pomace, but this ingredient did not modify the cis-9,trans-11 18:2 milk fat content. The concentration of total odd- and branched-chain fatty acids did not diminish in grape pomace-5 and pomace-10 treatments. The presence of grape residue did not modified the trans-11 18:1 and trans-10 18:1 contents, which might indicate that, under the conditions assayed, this winery by-product would not alter the pathways of

  14. Influence of dietary grape pomace combined with linseed oil on fatty acid profile and milk composition.

    PubMed

    Manso, T; Gallardo, B; Salvá, A; Guerra-Rivas, C; Mantecón, A R; Lavín, P; de la Fuente, M A

    2016-02-01

    Grape pomace is a by-product resulting from the winery industry that is rich in phenolic compounds. It could play a role as an antioxidant and, owing to its high fiber concentration, it would be an alternative ingredient to partially replace forage in the diet of small ruminants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of vitamin E or different doses of grape pomace associated with linseed oil on milk fatty acid profile, composition, and yield. Forty-eight Churra ewes were fed with experimental diets consisting of a total mixed ration (TMR) containing 2.7% [on a dry matter (DM) basis] of linseed oil, forage, and concentrate at a 40:60 ratio. Ewes were assigned to 1 of 4 treatments: control (without grape pomace), vitamin E (with 500 mg/kg of TMR of vitamin E), grape pomace-5 (5 g/100 g of TMR of DM of grape pomace), and grape pomace-10 (10 g/100 g of TMR of DM of grape pomace). Experimental diets did not affect DM intake and milk yield and composition. The vitamin E supplementation had only a moderate effect on milk concentration of fatty acids (increase in α-linolenic acid and 16:0 and decrease in cis-9 18:1). Grape pomace supplementation did not affect the percentages of total saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Levels of α-linolenic acid reached about 1% of total fatty acids as a consequence of the presence of linseed oil in the diets, were not modified with vitamin E, and remained unaltered in grape pomace-5 and -10 treatments. Linoleic acid was increased by the highest dose of grape pomace, but this ingredient did not modify the cis-9,trans-11 18:2 milk fat content. The concentration of total odd- and branched-chain fatty acids did not diminish in grape pomace-5 and pomace-10 treatments. The presence of grape residue did not modified the trans-11 18:1 and trans-10 18:1 contents, which might indicate that, under the conditions assayed, this winery by-product would not alter the pathways of

  15. Administration of dietary fish oil capsules in healthy middle-aged Japanese men with a high level of fish consumption.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, N; Watanabe, Y; Kumagai, M; Fujimoto, K

    2009-01-01

    The nutritional effects of fish oil, which is rich in the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, have been reported. In this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover study, we evaluated the effects of dietary fish oil capsules on the hematological parameters of healthy middle-aged Japanese men with a high level of fish oil consumption. Over a 4-week period, subjects were administered five fish oil or olive oil (placebo) capsules with every meal (1,260 mg eicosapentaenoic acid and 540 mg docosahexaenoic acid/day). There was a 4-week washout period between the treatment phases. The results did not demonstrate a decrease in plasma triacylglycerol, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and whole-blood viscosity. Further, no changes in the fatty acid composition of plasma and erythrocyte phospholipids were noted. These results suggested that the supplementation of fish oil might be effective only for those subjects who have a lower level of fish oil consumption. PMID:19255890

  16. Dietary Strategies for the Treatment of Cadmium and Lead Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Qixiao; Narbad, Arjan; Chen, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) are toxic heavy metals that cause adverse health effects in humans and animals. Chelation therapy, the conventional treatment for heavy metal toxicity, is reported to have a number of safety and efficacy issues. Recent studies have shown that dietary supplements play important roles in protecting against Cd and Pb toxicity. This paper reviews the evidence for protective effects of essential metals, vitamins, edible plants, phytochemicals, probiotics and other dietary supplements against Cd and Pb toxicity and describes the proposed possible mechanisms. Based on these findings, dietary strategies are recommended for people at risk of Cd and Pb exposure. The application of these strategies is advantageous for both the prevention and alleviation of Cd and Pb toxicity, as such supplements can be added easily and affordably to the daily diet and are expected to have very few side effects compared to the chelation therapy. PMID:25594439

  17. DIETARY AGENTS FOR PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF LUNG CANCER

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Naghma; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is a prominent cause of cancer-associated mortality worldwide. The main reason for high mortality due to lung cancer is attributable to the fact that the diagnosis is generally made when it has spread beyond a curable stage and cannot be treated surgically or with radiation therapy. Therefore, new approaches like dietary modifications could be extremely useful in reducing lung cancer incidences. Several fruits and vegetables offer a variety of bioactive compounds to afford protection against several diseases, including lung cancer. A number of research studies involving dietary agents provide strong evidence for their role in the prevention and treatment of lung cancer, and have identified their molecular mechanisms of action and potential targets. In this review article, we summarize data from in-vitro and in-vivo studies and where available, in clinical trials, on the effects of some of the most promising dietary agents against lung cancer. PMID:25644088

  18. Dietary Polyphenols in Prevention and Treatment of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lall, Rahul K.; Syed, Deeba N.; Adhami, Vaqar M.; Khan, Mohammad Imran; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most prevalent disease affecting males in many Western countries, with an estimated 29,480 deaths in 2014 in the US alone. Incidence rates for prostate cancer deaths have been decreasing since the early 1990s in men of all races/ethnicities, though they remain about 60% higher in African Americans than in any other group. The relationship between dietary polyphenols and the prevention of prostate cancer has been examined previously. Although results are sometimes inconsistent and variable, there is a general agreement that polyphenols hold great promise for the future management of prostate cancer. Various dietary components, including polyphenols, have been shown to possess anti-cancer properties. Generally considered as non-toxic, dietary polyphenols act as key modulators of signaling pathways and are therefore considered ideal chemopreventive agents. Besides possessing various anti-tumor properties, dietary polyphenols also contribute to epigenetic changes associated with the fate of cancer cells and have emerged as potential drugs for therapeutic intervention. Polyphenols have also been shown to affect post-translational modifications and microRNA expressions. This article provides a systematic review of the health benefits of selected dietary polyphenols in prostate cancer, especially focusing on the subclasses of polyphenols, which have a great effect on disease prevention and treatment. PMID:25654230

  19. Dietary polyphenols in prevention and treatment of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Lall, Rahul K; Syed, Deeba N; Adhami, Vaqar M; Khan, Mohammad Imran; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2015-02-03

    Prostate cancer is the most prevalent disease affecting males in many Western countries, with an estimated 29,480 deaths in 2014 in the US alone. Incidence rates for prostate cancer deaths have been decreasing since the early 1990s in men of all races/ethnicities, though they remain about 60% higher in African Americans than in any other group. The relationship between dietary polyphenols and the prevention of prostate cancer has been examined previously. Although results are sometimes inconsistent and variable, there is a general agreement that polyphenols hold great promise for the future management of prostate cancer. Various dietary components, including polyphenols, have been shown to possess anti-cancer properties. Generally considered as non-toxic, dietary polyphenols act as key modulators of signaling pathways and are therefore considered ideal chemopreventive agents. Besides possessing various anti-tumor properties, dietary polyphenols also contribute to epigenetic changes associated with the fate of cancer cells and have emerged as potential drugs for therapeutic intervention. Polyphenols have also been shown to affect post-translational modifications and microRNA expressions. This article provides a systematic review of the health benefits of selected dietary polyphenols in prostate cancer, especially focusing on the subclasses of polyphenols, which have a great effect on disease prevention and treatment.

  20. Diet and eczema: a review of dietary supplements for the treatment of atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Schlichte, Megan J; Vandersall, Abbey; Katta, Rajani

    2016-07-01

    In the context of increasing popularity of "natural" alternatives to conventional medicine, several dietary supplements have gained the attention of researchers and consumers alike in the treatment of atopic dermatitis (AD). Readily available without a prescription and frequently perceived to have fewer side effects than traditional medications, these "natural" remedies may be featured in discussions with patients, and clinicians should therefore be familiar with their efficacy and safety. Based on trials to date, no dietary supplements can be recommended for routine use in the treatment of AD. However, some promising results have been noted from the use of probiotics and prebiotics taken in combination. Given significant differences in study design to date, however, further studies would be needed to clarify dose and strains of probiotics. Studies of vitamin D have been limited and have produced conflicting results, although further trials in selected subsets of patients may be indicated. Very limited data is available on fish oil supplements, while future studies on Chinese herbal medicine would require evaluation of comparable herbs and formulations. Finally, multiple trials of evening primrose oil and borage seed oil have shown improvement similar to placebo, and neither is currently recommended in eczema therapy.

  1. Diet and eczema: a review of dietary supplements for the treatment of atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Schlichte, Megan J.; Vandersall, Abbey; Katta, Rajani

    2016-01-01

    In the context of increasing popularity of “natural” alternatives to conventional medicine, several dietary supplements have gained the attention of researchers and consumers alike in the treatment of atopic dermatitis (AD). Readily available without a prescription and frequently perceived to have fewer side effects than traditional medications, these “natural” remedies may be featured in discussions with patients, and clinicians should therefore be familiar with their efficacy and safety. Based on trials to date, no dietary supplements can be recommended for routine use in the treatment of AD. However, some promising results have been noted from the use of probiotics and prebiotics taken in combination. Given significant differences in study design to date, however, further studies would be needed to clarify dose and strains of probiotics. Studies of vitamin D have been limited and have produced conflicting results, although further trials in selected subsets of patients may be indicated. Very limited data is available on fish oil supplements, while future studies on Chinese herbal medicine would require evaluation of comparable herbs and formulations. Finally, multiple trials of evening primrose oil and borage seed oil have shown improvement similar to placebo, and neither is currently recommended in eczema therapy.

  2. Diet and eczema: a review of dietary supplements for the treatment of atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Schlichte, Megan J; Vandersall, Abbey; Katta, Rajani

    2016-07-01

    In the context of increasing popularity of "natural" alternatives to conventional medicine, several dietary supplements have gained the attention of researchers and consumers alike in the treatment of atopic dermatitis (AD). Readily available without a prescription and frequently perceived to have fewer side effects than traditional medications, these "natural" remedies may be featured in discussions with patients, and clinicians should therefore be familiar with their efficacy and safety. Based on trials to date, no dietary supplements can be recommended for routine use in the treatment of AD. However, some promising results have been noted from the use of probiotics and prebiotics taken in combination. Given significant differences in study design to date, however, further studies would be needed to clarify dose and strains of probiotics. Studies of vitamin D have been limited and have produced conflicting results, although further trials in selected subsets of patients may be indicated. Very limited data is available on fish oil supplements, while future studies on Chinese herbal medicine would require evaluation of comparable herbs and formulations. Finally, multiple trials of evening primrose oil and borage seed oil have shown improvement similar to placebo, and neither is currently recommended in eczema therapy. PMID:27648380

  3. Diet and eczema: a review of dietary supplements for the treatment of atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Schlichte, Megan J.; Vandersall, Abbey; Katta, Rajani

    2016-01-01

    In the context of increasing popularity of “natural” alternatives to conventional medicine, several dietary supplements have gained the attention of researchers and consumers alike in the treatment of atopic dermatitis (AD). Readily available without a prescription and frequently perceived to have fewer side effects than traditional medications, these “natural” remedies may be featured in discussions with patients, and clinicians should therefore be familiar with their efficacy and safety. Based on trials to date, no dietary supplements can be recommended for routine use in the treatment of AD. However, some promising results have been noted from the use of probiotics and prebiotics taken in combination. Given significant differences in study design to date, however, further studies would be needed to clarify dose and strains of probiotics. Studies of vitamin D have been limited and have produced conflicting results, although further trials in selected subsets of patients may be indicated. Very limited data is available on fish oil supplements, while future studies on Chinese herbal medicine would require evaluation of comparable herbs and formulations. Finally, multiple trials of evening primrose oil and borage seed oil have shown improvement similar to placebo, and neither is currently recommended in eczema therapy. PMID:27648380

  4. Dietary fish oil affects food intake, growth and hematologic values of weanling rats.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Z; Bosch, V

    1994-06-01

    The object of this study was to evaluate the effect of increasing amounts of dietary fish oil on growth and hematological variables of the weanling male Sprague-Dawley rat. Animals were fed diets containing either fish oil (FO) or sesame oil (SO) at 5, 10 or 15% (w/w) for 31 d. Growth retardation and reduced food intake was noted in groups fed FO. Hemoglobin (Hb) concentration diminished when the dietary FO was above 5% (w/w). FO is a poor source of (n-6) fatty acids. We postulate that a partial deficiency in (n-6) polyenic family, is a consequence of the increasing amounts of FO in the diets, that may affect growth and erytropoiesis. In this report we show evidence supporting the hypothesis that diets enriched with fish oil can alter normal growth and induced hematological changes in the male weanling rat.

  5. Effect of dietary vitamin E and selenium supplementation on growth, body composition, and antioxidant defense mechanism in juvenile largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) fed oxidized fish oil.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong-Jun; Liu, Yong-Jian; Tian, Li-Xia; Niu, Jin; Liang, Gui-Ying; Yang, Hui-Jun; Yuan, Yuan; Zhang, Yun-Qiang

    2013-06-01

    Six oxidized fish oil contained diets were formulated to investigate the effect of graded levels of vitamin E (V(E)) (α-tocopherol acetate: 160, 280, and 400 mg kg(-1)) associated with either 1.2 or 1.8 mg kg(-1) selenium (Se) on growth, body composition, and antioxidant defense mechanism of juvenile largemouth bass. Another control diet containing fresh fish oil with 160 mg kg(-1) V(E) and 1.2 mg kg(-1) Se was also prepared. Over a 12-week feeding trial, about 5 % of Micropterus salmoide fed diet OxSe1.2/V(E)160 showed inflammation and hemorrhage symptoms at the base of dorsal, pectoral, and tail fin. Fish in all treatments survived well (above 90 %). Feed intakes (88.42-89.58 g fish(-1)) of all treatments were comparable. Growth performances (weight gain and specific growth rate) and feed utilization (feed and protein efficiency ratio) were significantly impaired by dietary oil oxidation, and they did not benefit from neither V(E) nor Se supplementation. Regardless of dietary V(E) and Se supplementation, oxidized oil ingestion resulted in markedly decreased hepatosomatic index and intraperitoneal fat ratio. Oxidized oil ingestion also induced markedly lower liver and muscle lipid contents, and these effects could be alleviated by dietary Se supplementation. Dietary oil oxidation stimulated hepatic catalase activities relative to the control, and supplementation of V(E) abrogated this effect. Hepatic reduced glutathione content in the control was markedly higher than that of treatment OxSe1.2/V(E)160, without any significant differences comparing with the other oxidized oil receiving groups. Hepatic glutathione peroxidase activity and liver Se concentration reflected dietary Se profile, whereas liver V(E) level reflected dietary V(E) profile. Compared with the control, fish fed diet OxSe1.2/V(E)160 obtained markedly higher serum, liver and muscle malondialdehyde contents, which droppe significantly with increasing either V(E) or Se supplementation. In conclusion

  6. Effect of dietary vitamin E and selenium supplementation on growth, body composition, and antioxidant defense mechanism in juvenile largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) fed oxidized fish oil.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong-Jun; Liu, Yong-Jian; Tian, Li-Xia; Niu, Jin; Liang, Gui-Ying; Yang, Hui-Jun; Yuan, Yuan; Zhang, Yun-Qiang

    2013-06-01

    Six oxidized fish oil contained diets were formulated to investigate the effect of graded levels of vitamin E (V(E)) (α-tocopherol acetate: 160, 280, and 400 mg kg(-1)) associated with either 1.2 or 1.8 mg kg(-1) selenium (Se) on growth, body composition, and antioxidant defense mechanism of juvenile largemouth bass. Another control diet containing fresh fish oil with 160 mg kg(-1) V(E) and 1.2 mg kg(-1) Se was also prepared. Over a 12-week feeding trial, about 5 % of Micropterus salmoide fed diet OxSe1.2/V(E)160 showed inflammation and hemorrhage symptoms at the base of dorsal, pectoral, and tail fin. Fish in all treatments survived well (above 90 %). Feed intakes (88.42-89.58 g fish(-1)) of all treatments were comparable. Growth performances (weight gain and specific growth rate) and feed utilization (feed and protein efficiency ratio) were significantly impaired by dietary oil oxidation, and they did not benefit from neither V(E) nor Se supplementation. Regardless of dietary V(E) and Se supplementation, oxidized oil ingestion resulted in markedly decreased hepatosomatic index and intraperitoneal fat ratio. Oxidized oil ingestion also induced markedly lower liver and muscle lipid contents, and these effects could be alleviated by dietary Se supplementation. Dietary oil oxidation stimulated hepatic catalase activities relative to the control, and supplementation of V(E) abrogated this effect. Hepatic reduced glutathione content in the control was markedly higher than that of treatment OxSe1.2/V(E)160, without any significant differences comparing with the other oxidized oil receiving groups. Hepatic glutathione peroxidase activity and liver Se concentration reflected dietary Se profile, whereas liver V(E) level reflected dietary V(E) profile. Compared with the control, fish fed diet OxSe1.2/V(E)160 obtained markedly higher serum, liver and muscle malondialdehyde contents, which droppe significantly with increasing either V(E) or Se supplementation. In conclusion

  7. Dietary Fats and Oils: Knowledge and Preferences of School-Aged Children in Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimvraki, Eleni; Athanasiou, Kyriakos; Makris, George

    1997-01-01

    Investigated knowledge and preferences of 176 Greek children, aged 9 to 11, with regard to dietary oils and fats. Results indicate that these children lacked the knowledge they needed to make healthy food choices, and that teaching strategies should be developed to address their needs. (SLD)

  8. Non-dietary forms of treatment for adult celiac disease

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Hugh James

    2013-01-01

    At present, treatment for celiac disease includes a strict gluten-free diet. Compliance, however, is difficult and gluten-free food products are costly, and, sometimes very inconvenient. A number of potential alternative measures have been proposed to either replace or supplement gluten-free diet therapy. In the past, non-dietary forms of treatment were used (e.g., corticosteroids) by some clinicians, often to supplement a gluten-free diet in patients that appeared to be poorly responsive to a gluten-free diet. Some of new and novel non-dietary measures have already advanced to a clinical trial phase. There are still some difficulties even if initial studies suggest a particularly exciting and novel form of non-dietary treatment. In particular, precise monitoring of the response to these agents will become critical. Symptom or laboratory improvement may be important, but it will be critical to ensure that ongoing inflammatory change and mucosal injury are not present. Therapeutic trials will be made more difficult because there is already an effective treatment regimen. PMID:24199026

  9. Effects of dietary rosemary, rosemary volatile oil and vitamin E on broiler performance, meat quality and serum SOD activity.

    PubMed

    Yesilbag, D; Eren, M; Agel, H; Kovanlikaya, A; Balci, F

    2011-08-01

    1. The current study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with vitamin E (as alpha-tocopherol acetate), dried rosemary leaves and rosemary volatile oil on the performance, meat quality (measured as sensory variables, pH, colour, malondialdehyde (MDA) level, and bacteria count) and serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in broilers fed on maize-soybean meal based diets. 2. A total of 800 broiler chicks were randomly allocated to 8 dietary treatments, which were set up with 1 control group and 7 experimental groups. The control group (VitE1) was given a basal diet including 50 mg/kg alpha-tocopherol acetate, while the experimental groups were given 5 x 7 g/kg rosemary plant (R1), 8 x 6 g/kg plant (R2), 11 x 5 g/kg plant (R3), 100 mg/kg plant oil (RO1), 150 mg/kg plant oil (RO2), 200 mg/kg plant oil (RO3) or 200 mg/kg alpha-tocopherol acetate (VitE2). 3. Although there were no statistical differences observed for feed consumption, other performance variables including live weight gain, feed efficiency and carcase yield were significantly affected. The addition of rosemary volatile oil had more effect on the performance variables than did the rosemary plant itself. 4. As a measure of meat shelf life, TBA analyses were performed on the meat samples on d 1, 3 and 5 after culling. Meat MDA levels of groups fed diets with rosemary and rosemary volatile oil were significantly lower than that of groups fed diets containing alpha-tocopherol acetate alone. 5. Significant differences were also seen between the control and experimental groups for meat colour and meat pH values as well as for sensory analyses. 6. Microbiological analyses conducted at the end of the experiment showed that E. coli counts were significantly reduced in meat samples from the experimental groups. 7. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with rosemary and its volatile oil improved broiler meat quality. Moreover growth performance was positively affected by the rosemary

  10. Replacement of dietary fish oils by alpha-linolenic acid-rich oils lowers omega 3 content in tilapia flesh.

    PubMed

    Karapanagiotidis, Ioannis T; Bell, Michael V; Little, David C; Yakupitiyage, Amararatne

    2007-06-01

    A 20-week feeding trial was conducted to determine whether increasing linolenic acid (18:3n-3) in vegetable oil (VO) based diets would lead to increased tissue deposition of 22:6n-3 in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Five isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were supplemented with 3% of either linseed oil (LO), a mixture of linseed oil with refined palm olein oil (PO) (LO-PO 2:1) and a mixture of refined palm olein oil with linseed oil (PO-LO 3:2) or with fish oil (FO) or corn oil (CO) as controls. The PO-LO, LO-PO and LO diets supplied a similar amount of 18:2n-6 (0.5% of diet by dry weight) and 0.5, 0.7 and 1.1% of 18:3n-3, respectively. Increased dietary 18:3n-3 caused commensurate increases in longer-chain n-3 PUFA and decreases in longer-chain n-6 PUFA in the muscle lipids of tilapia. However, the biosynthetic activities of fish fed the LO-based diets were not sufficient to raise the tissue concentrations of 20:5n-3, 22:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 to those of fish fed FO. The study suggests that tilapia (O. niloticus) has a limited capacity to synthesise 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 from dietary 18:3n-3. The replacement of FO in the diet of farmed tilapia with vegetable oils could therefore lower tissue concentrations of 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3, and consequently produce an aquaculture product of lower lipid nutritional value for the consumer.

  11. Effects of Dietary Coconut Oil as a Medium-chain Fatty Acid Source on Performance, Carcass Composition and Serum Lipids in Male Broilers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianhong; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Li, Juntao; Chen, Yiqiang; Yang, Wenjun; Zhang, Liying

    2015-02-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary coconut oil as a medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA) source on performance, carcass composition and serum lipids in male broilers. A total of 540, one-day-old, male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly allotted to 1 of 5 treatments with each treatment being applied to 6 replicates of 18 chicks. The basal diet (i.e., R0) was based on corn and soybean meal and was supplemented with 1.5% soybean oil during the starter phase (d 0 to 21) and 3.0% soybean oil during the grower phase (d 22 to 42). Four experimental diets were formulated by replacing 25%, 50%, 75%, or 100% of the soybean oil with coconut oil (i.e., R25, R50, R75, and R100). Soybean oil and coconut oil were used as sources of long-chain fatty acid and MCFA, respectively. The feeding trial showed that dietary coconut oil had no effect on weight gain, feed intake or feed conversion. On d 42, serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were linearly decreased as the coconut oil level increased (p<0.01). Lipoprotein lipase, hepatic lipase, and total lipase activities were linearly increased as the coconut oil level increased (p<0.01). Abdominal fat weight/eviscerated weight (p = 0.05), intermuscular fat width (p<0.01) and subcutaneous fat thickness (p<0.01) showed a significant quadratic relationship, with the lowest value at R75. These results indicated that replacement of 75% of the soybean oil in diets with coconut oil is the optimum level to reduce fat deposition and favorably affect lipid profiles without impairing performance in broilers.

  12. Effects of Dietary Coconut Oil as a Medium-chain Fatty Acid Source on Performance, Carcass Composition and Serum Lipids in Male Broilers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianhong; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Li, Juntao; Chen, Yiqiang; Yang, Wenjun; Zhang, Liying

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary coconut oil as a medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA) source on performance, carcass composition and serum lipids in male broilers. A total of 540, one-day-old, male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly allotted to 1 of 5 treatments with each treatment being applied to 6 replicates of 18 chicks. The basal diet (i.e., R0) was based on corn and soybean meal and was supplemented with 1.5% soybean oil during the starter phase (d 0 to 21) and 3.0% soybean oil during the grower phase (d 22 to 42). Four experimental diets were formulated by replacing 25%, 50%, 75%, or 100% of the soybean oil with coconut oil (i.e., R25, R50, R75, and R100). Soybean oil and coconut oil were used as sources of long-chain fatty acid and MCFA, respectively. The feeding trial showed that dietary coconut oil had no effect on weight gain, feed intake or feed conversion. On d 42, serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were linearly decreased as the coconut oil level increased (p<0.01). Lipoprotein lipase, hepatic lipase, and total lipase activities were linearly increased as the coconut oil level increased (p<0.01). Abdominal fat weight/eviscerated weight (p = 0.05), intermuscular fat width (p<0.01) and subcutaneous fat thickness (p<0.01) showed a significant quadratic relationship, with the lowest value at R75. These results indicated that replacement of 75% of the soybean oil in diets with coconut oil is the optimum level to reduce fat deposition and favorably affect lipid profiles without impairing performance in broilers. PMID:25557818

  13. Dietary fish oil affects monoaminergic neurotransmission and behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Chalon, S; Delion-Vancassel, S; Belzung, C; Guilloteau, D; Leguisquet, A M; Besnard, J C; Durand, G

    1998-12-01

    We studied the effects of a fish oil enriched diet on fatty acid composition of cerebral membranes and on several neurochemical and behavioral variables of monoaminergic function in rats. The frontal cortex, striatum, hippocampus and cerebellum were studied in rats fed fish oil (FPO, 50% salmon oil + 50% palm oil), which provided an (n-6)/(n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratio of 0.14 versus 6. 19 in controls fed a diet containing a mixture of African peanut oil and rapeseed oil. In the FPO group compared to the control group, the major modifications in fatty acid composition of cerebral membranes included the following: higher levels in 22:6(n-3), lower levels in 20:4(n-6) and a significantly greater proportion of phosphatidylserine. Dopamine levels were 40% greater in the frontal cortex of rats fed FPO than from those fed the control diet. In this cerebral region there was also a reduction in monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) activity and greater binding to dopamine D2 receptors. By contrast, a lower binding to dopamine D2 receptors (-7%) was observed in the striatum. Ambulatory activity was also reduced in FPO-fed rats, possibly related to observed changes in striatal dopaminergic receptors. This suggested that the level of (n-6) PUFA, which was considerably lower in the FPO diet than in the control diet, could act on locomotion through an effect on striatal dopaminergic function, whereas the high level of (n-3) PUFA could act on cortical dopaminergic function.

  14. Dietary fish oil diminishes lymphocyte adhesion to macrophage and endothelial cell monolayers.

    PubMed Central

    Sanderson, P; Calder, P C

    1998-01-01

    To further investigate the immunomodulatory effects of dietary lipids, rats were fed on a low-fat diet or on high-fat diets that contained hydrogenated coconut, olive, safflower, evening primrose or fish oil as the principal fat source. The fish oil diet decreased the level of expression of CD2, CD11a, CD18 and CD44 on the surface of freshly prepared lymphocytes and of CD2, CD11a, CD18, CD54 (intercellular adhesion molecule-1; ICAM-1) and CD62L (L-selectin) on the surface of concanavalin A (Con A)-stimulated lymphocytes. The olive oil diet also resulted in decreased expression of some adhesion molecules. The fish or olive oil diets, and to a lesser extent the safflower or evening primrose oil diets, decreased the adhesion of both freshly prepared and Con A-stimulated lymphocytes to macrophage monolayers. The fish oil diet, and to a lesser extent the olive or evening primrose oil diets, reduced the ability of Con A-stimulated lymphocytes to adhere to untreated endothelial cells. Furthermore, the fish oil diet resulted in a 50% reduction in Con A-stimulated lymphocyte adhesion to tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-stimulated endothelial cells. This study demonstrates that dietary lipids affect the expression of functionally important adhesion molecules on the surface of lymphocytes. Furthermore, this study suggests that such diet-induced effects on adhesion molecule expression might alter the ability of lymphocytes to bind to macrophages and to endothelial cells. Of the diets studied fish oil causes the most significant effects. The results of this study suggest that a reduction in cellular infiltration may partly explain the protective effect of a fish-oil-rich diet against the development of inflammatory and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:9708190

  15. Herbal and dietary supplements for treatment of anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Sy Atezaz; Bloch, Richard M; Antonacci, Diana J

    2007-08-15

    Use of complementary and alternative medicine has increased over the past decade. A variety of studies have suggested that this use is greater in persons with symptoms or diagnoses of anxiety and depression. Data support the effectiveness of some popular herbal remedies and dietary supplements; in some of these products, particularly kava, the potential for benefit seems greater than that for harm with short-term use in patients with mild to moderate anxiety. Inositol has been found to have modest effects in patients with panic disorder or obsessive-compulsive disorder. Physicians should not encourage the use of St. John's wort, valerian, Sympathyl, or passionflower for the treatment of anxiety based on small or inconsistent effects in small studies. Although the evidence varies depending on the supplement and the anxiety disorder, physicians can collaborate with patients in developing dietary supplement strategies that minimize risks and maximize benefits. PMID:17853630

  16. Analysis of 1,3 dimethylamylamine concentrations in Geraniaceae, geranium oil and dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Austin, Krista G; Travis, John; Pace, Gerry; Lieberman, Harris R

    2014-01-01

    1,3-Dimethylamylamine (DMAA) is a sympathomimetic compound currently incorporated into some dietary supplements. Significant controversy exists regarding the 'natural' origin of DMAA, as claimed by manufacturers of supplements. Manufacturers often refer to its presence by the name Geranamine® implying that DMAA is found in the plant species Geranium and Pelargonium known collectively as Geraniaceae. This study determined whether DMAA is present in the plant species, Geranium and Pelargonium. In addition, concentrations of DMAA in popular dietary supplements and commercial Geranium and Pelargonium oils were assessed. One Pelargonium cultivar, one Geranium cultivar, three essential oils from Pelargonium or Geranium, raw DMAA powder, and seven dietary supplements (DS) sold as finished products and labelled as containing DMAA, or one of its synonyms, were analyzed for the presence of DMAA by ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). No measurable levels of DMAA in Geranium, Pelargonium or essential oils at a detection limit of 1-2 ng/g were present. UPLC/MS/MS analysis confirmed the presence of DMAA in spiked plant and oil samples, all seven DS products, and raw DMAA powder. Concentrations (weight%) of DMAA provided in DS ranged from 0.11% to 673%. This study indicates DMAA contained in DS is of a synthetic origin and is not present in the plant species Geranium and Pelargonium; thus the 'natural' origin and use of DMAA as an ingredient in DS is not substantiated. PMID:23704033

  17. Dietary borage oil alters plasma, hepatic and vascular tissue fatty acid composition in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Engler, M M; Engler, M B

    1998-07-01

    Dietary borage oil rich in gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) has been shown to lower blood pressure in Wistar Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). A potential mechanism for this effect may be attributed to changes in metabolism of GLA to dihomogamma-linolenic (DGLA) and arachidonic acids (AA). We investigated the effects of dietary borage oil on fatty acid composition in the plasma, liver and vascular tissue in WKY and SHR. The diet significantly increased the levels of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. GLA and DGLA levels in the plasma, liver, aorta and renal artery tissues increased in SHR (P < 0.001) and WKY (P < 0.001). AA levels were also increased in both plasma and liver of SHR (P < 0.05) and WKY (P < 0.05) fed the borage oil enriched diet. The results demonstrate that dietary borage oil produces marked changes in the metabolism of GLA which may contribute to its blood pressure lowering effect in WKY and SHR.

  18. Dietary Fish Oil Blocks the Microcirculatory Manifestations of Ischemia- Reperfusion Injury in Striated Muscle in Hamsters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehr, Hans-Anton; Hubner, Christoph; Nolte, Dirk; Kohlschutter, Alfried; Messmer, Konrad

    1991-08-01

    Epidemiologic observations and experimental studies have demonstrated a protective effect of dietary fish oil on the clinical manifestations of ischemia-reperfusion injury. To investigate the underlying mechanisms, we used the dorsal skinfold chamber model for intravital fluorescence microscopy of the microcirculation in striated muscle of awake hamsters. In control hamsters (n = 7), reperfusion after a 4-hr pressure-induced ischemia to the muscle tissue elicited the adhesion of fluorescently stained leukocytes to the endothelium of postcapillary venules, capillary obstruction, and the breakdown of endothelial integrity. These microvascular manifestations of ischemia-reperfusion injury were significantly attenuated in animals (n = 7) when fed with a fish oil-enriched diet for 4 weeks prior to the experiments. In leukocyte total lipids, the fish oil diet resulted in a substantial displacement of arachidonic acid, the precursor of the potent adhesionpromoting leukotriene (LT) B_4, by fish oil-derived eicosapentaenoic acid, the precursor of biologically less potent LTB_5, emphasizing the mediator role of LTB_4 in ischemia-reperfusion injury. These results suggest that the preservation of microvascular perfusion by dietary fish oil contributes to its protective effects on the clinical manifestations of ischemia-reperfusion injury.

  19. Impact of dietary oils and fats on lipid peroxidation in liver and blood of albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Haggag, Mohammad El-Sayed Yassin El-Sayed; Elsanhoty, Rafaat Mohamed; Ramadan, Mohamed Fawzy

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of different dietary fat and oils (differing in their degree of saturation and unsaturation) on lipid peroxidation in liver and blood of rats. Methods The study was conducted on 50 albino rats that were randomly divided into 5 groups of 10 animals. The groups were fed on dietary butter (Group I), margarine (Group II), olive oil (Group III), sunflower oil (Group IV) and corn oil (Group V) for 7 weeks. After 12 h of diet removal, livers were excised and blood was collected to measure malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the supernatant of liver homogenate and in blood. Blood superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), glutathione peroxidase activity (GPx), serum vitamin E and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels were also measured to determine the effects of fats and oils on lipid peroxidation. Results The results indicated that no significant differences were observed in SOD activity, vitamin E and TAC levels between the five groups. However, there was significant decrease of GPx activity in groups IV and V when compared with other groups. The results indicated that feeding corn oil caused significant increases in liver and blood MDA levels as compared with other oils and fats. There were positive correlations between SOD and GPx, vitamin E and TAC as well as between GPx and TAC (r: 0.743; P<0.001) and between blood MDA and liver MDA (r: 0.897; P<0.001). The results showed also negative correlations between blood MDA on one hand and SOD, GPx, vitamin E and TAC on the other hand. Conclusions The results demonstrated that feeding oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) increases lipid peroxidation significantly and may raise the susceptibility of tissues to free radical oxidative damage. PMID:24144131

  20. EFFECT OF CYLOOXYGENASE GENOTYPE AND DIETARY FISH OIL ON COLONIC EICOSANOIDS IN MICE

    PubMed Central

    Neilson, Andrew P.; Djuric, Zora; Ren, Jianwei; Hong, Yu H.; Sen, Ananda; Lager, Corey; Jiang, Yan; Reuven, Shony; Smith, William L.; Brenner, Dean E.

    2011-01-01

    Dietary ω3 fatty acids can modulate substrate availability for cyclooxygenases and lipoxygenases, thus modulating downstream eicosanoid formation. This could be an alternative approach to using NSAIDs and other COX inhibitors for limiting PGE2 synthesis in colon cancer prevention. The aims of this study were to evaluate to what extent cyclooxygenase- and lipoxygenase-derived products could be modulated by dietary fish oil in normal colonic mucosa, and to evaluate the role of COX-1 and COX-2 in formation of these products. Mice (wild-type, COX-1 null, or COX-2 null) were fed a diet supplying a broad mixture of fatty acids present in European/American diets, supplemented with either olive oil (oleate control diet) or menhaden (fish) oil ad libitum for 9–11 wk. Colonic eicosanoid levels were measured by LC-MS/MS, and proliferation was assessed by Ki67 immunohistochemistry. Dietary alteration of colonic arachidonic acid: eicosapentaenoic ratios resulted in large shifts in formation of cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase metabolites. COX-1 knockout virtually abolished PGE2 formation but interestingly 12-HETE and 15-HETE formation was increased. The large changes in eicosanoid profiles were accompanied by relatively small changes in colonic crypt proliferation, but such changes in eicosanoid formation might have greater biological impact upon carcinogen challenge. These results indicate that in normal colon, inhibition of COX-2 would have little effect on reducing PGE2 levels. PMID:21937210

  1. The effect of dietary lipid on skin tumor promotion by benzoyl peroxide: comparison of fish, coconut and corn oil.

    PubMed

    Locniskar, M; Belury, M A; Cumberland, A G; Patrick, K E; Fischer, S M

    1991-06-01

    Fish or vegetable oils were fed during the promotion stage of a mouse skin carcinogenesis model in order to investigate the effects of dietary fat on tumor development. Two weeks after initiation with 10 nmol dimethylbenz[a]anthracene, SENCAR mice were divided into five groups and maintained on one of the following semipurified diets containing 10% total fat and varying the type of fat: 8.5% coconut oil (CT)/1.5% corn oil (CO); 1% menhaden oil (MO)/7.5% CT/1.5% CO; 4% MO/4.5% CT/1.5% CO; 8.5% MO/1.5% CO; or 10% CO. Promotion with twice-weekly applications of 40 mg benzoyl peroxide was begun 2 weeks later and continued for 52 weeks. No statistically significant differences in kcal food consumed or body weights were observed between diet groups. Papilloma latency, incidence and yield differed among the diet groups with the group fed the 8.5% CT/1.5% CO diet having the shortest latency and highest papilloma incidence and number. In addition, carcinoma latency and incidence was assessed and the first carcinoma appeared in the group fed 8.5% CT/1.5% CO after 20 weeks of benzoyl peroxide treatment; this group yielded the highest carcinoma incidence throughout the study. In comparison, the group fed the 10% CO diet had the longest latency period, and among the lowest papilloma and carcinoma incidence and fewest tumors. In parallel studies, ornithine decarboxylase activity, vascular permeability and hyperplasia were elevated in the epidermis of benzoyl peroxide-treated mice but the extent of the response did not correlate with the different rates of tumor formation observed among the diet groups. These data indicate that dietary fat modulates tumor promotion by benzoyl peroxide in this skin carcinogenesis model with the predominantly saturated fat diet producing the highest rates of papilloma and carcinogen formation and the polyunsaturated fat diet the lowest.

  2. The effect of dietary lipid on skin tumor promotion by benzoyl peroxide: comparison of fish, coconut and corn oil.

    PubMed

    Locniskar, M; Belury, M A; Cumberland, A G; Patrick, K E; Fischer, S M

    1991-06-01

    Fish or vegetable oils were fed during the promotion stage of a mouse skin carcinogenesis model in order to investigate the effects of dietary fat on tumor development. Two weeks after initiation with 10 nmol dimethylbenz[a]anthracene, SENCAR mice were divided into five groups and maintained on one of the following semipurified diets containing 10% total fat and varying the type of fat: 8.5% coconut oil (CT)/1.5% corn oil (CO); 1% menhaden oil (MO)/7.5% CT/1.5% CO; 4% MO/4.5% CT/1.5% CO; 8.5% MO/1.5% CO; or 10% CO. Promotion with twice-weekly applications of 40 mg benzoyl peroxide was begun 2 weeks later and continued for 52 weeks. No statistically significant differences in kcal food consumed or body weights were observed between diet groups. Papilloma latency, incidence and yield differed among the diet groups with the group fed the 8.5% CT/1.5% CO diet having the shortest latency and highest papilloma incidence and number. In addition, carcinoma latency and incidence was assessed and the first carcinoma appeared in the group fed 8.5% CT/1.5% CO after 20 weeks of benzoyl peroxide treatment; this group yielded the highest carcinoma incidence throughout the study. In comparison, the group fed the 10% CO diet had the longest latency period, and among the lowest papilloma and carcinoma incidence and fewest tumors. In parallel studies, ornithine decarboxylase activity, vascular permeability and hyperplasia were elevated in the epidermis of benzoyl peroxide-treated mice but the extent of the response did not correlate with the different rates of tumor formation observed among the diet groups. These data indicate that dietary fat modulates tumor promotion by benzoyl peroxide in this skin carcinogenesis model with the predominantly saturated fat diet producing the highest rates of papilloma and carcinogen formation and the polyunsaturated fat diet the lowest. PMID:1904320

  3. [Features of dietary treatment in patients with coronary heart disease].

    PubMed

    RUS

    2015-01-01

    The present review summarizes the current data of dietary treatment in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). Numerous studies have shown that the diet can affect the modifiable risk factors for CHD that is the basis of primary and secondary prevention of this disease. The main areas of personalization of nutrition is the selection of an adequate energy value, a certain quota of protein,fats and carbohydrates in the diet, as well as other micronutrients that may influence the development of coronary artery disease. Caloric restriction of the diet in overweight patients is the most important factor of weight loss, independent of macronutrient composition of the diet. Diets with higher dietary protein content increase the rate of weight loss and improve blood lipid profile, but have a short-term effect. Excessive consumption of saturated fatty acids is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. As a result, numerous studies have shown that replacing saturated fats with mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids have a beneficial effect on blood lipid profile in patients with coronary artery disease. Several studies have shown that increasing the glycemic load is accompanied by an elevated risk of CHD, especially in women. Personalized dietary treatment on the basis of the etiopathogenic mechanisms of CHD and with the individual characteristics of a particular patient (sex, age, heredity, nutritional status, physical activity) is becoming increasingly important. Personalization of the diet provides a positive effect on risk factors for coronary heart disease, on the quality of life and increases the effectiveness of diet-therapy.

  4. [Features of dietary treatment in patients with coronary heart disease].

    PubMed

    RUS

    2015-01-01

    The present review summarizes the current data of dietary treatment in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). Numerous studies have shown that the diet can affect the modifiable risk factors for CHD that is the basis of primary and secondary prevention of this disease. The main areas of personalization of nutrition is the selection of an adequate energy value, a certain quota of protein,fats and carbohydrates in the diet, as well as other micronutrients that may influence the development of coronary artery disease. Caloric restriction of the diet in overweight patients is the most important factor of weight loss, independent of macronutrient composition of the diet. Diets with higher dietary protein content increase the rate of weight loss and improve blood lipid profile, but have a short-term effect. Excessive consumption of saturated fatty acids is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. As a result, numerous studies have shown that replacing saturated fats with mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids have a beneficial effect on blood lipid profile in patients with coronary artery disease. Several studies have shown that increasing the glycemic load is accompanied by an elevated risk of CHD, especially in women. Personalized dietary treatment on the basis of the etiopathogenic mechanisms of CHD and with the individual characteristics of a particular patient (sex, age, heredity, nutritional status, physical activity) is becoming increasingly important. Personalization of the diet provides a positive effect on risk factors for coronary heart disease, on the quality of life and increases the effectiveness of diet-therapy. PMID:26852529

  5. Effect of dietary grape seed extract and Cistus ladanifer L. in combination with vegetable oil supplementation on lamb meat quality.

    PubMed

    Jerónimo, Eliana; Alfaia, Cristina M M; Alves, Susana P; Dentinho, Maria T P; Prates, José A M; Vasta, Valentina; Santos-Silva, José; Bessa, Rui J B

    2012-12-01

    Thirty-six Merino Branco lambs were assigned to six dietary treatments: control diet (C) consisting of 90% dehydrated lucerne and 10% wheat bran; C with 6% of oil blend (CO); C with 2.5% of grape seed extract (GS); GS with 6% of oil blend (GSO); C with 25% of Cistus ladanifer (CL), and CL with 6% of oil blend (CLO). Meat lipid and colour stability was then evaluated during 7 days of storage. The effect of inclusion of grape seed extract and C. ladanifer in diets on meat sensory properties was also evaluated. Meat antioxidant potential, determined after oxidation induction by a ferrous/hydrogen peroxide system, decreased with oil supplementation (P<0.001), but inclusion of grape seed extract and C. ladanifer in diets protected the meat against lipid oxidation (P=0.036). Meat colour was not affected by diets. Inclusion of grape seed extract and C. ladanifer in diets did not change the sensory properties of meat.

  6. Plasma fatty acid changes following consumption of dietary oils containing n-3, n-6, and n-9 fatty acids at different proportions: preliminary findings of the Canola Oil Multicenter Intervention Trial (COMIT)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Canola Oil Multicenter Intervention Trial (COMIT) was a randomized controlled crossover study designed to evaluate the effects of five diets that provided different oils and/or oil blends on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in individuals with abdominal obesity. The present objective is to report preliminary findings on plasma fatty acid profiles in volunteers with abdominal obesity, following the consumption of diets enriched with n-3, n-6 and n-9 fatty acids. Methods COMIT was conducted at three clinical sites, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, Québec City, Québec, Canada and University Park, Pennsylvania, United States. Inclusion criteria were at least one of the followings: waist circumference (≥90 cm for males and ≥84 cm for females), and at least one other criterion: triglycerides ≥1.7 mmol/L, high density lipoprotein cholesterol <1 mmol/L (males) or <1.3 mmol/L (females), blood pressure ≥130 mmHg (systolic) and/or ≥85 mmHg (diastolic), and glucose ≥5.5 mmol/L. Weight-maintaining diets that included shakes with one of the dietary oil blends were provided during each of the five 30-day dietary phases. Dietary phases were separated by four-week washout periods. Treatment oils were canola oil, high oleic canola oil, high oleic canola oil enriched with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), flax oil and safflower oil blend, and corn oil and safflower oil blend. A per protocol approach with a mixed model analysis was decided to be appropriate for data analysis. Results One hundred and seventy volunteers were randomized and 130 completed the study with a dropout rate of 23.5%. The mean plasma total DHA concentrations, which were analyzed among all participants as a measure of adherence, increased by more than 100% in the DHA-enriched phase, compared to other phases, demonstrating excellent dietary adherence. Conclusions Recruitment and retention strategies were effective in achieving a sufficient number of participants who completed the study

  7. Dietary influences of evening primrose and fish oil on the skin of essential fatty acid-deficient guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Chapkin, R S; Ziboh, V A; McCullough, J L

    1987-08-01

    There have been reports that certain dietary lipids are capable of regulating cellular inflammation and hyperproliferation. To investigate further the role of dietary manipulation involving gamma-linolenic acid (18:3n-6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3) on hyperproliferative cellular components, the effects of orally administered primrose oil (containing 18:3n-6) and menhaden fish oil (containing 20:5n-3) were tested in a cutaneous system using the essential fatty acid (EFA)-deficient guinea pig fed a hydrogenated coconut oil (HCO) diet. The effects of the dietary crossover regimen were determined on epidermal 1) morphology, 2) DNA synthesis, 3) delta 6- and delta 5-desaturase activities and 4) fatty acid composition of skin and liver lipids. Our results demonstrated that dietary fish oil lacked the capacity to reverse the signs of epidermal hyperproliferation, acanthosis and hypergranulosis that are characteristic of EFA deficiency. In contrast, primrose oil feeding reversed the histological and biochemical signs of hyperproliferation. These results suggest that dietary fish oil, which contains largely the 20:5n-3 fatty acid, lacks EFA-functional properties in the skin. In addition, substitution of HCO with primrose or fish oil after 6 wk revealed incorporation of 18:3n-6 and 20:5n-3 into epidermal lipids, respectively. The significance of these altered epidermal fatty acid profiles is discussed.

  8. Performance of rabbits and oxidative stability of muscle tissues as affected by dietary supplementation with oregano essential oil.

    PubMed

    Botsoglou, N A; Florou-Paneri, P; Christaki, E; Giannenas, I; Spais, A B

    2004-06-01

    The effect of dietary supplementation with oregano essential oil on the performance of rabbits, and the susceptibility of the produced raw and thermally treated muscle tissue to lipid oxidation during refrigerated storage, were investigated. A total of 96 weaned rabbits were separated into four equal groups with three subgroups each. One group was given the basal diet and served as control, two groups were administered diets supplemented with oregano essential oil at levels of 100 and 200 mg/kg diet, whereas the remaining group was given a diet supplemented with alpha-tocopheryl acetate at 200 mg/kg. During the 42-day experimental period, body weight and feed intake were recorded weekly and the feed conversion ratio was calculated. Feeding the experimental diets to rabbits, performance parameters were not affected. Therefore, dietary oregano essential oil exerted no growth-promoting effect on rabbits. With increased supplementation of oregano essential oil, malondialdehyde values decreased in both raw and thermally treated muscles during refrigerated storage. This finding suggests that dietary oregano essential oil exerted a significant antioxidant effect. Dietary supplementation of oregano essential oil at the level of 200 mg/kg was more effective in delaying lipid oxidation compared with the level of 100 mg/kg, but inferior to dietary supplementation of 200 mg alpha-tocopheryl acetate per kg. This study indirectly provides evidence that antioxidant compounds occurring in oregano essential oil were absorbed by the rabbit and increased the antioxidative capacity of tissues. PMID:15264670

  9. Interactions between Obesity Status and Dietary Intake of Monounsaturated and Polyunsaturated Oils on Human Gut Microbiome Profiles in the Canola Oil Multicenter Intervention Trial (COMIT)

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Shuaihua; Khazanehei, Hamidreza; Jones, Peter J.; Khafipour, Ehsan

    2016-01-01

    Long-term dietary fatty acid intake is believed to induce changes in the human gut microbiome which might be associated with human health or obesity status; however, considerable debate remains regarding the most favorable ratios of fatty acids to optimize these processes. The objective of this sub-study of a double-blinded randomized crossover clinical study, the canola oil multi-center intervention trial, was to investigate effects of five different novel oil blends fed for 30 days each on the intestinal microbiota in 25 volunteers with risk of metabolic syndrome. The 60 g treatments included three MUFA-rich diets: (1) conventional canola oil (Canola); (2) DHA-enriched high oleic canola oil (CanolaDHA); (3) high oleic canola oil (CanolaOleic); and two PUFA-rich diets: (4) a blend of corn/safflower oil (25:75) (CornSaff); and (5) a blend of flax/safflower oil (60:40) (FlaxSaff). Stool samples were collected at the end of each period. DNA was extracted and amplified for 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. A total of 17 phyla and 187 genera were identified. While five novel oil treatments failed to alter bacterial phyla composition, obese participants resulted in a higher proportion of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes than overweight or normal weight groups (P = 0.01). Similarly at the genus level, overall bacterial distribution was highly associated with subjects’ body mass index (BMI). Treatment effects were observed between MUFA- and PUFA-rich diets, with the three MUFA diets elevating Parabacteroides, Prevotella, Turicibacter, and Enterobacteriaceae’s populations, while the two PUFA-rich diets favored the higher abundance of Isobaculum. High MUFA content feedings also resulted in an increase of Parabacteroides and a decrease of Isobaculum in obese, but not overweight subjects. Data suggest that BMI is a predominant factor in characterization of human gut microbiota profile, and that MUFA-rich and PUFA-rich diets impact the composition of gut microbiota at lower

  10. Dietary red palm oil protects the heart against the cytotoxic effects of anthracycline.

    PubMed

    Wergeland, A; Bester, D J; Sishi, B J N; Engelbrecht, A M; Jonassen, A K; Van Rooyen, J

    2011-07-01

    Strong anti-neoplastic anthracyclines like daunorubicin (DNR) and doxorubicin (DOX) have high efficacy against systemic neoplasm and solid tumours. However, clinically, they cause chronic cardiomyopathy and congestive heart failure. Red palm oil (RPO) supplementation can protect the heart against ischemic injury. We therefore hypothesize that supplementation with RPO during chemotherapy may protect the heart. Control rats received a standard diet, and the experimental group received RPO in addition for 4 weeks. Each group was subsequently injected with either saline or DNR over a 12-day period towards the end of 4 weeks. Hearts were excised and perfused on a working heart system. Functional parameters were measured. Tissue samples were collected for analysis of mRNA and protein levels. DNR + RPO increased aortic output by 25% (p < 0.05) compared with DNR only. Furthermore, DNR treatment significantly reduced tissue mRNA levels of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and nitric oxide synthase 1 (NOS1) compared with untreated controls. Protein expression of SOD1 followed the same pattern as mRNA levels. NOS1 protein levels were significantly increased in DNR treated rats when compared with untreated controls. In addition, DNR increased phosphorylation of p38 and Jun N-terminal kinase compared with untreated controls, whereas DNR + RPO completely counteracted this activation. DNR + RPO significantly up regulated the protein extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 level compared with DNR only. In this model of DNR treatment, RPO is associated with stabilization of important antioxidant enzymes such NOS and SOD, and inhibition of the 'stress' induced mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. Dietary RPO also maintained function, similar to control, in DNR treated hearts. PMID:21590694

  11. An increase in reactive oxygen species by dietary fish oil coupled with the attenuation of antioxidant defenses by dietary pectin enhances rat colonocyte apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Lisa M; Henderson, Cara E; Hong, Mee Young; Barhoumi, Rola; Burghardt, Robert C; Wang, Naisyin; Spinka, Christine M; Carroll, Raymond J; Turner, Nancy D; Chapkin, Robert S; Lupton, Joanne R

    2004-12-01

    We showed previously that the dietary combination of fish oil, rich in (n-3) fatty acids, and the fermentable fiber pectin enhances colonocyte apoptosis in a rat model of experimentally induced colon cancer. In this study, we propose that the mechanism by which this dietary combination heightens apoptosis is via modulation of the colonocyte redox environment. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 60) were fed 1 of 2 fats (corn oil or fish oil) and 1 of 2 fibers (cellulose or pectin) for 2 wk before determination of reactive oxygen species (ROS), oxidative DNA damage, antioxidant enzyme activity [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx)] and apoptosis in isolated colonocytes. Fish oil enhanced ROS, whereas the combination of fish oil and pectin suppressed SOD and CAT and enhanced the SOD/CAT ratio compared with a corn oil and cellulose diet. Despite this modulation to a seemingly prooxidant environment, oxidative DNA damage was inversely related to ROS in the fish oil and pectin diet, and apoptosis was enhanced relative to other diets. Furthermore, apoptosis increased exponentially as ROS increased. These results suggest that the enhancement of apoptosis associated with fish oil and pectin feeding may be due to a modulation of the redox environment that promotes ROS-mediated apoptosis.

  12. Effects of dietary linseed oil on innate immune system of Eurasian perch and disease resistance after exposure to Aeromonas salmonicida achromogen.

    PubMed

    Geay, F; Mellery, J; Tinti, E; Douxfils, J; Larondelle, Y; Mandiki, S N M; Kestemont, P

    2015-12-01

    This study was designated to investigate the effects of dietary fish oil (FO diet) replacement by linseed oil (LO diet) on regulation of immune response and disease resistance in Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis). A control diet containing fish oil (FO = cod liver oil) and characterized by high levels of n-3 high LC-PUFA (6% EPA, 7.5% of total fatty acids (FAs)) was compared to linseed oil diet (LO diet) composed of low LC-PUFA contents (1% EPA, 2.3% DHA of total FAs) but high C18 fatty acids levels. The experiment was conducted in quadruplicate groups of 80 fish each. After 10 weeks of feeding, the innate immune status was evaluated in various organs (liver, spleen, and head-kidney) (feeding condition). Two days later, a bacterial challenge was performed on fish from 2 rearing conditions: fish infected with Aeromonas salmonicida (bacteria condition) and fish injected with sterile medium but maintained in the same flow system that fish challenged with bacteria (sentinel condition). Three days after injection of bacteria, a significant decrease of lymphocyte, thrombocyte and basophil populations was observed while neutrophils were not affected. In addition, plasma lysozyme activity and reactive oxygen species production in kidney significantly increased in fish challenged with A. salmonicida while the plasma alternative complement pathway activity was not affected. Increase of plasma lysozyme activity as well as reactive oxygen species production in spleen and kidney of sentinel fish suggest that these immune defenses can also be activated, but at lower bacteria concentration than infected fish. No differences in leucocyte populations, plasma lysozyme and alternative complement pathway activities were observed between dietary treatments. Similarly, expression of genes related to eicosanoid synthesis in liver were not affected by the dietary oil source but were strongly stimulated in fish challenged with A. salmonicida. These findings demonstrated that the use of

  13. Dietary flavonoid fisetin for cancer prevention and treatment.

    PubMed

    Lall, Rahul K; Adhami, Vaqar Mustafa; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2016-06-01

    Cancer remains a major public health concern and a significant cause of death worldwide. Identification of bioactive molecules that have the potential to inhibit carcinogenesis continues to garner interest among the scientific community. In particular, flavonoids from dietary sources are the most sought after because of their safety, cost-effectiveness, and feasibility of oral administration. Emerging data have provided newer insights into understanding the molecular mechanisms that are essential to identify novel mechanism-based strategies for cancer prevention and treatment. Dietary flavonoid fisetin (3,3',4',7-tetrahydroxyflavone) found in many fruits and vegetables has been shown in preclinical studies to inhibit cancer growth through alteration of cell cycle, inducing apoptosis, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis without causing any toxicity to normal cells. Although data from in-vitro and in-vivo studies look convincing, well-designed clinical trials in humans are needed to conclusively determine the efficacy across various cancers. This review highlights the chemopreventive and therapeutic effects, molecular targets, and mechanisms that contribute to the observed anticancer activity of fisetin against various cancers.

  14. Effects of dietary coconut oil on the biochemical and anthropometric profiles of women presenting abdominal obesity.

    PubMed

    Assunção, Monica L; Ferreira, Haroldo S; dos Santos, Aldenir F; Cabral, Cyro R; Florêncio, Telma M M T

    2009-07-01

    The effects of dietary supplementation with coconut oil on the biochemical and anthropometric profiles of women presenting waist circumferences (WC) >88 cm (abdominal obesity) were investigated. The randomised, double-blind, clinical trial involved 40 women aged 20-40 years. Groups received daily dietary supplements comprising 30 mL of either soy bean oil (group S; n = 20) or coconut oil (group C; n = 20) over a 12-week period, during which all subjects were instructed to follow a balanced hypocaloric diet and to walk for 50 min per day. Data were collected 1 week before (T1) and 1 week after (T2) dietary intervention. Energy intake and amount of carbohydrate ingested by both groups diminished over the trial, whereas the consumption of protein and fibre increased and lipid ingestion remained unchanged. At T1 there were no differences in biochemical or anthropometric characteristics between the groups, whereas at T2 group C presented a higher level of HDL (48.7 +/- 2.4 vs. 45.00 +/- 5.6; P = 0.01) and a lower LDL:HDL ratio (2.41 +/- 0.8 vs. 3.1 +/- 0.8; P = 0.04). Reductions in BMI were observed in both groups at T2 (P < 0.05), but only group C exhibited a reduction in WC (P = 0.005). Group S presented an increase (P < 0.05) in total cholesterol, LDL and LDL:HDL ratio, whilst HDL diminished (P = 0.03). Such alterations were not observed in group C. It appears that dietetic supplementation with coconut oil does not cause dyslipidemia and seems to promote a reduction in abdominal obesity.

  15. Seasonal variability in intake of fish oil dietary supplements among inhabitants of Warsaw.

    PubMed

    Kolanowski, Wojciech

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the rate of sale and intake level of dietary supplements containing fish oil among inhabitants of Warsaw. The survey was carried out during 25 months in the years 2004 to 2006 in 3 selected drugstores localized in the central areas of Warsaw. The amount of fish oil, level of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids declared on the label, price and rate of sale of particular supplements, as well as the reasons why customers purchased the supplements were collected and analyzed. The rate of sale of fish oil supplements was low; however, it showed a tendency for increase during the time of evaluation. Strong seasonal variability of supplements sale and therefore intake were observed. The highest levels for these parameters occurred from October to February and the lowest from May to July. The most often purchased supplements were fish liver oil capsules. The main reason for fish oil supplement purchases was medical recommendations. The health benefits of fish liver oil were known among customers of drugstores; however, the term omega-3 was almost unknown.

  16. Dietary fish oil substitution alters the eicosanoid profile in ankle joints of mice during Lyme infection.

    PubMed

    Dumlao, Darren S; Cunningham, Anna M; Wax, Laura E; Norris, Paul C; Hanks, Jennifer Hughes; Halpin, Rachel; Lett, Kawasi M; Blaho, Victoria A; Mitchell, William J; Fritsche, Kevin L; Dennis, Edward A; Brown, Charles R

    2012-08-01

    Dietary ingestion of (n-3) PUFA alters the production of eicosanoids and can suppress chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The extent of changes in eicosanoid production during an infection of mice fed a diet high in (n-3) PUFA, however, has not, to our knowledge, been reported. We fed mice a diet containing either 18% by weight soybean oil (SO) or a mixture with fish oil (FO), FO:SO (4:1 ratio), for 2 wk and then infected them with Borrelia burgdorferi. We used an MS-based lipidomics approach and quantified changes in eicosanoid production during Lyme arthritis development over 21 d. B. burgdorferi infection induced a robust production of prostanoids, mono-hydroxylated metabolites, and epoxide-containing metabolites, with 103 eicosanoids detected of the 139 monitored. In addition to temporal and compositional changes in the eicosanoid profile, dietary FO substitution increased the accumulation of 15-deoxy PGJ(2), an antiinflammatory metabolite derived from arachidonic acid. Chiral analysis of the mono-hydroxylated metabolites revealed they were generated from primarily nonenzymatic mechanisms. Although dietary FO substitution reduced the production of inflammatory (n-6) fatty acid-derived eicosanoids, no change in the host inflammatory response or development of disease was detected. PMID:22695969

  17. Estimation of Potential Availability of Essential Oil in Some Brands of Herbal Teas and Herbal Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Kowalski, Radosław; Baj, Tomasz; Kowalska, Grażyna; Pankiewicz, Urszula

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to estimate potential availability of essential oil in some brands of herbal products. Methods A comparison was performed on the basis of the essential oil yield in the unprocessed raw materials such as leaves of peppermint and lemon balm and inflorescence of chamomile as well as herbal tea bags and in dietary supplements. The yield of essential oil was determined by distillation. Essential oil was analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Results It was found that the average potential availability of essential oils in the products such as dietary supplements for the doses recommended by the producers is lower than in the corresponding tea infusions: for peppermint formulations approximately 6-fold lower, for the formulations with lemon balm about 4-fold lower, and for the chamomile preparations about 3-fold lower. It was found that essential oils extracted from herbal teas have a similar chemical profile with characteristic deviations in the amount of individual components, which arise from the origin of the raw material. Discussion In contrast to homogenous pharmaceutical herbal mixtures consistent with, the Pharmacopoeia requirements, herbal teas (available in grocery stores) and dietary supplements are often out of control in terms of the yield and composition of the essential oil, which is primarily responsible for the health benefits and aromatic qualities of these products. Analysis of the composition of the dietary supplements showed that they contain on average significantly lower amounts of plant material compared to the herbal teas. PMID:26110869

  18. Dietary sandalwood seed oil modifies fatty acid composition of mouse adipose tissue, brain, and liver.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Longmore, R B

    1997-09-01

    Sandalwood (Santalum spicatum) seed oil, which occurs to about 50% of the weight of the seed kernels, contains 30-35% of total fatty acids (FA) as ximenynic acid (XMYA). This study was designed to obtain basic information on changes in tissue FA composition and on the metabolic fate of XMYA in mice fed a sandalwood seed oil (SWSO)-enriched diet. Female mice were randomly divided into three groups, each receiving different semisynthetic diets containing 5.2% (w/w) fat (standard laboratory diet), 15% canola oil, or 15% SWSO for 8 wk. The effects of SWSO as a dietary fat on the FA composition of adipose tissue, brain, and liver lipids were determined by analyses of FA methyl ester derivatives of extracted total lipid. The FA compositions of the liver and adipose tissue were markedly altered by the dietary fats, and mice fed on a SWSO-enriched diet were found to contain XMYA but only in low concentration (0.3-3%) in these tissues; XMYA was not detected in brain. Oleic acid was suggested to be a principal XMYA biotransformation product. The results were interpreted to suggest that the metabolism of XMYA may involve both biohydrogenation and oxidation reactions. PMID:9307938

  19. Effect of dietary supplementation of essential oils mixture on performance, eggshell quality, hatchability, and mineral excretion in quail breeders.

    PubMed

    Olgun, Osman; Yıldız, Alp Önder

    2014-12-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of six different levels (0, 50, 100, 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg) of phytogenic feed additive containing a mixture essential oils from thyme, black cumin, fennel, anise and rosemary on performance, eggshell quality, reproductive traits, and mineral excretion in quail breeders. In this trial, a total of 60 male and 120 female quails, 91 days old, were randomly distributed in six experimental groups. During the 60-day experiment period, birds were fed with six treatment diets. Performances, eggshell qualities, hatchability, and mineral excretion data were evaluated at the end of the experiment. Results showed that the different dietary levels of essential oil mixture had no significant effect on performance parameters, damaged eggs, eggshell weight, fertility, hatchability of fertile eggs, hatchability of set eggs, and lead and boron excretion. On the other hand, 50 mg/kg supplementation of essential oil mixture (EOM) significantly improved egg-breaking strength and eggshell thickness, and ash, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, manganese, zinc, and cadmium excretion was significantly depressed in quail breeders supplemented with the two higher doses (400 or 600 mg/kg) of EOM. These results concluded that supplementing diets with EOM improved egg-breaking strength and decreased excretion of minerals in breeder quails.

  20. Effects of dietary linseed oil and propionate precursors on ruminal microbial community, composition, and diversity in Yanbian yellow cattle.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang Z; Park, Byung K; Shin, Jong S; Choi, Seong H; Smith, Stephen B; Yan, Chang G

    2015-01-01

    The rumen microbial ecosystem is a complex system where rumen fermentation processes involve interactions among microorganisms. There are important relationships between diet and the ruminal bacterial composition. Thus, we investigated the ruminal fermentation characteristics and compared ruminal bacterial communities using tag amplicon pyrosequencing analysis in Yanbian yellow steers, which were fed linseed oil (LO) and propionate precursors. We used eight ruminally cannulated Yanbian yellow steers (510 ± 5.8 kg) in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with four dietary treatments. Steers were fed a basal diet that comprised 80% concentrate and 20% rice straw (DM basis, CON). The CON diet was supplemented with LO at 4%. The LO diet was also supplemented with 2% dl-malate or 2% fumarate as ruminal precursors of propionate. Dietary supplementation with LO and propionate precursors increased ruminal pH, total volatile fatty acid concentrations, and the molar proportion of propionate. The most abundant bacterial operational taxonomic units in the rumen were related to dietary treatments. Bacteroidetes dominated the ruminal bacterial community and the genus Prevotella was highly represented when steers were fed LO plus propionate precursors. However, with the CON and LO diet plus malate or fumarate, Firmicutes was the most abundant phylum and the genus Ruminococcus was predominant. In summary, supplementing the diets of ruminants with a moderate level of LO plus propionate precursors modified the ruminal fermentation pattern. The most positive responses to LO and propionate precursors supplementation were in the phyla Bacteriodetes and Firmicutes, and in the genus Ruminococcus and Prevotella. Thus, diets containing LO plus malate or fumarate have significant effects on the composition of the rumen microbial community. PMID:26024491

  1. Effects of dietary linseed oil and propionate precursors on ruminal microbial community, composition, and diversity in Yanbian yellow cattle.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang Z; Park, Byung K; Shin, Jong S; Choi, Seong H; Smith, Stephen B; Yan, Chang G

    2015-01-01

    The rumen microbial ecosystem is a complex system where rumen fermentation processes involve interactions among microorganisms. There are important relationships between diet and the ruminal bacterial composition. Thus, we investigated the ruminal fermentation characteristics and compared ruminal bacterial communities using tag amplicon pyrosequencing analysis in Yanbian yellow steers, which were fed linseed oil (LO) and propionate precursors. We used eight ruminally cannulated Yanbian yellow steers (510 ± 5.8 kg) in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with four dietary treatments. Steers were fed a basal diet that comprised 80% concentrate and 20% rice straw (DM basis, CON). The CON diet was supplemented with LO at 4%. The LO diet was also supplemented with 2% dl-malate or 2% fumarate as ruminal precursors of propionate. Dietary supplementation with LO and propionate precursors increased ruminal pH, total volatile fatty acid concentrations, and the molar proportion of propionate. The most abundant bacterial operational taxonomic units in the rumen were related to dietary treatments. Bacteroidetes dominated the ruminal bacterial community and the genus Prevotella was highly represented when steers were fed LO plus propionate precursors. However, with the CON and LO diet plus malate or fumarate, Firmicutes was the most abundant phylum and the genus Ruminococcus was predominant. In summary, supplementing the diets of ruminants with a moderate level of LO plus propionate precursors modified the ruminal fermentation pattern. The most positive responses to LO and propionate precursors supplementation were in the phyla Bacteriodetes and Firmicutes, and in the genus Ruminococcus and Prevotella. Thus, diets containing LO plus malate or fumarate have significant effects on the composition of the rumen microbial community.

  2. Thrombogenicity of dietary milkfat, fish oil and hydrogenated coconut oil in a pig model.

    PubMed

    Thompson, K G; James, K A; Maccoll, A J; Arthur, D G

    1995-01-01

    Abstract Extract Several indicators of thrombosis and thrombolysis were measured in four groups of 16 pigs fed for 10 weeks on either a low fat basal ration or rations containing 10% anhydrous milkfat (AMF), 10% fish oil (MaxEPA), or 10% hydrogenated coconut oil (HCO). At the end of the feeding period, pigs on the three test fat/oil rations were subjected to balloon angioplasty of both femoral arteries. Thrombus size at the site of injury was measured both morphometrically and using autologous blood platelets labelled with (99)Tc-HMPAO (technetium - "Deretec").

  3. Fish oil dietary supplementation reduces Ia expression in rat and mouse peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed

    Mosquera, J; Rodríguez-Iturbe, B; Parra, G

    1990-07-01

    Preliminary studies suggest that administration of fish oil fatty acids may be beneficial in several immunological diseases; therefore, we studied the effect of fish oil dietary supplementation on the expression of Ia in stimulated murine peritoneal macrophages. Rats (n = 19) and mice (n = 27) on standard rodent feeding were separated in experimental (E) and control (C) groups that received fish oil or saline solution, respectively, daily for 4 weeks by esophageal gavage. Cholesterol serum levels were significantly lowered by fish oil (E vs C, P less than 0.01). E and C groups were injected intraperitoneally with Listeria monocytogenes (LM) and peritoneal cells were harvested 4 and 7 days after infection. Decreased expression of Ia induced by LM was found in rats (C = 49.68 +/- 5.09%, E = 16.95 +/- 4.3%, P less than 0.01) and mice (C = 47.38 +/- 7.63%, E = 26.66 +/- 1.92%, P less than 0.01). Animals with a more pronounced depression of serum cholesterol (reduction of 44.04 +/- 1.52% of baseline levels) had more depression of Ia expression (6.47 +/- 1.22%, P less than 0.001 vs control). Reduction of Ia expression was not related to PGE2 production by peritoneal cells. Reduction of Ia expression by fish oil could induce down-regulation of antigen presentation and alloreactivity.

  4. Thermodynamic analysis questions claims of improved cardiac efficiency by dietary fish oil.

    PubMed

    Loiselle, Denis S; Han, June-Chiew; Goo, Eden; Chapman, Brian; Barclay, Christopher J; Hickey, Anthony J R; Taberner, Andrew J

    2016-09-01

    Studies in the literature describe the ability of dietary supplementation by omega-3 fish oil to increase the pumping efficiency of the left ventricle. Here we attempt to reconcile such studies with our own null results. We undertake a quantitative analysis of the improvement that could be expected theoretically, subject to physiological constraints, by posing the following question: By how much could efficiency be expected to increase if inefficiencies could be eliminated? Our approach utilizes thermodynamic analyses to investigate the contributions, both singly and collectively, of the major components of cardiac energetics to total cardiac efficiency. We conclude that it is unlikely that fish oils could achieve the required diminution of inefficiencies without greatly compromising cardiac performance. PMID:27574288

  5. Energy value and digestibility of dietary oil containing mainly 1,3-diacylglycerol are similar to those of triacylglycerol.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, H; Nagao, T; Watanabe, H; Onizawa, K; Matsuo, N; Tokimitsu, I; Itakura, H

    2001-04-01

    Diacylglycerol (DAG) is a component of various vegetable oils. Approximately 70% of the DAG in edible oils are in the configuration of 1,3-DAG. We recently showed that long-term ingestion of dietary oil containing mainly 1,3-DAG reduces body fat accumulation in humans as compared to triacylglycerol (TAG) oil with a similar fatty acid composition. As the first step to elucidate the mechanism for this result, we examined the difference in the bioavailabilities of both oils by measuring food energy values and digestibilities in rats. Energy values of the DAG oil and the TAG oil, measured by bomb calorimeter, were 38.9 and 39.6 kJ/g, respectively. Apparent digestibility expressed according to the formula: (absorbed) x (ingested)(-1) x 100 = (ingested - excreted in feces) x (ingested)(-1) x 100 for the DAG oil and the TAG oil were 96.3+/-0.4 and 96.3+/-0.3% (mean +/- SEM), respectively. The similarity in the bioavailabilities of both oils supports the hypothesis that the reduced fat accumulation by dietary DAG is caused by the different metabolic fates after the absorption into the gastrointestinal epithelial cells. PMID:11383689

  6. Relative effects of dietary oleic- and linoleic-rich oils on plasma lipoprotein composition in rats.

    PubMed

    Ney, D M; Lasekan, J B; Kim, J

    1989-06-01

    Plasma lipoprotein composition and hepatic lipid content were investigated in male Sprague-Dawley rats (104 +/- 2 g) fed diets containing 12% olive oil [OO, 70% 18:1(n-9)], 12% high oleic safflower oil [SO, 70% 18:(ln-9)] or 12% high linoleic safflower oil [SL, 73% 18:2(n-6)] for periods of up to 10 wk. Fasting plasma triglycerides were significantly higher after feeding oleic-rich diets than after feeding SL for 3, 5 and 6 wk. At 6 wk VLDL triglycerides were two- to threefold higher in rats fed OO or SO than in those fed SL, but by 10 wk both plasma and VLDL triglycerides were similar. A greater proportion of HDL2 (diameter 8.0-12.1 nm), a lower proportion of HDL1 (diameter 12.2-17.0 nm) and lower HDL apo E content occurred in rats fed OO and SO than in those fed SL at both 6 and 10 wk. LDL and HDL protein and cholesterol concentrations were not different with feeding SO or SL. After 10 wk of feeding the experimental diets, rats fed OO had significantly lower HDL protein, cholesterol and apo E concentrations and significantly higher hepatic triglyceride content compared to rats fed SO or SL, P less than 0.05. These data suggest that HDL and hepatic lipid content are determined by some property of the dietary oil other than its oleic acid content. PMID:2746370

  7. Human tissue lipids: occurrence of fatty acid isomers from dietary hydrogenated oils.

    PubMed

    Ohlrogge, J B; Emken, E A; Gulley, R M

    1981-08-01

    Hydrogenation of vegetable oils produces fatty acids with unusual structures having trans double bonds and double bonds in new positions of the acyl chain. This study was designed to determine which of these fatty acid isomers are incorporated or accumulated in humans during long-term dietary consumption of hydrogenated fats. The double bond position and configuration of the octadecenoate fraction of total lipids extracted from human heart, brain, liver, aorta, and adipose tissue were determined. The level of trans octadecenoate in the tissues as determined by both direct gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) and by GLC after silver nitrate thin-layer chromatography ranged between 0.4 and 5.0%, with an average of 2.7%. Tissues were found to contain trans-octadecenoic isomers having double bonds between the 6 and 15 positions, whereas cis double bonds were found to occur between the 6 and 14 positions. The distribution of double bonds in adipose tissue correlated very closely with the composition of dietary hydrogenated fat. Thus, essentially all of the unusual octadecenoic fatty acid isomers that are produced during vegetable oil hydrogenation are incorporated into human tissue. However, in contrast to results of short-term (1-6 months) feeding studies of animals, our results suggest that long-term (20-60 years) consumption of hydrogenated fats by humans does not lead to substantial preferential accumulation of positional isomers in human tissue total lipids.

  8. Dietary hydrogenated soybean oil affects lipid and vitamin E metabolism in rats.

    PubMed

    Naziroglu, Mustafa; Brandsch, Corinna

    2006-04-01

    Fatty acids containing stearic acid, which are found in hydrogenated fat, may have a detrimental effect on the cholesterol and triacylglycerol (TAG) content of plasma lipoproteins, and on the absorption of fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins. The aim of our study was to examine the tissue concentration of lipids and vitamins A and E after feeding a hydrogenated soybean oil (HSO) diet to rats. Twenty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups, fed on coconut oil (control) and HSO, respectively in amounts corresponding to 15% of the total feed. Plasma total cholesterol, VLDL- and LDL-cholesterol, lipid peroxidation and daily excretion of the TAG and cholesterol in feces were higher in the HSO than in the control group. TAG values in plasma and liver, and HDL-cholesterol levels in plasma were lower in the HSO than in the control group. The same was true for phospholipids in plasma and for saturated fatty acids, mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids levels in the liver and vitamin E in plasma, LDL and adipose tissue. The results of this study provide new evidence concerning the effect of dietary hydrogenated fat on lipid, TAG and vitamin E status, which are important for maintenance of good health. Consumption of dietary HSO may be associated with cardiovascular disease.

  9. Response profiles of enteric methane emissions and lactational performance during habituation to dietary coconut oil in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hollmann, M; Powers, W J; Fogiel, A C; Liesman, J S; Beede, D K

    2013-03-01

    Dietary coconut oil (CNO) can reduce dry matter intake (DMI), enteric methane (eCH(4)) emissions, and milk fat yield of lactating cows. The goals of this research were to examine responses to different CNO concentrations during the habituation period (34-d) and to evaluate temporal patterns of DMI, eCH(4), and milk fat yield. Treatment diets contained (dry basis): 0.0% (CNO0), 1.3% (CNO1.3), 2.7% (CNO2.7), 3.3% (CNO3.3), or 4.0% CNO (CNO4). In experiment 1, 12 primi- or small secundiparous cows were housed in individual, environmentally controlled rooms and fed CNO0, CNO1.3, CNO2.7, or CNO4. Measurements included DMI, eCH(4), and milk yield and composition. Due to a precipitous drop in DMI (26%), cows fed CNO4 were replaced with cows fed CNO3.3 following d 10. Dietary CNO of 2.7% or more reduced eCH(4) emissions. Reduction was greater with increased CNO and during the first than the second half of the day. Simultaneously, decline in DMI of cows fed CNO2.7, CNO3.3, or CNO4 was increasingly precipitous with increased CNO concentration. Total-tract neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility during wk 5 was reduced in cows fed CNO2.7 or CNO3.3, which in part explained concomitantly reduced eCH(4)/DMI. In addition, milk fat yield was depressed at an increasing rate in cows fed CNO2.7, CNO3.3, and CNO4. In experiment 2, DMI was measured individually in 12 multiparous cows during habituation to CNO0, CNO1.3, CNO2.7, or CNO3.3 for 21 d before relocation to individual, environmentally controlled rooms. Dietary CNO2.7 or CNO3.3 reduced DMI by d 4 and total-tract NDF digestibility during wk 5. Relocation to individual rooms was associated with a 15% reduction in DMI, which was not affected by treatment. Results showed that 2.7% or more dietary CNO reduced eCH(4) and DMI, caused milk fat depression, and decreased NDF digestibility. PMID:23312999

  10. Rapid analytical method for the determination of aflatoxins in plant-derived dietary supplement and cosmetic oils.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Noreen; Molyneux, Russell J

    2010-04-14

    Consumption of edible oils derived from conventional crop plants is increasing because they are generally regarded as healthier alternatives to animal-based fats and oils. More recently, there has been increased interest in the use of alternative specialty plant-derived oils, including those from tree nuts (almonds, pistachios, and walnuts) and botanicals (borage, evening primrose, and perilla) both for direct human consumption (e.g., as salad dressings) and for the preparation of cosmetics, soaps, and fragrance oils. This has raised the issue as to whether or not exposure to aflatoxins can result from such oils. Although most crops are subject to analysis and control, it has generally been assumed that plant oils do not retain aflatoxins due to the high polarity and lipophobicity of these compounds. There is virtually no scientific evidence to support this supposition, and available information is conflicting. To improve the safety and consistency of botanicals and dietary supplements, research is needed to establish whether or not oils used directly, or in the formulation of products, contain aflatoxins. A validated analytical method for the analysis of aflatoxins in plant-derived oils is essential to establish the safety of dietary supplements for consumption or cosmetic use that contain such oils. The aim of this research was therefore to develop an HPLC method applicable to a wide variety of oils from different plant sources spiked with aflatoxins, thereby providing a basis for a comprehensive project to establish an intra- and interlaboratory validated analytical method for the analysis of aflatoxins in dietary supplements and cosmetics formulated with plant oils. PMID:20235534

  11. Rapid analytical method for the determination of aflatoxins in plant-derived dietary supplement and cosmetic oils.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Noreen; Molyneux, Russell J

    2010-04-14

    Consumption of edible oils derived from conventional crop plants is increasing because they are generally regarded as healthier alternatives to animal-based fats and oils. More recently, there has been increased interest in the use of alternative specialty plant-derived oils, including those from tree nuts (almonds, pistachios, and walnuts) and botanicals (borage, evening primrose, and perilla) both for direct human consumption (e.g., as salad dressings) and for the preparation of cosmetics, soaps, and fragrance oils. This has raised the issue as to whether or not exposure to aflatoxins can result from such oils. Although most crops are subject to analysis and control, it has generally been assumed that plant oils do not retain aflatoxins due to the high polarity and lipophobicity of these compounds. There is virtually no scientific evidence to support this supposition, and available information is conflicting. To improve the safety and consistency of botanicals and dietary supplements, research is needed to establish whether or not oils used directly, or in the formulation of products, contain aflatoxins. A validated analytical method for the analysis of aflatoxins in plant-derived oils is essential to establish the safety of dietary supplements for consumption or cosmetic use that contain such oils. The aim of this research was therefore to develop an HPLC method applicable to a wide variety of oils from different plant sources spiked with aflatoxins, thereby providing a basis for a comprehensive project to establish an intra- and interlaboratory validated analytical method for the analysis of aflatoxins in dietary supplements and cosmetics formulated with plant oils.

  12. A Rapid Analytical Method for Determination of Aflatoxins in Plant-Derived Dietary Supplement and Cosmetic Oils

    PubMed Central

    Mahoney, Noreen; Molyneux, Russell J.

    2010-01-01

    Consumption of edible oils derived from conventional crop plants is increasing because they are generally regarded as more healthy alternatives to animal based fats and oils. More recently there has been increased interest in the use of alternative specialty plant-derived oils, including those from tree nuts (almonds, pistachios and walnuts) and botanicals (borage, evening primrose and perilla) both for direct human consumption (e.g. as salad dressings) but also for preparation of cosmetics, soaps, and fragrance oils. This has raised the issue as to whether or not exposure to aflatoxins can result from such oils. Although most crops are subject to analysis and control, it has generally been assumed that plant oils do not retain aflatoxins due to their high polarity and lipophobicity of these compounds. There is virtually no scientific evidence to support this supposition and available information is conflicting. To improve the safety and consistency of botanicals and dietary supplements, research is needed to establish whether or not oils used directly, or in the formulation of products, contain aflatoxins. A validated analytical method for the analysis of aflatoxins in plant-derived oils is essential, in order to establish the safety of dietary supplements for consumption or cosmetic use that contain such oils. The aim of this research was therefore to develop an HPLC method applicable to a wide variety of oils from different plant sources spiked with aflatoxins, thereby providing a basis for a comprehensive project to establish an intra- and inter-laboratory validated analytical method for analysis of aflatoxins in dietary supplements and cosmetics formulated with plant oils. PMID:20235534

  13. The effect of dietary oil containing (n-3) fatty acids on the fatty acid, physicochemical, and organoleptic characteristics of pig meat and fat.

    PubMed

    Leskanich, C O; Matthews, K R; Warkup, C C; Noble, R C; Hazzledine, M

    1997-03-01

    An investigation was made to alter the fatty acid composition of pork and a pork product in line with human dietary advice while not adversely affecting factors controlling consumer acceptability. Pigs (n = 150) were assigned to three dietary treatments with 25 intact male-female pairs per treatment. Diet A (control) contained 3% of a 4:1 (wt/ wt) tallow-soybean oil mixture. Diets B and C contained 2% rapeseed oil plus 1% fish oil. Diets A, B, and C were supplemented with 100, 100, and 250 mg of all-rac-alpha-tocopheryl acetate/kg of diet, respectively. Pigs were given ad libitum access to feed from 52 kg live weight until 95 kg (slaughter). Sausages were prepared from the resulting cuts. Tissues of pigs were evaluated in terms of fat firmness, color, fatty acid composition, and contents of alpha-tocopherol and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS). Organoleptic characteristics of chops and sausages were evaluated by a trained taste panel. Pigs fed Diets B and C had improved feed conversion ratios (P < .05) and ADG compared with control pigs. The levels of n-3 (omega-3) polyunsaturates were significantly increased in the tissues and sausage from pigs fed Diets B and C with associated alterations in n-6 to n-3 fatty acid ratios that accorded with contemporary human dietary recommendations. Levels of alpha-tocopherol and TBARS were significantly altered in the tissues. There were no appreciable differences between treatments in carcass characteristics, including color. The overall organoleptic acceptability of chops and sausages was not different between the treatments.

  14. Replacement of dietary fish oil by vegetable oils affects humoral immunity and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines genes in gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata.

    PubMed

    Montero, D; Mathlouthi, F; Tort, L; Afonso, J M; Torrecillas, S; Fernández-Vaquero, A; Negrin, D; Izquierdo, M S

    2010-12-01

    Commercial gilthead sea bream feeds are highly energetic, fish oil traditionally being the main lipid source. But the decreased fish oil production together with the increased prices of this oil encourages its substitution by vegetable oils, imposing new nutritional habits to aquaculture species. Partial replacement of fish oil by vegetable oils in diets for marine species allows good feed utilization and growth but may affect fish health, since imbalances in dietary fatty acids may alter fish immunological status. The effect of dietary oils on different aspects of fish immune system has been reported for some species, but very little is known about the effect of dietary oils on immune-related genes expression in fish. Thus, the objective of this study was to elucidate the role of dietary oils on the expression of two pro-inflammatory cytokines, Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α) and Interleukine 1β (IL-1β) on intestine and head kidney after exposure to the bacterial pathogen Photobacterium damselae sp. piscicida. For that purpose, 5 iso-nitrogenous and iso-lipidic diets (45% crude protein, 22% crude lipid content) were formulated. Anchovy oil was the only lipid source used in the control diet (FO), but in the other diets, fish oil was totally (100%) or partially (70%) substituted by linseed (rich in n-3 fatty acids) or soybean (rich in n-6 fatty acids) (100L, 100S, 70L, 70S). Fish were fed experimental diets during 80 days and after this period were exposed to an experimental intestinal infection with the pathogen. Serum and tissue samples were obtained at pre-infection and after 1, 3 and 7 days of infection. RNA was extracted and cDNA was synthesized by reverse transcription from intestine and head kidney and the level expression of TNF-α and IL-1β were assayed by using quantitative real time PCR. The expression level of genes analysed was represented as relative value, using the comparative Ct method (2(-ΔΔCt)). Serum anti-bacterial activity was measured as

  15. Restoration of depressed prostanoid-induced ileal contraction in spontaneously hypertensive rats by dietary fish oil.

    PubMed

    Patten, Glen S; Adams, Michael J; Dallimore, Julie A; Rogers, Paul F; Topping, David L; Abeywardena, Mahinda Y

    2005-01-01

    We have reported that dietary fish oil (FO) rich in n-3 PUFA modulates gut contractility. It was further demonstrated that the gut of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) has a depressed contractility response to prostaglandins (PG) compared with normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. We investigated whether feeding diets supplemented with n-3 PUFA increased gut contractility and restored the depressed prostanoid response in SHR gut. Thirteen-week-old SHR were fed diets containing fat at 5 g/100 g as coconut oil (CO), lard, canola oil containing 10% (w/w) n-3 FA as alpha-linolenic acid (1 8:3n-3), or FO (as HiDHA, 22:6n-3) for 12 wk. A control WKY group was fed 5 g/100 g CO in the diet. As confirmed, the SHR CO group had a significantly lower gut response to PGE2 and PGF2alpha compared with the WKY CO group. Feeding FO increased the maximal contraction response to acetylcholine in the ileum compared with all diets and in the colon compared with lard, and restored the depressed response to PGE2 and PGF2alpha in the ileum but not the colon of SHR. FO feeding also led to a significant increase in gut total phospholipid n-3 PUFA as DHA (22:6n-3) with lower n-6 PUFA as arachidonic acid (20:4n-6). Canola feeding led to a small increase in ileal EPA (20:5n-3) and DHA and in colonic DHA without affecting contractility. However, there was no change in ileal membrane muscarinic binding properties due to FO feeding. This report confirms that dietary FO increases muscarinic- and eicosanoid receptor-induced contractility in ileum and that the depressed prostanoid response in SHR ileum, but not colon, is restored by tissue incorporation of DHA as the active nutrient.

  16. The usage, occurrence and dietary intakes of white mineral oils and waxes in Europe.

    PubMed

    Tennant, D R

    2004-03-01

    Dietary exposures to mineral hydrocarbons were estimated from information about patterns of usage, concentrations in foods and quantities of foods consumed. An industry survey showed that the largest usage of food-grade white mineral oils was in plastics manufacture although the majority are used in non-food applications. The largest volumes of wax usage were in packaging. Conservative estimates indicated that daily intakes of white mineral oils ranged from 0.39 to 0.91 mg/kg bw/day for adults and from 0.75 to 1.77 mg/kg bw/day for children (mean and 97.5th percentiles). Total wax intakes ranged from 0.08 to 0.19 mg/kg bw/day for adults and 0.23 to 0.64 mg/kg bw/day for pre-school children. When usage factors were applied, estimates of chronic intakes of white oils were reduced to 0.09-0.20 mg/kg bw/day for adults and to 0.17-0.39 mg/kg bw/day for children. Total wax intakes were reduced to 0.01-0.02 mg/kg bw/day for adults and to 0.02-0.06 mg/kg bw/day for children. For white mineral oils the principal source of exposure for most consumers was imported de-dusted grain. The principal source of potential wax exposure was from glazing agents on confectionery. There was no evidence of intakes exceeding SCF ADIs for microcrystalline waxes or certain white mineral oils and levels of exposure were similar to those of naturally-occurring mineral hydrocarbons in foods.

  17. Dietary fish oil effects on seasonal hay fever and asthma in pollen-sensitive subjects.

    PubMed

    Thien, F C; Mencia-Huerta, J M; Lee, T H

    1993-05-01

    The effects of taking 18 capsules a day of Max-EPA (3.2 g/day eicosapentaenoic acid) on clinical symptoms and bronchial hyperresponsiveness were studied in pollen-sensitive subjects over a pollen season in a parallel, double-blind, placebo-controlled (olive oil) fashion. The study was conducted over the 1990 and 1991 pollen seasons in London, England. A total of 37 nonsmoking pollen-sensitive asthmatic subjects were entered into the trial, and 25 completed the 6-month study period over the 2 yr. The preseasonal geometric mean PD35 SGaw of histamine for the fish oil (n = 12) and placebo (n = 9) groups were 0.62 and 0.42 mumol, respectively. During the middle of the pollen season, histamine PD35 SGaw fell significantly for both the fish oil (0.11 mumol, p < 0.0001) and placebo groups (0.10 mumol, p < 0.007), indicating increased bronchial reactivity compared with preseasonal values, but there was no significant difference between the groups. Similarly, morning and evening peak expiratory flow (PEF), diurnal variability in PEF, nocturnal cough and wheeze, daytime wheeze, and activity, as well as nasal symptoms and increased usage of medication, were not significantly different between the groups. Compliance was confirmed by neutrophil and plasma phospholipid analysis, which showed significant rises in eicosapentaenoic acid content in the fish oil group but not in the placebo group. We conclude that dietary fish oil supplementation does not prevent seasonal hay fever and asthma in pollen-sensitive subjects during the pollen season.

  18. Interactions of dietary fibre and omega-3-rich oil with protein in surimi gels developed with salt substitute.

    PubMed

    Debusca, Alicia; Tahergorabi, Reza; Beamer, Sarah K; Partington, Susan; Jaczynski, Jacek

    2013-11-01

    Most Western populations have insufficient intake of fibre and ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), while sodium intake greatly exceeds the recommended maximum. Surimi seafood is not currently fortified with these nutraceutical ingredients. Alaska pollock surimi seafood was developed with salt substitute and fortified with either 6g/100g of fibre or 10 g/100g of ω-3 oil (flax:algae:menhaden, 8:1:1) or fibre+ω-3 oil (6g/100g of fibre+10 g/100g of ω-3 oil). The objective was to determine effects of the dietary fortification on physicochemical properties of surimi. Fortification with either dietary fibre or ω-3 oil alone or in combination enhanced (P<0.05) rheological and textural characteristics. The combined fortification had a synergistic effect on rheological properties. This indicates greater gelation of surimi in the presence of fibre+ω-3 oil, suggesting their interaction with surimi myofibrillar proteins. Fibre results in protein dehydration increasing protein concentration; while oil is immobilised by protein filling void spaces in the gel matrix. Differential scanning calorimetry showed that fibre and ω-3 oil did not interfere with normal denaturation of surimi proteins. Colour properties were only slightly affected (P<0.05). Fortification of surimi with fibre and ω-3 oil resulted in a quality product that could be useful in developing surimi products with nutritional benefits. PMID:23768348

  19. Peppermint oil: a treatment for postoperative nausea.

    PubMed

    Tate, S

    1997-09-01

    This paper describes a research study to investigate the efficacy of peppermint oil as a treatment for postoperative nausea. It uses a three-condition experimental design using statistical analysis to compare groups. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to establish significance and the Mann-Whitney test to differentiate significance between the groups. The control, placebo and experimental groups of gynaecological patients were compared, using variables known to affect postoperative nausea. They were found to be homogeneous for the purposes of the study. A statistically significant differences was demonstrated on the day of operation, using the Kruskal-Wallis test, P = 0.0487. Using the Mann-Whitney test the difference was shown to be between the placebo and experimental group (U = 3; P = 0.02). The experimental group also required less traditional antiemetics and received more opioid analgesia postoperatively. The total cost of the treatment was 48 pence per person.

  20. Effects of dietary chromium picolinate and peppermint essential oil on growth performance and blood biochemical parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbari, Mohsen; Torki, Mehran

    2014-08-01

    A study was conducted using 240 female day-old broiler chicks to evaluate the effects of dietary chromium picolinate (CrPic), peppermint essential oil (P.mint), or their combination on growth performance and blood biochemical parameters of female broiler chicks raised under heat stress conditions (HS, 23.9 to 38 °C cycling). Average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were obtained from 1 to 42 days of age. Furthermore, at the end of the experiment (day 42), birds were bled to determine some blood biochemical parameters and weighed for final body weight (BW). ADFI, ADG, and BW were not influenced significantly by dietary CrPic and P.mint ( P > 0.05). A significant interaction between dietary CrPic and P.mint on FCR ( P = 0.012) was detected. FCR significantly decreased in chicks fed the diet including both CrPic and P.mint compared with the CrPic group. Significant interaction between dietary P.mint and CrPic on serum concentrations of triglycerides, glucose, and albumin were observed ( P < 0.05), but the other measured blood biochemical parameters were not statistically affected by dietary treatments ( P > 0.05). The serum concentrations of glucose, triglycerides were decreased ( P < 0.05) in broilers fed the diet including both CrPic and P.mint. Plasma chromium (Cr) content increased significantly ( P < 0.05) in birds fed the CrPic-included diet compared with the control group ( P < 0.05). From the results of the present experiment it can be concluded that dietary supplementation with combined P.mint and CrPic could have beneficial effects on some blood biochemical parameters of female chicks reared under heat stress conditions.

  1. Effects of dietary chromium picolinate and peppermint essential oil on growth performance and blood biochemical parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Akbari, Mohsen; Torki, Mehran

    2014-08-01

    A study was conducted using 240 female day-old broiler chicks to evaluate the effects of dietary chromium picolinate (CrPic), peppermint essential oil (P.mint), or their combination on growth performance and blood biochemical parameters of female broiler chicks raised under heat stress conditions (HS, 23.9 to 38 °C cycling). Average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were obtained from 1 to 42 days of age. Furthermore, at the end of the experiment (day 42), birds were bled to determine some blood biochemical parameters and weighed for final body weight (BW). ADFI, ADG, and BW were not influenced significantly by dietary CrPic and P.mint (P>0.05). A significant interaction between dietary CrPic and P.mint on FCR (P=0.012) was detected. FCR significantly decreased in chicks fed the diet including both CrPic and P.mint compared with the CrPic group. Significant interaction between dietary P.mint and CrPic on serum concentrations of triglycerides, glucose, and albumin were observed (P<0.05), but the other measured blood biochemical parameters were not statistically affected by dietary treatments (P>0.05). The serum concentrations of glucose, triglycerides were decreased (P<0.05) in broilers fed the diet including both CrPic and P.mint. Plasma chromium (Cr) content increased significantly (P<0.05) in birds fed the CrPic-included diet compared with the control group (P<0.05). From the results of the present experiment it can be concluded that dietary supplementation with combined P.mint and CrPic could have beneficial effects on some blood biochemical parameters of female chicks reared under heat stress conditions.

  2. Genotoxic and carcinogenic risks associated with the dietary consumption of repeatedly heated coconut oil.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Smita; Singh, Madhulika; George, Jasmine; Bhui, Kulpreet; Murari Saxena, Anand; Shukla, Yogeshwer

    2010-11-01

    Repeated heating of vegetable oils at high temperatures during cooking is a very common cooking practice. Repeated heating of edible oils can generate a number of compounds, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), some of which have been reported to have carcinogenic potential. Consumption of these repeatedly heated oils can pose a serious health hazard. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the genotoxic and carcinogenic risks associated with the consumption of repeatedly heated coconut oil (RCO), which is one of the commonly consumed cooking and frying medium. The PAH were analysed using HPLC in fresh CO, single-heated CO (SCO) and RCO. Results revealed the presence of certain PAH, known to possess carcinogenic potential, in RCO when compared with SCO. Oral intake of RCO in Wistar rats resulted in a significant induction of aberrant cells (P<0·05) and micronuclei (P<0·05) in a dose-dependent manner. Oxidative stress analysis showed a significant (P<0·05) decrease in the levels of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and catalase with a concurrent increase in reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation in the liver. In addition, RCO given alone and along with diethylnitrosamine for 12 weeks induced altered hepatic foci as noticed by alteration in positive (γ-glutamyl transpeptidase and glutathione-S-transferase) and negative (adenosine triphosphatase, alkaline phosphatase and glucose-6-phosphatase) hepatospecific biomarkers. A significant decrease in the relative and absolute hepatic weight of RCO-supplemented rats was recorded (P<0·05). In conclusion, dietary consumption of RCO can cause a genotoxic and preneoplastic change in the liver.

  3. Fish oil supplementation maintains adequate plasma arachidonate in cats, but similar amounts of vegetable oils lead to dietary arachidonate deficiency from nutrient dilution.

    PubMed

    Angell, Rebecca J; McClure, Melena K; Bigley, Karen E; Bauer, John E

    2012-05-01

    Because fatty acid (FA) metabolism of cats is unique, effects of dietary fish and vegetable oil supplementation on plasma lipids, lipoproteins, lecithin/cholesterol acyl transferase activities, and plasma phospholipid and esterified cholesterol (EC) FAs were investigated. Cats were fed a commercial diet supplemented with 8 g oil/100 g diet for 4 weeks using either high-oleic-acid sunflower oil (diet H), Menhaden fish oil (diet M), or safflower oil (diet S). When supplemented, diet M contained sufficient arachidonate (AA), but diets H and S were deficient. We hypothesized that diet M would modify plasma lipid metabolism, increase FA long-chain n-3 (LCn-3) FA content but not deplete AA levels. Also, diet S would show linoleic acid (LA) accumulation without conversion to AA, and both vegetable oil supplements would dilute dietary AA content when fed to meet cats' energy needs. Plasma samples on weeks 0, 2, and 4 showed no alterations in total cholesterol or nonesterified FA concentrations. Unesterified cholesterol decreased and EC increased in all groups, whereas lecithin/cholesterol acyl transferase activities were unchanged. Diet M showed significant triacylglycerol lowering and decreased pre-β-lipoprotein cholesterol. Plasma phospholipid FA profiles revealed significant enrichment of 18:1n-9 with diet H, LA and 20:2n-6 with diet S, and FA LCn-3FA with diet M. Depletion of AA was observed with diets H and S but not with diet M. Diet M EC FA profiles revealed specificities for LA and 20:5n-3 but not 22:5n-3 or 22:6n-3. Oversupplementation of some commercial diets with vegetable oils causes AA depletion in young cats due to dietary dilution. Findings are consistent with the current recommendations for at least 0.2 g AA/kg diet and that fish oil supplements provide both preformed LCn-3 polyunsaturated FA and AA.

  4. Dietary fish oil increases CD8+ T-cells and decreases autoreactive T-cell activity in autoimmune NZB/W F1 mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, W M; Chiang, B L; Chang, S C; Lin, B F

    2001-03-01

    To further elucidate the effect of different dietary fats on the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, five groups of New Zealand black/white (NZB/W) F1 mice were fed diets containing 200 g of different dietary fats including palm oil, lard-soybean oil (1:1, w/w), soybean oil, canola oil or fish oil. Serum levels of anti-DNA antibodies, proteinuria were followed every month and life span of the mice was determined. After 5 months of the respective diets, mice were killed at the age of 7 months and phenotypic analysis of splenic cells and peritoneal resident cells was performed. The pattern of production of cytokines in splenic T-cells was also investigated. The peritoneal resident cells were isolated for measurement of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels. Significantly lower immunoglobulin G (IgG) anti-single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and anti-double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) antibody levels were associated with less severe proteinuria and prolonged life span in mice fed dietary fish oil compared to mice fed other dietary oils. Phenotypic analysis of spleen cells showed increased CD8+ T-cells in the mice fed dietary fish oil compared to mice of the other dietary groups, and the percentage of natural killer (NK) cells in the mice fed dietary fish oil was also higher compared to the other dietary groups. The peritoneal resident cells produced lower PGE2 in mice fed fish oil compared to mice in the other dietary groups. To further investigate the effect of fish oil on autoreactive T-cells, splenic T-cells purified using a nylon wool column were stimulated with non-T-cells of young NZB/W F1 mice. Our data suggest that the anti-DNA antibody augmentation ability of T-cells in mice fed dietary fish oil was significantly decreased compared to mice in the other dietary groups. These data indicate that dietary fish oil might maintain the existence of CD8+ T-cells, decrease autoreactive T-cell activity and alleviate subsequent autoimmune processes in autoimmune prone NZB/W F1 mice. PMID

  5. DHA derivatives of fish oil as dietary supplements: a nutrition-based drug discovery approach for therapies to prevent metabolic cardiotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yonggang; Lindsey, Merry L.; Halade, Ganesh V.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction During the early 1970s, Danish physicians Jorn Dyerberg and colleagues observed that Greenland Eskimos consuming fatty fishes exhibited low incidences of heart disease. Fish oil is now one of the most commonly consumed dietary supplements. In 2004, concentrated fish oil was approved as a drug by the FDA for the treatment of hyperlipidemia. Fish oil contains two major omega-3 fatty acids: eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). With advancements in lipid concentration and purification techniques, EPA- or DHA-enriched products are now commercially available, and the availability of these components in isolation allows their individual effects to be examined. Newly synthesized derivatives and endogenously discovered metabolites of DHA exhibit therapeutic utility for obesity, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Areas covered This review summarizes our current knowledge on the distinct effects of EPA and DHA to prevent metabolic syndrome and reduce cardiotoxicity risk. Since EPA is an integral component of fish oil, we will briefly review EPA effects, but our main theme will be to summarize effects of the DHA derivatives that are available today. We focus on using nutrition-based drug discovery to explore the potential of DHA derivatives for the treatment of obesity, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases. Expert opinion The safety and efficacy evaluation of DHA derivatives will provide novel biomolecules for the drug discovery arsenal. Novel nutritional-based drug discoveries of DHA derivatives or metabolites may provide realistic and alternative strategies for the treatment of metabolic and cardiovascular disease. PMID:22724444

  6. Dietary lipid varying in corn and coconut oil influences protein kinase C in phorbol ester-treated mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Mouat, M F; Locniskar, M F

    1998-01-01

    An earlier study indicated that increased levels of corn oil in the diet resulted in decreased tumor yield after promotion by the phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate in Sencar mouse epidermis (J Leyton, ML Lee, M Locniskar, MA Belury, TJ Slaga, et al. Cancer Res 51, 907-915, 1991). In the present study we investigated whether corn oil diets could alter the subcellular distribution and activity of protein kinase C (PKC), which is part of an important signaling pathway in carcinogenesis. We used three 15% (wt/wt) fat semipurified diets containing three ratios of corn oil to coconut oil: 1.0%:14.0% (Diet L), 7.9%:7.1% (Diet M), and 15.0%:0.0% (Diet H). The translocation to the membrane fraction of epidermal PKC by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate was decreased as the corn oil content of the diet was increased, and this correlates with the decrease in tumor yield. The translocation to the membrane fraction of specific isoforms of PKC was affected by increased dietary corn oil: the largest decreases were in cytosolic PKC-alpha and -beta, and the smallest change was in PKC-epsilon. The other isoforms, PKC-delta and -zeta, were unaffected. The major constituent of corn oil is linoleic acid, which did not affect the binding of phorbol ester to PKC, which suggests that inhibition of such binding was not responsible for the effects of increased dietary corn oil. Products of linoleic acid metabolism, i.e., arachidonic acid and 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid, also did not affect the binding of phorbol ester to PKC. Thus the results of these studies suggest that the subcellular distributions of PKC and its isoforms can be modulated by dietary lipids.

  7. Radiations and biodegradation techniques for detoxifying Carica papaya seed oil for effective dietary and industrial use.

    PubMed

    Afolabi, Israel Sunmola; Bisi-Adeniyi, Tolulope Dorcas; Adedoyin, Toluwalase Ronke; Rotimi, Solomon Oladapo

    2015-10-01

    Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) is toxic in high concentration. The capacity of Aspergillus niger, microwave and ultraviolet radiations to reduce the BITC levels in Carica papaya Linn seed oil were assessed in vitro. BITC at different concentrations were periodically exposed to microwave and ultraviolet radiations for 30 min and 10 h, respectively; and to identify Aspergillus niger for 4 days. Microwave radiation significantly reduced (p < 0.05) BITC levels (0.0272, 0.0544, and 0.0816 μmol) to 12.19, 8.99 and 27.5 % respectively within 15 min. Ultraviolet radiation significantly reduced (p < 0.05) BITC levels at all the concentrations. A. niger significantly increased (p < 0.05) BITC degradation on days 2 and 4 at 0.816, 1.36 and 2.72 nmol. Glutathione activity was significantly increased (p < 0.05) while glutathione S-transferase activity significantly reduced (p < 0.05) at all concentrations on days 3 and 4 respectively. The three techniques are possible models for improving the dietary consumption of the oil.

  8. Effects of genotype and dietary fish oil replacement with vegetable oil on the intestinal transcriptome and proteome of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Expansion of aquaculture requires alternative feeds and breeding strategies to reduce dependency on fish oil (FO) and better utilization of dietary vegetable oil (VO). Despite the central role of intestine in maintaining body homeostasis and health, its molecular response to replacement of dietary FO by VO has been little investigated. This study employed transcriptomic and proteomic analyses to study effects of dietary VO in two family groups of Atlantic salmon selected for flesh lipid content, 'Lean' or 'Fat'. Results Metabolism, particularly of lipid and energy, was the functional category most affected by diet. Important effects were also measured in ribosomal proteins and signalling. The long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis pathway, assessed by fatty acid composition and gene expression, was influenced by genotype. Intestinal tissue contents of docosahexaenoic acid were equivalent in Lean salmon fed either a FO or VO diet and expression of LC-PUFA biosynthesis genes was up-regulated in VO-fed fish in Fat salmon. Dietary VO increased lipogenesis in Lean fish, assessed by expression of FAS, while no effect was observed on β-oxidation although transcripts of the mitochondrial respiratory chain were down-regulated, suggesting less active energetic metabolism in fish fed VO. In contrast, dietary VO up-regulated genes and proteins involved in detoxification, antioxidant defence and apoptosis, which could be associated with higher levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in this diet. Regarding genotype, the following pathways were identified as being differentially affected: proteasomal proteolysis, response to oxidative and cellular stress (xenobiotic and oxidant metabolism and heat shock proteins), apoptosis and structural proteins particularly associated with tissue contractile properties. Genotype effects were accentuated by dietary VO. Conclusions Intestinal metabolism was affected by diet and genotype. Lean fish may have

  9. Fish oil for the treatment of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Weitz, Daniel; Weintraub, Howard; Fisher, Edward; Schwartzbard, Arthur Z

    2010-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids, which are found abundantly in fish oil, are increasingly being used in the management of cardiovascular disease. It is clear that fish oil, in clinically used doses (typically 4 g/d of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid) reduce high triglycerides. However, the role of omega-3 fatty acids in reducing mortality, sudden death, arrhythmias, myocardial infarction, and heart failure has not yet been established. This review will focus on the current clinical uses of fish oil and provide an update on their effects on triglycerides, coronary artery disease, heart failure, and arrhythmia. We will explore the dietary sources of fish oil as compared with drug therapy, and discuss the use of fish oil products in combination with other commonly used lipid-lowering agents. We will examine the underlying mechanism of fish oil's action on triglyceride reduction, plaque stability, and effect in diabetes, and review the newly discovered anti-inflammatory effects of fish oil. Finally, we will examine the limitations of current data and suggest recommendations for fish oil use.

  10. Dietary Linseed Oil Reduces Growth While Differentially Impacting LC-PUFA Synthesis and Accretion into Tissues in Eurasian Perch (Perca fluviatilis).

    PubMed

    Geay, F; Wenon, D; Mellery, J; Tinti, E; Mandiki, S N M; Tocher, D R; Debier, C; Larondelle, Y; Kestemont, P

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of replacing dietary fish oil (FO) with linseed oil (LO) on growth, fatty acid composition and regulation of lipid metabolism in Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) juveniles. Fish (17.5 g initial body weight) were fed isoproteic and isoenergetic diets containing 116 g/kg of lipid for 10 weeks. Fish fed the LO diet displayed lower growth rates and lower levels of DHA in the liver and muscle than fish fed the FO diet, while mortality was not affected by dietary treatment. However, DHA content recorded in the liver and muscle of fish fed the LO diet remained relatively high, despite a weight gain of 134 % and a reduced dietary level of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), suggesting endogenous LC-PUFA biosynthesis. This was supported by the higher amounts of pathway intermediates, including 18:4n-3, 20:3n-3, 20:4n-3, 18:3n-6 and 20:3n-6, recorded in the liver of fish fed the LO diet in comparison with those fed the FO diet. However, fads2 and elovl5 gene expression and FADS2 enzyme activity were comparable between the two groups. Similarly, the expression of genes involved in eicosanoid synthesis was not modulated by dietary LO. Thus, the present study demonstrated that in fish fed LO for 10 weeks, growth was reduced but DHA levels in tissues were largely maintained compared to fish fed FO, suggesting a physiologically relevant rate of endogenous LC-PUFA biosynthesis capacity. PMID:26439838

  11. Dietary Linseed Oil Reduces Growth While Differentially Impacting LC-PUFA Synthesis and Accretion into Tissues in Eurasian Perch (Perca fluviatilis).

    PubMed

    Geay, F; Wenon, D; Mellery, J; Tinti, E; Mandiki, S N M; Tocher, D R; Debier, C; Larondelle, Y; Kestemont, P

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of replacing dietary fish oil (FO) with linseed oil (LO) on growth, fatty acid composition and regulation of lipid metabolism in Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) juveniles. Fish (17.5 g initial body weight) were fed isoproteic and isoenergetic diets containing 116 g/kg of lipid for 10 weeks. Fish fed the LO diet displayed lower growth rates and lower levels of DHA in the liver and muscle than fish fed the FO diet, while mortality was not affected by dietary treatment. However, DHA content recorded in the liver and muscle of fish fed the LO diet remained relatively high, despite a weight gain of 134 % and a reduced dietary level of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), suggesting endogenous LC-PUFA biosynthesis. This was supported by the higher amounts of pathway intermediates, including 18:4n-3, 20:3n-3, 20:4n-3, 18:3n-6 and 20:3n-6, recorded in the liver of fish fed the LO diet in comparison with those fed the FO diet. However, fads2 and elovl5 gene expression and FADS2 enzyme activity were comparable between the two groups. Similarly, the expression of genes involved in eicosanoid synthesis was not modulated by dietary LO. Thus, the present study demonstrated that in fish fed LO for 10 weeks, growth was reduced but DHA levels in tissues were largely maintained compared to fish fed FO, suggesting a physiologically relevant rate of endogenous LC-PUFA biosynthesis capacity.

  12. Considerations in the analysis and treatment of dietary effects on behavior: a case study.

    PubMed

    Bird, B L; Russo, D C; Cataldo, M F

    1977-12-01

    Scientific and public interest in the effects of diet of behavior disorders has recently increased. This paper argues that (1) the experimental analysis of behavior offers an effective scientific methodology for assessing the effects of dietary substances on behavior problems, and that (2) such analysis permits behavioral consequences to be considered as an alternative treatment to dietary control. A case study of a 9-year-old retarded boy with autistic behaviors is presented. Suspected dietary substances were demonstrated to be effective influences on the child's behavior, whereas a simple behavior modification program improved his problem behaviors. Also discussed are issues and problems which arise in research on dietary effects on behavior and in selection of effective and ethical treatments. PMID:599137

  13. Dietary approach in the treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Ferolla, Silvia Marinho; Silva, Luciana Costa; Ferrari, Maria de Lourdes Abreu; da Cunha, Aloísio Sales; Martins, Flaviano dos Santos; Couto, Cláudia Alves; Ferrari, Teresa Cristina Abreu

    2015-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been identified as one of the most prevalent chronic liver disease in adults and children populations. NAFLD is usually associated with the metabolic syndrome (MS), which is chiefly related to insulin resistance and its consequences. Insulin resistance has a crucial role in the pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis and potentially nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Because of the contemporary epidemics of MS and obesity, the burden of NAFLD is also expected to rise. Unhealthy diets, such as the so-called western diet, are enriched in fructose, trans-fatty acids and saturated fat and seem to be associated with the development of NAFLD. In human studies, certain dietary sugars, particularly fructose, are used as a substrate for lipogenesis leading to hepatic fatty infiltration, inflammation, and possibly fibrosis. Other investigations have shown that fat consumption especially cholesterol and trans/saturated fatty acids are also steatogenic and seem to increase visceral adiposity. The identification of specific dietary components that favor the development of NASH could be important for the management of this disorder. This review focuses on the effects of different dietary approaches to prevent and treat NAFLD emphasizing the macronutrients and energy composition. PMID:26523205

  14. Extra virgin olive oil phenolic extracts counteract the pro-oxidant effect of dietary oxidized lipids in human intestinal cells.

    PubMed

    Incani, Alessandra; Serra, Gessica; Atzeri, Angela; Melis, Maria Paola; Serreli, Gabriele; Bandino, Giovanni; Sedda, Piergiorgio; Campus, Marco; Tuberoso, Carlo I G; Deiana, Monica

    2016-04-01

    The phenolic fraction of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) concentrates before absorption in the intestinal lumen, where it may contribute to the modulation of enterocytes response to oxidative and inflammatory stimuli. We evaluated the ability of two monovarietal EVOOs phenolic extracts, Bosana and Nera di Gonnos/Tonda di Cagliari, typical and widespread varieties in Sardinia (Italy), to counteract in enterocytes like Caco-2 cells the pro-oxidant action of oxidized lipids, tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBH) or a mixture of oxysterols of dietary origin. We confirmed that TBH treatment causes a significant increase of ROS production, GSH depletion, increase of MDA, fatty acids hydroperoxides and 7-ketocholesterol, and showed first evidence of oxidative imbalance and cell damage due to oxysterols exposure. Preincubation of cells with the phenolic extracts significantly attenuated oxidative modifications. Bosana extract showed the highest concentration of total phenols, mainly hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol, and was the most active in presence of TBH, where the free radical scavenging activity of these simple phenols seems to be a determining factor. The two extracts were equally effective, in spite of the different composition, in presence of oxysterols, where ROS production probably occurs according to different and more complex mechanisms. PMID:26911552

  15. Dietary vegetable oils: effects on the expression of immune-related genes in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) intestine.

    PubMed

    Montero, Daniel; Benitez-Dorta, Vanessa; Caballero, María José; Ponce, Marian; Torrecillas, Silvia; Izquierdo, Marisol; Zamorano, María Jesús; Manchado, Manuel

    2015-05-01

    The decreased availability of fish oil, traditionally used as oil source in marine aquafeeds, has lead to the search for alternatives oils. Vegetable oils (VO) are being extensively used as lipid sources in marine fish diets, inducing an imbalance on certain dietary fatty acids. Alteration on the dietary ratio of w-6/w-3 has been described to have detrimental effects on fish immunity. Senegalese sole has high susceptibility to stress and diseases, and little is known on the effects of dietary VO on its immunity. In this study, Senegalese sole juveniles were fed diets (56% crude protein, 12% crude lipid) containing linseed (100LO), soybean (100SO) or fish (100FO) oils as unique oil source. Growth, cortisol and intestinal fatty acid composition were determined after 90 days. Moreover, at the final of the experiment a stress test (5 min of net chasing) was carried out. To evaluate the effect of diets and stress on intestine immunology, expression profiles of a set of 53 immune-related genes using RT-qPCR was also performed. The use of VO did not induced changes in fish growth, but affected fatty acid profile of intestine and expression of immune-related genes. The use of SO (rich in n-6 fatty acids) induced an over-expression of those genes related to complement pathway, recognizing pathogen associated to molecular patterns, defensive response against bacteria, defensive response against viruses, antigen differentiation, cytokines and their receptors. This general over-expression could indicate an activation of inflammatory processes in fish gut. When a stress was applied, a decrease of mRNA levels of different immune-related genes with respect to the unstressed control could be observed in fish fed 100FO. However, fish fed 100LO, with a higher ALA/LA ratio, seemed to ameliorate the effects of combined effects of FO substitution plus stressful situation whereas fish fed 100SO did not show this type of response.

  16. [Therapeutic approach to epilepsy from the nutritional view: current status of dietary treatment].

    PubMed

    Vicente-Hernández, M; Garcia-Garcia, P; Gil-Nagel, A; Lopez-Munoz, F; Alamo, C

    2007-10-01

    Approximately 20%-30% of epilepsy patient do not respond adequately to drug treatment. In this population, a dietary treatment has been posed as a therapeutic alternative or coadjuvant tool. This present work has aimed to carry out a review on the dietary alternatives currently available to treat epilepsy (ketogenic diet, Atkins' diet, etc.). The ketogenic diet has been used and studied the most in this neurological disorder. That is why it is also the one that has undergone the greatest change. Furthermore, this diet has caused the most controversy about its action mechanism, efficacy and adverse effects as well as about what would be the best protocol to carry it out. Many observational studies and reviews on this subject that support the beneficial effect of the ketogenic diet have been conducted. However, controlled, randomized clinical trials with larger population samples are needed to confirm these results in order to achieve an optimum and individualized dietary treatment in refractory epilepsy. PMID:17641989

  17. Fatty Acids Composition of Vegetable Oils and Its Contribution to Dietary Energy Intake and Dependence of Cardiovascular Mortality on Dietary Intake of Fatty Acids.

    PubMed

    Orsavova, Jana; Misurcova, Ladislava; Ambrozova, Jarmila Vavra; Vicha, Robert; Mlcek, Jiri

    2015-06-05

    Characterizations of fatty acids composition in % of total methylester of fatty acids (FAMEs) of fourteen vegetable oils--safflower, grape, silybum marianum, hemp, sunflower, wheat germ, pumpkin seed, sesame, rice bran, almond, rapeseed, peanut, olive, and coconut oil--were obtained by using gas chromatography (GC). Saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), palmitic acid (C16:0; 4.6%-20.0%), oleic acid (C18:1; 6.2%-71.1%) and linoleic acid (C18:2; 1.6%-79%), respectively, were found predominant. The nutritional aspect of analyzed oils was evaluated by determination of the energy contribution of SFAs (19.4%-695.7% E(RDI)), PUFAs (10.6%-786.8% E(RDI)), n-3 FAs (4.4%-117.1% E(RDI)) and n-6 FAs (1.8%-959.2% E(RDI)), expressed in % E(RDI) of 1 g oil to energy recommended dietary intakes (E(RDI)) for total fat (E(RDI)--37.7 kJ/g). The significant relationship between the reported data of total fat, SFAs, MUFAs and PUFAs intakes (% E(RDI)) for adults and mortality caused by coronary heart diseases (CHD) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in twelve countries has not been confirmed by Spearman's correlations.

  18. Fatty Acids Composition of Vegetable Oils and Its Contribution to Dietary Energy Intake and Dependence of Cardiovascular Mortality on Dietary Intake of Fatty Acids.

    PubMed

    Orsavova, Jana; Misurcova, Ladislava; Ambrozova, Jarmila Vavra; Vicha, Robert; Mlcek, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Characterizations of fatty acids composition in % of total methylester of fatty acids (FAMEs) of fourteen vegetable oils--safflower, grape, silybum marianum, hemp, sunflower, wheat germ, pumpkin seed, sesame, rice bran, almond, rapeseed, peanut, olive, and coconut oil--were obtained by using gas chromatography (GC). Saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), palmitic acid (C16:0; 4.6%-20.0%), oleic acid (C18:1; 6.2%-71.1%) and linoleic acid (C18:2; 1.6%-79%), respectively, were found predominant. The nutritional aspect of analyzed oils was evaluated by determination of the energy contribution of SFAs (19.4%-695.7% E(RDI)), PUFAs (10.6%-786.8% E(RDI)), n-3 FAs (4.4%-117.1% E(RDI)) and n-6 FAs (1.8%-959.2% E(RDI)), expressed in % E(RDI) of 1 g oil to energy recommended dietary intakes (E(RDI)) for total fat (E(RDI)--37.7 kJ/g). The significant relationship between the reported data of total fat, SFAs, MUFAs and PUFAs intakes (% E(RDI)) for adults and mortality caused by coronary heart diseases (CHD) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in twelve countries has not been confirmed by Spearman's correlations. PMID:26057750

  19. Combined heating and chemical treatment for oil recovery from aging crude oil.

    PubMed

    Hou, Chunjuan; Jiang, Qingzhe; Song, Zhaozheng; Tan, Guorong; Shi, Zhan

    2016-07-01

    With increasing use of chemical oil displacement agents in tertiary recovery and the application of various demulsifiers for crude oil dehydration, a large amount of aging crude oil containing a high ratio of water is produced, and it is very difficult for processing and utilisation. In this article, we chose aging crude oil samples from a union station in an oilfield in China. Sample composition was analysed to demonstrate that the key of aging crude oil dehydration is the removal of solid impurities. Thus, an efficient method of combining heating and chemical treatments was developed to treat aging crude oil. It includes two steps: The first step is washing of aging crude oil with hot water with sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate; the second step is chemical demulsification of the above mixture with hydrochloric acid and sodium chloride solution. The result showed that 2.9% of solid impurities and 29.2% of water were removed in the first step; 27.2% of oil, 24.3% of water, and 3.47% of solid impurities in the aging crude oil were recycled in the second step. A total 87.07% of aging crude oil could be solved with this method. The present two-step treatment method can ensure that the dehydration process runs normally and efficiently in the union station, making it a promising method in the recycling of aging crude oil. PMID:27236165

  20. Combined heating and chemical treatment for oil recovery from aging crude oil.

    PubMed

    Hou, Chunjuan; Jiang, Qingzhe; Song, Zhaozheng; Tan, Guorong; Shi, Zhan

    2016-07-01

    With increasing use of chemical oil displacement agents in tertiary recovery and the application of various demulsifiers for crude oil dehydration, a large amount of aging crude oil containing a high ratio of water is produced, and it is very difficult for processing and utilisation. In this article, we chose aging crude oil samples from a union station in an oilfield in China. Sample composition was analysed to demonstrate that the key of aging crude oil dehydration is the removal of solid impurities. Thus, an efficient method of combining heating and chemical treatments was developed to treat aging crude oil. It includes two steps: The first step is washing of aging crude oil with hot water with sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate; the second step is chemical demulsification of the above mixture with hydrochloric acid and sodium chloride solution. The result showed that 2.9% of solid impurities and 29.2% of water were removed in the first step; 27.2% of oil, 24.3% of water, and 3.47% of solid impurities in the aging crude oil were recycled in the second step. A total 87.07% of aging crude oil could be solved with this method. The present two-step treatment method can ensure that the dehydration process runs normally and efficiently in the union station, making it a promising method in the recycling of aging crude oil.

  1. Effects of dietary rosemary and oregano volatile oil mixture on quail performance, egg traits and egg oxidative stability.

    PubMed

    Yesilbag, D; Gezen, S S; Biricik, H; Meral, Y

    2013-01-01

    1. This study was conducted to determine the effects of volatile oil mixture on quail laying performance, egg traits and egg malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration. 2. A total of 260 Pharaoh quails (Coturnix coturnix Pharaoh) aged 6 weeks were equally divided into 5 groups of 65 (4 replicates of 13 quails each). The mixture of diets was as follows: a control treatment with 0 mg volatile oil/kg of diet; (1) 200 mg/kg rosemary volatile oil; (2) 200 mg/kg oregano volatile oil; (3) 40 mg/kg rosemary volatile oil plus 160 mg/kg oregano volatile oil (ratio 20:80) and (4) 160 mg/kg rosemary volatile oil plus 40 mg/kg oregano volatile oil (ratio 80:20). The diets were prepared fresh for each treatment. The experimental period lasted 10 weeks. 3. At the end of the experiment, there were no significant differences amongst the groups in body weight, egg weight, egg mass, egg shape index, Haugh unit, egg shell thickness or egg shell-breaking strength. 4. Diets containing rosemary volatile oil increased the egg production significantly. Feed intake significantly increased in the groups containing volatile oil mixture (groups 4 and 5). The inclusion of rosemary volatile oil at 200 mg/kg improved feed efficiency. 5. Egg albumen and egg yolk index values showed significant increases in the group given diets containing rosemary volatile oil. Egg yolk colour became darker with the addition of rosemary and oregano volatile oil. The treatment group had lower egg yolk MDA concentration than the control group. 6. It is concluded that, alone or in combination, rosemary and oregano volatile oil can be used in quail diets without adverse effects on the measured parameters. Inclusion of rosemary and oregano volatile oil in quail diets enhanced the antioxidant status of eggs.

  2. A Transgenic Camelina sativa Seed Oil Effectively Replaces Fish Oil as a Dietary Source of Eicosapentaenoic Acid in Mice123

    PubMed Central

    Tejera, Noemi; Vauzour, David; Betancor, Monica B; Sayanova, Olga; Usher, Sarah; Cochard, Marianne; Rigby, Neil; Ruiz-Lopez, Noemi; Menoyo, David; Tocher, Douglas R; Napier, Johnathan A; Minihane, Anne Marie

    2016-01-01

    Background: Fish currently supplies only 40% of the eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) required to allow all individuals globally to meet the minimum intake recommendation of 500 mg/d. Therefore, alternative sustainable sources are needed. Objective: The main objective was to investigate the ability of genetically engineered Camelina sativa (20% EPA) oil (CO) to enrich tissue EPA and DHA relative to an EPA-rich fish oil (FO) in mammals. Methods: Six-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were fed for 10 wk either a palm oil–containing control (C) diet or diets supplemented with EPA-CO or FO, with the C, low-EPA CO (COL), high-EPA CO (COH), low-EPA FO (FOL), and high-EPA FO (FOH) diets providing 0, 0.4, 3.4, 0.3, and 2.9 g EPA/kg diet, respectively. Liver, muscle, and brain were collected for fatty acid analysis, and blood glucose and serum lipids were quantified. The expression of selected hepatic genes involved in EPA and DHA biosynthesis and in modulating their cellular impact was determined. Results: The oils were well tolerated, with significantly greater weight gain in the COH and FOH groups relative to the C group (P < 0.001). Significantly lower (36–38%) blood glucose concentrations were evident in the FOH and COH mice relative to C mice (P < 0.01). Hepatic EPA concentrations were higher in all EPA groups relative to the C group (P < 0.001), with concentrations of 0.0, 0.4, 2.9, 0.2, and 3.6 g/100 g liver total lipids in the C, COL, COH, FOL, and FOH groups, respectively. Comparable dose-independent enrichments of liver DHA were observed in mice fed CO and FO diets (P < 0.001). Relative to the C group, lower fatty acid desaturase 1 (Fads1) expression (P < 0.005) was observed in the COH and FOH groups. Higher fatty acid desaturase 2 (Fads2), peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor α (Ppara), and peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor γ (Pparg) (P < 0.005) expressions were induced by CO. No impact of treatment on liver X receptor

  3. Effects of dietary high-oleic acid sunflower oil, copper and vitamin E levels on the fatty acid composition and the quality of dry cured Parma ham.

    PubMed

    Bosi, P; Cacciavillani, J A; Casini, L; Lo Fiego, D P; Marchetti, M; Mattuzzi, S

    2000-02-01

    The effects of seven isoenergetic dietary treatments: (1) no sunflower oil, 35 mg/kg Cu, without α-tocopheryl-acetate added; (2) to (7) 6% high oleic acid sunflower oil (HOSO), 35 or 175 mg/kg Cu crossed with a 0, 100 or 200 mg/kg α-tocopherol addition, were tested on quality characteristics of dry cured Parma hams from a total 84 Large White gilts. No statistically significant effect was detected on parameters of early evaluation of seasoning loss of hams. The seasoning loss and intramuscular fat content of seasoned hams averaged 28.1 and 3.3%, respectively, with no effect of the diet composition. The CIE L*a*b* colour values taken on the surface of the lean from Parma ham were not affected by dietary oil inclusion, nor by copper levels and by α-tocopherol addition in the feed mixture, except for the 'a' value that increased in HOSO groups (P<0.01) and in groups with α-tocopherol addition (P<0.01). The TBARS values in lean were reduced by the inclusion of HOSO (P<0.05) and α-tocopherol supplementation (P<0.10). Compared to the no oil group, the Parma hams in the HOSO groups showed a higher oleic acid content in the covering fat, but not different in neutral and polar fractions from semimenbranosus muscle. The oil inclusion reduced the saturated fatty acid content in subcutaneous fat and neutral lipids fraction from muscle to 30-34% No effect of α-tocopherol and copper levels were observed on fatty acids profiles. From the subjects fed the HOSO diet softer Parma hams were produced than those fed the control diet (χ(2)<0.05), while α-tocopherol and Cu levels did not influence the sensorial evaluation of hams. The inclusion of an oleic acid rich source in heavy pig diet brought about an improved nutritional value, but also the possible need of a prolonged ageing time to achieve an ideal firmness of Parma ham. Dietary α-tocopherol supplementation improved the red colour slightly and the lipid stability in Parma ham, while the supplementation of Cu in the diet

  4. Treatment of congenital pulmonary lymphangiectasia using ethiodized oil lymphangiography.

    PubMed

    Gray, M; Kovatis, K Z; Stuart, T; Enlow, E; Itkin, M; Keller, M S; French, H M

    2014-09-01

    Historically, congenital pulmonary lymphangiectasia (CPL) has had poor treatment outcomes despite aggressive therapy. There are recent reports of ethiodized oil (Lipiodol) lymphangiography successfully treating lymphatic leakage in adults. In this report, we describe two infants with CPL complicated by chylothoraces successfully treated by instillation of ethiodized oil into the lymphatic system. Congenital atresia of the thoracic duct was demonstrated on the lymphangiogram in both patients before treatment. Both patients have shown good short-term outcomes without supplemental oxygen or fat restricted diets at 9 months of age. Ethiodized oil lymphangiography represents a new treatment modality for some patients with CPL.

  5. Dietary sodium, potassium, and alcohol: key players in the pathophysiology, prevention, and treatment of human hypertension.

    PubMed

    Koliaki, Chrysi; Katsilambros, Nicholas

    2013-06-01

    Western industrialized societies are currently experiencing an epidemic expansion of hypertension (HTN), which extends alarmingly even to children and adolescents. HTN constitutes an independent risk factor for cardiorenal disease and represents an extremely common comorbidity of diabetes and obesity. Numerous randomized clinical trials and meta-analyses have provided robust scientific evidence that reduced dietary salt intake, increased dietary potassium intake, moderation of alcohol consumption, optimal weight maintenance, and the adoption of "heart-friendly" dietary patterns such as the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension or the Mediterranean diet can effectively lower blood pressure. Interestingly, the susceptibility of blood pressure to nutritional interventions is greatly variable among individuals, depending on age, race, genetic background, and comorbidities. The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of currently available scientific evidence in the constantly evolving field of diet and HTN, placing particular emphasis on the key role of dietary sodium, dietary potassium, and alcohol intake in the pathophysiology, prevention, and treatment of human hypertension.

  6. The digestibility and accumulation of dietary phytosterols in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) smolt fed diets with replacement plant oils.

    PubMed

    Miller, Matthew R; Nichols, Peter D; Carter, Chris G

    2008-06-01

    Phytosterols occur in high concentration in canola (Brassica napus L.) and other vegetable oils such as from the borage plant Echium (Echium plantagineum L.). We investigated if Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) digest and accumulate dietary phytosterols in significant amounts in muscle and liver. Phytosterols are lipid soluble, lower cholesterol and reduce the risk of coronary heart disease in humans. We aimed to determine if fatty fish, such as salmon, can be used as a delivery source of this functional food component. Three diets containing canola oil (CO), Echium oil (EO) and fish oil (FO) were fed to Atlantic salmon smolt over 9 weeks. The digestibility of natural abundances of phytosterols by Atlantic salmon was poor compared to cholesterol. However, phytosterols accumulated in liver and muscle of fish. Significantly increased concentrations of 24-methylenecholesterol, campesterol, beta-sitosterol and total phytosterol occurred in livers of EO fed fish compared to FO fed fish. Campesterol concentrations increased in CO fed fish compared to the FO fed fish. We demonstrated that natural abundances of dietary phytosterols are digested by and accumulated in liver and white muscle of Atlantic salmon smolt. However, phytosterol levels in salmon muscle will not be a major source of phytosterols in human diets and would not be expected to significantly effect human cardiovascular health. PMID:18408959

  7. Use of dietary supplements in patients seeking treatment at a periodontal clinic.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Bryan D; Fritz, Peter C; Ward, Wendy E

    2013-04-02

    Dietary supplement use may modify the risk of periodontal disease but effects on wound healing after periodontal procedures are less clear. This study characterized dietary supplement use by male and female patients (n = 376) attending a periodontal clinic-information that is essential for evidence-based intervention studies that may improve patient outcomes after periodontal procedures. Calcium, vitamin D, multivitamin and vitamin C were most commonly used. A greater (p ≤ 0.05) number of males took no supplements compared to females, and more (p ≤ 0.05) females than males took ≥ four supplements. Females took more (p ≤ 0.05) calcium, vitamin D, fish oil, green tea, magnesium, omega 3,6,9 and B vitamin complex. Younger patients (31-50 years) had the highest (p ≤ 0.05) frequency of no supplement use compared to older age groups. Patients over age 50 had a higher (p ≤ 0.05) frequency of using ≥ four supplements including calcium and vitamin D. Supplement use was lower (p ≤ 0.05) in smokers, particularly for calcium, fish oil, green tea and vitamin D. In conclusion, females, older individuals and non-smokers have higher supplement use. Future dietary intervention studies can focus on supplements with known biological activities-anti-inflammatory, antioxidant or osteogenic activity-that may enhance wound healing after reconstructive periodontal procedures.

  8. Use of Dietary Supplements in Patients Seeking Treatment at a Periodontal Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Bryan D.; Fritz, Peter C.; Ward, Wendy E.

    2013-01-01

    Dietary supplement use may modify the risk of periodontal disease but effects on wound healing after periodontal procedures are less clear. This study characterized dietary supplement use by male and female patients (n = 376) attending a periodontal clinic—information that is essential for evidence-based intervention studies that may improve patient outcomes after periodontal procedures. Calcium, vitamin D, multivitamin and vitamin C were most commonly used. A greater (p ≤ 0.05) number of males took no supplements compared to females, and more (p ≤ 0.05) females than males took ≥ four supplements. Females took more (p ≤ 0.05) calcium, vitamin D, fish oil, green tea, magnesium, omega 3,6,9 and B vitamin complex. Younger patients (31–50 years) had the highest (p ≤ 0.05) frequency of no supplement use compared to older age groups. Patients over age 50 had a higher (p ≤ 0.05) frequency of using ≥ four supplements including calcium and vitamin D. Supplement use was lower (p ≤ 0.05) in smokers, particularly for calcium, fish oil, green tea and vitamin D. In conclusion, females, older individuals and non-smokers have higher supplement use. Future dietary intervention studies can focus on supplements with known biological activities—anti-inflammatory, antioxidant or osteogenic activity—that may enhance wound healing after reconstructive periodontal procedures. PMID:23549330

  9. Functional genomics reveals increases in cholesterol biosynthetic genes and highly unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis after dietary substitution of fish oil with vegetable oils in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    PubMed Central

    Leaver, Michael J; Villeneuve, Laure AN; Obach, Alex; Jensen, Linda; Bron, James E; Tocher, Douglas R; Taggart, John B

    2008-01-01

    Background There is an increasing drive to replace fish oil (FO) in finfish aquaculture diets with vegetable oils (VO), driven by the short supply of FO derived from wild fish stocks. However, little is known of the consequences for fish health after such substitution. The effect of dietary VO on hepatic gene expression, lipid composition and growth was determined in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), using a combination of cDNA microarray, lipid, and biochemical analysis. FO was replaced with VO, added to diets as rapeseed (RO), soybean (SO) or linseed (LO) oils. Results Dietary VO had no major effect on growth of the fish, but increased the whole fish protein contents and tended to decrease whole fish lipid content, thus increasing the protein:lipid ratio. Expression levels of genes of the highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA) and cholesterol biosynthetic pathways were increased in all vegetable oil diets as was SREBP2, a master transcriptional regulator of these pathways. Other genes whose expression was increased by feeding VO included those of NADPH generation, lipid transport, peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation, a marker of intracellular lipid accumulation, and protein and RNA processing. Consistent with these results, HUFA biosynthesis, hepatic β-oxidation activity and enzymic NADPH production were changed by VO, and there was a trend for increased hepatic lipid in LO and SO diets. Tissue cholesterol levels in VO fed fish were the same as animals fed FO, whereas fatty acid composition of the tissues largely reflected those of the diets and was marked by enrichment of 18 carbon fatty acids and reductions in 20 and 22 carbon HUFA. Conclusion This combined gene expression, compositional and metabolic study demonstrates that major lipid metabolic effects occur after replacing FO with VO in salmon diets. These effects are most likely mediated by SREBP2, which responds to reductions in dietary cholesterol. These changes are sufficient to maintain whole body cholesterol

  10. Heavily Oiled Salt Marsh following the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill, Ecological Comparisons of Shoreline Cleanup Treatments and Recovery.

    PubMed

    Zengel, Scott; Bernik, Brittany M; Rutherford, Nicolle; Nixon, Zachary; Michel, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill affected hundreds of kilometers of coastal wetland shorelines, including salt marshes with persistent heavy oiling that required intensive shoreline "cleanup" treatment. Oiled marsh treatment involves a delicate balance among: removing oil, speeding the degradation of remaining oil, protecting wildlife, fostering habitat recovery, and not causing further ecological damage with treatment. To examine the effectiveness and ecological effects of treatment during the emergency response, oiling characteristics and ecological parameters were compared over two years among heavily oiled test plots subject to: manual treatment, mechanical treatment, natural recovery (no treatment, oiled control), as well as adjacent reference conditions. An additional experiment compared areas with and without vegetation planting following treatment. Negative effects of persistent heavy oiling on marsh vegetation, intertidal invertebrates, and shoreline erosion were observed. In areas without treatment, oiling conditions and negative effects for most marsh parameters did not considerably improve over two years. Both manual and mechanical treatment were effective at improving oiling conditions and vegetation characteristics, beginning the recovery process, though recovery was not complete by two years. Mechanical treatment had additional negative effects of mixing oil into the marsh soils and further accelerating erosion. Manual treatment appeared to strike the right balance between improving oiling and habitat conditions while not causing additional detrimental effects. However, even with these improvements, marsh periwinkle snails showed minimal signs of recovery through two years, suggesting that some ecosystem components may lag vegetation recovery. Planting following treatment quickened vegetation recovery and reduced shoreline erosion. Faced with comparable marsh oiling in the future, we would recommend manual treatment followed by planting. We caution

  11. Heavily Oiled Salt Marsh following the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill, Ecological Comparisons of Shoreline Cleanup Treatments and Recovery.

    PubMed

    Zengel, Scott; Bernik, Brittany M; Rutherford, Nicolle; Nixon, Zachary; Michel, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill affected hundreds of kilometers of coastal wetland shorelines, including salt marshes with persistent heavy oiling that required intensive shoreline "cleanup" treatment. Oiled marsh treatment involves a delicate balance among: removing oil, speeding the degradation of remaining oil, protecting wildlife, fostering habitat recovery, and not causing further ecological damage with treatment. To examine the effectiveness and ecological effects of treatment during the emergency response, oiling characteristics and ecological parameters were compared over two years among heavily oiled test plots subject to: manual treatment, mechanical treatment, natural recovery (no treatment, oiled control), as well as adjacent reference conditions. An additional experiment compared areas with and without vegetation planting following treatment. Negative effects of persistent heavy oiling on marsh vegetation, intertidal invertebrates, and shoreline erosion were observed. In areas without treatment, oiling conditions and negative effects for most marsh parameters did not considerably improve over two years. Both manual and mechanical treatment were effective at improving oiling conditions and vegetation characteristics, beginning the recovery process, though recovery was not complete by two years. Mechanical treatment had additional negative effects of mixing oil into the marsh soils and further accelerating erosion. Manual treatment appeared to strike the right balance between improving oiling and habitat conditions while not causing additional detrimental effects. However, even with these improvements, marsh periwinkle snails showed minimal signs of recovery through two years, suggesting that some ecosystem components may lag vegetation recovery. Planting following treatment quickened vegetation recovery and reduced shoreline erosion. Faced with comparable marsh oiling in the future, we would recommend manual treatment followed by planting. We caution

  12. Heavily Oiled Salt Marsh following the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill, Ecological Comparisons of Shoreline Cleanup Treatments and Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Zengel, Scott; Bernik, Brittany M.; Rutherford, Nicolle; Nixon, Zachary; Michel, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill affected hundreds of kilometers of coastal wetland shorelines, including salt marshes with persistent heavy oiling that required intensive shoreline “cleanup” treatment. Oiled marsh treatment involves a delicate balance among: removing oil, speeding the degradation of remaining oil, protecting wildlife, fostering habitat recovery, and not causing further ecological damage with treatment. To examine the effectiveness and ecological effects of treatment during the emergency response, oiling characteristics and ecological parameters were compared over two years among heavily oiled test plots subject to: manual treatment, mechanical treatment, natural recovery (no treatment, oiled control), as well as adjacent reference conditions. An additional experiment compared areas with and without vegetation planting following treatment. Negative effects of persistent heavy oiling on marsh vegetation, intertidal invertebrates, and shoreline erosion were observed. In areas without treatment, oiling conditions and negative effects for most marsh parameters did not considerably improve over two years. Both manual and mechanical treatment were effective at improving oiling conditions and vegetation characteristics, beginning the recovery process, though recovery was not complete by two years. Mechanical treatment had additional negative effects of mixing oil into the marsh soils and further accelerating erosion. Manual treatment appeared to strike the right balance between improving oiling and habitat conditions while not causing additional detrimental effects. However, even with these improvements, marsh periwinkle snails showed minimal signs of recovery through two years, suggesting that some ecosystem components may lag vegetation recovery. Planting following treatment quickened vegetation recovery and reduced shoreline erosion. Faced with comparable marsh oiling in the future, we would recommend manual treatment followed by planting. We

  13. Treatment of emulsified oils by electrocoagulation: pulsed voltage applications.

    PubMed

    Genc, Ayten; Bakirci, Busra

    2015-01-01

    The effect of pulsed voltage application on energy consumption during electrocoagulation was investigated. Three voltage profiles having the same arithmetic average with respect to time were applied to the electrodes. The specific energy consumption for these profiles were evaluated and analyzed together with oil removal efficiencies. The effects of applied voltages, electrode materials, electrode configurations, and pH on oil removal efficiency were determined. Electrocoagulation experiments were performed by using synthetic and real wastewater samples. The pulsed voltages saved energy during the electrocoagulation process. In continuous operation, energy saving was as high as 48%. Aluminum electrodes used for the treatment of emulsified oils resulted in higher oil removal efficiencies in comparison with stainless steel and iron electrodes. When the electrodes gap was less than 1 cm, higher oil removal efficiencies were obtained. The highest oil removal efficiencies were 95% and 35% for the batch and continuous operating modes, respectively.

  14. Reducing methane emissions and the methanogen population in the rumen of Tibetan sheep by dietary supplementation with coconut oil.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xuezhi; Long, Ruijun; Zhang, Qian; Huang, Xiaodan; Guo, Xusheng; Mi, Jiandui

    2012-10-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of dietary coconut oil on methane (CH(4)) emissions and the microbial community in Tibetan sheep. Twelve animals were assigned to receive either a control diet (oaten hay) or a mixture diet containing concentrate (maize meal), in which coconut oil was supplemented at 12 g/day or not for a period of 4 weeks. CH(4) emissions were measured by using the 'tunnel' technique, and microbial communities were examined using quantitative real-time PCR. Daily CH(4) production for the control and forage-to-concentrate ratio of 6:4 was 17.8 and 15.3 g, respectively. Coconut oil was particularly effective at reducing CH(4) emissions from Tibetan sheep. The inclusion of coconut oil for the control decreased CH(4) production (in grams per day) by 61.2%. In addition, there was a positive correlation between the number of methanogens and the daily CH(4) production (R = 0.95, P < 0.001). Oaten hay diet containing maize meal (6:4) plus coconut oil supplemented at 12 g/day decreases the number of methanogens by 77% and a decreases in the ruminal fungal population (85-95%) and Fibrobacter succinogenes (50-98%) but an increase in Ruminococcus flavefaciens (25-70%). The results from our experiment suggest that adding coconut oil to the diet can reduce CH(4) emissions in Tibetan sheep and that these reductions persist for at least the 4-week feeding period.

  15. Effect of dietary canola oil on long-chain omega-3 fatty acid content in broiler hearts.

    PubMed

    Gregory, M K; Geier, M S; Gibson, R A; James, M J

    2014-04-01

    Young and healthy broilers are susceptible to sudden death syndrome (SDS), which is caused by cardiac arrhythmia. The long-chain 'fish-type' omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), have cardioprotective anti-arrhythmic effects in animals and humans. Raising the cardiac level of EPA and DHA in chickens may protect against SDS. However, fish oil as a source of EPA and DHA in poultry feed is costly and introduces undesirable properties to the meat. Whilst omega-3 vegetable oils, such as canola oil, are cheaper and do not have a strong odour, they contain the short-chain fatty acid α-linolenic acid, which requires conversion to EPA and DHA after ingestion. We investigated the capacity for dietary canola oil to elevate cardiac EPA and DHA in broilers. Broilers were fed with diets containing either 3% canola oil or tallow, which is currently used in some commercial feeds. Upon completion of a 42 day feeding trial, canola oil significantly increased EPA and EPA + DHA in heart phospholipids relative to tallow. The elevation in cardiac EPA and EPA + DHA may provide anti-arrhythmic effects and protect against SDS in poultry. This proof-of-concept biochemical study suggests that a larger study to assess the clinical outcome of SDS may be warranted.

  16. [Potential dietary interventions for prevention and treatment of infant allergy].

    PubMed

    Bascuñán Gamboa, Karla Amada; Araya Quezada, Magdalena

    2014-05-01

    The incidence of atopic diseases such as asthma, atopic dermatitis and food allergies has increased exponentially in recent decades. Although atopic diseases have a clear genetic basis, environmental factors such as the diet, seems to play an important role in its development. This article summarizes main studies exploring whether feeding practices of mothers and infants intervenes in the development of allergic diseases. The potential role of dietary practices of the mother and infants for the prevention and/or management of allergies in infants is discussed. The available evidence was analyzed for: (1) does mothers consumption of essential fatty acids, prebiotics and probiotics modulates the onset of allergic disorders?, (2) Does breastfeeding and artificial formula prevent/trigger the onset of allergy symptoms? (3) Does timing of introduction of solid feeding and the selection of certain common food allergens participate in achieving oral tolerance in infants? Accumulated evidence in recent years suggest that exposure to allergens early in life may promote immune tolerance and contribute to prevent infant food sensitization.

  17. Dietary Supplementation with Olive Oil or Fish Oil and Vascular Effects of Concentrated Ambient Particulate Matter Exposure in Human Volunteers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) induces endothelial dysfunction, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Olive oil (OO) and fish oil (FO) supplements have beneficial effects on endothelial function. Objective: In this study we evaluated the efficacy of...

  18. Borage oil in the treatment of atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Foster, Rachel H; Hardy, Gil; Alany, Raid G

    2010-01-01

    Nutritional supplementation with omega-6 essential fatty acids (omega-6 EFAs) is of potential interest in the treatment of atopic dermatitis. EFAs play a vital role in skin structure and physiology. EFA deficiency replicates the symptoms of atopic dermatitis, and patients with atopic dermatitis have been reported to have imbalances in EFA levels. Although direct proof is lacking, it has been hypothesized that patients with atopic dermatitis have impaired activity of the delta-6 desaturase enzyme, affecting metabolism of linoleic acid to gamma-linolenic acid (GLA). However, to date, studies of EFA supplementation in atopic dermatitis, most commonly using evening primrose oil, have produced conflicting results. Borage oil is of interest because it contains two to three times more GLA than evening primrose oil. This review identified 12 clinical trials of oral or topical borage oil for treatment of atopic dermatitis and one preventive trial. All studies were controlled and most were randomized and double-blind, but many were small and had other methodological limitations. The results of studies of borage oil for the treatment of atopic dermatitis were highly variable, with the effect reported to be significant in five studies, insignificant in five studies, and mixed in two studies. Borage oil given to at-risk neonates did not prevent development of atopic dermatitis. However, the majority of studies showed at least a small degree of efficacy or were not able to exclude the possibility that the oil produces a small benefit. Overall, the data suggest that nutritional supplementation with borage oil is unlikely to have a major clinical effect but may be useful in some individual patients with less severe atopic dermatitis who are seeking an alternative treatment. Which patients are likely to respond cannot yet be identified. Borage oil is well tolerated in the short term but no long-term tolerability data are available. PMID:20579590

  19. Borage oil in the treatment of atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Foster, Rachel H; Hardy, Gil; Alany, Raid G

    2010-01-01

    Nutritional supplementation with omega-6 essential fatty acids (omega-6 EFAs) is of potential interest in the treatment of atopic dermatitis. EFAs play a vital role in skin structure and physiology. EFA deficiency replicates the symptoms of atopic dermatitis, and patients with atopic dermatitis have been reported to have imbalances in EFA levels. Although direct proof is lacking, it has been hypothesized that patients with atopic dermatitis have impaired activity of the delta-6 desaturase enzyme, affecting metabolism of linoleic acid to gamma-linolenic acid (GLA). However, to date, studies of EFA supplementation in atopic dermatitis, most commonly using evening primrose oil, have produced conflicting results. Borage oil is of interest because it contains two to three times more GLA than evening primrose oil. This review identified 12 clinical trials of oral or topical borage oil for treatment of atopic dermatitis and one preventive trial. All studies were controlled and most were randomized and double-blind, but many were small and had other methodological limitations. The results of studies of borage oil for the treatment of atopic dermatitis were highly variable, with the effect reported to be significant in five studies, insignificant in five studies, and mixed in two studies. Borage oil given to at-risk neonates did not prevent development of atopic dermatitis. However, the majority of studies showed at least a small degree of efficacy or were not able to exclude the possibility that the oil produces a small benefit. Overall, the data suggest that nutritional supplementation with borage oil is unlikely to have a major clinical effect but may be useful in some individual patients with less severe atopic dermatitis who are seeking an alternative treatment. Which patients are likely to respond cannot yet be identified. Borage oil is well tolerated in the short term but no long-term tolerability data are available.

  20. The role of dietary coconut for the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's disease: potential mechanisms of action.

    PubMed

    Fernando, W M A D B; Martins, Ian J; Goozee, K G; Brennan, Charles S; Jayasena, V; Martins, R N

    2015-07-14

    Coconut, Cocos nucifera L., is a tree that is cultivated to provide a large number of products, although it is mainly grown for its nutritional and medicinal values. Coconut oil, derived from the coconut fruit, has been recognised historically as containing high levels of saturated fat; however, closer scrutiny suggests that coconut should be regarded more favourably. Unlike most other dietary fats that are high in long-chain fatty acids, coconut oil comprises medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA). MCFA are unique in that they are easily absorbed and metabolised by the liver, and can be converted to ketones. Ketone bodies are an important alternative energy source in the brain, and may be beneficial to people developing or already with memory impairment, as in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Coconut is classified as a highly nutritious 'functional food'. It is rich in dietary fibre, vitamins and minerals; however, notably, evidence is mounting to support the concept that coconut may be beneficial in the treatment of obesity, dyslipidaemia, elevated LDL, insulin resistance and hypertension - these are the risk factors for CVD and type 2 diabetes, and also for AD. In addition, phenolic compounds and hormones (cytokinins) found in coconut may assist in preventing the aggregation of amyloid-β peptide, potentially inhibiting a key step in the pathogenesis of AD. The purpose of the present review was to explore the literature related to coconut, outlining the known mechanistic physiology, and to discuss the potential role of coconut supplementation as a therapeutic option in the prevention and management of AD.

  1. The role of dietary coconut for the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's disease: potential mechanisms of action.

    PubMed

    Fernando, W M A D B; Martins, Ian J; Goozee, K G; Brennan, Charles S; Jayasena, V; Martins, R N

    2015-07-14

    Coconut, Cocos nucifera L., is a tree that is cultivated to provide a large number of products, although it is mainly grown for its nutritional and medicinal values. Coconut oil, derived from the coconut fruit, has been recognised historically as containing high levels of saturated fat; however, closer scrutiny suggests that coconut should be regarded more favourably. Unlike most other dietary fats that are high in long-chain fatty acids, coconut oil comprises medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA). MCFA are unique in that they are easily absorbed and metabolised by the liver, and can be converted to ketones. Ketone bodies are an important alternative energy source in the brain, and may be beneficial to people developing or already with memory impairment, as in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Coconut is classified as a highly nutritious 'functional food'. It is rich in dietary fibre, vitamins and minerals; however, notably, evidence is mounting to support the concept that coconut may be beneficial in the treatment of obesity, dyslipidaemia, elevated LDL, insulin resistance and hypertension - these are the risk factors for CVD and type 2 diabetes, and also for AD. In addition, phenolic compounds and hormones (cytokinins) found in coconut may assist in preventing the aggregation of amyloid-β peptide, potentially inhibiting a key step in the pathogenesis of AD. The purpose of the present review was to explore the literature related to coconut, outlining the known mechanistic physiology, and to discuss the potential role of coconut supplementation as a therapeutic option in the prevention and management of AD. PMID:25997382

  2. Dietary fish oil replacement with palm or poultry oil increases fillet oxidative stability and decreases liver glutathione peroxidase activity in barramundi (Lates calcarifer).

    PubMed

    Wan Ahmad, Wan A R; Stone, David A J; Schuller, Kathryn A

    2013-12-01

    Complete dietary fish oil replacement with palm or poultry oil in barramundi (Lates calcarifer) had no detrimental effects on growth or hepatosomatic index of juvenile fish up to an average size of ~50 g. However, it significantly decreased the omega-3 (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid content of the fish muscle (fillet) lipids. This was particularly true for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) which are recognised for their health beneficial effects in the human diet. As a result of their decreased EPA and DHA content, the peroxidation index of the muscle lipids was also decreased. This was associated with increased simulated retail storage shelf life as indicated by decreased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in muscle samples from fish fed the palm or poultry oil-based diets. Concomitantly, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, but not glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity or reduced glutathione concentration, was significantly reduced in the liver of barramundi fed the palm or poultry oil-based diets as compared with the fish fed the fish oil-based diet. Furthermore, GPx and GST activity were very low in muscle, much lower than in gastrointestinal tract, liver or swim bladder. Therefore, we propose that liver GPx activity may be a good predictor of fillet shelf life in barramundi and other fish species.

  3. Effects of dietary beef tallow and soy oil on glucose and cholesterol homeostasis in normal and diabetic pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Woollett, L.A.

    1987-01-01

    Toe valuate whether dietary fats of different degrees of unsaturation alter glucose and very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-CH) homeostasis, normal and alloxan-diabetic pigs were fed diets containing either beef tallow or soy oil as the primary source of fat for 6 weeks. After intra-arterial and oral doses of glucose, pigs fed soy oil had similar glucose and greater insulin concentrations in plasma when compared with pigs fed beef tallow. Beef tallow-fed pigs additionally were 40% more glucose effective than were soy oil-fed pigs. Disappearance of injected autologous /sup 14/C-VLDL-CH was analyzed in pigs using a two-pool model. Diabetes resulted in a twofold increase in half-lives and a 60-fold increase in pool sizes of the primary and secondary components of VLDL-CH disappearance when compared with those of normal pigs. In normal pigs, feeding beef tallow resulted in longer half-lives of both components of VLDL-CH disappearance and no effect in pool size of both components of VLDL-CH disappearance than did feeding soy oil. In comparison, diabetic pigs fed beef tallow had a similar half-life of the primary component, a twofold shorter half-life of the secondary component, and threefold larger pool size of the primary component, and a similar pool size of the secondary component of VLDL-CH disappearance than did diabetic pigs fed soy oil. Thus, dietary fat seems to play an important role in regulation of glucose and VLDL-CH homeostasis in normal and diabetic animals.

  4. Enhanced level of n-3 fatty acid in membrane phospholipids induces lipid peroxidation in rats fed dietary docosahexaenoic acid oil.

    PubMed

    Song, J H; Miyazawa, T

    2001-03-01

    The effect of dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) oil with different lipid types on lipid peroxidation was studied in rats. Each group of male Sprague-Dawley rats was pair fed 15% (w/w) of either DHA-triglycerides (DHA-TG), DHA-ethyl esters (DHA-EE) or DHA-phospholipids (DHA-PL) for up to 3 weeks. The palm oil (supplemented with 20% soybean oil) diet without DHA was fed as the control. Dietary DHA oils lowered plasma triglyceride concentrations in rats fed DHA-TG (by 30%), DHA-EE (by 45%) and DHA-PL (by 27%), compared to control. The incorporation of dietary DHA into plasma and liver phospholipids was more pronounced in the DHA-TG and DHA-EE group than in the DHA-PL group. However, DHA oil intake negatively influenced lipid peroxidation in both plasma and liver. Phospholipid peroxidation in plasma and liver was significantly higher than control in rats fed DHA-TG or DHA-EE, but not DHA-PL. These results are consistent with increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and decreased alpha-tocopherol levels in plasma and liver. In addition, liver microsomes from rats of each group were exposed to a mixture of chelated iron (Fe(3+)/ADP) and NADPH to determine the rate of peroxidative damage. During NADPH-dependent peroxidation of microsomes, the accumulation of phospholipid hydroperoxides, as well as TBARS, were elevated and alpha-tocopherol levels were significantly exhausted in DHA-TG and DHA-EE groups. During microsomal lipid peroxidation, there was a greater loss of n-3 fatty acids (mainly DHA) than of n-6 fatty acids, including arachidonic acid (20:4n-6). These results indicate that polyunsaturation of n-3 fatty acids is the most important target for lipid peroxidation. This suggests that the ingestion of large amounts of DHA oil enhances lipid peroxidation in the target membranes where greater amounts of n-3 fatty acids are incorporated, thereby increasing the peroxidizability and possibly accelerating the atherosclerotic process.

  5. Oily fish, coffee and walnuts: Dietary treatment for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vikas; Mah, Xian-Jun; Garcia, Maria Carmela; Antonypillai, Christina; van der Poorten, David

    2015-10-01

    Rates of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are increasing worldwide in tandem with the metabolic syndrome, with the progressive form of disease, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) likely to become the most common cause of end stage liver disease in the not too distant future. Lifestyle modification and weight loss remain the main focus of management in NAFLD and NASH, however, there has been growing interest in the benefit of specific foods and dietary components on disease progression, with some foods showing protective properties. This article provides an overview of the foods that show the most promise and their potential benefits in NAFLD/NASH, specifically; oily fish/ fish oil, coffee, nuts, tea, red wine, avocado and olive oil. Furthermore, it summarises results from animal and human trials and highlights potential areas for future research. PMID:26457022

  6. Oily fish, coffee and walnuts: Dietary treatment for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Vikas; Mah, Xian-Jun; Garcia, Maria Carmela; Antonypillai, Christina; van der Poorten, David

    2015-01-01

    Rates of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are increasing worldwide in tandem with the metabolic syndrome, with the progressive form of disease, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) likely to become the most common cause of end stage liver disease in the not too distant future. Lifestyle modification and weight loss remain the main focus of management in NAFLD and NASH, however, there has been growing interest in the benefit of specific foods and dietary components on disease progression, with some foods showing protective properties. This article provides an overview of the foods that show the most promise and their potential benefits in NAFLD/NASH, specifically; oily fish/ fish oil, coffee, nuts, tea, red wine, avocado and olive oil. Furthermore, it summarises results from animal and human trials and highlights potential areas for future research. PMID:26457022

  7. Comparison of ultraviolet light-induced skin carcinogenesis and ornithine decarboxylase activity in sencar and hairless SKH-1 mice fed a constant level of dietary lipid varying in corn and coconut oil.

    PubMed

    Berton, T R; Fischer, S M; Conti, C J; Locniskar, M F

    1996-01-01

    To investigate the effect of various levels of corn oil and coconut oil on ultraviolet (UV) light-induced skin tumorigenesis and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity, Sencar and SKH-1 mice were fed one of three 15% (weight) fat semipurified diets containing three ratios of corn oil to coconut oil: 1.0%:14.0%, 7.9%:7.1%, and 15.0%:0.0% in Diets A, B, and C, respectively. Groups of 30 Sencar and SKH-1 mice were fed one of the diets for three weeks before UV irradiation; then both strains were UV irradiated with an initial dose of 90 mJ/cm2. The dose was given three times a week and increased 25% each week. For Sencar mice (irradiated 33 wks for a total dose of 48 J/cm2), tumor incidence reached a maximum of 60%, 60%, and 53% for Diets A, B, and C, respectively, with an overall average of one to two tumors per tumor-bearing animal. For the SKH-1 mice (irradiated 29 wks for a total dose of 18 J/cm2), all diet groups reached 100% incidence by 29 weeks, with approximately 12 tumors per tumor-bearing mouse. No significant effect of dietary corn oil/coconut oil was found for tumor latency, incidence, or yield in either strain. The effect of increasing corn oil on epidermal ODC activity in chronically UV-irradiated Sencar and SKH-1 mice was assessed. Three groups of mice from each strain were fed one of the experimental diets and UV irradiated for six weeks. Sencar mice showed no increase in ODC activity until six weeks of treatment, when the levels of ODC activity in the UV-irradiated mice fed Diet A were significantly higher than those in mice fed Diet B or Diet C: 1.27, 0.55, and 0.52 nmol/mg protein/hr, respectively. In the SKH-1 mice, ODC activity was increased by the first week of UV treatment, and by three weeks of treatment a dietary effect was observed; ODC activity was significantly higher in mice fed Diet C (0.70 nmol/mg protein/hr) than in mice fed Diet A (0.18 nmol/mg protein/hr). Although there was no significant effect of dietary corn oil/coconut oil on UV

  8. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: dietary and nutritional treatments.

    PubMed

    Arnold, L Eugene; Hurt, Elizabeth; Lofthouse, Nicholas

    2013-07-01

    Dozens of complementary and alternative treatments have been advocated for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Some verge into standard treatment of specific cases. Most do not have conclusive evidence of effectiveness or safety for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, but some have enough evidence and are safe, easy, cheap, and sensible enough that individual patient trials can be justified. There is a need to flesh out the evidence base, which could be done cost effectively for supplements or off-label agents that are amenable to placebo control. PMID:23806311

  9. Chicken meat nutritional value when feeding red palm oil, palm oil or rendered animal fat in combinations with linseed oil, rapeseed oil and two levels of selenium.

    PubMed

    Nyquist, Nicole F; Rødbotten, Rune; Thomassen, Magny; Haug, Anna

    2013-05-09

    Chicken meat nutritional value with regard to fatty acid composition and selenium content depends on the choice of dietary oil and selenium level used in the chickens' feed. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of replacing commonly used rendered animal fat as a dietary source of saturated fatty acids and soybean oil as a source of unsaturated fatty acids, with palm oil and red palm oil in combinations with rapeseed oil, linseed oil and two levels of selenium enriched yeast on chicken breast meat nutritional value. The study also wished to see whether red palm oil had a cholesterol lowering effect on chicken plasma.204 male, newly hatched broiler chickens were randomly divided into twelve dietary treatment groups, and individually fed one out of six dietary fat combinations combined with either low (0.1 mg Se /kg feed) or high (1 mg Se/kg feed) dietary selenium levels. Linseed oil, independent of accompanying dietary fat source, lead to increased levels of the n-3 EPA, DPA and DHA and reduced levels of the n-6 arachidonic acid (AA). The ratio between AA/EPA was reduced from 19/1 in the soybean oil dietary groups to 1.7/1 in the linseed oil dietary groups. Dietary red palm oil reduced total chicken plasma cholesterol levels. There were no differences between the dietary groups with regard to measured meat antioxidant capacity or sensory evaluation. Chicken meat selenium levels were clearly influenced by dietary selenium levels, but were not influenced by feed fatty acid composition. High dietary selenium level lead to marginally increased n-3 EPA and higher meat fat % in breast muscle but did not influence the other LC PUFA levels. Chicken breast meat nutritional value from the soybean oil and low selenium dietary groups may be regarded as less beneficial compared to the breast meat from the linseed oil and high selenium dietary groups. Replacing rendered animal fat with palm oil and red palm oil had no negative effects on chicken muscle

  10. Chicken meat nutritional value when feeding red palm oil, palm oil or rendered animal fat in combinations with linseed oil, rapeseed oil and two levels of selenium

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Chicken meat nutritional value with regard to fatty acid composition and selenium content depends on the choice of dietary oil and selenium level used in the chickens’ feed. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of replacing commonly used rendered animal fat as a dietary source of saturated fatty acids and soybean oil as a source of unsaturated fatty acids, with palm oil and red palm oil in combinations with rapeseed oil, linseed oil and two levels of selenium enriched yeast on chicken breast meat nutritional value. The study also wished to see whether red palm oil had a cholesterol lowering effect on chicken plasma. 204 male, newly hatched broiler chickens were randomly divided into twelve dietary treatment groups, and individually fed one out of six dietary fat combinations combined with either low (0.1 mg Se /kg feed) or high (1 mg Se/kg feed) dietary selenium levels. Linseed oil, independent of accompanying dietary fat source, lead to increased levels of the n-3 EPA, DPA and DHA and reduced levels of the n-6 arachidonic acid (AA). The ratio between AA/EPA was reduced from 19/1 in the soybean oil dietary groups to 1.7/1 in the linseed oil dietary groups. Dietary red palm oil reduced total chicken plasma cholesterol levels. There were no differences between the dietary groups with regard to measured meat antioxidant capacity or sensory evaluation. Chicken meat selenium levels were clearly influenced by dietary selenium levels, but were not influenced by feed fatty acid composition. High dietary selenium level lead to marginally increased n-3 EPA and higher meat fat % in breast muscle but did not influence the other LC PUFA levels. Chicken breast meat nutritional value from the soybean oil and low selenium dietary groups may be regarded as less beneficial compared to the breast meat from the linseed oil and high selenium dietary groups. Replacing rendered animal fat with palm oil and red palm oil had no negative effects on chicken muscle

  11. Fatty Acids Composition of Vegetable Oils and Its Contribution to Dietary Energy Intake and Dependence of Cardiovascular Mortality on Dietary Intake of Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Orsavova, Jana; Misurcova, Ladislava; Vavra Ambrozova, Jarmila; Vicha, Robert; Mlcek, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Characterizations of fatty acids composition in % of total methylester of fatty acids (FAMEs) of fourteen vegetable oils—safflower, grape, silybum marianum, hemp, sunflower, wheat germ, pumpkin seed, sesame, rice bran, almond, rapeseed, peanut, olive, and coconut oil—were obtained by using gas chromatography (GC). Saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), palmitic acid (C16:0; 4.6%–20.0%), oleic acid (C18:1; 6.2%–71.1%) and linoleic acid (C18:2; 1.6%–79%), respectively, were found predominant. The nutritional aspect of analyzed oils was evaluated by determination of the energy contribution of SFAs (19.4%–695.7% ERDI), PUFAs (10.6%–786.8% ERDI), n-3 FAs (4.4%–117.1% ERDI) and n-6 FAs (1.8%–959.2% ERDI), expressed in % ERDI of 1 g oil to energy recommended dietary intakes (ERDI) for total fat (ERDI—37.7 kJ/g). The significant relationship between the reported data of total fat, SFAs, MUFAs and PUFAs intakes (% ERDI) for adults and mortality caused by coronary heart diseases (CHD) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in twelve countries has not been confirmed by Spearman’s correlations. PMID:26057750

  12. SEQUESTRATION AND TREATMENT OF VADOSE ZONE SOLVENTS USING EDIBLE OILS

    SciTech Connect

    Riha, B; Brian02 Looney, B; Richard Hall , R

    2008-03-28

    Edible oils have emerged as an effective treatment amendment for a variety of contaminants. When applied to chlorinated volatile organic compounds (cVOCs) in the saturated zone, edible oils have been shown to enhance anaerobic bioremediation and sequester the contaminants. However, edible oils have not been applied to the vadose zone for contaminant treatment. Soybean oil was injected into the vadose zone in M-Area at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) as a research study to evaluate the effectiveness of edible oils for solvent sequestration and the ability to change a vadose system from aerobic to anaerobic to initiate reductive dechlorination. The proposed use of this technique would be an enhanced attenuation/transition step after active remediation. The goals of the research were to evaluate oil emplacement methods and monitoring techniques to measure oil placement, partitioning and degradation. Gas sampling was the cornerstone for this evaluation. Analyses for cVOCs and biotransformation products were performed. Overall, the cVOC concentration/flux reduction was 75-85% in this vadose zone setting. Destruction of the cVOCs by biotic or abiotic process has not yet been verified at this site. No reductive dechlorination products have been measured. The deployment has resulted in a substantial generation of light hydrocarbon gases and geochemical conditions that would support cometabolism.

  13. Effect of dietary Lunaria oil on chick growth and organ lipid content.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, A J; Fritz, J C; Rudolf, T S

    1980-07-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of feeding Lunaria oil to chicks. A deit containing Lunaria oil produced poorer growth and lower feed conversion than one containing corn oil. White Plymouth Rock chicks had apparent digestibility values of 89.9% and 55.8% for corn and Lunaria oil, respectively. Gas-liquid chromatographic analysis of heart, liver, and body cavity lipids (fat) showed that more erucic and nervonic acids accumulated in the fat of the birds fed Lunaria oil than in the fat of those fed corn oil.

  14. Dietary supplementation of omega-3 fatty acid-containing fish oil suppresses F2-isoprostanes but enhances inflammatory cytokine response in a mouse model of ovalbumin-induced allergic lung inflammation.

    PubMed

    Yin, Huiyong; Liu, Wei; Goleniewska, Kasia; Porter, Ned A; Morrow, Jason D; Peebles, R Stokes

    2009-09-01

    Epidemiological and clinical evidence has suggested that increased dietary intake of fish oil containing omega-3 fatty acids including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) may be associated with a reduced risk of asthma. However, interventional studies on these effects have been equivocal and controversial. Free radical oxidation products of lipids and cyclooxygenases-derived prostaglandins are believed to play an important role in asthma, and fish oil supplementation may modulate the levels of these critical lipid mediators. We employed a murine model of allergic inflammation produced by sensitization to ovalbumin (OVA) to study the effects of fish oil supplementation on airway inflammation. Our studies demonstrated that omega-3 fatty acids were dose dependently incorporated into mouse lung tissue after dietary supplementation. We examined the oxidative stress status by measuring the levels of isoprostanes (IsoPs), the gold standard for oxidative stress in vivo. OVA challenge caused significant increase of F(2)-IsoPs in mouse lung, suggesting an elevated level of oxidative stress. Compared to the control group, fish oil supplementation led to a significant reduction of F(2)-IsoP (from arachidonic acid) with a concomitant increase of F(3)-IsoPs (from EPA) and F(4)-IsoPs (from DHA). Surprisingly, however, fish oil supplementation enhanced production of proinflammatory cytokine IL-5 and IL-13. Furthermore, fish oil supplementation suppressed the production of pulmonary protective PGE(2) in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) while the level of urinary metabolites of the PGE(2) was increased. Our data suggest that augmented lung inflammation after fish oil supplementation may be due to the reduction of PGE(2) production in the lung and these dichotomous results bring into question the role of fish oil supplementation in the treatment of asthma.

  15. Essential Oils for Treatment for Onychomycosis: A Mini-Review.

    PubMed

    Flores, Fernanda C; Beck, Ruy C R; da Silva, Cristiane de B

    2016-02-01

    Onychomycosis are fungal infections affecting finger and toenails mainly caused by dermatophyte fungi and some Candida species. Low cure rates and frequent recurrence, development of a fungal resistance front to various antimicrobial agents topical and systemic, and an ineffective topical treatment make onychomycosis difficult to treat. Essential oils are excellent candidates for the topical treatment for onychomycosis because the development of resistance by fungi is rare, and the presence of side effects is low. They are composed of a complex variety of compounds, mainly terpenes, with low molecular weight, which may easily penetrate into the nail plate, finding the fungi elements. The complex mixture confers a broad antifungal spectrum of action, through interaction with biological membranes, interference in radical and enzymatic reaction of fungi cells. Essential oils may become the source of new therapeutic molecules, and the use of an essential oil incorporated into a topical formulation is an interesting, safe, and effective alternative for the treatment for onychomycosis. However, studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy of essential oils in the treatment for onychomycosis in vivo. This mini-review aims to present the potential use of essential oils for the treatment for onychomycosis, focusing on the last decade.

  16. Essential Oils for Treatment for Onychomycosis: A Mini-Review.

    PubMed

    Flores, Fernanda C; Beck, Ruy C R; da Silva, Cristiane de B

    2016-02-01

    Onychomycosis are fungal infections affecting finger and toenails mainly caused by dermatophyte fungi and some Candida species. Low cure rates and frequent recurrence, development of a fungal resistance front to various antimicrobial agents topical and systemic, and an ineffective topical treatment make onychomycosis difficult to treat. Essential oils are excellent candidates for the topical treatment for onychomycosis because the development of resistance by fungi is rare, and the presence of side effects is low. They are composed of a complex variety of compounds, mainly terpenes, with low molecular weight, which may easily penetrate into the nail plate, finding the fungi elements. The complex mixture confers a broad antifungal spectrum of action, through interaction with biological membranes, interference in radical and enzymatic reaction of fungi cells. Essential oils may become the source of new therapeutic molecules, and the use of an essential oil incorporated into a topical formulation is an interesting, safe, and effective alternative for the treatment for onychomycosis. However, studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy of essential oils in the treatment for onychomycosis in vivo. This mini-review aims to present the potential use of essential oils for the treatment for onychomycosis, focusing on the last decade. PMID:26481920

  17. Increased Oil Recovery from Mature Oil Fields Using Gelled Polymer Treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Willhite, G.P.; Green, D.W.; McCool, S.

    2001-03-28

    Gelled polymer treatments were applied to oil reservoirs to increase oil production and to reduce water production by altering the fluid movement within the reservoir. This report is aimed at reducing barriers to the widespread use of these treatments by developing methods to predict gel behavior during placement in matrix rock and fractures, determining the persistence of permeability reduction after gel placement, and by developing methods to design production well treatments to control water production. Procedures were developed to determine the weight-average molecular weight and average size of polyacrylamide samples in aqueous solutions. Sample preparation techniques were key to achieving reproducible results.

  18. Treatment of oil spill water by ozonation and sand filtration.

    PubMed

    Hong, P K Andy; Xiao, Ting

    2013-04-01

    Increasing volumes of crude oil being produced and transported throughout the world in recent decades have resulted in increased risks of spill and high-profile spill incidents of significant environmental and ecological impacts over extended periods of time. While immediate in situ and ex situ responses have been implemented, none are available for onsite treatment of contaminated water for immediate release of the treated water. We demonstrate here a potential treatment scheme involving ozonation and sand filtration intended for immediate treatment and discharge of the impacted water. Waters of tap, Utah Lake, and Great Salt Lake sources were spiked with crude oil of the Great Natural Butte of Utah at 2.5% and 0.025% oil (v/v) and tested for treatment. The results showed near complete removal (100%) of both Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and oil and grease (O&G) from initially 20000 and 11000 mg L(-1), respectively, via flotation pretreatment, ozonation in pressure cycles, and sand filtration. At lower oil level of 0.025%, complete removal of COD and O&G from waters were achieved without floatation. The treated waters showed reduction of turbidity to <1 from 4000 NTU and high Biochemical Oxygen Demand/COD ratio of 0.3-0.5 that reflected highly biodegradable residual organics. The results showed synergistic oil removal when two well practiced methods, namely ozonation and sand filtration that either alone seems ineffective, are combined sequentially. It indicates a potential on-site treatment response for oil spill incidents where the collection and transport of a large amount of contaminated water may be avoided.

  19. Dietary Mannan Oligosaccharides: Counteracting the Side Effects of Soybean Meal Oil Inclusion on European Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) Gut Health and Skin Mucosa Mucus Production?

    PubMed Central

    Torrecillas, Silvia; Montero, Daniel; Caballero, Maria José; Pittman, Karin A.; Custódio, Marco; Campo, Aurora; Sweetman, John; Izquierdo, Marisol

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess the effects of 4 g kg−1 dietary mannan oligosaccharides (MOS) inclusion in soybean oil (SBO)- and fish oil (FO)-based diets on the gut health and skin mucosa mucus production of European sea bass juveniles after 8 weeks of feeding. Dietary MOS, regardless of the oil source, promoted growth. The intestinal somatic index was not affected, however dietary SBO reduced the intestinal fold length, while dietary MOS increased it. The dietary oil source fed produced changes on the posterior intestine fatty acid profiles irrespective of MOS dietary supplementation. SBO down-regulated the gene expression of TCRβ, COX2, IL-1β, TNFα, IL-8, IL-6, IL-10, TGFβ, and Ig and up-regulated MHCII. MOS supplementation up-regulated the expression of MHCI, CD4, COX2, TNFα, and Ig when included in FO-based diets. However, there was a minor up-regulating effect on these genes when MOS was supplemented in the SBO-based diet. Both dietary oil sources and MOS affected mean mucous cell areas within the posterior gut, however the addition of MOS to a SBO diet increased the mucous cell size over the values shown in FO fed fish. Dietary SBO also trends to reduce mucous cell density in the anterior gut relative to FO, suggesting a lower overall mucosal secretion. There are no effects of dietary oil or MOS in the skin mucosal patterns. Complete replacement of FO by SBO, modified the gut fatty acid profile, altered posterior gut-associated immune system (GALT)-related gene expression and gut mucous cells patterns, induced shorter intestinal folds and tended to reduce European sea bass growth. However, when combined with MOS, the harmful effects of SBO appear to be partially balanced by moderating the down-regulation of certain GALT-related genes involved in the functioning of gut mucous barrier and increasing posterior gut mucous cell diffusion rates, thus helping to preserve immune homeostasis. This denotes the importance of a balanced

  20. Dietary fish oil reduces glomerular injury and elevated renal hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid levels in the JCR:LA-cp rat, a model of the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Aukema, Harold M; Lu, Jing; Borthwick, Faye; Proctor, Spencer D

    2013-07-14

    We have previously shown nutritional intervention with fish oil (n-3 PUFA) to reduce numerous complications associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the JCR:LA-corpulent (cp) rat. In the present study, we sought to explore the potential role of fish oil to prevent glomerulosclerosis in JCR:LA-cp rats via renal eicosanoid metabolism and lipidomic analysis. Male lean and MetS JCR:LA-cp rats were fed a lipid-balanced diet supplemented with fish oil (5 or 10 % of total fat). After 16 weeks of feeding, albuminuria was significantly reduced in MetS rats supplemented with 5 or 10 % fish oil ( - 53 and - 70 %, respectively, compared with the untreated MetS rats). The 5 % fish oil diet resulted in markedly lower glomerulosclerosis ( - 43 %) in MetS rats and to a lesser extent in those supplemented with 10 % fish oil. Interestingly, untreated MetS rats had higher levels of 11- and 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETE) v. lean rats. Dietary fish oil reduced these levels, as well as other (5-, 9- and 15-) HETE. Whilst genotype did not alter prostanoid levels, fish oil reduced endogenous renal levels of 6-keto PGF1α (PGI2 metabolite), thromboxane B2 (TxB2), PGF2α and PGD2 by approximately 60 % in rats fed 10 % fish oil, and TxB2 ( - 50 %) and PGF2α ( - 41 %) in rats fed 5 % fish oil. In conclusion, dietary fish oil prevented glomerular damage in MetS rats and mitigated the elevation in renal HETE levels. These results suggest a potential role for dietary fish oil to improve dysfunctional renal eicosanoid metabolism associated with kidney damage during conditions of the MetS.

  1. Dietary citrate treatment of polycystic kidney disease in rats.

    PubMed

    Tanner, George A; Tanner, Judith A

    2003-01-01

    Progression of autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) in the heterozygous male Han:SPRD rat is dramatically slowed by ingestion of potassium or sodium citrate. This study examined the efficacy of delayed therapy with sodium citrate, the effect of sodium citrate therapy on kidney cortex levels of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), and the response to calcium citrate ingestion. Rats were provided with citrate salts in their food, and renal clearance, blood pressure, blood chemistry, and survival determinations were made. Sodium citrate therapy was most effective when started at age 1 month, and delay of therapy until age 3 months produced no benefit. Kidney cortex TGF-beta levels were elevated in 3- and 8-month-old rats with ADPKD, but not in 6-week-old rats. Sodium citrate treatment, started at age 1 month, lowered TGF-beta levels to normal in 3-month-old rats, but this is probably not the primary mechanism of citrate's beneficial effect. Calcium citrate had only a modest effect in preserving glomerular filtration rate. Effective treatment of ADPKD in this rat model requires early administration of a readily absorbed alkalinizing citrate salt. Existing data on ADPKD patients on vegetarian diets or with kidney stones should be studied in light of these findings.

  2. Chronic treatment with a carbon monoxide releasing molecule reverses dietary induced obesity in mice.

    PubMed

    Hosick, Peter A; AlAmodi, Abdulhadi A; Hankins, Michael W; Stec, David E

    2016-01-01

    Chronic, low level treatment with a carbon monoxide releasing molecule (CO-RM), CORM-A1, has been shown to prevent the development of obesity in response to a high fat diet. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that chronic, low level treatment with this CO-RM can reverse established obesity via a mechanism independent of food intake. Dietary induced obese mice were treated with CORM-A1, the inactive compound iCORM-A1, or saline every 48 hours for 30 weeks while maintained on a high fat (60%) diet. Chronic treatment with CORM-A1 resulted in a 33% decrease from initial body weight over the 30 week treatment period while treatment with iCORM and saline were associated with 18 and 25% gain in initial body weight over the same time frame. Chronic treatment with CORM-A1 did not affect food intake or activity but resulted in a significant increase in metabolism. CORM-A1 treatment also resulted in lower fasting blood glucose, improvement in insulin sensitivity and decreased heptatic steatosis. Chronic treatment with CO releasing molecules can reverse dietary induced obesity and normalize insulin resistance independent of changes in food intake or activity. These findings are likely though a mechanism which increases metabolism. PMID:27144091

  3. Chronic treatment with a carbon monoxide releasing molecule reverses dietary induced obesity in mice.

    PubMed

    Hosick, Peter A; AlAmodi, Abdulhadi A; Hankins, Michael W; Stec, David E

    2016-01-01

    Chronic, low level treatment with a carbon monoxide releasing molecule (CO-RM), CORM-A1, has been shown to prevent the development of obesity in response to a high fat diet. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that chronic, low level treatment with this CO-RM can reverse established obesity via a mechanism independent of food intake. Dietary induced obese mice were treated with CORM-A1, the inactive compound iCORM-A1, or saline every 48 hours for 30 weeks while maintained on a high fat (60%) diet. Chronic treatment with CORM-A1 resulted in a 33% decrease from initial body weight over the 30 week treatment period while treatment with iCORM and saline were associated with 18 and 25% gain in initial body weight over the same time frame. Chronic treatment with CORM-A1 did not affect food intake or activity but resulted in a significant increase in metabolism. CORM-A1 treatment also resulted in lower fasting blood glucose, improvement in insulin sensitivity and decreased heptatic steatosis. Chronic treatment with CO releasing molecules can reverse dietary induced obesity and normalize insulin resistance independent of changes in food intake or activity. These findings are likely though a mechanism which increases metabolism.

  4. Effect of dietary mineral sources and oil content on calcium utilization and kidney calcification in female Fischer rats fed low-protein diets.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuka, Shizuko; Aoyama, Yoshiko; Watanabe, Nobuhiro; Kajiwara, Tomoko; Azami, Shoji; Kitano, Takao

    2013-01-01

    We studied the effects of dietary mineral source and oil intake on kidney calcification in 4-wk-old female Fischer rats after consuming the AIN-76 purified diet (AIN-76). A modified AIN-76 mineral mixture was used, although the original calcium (Ca)/phosphorus (P) molar ratio remained unchanged. Rats were fed the modified diets for a period of 40 d before their kidneys were removed on the last day. Ca balance tests were performed on days 31 to 36 and biochemical analysis of urine was also studied. Kidney Ca, P, and magnesium (Mg) in the standard diet group (20% protein and 5% oil) were not affected by the mineral source. Kidney Ca, P, and Mg in the low-protein (10% protein) diet group, were found to be influenced by the dietary oil content and mineral source. In particular, the different mineral sources differentially increased kidney mineral accumulation. Pathological examination of the kidney showed that the degree of kidney calcification was proportional to the dietary oil content in the 10% dietary protein group, reflecting the calcium content of the kidney. The information gathered on mineral sources in this study will help future researchers studying the influence of dietary Ca/P molar ratios, and histological changes in the kidney.

  5. Dietary supplementation with ethyl ester concentrates of fish oil (n-3) and borage oil (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids induces epidermal generation of local putative anti-inflammatory metabolites.

    PubMed

    Miller, C C; Tang, W; Ziboh, V A; Fletcher, M P

    1991-01-01

    Clinical reports have attributed the amelioration of chronic inflammatory skin disorders to the presence of certain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in dietary oils. To test the hypothesis of a local modulatory effect of these PUFA in the epidermis, the basal diet of normal guinea pigs was supplemented with ethyl esters of either fish oil [rich in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] or borage oil [rich in gamma-linolenic acid (GLA)]. Our data demonstrated that dietary oils influence the distribution of PUFA in epidermal phospholipids and the epidermal levels of PUFA-derived hydroxy fatty acids. Specifically, animals supplemented with ethyl esters of fish oil markedly incorporated EPA and DHA into epidermal phospholipids, which paralleled the epidermal accumulation of 15-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid (15-HEPE) and 17-hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid (17-HDoHE). Similarly, animals supplemented with esters of borage oil preferentially incorporated dihomogammalinolenic acid (DGLA), the epidermal elongase product of GLA, into the epidermal phospholipids, which also was accompanied by epidermal accumulation of 15-hydroxyeicosatrienoic acid (15-HETrE). By factoring the epidermal levels of the 15-lipoxygenase products and their relative inhibitory potencies, we evolved a measure of the overall potential of dietary oils to exert local anti-inflammatory effect. For example, the leukotriene inhibition potentials (LIP) of both fish oil and borage oil were greatly enhanced when compared to controls. Thus, the altered profiles of epidermal 15-lipoxygenase products generated from particular dietary oils may be responsible, at least in part, for reported ameliorative effects of oils on chronic inflammatory skin disorders.

  6. Dietary fish oil and pectin enhance colonocyte apoptosis in part through suppression of PPARδ/PGE2 and elevation of PGE3

    PubMed Central

    Vanamala, J.; Glagolenko, A.; Yang, P.; Carroll, R.J.; Murphy, M.E.; Newman, R.A.; Ford, J.R.; Braby, L.A.; Chapkin, R.S.; Turner, N.D.; Lupton, J.R.

    2009-01-01

    We have shown that dietary fish oil and pectin (FP) protects against radiation-enhanced colon cancer by upregulating apoptosis in colonic mucosa. To investigate the mechanism of action, we provided rats (n = 40) with diets containing the combination of FP or corn oil and cellulose (CC) prior to exposure to 1 Gy, 1 GeV/ nucleon Fe-ion. All rats were injected with a colon-specific carcinogen, azoxymethane (AOM; 15 mg/kg), 10 and 17 days after irradiation. Levels of colonocyte apoptosis, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), PGE3, microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-2 (mPGES-2), total β-catenin, nuclear β-catenin staining (%) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ(PPAR δ) expression were quantified 31 weeks after the last AOM injection. FP induced a higher (P < 0.01) apoptotic index in both treatment groups, which was associated with suppression (P < 0.05) of antiapoptotic mediators in the cyclooxygenase (COX) pathway (mPGES-2 and PGE2) and the Wnt/β-catenin pathway [total β-catenin and nuclear β-catenin staining (%); P < 0.01] compared with the CC diet. Downregulation of COX and Wnt/β-catenin pathways was associated with a concurrent suppression (P < 0.05) of PPARδ levels in FP-fed rats. In addition, colonic mucosa from FP animals contained (P < 0.05) a proapoptotic, eicosapentaenoic acid-derived COX metabolite, PGE3. These results indicate that FP enhances colonocyte apoptosis in AOM-alone and irradiated AOM rats, in part through the suppression of PPARδ and PGE2 and elevation of PGE3. These data suggest that the dietary FP combination may be used as a possible countermeasure to colon carcinogenesis, as apoptosis is enhanced even when colonocytes are exposed to radiation and/or an alkylating agent. PMID:18024478

  7. Effect of dietary hydrogenated fish oil on the plasma lipoprotein profile and on the fatty acid composition of different tissues on the rat.

    PubMed

    Morgado, N; Sanhueza, J; Galleguillos, A; Garrido, A; Nieto, S; Valenzuela, A

    1999-01-01

    Dietary fatty acids are actively incorporated into membrane lipids, and fat intake can modify the composition and the biochemical activity of cellular membranes and the pattern of plasma lipoproteins. Industrial hydrogenation of polyunsaturated oils leads to the formation of isomeric trans fatty acids which are incorporated into cellular membranes when they are present in the diet. The trans fatty acid amount present in hydrogenated oils depends on the degree of hydrogenation, being high for partially hydrogenated oils and low for highly hydrogenated oils. Hydrogenated fish oil is widely used in some countries for the production of margarine and industrial fats. This study compares the fatty acid composition of plasma, erythrocytes, subcutaneous adipose tissue, and hepatic microsomal membranes and the plasma lipoprotein profile after feeding rats with a synthetic diet containing either fish oil, partially hydrogenated fish oil, or highly hydrogenated fish oil. It is observed that the tissue content of monounsaturated fatty acids increases and that the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids decreases after an increase of the degree of hydrogenation of the dietary fat. Tissues from animals fed partially hydrogenated fish oil show significant amounts of trans fatty acids only. The plasma triacylglyceride composition and the lipoprotein profile are also altered by the degree of hydrogenation of the dietary fat. Triacylglycerides decrease after highly hydrogenated fat feeding only. Total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol are significantly increased after partially hydrogenated fat feeding. Although no direct evidence is presented, this effect may be attributable to the high content of trans isomers of this dietary fat which nutritionally may behave as saturated fatty acids.

  8. Application of vegetable oils in the treatment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons-contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Yap, C L; Gan, S; Ng, H K

    2010-05-15

    A brief review is conducted on the application of vegetable oils in the treatment of PAH-contaminated soils. Three main scopes of treatment strategies are discussed in this work including soil washing by oil, integrated oil-biological treatment and integrated oil-non-biological treatment. For each of these, the arguments supporting vegetable oil application, the applied treatment techniques and their efficiencies, associated factors, as well as the feasibility of the techniques are detailed. Additionally, oil regeneration, the environmental impacts of oil residues in soil and comparison with other commonly employed techniques are also discussed.

  9. Lack of Benefit of Early Intervention with Dietary Flax and Fish Oil and Soy Protein in Orthologous Rodent Models of Human Hereditary Polycystic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Tamio; Devassy, Jessay G; Monirujjaman, Md; Gabbs, Melissa; Aukema, Harold M

    2016-01-01

    Rationale for dietary advice in polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is based in part on animal studies that have examined non-orthologous models with progressive development of cystic disease. Since no model completely mimics human PKD, the purpose of the current studies was to examine the effects of dietary soy protein (compared to casein) or oils enriched in omega-3 fatty acids (fish or flax oil compared to soy oil) on early disease progression in two orthologous models of PKD. The models studied were Pkd2WS25/- mice as a model of autosomal dominant PKD, and PCK rats as a model of autosomal recessive PKD. After 13 weeks of feeding, dietary fish (but not flax) oil resulted in larger kidneys and greater kidney water content in female Pkd2WS25/- compared to control mice. After 12 weeks of feeding male PCK compared to control rats, both fish and flax compared to soy oil resulted in enlarged kidneys and livers, greater kidney water content and higher kidney cyst area in diseased rats. Dietary soy protein compared to casein had no effects in Pkd2WS25/- compared to control mice. In PCK rats, kidney and liver histology were not improved, but lower proteinuria and higher urine pH suggest that soy protein could be beneficial in the long term. Therefore, in contrast to studies in non-orthologous models during the progressive development phase, these studies in orthologous PKD models do not support dietary advice to increase soy protein or oils enriched in omega-3 oils in early PKD. PMID:27213553

  10. Lack of Benefit of Early Intervention with Dietary Flax and Fish Oil and Soy Protein in Orthologous Rodent Models of Human Hereditary Polycystic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Monirujjaman, Md; Gabbs, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    Rationale for dietary advice in polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is based in part on animal studies that have examined non-orthologous models with progressive development of cystic disease. Since no model completely mimics human PKD, the purpose of the current studies was to examine the effects of dietary soy protein (compared to casein) or oils enriched in omega-3 fatty acids (fish or flax oil compared to soy oil) on early disease progression in two orthologous models of PKD. The models studied were Pkd2WS25/- mice as a model of autosomal dominant PKD, and PCK rats as a model of autosomal recessive PKD. After 13 weeks of feeding, dietary fish (but not flax) oil resulted in larger kidneys and greater kidney water content in female Pkd2WS25/- compared to control mice. After 12 weeks of feeding male PCK compared to control rats, both fish and flax compared to soy oil resulted in enlarged kidneys and livers, greater kidney water content and higher kidney cyst area in diseased rats. Dietary soy protein compared to casein had no effects in Pkd2WS25/- compared to control mice. In PCK rats, kidney and liver histology were not improved, but lower proteinuria and higher urine pH suggest that soy protein could be beneficial in the long term. Therefore, in contrast to studies in non-orthologous models during the progressive development phase, these studies in orthologous PKD models do not support dietary advice to increase soy protein or oils enriched in omega-3 oils in early PKD. PMID:27213553

  11. Dietary canola oil alters hematological indices and blood lipids in neonatal piglets fed formula.

    PubMed

    Innis, S M; Dyer, R A

    1999-07-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the effects of canola oil on platelet characteristics, blood lipids and growth in exclusively formula-fed piglets. Piglets were fed from birth to 10 or 18 d with formula containing 51% energy from fat, with 100% fat as canola or soybean oil; 26% soybean, 59% high oleic acid sunflower and 12% flax oil (canola mimic); or 26% canola (canola blend) or soybean (soybean blend) with high oleic acid sunflower, palm and coconut oil. The canola mimic provided similar carbon chain 16 and 18 fatty acids without the sterol or 20:1 and erucic acid (22:1) of canola oil. The oil blends provided formula resembling infant formulas but with higher 16:0 and lower unsaturated fatty acid levels than in canola or soybean oil. Body weight, weight gain and heart and liver weight were not different after 10 or 18 d feeding canola when compared to soybean oil alone or blended oil formulas. Piglets fed formulas with 100% canola oil had lower platelet counts than piglets fed formula soybean oil or the canola oil mimic. Platelet counts were lower, and platelet distribution width and volume were higher, when formulas with 100% canola or soybean rather than the blended oil formulas were fed. The results show that formula fat composition influences the developing hematological system and that canola oil suppresses the normal developmental increase in platelet count in piglets by a mechanism apparently unrelated to the formula 16:0, 18:1, 18:2(n-6) or 18:3(n-3), or plasma phospholipid 20:4(n-6) or 20:5(n-3).

  12. Pilot study of dietary fatty acid supplementation in the treatment of adult periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Rosenstein, Elliot D; Kushner, Laura J; Kramer, Neil; Kazandjian, Gregory

    2003-03-01

    The anti-inflammatory effects of both n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have been demonstrated in vitro and in many disease states, in particular in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. The benefit of n-3 PUFA supplementation has been documented in animal models of periodontal inflammation and a trend towards reduced inflammation has been seen in human experimental gingivitis. The purpose of this study was to examine the potential anti-inflammatory effects of PUFA supplementation, by administration of fish oil as a source of the n-3 PUFA, eicosapentaenoic acid, and borage oil as a source of the n-6 PUFA, gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), to adults with periodontitis. Thirty adult human subjects with periodontitis were administered either fish oil 3000 mg daily; borage oil 3000 mg daily; fish oil 1500 and borage oil 1500 mg daily, or placebo. The modified gingival index, the plaque index (PI), periodontal probing depths and beta-glucuronidase levels in gingival crevicular fluid were measured at baseline and after 12 weeks of treatment. Improvement in gingival inflammation was observed in subjects treated with borage oil (P<0.016), with a trend apparent in subjects treated with fish oil or a combination of PUFA. There was no statistically significant improvement in PI, although a trend was apparent in those receiving borage oil. Improvement in probing depth was seen in those subjects treated with either fish oil alone or borage oil alone, but statistical significance was only seen for the comparison of borage oil and placebo (P<0.044). No change was seen in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) beta-glucuronidase levels. The use of borage oil supplementation, a source of the n-6 PUFA, GLA, can have beneficial effects on periodontal inflammation. n-6 PUFA supplementation seemed to offer more impressive results than either n-3 PUFA supplementation or the combination of lower doses of the two supplements. Additional studies will be necessary to more fully assess the

  13. Dietary rosemary oil alleviates heat stress-induced structural and functional damage through lipid peroxidation in the testes of growing Japanese quail.

    PubMed

    Türk, Gaffari; Çeribaşı, Ali O; Şimşek, Ülkü G; Çeribaşı, Songül; Güvenç, Mehmet; Özer Kaya, Şeyma; Çiftçi, Mehmet; Sönmez, Mustafa; Yüce, Abdurrauf; Bayrakdar, Ali; Yaman, Mine; Tonbak, Fadime

    2016-01-01

    Supplementation of natural antioxidants to diets of male poultry has been reported to be effective in reducing or completely eliminating heat stress (HS)-induced reproductive failures. In this study, the aim is to investigate whether rosemary oil (RO) has a protective effect on HS-induced damage in spermatozoa production, testicular histologic structures, apoptosis, and androgenic receptor (AR) through lipid peroxidation mechanisms in growing Japanese quail. Male chicks (n=90) at 15-days of age were assigned to two groups. The first group (n=45) was kept in a thermo-neutral (TN) room at 22°C for 24h/d. The second group (n=45) was kept in a room with a greater ambient temperature of 34°C for 8h/d (from 9:00 AM to 5:00 PM) and 22°C for 16h/d. Animals in each of these two groups were randomly assigned to three subgroups (RO groups: 0, 125, 250ppm), consisting of 15 chicks (six treatment groups in 2×3 factorial design). Each of subgroups was replicated three times with each replicate including five chicks. The HS treatment significantly reduced the testicular spermatogenic cell counts, amount of testicular Bcl-2 (anti-apoptotic marker) and amount of AR. In addition, it significantly increased testicular lipid peroxidation, Bax (apoptotic marker) immunopositive staining, and the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in conjunction with some histopathologic damage. Dietary supplementation of RO to diets of quail where the HS treatment was imposed alleviated HS-induced almost all negative changes such as increased testicular lipid peroxidation, decreased numbers of spermatogenic cells, and decreased amounts of Bcl-2 and AR, increased ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 and some testicular histopathologic lesion. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of RO for growing male Japanese quail reared in HS environmental conditions alleviates the HS-induced structural and functional damage by providing a decrease in lipid peroxidation.

  14. Fish oil and argan oil intake differently modulate insulin resistance and glucose intolerance in a rat model of dietary-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Samane, Samira; Christon, Raymond; Dombrowski, Luce; Turcotte, Stéphane; Charrouf, Zoubida; Lavigne, Charles; Levy, Emile; Bachelard, Hélène; Amarouch, Hamid; Marette, André; Haddad, Pierre Selim

    2009-07-01

    We investigated the potential metabolic benefits of fish oil (FO) or vegetable argan oil (AO) intake in a dietary model of obesity-linked insulin resistance. Rats were fed a standard chow diet (controls), a high-fat/high-sucrose (HFHS) diet, or an HFHS diet in which 6% of the fat was replaced by either FO or AO feeding, respectively. The HFHS diet increased adipose tissue weight and insulin resistance as revealed by increased fasting glucose and exaggerated glycemic and insulin responses to a glucose tolerance test (intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test). Fish oil feeding prevented fat accretion, reduced fasting glycemia, and normalized glycemic or insulin responses to intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test as compared with HFHS diet. Unlike FO consumption, AO intake failed to prevent obesity, yet restored fasting glycemia back to chow-fed control values. Insulin-induced phosphorylation of Akt and Erk in adipose tissues, skeletal muscles, and liver was greatly attenuated in HFHS rats as compared with chow-fed controls. High-fat/high-sucrose diet-induced insulin resistance was also confirmed in isolated hepatocytes. Fish oil intake prevented insulin resistance by improving or fully restoring insulin signaling responses in all tissues and isolated hepatocytes. Argan oil intake also improved insulin-dependent phosphorylations of Akt and Erk; and in adipose tissue, these responses were increased even beyond values observed in chow-fed controls. Taken together, these results strongly support the beneficial action of FO on diet-induced insulin resistance and glucose intolerance, an effect likely explained by the ability of FO to prevent HFHS-induced adiposity. Our data also show for the first time that AO can improve some of the metabolic and insulin signaling abnormalities associated with HFHS feeding.

  15. Treatment of Mercury Contaminated Oil from Sandia National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Klasson, KT

    2002-05-28

    First Article Tests of a stabilization method for greater than 260 mg mercury/kg oil were performed under a treatability study. This alternative treatment technology will address treatment of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) organics (mainly used pump oil) contaminated with mercury and other heavy metals. Some of the oil is also co-contaminated with tritium, other radionuclides, and hazardous materials. The technology is based on contacting the oil with a sorbent powder (Self-Assembled Mercaptan on Mesoporous Support, SAMMS), proven to adsorb heavy metals, followed by stabilization of the oil/powder mixture using a stabilization agent (Nochar N990). Two variations of the treatment technology were included in the treatability study. The SAMMS (Self-Assembled Mercaptan on Mesoporous Silica) technology was developed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for removal and stabilization of RCRA metals (i.e., lead, mercury, cadmium, silver, etc.) and for removal of mercury from organic solvents [1]. The SAMMS material is based on self-assembly of functionalized monolayers on mesoporous oxide surfaces. The unique mesoporous oxide supports provide a high surface area, thereby enhancing the metal-loading capacity. SAMMS material has high flexibility in that it binds with different forms of mercury, including metallic, inorganic, organic, charged, and neutral compounds [1] The material removes mercury from both organic wastes, such as pump oils, and from aqueous wastes. Mercury-loaded SAMMS not only passes TCLP tests, but also has good long-term durability as a waste form because: (1) the covalent binding between mercury and SAMMS has good resistance in ion-exchange, oxidation, and hydrolysis over a wide pH range and (2) the uniform and small pore size of the mesoporous silica prevents bacteria from solubilizing the bound mercury. Nochar's N990 Petrobond (Nochar, Inc., Indianapolis, IN) is an oil stabilization agent, specifically formulated for stabilizing vacuum pump

  16. Dietary olive oil and menhaden oil mitigate induction of lipogenesis in hyperinsulinemic corpulent JCR:LA-cp rats: microarray analysis of lipid-related gene expression.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xiong; Elam, Marshall B; Wilcox, Henry G; Cagen, Lauren M; Park, Edwards A; Raghow, Rajendra; Patel, Divyen; Kumar, Poonam; Sheybani, Ali; Russell, James C

    2004-12-01

    In the corpulent James C. Russell corpulent (JCR:LA-cp) rat, hyperinsulinemia leads to induction of lipogenic enzymes via enhanced expression of sterol-regulatory-binding protein (SREBP)-1c. This results in increased hepatic lipid production and hypertriglyceridemia. Information regarding down-regulation of SREBP-1c and lipogenic enzymes by dietary fatty acids in this model is limited. We therefore assessed de novo hepatic lipogenesis and hepatic and plasma lipids in corpulent JCR rats fed diets enriched in olive oil or menhaden oil. Using microarray and Northern analysis, we determined the effect of these diets on expression of mRNA for lipogenic enzymes and other proteins related to lipid metabolism. In corpulent JCR:LA-cp rats, both the olive oil and menhaden oil diets reduced expression of SREBP-1c, with concomitant reductions in hepatic triglyceride content, lipogenesis, and expression of enzymes related to lipid synthesis. Unexpectedly, expression of many peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor-dependent enzymes mediating fatty acid oxidation was increased in livers of corpulent JCR rats. The menhaden oil diet further increased expression of these enzymes. Induction of SREBP-1c by insulin is dependent on liver x receptor (LXR)alpha. Although hepatic expression of mRNA for LXR itself was not increased in corpulent rats, expression of Cyp7a1, an LXR-responsive gene, was increased, suggesting increased LXR activity. Expression of mRNA encoding fatty acid translocase and ATP-binding cassette subfamily DALD member 3 was also increased in livers of corpulent JCR rats, indicating a potential role for these fatty acid transporters in the pathogenesis of disordered lipid metabolism in obesity. This study clearly demonstrates that substitution of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid for carbohydrate in the corpulent JCR:LA-cp rat reduces de novo lipogenesis, at least in part, by reducing hepatic expression of SREBP-1c and that strategies directed toward reducing

  17. The use of gelatin capsules for ingestion of formula in dietary treatment of maternal phenylketonuria.

    PubMed

    Kecskemethy, H H; Lobbregt, D; Levy, H L

    1993-01-01

    Maternal phenylketonuria (PKU) represents a high risk for birth defects, including mental retardation, in offspring. Thus, it could cancel gains represented by the prevention of PKU-induced mental retardation in the current generation. Effective dietary treatment of maternal PKU pregnancies could avoid this potentially tragic occurrence. However, dietary compliance is often difficult because a necessary component of the diet, medical nutritional formulas, often have an unpleasant taste and odour. We treated the second pregnancy of a phenylketonuric women who had required extended hospitalization during her first pregnancy because of poor formula tolerance, and who had similar difficulty in the second pregnancy. To alleviate this problem, we developed a system whereby she could pack the formula into gelatin capsules for ingestion. Packing and ingestion of 20 capsules required less than 30 minutes three times a day. With capsules her blood phenylalanine level was almost always within the recommended range of 120-360 mumol/L (2-6 mg/dl) and hospitalization was not required. The phenylalanine content of the capsules was easily accommodated by a small reduction in allowable food. Other amino acid levels, including tyrosine and other essential nutrient levels, were normal. We believe that using gelatin capsules for formula ingestion can be very beneficial in the management of maternal PKU pregnancies and could be extended to the dietary treatment of other inborn errors of metabolism.

  18. The role of adipose tissue in mediating the beneficial effects of dietary fish oil

    PubMed Central

    Puglisi, Michael J.; Hasty, Alyssa H.; Saraswathi, Viswanathan

    2010-01-01

    Fish oil improves several features of metabolic syndrome such as dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis. Fish oil may mediate some of its beneficial effects by modulating the storage and/or secretory functions of adipose tissue. The storage of triglycerides in adipose tissue is regulated by the availability of free fatty acids as well as the degree of lipolysis in adipose tissue. Fish oil has been shown to reduce lipolysis in several studies indicating improved triglyceride storage. Importantly, adipose tissue secretes a variety of adipokines and fish oil feeding is associated with remarkable changes in the plasma levels of two key adipokines, adiponectin and leptin. Much attention has been focused on the contribution of adiponectin in fish oil mediated improvements in metabolic syndrome. However, emerging evidence also indicates a role of leptin in modulating the components of the metabolic syndrome upon fish oil feeding. In addition to improving the storage and secretory functions of adipose tissue, fish oil, and the n-3 fatty acids found in fish oil, has been shown to reduce inflammation in adipose tissue. These effects may be in part a result of activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ or inhibition of toll-like receptor 4. Thus, there is compelling evidence that fish oil mediates its beneficial effects on metabolic syndrome by improving adipose tissue storage and secretory functions and by reducing inflammation. PMID:21145721

  19. In vivo regulation of colonic cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and P27Kip1 by dietary fish oil and butyrate in rats.

    PubMed

    Hong, Mee Young; Turner, Nancy D; Murphy, Mary E; Carroll, Raymond J; Chapkin, Robert S; Lupton, Joanne R

    2015-11-01

    We have shown that dietary fish oil is protective against experimentally induced colon cancer, and the protective effect is enhanced by coadministration of pectin. However, the underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. We hypothesized that fish oil with butyrate, a pectin fermentation product, protects against colon cancer initiation by decreasing cell proliferation and increasing differentiation and apoptosis through a p27(Kip1)-mediated mechanism. Rats were provided diets of corn or fish oil, with/without butyrate, and terminated 12, 24, or 48 hours after azoxymethane (AOM) injection. Proliferation (Ki-67), differentiation (Dolichos Biflorus Agglutinin), apoptosis (TUNEL), and p27(Kip1) (cell-cycle mediator) were measured in the same cell within crypts in order to examine the coordination of cell cycle as a function of diet. DNA damage (N(7)-methylguanine) was determined by quantitative IHC analysis. Dietary fish oil decreased DNA damage by 19% (P = 0.001) and proliferation by 50% (P = 0.003) and increased differentiation by 56% (P = 0.039) compared with corn oil. When combined with butyrate, fish oil enhanced apoptosis 24 hours after AOM injection compared with a corn oil/butyrate diet (P = 0.039). There was an inverse relationship between crypt height and apoptosis in the fish oil/butyrate group (r = -0.53, P = 0.040). The corn oil/butyrate group showed a positive correlation between p27(Kip1) expression and proliferation (r = 0.61, P = 0.035). These results indicate the in vivo effect of butyrate on apoptosis and proliferation is dependent on dietary lipid source. These results demonstrate the presence of an early coordinated colonocyte response by which fish oil and butyrate protects against colon tumorigenesis.

  20. Dietary strawberry seed oil affects metabolite formation in the distal intestine and ameliorates lipid metabolism in rats fed an obesogenic diet

    PubMed Central

    Jurgoński, Adam; Fotschki, Bartosz; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    Objective To answer the question whether dietary strawberry seed oil rich in α-linolenic acid and linoleic acid (29.3 and 47.2% of total fatty acids, respectively) can beneficially affect disorders induced by the consumption of an obesogenic diet. Design Thirty-two male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups of eight animals each and fed with a basal or obesogenic (high in fat and low in fiber) diet that contained either strawberry seed oil or an edible rapeseed oil. A two-way analysis of variance was then applied to assess the effects of diet and oil and the interaction between them. Results After 8 weeks of feeding, the obesogenic diet increased the body weight and the liver mass and fat content, whereas decreased the cecal acetate and butyrate concentration. This diet also altered the plasma lipid profile and decreased the liver sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c) content. However, the lowest liver SREBP-1c content was observed in rats fed an obesogenic diet containing strawberry seed oil. Moreover, dietary strawberry seed oil decreased the cecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations (acetate, propionate, and butyrate) regardless of the diet type, whereas the cecal β-glucuronidase activity was considerably increased only in rats fed an obesogenic diet containing strawberry seed oil. Dietary strawberry seed oil also lowered the liver fat content, the plasma triglyceride level and the atherogenic index of plasma. Conclusions Strawberry seed oil has a potent lipid-lowering activity but can unfavorably affect microbial metabolism in the distal intestine. The observed effects are partly due to the synergistic action of the oil and the obesogenic diet. PMID:25636326

  1. Intestinal degradation of dietary fibre in green beans--effects of microwave treatments.

    PubMed

    Svanberg, M; Suortti, T; Nyman, M

    1999-07-01

    Intestinal degradation of dietary fibre in blanched and microwaved green beans was studied by using a rat experimental model. Content and composition of dietary fibre as well as molecular weight distribution of water-soluble polysaccharides (WSP) were analysed. There was a solubilization and a shift towards lower Mw of mainly uronic acid-containing polysaccharides with repeated microwave treatment in the raw material. Thus, the apparent Mw of water-soluble polysaccharides decreased from approximately 1,550,000 to approximately 300,000. After the beans had been digested the Mw of the WSP was significantly reduced, to approximately 100,000, and the differences in Mw seen between various processed raw materials had been evened out. After fermentation the Mw of the WSP decreased further approximately 10 times. Fibre fermentability was high (approximately 90%) and similar for the various processed beans.

  2. Rationale for using intermittent calorie restriction as a dietary treatment for drug resistant epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Alan W C; Sander, Josemir W

    2014-04-01

    There has been resurgence in the use of dietary treatment, principally the classical ketogenic diet and its variants, for people with epilepsy. These diets generally require significant medical and dietician support. An effective but less restrictive dietary regimen is likely to be more acceptable and more widely used. Calorie-restricted diets appear to produce a range of biochemical and metabolic changes including reduced glucose levels, reduced inflammatory markers, increased sirtuins, increased AMPK signaling, inhibition of mTOR signaling, and increase in autophagy. There are studies in animal seizure models that suggest that these biochemical and metabolic changes may decrease ictogenesis and epileptogenesis. A calorie-restricted diet might be effective in reducing seizures in people with epilepsy. Hence, there is a sufficient rationale to undertake clinical trials to assess the efficacy and safety of calorie-restricted diets in people with epilepsy. PMID:24657501

  3. The comparative reductions of the plasma lipids and lipoproteins by dietary polyunsaturated fats: salmon oil versus vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Harris, W S; Connor, W E; McMurry, M P

    1983-02-01

    The lower plasma lipid levels and lower incidence of atherosclerotic diseases in Greenland Eskimos suggested that the unusual fatty acids present in their diet of seal and fish may be anti-atherogenic. These fatty acids are eicosapentaenoic (C20:5) and docosahexaenoic (C22:6) acids and are of the omega-3 fatty acid family. We have compared a salmon oil diet containing high levels of these unique fatty acids to a control diet high in saturated fat and to a vegetable oil diet high in linoleic acid (C18:2). All diets contained 40% of the total calories as fat and 500 mg of cholesterol; they differed only in fatty acid composition. In 4 wk the salmon oil diet reduced plasma cholesterol levels from 188 to 162 mg/dl (p less than 0.001) and triglyceride levels from 77 to 48 mg/dl (p less than 0.005). LDL and VLDL cholesterol levels changed from 128 to 108 and 13 to 8 mg/dl (p less than 0.005), respectively. HDL cholesterol levels did not change. The vegetable oil diet caused similar decreases in cholesterol levels but did not lower triglyceride levels. The omega-3 fatty acids comprised up to 30% of the total fatty acids in each plasma lipid class after the salmon diet. Fish oils contain fatty acids which may be metabolically unique and potentially useful in the control of both hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia.

  4. [Interactions between synthetic drugs used in treatment of selected central nervous system disorders and dietary supplements and herbal drugs].

    PubMed

    Zabłocka-Słowińska, Katarzyna; Jawna, Katarzyna; Biernat, Jadwiga

    2013-01-01

    The risk of interaction between dietary supplements, herbal drugs and synthetic drugs increases when patients are treated chronically, e.g. due to impairment of central nervous system (CNS)--depression, psychotic disorders, Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. On the basis of scientific literature, there was shown that simultaneous intake of antidepressants, antipsychotic drugs and herbal drugs or dietary supplements containing: St. John's wort, valerian root, ginkgo biloba leaf, hops, and food ingredients: dietary fiber or folic acid, may lead to interactions. Dietary fiber supplementation should be applied carefully during treatment of Parkinson's disease and in case of Alzheimer disease treatment--supplements containing ginkgo biloba leaf can increase the risk of interaction. Knowledge of these interactions is essential in effective treatment of this illness. However this area of science should be verified constantly due to growing number of new products registered as a supplements--often with complex composition. PMID:23885542

  5. Dietary rapeseed oil affects the expression of genes involved in hepatic lipid metabolism in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    PubMed

    Jordal, Ann-Elise O; Torstensen, Bente E; Tsoi, Stephen; Tocher, Douglas R; Lall, Santosh P; Douglas, Susan E

    2005-10-01

    Supplies of marine fish oils (FO) are limited, and sustainable production in aquaculture dictates that alternatives that do not compromise fish health and product quality, such as vegetable oils, must be found. Nutrigenomics will increase our understanding of how nutrition influences metabolic pathways and homeostatic control, and may be used to measure and validate subtle changes in organ-specific, metabolic gene expression signatures. We compared 2 groups of Atlantic salmon fed diets containing 100% FO or 75% rapeseed oil (RO) for 42 wk. A small-scale cDNA microarray was constructed to screen for changes in the expression of lipid metabolism genes in the liver resulting from this partial substitution of RO for FO. Delta5 fatty acid desaturase gene expression was significantly greater in fish fed 75% RO than in fish fed the control diet; this was confirmed by quantitative real time PCR analysis. In addition, several genes, among these mitochondrial proteins, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, as well as other transcription factors, coactivators, and signal transducers, showed significant differential regulation. This partially validated microarray may be used for further gene expression profiling using other dietary comparisons, and for further characterization of selected genes.

  6. Influence of soy oil source and dietary supplementation of vitamins E and C on the oxidation status of serum and egg yolk, and the lipid profile of egg yolk.

    PubMed

    Irandoust, H; Ahn, D U

    2015-11-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of adding vitamins E and C to diets containing 3.5% refined soy oil (SO), recycled soy oil (RSO), or acidulated soy oil soapstocks (ASS) on 1) fatty acid (FA) profile, and cholesterol, triglyceride (TG) and α-tocopherol (α-T) concentrations of yolk, and 2) the oxidation status of serum and yolk. Twelve dietary treatments, using 3 oil sources, 2 levels of vitamin E (0 vs. 250 mg/kg), and 2 levels of vitamin C (0 vs. 250 mg/kg), were prepared. A total of 300 W36 Hy-line laying hens, from 44 to 56 weeks of age, were placed in 60 cages (5 birds/cage) and 5 cages were randomly assigned to one of the 12 diets. Blood samples and eggs were collected after 84 d on trial. No interactions among main effects were found for any of the traits studied. Oil sources had little effects on the FA profile of the yolk, except for C18:3 that was higher (P-value of < 0.01) in the hens fed SO than those fed RSO or ASS. Vitamin E supplementation significantly (P-value of < 0.05) increased the concentration of C16:0, C18:0, and C16:1 but decreased that of C18:2 and C22:6n3 in the yolk. Vitamin C supplementation significantly (P-value of < 0.05) increased C18:0 and C18:3 concentrations in the yolk but decreased the n6 to n3 FA ratio. The concentrations of cholesterol and triglyceride in serum and yolk were not affected by dietary treatment but α-tocopherol concentration increased (P-value of < 0.01) by the dietary vitamin E. Compared with the hens fed the SO diets, malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration in serum was higher with RSO diet but lower with ASS diet. Vitamin E and vitamin C supplementation decreased (P-value of < 0.05) serum MDA. Yolk FA profile was affected not only by the FA profile of the oil source used in diet, but also by the supplementation of vitamin E and C. The results showed that triglyceride profile, but not cholesterol content, of egg was affected by fatty acid profile of the supplemental oil and the vitamin C and E

  7. Influence of soy oil source and dietary supplementation of vitamins E and C on the oxidation status of serum and egg yolk, and the lipid profile of egg yolk.

    PubMed

    Irandoust, H; Ahn, D U

    2015-11-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of adding vitamins E and C to diets containing 3.5% refined soy oil (SO), recycled soy oil (RSO), or acidulated soy oil soapstocks (ASS) on 1) fatty acid (FA) profile, and cholesterol, triglyceride (TG) and α-tocopherol (α-T) concentrations of yolk, and 2) the oxidation status of serum and yolk. Twelve dietary treatments, using 3 oil sources, 2 levels of vitamin E (0 vs. 250 mg/kg), and 2 levels of vitamin C (0 vs. 250 mg/kg), were prepared. A total of 300 W36 Hy-line laying hens, from 44 to 56 weeks of age, were placed in 60 cages (5 birds/cage) and 5 cages were randomly assigned to one of the 12 diets. Blood samples and eggs were collected after 84 d on trial. No interactions among main effects were found for any of the traits studied. Oil sources had little effects on the FA profile of the yolk, except for C18:3 that was higher (P-value of < 0.01) in the hens fed SO than those fed RSO or ASS. Vitamin E supplementation significantly (P-value of < 0.05) increased the concentration of C16:0, C18:0, and C16:1 but decreased that of C18:2 and C22:6n3 in the yolk. Vitamin C supplementation significantly (P-value of < 0.05) increased C18:0 and C18:3 concentrations in the yolk but decreased the n6 to n3 FA ratio. The concentrations of cholesterol and triglyceride in serum and yolk were not affected by dietary treatment but α-tocopherol concentration increased (P-value of < 0.01) by the dietary vitamin E. Compared with the hens fed the SO diets, malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration in serum was higher with RSO diet but lower with ASS diet. Vitamin E and vitamin C supplementation decreased (P-value of < 0.05) serum MDA. Yolk FA profile was affected not only by the FA profile of the oil source used in diet, but also by the supplementation of vitamin E and C. The results showed that triglyceride profile, but not cholesterol content, of egg was affected by fatty acid profile of the supplemental oil and the vitamin C and E

  8. Preadolescents’ and Parents’ Dietary Coping Efficacy during Behavioral Family-Based Weight Control Treatment¥

    PubMed Central

    Theim, Kelly R.; Sinton, Meghan M.; Stein, Richard I.; Saelens, Brian E.; Thekkedam, Sucheta C.; Welch, R. Robinson; Epstein, Leonard H.; Wilfley, Denise E.

    2012-01-01

    Developmentally relevant high-risk dietary situations (e.g., parties where tempting foods are available) may influence overweight youth’s weight control, as they increase risk for overeating. Better self-efficacy for coping with these situations—which preadolescents may learn from their parents—could foster successful weight control. Overweight preadolescents (N=204) ages 7–12 years (67% female), each with one parent, separately completed the Hypothetical High-Risk Situation Inventory (HHRSI) pre- and post-weight loss treatment. The HHRSI assesses temptation to overeat and confidence in refraining from overeating in response to four high-risk dietary scenarios. Participants generated coping strategies for each scenario. Coping strategies and confidence increased and temptation decreased from pre- to post-weight loss treatment. Parents’ increase in confidence from pre- to post-treatment was associated with preadolescents’ and parents’ weight loss. Tailoring treatments to enhance parents’ coping skills (e.g., building strategies, targeting high temptation/low confidence scenarios) may maximize preadolescents’ weight control. PMID:22081241

  9. Effects of dietary protein concentration and coconut oil supplementation on nitrogen utilization and production in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Lee, C; Hristov, A N; Heyler, K S; Cassidy, T W; Long, M; Corl, B A; Karnati, S K R

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of metabolizable protein (MP) deficiency and coconut oil supplementation on N utilization and production in lactating dairy cows. The hypothesis of the study was that a decrease in ruminal protozoal counts with coconut oil would increase microbial protein synthesis in the rumen, thus compensating for potential MP deficiency. The experiment was conducted for 10 wk with 36 cows (13 primiparous and 23 multiparous), including 6 ruminally cannulated cows. The experimental period, 6 wk, was preceded by 2-wk adaptation and 2-wk covariate periods. Cows were blocked by parity, days in milk, milk yield, and rumen cannulation and randomly assigned to one of the following diets: a diet with a positive MP balance (+44 g/d) and 16.7% dietary crude protein (CP) concentration (AMP); a diet deficient in MP (-156 g/d) and 14.8% CP concentration (DMP); or DMP supplemented with approximately 500 g of coconut oil/head per day (DMPCO). Ruminal ammonia tended to be greater and plasma urea N (20.1, 12.8, and 13.1 mg/dL, for AMP, DMP, and DMPCO diets, respectively) and milk urea N (12.5, 8.3, and 9.5mg/dL, respectively) were greater for AMP compared with DMP and DMPCO. The DMPCO diet decreased total protozoa counts (by 60%) compared with DMP, but had no effect on the methanogens profile in the rumen. Total tract apparent digestibility of dry matter and CP was decreased by DMP compared with AMP. Fiber digestibility was lower for both DMP and DMPCO compared with AMP. Urinary N excretion was decreased (by 37%) by both DMP and DMPCO compared with AMP. The DMP and DMPCO diets resulted in greater milk N efficiency compared with AMP (32.0 and 35.1 vs. 27.6%, respectively). Milk yield was decreased by both DMP and DMPCO compared with AMP (36.2, 34.4, and 39.3 kg/d, respectively) and coconut oil supplementation suppressed feed intake and caused milk fat depression. Coconut oil supplementation decreased short-chain fatty acid (C4:0, C6:0, and

  10. Effects of dietary protein concentration and coconut oil supplementation on nitrogen utilization and production in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Lee, C; Hristov, A N; Heyler, K S; Cassidy, T W; Long, M; Corl, B A; Karnati, S K R

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of metabolizable protein (MP) deficiency and coconut oil supplementation on N utilization and production in lactating dairy cows. The hypothesis of the study was that a decrease in ruminal protozoal counts with coconut oil would increase microbial protein synthesis in the rumen, thus compensating for potential MP deficiency. The experiment was conducted for 10 wk with 36 cows (13 primiparous and 23 multiparous), including 6 ruminally cannulated cows. The experimental period, 6 wk, was preceded by 2-wk adaptation and 2-wk covariate periods. Cows were blocked by parity, days in milk, milk yield, and rumen cannulation and randomly assigned to one of the following diets: a diet with a positive MP balance (+44 g/d) and 16.7% dietary crude protein (CP) concentration (AMP); a diet deficient in MP (-156 g/d) and 14.8% CP concentration (DMP); or DMP supplemented with approximately 500 g of coconut oil/head per day (DMPCO). Ruminal ammonia tended to be greater and plasma urea N (20.1, 12.8, and 13.1 mg/dL, for AMP, DMP, and DMPCO diets, respectively) and milk urea N (12.5, 8.3, and 9.5mg/dL, respectively) were greater for AMP compared with DMP and DMPCO. The DMPCO diet decreased total protozoa counts (by 60%) compared with DMP, but had no effect on the methanogens profile in the rumen. Total tract apparent digestibility of dry matter and CP was decreased by DMP compared with AMP. Fiber digestibility was lower for both DMP and DMPCO compared with AMP. Urinary N excretion was decreased (by 37%) by both DMP and DMPCO compared with AMP. The DMP and DMPCO diets resulted in greater milk N efficiency compared with AMP (32.0 and 35.1 vs. 27.6%, respectively). Milk yield was decreased by both DMP and DMPCO compared with AMP (36.2, 34.4, and 39.3 kg/d, respectively) and coconut oil supplementation suppressed feed intake and caused milk fat depression. Coconut oil supplementation decreased short-chain fatty acid (C4:0, C6:0, and

  11. Dietary coconut oil affects more lipoprotein lipase activity than the mitochondria oxidative capacities in muscles of preruminant calves.

    PubMed

    Piot, C; Hocquette, J F; Herpin, P; Veerkamp, J H; Bauchart, D

    2000-04-01

    The presence of coconut oil in a milk replacer stimulates the growth rate of calves, suggesting a better oxidation of fatty acid in muscles. Because dietary fatty acid composition influences carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT I) activity in rat muscles, this study was designed to examine the effects of a milk replacer containing either tallow (TA) or coconut oil (CO) on fatty acid utilization and oxidation and on the characteristics of intermyofibrillar (IM) and subsarcolemmal (SS) mitochondria in the heart and skeletal muscles of preruminant calves. Feeding CO did not affect palmitate oxidation rate by whole homogenates, but induced higher palmitate oxidation by IM mitochondria (+37%, P < 0.05). CPT I activity did not significantly differ between the two groups of calves. Heart and longissimus thoracis muscle of calves fed CO had higher lipoprotein lipase activity (+27% and 58%, respectively; P < 0.05) but showed no differences in fatty acid binding protein content or activity of oxidative enzymes. Whatever the muscle and the diet, IM mitochondria had higher respiration rates and enzyme activities than those of SS mitochondria (P < 0.05). Furthermore, CPT I activity of the heart was 28-fold less sensitive to malonyl-coenzyme A inhibition in IM mitochondria than in SS mitochondria. In conclusion, dietary CO marginally affected the activity of the two mitochondrial populations and the oxidative activity of muscles in the preruminant calf. In addition, this study showed that differences between IM and SS mitochondria in the heart and muscles were higher in calves than in other species studied so far. PMID:10827346

  12. Short-term treatment with rapamycin and dietary restriction have overlapping and distinctive effects in young mice.

    PubMed

    Fok, Wilson C; Zhang, Yiqiang; Salmon, Adam B; Bhattacharya, Arunabh; Gunda, Rakesh; Jones, Dean; Ward, Walter; Fisher, Kathleen; Richardson, Arlan; Pérez, Viviana I

    2013-02-01

    Because rapamycin, an inhibitor of the nutrient sensor mammalian target of rapamycin, and dietary restriction both increase life span of mice, it has been hypothesized that they act through similar mechanisms. To test this hypothesis, we compared various biological parameters in dietary restriction mice (40% food restriction) and mice fed rapamycin (14 ppm). Both treatments led to a significant reduction in mammalian target of rapamycin signaling and a corresponding increase in autophagy. However, we observed striking differences in fat mass, insulin sensitivity, and expression of cell cycle and sirtuin genes in mice fed rapamycin compared with dietary restriction. Thus, although both treatments lead to significant downregulation of mammalian target of rapamycin signaling, these two manipulations have quite different effects on other physiological functions suggesting that they might increase life span through a common pathway as well as pathways that are altered differently by dietary restriction and rapamycin. PMID:22570137

  13. Comparison of effects of dietary coconut oil and animal fat blend on lactational performance of Holstein cows fed a high-starch diet.

    PubMed

    Hollmann, M; Beede, D K

    2012-03-01

    Dietary medium-chain fatty acids (C(8:0) through C(12:0)) are researched for their potential to reduce enteric methane emissions and to increase N utilization efficiency in ruminants. We aimed to 1) compare coconut oil (CNO; ~60% medium-chain fatty acids) with a source of long-chain fatty acids (animal fat blend; AFB) on lactational responses in a high-starch diet and 2) determine the effect of different dietary concentrations of CNO on dry matter intake (DMI). In experiment 1, the control diet (CTRL) contained (dry basis) 40% forage (71% corn silage, and alfalfa hay and haylage), 26% NDF, and 35% starch. Isonitrogenous treatment diets contained 5.0% of AFB (5%-AFB), CNO (5%-CNO), or a 1-to-1 mixture of AFB and CNO (5%-AFB-CNO) and 0.8% corn gluten meal in place of corn grain. Thirty-two multiparous dairy cows (201 ± 46 d postpartum; 42.0 ± 5.5 kg/d 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield) were adapted to CTRL, blocked by milk yield, and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment diets for 21 d with samples and data collected from d 15 through 21. Treatment 5%-CNO decreased DMI markedly and precipitously and was discontinued after d 5. In wk 3, 5%-AFB and especially 5%-AFB-CNO lowered total-tract NDF digested vs. CTRL (2.6 vs. 1.8 vs. 3.1 kg/d, respectively), likely because fat treatments reduced DMI and 5%-AFB-CNO impaired total-tract NDF digestibility. Milk fat concentrations were 3.10% (CTRL), 2.51% (5%-AFB), and 1.97% (5%-AFB-CNO) and correlated negatively to concentrations of C(18:2 trans-10,cis-12) in milk fat. Additionally, 5%-AFB and 5%-AFB-CNO tended to lower milk yield and decreased yields of solids-corrected milk and milk protein compared with CTRL. Fat treatments decreased milk lactose concentration, but increased milk citrate concentration. Moreover, cows fed 5%-AFB-CNO produced less solids-corrected milk than did cows fed 5%-AFB. In experiment 2, diets similar to CTRL contained 2.0, 3.0, or 4.0% CNO. Fifteen multiparous cows (219 ± 42 d postpartum; 42.1 ± 7.0 kg

  14. Comparison of effects of dietary coconut oil and animal fat blend on lactational performance of Holstein cows fed a high-starch diet.

    PubMed

    Hollmann, M; Beede, D K

    2012-03-01

    Dietary medium-chain fatty acids (C(8:0) through C(12:0)) are researched for their potential to reduce enteric methane emissions and to increase N utilization efficiency in ruminants. We aimed to 1) compare coconut oil (CNO; ~60% medium-chain fatty acids) with a source of long-chain fatty acids (animal fat blend; AFB) on lactational responses in a high-starch diet and 2) determine the effect of different dietary concentrations of CNO on dry matter intake (DMI). In experiment 1, the control diet (CTRL) contained (dry basis) 40% forage (71% corn silage, and alfalfa hay and haylage), 26% NDF, and 35% starch. Isonitrogenous treatment diets contained 5.0% of AFB (5%-AFB), CNO (5%-CNO), or a 1-to-1 mixture of AFB and CNO (5%-AFB-CNO) and 0.8% corn gluten meal in place of corn grain. Thirty-two multiparous dairy cows (201 ± 46 d postpartum; 42.0 ± 5.5 kg/d 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield) were adapted to CTRL, blocked by milk yield, and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment diets for 21 d with samples and data collected from d 15 through 21. Treatment 5%-CNO decreased DMI markedly and precipitously and was discontinued after d 5. In wk 3, 5%-AFB and especially 5%-AFB-CNO lowered total-tract NDF digested vs. CTRL (2.6 vs. 1.8 vs. 3.1 kg/d, respectively), likely because fat treatments reduced DMI and 5%-AFB-CNO impaired total-tract NDF digestibility. Milk fat concentrations were 3.10% (CTRL), 2.51% (5%-AFB), and 1.97% (5%-AFB-CNO) and correlated negatively to concentrations of C(18:2 trans-10,cis-12) in milk fat. Additionally, 5%-AFB and 5%-AFB-CNO tended to lower milk yield and decreased yields of solids-corrected milk and milk protein compared with CTRL. Fat treatments decreased milk lactose concentration, but increased milk citrate concentration. Moreover, cows fed 5%-AFB-CNO produced less solids-corrected milk than did cows fed 5%-AFB. In experiment 2, diets similar to CTRL contained 2.0, 3.0, or 4.0% CNO. Fifteen multiparous cows (219 ± 42 d postpartum; 42.1 ± 7.0 kg

  15. Comparative effects of dietary corn, fish and Krill oils on intestinal glycosylation.

    PubMed

    Ruggiero-Lopez, D; Servetto, C; Lopez, E; Lenoir, D; Alallon, W; Biol, M C; Louisot, P; Martin, A

    1994-08-01

    Antarctic Krill is considered as a valuable protein resource for animal and human nutrition. Due to the high content of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids of the n-3 family, Krill consumption could be also interesting in cardiovascular diseases. In the search for the demonstration of the absence of toxicity of Krill, we studied the effect of Krill oil, as compared to fish and corn oil, on the rat intestinal fucosylation process at weaning, a very sensitive model of the influence of nutritional factors. Krill oil containing diets were very well tolerated as compared to other currently used oils and induced only slight modification in fucose and mannose proportions in intestinal glycoprotein sugars. These modifications were not reflected in the enzymatic activities involved in the fucosylation pathway. These results confirm the harmlessness of Krill derived products and their possible use in human nutrition.

  16. Dietary Fish Oil Inhibits Pro-Inflammatory and ER Stress Signalling Pathways in the Liver of Sows during Lactation

    PubMed Central

    Gessner, Denise K.; Gröne, Birthe; Couturier, Aline; Rosenbaum, Susann; Hillen, Sonja; Becker, Sabrina; Erhardt, Georg; Reiner, Gerald; Ringseis, Robert; Eder, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Lactating sows have been shown to develop typical signs of an inflammatory condition in the liver during the transition from pregnancy to lactation. Hepatic inflammation is considered critical due to the induction of an acute phase response and the activation of stress signaling pathways like the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced unfolded protein response (UPR), both of which impair animal´s health and performance. Whether ER stress-induced UPR is also activated in the liver of lactating sows and whether dietary fish oil as a source of anti-inflammatory effects n-3 PUFA is able to attenuate hepatic inflammation and ER stress-induced UPR in the liver of sows is currently unknown. Based on this, two experiments with lactating sows were performed. The first experiment revealed that ER stress-induced UPR occurs also in the liver of sows during lactation. This was evident from the up-regulation of a set of genes regulated by the UPR and numerically increased phosphorylation of the ER stress-transducer PERK and PERK-mediated phosphorylation of eIF2α and IκB. The second experiment showed that fish oil inhibits ER stress-induced UPR in the liver of lactating sows. This was demonstrated by decreased mRNA levels of a number of UPR-regulated genes and reduced phosphorylation of PERK and PERK-mediated phosphorylation of eIF2α and IκB in the liver of the fish oil group. The mRNA levels of various nuclear factor-κB-regulated genes encoding inflammatory mediators and acute phase proteins in the liver of lactating sows were also reduced in the fish oil group. In line with this, the plasma levels of acute phase proteins were reduced in the fish oil group, although differences to the control group were not significant. In conclusion, ER stress-induced UPR is present in the liver of lactating sows and fish oil is able to inhibit inflammatory signaling pathways and ER stress-induced UPR in the liver. PMID:26351857

  17. Ethanol and dietary unsaturated fat (corn oil/linoleic acid enriched) cause intestinal inflammation and impaired intestinal barrier defense in mice chronically fed alcohol.

    PubMed

    Kirpich, Irina A; Feng, Wenke; Wang, Yuhua; Liu, Yanlong; Beier, Juliane I; Arteel, Gavin E; Falkner, K Cameron; Barve, Shirish S; McClain, Craig J

    2013-05-01

    Alcohol and dietary fat both play an important role in alcohol-mediated multi-organ pathology, including gut and liver. In the present study we hypothesized that the combination of alcohol and dietary unsaturated fat (USF) would result in intestinal inflammatory stress and mucus layer alterations, thus contributing to disruption of intestinal barrier integrity. C57BL/6N mice were fed Lieber-DeCarli liquid diets containing EtOH and enriched in USF (corn oil/linoleic acid) or SF (medium chain triglycerides: beef tallow) for 8 weeks. Intestinal histology, morphometry, markers of inflammation, as well as levels of mucus protective factors were evaluated. Alcohol and dietary USF triggered an intestinal pro-inflammatory response, characterized by increase in Tnf-α, MCP1, and MPO activity. Further, alcohol and dietary USF, but not SF, resulted in alterations of the intestinal mucus layer, characterized by decreased expression of Muc2 in the ileum. A strong correlation was observed between down-regulation of the antimicrobial factor Cramp and increased Tnf-α mRNA. Therefore, dietary unsaturated fat (corn oil/LA enriched) is a significant contributing factor to EtOH-mediated intestinal inflammatory response and mucus layer alterations in rodents.

  18. Dietary α-linolenic acid-rich flaxseed oil prevents against alcoholic hepatic steatosis via ameliorating lipid homeostasis at adipose tissue-liver axis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Meng; Zhang, Xiao-Jing; Feng, Kun; He, Chengwei; Li, Peng; Hu, Yuan-Jia; Su, Huanxing; Wan, Jian-Bo

    2016-01-01

    Low levels of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in serum and liver tissue biopsies are the common characteristics in patients with alcoholic liver disease. The α-linolenic acid (ALA) is a plant-derived n-3 PUFA and is rich in flaxseed oil. However, the impact of ALA on alcoholic fatty liver is largely unknown. In this study, we assessed the potential protective effects of ALA-rich flaxseed oil (FO) on ethanol-induced hepatic steatosis and observed that dietary FO supplementation effectively attenuated the ethanol-induced hepatic lipid accumulation in mice. Ethanol exposure stimulated adipose lipolysis but reduced fatty acid/lipid uptake, which were normalized by FO. Our investigations into the corresponding mechanisms demonstrated that the ameliorating effect of FO might be associated with the lower endoplasmic reticulum stress and normalized lipid metabolism in adipose tissue. In the liver, alcohol exposure stimulated hepatic fatty acid uptake and triglyceride synthesis, which were attenuated by FO. Additionally, dietary FO upregulated plasma adiponectin concentration, hepatic adiponectin receptor 2 expression, and the activation of hepatic adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase. Collectively, dietary FO protects against alcoholic hepatic steatosis by improving lipid homeostasis at the adipose tissue-liver axis, suggesting that dietary ALA-rich flaxseed oil might be a promising approach for prevention of alcoholic fatty liver. PMID:27220557

  19. Infantile Refsum Disease: Influence of Dietary Treatment on Plasma Phytanic Acid Levels.

    PubMed

    Sá, Maria João Nabais; Rocha, Júlio C; Almeida, Manuela F; Carmona, Carla; Martins, Esmeralda; Miranda, Vasco; Coutinho, Miguel; Ferreira, Rita; Pacheco, Sara; Laranjeira, Francisco; Ribeiro, Isaura; Fortuna, Ana Maria; Lacerda, Lúcia

    2016-01-01

    Infantile Refsum disease (IRD) is one of the less severe of Zellweger spectrum disorders (ZSDs), a group of peroxisomal biogenesis disorders resulting from a generalized peroxisomal function impairment. Increased plasma levels of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA) and phytanic acid are biomarkers used in IRD diagnosis. Furthermore, an increased plasma level of phytanic acid is known to be associated with neurologic damage. Treatment of IRD is symptomatic and multidisciplinary.The authors report a 3-year-old child, born from consanguineous parents, who presented with developmental delay, retinitis pigmentosa, sensorineural deafness and craniofacial dysmorphisms. While the relative level of plasma C26:0 was slightly increased, other VLCFA were normal. Thus, a detailed characterization of the phenotype was essential to point to a ZSD. Repeatedly increased levels of plasma VLCFA, along with phytanic acid and pristanic acid, deficient dihydroxyacetone phosphate acyltransferase activity in fibroblasts and identification of the homozygous pathogenic mutation c.2528G>A (p.Gly843Asp) in the PEX1 gene, confirmed this diagnosis. Nutritional advice and follow-up was proposed aiming phytanic acid dietary intake reduction. During dietary treatment, plasma levels of phytanic acid decreased to normal, and the patient's development evaluation showed slow progressive acquisition of new competences.This case report highlights the relevance of considering a ZSD in any child with developmental delay who manifests hearing and visual impairment and of performing a systematic biochemical investigation, when plasma VLCFA are mildly increased. During dietary intervention, a biochemical improvement was observed, and the long-term clinical effect of this approach needs to be evaluated.

  20. Palm oil mill effluent treatment and utilization to ensure the sustainability of palm oil industries.

    PubMed

    Hasanudin, U; Sugiharto, R; Haryanto, A; Setiadi, T; Fujie, K

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the current condition of palm oil mill effluent (POME) treatment and utilization and to propose alternative scenarios to improve the sustainability of palm oil industries. The research was conducted through field survey at some palm oil mills in Indonesia, in which different waste management systems were used. Laboratory experiment was also carried out using a 5 m(3) pilot-scale wet anaerobic digester. Currently, POME is treated through anaerobic digestion without or with methane capture followed by utilization of treated POME as liquid fertilizer or further treatment (aerobic process) to fulfill the wastewater quality standard. A methane capturing system was estimated to successfully produce renewable energy of about 25.4-40.7 kWh/ton of fresh fruit bunches (FFBs) and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by about 109.41-175.35 kgCO2e/tonFFB (CO2e: carbon dioxide equivalent). Utilization of treated POME as liquid fertilizer increased FFB production by about 13%. A palm oil mill with 45 ton FFB/hour capacity has potential to generate about 0.95-1.52 MW of electricity. Coupling the POME-based biogas digester and anaerobic co-composting of empty fruit bunches (EFBs) is capable of adding another 0.93 MW. The utilization of POME and EFB not only increases the added value of POME and EFB by producing renewable energy, compost, and liquid fertilizer, but also lowers environmental burden.

  1. Palm oil mill effluent treatment and utilization to ensure the sustainability of palm oil industries.

    PubMed

    Hasanudin, U; Sugiharto, R; Haryanto, A; Setiadi, T; Fujie, K

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the current condition of palm oil mill effluent (POME) treatment and utilization and to propose alternative scenarios to improve the sustainability of palm oil industries. The research was conducted through field survey at some palm oil mills in Indonesia, in which different waste management systems were used. Laboratory experiment was also carried out using a 5 m(3) pilot-scale wet anaerobic digester. Currently, POME is treated through anaerobic digestion without or with methane capture followed by utilization of treated POME as liquid fertilizer or further treatment (aerobic process) to fulfill the wastewater quality standard. A methane capturing system was estimated to successfully produce renewable energy of about 25.4-40.7 kWh/ton of fresh fruit bunches (FFBs) and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by about 109.41-175.35 kgCO2e/tonFFB (CO2e: carbon dioxide equivalent). Utilization of treated POME as liquid fertilizer increased FFB production by about 13%. A palm oil mill with 45 ton FFB/hour capacity has potential to generate about 0.95-1.52 MW of electricity. Coupling the POME-based biogas digester and anaerobic co-composting of empty fruit bunches (EFBs) is capable of adding another 0.93 MW. The utilization of POME and EFB not only increases the added value of POME and EFB by producing renewable energy, compost, and liquid fertilizer, but also lowers environmental burden. PMID:26398023

  2. Dietary CLA-induced lipolysis is delayed in soy oil-fed mice compared to coconut oil-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Ippagunta, S; Angius, Z; Sanda, M; Barnes, K M

    2013-11-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been shown to cause a reduction in obesity in several species. CLA-induced body fat loss is enhanced when mice are fed coconut oil (CO) and involves increased lipolysis. The objective of this paper was to determine if the CLA-induced lipolysis in mice fed with different oil sources was time-dependent. Mice were fed 7 % soybean oil (SO) or CO diets for 6 week and then supplemented with 0 or 0.5 % CLA for 3, 7, 10 or 14 days. Body fat and ex-vivo lipolysis was determined. Body fat was reduced by CO on day 7 (P < 0.01) and in both CO and SO-fed mice (P < 0.05) in response to CLA on d14. Lipolysis was increased by CLA in CO-fed mice (P < 0.01) but not in SO-fed mice on day 7 and 10, but on day 14 CLA increased lipolysis in both CO- and SO-fed mice (P < 0.001). Expression and activation level of proteins involved in lipolysis and lipogenesis was determined by western blotting and real-time PCR, respectively. No significant differences were detected in protein expression. CO-fed mice had greater fatty acid synthase and stearyl CoA desaturase 1 mRNA expression and less acetyl CoA carboxylase mRNA expression (P < 0.01). Sterol regulatory binding protein 1c was decreased by CLA in CO-fed mice and increased in SO-fed mice (P < 0.05). Malic enzyme expression was increased by CLA (P < 0.001) and CO (P < 0.01). Therefore, CLA-induced lipolysis occurs more rapidly in CO vs SO-fed mice and lipogenesis is decreased in CO-fed mice with CLA supplementation.

  3. The Role of Dietary Extra Virgin Olive Oil and Corn Oil on the Alteration of Epigenetic Patterns in the Rat DMBA-Induced Breast Cancer Model.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Miguel, Cristina; Moral, Raquel; Escrich, Raquel; Vela, Elena; Solanas, Montserrat; Escrich, Eduard

    2015-01-01

    Disruption of epigenetic patterns is a major change occurring in all types of cancers. Such alterations are characterized by global DNA hypomethylation, gene-promoter hypermethylation and aberrant histone modifications, and may be modified by environment. Nutritional factors, and especially dietary lipids, have a role in the etiology of breast cancer. Thus, we aimed to analyze the influence of different high fat diets on DNA methylation and histone modifications in the rat dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced breast cancer model. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a low-fat, a high corn-oil or a high extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) diet from weaning or from induction with DMBA. In mammary glands and tumors we analyzed global and gene specific (RASSF1A, TIMP3) DNA methylation by LUMA and bisulfite pyrosequencing assays, respectively. We also determined gene expression and enzymatic activity of DNA methyltransferases (DNMT1, DNMT3a and DNMT3b) and evaluated changes in histone modifications (H3K4me2, H3K27me3, H4K20me3 and H4K16ac) by western-blot. Our results showed variations along time in the global DNA methylation of the mammary gland displaying decreases at puberty and with aging. The olive oil-enriched diet, on the one hand, increased the levels of global DNA methylation in mammary gland and tumor, and on the other, changed histone modifications patterns. The corn oil-enriched diet increased DNA methyltransferase activity in both tissues, resulting in an increase in the promoter methylation of the tumor suppressor genes RASSF1A and TIMP3. These results suggest a differential effect of the high fat diets on epigenetic patterns with a relevant role in the neoplastic transformation, which could be one of the mechanisms of their differential promoter effect, clearly stimulating for the high corn-oil diet and with a weaker influence for the high EVOO diet, on breast cancer progression. PMID:26401660

  4. The Role of Dietary Extra Virgin Olive Oil and Corn Oil on the Alteration of Epigenetic Patterns in the Rat DMBA-Induced Breast Cancer Model

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Miguel, Cristina; Moral, Raquel; Escrich, Raquel; Vela, Elena; Solanas, Montserrat; Escrich, Eduard

    2015-01-01

    Disruption of epigenetic patterns is a major change occurring in all types of cancers. Such alterations are characterized by global DNA hypomethylation, gene-promoter hypermethylation and aberrant histone modifications, and may be modified by environment. Nutritional factors, and especially dietary lipids, have a role in the etiology of breast cancer. Thus, we aimed to analyze the influence of different high fat diets on DNA methylation and histone modifications in the rat dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced breast cancer model. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a low-fat, a high corn-oil or a high extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) diet from weaning or from induction with DMBA. In mammary glands and tumors we analyzed global and gene specific (RASSF1A, TIMP3) DNA methylation by LUMA and bisulfite pyrosequencing assays, respectively. We also determined gene expression and enzymatic activity of DNA methyltransferases (DNMT1, DNMT3a and DNMT3b) and evaluated changes in histone modifications (H3K4me2, H3K27me3, H4K20me3 and H4K16ac) by western-blot. Our results showed variations along time in the global DNA methylation of the mammary gland displaying decreases at puberty and with aging. The olive oil-enriched diet, on the one hand, increased the levels of global DNA methylation in mammary gland and tumor, and on the other, changed histone modifications patterns. The corn oil-enriched diet increased DNA methyltransferase activity in both tissues, resulting in an increase in the promoter methylation of the tumor suppressor genes RASSF1A and TIMP3. These results suggest a differential effect of the high fat diets on epigenetic patterns with a relevant role in the neoplastic transformation, which could be one of the mechanisms of their differential promoter effect, clearly stimulating for the high corn-oil diet and with a weaker influence for the high EVOO diet, on breast cancer progression. PMID:26401660

  5. Dietary hyperoxaluria is not reduced by treatment with lactic acid bacteria

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Secondary hyperoxaluria either based on increased intestinal absorption of oxalate (enteric), or high oxalate intake (dietary), is a major risk factor of calcium oxalate urolithiasis. Oxalate-degrading bacteria might have beneficial effects on urinary oxalate excretion resulting from decreased intestinal oxalate concentration and absorption. Methods Twenty healthy subjects were studied initially while consuming a diet normal in oxalate. Study participants were then placed on a controlled oxalate-rich diet for a period of 6 weeks. Starting with week 2 of the oxalate-rich diet, participants received 2.6 g/day of a lactic acid bacteria preparation for 5 weeks. Finally, subjects were examined 4 weeks after treatment while consuming again a normal-oxalate diet. Participants provided weekly 24-hour urine specimens. Analyses of blood samples were performed before and at the end of treatment. Results Urinary oxalate excretion increased significantly from 0.354 ± 0.097 at baseline to 0.542 ± 0.163 mmol/24 h under the oxalate-rich diet and remained elevated until the end of treatment, as did relative supersaturation of calcium oxalate. Plasma oxalate concentration was significantly higher after 5 weeks of treatment compared to baseline. Four weeks after treatment, urinary oxalate excretion and relative supersaturation of calcium oxalate fell to reach initial values. Conclusions Persistent dietary hyperoxaluria and increased plasma oxalate concentration can already be induced in healthy subjects without disorders of oxalate metabolism. The study preparation neither reduced urinary oxalate excretion nor plasma oxalate concentration. The preparation may be altered to select for lactic acid bacteria strains with the highest oxalate-degrading activity. PMID:24330782

  6. Dietary Black Raspberry Seed Oil Ameliorates Inflammatory Activities in db/db Mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee Jae; Jung, Hana; Cho, Hyunnho; Lee, Kiuk; Kwak, Ho-Kyung; Hwang, Keum Taek

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the status of the markers related to inflammation in db/db mice fed black raspberry seed (BRS) oil, which is rich in α-linolenic acid. Mice were divided into four groups: (1) C57BL/6 mice fed 16 % calories from soybean oil (normal CON); (2) C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice fed 16 % calories from soybean oil (CON); (3) C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice fed 8 % calories from soybean and 8 % calories from BRS oil (BRS 50 %); and (4) C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice fed 16 % calories from BRS oil (BRS 100 %). After 10 weeks, n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratios were significantly (P < 0.05) lower in the livers and epididymal adipose tissues of the BRS 50 % and BRS 100 % mice than in the CON. Serum TNFα and IL-6 were significantly (P < 0.05) lower in the BRS 50 % and BRS 100 % than in the CON. Serum IL-10 was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the BRS 100 % than the CON. In the liver and epididymal adipose tissue, mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory markers in the BRS 50 % and BRS 100 % were lower than in the CON. Anti-inflammatory markers were higher in the epididymal adipose tissues of the BRS 50 % and BRS 100 % than in the CON. In the epididymal adipose tissue, macrophage infiltration markers (F4/80 and CD68) and leptin mRNA were significantly (P < 0.05) lower in the BRS 50 % and BRS 100 % than in the CON. Results of this study suggest that BRS oil may have anti-inflammatory effects in obese diabetic mice by ameliorating inflammatory responses. PMID:27165261

  7. Polymorphisms in Genes Involved in Fatty Acid β-Oxidation Interact with Dietary Fat Intakes to Modulate the Plasma TG Response to a Fish Oil Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Bouchard-Mercier, Annie; Rudkowska, Iwona; Lemieux, Simone; Couture, Patrick; Vohl, Marie-Claude

    2014-01-01

    A large inter-individual variability in the plasma triglyceride (TG) response to an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) supplementation has been observed. The objective was to examine gene-diet interaction effects on the plasma TG response after a fish oil supplementation, between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within genes involved in fatty acid β-oxidation and dietary fat intakes. Two hundred and eight (208) participants were recruited in the greater Quebec City area. The participants completed a six-week fish oil supplementation (5 g fish oil/day: 1.9–2.2 g EPA and 1.1 g DHA). Dietary fat intakes were measured using three-day food records. SNPs within RXRA, CPT1A, ACADVL, ACAA2, ABCD2, ACOX1 and ACAA1 genes were genotyped using TAQMAN methodology. Gene-diet interaction effects on the plasma TG response were observed for SNPs within RXRA (rs11185660, rs10881576 and rs12339187) and ACOX1 (rs17583163) genes. For rs11185660, fold changes in RXRA gene expression levels were different depending on SFA intakes for homozygotes T/T. Gene-diet interaction effects of SNPs within genes involved in fatty acid β-oxidation and dietary fat intakes may be important in understanding the inter-individual variability in plasma TG levels and in the plasma TG response to a fish oil supplementation. PMID:24647074

  8. Protection of Oil Casing Tube Steel via Surface Treatment in China: a Literature Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Jiaojuan; Lin, Naiming; Qin, Lin; Tang, Bin; Xie, Faqin

    2013-04-01

    Oil casing tube is the foundation member of an oil well and it plays an important role in oil exploration and exploitation. The oil casing tubes are prone to failure induced by corrosion and wear during applications. Based on the fact that the damages caused by corrosion and wear are first generated on the surface of oil casing tube, adopting an appropriate surface treatment technology would be a promising approach to protect itself from deterioration. Surface treatments can fabricate protective layers with different composition or structure from the substrate. This paper reviewed the existing literatures about the protection of oil casing tube steel via surface treatment in China.

  9. Iron and the female athlete: a review of dietary treatment methods for improving iron status and exercise performance.

    PubMed

    Alaunyte, Ieva; Stojceska, Valentina; Plunkett, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Iron is a functional component of oxygen transport and energy production in humans and therefore is a critically important micronutrient for sport and exercise performance. Athletes, particularly female athletes participating in endurance sport, are at increased risk of compromised iron status due to heightened iron losses through menstruation and exercise-induced mechanisms associated with endurance activity. Conventionally oral iron supplementation is used in prevention or/and treatment of iron deficiency. However, this approach has been criticised because of the side effects and increased risk of iron toxicity associated with the use of supplements. Thus, more recently there has been a growing interest in using dietary modification rather than the use of supplements to improve iron status of athletes. Dietary iron treatment methods include the prescription of an iron-rich diet, or/and haem iron-based diet, dietary advice counselling and inclusion of novel iron-rich products into the daily diet. Although studies using dietary modification are still scarce, current literature suggests that dietary iron interventions can assist in maintaining iron status in female athletes, especially during intensive training and competition. Future research should focus on the most efficient method(s) of dietary modification for improvement of iron status and whether these approaches can have a favourable impact on sports and exercise performance. PMID:26448737

  10. Dietary Enrichment with 20% Fish Oil Decreases Mucus Production and the Inflammatory Response in Mice with Ovalbumin-Induced Allergic Lung Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Jean A.; Hartman, Jaye; Skinner, Monica M.; Schwindt, Adam R.; Fischer, Kay A.; Vorachek, William R.; Bobe, Gerd; Valentine, Beth A.

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of asthma has increased in recent decades, which may be related to higher dietary intake of (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and lower intake of (n-3) PUFA, e.g., those contained in fish oil. The objective of this study was to determine if dietary PUFA enrichment decreases mucus production or the inflammatory response associated with ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic lung inflammation. Mice (n = 10/group) were fed control, 20% fish oil, or 20% corn oil enriched diets for a total of 12 weeks. At 8 and 10 weeks, mice were given an intraperitoneal injection of saline (10 control-fed mice) or OVA (30 remaining mice). Once at 10 weeks and on 3 consecutive days during week 12, mice were challenged by nebulizing with saline or OVA. Mice were euthanized 24 hours after the last challenge and blood was collected for plasma FA analysis. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid was collected to determine cell composition and Th2-type cytokine (IL-4, IL-13) concentrations. Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) + mucus-producing cells and CD45+ inflammatory cell infiltrates in lung tissue were quantified using morphometric analysis. Relative abundance of mRNA for mucin (Muc4, Muc5ac, and Muc5b) and Th2-type cytokine (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13) genes were compared with ß-actin by qPCR. Supplementation with either corn oil or fish oil effectively altered plasma FA profiles towards more (n-6) FA or (n-3) FA, respectively (P < 0.0001). Sensitization and challenge with OVA increased the proportion of neutrophils, lymphocytes, and eosinophils, and decreased the proportion of macrophages and concentrations of IL-13 in BAL fluid; increased the percentage of PAS+ mucus-producing cells and CD45+ inflammatory cell infiltrates in lung tissue; and increased gene expression of mucins (Muc4, Muc5ac, and Muc5b) and Th2-type cytokines (IL-5 and IL-13) in lung tissue of control-fed mice. Dietary PUFA reversed the increase in PAS+ mucus-producing cells (P = 0.003). In addition, dietary

  11. Effect of dietary linseed oil on tumoricidal activity and eicosanoid production in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, N E; Chapkin, R S; Erickson, K L

    1994-09-01

    Diets that contain high levels of n-3 fatty acids from fish oil have been shown to significantly effect macrophage cytolytic capacity, tumor necrosis factor alpha production and eicosanoid production. The present study was undertaken to determine whether n-3 fatty acids from vegetable origin [linseed oil (LIN)] would have the same effects on murine macrophage tumoricidal capacity and eicosanoid production as would fish oil. Mice were fed for three weeks diets that contained 10% (wt/wt) of either LIN, which is high in linolenic acid (18:3n-3), menhaden fish oil (MFO), which is high in eicosapentaenoic (20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic (22:6n-3) acids, or safflower oil (SAF), which is high in linoleic acid (18:2n-6). In vivo- or in vitro-activated macrophages were assessed for select functions. As expected, macrophages from mice fed LIN and MFO produced significantly lower levels of both prostaglandins and leukotriene C4 when compared with macrophages from mice fed SAF. In addition, LIN and MFO macrophages were able to synthesize leuko-triene C5, which could not be produced by macrophages from mice fed SAF. The effects of LIN, however, were not as pronounced as those of MFO. With respect to specific functions, macrophages from mice fed LIN did not have altered cytolytic capacity when compared with macrophages from mice fed SAF and activated in vitro with either lipopolysaccharide (LPS) alone for 24 h or with LPS plus interferon gamma (IFN gamma) for 5 h. Diet did not significantly alter tumoricidal capacity of macrophages activated completely in vivo either.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Treatment methods for breaking certain oil and water emulsions

    DOEpatents

    Sealock, Jr., L. John; Baker, Eddie G.; Elliott, Douglas C.

    1992-01-01

    Disclosed are treatment methods for breaking emulsions of petroleum oil and salt water, fatty oil and water, and those resulting from liquefication of organic material. The emulsions are broken by heating to a predetermined temperature at or above about 200.degree. C. and pressurizing to a predetermined pressure above the vapor pressure of water at the predetermined temperature to produce a heated and pressurized fluid. The heated and pressurized fluid is contained in a single vessel at the predetermined temperature and pressure for a predetermined period of time to effectively separate the emulsion into substantially distinct first and second phases, the first phase comprising primarily the petroleum oil, the second phase comprising primarily the water. The first and second phases are separately withdrawn from the vessel at a withdraw temperature between about 200.degree. C. and 374.degree. C. and a withdraw pressure above the vapor pressure of water at the withdraw temperature. Where solids are present in the certain emulsions, the above described treatment may also effectively separate the certain emulsion into a substantially distinct third phase comprising primarily the solids.

  13. Thermal treatment of soils contaminated with gas oil: influence of soil composition and treatment temperature.

    PubMed

    Piña, Juliana; Merino, Jerónimo; Errazu, Alberto F; Bucalá, Verónica

    2002-10-14

    Samples of two soils containing different organic matter contents, neat or contaminated with gas oil (diesel fuel oil) at 2.5 wt.% were heated from room temperature to different final temperatures (200-900 degrees C). The experiments, performed in an anaerobic media, simulate conditions pertinent to ex situ thermal desorptive and thermal destructive treatments. The products generated during the heating were collected and light gases were analyzed by gas chromatography. The results indicate that the chemical composition of the soil is a key factor since it strongly influences the quantity and composition of the off-gases. According to the liquid and light gas yields, the gas oil does not affect appreciably the generation of pyrolysis products of the own soil constituents and the gas oil does not suffer significant chemical transformations even at high operating temperatures (e.g. 900 degrees C). With surface areas of 16000 cm(2)/g (Soil A) and 85000 cm(2)/g (Soil B) based on the monolayer adsorbed model, 4 and 20%, respectively, of the original gas oil can be adsorbed. These values are in good agreement with experimental data. Even for high temperatures, the employed thermal treatment is capable to practically remove the gas oil from the soil bed without changing appreciably the original chemical composition of the contaminant.

  14. Effects of dietary supplementation with sage (Salvia officinalis L.) essential oil on antioxidant status and duodenal wall integrity of laying strain growers.

    PubMed

    Placha, I; Ryzner, M; Cobanova, K; Faixova, Z; Faix, S

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the influence of four different concentrations of Salvia officinalis essential oil (EO) on animal health. A total of 50 laying strain chicks were randomly divided at the day of hatching into five dietary-treatment groups. Control group was given the basal diet (BD), the other four experimental groups contained BD supplemented with 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 g S. officinalis EO/kg diet, respectively. 0.1 g/kg EO increased glutathion peroxidase activity (GPx) in duodenal mucosa, liver and kidney, phagocytic activity in blood (PA), transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) in duodenal tissue and decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration in plasma and liver. 0.25 g/kg EO increased GPx in liver, total antioxidant status (TAS) in plasma, PA in blood and TEER in duodenal tissue. Our results demonstrate that lower concentrations of EO improve animals' health status, and that it is necessary keep in mind the selection of sufficient concentration of EO used as animal feed additive. PMID:26812815

  15. Effects of dietary supplementation with sage (Salvia officinalis L.) essential oil on antioxidant status and duodenal wall integrity of laying strain growers.

    PubMed

    Placha, I; Ryzner, M; Cobanova, K; Faixova, Z; Faix, S

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the influence of four different concentrations of Salvia officinalis essential oil (EO) on animal health. A total of 50 laying strain chicks were randomly divided at the day of hatching into five dietary-treatment groups. Control group was given the basal diet (BD), the other four experimental groups contained BD supplemented with 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 g S. officinalis EO/kg diet, respectively. 0.1 g/kg EO increased glutathion peroxidase activity (GPx) in duodenal mucosa, liver and kidney, phagocytic activity in blood (PA), transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) in duodenal tissue and decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration in plasma and liver. 0.25 g/kg EO increased GPx in liver, total antioxidant status (TAS) in plasma, PA in blood and TEER in duodenal tissue. Our results demonstrate that lower concentrations of EO improve animals' health status, and that it is necessary keep in mind the selection of sufficient concentration of EO used as animal feed additive.

  16. Revisit dietary fiber on colorectal cancer: butyrate and its role on prevention and treatment.

    PubMed

    Encarnação, J C; Abrantes, A M; Pires, A S; Botelho, M F

    2015-09-01

    Colorectal cancer is still a major health problem worldwide. Based on the most recent released data by the World Health Organization GLOBOCAN in 2012, colorectal cancer is the third most prevalent type of cancer in males and the second in females. In 1999, it was published the first report showing evidence of a strong correlation between diet and cancer incidence, being its positive or negative impact intimately linked to dietary patterns. A diet rich in fiber is associated with a low risk of developing colorectal cancer. The fermentation of the dietary fiber by intestinal microflora results in production of butyrate, which plays a plurifunctional role on the colonocytes, and it has also been reported as a chemopreventive agent. However, there are limited studies focusing its anti-cancer potential. Here, we review the recent new insights that focus butyrate and its role in colorectal cancer prevention and treatment, from its synthesis, metabolism, and transport, through its involvement on several cancer-related signaling pathways, to the novel existing approaches for its clinical use.

  17. Treatment of proteins with dietary polyphenols lowers the formation of AGEs and AGE-induced toxicity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinchen; Hu, Shuting; Chen, Feng; Wang, Mingfu

    2014-10-01

    Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) are a group of harmful compounds produced either endogenously or during thermal food processing. Once absorbed by humans via food intake, AGEs can cause oxidative cell damage and contribute to pathological development of various diseases. The AGE-inhibitory activity of dietary polyphenols in vitro has been extensively reported before, but the current study is pioneering in examining the antiglycation activity of five selected dietary polyphenols (phloretin, naringenin, epicatechin, chlorogenic acid, and rosmarinic acid) during the thermal protein glycation process. When added into the glucose-casein glycation model heated at 120 °C for 2 h, these polyphenols were capable of inhibiting the formation of both total fluorescent AGEs and nonfluorescent carboxymethyllysine (CML). The thermal stability and transformation of polyphenols are likely important factors affecting their antioxidant activity and inhibitory efficacy of reactive carbonyl species formation. Treatment with epicatechin would lower not only AGE formation but also AGE-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress to human retinal pigment epithelial (ARPE-19) cells. PMID:25208810

  18. Effects of a Dietary Beetroot Juice Treatment on Systemic and Cerebral Haemodynamics– A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Curry, Bryan Heath; Bond, Vernon; Pemminati, Sudhakar; Gorantla, Vasavi Rakesh; Volkova, Yulia Andreevna; Kadur, Kishan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Beetroot Juice (BJ) contains dietary nitrates that increase the blood Nitric Oxide (NO) level, decrease Blood Pressure (BP), increase athletic performance and improve cognitive functions but the mechanism remains unclear. Ultrasonographic measurement of middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity with computation of Cerebral Augmentation Index (CAIx) is a measure of the reflected flow signal, modulated by changes in cerebrovascular resistance and compliance. Aim This pilot study tests the hypothesis that ingestion of an amount of BJ sufficient to raise the blood NO level two-to three-fold, decreases Transcranial Doppler (TCD) measured CAIx. Materials and Methods Ten healthy young-adult African-American women were studied at two levels of submaximal exercise, 40% and 80% of their predetermined peak oxygen consumptions. The subjects ingested nitrate-free orange juice (OJ, control) and an isocaloric BJ beverage (1.5 mg/mL nitrate, 220 Cal), on different days, 1-2 weeks apart. Results The BJ treatment increased blood NO and decreased systolic BP at rest and at the two levels of exercise. The BJ treatment decreased CAIx only at the two levels of exercise (from 79 ± 2% to 62 ± 2% and from 80 ± 2% to 60 ± 3%, p<0.05). Exercise increased TCD-measured resistance and pulsatility indices (RIx, PIx) without changing AIx. The BJ treatment had no effect on RIx and PIx. Conclusion These findings suggest that decreased CAIx associated with aerobic exercise reflects the change in cerebral haemodynamics resulting from dietary nitrate supplementation. Future studies should determine whether the BJ-induced decrement in CAIx is correlated with an improvement in brain function. PMID:27630836

  19. Effects of a Dietary Beetroot Juice Treatment on Systemic and Cerebral Haemodynamics– A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Curry, Bryan Heath; Bond, Vernon; Pemminati, Sudhakar; Gorantla, Vasavi Rakesh; Volkova, Yulia Andreevna; Kadur, Kishan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Beetroot Juice (BJ) contains dietary nitrates that increase the blood Nitric Oxide (NO) level, decrease Blood Pressure (BP), increase athletic performance and improve cognitive functions but the mechanism remains unclear. Ultrasonographic measurement of middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity with computation of Cerebral Augmentation Index (CAIx) is a measure of the reflected flow signal, modulated by changes in cerebrovascular resistance and compliance. Aim This pilot study tests the hypothesis that ingestion of an amount of BJ sufficient to raise the blood NO level two-to three-fold, decreases Transcranial Doppler (TCD) measured CAIx. Materials and Methods Ten healthy young-adult African-American women were studied at two levels of submaximal exercise, 40% and 80% of their predetermined peak oxygen consumptions. The subjects ingested nitrate-free orange juice (OJ, control) and an isocaloric BJ beverage (1.5 mg/mL nitrate, 220 Cal), on different days, 1-2 weeks apart. Results The BJ treatment increased blood NO and decreased systolic BP at rest and at the two levels of exercise. The BJ treatment decreased CAIx only at the two levels of exercise (from 79 ± 2% to 62 ± 2% and from 80 ± 2% to 60 ± 3%, p<0.05). Exercise increased TCD-measured resistance and pulsatility indices (RIx, PIx) without changing AIx. The BJ treatment had no effect on RIx and PIx. Conclusion These findings suggest that decreased CAIx associated with aerobic exercise reflects the change in cerebral haemodynamics resulting from dietary nitrate supplementation. Future studies should determine whether the BJ-induced decrement in CAIx is correlated with an improvement in brain function.

  20. Influence of dietary oils and protein level on pork quality. 2. Effects on properties of fat and processing characteristics of bacon and frankfurter-style sausages.

    PubMed

    Teye, G A; Wood, J D; Whittington, F M; Stewart, A; Sheard, P R

    2006-05-01

    Palm kernel oil (PKO) and palm oil (PO) are used in tropical countries as cheaper substitutes for conventional feed sources such as soya bean oil (SBO) but little is known about their effects on meat quality. This study, therefore, evaluated the effects of these three dietary oils on the fatty acid composition (FA) of pork fat and the qualities of belly bacon and frankfurter sausage. The 3×2 factorial design also included high and low dietary protein. Total cooking loss, water loss and fat losses were determined in frankfurter sausages at chopping temperatures from 2 to 24°C. PKO resulted in a poor P:S ratio (0.34) and a relatively hard fat (slip point 32.8°C), but resulted in bacon with a higher tensile cohesive force and more high quality slices, judged subjectively. PO had a fatty acid composition closer to the SBO control, a better P:S ratio than PKO (0.48) and softer fat. There was a trend for total cooking losses and fat losses to be higher in PKO compared with PO and SBO at all chopping temperatures, suggesting that the firmest, most saturated fat (PKO) was least suitable for frankfurter production. The low protein diet increased the concentration of saturated fatty acids and increased fat firmness but its effect on fatty acid composition and other properties were less marked than those of oil type.

  1. Severity of depressive symptoms and accuracy of dietary reporting among obese women with major depressive disorder seeking weight loss treatment.

    PubMed

    Whited, Matthew C; Schneider, Kristin L; Appelhans, Bradley M; Ma, Yunsheng; Waring, Molly E; DeBiasse, Michele A; Busch, Andrew M; Oleski, Jessica L; Merriam, Philip A; Olendzki, Barbara C; Crawford, Sybil L; Ockene, Ira S; Lemon, Stephenie C; Pagoto, Sherry L

    2014-01-01

    An elevation in symptoms of depression has previously been associated with greater accuracy of reported dietary intake, however this association has not been investigated among individuals with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder. The purpose of this study was to investigate reporting accuracy of dietary intake among a group of women with major depressive disorder in order to determine if reporting accuracy is similarly associated with depressive symptoms among depressed women. Reporting accuracy of dietary intake was calculated based on three 24-hour phone-delivered dietary recalls from the baseline phase of a randomized trial of weight loss treatment for 161 obese women with major depressive disorder. Regression models indicated that higher severity of depressive symptoms was associated with greater reporting accuracy, even when controlling for other factors traditionally associated with reporting accuracy (coefficient  =  0.01 95% CI = 0.01 - 0.02). Seventeen percent of the sample was classified as low energy reporters. Reporting accuracy of dietary intake increases along with depressive symptoms, even among individuals with major depressive disorder. These results suggest that any study investigating associations between diet quality and depression should also include an index of reporting accuracy of dietary intake as accuracy varies with the severity of depressive symptoms.

  2. The effects of dietary fish oil on exercising skeletal muscle vascular and metabolic control in chronic heart failure rats.

    PubMed

    Holdsworth, Clark T; Copp, Steven W; Hirai, Daniel M; Ferguson, Scott K; Sims, Gabrielle E; Hageman, Karen S; Stebbins, Charles L; Poole, David C; Musch, Timothy I

    2014-03-01

    Impaired vasomotor control in chronic heart failure (CHF) is due partly to decrements in nitric oxide synthase (NOS) mediated vasodilation. Exercising muscle blood flow (BF) is augmented with polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation via fish oil (FO) in healthy rats. We hypothesized that FO would augment exercising muscle BF in CHF rats via increased NO-bioavailability. Myocardial infarction (coronary artery ligation) induced CHF in Sprague-Dawley rats which were subsequently randomized to dietary FO (20% docosahexaenoic acid, 30% eicosapentaenoic acid, n = 15) or safflower oil (SO, 5%, n = 10) for 6-8 weeks. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), blood [lactate], and hindlimb muscles BF (radiolabeled microspheres) were determined at rest, during treadmill exercise (20 m·min(-1), 5% incline) and exercise + N(G)-nitro-l-arginine-methyl-ester (l-NAME) (a nonspecific NOS inhibitor). FO did not change left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (SO: 14 ± 2; FO: 11 ± 1 mm Hg, p > 0.05). During exercise, MAP (SO: 128 ± 3; FO: 132 ± 3 mm Hg) and blood [lactate] (SO: 3.8 ± 0.4; FO: 4.6 ± 0.5 mmol·L(-1)) were not different (p > 0.05). Exercising hindlimb muscle BF was lower in FO than SO (SO: 120 ± 11; FO: 93 ± 4 mL·min(-1)·100 g(-1), p < 0.05) but was not differentially affected by l-NAME. Specifically, 17 of 28 individual muscle BF's were lower (p < 0.05) in FO demonstrating that PUFA supplementation with FO in CHF rats does not augment muscle BF during exercise but may lower metabolic cost.

  3. Dietary chromium supplementation for targeted treatment of diabetes patients with comorbid depression and binge eating.

    PubMed

    Brownley, Kimberly A; Boettiger, Charlotte A; Young, Laura; Cefalu, William T

    2015-07-01

    Dietary chromium supplementation for the treatment of diabetes remains controversial. The prevailing view that chromium supplementation for glucose regulation is unjustified has been based upon prior studies showing mixed, modest-sized effects in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Based on chromium's potential to improve insulin, dopamine, and serotonin function, we hypothesize that chromium has a greater glucoregulatory effect in individuals who have concurrent disturbances in dopamine and serotonin function--that is, complex patients with comorbid diabetes, depression, and binge eating. We propose, as suggested by the collective data to date, the need to go beyond the "one size fits all" approach to chromium supplementation and put forth a series of experiments designed to link physiological and neurobehavioral processes in the chromium response phenotype.

  4. Responses of brown adipose tissue to diet-induced obesity, exercise, dietary restriction and ephedrine treatment.

    PubMed

    Slocum, Nikki; Durrant, Jessica R; Bailey, David; Yoon, Lawrence; Jordan, Holly; Barton, Joanna; Brown, Roger H; Clifton, Lisa; Milliken, Tula; Harrington, Wallace; Kimbrough, Carie; Faber, Catherine A; Cariello, Neal; Elangbam, Chandikumar S

    2013-07-01

    Drug-induced weight loss in humans has been associated with undesirable side effects not present in weight loss from lifestyle interventions (caloric restriction or exercise). To investigate the mechanistic differences of weight loss by drug-induced and lifestyle interventions, we examined the gene expression (mRNA) in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and conducted histopathologic assessments in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice given ephedrine (18 mg/kg/day orally), treadmill exercise (10 m/min, 1-h/day), and dietary restriction (DR: 26% dietary restriction) for 7 days. Exercise and DR mice lost more body weight than controls and both ephedrine and exercise reduced percent body fat. All treatments reduced BAT and liver lipid accumulation (i.e., cytoplasmic lipids in brown adipocytes and hepatocytes) and increased oxygen consumption (VO2 ml/kg/h) compared with controls. Mitochondrial biogenesis/function-related genes (TFAM, NRF1 and GABPA) were up-regulated in the BAT of all groups. UCP-1 was up-regulated in exercise and ephedrine groups, whereas MFSD2A was up-regulated in ephedrine and DR groups. PGC-1α up-regulation was observed in exercise and DR groups but not in ephedrine group. In all experimental groups, except for ephedrine, fatty acid transport and metabolism genes were up-regulated, but the magnitude of change was higher in the DR group. PRKAA1 was up-regulated in all groups but not significantly in the ephedrine group. ADRß3 was slightly up-regulated in the DR group only, whereas ESRRA remained unchanged in all groups. Although our data suggest a common pathway of BAT activation elicited by ephedrine treatment, exercise or DR, mRNA changes were indicative of additional nutrient-sensing pathways in exercise and DR.

  5. Effect of dietary caraway essential oils on expression of β-catenin during 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced colonic carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Allameh, Abdolamir; Dadkhah, Abolfazl; Rahbarizadeh, Fatemeh; Ashrafi-Helan, Javad; Fatemi, Faezeh

    2013-10-01

    We have recently reported that the inhibition of colonic premalignant lesions induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) is mediated by the interference of caraway oil components in the activities of the main hepatic xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes. The present study was carried out to examine the effect of dietary caraway oils on the progression of cancer, with emphasis on β-catenin expression in the colon during DMH-induced colonic carcinogenesis. For this purpose, colon cancer was induced by DMH in rats (20 mg/kg body weight for 5 weeks) and groups of animals were given dietary caraway essential oils at two levels (0.01 and 0.1%) for 16 weeks. After 16 weeks and at the end of the experimental period the colon tissue biopsies were processed for histopathological examination and the expression of β-catenin at mRNA and protein levels was estimated by polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The formation of premalignant lesions based on aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in DMH-treated rats was greatly inhibited (72-87%) in rats given dietary essential oils when compared to respective controls. There was a correlation between the number of colonic ACF formation and the expression levels of β-catenin measured at protein and mRNA levels. These results indicate that the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is activated during colon cancer promotion and that the expression of colonic β-catenin is altered in long-term caraway oil feeding, leading to suppression of DMH-induced premalignant lesions in rat colon.

  6. Erythrocyte membrane fatty acids in multiple sclerosis patients and hot-nature dietary intervention with co-supplemented hemp-seed and evening-primrose oils.

    PubMed

    Rezapour-Firouzi, Soheila; Arefhosseini, Seyed Rafie; Ebrahimi-Mamaghani, Mehrangiz; Farhoudi, Mehdi; Baradaran, Behzad; Ali, Torbati Mohammad; Zamani, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    The risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS) is associated with increased dietary intake of saturated fatty acids. For many years it has been suspected that this disease might be associated with an imbalance between unsaturated and saturated fatty acids. We determined erythrocyte membrane fatty acids levels in Hot nature dietary intervention with co-supplemented hemp seed and evening primrose oils in multiple sclerosis patients. To determine the erythrocyte membrane fatty acids levels and correlate it with expanded disability status scale (EDSS) at baseline after 6 months intervention in MS patients by gas chromatography, in this double blind, randomized trial, 100 RRMS patients with EDSS<6 were allocated into three groups: "Group A" that received co-supplemented hemp seed and evening primrose oils with advised Hot nature diet. "Group B" received olive oil and "Group C" received the co-supplemented oils. The results showed that the mean follow-up was 180 ± 2.9SD days (N=65, 23 M and 42 F aged 34.25 ± 8.07 years with disease duration of 6.80 ± 4.33 years). There was no significant difference in the study parameters at baseline. After 6 months, EDSS, Immunological parameters and the erythrocyte cell membrane with regard to specific fatty acids showed improvement in the group A and C, whereas there was worsening condition for the group B after the intervention. We concluded that Hot-nature dietary intervention with co-supplemented hemp seed and evening primrose oils caused an increase PUFAs in MS patients and improvement in the erythrocyte membrane fatty acids composition. This could be an indication of restored plasma stores, and a reflection of disease severity reduction.

  7. Global, regional, and national consumption levels of dietary fats and oils in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis including 266 country-specific nutrition surveys

    PubMed Central

    Khatibzadeh, Shahab; Shi, Peilin; Fahimi, Saman; Lim, Stephen; Andrews, Kathryn G; Engell, Rebecca E; Powles, John; Ezzati, Majid

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To quantify global consumption of key dietary fats and oils by country, age, and sex in 1990 and 2010. Design Data were identified, obtained, and assessed among adults in 16 age- and sex-specific groups from dietary surveys worldwide on saturated, omega 6, seafood omega 3, plant omega 3, and trans fats, and dietary cholesterol. We included 266 surveys in adults (83% nationally representative) comprising 1 630 069 unique individuals, representing 113 of 187 countries and 82% of the global population. A multilevel hierarchical Bayesian model accounted for differences in national and regional levels of missing data, measurement incomparability, study representativeness, and sampling and modelling uncertainty. Setting and population Global adult population, by age, sex, country, and time. Results In 2010, global saturated fat consumption was 9.4%E (95%UI=9.2 to 9.5); country-specific intakes varied dramatically from 2.3 to 27.5%E; in 75 of 187 countries representing 61.8% of the world’s adult population, the mean intake was <10%E. Country-specific omega 6 consumption ranged from 1.2 to 12.5%E (global mean=5.9%E); corresponding range was 0.2 to 6.5%E (1.4%E) for trans fat; 97 to 440 mg/day (228 mg/day) for dietary cholesterol; 5 to 3,886 mg/day (163 mg/day) for seafood omega 3; and <100 to 5,542 mg/day (1,371 mg/day) for plant omega 3. Countries representing 52.4% of the global population had national mean intakes for omega 6 fat ≥5%E; corresponding proportions meeting optimal intakes were 0.6% for trans fat (≤0.5%E); 87.6% for dietary cholesterol (<300 mg/day); 18.9% for seafood omega 3 fat (≥250 mg/day); and 43.9% for plant omega 3 fat (≥1,100 mg/day). Trans fat intakes were generally higher at younger ages; and dietary cholesterol and seafood omega 3 fats generally higher at older ages. Intakes were similar by sex. Between 1990 and 2010, global saturated fat, dietary cholesterol, and trans fat intakes remained stable, while omega 6, seafood omega

  8. Epogam evening primrose oil treatment in atopic dermatitis and asthma.

    PubMed

    Hederos, C A; Berg, A

    1996-12-01

    Essential fatty acids are claimed to have positive effects in atopic diseases. In a double blind, placebo controlled, parallel group study 58 out of 60 children, with atopic dermatitis and the need for regular treatment with topical skin steroids, completed a 16 weeks' treatment period with either Epogam evening primrose oil or placebo capsules. Twenty two of these subjects also had asthma. The parents used diaries to record symptom scores and concomitant medication. Peak expiratory flow was measured and disease activity was monitored by the clinician every four weeks. The plasma concentrations of essential fatty acids increased significantly in the group treated with Epogam capsules. The study demonstrated significant improvements of the eczema symptoms but no significant difference was found between the placebo and the Epogam groups. No therapeutic effect was shown on asthma symptoms or fidget.

  9. Effects of dietary gamma-linolenic acid-rich borage oil combined with marine fish oils on tissue phospholipid fatty acid composition and production of prostaglandins E and F of the 1-, 2- and 3-series in a marine fish deficient in delta5 fatty acyl desaturase.

    PubMed

    Tocher, D R; Bell, J G; Farndale, B M; Sargent, J R

    1997-08-01

    The effects of gamma-linolenic acid-rich borage oil (BO), in combination with different marine oils, namely an eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) rich oil (MO) or a DHA-rich oil (TO), on tissue fatty acid composition and prostaglandin production were investigated in turbot, a species which lacks appreciable delta5 fatty acyl desaturase activity. The juvenile turbot grew well on the experimental diets and there were no significant differences in final weights between dietary treatments. Irrespective of the marine oil component, both the BO-containing diets increased tissue phospholipid levels of 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-6, and their respective elongation products, 20:2n-6 and 20:3n-6, compared to fish fed a control diet containing a standard Northern hemisphere fish oil. Both the BO-containing diets increased the production of 1-series prostaglandins (PG), this being observed across all tissues investigated with PGF and especially PGE. The BO/MO diet also reduced 20:4n-6 in tissue phospholipids without affecting 20:5n-3, whereas the BO/TO combination decreased 20:5n-3 but increased 20:4n-6. The production of 2-series and 3-series PGs was also altered by the dietary treatments but the changes were less dependent upon the tissue levels of their respective precursor fatty acids, 20:4n-6 and 20:5n-3. The BO-containing diets had very significant effects on gross fatty acid compositions of the phospholipids including increased proportions of saturated fatty acids and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and decreased proportions of monounsaturated fatty acids and n-3 PUFA. Overall, this study shows that eicosanoid production in turbot tissues can be influenced by dietary fatty acids, not only by changes in the absolute and relative levels of specific eicosanoid precursor PUFA in tissue phospholipids, but also by general effects on membrane composition, structure and function induced by gross fatty acid compositional changes.

  10. Oil production enhancement through a standardized brine treatment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Adewumi, A.; Watson, R.; Tian, S.; Safargar, S.; Heckman, S.; Drielinger, I.

    1995-08-01

    In order to permit the environmentally safe discharge of brines produced from oil wells in Pennsylvania to the surface waters of the Commonwealth and to rapidly brings as many wells as possible into compliance with the law, the Pennsylvania Oil and Gas Association (POGAM) approached the Pennsylvania State University to develop a program designed to demonstrate that a treatment process to meet acceptable discharge conditions and effluent limitations can be standardized for all potential stripper wells brine discharge. After the initial studies, the first phase of this project was initiated. A bench-scale prototype model was developed for conducting experiments in laboratory conditions. The experiments pursued in the laboratory conditions were focused on the removal of ferrous iron from synthetically made brine. Iron was selected as the primary heavy metals for studying the efficiency of the treatment process. The results of a number of experiments in the lab were indicative of the capability of the proposed brine treatment process in the removal of iron. Concurrent with the laboratory experiments, a comprehensive and extensive kinetic study was initiated. This study was necessary to provide the required data base for process modeling. This study included the investigation of the critical pH as well as the rate and order of reactions of the studied elements: aluminum, lead, zinc, and copper. In the second phase of this project, a field-based prototype was developed to evaluate and demonstrate the treatment process effectiveness. These experiments were conducted under various conditions and included the testing on five brines from different locations with various dissolved constituents. The outcome of this research has been a software package, currently based on iron`s reactivity, to be used for design purposes. The developed computer program was refined as far as possible using the results from laboratory and field experiments.

  11. A Dietary Pattern Characterized by High Intake of Vegetables, Fruits, and Vegetable Oils Is Associated with Reduced Risk of Preeclampsia in Nulliparous Pregnant Norwegian Women1–3

    PubMed Central

    Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Haugen, Margaretha; Samuelsen, Sven Ove; Torjusen, Hanne; Trogstad, Lill; Alexander, Jan; Magnus, Per; Meltzer, Helle Margrete

    2009-01-01

    Several dietary substances have been hypothesized to influence the risk of preeclampsia. Our aim in this study was to estimate the association between dietary patterns during pregnancy and the risk of preeclampsia in 23,423 nulliparous pregnant women taking part in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Women participating in MoBa answered questionnaires at gestational wk 15 (a general health questionnaire) and 17–22 (a FFQ). The pregnancy outcomes were obtained from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Exploratory factor analysis was used to assess the associations among food variables. Principal component factor analysis identified 4 primary dietary patterns that were labeled: vegetable, processed food, potato and fish, and cakes and sweets. Relative risks of preeclampsia were estimated as odds ratios (OR) and confounder control was performed with multiple logistic regression. Women with high scores on a pattern characterized by vegetables, plant foods, and vegetable oils were at decreased risk [relative risk (OR) for tertile 3 vs. tertile 1: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.62, 0.85]. Women with high scores on a pattern characterized by processed meat, salty snacks, and sweet drinks were at increased risk [OR for tertile 3 vs. tertile 1: 1.21; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.42]. These findings suggest that a dietary pattern characterized by high intake of vegetables, plant foods, and vegetable oils decreases the risk of preeclampsia, whereas a dietary pattern characterized by high consumption of processed meat, sweet drinks, and salty snacks increases the risk. PMID:19369368

  12. A dietary pattern characterized by high intake of vegetables, fruits, and vegetable oils is associated with reduced risk of preeclampsia in nulliparous pregnant Norwegian women.

    PubMed

    Brantsaeter, Anne Lise; Haugen, Margaretha; Samuelsen, Sven Ove; Torjusen, Hanne; Trogstad, Lill; Alexander, Jan; Magnus, Per; Meltzer, Helle Margrete

    2009-06-01

    Several dietary substances have been hypothesized to influence the risk of preeclampsia. Our aim in this study was to estimate the association between dietary patterns during pregnancy and the risk of preeclampsia in 23,423 nulliparous pregnant women taking part in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Women participating in MoBa answered questionnaires at gestational wk 15 (a general health questionnaire) and 17-22 (a FFQ). The pregnancy outcomes were obtained from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Exploratory factor analysis was used to assess the associations among food variables. Principal component factor analysis identified 4 primary dietary patterns that were labeled: vegetable, processed food, potato and fish, and cakes and sweets. Relative risks of preeclampsia were estimated as odds ratios (OR) and confounder control was performed with multiple logistic regression. Women with high scores on a pattern characterized by vegetables, plant foods, and vegetable oils were at decreased risk [relative risk (OR) for tertile 3 vs. tertile 1: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.62, 0.85]. Women with high scores on a pattern characterized by processed meat, salty snacks, and sweet drinks were at increased risk [OR for tertile 3 vs. tertile 1: 1.21; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.42]. These findings suggest that a dietary pattern characterized by high intake of vegetables, plant foods, and vegetable oils decreases the risk of preeclampsia, whereas a dietary pattern characterized by high consumption of processed meat, sweet drinks, and salty snacks increases the risk.

  13. Inter-tissue differences in fatty acid incorporation as a result of dietary oil manipulation in Port Jackson sharks (Heterodontus portusjacksoni).

    PubMed

    Beckmann, Crystal L; Mitchell, James G; Stone, David A J; Huveneers, Charlie

    2014-06-01

    Fatty acid profile analysis is a tool for dietary investigation that may complement traditional stomach contents analysis. While recent studies have shown that the liver of sharks fed different diets have differing fatty acid profiles, the degree to which diet is reflected in shark blood serum and muscle tissue is still poorly understood. An 18-week controlled feeding experiment was undertaken using captive Port Jackson sharks (Heterodontus portusjacksoni). Sharks were fed exclusive diets of artificial pellets treated with fish or poultry oil and sampled every 6 weeks. The fatty acid profiles from liver, blood serum, and muscle were affected differently, with the period from which significant differences were observed varying by tissue and diet type. The total fatty acid profiles of fish oil and poultry oil fed sharks were significantly different from week 12 onwards in the liver and blood serum, but significant differences were only observed by week 18 in the muscle tissue of sharks fed different diets. The drivers of dissimilarity which aligned with dietary input were 14:0, 18:2n-6, 20:5n-3, 18:1n-9 and 22:6n-3 in the liver and blood serum. Dietary fatty acids accumulated more consistently in the liver than in the blood plasma or muscle, likely due to its role as the central organ for fat processing and storage. Blood serum and muscle fatty acid profiles were influenced by diet, but fluctuated over-time. The low level of correlation between diet and muscle FA profiles is likely a result of low levels of fat (<1%) in the muscle and the domination of structural, cell-membrane phospholipids in shark muscle tissues. Our findings describe inter-tissue differences in the incorporation of fatty acids from the diet to consumer, which should be taken into account when interpreting dietary patterns from fatty acid profiles.

  14. Replacing coconut santan with palm oil santan: impact on dietary C12-16 saturated fatty acids, serum total cholesterol and cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Ng, T; Tee, E S

    1998-12-01

    The theoretical impact of the use of coconut cream (santan) powder and palm oil santan powder on the dietary levels of C12-16 saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and linoleic acid (18:2), and on serum total cholesterol (TC), was evaluated holding non-santan dietary variables constant. The prediction was based on a 2,300-kcal hypothetical diet, containing one santan-based dish or snack in each of the 5 daily meals with fat contributing 30% of total calories, while the santan contributed a total of 14% kcal (36g). Replacing coconut santan with palm oil santan reduced the overall dietary C12-16 SFAs from 10.8% kcal to 4.8% kcal (i.e. 6.0% kcal) and the virtual removal of lauric (12:0) + myristic (14:0) acids, while palmitic acid (16:0) rose by 3.3% kcal, and the polyunsaturated linoleic acid (18:2) increased by 1.13% kcal. Applying the Hegsted equation to these dietary fatty acid (FA) changes, predicted a serum TC reduction of 24 -31 mg/dL (0.62- 0.80 mM/L), with the hypocholesterolemic effect being influenced by the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLr) set-point of the individual(s) concerned. Thus, the prediction indicated that replacing coconut santan with palm oil santan in santan-based Malaysian dishes or snacks would have a significant beneficial impact on serum TC and hence, cardiovascular risk. PMID:22692342

  15. Impacts, recovery rates, and treatment options for spilled oil in marshes.

    PubMed

    Michel, Jacqueline; Rutherford, Nicolle

    2014-05-15

    In a review of the literature on impacts of spilled oil on marshes, 32 oil spills and field experiments were identified with sufficient data to generate recovery curves and identify influencing factors controlling the rate of recovery. For many spills, recovery occurred within 1-2 growing seasons, even in the absence of any treatment. Recovery was longest for spills with the following conditions: Cold climate; sheltered settings; thick oil on the marsh surface; light refined products with heavy loading; oils that formed persistent thick residues; and intensive treatment. Recovery was shortest for spills with the following conditions: Warm climate; light to heavy oiling of the vegetation only; medium crude oils; and less-intensive treatment. Recommendations are made for treatment based on the following oiling conditions: Free-floating oil on the water in the marsh; thicker oil (>0.5 cm) on marsh surface; thinner oil (<0.5 cm) on marsh surface; heavy oil loading on vegetation; and light to moderate oil loading on vegetation.

  16. Effects of the sugarcane dietary fiber and pre-emulsified sesame oil on low-fat meat batter physicochemical property, texture, and microstructure.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Xinbo; Han, Minyi; Kang, Zhuang-li; Wang, Kai; Bai, Yun; Xu, Xing-lian; Zhou, Guang-hong

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of sugarcane dietary fiber (SDF) and pre-emulsified sesame oil for pork fat replacement on batter characteristics. Replacing pork fat with SDF and pre-emulsified sesame oil significantly affected color, water- and fat-binding properties, texture, dynamic rheology, microstructure and sensory analysis. With SDF and pre-emulsified sesame oil, the batters had improved textures and gave good sensory scores. These batters containing SDF had reduced the cholesterol and fat contents. With increasing levels of SDF, the batters had higher water- and fat-binding properties, improved texture (hardness, gumminess and chewiness), dynamic rheology and a more balanced nutritional composition. However, when the level of SDF reached 3%, the pores formed by SDF in batter were too large to hinder aggregation and the hardness of batter was unacceptable, which result the allover acceptability to be unsatisfactory. The sample 2% SDF had comparable overall acceptability to the control batter.

  17. Effects of the sugarcane dietary fiber and pre-emulsified sesame oil on low-fat meat batter physicochemical property, texture, and microstructure.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Xinbo; Han, Minyi; Kang, Zhuang-li; Wang, Kai; Bai, Yun; Xu, Xing-lian; Zhou, Guang-hong

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of sugarcane dietary fiber (SDF) and pre-emulsified sesame oil for pork fat replacement on batter characteristics. Replacing pork fat with SDF and pre-emulsified sesame oil significantly affected color, water- and fat-binding properties, texture, dynamic rheology, microstructure and sensory analysis. With SDF and pre-emulsified sesame oil, the batters had improved textures and gave good sensory scores. These batters containing SDF had reduced the cholesterol and fat contents. With increasing levels of SDF, the batters had higher water- and fat-binding properties, improved texture (hardness, gumminess and chewiness), dynamic rheology and a more balanced nutritional composition. However, when the level of SDF reached 3%, the pores formed by SDF in batter were too large to hinder aggregation and the hardness of batter was unacceptable, which result the allover acceptability to be unsatisfactory. The sample 2% SDF had comparable overall acceptability to the control batter. PMID:26641280

  18. Effects of dietary coconut oil on apolipoprotein B synthesis and VLDL secretion by calf liver slices.

    PubMed

    Gruffat-Mouty, D; Graulet, B; Durand, D; Samson-Bouma, M E; Bauchart, D

    2001-07-01

    Incorporation of coconut oil (CO) rich in lauric acid into the milk diet induces a lipid infiltration of the liver (steatosis) in 1-month-old calves. Among possible steps involved in diet-induced liver steatosis, the ability of the calf liver to synthesize apolipoprotein (Apo) B and to secrete it as part of VLDL particles was investigated. Liver samples were taken from calves fed for 17 d on a conventional milk replacer containing CO (n 5) and beef tallow (BT, n 4) as reference. Samples were cut into slices 0.5 mm thick and subsequently incubated for 12 h in a medium containing a [(35)S]methionine-[(35)S]cysteine mix and 0.8 mm-sodium laurate or oleate, the major fatty acids of CO and BT diets respectively. Concentrations of total [(35)S]proteins, [(35)S]albumin and [(35)S]ApoB in liver cells were 2-fold lower 0.0004 and 0.03 respectively) in CO- than in BT-fed calves. Although the total amount of proteins secreted (including albumin) was similar in both groups of calves, the amount of VLDL-[(35)S]Apo secreted was 2-fold lower (P = 0.004) in CO- than in BT-fed calves. These results suggest that a CO-enriched milk diet induces in preruminant calves a lipid infiltration of the liver by decreasing ApoB synthesis, leading to a reduction in secretion of VLDL particles. PMID:11432760

  19. Effects of dietary fat energy restriction and fish oil feeding on hepatic metabolic abnormalities and insulin resistance in KK mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Arai, Takeshi; Kim, Hyoun-ju; Hirako, Satoshi; Nakasatomi, Maki; Chiba, Hiroshige; Matsumoto, Akiyo

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effects of dietary fat energy restriction and fish oil intake on glucose and lipid metabolism in female KK mice with high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity. Mice were fed a lard/safflower oil (LSO50) diet consisting of 50 energy% (en%) lard/safflower oil as the fat source for 12 weeks. Then, the mice were fed various fat energy restriction (25 en% fat) diets - LSO, FO2.5, FO12.5 or FO25 - containing 0, 2.5, 12.5, or 25 en% fish oil, respectively, for 9 weeks. Conversion from a HF diet to each fat energy restriction diet significantly decreased final body weights and visceral and subcutaneous fat mass in all fat energy restriction groups, regardless of fish oil contents. Hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol levels markedly decreased in the FO12.5 and FO25 groups, but not in the LSO group. Although plasma insulin levels did not differ among groups, the blood glucose areas under the curve in the oral glucose tolerance test were significantly lower in the FO12.5 and FO25 groups. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed fatty acid synthase mRNA levels significantly decreased in the FO25 group, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 mRNA levels markedly decreased in the FO12.5 and FO25 groups. These results demonstrate that body weight gains were suppressed by dietary fat energy restriction even in KK mice with HF diet-induced obesity. We also suggested that the combination of fat energy restriction and fish oil feeding decreased fat droplets and ameliorated hepatic hypertrophy and insulin resistance with suppression of de novo lipogenesis in these mice.

  20. Optimizing dietary levels of menhaden and soybean oils and soybean lecithin for pre-gonadal somatic growth in juveniles of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, Victoria K.; Heflin, Laura E.; Jones, Warren T.; Powell, Mickie L.; Lawrence, Addison L.; Makowsky, Robert; Watts, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary lipids serve as important sources of energy and essential fatty acids for aquatic animals. Sources of animal and plant oils are increasingly limited as well as expensive, and dietary requirements associated with the inclusion of these oils must be carefully evaluated to facilitate sustainable and affordable formulations. In this study, we investigated quantities of menhaden oil (MO) with and without soybean lecithin or soybean oil (SO) to determine appropriate levels for optimal somatic growth for pre-gonadal juvenile Lytechinus variegatus. We prepared semi-purified diets that varied in neutral lipid content (0, 2, 4, or 8% dry matter) and soy lecithin (0 or 2%) and exchanged lipids reciprocally with purified starch while holding constant all other nutrients. We maintained laboratory-reared juvenile L. variegatus (average initial wet weight 82 ± 0.7 mg, mean ± SE , n = 9 treatment−1) in recirculating seawater systems and fed each daily a sub-satiation ration for five weeks. We assessed wet weights and test diameters every two weeks and at the end of the experiment (5 wk). Level of MO with or without soybean lecithin did not significantly affect wet weight gain; however, increasing levels of SO in the diet reduced wet weight gain and dry matter production efficiency and increased feed conversion ratio. Dry gut weight was positively correlated with level of MO. Lipid level in the gut increased with increasing dietary lipid level, regardless of source. These data suggest the composition of the SO is inhibitory for either nutrient absorption or metabolic processes associated with growth at this life stage. Diets containing total lipid levels of approximately 5 to 6% that include sources of n-3 fatty acids may support optimal growth for pre-gonadal juvenile L. variegatus. PMID:26146422

  1. Effects of dietary cottonseed oil and tannin supplements on protein and fatty acid composition of bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Aprianita, Aprianita; Donkor, Osaana N; Moate, Peter J; Williams, S Richard O; Auldist, Martin J; Greenwood, Jae S; Hannah, Murray C; Wales, William J; Vasiljevic, Todor

    2014-05-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of diets supplemented with cottonseed oil, Acacia mearnsii-condensed tannin extract, and a combination of both on composition of bovine milk. Treatment diets included addition of cottonseed oil (800 g/d; CSO), condensed tannin from Acacia mearnsii (400 g/d; TAN) or a combination of cottonseed oil (800 g/d) and condensed tannin (400 g/d; CPT) with a diet consisting of 6·0 kg dry matter (DM) of concentrates and alfalfa hay ad libitum, which also served as the control diet (CON). Relative to the CON diet, feeding CSO and CPT diets had a minor impact on feed intake and yield of lactose in milk. These diets increased yields of milk and protein in milk. In contrast to the TAN diet, the CSO and CPT diets significantly decreased milk fat concentration and altered milk fatty acid composition by decreasing the proportion of saturated fatty acids but increasing proportions of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. The CPT diet had a similar effect to the CSO diet in modifying fatty acid profile. Overall, reduction in milk fat concentration and changes in milk fatty acid profile were probably due to supplementation of linoleic acid-rich cottonseed oil. The TAN diet had no effect on feed intake, milk yield and milk protein concentration. However, a reduction in the yields of protein and lactose occurred when cows were fed this diet. Supplemented tannin had no significant effect on fat concentration and changes in fatty acid profile in milk. All supplemented diets did not affect protein concentration or composition, nitrogen concentration, or casein to total protein ratio of the resulting milk.

  2. Effect of dietary fish oil on the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism in liver and skeletal muscle of lactating sows.

    PubMed

    Gessner, D K; Gröne, B; Rosenbaum, S; Most, E; Hillen, S; Becker, S; Erhardt, G; Reiner, G; Eder, K

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the hypothesis that dietary supplementation of fish oil as a source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) influences the expression of target genes of sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBP)-1 and (SREBP)-2 involved in triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis and fatty acid and cholesterol metabolism in the liver, and moreover activates the expression of target genes of peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor (PPAR)-α involved in TAG and fatty acid catabolism in liver and skeletal muscle. Twenty lactating sows were fed a control diet or a fish oil diet with either 50 g of a mixture of palm oil and soya bean oil (4:1, w/w) or fish oil per kg. The diet of the fish oil group contained 19.1 g of n-3 PUFA (mainly 20:5 n-3 and 22:6 n-3) per 100 g of total fatty acids, while the diet of the control group contained 2.4 g of n-3 PUFA (mainly 18:3 n-3) per 100 g of total fatty acids. The fish oil group had reduced relative mRNA concentrations of various target genes of SREBP-1 involved in fatty acid and TAG synthesis in comparison with the control group (p < 0.05). Relative mRNA concentrations of target genes of PPARα involved in fatty acid catabolism in both liver and muscle, and mRNA concentrations of target genes of SREBP-2 involved in cholesterol synthesis and uptake were not influenced by fish oil supplementation. Concentrations of cholesterol and TAG in plasma, fat content of milk and weight gains of litters during the suckling period were not different between the two groups of sows. In conclusion, this study suggests that fish oil has only minor effects on hepatic lipid metabolism, which are non-critical with respect to milk production in sows.

  3. Inhibitory effects of dietary caraway essential oils on 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced colon carcinogenesis is mediated by liver xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Dadkhah, A; Allameh, A; Khalafi, H; Ashrafihelan, J

    2011-01-01

    The effects of dietary essential oils prepared from caraway seeds on colon carcinogenesis induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) in rats has been studied. The number of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and aberrant crypt (AC) induced by DMH were found to be significantly inhibited in colon of rats treated with essential oils in diet (0.01 and 0.1%). To find out the mechanism(s) by which the essential oils reduced colon premalignancies, plasma, liver, and colon tissues were collected and analyzed for parameters related to oxidative stress and xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes. Lack of influence of caraway extracts on hepatic lipid peroxidation products, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) may suggest that the oils do not interfere with these factors. However, it was clearly shown that DMH-related changes in hepatic and colonic cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) and glutathione S-transferae (GST) activities were recovered in liver but not in colon tissue in animals treated with caraway oil preparations. In conclusion, histopathological and biochemical data clearly showed that inhibition of colon premalignant lesions induced by DMH is mediated by interference of caraway oil components in the activities of the main hepatic xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes.

  4. Fluorosilicone oil in the treatment of retinal detachment.

    PubMed Central

    Gremillion, C M; Peyman, G A; Liu, K R; Naguib, K S

    1990-01-01

    We evaluated the use of a heavier-than-water fluorinated silicone oil in the treatment of 30 selected cases of complicated retinal detachment from January 1988 to July 1989. Proliferative vitreoretinopathy grade C-2 or greater accounted for 19 cases, proliferative diabetic retinopathy with traction detachment for two cases, giant retinal tears five, ruptured globe with retinal detachment two, massive choroidal effusion with retinal detachment one, and acute retinal necrosis with retinal detachment one. Initial retinal reattachment was achieved in all cases. Complications included redetachment seven (23%), cataract six (75% of phakic patients), raised intraocular pressure four (13%), hypotony four (13%), keratopathy three (10%), uveitis-synechia formation three (10%), phthisis two (3%), choroidal haemorrhage one (3%), and vitreous haemorrhage one (3%). Postoperative visual acuities with at least six months' follow-up range from no light perception to 20/50, with seven patients (23%) 20/400 or better. Images PMID:2223698

  5. Fluorosilicone oil in the treatment of retinal detachment.

    PubMed

    Gremillion, C M; Peyman, G A; Liu, K R; Naguib, K S

    1990-11-01

    We evaluated the use of a heavier-than-water fluorinated silicone oil in the treatment of 30 selected cases of complicated retinal detachment from January 1988 to July 1989. Proliferative vitreoretinopathy grade C-2 or greater accounted for 19 cases, proliferative diabetic retinopathy with traction detachment for two cases, giant retinal tears five, ruptured globe with retinal detachment two, massive choroidal effusion with retinal detachment one, and acute retinal necrosis with retinal detachment one. Initial retinal reattachment was achieved in all cases. Complications included redetachment seven (23%), cataract six (75% of phakic patients), raised intraocular pressure four (13%), hypotony four (13%), keratopathy three (10%), uveitis-synechia formation three (10%), phthisis two (3%), choroidal haemorrhage one (3%), and vitreous haemorrhage one (3%). Postoperative visual acuities with at least six months' follow-up range from no light perception to 20/50, with seven patients (23%) 20/400 or better.

  6. INCREASED OIL RECOVERY FROM MATURE OIL FIELDS USING GELLED POLYMER TREATMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    G.P. Willhite; D.W. Green; C.S. McCool

    2003-05-01

    Gelled polymer treatments are applied to oil reservoirs to increase oil production and to reduce water production by altering the fluid movement within the reservoir. This report describes the results of a three-year research program aimed at reducing barriers to the widespread use of gelled polymer treatments by (1) developing methods to predict gel behavior during placement in matrix rock and fractures, (2) determining the persistence of permeability reduction after gel placement, and (3) developing methods to design production well treatments to control water production. The work focused on the gel system composed of polyacrylamide and chromium acetate. The molar mass of the polymer was about six million. Chromium(III) acetate reacted and formed crosslinks between polymer molecules. The crosslinked polymer molecules, or pre-gel aggregates, combine and grow to eventually form a 3-dimensional gel. A fundamental study to characterize the formation and growth of pre-gel aggregates was conducted. Two methods, flow field-flow fractionation (FFFF) and multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS) were used. Studies using FFFF were inconclusive. Data taken using MALLS showed that at the gel time the average molar mass of gel aggregates increased by a factor of about three while the average size increase was approximately 50%. Increased acetate concentration in the gelant increases the gel time. The in situ performance of an added-acetate system was investigated to determine the applicability for in-depth treatments. Increased acetate concentrations delayed the development of increased flow resistance during gelant injection in short sandpacks. The development of increased flow resistance (in situ gelation) was extended from 2 to 34 days by increasing the acetate-to-chromium ratio from 38 to 153. In situ gelation occurred at a time that was approximately 22% of the bulk gelation time. When carbonate rocks are treated with gel, chromium retention in the rock may limit in

  7. Effects of dietary supplementation with a combination of fish oil, bilberry extract, and lutein on subjective symptoms of asthenopia in humans.

    PubMed

    Kawabata, Fuminori; Tsuji, Tomoko

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of dietary supplementation with a combination of fish oil, bilberry extract, and lutein on subjective symptoms of asthenopia in humans by a double- blind, randomized, parallel-group, and placebo-controlled trial. In the Active group, eleven subjects ingested a supplement containing omega-3 fatty acid-rich fish oil (docosahexaenoic acid 783 mg/day, eicosapentaenoic acid 162 mg/day), bilberry extract (anthocyanidin 59 mg/day), and lutein (17.5 mg/day) in soft gel capsule form, every day for 4 weeks. In the Placebo group, nine subjects ingested placebo capsules. Before and after supplementation, subjects completed a questionnaire to determine their asthenopia symptoms and were also assessed for mental fatigue symptom by the visual analog scale (VAS) test. Asthenopia symptoms such as "stiff shoulder, low back pain", "frustration", "dry-eye", and "stuffy head" were improved in the Active group. Furthermore, a score of mental fatigue was improved after 4 weeks of supplementation, and no side effects were observed after the 4-week supplementation and a 2-week washout period in the Active group. These results suggest that dietary supplementation with the combination of omega-3 fatty acid-rich fish oil, bilberry extract, and lutein may safely improve subjective symptoms of asthenopia and mental fatigue in humans.

  8. Effect of dietary fish oil supplementation on the exploratory activity, emotional status and spatial memory of the aged mouse lemur, a non-human primate.

    PubMed

    Languille, Solène; Aujard, Fabienne; Pifferi, Fabien

    2012-12-01

    The data are inconsistent about the ability of dietary omega-3 fatty acids to prevent age-associated cognitive decline. Indeed, most clinical trials have failed to demonstrate a protective effect of omega-3 fatty acids against cognitive decline, and methodological issues are still under debate. In contrast to human studies, experiments performed in adult rodents clearly indicate that omega-3 fatty acids supplement can improve behavioural and cognitive functions. The inconsistent observations between human and rodent studies highlight the importance of the use of non-human primate models. The aim of the present study was to address the impact of omega-3 fatty acids (given in the form of dietary fish oil) on exploratory activity, emotional status and spatial reference memory in the aged mouse lemur, a non-human primate. Aged animals fed fish oil exhibited decreased exploratory activity, as manifested by an increase in the latency to move and a reduced distance travelled in an open-field. The fish oil-supplemented animals exhibited no change in the anxiety level, but they were more reactive to go into the dark arms of a light/dark plus-maze. In addition, we found that fish oil supplementation did not significantly improve the spatial memory performance in the Barnes maze task. This study demonstrated for the first time that a fish oil diet initiated late in life specifically modifies the exploratory behaviour without improving the spatial memory of aged non-human primates. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation may be effective when started early in life but less effective when started at later ages. PMID:22921374

  9. Effect of dietary fish oil supplementation on the exploratory activity, emotional status and spatial memory of the aged mouse lemur, a non-human primate.

    PubMed

    Languille, Solène; Aujard, Fabienne; Pifferi, Fabien

    2012-12-01

    The data are inconsistent about the ability of dietary omega-3 fatty acids to prevent age-associated cognitive decline. Indeed, most clinical trials have failed to demonstrate a protective effect of omega-3 fatty acids against cognitive decline, and methodological issues are still under debate. In contrast to human studies, experiments performed in adult rodents clearly indicate that omega-3 fatty acids supplement can improve behavioural and cognitive functions. The inconsistent observations between human and rodent studies highlight the importance of the use of non-human primate models. The aim of the present study was to address the impact of omega-3 fatty acids (given in the form of dietary fish oil) on exploratory activity, emotional status and spatial reference memory in the aged mouse lemur, a non-human primate. Aged animals fed fish oil exhibited decreased exploratory activity, as manifested by an increase in the latency to move and a reduced distance travelled in an open-field. The fish oil-supplemented animals exhibited no change in the anxiety level, but they were more reactive to go into the dark arms of a light/dark plus-maze. In addition, we found that fish oil supplementation did not significantly improve the spatial memory performance in the Barnes maze task. This study demonstrated for the first time that a fish oil diet initiated late in life specifically modifies the exploratory behaviour without improving the spatial memory of aged non-human primates. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation may be effective when started early in life but less effective when started at later ages.

  10. Combined effect of plant sterols and dietary fiber for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Castellanos-Jankiewicz, Ashley; Del Bosque-Plata, Laura; Tejero, M Elizabeth

    2014-06-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is a major contributor for disease burden in both the developed and developing world and an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Phytosterols (PhS) and dietary fiber (DF) act as low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) lowering agents, offering an effective treatment against high blood cholesterol and CVD. The aim of this review was to consider clinical evidence that analyzed the combination of PhS and DF in a cereal carrier for lowering LDL-C. Electronic database searches were carried out to identify peer-reviewed journal articles, from which five intervention studies that combined both components in a cereal carrier were identified and included in the present review. LDL-C lowering effects varied widely among studies, due to large heterogeneity in study design, subject baseline characteristics, length of the interventions, PhS and DF dosage and type of DF used. In relation to a time of intake, three studies suggested a frequency or distribution of the product's consumption during the day, while two studies did not consider this factor. Overall, the selected studies found significant differences on LDL-C concentrations, although not all of them reached the expected outcomes. Future research should be conducted to explore the effect that different types of DF exert on LDL-C when combined with PhS, and to analyze the effect of the product's time of intake in order to suggest an optimal moment of the day for its consumption.

  11. Chemical changes in extra virgin argan oil after thermal treatment.

    PubMed

    Gharby, Saïd; Harhar, Hicham; Kartah, Badr Eddine; Guillaume, Dom; Charrouf, Zoubida

    2013-01-01

    Physicochemical parameters, measured every 6 hours, of extra virgin argan oil heated for 24 h at 180 degrees C were investigated and compared with those of five other edible oils treated in the same thermoxidative condition. Argan oil was found to be particularly stable at high temperature, its level of polar compounds remaining low even after 24 h of heating.

  12. Dietary fish oil supplements depress milk fat yield and alter milk fatty acid composition in lactating cows fed grass silage-based diets.

    PubMed

    Kairenius, P; Ärölä, A; Leskinen, H; Toivonen, V; Ahvenjärvi, S; Vanhatalo, A; Huhtanen, P; Hurme, T; Griinari, J M; Shingfield, K J

    2015-08-01

    The potential of dietary fish oil (FO) supplements to increase milk 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 concentrations and the associated effects on milk fatty acid (FA) composition, intake, and milk production were examined. Four multiparous lactating cows offered a grass silage-based diet (forage:concentrate ratio 58:42, on a dry matter basis) supplemented with 0, 75, 150, or 300g of FO/d (FO0, FO75, FO150, and FO300, respectively) were used in a 4×4 Latin square with 28-d experimental periods. Milk FA composition was analyzed by complementary silver-ion thin-layer chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and silver-ion HPLC. Supplements of FO decreased linearly dry matter intake, yields of energy-corrected milk, milk fat and protein, and milk fat content. Compared with FO0, milk fat content and yield were decreased by 30.1 and 40.6%, respectively, on the FO300 treatment. Supplements of FO linearly increased milk 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 concentrations from 0.07 to 0.18 and 0.03 to 0.10g/100g of FA, respectively. Enrichment of 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 was accompanied by decreases in 4- to 18-carbon saturated FA and increases in total conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), trans FA, and polyunsaturated FA concentrations. Fish oil elevated milk fat cis-9,trans-11 CLA content in a quadratic manner, reaching a maximum on FO150 (from 0.61 to 2.15g/100g of FA), whereas further amounts of FO increased trans-10 18:1 with no change in trans-11 18:1 concentration. Supplements of FO also resulted in a dose-dependent appearance of 37 unique 20- and 22-carbon intermediates in milk fat. Concentrations of 16-, 18-, 20-, and 22-carbon trans FA were all increased by FO, with enrichment of trans 18:1 and trans 18:2 being quantitatively the most important. Decreases in milk fat yield to FO were not related to changes in milk trans-10,cis-12 CLA concentration or estimated milk fat melting point. Partial least square regression analysis indicated that FO-induced milk fat depression was associated with

  13. Dietary fish oil supplements depress milk fat yield and alter milk fatty acid composition in lactating cows fed grass silage-based diets.

    PubMed

    Kairenius, P; Ärölä, A; Leskinen, H; Toivonen, V; Ahvenjärvi, S; Vanhatalo, A; Huhtanen, P; Hurme, T; Griinari, J M; Shingfield, K J

    2015-08-01

    The potential of dietary fish oil (FO) supplements to increase milk 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 concentrations and the associated effects on milk fatty acid (FA) composition, intake, and milk production were examined. Four multiparous lactating cows offered a grass silage-based diet (forage:concentrate ratio 58:42, on a dry matter basis) supplemented with 0, 75, 150, or 300g of FO/d (FO0, FO75, FO150, and FO300, respectively) were used in a 4×4 Latin square with 28-d experimental periods. Milk FA composition was analyzed by complementary silver-ion thin-layer chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and silver-ion HPLC. Supplements of FO decreased linearly dry matter intake, yields of energy-corrected milk, milk fat and protein, and milk fat content. Compared with FO0, milk fat content and yield were decreased by 30.1 and 40.6%, respectively, on the FO300 treatment. Supplements of FO linearly increased milk 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 concentrations from 0.07 to 0.18 and 0.03 to 0.10g/100g of FA, respectively. Enrichment of 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 was accompanied by decreases in 4- to 18-carbon saturated FA and increases in total conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), trans FA, and polyunsaturated FA concentrations. Fish oil elevated milk fat cis-9,trans-11 CLA content in a quadratic manner, reaching a maximum on FO150 (from 0.61 to 2.15g/100g of FA), whereas further amounts of FO increased trans-10 18:1 with no change in trans-11 18:1 concentration. Supplements of FO also resulted in a dose-dependent appearance of 37 unique 20- and 22-carbon intermediates in milk fat. Concentrations of 16-, 18-, 20-, and 22-carbon trans FA were all increased by FO, with enrichment of trans 18:1 and trans 18:2 being quantitatively the most important. Decreases in milk fat yield to FO were not related to changes in milk trans-10,cis-12 CLA concentration or estimated milk fat melting point. Partial least square regression analysis indicated that FO-induced milk fat depression was associated with

  14. Modelling of an oil refinery wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Pinzón Pardo, A L; Brdjanovic, D; Moussa, M S; López-Vázquez, C M; Meijer, S C F; Van Straten, H H A; Janssen, A J H; Amy, G; Van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2007-11-01

    The Activated Sludge Model No. 3 (ASM3) and Dutch calibration guidelines (STOWA) were evaluated in the modelling of an activated sludge system treating effluents from a large oil refinery. The plant was designed to remove suspended solids, organic matter and nitrogen from wastewater at an average water temperature of 34 degrees C. The plant consists of three tanks in series; the first two tanks operate in on-off aeration mode with pure oxygen for N-removal, whilst extra methanol is added for the denitrification, and the third tank is maintained as constantly aerobic. Calibration was performed based on a simplified influent characterisation and extra batch experiments (nitrification and denitrification). With the adjustment of only four parameters the model proved capable of describing the performance of the plant concerning both the liquid phase and the biomass. The model was further used to analyse possible modifications in the plant layout and optimize operational conditions in order to reduce operating costs. Modelling results indicated reduction in methanol dosage by implementing an idle time between aerobic and anoxic phases. In this way, surplus methanol was prevented from entering during the aerobic period. Moreover, simulations showed that the most cost-effective option regarding the denitrification process was a combined pre-post-denitrification scheme, without the need for enlarging existing basins. It can be concluded that although ASM3 and STOWA guidelines were originally developed for domestic wastewater application at a temperature range of 10 to 20 degrees C, they proved well capable of describing the performance of an oil refinery wastewater treatment plant operating at 34 degrees C. Moreover, the plant model proved useful for optimization of the plant performance regarding operational costs.

  15. Action of dietary trypsin, pressed coffee oil, silymarin and iron salt on 1,2-dimethylhydrazine tumorigenesis by gavage.

    PubMed

    Gershbein, L L

    1994-01-01

    Sprague-Dawley male rats, 24 days of age, were placed on diets based on a balanced ration as such and supplemented with Brazilian A rabica green coffee bean oil (0.10%), silymarin flavonolignans (0.10%), porcine trypsin (2429 mu/g ration) and ferrous sulfate (0.24% Fe) for a period of 32 weeks. A portion of the controls was switched to the iron salt diet at day 37 when 1,2-dimethylhydrazine was administered by gavage at a dosage of 20 mg/kg (base) and continued weekly for a total of 15 weeks. The colon and small intestinal adenocarcinoma numbers were determined for each group of rats surviving the carcinogen treatment and compared with the respective controls by a statistical design based on Poisson distribution. The results indicate that the adenocarcinoma frequencies of the colon, both total and occurrence in the proximal and distal portions were significantly decreased in the groups fed coffee oil, silymarin group and trypsin. The colon tumor numbers for the iron salt-fed were in the control range except for a decrement in the distal colon for rats on the diet from the start. Small intestinal adenocarcinoma scores with all supplemented diets did not differ significantly from the controls.

  16. Replacement of Dietary Saturated Fat by PUFA-Rich Pumpkin Seed Oil Attenuates Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Atherosclerosis Development, with Additional Health Effects of Virgin over Refined Oil

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Martine C.; Mulder, Petra; Stavro, P. Mark; Suárez, Manuel; Arola-Arnal, Anna; van Duyvenvoorde, Wim; Kooistra, Teake; Wielinga, Peter Y.; Kleemann, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims As dietary saturated fatty acids are associated with metabolic and cardiovascular disease, a potentially interesting strategy to reduce disease risk is modification of the quality of fat consumed. Vegetable oils represent an attractive target for intervention, as they largely determine the intake of dietary fats. Furthermore, besides potential health effects conferred by the type of fatty acids in a vegetable oil, other minor components (e.g. phytochemicals) may also have health benefits. Here, we investigated the potential long-term health effects of isocaloric substitution of dietary fat (i.e. partial replacement of saturated by unsaturated fats), as well as putative additional effects of phytochemicals present in unrefined (virgin) oil on development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and associated atherosclerosis. For this, we used pumpkin seed oil, because it is high in unsaturated fatty acids and a rich source of phytochemicals. Methods ApoE*3Leiden mice were fed a Western-type diet (CON) containing cocoa butter (15% w/w) and cholesterol (1% w/w) for 20 weeks to induce risk factors and disease endpoints. In separate groups, cocoa butter was replaced by refined (REF) or virgin (VIR) pumpkin seed oil (comparable in fatty acid composition, but different in phytochemical content). Results Both oils improved dyslipidaemia, with decreased (V)LDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels in comparison with CON, and additional cholesterol-lowering effects of VIR over REF. While REF did not affect plasma inflammatory markers, VIR reduced circulating serum amyloid A and soluble vascular adhesion molecule-1. NAFLD and atherosclerosis development was modestly reduced in REF, and VIR strongly decreased liver steatosis and inflammation as well as atherosclerotic lesion area and severity. Conclusions Overall, we show that an isocaloric switch from a diet rich in saturated fat to a diet rich in unsaturated fat can attenuate NAFLD and atherosclerosis

  17. Dietary and nutritional treatments for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: current research support and recommendations for practitioners.

    PubMed

    Hurt, Elizabeth A; Arnold, L Eugene; Lofthouse, Nicholas

    2011-10-01

    Evidence for dietary/nutritional treatments of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) varies widely, from double-blind, placebo-controlled trials to anecdotal. In guiding patients, clinicians can apply the SECS versus RUDE rule: treatments that are Safe, Easy, Cheap, and Sensible (SECS) require less evidence than those that are Risky, Unrealistic, Difficult, or Expensive (RUDE). Two nutritional treatments appear worth general consideration: Recommended Daily Allowance/Reference Daily Intake multivitamin/mineral supplements as a pediatric health intervention not specific to ADHD and essential fatty acids, especially a mix of eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and γ-linolenic acid as an ADHD-specific intervention. Controlled studies support the elimination of artificial food dyes to reduce ADHD symptoms, but this treatment may be more applicable to the general pediatric population than to children with diagnosed ADHD. Mineral supplementation is indicated for those with documented deficiencies but is not supported for others with ADHD. Carnitine may have a role for inattention, but the evidence is limited. Dimethylaminoethanol probably has a small effect. Herbs, although "natural," are actually crude drugs, which along with homeopathic treatments have little evidence of efficacy. Consequences of delayed proven treatments need consideration in the risk-benefit assessment of dietary/nutritional treatments.

  18. Fish Oil and Microalga Omega-3 as Dietary Supplements: A Comparative Study on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in High-Fat Fed Rats.

    PubMed

    Haimeur, Adil; Mimouni, Virginie; Ulmann, Lionel; Martineau, Anne-Sophie; Messaouri, Hafida; Pineau-Vincent, Fabienne; Tremblin, Gérard; Meskini, Nadia

    2016-09-01

    Dietary supplementation with marine omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) can have beneficial effects on a number of risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). We compared the effects of two n-3 PUFA rich food supplements (freeze-dried Odontella aurita and fish oil) on risk factors for CVD. Male rats were randomly divided into four groups of six animals each and fed with the following diets: control group (C) received a standard diet containing 7 % lipids; second group (HF high fat) was fed with a high-fat diet containing 40 % lipids; third group (HFFO high fat+fish oil) was fed with the high-fat diet supplemented with 0.5 % fish oil; and fourth group (HFOA high fat+O. aurita) received the high-fat diet supplemented with 12 % of freeze-dried O. aurita. After 8 weeks rats fed with the high-fat diet supplemented with O. aurita displayed a significantly lower bodyweight than those in the other groups. Both the microalga and the fish oil significantly reduced insulinemia and serum lipid levels. O. aurita was more effective than the fish oil in reducing hepatic triacyglycerol levels and in preventing high-fat diet-induced steatosis. O. aurita and fish oil also reduced platelet aggregation and oxidative status induced by high fat intake. After an OA supplementation, the adipocytes in the HFOA group were smaller than those in the HF group. Freeze-dried O. aurita showed similar or even greater biological effects than the fish oil. This could be explained by a potential effect of the n-3 PUFA but also other bioactive compounds of the microalgae.

  19. Fish Oil and Microalga Omega-3 as Dietary Supplements: A Comparative Study on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in High-Fat Fed Rats.

    PubMed

    Haimeur, Adil; Mimouni, Virginie; Ulmann, Lionel; Martineau, Anne-Sophie; Messaouri, Hafida; Pineau-Vincent, Fabienne; Tremblin, Gérard; Meskini, Nadia

    2016-09-01

    Dietary supplementation with marine omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) can have beneficial effects on a number of risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). We compared the effects of two n-3 PUFA rich food supplements (freeze-dried Odontella aurita and fish oil) on risk factors for CVD. Male rats were randomly divided into four groups of six animals each and fed with the following diets: control group (C) received a standard diet containing 7 % lipids; second group (HF high fat) was fed with a high-fat diet containing 40 % lipids; third group (HFFO high fat+fish oil) was fed with the high-fat diet supplemented with 0.5 % fish oil; and fourth group (HFOA high fat+O. aurita) received the high-fat diet supplemented with 12 % of freeze-dried O. aurita. After 8 weeks rats fed with the high-fat diet supplemented with O. aurita displayed a significantly lower bodyweight than those in the other groups. Both the microalga and the fish oil significantly reduced insulinemia and serum lipid levels. O. aurita was more effective than the fish oil in reducing hepatic triacyglycerol levels and in preventing high-fat diet-induced steatosis. O. aurita and fish oil also reduced platelet aggregation and oxidative status induced by high fat intake. After an OA supplementation, the adipocytes in the HFOA group were smaller than those in the HF group. Freeze-dried O. aurita showed similar or even greater biological effects than the fish oil. This could be explained by a potential effect of the n-3 PUFA but also other bioactive compounds of the microalgae. PMID:27503614

  20. Reuse of drinking water treatment sludge for olive oil mill wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Fragoso, R A; Duarte, E A

    2012-01-01

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) results from the production of olive oil, which is an important traditional agro-industry in Mediterranean countries. In continuous three-phase centrifugation 1.0-1.2 m(3) of OMW are produced per ton of processed olives. Discharge of OMW is of serious environmental concern due to its high content of organic matter with phytotoxic properties, namely phenolic compounds. Meanwhile, drinking water treatment sludge (DWTS) is produced in high amounts and has long been considered as a waste for landfill. The aim of this work was the assessment of reusing DWTS for OMW treatment. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis was carried out to determine the phenolic compounds present and to evaluate if they are recalcitrant. Treatability assays were performed using a dosage of DWTS from 50 to 300 g L(-1). Treatment efficiency was evaluated based on the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), total solids (TS), total suspended solids (TSS), total volatile solids (TVS), oil and grease (OG), phenols (total phosphorous (TP) and HPLC fraction). Results from OMW HPLC characterization identified a total of 13 compounds; the major ones were hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, caffeic acid, p-cumaric acid and oleuropein. Treatability assays led to a maximum reduction of about 90% of some of the phenolic compounds determined by HPLC. Addition of 200-300 g L(-1) of DWTS reduced 40-50% of COD, 45-50% of TP, a maximum of nearly 70% TSS and 45% for TS and TVS. The OG fraction showed a reduction of about 90%, achieved adding 300 g L(-1) od DWTS. This study points out the possibility of establishing an integrated management of OMW and DWTS, contributing to a decrease in the environmental impact of two industrial activities, olive oil production and drinking water treatment.

  1. Effect of dietary supplementation of different oils during the first or second half of pregnancy on the glucose tolerance of the sow.

    PubMed

    Corson, A M; Laws, J; Litten, J C; Dodds, P F; Lean, I J; Clarke, L

    2008-07-01

    Poor glucose tolerance may be an under-researched contributory factor in the high (10% to 20%) pre-weaning mortality rate observed in pigs. Insulin resistance commences at around week 12 of gestation in the sow, although there are conflicting reports in the literature about the extent to which insulin resistance is modulated by maternal diet. The aim of the study was to determine the effects of supplementing the maternal diet with different dietary oils during either the first half or the second half of gestation on the glucose tolerance of the sow. Sows were offered the control (C: n = 5) diet as pellets or the C diet plus 10% extra energy (n = 16 per group) derived from either: (i) extra pellets; (ii) palm oil; (iii) olive oil; (iv) sunflower oil; or (v) fish oil. Experimental diets were fed during either the first (G1) or second (G2) half of gestation. A glucose tolerance test (GTT) was conducted on day 108 of gestation by administering 0.5 g/kg glucose i.v. Blood samples were taken every 5 to 10 min for 90 min post administration. The change in body weight and backfat thickness during gestation was similar but both type and timing of dietary supplementation influenced litter size and weight. With the exception of the sunflower oil group, supplementing the maternal diet in G1 resulted in larger and heavier litters, particularly in mothers offered palm oil. Basal blood glucose concentrations tended to be more elevated in G1 than G2 groups, whilst plasma insulin concentrations were similar. Following a GTT, the adjusted area under the curve was greater in G1 compared to G2 sows, despite no differences in glucose clearance. Maternal diet appeared to influence the relationship between glucose curve characteristics following a GTT and litter outcome. In conclusion, the degree of insulin sensitivity can be altered by both the period during which maternal nutritional supplementation is offered and the fatty acid profile of the diet.

  2. Dietary α-linolenic acid from flaxseed oil or eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids from fish oil differentially alter fatty acid composition and characteristics of fresh and frozen-thawed bull semen.

    PubMed

    Moallem, Uzi; Neta, Noam; Zeron, Yoel; Zachut, Maya; Roth, Zvi

    2015-04-15

    Incorporation rates of dietary omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids (FAs) from different sources into bull plasma and sperm and the effects on physiological characteristics of fresh and frozen-thawed semen were determined. Fifteen fertile bulls were assigned to three treatment groups and supplemented for 13 weeks with encapsulated fat: (1) SFA-360 g/d per bull saturated FA; (2) FLX-450 g/d per bull providing 84.2 g/d C18:3n-3 (α-linolenic acid) from flaxseed oil; and (3) FO-450 g/d per bull providing 8.7 g/d C20:5n-3 (eicosapentaenoic acid) and 6.5 g/d C22:6n-3 (docosahexaenoic acid, DHA) from fish oil. Blood samples were taken every 2 weeks and semen was collected weekly. With respect to the FA supplements, the proportion of α-linolenic acid in plasma increased in the FLX bulls, whereas that of DHA was increased in the FO bulls, within 2 weeks. However, changes in the sperm FA fraction were first expressed in the sixth week of supplementation: in the FO and FLX bulls the DHA proportion increased (P < 0.001), whereas that of C22:5n-6 FAs (docosapentaenoic acid [DPA] n-6) decreased (P < 0.001). Sperm motility and progressive motility in fresh semen were higher (P < 0.05), and the fading rate tended to be lower in the FLX than in FO bulls (P < 0.06). Furthermore, sperm motility, progressive motility, and velocity in frozen-thawed semen were higher in FLX than in the other groups (P < 0.008). These findings indicate that the proportion of DHA in sperm can be increased at the expense of DPAn-6 by either FO or FLX supplementation, indicating de novo elongation and desaturation of short- into longer-chain n-3 FAs in testes. Furthermore, the moderate exchange of DHA and DPAn-6 in the FLX group's sperm was associated with changes in the characteristics of both fresh and frozen-thawed semen, suggesting the importance of the ratio between these two FAs for sperm structure and function. PMID:25617988

  3. Dietary α-linolenic acid from flaxseed oil or eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids from fish oil differentially alter fatty acid composition and characteristics of fresh and frozen-thawed bull semen.

    PubMed

    Moallem, Uzi; Neta, Noam; Zeron, Yoel; Zachut, Maya; Roth, Zvi

    2015-04-15

    Incorporation rates of dietary omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids (FAs) from different sources into bull plasma and sperm and the effects on physiological characteristics of fresh and frozen-thawed semen were determined. Fifteen fertile bulls were assigned to three treatment groups and supplemented for 13 weeks with encapsulated fat: (1) SFA-360 g/d per bull saturated FA; (2) FLX-450 g/d per bull providing 84.2 g/d C18:3n-3 (α-linolenic acid) from flaxseed oil; and (3) FO-450 g/d per bull providing 8.7 g/d C20:5n-3 (eicosapentaenoic acid) and 6.5 g/d C22:6n-3 (docosahexaenoic acid, DHA) from fish oil. Blood samples were taken every 2 weeks and semen was collected weekly. With respect to the FA supplements, the proportion of α-linolenic acid in plasma increased in the FLX bulls, whereas that of DHA was increased in the FO bulls, within 2 weeks. However, changes in the sperm FA fraction were first expressed in the sixth week of supplementation: in the FO and FLX bulls the DHA proportion increased (P < 0.001), whereas that of C22:5n-6 FAs (docosapentaenoic acid [DPA] n-6) decreased (P < 0.001). Sperm motility and progressive motility in fresh semen were higher (P < 0.05), and the fading rate tended to be lower in the FLX than in FO bulls (P < 0.06). Furthermore, sperm motility, progressive motility, and velocity in frozen-thawed semen were higher in FLX than in the other groups (P < 0.008). These findings indicate that the proportion of DHA in sperm can be increased at the expense of DPAn-6 by either FO or FLX supplementation, indicating de novo elongation and desaturation of short- into longer-chain n-3 FAs in testes. Furthermore, the moderate exchange of DHA and DPAn-6 in the FLX group's sperm was associated with changes in the characteristics of both fresh and frozen-thawed semen, suggesting the importance of the ratio between these two FAs for sperm structure and function.

  4. Dietary changes and dietary supplement use, and underlying motives for these habits reported by colorectal cancer survivors of the Patient Reported Outcomes Following Initial Treatment and Long-Term Evaluation of Survivorship (PROFILES) registry.

    PubMed

    Bours, Martijn J; Beijer, Sandra; Winkels, Renate M; van Duijnhoven, Fränzel J; Mols, Floortje; Breedveld-Peters, José J; Kampman, Ellen; Weijenberg, Matty P; van de Poll-Franse, Lonneke V

    2015-07-01

    In the present study, we aimed to describe dietary changes made post-diagnosis and current dietary supplement use by survivors of colorectal cancer (CRC), and explore the underlying motives for these lifestyle habits. Cross-sectional analyses were performed for 1458 stage I-IV CRC survivors of the Patient Reported Outcomes Following Initial Treatment and Long-Term Evaluation of Survivorship (PROFILES) registry, diagnosed between 2000 and 2009. Lifestyle, sociodemographic and clinical information was collected. Prevalence of and motivations for dietary changes and supplement use were assessed. Associations between lifestyle, sociodemographic and clinical variables were analysed by multivariable logistic regression. CRC survivors (57% male) were on average 70 (SD 9) years of age and diagnosed 7 (SD 3) years ago. Dietary changes post-diagnosis were reported by 36% of the survivors and current supplement use by 32%. Motivations for dietary changes were mostly cancer-related (44% reported 'prevention of cancer recurrence' as the main reason), while motivations for supplement use were less frequently related to the cancer experience (38% reported 'to improve health and prevent disease in general' as the main reason). Dietary changes were significantly associated with dietary supplement use (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1, 2.1). Survivors who had received dietary advice, were non-smokers, under 65 years of age, and had no stoma were more likely to have changed their diet. Survivors who were female, had multiple co-morbidities, and no overweight or obesity were more likely to use supplements. In conclusion, many CRC survivors alter their diet post-diagnosis and use dietary supplements, in part for different reasons. Insights into motivations behind these lifestyle habits and characteristics of CRC survivors adopting these habits can improve the tailoring of lifestyle counselling strategies.

  5. Amino acids labelled with 11C as indicator of the effect of dietary treatment of hyperammonaemia.

    PubMed

    Hardell, L I; Stålnacke, C G; Lundqvist, H; Malmborg, P; Långström, B

    1984-01-01

    Short-lived radioactive carbon, 11C, (T 1/2 = 20 min) was incorporated into an essential amino acid [11C-methyl] -L-methionine, to form a true biological amino acid tracer with external detectability. This was tested in a study of the physiological tracer dynamics in a hyperammonaemic patient before and after a change in the dietary treatment. The protein intake was unchanged between the two investigations but the energy intake was increased from 53 to 63 kcal/kg BW/day. The tracer radioactivity was given per os. In the second investigation a relative decrease of radioactivity in the low molecular weight fraction of blood plasma was seen. Also the external measurements indicated a higher hepatic retention of radioactivity in the second investigation but no increased excretion of tracer. This may reflect an increased ability of the liver to utilize the incoming methionine from the vena porta. The hyperammonaemia remained over the second investigation but seven months later the ammonia content in the blood was almost normalized and the patient had also gained 3 kg in weight. The correlation between changes in tracer dynamics and changes in therapeutical effect of the diet is not further verified in this experiment but the investigation indicates the value of further studies in this topic using 11C-labelled amino acids also including the use of the newly introduced positron tomographic technique. It may be possible to develop this type of nuclide technique further to achieve a clinically useful method of optimizing therapeutic regiments in this type of metabolic disease. PMID:6393522

  6. Effect of long-term dietary supplementation of high-gamma-linolenic canola oil versus borage oil on growth, hematology, serum biochemistry, and N-6 fatty acid metabolism in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jim-Wen; DeMichele, Stephen J; Palombo, John; Chuang, Lu-Te; Hastilow, Christine; Bobik, Emil; Huang, Yung-Sheng

    2004-06-16

    Dietary supplementation of a high-gamma-linolenic acid canola oil (HGCO) containing approximately 36% (w/w) of gamma-linolenic acid (GLA, 18:3n-6) from the seeds of a genetically transformed canola strain, was assessed for its long-term biological effects. Growing Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 30) were fed a purified AIN93G diet containing 5, 10, or 15% (w/w) of HGCO as the fat source. For comparison, a separate group of rats (n = 10) was given the diet containing 15% (w/w) of borage oil (BO), which contained 22% (w/w) of GLA. After 12 weeks of feeding, the growth, relative organ weights, hematology, and serum biochemistry were found to be similar among rats fed the 5, 10, and 15% HGCO diets. The GLA levels in plasma and liver phospholipids (PL) were also similar. However, the levels of GLA in peripheral tissues (muscle PL and adipose triacylglycerols) were significantly higher in rats fed the 10 and 15% HGCO diets than those fed the 5% HGCO diet. When the above biologic parameters were compared between the 15% HGCO and 15% BO dietary groups, there were no significant differences except for lower final body weights and higher tissue levels of GLA, dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (20:3n-6) and arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) in the 15% HGCO dietary group as compared with the 15% BO dietary group. This is due to a higher GLA content and possibly a more favorable stereospecific distribution of GLA in HGCO. Overall, long-term (12-week) feeding with diets containing up to 15% HGCO resulted in no adverse effects on growth, organ weight, hematology and serum biochemistry as compared to the diet containing 15% BO, suggesting that HGCO may be a safe alternative source of GLA. PMID:15186123

  7. Effect of long-term dietary supplementation of high-gamma-linolenic canola oil versus borage oil on growth, hematology, serum biochemistry, and N-6 fatty acid metabolism in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jim-Wen; DeMichele, Stephen J; Palombo, John; Chuang, Lu-Te; Hastilow, Christine; Bobik, Emil; Huang, Yung-Sheng

    2004-06-16

    Dietary supplementation of a high-gamma-linolenic acid canola oil (HGCO) containing approximately 36% (w/w) of gamma-linolenic acid (GLA, 18:3n-6) from the seeds of a genetically transformed canola strain, was assessed for its long-term biological effects. Growing Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 30) were fed a purified AIN93G diet containing 5, 10, or 15% (w/w) of HGCO as the fat source. For comparison, a separate group of rats (n = 10) was given the diet containing 15% (w/w) of borage oil (BO), which contained 22% (w/w) of GLA. After 12 weeks of feeding, the growth, relative organ weights, hematology, and serum biochemistry were found to be similar among rats fed the 5, 10, and 15% HGCO diets. The GLA levels in plasma and liver phospholipids (PL) were also similar. However, the levels of GLA in peripheral tissues (muscle PL and adipose triacylglycerols) were significantly higher in rats fed the 10 and 15% HGCO diets than those fed the 5% HGCO diet. When the above biologic parameters were compared between the 15% HGCO and 15% BO dietary groups, there were no significant differences except for lower final body weights and higher tissue levels of GLA, dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (20:3n-6) and arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) in the 15% HGCO dietary group as compared with the 15% BO dietary group. This is due to a higher GLA content and possibly a more favorable stereospecific distribution of GLA in HGCO. Overall, long-term (12-week) feeding with diets containing up to 15% HGCO resulted in no adverse effects on growth, organ weight, hematology and serum biochemistry as compared to the diet containing 15% BO, suggesting that HGCO may be a safe alternative source of GLA.

  8. Effects of dietary fish oil replacement on fillet lipids in North American Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) families

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumers want fish that contain high amount of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids for the health benefits. Fish producers desire to supply fish with these fatty acids while reducing the amount of fish oil included in the diet and replacing the fish oil with alternative oils. Two studies were conducte...

  9. Two-stage SBR for treatment of oil refinery wastewater.

    PubMed

    Lee, L Y; Hu, J Y; Ong, S L; Ng, W J; Ren, J H; Wong, S H

    2004-01-01

    A two-stage sequencing batch reactor (SBR) system was used for treatment of oily wastewater with COD and oil and grease (O&G) concentrations ranging from 1,722-7,826 mg/L and 5,365-13,350 mg/L, respectively. A suitable start-up protocol was developed using gradual increase in oily wastewater composition with methanol as the co-substrate. This strategy enabled a short acclimation period of 12 days for the sludge in the two-stage SBR to adapt to the oily wastewater. After acclimation, the 1st stage and 2nd stage SBRs were able to achieve COD removals of 47.0+/-2.4% and 95.3+/-0.5%, respectively. The 1st stage SBR was able to achieve 99.8+/-0.1% of O&G removal and effluent O&G from the 1st stage SBR was only 6+/-2 mg/L. The 2nd stage SBR was used to further remove COD in the effluent from the 1st stage SBR. The final effluent from the 2nd stage SBR had a COD concentration of 97+/-16 mg/L with no detectable O&G content. Thus, a two-stage SBR system was shown to be feasible for treating high strength oily wastewater to meet the local discharge standards.

  10. Effect of the degree of hydrogenation of dietary fish oil on the trans fatty acid content and enzymatic activity of rat hepatic microsomes.

    PubMed

    Morgado, N; Galleguillos, A; Sanhueza, J; Garrido, A; Nieto, S; Valenzuela, A

    1998-07-01

    The degree of fat hydrogenation and the trans fatty acid content of the diet affect the fatty acid composition of membranes, and the amount and the activity of some membrane enzymes. We describe the effects of four isocaloric diets containing either sunflower oil (SO, 0% trans), fish oil (FO, 0.5% trans), partially hydrogenated fish oil (PHFO, 30% trans), or highly hydrogenated fish oil (HHFO, 3.6% trans) as fat sources on the lipid composition and the trans fatty acid content of rat hepatic microsomes. We also describe the effect of these diets on the cytochrome P-450 content and on the aminopyrine N-demethylase, aniline hydroxylase, and UDP-glucuronyl transferase microsomal activities. Cytochrome P-450 content was dependent on the degree of unsaturation of the diet, being higher for the FO-containing diet and lower for the HHFO diet. Aminopyrine N-demethylase activity also correlated with the degree of unsaturation of the diet as did the cytochrome P-450 content did (FO > SO > PHFO > HHFO). Aniline hydroxylase activity appeared to be independent of the degree of unsaturation of the dietary fat, but correlated with the trans fatty acid content of the diet, which was also reflected in the trans content of the microsomal membranes. UDP-glucuronyl transferase activity was higher for the FO-containing diet than for the SO diet, showing intermediate values after the PHFO and HHFO diets.

  11. Dietary soy oil content and soy-derived phytoestrogen genistein increase resistance to alopecia areata onset in C3H/HeJ mice.

    PubMed

    McElwee, K J; Niiyama, S; Freyschmidt-Paul, P; Wenzel, E; Kissling, S; Sundberg, J P; Hoffmann, R

    2003-02-01

    Alopecia areata (AA) is a complex, multi-factorial disease where genes and the environment may affect susceptibility and severity. Diet is an environmental factor with the potential to influence disease susceptibility. We considered dietary soy (soya) oil content and the soy-derived phytoestrogen genistein as potential modifying agents for C3H/HeJ mouse AA. Normal haired C3H/HeJ mice were grafted with skin from spontaneous AA affected mice, a method previously shown to induce AA. Grafted mice were given one of three diets containing 1%, 5% or 20% soy oil and observed for AA development. In a separate study, mice on a 1% soy oil diet were injected with 1 mg of genistein three times per week for 10 weeks or received the vehicle as a control. Of mice on 1%, 5%, and 20% soy oil diets, 43 of 50 mice (86%), 11 of 28 mice (39%), and 2 of 11 mice (18%) developed AA, respectively. Four of 10 mice injected with genistein and 9 of 10 controls developed AA. Mice with AA had hair follicle inflammation consistent with observations for spontaneous mouse AA, but no significant association was observed between the extent of hair loss and diet or genistein injection. Mice that failed to develop AA typically experience white hair regrowth from their skin grafts associated with a moderate macrophage and dendritic cell infiltration. Soy oil and derivatives have previously been reported to modify inflammatory conditions. Hypothetically, soy oil compounds may act on C3H/HeJ mice through modulating estrogen-dependent mechanisms and/or inflammatory activity to modify AA susceptibility. PMID:12631244

  12. Effects of dietary virgin olive oil polyphenols: hydroxytyrosyl acetate and 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylglycol on DSS-induced acute colitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Fidalgo, Susana; Villegas, Isabel; Aparicio-Soto, Marina; Cárdeno, Ana; Rosillo, Ma Ángeles; González-Benjumea, Alejandro; Marset, Azucena; López, Óscar; Maya, Inés; Fernández-Bolaños, José G; Alarcón de la Lastra, Catalina

    2015-05-01

    Hydroxytyrosol, a polyphenolic compound from extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) has exhibited an improvement in a model of DSS-induced colitis. However, other phenolic compounds present such as hydroxytyrosyl acetate (HTy-Ac) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol (DHPG) need to be explored to complete the understanding of the overall effects of EVOO on inflammatory colon mucosa. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of both HTy-Ac and DHPG dietary supplementation in the inflammatory response associated to colitis model. Six-week-old mice were randomized in four dietary groups: sham and control groups received standard diet, and other two groups were fed with HTy-Ac and DHPG, respectively, at 0.1%. After 30 days, all groups except sham received 3% DSS in drinking water for 5 days followed by a regime of 5 days of water. Acute inflammation was evaluated by Disease Activity Index (DAI), histology and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Colonic expression of iNOS, COX-2, MAPKs, NF-kB and FOXP3 were determined by western blotting. Only HTy-Ac-supplemented group showed a significant DAI reduction as well as an improvement of histological damage and MPO. COX-2 and iNOS protein expression were also significantly reduced. In addition, this dietary group down-regulated JNK phosphorylation and prevented the DSS-induced nuclear translocation level of p65. However, no significant differences were observed in the FOXP3 expression. These results demonstrated, for the first time, that HTy-Ac exerts an antiinflammatory effect on acute ulcerative colitis. We concluded that HTy-Ac supplement might provide a basis for developing a new dietary strategy for the prevention of ulcerative colitis.

  13. Effects of dietary virgin olive oil polyphenols: hydroxytyrosyl acetate and 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylglycol on DSS-induced acute colitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Fidalgo, Susana; Villegas, Isabel; Aparicio-Soto, Marina; Cárdeno, Ana; Rosillo, Ma Ángeles; González-Benjumea, Alejandro; Marset, Azucena; López, Óscar; Maya, Inés; Fernández-Bolaños, José G; Alarcón de la Lastra, Catalina

    2015-05-01

    Hydroxytyrosol, a polyphenolic compound from extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) has exhibited an improvement in a model of DSS-induced colitis. However, other phenolic compounds present such as hydroxytyrosyl acetate (HTy-Ac) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol (DHPG) need to be explored to complete the understanding of the overall effects of EVOO on inflammatory colon mucosa. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of both HTy-Ac and DHPG dietary supplementation in the inflammatory response associated to colitis model. Six-week-old mice were randomized in four dietary groups: sham and control groups received standard diet, and other two groups were fed with HTy-Ac and DHPG, respectively, at 0.1%. After 30 days, all groups except sham received 3% DSS in drinking water for 5 days followed by a regime of 5 days of water. Acute inflammation was evaluated by Disease Activity Index (DAI), histology and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Colonic expression of iNOS, COX-2, MAPKs, NF-kB and FOXP3 were determined by western blotting. Only HTy-Ac-supplemented group showed a significant DAI reduction as well as an improvement of histological damage and MPO. COX-2 and iNOS protein expression were also significantly reduced. In addition, this dietary group down-regulated JNK phosphorylation and prevented the DSS-induced nuclear translocation level of p65. However, no significant differences were observed in the FOXP3 expression. These results demonstrated, for the first time, that HTy-Ac exerts an antiinflammatory effect on acute ulcerative colitis. We concluded that HTy-Ac supplement might provide a basis for developing a new dietary strategy for the prevention of ulcerative colitis. PMID:25736481

  14. MORTALITY DURING TREATMENT: FACTORS AFFECTING THE SURVIVAL OF OILED, REHABILITATED COMMON MURRES (URIA AALGE).

    PubMed

    Duerr, Rebecca S; Ziccardi, Michael H; Massey, J Gregory

    2016-07-01

    After major oil spills, hundreds to thousands of live stranded birds enter rehabilitative care. To target aspects of rehabilitative efforts for improvement and to evaluate which initial physical examination and biomedical parameters most effectively predict survival to release, medical records were examined from 913 Common Murres ( Uria aalge ; COMUs) oiled during the November 2001-January 2003 oil spill associated with the sunken S.S. Jacob Luckenbach off San Francisco, California, US. Results showed that 52% of all deaths occurred during the first 2 days of treatment. Birds stranding closest to the wreck had greater amounts of oil on their bodies than birds stranding farther away. More heavily oiled birds were in better clinical condition than birds with lesser amounts of oil, as shown by higher body mass (BM), packed cell volumes (PCV), total plasma protein (TP), and higher survival proportions. Additionally, BM, PCV, TP, and body temperature were positively correlated. For comparison, medical records from all nonoiled COMUs admitted for rehabilitation at the same facility during 2007-09 (n=468) were examined, and these variables were also found to be positively correlated. Oiled birds with BM under 750 g had approximately 5% lower PCV than BM-matched nonoiled COMUs. More heavily oiled COMUs may be in better condition than less oiled birds because heavily oiled birds must beach themselves immediately to avoid drowning and hypothermia, whereas lightly oiled birds may postpone beaching until exhausted due to extreme body catabolism. The strong relationship of PCV to BM regardless of oiling provides evidence that anemia commonly encountered in oiled seabirds may be a sequela to overall loss of body condition rather than solely due to toxic effects of oiling. Clinical information garnered in this study provides guidance for triage decisions during oil spills. PMID:27187030

  15. Important considerations for treatment with dietary supplement versus prescription niacin products.

    PubMed

    Backes, James M; Padley, Robert J; Moriarty, Patrick M

    2011-03-01

    Niacin is a water-soluble B vitamin (B3) known to have favorable effects on multiple lipid parameters, including raising high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and lowering triglycerides (TGs), lipoprotein(a), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Although LDL-C remains the primary target of lipid-altering therapy, current guidelines emphasize HDL-C and other modifiable lipid factors as key secondary targets. Thus, niacin is considered an important therapeutic option to help reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with mixed dyslipidemia who, in addition to high LDL-C, have elevated TGs and low HDL-C. Although available prescription niacin products, including immediate-release niacin (IR; Niacor) and an extended-release niacin formulation (Niaspan), have demonstrated safety and efficacy in randomized clinical trials, confusion remains among health care providers and their patients regarding the various commercially available nonprescription dietary supplement niacin products. These dietary supplements, which include IR, sustained-release (SR), and "no-flush" or "flush-free" niacin products, are not subject to the same stringent US Food and Drug Administration regulations as prescription drugs. In fact, both the American Heart Association and the American Pharmacists Association recommend against the use of dietary supplement niacin as a substitute for prescription niacin. Although some dietary supplement IR and SR niacin products have demonstrated a lipid response in clinical trials, products labeled as "no-flush" or "flush-free" that are intended to avoid the common niacin-associated adverse effect of flushing generally contain minimal or no free, pharmacologically active niacin and therefore lack beneficial lipid-modifying effects. To clarify important differences between available prescription and dietary supplement niacin products, this article contrasts current regulatory standards for dietary supplements and prescription

  16. Dietary sodium: a therapeutic target in the treatment of hypertension and CKD.

    PubMed

    Sanghavi, Sarah; Vassalotti, Joseph A

    2013-05-01

    Interventional trials of dietary sodium reduction have demonstrated improvements in blood pressure, cardiovascular events, and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Furthermore, public health initiatives to reduce population sodium intake in Finland and Japan have shown similar benefit in blood pressure and stroke reduction. Recent follow-up data from large cohort trials that suggest increased mortality among individuals with lower urinary sodium excretion have generated controversy regarding the optimal sodium intake. This paper reviews the evidence for the reduction of dietary sodium to prevent and manage chronic diseases, including hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and CKD.

  17. Dietary Oil Source and Selenium Supplementation Modulate Fads2 and Elovl5 Transcriptional Levels in Liver and Brain of Meagre (Argyrosomus regius).

    PubMed

    Silva-Brito, Francisca; Magnoni, Leonardo J; Fonseca, Sthelio Braga; Peixoto, Maria João; Castro, L Filipe C; Cunha, Isabel; de Almeida Ozório, Rodrigo Otávio; Magalhães, Fernando Antunes; Gonçalves, José Fernando Magalhães

    2016-06-01

    The meagre (Argyrosomus regius) is taking on increasing importance in the aquaculture industry. In view of the limited supply of fish oil (FO) as a feed ingredient, the study of the capacity to biosynthesize long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) from alternative dietary oil sources is important. We analyzed changes in fatty acid (FA) desaturase 2 (fads2) and FA elongase 5 (elovl5) mRNA levels in livers and brains in response to FO replacement with a blend of vegetable oils (VO) and selenium (Se) supplementation. Fish were fed for 60 days with either a diet containing FO or a diet including VO, each supplemented or not with organic Se. Results showed that fads2 and elovl5 transcription was higher in liver when fish were fed VO diets. The brain mRNA levels of both genes were not affected by the dietary replacement of FO by VO. FA composition in the liver and skeletal muscle was altered by FO replacement, particularly by decreasing eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid contents. The α-linolenic, linoleic, and arachidonic acid contents increased in both liver and brain of fish fed VO diets. The effect of Se supplementation on lipid metabolism was evident only in fish fed FO, showing a decrease in the transcription of hepatic fads2. Results indicate that the total replacement of FO by VO in diets modulates the expression of genes involved in LC-PUFA biosynthesis in meagre, affecting the FA profile of the fish flesh. PMID:27169705

  18. Dietary Echium Oil Increases Long-Chain n–3 PUFAs, Including Docosapentaenoic Acid, in Blood Fractions and Alters Biochemical Markers for Cardiovascular Disease Independently of Age, Sex, and Metabolic Syndrome12

    PubMed Central

    Kuhnt, Katrin; Fuhrmann, Claudia; Köhler, Melanie; Kiehntopf, Michael; Jahreis, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Dietary supplementation with echium oil (EO) containing stearidonic acid (SDA) is a plant-based strategy to improve long-chain (LC) n–3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) status in humans. We investigated the effect of EO on LC n–3 PUFA accumulation in blood and biochemical markers with respect to age, sex, and metabolic syndrome. This double-blind, parallel-arm, randomized controlled study started with a 2-wk run-in period, during which participants (n = 80) were administered 17 g/d run-in oil. Normal-weight individuals from 2 age groups (20–35 and 49–69 y) were allotted to EO or fish oil (FO; control) groups. During the 8-wk intervention, participants were administered either 17 g/d EO (2 g SDA; n = 59) or FO [1.9 g eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA); n = 19]. Overweight individuals with metabolic syndrome (n = 19) were recruited for EO treatment only. During the 10-wk study, the participants followed a dietary n–3 PUFA restriction, e.g., no fish. After the 8-wk EO treatment, increases in the LC n–3 metabolites EPA (168% and 79%) and docosapentaenoic acid [DPA (68% and 39%)] were observed, whereas docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) decreased (−5% and −23%) in plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells, respectively. Compared with FO, the efficacy of EO to increase EPA and DPA in blood was significantly lower (∼25% and ∼50%, respectively). A higher body mass index (BMI) was associated with lower relative and net increases in EPA and DPA. Compared with baseline, EO significantly reduced serum cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, oxidized LDL, and triglyceride (TG), but also HDL cholesterol, regardless of age and BMI. In the FO group, only TG decreased. Overall, daily intake of 15–20 g EO increased EPA and DPA in blood but had no influence on DHA. EO lowered cardiovascular risk markers, e.g., serum TG, which is particularly relevant for individuals with metabolic syndrome. Natural EO could be a noteworthy source of n–3 PUFA in human nutrition. This trial

  19. Preadolescents' and Parents' Dietary Coping Efficacy during Behavioral Family-Based Weight Control Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theim, Kelly R.; Sinton, Meghan M.; Stein, Richard I.; Saelens, Brian E.; Thekkedam, Sucheta C.; Welch, R. Robinson; Epstein, Leonard H.; Wilfley, Denise E.

    2012-01-01

    Developmentally relevant high-risk dietary situations (e.g., parties where tempting foods are available) may influence overweight youth's weight control, as they increase risk for overeating. Better self-efficacy for coping with these situations--which preadolescents may learn from their parents--could foster successful weight control. Overweight…

  20. Browning inhibition and quality preservation of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) by essential oils fumigation treatment.

    PubMed

    Gao, Mengsha; Feng, Lifang; Jiang, Tianjia

    2014-04-15

    The effect of essential oil fumigation treatment on browning and postharvest quality of button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) was evaluated upon 16 days cold storage. Button mushrooms were fumigated with essential oils, including clove, cinnamaldehyde, and thyme. Changes in the browning index (BI), weight loss, firmness, percentage of open caps, total phenolics, ascorbic acid, microbial activity and activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), and peroxidase (POD) were measured. The results indicated that all essential oils could inhibit the senescence of mushrooms, and the most effective compound was cinnamaldehyde. Fumigation treatment with 5 μl l⁻¹ cinnamaldehyde decreased BI, delayed cap opening, reduced microorganism counts, promoted the accumulation of phenolics and ascorbic acid. In addition, 5 μl l⁻¹ cinnamaldehyde fumigation treatment inhibited the activities of PPO and POD, and increased PAL activity during the storage period. Thus, postharvest essential oil fumigation treatment has positive effects on improving the quality of button mushrooms.

  1. Browning inhibition and quality preservation of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) by essential oils fumigation treatment.

    PubMed

    Gao, Mengsha; Feng, Lifang; Jiang, Tianjia

    2014-04-15

    The effect of essential oil fumigation treatment on browning and postharvest quality of button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) was evaluated upon 16 days cold storage. Button mushrooms were fumigated with essential oils, including clove, cinnamaldehyde, and thyme. Changes in the browning index (BI), weight loss, firmness, percentage of open caps, total phenolics, ascorbic acid, microbial activity and activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), and peroxidase (POD) were measured. The results indicated that all essential oils could inhibit the senescence of mushrooms, and the most effective compound was cinnamaldehyde. Fumigation treatment with 5 μl l⁻¹ cinnamaldehyde decreased BI, delayed cap opening, reduced microorganism counts, promoted the accumulation of phenolics and ascorbic acid. In addition, 5 μl l⁻¹ cinnamaldehyde fumigation treatment inhibited the activities of PPO and POD, and increased PAL activity during the storage period. Thus, postharvest essential oil fumigation treatment has positive effects on improving the quality of button mushrooms. PMID:24295683

  2. [Treatment of simulated produced wastewater from polymer flooding in oil production using dithiocarbamate-type flocculant].

    PubMed

    Gao, Yue; Jia, Yu-Yan; Gao, Bao-Yu; Cao, Bai-Chuan; Zhang, Yong-Qiang; Lu, Lei

    2010-10-01

    A dithiocarbamate flocculant, DTC (T403), was prepared by the reaction of amine-terminated polyoxypropane-ether compound known as Jeffamine-T403 and carbon disulfide in alkaline solution. The oil removal efficiency of DTC (T403) for simulated produced wastewater from polymer flooding in oil production was studied by Jar-test. The effect of the dosage of DTC (T403), hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM), Fe2+ and Fe3+ ions, and pH on the oil removal efficiency of DTC (T403) was investigated. The results showed that the chelate polymer formed by DTC (T403) and Fe2+ ion has good oil removal performance by net capturing mechanism. HPAM had a negative effect on oil removal efficiency of DTC (T403). For the treatment of the simulated wastewater containing 0-900 mg/L of HPAM and 300 mg/L of oil, the residual oil concentrations in water samples decreased below 10 mg/L when the dosage of Fe2+ and DTC (T403) was 10 mg/L and 25 mg/L, respectively. The oil removal efficiency of DTC (T403) was affected by pH and good oil removal efficiency was obtained when the pH was below 7.5. DTC (T403) is appropriate for the treatment of oily wastewater containing Fe2+ ion.

  3. Investigating the onset of autoimmunity in A.SW mice following treatment with 'toxic oils'.

    PubMed

    Weatherill, Amy R; Stang, Bernadette V; O'Hara, Kathleen; Koller, Loren D; Hall, Jean A

    2003-01-13

    In 1981, over 20,000 people were struck with toxic oil syndrome (TOS). H-2s strains of mice have been shown to develop symptoms of TOS after exposure to toxic oil. We examined the effects of toxic oil on A.SW mice, which are susceptible to chemically-induced autoimmunity, but do not spontaneously develop autoimmune disease. Mice were treated with three types of toxic oil: CO756 (case oil from Spain), RSD99 (rapeseed oil with no 3-(N-phenylamino)-1-2-propanediol (PAP) derivatives) and RSA99 (rapeseed oil supplemented with PAP derivatives). Mercuric chloride treated mice were used as a positive control. After toxic oil treatment, there were no consistent differences in body weight or organ weight (liver, kidney, thymus and spleen) as a percent of body weight at any of these timepoints: 2.5, 5 or 10 weeks. We also found that treatment with toxic oil did not induce autoantibody formation or lead to increased serum levels of IgG1, IgG2a or IgE at these timepoints. Conversely, at all timepoints, there were significant increases in organ weight as a percent of body weight in the mercury treated mice. Additionally, mercuric chloride treated mice had elevated serum levels of IgG1, IgG2a and IgE and developed anti-nuclear and anti-collagen antibodies.

  4. Effect of Dietary Intake of Avocado Oil and Olive Oil on Biochemical Markers of Liver Function in Sucrose-Fed Rats

    PubMed Central

    Carvajal-Zarrabal, Octavio; Nolasco-Hipolito, Cirilo; Aguilar-Uscanga, Ma. Guadalupe; Melo Santiesteban, Guadalupe; Hayward-Jones, Patricia M.; Barradas-Dermitz, Dulce Ma.

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic changes, along with cardiovascular and hepatic factors, are associated with the development of diseases such as diabetes, dyslipidemia, and obesity. We evaluated the effect of avocado oil supplementation (centrifuged and solvent extracted), compared with olive oil, upon the hepatic function in sucrose-fed rats. Twenty-five rats were divided into five groups: control (basal diet), a sucrose-fed group (basal diet plus 30% sucrose solution), and three other groups (S-OO, S-AOC, and S-AOS, indicating basal diet plus 30% sucrose solution plus olive oil OO, avocado oil extracted by centrifugation AOC or using solvent AOS, resp.). Glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, total protein, albumin, globulin, direct bilirubin, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, cholinesterase, and α-amylase concentrations were determined and avocado oil effect on them was studied. In some cases the induced metabolic alteration significantly affected total protein and bilirubin levels and also had a highly significant effect on α-amylase levels. AOC and AOS exhibited effects similar to those of olive oil, according to the nonsignificant difference in fatty acid profile observed by other authors. Avocado oil consumption could be beneficial in the control of altered metabolic profile illnesses as it presents effects on hepatic function biochemical markers similar to olive oil. PMID:24860825

  5. Effect of dietary intake of avocado oil and olive oil on biochemical markers of liver function in sucrose-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Carvajal-Zarrabal, Octavio; Nolasco-Hipolito, Cirilo; Aguilar-Uscanga, Ma Guadalupe; Melo Santiesteban, Guadalupe; Hayward-Jones, Patricia M; Barradas-Dermitz, Dulce Ma

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic changes, along with cardiovascular and hepatic factors, are associated with the development of diseases such as diabetes, dyslipidemia, and obesity. We evaluated the effect of avocado oil supplementation (centrifuged and solvent extracted), compared with olive oil, upon the hepatic function in sucrose-fed rats. Twenty-five rats were divided into five groups: control (basal diet), a sucrose-fed group (basal diet plus 30% sucrose solution), and three other groups (S-OO, S-AOC, and S-AOS, indicating basal diet plus 30% sucrose solution plus olive oil OO, avocado oil extracted by centrifugation AOC or using solvent AOS, resp.). Glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, total protein, albumin, globulin, direct bilirubin, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, cholinesterase, and α -amylase concentrations were determined and avocado oil effect on them was studied. In some cases the induced metabolic alteration significantly affected total protein and bilirubin levels and also had a highly significant effect on α -amylase levels. AOC and AOS exhibited effects similar to those of olive oil, according to the nonsignificant difference in fatty acid profile observed by other authors. Avocado oil consumption could be beneficial in the control of altered metabolic profile illnesses as it presents effects on hepatic function biochemical markers similar to olive oil.

  6. Effect of electric field treatment on unsaturated fatty acid in crude avocado oil.

    PubMed

    Ariza-Ortega, José Alberto; Ramírez-Moreno, Esther; Díaz-Reyes, Joel; Cruz-Cansino, Nelly del Socorro

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the stability of the fatty acids in avocado oil when the product is subjected to different conditions of electric field treatment (voltage: 5 kV cm(-1); frequency: 720 Hz; treatment time: 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 min). Fatty acids were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in the mid-infrared region. Electric field is a suitable method to preserve the oil quality and composition with minimal modifications in unsaturated fatty acids.

  7. Effects of rapeseed and soybean oil dietary supplementation on bovine fat metabolism, fatty acid composition and cholesterol levels in milk.

    PubMed

    Altenhofer, Christian; Spornraft, Melanie; Kienberger, Hermine; Rychlik, Michael; Herrmann, Julia; Meyer, Heinrich H D; Viturro, Enrique

    2014-02-01

    The main goal of this experiment was to study the effect of milk fat depression, induced by supplementing diet with plant oils, on the bovine fat metabolism, with special interest in cholesterol levels. For this purpose 39 cows were divided in three groups and fed different rations: a control group (C) without any oil supplementation and two groups with soybean oil (SO) or rapeseed oil (RO) added to the partial mixed ration (PMR). A decrease in milk fat percentage was observed in both oil feedings with a higher decrease of -1·14 % with SO than RO with -0·98 % compared with the physiological (-0·15 %) decline in the C group. There was no significant change in protein and lactose yield. The daily milk cholesterol yield was lower in both oil rations than in control ration, while the blood cholesterol level showed an opposite variation. The milk fatty acid pattern showed a highly significant decrease of over 10 % in the amount of saturated fatty acids (SFA) in both oil feedings and a highly significant increase in mono (MUFA) and poly (PUFA) unsaturated fatty acids, conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) included. The results of this experiment suggest that the feeding of oil supplements has a high impact on milk fat composition and its significance for human health, by decreasing fats with a potentially negative effect (SFA and cholesterol) while simultaneously increasing others with positive (MUFA, PUFA, CLA).

  8. New perspectives on dietary-derived treatments and food safety-antinomy in a new era.

    PubMed

    Pan, Si-Yuan; Gao, Si-Hua; Lin, Rui-Chao; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Dong, Hong-Guan; Tang, Min-Ke; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Ko, Kam-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Despite the advances in science and technology and wide use of chemical drugs, dietary intervention (or food therapy) remains useful in preventing or treating many human diseases. A huge body of evidence shows that the dietary pattern or habit is also an important contributing factor to the development of chronic diseases such as hypertension, type 2 diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and cancers. In recent years, over-the-counter health foods, nutraceuticals, and plant-derived medicinal products have been gaining popularity all over the world, particularly in developed countries. Unfortunately, owing to the contamination with various harmful substances in foods and the presence of toxic food components, food-borne diseases have also become increasingly problematic. Incidents of food poisonings or tainted food have been increasing worldwide, particularly in China and other developing countries. Therefore, the government should put in a greater effort in enforcing food safety by improving the surveillance mechanism and exerting highest standards of quality control for foods.

  9. Apoptosis by dietary agents for prevention and treatment of prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Naghma; Adhami, Vaqar Mustafa; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2010-01-01

    Accumulating data clearly indicate that induction of apoptosis is an important event for chemoprevention of cancer by naturally occurring dietary agents. In mammalian cells, apoptosis has been divided into two major pathways: the extrinsic pathway, activated by pro-apoptotic receptor signals at the cellular surface; and the intrinsic pathway, which involves the disruption of mitochondrial membrane integrity. This process is strictly controlled in response to integrity of pro-death signaling and plays critical roles in development, maintenance of homeostasis, and host defense in multicellular organisms. For chemoprevention studies, prostate cancer (PCa) represents an ideal disease due to its long latency, its high incidence, tumor marker availability, and identifiable preneoplastic lesions and risk groups. In this article, we highlight the studies of various apoptosis-inducing dietary compounds for prevention of PCa in vitro in cell culture, in preclinical studies in animals, and in human clinical trials. PMID:19926708

  10. Effect of cultural system and essential oil treatment on antioxidant capacity in raspberries.

    PubMed

    Jin, Peng; Wang, Shiow Y; Gao, Haiyan; Chen, Hangjun; Zheng, Yonghua; Wang, Chien Y

    2012-05-01

    The effects of cultural system and essential oil treatment on antioxidant capacities in raspberries were evaluated. Raspberries were hand-harvested from organic and conventional farms in Maryland, USA, and were treated with essential oil including carvacrol, anethole, cinnamic acid, perillaldehyde, cinnamaldehyde, and linalool. Results from this study showed that raspberries grown from organic culture exhibited higher value of antioxidant capacities and individual flavonoids contents. Moreover, the organic culture also enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes. In addition, essential oil treatments promoted the antioxidant enzymes activities and antioxidant capacities of raspberries, and the most effective compound was perillaldehyde. In conclusion, raspberries produced from organic culture contained significantly higher antioxidant capacities than those produce from conventional culture. Postharvest essential oil treatments have positive effect on enhancing antioxidant capacities in raspberries from both organic and conventional cultures.

  11. Specific Selection of Essential Oil Compounds for Treatment of Children’s Infection Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Pauli, Alexander; Schilcher, Heinz

    2004-01-01

    Preparations with essential oils and their dosages applied in the therapy of children’s infectious diseases are well documented. In contrast, information is only sparingly available about uses of isolated pure essential oil compounds for the treatment of such infections. To find out safe antimicrobials from essential oils, microbiological inhibitory data of children pathogens were combined with oral and dermal acute toxicity data to calculate oral and dermal therapeutical indices (TI). The superiority of antibiotic drugs became obvious following calculating oral TIs of antimicrobials from higher plants, which suggests that oral administrations of essential oil compounds are not suitable to cure severe infections. A few selected compounds from higher plants show moderate effectiveness against gram-positive bacteria, yeast and fungi, but not gram-negative bacteria. Topical application or inhalation of selected compounds for the treatment or additional treatment of mild infections is reasonable.

  12. Very long chain fatty acids in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy brain after treatment with Lorenzo's oil.

    PubMed

    Poulos, A; Gibson, R; Sharp, P; Beckman, K; Grattan-Smith, P

    1994-11-01

    The fatty acid composition of postmortem brain and liver from an adrenoleukodystrophy patient whose diet was supplemented with Lorenzo's oil (glycerol trioleate and glycerol trierucate) for 9 months was determined. The diet depressed plasma and liver saturated very long chain fatty acids (24:0 and 26:0) and increased plasma and liver erucic (22:1) and nervonic (24:1) acids. The levels of plasma linoleic (18:2 n-6), eicosopentaenoic (20:5 n-3), and docosahexaenoic (22:6 n-3) acids were also reduced, while the biochemical marker for essential fatty acid deficiency (20:3 n-9) was markedly increased in liver. However, we were unable to detect any corresponding changes in brain indicating that little erucic acid crossed the blood-brain barrier. Our findings suggest that dietary supplementation with Lorenzo's oil is of limited value in correcting the accumulation of saturated very long chain fatty acids in the brain of patients with adrenoleukodystrophy.

  13. Dietary sodium bicarbonate as a treatment for exertional rhabdomyolysis in a horse.

    PubMed

    Robb, E J; Kronfeld, D S

    1986-03-15

    A 3-year-old mare repeatedly had clinical signs of rhabdomyolysis on mild exertion. Serum creatine kinase and aspartate transaminase activities were high at rest. Responses to dietary sodium bicarbonate were tested through 7 alternating periods of supplementation of a basal ration of timothy hay and oats. Physical signs; venous blood pH and gases; blood glucose and lactate; serum electrolytes, enzymes, and creatinine; and urine pH were monitored before and after exercise. Dietary sodium bicarbonate raised resting venous blood pH and bicarbonate slightly and significantly increased urine pH from pH 7.46 to 8.2 (P less than 0.001). An exercise test included 5 minutes at the walk followed by 20 minutes at the trot. The exercise induced gait stiffness, muscle fasciculations, and muscle induration when the diet was not supplemented, but not when it was supplemented with sodium bicarbonate. Myoglobin was present in 16 of 21 urine samples after exercise during nonsupplemented periods, but only in 3 of 28 urine samples during supplemented periods (P less than 0.0001). Bicarbonate supplementation significantly decreased the responses of blood lactic acid, serum creatine kinase, and aspartate transaminase to exercise. Supplementation of the diet was associated with higher venous blood pH and bicarbonate ion concentrations throughout exercise. Dietary sodium bicarbonate apparently mitigated or prevented physical, chemical, and enzymatic characteristics of exertional rhabdomyolysis in this mare, possibly through its enhancement of buffering capacity in muscle tissue fluids.

  14. Fracturing of oil shale by treatment with liquid sulfur dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Burow, D.F.; Sharma, R.K.

    1980-01-01

    Results of preliminary experiments are reported in which oil shales were treated with liquid sulfur dioxide to effect comminution. Results for samples of Green River, Antrim, and Moroccan oil shales were obtained in these preliminary experiments. Extensive fracturing, both along and across laminations, was observed with all three shales. Initial experiments were carried out at 170/sup 0/C for 3 to 5 hours; subsequent experiments indicated that the degree of fracturing was almost as extensive when milder conditions (e.g., 25/sup 0/C for 1 h) are used. The results of these experiments suggest that many of the limitations of conventional crushing and fracturing procedures are not encountered here; there are however, other limitations to be dealt with. These observations are, nevertheless, sufficiently promising to warrant further detailed investigation into the utility of comminution with liquid SO/sub 2/ for both surface and in situ processing of oil shales.

  15. What Is the Most Effective Way of Increasing the Bioavailability of Dietary Long Chain Omega-3 Fatty Acids--Daily vs. Weekly Administration of Fish Oil?

    PubMed

    Ghasemifard, Samaneh; Sinclair, Andrew J; Kaur, Gunveen; Lewandowski, Paul; Turchini, Giovanni M

    2015-07-01

    The recommendations on the intake of long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA) vary from eating oily fish ("once to twice per week") to consuming specified daily amounts of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) ("250-500 mg per day"). It is not known if there is a difference in the uptake/bioavailability between regular daily consumption of supplementsvs. consuming fish once or twice per week. In this study, the bioavailability of a daily dose of n-3 LC-PUFA (Constant treatment), representing supplements, vs. a large weekly dose of n-3 LC-PUFA (Spike treatment), representing consuming once or twice per week, was assessed. Six-week old healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a Constant treatment, a Spike treatment or Control treatment (no n-3 LC-PUFA), for six weeks. The whole body, tissues and faeces were analysed for fatty acid content. The results showed that the major metabolic fate of the n-3 LC-PUFA (EPA+docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) + DHA) was towards catabolism (β-oxidation) accounting for over 70% of total dietary intake, whereas deposition accounted less than 25% of total dietary intake. It was found that significantly more n-3 LC-PUFA were β-oxidised when originating from the Constant treatment (84% of dose), compared with the Spike treatment (75% of dose). Conversely, it was found that significantly more n-3 LC-PUFA were deposited when originating from the Spike treatment (23% of dose), than from the Constant treatment (15% of dose). These unexpected findings show that a large dose of n-3 LC-PUFA once per week is more effective in increasing whole body n-3 LC-PUFA content in rats compared with a smaller dose delivered daily.

  16. What Is the Most Effective Way of Increasing the Bioavailability of Dietary Long Chain Omega-3 Fatty Acids—Daily vs. Weekly Administration of Fish Oil?

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemifard, Samaneh; Sinclair, Andrew J.; Kaur, Gunveen; Lewandowski, Paul; Turchini, Giovanni M.

    2015-01-01

    The recommendations on the intake of long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA) vary from eating oily fish (“once to twice per week”) to consuming specified daily amounts of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (“250–500 mg per day”). It is not known if there is a difference in the uptake/bioavailability between regular daily consumption of supplementsvs. consuming fish once or twice per week. In this study, the bioavailability of a daily dose of n-3 LC-PUFA (Constant treatment), representing supplements, vs. a large weekly dose of n-3 LC-PUFA (Spike treatment), representing consuming once or twice per week, was assessed. Six-week old healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a Constant treatment, a Spike treatment or Control treatment (no n-3 LC-PUFA), for six weeks. The whole body, tissues and faeces were analysed for fatty acid content. The results showed that the major metabolic fate of the n-3 LC-PUFA (EPA+docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) + DHA) was towards catabolism (β-oxidation) accounting for over 70% of total dietary intake, whereas deposition accounted less than 25% of total dietary intake. It was found that significantly more n-3 LC-PUFA were β-oxidised when originating from the Constant treatment (84% of dose), compared with the Spike treatment (75% of dose). Conversely, it was found that significantly more n-3 LC-PUFA were deposited when originating from the Spike treatment (23% of dose), than from the Constant treatment (15% of dose). These unexpected findings show that a large dose of n-3 LC-PUFA once per week is more effective in increasing whole body n-3 LC-PUFA content in rats compared with a smaller dose delivered daily. PMID:26184297

  17. Effective therapy using voglibose for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in a patient with insufficient dietary and exercise therapy: exploring other treatment possibilities.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Kazuki; Matsumaru, Katsuhiko; Takahashi, Yutaka; Nakamura, Noriko

    2011-05-01

    A 56-year-old Japanese female with a 10-year history of thyroiditis presented to our institution. The laboratory data and clinical findings suggested that the patient had complicated nonalcoholic fatty liver disease or nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) with autoimmune hepatitis according to the criteria by the application of the International Autoimmune Hepatitis score. The patient could not manage by herself so dietary- and exercise-based treatment was difficult. Accordingly, ursodeoxycholic acid and ezetimibe therapy was started and continued until the performance of a liver needle biopsy to define the diagnosis. However, no improvement in liver function was observed. In addition, pathological findings indicated that the patient had NASH. The patient was finally diagnosed as having NASH. Therefore, voglibose was added to the ursodeoxycholic acid and ezetimibe therapy, and this addition of voglibose actually took effect. The patient's serum aspartate transaminase and alanine aminotransferase levels decreased dramatically. This report is the first to document other treatment possibilities of NASH in a case when dietary therapy is difficult. PMID:21712950

  18. A Retrospective Chart Review of Dietary Diversity and Feeding Behavior of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder before and after Admission to a Day-Treatment Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, William G.; Jaquess, David L.; Morton, Jane F.; Miles, Aida G.

    2011-01-01

    The nutritional status and mealtime performance among a group of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) were examined before and after admission to an intensive feeding day-treatment program. Treatment involved escape extinction, reinforcement, and stimulus fading procedures. Outcomes focused on dietary diversity and mealtime performance,…

  19. Effect of strain, sex and duration of feeding on plasma fatty acids of rats fed various dietary oils.

    PubMed

    Innis, S M; Clandinin, M T

    1980-05-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine if regression of cardiac lipidosis and strain or sex differences in susceptibility to cardiopathological change induced by rapeseed oils are coincident with physiological differences in fatty acid substrates supplied to the heart. Plasma fatty acid composition was determined in male Sprague-Dawley rats after 7 or 28 days and in female Sprague-Dawley and male Chester-Beatty rats after 28 days of feeding high or low erucic acid rapeseed oils, soybean oil or peanut oil. After 28 days, C14:0 and C18:1 fell and C20:4 increased as a percent of total fatty acid in all animals irrespective of oil fed, suggesting that changes in plasma fatty acids normally occur with development. Saturated and essential fatty acid profiles of male and female rats were different. Differences in plasma fatty acids stemming from sex-related physiological differences in whole body fat metabolism may form the basis of lower cardiopathological involvement for females. Results suggest physiological differences unrelated to plasma fatty acids determine strain differences in timing and severity of rapeseed oil-induced cardiac pathology.

  20. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid induces lipolysis in adipose tissue of coconut oil-fed mice but not soy oil-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Ippagunta, S; Hadenfeldt, T J; Miner, J L; Hargrave-Barnes, K M

    2011-09-01

    Mice fed diets containing conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) are leaner than mice not fed CLA. This anti-obesity effect is amplified in mice fed coconut oil-containing or fat free diets, compared to soy oil diets. The present objective was to determine if CLA alters lipolysis in mice fed different base oils. Mice were fed diets containing soy oil (SO), coconut oil (CO), or fat free (FF) for 6 weeks, followed by 10 or 12 days of CLA or no CLA supplementation. Body fat, tissue weights, and ex vivo lipolysis were determined. Relative protein abundance and activation of perilipin, hormone sensitive lipase (HSL), adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), and adipose differentiation related protein (ADRP) were determined by western blotting. CLA feeding caused mice to have less (P < 0.05) body fat than non-CLA fed mice. This was enhanced in CO and FF-fed mice (CLA × oil source, P < 0.05). There was also a CLA × oil source interaction on lipolysis as CO + CLA and FF + CLA-fed mice had increased (P < 0.05) rates of lipolysis but SO + CLA-fed mice did not. However, after 12 days of CLA consumption, activated perilipin was increased (P < 0.05) only in SO + CLA-fed mice and total HSL and ATGL were decreased (P < 0.05) in CO + CLA-fed mice. Therefore, the enhanced CLA-induced body fat loss in CO and FF-fed mice appears to involve increased lipolysis but this effect may be decreasing by 12 days of CLA consumption.

  1. Effect of Dietary Resistant Starch on Prevention and Treatment of Obesity-related Diseases and Its Possible Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Li, Hua Ting; Shen, Li; Fang, Qi Chen; Qian, Ling Ling; Jia, Wei Ping

    2015-04-01

    Overweight or obesity has become a serious public health problem in the world, scientists are concentrating their efforts on exploring novel ways to treat obesity. Nowadays, the availabilities of bariatric surgery and pharmacotherapy have enhanced obesity treatment, but it should has support from diet, physical exercise and lifestyle modification, especially the functional food. Resistant starch, an indigestible starch, has been studied for years for its beneficial effects on regulating blood glucose level and lipid metabolism. The aim of this review is to summarize the effect of resistant starch on weight loss and the possible mechanisms. According to numerous previous studies it could be concluded that resistant starch can reduce fat accumulation, enhance insulin sensitivity, regulate blood glucose level and lipid metabolism. Recent investigations have focused on the possible associations between resistant starch and incretins as well as gut microbiota. Resistant starch seems to be a promising dietary fiber for the prevention or treatment of obesity and its related diseases.

  2. Preliminary Validation of a High Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) and -Linolenic Acid (ALA) Dietary Oil Blend: Tissue Fatty Acid Composition and Liver Proteome Response in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) Smolts

    PubMed Central

    Nuez-Ortín, Waldo G.; Carter, Chris G.; Wilson, Richard; Cooke, Ira; Nichols, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    Marine oils are important to human nutrition as the major source of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a key omega-3 long-chain (≥C20) polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LC-PUFA) that is low or lacking in terrestrial plant or animal oils. The inclusion of fish oil as main source of n-3 LC-PUFA in aquafeeds is mostly limited by the increasing price and decreasing availability. Fish oil replacement with cheaper terrestrial plant and animal oils has considerably reduced the content of n-3 LC-PUFA in flesh of farmed Atlantic salmon. Novel DHA-enriched oils with high alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) content will be available from transgenic oilseeds plants in the near future as an alternative for dietary fish oil replacement in aquafeeds. As a preliminary validation, we formulated an oil blend (TOFX) with high DHA and ALA content using tuna oil (TO) high in DHA and the flaxseed oil (FX) high in ALA, and assessed its ability to achieve fish oil-like n-3 LC-PUFA tissue composition in Atlantic salmon smolts. We applied proteomics as an exploratory approach to understand the effects of nutritional changes on the fish liver. Comparisons were made between fish fed a fish oil-based diet (FO) and a commercial-like oil blend diet (fish oil + poultry oil, FOPO) over 89 days. Growth and feed efficiency ratio were lower on the TOFX diet. Fish muscle concentration of n-3 LC-PUFA was significantly higher for TOFX than for FOPO fish, but not higher than for FO fish, while retention efficiency of n-3 LC-PUFA was promoted by TOFX relative to FO. Proteomics analysis revealed an oxidative stress response indicative of the main adaptive physiological mechanism in TOFX fish. While specific dietary fatty acid concentrations and balances and antioxidant supplementation may need further attention, the use of an oil with a high content of DHA and ALA can enhance tissue deposition of n-3 LC-PUFA in relation to a commercially used oil blend. PMID:27556399

  3. Preliminary Validation of a High Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) and -Linolenic Acid (ALA) Dietary Oil Blend: Tissue Fatty Acid Composition and Liver Proteome Response in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) Smolts.

    PubMed

    Nuez-Ortín, Waldo G; Carter, Chris G; Wilson, Richard; Cooke, Ira; Nichols, Peter D

    2016-01-01

    Marine oils are important to human nutrition as the major source of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a key omega-3 long-chain (≥C20) polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LC-PUFA) that is low or lacking in terrestrial plant or animal oils. The inclusion of fish oil as main source of n-3 LC-PUFA in aquafeeds is mostly limited by the increasing price and decreasing availability. Fish oil replacement with cheaper terrestrial plant and animal oils has considerably reduced the content of n-3 LC-PUFA in flesh of farmed Atlantic salmon. Novel DHA-enriched oils with high alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) content will be available from transgenic oilseeds plants in the near future as an alternative for dietary fish oil replacement in aquafeeds. As a preliminary validation, we formulated an oil blend (TOFX) with high DHA and ALA content using tuna oil (TO) high in DHA and the flaxseed oil (FX) high in ALA, and assessed its ability to achieve fish oil-like n-3 LC-PUFA tissue composition in Atlantic salmon smolts. We applied proteomics as an exploratory approach to understand the effects of nutritional changes on the fish liver. Comparisons were made between fish fed a fish oil-based diet (FO) and a commercial-like oil blend diet (fish oil + poultry oil, FOPO) over 89 days. Growth and feed efficiency ratio were lower on the TOFX diet. Fish muscle concentration of n-3 LC-PUFA was significantly higher for TOFX than for FOPO fish, but not higher than for FO fish, while retention efficiency of n-3 LC-PUFA was promoted by TOFX relative to FO. Proteomics analysis revealed an oxidative stress response indicative of the main adaptive physiological mechanism in TOFX fish. While specific dietary fatty acid concentrations and balances and antioxidant supplementation may need further attention, the use of an oil with a high content of DHA and ALA can enhance tissue deposition of n-3 LC-PUFA in relation to a commercially used oil blend. PMID:27556399

  4. Effects of feeding increasing dietary levels of high oleic or regular sunflower or linseed oil on fatty acid profile of goat milk.

    PubMed

    Martínez Marín, A L; Gómez-Cortés, P; Gómez Castro, G; Juárez, M; Pérez Alba, L; Pérez Hernández, M; de la Fuente, M A

    2012-04-01

    In this work, the effects of increasing amounts of 3 plant oils in diets on the fatty acid (FA) profile of goat milk were studied. The study consisted of 3 experiments, one per oil tested (linseed oil, LO; high oleic sunflower oil, HOSFO; and regular sunflower oil, RSFO). The 3 experiments were conducted successively on 12 Malagueña goats, which were assigned at random to 1 of 4 treatments: 0, 30, 48, and 66 (H) g of added oil/d. A basal diet made of alfalfa hay and pelleted concentrate (33:67) was used in all of the experiments. For each animal, milk samples collected after 15 d on treatments were analyzed for fat, protein, lactose, and FA composition, whereas individual milk yield was measured the last 3 d of each experiment. Oil supplementation affected neither dry matter intake nor milk production traits. Increasing the oil supplementation decreased the content of saturated FA (especially 16:0) in milk fat and increased mono- and polyunsaturated FA in a linear manner. Vaccenic acid content linearly increased with the oil supplementation by 370, 217, and 634% to 5.32, 2.66, and 5.09 g/100 g of total FA methyl esters with the H diet in LO, HOSFO, and RSFO experiments, respectively. Rumenic acid content linearly increased with LO and RSFO supplementation by 298 and 354% from 0.53 and 0.41 g/100 g of total FA methyl esters with the 0 g of added oil/d diet. The content of trans-10-18:1 was not affected by LO supplementation but showed an increasing linear trend with HOSFO supplementation and linearly increased with RSFO supplementation. The ratio of n-6 to n-3 polyunsaturated FA in milk fat was decreased by about 70% with the H diet in the LO experiment and it was increased by 54 and 82% with the H diet in the HOSFO and RSFO experiments. In conclusion, LO supplementation in this work seemed to be the most favorable alternative compared with HOSFO or RSFO supplementation. PMID:22459841

  5. Pyrazolopyrimidines in 'all-natural' products for erectile dysfunction treatment: the unreliable quality of dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Schramek, Nicholas; Wollein, Uwe; Eisenreich, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    A herbal food supplement advertised as a potency pill was screened for the presence of PDE5 inhibitors. The resulting signals were characterised by UV, LC-MS in ESI-negative mode, and NMR spectroscopy using 1D and 2D experiments. Several substances were identified, bearing the basic chemical structure of sildenafil, but were not supposed to exhibit PDE5 inhibition. These compounds may be process-related impurities or by-products of different reaction steps in the synthesis of PDE5 analogues. As they were found to be present in different capsules at different concentrations, this is an example of the unreliable quality of dietary supplements. PMID:25517174

  6. Self-treatment of opioid withdrawal with a dietary supplement, Kratom.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Edward W; Babu, Kavita M; Macalino, Grace E; Compton, Wilson

    2007-01-01

    We examined the use of Kratom (Mitragyna sp.), a dietary supplement with mu-opioid agonist activity, by members of a cybercommunity who self-treat chronic pain with opioid analgesics from Internet pharmacies. Within one year, an increase in the number of mentions on Drugbuyers.com, a Web site that facilitates the online purchase of opioid analgesics, suggested that members began managing opioid withdrawal with Kratom. This study demonstrates the rapidity with which information on psychoactive substances disseminates through online communities and suggests that online surveillance may be important to the generation of effective opioid analgesic abuse prevention strategies. PMID:17882605

  7. Pyrazolopyrimidines in 'all-natural' products for erectile dysfunction treatment: the unreliable quality of dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Schramek, Nicholas; Wollein, Uwe; Eisenreich, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    A herbal food supplement advertised as a potency pill was screened for the presence of PDE5 inhibitors. The resulting signals were characterised by UV, LC-MS in ESI-negative mode, and NMR spectroscopy using 1D and 2D experiments. Several substances were identified, bearing the basic chemical structure of sildenafil, but were not supposed to exhibit PDE5 inhibition. These compounds may be process-related impurities or by-products of different reaction steps in the synthesis of PDE5 analogues. As they were found to be present in different capsules at different concentrations, this is an example of the unreliable quality of dietary supplements.

  8. A review on palm oil mill biogas plant wastewater treatment using coagulation-ozonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dexter, Z. D.; Joseph, C. G.; Zahrim, A. Y.

    2016-06-01

    Palm oil mill effluent (POME) generated from the palm oil industry is highly polluted and requires urgent attention for treatment due to its high organic content. Biogas plant containing anaerobic digester is capable to treat the high organic content of the POME while generating valuable biogas at the same time. This green energy from POME is environmental-friendly but the wastewater produced is still highly polluted and blackish in colour. Therefore a novel concept of combining coagulation with ozonation treatment is proposed to treat pollution of this nature. Several parameters should be taken under consideration in order to ensure the effectiveness of the hybrid treatment including ozone dosage, ozone contact time, pH of the water or wastewater, coagulant dosage, and mixing and settling time. This review paper will elucidate the importance of hybrid coagulation-ozonation treatment in producing a clear treated wastewater which is known as the main challenge in palm oil industry

  9. Dietary Amelioration of Helicobacter Infection

    PubMed Central

    Fahey, Jed W.; Stephenson, Katherine K.; Wallace, Alison J.

    2015-01-01

    We review herein the basis for using dietary components to treat and/or prevent Helicobacter pylori infection, with emphasis on: (a) work reported in the last decade, (b) dietary components for which there is mechanism-based plausibility, and (c) components for which clinical results on H. pylori amelioration are available. There is evidence that a diet-based treatment may reduce the levels and/or the virulence of H. pylori colonization without completely eradicating the organism in treated individuals. This concept was endorsed a decade ago by the participants in a small international consensus conference held in Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, and interest in such a diet-based approach has increased dramatically since then. This approach is attractive in terms of cost, treatment, tolerability and cultural acceptability. This review therefore highlights specific foods, food components, and food products, grouped as follows: bee products (e.g. honey and propolis), probiotics, dairy products, vegetables, fruits, oils, essential oils, and herbs, spices and other plants. A discussion of the small number of clinical studies that are available is supplemented by supportive in vitro and animal studies. This very large body of in vitro and pre-clinical evidence must now be followed up with rationally designed, unambiguous human trials. PMID:25799054

  10. Options for reducing oil content of sludge from a petroleum wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Tae-Soon; Lee, Jae-Young

    2015-10-01

    Wastewater treatment plants at petroleum refineries often produce substantial quantities of sludge with relatively high concentrations of oil. Disposal of this waste is costly, in part because the high oil content requires use of secure disposal methods akin to handling of hazardous wastes. This article examines the properties of oily sludge and evaluates optional methods for reducing the oil content of this sludge to enable use of lower cost disposal methods. To reduce the oil content or break the structure of oily sludge, preliminary lab-scale experiments involving mechanical treatment, surfactant extraction, and oxidation are conducted. By applying surfactants, approximately 36% to 45% of oils are extracted from oily sludge. Of this, about 33% of oils are rapidly oxidised via radiation by an electron beam within 10 s of exposure. The Fenton reaction is effective for destruction of oily sludge. It is also found that 56% of oils were removed by reacting oily sludge with water containing ozone of 0.5 mg l(-1) over a period of 24 h. Oxidation using ozone thus can also be effectively used as a pretreatment for oily sludge. PMID:26261236

  11. Effects of different remediation treatments on crude oil contaminated saline soil.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yong-Chao; Guo, Shu-Hai; Wang, Jia-Ning; Li, Dan; Wang, Hui; Zeng, De-Hui

    2014-12-01

    Remediation of the petroleum contaminated soil is essential to maintain the sustainable development of soil ecosystem. Bioremediation using microorganisms and plants is a promising method for the degradation of crude oil contaminants. The effects of different remediation treatments, including nitrogen addition, Suaeda salsa planting, and arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) fungi inoculation individually or combined, on crude oil contaminated saline soil were assessed using a microcosm experiment. The results showed that different remediation treatments significantly affected the physicochemical properties, oil contaminant degradation and bacterial community structure of the oil contaminated saline soil. Nitrogen addition stimulated the degradation of total petroleum hydrocarbon significantly at the initial 30d of remediation. Coupling of different remediation techniques was more effective in degrading crude oil contaminants. Applications of nitrogen, AM fungi and their combination enhanced the phytoremediation efficiency of S. salsa significantly. The main bacterial community composition in the crude oil contaminated saline soil shifted with the remediation processes. γ-Proteobacteria, β-Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria were the pioneer oil-degraders at the initial stage, and Firmicutes were considered to be able to degrade the recalcitrant components at the later stage.

  12. Options for reducing oil content of sludge from a petroleum wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Tae-Soon; Lee, Jae-Young

    2015-10-01

    Wastewater treatment plants at petroleum refineries often produce substantial quantities of sludge with relatively high concentrations of oil. Disposal of this waste is costly, in part because the high oil content requires use of secure disposal methods akin to handling of hazardous wastes. This article examines the properties of oily sludge and evaluates optional methods for reducing the oil content of this sludge to enable use of lower cost disposal methods. To reduce the oil content or break the structure of oily sludge, preliminary lab-scale experiments involving mechanical treatment, surfactant extraction, and oxidation are conducted. By applying surfactants, approximately 36% to 45% of oils are extracted from oily sludge. Of this, about 33% of oils are rapidly oxidised via radiation by an electron beam within 10 s of exposure. The Fenton reaction is effective for destruction of oily sludge. It is also found that 56% of oils were removed by reacting oily sludge with water containing ozone of 0.5 mg l(-1) over a period of 24 h. Oxidation using ozone thus can also be effectively used as a pretreatment for oily sludge.

  13. Oil industry wastewater treatment with fouling resistant membranes containing amphiphilic comb copolymers.

    PubMed

    Asatekin, Ayse; Mayes, Anne M

    2009-06-15

    The oil industry produces large volumes of wastewater, including oil well produced water brought to the surface during oil drilling, and refinery wastewater. These streams are difficult to treat due to large concentrations of oil. Ultrafiltration (UF) is very promising for their treatment to remove oil, but has been limited by economic obstacles due to severe membrane fouling. In a recent study, novel UF membranes incorporating the amphiphilic comb copolymer additive polyacrylonitrile-graft-poly(ethylene oxide), PAN-g-PEO, were found to exhibit complete resistance to irreversible fouling by several classes of organic foulants (J. Membr. Sci. 2007, 298, 136-146). The current work focuses on application of these novel UF membranes to the treatment of oily wastewater feed streams, employing three industrial samples of oil well produced water and refinery wastewater. UF membranes cast with 20 wt % PAN-g-PEO in PAN achieved removals of dispersed and free oils of over 96% based on chemical oxygen demand (COD) for produced water samples, comparable to a PAN UF commercial membrane control. For refinery wastewater treatment the COD removal values were substantially lower, between 41 and 44%, due to higher contents of dissolved organics. Comb copolymer modified membranes showed significantly better fouling resistance than controls, recovering fully their initial fluxes after a simulated backwash for each of the three wastewater samples tested. The results indicate that UF membranes incorporating PAN-g-PEO can be cleaned completely by physical methods alone, which should extend membrane lifetimes substantially and improve the process economics for treatment of oil-contaminated waters.

  14. Oil industry wastewater treatment with fouling resistant membranes containing amphiphilic comb copolymers.

    PubMed

    Asatekin, Ayse; Mayes, Anne M

    2009-06-15

    The oil industry produces large volumes of wastewater, including oil well produced water brought to the surface during oil drilling, and refinery wastewater. These streams are difficult to treat due to large concentrations of oil. Ultrafiltration (UF) is very promising for their treatment to remove oil, but has been limited by economic obstacles due to severe membrane fouling. In a recent study, novel UF membranes incorporating the amphiphilic comb copolymer additive polyacrylonitrile-graft-poly(ethylene oxide), PAN-g-PEO, were found to exhibit complete resistance to irreversible fouling by several classes of organic foulants (J. Membr. Sci. 2007, 298, 136-146). The current work focuses on application of these novel UF membranes to the treatment of oily wastewater feed streams, employing three industrial samples of oil well produced water and refinery wastewater. UF membranes cast with 20 wt % PAN-g-PEO in PAN achieved removals of dispersed and free oils of over 96% based on chemical oxygen demand (COD) for produced water samples, comparable to a PAN UF commercial membrane control. For refinery wastewater treatment the COD removal values were substantially lower, between 41 and 44%, due to higher contents of dissolved organics. Comb copolymer modified membranes showed significantly better fouling resistance than controls, recovering fully their initial fluxes after a simulated backwash for each of the three wastewater samples tested. The results indicate that UF membranes incorporating PAN-g-PEO can be cleaned completely by physical methods alone, which should extend membrane lifetimes substantially and improve the process economics for treatment of oil-contaminated waters. PMID:19603666

  15. Effects of genotype and dietary oil supplementation on performance, carcass traits, pork quality and fatty acid composition of backfat and intramuscular fat.

    PubMed

    Bertol, T M; de Campos, R M L; Ludke, J V; Terra, N N; de Figueiredo, E A P; Coldebella, A; dos Santos Filho, J I; Kawski, V L; Lehr, N M

    2013-03-01

    A 42-day study was conducted to evaluate the effect of genotype: terminal sire line Duroc×F1 (DC×F1); terminal sire line Embrapa MS-115×F1 (MS-115×F1); and MS-115×Moura (MS-115×MO) and three dietary oil sources: soybean; canola; and canola+flax, on performance, carcass traits, pork quality, and fatty acid composition. Genotype affected the technological quality of pork and fatty acid profile. MS-115-sired pigs had better meat color and Duroc-sired pigs had higher intramuscular fat content, more saturated fat and better omega-6/omega-3 ratio. Moura breed influenced positively meat tenderness and intramuscular fat. Diet did not affect the technological quality of the meat. Canola or canola+flax oil diet supplementations increased monounsaturated and C18:3 and decreased C18:2 fatty acids, reducing the omega-6/omega-3 ratio. The best omega-6/omega-3 ratio was obtained through supplementation with canola+flax.

  16. The influence of dietary palm olein, fish oil and lard on the egg yolk and plasma lipid composition, and performances of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Hodzic, A; Hamamdzic, M; Gagic, A; Mihaljevic, M; Vegara, M; Krnic, J; Pasic Juhas, E

    2008-01-01

    The influence of dietary palm olein, in comparison to fish oil and lard, on lipid levels in egg yolk and blood plasma, the fatty acid composition of egg yolk, and various production parameters were studied. Brown Lohman laying hens (n=45) were randomly assigned into three groups of 15 birds, and treated with experimental diets with either 3% palm olein (PO), fish oil (FO) or lard (L) for 6 weeks. At the end of the experiment, feed consumption was significantly lower for hens fed the PO diet, except week 6 of the experiment. The concentration of plasma triglycerides was increased by all experimental diets, whereas there were no significant increases of plasma total lipid and total cholesterol concentrations only in the PO group. For yolk lipids a decrease in triglycerides in the FO and L groups was observed, while total cholesterol and total lipid were significantly decreased in the PO group. Feeding with the PO diet resulted in the lowest concentrations of palmitic, stearic and linoleic acid, as well as in the highest concentration of monounsaturated oleic acid in the yolk total lipid. It was concluded that the composition of yolk lipids did not closely match the concentrations of lipids observed in experimental diets or plasma. Based on the current work it seems that the PO diet modulates egg yolk lipid content best. PMID:18540201

  17. Plenary Lecture 1 Dietary strategies for the prevention and treatment of obesity

    PubMed Central

    Rolls, Barbara J.

    2010-01-01

    Obesity is a rapidly-growing public health problem that is related in part to the foods available in the eating environment. Properties of foods such as portion size and energy density (kJ/g) have robust effects on energy intake; large portions of energy-dense foods promote excess consumption and this effect starts in early childhood. Studies show, however, that in both adults and children these food characteristics can also be used strategically to moderate energy intake, as well as to improve diet quality. Dietary energy density can be reduced by increasing intake of water-rich foods such as vegetables and fruits. Their high water content allows individuals to eat satisfying portions of food while decreasing energy intake. Filling up at the start of a meal with vegetables or fruit and increasing the proportion of vegetables in a main course have been found to control hunger and moderate energy intake. Data from several clinical trials have also demonstrated that reducing dietary energy density by the addition of water-rich foods is associated with substantial weight loss even though participants eat greater amounts of food. Population-based assessments indicate that beginning in childhood there is a relationship between consuming large portions of energy-dense foods and obesity. These data suggest that the promotion of diets that are reduced in energy density should be an important component of future efforts to both prevent and treat obesity. PMID:19954563

  18. Behavioural treatments for chronic systemic inflammation: effects of dietary weight loss and exercise training.

    PubMed

    Nicklas, Barbara J; You, Tongjian; Pahor, Marco

    2005-04-26

    Persistent low-grade inflammation, as indicated by higher circulating levels of inflammatory mediators such as C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha, is a strong risk factor for several chronic diseases. There are data indicating that decreasing energy intake and increasing physical activity may be effective therapies for reducing overall inflammation. Evidence is strong that circulating levels of inflammatory markers are elevated with total and abdominal obesity, possibly owing to a higher secretion rate of cytokines by adipose tissue in obese people. Moreover, very-low-energy dietary weight loss reduces both circulating markers of inflammation and adipose-tissue cytokine production. Data from several large population-based cohorts show an inverse association between markers of systemic inflammation and physical activity or fitness status; small-scale intervention studies support that exercise training diminishes inflammation. Dietary weight loss plus exercise is likely more effective than weight reduction alone in reducing inflammation. To date, data from randomized, controlled trails designed to definitively test the effects of weight loss or exercise training, or both, on inflammation are limited. Future studies are required to define the amount of weight loss needed for clinically meaningful reductions of inflammation; in addition, fully powered and controlled studies are necessary to clarify the effect of exercise training on chronic, systemic inflammation.

  19. The effect of various dietary fats on skin tumor initiation.

    PubMed

    Locniskar, M; Belury, M A; Cumberland, A G; Patrick, K E; Fischer, S M

    1991-01-01

    The type of dietary fat has been shown to modulate the initiation stage of mammary tumorigenesis, with saturated fat fed before and/or during carcinogen treatment resulting in increased tumor incidence. This study was designed to determine whether different types of dietary fat alter the initiation stage of skin carcinogenesis by use of the initiation-promotion mouse skin carcinogenesis model. Sencar mice were divided into three groups and maintained on one of the experimental diets. The AIN-76-based diets consisted of 10% total fat with various types of fat: 8.5% menhaden oil plus 1.5% corn oil, 8.5% coconut oil plus 1.5% corn oil, and 10% corn oil. After three weeks mice were initiated with 10 nmol dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA). Two weeks later, all mice were switched to a diet containing 5% corn oil. Promotion began four weeks after initiation with twice-weekly application of 1 microgram 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate and continued for 12 weeks. No statistically significant differences in kilocalories of food consumed or body weights were observed between diet groups during the study. The final papilloma incidence, yield, and size were not significantly different among the diet groups. In a parallel study, [3H]DMBA binding to epidermal DNA showed no dietary differences. Unlike the mammary carcinogenesis model, these data suggest that the type of fat fed during DMBA initiation had minimal effects on this stage of skin carcinogenesis.

  20. The effect of various dietary fats on skin tumor initiation.

    PubMed

    Locniskar, M; Belury, M A; Cumberland, A G; Patrick, K E; Fischer, S M

    1991-01-01

    The type of dietary fat has been shown to modulate the initiation stage of mammary tumorigenesis, with saturated fat fed before and/or during carcinogen treatment resulting in increased tumor incidence. This study was designed to determine whether different types of dietary fat alter the initiation stage of skin carcinogenesis by use of the initiation-promotion mouse skin carcinogenesis model. Sencar mice were divided into three groups and maintained on one of the experimental diets. The AIN-76-based diets consisted of 10% total fat with various types of fat: 8.5% menhaden oil plus 1.5% corn oil, 8.5% coconut oil plus 1.5% corn oil, and 10% corn oil. After three weeks mice were initiated with 10 nmol dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA). Two weeks later, all mice were switched to a diet containing 5% corn oil. Promotion began four weeks after initiation with twice-weekly application of 1 microgram 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate and continued for 12 weeks. No statistically significant differences in kilocalories of food consumed or body weights were observed between diet groups during the study. The final papilloma incidence, yield, and size were not significantly different among the diet groups. In a parallel study, [3H]DMBA binding to epidermal DNA showed no dietary differences. Unlike the mammary carcinogenesis model, these data suggest that the type of fat fed during DMBA initiation had minimal effects on this stage of skin carcinogenesis. PMID:1670290

  1. Ex situ bioremediation of mineral oil in soils: Land treatment and composting. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gauger, K.

    1998-06-01

    Mineral oil dielectric fluid (MODF) has replaced PCB oil as the insulating medium in electrical transformers. Although eliminating PCBs has reduced the environmental impact resulting from transformer leaks, soil contaminated with mineral oil still often requires remediation. This study evaluated the feasibility of ex situ biotreatment by land farming and composting for Southern Company Services/Georgia Power. Research results indicate that composting does not enhance the biodegradation of mineral oil compared to land treatment. Furthermore, while land treatment does degrade mineral oil, the process takes nearly a year and may not meet regulatory limits. Because the environmental impact of MODF spills into soil is not well understood, states regulate this fluid similarly to petroleum fuel oil for cleanup purposes. This has led to costly remedial efforts, with utilities excavating contaminated media and disposing it in landfills. However, landfills are becoming increasingly regulated, and their use leaves future liability issues unresolved. Southern Company Services/Georgia Power and EPRI sought to explore the effectiveness of ex situ treatment technologies of land farming and composting to decontaminate soil for on-site reuse.

  2. Dietary Assessment

    Cancer.gov

    The Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program's goals in Dietary Assessment are to increase the precision of dietary intake estimates by improving self-report of dietary intake and the analytic procedures for processing reported information.

  3. Dietary flaxseed administered post thoracic radiation treatment improves survival and mitigates radiation-induced pneumonopathy in mice

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    significant decrease of specific inflammatory cytokines in FS-fed mice. Conclusions Dietary FS given post-XRT mitigates radiation effects by decreasing pulmonary fibrosis, inflammation, cytokine secretion and lung damage while enhancing mouse survival. Dietary supplementation of FS may be a useful adjuvant treatment mitigating adverse effects of radiation in individuals exposed to inhaled radioisotopes or incidental radiation. PMID:21702963

  4. Enhanced Extraction of Oil from Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) Using Microwave Pre-treatment.

    PubMed

    Ren, Guangyue; Zhang, Wei; Sun, Shangde; Duan, Xu; Zhang, Zhenshan

    2015-01-01

    The effect of microwave (MW) pre-treatment on the extraction of flaxseed oil was investigated by hot extraction (HE). Nine MW pre-treatments were established, combining three MW radiation intensities (12, 18 and 24 W/g) and three MW radiation times of pre-treatment (90, 150 and 210 s). Extraction yield increased significantly with MW pre-treatments of flaxseed, and a max oil extraction yield (78.11%) can be obtained using MW pre-treatment at 18 W/g for 210 s. Scanning electronic microscopy showed that the microstructure of treated samples (18 W/g and 210 s) was modified compared with that of untreated samples. The fatty acid compositions (palmitic acid 5.85±0.01%, stearic acid 3.00±0.01%, oleic acid 17.64±0.07%, linoleic acid 16.16±0.06%, and linolenic acid 57.37±1.32%) of the oils extracted by the MW pre-treatments HE were similar with that of the conventional HE method. Results showed that fatty acid compositions of flaxseed oil were not affected by MW pre-treatments.

  5. Obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes in developing countries: role of dietary fats and oils.

    PubMed

    Misra, Anoop; Singhal, Neha; Khurana, Lokesh

    2010-06-01

    Developing countries are undergoing rapid nutrition transition concurrent with increases in obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). From a healthy traditional high-fiber, low-fat, low-calorie diet, a shift is occurring toward increasing consumption of calorie-dense foods containing refined carbohydrates, fats, red meats, and low fiber. Data show an increase in the supply of animal fats and increased intake of saturated fatty acid (SFAs) (obtained from coconut oil, palm oil, and ghee [clarified butter]) in many developing countries, particularly in South Asia and South-East Asia. In some South Asian populations, particularly among vegetarians, intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) (obtained from flaxseed, mustard, and canola oils) and long-chain (LC) n-3 PUFAs (obtained from fish and fish oils) is low. Further, the effect of supplementation of n-3 PUFAs on metabolic risk factors and insulin resistance, except for demonstrated benefit in terms of decreased triglycerides, needs further investigation among South Asians. Data also show that intake of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) ranged from 4.7% to 16.4%en in developing countries, and supplementing it from olive, canola, mustard, groundnut, and rice bran oils may reduce metabolic risk. In addition, in some developing countries, intake of n-6 PUFAs (obtained from sunflower, safflower, corn, soybean, and sesame oils) and trans-fatty acids (TFAs) is increasing. These data show imbalanced consumption of fats and oils in developing countries, which may have potentially deleterious metabolic and glycemic consequences, although more research is needed. In view of the rapid rise of T2DM in developing countries, more aggressive public health awareness programs coupled with governmental action and clear country-specific guidelines are required, so as to promote widespread use of healthy oils, thus curbing intake of SFAs and TFAs, and increasing intake of n-3 PUFAs and MUFAs. Such

  6. Dietary supplementation with a specific combination of high protein, leucine, and fish oil improves muscle function and daily activity in tumour-bearing cachectic mice

    PubMed Central

    van Norren, K; Kegler, D; Argilés, J M; Luiking, Y; Gorselink, M; Laviano, A; Arts, K; Faber, J; Jansen, H; van der Beek, E M; van Helvoort, A

    2009-01-01

    Cancer cachexia is characterised by metabolic alterations leading to loss of adipose tissue and lean body mass and directly compromises physical performance and the quality of life of cancer patients. In a murine cancer cachectic model, the effects of dietary supplementation with a specific combination of high protein, leucine and fish oil on weight loss, muscle function and physical activity were investigated. Male CD2F1 mice, 6–7 weeks old, were divided into body weight-matched groups: (1) control, (2) tumour-bearing, and (3) tumour-bearing receiving experimental diets. Tumours were induced by s.c. inoculation with murine colon adenocarcinoma (C26) cells. Food intake, body mass, tumour size and 24 h-activity were monitored. Then, 20 days after tumour/vehicle inoculation, the animals were killed and muscle function was tested ex vivo. Tumour-bearing mice showed reduced carcass, muscle and fat mass compared with controls. EDL muscle performance and total daily activity were impaired in the tumour-bearing mice. Addition of single nutrients resulted in no or modest effects. However, supplementation of the diet with the all-in combination of high protein, leucine and fish oil significantly reduced loss of carcass, muscle and fat mass (loss in mass 45, 52 and 65% of TB-con, respectively (P<0.02)) and improved muscle performance (loss of max force reduced to 55–64% of TB-con (P<0.05)). Moreover, total daily activity normalised after intervention with the specific nutritional combination (50% of the reduction in activity of TB-con (P<0.05)). In conclusion, a nutritional combination of high protein, leucine and fish oil reduced cachectic symptoms and improved functional performance in cancer cachectic mice. Comparison of the nutritional combination with its individual modules revealed additive effects of the single components provided. PMID:19259092

  7. Improvement in in vitro fertilization rate, decrease in reactive oxygen species and spermatozoa death incidence in rams by dietary fish oil.

    PubMed

    Matini Behzad, A; Ebrahimi, B; Alizadeh, A R; Esmaeili, V; Dalman, A; Rashki, L; Shahverdi, A H

    2014-08-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the effects of fish oil feeding on sperm classical parameters, level of reactive oxygen spices (ROS), spermatozoa death incidence and in vitro fertilization (IVF) rate in rams. We randomly assigned nine rams, into two experimental groups (isoenergetic and isonitrogenous rations with constant level of vitamin E supplement): control (CTR; n = 5) and fish oil (FO; n = 4, 35 g/day/ram). Diets were fed for 70 days during the physiological breeding season. After a 21-day dietary adaptation period, semen was collected weekly from each ram by an artificial vagina. Sperm classical parameters were determined by the computer-assisted sperm analyzer system (CASA), and it was prepared for IVF process by swim-up technique. These evaluations were performed during the first and last weeks of sampling. Intracellular ROS level and spermatozoa death incidence were detected by flow cytometry on a weekly basis after adaptation. Data were analysed with SPSS 15. The volume, concentration (3.6 and 2.7 × 10(9) /ml) and sperm progressive motility (60 and 48%) were significantly improved in the FO group compared with the CTR (p < 0.05). A comparison of two-cell stage embryos following IVF in the two groups showed a significantly higher fertilization rate in the FO group (56%) compared with the CTR (49%). Superoxide anion (O2 (-) ) rate was significantly lower (p < 0.05) at the third week of sampling in the FO. Although the H2 O2 rate was numerically lower in the FO group compared with the CTR, this difference was not significant. In addition, apoptosis showed a significant difference in the third week of sampling (15 and 30% for FO and CTR, respectively; p < 0.05). Overall, adding fish oil to the ram diet not only improved sperm quality and IVF results, it also could reduce oxygen-free radicals and the incidence of spermatozoa death.

  8. Dietary unsaponifiable fraction of extra virgin olive oil supplementation attenuates lung injury and DNA damage of rats co-exposed to aluminum and acrylamide.

    PubMed

    Ghorbel, Imen; Chaâbane, Mariem; Boudawara, Ons; Kamoun, Naziha Grati; Boudawara, Tahia; Zeghal, Najiba

    2016-10-01

    Aluminum chloride (AlCl3) and acrylamide (ACR) are well known as environmental pollutants inducing oxidative stress. Our study investigated the effects of these contaminants and if the hydrophilic fraction of extra virgin olive oil was able to prevent lung oxidative stress and DNA damage. Animals were divided into four groups of six each: group 1, serving as controls, received distilled water; group 2 received in drinking water aluminum chloride (50 mg/ kg body weight) and by gavage acrylamide (20 mg/kg body weight); group 3 received both aluminum and acrylamide in the same way and the same dose as group 2 and hydrophilic fraction from olive oil (OOHF) (1 ml) by gavage; group 4 received only OOHF by gavage. Exposure of rats to both aluminum and acrylamide provoked oxidative stress in lung tissue based on biochemical parameters and histopathological alterations. In fact, we have observed an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA), H2O2, and advanced oxidation protein product (AOPP) and a decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH), non-protein thiols (NPSH), and vitamin C levels. Activities of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were also decreased. Histopathological changes in lung tissue were noted like emphysema, vascular congestion, and infiltration of inflammatory cells. A random DNA degradation was observed on agarose gel in the lung of AlCl3 and acrylamide (ACR)-treated rats. Co-administration of OOHF to treated rats improved biochemical parameters to near control values and lung histoarchitecture. The smear formation of genomic DNA was reduced. The hydrophilic fraction of extra virgin olive oil might provide a basis for developing a new dietary supplementation strategy in order to prevent lung tissue damage. PMID:27378219

  9. Dietary vegetable oils do not alter the intestine transcriptome of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), but modulate the transcriptomic response to infection with Enteromyxum leei

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies conducted with gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) have determined the maximum dietary replacement of fish meal and oil without compromising growth or product quality. The present study aimed to analyze the effect of the nutritional background on fish health and fish fed plant protein-based diets with fish oil (FO diet) or a blend of vegetable oils (66VO diet) were exposed for 102 days to the intestinal myxosporean parasite Enteromyxum leei, and the intestine transcriptome was analyzed with a customized oligo-microarray of 7,500 annotated genes. Results Infection prevalence was high and similar in the two diet groups, but the outcome of the disease was more pronounced in fish fed the 66VO diet. No differences were found in the transcriptome of both diet control groups, whereas the number of differentially expressed genes in infected groups was considerable. K-means clustering of these differentially expressed genes identified four expression patterns that reflected the progression of the disease with the magnitude of the fold-change being higher in infected 66VO fish. A positive correlation was found between the time of infection and the magnitude of the transcriptional change within the 66VO group, being higher in early infected animals. Within this diet group, a strong up-regulation of many components of the immune specific response was evidenced, whereas other genes related to complement response and xenobiotic metabolism were down-regulated. Conclusions The high replacement of fish oil by vegetable oils in practical fish feeds did not modify the intestine transcriptome of gilthead sea bream, but important changes were apparent when fish were exposed to the myxosporean E. leei. The detected changes were mostly a consequence rather than a cause of the different disease progression in the two diet groups. Hence, the developed microarray constitutes an excellent diagnostic tool to address changes associated with the action of intestinal

  10. Interactive effects of dietary composition and hormonal treatment on reproductive development of cultured female European eel, Anguilla anguilla.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Filipa F G; Støttrup, Josianne G; Kjørsvik, Elin; Tveiten, Helge; Tomkiewicz, Jonna

    2016-08-01

    Farmed female eels were fed two experimental diets with similar proximate composition but different n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels. Both diets had similar levels of arachidonic acid (ARA), while levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in one diet were approximately 4.5 and 2.6 times higher compared to the other diet, respectively. After the feeding period, each diet group was divided into two and each half received one of two hormonal treatments using salmon pituitary extract (SPE) for 13 weeks: i) a constant hormone dose of 18.75mg SPE/kg initial body weight (BW) and ii) a variable hormone dosage that increased from 12.5mg SPE/kg initial BW to 25mg SPE/kg initial BW. Results showed a significant interaction between diets and hormonal treatments on gonadosomatic index (GSI), indicating that the effect of broodstock diets on ovarian development depends on both nutritional status and hormonal regime. Females fed with higher levels of n-3 series PUFAs and stimulated with the constant hormonal treatment reached higher GSIs than those receiving the variable hormonal treatment. However, when females were fed lower levels of n-3 series PUFAs there was no difference in the effect of hormonal treatments on GSI. We also found that, independent of hormonal treatment, the diet with higher levels of n-3 series PUFAs led to the most advanced stages of oocyte development, such as germinal vesicle migration. Concentration of sex steroids (E2, T, and 11-KT) in the plasma did not differ between diets and hormonal treatments, but was significantly correlated with ovarian developmental stage. In conclusion, increasing dietary levels of n-3 PUFAs seemed to promote oocyte growth, leading to a more rapid progression of ovarian development in European eel subjected to hormonal treatment.

  11. Interactive effects of dietary composition and hormonal treatment on reproductive development of cultured female European eel, Anguilla anguilla.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Filipa F G; Støttrup, Josianne G; Kjørsvik, Elin; Tveiten, Helge; Tomkiewicz, Jonna

    2016-08-01

    Farmed female eels were fed two experimental diets with similar proximate composition but different n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels. Both diets had similar levels of arachidonic acid (ARA), while levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in one diet were approximately 4.5 and 2.6 times higher compared to the other diet, respectively. After the feeding period, each diet group was divided into two and each half received one of two hormonal treatments using salmon pituitary extract (SPE) for 13 weeks: i) a constant hormone dose of 18.75mg SPE/kg initial body weight (BW) and ii) a variable hormone dosage that increased from 12.5mg SPE/kg initial BW to 25mg SPE/kg initial BW. Results showed a significant interaction between diets and hormonal treatments on gonadosomatic index (GSI), indicating that the effect of broodstock diets on ovarian development depends on both nutritional status and hormonal regime. Females fed with higher levels of n-3 series PUFAs and stimulated with the constant hormonal treatment reached higher GSIs than those receiving the variable hormonal treatment. However, when females were fed lower levels of n-3 series PUFAs there was no difference in the effect of hormonal treatments on GSI. We also found that, independent of hormonal treatment, the diet with higher levels of n-3 series PUFAs led to the most advanced stages of oocyte development, such as germinal vesicle migration. Concentration of sex steroids (E2, T, and 11-KT) in the plasma did not differ between diets and hormonal treatments, but was significantly correlated with ovarian developmental stage. In conclusion, increasing dietary levels of n-3 PUFAs seemed to promote oocyte growth, leading to a more rapid progression of ovarian development in European eel subjected to hormonal treatment. PMID:27264530

  12. Soap-scented oil skin patch in the treatment of fibromyalgia: A case series

    PubMed Central

    Ough, Yon Doo

    2008-01-01

    Treatment for fibromyalgia is largely empiric and supportive, and favors a multidisciplinary approach. Despite treatment, symptomatic relief is often inadequate and temporary. Over 90% of fibromyalgia patients seek alternative medical care. There is much anecdotal evidence that applying a bar of soap to the skin can relieve leg cramps. Expanding on this idea, I created a skin patch from soap-scented oil, which was used to treat muscular pain and spasms. After receiving positive feedback from several patients, I hypothesized that the scent of the oil itself, applied directly to the skin, is responsible for the pain-relieving and muscle-relaxant properties of the skin patch. Furthermore, I hypothesize that this soap-scented oil skin patch is an effective treatment for the pain associated with fibromyalgia. PMID:21197334

  13. The effectiveness of aromatherapy massage using lavender oil as a treatment for infantile colic.

    PubMed

    Çetinkaya, Bengü; Başbakkal, Zümrüt

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this paper was to investigate the effect of aromatherapy massage using lavender oil as a possible treatment for this condition. This research was carried out on a group of 40 infants between 2 and 6 weeks of age with a gestational age of 38-42 weeks and normal development and growth. All the infants weighed between 2500 and 4000 g at birth and all exhibited the signs of colic. Infants in the treatment group received abdominal massage by their mothers using lavender oil, while those in the control group were not subject to an intervention. The infants in both control and treatment groups were monitored once a week by the researchers, in total five times. The effect of the massage was measured in terms of changes in the length of time the infants cried per week. The use of aromatherapy massage using lavender oil was found to be effective in reducing the symptoms of colic.

  14. Leishmania amazonensis: effects of oral treatment with copaiba oil in mice.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Adriana Oliveira; Costa, Marco Antonio; Ueda-Nakamura, Tânia; Dias-Filho, Benedito Prado; da Veiga-Júnior, Valdir Florêncio; de Souza Lima, Marli Miriam; Nakamura, Celso Vataru

    2011-10-01

    Leishmaniasis is a severe public-health problem, with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Efforts to find new, effective and safe oral agents for the treatment of leishmaniasis have been ongoing for several decades, in order to avoid the problems with the currently used antimonials. In the present study, we found that a copaiba oil oral treatment (Group IV) caused a significant reduction in the average lesion size (1.1±0.4mm) against Leishmania amazonensis lesions compared with untreated mice (Group I) (4.4±1.3mm). To prove the safety of the oil, the toxicity and genotoxicity were also determined. Histopathological evaluation did not reveal changes in the copaiba oil-treated animals compared to the control animals. In the mutagenicity evaluation, (micronucleus test) the dose tested (2000mg/kg) showed no genotoxic effects. Morphological and ultrastructural analyses demonstrated notable changes in parasite cells treated with this oleoresin. The main ultrastructural effect was mitochondrial swelling. We also demonstrated that in vitro copaiba oil treatment of L. amazonensis led to an increase in plasma membrane permeability, and depolarization in the mitochondrial membrane potential in parasite cells. Although the mechanism of action of the oleoresin is still unclear, these findings indicate that copaiba oil is a possible new drug, which would provide a safer, shorter, less-expensive, and more easily administered treatment for leishmaniasis.

  15. Enzymatic enrichment of polyunsaturated fatty acids using novel lipase preparations modified by combination of immobilization and fish oil treatment.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jinyong; Liu, Sanxiong; Hu, Jiang; Gui, Xiaohua; Wang, Guilong; Yan, Yunjun

    2011-07-01

    Novel modification methods for lipase biocatalysts effective in hydrolysis of fish oil for enrichment of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were described. Based on conventional immobilization in single aqueous medium, immobilization of lipase in two phase medium composed of buffer and octane was employed. Furthermore, immobilization (in single aqueous or in two phase medium) coupled to fish oil treatment was integrated. Among these, lipase immobilized in two phase medium coupled to fish oil treatment (IMLAOF) had advantages over other modified lipases in initial reaction rate and hydrolysis degree. The hydrolysis degree increased from 12% with the free lipase to 40% with IMLAOF. Strong polar and hydrophobic solvents had negative impact on immobilization-fish oil treatment lipases, while low polar solvents were helpful to maintain the modification effect of immobilization-fish oil treatment. After five cycles of usage, the immobilization-fish oil treatment lipases still maintained more than 80% of relative hydrolysis degree.

  16. A comparative study of tea-tree oil versus benzoylperoxide in the treatment of acne.

    PubMed

    Bassett, I B; Pannowitz, D L; Barnetson, R S

    1990-10-15

    Tea-tree oil (an essential oil of the Australian native tree Melaleuca alternifolia) has long been regarded as a useful topical antiseptic agent in Australia and has been shown to have a variety of antimicrobial activities; however, only anecdotal evidence exists for its efficacy in the treatment of various skin conditions. We have performed a single-blind, randomised clinical trial on 124 patients to evaluate the efficacy and skin tolerance of 5% tea-tree oil gel in the treatment of mild to moderate acne when compared with 5% benzoyl peroxide lotion. The results of this study showed that both 5% tea-tree oil and 5% benzoyl peroxide had a significant effect in ameliorating the patients' acne by reducing the number of inflamed and non-inflamed lesions (open and closed comedones), although the onset of action in the case of tea-tree oil was slower. Encouragingly, fewer side effects were experienced by patients treated with tea-tree oil.

  17. Fabrication of optimized oil-water separation devices through the targeted treatment of silica meshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crick, Colin R.; Tunali Ozkan, Feyza; Parkin, Ivan P.

    2015-10-01

    Efficient oil-water separation is achieved using an optimized superhydrophobic material, generated by the zeolitic roughening and subsequent hydrophobic surface treatment of silica filter membranes. The material is both highly rough and intrinsically hydrophobic, resulting in superhydrophobic membranes which show a substantial affinity for hydrophobic solvents and oils. The membranes are syringe-mounted, suction pressure is applied and the selective collection of oil is achieved. The membranes are extremely robust, which is a result of the zeolitic roughening process, they possess small pores (0.7 μm), as a result these devices can perform complete separation and operate at a range of suction pressures. The devices could be readily used in a range of real-world applications, including oil spill clean-up and industrial filters.

  18. Characterization of oil and gas waste disposal practices and assessment of treatment costs. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bedient, P.B.

    1995-01-16

    This study examines wastes associated with the onshore exploration and production of crude oil and natural gas in the US. The objective of this study was to update and enhance the current state of knowledge with regard to oil and gas waste quantities, the potential environmental impact of these wastes, potential methods of treatment, and the costs associated with meeting various degrees of treatment. To meet this objective, the study consisted of three tasks: (1) the development of a production Environmental Database (PED) for the purpose of assessing current oil and gas waste volumes by state and for investigating the potential environmental impacts associated with current waste disposal practices on a local scale; (2) the evaluation of available and developing technologies for treating produced water waste streams and the identification of unit process configurations; and (3) the evaluation of the costs associated with various degrees of treatment achievable by different treatment configurations. The evaluation of feasible technologies for the treatment of produced water waste streams was handled in the context of comparing the level of treatment achievable with the associated cost of treatment. Treatment processes were evaluated for the removal of four categories of produced water contaminants: particulate material, volatile organic compounds, adsorbable organic compounds, and dissolved inorganic species. Results showed dissolved inorganic species to be the most costly to remove. The potential cost of treating all 18.3 billion barrels of produced water generated in a year amounts to some 15 billion dollars annually.

  19. Treatments of oil-refinery and steel-mill wastewaters by mesocosm constructed wetland systems.

    PubMed

    Yang, L; Hu, C C

    2005-01-01

    In this study, two types of industrial wastewater, oil-refining and steel-milling, were selected for investigating their feasibility of treatment by mesocosm constructed wetland systems. The secondly treated effluents from the wastewater treatment plants were directly discharged into the systems controlled at different flow rates. Three wetland mesocosms were installed in the two industries: mesocosms A and B were in the oil refinery, and mesocosm C was in the steel mill. The substratum media used in wetland systems were sand (mesocosm A) and gravel (mesocosms B and C), while the vegetation types selected were reeds (mesocosms A and B) and mixed species of reeds and cattails (mesocosm C). The flow regimes were controlled as free water surface (FWS) and subsurface flow (SSF) for the sand- and gravel-beds, respectively. According to the experimental results, we found that the system treating oil-refining wastewater performed better than that treating steel-milling wastewater learned by comparing the removal efficiencies of COD, total N and total P. In addition, it was found that for oil-refining wastewater treatments, the SSF wetland system (mesocosm B) performed better than FWS (mesocosm A) wetland system when comparing both of their removal of pollutants and growth of vegetation. Besides, the effluents from these two industrial wetland treatment systems might be reclaimed and reused for boiler water, cooling, cleaning and miscellaneous purposes in industries. Further treatments are required if the constructed wetland effluents are thought about being reused for processing in industries.

  20. Effect of dietary inclusion of a herbal extract mixture and different oils on pig performance and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Hanczakowska, Ewa; Świątkiewicz, Małgorzata; Grela, Eugeniusz R

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of a herbal extract mixture on pig performance and meat quality. The experiment was performed on 60 fatteners (60±0.5-112±2.0kg). Group I (control) was fed with standard feed; groups II and III received the same feed supplemented with 150mg BHT or 500mg of a herbal extract mixture (sage, nettle, lemon balm and coneflower) per kg of feed, respectively. In each group, half of the animals received 4% rapeseed oil, the other half soybean oil. The herbal extracts had no effect on animal performance but significantly improved meat oxidative stability, lowered cholesterol and TI index and increased PUFA content in meat. Slight differences between animals fed with rapeseed or soybean oils were observed. Gilt meat had significantly better (P≤0.01) AI, TI, and h/H indices than barrow meat. It was concluded that herbal extracts have a beneficial effect on pork health-promoting properties due to changes in lipid fraction. PMID:26047978

  1. Effect of dietary inclusion of a herbal extract mixture and different oils on pig performance and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Hanczakowska, Ewa; Świątkiewicz, Małgorzata; Grela, Eugeniusz R

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of a herbal extract mixture on pig performance and meat quality. The experiment was performed on 60 fatteners (60±0.5-112±2.0kg). Group I (control) was fed with standard feed; groups II and III received the same feed supplemented with 150mg BHT or 500mg of a herbal extract mixture (sage, nettle, lemon balm and coneflower) per kg of feed, respectively. In each group, half of the animals received 4% rapeseed oil, the other half soybean oil. The herbal extracts had no effect on animal performance but significantly improved meat oxidative stability, lowered cholesterol and TI index and increased PUFA content in meat. Slight differences between animals fed with rapeseed or soybean oils were observed. Gilt meat had significantly better (P≤0.01) AI, TI, and h/H indices than barrow meat. It was concluded that herbal extracts have a beneficial effect on pork health-promoting properties due to changes in lipid fraction.

  2. Synthesis and Performance Evaluation of a New Deoiling Agent for Treatment of Waste Oil-Based Drilling Fluids

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Pingting; Huang, Zhiyu; Deng, Hao; Wang, Rongsha; Xie, Shuixiang

    2014-01-01

    Oil-based drilling fluid is used more and more in the field of oil and gas exploration. However, because of unrecyclable treating agent and hard treatment conditions, the traditional treating technologies of waste oil-based drilling fluid have some defects, such as waste of resource, bulky equipment, complex treatment processes, and low oil recovery rate. In this work, switchable deoiling agent (SDA), as a novel surfactant for treatment of waste oil-based drilling fluid, was synthesized by amine, formic acid, and formaldehyde solution. With this agent, the waste oil-based drilling fluid can be treated without complex process and expensive equipment. Furthermore, the agent used in the treatment can be recycled, which reduces waste of resource and energy. The switch performance, deoiling performance, structural characterization, and mechanisms of action are studied. The experimental results show that the oil content of the recycled oil is higher than 96% and more than 93% oil in waste oil-based drilling fluid can be recycled. The oil content of the solid residues of deoiling is less than 3%. PMID:25045749

  3. Synthesis and performance evaluation of a new deoiling agent for treatment of waste oil-based drilling fluids.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pingting; Huang, Zhiyu; Deng, Hao; Wang, Rongsha; Xie, Shuixiang

    2014-01-01

    Oil-based drilling fluid is used more and more in the field of oil and gas exploration. However, because of unrecyclable treating agent and hard treatment conditions, the traditional treating technologies of waste oil-based drilling fluid have some defects, such as waste of resource, bulky equipment, complex treatment processes, and low oil recovery rate. In this work, switchable deoiling agent (SDA), as a novel surfactant for treatment of waste oil-based drilling fluid, was synthesized by amine, formic acid, and formaldehyde solution. With this agent, the waste oil-based drilling fluid can be treated without complex process and expensive equipment. Furthermore, the agent used in the treatment can be recycled, which reduces waste of resource and energy. The switch performance, deoiling performance, structural characterization, and mechanisms of action are studied. The experimental results show that the oil content of the recycled oil is higher than 96% and more than 93% oil in waste oil-based drilling fluid can be recycled. The oil content of the solid residues of deoiling is less than 3%. PMID:25045749

  4. Treatment of cereal products with a tailored preparation of trichoderma enzymes increases the amount of soluble dietary fiber.

    PubMed

    Napolitano, Aurora; Lanzuise, Stefania; Ruocco, Michelina; Arlotti, Guido; Ranieri, Roberto; Knutsen, Svein Halvor; Lorito, Matteo; Fogliano, Vincenzo

    2006-10-01

    Nutritionists recommend increasing the intake of soluble dietary fiber (SDF), which is very low in most cereal-based products. Conversion of insoluble DF (IDF) into SDF can be achieved by chemical treatments, but this affects the sensorial properties of the products. In this study, the possibility of getting a substantial increase of SDF from cereal products using a tailored preparation of Trichoderma enzymes is reported. Enzymes were produced cultivating Trichoderma using durum wheat fiber (DWF) and barley spent grain (BSG) as unique carbon sources. Many Trichoderma strains were screened, and the hydrolysis conditions able to increase by enzymatic treatment the amount of SDF in DWF and BSG were determined. Results demonstrate in both products that it is possible to triple the amount of SDF without a marked decrease of total DF. The enzymatic treatment also causes the release of hydroxycinnamic acids, mainly ferulic acid, that are linked to the polysaccharides chains. This increases the free phenolic concentration, the water-soluble antioxidant activity, and, in turn, the phenol compounds bioavailability.

  5. Effects of an essential fatty acid deficiency, pair-feeding and level of dietary corn oil on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and other physiological parameters in the male chicken.

    PubMed

    Engster, H M; Carew, L B; Cunningham, F J

    1978-06-01

    Two studies were conducted to observe the effects of an essential fatty acid (EFA) deficiency, added dietary corn oil and pair-feeding on growth, reproduction and other physiological parameters in the mature cockerel. A purified, linoleic acid (LA)-deficient diet (0.01% LA), or additions of 5% (3.01% LA) or 15% (9.04% LA) corn oil, were fed ad libitum from hatching through 24 weeks of age. Reductions in growth, feed consumption, and comb, and testes size, incomplete spermatogenesis, increased tissue eicosatrienoic acid (20: 3 omega 9) and changes in weights of selected internal organs were observed in deficient cockerels. Total pituitary gonadotropic activity was measured by two bioassay procedures and blood luteinizing hormone was measured by radioimmunoassay. By maturity both of these parameters were significantly reduced in deficient chickens. When these chickens were fed diets with 5% or 15% corn oil under pair-feeding or ad libitum conditions from 20 to 24 weeks, the reduced growth, comb and testes size and gonadotropin metabolism appeared to be caused by depressions in appetite and energy intake rather than EFA per se. The degenerate testicular histology of the 20-week old deficient cockerels, while responding fully to the ad libitum intake of the diets containing corn oil, showed only partial rehabilitation of spermatogenesis when diets with either 5% or 15% corn oil were pair-fed. In general, increasing the level of dietary fat from 5% to 15% did not cause many physiological changes.

  6. The Use of Dietary Supplements to Alleviate Androgen Deprivation Therapy Side Effects during Prostate Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Dueregger, Andrea; Heidegger, Isabel; Ofer, Philipp; Perktold, Bernhard; Ramoner, Reinhold; Klocker, Helmut; Eder, Iris E.

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa), the most commonly diagnosed cancer and second leading cause of male cancer death in Western societies, is typically androgen-dependent, a characteristic that underlies the rationale of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Approximately 90% of patients initially respond to ADT strategies, however many experience side effects including hot flashes, cardiotoxicity, metabolic and musculoskeletal alterations. This review summarizes pre-clinical and clinical studies investigating the ability of dietary supplements to alleviate adverse effects arising from ADT. In particular, we focus on herbal compounds, phytoestrogens, selenium (Se), fatty acids (FA), calcium, and Vitamins D and E. Indeed, there is some evidence that calcium and Vitamin D can prevent the development of osteoporosis during ADT. On the other hand, caution should be taken with the antioxidants Se and Vitamin E until the basis underlying their respective association with type 2 diabetes mellitus and PCa tumor development has been clarified. However, many other promising supplements have not yet been subjected large-scale clinical trials making it difficult to assess their efficacy. Given the demographic trend of increased PCa diagnoses and dependence on ADT as a major therapeutic strategy, further studies are required to objectively evaluate these supplements as adjuvant for PCa patients receiving ADT. PMID:25338271

  7. The use of dietary supplements to alleviate androgen deprivation therapy side effects during prostate cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Dueregger, Andrea; Heidegger, Isabel; Ofer, Philipp; Perktold, Bernhard; Ramoner, Reinhold; Klocker, Helmut; Eder, Iris E

    2014-10-21

    Prostate cancer (PCa), the most commonly diagnosed cancer and second leading cause of male cancer death in Western societies, is typically androgen-dependent, a characteristic that underlies the rationale of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Approximately 90% of patients initially respond to ADT strategies, however many experience side effects including hot flashes, cardiotoxicity, metabolic and musculoskeletal alterations. This review summarizes pre-clinical and clinical studies investigating the ability of dietary supplements to alleviate adverse effects arising from ADT. In particular, we focus on herbal compounds, phytoestrogens, selenium (Se), fatty acids (FA), calcium, and Vitamins D and E. Indeed, there is some evidence that calcium and Vitamin D can prevent the development of osteoporosis during ADT. On the other hand, caution should be taken with the antioxidants Se and Vitamin E until the basis underlying their respective association with type 2 diabetes mellitus and PCa tumor development has been clarified. However, many other promising supplements have not yet been subjected large-scale clinical trials making it difficult to assess their efficacy. Given the demographic trend of increased PCa diagnoses and dependence on ADT as a major therapeutic strategy, further studies are required to objectively evaluate these supplements as adjuvant for PCa patients receiving ADT.

  8. Ramadan Major Dietary Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Shadman, Zhaleh; Poorsoltan, Nooshin; Akhoundan, Mahdieh; Larijani, Bagher; Soleymanzadeh, Mozhdeh; Akhgar Zhand, Camelia; Seyed Rohani, Zahra Alsadat; Khoshniat Nikoo, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Background: There has been no data on population based dietary patterns during the Ramadan fasting month. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to detect Ramadan major dietary patterns among those who fast in Tehran. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 600 subjects, aged 18-65 with body mass index (BMI) of 18.5-40, who had decided to fast during Ramadan. Anthropometric measurements, usual physical activity level and educational status were collected two weeks before Ramadan. Information on Ramadan dietary intakes was obtained using a food frequency questionnaire and factor analysis was used to identify major dietary patterns. Results: We identified four major dietary patterns: 1) Western-like pattern; high in fast foods, salty snacks, nuts, potato, fish, poultry, chocolates, juices; 2) high cholesterol and high sweet junk food pattern; high in pickles, sweets and condiments, butter and cream, canned fish, visceral meats and eggs; 3) Mediterranean-like pattern; high in vegetables, olive oil, dates, dairy, dried fruits, fruits, red meats, tea and coffee and 4) Ramadan-style pattern; large consumption of Halim, soups, porridges, legumes and whole grains, soft drinks, Zoolbia and Bamieh. Age was positively and inversely associated with Mediterranean-like (P = 0.003; r = 0.17) and Ramadan style (P = 0.1; r = -0.13) dietary pattern, respectively. Pre-Ramadan physical activity level was associated with a Mediterranean-like dietary pattern (P < 0.0001; r = 0.20). Conclusions: This study showed a Ramadan-specific dietary pattern has unique characteristics, which has not yet been identified as a model of dietary pattern. Also, among identified dietary patterns, Mediterranean-like was the healthiest. PMID:25593728

  9. Effect of dietary fish oil supplementation on ram semen freeze ability and fertility using soybean lecithin- and egg yolk-based extenders.

    PubMed

    Masoudi, R; Sharafi, M; Zare Shahneh, A; Towhidi, A; Kohram, H; Zhandi, M; Esmaeili, V; Shahverdi, A

    2016-10-01

    Ram semen cryopreservation is not efficient for artificial insemination in commercial herds. Beneficial effects of dietary fish oil have been evaluated for cryopreservation of ram semen in soybean lecithin (SL) and egg yolk (EY)-based extenders. A factorial study (two diets × two extenders) was used to analyze the effects of two diets supplemented with fish oil (n-3 fatty acid) or palm oil (saturated fatty acids; [SFAs]) to freeze ram semen in two extenders containing SL or EY. Motility characteristics, membrane integrity, abnormal morphology, mitochondria activity, acrosome integrity, apoptotic status, and fertilizing ability were assessed after freeze-thawing. Although diet had significant (P ≤ 0.05) effects on the quality parameters of frozen-thawed sperm, effects of extenders on these traits were not significant (P > 0.05). The higher significant (P ≤ 0.05) percentage of total motility and progressive motility were observed in n-3/SL (44.83 ± 1.56 and 28.33 ± 1.4) and n-3/EY (43.33 ± 1.56 and 28.50 ± 1.4) than SFA/SL (32.16 ± 1.56 and 14.00 ± 1.4) and SFA/EY (31.66 ± 1.56 and 12.66 ± 1.4) groups. Moreover, n-3/SL and n-3/EY produced the higher significant (P ≤ 0.05) percentage of membrane integrity of sperm (39.83 ± 1.4 and 37.33 ± 1.4) than SFA/SL and SFA/EY (29.83 ± 1.4 and 28.5 ± 1.4). For viability results, the higher significant percentage of live sperm was observed in n-3/SL and n-3/EY (43.16 ± 1.38 and 45.66 ± 1.38) than SFA/SL and SFA/EY (28.66 ± 1.38 and 27.5 ± 1.38). For fertility trials, n-3-based diets (n-3/SL and n-3/EY) improved significantly (P ≤ 0.05) pregnancy rate (44% and 46%), parturition rate (42% and 42%), and lambing rate (46% and 44%) compared with the SFA-based diets (SFA/SL and SFA/EY). No interaction effects have been found between diets and extenders (P > 0.05). It seems that dietary fish oil can improve the semen performance after freezing-thawing process and

  10. Effect of dietary fish oil supplementation on ram semen freeze ability and fertility using soybean lecithin- and egg yolk-based extenders.

    PubMed

    Masoudi, R; Sharafi, M; Zare Shahneh, A; Towhidi, A; Kohram, H; Zhandi, M; Esmaeili, V; Shahverdi, A

    2016-10-01

    Ram semen cryopreservation is not efficient for artificial insemination in commercial herds. Beneficial effects of dietary fish oil have been evaluated for cryopreservation of ram semen in soybean lecithin (SL) and egg yolk (EY)-based extenders. A factorial study (two diets × two extenders) was used to analyze the effects of two diets supplemented with fish oil (n-3 fatty acid) or palm oil (saturated fatty acids; [SFAs]) to freeze ram semen in two extenders containing SL or EY. Motility characteristics, membrane integrity, abnormal morphology, mitochondria activity, acrosome integrity, apoptotic status, and fertilizing ability were assessed after freeze-thawing. Although diet had significant (P ≤ 0.05) effects on the quality parameters of frozen-thawed sperm, effects of extenders on these traits were not significant (P > 0.05). The higher significant (P ≤ 0.05) percentage of total motility and progressive motility were observed in n-3/SL (44.83 ± 1.56 and 28.33 ± 1.4) and n-3/EY (43.33 ± 1.56 and 28.50 ± 1.4) than SFA/SL (32.16 ± 1.56 and 14.00 ± 1.4) and SFA/EY (31.66 ± 1.56 and 12.66 ± 1.4) groups. Moreover, n-3/SL and n-3/EY produced the higher significant (P ≤ 0.05) percentage of membrane integrity of sperm (39.83 ± 1.4 and 37.33 ± 1.4) than SFA/SL and SFA/EY (29.83 ± 1.4 and 28.5 ± 1.4). For viability results, the higher significant percentage of live sperm was observed in n-3/SL and n-3/EY (43.16 ± 1.38 and 45.66 ± 1.38) than SFA/SL and SFA/EY (28.66 ± 1.38 and 27.5 ± 1.38). For fertility trials, n-3-based diets (n-3/SL and n-3/EY) improved significantly (P ≤ 0.05) pregnancy rate (44% and 46%), parturition rate (42% and 42%), and lambing rate (46% and 44%) compared with the SFA-based diets (SFA/SL and SFA/EY). No interaction effects have been found between diets and extenders (P > 0.05). It seems that dietary fish oil can improve the semen performance after freezing-thawing process and

  11. Type and amount of dietary protein in the treatment of metabolic syndrome: a randomized controlled trial12

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Alison M; Harris Jackson, Kristina A; Roussell, Michael A; West, Sheila G; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2015-01-01

    Background: Food-based dietary patterns emphasizing plant protein that were evaluated in the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) and OmniHeart trials are recommended for the treatment of metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, the contribution of plant protein to total protein in these diets is proportionally less than that of animal protein. Objective: This study compared 3 diets varying in type (animal compared with plant) and amount of protein on MetS criteria. Design: Sixty-two overweight adults with MetS consumed a healthy American diet for 2 wk before being randomly allocated to either a modified DASH diet rich in plant protein (18% protein, two-thirds plant sources, n = 9 males, 12 females), a modified DASH diet rich in animal protein (Beef in an Optimal Lean Diet: 18.4% protein, two-thirds animal sources, n = 9 males, 11 females), or a moderate-protein diet (Beef in an Optimal Lean Diet Plus Protein: 27% protein, two-thirds animal sources, n = 10 males, 11 females). Diets were compared across 3 phases of energy balance: 5 wk of controlled (all foods provided) weight maintenance (WM), 6 wk of controlled weight loss (minimum 500-kcal/d deficit) including exercise (WL), and 12 wk of prescribed, free-living weight loss (FL). The primary endpoint was change in MetS criteria. Results: All groups achieved ∼5% weight loss at the end of the WL phase and maintained it through FL, with no between-diet differences (WM compared with WL, FL, P < 0.0001; between diets, P = NS). All MetS criteria decreased independent of diet composition (main effect of phase, P < 0.01; between diets, P = NS). After WM, all groups had a MetS prevalence of 80–90% [healthy American diet (HAD) compared with WM, P = NS], which decreased to 50–60% after WL and was maintained through FL (HAD, WM vs WL, FL, P < 0.01). Conclusions: Weight loss was the primary modifier of MetS resolution in our study population regardless of protein source or amount. Our findings demonstrate that heart

  12. Targeted alteration of dietary n-3 and n-6 fatty acids for the treatment of chronic headaches: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Ramsden, Christopher E; Faurot, Keturah R; Zamora, Daisy; Suchindran, Chirayath M; Macintosh, Beth A; Gaylord, Susan; Ringel, Amit; Hibbeln, Joseph R; Feldstein, Ariel E; Mori, Trevor A; Barden, Anne; Lynch, Chanee; Coble, Rebecca; Mas, Emilie; Palsson, Olafur; Barrow, David A; Mann, J Douglas

    2013-11-01

    Omega-3 and n-6 fatty acids are biosynthetic precursors to lipid mediators with antinociceptive and pronociceptive properties. We conducted a randomized, single-blinded, parallel-group clinical trial to assess clinical and biochemical effects of targeted alteration in dietary n-3 and n-6 fatty acids for treatment of chronic headaches. After a 4-week preintervention phase, ambulatory patients with chronic daily headache undergoing usual care were randomized to 1 of 2 intensive, food-based 12-week dietary interventions: a high n-3 plus low n-6 (H3-L6) intervention, or a low n-6 (L6) intervention. Clinical outcomes included the Headache Impact Test (HIT-6, primary clinical outcome), Headache Days per month, and Headache Hours per day. Biochemical outcomes included the erythrocyte n-6 in highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) score (primary biochemical outcome) and bioactive n-3 and n-6 derivatives. Fifty-six of 67 patients completed the intervention. Both groups achieved targeted intakes of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids. In intention-to-treat analysis, the H3-L6 intervention produced significantly greater improvement in the HIT-6 score (-7.5 vs -2.1; P<0.001) and the number of Headache Days per month (-8.8 vs -4.0; P=0.02), compared to the L6 group. The H3-L6 intervention also produced significantly greater reductions in Headache Hours per day (-4.6 vs -1.2; P=0.01) and the n-6 in HUFA score (-21.0 vs -4.0%; P<0.001), and greater increases in antinociceptive n-3 pathway markers 18-hydroxy-eicosapentaenoic acid (+118.4 vs +61.1%; P<0.001) and 17-hydroxy-docosahexaenoic acid (+170.2 vs +27.2; P<0.001). A dietary intervention increasing n-3 and reducing n-6 fatty acids reduced headache pain, altered antinociceptive lipid mediators, and improved quality-of-life in this population. PMID:23886520

  13. Improving magnetic properties of MgB2 bulk superconductors by synthetic engine oil treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylan Koparan, E.; Savaskan, B.; Yanmaz, E.

    2016-08-01

    The present study focuses on the effects of standby time of the MgB2 samples immersed in synthetic engine oil on the critical current density (Jc(H)), magnetic field dependence of the pinning force density fp(b) and Tc performances of MgB2 bulk superconductors. Synthetic engine oil was used as a product which is cheap and a rich carbon source. Manufactured MgB2 pellet samples were immersed at different standby time of 30 min, 120 min, 300 min and 1440 min in synthetic engine oil after the first heating process. Finally, MgB2 samples immersed in synthetic engine oil were sintered at 1000 °C and kept for 15 min in Ar atmosphere. The critical current density of all of MgB2 samples immersed at different standby time in engine oil in whole field range was better than that of the pure MgB2 sample because of the number of the pinning centers. The MgB2 sample immersed at 300 min standby time in synthetic engine oil has the best performance compared to other samples. The Jc value for the pure sample is 2.0 × 103 A/cm2, whereas for the MgB2 sample immersed at 300 min standby time in engine oil the Jc is enhanced to 4.8 × 103A/cm2 at 5 K and 3 T. The superconducting transition temperature (Tc) did not change with the increasing standby time of the samples in synthetic engine oil at all. The best diamagnetic property was obtained from the sample which kept in synthetic engine oil for 300 min. Synthetic engine oil treatment results in remarkable improvement of the critical current density and pinning force performances of MgB2 superconductors. It was found that all MgB2 samples have a different pinning property at different measuring temperatures. Using synthetic engine oil as a product which is cheap and a rich carbon source in MgB2 bulk superconductors makes MgB2 samples immersed in synthetic engine oil a good candidate for industrial applications.

  14. Molecular Mechanisms for the Modulation of Selected Inflammatory Markers by Dietary Rice Bran Oil in Rats Fed Partially Hydrogenated Vegetable Fat.

    PubMed

    Rao, Y Poorna Chandra; Kumar, P Pavan; Lokesh, B R

    2016-04-01

    Industrially produced partially hydrogenated vegetable fat (PHVF) contains trans fatty acids (TFA) mostly comprising elaidic acid (EA, 18:1∆9t). Though, the harmful effects of TFA on health have been repeatedly publicized, the fat containing TFA have been continued to be used as a cooking medium in many regions of the world. The adverse effects of PHVF on oxidative stress and inflammatory markers and the possible ameliorative action of rice bran oil (RBO) on these markers were evaluated. Weaning rats were fed a AIN-93 purified diet supplemented with the following lipids: groundnut oil (GNO, 10 wt%), PHVF (10 wt%), RBO (10 wt%), PHVF blended with RBO at 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 wt% levels. The final concentration of the lipids in the diet was maintained at 10 wt%. Rats were fed these diets for 60 days. They were sacrificed and analyzed for oxidative stress and inflammatory markers. The rats fed PHVF showed lower levels of lipid peroxidation and hepatic antioxidant enzymes. The rats fed PHVF-containing diets showed enhanced levels of interleukin-1β, C-reactive proteins and also showed enhanced levels of paw inflammation when injected with carrageenan as compared to rats given GNO, RBO or PHVF blended with incremental amounts of RBO. The macrophages from rats fed diet containing PHVF showed up-regulation in the expressions of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), nuclear factor-κB p65, toll like receptor (TLR)-2, TLR-4 and down-regulation in the expressions of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR)γ, adiponectin receptor (AdipoR)-1 and AdipoR-2 when compared to rats fed diet containing GNO, RBO and PHVF blended with RBO. It was concluded that dietary PHVF enhance pro-inflammatory markers which can be reduced by judiciously blending PHVF with RBO.

  15. Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with marine and botanical oils: influence on serum lipids.

    PubMed

    Olendzki, Barbara C; Leung, Katherine; Van Buskirk, Susan; Reed, George; Zurier, Robert B

    2011-01-01

    The gap in mortality between patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and the general population (1.5-3.0 fold risk) is increasing. This disparity is attributable mainly to cardiovascular disease (CVD), as the CVD risk is comparable to patients with diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this study is to determine whether borage seed oil rich in gamma-linolenic acid, fish oil rich in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), or the combination of both oils are useful treatments for dyslipidemia in patients with RA. We randomized patients into a double blind, 18 month trial. Mixed effects models were used to compare trends over time in serum lipids. No significant differences were observed between the three groups: All three treatment groups exhibited similar meaningful improvement in the lipid profile at 9 and 18 months. When all groups were combined, these treatments significantly reduced total and LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides, increased HDL-cholesterol, and improved the atherogenic index. All improvements observed at 9 months persisted at 18 months (P < 0.001 verses baseline). Conclusion. Marine and botanical oils may be useful treatment for rheumatoid arthritis patients who are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease compared to the general population. PMID:22007257

  16. Toxicological evaluation of arachidonic acid (ARA)-rich oil and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich oil.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Kara D; Huang, Weifeng; Zheng, Xiaohui; Jiang, Yue; Feldman, Robin S; Falk, Michael C

    2016-10-01

    The safety of DHA-rich oil from Schizochytrium sp. and ARA-rich oil from Mortierella alpina was separately evaluated by testing for gene mutations, clastogenicity, and aneugenicity, and by conducting 28-day and 90-day dietary studies in Wistar rats. The results of all genotoxicity tests were negative. The 28-day and 90-day studies involved dietary exposure to 1000, 2500, and 5000 mg per kg bw of the DHA-rich and ARA-rich oils and two control diets: water and corn oil (vehicle control). There were no treatment-related effects of either the DHA-rich or ARA-rich oils on clinical observations, body weight, food consumption, behavior, hematology, clinical chemistry, coagulation, urinalysis parameters, or necropsy findings. Increases in cholesterol and triglyceride levels were considered related to a high oil diet and non-adverse. The no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL) for both the DHA-rich and ARA-rich oils was 5000 mg per kg bw, the highest dose tested. The results confirm that these oils possess toxicity profiles similar to those of other currently marketed oils and support the safety of DHA-rich oil from Schizochytrium sp. and ARA-rich oil from Mortierella alpina for their proposed uses in food. PMID:27470615

  17. Dietary enrichment with fish oil prevents high fat-induced metabolic dysfunction in skeletal muscle in mice.

    PubMed

    Philp, Lisa K; Heilbronn, Leonie K; Janovska, Alena; Wittert, Gary A

    2015-01-01

    High saturated fat (HF-S) diets increase intramyocellular lipid, an effect ameliorated by omega-3 fatty acids in vitro and in vivo, though little is known about sex- and muscle fiber type-specific effects. We compared effects of standard chow, HF-S, and 7.5% HF-S replaced with fish oil (HF-FO) diets on the metabolic profile and lipid metabolism gene and protein content in red (soleus) and white (extensor digitorum longus) muscles of male and female C57BL/6 mice (n = 9-12/group). Weight gain was similar in HF-S- and HF-FO-fed groups. HF-S feeding increased mesenteric fat mass and lipid marker, Oil Red O, in red and mixed muscle; HF-FO increased interscapular brown fat mass. Compared to chow, HF-S and HF-FO increased expression of genes regulating triacylglycerol synthesis and fatty acid transport, HF-S suppressed genes and proteins regulating fatty acid oxidation, whereas HF-FO increased oxidative genes, proteins and enzymes and lipolytic gene content, whilst suppressing lipogenic genes. In comparison to HF-S, HF-FO further increased fat transporters, markers of fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial content, and reduced lipogenic genes. No diet-by-sex interactions were observed. Neither diet influenced fiber type composition. However, some interactions between muscle type and diet were observed. HF-S induced changes in triacylglycerol synthesis and lipogenic genes in red, but not white, muscle, and mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative genes were suppressed by HF-S and increased by HF-FO in red muscle only. In conclusion, HF-S feeding promotes lipid storage in red muscle, an effect abrogated by the fish oil, which increases mediators of lipolysis, oxidation and thermogenesis while inhibiting lipogenic genes. Greater storage and synthesis, and lower oxidative genes in red, but not white, muscle likely contribute to lipid accretion encountered in red muscle. Despite several gender-dimorphic genes, both sexes exhibited a similar HF-S-induced metabolic and gene

  18. Innovation of natural essential oil-loaded Orabase for local treatment of oral candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Labib, Gihan S; Aldawsari, Hibah

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Oral candidiasis may be manifested in the oral cavity as either mild or severe oral fungal infection. This infection results from the overgrowth of Candida species normally existing in the oral cavity in minute amounts based on many predisposing factors. Several aspects have spurred the search for new strategies in the treatment of oral candidiasis, among which are the limited numbers of new antifungal drugs developed in recent years. Previous studies have shown that thyme and clove oils have antimycotic activities and have suggested their incorporation into pharmaceutical preparations. This study aimed to investigate the possibility of the incorporation and characterization of essential oils or their extracted active ingredients in Orabase formulations. Methods Orabase loaded with clove oil, thyme oil, eugenol, and thymol were prepared and evaluated for their antifungal activities, pH, viscosity, erosion and water uptake characteristics, mechanical properties, in vitro release behavior, and ex vivo mucoadhesion properties. Results All prepared bases showed considerable antifungal activity and acceptable physical characteristics. The release pattern from loaded bases was considerably slow for all oils and active ingredients. All bases showed appreciable adhesion in the in vitro and ex vivo studies. Conclusion The incorporation of essential oils in Orabase could help in future drug delivery design, with promising outcomes on patients’ well-being. PMID:26170621

  19. Dietary recommendations and treatment of patients with recurrent idiopathic calcium stone disease.

    PubMed

    Robertson, W G

    2016-02-01

    This review describes the various dietary regimens that have been used to advise patients on how to prevent the recurrence of their calcium-containing kidney stones. The conclusion is that although there is some general advice that may be useful to many patients, it is more efficacious to screen each patient individually to identify his/her main urinary, metabolic, nutritional, environmental, and lifestyle risk factors for stone-formation and then tailor specific advice for that particular patient based on the findings from these investigations. If the patient can be motivated to adhere strictly to this conservative approach to the prophylactic management of their stone problem over a long time period, then it is possible to prevent them from forming further stones. This approach to stone management is considerably less expensive than any of the procedures currently available for stone removal or disintegration. In the UK, for each new stone episode prevented by this conservative approach to prophylaxis it is calculated to save the Health Authority concerned around £2000 for every patient treated successfully. In the long term, this accumulates to a major saving within each hospital budget if most stone patients can be prevented from forming further stones and when the savings are totalled up country-wide saves the National Exchequer considerable sums in unclaimed Sick Pay and industry a significant number of manpower days which would otherwise be lost from work. It is also of immense relief and benefit to the patients not to have to suffer the discomfort and inconvenience of further stone episodes.

  20. Dietary recommendations and treatment of patients with recurrent idiopathic calcium stone disease.

    PubMed

    Robertson, W G

    2016-02-01

    This review describes the various dietary regimens that have been used to advise patients on how to prevent the recurrence of their calcium-containing kidney stones. The conclusion is that although there is some general advice that may be useful to many patients, it is more efficacious to screen each patient individually to identify his/her main urinary, metabolic, nutritional, environmental, and lifestyle risk factors for stone-formation and then tailor specific advice for that particular patient based on the findings from these investigations. If the patient can be motivated to adhere strictly to this conservative approach to the prophylactic management of their stone problem over a long time period, then it is possible to prevent them from forming further stones. This approach to stone management is considerably less expensive than any of the procedures currently available for stone removal or disintegration. In the UK, for each new stone episode prevented by this conservative approach to prophylaxis it is calculated to save the Health Authority concerned around £2000 for every patient treated successfully. In the long term, this accumulates to a major saving within each hospital budget if most stone patients can be prevented from forming further stones and when the savings are totalled up country-wide saves the National Exchequer considerable sums in unclaimed Sick Pay and industry a significant number of manpower days which would otherwise be lost from work. It is also of immense relief and benefit to the patients not to have to suffer the discomfort and inconvenience of further stone episodes. PMID:26645870

  1. Baseline study of methane emission from anaerobic ponds of palm oil mill effluent treatment.

    PubMed

    Yacob, Shahrakbah; Ali Hassan, Mohd; Shirai, Yoshihito; Wakisaka, Minato; Subash, Sunderaj

    2006-07-31

    The world currently obtains its energy from the fossil fuels such as oil, natural gas and coal. However, the international crisis in the Middle East, rapid depletion of fossil fuel reserves as well as climate change have driven the world towards renewable energy sources which are abundant, untapped and environmentally friendly. Malaysia has abundant biomass resources generated from the agricultural industry particularly the large commodity, palm oil. This paper will focus on palm oil mill effluent (POME) as the source of renewable energy from the generation of methane and establish the current methane emission from the anaerobic treatment facility. The emission was measured from two anaerobic ponds in Felda Serting Palm Oil Mill for 52 weeks. The results showed that the methane content was between 35.0% and 70.0% and biogas flow rate ranged between 0.5 and 2.4 L/min/m(2). Total methane emission per anaerobic pond was 1043.1 kg/day. The total methane emission calculated from the two equations derived from relationships between methane emission and total carbon removal and POME discharged were comparable with field measurement. This study also revealed that anaerobic pond system is more efficient than open digesting tank system for POME treatment. Two main factors affecting the methane emission were mill activities and oil palm seasonal cropping.

  2. The use of waterworks sludge for the treatment of vegetable oil refinery industry wastewater.

    PubMed

    Basibuyuk, M; Kalat, D G

    2004-03-01

    Water treatment works using coagulation/flocculation in the process stream will generate a waste sludge. This sludge is termed as ferric, alum, or lime sludge based on which coagulant was primarily used. The works in Adana, Turkey uses ferric chloride. The potential for using this sludge for the treatment of vegetable oil refinery industry wastewater by coagulation has been investigated. The sludge acted as a coagulant and excellent oil and grease, COD and TSS removal efficiencies were obtained. The optimum conditions were a pH of 6 and a sludge dose of 1100 mg SS l(-1). The efficiency of sludge was also compared with alum and ferric chloride for the vegetable oil refinery wastewater. At doses of 1300-1900 mg SS l(-1), the sludge was as effective as ferric chloride and alum at removing oil and grease, COD, and TSS. In addition, various combinations of ferric chloride and waterworks sludge were also examined. Under the condition of 12.5 mg l(-1) fresh ferric chloride and 1000 mg SS l(-1) sludge dose, 99% oil and grease 99% TSS and 83% COD removal efficiencies were obtained. PMID:15176752

  3. Oil spill treatment products approval: the UK approach and potential application to the Gulf region.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Mark F; Law, Robin J

    2008-07-01

    The environmental threat from oil spills remains significant across the globe and particularly in regions of high oil production and transport such as the Gulf. The ultimate damage caused can be limited by mitigation actions that responders deploy. The responsible and appropriate use of oil spill treatment products (e.g. dispersants, sorbents etc.) can offer response options that can result in substantial net environmental benefit. However, the approval and choice of what products to use needs careful consideration. The United Kingdom has had in place a statutory approval scheme for oil spill treatment products for 30 years. It is based on measures of efficiency and environmental acceptability. Two toxicity tests form an integral part of the assessment, the Sea test and the Rocky Shore test, and work on the premise that approved products will not make the situation significantly worse when added to spilled oil. This paper outlines the UK approach and how its rationale might be applied to the approval of products specific for the Gulf region. Issues such as species choice, higher temperatures and salinity and regional environmental conditions are considered. PMID:18433797

  4. Oil spill treatment products approval: the UK approach and potential application to the Gulf region.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Mark F; Law, Robin J

    2008-07-01

    The environmental threat from oil spills remains significant across the globe and particularly in regions of high oil production and transport such as the Gulf. The ultimate damage caused can be limited by mitigation actions that responders deploy. The responsible and appropriate use of oil spill treatment products (e.g. dispersants, sorbents etc.) can offer response options that can result in substantial net environmental benefit. However, the approval and choice of what products to use needs careful consideration. The United Kingdom has had in place a statutory approval scheme for oil spill treatment products for 30 years. It is based on measures of efficiency and environmental acceptability. Two toxicity tests form an integral part of the assessment, the Sea test and the Rocky Shore test, and work on the premise that approved products will not make the situation significantly worse when added to spilled oil. This paper outlines the UK approach and how its rationale might be applied to the approval of products specific for the Gulf region. Issues such as species choice, higher temperatures and salinity and regional environmental conditions are considered.

  5. Baseline study of methane emission from anaerobic ponds of palm oil mill effluent treatment.

    PubMed

    Yacob, Shahrakbah; Ali Hassan, Mohd; Shirai, Yoshihito; Wakisaka, Minato; Subash, Sunderaj

    2006-07-31

    The world currently obtains its energy from the fossil fuels such as oil, natural gas and coal. However, the international crisis in the Middle East, rapid depletion of fossil fuel reserves as well as climate change have driven the world towards renewable energy sources which are abundant, untapped and environmentally friendly. Malaysia has abundant biomass resources generated from the agricultural industry particularly the large commodity, palm oil. This paper will focus on palm oil mill effluent (POME) as the source of renewable energy from the generation of methane and establish the current methane emission from the anaerobic treatment facility. The emission was measured from two anaerobic ponds in Felda Serting Palm Oil Mill for 52 weeks. The results showed that the methane content was between 35.0% and 70.0% and biogas flow rate ranged between 0.5 and 2.4 L/min/m(2). Total methane emission per anaerobic pond was 1043.1 kg/day. The total methane emission calculated from the two equations derived from relationships between methane emission and total carbon removal and POME discharged were comparable with field measurement. This study also revealed that anaerobic pond system is more efficient than open digesting tank system for POME treatment. Two main factors affecting the methane emission were mill activities and oil palm seasonal cropping. PMID:16125215

  6. The use of waterworks sludge for the treatment of vegetable oil refinery industry wastewater.

    PubMed

    Basibuyuk, M; Kalat, D G

    2004-03-01

    Water treatment works using coagulation/flocculation in the process stream will generate a waste sludge. This sludge is termed as ferric, alum, or lime sludge based on which coagulant was primarily used. The works in Adana, Turkey uses ferric chloride. The potential for using this sludge for the treatment of vegetable oil refinery industry wastewater by coagulation has been investigated. The sludge acted as a coagulant and excellent oil and grease, COD and TSS removal efficiencies were obtained. The optimum conditions were a pH of 6 and a sludge dose of 1100 mg SS l(-1). The efficiency of sludge was also compared with alum and ferric chloride for the vegetable oil refinery wastewater. At doses of 1300-1900 mg SS l(-1), the sludge was as effective as ferric chloride and alum at removing oil and grease, COD, and TSS. In addition, various combinations of ferric chloride and waterworks sludge were also examined. Under the condition of 12.5 mg l(-1) fresh ferric chloride and 1000 mg SS l(-1) sludge dose, 99% oil and grease 99% TSS and 83% COD removal efficiencies were obtained.

  7. Reduced severity of ischemic stroke and improvement of mitochondrial function after dietary treatment with the anaplerotic substance triheptanoin.

    PubMed

    Schwarzkopf, T M; Koch, K; Klein, J

    2015-08-01

    Triheptanoin, an oily substance, consists of glycerol bound to three molecules of heptanoic acid, a C7 odd-chain fatty acid. A triheptanoin-rich diet has anaplerotic effects because heptanoate metabolism yields succinate which delivers substrates to the Krebs cycle. While previous studies on the effects of triheptanoin focused on metabolic disorders and epilepsy, we investigated triheptanoin's effect on ischemic stroke. Mice were fed a triheptanoin-enriched diet for 14days; controls received soybean oil. Only mice fed triheptanoin had measurable quantities of odd-numbered fatty acids in the plasma and brain. Transient ischemia was induced in the brain by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCAO) for 60min. One day later, mice were tested for neurological function (chimney, rotarod and corner tests) which was found to be better preserved in the triheptanoin group. Microdialysis demonstrated that the strong, neurotoxic increase of extracellular glutamate, which was observed in the mouse striatum during MCAO, was strongly reduced in triheptanoin-fed mice while glucose levels were not affected. Triheptanoin diet reduced the infarct area in stroked mice by about 40%. In ex vivo-experiments with isolated mitochondria, ischemia was found to cause a reduction of mitochondrial respiratory activity. This reduction was attenuated by triheptanoin diet in complex II and IV. In parallel measurements, ATP levels and mitochondrial membrane potential were reduced in control animals but were preserved in triheptanoin-fed mice. We conclude that triheptanoin-fed mice which sustained an experimental stroke had a significantly improved neurological outcome. This beneficial effect is apparently due to an improvement of mitochondrial function and preservation of the cellular energy state. Our findings identify triheptanoin as a promising new dietary agent for neuroprotection. PMID:25982559

  8. Ovarian and hormonal responses to a progesterone-releasing controlled internal drug releasing treatment in dietary-restricted goats.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Tomomi; Fujiwara, Ken-Ichiro; Kim, Seungjoon; Kamomae, Hideo; Kaneda, Yoshihiro

    2004-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary restriction on ovarian, endocrine (ovarian steroids and luteinizing hormone (LH) pulse) and metabolic (glucose, insulin and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA)) profiles in goats treated with a progesterone-releasing controlled internal drug releasing (CIDR-G) device. Cycling goats were offered either a maintenance or a restricted (30% of requirement; n =4 per treatment) level of feeding. The dietary restriction was started on the day following ovulation. At 30-32 days after the start of food restriction, the goats received a prostaglandin F(2alpha) (2mg of dinoprost) injection followed by 10 days of CIDR-G treatment. Ovarian ultrasonographic images were monitored daily throughout the experiment and blood samples were collected daily just before the morning feeding for analysis of endocrine and metabolic profiles. Frequent blood samples (1 ml) were also collected at 10 min intervals for 8 h from -8 h to CIDR-G removal, and from 32 to 40 h after CIDR-G removal for analysis of LH pulses. Body weight was significantly (P < 0.05) decreased in the food-restricted animals. Oestrous behaviour and ovulation followed by a rise of plasma progesterone concentration were observed after the CIDR-G removal in all control animals but not in any of the food-restricted animals within 12 days after CIDR-G removal. The LH pulse frequency from 32 to 40 h after the CIDR-G removal was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in the food-restricted animals than in control animals (1.5 +/- 0.6 versus 3.8 +/- 0.5 pulses for 8 h). There was no significant difference in the glucose concentration in weekly plasma samples between control and food-restricted animals. Insulin concentrations from 2 weeks after the start of feed restriction were significantly (P < 0.05) lower in restricted animals than in control animals. The NEFA concentration in restricted animals was significantly (P < 0.05) increased after the start of feed restriction, and

  9. Olive oil waste treatment: a comparative and critical presentation of methods, advantages & disadvantages.

    PubMed

    Arvanitoyannis, Ioannis S; Kassaveti, Aikaterini; Stefanatos, Stelios

    2007-01-01

    Since olive oil industries were considered responsible for a great amount of pollution there has been a strong need for optimization of olive oil waste treatment systems. The currently employed systems are numerous and fall in the following large categories; bioremediation (ex-situ, in-situ), thermal processes (incineration, pyrolysis, gasification), evaporation, membrance processes, electrolysis, ozonation, digestion, coagulation/flocculation/precipitation, and distillation. Both advantages and disadvantages in conjunction with respective methodology and explicit flow diagrams were presented per waste treatment method. Furthermore, most recent studies were reported and more than twenty-five figures showing mainly the effectiveness of the current waste treatment methods versus time or temperature were displayed. The comparative presentation of the various olive oil waste treatment methodologies showed that though bioremediation stands for the most enviromentally friendly technique, its required longer treatment time in conjuction with its weakness to deal with elemental contaminants makes imperative the employment of a second alternative technique which could either be a membrance process (low energy cost, reliability, reduced capital cost) or a coagulation/flocculation method because of its low cost and high effectiveness. Biogas production appears to be another promising and energy effective waste treatment method. On the other hand, methods like distillation and ozonation (high cost) and electrolysis (experimental level) are unlikely to dominate this field unless their high cost is substantially reduced in the near future.

  10. Nutritional treatment for inborn errors of metabolism: indications, regulations, and availability of medical foods and dietary supplements using phenylketonuria as an example.

    PubMed

    Camp, Kathryn M; Lloyd-Puryear, Michele A; Huntington, Kathleen L

    2012-09-01

    Medical foods and dietary supplements are used to treat rare inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) identified through state-based universal newborn screening. These products are regulated under Food and Drug Administration (FDA) food and dietary supplement statutes. The lack of harmony in terminology used to refer to medical foods and dietary supplements and the misuse of words that imply that FDA regulates these products as drugs have led to confusion. These products are expensive and, although they are used for medical treatment of IEM, third-party payer coverage of these products is inconsistent across the United States. Clinicians and families report termination of coverage in late adolescence, failure to cover treatment during pregnancy, coverage for select conditions only, or no coverage. We describe the indications for specific nutritional treatment products for IEM and their regulation, availability, and categorization. We conclude with a discussion of the problems that have contributed to the paradox of identifying individuals with IEM through newborn screening but not guaranteeing that they receive optimal treatment. Throughout the paper, we use the nutritional treatment of phenylketonuria as an example of IEM treatment.

  11. Nutritional Treatment for Inborn Errors of Metabolism: Indications, Regulations, and Availability of Medical Foods and Dietary Supplements Using Phenylketonuria as an Example

    PubMed Central

    Camp, Kathryn M.; Lloyd-Puryear, Michele A.; Huntington, Kathleen L.

    2012-01-01

    Medical foods and dietary supplements are used to treat rare inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) identified through state-based universal newborn screening. These products are regulated under Food and Drug Administration (FDA) food and dietary supplement statutes. The lack of harmony in terminology used to refer to medical foods and dietary supplements and the misuse of words that imply that FDA regulates these products as drugs have led to confusion. These products are expensive and, although they are used for medical treatment of IEM, third-party payer coverage of these products is inconsistent across the United States. Clinicians and families report termination of coverage in late adolescence, failure to cover treatment during pregnancy, coverage for select conditions only, or no coverage. We describe the indications for specific nutritional treatment products for IEM and their regulation, availability, and categorization. We conclude with a discussion of the problems that have contributed to the paradox of identifying individuals with IEM through newborn screening but not guaranteeing that they receive optimal treatment. Throughout the paper, we use the nutritional treatment of phenylketonuria as an example of IEM treatment. PMID:22854513

  12. Effectiveness of topical peppermint oil on symptomatic treatment of chronic pruritus

    PubMed Central

    Elsaie, Lotfy T; El Mohsen, Abdelraouf M; Ibrahim, Ibrahim M; Mohey-Eddin, Mahmoud H; Elsaie, Mohamed L

    2016-01-01

    Background Pruritus is one of the commonest skin complaints. Peppermint oil can be effective in reducing the severity of such a condition. Aim The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of topically applied peppermint oil in the treatment of chronic pruritus. Subjects and methods Fifty selected subjects diagnosed with chronic pruritus due to hepatic, renal, or diabetic cause were studied and divided into two groups of 25 patients each. Group I patients were instructed to hydrate the skin and then apply topical peppermint oil, while Group II patients applied petrolatum topically by hand; this application was done on the areas of pruritus, twice daily for 2 weeks. The severity of the itch was assessed and compared before and after the study by the 5-D itch scale (5D-IS). The results were analyzed by SPSS software. Statistical methods such as descriptive analysis, independent samples t-test, paired samples t-test, and chi-square test were employed. Results There was a significant improvement regarding all studied individual parameters (5-D IS) for the peppermint oil users with no significance among petrolatum users. A comparison of total score of 5-D IS between patients of Group I and patients of Group II favored the improvement following the use of peppermint oil than using placebo (P-value <0.05). Conclusion The topical treatment of chronic pruritus with peppermint oil is effective, easy to use, safe, cheap, and more acceptable for those whose topical and systemic treatments tend to be irritating, contraindicated, or less well tolerated. PMID:27785084

  13. Liquid products from oxidative thermal treatment of oil sludge with different oxygen concentrations of air.

    PubMed

    Shie, J L; Chang, C Y; Lin, J P; Le, D J; Wu, C H

    2001-01-01

    Oxidative thermal treatment of oil sludge with different oxygen concentrations of air by using a dynamic thermogravimetric (TG) reaction system is investigated. The experimental conditions employed are: gas flow rate of 50 cm3/min (value at 298 K) for 300 mg dry waste, a constant heating rate of 5.2 K/min, the oxygen concentrations in air of 1.09, 8.62 and 20.95 vol. % O2, and the temperature (T) range of 378-873 K. From the experimental results, the residual mass fractions (M) are about 78.95, 28.49, 8.77 and 4.13 wt. % at the oxidative T of 563, 713, 763 and 873 K for the case with 20.95 vol. % O2, respectively. The values of M with 8.62 and 1.09 vol. % O2 at T of 873 K are 4.87 and 9.44 wt. %, respectively. The distillation characteristics of the oil portion of liquid products (condensates of gas at 298 K) from the oxidative thermal treatment of oil sludge with 20.95 vol. % O2 at T of 378-873 K is close to those of commercial gasoline. Nevertheless, the liquid product contains a large amount of water. The distillation characteristics of the oil portions of liquid products with 8.62 and 1.09 vol. % O2 at T of 378-873 K are close to those of diesel and fuel oils, respectively. The oil quality with 8.62 vol. % O2 is better than that with 1.09 vol. % O2. However, the liquid product with 8.62 vol. % O2 still contains a large amount of water; nonetheless, that with 1.09 vol. % O2 is with negligible water. Compared with the oil product of nitrogen pyrolysis, the oil quality with 1.09 vol. % O2 is better. Certainly, low oxygen conditions (i.e. 1.09 vol. % O2) not only accelerate the thermal reaction of oil sludge, but also at the same time avoid or reduce the production of water. Further, from the analysis of benzene (B), ethylbenzene (E), toluene (T) and iso-xylene (X) concentrations of the oil portion of liquid products, the BETX concentrations of oil with 20.95 vol. % O2 are higher than those with 8.62 and 1.09 vol. % O2. The yields of liquid products with 20.95, 8

  14. N-acetylcysteine for the treatment of clove oil-induced fulminant hepatic failure.

    PubMed

    Eisen, Jeffrey S; Koren, Gideon; Juurlink, David N; Ng, Vicky L

    2004-01-01

    We present a 3-month-old female who developed fulminant hepatic failure after ingesting less than 8 mL of clove oil. Initial treatment involved gastrointestinal decontamination, supportive measures, and admission to hospital. She subsequently developed fulminant hepatic failure and was treated with intravenous N-acetylcysteine (N-AC) according to a protocol used for acetaminophen poisoning. Over the next 72 h her liver synthetic function and clinical status improved, and she made a complete recovery. Previous reported cases of clove oil toxicity and the potential role of N-AC therapy are reviewed. PMID:15083943

  15. Effect of dietary supplementation with red wine extract or vitamin E, in combination with linseed and fish oil, on lamb meat quality.

    PubMed

    Muíño, Iria; Apeleo, Elizabeth; de la Fuente, Jesús; Pérez-Santaescolástica, Cristina; Rivas-Cañedo, Ana; Pérez, Concepción; Díaz, María Teresa; Cañeque, Vicente; Lauzurica, Sara

    2014-10-01

    Thirty lambs were assigned to the following treatments: control diet (C) rich in omega-3 fatty acids; C plus 900ppm red wine extract (RWE), or C plus 300ppm vitamin E (VE). Oxidative stability and sensory properties of chops stored in MAP (70% O2/30% CO2) during 12days were evaluated. Chops from the VE group showed lower lipid oxidation (p<0.001) and protein carbonylation (p<0.05), stable omega-3 fatty acids proportions and overall liking sensory scores (p<0.05). Dietary RWE supplementation did not influence oxidative stability of chops, however levels of C20:5n-3 were greater (p<0.05) and n-6/n-3 ratio (p<0.01) was lower, relative to controls. PMID:24927047

  16. The Use of Ozonized Oil in the Treatment of Dermatophitosis Caused by Microsporum Canis in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Daud, Fernanda Vasquez; Ueda, Suely Mitoi Ykko; Navarini, Alessandra; Mímica, Lycia Mara Jenné

    2011-01-01

    The ozone is effective against most microorganisms due to its high oxidant power. Low concentrations and short-term contact are sufficient to inactivate bacteria, mold, yeast, parasites, seaweeds, protozoa and fungi. Microsporum canis is an important agent of dermatophitosis in human and animal. The aim of the current study was to assess the efficacy of ozonized oil over Microsporum canis in rabbits. Eighteen male New Zealand white rabbits, weight ranging from 2 to 3.2 kg were depilated in the cranial dorso-lateral and right caudal, and cranial and left caudal regions. The regions were inoculated with Microsporum canis, excepting the right caudal region, and were denominated TM, O, OM and M, respectively. After seven days, the treatment of lesions in TM began with 0.12g of terbinaphine 1% cream; in OM and O with 0.12g of ozonized oil; all animals were treated once a day for 28 days. Region M was not treated. Material was collected from those regions for cultivation in Sabouraud agar at day 28 of treatment. In the evolution of the treatment with terbinaphine, of 14 contaminated regions with Microsporum canis ten evolved to cure. With the ozonized oil, of 15 contaminations, four were cured. Clinically, that is, the macroscopic evaluation of lesions showed improvement in the TM and OM treated regions. We can conclude that there was statistical evidence of the protection action of the oil against the dermatophyte. PMID:24031632

  17. Effects of dietary supplementation of coriander oil, in canola oil diets, on the metabolism of [1-(14)C] 18:3n-3 and [1-(14)C] 18:2n-6 in rainbow trout hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Randall, K M; Drew, M D; Øverland, M; Østbye, T-K; Bjerke, M; Vogt, G; Ruyter, B

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of petroselinic acid, found in coriander oil, on the ability of rainbow trout hepatocytes to increase the production of eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3; EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3; DHA) from [1-(14)C] α-linolenic acid (18:3n-3; ALA) and to reduce the production of arachidonic acid (20:4n-6; ARA) from [1-(14)C] 18:2n-6. Addition of coriander oil increased the production of 22:6n-3, from [1-(14)C] 18:3n-3, at the 0.5 and 1.0% inclusion levels and reduced the conversion of [1-(14)C] 18:2n-6 to 20:4n-6. β-Oxidation was significantly increased at the 1.5% inclusion level for [1-(14)C] 18:2n-6, however β-oxidation for [1-(14)C] 18:3n-3 only showed an increasing trend. Acetate, a main breakdown product of fatty acids (FA) via peroxisomal β-oxidation, decreased three-fold for [1-(14)C] 18:2n-6 and nearly doubled for [1-(14)C] 18:3n-3 when coriander was added at a 1.5% inclusion level. Acyl coenzyme A oxidase (ACO) enzyme activity showed no significant differences between treatments. Relative gene expression of ∆6 desaturase decreased with addition of coriander oil compared to the control. The addition of petroselinic acid via coriander oil to vegetable oil (VO) based diets containing no fishmeal (FM) or fish oil (FO), significantly increased the production of anti-inflammatory precursor 22:6n-3 (P=0.011) and decreased pro-inflammatory precursor 20:4n-6 (P=0.023) in radiolabelled hepatocytes of rainbow trout.

  18. Box jellyfish envenomation: case report of effective lemon and oil emulsion treatment.

    PubMed

    Hamann, Carsten R; Hamann, Dathan; Richardson, Clare; Seeburger, Jack

    2014-04-01

    Box jellyfish are highly venomous and numerous possible treatments for envenomation have already been reported in the published literature. The hand of a 55-year-old scuba diver was stung in the Gulf of Guinea resulting in two crops of coalescing vesicles with intense pain and lymphadenopathy. Traditional therapies such as hot water, cold packs and acetic acid were ineffective. Symptoms were rapidly relieved after the application of a lemon-oil emulsion balm. Treatments for jellyfish envenomation generally aim to either denature the jellyfish venom or prevent the discharge of the venom. Lemon-oil emulsion therapy has not yet been reported in the published literature but may be an economical and novel treatment for box jellyfish envenomation. PMID:24334401

  19. Box jellyfish envenomation: case report of effective lemon and oil emulsion treatment.

    PubMed

    Hamann, Carsten R; Hamann, Dathan; Richardson, Clare; Seeburger, Jack

    2014-04-01

    Box jellyfish are highly venomous and numerous possible treatments for envenomation have already been reported in the published literature. The hand of a 55-year-old scuba diver was stung in the Gulf of Guinea resulting in two crops of coalescing vesicles with intense pain and lymphadenopathy. Traditional therapies such as hot water, cold packs and acetic acid were ineffective. Symptoms were rapidly relieved after the application of a lemon-oil emulsion balm. Treatments for jellyfish envenomation generally aim to either denature the jellyfish venom or prevent the discharge of the venom. Lemon-oil emulsion therapy has not yet been reported in the published literature but may be an economical and novel treatment for box jellyfish envenomation.

  20. [The influence of oil heat treatment on wood decay resistance by Fourier infrared spectrum analysis].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya-Mei; Ma, Shu-Ling; Feng, Li-Qun

    2014-03-01

    Wood preservative treatment can improve defects of plantation wood such as easy to corrupt and moth eaten. Among them heat-treatment is not only environmental and no pollution, also can improve the corrosion resistance and dimension stability of wood. In this test Poplar and Mongolian Seoteh Pine was treated by soybean oil as heat-conducting medium, and the heat treatment wood was studied for indoor decay resistance; wood chemical components before and after treatment, the effect of heat treatment on wood decay resistance performance and main mechanism of action were analysed by Fourier infrared spectrometric. Results showed that the mass loss rate of poplar fell from 19.37% to 5% and Mongolian Seoteh Pine's fell from 8.23% to 3.15%, so oil heat treatment can effectively improve the decay resistance. Infrared spectrum analysis shows that the heat treatment made wood's hydrophilic groups such as hydroxyl groups in largely reduced, absorbing capacity decreased and the moisture of wood rotting fungi necessary was reduced; during the heat treatment wood chemical components such as cellulose, hemicellu lose were degraded, and the nutrient source of wood rotting fungi growth necessary was reduced. Wood decay fungi can grow in the wood to discredit wood is because of that wood can provide better living conditions for wood decay fungi, such as nutrients, water, oxygen, and so on. The cellulose and hemicellulose in wood is the main nutrition source of wood decay fungi. So the oil heat-treatment can reduce the cellulose, hemicellulose nutrition source of wood decay fungi so as to improve the decay resistance of wood.

  1. [The influence of oil heat treatment on wood decay resistance by Fourier infrared spectrum analysis].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya-Mei; Ma, Shu-Ling; Feng, Li-Qun

    2014-03-01

    Wood preservative treatment can improve defects of plantation wood such as easy to corrupt and moth eaten. Among them heat-treatment is not only environmental and no pollution, also can improve the corrosion resistance and dimension stability of wood. In this test Poplar and Mongolian Seoteh Pine was treated by soybean oil as heat-conducting medium, and the heat treatment wood was studied for indoor decay resistance; wood chemical components before and after treatment, the effect of heat treatment on wood decay resistance performance and main mechanism of action were analysed by Fourier infrared spectrometric. Results showed that the mass loss rate of poplar fell from 19.37% to 5% and Mongolian Seoteh Pine's fell from 8.23% to 3.15%, so oil heat treatment can effectively improve the decay resistance. Infrared spectrum analysis shows that the heat treatment made wood's hydrophilic groups such as hydroxyl groups in largely reduced, absorbing capacity decreased and the moisture of wood rotting fungi necessary was reduced; during the heat treatment wood chemical components such as cellulose, hemicellu lose were degraded, and the nutrient source of wood rotting fungi growth necessary was reduced. Wood decay fungi can grow in the wood to discredit wood is because of that wood can provide better living conditions for wood decay fungi, such as nutrients, water, oxygen, and so on. The cellulose and hemicellulose in wood is the main nutrition source of wood decay fungi. So the oil heat-treatment can reduce the cellulose, hemicellulose nutrition source of wood decay fungi so as to improve the decay resistance of wood. PMID:25208386

  2. Coconut Oil Extract Mitigates Testicular Injury Following Adjuvant Treatment with Antiretroviral Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Ogedengbe, Oluwatosin O; Jegede, Ayoola I; Onanuga, Ismail O; Offor, Ugochukwu; Naidu, Edwin CS; Peter, Aniekan I; Azu, Onyemaechi O

    2016-01-01

    Increased access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has made the management of drug toxicities an increasingly crucial component of HIV. This study investigated the effects of adjuvant use of coconut oil and HAART on testicular morphology and seminal parameters in Sprague- Dawley rats. Twelve adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 153~169 g were distributed into four groups (A–D) and treated as follows: A served as control (distilled water); B (HAART cocktail- Zidovudine, Lamivudine and Nevirapine); C (HAART + Virgin coconut oil 10 mL/kg) and D (Virgin coconut oil 10 mL/kg). After 56 days of treatment, animals were killed and laparotomy to exercise the epididymis for seminal fluid analyses done whilst testicular tissues were processed for histomorphometric studies. Result showed a significant decline in sperm motility (P < 0.05) and count (P < 0.0001) in HAART-treated animals while there was insignificant changes in other parameters in groups C and D except count that was reduced (P < 0.0001) when compared with controls. Histomorphological studies showed HAART caused disorders in seminiferous tubular architecture with significant (P < 0.01) decline in epithelial height closely mirrored by extensive reticulin framework and positive PAS cells. Adjuvant Virgin coconut oil + HAART resulted in significant decrease in seminiferous tubular diameter (P < 0.05), but other morphometric and histological parameters were similar to control or Virgin coconut oil alone (which showed normal histoarchitecture levels). While derangements in testicular and seminal fluid parameters occurred following HAART, adjuvant treatment with Virgin coconut oil restored the distortions emanating thereof.

  3. Use of coagulants in treatment of olive oil wastewater model solutions by induced air flotation.

    PubMed

    Meyssami, B; Kasaeian, A B

    2005-02-01

    Natural polyelectrolytes are suitable coagulants for the treatment of industrial and minicipal wastewaters because they are safe and have environmental benefits. Chitosan, a natural cationic polyelectrolyte, and other similar coagulants were used in the treatment of an olive oil water suspension as a model for the processing wastewater. The effect of chitosan, starch, alum and ferric chloride on the coagulation of oil droplets were determined by the jar test apparatus and turbidometric measurements. Olive oil emulsion samples were prepared by the use of surface active agents and other agents that could form stable oil water emulsions. The effect of parameters such as pH, ionic strength and optimum dosage of the coagulants were determined in the jar test experiments. Following the jar experiments, with the optimum concentration of the suitable coagulant, the emulsions were placed in an induced air flotation (IAF) cell to separate the coagulated oil droplets from solution. In the air flotation experiments, the effect of temperature, surfactant concentration and air flowrate were determined on the decrease of turbidity and COD of the emulsion samples. In the jar experiments, chitosan and alum used together at concentrations of 15 and 25 ppm, respectively, at pH 6 produced the lowest turbidity values. In the air flotation experiments, a concentration of 100 ppm of chitosan, an air flowrate of 3 l/min, aeration time of 45 s, temperature of 20 degrees C and pH 6 produced optimum levels. At optimum conditions of coagulation and flotation stages, the COD of the olive oil emulsion could be reduced by 95%.

  4. Harnessing the Power of Metabolism for Seizure Prevention: Focus on Dietary Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, Adam L.; Stafstrom, Carl E.

    2012-01-01

    The continued occurrence of refractory seizures in at least one-third of children and adults with epilepsy, despite the availability of almost 15 conventional and novel anticonvulsant drugs, speaks to a dire need to develop novel therapeutic approaches. Cellular metabolism, the critical pathways by which cells access and utilize energy, is critical for normal neuronal function. Furthermore, mounting evidence suggests direct links between energy metabolism and cellular excitability. The high-fat, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet has been used as a treatment for drug-refractory epilepsy for almost a century. Yet, the multitude of alternative therapies to target aspects of cellular metabolism and hyperexcitability is almost untapped. Approaches discussed in this review offer a wide diversity of therapeutic targets that might be exploited by investigators in the search for safer and more effective epilepsy treatments. PMID:23110824

  5. Gonadal sex differentiation and effects of dietary methyltestosterone treatment in sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria).

    PubMed

    Luckenbach, J Adam; Fairgrieve, William T

    2016-02-01

    Methods for sex control are needed to establish monosex aquaculture of sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria). Here we conducted the first characterization of sex differentiation by histology and hormonal sex reversal experiment in sablefish. Ovarian differentiation was first discernible at ~80 mm fork length (FL) and characterized by development of lamellar structures and onset of meiosis. Testes exhibited a dual-lobe appearance over much of their length and remained non-meiotic until males were ≥520 mm FL (2 years post-fertilization). Juveniles with undifferentiated gonads were provided diets containing 0 (control), 5 or 50 mg 17α-methyltestosterone (MT)/kg for 2 months. Following treatment, controls possessed either ovaries or non-meiotic testes, whereas MT-treated fish exhibited meiotic testes (60% of the fish), intersex gonads (~30%), or gonads that appeared sterile (~10%). A genetic sex marker revealed that all intersex fish were genetic females, although other females appeared to be completely sex reversed (i.e., neomales). One year after treatment, MT-treated fish possessed non-meiotic testes similar to control males or intersex gonads with reduced ovarian features, presumably due to atresia following MT withdrawal. Milt collected from neomales and genetic males 3 years post-treatment permitted sperm motility analyses; however, neomale sperm were virtually immotile. These results demonstrated that sablefish are differentiated gonochorists and that MT treatment from 76 to 196 mm FL induced permanent masculinization of a portion of the genetic females, but acquisition of sperm motility was impaired. Earlier administration of MT may be necessary to sex reverse a higher proportion of genetic females and reduce negative effects on fertility.

  6. Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    Dietary supplements are vitamins, minerals, herbs, and many other products. They can come as pills, capsules, powders, drinks, ... possible Tell your health care provider about any dietary supplements you use Do not take a bigger dose ...

  7. Sequential treatment of olive oil mill wastewater with adsorption and biological and photo-Fenton oxidation.

    PubMed

    Aytar, Pınar; Gedikli, Serap; Sam, Mesut; Farizoğlu, Burhanettin; Çabuk, Ahmet

    2013-05-01

    Olive oil mill wastewater (OMWW), a recalcitrant pollutant, has features including high phenolic content and dark color; thereby, several chemical or physical treatments or biological processes were not able to remediate it. In this study, the treatment efficiencies of three treatments, including adsorption, biological application, and photo-Fenton oxidation were sequentially evaluated for OMWW. Adsorption, biological treatment, and photo-Fenton caused decreasing phenolic contents of 48.69 %, 59.40 %, and 95 %, respectively. However, after three sequential treatments were performed, higher reduction percentages in phenolic (total 99 %) and organic contents (90 %) were observed. Although the studied fungus has not induced significant color reduction, photo-Fenton oxidation was considered to be an attractive solution, especially for color reduction. Besides, toxicity of OMWW treatment was significantly reduced. PMID:23054778

  8. Sequential treatment of olive oil mill wastewater with adsorption and biological and photo-Fenton oxidation.

    PubMed

    Aytar, Pınar; Gedikli, Serap; Sam, Mesut; Farizoğlu, Burhanettin; Çabuk, Ahmet

    2013-05-01

    Olive oil mill wastewater (OMWW), a recalcitrant pollutant, has features including high phenolic content and dark color; thereby, several chemical or physical treatments or biological processes were not able to remediate it. In this study, the treatment efficiencies of three treatments, including adsorption, biological application, and photo-Fenton oxidation were sequentially evaluated for OMWW. Adsorption, biological treatment, and photo-Fenton caused decreasing phenolic contents of 48.69 %, 59.40 %, and 95 %, respectively. However, after three sequential treatments were performed, higher reduction percentages in phenolic (total 99 %) and organic contents (90 %) were observed. Although the studied fungus has not induced significant color reduction, photo-Fenton oxidation was considered to be an attractive solution, especially for color reduction. Besides, toxicity of OMWW treatment was significantly reduced.

  9. Investigations on the Effects of Dietary Essential Oils and Different Husbandry Conditions on the Gut Ecology in Piglets after Weaning

    PubMed Central

    Janczyk, P.; Pieper, R.; Urubschurov, V.; Wendler, K. R.; Souffrant, W. B.

    2009-01-01

    Essential oils (EO) are being considered as possible alternatives to in-feed antibiotic growth promoters in pig nutrition. The effects of an EO mixture consisting of limonene, eugenol and pinene (10.0, 2.0, and 4.8 mg/kg diet, resp.) on gut physiology and ecology were studied in piglets. The experiment was conducted at low (commercial farm) and high hygienic conditions (experimental farm), to elucidate interactions between EO supplementation and husbandry methods. Piglets were weaned at 28 days of age, when they were offered either a control diet (C) or C with EO. Four piglets were sacrificed in each group on day 29, 30, 33 and 39. Digesta from the third distal part of the small intestine and from the colon were sampled and analysed for pH, dry matter, lactic acid, short chain fatty acids and ammonia concentrations. Enterobacteria, enterococci, lactobacilli and yeast counts were obtained by plating. Genomic DNA was extracted from digesta and polymerase chain reaction—denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was performed. Individual microbial communities were identified at each farm. Age affected the intestinal parameters. No effects of the EO with exception for a significant reduction in colon bacterial diversity at 39 days of age could be recorded at experimental farm. PMID:20016670

  10. Essential Oils for Complementary Treatment of Surgical Patients: State of the Art

    PubMed Central

    Stea, Susanna; Beraudi, Alina; De Pasquale, Dalila

    2014-01-01

    Aromatherapy is the controlled use of plant essences for therapeutic purposes. Its applications are numerous (i.e., wellbeing, labour, infections, dementia, and anxiety treatment) but often they have not been scientifically validated. The aim of the present study is to review the available literature to determine if there is evidence for effectiveness of aromatherapy in surgical patients to treat anxiety and insomnia, to control pain and nausea, and to dress wound. Efficacy studies of lavender or orange and peppermint essential oils, to treat anxiety and nausea, respectively, have shown positive results. For other aspects, such as pain control, essential oils therapy has shown uncertain results. Finally, there are encouraging data for the treatment of infections, especially for tea tree oil, although current results are still inconclusive. It should also be considered that although they are, allergic reactions and toxicity can occur after oral ingestion. Therefore, while rigorous studies are being carried out, it is important that the therapeutic use of essential oils be performed in compliance with clinical safety standards. PMID:24707312

  11. Essential oils for complementary treatment of surgical patients: state of the art.

    PubMed

    Stea, Susanna; Beraudi, Alina; De Pasquale, Dalila

    2014-01-01

    Aromatherapy is the controlled use of plant essences for therapeutic purposes. Its applications are numerous (i.e., wellbeing, labour, infections, dementia, and anxiety treatment) but often they have not been scientifically validated. The aim of the present study is to review the available literature to determine if there is evidence for effectiveness of aromatherapy in surgical patients to treat anxiety and insomnia, to control pain and nausea, and to dress wound. Efficacy studies of lavender or orange and peppermint essential oils, to treat anxiety and nausea, respectively, have shown positive results. For other aspects, such as pain control, essential oils therapy has shown uncertain results. Finally, there are encouraging data for the treatment of infections, especially for tea tree oil, although current results are still inconclusive. It should also be considered that although they are, allergic reactions and toxicity can occur after oral ingestion. Therefore, while rigorous studies are being carried out, it is important that the therapeutic use of essential oils be performed in compliance with clinical safety standards. PMID:24707312

  12. Lemongrass essential oil gel as a local drug delivery agent for the treatment of periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Warad, Shivaraj B.; Kolar, Sahana S.; Kalburgi, Veena; Kalburgi, Nagaraj B.

    2013-01-01

    Background: It has been long recognized that periodontal diseases are infections of the periodontium, comprising the bacterial etiology, an immune response, and tissue destruction. Treatment strategies aiming primarily at suppressing or eliminating specific periodontal pathogens include adjunct use of local and systemic antibiotics as part of nonsurgical periodontal therapy. Unwanted side effects and resistance of microorganisms toward antibiotics due to their widespread use have modified the general perception about their efficacy. Research in phytosciences has revealed various medicinal plants offering a new choice of optional antimicrobial therapy. Cymbopogon citratus, Stapf. (lemongrass) is a popular medicinal plant. At a concentration ≤2%, lemongrass essential oil inhibits the growth of several kinds of microorganisms including periodontal pathogens, especially the reference strains Actinomyces naeslundii and Porphyromonas gingivalis, which were resistant to tetracycline hydrochloride. Aims: To evaluate the efficacy of locally delivered 2% lemongrass essential oil in gel form as an adjunct to scaling and root planing, as compared to scaling and root planing alone for the treatment of chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: 2% Lemongrass essential oil gel was prepared and placed in moderate to deep periodontal pockets after scaling and root planing. Results: Statistically significant reduction in probing depth and gingival index and gain in relative attachment level were noted in the experimental group as compared to the control group at 1 and 3 months. Conclusion: Locally delivered 2% lemongrass essential oil gel offers a new choice of safe and effective adjunct to scaling and root planing in periodontal therapy. PMID:24991068

  13. Suppression of leukotriene B4 generation by ex-vivo neutrophils isolated from asthma patients on dietary supplementation with gammalinolenic acid-containing borage oil: possible implication in asthma.

    PubMed

    Ziboh, Vincent A; Naguwa, Stanley; Vang, Kao; Wineinger, Julie; Morrissey, Brian M; Watnik, Mitchell; Gershwin, M Eric

    2004-03-01

    Dietary gammalinolenic acid (GLA), a potent inhibitor of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) and suppressor of leukotriene B4 (LTB4), can attenuate the clinical course of rheumatoid arthritics, with negligible side effects. Since Zileuton, also an inhibitor of 5-LOX, attenuates asthma but with an undesirable side effect, we investigated whether dietary GLA would suppress biosynthesis of PMN-LTB4 isolated from asthma patients and attenuate asthma. Twenty-four mild-moderate asthma patients (16-75 years) were randomized to receive either 2.0 g daily GLA (borage oil) or corn oil (placebo) for 12 months. Blood drawn at 3 months intervals was used to prepare sera for fatty acid analysis, PMNs for determining phospholipid fatty acids and for LTB4 generation. Patients were monitored by daily asthma scores, pulmonary function, and exhaled NO. Ingestion of daily GLA (i) increased DGLA (GLA metabolite) in PMN-phospholipids; (ii) increased generation of PMN-15-HETrE (5-LOX metabolite of DGLA). Increased PMN-DGLA/15-HETrE paralleled the decreased PMN generation of proinflammatory LTB4. However, the suppression of PMN-LTB4 did not reveal statistically significant suppression of the asthma scores evaluated. Nonetheless, the study demonstrated dietary fatty acid modulation of endogenous inflammatory mediators without side effects and thus warrant further explorations into the roles of GLA at higher doses, leukotrienes and asthma. PMID:15154607

  14. Suppression of leukotriene B4 generation by ex-vivo neutrophils isolated from asthma patients on dietary supplementation with gammalinolenic acid-containing borage oil: possible implication in asthma.

    PubMed

    Ziboh, Vincent A; Naguwa, Stanley; Vang, Kao; Wineinger, Julie; Morrissey, Brian M; Watnik, Mitchell; Gershwin, M Eric

    2004-03-01

    Dietary gammalinolenic acid (GLA), a potent inhibitor of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) and suppressor of leukotriene B4 (LTB4), can attenuate the clinical course of rheumatoid arthritics, with negligible side effects. Since Zileuton, also an inhibitor of 5-LOX, attenuates asthma but with an undesirable side effect, we investigated whether dietary GLA would suppress biosynthesis of PMN-LTB4 isolated from asthma patients and attenuate asthma. Twenty-four mild-moderate asthma patients (16-75 years) were randomized to receive either 2.0 g daily GLA (borage oil) or corn oil (placebo) for 12 months. Blood drawn at 3 months intervals was used to prepare sera for fatty acid analysis, PMNs for determining phospholipid fatty acids and for LTB4 generation. Patients were monitored by daily asthma scores, pulmonary function, and exhaled NO. Ingestion of daily GLA (i) increased DGLA (GLA metabolite) in PMN-phospholipids; (ii) increased generation of PMN-15-HETrE (5-LOX metabolite of DGLA). Increased PMN-DGLA/15-HETrE paralleled the decreased PMN generation of proinflammatory LTB4. However, the suppression of PMN-LTB4 did not reveal statistically significant suppression of the asthma scores evaluated. Nonetheless, the study demonstrated dietary fatty acid modulation of endogenous inflammatory mediators without side effects and thus warrant further explorations into the roles of GLA at higher doses, leukotrienes and asthma.

  15. Predictors of placebo response in pharmacological and dietary supplement treatment trials in pediatric autism spectrum disorder: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Masi, A; Lampit, A; Glozier, N; Hickie, I B; Guastella, A J

    2015-01-01

    Large placebo responses in many clinical trials limit our capacity to identify effective therapeutics. Although it is often assumed that core behaviors in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) rarely remit spontaneously, there has been limited investigation of the size of the placebo response in relevant clinical trials. These trials also rely on caregiver and clinical observer reports as outcome measures. The objectives of this meta-analysis are to identify the pooled placebo response and the predictors of placebo response in pharmacological and dietary supplement treatment trials for participants with a diagnosis of ASD. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in pediatric ASD, conducted between 1980 and August 2014, were identified through a search of Medline, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and clinicaltrials.gov. RCTs of at least 14 days duration, comparing the treatment response for an oral active agent and placebo using at least one of the common outcome measures, were included. Analysis of 25 data sets (1315 participants) revealed a moderate effect size for overall placebo response (Hedges' g=0.45, 95% confidence interval (0.34–0.56), P<0.001). Five factors were associated with an increase in response to placebo, namely: an increased response to the active intervention; outcome ratings by clinicians (as compared with caregivers); trials of pharmacological and adjunctive interventions; and trials located in Iran. There is a clear need for the identification of objective measures of change in clinical trials for ASD, such as evaluation of biological activity or markers, and for consideration of how best to deal with placebo response effects in trial design and analyses. PMID:26393486

  16. Regulation of rat adrenal vasoactive intestinal peptide content: effects of adrenocorticotropic hormone treatment and changes in dietary sodium intake.

    PubMed

    Hinson, J P; Renshaw, D; Carroll, M; Kapas, S

    2001-09-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is well established as a paracrine regulator of adrenal function. It is present in nerves supplying the adrenal cortex, although previous studies have found that the amount of VIP in the outer zones of the rat adrenal is not affected by ligating the splanchnic nerve supplying the adrenal gland. The present studies were designed to investigate the mechanisms involved in regulating the VIP content of the rat adrenal gland. This study examined the effects of changes in electrolyte balance and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) administration on the adrenal content of VIP as measured by radioimmunoassay. Rats on a low sodium diet had a significantly increased capsular/zona glomerulosa immunoreactive VIP (irVIP) level, while rats on a high sodium diet had suppressed levels relative to controls. Changes in dietary sodium did not affect inner zone/medullary VIP content. Administration of ACTH caused a decrease in irVIP levels in the capsular/zona glomerulosa portion of the adrenal gland but had no effect on the inner zone/medulla. Analysis of mRNA encoding VIP revealed a large increase in expression of VIP in the sodium-deplete group compared with the control, with no change in VIP expression in the sodium-loaded group. ACTH treatment was found to significantly decrease VIP mRNA levels in the capsular portion. Neither ACTH treatment nor changes in sodium intake affected inner zones/medullary VIP message. These data suggest that VIP in the capsule and zona glomerulosa region of the adrenal cortex is regulated in response to the physiological status of the animal, with changes in capsular/zona glomerulosa VIP correlating with changes in zona glomerulosa function.

  17. [Chaulmoogra oil as scientific knowledge: the construction of a treatment for leprosy].

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Fernando Sergio Dumas; de Souza, Letícia Pumar Alves; Siani, Antonio Carlos

    2008-01-01

    The article investigates how knowledge of medicinal plants and related treatment practices are assimilated and transformed. Taking as its focus the use of chaulmoogra oil to treat leprosy, it examines how information on this plant was incorporated and transformed into scientifically validated knowledge when 'Brazilian chaulmoogra' came onto the scene. Pointing to the addition of chaulmoogra byproducts to the Instituto Oswaldo Cruz's production agenda in the 1920s, the study establishes links between productive processes and relates these to the period's scientific context. From the late nineteenth century until the 1940s, chaulmoogra oil was the great hope in efforts to cure leprosy. During this period, chaulmoogric treatment earned a place as scientific knowledge thanks to research studies conducted in laboratories throughout the Western world.

  18. [The application of essential oils for the treatment of acute rhinitis in the breastfed infants].

    PubMed

    Kotova, E N; Pivneva, N D

    2014-01-01

    Specific features of the clinical course of acute rhinitis in the breastfed infants are described in conjunction with the approaches to the treatment of this condition. Special attention is given to the possibilities of inhalation of essential oils for this purpose. The results of the estimation of the effectiveness and tolerability of these substances are discussed with special reference to the "Dyshi" composition designed for monotherapy of infectious rhinitis in the children during the first year of life. PMID:24577033

  19. Development of anaerobic digestion methods for palm oil mill effluent (POME) treatment.

    PubMed

    Poh, P E; Chong, M F

    2009-01-01

    Palm oil mill effluent (POME) is a highly polluting wastewater that pollutes the environment if discharged directly due to its high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) concentration. Anaerobic digestion has been widely used for POME treatment with large emphasis placed on capturing the methane gas released as a product of this biodegradation treatment method. The anaerobic digestion method is recognized as a clean development mechanism (CDM) under the Kyoto protocol. Certified emission reduction (CER) can be obtained by using methane gas as a renewable energy. This review aims to discuss the various anaerobic treatments of POME and factors that influence the operation of anaerobic treatment. The POME treatment at both mesophilic and thermophilic temperature ranges are also analyzed. PMID:18657414

  20. Development of anaerobic digestion methods for palm oil mill effluent (POME) treatment.

    PubMed

    Poh, P E; Chong, M F

    2009-01-01

    Palm oil mill effluent (POME) is a highly polluting wastewater that pollutes the environment if discharged directly due to its high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) concentration. Anaerobic digestion has been widely used for POME treatment with large emphasis placed on capturing the methane gas released as a product of this biodegradation treatment method. The anaerobic digestion method is recognized as a clean development mechanism (CDM) under the Kyoto protocol. Certified emission reduction (CER) can be obtained by using methane gas as a renewable energy. This review aims to discuss the various anaerobic treatments of POME and factors that influence the operation of anaerobic treatment. The POME treatment at both mesophilic and thermophilic temperature ranges are also analyzed.

  1. Evaluation of physical-chemical and biological treatment of shale oil retort water

    SciTech Connect

    Mercer, B.W.; Mason, M.J.; Spencer, R.R.; Wong, A.L.; Wakamiya, W.

    1982-09-01

    Bench scale studies were conducted to evaluate conventional physical-chemical and biological treatment processes for removal of pollutants from retort water produced by in situ shale oil recovery methods. Prior to undertaking these studies, very little information had been reported on treatment of retort water. A treatment process train patterned after that generally used throughout the petroleum refining industry was envisioned for application to retort water. The treatment train would consist of processes for removing suspended matter, ammonia, biodegradable organics, and nonbiodegradable or refractory organics. The treatment processes evaluated include anaerobic digestion and activated sludge for removal of biodegradable organics and other oxidizable substances; activated carbon adsorption for removal of nonbiodegradable organics; steam stripping for ammonia removal; and chemical coagulation, sedimentation and filtration for removal of suspended matter. Preliminary cost estimates are provided.

  2. Treatment of waters polluted with crude oil and heavy metals by means of a natural wetland.

    PubMed

    Groudeva, V I; Groudev, S N; Doycheva, A S

    2003-01-01

    In the Dolni Dubnik oil deposit, Northern Bulgaria, waters polluted with crude oil and heavy metals (iron, manganese, zinc, cadmium, lead, copper) were treated by means of a natural wetland located in the deposit. The waters had a pH in the range of about 4.5-6.5 and contained about 1-5 mg/l oil. The concentrations of heavy metals usually were about 2-4 times higher than the relevant permissible levels for waters intended for use in the agriculture and industry. The watercourse through the wetland covered a distance of about 100 m and the water flow rate varied in the range of about 0.2-0.8 l/s. The wetland was characterized by an abundant water and emergent vegetation and a diverse microflora, including different oil-degrading bacteria and fungi. The treatment of the polluted waters by means of the above-mentioned wetland markedly depended on the temperature but was efficient during the different climatic seasons, even during the cold winter months at temperatures close to 0 degrees C. The oil content in the wetland effluents in most cases was decreased to less than 0.2 mg/l, and the concentrations of heavy metals were decreased below the relevant permissible levels. The removal of oil was connected with its microbial degradation. The removal of heavy metals was due to different processes but the microbial dissimilatory sulphate reduction and the sorption of metals on the organic matter and clay minerals present in the wetland played the main role.

  3. The safety of oats in the dietary treatment of coeliac disease.

    PubMed

    Richman, Emile

    2012-11-01

    Coeliac disease is a permanent inflammatory disorder of the small bowel affecting approximately 1% of the population. The only effective treatment that exists is exclusion of gluten from the diet. The present paper aims to review the literature as to whether oats are safe to eat for people with coeliac disease. Much data exist on the restrictive nature that adhering to a gluten-free diet imposes on an individual. If oats could be eaten, this would help reduce the restrictive nature of the diet. This in turn could lead to an increase in the quality of life. Oats are of high-nutritional value, providing a rich source of fibre, vitamins and minerals. The fibre source contains soluble fibre which is believed to help reduce LDL-cholesterol. A systematic review of the literature was conducted. Earlier studies conducted are difficult to compare as they used different methodologies and it is not known whether samples of oats in the studies were contaminated with gluten from other cereals. Many studies reviewed do not state the strain of oat used. Recent research has suggested that it may only be in certain strains of oats which could produce a toxic response to people with coeliac disease. In conclusion, research suggests that the risk from consuming oats may be less harmful than first thought; however, may vary according to the strain of oat. Handling that risk in clinical practice remains controversial.

  4. TREATMENT OF PRODUCED OIL AND GAS WATERS WITH SURFACTANT-MODIFIED ZEOLITE

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn E. Katz; R.S. Bowman; E.J. Sullivan

    2003-11-01

    Co-produced water from the oil and gas industry accounts for a significant waste stream in the United States. It is by some estimates the largest single waste stream in the country, aside from nonhazardous industrial wastes. Characteristics of produced water include high total dissolved solids content, dissolved organic constituents such as benzene and toluene, an oil and grease component, and chemicals added during the oil-production process. While most of the produced water is disposed via reinjection, some must be treated to remove organic constituents before the water is discharged. Current treatment options are successful in reducing the organic content; however, they cannot always meet the levels of current or proposed regulations for discharged water. Therefore, an efficient, cost-effective treatment technology is needed. Surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) has been used successfully to treat contaminated ground water for organic and inorganic constituents. In addition, the low cost of natural zeolites makes their use attractive in water-treatment applications. This report summarizes the work and results of this four-year project. We tested the effectiveness of surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) for removal of BTEX with batch and column experiments using waters with BTEX concentrations that are comparable to those of produced waters. The data from our experimental investigations showed that BTEX sorption to SMZ can be described by a linear isotherm model, and competitive effects between compounds were not significant. The SMZ can be readily regenerated using air stripping. We field-tested a prototype SMZ-based water treatment system at produced water treatment facilities and found that the SMZ successfully removes BTEX from produced waters as predicted by laboratory studies. When compared to other existing treatment technologies, the cost of the SMZ system is very competitive. Furthermore, the SMZ system is relatively compact, does not require the storage of

  5. A two-step flocculation process on oil sands tailings treatment using oppositely charged polymer flocculants.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qiuyi; Yan, Bin; Xie, Lei; Huang, Jun; Liu, Yang; Zeng, Hongbo

    2016-09-15

    Water management and treatment of mineral tailings and oil sands tailings are becoming critical challenges for the sustainable development of natural resources. Polymeric flocculants have been widely employed to facilitate the flocculation and settling of suspended fine solid particles in tailings, resulting in the separation of released water and solid sediments. In this study, a new flocculation process was developed for the treatment of oil sands tailings by using two oppositely charged polymers, i.e. an anionic polyacrylamide and a natural cationic biopolymer, chitosan. The new process was able to not only improve the clarity of supernatant after settling but also achieve a high settling efficiency. Treatment of the oil sands tailings using pure anionic polyacrylamide showed relatively high initial settling rate (ISR) of ~10.3m/h but with poor supernatant clarity (>1000NTU); while the treatment using pure cationic polymer resulted in clear supernatant (turbidity as low as 22NTU) but relatively low ISR of >2m/h. In the new flocculation process, the addition of anionic polyacrylamide to the tailings was followed by a cationic polymer, which showed both a high ISR (~7.7m/h) and a low turbidity (71NTU) of the supernatant. The flocculation mechanism was further investigated via the measurements of floc size, zeta potential and surface forces. The new flocculation process was revealed to include two steps: (1) bridging of fine solids by anionic polyacrylamide, and (2) further aggregation and flocculation mediated by charge neutralisation of the cationic polymer, which significantly eliminated the fine solids in the supernatants as well as increases floc size. Our results provide insights into the basic understanding of the interactions between polymer flocculants and solid particles in tailings treatment, as well as the development of novel tailings treatment technologies. PMID:27179318

  6. A two-step flocculation process on oil sands tailings treatment using oppositely charged polymer flocculants.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qiuyi; Yan, Bin; Xie, Lei; Huang, Jun; Liu, Yang; Zeng, Hongbo

    2016-09-15

    Water management and treatment of mineral tailings and oil sands tailings are becoming critical challenges for the sustainable development of natural resources. Polymeric flocculants have been widely employed to facilitate the flocculation and settling of suspended fine solid particles in tailings, resulting in the separation of released water and solid sediments. In this study, a new flocculation process was developed for the treatment of oil sands tailings by using two oppositely charged polymers, i.e. an anionic polyacrylamide and a natural cationic biopolymer, chitosan. The new process was able to not only improve the clarity of supernatant after settling but also achieve a high settling efficiency. Treatment of the oil sands tailings using pure anionic polyacrylamide showed relatively high initial settling rate (ISR) of ~10.3m/h but with poor supernatant clarity (>1000NTU); while the treatment using pure cationic polymer resulted in clear supernatant (turbidity as low as 22NTU) but relatively low ISR of >2m/h. In the new flocculation process, the addition of anionic polyacrylamide to the tailings was followed by a cationic polymer, which showed both a high ISR (~7.7m/h) and a low turbidity (71NTU) of the supernatant. The flocculation mechanism was further investigated via the measurements of floc size, zeta potential and surface forces. The new flocculation process was revealed to include two steps: (1) bridging of fine solids by anionic polyacrylamide, and (2) further aggregation and flocculation mediated by charge neutralisation of the cationic polymer, which significantly eliminated the fine solids in the supernatants as well as increases floc size. Our results provide insights into the basic understanding of the interactions between polymer flocculants and solid particles in tailings treatment, as well as the development of novel tailings treatment technologies.

  7. Unproven (questionable) dietary and nutritional methods in cancer prevention and treatment.

    PubMed

    Herbert, V

    1986-10-15

    "Unproven" is a euphemism for questionable. The definition of a questionable method is that it has not successfully answered the two basic consumer protection questions of efficacy and safety, to wit: Has it been responsibly, objectively, reproducibly, and reliably demonstrated in humans in the responsible (peer-reviewed) literature accepted for the shelves of the National Library of Medicine in Bethesda, Maryland, to be: More effective than suggestion or doing nothing? and in addition, either As safe as doing nothing? or, in the alternative, If there is any question with respect to safety, to have a reasonably and objectively clear potential for benefit which exceeds its potential for harm? Any proposed cancer prevention or treatment modality which has not successfully answered the above efficacy question plus one of the two safety questions is by definition questionable. It is experimental if it is new, and very probably quackery if it is old. Experimental therapy may be either ethical and responsible or unethical and irresponsible. It is unethical and irresponsible to not tell the patient experiments are being conducted on him, to charge the patient to perform research on him, or to ask the patient to sign an informed consent aimed at exculpating the doctor rather than protecting the patient. Ethical and responsible informed consents clearly delineate that what is being done is experimental, and that efficacy and safety have not been determined. Products promoted for profit to the public without passing peer process are almost without exception ineffective, often harmful, and sometimes lethal. This includes Laetrile, immunoaugmentative therapy, chelation therapy, macrobiotic diets, and other alternative therapies. Anecdotal and testimonial claims of cure, on investigation, almost invariably prove due to coincidence, suggestibility, and/or the natural history of the disorder, and fall into one of the five categories of "cures that are not": The patient never had

  8. Controlled release properties of Chitosan encapsulated volatile Citronella Oil microcapsules by thermal treatments.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Wen-Chuan; Chang, Chih-Pong; Gao, Ying-Lin

    2006-12-01

    This research uses modified orifice method to prepare the O/W type Chitosan encapsulated volatile Citronella Oil microcapsules. In this article, we investigated the forming condition of microcapsules and the influence to sustained release effect of volatile Citronella Oil by applying thermal pretreatment to microcapsules. The results suggest that the forming of microcapsules should be processed under the fundamental conditions of: (1) the concentration of Chitosan is at least 0.2wt%, (2) NaOH is greater than 0.1wt%, and (3) with the additive of coconut oil as natural surfactant, so that we could obtain final product of microcapsules with better formation and dispersion. The changes in concentration of Chitosan will affect the encapsulation efficiency of the volatile Citronella Oil. When the concentrations of Chitosan are 0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5%, the encapsulation efficiencies are 98.2%, 95.8% and 94.7%, respectively. The particle size of Chitosan microcapsules would decrease as the emulsification stirring speed increases. When the stirring speeds are 400 rpm, 800 rpm, and 1500 rpm, the average particle sizes of microcapsules produced are 225+/-24 microm, 131+/-20 microm, and 11+/-3 microm, respectively. If the microcapsules were thermal pretreated at 80 degrees C, the structure of Chitosan wall membrane would shrink and thus achieve the effect of sustained release. The sustaining effect would increase along with treatment time increases.

  9. Treatment of oil in water emulsions by ceramic-supported polymeric membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, R.P.; Cohen, Y.; Monbouquette, H.G.

    1994-12-31

    A novel membrane was developed by growing polymer chains from the surface of a porous ceramic support, resulting in a composite membrane which combines the mechanical properties of the inorganic membrane with the selective interactions of the polymer. The configuration of the grafted polymer brush layer is determined by solvent-polymer interactions, with a hydrophilic polymer being stretched away from the surface by aqueous solutions and collapsed against the surface by organic solvents. This behavior of the grafted chains provides Ceramic-Supported Polymeric (CSP) membranes with unique properties for certain water treatment applications. One application envisioned for these CSP membranes, in which the selectivity is influenced by interactions between the solvent and the grafted polymer, is the cross-flow filtration of an oil-in-water emulsion. In this case, a hydrophilic grafted Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) brush layer expanded into the pore volume due to the affinity of the polymer for water. These extended grafted chains preferentially allow the passage of water over oil, producing a permeate stream with a lower total organic carbon content compared to an unmodified membrane. Another advantage of the CSP membrane is in reducing permeate flux decline believed to be caused by the adsorption of oil onto the membrane surface. For the PVP-modified CSP membrane, the grafted polymer alters the membrane surface character from hydrophobic to hydrophilic, reducing the tendency for oil adsorption. This phenomenon was demonstrated by comparison of permeate flow rate behavior for both unmodified and graft polymerized (CSP) membranes.

  10. Conventional methods and emerging wastewater polishing technologies for palm oil mill effluent treatment: a review.

    PubMed

    Liew, Wai Loan; Kassim, Mohd Azraai; Muda, Khalida; Loh, Soh Kheang; Affam, Augustine Chioma

    2015-02-01

    The Malaysian palm oil industry is a major revenue earner and the country is ranked as one of the largest producers in the world. However, growth of the industry is synonymous with a massive production of agro-industrial wastewater. As an environmental protection and public health concern, the highly polluting palm oil mill effluent (POME) has become a major attention-grabber. Hence, the industry is targeting for POME pollution abatement in order to promote a greener image of palm oil and to achieve sustainability. At present, most palm oil mills have adopted the ponding system for treatment. Due to the successful POME pollution abatement experiences, Malaysia is currently planning to revise the effluent quality standards towards a more stringent discharge limits. Hence, the current trend of POME research focuses on developing tertiary treatment or polishing systems for better effluent management. Biotechnologically-advanced POME tertiary (polishing) technologies as well as other physicochemical methods are gaining much attention as these processes are the key players to push the industry towards the goal of environmental sustainability. There are still ongoing treatment technologies being researched and the outcomes maybe available in a while. However, the research completed so far are compiled herein and reported for the first time to acquire a better perspective and insight on the subject with a view of meeting the new standards. To this end, the most feasible technology could be the combination of advanced biological processes (bioreactor systems) with extended aeration, followed by solids separation prior to discharge. Chemical dosing is favoured only if effluent of higher quality is anticipated. PMID:25463585

  11. Conventional methods and emerging wastewater polishing technologies for palm oil mill effluent treatment: a review.

    PubMed

    Liew, Wai Loan; Kassim, Mohd Azraai; Muda, Khalida; Loh, Soh Kheang; Affam, Augustine Chioma

    2015-02-01

    The Malaysian palm oil industry is a major revenue earner and the country is ranked as one of the largest producers in the world. However, growth of the industry is synonymous with a massive production of agro-industrial wastewater. As an environmental protection and public health concern, the highly polluting palm oil mill effluent (POME) has become a major attention-grabber. Hence, the industry is targeting for POME pollution abatement in order to promote a greener image of palm oil and to achieve sustainability. At present, most palm oil mills have adopted the ponding system for treatment. Due to the successful POME pollution abatement experiences, Malaysia is currently planning to revise the effluent quality standards towards a more stringent discharge limits. Hence, the current trend of POME research focuses on developing tertiary treatment or polishing systems for better effluent management. Biotechnologically-advanced POME tertiary (polishing) technologies as well as other physicochemical methods are gaining much attention as these processes are the key players to push the industry towards the goal of environmental sustainability. There are still ongoing treatment technologies being researched and the outcomes maybe available in a while. However, the research completed so far are compiled herein and reported for the first time to acquire a better perspective and insight on the subject with a view of meeting the new standards. To this end, the most feasible technology could be the combination of advanced biological processes (bioreactor systems) with extended aeration, followed by solids separation prior to discharge. Chemical dosing is favoured only if effluent of higher quality is anticipated.

  12. Molecular and structural changes induced by essential oils treatments in Vicia faba roots detected by genotoxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Sturchio, Elena; Boccia, Priscilla; Zanellato, Miriam; Meconi, Claudia; Donnarumma, Lucia; Mercurio, Giuseppe; Mecozzi, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few years, there has been an increased interest in exploiting allelopathy in organic agriculture. The aim of this investigation was to examine the effects of essential oil mixtures in order to establish their allelopathic use in agriculture. Two mixtures of essential oils consisting respectively of tea tree oil (TTO) and clove plus rosemary (C + R) oils were tested. Phytotoxicity and genotoxicity tests on the root meristems of Vicia faba minor were performed. A phytotoxic influence was particularly relevant for C + R mixture, while genotoxicity tests revealed significant results with both C + R oil mixture and TTO. Phenotypic analysis on Vicia faba minor primary roots following C + R oil mixture treatment resulted in callose production, an early symptom attributed to lipid peroxidation. The approach described in this study, based on genotoxicity bioassays, might identify specific DNA damage induced by essential oil treatments. These tests may represent a powerful method to evaluate potential adverse effects of different mixtures of essential oils that might be useful in alternative agriculture. Future studies are focusing on the positive synergism of more complex mixtures of essential oils in order to reduce concentrations of potentially toxic components while at the same time maintaining efficacy in antimicrobial and antifungal management.

  13. Molecular and structural changes induced by essential oils treatments in Vicia faba roots detected by genotoxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Sturchio, Elena; Boccia, Priscilla; Zanellato, Miriam; Meconi, Claudia; Donnarumma, Lucia; Mercurio, Giuseppe; Mecozzi, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few years, there has been an increased interest in exploiting allelopathy in organic agriculture. The aim of this investigation was to examine the effects of essential oil mixtures in order to establish their allelopathic use in agriculture. Two mixtures of essential oils consisting respectively of tea tree oil (TTO) and clove plus rosemary (C + R) oils were tested. Phytotoxicity and genotoxicity tests on the root meristems of Vicia faba minor were performed. A phytotoxic influence was particularly relevant for C + R mixture, while genotoxicity tests revealed significant results with both C + R oil mixture and TTO. Phenotypic analysis on Vicia faba minor primary roots following C + R oil mixture treatment resulted in callose production, an early symptom attributed to lipid peroxidation. The approach described in this study, based on genotoxicity bioassays, might identify specific DNA damage induced by essential oil treatments. These tests may represent a powerful method to evaluate potential adverse effects of different mixtures of essential oils that might be useful in alternative agriculture. Future studies are focusing on the positive synergism of more complex mixtures of essential oils in order to reduce concentrations of potentially toxic components while at the same time maintaining efficacy in antimicrobial and antifungal management. PMID:26914511

  14. Rat Models of Diet-Induced Obesity and High Fat/Low Dose Streptozotocin Type 2 Diabetes: Effect of Reversal of High Fat Diet Compared to Treatment with Enalapril or Menhaden Oil on Glucose Utilization and Neuropathic Endpoints.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Amey; Coppey, Lawrence J; Davidson, Eric P; Yorek, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether reversal of high fat diet, stimulating weight loss, compared to two treatments previously shown to have beneficial effects, could improve glucose utilization and peripheral neuropathy in animal models of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Rats were fed a high fat diet and treated with a low dose of streptozotocin to create models of diet induced obesity or type 2 diabetes, respectively. Afterwards, rats were transferred to a normal diet or treated with enalapril or dietary enrichment with menhaden oil for 12 weeks. Obesity and to a greater extent type 2 diabetes were associated with impaired glucose utilization and peripheral neuropathy. Placing obese rats on a normal diet improved glucose utilization. Steatosis but not peripheral neuropathy was improved after placing obese or diabetic rats on a normal diet. Treating obese and diabetic rats with enalapril or a menhaden oil enriched diet generally improved peripheral neuropathy endpoints. In summary, dietary improvement with weight loss in obese or type 2 diabetic rats was not sufficient to correct peripheral neuropathy. These results further stress the need for discovery of a comprehensive treatment for peripheral neuropathy. PMID:26229968

  15. Rat Models of Diet-Induced Obesity and High Fat/Low Dose Streptozotocin Type 2 Diabetes: Effect of Reversal of High Fat Diet Compared to Treatment with Enalapril or Menhaden Oil on Glucose Utilization and Neuropathic Endpoints.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Amey; Coppey, Lawrence J; Davidson, Eric P; Yorek, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether reversal of high fat diet, stimulating weight loss, compared to two treatments previously shown to have beneficial effects, could improve glucose utilization and peripheral neuropathy in animal models of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Rats were fed a high fat diet and treated with a low dose of streptozotocin to create models of diet induced obesity or type 2 diabetes, respectively. Afterwards, rats were transferred to a normal diet or treated with enalapril or dietary enrichment with menhaden oil for 12 weeks. Obesity and to a greater extent type 2 diabetes were associated with impaired glucose utilization and peripheral neuropathy. Placing obese rats on a normal diet improved glucose utilization. Steatosis but not peripheral neuropathy was improved after placing obese or diabetic rats on a normal diet. Treating obese and diabetic rats with enalapril or a menhaden oil enriched diet generally improved peripheral neuropathy endpoints. In summary, dietary improvement with weight loss in obese or type 2 diabetic rats was not sufficient to correct peripheral neuropathy. These results further stress the need for discovery of a comprehensive treatment for peripheral neuropathy.

  16. Reanalysis with optimized power of red blood cell acetylcholinesterase activity from a 1-year dietary treatment of dogs to chlorpyrifos.

    PubMed

    Mattsson, J L; Holden, L; Eisenbrandt, D L; Gibson, J E

    2001-03-01

    A no-observed-effect level (NOEL) of 0.1 mg/kg/day was reported for inhibition of red blood cell (RBC) acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in two groups of Beagle dogs fed chlorpyrifos (0, 0.01, 0.03, 0.1, 1 or 3 mg/kg/day) in the diet for 1 or 2 years (McCollister et al., Food Cosmet. Toxicol. 12 (1974) 45-61). The statistical analyses were by t-test that had low statistical power due to small sample sizes. Common time points for blood samples in both phases allowed a reanalysis of the grouped data over a 1-year time period. The reanalysis increased statistical power by increasing the sample size to n=14 from n=3 or 4, and decreasing the variance, by statistical step-by-step aggregation of the data from both phases, both sexes, and four sample periods. Factors retained in the ANOVA were dose, sex, and phase (sex-by-dose was not significant). Contrasts with one-sided t-tests indicated the 1 and 3 mg/kg/day groups had significantly inhibited RBC AChE (P<0.0001). At alpha=0.05, the uncorrected one-sided model had 80% power to detect a 12% decrease, 93% power for a 15% decrease, and 99.5% power for a 20% decrease in AChE activity. Overall, the reanalysis had high power to detect a clinically significant decrease in RBC AChE activity, and substantiated the original NOEL for chronic treatment of dogs to dietary chlorpyrifos at 0.1 mg/kg/day. PMID:11246135

  17. A comparative study on the membrane based palm oil mill effluent (POME) treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, A L; Chong, M F; Bhatia, S

    2009-11-15

    The discharge of palm oil mill effluent (POME) causes serious pollution problems and the membrane based POME treatment is suggested as a solution. Three different designs, namely Design A, B and C distinguished by their different types and orientations of membrane system are proposed. The results at optimum condition proved that the quality of the recovered water for all the designs met the effluent discharge standards imposed by the Department of Environment (DOE). The economic analysis at the optimum condition shows that the total treatment cost for Design A was the highest (RM 115.11/m(3)), followed by Design B (RM 23.64/m(3)) and Design C (RM 7.03/m(3)). In this study, the membrane system operated at high operating pressure with low membrane unit cost is preferable. Design C is chosen as the optimal design for the membrane based POME treatment system based on the lowest total treatment cost.

  18. Dietary manipulation of platelet function.

    PubMed

    Bachmair, E M; Ostertag, L M; Zhang, X; de Roos, B

    2014-11-01

    Activated platelets contribute to plaque formation within blood vessels in the early and late stages of atherogenesis, and therefore they have been proposed as risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Anti-platelet drugs, such as aspirin, are now the most prescribed pharmacological treatment in Europe. Certain dietary bioactives also beneficially affect platelet function, and with less side effects, albeit that effects are generally more subtle. Therefore, consumption of dietary bioactives could play a role in the prevention of atherothrombotic vascular disease. Here we review the efficacy of dietary treatment strategies, especially those involving certain dietary fatty acids and polyphenols, to modulate platelet function in healthy subjects or in patients with cardiovascular disease. Variation in study populations, small study sizes and lack of comparability between methods to assess platelet function currently limit robust evidence on the efficacy of dietary bioactives in healthy subjects or specific patient groups. Also, limited knowledge of the metabolism of dietary bioactives, and therefore of the bioavailability of bioactive ingredients, restricts our ability to identify the most effective dietary regimes to improve platelet function. Implementation of uniform point-of-care tests to assess platelet function, and enhanced knowledge of the efficacy by which specific dietary compounds and their metabolites affect platelet function, may enable the identification of functional anti-platelet ingredients that are eligible for a health claim, or combined treatment strategies, including both pharmacological anti-platelet treatment as well as dietary intervention, to tackle atherothrombotic vascular disease. PMID:24858060

  19. Evaluation of residues of essential oil components in honey after different anti-varroa treatments.

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, Sabine; Lázaro, Regina; Pérez-Arquillué, Consuelo; Conchello, Pilar; Herrera, Antonio

    2005-12-28

    Apiary trials on the use of three different treatments (Apilife Var, thymol solution in olive oil, and thymol solution in ethanol) for the control of Varroa destructor were conducted in Aragon (northeastern Spain). For the evaluation of the presence of residues of these treatments in honey an analytical method was developed. The method is applied to analyze honey samples before and after treatments with the acaricides mentioned. A solid-phase extraction on trifunctional silane SPE C18 cartridge and gas chromatography separation using a flame ionization detector allow reliable and precise determination of residues of thymol, menthol, eucalyptol, and camphor in honey. The results indicate that camphor is present in only low concentrations, residues of eucalyptol or menthol were not found at all, and only thymol left residues in high concentrations. Residues of thymol found in honey collected from the beehives ranged from 0.75 to 8.20 microg/g for Apilife Var, from 0.03 to 6.30 microg/g for thymol solution in olive oil, and from 0.05 to 6.20 microg/g for thymol solution in ethanol. Even so, natural treatments can be considered to be good alternatives for synthetic acaricides, especially because they do not represent a sanitary risk. PMID:16366699

  20. Protective effects of Artemisia arborescens essential oil on oestroprogestative treatment induced hepatotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Ettaya, Amani; Elfeki, Abdelfettah; Hfaiedh, Najla

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Currently, natural products have been shown to exhibit interesting biological and pharmacological activities and are used as chemotherapeutic agents. The purpose of this study, conducted on Wistar rats, was to evaluate the beneficial effects of Artemisia arborescens oil on oestroprogestative treatment induced damage on liver. MATERIALS/METHODS A total of 36 Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups; a control group (n = 9), a group of rats who received oestroprogestative treatment by intraperitoneal injection (n = 9), a group pre-treated with Artemisia arborescens then injected with oestroprogestative treatment (n = 9), and a group pre-treated with Artemisia arborescens (n = 9). To minimize the handling stress, animals from each group were sacrificed rapidly by decapitation. Blood serum was obtained by centrifugation and the livers were removed, cleaned of fat, and stored at -80℃ until use. RESULTS In the current study, oestroprogestative poisoning resulted in oxidative stress, which was demonstrated by 1) a significant increase of lipid peroxidation level in hepatic tissue 2) increased levels of serum transaminases (aspartate amino transferase and serum alanine amino transferase), alkaline phosphatase, glycemia and triglycerides and a decrease in the level of cholesterol 3) alteration of hepatic architecture. Pre-administration of Artemisia arborescens oil was found to alleviate oestroprogestative treatment induced damage by lowering lipid peroxidation level and by increasing activity of catalase, superoxide-dismutase, and glutathione-peroxidase in liver and by reducing disruption of biochemical parameters. CONCLUSION Therefore, the results obtained in this study confirmed that Artemisia essential oil protects against oestroprogestative administration induced hepatotoxicity by restoration of liver activities. PMID:26425275